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Sample records for technique titled decoupling

  1. Techniques for Reduction of the Parasitic Inductance of Decoupling Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, J.; Freire, M. J.

    2016-05-01

    The ability for providing effective decoupling of decoupling capacitors is mainly limited by its parasitic inductance. In this work we propose some new techniques for placing surface mount decoupling capacitors on a printed circuit board that make use of mutual inductance effects between currents on adjacent capacitors to provide significant reduction of the impedance seen at high frequencies at the input of the set of decoupling capacitors. This allows to keep the impedance of the power distribution network below the target impedance with a reduced number of decoupling capacitors, thus reducing cost and, more importantly in aerospace applications, saving space on the board. This technique does not require complex previous calculations or experimental adjustments to be implemented and consequently it has no negative impact in the time of design of practical circuits.

  2. Analytical decoupling techniques for fully implicit reservoir simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Changhe; Wu, Shuhong; Xu, Jinchao; Zhang, Chen-Song

    2017-05-01

    This paper examines linear algebraic solvers for a given general purpose compositional simulator. In particular, the decoupling stage of the constraint pressure residual (CPR) preconditioner for linear systems arising from the fully implicit scheme is evaluated. An asymptotic analysis of the convergence behavior is given when Δt approaches zero. Based on this analysis, we propose an analytical decoupling technique, from which the pressure equation is directly related to an elliptic equation and can be solved efficiently. We show that this method ensures good convergence behavior of the algebraic solvers in a two-stage CPR-type preconditioner. We also propose a semi-analytical decoupling strategy that combines the analytical method and alternate block factorization method. Numerical experiments demonstrate the superior performance of the analytical and semi-analytical decoupling methods compared to existing methods.

  3. Randomized Dynamical Decoupling Techniques for Coherent Quantum Control

    CERN Document Server

    Viola, L; Viola, Lorenza; Santos, Lea F.

    2006-01-01

    The need for strategies able to accurately manipulate quantum dynamics is ubiquitous in quantum control and quantum information processing. We investigate two scenarios where randomized dynamical decoupling techniques become more advantageous with respect to standard deterministic methods in switching off unwanted dynamical evolution in a closed quantum system: when dealing with decoupling cycles which involve a large number of control actions and/or when seeking long-time quantum information storage. Highly effective hybrid decoupling schemes, which combine deterministic and stochastic features are discussed, as well as the benefits of sequentially implementing a concatenated method, applied at short times, followed by a hybrid protocol, employed at longer times. A quantum register consisting of a chain of spin-1/2 particles interacting via the Heisenberg interaction is used as a model for the analysis throughout.

  4. Improvement on an inverted decoupling technique for a class of stable linear multivariable processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peiying; Zhang, Weidong

    2007-04-01

    This paper improves an inverted decoupling technique for a class of stable linear multivariable processes with multiple time delays and nonminimum-phase zeros. Two decoupling schemes are proposed based on the inverted decoupling technique. One is a developed inverted decoupling scheme. In this scheme, the decoupler is designed such that the inverted decoupling technique accommodates a wider field than the one introduced in the published literature. However, due to the stability issue, some multivariable processes still cannot be decoupled by the inverted decoupling structure. To solve this problem, another modified decoupling scheme with unity feedback structure is suggested for implementation. The Internal Model Control (IMC) theory is applied here to design PI/PID controllers for the decoupled processes. Furthermore, in the presence of multiplicative input uncertainty, low bounds of the control parameters are derived quantitatively for guaranteeing robust stability of the system. Simulations are illustrated for demonstrating the validity of the proposed control schemes.

  5. Power decoupling techniques for single-phase power electronics systems — An overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    . In this paper, recently proposed state-of-the-art power decoupling techniques for ripple power reduction in these systems are presented and classified into different groups for performance comparison. The pros and cons of these techniques are discussed and identified, and the conclusions drawn will be useful...

  6. Neural network decoupling technique and its application to a powered wheelchair system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan Nghia Nguyen; Nguyen, Hung T

    2015-08-01

    This paper proposes a neural network decoupling technique for an uncertain multivariable system. Based on a linear diagonalization technique, a reference model is designed using nominal parameters to provide training signals for a neural network decoupler. A neural network model is designed to learn the dynamics of the uncertain multivariable system in order to avoid required calculations of the plant Jacobian. To avoid overfitting problem, both neural networks are trained by the Lavenberg-Marquardt with Bayesian regulation algorithm that uses a real-time recurrent learning algorithm to obtain gradient information. Three experimental results in the powered wheelchair control application confirm that the proposed technique effectively minimises the coupling effects caused by input-output interactions even under the condition of system uncertainties.

  7. Investigation of the Promotion of Wind Power Consumption Using the Thermal-Electric Decoupling Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Rong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the provinces of north China, combined heat and electric power generations (CHP are widely utilized to provide both heating source and electricity. While, due to the constraint of thermal-electric coupling within CHP, a mass of wind turbines have to offline operate during heating season to maintain the power grid stability. This paper proposes a thermal-electric decoupling (TED approach to release the energy waste. Within the thermal-electric decoupling system, heat storage and electric boiler/heat pump are introduced to provide an auxiliary thermal source during hard peak shaving period, thus relying on the participation of an outside heat source, the artificial electric power output change interval could be widened to adopt more wind power and reduce wind power curtailment. Both mathematic models and methods are proposed to calculate the evaluation indexes to weight the effect of TED, by using the Monte Carlo simulation technique. Numerical simulations have been conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods, and the results show that the proposed approach could relieve up to approximately 90% of wind power curtailment and the ability of power system to accommodate wind power could be promoted about 32%; moreover, the heating source is extended, about 300 GJ heat could be supplied by TED during the whole heating season, which accounts for about 18% of the total heat need.

  8. Catalytic Decoupling of Quantum Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majenz, Christian; Berta, Mario; Dupuis, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    of an uncorrelated ancilla system. This removes a restriction on the standard notion of decoupling, which becomes important for structureless resources, and yields a tight characterization in terms of the max-mutual information. Catalytic decoupling naturally unifies various tasks like the erasure of correlations......The decoupling technique is a fundamental tool in quantum information theory with applications ranging from quantum thermodynamics to quantum many body physics to the study of black hole radiation. In this work we introduce the notion of catalytic decoupling, that is, decoupling in the presence...... and quantum state merging, and leads to a resource theory of decoupling....

  9. Catalytic Decoupling of Quantum Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majenz, Christian; Berta, Mario; Dupuis, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    of an uncorrelated ancilla system. This removes a restriction on the standard notion of decoupling, which becomes important for structureless resources, and yields a tight characterization in terms of the max-mutual information. Catalytic decoupling naturally unifies various tasks like the erasure of correlations......The decoupling technique is a fundamental tool in quantum information theory with applications ranging from quantum thermodynamics to quantum many body physics to the study of black hole radiation. In this work we introduce the notion of catalytic decoupling, that is, decoupling in the presence...

  10. Virtual decoupling of vibroacoustical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Sifeng; Ouisse, Morvan; Foltête, Emmanuel; Jund, Arnaud

    2017-08-01

    Vibroacoustical systems as well as their behavior are coupled by nature. However, it may be of first interest for engineers to work on decoupled models, so that behavior of the structural/acoustic sub-system can be easily predicted and investigated. This work focuses on a virtual decoupling approach for vibroacoustics, with the objective to reconstruct decoupled and reduced system matrices from coupled experimental measurements. As a promising identification technique, the properness enforcement method has been developed in the literature for both symmetric and non-symmetric systems. During the decoupling process, however, this methodology still needs to be improved from two aspects: 1) the introduction of an additional correlation process so that the structural/acoustic sub-model can be correctly extracted from the coupled system; and 2) the additional optimization step after the complex vectors are approximately corrected by the properness enforcement method. These two key points are addressed by an integrated framework containing three aspects (i.e. identification, optimization, and correlation), which are specially designed for vibroacoustical applications. The finally identified system matrices of a decoupled and reduced equivalent system can exhibit the same behavior as the experimentally measured one. A simulated example is first presented to illustrate the use of this approach in detail. Then an experimental case study is used to demonstrate its feasibility in engineering applications.

  11. Isomorphism, Diffusion and Decoupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boxenbaum, Eva; Jonsson, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    This chapter traces the evolution of the core theoretical constructs of isomorphism, decoupling and diffusion in organizational institutionalism. We first review the original theoretical formulations of these constructs and then examine their evolution in empirical research conducted over the past...

  12. Dilatons with intrinsic decouplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minazzoli, Olivier; Hees, Aurélien

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we show that there exists a class of dilaton models with nontrivial scalar-Ricci and scalar-matter couplings that strongly reduces observational deviations from general relativity in the dust limit. Essentially, depending on the coupling between the dilaton and the fundamental matter fields, various strengths of decoupling can appear. They range from no decoupling at all to a total decoupling state. In this latter case, the theory becomes indistinguishable from general relativity (in the dust limit), as all dilatonic effects can be reabsorbed through a simple change of unit. Furthermore, for particular decouplings, we show that the phenomenology used to constrain theories from the universality of free fall observations is significantly different from what is commonly used. Finally, from a fundamental perspective, the class of nondynamical decouplings proposed in this paper might play a role in the current nonobservation of any deviation from general relativity (in both tests of the equivalence principle and of the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism).

  13. Decoupling Responsible Management Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Gilbert, Dirk Ulrich

    stringency, (2) face overt or covert resistance against change processes, (3) are confronted with competing institutional pressures, and (4) perceive institutional demands as ambiguous. The discussion points to two implications. While decoupling may give rise to the illusion that responsible management...

  14. Decoupling Responsible Management Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Gilbert, Dirk Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    to responsible management education with their limited internal capacity for change. Our analysis proposes that decoupling is likely if schools (a) are exposed to resource stringency, (b) face overt or covert resistance against change processes, (c) are confronted with competing institutional pressures, and (d...

  15. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 158 ... Vol 6, No 2 (2014), A Novel Surgical Pre-suturing Technique for the Management ... VS Parelkar, JL Patel, BV Sanghvi, PB Joshi, SK Sahoo, N Sampat, SN Oak, N Sathe ... an Inguinal Hernia Incision in Simultaneous Laparoscopic Anterior .... List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  16. Geometrical method of decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, C.

    2012-12-01

    The computation of tunes and matched beam distributions are essential steps in the analysis of circular accelerators. If certain symmetries—like midplane symmetry—are present, then it is possible to treat the betatron motion in the horizontal, the vertical plane, and (under certain circumstances) the longitudinal motion separately using the well-known Courant-Snyder theory, or to apply transformations that have been described previously as, for instance, the method of Teng and Edwards. In a preceding paper, it has been shown that this method requires a modification for the treatment of isochronous cyclotrons with non-negligible space charge forces. Unfortunately, the modification was numerically not as stable as desired and it was still unclear, if the extension would work for all conceivable cases. Hence, a systematic derivation of a more general treatment seemed advisable. In a second paper, the author suggested the use of real Dirac matrices as basic tools for coupled linear optics and gave a straightforward recipe to decouple positive definite Hamiltonians with imaginary eigenvalues. In this article this method is generalized and simplified in order to formulate a straightforward method to decouple Hamiltonian matrices with eigenvalues on the real and the imaginary axis. The decoupling of symplectic matrices which are exponentials of such Hamiltonian matrices can be deduced from this in a few steps. It is shown that this algebraic decoupling is closely related to a geometric “decoupling” by the orthogonalization of the vectors E→, B→, and P→, which were introduced with the so-called “electromechanical equivalence.” A mathematical analysis of the problem can be traced down to the task of finding a structure-preserving block diagonalization of symplectic or Hamiltonian matrices. Structure preservation means in this context that the (sequence of) transformations must be symplectic and hence canonical. When used iteratively, the decoupling

  17. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 200 ... Vol 4, No 1 (2009), Review Article - Book title: Oral tradition as history ... and Argentina in comparison with Nigeria's 2014 pension reform act, Abstract .... quantitative and qualitative techniques in sociological research: a ...

  18. DECOUPLER DESIGN FOR AN INTERACTING TANKS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraid F. Ahmed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model forthe two interacting tanks system was derived and the dynamic behavior of thissystem was studied by introducing a step change in inlet flow rate. In thispaper, the analysis of the interaction loops between the controlled variable(liquid level and manipulated variable (inlet flow rate was carried out usingthe relative gain array. Also decoupling technique is applied to eliminate theeffect this interaction by design suitable decouplers for the system. Theresults show that the gain of each loop is cut in half when the opposite loopis closed and the gain of other loop changes sign when the opposite loop isclosed. The decoupling method show that the liquid level of tank one isconstant when the second inlet flow changes and to keep the liquid level oftank two constant the first inlet flow must be changed.

  19. Centrifugally decoupling touchdown bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard F

    2014-06-24

    Centrifugally decoupling mechanical bearing systems provide thin tensioned metallic ribbons contained in a support structure. This assembly rotates around a stationary shaft being centered at low speeds by the action of the metal ribbons. Tension springs are connected on one end to the ribbons and on the other end to the support structure. The ribbons pass through slots in the inner ring of the support structure. The spring preloading thus insures contact (or near-contact) between the ribbons and the shaft at rotation speeds below the transition speed. Above this speed, however, the centrifugal force on the ribbons produces a tensile force on them that exceeds the spring tensile force so that the ribbons curve outward, effectively decoupling them from mechanical contact with the shaft. They still remain, however, in position to act as a touchdown bearing in case of abnormally high transverse accelerations.

  20. Elastically Decoupling Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kuflik, Eric; Lorier, Nicolas Rey-Le; Tsai, Yu-Dai

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel dark matter candidate, an Elastically Decoupling Relic (ELDER), which is a cold thermal relic whose present abundance is determined by the cross-section of its elastic scattering on Standard Model particles. The dark matter candidate is predicted to have a mass ranging from a few to a few hundred MeV, and an elastic scattering cross-section with electrons, photons and/or neutrinos in the $10^{-3}-1$ fb range.

  1. Elastically Decoupling Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuflik, Eric; Perelstein, Maxim; Lorier, Nicolas Rey-Le; Tsai, Yu-Dai

    2016-06-03

    We present a novel dark matter candidate, an elastically decoupling relic, which is a cold thermal relic whose present abundance is determined by the cross section of its elastic scattering on standard model particles. The dark matter candidate is predicted to have a mass ranging from a few to a few hundred MeV, and an elastic scattering cross section with electrons, photons and/or neutrinos in the 10^{-3}-1  fb range.

  2. Decoupling of supersymmetric particles

    CERN Document Server

    Dobado, A; Peñaranda, S

    1999-01-01

    The possibility of a heavy supersymmetric spectrum at the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model is considered and the decoupling from the low energy electroweak scale is analyzed in detail. The formal proof of decoupling of supersymmetric particles from low energy physics is stated in terms of the effective action for the particles of the Standard Model that results by integrating out all the sparticles in the limit where their masses are larger than the electroweak scale. The computation of the effective action for the standard electroweak gauge bosons W^{+-}, Z and \\gamma is performed by integrating out all the squarks, sleptons, charginos and neutralinos to one-loop. The Higgs sector is not considered in this paper. The large sparticle masses limit is also analyzed in detail. Explicit analytical formulae for the two-point functions of the electroweak gauge bosons to be valid in that limit are presented. Finally, the decoupling of sparticles in the S, T and U parameters is studied analitically. A discussion...

  3. Geometrical method of decoupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Baumgarten

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The computation of tunes and matched beam distributions are essential steps in the analysis of circular accelerators. If certain symmetries—like midplane symmetry—are present, then it is possible to treat the betatron motion in the horizontal, the vertical plane, and (under certain circumstances the longitudinal motion separately using the well-known Courant-Snyder theory, or to apply transformations that have been described previously as, for instance, the method of Teng and Edwards. In a preceding paper, it has been shown that this method requires a modification for the treatment of isochronous cyclotrons with non-negligible space charge forces. Unfortunately, the modification was numerically not as stable as desired and it was still unclear, if the extension would work for all conceivable cases. Hence, a systematic derivation of a more general treatment seemed advisable. In a second paper, the author suggested the use of real Dirac matrices as basic tools for coupled linear optics and gave a straightforward recipe to decouple positive definite Hamiltonians with imaginary eigenvalues. In this article this method is generalized and simplified in order to formulate a straightforward method to decouple Hamiltonian matrices with eigenvalues on the real and the imaginary axis. The decoupling of symplectic matrices which are exponentials of such Hamiltonian matrices can be deduced from this in a few steps. It is shown that this algebraic decoupling is closely related to a geometric “decoupling” by the orthogonalization of the vectors E[over →], B[over →], and P[over →], which were introduced with the so-called “electromechanical equivalence.” A mathematical analysis of the problem can be traced down to the task of finding a structure-preserving block diagonalization of symplectic or Hamiltonian matrices. Structure preservation means in this context that the (sequence of transformations must be symplectic and hence canonical. When

  4. Multivariable Intelligent Decoupling Control System and its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TianYou CHAI; Heng YUE

    2005-01-01

    Many industrial processes have compositive complexities including multivariable, strong coupling, nonlinearity, time-variant and operating condition variations. Combining multivariable adaptive decoupling control with neural networks, this paper presents a multivariable neural networkbased decoupling control algorithm. This control algorithm is integrated with distributed control technique and intelligent control technique, and a three-leveled intelligent decoupling control system consisting of basic control level, coordinating control level, and management and decision level is developed. The configuration and function of the control system are discussed in detail. This system has been successfully applied in ball mill pulverizing systems of 200MW power units, and remarkable benefits have been obtained.

  5. Review of Power Decoupling Techniques for Photovoltaic Micro-inverters%光伏并网微型逆变器中功率解耦技术概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李朵; 蒋晨; 陈敏; 钱照明

    2012-01-01

    In photovoltaic (PV) grid-connected micro-inverters, the output power contains a pulsation with twice grid frequency while the input power is constant. Usually, electrolytic capacitors of large capacitance paralleled to PV panel are employed to smooth the input voltage and balance the instantaneous input and output power mismatching (power decoupling). Nevertheless, the life-span of the electrolytic capacitors is too short to meet the requirement of the PV panels, which become the crucial factor of the life-span and stability of micro-inverters. A review of power decoupling methods for micro-inverters in PV system was presented. These methods were categorized and introduced separately. Finally. the comparison and conclusion were t)resented.%在光伏并网微型逆变器中,输出功率舍有两倍工频的功率脉动,而光伏组件根据MPPT算法控制输出为恒定的功率,这两者的瞬时功率不平衡通常由并联在光伏组件两端的大电解电容来解决。然而电解电容寿命有限.远低于光伏纽件的寿命要求,成为影响微型逆变器寿命和稳定性的决定性因素。回顾了国内外应用于光伏并网微型逆变器中的功率解耦技术,进行分类介绍并列举了不同的电路拓扑及控制方法,最后对其进行比较并指出各种方法的优缺点。

  6. Decoupling, re-engaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup

    2013-01-01

    in the project is contingent upon many factors, is likely to vary over time and should not be taken for granted. Previous studies have identified the relationship between trust and project outcomes and suggested trust-building strategies but have largely ignored the dynamic quality of trust relations through...... the life of a major project and the complex demands of managing those fluctuations. We investigate evolving trust relationships in a longitudinal case analysis of a large integrated hospital system implementation for the Faroe Islands. Trust relationships suffered various breakdowns, but the project...... was able to recover and eventually meet its goals. Based on concepts from Giddens’ later work on modernity, we develop two approaches for managing dynamic trust relationships in implementation projects: decoupling and re-engaging....

  7. Gauge symmetry from decoupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetterich, C., E-mail: c.wetterich@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de

    2017-02-15

    Gauge symmetries emerge from a redundant description of the effective action for light degrees of freedom after the decoupling of heavy modes. This redundant description avoids the use of explicit constraints in configuration space. For non-linear constraints the gauge symmetries are non-linear. In a quantum field theory setting the gauge symmetries are local and can describe Yang–Mills theories or quantum gravity. We formulate gauge invariant fields that correspond to the non-linear light degrees of freedom. In the context of functional renormalization gauge symmetries can emerge if the flow generates or preserves large mass-like terms for the heavy degrees of freedom. They correspond to a particular form of gauge fixing terms in quantum field theories.

  8. Gauge symmetry from decoupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wetterich

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gauge symmetries emerge from a redundant description of the effective action for light degrees of freedom after the decoupling of heavy modes. This redundant description avoids the use of explicit constraints in configuration space. For non-linear constraints the gauge symmetries are non-linear. In a quantum field theory setting the gauge symmetries are local and can describe Yang–Mills theories or quantum gravity. We formulate gauge invariant fields that correspond to the non-linear light degrees of freedom. In the context of functional renormalization gauge symmetries can emerge if the flow generates or preserves large mass-like terms for the heavy degrees of freedom. They correspond to a particular form of gauge fixing terms in quantum field theories.

  9. Gauge symmetry from decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterich, C.

    2017-02-01

    Gauge symmetries emerge from a redundant description of the effective action for light degrees of freedom after the decoupling of heavy modes. This redundant description avoids the use of explicit constraints in configuration space. For non-linear constraints the gauge symmetries are non-linear. In a quantum field theory setting the gauge symmetries are local and can describe Yang-Mills theories or quantum gravity. We formulate gauge invariant fields that correspond to the non-linear light degrees of freedom. In the context of functional renormalization gauge symmetries can emerge if the flow generates or preserves large mass-like terms for the heavy degrees of freedom. They correspond to a particular form of gauge fixing terms in quantum field theories.

  10. A Geometrical Method of Decoupling

    CERN Document Server

    Baumgarten, Christian

    2012-01-01

    In a preceeding paper the real Dirac matrices have been introduced to coupled linear optics and a recipe to decouple positive definite Hamiltonians has been given. In this article a geometrical method is presented which allows to decouple regular {\\it and} irregular systems with the same straightforward method and to compute the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of Hamiltonian matrices with both, real and imaginary eigenvalues. It is shown that the algebraic decoupling is closely related to a geometric "decoupling" by the orthogonalization of the vectors $\\vec E$, $\\vec B$ and $\\vec p$, that were introduced with the so-called "electromechanical equivalence" (EMEQ). When used iteratively, the decoupling algorithm can also be applied to n-dimensional non-dissipative systems.

  11. Delayed Antiwindup Control Using a Decoupling Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the antiwindup (AW control problem for plants with input saturation. The AW compensator is not activated as soon as input saturation occurs as usual. A delayed decoupling structure is first proposed. Then, appropriate linear matrix inequalities (LMIs are developed to determine a plant-order AW compensator. Effectiveness of the presented AW technique is illustrated by a fighter aircraft model.

  12. Steady-state decoupling and design of linear multivariable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, G. J.

    1974-01-01

    A constructive criterion for decoupling the steady states of a linear time-invariant multivariable system is presented. This criterion consists of a set of inequalities which, when satisfied, will cause the steady states of a system to be decoupled. Stability analysis and a new design technique for such systems are given. A new and simple connection between single-loop and multivariable cases is found. These results are then applied to the compensation design for NASA STOL C-8A aircraft. Both steady-state decoupling and stability are justified through computer simulations.

  13. Selective Regulator Decoupling and Organizations' Strategic Responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heese, Jonas; Krishnan, Ranjani; Moers, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Organizations often respond to institutional pressures by symbolically adopting policies and procedures but decoupling them from actual practice. Literature has examined why organizations decouple from regulatory pressures. In this study, we argue that decoupling occurs within regulatory agencies an

  14. Fast Automated Decoupling at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Beebe-Wang, Joanne

    2005-01-01

    Coupling correction is essential for the operational performance of RHIC. The independence of the transverse degrees of freedom makes diagnostics and tune control easier, and it is advantageous to operate an accelerator close to the coupling resonance to minimize nearby nonlinear sidebands. An automated decoupling application has been developed at RHIC for coupling correction during routine operations. The application decouples RHIC globally by minimizing the tune separation through finding the optimal settings of two orthogonal skew quadrupole families. The program provides options of automatic, semi-automatic and manual decoupling operations. It accesses tune information from all RHIC tune measurement systems: the PLL (Phase Lock Loop), the high frequency Schottky system, and the tune meter. It also supplies tune and skew quadrupole scans, finding the minimum tune separation, display the real time results and interface with the RHIC control system. We summarize the capabilities of the decoupling application...

  15. Decoupling solution moduli of bigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Nejat Tevfik

    2016-12-01

    A complete classification of exact solutions of ghost-free, massive bigravity is derived which enables the dynamical decoupling of the background, and the foreground metrics. The general decoupling solution space of the two metrics is constructed. Within this branch of the solution space the foreground metric theory becomes general relativity (GR) with an additional effective cosmological constant, and the background metric dynamics is governed by plain GR.

  16. 'Glocalization' versus Notions of Decoupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Discussing modes of political and/or economic decoupling in an era of economic globalization seems almost contradictory as the dominating keywords in the latter are increasing integration, interdependency and harmonization. For example, when looking towards the political realm it seems problemati...... development plan in Malaysia is introduced. The article ends by returning to the decoupling discourse to re-examine it in the light of the findings from the case study....

  17. Robust dynamical decoupling for quantum computing and quantum memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Alexandre M; Alvarez, Gonzalo A; Suter, Dieter

    2011-06-17

    Dynamical decoupling (DD) is a popular technique for protecting qubits from the environment. However, unless special care is taken, experimental errors in the control pulses used in this technique can destroy the quantum information instead of preserving it. Here, we investigate techniques for making DD sequences robust against different types of experimental errors while retaining good decoupling efficiency in a fluctuating environment. We present experimental data from solid-state nuclear spin qubits and introduce a new DD sequence that is suitable for quantum computing and quantum memory.

  18. On dilatons with intrinsic decouplings

    CERN Document Server

    Minazzoli, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    In this letter, we show that there exists a class of dilaton models with non-trivial scalar-Ricci and scalar-matter couplings that strongly reduces deviations from general relativity in the dust limit. These models turn out to be special cases of the more general dilaton that will be studied in more detail in an upcoming publication. Depending essentially on the coupling between the dilaton and the fundamental matter fields, various strength of decouplings are uncovered. They range from almost no decoupling to a total decoupling state. In this latter case, the theory becomes indistinguishable from general relativity as all dilatonic effects can be re-absorbed through a simple change of units --- even though there is a non-minimal and non-trivial coupling between the dilaton and matter. But each strength of decoupling has the effect of reducing possible departures from the phenomenology of general relativity. The class of non-dynamical decouplings proposed in this letter might play a role in the current non-ob...

  19. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Novel Self-Help Technique for Impulse Control Disorders: A Study on Nail-Biting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Steffen; Treszl, Andras; Rufer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Nail-biting is currently classified as an impulse control disorder not otherwise specified. Although seldom targeted as a primary symptom, nail-biting is often associated with somatic complications and decreased quality of life. The present study assessed the effectiveness of an innovative self-help technique, titled decoupling (DC). DC aims at…

  20. A decoupling approach to classical data transmission over quantum channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont-Dupuis, Fréderic; Szehr, Oleg; Tomamichel, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Most coding theorems in quantum Shannon theory can be proven using the decoupling technique. To send data through a channel, one guarantees that the environment gets no information about it. Uhlmann's theorem then ensures that the receiver must be able to decode. While a wide range of problems ca...

  1. A decoupling approach to classical data transmission over quantum channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont-Dupuis, Fréderic; Szehr, Oleg; Tomamichel, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Most coding theorems in quantum Shannon theory can be proven using the decoupling technique. To send data through a channel, one guarantees that the environment gets no information about it. Uhlmann's theorem then ensures that the receiver must be able to decode. While a wide range of problems can...... be solved this way, one of the most basic coding problems remains impervious to a direct application of this method, sending classical information through a quantum channel. We will show that this problem can, in fact, be solved using decoupling ideas, specifically by proving a dequantizing theorem, which...

  2. An iterative decoupling solution method for large scale Lyapunov equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athay, T. M.; Sandell, N. R., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A great deal of attention has been given to the numerical solution of the Lyapunov equation. A useful classification of the variety of solution techniques are the groupings of direct, transformation, and iterative methods. The paper summarizes those methods that are at least partly favorable numerically, giving special attention to two criteria: exploitation of a general sparse system matrix structure and efficiency in resolving the governing linear matrix equation for different matrices. An iterative decoupling solution method is proposed as a promising approach for solving large-scale Lyapunov equation when the system matrix exhibits a general sparse structure. A Fortran computer program that realizes the iterative decoupling algorithm is also discussed.

  3. An iterative decoupling solution method for large scale Lyapunov equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athay, T. M.; Sandell, N. R., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A great deal of attention has been given to the numerical solution of the Lyapunov equation. A useful classification of the variety of solution techniques are the groupings of direct, transformation, and iterative methods. The paper summarizes those methods that are at least partly favorable numerically, giving special attention to two criteria: exploitation of a general sparse system matrix structure and efficiency in resolving the governing linear matrix equation for different matrices. An iterative decoupling solution method is proposed as a promising approach for solving large-scale Lyapunov equation when the system matrix exhibits a general sparse structure. A Fortran computer program that realizes the iterative decoupling algorithm is also discussed.

  4. QED Near the Decoupling Temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Masood, Samina S

    2012-01-01

    We study the effective parameters of QED near the decoupling temperature and show that the QED perturbation theory works perfectly fine at temperatures, below the decoupling temperature. The only significant contribution appear to be the selfmass correction around these temperatures. Thermal contributions to other renormalization constants are ignorable. Temperature dependent selfmass of electron, at T=m, gives two different values, if approached differently to the same overlapping point. The difference in low and high temperature values measures the fermion background contribution as compared to the boson background. It is shown that at T=m, change in thermal contribution of the electron selfmass is 1/3 of the low temperature value and 1/2 of the high temperature value. The difference of behavior measures the electron background contributions at T=m. These electrons are emitted through beta decay. This rise in mass affects the other renormalization constants of QED and change the electromagnetic properties o...

  5. The theory and practice of decoupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, J.; Stoft, S.; Belden, T.

    1994-01-01

    Decoupling revenues from sales is an important regulatory option under consideration by regulators seeking to transform utilities from sellers of a least-cost energy commodity to providers of least-cost energy services. This report examines decoupling from three perspectives. First, the authors consider threshold issues for decoupling, including characterization of the ratemaking practices addressed by decoupling which make incremental sales profitable to utilities, the role of rate case frequency in limiting the consequences of this incentive, and finally the existence of other incentives to sell electricity, which are not addressed by decoupling. Second, they examine the operation and performance of decoupling, including the mechanics of decoupling as a between-rate-case modification to the traditional ratemaking process, the ability of revenue-per-customer decoupling versus traditional ratemaking to recover nonfuel costs accurately, and a comparison of the profit implications of various decoupling approaches. Third, they review the rate impacts of decoupling for California`s electric utilities, which have had the longest experience with decoupling.

  6. General purpose fast decoupled power flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanda, J.; Bijwe, P.R.; Henry, J.; Bapi Raju, V. (Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (IN). Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1992-03-01

    A general purpose fast decoupled power flow model (GFDPF) is presented that exhibits more or less best convergence properties for both well-behaved and ill-conditioned systems. In the proposed model, all network shunts such as line charging, external shunts at buses, shunts formed due to {pi} representation of off-nominal in-phase transformers etc. are treated as constant impedance loads. The effect of line resistances is considered while forming the (B') matrix and are ignored in forming the (B'') matrix. This model is tested on several systems for both well-behaved and ill-conditioned situations. A simple, efficient compensation technique is proposed to deal with Q-limit enforcements associated with bus-type switchings at voltage-controlled buses. The results demonstrate that the proposed GFDPF model exhibits more or less stable convergence behaviour for both well-behaved and ill-conditioned situations. (author).

  7. Multiple Antenna Systems with Inherently Decoupled Radiators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelosi, Mauro; Knudsen, Mikael B.; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2012-01-01

    In multiple antenna systems mutual coupling needs to be minimized. We propose an alternative novel decoupling technique, investigating several multiple antenna configurations for small handsets through measurements and numerical simulations. The influence of different novel designs on performance...... metrics such as total loss, antenna isolation and envelope correlation coefficient are investigated. By varying antenna impedance bandwidth and antenna location with respect to the handset, both Planar Inverted F Antenna (PIFA) and Inverted F Antennas (IFA) were investigated in different UMTS frequency...... bands in proximity with the users body. Results show that antennas may experience very different losses and envelope correlation coefficients depending on their relative position with respect to the handset, as the influence of the users hand is not symmetrical in most cases. Narrow-band antennas...

  8. Target decoupling in a coupled optical system resistant to random perturbation

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Sunkyu; Park, Namkyoo

    2016-01-01

    To suppress unwanted crosstalks between nearby optical elements, the decoupling technique for integrated systems has been desired for the target control of light flows. Although cloaking methods have enabled complete decoupling of optical elements by manipulating electromagnetic waves microscopically, it is neither feasible nor necessary to control each unit element in coupled systems when considering severe restrictions on material parameters for cloaking. Here we develop the macroscopic approach to design crosstalk-free regions in coupled optical systems. By inversely designing the eigenstate which encompasses target elements, the stable decoupling of the elements from the coupled system is achieved, being completely independent from the random alteration of the decoupled region, and at the same time, allowing coherent and scattering-free wave transport with desired spatial profiles. We also demonstrate the decoupling in disordered systems, overcoming the transport blockade from Anderson localization. Our r...

  9. Decoupling, situated cognition and immersion in art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboul, Anne

    2015-09-01

    Situated cognition seems incompatible with strong decoupling, where representations are deployed in the absence of their targets and are not oriented toward physical action. Yet, in art consumption, the epitome of a strongly decoupled cognitive process, the artwork is a physical part of the environment and partly controls the perception of its target by the audience, leading to immersion. Hence, art consumption combines strong decoupling with situated cognition.

  10. The Order Specification Decoupling Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benjamin Loer; Hvam, Lars

    2004-01-01

    find some welding specifications or product descriptions which are standard for every order, while there may be other specifications, such as bill-of-materials and drawings, which are customized. Through a use of this concept it becomes possible to discuss different levels of OSDL and different variant......This paper discusses the important issue in build-to-order production of separating innovative long term engineering processes from day-to-day variant specification processes, i.e. the processes creating specifications such as bill-of-materials, drawings, text descriptions, routings etc. The paper...... proposes and discusses the term Order Specification Decoupling Line (OSDL), which is to be used to explain the separation of industrial specifications into some information created prior to order acquisition and some information created during order acquisition and order fulfillment. For instance one may...

  11. Dynamic disturbance decoupling for nonlinear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijberts, H.J.C.; Nijmeijer, H.; Wegen, van der L.L.M.

    1992-01-01

    In analogy with the dynamic input-output decoupling problem the dynamic disturbance decoupling problem for nonlinear systems is introduced. A local solution of this problem is obtained in the case that the system under consideration is invertible. The solution is given in algebraic as well as in geo

  12. Disturbance Decoupling of Switched Linear Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yurtseven, E.; Heemels, W.P.M.H.; Camlibel, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we consider disturbance decoupling problems for switched linear systems. We will provide necessary and sufficient conditions for three different versions of disturbance decoupling, which differ based on which signals are considered to be the disturbance. In the first version the contin

  13. 适应实际电网阻抗特性的 DFIG 不平衡电压解耦补偿技术%An Unbalanced Voltage Decoupling Compensation Technique for DFIG Adaptive to Grid Impedance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    年珩; 王涛; 程鹏

    2015-01-01

    A compensation strategy using doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) to rebalance the voltage at point of common coupling (PCC) is proposed.By tuning the decoupling controller based on the estimated network impedance,d-q components of the negative sequence voltage at PCC is decoupling controlled,which gives the DFIG system good stability and fast response under arbitrary network impedance ratio.The design principles of the proposed strategy is introduced in detail,then the closed loop transfer function of a DFIG system utilizing the proposed strategy is derived,and the loci of the closed loop poles with varying network impedance ratio are plotted,with which the impact of the network impedance estimation error on the system performance is analyzed.Simulation model is built to compare the control performance of the traditional non-decoupling strategy and the proposed decoupling strategy.Finally,experiments on a prototype validate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed strategy.%提出了一种利用双馈感应发电机(DFIG)补偿公共连接点(PCC)不平衡电压的方法。在DFIG 负序数学模型基础上,使用基于电网阻抗观测的解耦控制器实现 DFIG 对 PCC 负序电压交、直轴分量的解耦控制,确保 DFIG 系统在任意电网阻抗比下具有优良的负序电压补偿性能。详细介绍了该方法的设计思路,推导了使用该方法的 DFIG 系统的闭环传递函数,通过研究电网阻抗比变化时系统闭环极点的轨迹分析了所提不平衡补偿方法的稳定运行能力,并分析了所提方法对电网阻抗动态变化及阻抗估计误差的适应能力。搭建了 Simulink 仿真模型,对比分析了所提解耦补偿方法与传统不解耦补偿方法的控制性能。最后,搭建了单机实验平台,实验结果证明了所提补偿方法的有效性和相比不解耦补偿方法的优越性。

  14. Structural Decoupling and Disturbance Rejection in a Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahar, Mehrdad; Jantzen, Jan; Commault, C.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction, distillation column model, input-output decoupling, disturbance rejection, concluding remarks, references.......Introduction, distillation column model, input-output decoupling, disturbance rejection, concluding remarks, references....

  15. An Efficiency Improved Active Power Decoupling Circuit with Minimized Implementation Cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Active power decoupling techniques are promising solutions for capacitance reduction in single-phase AC/DC or DC/AC systems. This paper proposes a novel circuit topology which can realize the power decoupling function without adding additional active switches into the circuit. Also, the proposed ...... circuit is discussed, and both simulation and experimental results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed circuit concept....

  16. Decoupled Sectors and Wolf-Rayet Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Fischler, Willy; Lorshbough, Dustin

    2015-01-01

    The universe may contain several decoupled matter sectors which primarily couple through gravity to the Standard Model degrees of freedom. We focus here on the description of astrophysical environments that allow for comparable densities and spatial distributions of visible matter and decoupled dark matter. We discuss four Wolf-Rayet galaxies (NGC 1614, NGC 3367, NGC 4216 and NGC 5430) which should contain comparable amounts of decoupled dark and visible matter in the star forming regions. This could lead to the observation of Gamma Ray Burst events with physics modified by jets of dark matter radiation.

  17. Input saturation in nonlinear multivariable processes resolved by nonlinear decoupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens G. Balchen

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available A new method is presented for the resolution of the problem of input saturation in nonlinear multivariable process control by means of elementary nonlinear decoupling (END. Input saturation can have serious consequences particularly in multivariable control because it may lead to very undesirable system behaviour and quite often system instability. Many authors have searched for systematic techniques for designing multivariable control systems in which saturation may occur in any of the control variables (inputs, manipulated variables. No generally accepted method seems to have been presented so far which gives a solution in closed form. The method of elementary nonlinear decoupling (END can be applied directly to the case of saturation control variables by deriving as many control strategies as there are combinations of saturating control variables. The method is demonstrated by the multivariable control of a simulated Fluidized Catalytic Cracker (FCC with very convincing results.

  18. Inventory classification based on decoupling points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joakim Wikner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ideal state of continuous one-piece flow may never be achieved. Still the logistics manager can improve the flow by carefully positioning inventory to buffer against variations. Strategies such as lean, postponement, mass customization, and outsourcing all rely on strategic positioning of decoupling points to separate forecast-driven from customer-order-driven flows. Planning and scheduling of the flow are also based on classification of decoupling points as master scheduled or not. A comprehensive classification scheme for these types of decoupling points is introduced. The approach rests on identification of flows as being either demand based or supply based. The demand or supply is then combined with exogenous factors, classified as independent, or endogenous factors, classified as dependent. As a result, eight types of strategic as well as tactical decoupling points are identified resulting in a process-based framework for inventory classification that can be used for flow design.

  19. Hedge Funds and Risk-Decoupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    Negative risk-decoupling, otherwise known as empty voting, is a popular strategy amongst hedge funds and other activist investors. In short, it is the attempt to decouple the economic risk from the share’s ownership position, retaining in particular the voting right without risk. This paper uses...... three perspectives to analyse the problems created by negative risk-decoupling: an agency costs approach, an analysis of information costs, and a perspective from corporate finance. It shows how risk-decoupling is a type of market behaviour that creates significant costs for market participants......, in particular existing shareholders and potential investors. The paper then develops regulatory responses, envisaged particularly for EU level lawmaking, but also raises underlying issues on a more general level. Whilst several proposed regulatory tools are rejected, the paper prefers a solution that uses...

  20. GLOBAL DECOUPLING ON THE RHIC RAMP.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LUO, Y.; CAMERON, P.; DELLA PENNA, A.; FISCHER, W.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    The global betatron decoupling on the ramp is an important issue for the operation of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), especially in the RHIC polarized proton (pp) run. To avoid the major betatron and spin resonances on the ramp, the betatron tunes are constrained. And the rms value of the vertical closed orbit should be smaller than 0.5mm. Both require the global coupling on the ramp to be well corrected. Several ramp decoupling schemes were found and tested at RHIC, like N-turn map decoupling, three-ramp correction, coupling amplitude modulation, and coupling phase modulation. In this article, the principles of these methods are shortly reviewed and compared. Among them, coupling angle modulation is a robust and fast one. It has been applied to the global decoupling in the routine RHIC operation.

  1. POSSIBLE PHASE LOOP FOR THE GLOBAL DECOUPLING.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LUO, Y.; CAMERON, P.; DELLA PENNA, A.; JONES, R.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    The two eigentunes Q{sub I} and Q{sub II}, two eigenmode amplitude ratios R{sub I} and R{sub II}, and two eignmode phase differences {Delta}{phi}{sub I} and {Delta}{phi}{sub II}, are defined as the coupling observables for the linear weak difference betatron coupling. Simulations were carried out to investigate their behaviors in global decoupling scans. It was found that the amplitude ratios R{sub I,II} are more sensitive than the tune split when the decoupling scan is approaching the global uncoupled point, and that the phase differences {Delta}{phi}{sub I,II} tell the right global decoupling direction, the right strength combination of the skew quadrupoles or families. The analytical solution to these six coupling observables is calculated through both the strict matrix approach and the perturbation Hamiltonian approach. The constant phase differences in the right decoupling direction hint a possible global decoupling phase loop. Dedicated beam experiments were carried out at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The preliminary results from the beam experiments are presented. These six parameters can be used for the global decoupling in feed-back mode, especially on the non-stop energy ramp.

  2. An LMI-based decoupling control for electromagnetic formation flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Xianlin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic formation flight (EMFF leverages electromagnetic force to control the relative position of satellites. EMFF offers a promising alternative to traditional propellant-based spacecraft flight formation. This novel strategy is very attractive since it does not consume fuel. Due to the highly coupled nonlinearity of electromagnetic force, it is difficult to individually design a controller for one satellite without considering others, which poses challenges to communications. This paper is devoted to decoupling control of EMFF, including regulations, constraints and controller design. A learning-based adaptive sliding mode decoupling controller is analyzed to illustrate the problem of existing results, and input rate saturation is introduced to guarantee the validity of frequency division technique. Through transformation, the imposed input rate saturation is converted to state and input constraints. A linear matrix inequalities (LMI-based robust optimal control method can then be used and improved to solve the transformed problem. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed decoupling control.

  3. Suspended Decoupler: A New Design of Hydraulic Engine Mount

    OpenAIRE

    J. Christopherson; Mahinfalah, M.; Jazar, Reza N.

    2012-01-01

    Because of the density mismatch between the decoupler and surrounding fluid, the decoupler of all hydraulic engine mounts (HEM) might float, sink, or stick to the cage bounds, assuming static conditions. The problem appears in the transient response of a bottomed-up floating decoupler hydraulic engine mount. To overcome the bottomed-up problem, a suspended decoupler design for improved decoupler control is introduced. The new design does not noticeably affect the mechanism's steady-state beha...

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 600 ... ... Metals in the Water and Sediment from Challawa Gorge Dam, Kano, Nigeria ... Vol 7, No 1 (2014), Tiger Nut (Cyperus Esculentus): Composition, Products, Uses and ... Vol 5, No 1 (2012), In Vitro Antiplasmodial Activity and Cytotoxicity of ... List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  5. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 373 ... South African Journal of Surgery. ... Vol 54, No 3 (2016), Instilling a culture of safety for laparoscopic ... VS Karthikeyan, P Dhanasekar, SC Sistla, MS Ali, .... Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Featuring ...

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 77 ... Vol 12, No 1 (2012), Anaesthesia for Surgical Outreach in a Rural ... Trauma Patients with the Hip Flexed Versus Non Flexed (Hamstring Position), Abstract ... following laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized prospective study, Abstract .... List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 162 ... Vol 8, No 1 (2012), A descriptive Survey on Teachers' Perception of EFL Writing ... Vol 12, No 2 (2017), An assessment of mathematics classroom teaching- learning process: ... Vol 3, No 2 (2008), Andragogical Approach for Sustainable .... List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 411 ... Browse Title Index ... Issue, Title ... Vol 1, No 1 (2012), From Theory into Practice: Theatre-in-Education and Child ... Vol 1, No 4 (2012), Inflation - Adjusted Accounting and Corporate Value Redefinition: Fixing Nigeria ...

  9. Tilted microstrip phased arrays with improved electromagnetic decoupling for ultrahigh-field magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yong; Wu, Bing; Jiang, Xiaohua; Vigneron, Daniel B; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2014-12-01

    One of the technical challenges in designing a dedicated transceiver radio frequency (RF) array for MR imaging in humans at ultrahigh magnetic fields is how to effectively decouple the resonant elements of the array. In this work, we propose a new approach using tilted microstrip array elements for improving the decoupling performance and potentially parallel imaging capability. To investigate and validate the proposed design technique, an 8-channel volume array with tilted straight-type microstrip elements was designed, capable for human imaging at the ultrahigh field of 7 Tesla. In this volume transceiver array, its electromagnetic decoupling behavior among resonant elements, RF field penetration to biological samples, and parallel imaging performance were studied through bench tests and in vivo MR imaging experiments. In this specific tilted element array design, decoupling among array elements changes with the tilted angle of the elements and the best decoupling can be achieved at certain tilted angle. In vivo human knee MR images were acquired using the tilted volume array at 7 Tesla for method validation. Results of this study demonstrated that the electromagnetic decoupling between array elements and the B1 field strength can be improved by using the tilted element method in microstrip RF coil array designs at the ultrahigh field of 7T.

  10. Decoupling of Supersymmetric Particles in the MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Dobado, A; Peñaranda, S

    1998-01-01

    A heavy supersymmetric spectrum at the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model is considered and the decoupling from the low energy electroweak scale is analyzed. A formal and partial proof of decoupling of supersymmetric particles in the limit where their masses are larger than the electroweak scale is performed by integrating out all the sparticles to one loop and by evaluating the effective action for the standard electroweak gauge bosons $W^{\\pm}, Z$ and two-point functions of the electroweak gauge bosons and the $S, T$ and $U$ parameters, to be valid in that limit, are also presented. A discussion on how the decoupling takes place in terms of both the physical sparticle masses and the non-physical mass parameters as the $\\mu$-parameter and the soft-breaking parameters is included.

  11. Decoupled ranking of branch outages causing limit violations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddhi, K.L.P.; Bijwe, P.R.; Nanda, P. (Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India))

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a decoupled method for ranking contingencies based on voltage deviation, overload and reactive power limit violation performance indices. It is based on non-iterative compensation technique. A novel method of secondary injections at voltage controlled buses (including slack) to maintain their voltages constant and secondary injections at slack bus to maintain its angle constant has been developed. Results for four sample test systems have been obtained to test the effectiveness of the method.l The rankings obtained by the new method are in good agreement with those generated by rigorous AC load flow solutions for all the test systems investigated.

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 319 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 6, No 1 (2006), Analysis of staff training activities of Borno States Agricultural ... oil companies on the chieftaincy institution in Bayelsa State, Nigeria, Abstract PDF.

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    Items 101 - 111 of 111 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 6, No 2 (2016), Uses of systemic approach and chemist's triangle in ... nomenclature: Effect on senior secondary students' performance in rivers state of ...

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    Items 51 - 100 of 183 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Exploring the job satisfaction and organisational commitment of employees in ... Job insecurity, organisational commitment and work engagement among staff in ...

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 451 - 500 of 1075 ... Browse Title Index ... EL Stellenberg, V Corfield ... programme on coronary artery disease risk in male employees ... Vol 14, No 4 (2008):, Influence of exercise on preconception, pregnant women, the development ...

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    Items 401 - 450 of 1075 ... Issue, Title ... beliefs about causes of sport success among Malaysian athletes, Abstract ... Vol 22, No 3:1 (2016), Golf tourism in South Africa: Profiling ... Cup's greening programmes and implications for environmental ...

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    Items 1 - 50 of 65 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index .... Vol 20, No 1 (2013), Implementation of Broad-Based Black Economic ... from the lean construction perspective: A focus on supply chain management, Abstract PDF.

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    Items 1 - 50 of 200 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 11, No 1 (2016), Assessment of supply chain management in Nigerian ... Vol 4, No 1 (2009), Democracy as a political imperative for successful implementation of ...

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    Items 51 - 100 of 423 ... ... Enforceability of African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights in Nigeria .... An Ethnographic Analysis of Traditional Title Dispute in Southern ... Nigeria: Discourse on Proposed Establishment of Grazing Routes and ...

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    Items 1 - 50 of 145 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 16, No 2 (2008), Access to and use of computers among clinical dental ... of undergraduate clinical dental students towards orthodontics and orthodontists in a ...

  1. An Investigation of Two-Dimensional CAD Generated Models with Body Decoupled Cartesian Grids for DSMC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OTAHAL,THOMAS J.; GALLIS,MICHAIL A.; BARTEL,TIMOTHY J.

    2000-06-27

    This paper presents an investigation of a technique for using two-dimensional bodies composed of simple polygons with a body decoupled uniform Cmtesian grid in the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method (DSMC). The method employs an automated grid pre-processing scheme beginning form a CAD geometry definition file, and is based on polygon triangulation using a trapezoid algorithm. A particle-body intersection time comparison is presented between the Icarus DSMC code using a body-fitted structured grid and using a structured body-decoupled Cartesian grid with both linear and logarithmic search techniques. A comparison of neutral flow over a cylinder is presented using the structured body fitted grid and the Cartesian body de-coupled grid.

  2. Goldstino Decoupling in Spontaneously Broken Supergravity Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Gherghetta, Tony

    1996-01-01

    If the gravitino is sufficiently light and stable it will behave as an effective massless neutrino species at the time of nucleosynthesis. Depending on the temperature at which it decouples from the thermal bath in the early universe, the gravitino mass will be bounded by the primordial $^4$He abundance. Assuming a conservative estimate that the number of neutrino families, $N_\

  3. A decoupling approach to the quantum capacity

    CERN Document Server

    Hayden, P; Yard, J; Winter, A; Hayden, Patrick; Horodecki, Michal; Yard, Jon; Winter, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    We give a proof that the coherent information is an achievable rate for the transmission of quantum information through a noisy quantum channel. Our method is to select coding subspaces according to the unitarily invariant measure and then show that provided those subspaces are sufficiently small, any data contained within them will with high probability be decoupled from the noisy channel's environment.

  4. Supply Chain Management Strategies in Terms of Decoupling Points and Decoupling Zones

    OpenAIRE

    Wikner, Joakim

    2014-01-01

    Part 2: Knowledge Discovery and Sharing; International audience; Supply chain management is concerned with decisions related to the physical perspective of the enterprise and how the flow of goods and services is arranged. A wide set of strategies have evolved over time to provide guidelines for the decision makers but many of these strategies share a common foundation in process management that is based on decoupling points and decoupling zones. The strategies concerned here are segmentation...

  5. High Fidelity Adiabatic Quantum Computation via Dynamical Decoupling

    CERN Document Server

    Quiroz, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    We introduce high-order dynamical decoupling strategies for open system adiabatic quantum computation. Our numerical results demonstrate that a judicious choice of high-order dynamical decoupling method, in conjunction with an encoding which allows computation to proceed alongside decoupling, can dramatically enhance the fidelity of adiabatic quantum computation in spite of decoherence.

  6. High Field In vivo13C Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Brain by Random Radiofrequency Heteronuclear Decoupling and Data Undersampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningzhi Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In vivo13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS is a unique and effective tool for studying dynamic human brain metabolism and the cycling of neurotransmitters. One of the major technical challenges for in vivo13C-MRS is the high radio frequency (RF power necessary for heteronuclear decoupling. In the common practice of in vivo13C-MRS, alkanyl carbons are detected in the spectra range of 10–65 ppm. The amplitude of decoupling pulses has to be significantly greater than the large one-bond 1H-13C scalar coupling (1JCH = 125–145 Hz. Two main proton decoupling methods have been developed: broadband stochastic decoupling and coherent composite or adiabatic pulse decoupling (e.g., WALTZ; the latter is widely used because of its efficiency and superb performance under inhomogeneous B1 field. Because the RF power required for proton decoupling increases quadratically with field strength, in vivo13C-MRS using coherent decoupling is often limited to low magnetic fields [<=4 Tesla (T] to keep the local and averaged specific absorption rate (SAR under the safety guidelines established by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Alternately, carboxylic/amide carbons are coupled to protons via weak long-range 1H-13C scalar couplings, which can be decoupled using low RF power broadband stochastic decoupling. Recently, the carboxylic/amide 13C-MRS technique using low power random RF heteronuclear decoupling was safely applied to human brain studies at 7T. Here, we review the two major decoupling methods and the carboxylic/amide 13C-MRS with low power decoupling strategy. Further decreases in RF power deposition by frequency-domain windowing and time-domain random under-sampling are also discussed. Low RF power decoupling opens the possibility of performing in vivo13C experiments of human brain at very high magnetic fields (such as 11.7T, where signal-to-noise ratio as well as spatial and temporal

  7. Using recurrent neural networks to optimize dynamical decoupling for quantum memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    August, Moritz; Ni, Xiaotong

    2017-01-01

    We utilize machine learning models that are based on recurrent neural networks to optimize dynamical decoupling (DD) sequences. Dynamical decoupling is a relatively simple technique for suppressing the errors in quantum memory for certain noise models. In numerical simulations, we show that with minimum use of prior knowledge and starting from random sequences, the models are able to improve over time and eventually output DD sequences with performance better than that of the well known DD families. Furthermore, our algorithm is easy to implement in experiments to find solutions tailored to the specific hardware, as it treats the figure of merit as a black box.

  8. Decoupling and Decomposition Analysis of Carbon Emissions from Industry: A Case Study from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available China has overtaken the United States as the world’s largest producer of carbon dioxide, with industrial carbon emissions (ICE accounting for approximately 65% of the country’s total emissions. Understanding the ICE decoupling patterns and factors influencing the decoupling status is a prerequisite for balancing economic growth and carbon emissions. This paper provides an overview of ICE based on decoupling elasticity and the Tapio decoupling model. Furthermore, the study identifies the factors contributing to ICE changes in China, using the Kaya identity and Log Mean Divisia Index (LMDI techniques. Based on the effects and contributions of ICE, we close with a number of recommendations. The results revealed a significant upward trend of ICE during the study period 1994 to 2013, with a total amount of 11,147 million tons. Analyzing the decoupling relationship indicates that “weak decoupling” and “expansive decoupling” were the main states during the study period. The decomposition analysis showed that per capita wealth associated with industrial outputs and energy intensity are the main driving force of ICE, while energy intensity of industrial output and energy structure are major determinants for ICE reduction. The largest contributing cumulative effect to ICE is per capita wealth, at 1.23 in 2013. This factor is followed by energy intensity, with a contributing cumulative effect of −0.32. The cumulative effects of energy structure and population are relatively small, at 0.01 and 0.08, respectively.

  9. Stacked magnetic resonators for MRI RF coils decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georget, Elodie; Luong, Michel; Vignaud, Alexandre; Giacomini, Eric; Chazel, Edouard; Ferrand, Guillaume; Amadon, Alexis; Mauconduit, Franck; Enoch, Stefan; Tayeb, Gérard; Bonod, Nicolas; Poupon, Cyril; Abdeddaim, Redha

    2017-02-01

    Parallel transmission is a very promising method to tackle B1+ field inhomogeneities at ultrahigh field in magnetic resonant imaging (MRI). This technique is however limited by the mutual coupling between the radiating elements. Here we propose to solve this problem by designing a passive magneto-electric resonator that we here refer to as stacked magnetic resonator (SMR). By combining numerical and experimental methodologies, we prove that this novelty passive solution allows an efficient decoupling of elements of a phased-array coil. We demonstrate the ability of this technique to significantly reduce by more than 10 dB the coupling preserving the quality of images compared to ideally isolated linear resonators on a spherical salty agar gel phantom in a 7 T MRI scanner.

  10. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 522 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 12, No 1 (2006), A clinical comparison of disposable airway devices ... Vol 22, No 2 (2016), A new option in airway management: evaluation of the TotalTrack® ...

  11. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 301 - 350 of 463 ... Issue, Title ... Vol 38, No 2 (2016), Prevalence and effect of developmental ... student expectations for working in the tourism and hospitality industry: A ... Vol 38, No 3 (2016), Relationships among residence environment and individual ... of international physical activity questionnaire, Bahasa Malaysia ...

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 250 of 426 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 21, No 1 (2016), Maximum potential cost-savings attributable to generic ... Vol 22, No 1 (2017), Movement as a critical concept in model generation to attain ... factors influencing paediatric adherence to anti-retroviral therapy, Abstract PDF.

  13. Titles of Midas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Huxley

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The Phrygian inscription on the tomb at Yazılıkaya (8th century gives Midas the titles wanax and lawagtas, paralled in Mycenaean, and there were strong connections between his dynasty and Greek Aeolis.

  14. Renormalization of QED near Decoupling Temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Masood, Samina S

    2014-01-01

    We study the effective parameters of QED near decoupling temperatures and show that the QED perturbative series is convergent, at temperatures below the decoupling temperature. The renormalization constant of QED acquires different values if a system cools down from a hotter system to the electron mass temperature or heats up from a cooler system to the same temperature. At T = m, the first order contribution to the electron selfmass, {\\delta}m/m is 0.0076 for a heating system and 0.0115 for a cooling system and the difference between two values is equal to 1/3 of the low temperature value and 1/2 of the high temperature value around T~m. This difference is a measure of hot fermion background at high temperatures. With the increase in release of more fermions at hotter temperatures, the fermion background contribution dominates and weak interactions have to be incorporated to understand the background effects.

  15. Quadratic dynamical decoupling with nonuniform error suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiroz, Gregory; Lidar, Daniel A. [Department of Physics and Center for Quantum Information Science and Technology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Departments of Electrical Engineering, Chemistry, and Physics, and Center for Quantum Information Science and Technology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    We analyze numerically the performance of the near-optimal quadratic dynamical decoupling (QDD) single-qubit decoherence errors suppression method [J. West et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 130501 (2010)]. The QDD sequence is formed by nesting two optimal Uhrig dynamical decoupling sequences for two orthogonal axes, comprising N{sub 1} and N{sub 2} pulses, respectively. Varying these numbers, we study the decoherence suppression properties of QDD directly by isolating the errors associated with each system basis operator present in the system-bath interaction Hamiltonian. Each individual error scales with the lowest order of the Dyson series, therefore immediately yielding the order of decoherence suppression. We show that the error suppression properties of QDD are dependent upon the parities of N{sub 1} and N{sub 2}, and near-optimal performance is achieved for general single-qubit interactions when N{sub 1}=N{sub 2}.

  16. Selective recoupling and stochastic dynamical decoupling

    CERN Document Server

    Kern, O

    2006-01-01

    An embedded selective recoupling method is proposed which is based on the idea of embedding the recently proposed deterministic selective recoupling scheme of Yamaguchi et al. [quant-ph/0411099] into a stochastic dynamical decoupling method, such as the recently proposed Pauli-random-error-correction-(PAREC) scheme [Eur. Phys. J. D 32, 153, quant-ph/0407262]. The recoupling scheme enables the implementation of elementary quantum gates in a quantum information processor by partial suppression of the unwanted interactions. The random dynamical decoupling method cancels a significant part of the residual interactions. Thus the time scale of reliable quantum computation is increased significantly. Numerical simulations are presented for a conditional two-qubit swap gate and for a complex iterative quantum algorithm.

  17. Hedge Funds and Risk-Decoupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Georg

    2013-01-01

    categories of corporate law, financial derivatives, and risk management. This Article is only concerned with the first of these two forms— negative decoupling.9 It looks at the various forms of negative riskdecoupling strategies and tries to shed light on their overall desirability. Three distinct...... to the traditional market expectations of shareholders. Based on the insight developed from these policy perspectives, this article develops regulatory reform proposals, particularly with regard to the EU context....

  18. Compact decoupling for thermoviscoelasticity in irregular domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mustapha Ait Ben Hassi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Our goal is to prove the compactness of the difference between the thermoviscoelasticity semigroup and its decoupled semigroup. To show this, we prove the norm continuity of this difference, the compactness of the difference of their resolvents and use Theorem 2.3 in Huang [4]. We generalize a result by Liu [5]. An illustrative example of a thermoviscoelastic system with Neumann Laplacian on a Jelly Roll domain is given.

  19. Decoupling of Confined Normal 3He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimov, S. G.; Bennett, R. G.; Ilic, B.; Verbridge, S. S.; Levitin, L. V.; Fefferman, A. D.; Casey, A.; Saunders, J.; Parpia, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Anodic bonding was used to fabricate a 10 mm diameter × 640 nm tall annular geometry suitable for torsion pendulum studies of confined 3He. For pure 3He at saturated vapor pressure the inertia of the confined fluid was seen to be only partially coupled to the pendulum at 160 mK. Below 100 mK the liquid’s inertial contribution was negligible, indicating a complete decoupling of the 3He from the pendulum.

  20. Partially decoupled modeling of hydraulic fracturing processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Settari, A.; Puchyr, P.J.; Bachman, R.C. (Simtech Consulting Services, Calgary (CA))

    1990-02-01

    A new method of partial decoupling of the problem of modeling a hydraulic fracture in a reservoir is described. According to the authors this approach has significant advantages over previous methods with fully coupled or completely uncoupled models. Better accuracy can be achieved in modeling the fracture propagation, and the new system is very efficient and versatile. Virtually any reservoir model can be used for predicting postfracture productivity. Examples of single- and multiphase applications for modeling fractured wells are discussed.

  1. Attitude Decoupling Control for Quadrotor Aircraft Based on Active Disturbance Rejection Control Technique%基于自抗扰技术的四旋翼姿态解耦控制方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杰; 齐晓慧; 韩帅涛

    2013-01-01

    An active disturbance rejection attitude controller was designed to control its attitude based on the nonlinear and coupled model of small quadrotor aircraft. The active disturbances rejection attitude control technique was introduced, and the structure of the active disturbance rejection controller was described, including the arranging transitional process, extended state observer and nonlinear law state error feedback. Simulation was carried out based on Simulink. The parameter tuning and simulation results indicate that the designed controller has strong robustness and anti-disturbance performance, and the system has good dynamic performance and steady state performance, which can control the nonlinear and coupled system effectively.%针对小型四旋翼飞行器姿态控制问题,基于姿态非线性耦合数学模型,设计了一种自抗扰姿态控制器.引入自抗扰控制技术,介绍了自抗扰控制器结构,包括安排过渡过程,扩张状态观测器以及非线性状态误差反馈.针对模型非线性耦合特点,介绍了多变量系统的自抗扰解耦控制原理,并设计了一种自抗扰姿态解耦控制器.基于Simulink搭建仿真模型进行了仿真.参数整定及仿真结果表明,所设计自抗扰控制器具有强鲁棒性、抗干扰性,系统具有良好的动态性能和稳态性能,对非线性耦合系统能有效地控制.

  2. Refocused continuous-wave decoupling: A new approach to heteronuclear dipolar decoupling in solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Joachim Møllesøe; Nielsen, Anders B.; Bjerring, Morten

    2012-01-01

    A novel strategy for heteronuclear dipolar decoupling in magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy is presented, which eliminates residual static high-order terms in the effective Hamiltonian originating from interactions between oscillating dipolar and anisotropic shielding tensors...... rCW decoupling sequences are presented and their performance is compared to state-of-the-art decoupling methods. The rCW decoupling sequences benefit from extreme broadbandedness, tolerance towards rf inhomogeneity, and improved potential for decoupling at relatively low average rf field strengths...

  3. Environmental noise spectroscopy with qubits subjected to dynamical decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szańkowski, P.; Ramon, G.; Krzywda, J.; Kwiatkowski, D.; Cywiński, Ł.

    2017-08-01

    A qubit subjected to pure dephasing due to classical Gaussian noise can be turned into a spectrometer of this noise by utilizing its readout under properly chosen dynamical decoupling (DD) sequences to reconstruct the power spectral density of the noise. We review the theory behind this DD-based noise spectroscopy technique, paying special attention to issues that arise when the environmental noise is non-Gaussian and/or it has truly quantum properties. While we focus on the theoretical basis of the method, we connect the discussed concepts with specific experiments, and provide an overview of environmental noise models relevant for solid-state based qubits, including quantum-dot based spin qubits, superconducting qubits, and NV centers in diamond.

  4. Decoupled direct method for sensitivity analysis in combustion kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan

    1987-01-01

    An efficient, decoupled direct method for calculating the first order sensitivity coefficients of homogeneous, batch combustion kinetic rate equations is presented. In this method the ordinary differential equations for the sensitivity coefficients are solved separately from , but sequentially with, those describing the combustion chemistry. The ordinary differential equations for the thermochemical variables are solved using an efficient, implicit method (LSODE) that automatically selects the steplength and order for each solution step. The solution procedure for the sensitivity coefficients maintains accuracy and stability by using exactly the same steplengths and numerical approximations. The method computes sensitivity coefficients with respect to any combination of the initial values of the thermochemical variables and the three rate constant parameters for the chemical reactions. The method is illustrated by application to several simple problems and, where possible, comparisons are made with exact solutions and those obtained by other techniques.

  5. Virtual power based algorithm for decoupling large motions from infinitesimal strains: application to shoulder joint biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchler, P; Rakotomanana, L; Farron, A

    2002-12-01

    New trends of numerical models of human joints require more and more computation of both large amplitude joint motions and fine bone stress distribution. Together, these problems are difficult to solve and very CPU time consuming. The goal of this study is to develop a new method to diminish the calculation time for this kind of problems which include calculation of large amplitude motions and infinitesimal strains. Based on the Principle of Virtual Power, the present method decouples the problem into two parts. First, rigid body motion is calculated. The bone micro-deformations are then calculated in a second part by using the results of rigid body motions as boundary conditions. A finite element model of the shoulder was used to test this decoupling technique. The model was designed to determine the influence of humeral head shape on stress distribution in the scapula for different physiological motions of the joint. Two versions of the model were developed: a first version completely deformable and a second version based on the developed decoupling method. It was shown that biomechanical variables, as mean pressure and von Mises stress, calculated with the two versions were sensibly the same. On the other hand, CPU time needed for calculating with the new decoupled technique was more than 6 times less than with the completely deformable model.

  6. Global Decoupling on the RHIC Ramp

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Yun; Della Penna, Al; Fischer, Wolfram; Laster, Jonathan S; Marusic, Al; Pilat, Fulvia Caterina; Roser, Thomas; Trbojevic, Dejan

    2005-01-01

    The global betatron decoupling on the ramp is an important issue for the operation of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). In the polarized proton run, the betatron tunes are required to keep almost constant on the ramp to avoid spin resonance line crossing and the beam polarization loss. Some possible correction schemes on the ramp, like three-ramp correction, the coupling amplitude modulation and the coupling phase modulaxtion, have been found. The principles of these schemes are shortly reviewed and compared. Operational results of their applications on the RHIC ramps are given.

  7. Transformationally decoupling clustering and tracer bias

    CERN Document Server

    Neyrinck, Mark C

    2014-01-01

    Gaussianizing transformations are used statistically in many non-cosmological fields, but in cosmology, we are only starting to apply them. Here I explain a strategy of analyzing the 1-point function (PDF) of a spatial field, together with the 'essential' clustering statistics of the Gaussianized field, which are invariant to a local transformation. In cosmology, if the tracer sampling is sufficient, this achieves two important goals. First, it can greatly multiply the Fisher information, which is negligible on nonlinear scales in the usual $\\delta$ statistics. Second, it decouples clustering statistics from a local bias description for tracers such as galaxies.

  8. Decoupler pylon: wing/store flutter suppressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, W. H., III (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A device for suspending a store from a support such as an aircraft wing and more specifically for increasing the flutter speed of an aircraft flying with attached store and reducing the sensitivity of flutter to changes in the pitch inertia and center of gravity location of the store is described. It comprises softspring where the store pitch mode is decoupled from support modes and a low frequency active control mechanism which maintains store alignment. A pneumatic suspension system both isolates the store in pitch and, under conditions of changing mean load, aligns the store with the wing to which it is attached.

  9. Computing Decoupled Residuals for Compact Disc Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve Compact Disc Players playability regarding playing Compact Discs with surface faults, like scratches and fingerprints etc, the attention has been put on fault tolerant control schemes. Almost every of those methods are based on fault detection. The standard approach is to use...... a pair of residuals generated by Compact Disc Player. However, these residuals depend on the performance of position servos in the Compact Disc Player. In other publications of the same authors a pair of decoupled residuals is derived. However, the computation of these alternative residuals has been...

  10. Decoupling Control Method Based on Neural Network for Missiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Li; LUO Xi-shuang; ZHANG Tian-qiao

    2005-01-01

    In order to make the static state feedback nonlinear decoupling control law for a kind of missile to be easy for implementation in practice, an improvement is discussed. The improvement method is to introduce a BP neural network to approximate the decoupling control laws which are designed for different aerodynamic characteristic points, so a new decoupling control law based on BP neural network is produced after the network training. The simulation results on an example illustrate the approach obtained feasible and effective.

  11. Renormalization of QED Near Decoupling Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samina S. Masood

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the effective parameters of QED near decoupling temperatures and show that the QED perturbative series is convergent, at temperatures below the decoupling temperature. The renormalization constant of QED acquires different values if a system cools down from a hotter system to the electron mass temperature or heats up from a cooler system to the same temperature. At T = m, the first order contribution to the electron self-mass, δm/m is 0.0076 for a heating system and 0.0115 for a cooling system and the difference between two values is equal to 1/3 of the low temperature value and 1/2 of the high temperature value around T~m. This difference is a measure of hot fermion background at high temperatures. With the increase in release of more fermions at hotter temperatures, the fermion background contribution dominates and weak interactions have to be incorporated to understand the background effects.

  12. Multiple models adaptive feedforward decoupling controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xin; Li Shaoyuan; Wang Zhongjie

    2005-01-01

    When the parameters of the system change abruptly, a new multivariable adaptive feedforward decoupling controller using multiple models is presented to improve the transient response. The system models are composed of multiple fixed models, one free-running adaptive model and one re-initialized adaptive model. The fixed models are used to provide initial control to the process. The re-initialized adaptive model can be reinitialized as the selected model to improve the adaptation speed. The free-running adaptive controller is added to guarantee the overall system stability. At each instant, the best system model is selected according to the switching index and the corresponding controller is designed. During the controller design, the interaction is viewed as the measurable disturbance and eliminated by the choice of the weighting polynomial matrix. It not only eliminates the steady-state error but also decouples the system dynamically. The global convergence is obtained and several simulation examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  13. Decoupling Hypothesis and the Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Wyrobek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to present the decoupling hypothesis which says that the performance of emerging economies becomes relatively independent of the changes in advanced economies, and to empirically verify this hypothesis. The Christiano-Fitzgerald band-pass filter and spectral analyses have been applied to examine the hypothesis. On the basis of obtained results, comparing the deviations of GDPs from their long-term trend, it seems that the synchronization of cycles between emerging and advanced economies was already high before the crisis. The last global crisis, especially if time shifts between the countries are taken into account, even increased the synchronization of the economies. Therefore, this paper presents evidence against the decoupling hypothesis, and at the same time it raises doubts whether the high GDP growth rates in emerging economies can be sustainable in the presence of the slow-down in the advanced economies. The paper analyzes the situation from the Poland’s point of view as the country which is on the verge of joining the ERM2 system and adopting the euro (synchronization divagations are important for this decision and because Poland is a good example of an emerging economy.

  14. Decoupled Multicamera Sensing for Flexible View Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek K. Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Any sensing paradigm has three important components, namely, the actor, the sensor, and the environment. Traditionally, the sensors have been attached to either the actor or the environment. This restricts the kind of sensing that can be undertaken. We study a newer decoupled sensing paradigm, which separates the sensors from both the actor and the environment and tremendously increases the flexibility with which the scenes can be viewed. For example, instead of showing just one view, “how the environment sees the actor” or “how the actor sees the environment,” a viewer can choose to see either one or both of these views and even choose to see the scene from any desired position in any desired direction. We describe a methodology using mobile autonomous sensors to undertake such decoupled sensing and study the feasible number as well as the placement of such sensors. Also, we describe how the sensors can coordinate their movements around a moving actor so as to continue capturing the required views with minimum overall cost. The practical results obtained demonstrate the viability of the proposed approach.

  15. Refocused continuous-wave decoupling: A new approach to heteronuclear dipolar decoupling in solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinther, Joachim M.; Nielsen, Anders B.; Bjerring, Morten; van Eck, Ernst R. H.; Kentgens, Arno P. M.; Khaneja, Navin; Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2012-12-01

    A novel strategy for heteronuclear dipolar decoupling in magic-angle spinning solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is presented, which eliminates residual static high-order terms in the effective Hamiltonian originating from interactions between oscillating dipolar and anisotropic shielding tensors. The method, called refocused continuous-wave (rCW) decoupling, is systematically established by interleaving continuous wave decoupling with appropriately inserted rotor-synchronized high-power π refocusing pulses of alternating phases. The effect of the refocusing pulses in eliminating residual effects from dipolar coupling in heteronuclear spin systems is rationalized by effective Hamiltonian calculations to third order. In some variants the π pulse refocusing is supplemented by insertion of rotor-synchronized π/2 purging pulses to further reduce the residual dipolar coupling effects. Five different rCW decoupling sequences are presented and their performance is compared to state-of-the-art decoupling methods. The rCW decoupling sequences benefit from extreme broadbandedness, tolerance towards rf inhomogeneity, and improved potential for decoupling at relatively low average rf field strengths. In numerical simulations, the rCW schemes clearly reveal superior characteristics relative to the best decoupling schemes presented so far, which we to some extent also are capable of demonstrating experimentally. A major advantage of the rCW decoupling methods is that they are easy to set up and optimize experimentally.

  16. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 198 of 198 ... Vol 12, No 1 (2014), Multimodal Authentication Techniques For Staff ... the internet of things architects, software engineers and the rest of us, Abstract PDF ... ridge parameter of Hoerl and Kennard estimation techniques ...

  17. Optimized dynamical decoupling via genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Gregory; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2013-11-01

    We utilize genetic algorithms aided by simulated annealing to find optimal dynamical decoupling (DD) sequences for a single-qubit system subjected to a general decoherence model under a variety of control pulse conditions. We focus on the case of sequences with equal pulse intervals and perform the optimization with respect to pulse type and order. In this manner, we obtain robust DD sequences, first in the limit of ideal pulses, then when including pulse imperfections such as finite-pulse duration and qubit rotation (flip-angle) errors. Although our optimization is numerical, we identify a deterministic structure that underlies the top-performing sequences. We use this structure to devise DD sequences which outperform previously designed concatenated DD (CDD) and quadratic DD (QDD) sequences in the presence of pulse errors. We explain our findings using time-dependent perturbation theory and provide a detailed scaling analysis of the optimal sequences.

  18. Optimized Dynamical Decoupling via Genetic Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Quiroz, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    We utilize genetic algorithms to find optimal dynamical decoupling (DD) sequences for a single-qubit system subjected to a general decoherence model under a variety of control pulse conditions. We focus on the case of sequences with equal pulse-intervals and perform the optimization with respect to pulse type and order. In this manner we obtain robust DD sequences, first in the limit of ideal pulses, then when including pulse imperfections such as finite pulse duration and qubit rotation (flip-angle) errors. Although our optimization is numerical, we identify a deterministic structure underlies the top-performing sequences. We use this structure to devise DD sequences which outperform previously designed concatenated DD (CDD) and quadratic DD (QDD) sequences in the presence of pulse errors. We explain our findings using time-dependent perturbation theory and provide a detailed scaling analysis of the optimal sequences.

  19. Atomic Quadrupole Moment Measurement Using Dynamic Decoupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaniv, R; Akerman, N; Ozeri, R

    2016-04-01

    We present a method that uses dynamic decoupling of a multilevel quantum probe to distinguish small frequency shifts that depend on m_{j}^{2}, where m_{j}^{2} is the angular momentum of level |j⟩ along the quantization axis, from large noisy shifts that are linear in m_{j}, such as those due to magnetic field noise. Using this method we measured the electric-quadrupole moment of the 4D_{5/2} level in ^{88}Sr^{+} to be 2.973_{-0.033}^{+0.026}ea_{0}^{2}. Our measurement improves the uncertainty of this value by an order of magnitude and thus helps mitigate an important systematic uncertainty in ^{88}Sr^{+} based optical atomic clocks and verifies complicated many-body quantum calculations.

  20. Development and test of decoupler for ICRF antenna in EAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Gen, E-mail: chengen@ipp.ac.cn; Mao, Yuzhou; Zhao, Yanping; Yuan, Shuai; Zhang, Xinjun; Qing, Chengming

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • The mechanism of decoupler for ICRF antenna is proposed. • Three candidate assembly positions for the decouper can be used. • The performance relies on the ohmic dissipation and the assembly position of decoupler. - Abstract: Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating has been adopted in EAST tokamak as one of main auxiliary heating methods. The ICRF antenna usually consists of multiple launching elements because of limited port and space of tokamak device. Mutual coupling between straps has been observed in previous EAST ICRF current drive experiments. Due to adverse effects of such mutual coupling, many issues induced by cross power cannot be ignored, such as power imbalance in feed lines, high voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR), and etc. To restrain such mutual coupling, A device named decoupler was developed and tested in EAST ICRF system. According to the admittance matrix of load, three assembly positions (oscillation position, optimum position, and smooth position) along transmission line for the decoupler were taken into account and tested. The test results showed that ohmic dissipation in decoupler could not be neglected, which partly influenced the decoupling performance. The oscillation position and optimum position could restrain such adverse effects of ohmic dissipation and showed good decoupling performance. However, they cannot ensure the steady operation during H-mod due to the load variation. Finally, the smooth position has been adopted for EAST I port antenna because of steady decoupling performance comprised with engineering error and load resilience, which sincerely enhance the capability of system operation.

  1. A survey of pansharpening methods with a new band-decoupled variational model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, J.; Buades, A.; Coll, B.; Sbert, C.; Blanchet, G.

    2017-03-01

    Most satellites decouple the acquisition of a panchromatic image at high spatial resolution from the acquisition of a multispectral image at lower spatial resolution. Pansharpening is a fusion technique used to increase the spatial resolution of the multispectral data while simultaneously preserving its spectral information. In this paper, we consider pansharpening as an optimization problem minimizing a cost function with a nonlocal regularization term. The energy functional which is to be minimized decouples for each band, thus permitting the application to misregistered spectral components. This requirement is achieved by dropping the, commonly used, assumption that relates the spectral and panchromatic modalities by a linear transformation. Instead, a new constraint that preserves the radiometric ratio between the panchromatic and each spectral component is introduced. An exhaustive performance comparison of the proposed fusion method with several classical and state-of-the-art pansharpening techniques illustrates its superiority in preserving spatial details, reducing color distortions, and avoiding the creation of aliasing artifacts.

  2. What makes a good title?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Maria J

    2013-12-01

    The chances are the first thing you when you set out to write an article is the title. But what factors transform a mediocre title into a good title? Firstly, it should be both informative and specific, using words or phrases likely to be used when searching for information, for example 'nurse education' rather than simply 'nurse'. Secondly, it should be concise yet convey the main ideas clearly; articles with short titles reporting study findings have been found to attract higher numbers of viewing and citations. Thirdly, provide details of the study design to assist the reader in making an informed choice about the type of project your article is reporting. In taking these small steps when developing your title, your title can present a more concise, retrievable and clear articulation of your article.

  3. Is Decoupling GDP Growth from Environmental Impact Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, James D; Sutton, Paul C; Werner, Adrian D; Costanza, Robert; Mohr, Steve H; Simmons, Craig T

    2016-01-01

    The argument that human society can decouple economic growth-defined as growth in Gross Domestic Product (GDP)-from growth in environmental impacts is appealing. If such decoupling is possible, it means that GDP growth is a sustainable societal goal. Here we show that the decoupling concept can be interpreted using an easily understood model of economic growth and environmental impact. The simple model is compared to historical data and modelled projections to demonstrate that growth in GDP ultimately cannot be decoupled from growth in material and energy use. It is therefore misleading to develop growth-oriented policy around the expectation that decoupling is possible. We also note that GDP is increasingly seen as a poor proxy for societal wellbeing. GDP growth is therefore a questionable societal goal. Society can sustainably improve wellbeing, including the wellbeing of its natural assets, but only by discarding GDP growth as the goal in favor of more comprehensive measures of societal wellbeing.

  4. Interim Title V Program Approvals

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  5. Pseudomultidimensional NMR by spin-state selective off-resonance decoupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Christy Rani R; Riek, Roland

    2003-12-24

    An alternate technique for accurately monitoring the chemical shift in multidimensional NMR experiments using spin-state selective off-resonance decoupling is presented here. By applying off-resonance decoupling on spin S during acquisition of spin I, we scaled the scalar coupling J(I,S) between the spins, and the residual scalar coupling turns out to be a function of the chemical shift of spin S. Thus, the chemical shift information of spin S is indirectly retained, without an additional evolution period and the accompanying polarization transfer elements. The detection of the components of the doublet using spin-state selection enables an accurate measurement of the residual scalar coupling and a precise value for the chemical shift, concomitantly. The spin-state selection further yields two subspectra comprising either one of the two components of the doublet and thereby avoiding the overlap problems that arise from off-resonance decoupling. In general, spin-state selective off-resonance decoupling can be incorporated into any pulse sequence. Here, the concept of spin-state selective off-resonance decoupling is applied to 3D (13)C or (15)N-resolved [(1)H,(1)H]-NOESY experiments, adding the chemical shift of the heavy atom attached to the hydrogen ((13)C or (15)N nuclei) with high resolution resulting in a pseudo-4D. These pseudo-4D heavy-atom resolved [(1)H, (1)H]-NOESY experiments contain chemical shift information comparable to that of 4D (13)C or (15)N-resolved [(1)H,(1)H]-NOESY, but with an increase in chemical shift resolution by 1-2 orders of magnitude.

  6. Robust Power Decoupling Control Scheme for DC Side Split Decoupling Capacitor Circuit with Mismatched Capacitance in Single Phase System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Wenli; Loh, Poh Chiang; Tang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Active power decoupling now is commonly used in single phase converter for the purpose of replacing bulky electrolytic capacitors, which is usually install in dc side of inverter to mitigate the second harmonic ripple in the single-phase converter. One possible way is to using half-bridge and split...... dc capacitor to realize power decoupling, but the conventional power decoupling control scheme for this half-bridge circuit is developed with equal storage capacitances, which may vary in practice and degrade the ac and dc performance. The intention of this paper is to quantify ac and dc...... imperfections when storage mismatch occurs, which may break the standard requirement such as IEEE 1547. As a consequence, a robust control scheme is then proposed for half-bridge circuit, which realized power decoupling by generating second order harmonic voltage on the split dc decoupling capacitor instead...

  7. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 401 - 450 of 11090 ... ... Effects of processing techniques, properties and quality of juice, Abstract PDF ... the use of prebiotic in aquaculture for fish and shrimp, Abstract PDF ... the molecular mechanism of plants rooting modulated by auxin ...

  8. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 325 ... A parent's guide to Asperger's Syndrome and High-functioning Autism — how ... A Question of Technique: Independent Psychoanalytic Approaches ... Anxiety: cognitive behaviour therapy with children and young people

  9. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 301 - 350 of 1075 ... Vol 10, No 1 (2004):, Education and training in recreation ... techniques on hamstring flexibility in female adolescents, Abstract ... Effects of 8 weeks resistance training on serum lipids in sedentary male smokers, Abstract.

  10. Title:- retrobulbar hemorrhage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr.Gagan

    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, AB Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences, Mangalore. 1. Department of .... technique of orbital decompression that involves fracturing the orbital ... hemorrhage after retrobulbar anesthesia.

  11. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 55 ... Vol 4, No 1 (2010), Anesthesia for surgery for typhoid perforation in a rural African ... of Hepatitis B infection amongst the students of Rural Dental College, ... by Direct Spectrophotometric Micro-Technique and Diazo Method.

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 401 - 450 of 516 ... Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia. ... the Miller laryngoscope blade and paraglossal technique – a comparison with .... in mentally retarded patients during dental procedures: research, Abstract PDF.

  13. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 250 of 619 ... Vol 4, No 1 (2014), Evaluation of Inhaler Techniques Among Asthma ... ramus height, gonial angle, and dental height with different facial forms ... Trigger Finger Release under Local Anesthesia in the Medical College of ...

  14. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 1493 ... ... of dental treatment under general anesthesia on children with and without ... Vol 17, No 5 (2014), A retrospective evaluation of traumatic dental injury ... techniques in benign parotid surgery among maxillofacial and ear, ...

  15. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ), Cognitive Training Programme in the Decrease of Stress of Daily Functioning ... Mastery Techniques In Fostering Emotional Intelligence Among ... of Senior Secondary School Students across Gender, Year of Study, ...

  16. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 178 ... Vol 9, No 2 (2017), Influence of different pretreatments on seed germination ... of cassava roots under different storage techniques, Abstract PDF ... attitude of agriculture students towards commercialization of date palm in ...

  17. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 501 - 550 of 899 ... Vol 7, No 3 (2003), Management of Hypertension in Pregnancy as a Quality ... Vol 19, No 2 (2015), Managing Endometriosis in sub-Saharan Africa: Emerging Concepts and New Techniques, Abstract PDF .... QC Ogbuji.

  18. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 299 ... ... gap in electric field Part II: Statistical analysis of shot distribution, Abstract ... of non-newtonian fluid along a vertical heated plate in anisotropic ... limestone using Schlumberger geoelectric sounding technique, Abstract.

  19. Suspended Decoupler: A New Design of Hydraulic Engine Mount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Christopherson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the density mismatch between the decoupler and surrounding fluid, the decoupler of all hydraulic engine mounts (HEM might float, sink, or stick to the cage bounds, assuming static conditions. The problem appears in the transient response of a bottomed-up floating decoupler hydraulic engine mount. To overcome the bottomed-up problem, a suspended decoupler design for improved decoupler control is introduced. The new design does not noticeably affect the mechanism's steady-state behavior, but improves start-up and transient response. Additionally, the decoupler mechanism is incorporated into a smaller, lighter, yet more tunable and hence more effective hydraulic mount design. The steady-state response of a dimensionless model of the mount is examined utilizing the averaging perturbation method applied to a set of second-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations. It is shown that the frequency responses of the floating and suspended decoupled designs are similar and functional. To have a more realistic modeling, utilizing nonlinear finite elements in conjunction with a lumped parameter modeling approach, we evaluate the nonlinear resorting characteristics of the components and implement them in the equations of motion.

  20. (13)C MRS of human brain at 7 Tesla using [2-(13)C]glucose infusion and low power broadband stochastic proton decoupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shizhe; An, Li; Yu, Shao; Ferraris Araneta, Maria; Johnson, Christopher S; Wang, Shumin; Shen, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Carbon-13 ((13)C) MR spectroscopy (MRS) of the human brain at 7 Tesla (T) may pose patient safety issues due to high radiofrequency (RF) power deposition for proton decoupling. The purpose of present work is to study the feasibility of in vivo (13)C MRS of human brain at 7 T using broadband low RF power proton decoupling. Carboxylic/amide (13)C MRS of human brain by broadband stochastic proton decoupling was demonstrated on a 7 T scanner. RF safety was evaluated using the finite-difference time-domain method. (13)C signal enhancement by nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) and proton decoupling was evaluated in both phantoms and in vivo. At 7 T, the peak amplitude of carboxylic/amide (13)C signals was increased by a factor of greater than 4 due to the combined effects of NOE and proton decoupling. The 7 T (13)C MRS technique used decoupling power and average transmit power of less than 35 watts (W) and 3.6 W, respectively. In vivo (13)C MRS studies of human brain can be performed at 7 T, well below the RF safety threshold, by detecting carboxylic/amide carbons with broadband stochastic proton decoupling. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. 13C MRS of Human Brain at 7 Tesla Using [2-13C]Glucose Infusion and Low Power Broadband Stochastic Proton Decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shizhe; An, Li; Yu, Shao; Araneta, Maria Ferraris; Johnson, Christopher S.; Wang, Shumin; Shen, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of human brain at 7 Tesla (T) may pose patient safety issues due to high RF power deposition for proton decoupling. The purpose of present work is to study the feasibility of in vivo 13C MRS of human brain at 7 T using broadband low RF power proton decoupling. Methods Carboxylic/amide 13C MRS of human brain by broadband stochastic proton decoupling was demonstrated on a 7 T scanner. RF safety was evaluated using the finite-difference time-domain method. 13C signal enhancement by nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) and proton decoupling was evaluated in both phantoms and in vivo. Results At 7 T, the peak amplitude of carboxylic/amide 13C signals was increased by a factor of greater than 4 due to the combined effects of NOE and proton decoupling. The 7 T 13C MRS technique used decoupling power and average transmit power of less than 35 W and 3.6 W, respectively. Conclusion In vivo 13C MRS studies of human brain can be performed at 7 T well below the RF safety threshold by detecting carboxylic/amide carbons with broadband stochastic proton decoupling. PMID:25917936

  2. Dynamic decoupling nonlinear control method for aircraft gust alleviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yang; Wan, Xiaopeng; Li, Aijun

    2008-10-01

    A dynamic decoupling nonlinear control method for MIMO system is presented in this paper. The dynamic inversion method is used to decouple the multivariable system. The nonlinear control method is used to overcome the poor decoupling effect when the system model is inaccurate. The nonlinear control method has correcting function and is expressed in analytic form, it is easy to adjust the parameters of the controller and optimize the design of the control system. The method is used to design vertical transition mode of active control aircraft for gust alleviation. Simulation results show that the designed vertical transition mode improves the gust alleviation effect about 34% comparing with the normal aircraft.

  3. Nonlinear Decoupling PID Control Using Neural Networks and Multiple Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    For a class of complex industrial processes with strong nonlinearity, serious coupling and uncertainty, a nonlinear decoupling proportional-integral-differential (PID) controller is proposed, which consists of a traditional PID controller, a decoupling compensator and a feedforward compensator for the unmodeled dynamics. The parameters of such controller is selected based on the generalized minimum variance control law. The unmodeled dynamics is estimated and compensated by neural networks, a switching mechanism is introduced to improve tracking performance, then a nonlinear decoupling PID control algorithm is proposed. All signals in such switching system are globally bounded and the tracking error is convergent. Simulations show effectiveness of the algorithm.

  4. Decoupling Control Strategy for Single Phase SPWM Parallel Inverters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shun-Gang Xu; Jian-Ping Xu; Tai-Qiang Cao

    2009-01-01

    A decoupling control strategy of inverter parallel system is proposed based on the equivalent output impedance of single phase voltage source SPWM (sinusoidal pulse width modulation) inverter. The active power and reactive power are calculated in terms of output voltage and current of the inverter, and sent to the other inverters in the parallel system via controller area network (CAN) bus. By calculating and decoupling the circumfluence of the active power and reactive power, the inverters can share load current via the regulation of the reference-signal phase and amplitude. Experimental results of an 110V/2kVA inverter parallel system show the feasibility of the decoupling control strategy.

  5. Relic neutrino decoupling with flavour oscillations revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas, Pablo F. de [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (CSIC-Universitat de València),Parc Científic UV, C/ Catedrático José Beltrán 2, E-46980 Paterna (Valencia) (Spain); Institute for Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology (TTK),RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Pastor, Sergio [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (CSIC-Universitat de València),Parc Científic UV, C/ Catedrático José Beltrán 2, E-46980 Paterna (Valencia) (Spain)

    2016-07-28

    We study the decoupling process of neutrinos in the early universe in the presence of three-flavour oscillations. The evolution of the neutrino spectra is found by solving the corresponding momentum-dependent kinetic equations for the neutrino density matrix, including for the first time the proper collision integrals for both diagonal and off-diagonal elements. This improved calculation modifies the evolution of the off-diagonal elements of the neutrino density matrix and changes the deviation from equilibrium of the frozen neutrino spectra. However, it does not vary the contribution of neutrinos to the cosmological energy density in the form of radiation, usually expressed in terms of the effective number of neutrinos, N{sub eff}. We find a value of N{sub eff}=3.045, in agreement with previous theoretical calculations and consistent with the latest analysis of Planck data. This result does not depend on the ordering of neutrino masses. We also consider the effect of non-standard neutrino-electron interactions (NSI), predicted in many theoretical models where neutrinos acquire mass. For two sets of NSI parameters allowed by present data, we find that N{sub eff} can be reduced down to 3.040 or enhanced up to 3.059.

  6. Relic neutrino decoupling with flavour oscillations revisited

    CERN Document Server

    de Salas, Pablo F

    2016-01-01

    We study the decoupling process of neutrinos in the early universe in the presence of three-flavour oscillations. The evolution of the neutrino spectra is found by solving the corresponding momentum-dependent kinetic equations for the neutrino density matrix, including for the first time the proper collision integrals for both diagonal and off-diagonal elements. This improved calculation modifies the evolution of the off-diagonal elements of the neutrino density matrix and changes the deviation from equilibrium of the frozen neutrino spectra. However, it does not vary the contribution of neutrinos to the cosmological energy density in the form of radiation, usually expressed in terms of the effective number of neutrinos, N_eff. We find a value of N_eff=3.045, in agreement with previous theoretical calculations and consistent with the latest analysis of Planck data. This result does not depend on the ordering of neutrino masses. We also consider the effect of non-standard neutrino-electron interactions (NSI), ...

  7. Decoupling, Trans-Planckia and Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, C P; Lemieux, F; Holman, R

    2003-01-01

    We survey recent calculations probing what constraints decoupling can put on the influence of very-high-energy physics on the predictions of inflation for the cosmic microwave background. Using garden-variety hybrid inflation models we identify two ways in which higher-energy physics can intrude into inflationary predictions. 1. Non-adiabatic physics up to 30 e-foldings before horizon exit can have observable consequences for the CMB, including the introduction of features in the fluctuation spectrum at specific multipoles and a general suppression of power at large scales (a prediction which was made before the recent release of WMAP results). Our comparison of simple models with the data marginally improves the goodness of fit compared to the standard concordance cosmology, but only at the 1.5-sigma level. 2. Adiabatic physics can also affect inflationary predictions through virtual loops of very-heavy particles, but these can only be distinguished from lower-energy effects within the context of specific mo...

  8. Slow Diffusive Gravitational Instability Before Decoupling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Todd A

    2009-01-01

    Radiative diffusion damps acoustic modes at large comoving wavenumber (k) before decoupling (``Silk damping''). In a simple WKB analysis, neglecting moments of the temperature distribution beyond the quadrupole, damping appears in the acoustic mode as a term of order ik^2/(taudot) where taudot is the scattering rate per unit conformal time. Although the Jeans instability is stabilized on scales smaller than the adiabatic Jeans length, I show that the medium is linearly unstable to first order in (1/taudot) to a slow diffusive mode. At large comoving wavenumber, the characteristic growth rate becomes independent of spatial scale and constant: (t_{KH}a)^-1 ~ (128 pi G/9 kappa_T c)(rho_m/rho_b), where "a" is the scale factor, rho_m and rho_b are the matter and baryon energy density, respectively, and kappa_T is the Thomson opacity. This is the characteristic timescale for a fluid parcel to radiate away its thermal energy content at the Eddington limit, analogous to the Kelvin-Helmholz (KH) time for a massive sta...

  9. Decoupled active contour (DAC) for boundary detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Akshaya Kumar; Fieguth, Paul W; Clausi, David A

    2011-02-01

    The accurate detection of object boundaries via active contours is an ongoing research topic in computer vision. Most active contours converge toward some desired contour by minimizing a sum of internal (prior) and external (image measurement) energy terms. Such an approach is elegant, but suffers from a slow convergence rate and frequently misconverges in the presence of noise or complex contours. To address these limitations, a decoupled active contour (DAC) is developed which applies the two energy terms separately. Essentially, the DAC consists of a measurement update step, employing a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) and Viterbi search, and then a separate prior step, which modifies the updated curve based on the relative strengths of the measurement uncertainty and the nonstationary prior. By separating the measurement and prior steps, the algorithm is less likely to misconverge; furthermore, the use of a Viterbi optimizer allows the method to converge far more rapidly than energy-based iterative solvers. The results clearly demonstrate that the proposed approach is robust to noise, can capture regions of very high curvature, and exhibits limited dependence on contour initialization or parameter settings. Compared to five other published methods and across many image sets, the DAC is found to be faster with better or comparable segmentation accuracy.

  10. Decoupled echo state networks with lateral inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yanbo; Yang, Le; Haykin, Simon

    2007-04-01

    Building on some prior work, in this paper we describe a novel structure termed the decoupled echo state network (DESN) involving the use of lateral inhibition. Two low-complexity implementation schemes, namely, the DESN with reservoir prediction (DESN + RP) and DESN with maximum available information (DESN + MaxInfo), are developed: (1) In the multiple superimposed oscillator (MSO) problem, DESN + MaxInfo exhibits three important attributes: lower generalization mean-square error (MSE), better robustness with respect to the random generation of reservoir weight matrix and feedback connections, and robustness to variations in the sparseness of reservoir weight matrix, compared to DESN + RP. (2) For a noiseless nonlinear prediction task, DESN + RP outperforms the DESN + MaxInfo and single reservoir-based ESN approach in terms of lower prediction MSE and better robustness to a change in the number of inputs and sparsity of the reservoir weight matrix. Finally, in a real-life prediction task using noisy sea clutter data, both schemes exhibit higher prediction accuracy and successful design ratio than a conventional ESN with a single reservoir.

  11. Decoupling kinematics and mechanics reveals coding properties of trigeminal ganglion neurons in the rat vibrissal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Nicholas E; Schroeder, Christopher L; Hobbs, Jennifer A; Yang, Anne Et; Huet, Lucie A; Solla, Sara A; Hartmann, Mitra Jz

    2016-06-27

    Tactile information available to the rat vibrissal system begins as external forces that cause whisker deformations, which in turn excite mechanoreceptors in the follicle. Despite the fundamental mechanical origin of tactile information, primary sensory neurons in the trigeminal ganglion (Vg) have often been described as encoding the kinematics (geometry) of object contact. Here we aimed to determine the extent to which Vg neurons encode the kinematics vs. mechanics of contact. We used models of whisker bending to quantify mechanical signals (forces and moments) at the whisker base while simultaneously monitoring whisker kinematics and recording single Vg units in both anesthetized rats and awake, body restrained rats. We employed a novel manual stimulation technique to deflect whiskers in a way that decouples kinematics from mechanics, and used Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) to show that Vg neurons more directly encode mechanical signals when the whisker is deflected in this decoupled stimulus space.

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 451 - 500 of 973 ... Vol 2, No 1 (1988), Comparison of the properties of the Ca2+and Cd2+ ... Vol 26, No 1 (2012), Composition, mineral safety index, calcium, zinc and ... L.) and irrigation water around Meki Town and Lake Ziway, Ethiopia, Abstract PDF ... using carbon paste electrode technique with electrode binder.

  13. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 114 ... Vol 12 (2011), Heavy Metal Contamination of Soil and Surface Water in ... Vol 16, No 2 (2016), Metal Sorption Capabilities of Two Common Plants in .... of Cocoa in Ghana using Co-Integration Techniques, Abstract PDF.

  14. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 401 - 450 of 635 ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Capital Territory of Nigeria Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques, Abstract PDF .... of the streamflow of Hadejia-Jama'are-Komadugu-Yobe-River Basin, ...

  15. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 69 ... Vol 3, No 1 (2010), Effects of learning styles on career preferences of senior ... of Stress among female Teachers in Osun State Teaching Service, Abstract PDF ... Vol 1, No 1 (2008), Psychological Techniques In Helping Rape ...

  16. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 226 ... Vol 14 (1997), A FEM analysis of a flexible manipulator(ARM), Abstract PDF ... using simulation technique in a garment manufacturing firm, Abstract PDF ... Vol 25 (2008), Cleaner production for solid waste management in ...

  17. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 301 - 350 of 546 ... Vol 3, No 1 (2005), Marketing And Financial Prospects Of Development ... Vol 13, No 1 (2015), Mass media and challenges of sustainable development in ... Vol 6, No 1 (2008), Modern Surveying Techniques In National ...

  18. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 401 - 450 of 1493 ... ... survival of periodontal ligament cells using a real‑time cell analysis method ... Vol 18, No 3 (2015), Effect of a re‑wetting agent on bond strength of an adhesive to primary and permanent teeth dentin after different etching techniques ... bond strength of composite resin to enamel following bleaching ...

  19. Review of Decoherence Free Subspaces, Noiseless Subsystems, and Dynamical Decoupling

    CERN Document Server

    Lidar, Daniel A

    2012-01-01

    Quantum information requires protection from the adverse affects of decoherence and noise. This review provides an introduction to the theory of decoherence-free subspaces, noiseless subsystems, and dynamical decoupling. It addresses quantum information preservation as well protected computation.

  20. DEAM:Decoupled, Expressive, Area-Efficient Metadata Cache

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ‘刘鹏; 方磊; 黄巍

    2014-01-01

    Chip multiprocessor presents brand new opportunities for holistic on-chip data and coherence management solutions. An intelligent protocol should be adaptive to the fine-grain accessing behavior. And in terms of storage of metadata, the size of conventional directory grows as the square of the number of processors, making it very expensive in large-scale systems. In this paper, we propose a metadata cache framework to achieve three goals: 1) reducing the latency of data access and coherence activities, 2) saving the storage of metadata, and 3) providing support for other optimization techniques. The metadata is implemented with compact structures and tracks the dynamically changing access pattern. The pattern information is used to guide the delegation and replication of decoupled data and metadata to allow fast access. We also use our metadata cache as a building block to enhance stream prefetching. Using detailed execution-driven simulation, we demonstrate that our protocol achieves an average speedup of 1.12X compared with a shared cache protocol with 1/5 of the storage of metadata.

  1. Adaptive decoupled power control method for inverter connected DG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xiaofeng; Tian, Yanjun; Chen, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    The integration of renewable energy technology is making the power distribution system more flexible, but also introducing challenges for traditional technology. With the nature of intermittent and less inertial, renewable energy-based generations need effective control methods to cooperate...... an adaptive droop control method based on online evaluation of power decouple matrix for inverter connected distributed generations in distribution system. Traditional decoupled power control is simply based on line impedance parameter, but the load characteristics also cause the power coupling, and alter...

  2. Controlling quantum systems by embedded dynamical decoupling schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Kern, O; Kern, Oliver; Alber, Gernot

    2005-01-01

    A dynamical decoupling method is presented which is based on embedding a deterministic decoupling scheme into a stochastic one. This way it is possible to combine the advantages of both methods and to increase the suppression of undesired perturbations of quantum systems significantly even for long interaction times. As a first application the stabilization of a quantum memory is discussed which is perturbed by one-and two-qubit interactions.

  3. Decoupling - past trends and prospects for the future[Decoupling of economic growth and environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azar, Christian; Holmberg, John; Karlsson, Sten [Chalmers Univ. of Tech., Goeteborg (SE). Physical Resource Theory] [and others

    2002-05-01

    There are widespread demands in society for a dematerialization or decoupling of economic growth from environmental impact. Calls are being made for eco-efficiency and/or an improvement of resource efficiency by a factor of 10. At the same time, some analysts claim there is an environmental Kuznet's curve that supposedly implies a fall in environmental pressure, as we get richer. An improvement in the environmental situation has already been observed in many cases, but there are also many areas where the situation is deteriorating. The purpose of this report is to summarize some key trends of energy and material use over time in both developing and developed countries. We have focused on Sweden, the EU, Japan and the USA as well as China, India and Brazil. The main findings in this paper can be summarized as follows: Absolute emissions of CO{sub 2} have been increasing in most countries and periods studied. Some countries have experienced periods with constant or even falling emissions, but this is the exception rather than the rule, and it has been triggered by oil crises or economic recessions. In order to stabilize atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, CO{sub 2} emissions have to be decoupled much more rapidly than has been the case in the past, and it is extremely unlikely that this will happen by itself. There was some decoupling of CO{sub 2} emissions from GDP in the major economies of the world from 1970 to 1998 in the EU, Japan and the US as well as in some major developing countries such as China, although India actually increased its emissions over GDP by 1.4 per cent/yr over this period. The drop in CO{sub 2} intensity has been prompted by some decoupling of energy from GDP and CO{sub 2} from energy, the latter being a consequence of an increased use of natural gas and nuclear power. In the South, fossil CO 2 per energy tends to increase from rather low levels. With industrialization, the proportion of biomass drops and the proportion of fossil

  4. Region 7 Title V facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web map shows the Region 7 Title V facilities (Clean Air Act major sources), any Class I areas within 300 km of R7 States, and any Tribal areas within 50 miles...

  5. Editor's Shelf: International Juvenile Titles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell-Powell, Brenda

    1994-01-01

    Provides an annotated list of international juvenile picture books and notes those that emphasize text over pictures. The 49 titles present international perspectives for educators, librarians, and parents seeking materials with alternative cultural content. The majority are folk tales. (SLD)

  6. Translation-rotation decoupling and nonexponentiality in room temperature ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Phillip [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Agapov, Alexander L [ORNL; Sokolov, Alexei P [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Using a combination of light scattering techniques and broadband dielectric spectroscopy, we have measured the temperature dependence of structural relaxation time and self diffusion in three imidazolium-based room temperature ionic liquids: [bmim][NTf2], [bmim][PF6], and [bmim][TFA]. A detailed analysis of the results demonstrates that self diffusion decouples from structural relaxation in these systems as the temperature is decreased toward Tg. The degree to which the dynamics are decoupled, however, is shown to be surprisingly weak when compared to other supercooled liquids of similar fragility. In addition to the weak decoupling, we demonstrate that the temperature dependence of the structural relaxation time in all three liquids can be well described by a single Vogel-Fulcher-Tamann function over 13 decades in time from 10 11 s up to 102 s. Furthermore, the stretching of the structural relaxation is shown to be temperature independent over the same range of time scales, i.e., time temperature superposition is valid for these ionic liquids from far above the melting point down to the glass transition temperature.We suggest that these phenomena are interconnected and all result from the same underlying mechanism strong and directional intermolecular interactions.

  7. The Maintenance of Decoupled Arctic Stratocumulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, A.; Shupe, M.; Persson, O. P.; Morrison, H.; de Boer, G.

    2012-12-01

    base and 23% of simulated cloud liquid water is located within the inversion. We will discuss how the results of this nested LES study form a relatively simple conceptual model of decoupled AMPS.

  8. Coupled vs. decoupled boundary layers in VOCALS-REx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Jones

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the extent of subtropical stratocumulus-capped boundary layer decoupling and its relation to other boundary-layer characteristics and forcings using aircraft observations from VOCALS-REx along a swath of the subtropical southeast Pacific Ocean running west 1600 km from the coast of Northern Chile. We develop two complementary and consistent measures of decoupling. The first is based on boundary layer moisture stratification in flight profiles from near the surface to above the capping inversion, and the second is based the difference between the lifted condensation level (LCL and a mean lidar-derived cloud base measured on flight legs at 150m altitude. Most flights took place during early-mid morning, well before the peak in insolation-induced decoupling.

    We find that the boundary layer is typically shallower, drier, and well mixed near the shore, and tends to deepen, decouple, and produce more drizzle further offshore to the west. Decoupling is strongly correlated to the “well-mixed cloud thickness”, defined as the difference between the capping inversion height and the LCL; other factors such as wind speed, cloud droplet concentration, and inversion thermodynamic jumps have little additional explanatory power. The results are broadly consistent with the deepening-warming theory of decoupling. In the deeper boundary layers observed well offshore, there was frequently nearly 100% boundary-layer cloud cover despite pronounced decoupling. The cloud cover was more strongly correlated to a κ parameter related to the inversion jumps of humidity and temperature, though the exact functional relation is slightly different than found in prior large-eddy simulation studies.

  9. Decoupling - past trends and prospects for the future[Decoupling of economic growth and environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azar, Christian; Holmberg, John; Karlsson, Sten [Chalmers Univ. of Tech., Goeteborg (SE). Physical Resource Theory] [and others

    2002-05-01

    There are widespread demands in society for a dematerialization or decoupling of economic growth from environmental impact. Calls are being made for eco-efficiency and/or an improvement of resource efficiency by a factor of 10. At the same time, some analysts claim there is an environmental Kuznet's curve that supposedly implies a fall in environmental pressure, as we get richer. An improvement in the environmental situation has already been observed in many cases, but there are also many areas where the situation is deteriorating. The purpose of this report is to summarize some key trends of energy and material use over time in both developing and developed countries. We have focused on Sweden, the EU, Japan and the USA as well as China, India and Brazil. The main findings in this paper can be summarized as follows: Absolute emissions of CO{sub 2} have been increasing in most countries and periods studied. Some countries have experienced periods with constant or even falling emissions, but this is the exception rather than the rule, and it has been triggered by oil crises or economic recessions. In order to stabilize atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, CO{sub 2} emissions have to be decoupled much more rapidly than has been the case in the past, and it is extremely unlikely that this will happen by itself. There was some decoupling of CO{sub 2} emissions from GDP in the major economies of the world from 1970 to 1998 in the EU, Japan and the US as well as in some major developing countries such as China, although India actually increased its emissions over GDP by 1.4 per cent/yr over this period. The drop in CO{sub 2} intensity has been prompted by some decoupling of energy from GDP and CO{sub 2} from energy, the latter being a consequence of an increased use of natural gas and nuclear power. In the South, fossil CO 2 per energy tends to increase from rather low levels. With industrialization, the proportion of biomass drops and the proportion of fossil

  10. Dynamic decoupling in the presence of 1D random walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Arnab; Chakraborty, Ipsita; Bhattacharyya, Rangeet

    2016-05-01

    In the recent past, many dynamic decoupling sequences have been proposed for the suppression of decoherence of spins connected to thermal baths of various natures. Dynamic decoupling schemes for suppressing decoherence due to Gaussian diffusion have also been developed. In this work, we study the relative performances of dynamic decoupling schemes in the presence of a non-stationary Gaussian noise such as a 1D random walk. Frequency domain analysis is not suitable to determine the performances of various dynamic decoupling schemes in suppressing decoherence due to such a process. Thus, in this work, we follow a time domain calculation to arrive at the following conclusions: in the presence of such a noise, we show that (i) the traditional Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence outperforms Uhrig’s dynamic decoupling scheme, (ii) CPMG remains the optimal sequence for suppression of decoherence due to random walk in the presence of an external field gradient. Later, the theoretical predictions are experimentally verified by using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy on spin 1/2 particles diffusing in a liquid medium.

  11. Evaluating Decoupling Process in OECD Countries: Case Study of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Nazan; Şengün Ucal, Meltem; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is at the top of the present and future problems facing humanity. Climate change is now largely attributed to human activities and economic activities are the source of human activities that cause climate change by creating pressure on the environment. Providing the sustainability of resources for the future seems possible by reducing the pressure of these economic activities on the environment. Given the increasing population pressure and growth-focused economies, it is possible to say that achieving decoupling is not so easy on a global basis. It is known that there are some problems in developing countries especially in terms of accessing reliable data in transition and implementation process of decoupling. Developed countries' decoupling practices and proper calculation methods can also be a guide for developing countries. In this study, we tried to calculate the comparative decoupling index for OECD countries and Turkey in terms of data suitability, and we showed the differences between them. We tried to indicate the level of decoupling (weak, stable, strong) for each country. We think that the comparison of Turkey can be an example in terms of developing countries. Acknowledgement: This research has been supported by Bogazici University Research Fund Grant Number 12220.

  12. Breit-Wigner Enhancement Considering the Dark Matter Kinetic Decoupling

    CERN Document Server

    Bi, Xiao-Jun; Yuan, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    In the paper we study the Breit-Wigner enhancement of dark matter (DM) annihilation considering the kinetic decoupling in the evolution of DM freeze-out at the early universe. Since the DM temperature decreases much faster (as $1/R^2$) after kinetic decoupling than that in kinetic equilibrium (as 1/R) we find the Breit-Wigner enhancement of DM annihilation rate after the kinetic decoupling will affect the DM relic density significantly. Focusing on the model parameters that trying to explain the anomalous cosmic positron/electron excesses observed by PAMELA/Fermi/ATIC we find the elastic scattering $Xf\\to Xf$ is not efficient to keep dark matter in kinetic equilibrium, and the kinetic decoupling temperature $T_{kd}$ is comparable to the chemical decoupling temperature $T_f\\sim O(10) GeV$. The reduction of the relic density after $T_{kd}$ is significant and leads to a limited enhancement factor $\\sim O(10^2)$. Therefore it is difficult to explain the anomalous positron/electron excesses in cosmic rays by DM an...

  13. Are Human and Natural Systems Decoupling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, P. R.; Ehrlich, A. H.

    2012-12-01

    trivial financial problems currently facing rich nations. Financial coverage in the media is massive compared to, say, the news that Earth's coral reefs are now beyond saving. Or consider the utter failure of most social scientists to come to grips with the inability of civilization to develop mechanisms to deal with global environmental problems, or of the persistence of an economic system based on unrealistic academic models and the preposterous notion that growth can continue forever. Whether mutually beneficial human-nature coupling can be restored in time is an open question. Doubtless grassroots action would be required, as well as new institutions/mechanisms for coordinating bottom-up and top-down efforts. There are many hopeful small-scale recoupling efforts such as the Natural Capital Project (http://www.naturalcapitalproject.org/) to protect biodiversity and ecosystem services, deployment of renewable energy systems in many countries, and work to unite academics and civil society in developing the necessary foresight intelligence, as in the Millennium Alliance for Humanity and the Biosphere (MAHB - http://mahb.stanford.edu/). Bottom-up efforts such as Occupy Wall Street (http://occupywallst.org/), the Movement to Solve the Climate Crisis (http://www.350.org/), and many other civil society groups are gaining some traction. But time is short, and in our view decoupling is winning.

  14. 36 CFR 254.15 - Title standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Title standards. 254.15... ADJUSTMENTS Land Exchanges § 254.15 Title standards. (a) Title evidence. (1) Unless otherwise specified by the... and “Standards for the Preparation of Title Evidence in Land Acquisitions by the United States”...

  15. Decoupled Closed-Form Solution for Humanoid Lower Limb Kinematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Said

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an explicit, omnidirectional, analytical, and decoupled closed-form solution for the lower limb kinematics of the humanoid robot NAO. The paper starts by decoupling the position and orientation analysis from the overall Denavit-Hartenberg (DH transformation matrices. Here, the joint activation sequence for the DH matrices is based on the geometry of a triangle. Furthermore, the implementation of a forward and a reversed kinematic analysis for the support and swing phase equations is developed to avoid matrix inversion. The allocation of constant transformations allows the position and orientation end-coordinate systems to be aligned with each other. Also, the redefinition of the DH transformations and the use of constraints allow decoupling the shared DOF between the legs and the torso. Finally, a geometric approach to avoid the singularities during the walking process is indicated. Numerical data is presented along with an experimental implementation to prove the validity of the analytical results.

  16. ADE Spectral Networks and Decoupling Limits of Surface Defects

    CERN Document Server

    Longhi, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    We study vacua and BPS spectra of canonical surface defects of class $\\mathcal{S}$ theories in different decoupling limits using ADE spectral networks. In some regions of the IR moduli spaces of these 2d-4d systems, the mixing between 2d and 4d BPS states is suppressed, and the spectrum of 2d-4d BPS states becomes that of a 2d $\\mathcal{N}=(2,2)$ theory. For some decoupling limits, we identify the 2d theories describing the surface defects with nonlinear sigma models and coset models that have been previously studied. We also study certain cases where the decoupling limit of a surface defect exhibits a set of vacua and a BPS spectrum that appear to be entirely new. A detailed analysis of these spectra and their wall-crossing behavior is performed.

  17. ADE spectral networks and decoupling limits of surface defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Pietro; Park, Chan Y.

    2017-02-01

    We study vacua and BPS spectra of canonical surface defects of class S theories in different decoupling limits using ADE spectral networks. In some regions of the IR moduli spaces of these 2d-4d systems, the mixing between 2d and 4d BPS states is suppressed, and the spectrum of 2d-4d BPS states becomes that of a 2d N = (2, 2) theory. For some decoupling limits, we identify the 2d theories describing the surface defects with nonlinear sigma models and coset models that have been previously studied. We also study certain cases where the decoupling limit of a surface defect exhibits a set of vacua and a BPS spectrum that appear to be entirely new. A detailed analysis of these spectra and their wall-crossing behavior is performed.

  18. Dynamical Decoupling in the Presence of Realistic Pulse Errors

    CERN Document Server

    Tyryshkin, A M; Zhang, Wenxian; Haller, E E; Ager, J; Dobrovitski, V V; Lyon, S A

    2010-01-01

    One of the most significant hurdles to be overcome on the path to practical quantum information processors is dealing with quantum errors. Dynamical decoupling is a particularly promising approach that complements conventional quantum error correction by eliminating some correlated errors without the overhead of additional qubits. In practice, the control pulses used for decoupling are imperfect and thus introduce errors which can accumulate after many pulses. These instrumental errors can destroy the quantum state. Here we examine several dynamical decoupling sequences, and their concatenated variants, using electron spin resonance of donor electron spins in a $^{28}$Si crystal. All of the sequences cancel phase noise arising from slowly fluctuating magnetic fields in our spectrometer, but only those sequences based upon alternating $\\pi$-rotations about the X- and Y-axes in the rotating frame (XYXY sequences) demonstrate the ability to store an arbitrary quantum state. By comparing the experimental results ...

  19. Electronically decoupled stacking fault tetrahedra embedded in Au(111) films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouteden, Koen; Amin-Ahmadi, Behnam; Li, Zhe; Muzychenko, Dmitry; Schryvers, Dominique; Van Haesendonck, Chris

    2016-12-01

    Stacking faults are known as defective structures in crystalline materials that typically lower the structural quality of the material. Here, we show that a particular type of defect, that is, stacking fault tetrahedra (SFTs), exhibits pronounced quantized electronic behaviour, revealing a potential synthetic route to decoupled nanoparticles in metal films. We report on the electronic properties of SFTs that exist in Au(111) films, as evidenced by scanning tunnelling microscopy and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. We find that the SFTs reveal a remarkable decoupling from their metal surroundings, leading to pronounced energy level quantization effects within the SFTs. The electronic behaviour of the SFTs can be described well by the particle-in-a-box model. Our findings demonstrate that controlled preparation of SFTs may offer an alternative way to achieve well-decoupled nanoparticles of high crystalline quality in metal thin films without the need of thin insulating layers.

  20. Steady state decoupling and design of linear multivariable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J. Y.; Thaler, G. J.

    1974-01-01

    A constructive criterion for decoupling the steady states of linear multivariable systems is developed. The criterion consists of n(n-1) inequalities with the type numbers of the compensator transfer functions as the unknowns. These unknowns can be chosen to satisfy the inequalities and hence achieve a steady state decoupling scheme. It turns out that pure integrators in the loops play an important role. An extended root locus design method is then developed to take care of the stability and transient response. The overall procedure is applied to the compensation design for STOL C-8A aircraft in the approach mode.

  1. A closer look at non-decoupling D-terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Staub

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-decoupling D-terms are an attractive possibility to enhance the tree-level mass of the standard model like Higgs boson in supersymmetric models. We discuss here for the case of a new Abelian gauge group two effects usually neglected in literature: (i the size of the additional radiative corrections to the Higgs mass due to the presence of the new gauge coupling, and (ii the impact of gauge kinetic mixing. It is shown that both effects reduce to some extent the positive effect of the non-decoupling D-terms on the Higgs mass.

  2. Protected quantum computing: interleaving gate operations with dynamical decoupling sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingfu; Souza, Alexandre M; Brandao, Frederico Dias; Suter, Dieter

    2014-02-07

    Implementing precise operations on quantum systems is one of the biggest challenges for building quantum devices in a noisy environment. Dynamical decoupling attenuates the destructive effect of the environmental noise, but so far, it has been used primarily in the context of quantum memories. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a general scheme for combining dynamical decoupling with quantum logical gate operations using the example of an electron-spin qubit of a single nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond. We achieve process fidelities >98% for gate times that are 2 orders of magnitude longer than the unprotected dephasing time T2.

  3. Pulse Control Assisted Dynamical Decoupling in a Central Spin Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhao-Yan; Wei, Yong-Bo; Wang, Zhao-Ming; Gu, Yong-Jian; Li, Wen-Dong; Ma, Xiao-Ping

    2017-02-01

    We study pulse control assisted dynamical decoupling through a central spin model in a total Hilbert space. We find that the effective decoupling can be realized by applying a sequence of external pulses. Compared with the bang-bang control which needs infinite strength and infinitesimal short pulses, we show that there is a large parameter space that allows an effective nonperturbative dynamical control. Furthermore, our numerical calculation shows that the reliability can be held for random pulses, such as random pulse time interval or random strength.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging receiver coil decoupling using circumferential shielding structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Jhy-Neng Tasso; Fa-Hsuan Lin

    2016-08-01

    We propose a flexible phased-array design using circular coils with circumferential shielding structure to achieve robust decoupling between coil elements when the array is either bended or on a flat plane. Two types of circumferential shielding were tested through numerical simulation and imaging experiment. The results demonstrated that our arrays have good decoupling between coils when they are on a curved surface with S21 coil array. Future work will empirically construct a multi-channel array with the number of channel matched to commercial phased array in order to validate the performance in vivo.

  5. Facing Title V permit constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patankar, U.M. [JACA Corp., Fort Washington, PA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The new Title V operating permit requirement under state regulations pursuant to the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments will cover every emission source at a facility. These rules will significantly affect an operation by setting minimum compliance requirements, mandating periodic compliance certification, prescribing complex monitoring, record keeping and reporting procedures and making state and EPA approval of routine operational changes necessary through a permit amendment. The main concern with Title V is its effect on the operational flexibility of a facility, and individual emission sources within that facility. Unless properly addressed in a permit document, the term operational flexibility, so freely used by regulators in the context of the Title V program, can turn into a misnomer and the ability to operate as before may be significantly compromised under Title V. True operational flexibility is essential for businesses to respond to real changes in the marketplace. In the age of automation, just-in-time inventories and increased competition, flexibility to operate can mean the difference between growth and stagnation.

  6. Probing neutrino physics with a self-consistent treatment of the weak decoupling, nucleosynthesis, and photon decoupling epochs

    CERN Document Server

    Grohs, E; Kishimoto, C T; Paris, M W

    2015-01-01

    We show that a self-consistent and coupled treatment of the weak decoupling, big bang nucleosynthesis, and photon decoupling epochs can be used to provide new insights and constraints on neutrino sector physics from high-precision measurements of light element abundances and cosmic microwave background observables. Implications of beyond-standard-model physics in cosmology, especially within the neutrino sector, are assessed by comparing predictions against five observables: the baryon energy density, helium abundance, deuterium abundance, effective number of neutrinos, and sum of the light neutrino mass eigenstates. We give examples for constraints on dark radiation, neutrino rest mass, lepton numbers, and scenarios for light and heavy sterile neutrinos.

  7. Input-output decoupling of Hamiltonian systems : The linear case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijmeijer, H.; Schaft, A.J. van der

    1985-01-01

    In this note we give necessary and sufficient conditions for a linear Hamiltonian system to be input-output decouplable by Hamiltonian feedback, i.e. feedback that preserves the Hamiltonian structure. In a second paper we treat the same problem for nonlinear Hamiltonian systems.

  8. Input-output decoupling of Hamiltonian systems: The linear case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijmeijer, H.

    1985-01-01

    In this note we give necessary and sufficient conditions for a linear Hamiltonian system to be input-output decouplable by Hamiltonian feedback, i.e. feedback that preserves the Hamiltonian structure. In a second paper we treat the same problem for nonlinear Hamiltonian systems.

  9. On dynamic decoupling and dynamic path controllability in economic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijmeijer, Henk

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the dynamic decouplability and dynamic path controllability of nonlinear discrete-time economic systems in state space form are discussed. Based on the observation that both properties are equivalent, a (theoretical) efficient way of target path controllability is proposed. This is ill

  10. Simple and Efficient Decoupling of Compact Arrays With Parasitic Scatterers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, B.K.; Andersen, Jørgen Bach

    2012-01-01

    Compact arrays such as multiple antennas on a mobile terminal suffer from low efficiency and high correlation between antenna signals. In the present paper, a simple and rigorous procedure for decoupling two closely coupled antennas with a parasitic scatterer is proposed. The parasitic scatterer,...

  11. State policy change: Revenue decoupling in the electricity market

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Kytson L.

    The study seeks to answer the question, why are states adopting revenue decoupling in the electricity market, by investigating the relationship between policy adoption and attributes of the electricity market, the structure of the state utility commissions, and the political climate of the state. The study examines the period 1978-2008. Two econometric models, the marginal risk set model and the conditional risk set model, are estimated to predict the influence of covariates on the probability of the state adopting revenue decoupling in the electricity market. The models are both variants of the Cox proportional hazard model and use different underlying assumptions about the nature of adoption of revenue decoupling and when the states are considered to be at risk of adoption. Results suggest that market attributes, such as the source of electricity generation in the state, state energy intensity, and the distribution of non-public and public utilities, significantly influence the adoption of the policy. Also, the method of selecting commissioners and the party affiliation of elected officials in the state are important factors. The study concludes by suggestions to improve the implementation and evaluation of revenue decoupling in the electricity markets.

  12. Do 'green' taxes work? Decoupling environmental pressures and economic growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2005-01-01

    This essay intends to shed light on whether environmental taxation can help to decouple environmental pressures from economic growth, a policy outcome widely desired and particularly pressing in the context of climate change where radical measures are needed to curb CO2 build up....

  13. Neutrino energy transport in weak decoupling and big bang nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Grohs, E; Kishimoto, C T; Paris, M W; Vlasenko, A

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the evolution of the early universe through the epochs of weak decoupling, weak freeze-out and big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) by simultaneously coupling a full strong, electromagnetic, and weak nuclear reaction network with a multi-energy group Boltzmann neutrino energy transport scheme. Such an approach allows a detailed accounting of the evolution of the $\

  14. Decoupling among CSR policies, programs, and impacts : An empirical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, Johan; Smid, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    There are relatively few empirical studies on the impacts of corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies and programs. This article addresses the research gap by analyzing the incidence of, and the conditions that affect, decoupling (defined as divergence) among CSR policies, implementation of CS

  15. New resonator geometries for ICE decoupling of loop arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xinqiang; Gore, John C.; Grissom, William A.

    2017-04-01

    RF arrays with a large number of independent coil elements are advantageous for parallel transmission (pTx) and reception at high fields. One of the main challenges in designing RF arrays is to minimize the electromagnetic (EM) coupling between the coil elements. The induced current elimination (ICE) method, which uses additional resonator elements to cancel coils' mutual EM coupling, has proven to be a simple and efficient solution for decoupling microstrip, L/C loop, monopole and dipole arrays. However, in previous embodiments of conventional ICE decoupling, the decoupling elements acted as ;magnetic-walls; with low transmit fields and consequently low MR signal near them. To solve this problem, new resonator geometries including overlapped and perpendicular decoupling loops are proposed. The new geometries were analyzed theoretically and validated in EM simulations, bench tests and MR experiments. The isolation between two closely-placed loops could be improved from about -5 dB to <-45 dB by using the new geometries.

  16. Non-decoupling of heavy scalars in cosmology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardeman, Sjoerd Reimer

    2012-01-01

    The theory describing physics at the highest energy scales likely contains extra dimensions, whose internal degrees of freedom result in many massive field and particles. At accelerator experiments these fields and particles generally decouple from the low energy physics. However, in cosmology gravi

  17. Experimental spectral analysis of SALMON/STERLING decoupling. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blandford, R.R.; Woolson, J.R.

    1979-11-30

    Re-analysis of SALMON and STERLING initial short-period compressional and surface waves at station PLMS (Poplarville, Mississippi) at a distance of 27 km shows a SALMON/STERLING compressional phase spectral ratio tending to a ratio of only 17 at 25 Hz in agreement with the theoretical caculations of Patterson (1966) and of Healy, King, and 0'Neill (1971). The spectral ratio for the surface waves tends to a ratio of approximately 100 at 25 Hz, in agreement with spectral ratios previously reported by Springer, Denny, Healy, and Mickey (1968), whose data window at PLMS was large enough to consist predominantly of surface waves. The fact that the ratio varies as a function of phase suggests that decoupling varies as a function of takeoff angle, with the least decoupling occurring at high frequencies for the most steeply departing rays. Another topic discussed is the apparent variation in decoupling as defined by the ratio of STERLING/STERLING HE. The variation in this ratio is determined to be explainable by the variation in short point between these two explosions, and not necessarily by a variation in decoupling as a function of azimuth.

  18. Avoiding Title V permitting pitfalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laswell, D.L.

    1993-04-01

    Title V of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments requires states to implement new air operating permit programs. States have a great deal of flexibility in developing their permit programs. Industry should work now to ensure that state programs contain the favorable aspects of the federal regulations and do not contain more stringent requirements that are not required under the Clean Air Act. This article outlines areas of the permit program that have the potential to handicap industry`s ability to expand.

  19. Talking Typewriter. Title I Evaluation, 1972-1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Juanita

    The Talking Typewriter Program has been operative in the Cleveland Public Schools as a strategy to improve the reading skills of identified fourth grade pupils in 12 Title I schools. A responsive and autotelic environment augmented by selected materials, special teaching techniques, the expertise of trained staff, and individualized tutoring…

  20. The decoupling approach to quantum information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dupuis, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    Quantum information theory studies the fundamental limits that physical laws impose on information processing tasks such as data compression and data transmission on noisy channels. This thesis presents general techniques that allow one to solve many fundamental problems of quantum information theory in a unified framework. The central theorem of this thesis proves the existence of a protocol that transmits quantum data that is partially known to the receiver through a single use of an arbitrary noisy quantum channel. In addition to the intrinsic interest of this problem, this theorem has as immediate corollaries several central theorems of quantum information theory. The following chapters use this theorem to prove the existence of new protocols for two other types of quantum channels, namely quantum broadcast channels and quantum channels with side information at the transmitter. These protocols also involve sending quantum information partially known by the receiver with a single use of the channel, and ha...

  1. SHP: Smooth Hypocycloidal Paths with Collision-Free and Decoupled Multi-Robot Path Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet Ravankar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Generating smooth and continuous paths for robots with collision avoidance, which avoid sharp turns, is an important problem in the context of autonomous robot navigation. This paper presents novel smooth hypocycloidal paths (SHP for robot motion. It is integrated with collision-free and decoupled multi-robot path planning. An SHP diffuses (i.e., moves points along segments the points of sharp turns in the global path of the map into nodes, which are used to generate smooth hypocycloidal curves that maintain a safe clearance in relation to the obstacles. These nodes are also used as safe points of retreat to avoid collision with other robots. The novel contributions of this work are as follows: (1 The proposed work is the first use of hypocycloid geometry to produce smooth and continuous paths for robot motion. A mathematical analysis of SHP generation in various scenarios is discussed. (2 The proposed work is also the first to consider the case of smooth and collision-free path generation for a load carrying robot. (3 Traditionally, path smoothing and collision avoidance have been addressed as separate problems. This work proposes integrated and decoupled collision-free multi-robot path planning. ‵Node caching‵ is proposed to improve efficiency. A decoupled approach with local communication enables the paths of robots to be dynamically changed. (4 A novel ‵multi-robot map update‵ in case of dynamic obstacles in the map is proposed, such that robots update other robots about the positions of dynamic obstacles in the map. A timestamp feature ensures that all the robots have the most updated map. Comparison between SHP and other path smoothing techniques and experimental results in real environments confirm that SHP can generate smooth paths for robots and avoid collision with other robots through local communication.

  2. The decoupling approach to quantum information theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Frédéric

    2010-04-01

    Quantum information theory studies the fundamental limits that physical laws impose on information processing tasks such as data compression and data transmission on noisy channels. This thesis presents general techniques that allow one to solve many fundamental problems of quantum information theory in a unified framework. The central theorem of this thesis proves the existence of a protocol that transmits quantum data that is partially known to the receiver through a single use of an arbitrary noisy quantum channel. In addition to the intrinsic interest of this problem, this theorem has as immediate corollaries several central theorems of quantum information theory. The following chapters use this theorem to prove the existence of new protocols for two other types of quantum channels, namely quantum broadcast channels and quantum channels with side information at the transmitter. These protocols also involve sending quantum information partially known by the receiver with a single use of the channel, and have as corollaries entanglement-assisted and unassisted asymptotic coding theorems. The entanglement-assisted asymptotic versions can, in both cases, be considered as quantum versions of the best coding theorems known for the classical versions of these problems. The last chapter deals with a purely quantum phenomenon called locking. We demonstrate that it is possible to encode a classical message into a quantum state such that, by removing a subsystem of logarithmic size with respect to its total size, no measurement can have significant correlations with the message. The message is therefore "locked" by a logarithmic-size key. This thesis presents the first locking protocol for which the success criterion is that the trace distance between the joint distribution of the message and the measurement result and the product of their marginals be sufficiently small.

  3. CBM split title in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, L.M. [EnCana Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Laurin, W.

    2006-07-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) coal underlies most of central and southern Alberta. This article discussed disputes surrounding CBM ownership and split-titles. Historically, ownership of lands in Alberta implied possession and rights of all under- and overground substances. Surface estates are now typically separated from the subsurface estate, and subsurface estates are further divided either on the basis of substances or stratigraphically to create a split-title. Mineral severances are used to separate respective mineral rights among owners. While there is a relative certainty that under provincial Crown tenure CBM is included in natural gas tenure, there is currently no Canadian jurisprudence in respect of CBM entitlement on split-title private lands. Where compressed natural gas (CNG) and coal are separately held, and CBM ownership is not specifically addressed in the mineral severance, there is no Canadian law respecting CBM ownership. Resolution of ownership issues has proceeded on a case by case basis. Coal owners argue that there is a distinct interrelationship between CBM and its host coal strata. Gas owners argue that the chemical composition of CBM is identical to CNG, and that the recovery method is similar to that of CNG. Courts have historically applied the vernacular test to resolve mineral substance ownership disputes, which considers the meanings of the word coal and coalbed methane as defined by industry. The most recent and relevant application of the vernacular test were the Borys/Anderson, which effectively implemented a gas-oil interface ownership determination, which if applied to a coal grant or reservation, may lead to the conclusion that the coal strata includes CBM. It was concluded that there are 26,000 individual mineral owners in Alberta that may become involved in CBM litigation. and could become parties to litigation. refs., tabs., figs.

  4. Combined encoding, recoupling, and decoupling solution to problems of decoherence and design in solid-state quantum computing

    CERN Document Server

    Byrd, M S; Byrd, Mark S.; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2002-01-01

    Proposals for physical systems to act as quantum computers are inevitably plagued by the unavoidable coupling with the environment (bath) that causes decoherence, and by technological difficulties connected with the controllability of quantum states. Several techniques exist for achieving reliable quantum computation by countering the effects of decoherence. At this time, however, not one, by itself, will serve as a panacea for error correction. In this paper, we introduce a method that combines system-bath decoupling operations with error avoidance or active error correction to address these major concerns. By using an empirical approach to error correction based on experimental data, and an efficient set of decoupling operations that will serve to protect encoded quantum information, we are able to propose a comprehensive method for reducing the adverse effects of decoherence, in particular in scalable solid state quantum computing devices. Our method has the added benefit of significantly reducing design c...

  5. Decoupling Suspension Controller Based on Magnetic Flux Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqing Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The suspension module control system model has been established based on MIMO (multiple input and multiple output state feedback linearization. We have completed decoupling between double suspension points, and the new decoupling method has been applied to CMS04 magnetic suspension vehicle in national mid-low-speed maglev experiment field of Tangshan city in China. Double suspension system model is very accurate for investigating stability property of maglev control system. When magnetic flux signal is taken back to the suspension control system, the suspension module’s antijamming capacity for resisting suspension load variety has been proved. Also, the external force interference has been enhanced. As a result, the robustness and stability properties of double-electromagnet suspension control system have been enhanced.

  6. Decentralized control of large flexible structures by joint decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tzu-Jeng; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method to design decentralized controllers for large complex flexible structures by using the idea of joint decoupling. Decoupling of joint degrees of freedom from the interior degrees of freedom is achieved by setting the joint actuator commands to cancel the internal forces exerting on the joint degrees of freedom. By doing so, the interactions between substructures are eliminated. The global structure control design problem is then decomposed into several substructure control design problems. Control commands for interior actuators are set to be localized state feedback using decentralized observers for state estimation. The proposed decentralized controllers can operate successfully at the individual substructure level as well as at the global structure level. Not only control design but also control implementation is decentralized. A two-component mass-spring-damper system is used as an example to demonstrate the proposed method.

  7. Tensor product model transformation based decoupled terminal sliding mode control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guoliang; Li, Hongxing; Song, Zhankui

    2016-06-01

    The main objective of this paper is to propose a tensor product model transformation based decoupled terminal sliding mode controller design methodology. The methodology is divided into two steps. In the first step, tensor product model transformation is applied to the single-input-multi-output system and a parameter-varying weighted linear time-invariant system is obtained. Then, decoupled terminal sliding mode controller is designed based on the linear time-invariant systems. The main novelty of this paper is that the nonsingular terminal sliding mode control design is based on a numerical model rather than an analytical one. Finally, simulations are tested on cart-pole system and translational oscillations with a rotational actuator system.

  8. Principle of Global Decoupling with Coupling Angle Modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Yun; Pilat, Fulvia Caterina; Roser, Thomas; Trbojevic, Dejan

    2005-01-01

    The global betatron decoupling on the ramp is an important issue for the operation of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). A new scheme coupling phase modulation is found. It introduces a rotating extra coupling into the coupled machine to detect the residual coupling. The eigentune responses are measured with a high resolution phase lock loop (PLL) system. From the minimum and maximum tune splits, the correction strengths are given. The time period occupied by one coupling phase modulation is less than 10 seconds. So it is a very promising solution for the global decoupling on the ramp. In this article the principle of the coupling phase modulation is given. The simulation with the smooth accelerator model is also done. The practical issues concerning its applications are discussed.

  9. Piecewise Sliding Mode Decoupling Fault Tolerant Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafi Youssef

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Proposed method in the present study could deal with fault tolerant control system by using the so called decentralized control theory with decoupling fashion sliding mode control, dealing with subsystems instead of whole system and to the knowledge of the author there is no known computational algorithm for decentralized case, Approach: In this study we present a decoupling strategy based on the selection of sliding surface, which should be in piecewise sliding surface partition to apply the PwLTool which have as purpose in our case to delimit regions where sliding mode occur, after that as Results: We get a simple linearized model selected in those regions which could depict the complex system, Conclusion: With the 3 water tank level system as example we implement this new design scenario and since we are interested in networked control system we believe that this kind of controller implementation will not be affected by network delays.

  10. Decoupling Control of Lateral Dynamics for 4WS Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘奋; 张建武; 屈求真

    2003-01-01

    An four wheel steering (4WS)feedback contrlol system that simultanelusly achieves both body sideslip angle and yaw rate responses always desirable regardless of changes in vehicle dynamics.Quantitative feedback theory (QFT)is offered as the main tool for designing the control law.Inverted decoupling is also employed to make multivariable quantitative feedback design easier.Varilus nonlinear analyses are carried ut and show that the proposed comtrol system is a robust decoupling controller which not only makesd body sideslip angle and yaw rate of the vehicle track the desired reference input sigmals respectively,byt also satisfies the rrequirement of robustness for the control system.The results also indicate that the contral system can make it available to realize ideal lateral steering dynamics tracking for vehicles.

  11. 42 CFR 476.86 - Correlation of Title XI functions with Title XVIII functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Correlation of Title XI functions with Title XVIII functions. 476.86 Section 476.86 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF...) Qio Review Functions § 476.86 Correlation of Title XI functions with Title XVIII functions. (a...

  12. The decoupling of abundance and species richness in lizard communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, Dale G; James, Simon G; Kelly, Luke T; Watson, Simon J; Bennett, Andrew F

    2011-05-01

    1. Patterns of species richness often correlate strongly with measures of energy. The more individuals hypothesis (MIH) proposes that this relationship is facilitated by greater resources supporting larger populations, which are less likely to become extinct. Hence, the MIH predicts that community abundance and species richness will be positively related. 2. Recently, Buckley & Jetz (2010, Journal of Animal Ecology, 79, 358-365) documented a decoupling of community abundance and species richness in lizard communities in south-west United States, such that richer communities did not contain more individuals. They predicted, as a consequence of the mechanisms driving the decoupling, a more even distribution of species abundances in species-rich communities, evidenced by a positive relationship between species evenness and species richness. 3. We found a similar decoupling of the relationship between abundance and species richness for lizard communities in semi-arid south-eastern Australia. However, we note that a positive relationship between evenness and richness is expected because of the nature of the indices used. We illustrate this mathematically and empirically using data from both sets of lizard communities. When we used a measure of evenness, which is robust to species richness, there was no relationship between evenness and richness in either data set. 4. For lizard communities in both Australia and the United States, species dominance decreased as species richness increased. Further, with the iterative removal of the first, second and third most dominant species from each community, the relationship between abundance and species richness became increasingly more positive. 5. Our data support the contention that species richness in lizard communities is not directly related to the number of individuals an environment can support. We propose an alternative hypothesis regarding how the decoupling of abundance and richness is accommodated; namely, an inverse

  13. Frequency swept microwaves for hyperfine decoupling and time domain dynamic nuclear polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Daniel E M; Albert, Brice J; Saliba, Edward P; Scott, Faith J; Choi, Eric J; Mardini, Michael; Barnes, Alexander B

    2015-11-01

    Hyperfine decoupling and pulsed dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) are promising techniques to improve high field DNP NMR. We explore experimental and theoretical considerations to implement them with magic angle spinning (MAS). Microwave field simulations using the high frequency structural simulator (HFSS) software suite are performed to characterize the inhomogeneous phase independent microwave field throughout a 198GHz MAS DNP probe. Our calculations show that a microwave power input of 17W is required to generate an average EPR nutation frequency of 0.84MHz. We also present a detailed calculation of microwave heating from the HFSS parameters and find that 7.1% of the incident microwave power contributes to dielectric sample heating. Voltage tunable gyrotron oscillators are proposed as a class of frequency agile microwave sources to generate microwave frequency sweeps required for the frequency modulated cross effect, electron spin inversions, and hyperfine decoupling. Electron spin inversions of stable organic radicals are simulated with SPINEVOLUTION using the inhomogeneous microwave fields calculated by HFSS. We calculate an electron spin inversion efficiency of 56% at a spinning frequency of 5kHz. Finally, we demonstrate gyrotron acceleration potentials required to generate swept microwave frequency profiles for the frequency modulated cross effect and electron spin inversions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The decoupling limit in the Georgi-Machacek model

    CERN Document Server

    Hartling, Katy; Logan, Heather E

    2014-01-01

    We study the most general scalar potential of the Georgi-Machacek model, which adds isospin-triplet scalars to the Standard Model (SM) in a way that preserves custodial SU(2) symmetry. We show that this model possesses a decoupling limit, in which the predominantly-triplet states become heavy and degenerate while the couplings of the remaining light neutral scalar approach those of the SM Higgs boson. We find that the SM-like Higgs boson couplings to fermion pairs and gauge boson pairs can deviate from their SM values by corrections as large as $\\mathcal{O}(v^2/M_{\\rm new}^2)$, where $v$ is the SM Higgs vacuum expectation value and $M_{\\rm new}$ is the mass scale of the predominantly-triplet states. In particular, the SM-like Higgs boson couplings to $W$ and $Z$ boson pairs can decouple much more slowly than in two Higgs doublet models, in which they deviate from their SM values like $\\mathcal{O}(v^4/M_{\\rm new}^4)$. Furthermore, near the decoupling limit the SM-like Higgs boson couplings to $W$ and $Z$ pairs...

  15. Decoupling analysis and socioeconomic drivers of environmental pressure in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sai; Liu, Zhu; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Wang, Yafei; Xu, Ming

    2014-01-21

    China's unprecedented change offers a unique opportunity for uncovering relationships between economic growth and environmental pressure. Here we show the trajectories of China's environmental pressure and reveal underlying socioeconomic drivers during 1992-2010. Mining and manufacturing industries are the main contributors to increasing environmental pressure from the producer perspective. Changes in urban household consumption, fixed capital formation, and exports are the main drivers from the consumer perspective. While absolute decoupling is not realized, China has in general achieved relative decoupling between economic growth and environmental pressure. China's decoupling performance has four distinguishable periods, closely aligning with nation-wide major policy adjustments, which indicates significant impact of China's national socioeconomic policies on its environmental pressure. Material intensity change is the main contributor to the mitigation of environmental pressure, except for ammonia nitrogen, solid wastes, aquatic Cu, and aquatic Zn. Production structure change is the largest contributor to mitigate ammonia nitrogen emissions, and final demand structure change is the largest contributor to mitigate emissions of solid wastes, aquatic Cu, and aquatic Zn. We observe materialization trends for China's production structure and final demand structure during 2002-2007. Environmental sustainability can only be achieved by timely technology innovation and changes of production structure and consumption pattern.

  16. High magnetic field ohmically decoupled non-contact technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilgen, John [Oak Ridge, TN; Kisner, Roger [Knoxville, TN; Ludtka, Gerard [Oak Ridge, TN; Ludtka, Gail [Oak Ridge, TN; Jaramillo, Roger [Knoxville, TN

    2009-05-19

    Methods and apparatus are described for high magnetic field ohmically decoupled non-contact treatment of conductive materials in a high magnetic field. A method includes applying a high magnetic field to at least a portion of a conductive material; and applying an inductive magnetic field to at least a fraction of the conductive material to induce a surface current within the fraction of the conductive material, the surface current generating a substantially bi-directional force that defines a vibration. The high magnetic field and the inductive magnetic field are substantially confocal, the fraction of the conductive material is located within the portion of the conductive material and ohmic heating from the surface current is ohmically decoupled from the vibration. An apparatus includes a high magnetic field coil defining an applied high magnetic field; an inductive magnetic field coil coupled to the high magnetic field coil, the inductive magnetic field coil defining an applied inductive magnetic field; and a processing zone located within both the applied high magnetic field and the applied inductive magnetic field. The high magnetic field and the inductive magnetic field are substantially confocal, and ohmic heating of a conductive material located in the processing zone is ohmically decoupled from a vibration of the conductive material.

  17. Decoupling of mechanical systems based on in-situ frequency response functions: The link-preserving, decoupling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keersmaekers, Laurent; Mertens, Luc; Penne, Rudi; Guillaume, Patrick; Steenackers, Gunther

    2015-06-01

    Mechanical structures often consist of active and passive parts, the former containing the sources, the latter the transfer paths and the targets. The active and passive parts are connected to each other by means of links. In this paper, an innovative theoretical model has been developed to achieve the mathematical decoupling of such structures without disassembling the substructures, when the links connecting the structures are resilient enough. This procedure is required to identify components causing a specific Noise, Vibration and Harsh-ness (NVH) problem. The links are regarded as a parallel connection of springs and dampers, ignoring some physical properties. However, the new procedure will provide a powerful construction in which different link models can be investigated. Therefore, this procedure will be called the Link-Preserving, Decoupling Method (LPD method). The absence of a time-consuming physical decoupling procedure distinguishes the LPD method from all known methods such as the classical TPA method. The LPD method is validated by two numerical simulations using linear and nonlinear lumped parameter models and by an experimental case study.

  18. Microscopic experimental evidence of sublattice decoupling and negative magnetization in a spinel ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Yusuf, S. M.

    2017-06-01

    We have observed the phenomenon of negative magnetization in spinel ferrites, CoCr2-xFexO4. The x = 0.15 compound lies in the interesting region of the composition (Fe) driven magnetic phase diagram as it shows two magnetic ordering temperatures along with a negative magnetization behavior. We have given a microscopic experimental proof of magnetic sublattice decoupling and temperature-induced negative magnetization using the neutron diffraction technique. The present study supports the Belov's hypothesis of a "weak" magnetic sublattice for an explanation of negative magnetization, where the "weak" octahedral sublattice deviates from the Brillouin function type behavior of sublattice magnetization as envisioned by Néel in his theory of ferrimagnetism. A physics concept for a possible application of such a negative magnetization phenomenon in spin transfer torque based magnetic random access memory has been outlined.

  19. Scaling of dynamical decoupling for a single electron spin in nanodiamonds at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong-Qi; Liu, Gang-Qin; Chang, Yan-Chun; Pan, Xin-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Overcoming the spin qubit decoherence is a challenge for quantum science and technology. We investigate the decoherence process in nanodiamonds by Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) technique at room temperature. We find that the coherence time T2 scales as nγ. The elongation effect of coherence time can be represented by a constant power of the number of pulses n. Considering the filter function of CPMG decoupling sequence as a δ function, the spectrum density of noise has been reconstructed directly from the coherence time measurements and a Lorentzian noise power spectrum model agrees well with the experiment. These results are helpful for the application of nanodiamonds to nanoscale magnetic imaging.

  20. Decoupling absorption and emission processes in super-resolution localization of emitters in a plasmonic hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, David L.; Cortés, Emiliano; Giannini, Vincenzo; Török, Peter; Roschuk, Tyler; Maier, Stefan A.

    2017-02-01

    The absorption process of an emitter close to a plasmonic antenna is enhanced due to strong local electromagnetic (EM) fields. The emission, if resonant with the plasmonic system, re-radiates to the far-field by coupling with the antenna via plasmonic states, whose presence increases the local density of states. Far-field collection of the emission of single molecules close to plasmonic antennas, therefore, provides mixed information of both the local EM field strength and the local density of states. Moreover, super-resolution localizations from these emission-coupled events do not report the real position of the molecules. Here we propose using a fluorescent molecule with a large Stokes shift in order to spectrally decouple the emission from the plasmonic system, leaving the absorption strongly resonant with the antenna's enhanced EM fields. We demonstrate that this technique provides an effective way of mapping the EM field or the local density of states with nanometre spatial resolution.

  1. Superior decoupling capacitor for three-dimensional LSI with ultrawide communication bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araga, Yuuki; Nagata, Makoto; Miura, Noriyuki; Ikeda, Hiroaki; Kikuchi, Katsuya

    2017-04-01

    The superior noise reduction performance of an in-stack decoupling capacitor (DECAP) is demonstrated. A three-tier stacked demonstrator is manufactured with an ultrawide data bus that connects a top memory chip and a bottom logic chip. An in-stack evaluation circuitry on a middle tier (Si interposer) captures voltage variation waveforms during chip-to-chip data communication. In-stack DECAPs in arrays on a Si interposer and discrete ceramic capacitors on an organic interposer of a ball-grid array package are compared. Silicon measurements with an in-stack noise monitoring technique show that the DECAPs on the Si interposer more locally shunt out the AC components of power supply current over a wider frequency range than the capacitors on the package interposer.

  2. Ships Docked at Title V Permitted Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  3. 24 CFR 203.387 - Acceptability of customary title evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acceptability of customary title... AUTHORITIES SINGLE FAMILY MORTGAGE INSURANCE Contract Rights and Obligations Property Title Transfers and Title Waivers § 203.387 Acceptability of customary title evidence. If the title and title evidence are...

  4. Automated smoother for the numerical decoupling of dynamics models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Helena

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structure identification of dynamic models for complex biological systems is the cornerstone of their reverse engineering. Biochemical Systems Theory (BST offers a particularly convenient solution because its parameters are kinetic-order coefficients which directly identify the topology of the underlying network of processes. We have previously proposed a numerical decoupling procedure that allows the identification of multivariate dynamic models of complex biological processes. While described here within the context of BST, this procedure has a general applicability to signal extraction. Our original implementation relied on artificial neural networks (ANN, which caused slight, undesirable bias during the smoothing of the time courses. As an alternative, we propose here an adaptation of the Whittaker's smoother and demonstrate its role within a robust, fully automated structure identification procedure. Results In this report we propose a robust, fully automated solution for signal extraction from time series, which is the prerequisite for the efficient reverse engineering of biological systems models. The Whittaker's smoother is reformulated within the context of information theory and extended by the development of adaptive signal segmentation to account for heterogeneous noise structures. The resulting procedure can be used on arbitrary time series with a nonstationary noise process; it is illustrated here with metabolic profiles obtained from in-vivo NMR experiments. The smoothed solution that is free of parametric bias permits differentiation, which is crucial for the numerical decoupling of systems of differential equations. Conclusion The method is applicable in signal extraction from time series with nonstationary noise structure and can be applied in the numerical decoupling of system of differential equations into algebraic equations, and thus constitutes a rather general tool for the reverse engineering of

  5. Decoupled Implementation of New-Wave Land Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Hundsbæk

    2012-01-01

    Decentralisation is a key element in the new wave of land reforms that have been introduced in sub-Saharan Africa. However, not much research has been carried out into their implementation at the local level. Consequently, reforms are described in old-fashioned terms. Through comparative case...... studies in Tanzania, this article unpacks implementation as a process consisting of multiple administrative layers and potential actors. It concludes that implementation is slow and uneven due to the decoupling of layers within the formal land administration. Greater attention should be directed towards...

  6. Measuring the spectrum of colored noise by dynamical decoupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Gonzalo A; Suter, Dieter

    2011-12-02

    Decoherence is one of the most important obstacles that must be overcome in quantum information processing. It depends on the qubit-environment coupling strength, but also on the spectral composition of the noise generated by the environment. If the spectral density is known, fighting the effect of decoherence can be made more effective. Applying sequences of inversion pulses to the qubit system, we developed a method for dynamical decoupling noise spectroscopy. We generate effective filter functions that probe the environmental spectral density without requiring assumptions about its shape. Comparing different pulse sequences, we recover the complete spectral density function and distinguish different contributions to the overall decoherence.

  7. Rigorous Performance Bounds for Quadratic and Nested Dynamical Decoupling

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Yuhou; Lidar, Daniel A

    2011-01-01

    We present rigorous performance bounds for the quadratic dynamical decoupling (QDD) pulse sequence which protects a qubit from general decoherence, and for its nested generalization to an arbitrary number of qubits. Our bounds apply under the assumption of instantaneous pulses and of bounded perturbing environment and qubit-environment Hamiltonians such as those realized by baths of nuclear spins in quantum dots. We prove that if the total sequence time is fixed then the trace-norm distance between the unperturbed and protected system states can be made arbitrarily small by increasing the number of applied pulses.

  8. Decoupling interrelated parameters for designing high performance thermoelectric materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chong; Li, Zhou; Li, Kun; Huang, Pengcheng; Xie, Yi

    2014-04-15

    The world's supply of fossil fuels is quickly being exhausted, and the impact of their overuse is contributing to both climate change and global political unrest. In order to help solve these escalating problems, scientists must find a way to either replace combustion engines or reduce their use. Thermoelectric materials have attracted widespread research interest because of their potential applications as clean and renewable energy sources. They are reliable, lightweight, robust, and environmentally friendly and can reversibly convert between heat and electricity. However, after decades of development, the energy conversion efficiency of thermoelectric devices has been hovering around 10%. This is far below the theoretical predictions, mainly due to the interdependence and coupling between electrical and thermal parameters, which are strongly interrelated through the electronic structure of the materials. Therefore, any strategy that balances or decouples these parameters, in addition to optimizing the materials' intrinsic electronic structure, should be critical to the development of thermoelectric technology. In this Account, we discuss our recently developed strategies to decouple thermoelectric parameters for the synergistic optimization of electrical and thermal transport. We first highlight the phase transition, which is accompanied by an abrupt change of electrical transport, such as with a metal-insulator and semiconductor-superionic conductor transition. This should be a universal and effective strategy to optimize the thermoelectric performance, which takes advantage of modulated electronic structure and critical scattering across phase transitions to decouple the power factor and thermal conductivity. We propose that solid-solution homojunction nanoplates with disordered lattices are promising thermoelectric materials to meet the "phonon glass electron crystal" approach. The formation of a solid solution, coupled with homojunctions, allows for

  9. Fermion decoupling and the axial anomaly on the lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, H; De, Asit K.

    1999-01-01

    By an explicit calculation of the continuum limit of the triangle graph amplitude in lattice QED we show that in the axial Ward identity the ABJ anomaly exactly cancels the pseudoscalar density term in the limit of infinite fermion mass $m$. The result, a reflection of decoupling of the heavy fermion, provides a convenient framework for computing the flavor-singlet or U(1) axial anomaly in non-Abelian gauge theories on lattice. Our calculations on the lattice are performed using Wilson fermions but the results are general.

  10. Perturbative versus non-perturbative decoupling of heavy quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knechtli, Francesco [Wuppertal Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Physics; Bruno, Mattia [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Finkenrath, Jacob [CaSToRC, Cyl Athalassa Campus, Nicosia (Cyprus); Leder, Bjoern [Humboldt Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Sommer, Rainer [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Collaboration: ALPHA Collaboration

    2015-11-15

    We simulate a theory with N{sub f}=2 heavy quarks of mass M. At energies much smaller than M the heavy quarks decouple and the theory can be described by an effective theory which is a pure gauge theory to leading order in 1/M. We present results for the mass dependence of ratios such as t{sub 0}(M)/t{sub 0}(0). We compute these ratios from simulations and compare them to the perturbative prediction. The latter relies on a factorisation formula for the ratios which is valid to leading order in 1/M.

  11. Robust Input-Output Energy Decoupling for Uncertain Singular Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Zhuang Dong; Qing-Ling Zhang

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the robust input-output energy decoupling problem for uncertain singular systems in which all parameter matrices except E exist as time-varying uncertainties. By means of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs),sufficient conditions are derived for the existence of linear state feedback and input transformation control laws, such that the resulting closed-loop uncertain singular system is generalized quadratically stable and the energy of every input controls mainly the energy of a corresponding output, and influences the energy of other outputs as weakly as possible.

  12. Thermal Dark Matter From A Highly Decoupled Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Berlin, Asher; Hooper, Dan; Krnjaic, Gordan

    2016-01-01

    It has recently been shown that if the dark matter is in thermal equilibrium with a sector that is highly decoupled from the Standard Model, it can freeze-out with an acceptable relic abundance, even if the dark matter is as heavy as ~1-100 PeV. In such scenarios, both the dark and visible sectors are populated after inflation, but with independent temperatures. The lightest particle in the dark sector will be generically long-lived, and can come to dominate the energy density of the universe...

  13. Dynamical decoupling of a qubit with always-on control fields

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, N Cody; Fong, Bryan H

    2012-01-01

    We consider dynamical decoupling schemes in which the qubit is continuously manipulated by a control field at all times. Building on the theory of the Uhrig Dynamical Decoupling sequence (UDD) and its connections to Chebyshev polynomials, we derive a method of always-on control by expressing the UDD control field as a Fourier series. We then truncate this series and numerically optimize the series coefficients for decoupling, constructing the CAFE (Chebyshev and Fourier Expansion) sequence. This approach generates a bounded, continuous control field. We simulate the decoupling effectiveness of our sequence vs. a continuous version of UDD for a qubit coupled to fully-quantum and semi-classical dephasing baths and find comparable performance. We derive filter functions for continuous-control decoupling sequences, and we assess how robust such sequences are to noise on control fields. The methods we employ provide a variety of tools to analyze continuous-control dynamical decoupling sequences.

  14. Comparing the characteristics of highly cited titles and highly alted titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Didegah, F.; Bowman, T.D.; Bowman, S.; Hartley, J.

    2016-07-01

    This study examines differences in the types of titles for articles that show high altmetric activity (highly alted articles) versus highly cited articles. This work expands on previous research on document titles in combination with a grounded theory approach to develop a codebook in which articles were manually coded based on 11 characteristics. The results show that there are differences and similarities in titles across many of the examined characteristics; highly cited titles and highly mentioned titles on Wikipedia have some similar characteristics such as they have the the highest percentage of substantive words; in addition, there are no or very few titles referencing outside or with humor/lightness on both platforms. Twitter and Facebook also showed some similarities having the highest percentage of humorous/light titles and lowest percentage of substantive words in their titles. (Author)

  15. Dynamical Decoupling Using Slow Pulses Efficient Suppression of 1\\/f Noise

    CERN Document Server

    Shiokawa, K

    2002-01-01

    The application of dynamical decoupling pulses to a single qubit interacting with a harmonic oscillator bath with 1/f and Ohmic spectral densities is studied. Decoupling pulses that are slower than the fastest bath time-scale are shown to reduce the decoherence rate significantly in the 1/f case. Contrary to conclusions drawn from previous studies, this shows that dynamical decoupling pulses do not always have to be ultra-fast.

  16. Flatness and Edge Drop Decoupling Control for the Tandem Cold Rolling Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Min; Yue, Xiao-Xue

    2016-05-01

    The flatness and edge drop is a strong-coupled multivariable control system, so realizing the decoupling control of them is one of the most important issues to achieve the highprecision control. In this paper, the modelling of system and decoupling control method of flatness and edge drop are analyzed. Simulation results represent that the flatness and edge drop control is decoupled to improve the control performance of flatness and edge drop.

  17. Neutronic optimization of premoderator and reflector for decoupled hydrogen moderator in 1 MW spallation neutron source

    CERN Document Server

    Harada, M; Kai, T; Sakata, H; Watanabe, N; Ikeda, Y

    2002-01-01

    For a decoupled liquid-hydrogen moderator, optimization studies have been performance on a premoderator and reflector materials (Pb, Be, Fe and Hg) together with several decoupling energies to realize a higher neutronic performance. The result indicated that, among four reflector materials mentioned above, the best neutronic performance could be obtained by adopting a Pb reflector with an optimized premoderator and an appropriate decoupling energy. (author)

  18. A Quasi-Decoupled State for Dark Matter in Non-Standard Thermal Histories

    OpenAIRE

    Waldstein, Isaac Raj; Erickcek, Adrienne L.; Ilie, Cosmin

    2016-01-01

    In a radiation-dominated universe, dark matter kinetically decouples from Standard Model particles when the momentum-transfer rate equals the expansion rate. However, dark matter may kinetically decouple during an early matter-dominated era (EMDE), which occurs when the energy content of the Universe is dominated by either an oscillating scalar field or a semi-stable massive particle before Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. Until now, it has been assumed that kinetic decoupling during an EMDE happens...

  19. A generalized theoretical framework for the description of spin decoupling in solid-state MAS NMR: Offset effect on decoupling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kong Ooi; Agarwal, Vipin; Meier, Beat H; Ernst, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    We present a generalized theoretical framework that allows the approximate but rapid analysis of residual couplings of arbitrary decoupling sequences in solid-state NMR under magic-angle spinning conditions. It is a generalization of the tri-modal Floquet analysis of TPPM decoupling [Scholz et al., J. Chem. Phys. 130, 114510 (2009)] where three characteristic frequencies are used to describe the pulse sequence. Such an approach can be used to describe arbitrary periodic decoupling sequences that differ only in the magnitude of the Fourier coefficients of the interaction-frame transformation. It allows a ∼100 times faster calculation of second-order residual couplings as a function of pulse sequence parameters than full spin-dynamics simulations. By comparing the theoretical calculations with full numerical simulations, we show the potential of the new approach to examine the performance of decoupling sequences. We exemplify the usefulness of this framework by analyzing the performance of commonly used high-power decoupling sequences and low-power decoupling sequences such as amplitude-modulated XiX (AM-XiX) and its super-cycled variant SC-AM-XiX. In addition, the effect of chemical-shift offset is examined for both high- and low-power decoupling sequences. The results show that the cross-terms between the dipolar couplings are the main contributions to the line broadening when offset is present. We also show that the SC-AM-XIX shows a better offset compensation.

  20. Decoupled Scheme for Time-Dependent Natural Convection Problem II: Time Semidiscreteness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    stability and the corresponding optimal error estimates are presented. Furthermore, a decoupled numerical scheme is proposed by decoupling the nonlinear terms via temporal extrapolation; optimal error estimates are established. Finally, some numerical results are provided to verify the performances of the developed algorithms. Compared with the coupled numerical scheme, the decoupled algorithm not only keeps good accuracy but also saves a lot of computational cost. Both theoretical analysis and numerical experiments show the efficiency and effectiveness of the decoupled method for time-dependent natural convection problem.

  1. Faithful solid state optical memory with dynamically decoupled spin wave storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovrić, Marko; Suter, Dieter; Ferrier, Alban; Goldner, Philippe

    2013-07-12

    We report a high fidelity optical memory in which dynamical decoupling is used to extend the storage time. This is demonstrated in a rare-earth doped crystal in which optical coherences were transferred to nuclear spin coherences and then protected against environmental noise by dynamical decoupling, leading to storage times of up to 4.2 ms. An interference experiment shows that relative phases of input pulses are preserved through the whole storage and retrieval process with a visibility ≈1, demonstrating the usefulness of dynamical decoupling for extending the storage time of quantum memories. We also show that dynamical decoupling sequences insensitive to initial spin coherence increase retrieval efficiency.

  2. DQ reference frame modeling and control of single-phase active power decoupling circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi; Qin, Zian; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    . This paper presents the dq synchronous reference frame modeling of single-phase power decoupling circuits and a complete model describing the dynamics of dc-link ripple voltage is presented. The proposed model is universal and valid for both inductive and capacitive decoupling circuits, and the input...... of decoupling circuits can be either dependent or independent of its front-end converters. Based on this model, a dq synchronous reference frame controller is designed which allows the decoupling circuit to operate in two different modes because of the circuit symmetry. Simulation and experimental results...... are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed modeling and control method....

  3. The decoupling of second-order linear systems with a singular mass matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Daniel T.; Morzfeld, Matthias; Ma, Fai

    2013-12-01

    It was demonstrated in earlier work that a nondefective, linear dynamical system with an invertible mass matrix in free or forced motion may be decoupled in the configuration space by a real and isospectral transformation. We extend this work by developing a procedure for decoupling a linear dynamical system with a singular mass matrix in the configuration space, transforming the original differential-algebraic system into decoupled sets of real, independent, first- and second-order differential equations. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the application of the decoupling procedure.

  4. Design and Simulation of a New Decoupled Micromachined Gyroscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharaf, Abdelhameed [NCRRT, EAEA, 3 Ahmed Elzomer Street, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); STRC, AUC, 113 Kasr El Eini Street, 11215, Cairo (Egypt); Sedky, Sherif [STRC, AUC, 113 Kasr El Eini Street, 11215, Cairo (Egypt); Physics Department, AUC, 113 Kasr El Eini Street, 11215, Cairo (Egypt); Habib, S E-D [Electronics and Communication Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, 12613, Giza (Egypt)

    2006-04-01

    This paper reports on a new decoupled micromachined gyroscope. The proposed sensor is a dual mass type, electrostatically driven to primary mode oscillation and senses, capacitively, the output signal. Full decoupling between drive and sense modes minimizes the mechanical crosstalk. Three different designs are introduced in this work. Drive and sense amplitudes, mechanical and electrical sensitivities, quality factors and approximate bandwidths are extracted analytically and the results are confirmed using finite element analysis. The first design shows drive and sense modes resonance frequencies of 4077 Hz and 4081 Hz respectively; with a frequency mismatch lower than 0.1%. The drive and sense capacitance are 0.213 pF and 0.142 pF respectively. The mechanical and electrical sensitivities are 0.011 {mu}m/ ({sup 0}/s) and 2.75 mV/ ({sup 0}/s) respectively. The third design shows significantly improved mechanical and electrical sensitivities of 0.027 {mu}m/ ({sup 0}/s) and 6.85 mV/ ({sup 0}/s) respectively.

  5. Decoupling with stability for a class of right invertible systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wu (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Chen, Chi-Tsong (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (USA))

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, we extend the result of to ensure the stability of the decoupled systems. Furthermore, we derive a design algorithm of static state feedback decoupling with arbitrary pole assignment. Consider a system described by a q {times} p proper rational transfer function matrix G(s) = N(s)D{sup {minus}1}(s), where N(s) and D(s) are right coprime polynomial matrices, and D(s) is column reduced with column degree {mu}{sub i}, for i = 1, 2,{hor ellipsis},p. Let x be the corresponding state vector of a minimum realization (A, B, C, E) of the system. Let the constant matrices (H, K) be the static state feedback compensator pair. Then the overall system transfer function matrix is G{sub f}(s) = (C + EK)(sI {minus} A {minus} BK){sup {minus}1}BH + EH, and the corresponding open loop compensator T(s) can be written as T(s) = (I {minus} K (sI {minus} A) {sup {minus}1}B){sup {minus}1}H.

  6. Exact decoupling of the Dirac Hamiltonian. III. Molecular properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Alexander; Reiher, Markus

    2006-02-14

    Recent advances in the theory of the infinite-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (DKH) transformation of the Dirac Hamiltonian require a fresh and unified view on the calculation of atomic and molecular properties. It is carefully investigated how the four-component Dirac Hamiltonian in the presence of arbitrary electric and magnetic potentials is decoupled to two-component form. In order to cover the whole range of electromagnetic properties on the same footing, a consistent description within the DKH theory is presented. Subtle distinctions are needed between errors arising from any finite-order DKH scheme and effects due to oversimplified and thus approximate decoupling strategies for the Dirac operator, which will, though being numerically negligible in most cases, still be visible in the infinite-order limit of the two-component treatment. Special focus is given to the issue, whether the unitary DKH transformations to be applied to the Dirac Hamiltonian should depend on the property under investigation or not. It is explicitly shown that up to third order in the external potential the transformed property operator is independent of the chosen parametrization of the unitary transformations of the generalized DKH scheme. Since the standard DKH protocol covers the transformation of one-electron integrals only, the presentation is developed for one-electron properties for the sake of brevity. Nevertheless, all findings for the calculation of one-electron properties within a two-component framework presented here also hold for two-electron properties as well.

  7. Movement decoupling control for two-axis fast steering mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Qiao, Yongming; Lv, Tao

    2017-02-01

    Based on flexure hinge and piezoelectric actuator of two-axis fast steering mirror is a complex system with time varying, uncertain and strong coupling. It is extremely difficult to achieve high precision decoupling control with the traditional PID control method. The feedback error learning method was established an inverse hysteresis model which was based inner product dynamic neural network nonlinear and no-smooth for piezo-ceramic. In order to improve the actuator high precision, a method was proposed, which was based piezo-ceramic inverse model of two dynamic neural network adaptive control. The experiment result indicated that, compared with two neural network adaptive movement decoupling control algorithm, static relative error is reduced from 4.44% to 0.30% and coupling degree is reduced from 12.71% to 0.60%, while dynamic relative error is reduced from 13.92% to 2.85% and coupling degree is reduced from 2.63% to 1.17%.

  8. Electron-Phonon Decoupling NbSi CMB Bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marnieros, S.; Nones, C.; Dumoulin, L.; Bergé, L.; Rigaut, O.; Monfardini, A.; Camus, P.; Benoit, A.

    2012-06-01

    Precise measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is crucial to cosmology, since any proposed model of the Universe must account for the features of this radiation. E_cient very large bolometer arrays (>10,000 pixels) constitute an important challenge for CMB observations and are actually developed by many groups worldwide. We present here an explorative new bolometer design based on a structure that simplifies the fabrication process and exhibits high sensitivity. This innovative device replaces delicate membrane-based structures and eliminates the mediation of phonons: the incoming energy is directly captured and measured in the electron bath of an appropriate sensor and the thermal decoupling is achieved via the intrinsic electron-phonon decoupling of the sensor at very low temperature. Reported results come from a 204-pixel matrix of Nb x Si1- x transition edge sensors with a meander structure fabricated on a 2-inch silicon wafer using electron-beam co-evaporation and standard lithography process. To validate the application to CMB measurements, we have realized an optical calibration of our sample in the focal plane of a dilution cryostat test bench.

  9. How property title impacts urban consolidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Easthope, Hazel; Warnken, Jan; Sherry, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    Continuing urbanisation is triggering an increase in multi-titled housing internationally. This trend has given rise to a substantial research interest in the social consequences of higher density living. Little enquiry, however, has been directed to examining how property title subdivisions gene...

  10. Land Titles and Rice Production in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn

    In most of the empirical literature on land titling, the household is regarded as unitary, and land rights are found to have ambiguous effects on land allocation, investment and productivity. Using data from 12 provinces in Vietnam, we diversify land titles, and show in a household fixed effects ...

  11. Land Titles and Rice Production in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn

    analysis of plot level rice yields that land titles are indeed important. Only exclusively held titles have the expected positive effects, and the positive effect on yields is found in male headed households. Furthermore, a household level rice yield function reveals that exclusive user rights...

  12. Explorations: Title III ESEA Programs in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa State Dept. of Public Instruction, Des Moines.

    Seventy projects funded by the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, Title III, and providing the funds to public school districts to demonstrate the feasibility of educational innovations, are described in this document about Iowa Title III exemplary programs. Projects are subdivided according to planning grants, operational grants, guidance…

  13. Precision and Recall in Title Keyword Searches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McJunkin, Monica Cahill

    This study examines precision and recall for title and keyword searches performed in the "FirstSearch" WorldCat database when keywords are used with and without adjacency of terms specified. A random sample of 68 titles in economics were searched in the OCLC (Online Computer Library Center) Online Union Catalog in order to obtain their…

  14. Land Titles and Rice Production in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn

    In most of the empirical literature on land titling, the household is regarded as unitary, and land rights are found to have ambiguous effects on land allocation, investment and productivity. Using data from 12 provinces in Vietnam, we diversify land titles, and show in a household fixed effects...

  15. Land Titles and Rice Production in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn

    In most of the empirical literature on land titling, the household is regarded as unitary, and land rights are found to have ambiguous effects on land allocation, investment and productivity. Using data from 12 provinces in Vietnam, we diversify land titles, and show in a household fixed effects...

  16. Cultural Elements of English Movie Title

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琼

    2013-01-01

    Movie title is the name of a movie which to some extent determines the audience ’s choice to watch the movie or not. English movie title, as a special kind of English language, reflects language and culture of the specific English country. To better understand and appreciate the movie, it is essential to understand the cultural elements of the English movie title. The thesis with start with the introduction of movie title and its naming approaches, then analyze the three cultural elements that is historical, reli-gious and linguistic cultural elements in English movie title in the hope of providing helpful background knowledge for Chinese audience to better appreciate the English culture.

  17. Saving entangled photons from sudden death is a single-mode fiber --- Interplay of Decoherence and dynamical decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Manish Kumar; You, Chenglong; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Lee, Hwang

    2016-05-01

    We study the dynamics of decoherence in an optical fiber for the case of entangled photons. Such a study will allow us to increase the physical length of fiber for transmission of entangled photon from the sources such as SPDC. We analytically derive the model for Decoherence of entangled state photons in a single-mode fiber. We also show that entanglement lifetime can be increased for Bell state and Werner state with open loop control technique called Dynamical decoupling. The authors would like to acknowledge support from the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the Army Research Office, the National Science Foundation and the Northrop Grumman Corporation.

  18. Canadian Impressions Title: Impresiones canadienses Title: Impressions canadiennes

    OpenAIRE

    Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)

    2011-01-01

    Canadian Impressions pays tribute to Canada and Calgary, Alberta, home of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Board of Governors of the Inter-American Development Bank. Twelve Canadian artists who were selected in an open call, present a total of 34 prints in various techniques from etching to monotype. Among the participating artists are: Briar Craig, Delio Delgado, René Derouin, Katie Fife, Joscelyn Gardner, Michel Gautier, Vanessa Hall-Patch, Miriam Rudolph, Tracy Lynn Templeton, Todd Treme, Os...

  19. The stellar population of the decoupled nucleus in M 31

    CERN Document Server

    Silchenko, O K; Vlasyuk, V V

    1998-01-01

    The results of a spectroscopic and photometric investigation of the central region of M 31 are presented. An analysis of absorption-index radial profiles involving magnesium, calcium, and iron lines has shown that the unresolved nucleus of M 31 is distinct by its increased metallicity; unexpectedly, among two nuclei of M 31, it is the faintest one located exactly in the dynamical center of the galaxy (and dynamically decoupled) which is chemically distinct. The Balmer absorption line H-beta has been included into the analysis to disentangle metallicity and age effects; an age difference by a factor 3 is detected between stellar populations of the nucleus and of the bulge, the nucleus being younger. The morphological analysis of CCD images has revealed the presence of a nuclear stellar-gaseous disk with a radius of some 100 pc, the gas component of which looks non-stationary, well inside the bulge of M 31.

  20. A decoupled system of hyperbolic equations for linearized cosmological perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Ramírez, J

    2002-01-01

    A decoupled system of hyperbolic partial differential equations for linear perturbations around spatially flat FRW universes is obtained for the first time. The two key ingredients in obtaining this system are i) the explicit decomposition of the perturbing energy momentum tensor into two pieces: intrinsic and free, which have definite and distinct mathematical properties and physical interpretation, and ii) the introduction of a new gauge which plays a similar role as harmonic gauge does for perturbations around Minkowski space-time. The proposed formalism could be highly relevant for physical cosmology, since our universe is most likely flat. We deal with classical perturbations, but our treatment, being covariant, is also very appropriate for the description of linearized quantum gravity around cosmological backgrounds.

  1. Dynamical Decoupling of a single electron spin at room temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Naydenov, Boris; Hall, Liam T; Shin, Chang; Fedder, Helmut; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L; Jelezko, Fedor; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    Here we report the increase of the coherence time T$_2$ of a single electron spin at room temperature by using dynamical decoupling. We show that the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse sequence can prolong the T$_2$ of a single Nitrogen-Vacancy center in diamond up to 2.44 ms compared to the Hahn echo measurement where T$_2 = 390~\\mu$s. Moreover, by performing spin locking experiments we demonstrate that with CPMG the maximum possible $T_2$ is reached. On the other hand, we do not observe strong increase of the coherence time in nanodiamonds, possibly due to the short spin lattice relaxation time $T_1=100~\\mu$s (compared to T$_1$ = 5.93 ms in bulk). An application for detecting low magnetic field is demonstrated, where we show that the sensitivity using the CPMG method is improved by about a factor of two compared to the Hahn echo method.

  2. Decoupling Nonclassical Nonlinear Behavior of Elastic Wave Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remillieux, Marcel C.; Guyer, Robert A.; Payan, Cédric; Ulrich, T. J.

    2016-03-01

    In this Letter, the tensorial nature of the nonequilibrium dynamics in nonlinear mesoscopic elastic materials is evidenced via multimode resonance experiments. In these experiments the dynamic response, including the spatial variations of velocities and strains, is carefully monitored while the sample is vibrated in a purely longitudinal or a purely torsional mode. By analogy with the fact that such experiments can decouple the elements of the linear elastic tensor, we demonstrate that the parameters quantifying the nonequilibrium dynamics of the material differ substantially for a compressional wave and for a shear wave. This result could lead to further understanding of the nonlinear mechanical phenomena that arise in natural systems as well as to the design and engineering of nonlinear acoustic metamaterials.

  3. Performance of thin-film ferroelectric capacitors for EMC decoupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huadong; Subramanyam, Guru

    2008-12-01

    This paper studied the effects of thin-film ferroelectrics as decoupling capacitors for electromagnetic compatibility applications. The impedance and insertion loss of PZT capacitors were measured and compared with the results from commercial off-the-shelf capacitors. An equivalent circuit model was extracted from the experimental results, and a considerable series resistance was found to exist in ferroelectric capacitors. This resistance gives rise to the observed performance difference around series resonance between ferroelectric PZT capacitors and normal capacitors. Measurements on paraelectric (Ba,Sr)TiO(3)-based integrated varactors do not show this significant resistance. Some analyses were made to investigate the mechanisms, and it was found that it can be due to the hysteresis in the ferroelectric thin films.

  4. Statistical Decoupling of Lagrangian Fluid Parcel in Newtonian Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The Lagrangian dynamics of a single fluid element within a self-gravitational matter field is intrinsically non-local due to the presence of the tidal force. This complicates the theoretical investigation of the non-linear evolution of various cosmic objects, e.g. dark matter halos, in the context of Lagrangian fluid dynamics, since a fluid parcel with given initial density and shape may evolve differently depending on their environments. In this paper, we provide a statistical solution that could decouple this environmental dependence. After deriving the probability distribution evolution equation of the matter field, our method produces a set of closed ordinary differential equations whose solution is uniquely determined by the initial condition of the fluid element. Mathematically, it corresponds to the projected characteristic curve of the transport equation of the density-weighted probability density function (PDF). Consequently it is guaranteed that the one-point PDF would be preserved by evolving these...

  5. Scaling laws and bulk-boundary decoupling in heat flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pozo, Jesús J; Garrido, Pedro L; Hurtado, Pablo I

    2015-03-01

    When driven out of equilibrium by a temperature gradient, fluids respond by developing a nontrivial, inhomogeneous structure according to the governing macroscopic laws. Here we show that such structure obeys strikingly simple scaling laws arbitrarily far from equilibrium, provided that both macroscopic local equilibrium and Fourier's law hold. Extensive simulations of hard disk fluids confirm the scaling laws even under strong temperature gradients, implying that Fourier's law remains valid in this highly nonlinear regime, with putative corrections absorbed into a nonlinear conductivity functional. In addition, our results show that the scaling laws are robust in the presence of strong finite-size effects, hinting at a subtle bulk-boundary decoupling mechanism which enforces the macroscopic laws on the bulk of the finite-sized fluid. This allows one to measure the marginal anomaly of the heat conductivity predicted for hard disks.

  6. Remote pivot decoupler pylon: Wing/store flutter suppressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, J. M., Jr. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A device for suspending a store from an aerodynamic support surface, such an an aircraft wing, and more specifically, for improving upon singlet pivot decoupler pylons by reducing both frequency of active store, alignment, and alignment system space and power requirements. Two links suspend a lower pylon/rack section and releasable attached store from an upper pylon section mounted under the wing. The links allow the lower pylon section to rotate in pitch about a remote pivot point. A leaf spring connected between the lower section and electrical alignment system servomechanism provides pitch alignment of the lower section/store combination. The servomechanism utilizes an electric servomotor to drive the gear train and reversibly move the leaf spring, thereby maintaining the pitch attitude of the store within acceptable limits. The damper strokes when the lower section rotates to damp large oscillations of store.

  7. Unplugging the Universe: the neglected electromagnetic consequence of decoupling

    CERN Document Server

    Diver, Declan A

    2007-01-01

    This letter concentrates on the non-equilibrium evolution of magnetic field structures at the onset of recombination, when the charged particle current densities decay as neutrals are formed. We consider the effect that a decaying magnetic flux has on the acceleration of particles via the transient induced electric field. Since the residual charged-particle number density is small as a result of decoupling, we shall consider the magnetic and electric fields essentially to be imposed, neglecting the feedback from any minority accelerated population. We find that the electromagnetic treatment of this phase transition can produce energetic electrons scattered throughout the Universe. Such particles could have a significant effect on cosmic evolution in several ways: (i) their presence could delay the effective end of the recombination era; (ii) they could give rise to plasma concentrations that could enhance early gravitational collapse of matter by opposing cosmic expansion to a greater degree than neutral matt...

  8. TALE proteins search DNA using a rotationally decoupled mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuculis, Luke; Abil, Zhanar; Zhao, Huimin; Schroeder, Charles M

    2016-10-01

    Transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins are a class of programmable DNA-binding proteins used extensively for gene editing. Despite recent progress, however, little is known about their sequence search mechanism. Here, we use single-molecule experiments to study TALE search along DNA. Our results show that TALEs utilize a rotationally decoupled mechanism for nonspecific search, despite remaining associated with DNA templates during the search process. Our results suggest that the protein helical structure enables TALEs to adopt a loosely wrapped conformation around DNA templates during nonspecific search, facilitating rapid one-dimensional (1D) diffusion under a range of solution conditions. Furthermore, this model is consistent with a previously reported two-state mechanism for TALE search that allows these proteins to overcome the search speed-stability paradox. Taken together, our results suggest that TALE search is unique among the broad class of sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins and supports efficient 1D search along DNA.

  9. Rheological decoupling at the Moho and implication to Venusian tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Shintaro; Katayama, Ikuo; Nakakuki, Tomoeki

    2014-03-18

    Plate tectonics is largely responsible for material and heat circulation in Earth, but for unknown reasons it does not exist on Venus. The strength of planetary materials is a key control on plate tectonics because physical properties, such as temperature, pressure, stress, and chemical composition, result in strong rheological layering and convection in planetary interiors. Our deformation experiments show that crustal plagioclase is much weaker than mantle olivine at conditions corresponding to the Moho in Venus. Consequently, this strength contrast may produce a mechanical decoupling between the Venusian crust and interior mantle convection. One-dimensional numerical modeling using our experimental data confirms that this large strength contrast at the Moho impedes the surface motion of the Venusian crust and, as such, is an important factor in explaining the absence of plate tectonics on Venus.

  10. Decoupling, re-Engaging: managing trust relationships in implementation projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup

    2012-01-01

    An important aspect of the successful implementation of large information systems (such as ERP systems) is trust. These implementations impact the legitimate interests of many groups of stakeholders, and trust is a critical factor for success. Trust in the project is contingent upon many factors......, and the complex demands of managing those fluctuations. We investigate evolving trust relationships in a longitudinal case analysis of a large Integrated Hospital System implementation for the Faroe Islands. Trust relationships suffered various breakdowns, but the project was able to recover and eventually meet...... its goals. Based on concepts from Giddens’ later work on modernity, we develop two approaches for managing dynamic trust relationships in implementation projects: decoupling and re-engaging....

  11. On the decoupling between classical Coulomb matter and radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alastuey, Angel; Appel, Walter

    2000-02-01

    We consider a model of matter coupled to radiation at equilibrium. Matter is described by a one-component plasma of classical point charges with Coulomb interactions, while radiation is represented by the classical transverse potential vector in Coulomb gauge. Using a straightforward generalization of the Bohr-van Leeuwen theorem, we show that the equilibrium properties of classical Coulomb matter remain unaffected by the presence of the classical radiation. As far as the real world is concerned, this decoupling does survive at large distances where both matter and radiation can be treated classically. This invalidates all the large-distances predictions, for the charge correlations, of the so-called Darwin models which incorporate retarded electromagnetic interactions beyond the instantaneous Coulomb potential. A second related important consequence is that the first relativistic corrections to the Coulomb thermodynamical quantities must be evaluated within the theory of quantum electrodynamics at finite temperature, even in a weakly relativistic and almost classical regime for matter.

  12. Decoupling of CO2-emissions from Energy Intensive Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. S.; Enevoldsen, M. K.; Ryelund, A. V.

    for own-price and cross-price elasticities of the individual fuels. Whereas elasticities for electricity and gas are found to be moderate, the own-price elasticity for oil, coal and waste is relatively high (-0.4 to -0.6), indicating that consumption of these fuels is relatively price elastic......This report shows that a decoupling between economic growth, expressed as gross value added, and CO2 emissions has been achieved in the period from 1990-2001 in many energy-intensive and less energy-intensive sectors across the Nordic countries. The report investigates the impact of prices...... and taxes on the trends in CO2 emissions on the basis of a novel method that relies on sector-specific energy prices. Whereas previous research has been unable to account for the implications of complex tax exemptions and price discounts, the present report bridges the gap and provides innovative estimates...

  13. Water Resources Management In Support Of Raw Region Based On Decoupling Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesin, Yu V.; Fedulova, E. A.; Akulov, A. O.; Vik, S. V.; Korchagin, R. L.

    2017-01-01

    It determines the presence of the decoupling effect in the Russians raw regions materials by using water. Developed models that explain the relationship between the gross regional product and water intake. It proved no effect on the growth of water consumption in most regions of the reference commodity. Recommendations for the decoupling effect development in support of Russians raw regions.

  14. A unified heteronuclear decoupling strategy for magic-angle-spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Equbal, Asif; Bjerring, Morten; Nielsen, Niels Chr., E-mail: madhu@tifr.res.in, E-mail: ncn@inano.au.dk [Center for Insoluble Protein Structures, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO) and Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, Gustav Wieds Vej 14, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Madhu, P. K., E-mail: madhu@tifr.res.in, E-mail: ncn@inano.au.dk [Department of Chemical Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India); TIFR Centre for Interdisciplinary Sciences, 21 Brundavan Colony, Narsingi, Hyderabad 500075 (India)

    2015-05-14

    A unified strategy of two-pulse based heteronuclear decoupling for solid-state magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance is presented. The analysis presented here shows that different decoupling sequences like two-pulse phase-modulation (TPPM), X-inverse-X (XiX), and finite pulse refocused continuous wave (rCW{sup A}) are basically specific solutions of a more generalized decoupling scheme which incorporates the concept of time-modulation along with phase-modulation. A plethora of other good decoupling conditions apart from the standard, TPPM, XiX, and rCW{sup A} decoupling conditions are available from the unified decoupling approach. The importance of combined time- and phase-modulation in order to achieve the best decoupling conditions is delineated. The consequences of different indirect dipolar interactions arising from cross terms comprising of heteronuclear and homonuclear dipolar coupling terms and also those between heteronuclear dipolar coupling and chemical-shift anisotropy terms are presented in order to unfold the effects of anisotropic interactions under different decoupling conditions. Extensive numerical simulation results are corroborated with experiments on standard amino acids.

  15. A Fast-Processing Modulation Strategy for Three-Phase Four-Leg Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverter Based on the Circuit-Level Decoupling Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghoreishy, Hoda; Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius

    2012-01-01

    the proposed modulation strategy, the four-leg NPC inverter can be decoupled into three three-level Buck converters in each defined operating section. This makes the controller design much simpler compared to the conventional four-leg NPC inverter controllers. Also, this technique can be implemented......In this paper, a modulation strategy based on the circuit-level decoupling concept is proposed and investigated for the three-level four-leg neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverter,with the aim of delivering power to all sorts of loads, linear/nonlinear and balanced/unbalanced. By applying...... with a simple logic and can be processed very quickly. Moreover, the switching loss is reduced substantially and the dc-link capacitors’ voltages balance is also achieved without any feedback control. The proposed modulation technique is verified by the experiment....

  16. A proposal to use mercury as a reflector material for decoupled moderator system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teshigawara, Makoto; Harada, Masahide; Watanabe, Noboru; Kai, Tetsuya; Sakata, Hideaki; Ikeda, Yujiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    It is important for a decoupled moderator system to obtain neutron pulses of a higher intensity with a narrower pulse width and a faster decay. To satisfy these requirements we propose to use mercury as a reflector material and report the neutronic performance of a mercury reflector system. The peak intensity is almost comparable to or even higher than that of the optimized lead reflector system and higher than the optimized Be reflector one. Furthermore the pulse shape is almost the same as that of optimized Be reflector system with a decoupling energy of several tens eV. A mercury reflector system does not require decouplers with a higher decoupling energy, liners nor cooling water, since mercury has a reasonably high neutron absorption cross section and could be used also as a coolant. Thus, the idea of the mercury reflector could bring about a higher neutronic performance with some engineering merits for a decoupled moderator system. (author)

  17. Service Locator - Family Planning Title X

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This locator tool will help you find Title X family planning centers that provide high quality and cost-effective family planning and related preventive health...

  18. Korean Friend Receiving Title of Friendship Ambassador

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The CPAFFC held a ceremony on October 8, 2003 to confer the title of Friendship Ambassador upon Korean friend Lee Ik Soon in recognition of his outstanding contributions to the cause of Sino-Korean friendship.

  19. Current Actions Related to Title V

    Science.gov (United States)

    This site will provide basic information on clean air permitting under the title V operating permits program, provide access to state and regional permitting programs, and maintain access to proposed and final regulatory requirements.

  20. Packaging Differences of News Content on Title

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atiqa Sabardila; I Dewa Putu Wijana; Suhandano

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates anything that underlie the differences of the variation on the packaging variation of the news content on the title that is based on the topicalization, the materials of news...

  1. 77 FR 52116 - Title VI; Final Circular

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    .... Department of Justice advised Federal agencies in late 2001, ``although Sandoval foreclosed private judicial.... Recipients will be required to submit, with the Title VI Program, a copy of the Board resolution,...

  2. Code of Federal Regulations Title 21

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database contains the most recent revision from the Government Printing Office (GPO) of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 21 - Food and Drugs.

  3. Code of Federal Regulations Title 21

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database contains the most recent revision from the Government Printing Office (GPO) of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 21 - Food and Drugs.

  4. Decoupling of automatic control systems in a continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Kumada, Masaharu; Itoh, Kouichi; Fujii, Hirotada

    2004-08-01

    This article describes a systematic approach to decoupling automatic tuning control (ATC) and automatic matching control (AMC) systems in continuous-wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy for animal experiments. This technique enables us to improve the stability of CW-EPR spectroscopy even if the animal is moving during the data acquisition of EPR spectra. The control systems are formulated to allow the behavior of interference between them to be investigated, since they are generally coupled due to the characteristics of the microwave resonator. The stability of the entire control system in a 1.1 GHz CW-EPR spectrometer is evaluated with the generalized Nyquist stability criterion. We compare the EPR spectra of a triarylmethyl (TAM) radical that is dosed in anesthetized mice in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to test the precompensator for decoupling the ATC and AMC systems. The experimental findings suggest that the present technique is useful for improving the SNR of EPR spectra in animal experiments. The SNR of the measured EPR spectra was improved by about 50% with the precompensator.

  5. Emergy-Based City’s Sustainability and Decoupling Assessment: Indicators, Features and Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Decoupling human well-being and local economic growth from resources consumption and environmental degradation has been recognized as a common vision to meet global sustainability. This paper taking Shenyang city as studied case aims to measure the decoupling process by proposing a set of new emergy-based and efficiency-oriented indicators. Decoupling process was verified in period of 1995–2010, and five new indicators including economic efficiency, the environmental pressure, the emergy-based five-year yield efficiency, the investment cost for decoupling, and the job-opportunities cost for decoupling were developed and applied. The results indicate that decoupling in Shenyang shows an erratic appearance, the trajectory of economic growth, and environmental pressure show absolute decoupling, while that of economic growth and resources utilization shows frequentative bending; emergy-based economic efficiency has been improved and the environmental pressure decreased along with the economic growth but the relative job cost per unit remains almost at the same level. However, this isolated and methodology-oriented case study provided the open-mind understandings to policy-making, thus, a wider scale comparison between different cities should be carried out for more knowledge mining.

  6. A Quasi-Decoupled State for Dark Matter in Non-Standard Thermal Histories

    CERN Document Server

    Waldstein, Isaac Raj; Ilie, Cosmin

    2016-01-01

    In a radiation-dominated universe, dark matter kinetically decouples from Standard Model particles when the momentum-transfer rate equals the expansion rate. However, dark matter may kinetically decouple during an early matter-dominated era (EMDE), which occurs when the energy content of the Universe is dominated by either an oscillating scalar field or a semi-stable massive particle before Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. Until now, it has been assumed that kinetic decoupling during an EMDE happens similarly to the way it does in a radiation-dominated era. We show that this is not the case. By studying the evolution of the dark matter temperature, we establish a quasi-decoupled state for dark matter in an EMDE, during which the dark matter temperature cools faster than the plasma temperature but slower than it would if the dark matter were fully decoupled. The dark matter does not fully decouple until the EMDE ends and the Universe becomes radiation dominated. We also extend the criteria for quasi-decoupling to oth...

  7. A Decoupling Control Algorithm for Unwinding Tension System Based on Active Disturbance Rejection Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanhui Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new control methodology based on active disturbance rejection control (ADRC for designing the tension decoupling controller of the unwinding system in a gravure printing machine. The dynamic coupling can be actively estimated and compensated in real time, which makes feedback control an ideal approach to designing the decoupling controller of the unwinding system. This feature is unique to ADRC. In this study, a nonlinear mathematical model is established according to the working principle of the unwinding system. A decoupling model is also constructed to determine the order and decoupling plant of the unwinding system. Based on the order and decoupling plant, an ADRC decoupling control methodology is designed to enhance the tension stability in the unwinding system. The effectiveness and capability of the proposed methodology are verified through simulation and experiments. The results show that the proposed strategy not only realises a decoupling control for the unwinding system but also has an effective antidisturbance capability and is robust.

  8. A critical overview of industrial energy decoupling programs in six developing countries in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luken, Ralph A., E-mail: SkipLuken@yahoo.com [UNIDO, PO Box 300 (Library), A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Piras, Stefano [UNIDO (Austria)

    2011-06-15

    In reviewing the journal literature on the decoupling of energy use and industrial output in the Asian region, particularly with respect to developing countries, we found little information about most country programs other than for China and India and only one article that compared the programs of these two countries. For this reason, we used diverse sources to identify the key programmatic features that have contributed, but clearly are not totally responsible for, decoupling achievements of two countries ( China and Thailand) and then, on the basis of these findings, reviewed emerging industrial energy decoupling programs in four other countries (India, Indonesia, Malaysia and Vietnam). We found that the design of the two successful on-going decoupling programs have common features, which are setting an explicit target for decoupling of energy use and industrial output, a government program that offers financial incentives and imposes specific auditing and reporting requirements and involvement of the manufacturing sector in designing and implementing targets as they apply to individual enterprises. We also found that the emerging programs in the other four countries lack some or all of these essential programmatic features. - Highlights: > We reviewed two on-going and four emerging industrial energy decoupling programs. > These six Asian developing countries have very different rates of decoupling. > The two successful on-going programs share three common features. > These are quantitative targets, supportive programs and industry involvement. > The four emerging programs lack some or all of these features.

  9. Decoupling Control of Micromachined Spinning-Rotor Gyroscope with Electrostatic Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Boqian; Wang, Shunyue; Li, Haixia; He, Xiaoxia

    2016-10-20

    A micromachined gyroscope in which a high-speed spinning rotor is suspended electrostatically in a vacuum cavity usually functions as a dual-axis angular rate sensor. An inherent coupling error between the two sensing axes exists owing to the angular motion of the spinning rotor being controlled by a torque-rebalance loop. In this paper, a decoupling compensation method is proposed and investigated experimentally based on an electrostatically suspended micromachined gyroscope. In order to eliminate the negative spring effect inherent in the gyroscope dynamics, a stiffness compensation scheme was utilized in design of the decoupled rebalance loop to ensure loop stability and increase suspension stiffness. The experimental results show an overall stiffness increase of 30.3% after compensation. A decoupling method comprised of inner- and outer-loop decoupling compensators is proposed to minimize the cross-axis coupling error. The inner-loop decoupling compensator aims to attenuate the angular position coupling. The experimental frequency response shows a position coupling attenuation by 14.36 dB at 1 Hz. Moreover, the cross-axis coupling between the two angular rate output signals can be attenuated theoretically from -56.2 dB down to -102 dB by further appending the outer-loop decoupling compensator. The proposed dual-loop decoupling compensation algorithm could be applied to other dual-axis spinning-rotor gyroscopes with various suspension solutions.

  10. Evidence of Absolute Decoupling from Real World Policy Mixes in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doreen Fedrigo-Fazio

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In resource economics, decoupling from environmental impacts is assumed to be beneficial. However, the success of efforts to increase resource productivity should be placed within the context of the earth’s resources and ecosystems as theoretically finite and contingent on a number of threshold values. Thus far relatively few analyses exist of policies which have successfully implemented strategies for decoupling within these limits. Through ex-post evaluation of a number of real world policy mixes from European Union member states, this paper further develops definitions of the concept of decoupling. Beyond absolute (and relative decoupling, “absolute decoupling within limits” is proposed as an appropriate term for defining resource-productivity at any scale which respects the existing real world limits on resources and ecosystems and as such, contributes to meeting sustainability objectives. Policy mixes presented here cover a range of resources such as fish stocks, fertilizers, aggregates and fossil based materials (plastics. Policy mixes demonstrating absolute decoupling and at least one where absolute decoupling within limits has occurred, provide insights on developing resource efficiency policies in Europe and beyond.

  11. Type Synthesis of Fully-decoupled Three-rotational and One-translational Parallel Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Cao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on screw theory and the principle of one- leg driving by an independent motor, a methodology for the structural synthesis of fully-decoupled three-rotational and one-translational (3R1T parallel mechanisms is proposed by analysing the characteristics of the input-output relationships for fully-decoupled parallel mechanisms. Firstly, the desired forms for both the direct and the inverse Jacobian matrices of fully-decoupled parallel mechanisms are constructed by virtue of screw theory; this is in order to satisfy the demand that these two Jacobian matrices should be non-zero diagonal matrices. Secondly, the effective screw, the actuated screw and the mobile un-actuated screws of each limb are established via reciprocal screw theory, while all the possible topology structures fulfilling the requirements are obtained, based on different connectivities for each limb. Finally, the desired fully-decoupled parallel mechanisms can be synthesized using the structural synthesis rule, while the structural synthesis of fully-decoupled 3R1T parallel mechanisms can be obtained by exploiting the above-mentioned methodology. Moreover, the Jacobian matrix of a synthesized 3R1T parallel mechanism is deduced to demonstrate the decoupling feature of the parallel mechanism, which also validates the correctness of the methodology for the type synthesis of fully-decoupled 3R1T parallel mechanisms. The contents of this paper provide a reference and possess significant theoretical meanings for the synthesis and development of the 3R1T fully-decoupled parallel mechanisms. Motors are mounted one per leg, with each one of them actuating a one Degree-of-freedom (DoF of the fully-decoupled parallel mechanism through a one-to-one velocity relationship.

  12. Decoupler pylon - A simple, effective wing/store flutter suppressor. [in fighter/attack aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, W. H.; Foughner, J. T., Jr.; Runyan, H. L., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    As an alternative to alleviating wing/store flutter by conventional passive methods or by more advanced active control methods, a quasi-passive concept, referred to as the decoupler pylon, is investigated which combines desirable features of both methods. Passive soft-spring/damper elements are used to decouple wing modes from store pitch modes, and a low-power control system maintains store alignment under changing mean loads. It is shown by analysis and wind tunnel tests that the decoupler pylon provides substantial increase in flutter speed and makes flutter virtually insensitive to inertia and center-of-gravity location of the store.

  13. Improved Decoupling for 13C coil Arrays Using Non-Conventional Matching and Preamplifier Impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Juan Diego; Johansen, Daniel Højrup; Hansen, Rie Beck

    In this study, we describe a method to obtain improved preamplifier decoupling for receive-only coils. The method relies on the better decoupling obtained when coils are matched to an impedance higher than 50 . Preamplifiers with inductive imaginary impedance and low real impedance, increase...... the effectiveness of the decoupling. A 2-channel 13C array of 50 mm loop coils show an increase of Q-factor of the coils from 247 to 365. The measured SNR, using two small phantoms, demonstrated a similar improvement....

  14. Decoupling relations and coefficient functions in SUSY-QCD to three loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, Alexander; Steinhauser, Matthias; Zerf, Nikolai [TTP Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    A method to calculate decoupling relations between parameters of SUSY-QCD and of QCD is presented. It allows the computation of the decoupling constant of the strong coupling up to O({alpha}{sub s}{sup 3}) which constitutes an important ingredient in the relation between {alpha}{sub s}(M{sub Z}) and {alpha}{sub s}(M{sub GUT}). With the help of a low-energy theorem the calculated decoupling constant can be related to the effective coupling of the scalar Higgs boson to gluons. Similar considerations for the electromagnetic coupling leads to the decay rate of a Higgs boson to photons.

  15. Navigating towards Decoupled Aquaponic Systems: A System Dynamics Design Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Goddek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The classical working principle of aquaponics is to provide nutrient-rich aquacultural water to a hydroponic plant culture unit, which in turn depurates the water that is returned to the aquaculture tanks. A known drawback is that a compromise away from optimal growing conditions for plants and fish must be achieved to produce both crops and fish in the same environmental conditions. The objective of this study was to develop a theoretical concept of a decoupled aquaponic system (DAPS, and predict water, nutrient (N and P, fish, sludge, and plant levels. This has been approached by developing a dynamic aquaponic system model, using inputs from data found in literature covering the fields of aquaculture, hydroponics, and sludge treatment. The outputs from the model showed the dependency of aquacultural water quality on the hydroponic evapotranspiration rate. This result can be explained by the fact that DAPS is based on one-way flows. These one-way flows results in accumulations of remineralized nutrients in the hydroponic component ensuring optimal conditions for the plants. The study also suggests to size the cultivation area based on P availability in the hydroponic component as P is an exhaustible resource and has been identified one of the main limiting factors for plant growth.

  16. Measurement of an atomic quadrupole moment using dynamic decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerman, Nitzan; Shaniv, Ravid; Ozeri, Roee

    2016-05-01

    Some of the best clocks today are ion-based optical clocks. These clocks are referenced to a narrow optical transition in a trapped ion. An example for such a narrow transition is the electric quadrupole E 2 transition between states with identical parity. An important systematic shift of such a transition is the quadrupole shift resulting from the electric field gradient inherent to the ion trap. We present a new dynamic decoupling method that rejects magnetic field noise while measuring the small quadrupole shift of the optical clock transition. Using our sequence we measured the quadrupole moment of the 4D5/2 level in a trapped 88 Sr+ ion to be 2 .973-0 . 033 + 0 . 026 ea02 , where e is the electron charge and a0 is the Bohr radius. Our measurement improves the uncertainty of this value by an order of magnitude and thus helps mitigate an important systematic uncertainty in 88 Sr+ based optical atomic clocks and verifies complicated many-body quantum calculations.

  17. Attentional Decoupling while Pursuing Intentions: A Form of Mind Wandering?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Lisa eCohen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, participants performed an ongoing lexical decision task (LDT in which they had to classify letter strings as words or nonwords. In intention conditions, they also had to encode a postponed intention to remember to make a different response if a pre-specified cue appeared. Attempting to replicate an important finding from Cohen, Jaudas, and Gollwitzer (2008, the interest was in examining how varying cognitive load associated with an intention influences attention to the ongoing task (measured by reaction times. Typically, disengaging from a primary task is perceived as negative as it can lead to performance decrements; however, if disengaging from a primary task helps one to accomplish a desired future goal, then these attentional shifts may in fact be constructive. Results replicated those of Cohen et al. (2008 and showed that participants were very flexible in how they managed attention in the ongoing lexical decision task. Reaction time costs emerged when cognitive load was high and solely for word trials (i.e., not for nonword trials. The implications for mind wandering are that, while our attention may wander when stimuli are present that trigger a suspended or unfulfilled goal, we are better able to stay on task when the stimuli are less goal relevant. Therefore, the decoupling process (e.g., Schooler et al., 2011 might be initiated when postponed goals are accompanied by a high degree of cognitive load and when external stimuli are present that relate to that goal.

  18. Using Microfluidics to Decouple Nucleation and Growth of Protein Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jung-Uk; Cristobal, Galder; Link, Darren R; Thorsen, Todd; Fraden, Seth

    2007-01-01

    A high throughput, low volume microfluidic device has been designed to decouple the physical processes of protein crystal nucleation and growth. This device, called the Phase Chip, is constructed out of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) elastomer. One of the Phase Chip's innovations is to exploit surface tension forces to guide each drop to a storage chamber. We demonstrate that nanoliter water-in-oil drops of protein solutions can be rapidly stored in individual wells thereby allowing the screening of 1000 conditions while consuming a total of only 10 mug protein on a 20 cm(2) chip. Another significant advance over current microfluidic devices is that each well is in contact with a reservoir via a dialysis membrane through which only water and other low molecular weight organic solvents can pass, but not salt, polymer, or protein. This enables the concentration of all solutes in a solution to be reversibly, rapidly, and precisely varied in contrast to current methods, such as the free interface diffusion or sitting drop methods, which are irreversible. The Phase Chip operates by first optimizing conditions for nucleation by using dialysis to supersaturate the protein solution, which leads to nucleation of many small crystals. Next, conditions are optimized for crystal growth by using dialysis to reduce the protein and precipitant concentrations, which leads small crystals to dissolve while simultaneously causing only the largest ones to grow, ultimately resulting in the transformation of many small, unusable crystals into a few large ones.

  19. Thermal dark matter from a highly decoupled sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Asher; Hooper, Dan; Krnjaic, Gordan

    2016-11-01

    It has recently been shown that if the dark matter is in thermal equilibrium with a sector that is highly decoupled from the Standard Model, it can freeze out with an acceptable relic abundance, even if the dark matter is as heavy as ˜1 - 100 PeV . In such scenarios, both the dark and visible sectors are populated after inflation, but with independent temperatures. The lightest particle in the dark sector will be generically long-lived and can come to dominate the energy density of the Universe. Upon decaying, these particles can significantly reheat the visible sector, diluting the abundance of dark matter and thus allowing for dark matter particles that are much heavier than conventional WIMPs. In this paper, we present a systematic and pedagogical treatment of the cosmological history in this class of models, emphasizing the simplest scenarios in which a dark matter candidate annihilates into hidden sector particles which then decay into visible matter through the vector, Higgs, or lepton portals. In each case, we find ample parameter space in which very heavy dark matter particles can provide an acceptable thermal relic abundance. We also discuss possible extensions of models featuring these dynamics.

  20. Surface-atmosphere decoupling limits accumulation at Summit, Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkelhammer, Max; Noone, David C; Steen-Larsen, Hans Christian; Bailey, Adriana; Cox, Christopher J; O'Neill, Michael S; Schneider, David; Steffen, Konrad; White, James W C

    2016-04-01

    Despite rapid melting in the coastal regions of the Greenland Ice Sheet, a significant area (~40%) of the ice sheet rarely experiences surface melting. In these regions, the controls on annual accumulation are poorly constrained owing to surface conditions (for example, surface clouds, blowing snow, and surface inversions), which render moisture flux estimates from myriad approaches (that is, eddy covariance, remote sensing, and direct observations) highly uncertain. Accumulation is partially determined by the temperature dependence of saturation vapor pressure, which influences the maximum humidity of air parcels reaching the ice sheet interior. However, independent proxies for surface temperature and accumulation from ice cores show that the response of accumulation to temperature is variable and not generally consistent with a purely thermodynamic control. Using three years of stable water vapor isotope profiles from a high altitude site on the Greenland Ice Sheet, we show that as the boundary layer becomes increasingly stable, a decoupling between the ice sheet and atmosphere occurs. The limited interaction between the ice sheet surface and free tropospheric air reduces the capacity for surface condensation to achieve the rate set by the humidity of the air parcels reaching interior Greenland. The isolation of the surface also acts to recycle sublimated moisture by recondensing it onto fog particles, which returns the moisture back to the surface through gravitational settling. The observations highlight a unique mechanism by which ice sheet mass is conserved, which has implications for understanding both past and future changes in accumulation rate and the isotopic signal in ice cores from Greenland.

  1. Decoupled Hierarchical Structures for Suppression of Leidenfrost Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farokhnia, Nazanin; Sajadi, Seyed Mohammad; Irajizad, Peyman; Ghasemi, Hadi

    2017-03-14

    Thermal management of high temperature systems through cooling droplets is limited by the existence of the Leidenfrost point (LFP), at which the formation of a continuous vapor film between a hot solid and a cooling droplet diminishes the heat transfer rate. This limit results in a bottleneck for the advancement of the wide spectrum of systems including high-temperature power generation, electronics/photonics, reactors, and spacecraft. Despite a long time effort on development of surfaces for suppression of this phenomenon, this limit has only shifted to higher temperatures, but still exists. Here, we report a new multiscale decoupled hierarchical structure that suppress the Leidenfrost state and provide efficient heat dissipation at high temperatures. The architecture of these structures is composed of a nanomembrane assembled on top of a deep micropillar structure. This architecture allows to independently tune the involved forces and to suppress LFP. Once a cooling droplet contacts these surfaces, by rerouting the path of vapor flow, the cooling droplet remains attached to the hot solid substrates even at high temperatures (up to 570 °C) for heat dissipation with no existence of Leidenfrost phenomenon. These new surfaces offer unprecedented heat dissipation capacity at high temperatures (2 orders of magnitude higher than the other state-of-the-art surfaces). We envision that these surfaces open a new avenue in thermal management of high-temperature systems through spray cooling.

  2. Thermal Dark Matter From A Highly Decoupled Sector

    CERN Document Server

    Berlin, Asher; Krnjaic, Gordan

    2016-01-01

    It has recently been shown that if the dark matter is in thermal equilibrium with a sector that is highly decoupled from the Standard Model, it can freeze-out with an acceptable relic abundance, even if the dark matter is as heavy as ~1-100 PeV. In such scenarios, both the dark and visible sectors are populated after inflation, but with independent temperatures. The lightest particle in the dark sector will be generically long-lived, and can come to dominate the energy density of the universe. Upon decaying, these particles can significantly reheat the visible sector, diluting the abundance of dark matter and thus allowing for dark matter particles that are much heavier than conventional WIMPs. In this paper, we present a systematic and pedagogical treatment of the cosmological history in this class of models, emphasizing the simplest scenarios in which a dark matter candidate annihilates into hidden sector particles which then decay into visible matter through the vector, Higgs, or lepton portals. In each ca...

  3. Non-decoupling effects in supersymmetric Higgs sectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kanemura, Shinya; Yagyu, Kei

    2010-01-01

    A wide class of Higgs sectors is comprehensively investigated in the decoupling region in supersymmetric standard models. The mass ($m_h$) of the lightest Higgs boson ($h$) as well as the triple Higgs boson coupling (the $hhh$ coupling) are evaluated at the one-loop level in each model. While $m_h$ is at most 120-130 GeV in the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), that in models with an additional singlet or triplet fields can be much larger. The $hhh$ coupling can also be sensitive to the models: while in the MSSM the deviation from the standard model prediction is not significant, that can be 30-60 \\% in some models such as that with the additional singlet or with extra doublets and charged singlets. These models are motivated by specific physics problems. Therefore, when $h$ is found at the CERN Large Hadron Collider, we may be able to discriminate supersymmetric models by measuring $m_h$ and the $hhh$ coupling accurately at future collider experiments.

  4. Decoupling Control of 5 Degrees of Freedom Bearingless Induction Motors Using α-th Order Inverse System Method%五自由度无轴承异步电机α-阶逆系统解耦控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱熀秋; 周阳; 李天博; 刘贤兴

    2007-01-01

    A 5-degrees-of-freedom bearingless induction motor is a multi-variable, nonlinear and strong-coupled system. In order to achieve rotor suspension and operation steadily, it is necessary to realize dynamic decoupling control among torque and suspension forces. In the paper, a method based on α-th order inverse system theory is used to study dynamic decoupling control. Firstly, the working principles of a 3-degrses-of-frsedom magnetic bearing and a 2-degrees-of-freedom bearingiess induction motor are analyzed,the radial-axial force equations of 3-degrees-of-freedom magnetic bearing, the electromagnetic torque equation and radial force equations of the 2-degrees-of-freedom bearingless induction motor are given, and then the state equatious of the 5-degrees-of-freedom bearingless induction motor are set up. Secondly, the feasibility of decoupling control based on dynamic inverse theory is discussed in detail, and the state feedback linearization method is used to decouple and linearize the system. Finally, linear control system techniques are applied to these linearization subsystems to synthesize and simulate. The simulation results have shown that this kind of control strategy can realize dynamic decoupling control among torque and suspeusion forces of the 5-degrees-of-freedom bearingless induction motor, and that the control system has good dynamic and static performance.

  5. A new semiclassical decoupling scheme for electronic transitions in molecular collisions - Application to vibrational-to-electronic energy transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H.-W.; Lam, K. S.; Devries, P. L.; George, T. F.

    1980-01-01

    A new semiclassical decoupling scheme (the trajectory-based decoupling scheme) is introduced in a computational study of vibrational-to-electronic energy transfer for a simple model system that simulates collinear atom-diatom collisions. The probability of energy transfer (P) is calculated quasiclassically using the new scheme as well as quantum mechanically as a function of the atomic electronic-energy separation (lambda), with overall good agreement between the two sets of results. Classical mechanics with the new decoupling scheme is found to be capable of predicting resonance behavior whereas an earlier decoupling scheme (the coordinate-based decoupling scheme) failed. Interference effects are not exhibited in P vs lambda results.

  6. Integrating Title I and Title VII: The Evolving Model of Dearborn Public Schools, Michigan. NCBE Program Information Guide Series No. 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arraf, Shereen; And Others

    This report offers insights on the experiences and techniques used in the Dearborn Public Schools effort to integrate Title VII and Chapter 1 programs prior to their reauthorization. The school system is located near metropolitan Detroit, Michigan, and has over 14,500 students representing 24 languages, many from the Middle East, Romania, and…

  7. To Attract or to Inform:What Are Titles For?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James Hartley

    2004-01-01

    @@ This paper critiques some titles in journal articles for being misleading and it argues that titles need to be informative. Examples are given of work on measuring the effectiveness of titles in two areas-sentence structure and reader comprehension - and the paper concludes with brief comments on the effectiveness of book titles.

  8. To Attract or to Inform: What Are Titles For?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James; Hartley

    2004-01-01

      This paper critiques some titles in journal articles for being misleading and it argues that titles need to be informative. Examples are given of work on measuring the effectiveness of titles in two areas-sentence structure and reader comprehension - and the paper concludes with brief comments on the effectiveness of book titles.……

  9. 12 CFR 611.1137 - Title VIII service corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Title VIII service corporations. 611.1137... Organizations § 611.1137 Title VIII service corporations. (a) What is a title VIII service corporation? A title VIII service corporation is a service corporation organized for the purpose of exercising...

  10. Non-Markovian Quantum Error Deterrence by Dynamical Decoupling in a General Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Shiokawa, K

    2005-01-01

    A dynamical decoupling scheme for the deterrence of errors in the non-Markovian (usually corresponding to low temperature, short time, and strong coupling) regimes suitable for qubits constructed out of a multilevel structure is studied. We use the effective spin-boson model (ESBM) introduced recently [K. Shiokawa and B. L. Hu, Phys. Rev. A70, 062106 (2004)] as a low temperature limit of the quantum Brownian oscillator model, where one can obtain exact solutions for a general environment with colored noises. In our decoupling scheme a train of pairs of strong pulses are used to evolve the interaction Hamiltonian instantaneously. Using this scheme we show that the dynamical decoupling method can suppress $1/f$ noise with slower and hence more accessible pulses than previously studied, but it still fails to decouple super-Ohmic types of environments.

  11. Nonlinear Differential Geometry Method and Its Application in Induction Motor Decoupling Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linyuan Fan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An alternating current induction motor is a nonlinear, multi-variable, and strong-coupled system that is difficult to control. To address this problem, a novel control strategy based on nonlinear differential geometry theory was proposed. First, a five-order affine mathematical model for an alternating current induction motor was provided. Then, the feedback linearization method was used to realize decoupling and full linearization of the system model. Moreover, a general and simplified control law was adopted to facilitate practical applications. Finally, a controller was designed using the pole assignment method. Simulation results show that the proposed method can decouple the system model into two independent subsystems, and that the closed-loop system exhibits good dynamic and static performances. The proposed decoupling control method is useful to reduce the system complexity of an induction motor and to improve its control performance, thereby providing a new and feasible dynamic decoupling control for an alternating current induction motor.

  12. Digital decoupling controller design for multiple time-delay continuous-time transfer function matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, L. B.; Wu, C. Y.; Shieh, L. S.; Tsai, J. S. H.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents an extended adjoint decoupling method to conduct the digital decoupling controller design for the continuous-time transfer function matrices with multiple (integer/fractional) time delays in both the denominator and the numerator matrix. First, based on the sampled unit-step response data of the afore-mentioned multiple time-delay system, the conventional balanced model-reduction method is utilised to construct an approximated discrete-time model of the original (known/unknown) multiple time-delay continuous-time transfer function matrix. Then, a digital decoupling controller is designed by utilising the extended adjoint decoupling method together with the conventional discrete-time root-locus method. An illustrative example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. A decouple conjugate gradient-Gauss-Newton iterative scheme for altimetry assimilation data problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗振东; 朱江; 武祎洁

    2003-01-01

    A decouple conjugate gradient-Gauss-Newton's iterative approximate formulation for altimetry data assimilation (ADA) problems are presented and the convergence of the iterative formulations is proved. Some numerical examples are given to check the validity of the iterative formulation.

  14. PI controller design for indirect vector controlled induction motor: A decoupling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Jitendra Kr; Ghosh, Sandip; Maity, Somnath; Dworak, Pawel

    2017-09-01

    Decoupling of the stator currents is important for smoother torque response of indirect vector controlled induction motors. Typically, feedforward decoupling is used to take care of current coupling that requires exact knowledge of motor parameters, additional circuitry and signal processing. In this paper, a method is proposed to design the regulating proportional-integral gains that minimize coupling without any requirement of the additional decoupler. The variation of the coupling terms for change in load torque is considered as the performance measure. An iterative linear matrix inequality based H∞ control design approach is used to obtain the controller gains. A comparison between the feedforward and the proposed decoupling schemes is presented through simulation and experimental results. The results show that the proposed scheme is simple yet effective even without additional block or burden on signal processing. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Neutronic studies on decoupled hydrogen moderator for a short-pulse spallation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Masahide [Neutron Facility Group, Center for Proton Accelerator Facility, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan)]. E-mail: harada@cens.tokai.jaeri.go.jp; Watanabe, Noboru [Neutron Facility Group, Center for Proton Accelerator Facility, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Teshigawara, Makoto [Neutron Facility Group, Center for Proton Accelerator Facility, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Kai, Tetsuya [Neutron Facility Group, Center for Proton Accelerator Facility, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Ikeda, Yujiro [Neutron Facility Group, Center for Proton Accelerator Facility, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan)

    2005-02-21

    Neutronic studies of decoupled hydrogen moderators were performed by calculations taking into account para hydrogen content, decoupling energy, moderator dimensions/shapes and reflector material. Low-energy parts of calculated spectral intensities with different para hydrogen contents were analyzed by a modified Maxwell function to characterize neutron spectra. The result shows that a 100% para hydrogen moderator gives the highest pulse peak intensity together with the narrowest pulse width and the shortest decay times. Pulse broadening with a reflector was explained by time distributions of source neutrons entering into the moderator through a decoupler. Material dependence of time distribution was studied. A decoupling energy higher than 1 eV does not bring about a large improvement in pulse widths and decay times, even at a large penalty in the peak intensity. The optimal moderator thickness was also discussed for a rectangular parallelepipe-shaped and a canteen-shaped moderator.

  16. Generalized Theory and Decoupled Evaluation Criteria for Unmatched Despreading of Modernized GNSS Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiayi; Yao, Zheng; Lu, Mingquan

    2016-07-20

    In order to provide better navigation service for a wide range of applications, modernized global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) employs increasingly advanced and complicated techniques in modulation and multiplexing of signals. This trend correspondingly increases the complexity of signal despreading at the receiver when matched receiving is used. Considering the numerous low-end receiver who can hardly afford such receiving complexity, it is feasible to apply some receiving strategies, which uses simplified forms of local despreading signals, which is termed unmatched despreading. However, the mismatch between local signal and received signal causes performance loss in code tracking, which is necessary to be considered in the theoretical evaluation methods of signals. In this context, we generalize the theoretical signal evaluation model for unmatched receiving. Then, a series of evaluation criteria are proposed, which are decoupled from unrelated influencing factors and concentrates on the key factors related to the signal and its receiving, thus better revealing the inherent performance of signals. The proposed evaluation criteria are used to study two GNSS signals, from which constructive guidance are derived for receivers and signal designer.

  17. Decoupling directed and passive motion in dynamic systems: particle tracking microrheology of sputum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Erika J; Sharma, Yasha; Fallica, Brian; Tierney, Dylan B; Fortune, Sarah M; Zaman, Muhammad H

    2013-04-01

    Probing the physical properties of heterogeneous materials is essential to understand the structure, function and dynamics of complex fluids including cells, mucus, and polymer solutions. Particle tracking microrheology is a useful method to passively probe viscoelastic properties on micron length scales by tracking the thermal motion of beads embedded in the sample. However, errors associated with active motion have limited the implementation to dynamic systems. We present a simple method to decouple active and Brownian motion, enabling particle tracking to be applied to fluctuating heterogeneous systems. We use the movement perpendicular to the major axis of motion in time to calculate rheological properties. Through simulated data we demonstrate that this method removes directed motion and performs equally well when there is no directed motion, with an average percent error of glycerol-water mixtures to show the capability to measure a range of materials. Finally, we use this technique to characterize the compliance of human sputum. We also investigate the effect of a liquefaction agent used to prepare sputum for diagnostic purposes. Our results suggest that the addition of high concentration sodium hydroxide increases sample heterogeneity by increasing the maximum observed creep compliance.

  18. Decoupled pelvis adjustment to induce lumbar motion: A technique that controls low back load in sitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geffen, van Paul; Reenalda, Jasper; Veltink, Peter H.; Koopman, Bart F.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Static sitting in confined settings have been associated with low back pain in sedentary occupations such as office works and car driving. To prevent lumbar discomfort in prolonged static sitting, periodic motion of the lumbar spine is needed. Because the pelvis forms the basis for lumbar spine curv

  19. Neutronic performance of decoupled poisoned and unpoisoned composite moderators for high resolution experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kai, Tetsuya; Harada, Masahide; Watanabe, Noboru; Teshigawara, Makoto; Sakata, Hideaki; Ikeda, Yujiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    We studied decoupled poisoned and un-poisoned composite moderators consisting of 20 mm thick hydrogen and 30 mm thick light water. The neutron pulses from un-poisoned one were much broader with longer decay times than a simple decoupled hydrogen moderator in 50 mm thickness. It was also found that the poisoned composite moderator provides higher pulse peak intensities relative to the hydrogen moderator (poisoned at 20 mm) below several tens meV with no penalty of pulse width. (author)

  20. Decoupling of Double Extraction Turbo-Unit by Nonlinear Multivariable Inverse System Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎浩荣; 李立勤; 李东海; 宋兆星; 王伟

    2001-01-01

    A multivariable inverse nonlinear control scheme is developed to decouple the strongly nonlinear double extraction steam turbo-unit, improving the transient stability of the power and heating system. Computer simulation tests show that not only does the control scheme achieve satisfactory decoupling of the high and low pressure turbines and the electric power, remarkably improving the transient stability, but also the design is very intuitive and concise.

  1. Coupling Mechanism and Decoupled Suspension Control Model of a Half Car

    OpenAIRE

    Hailong Zhang; Ning Zhang; Fuhong Min; Subhash Rakheja; Chunyi Su; Enrong Wang

    2016-01-01

    A structure decoupling control strategy of half-car suspension is proposed to fully decouple the system into independent front and rear quarter-car suspensions in this paper. The coupling mechanism of half-car suspension is firstly revealed and formulated with coupled damping force (CDF) in a linear function. Moreover, a novel dual dampers-based controllable quarter-car suspension structure is proposed to realize the independent control of pitch and vertical motions of the half car, in which ...

  2. Determination of efficiency of anechoic or decoupling hull coatings using water tank acoustic measurements

    OpenAIRE

    AUDOLY, Christian

    2012-01-01

    International audience; External anechoic and decoupling hull coatings are used on ships or submarines to reduce acoustic target strength and radiated noise, respectively. Measurement of test panels in a water tank gives only the reflection and transmission coefficients in free field, with respects to frequency. It is shown using simple models that anechoic and decoupling efficiencies can be derived, providing appropriate modulus and phase measurement of the coefficients. Additionnally, the i...

  3. Myological variability in a decoupled skeletal system: batoid cranial anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmann, Matthew A; Huber, Daniel R; Dean, Mason N; Grubbs, R Dean

    2014-08-01

    Chondrichthyans (sharks, batoids, and chimaeras) have simple feeding mechanisms owing to their relatively few cranial skeletal elements. However, the indirect association of the jaws to the cranium (euhyostylic jaw suspension) has resulted in myriad cranial muscle rearrangements of both the hyoid and mandibular elements. We examined the cranial musculature of an abbreviated phylogenetic representation of batoid fishes, including skates, guitarfishes and with a particular focus on stingrays. We identified homologous muscle groups across these taxa and describe changes in gross morphology across developmental and functional muscle groups, with the goal of exploring how decoupling of the jaws from the skull has effected muscular arrangement. In particular, we focus on the cranial anatomy of durophagous and nondurophagous batoids, as the former display marked differences in morphology compared to the latter. Durophagous stingrays are characterized by hypertrophied jaw adductors, reliance on pennate versus fusiform muscle fiber architecture, tendinous rather than aponeurotic muscle insertions, and an overall reduction in mandibular kinesis. Nondurophagous stingrays have muscles that rely on aponeurotic insertions onto the skeletal structure, and display musculoskeletal specialization for jaw protrusion and independent lower jaw kinesis, relative to durophagous stingrays. We find that among extant chondrichthyans, considerable variation exists in the hyoid and mandibular muscles, slightly less so in hypaxial muscles, whereas branchial muscles are overwhelmingly conserved. As chondrichthyans occupy a position sister to all other living gnathostomes, our understanding of the structure and function of early vertebrate feeding systems rests heavily on understanding chondrichthyan cranial anatomy. Our findings highlight the incredible variation in muscular complexity across chondrichthyans in general and batoids in particular.

  4. Towards robust dynamical decoupling and high fidelity adiabatic quantum computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Gregory

    Quantum computation (QC) relies on the ability to implement high-fidelity quantum gate operations and successfully preserve quantum state coherence. One of the most challenging obstacles for reliable QC is overcoming the inevitable interaction between a quantum system and its environment. Unwanted interactions result in decoherence processes that cause quantum states to deviate from a desired evolution, consequently leading to computational errors and loss of coherence. Dynamical decoupling (DD) is one such method, which seeks to attenuate the effects of decoherence by applying strong and expeditious control pulses solely to the system. Provided the pulses are applied over a time duration sufficiently shorter than the correlation time associated with the environment dynamics, DD effectively averages out undesirable interactions and preserves quantum states with a low probability of error, or fidelity loss. In this study various aspects of this approach are studied from sequence construction to applications of DD to protecting QC. First, a comprehensive examination of the error suppression properties of a near-optimal DD approach is given to understand the relationship between error suppression capabilities and the number of required DD control pulses in the case of ideal, instantaneous pulses. While such considerations are instructive for examining DD efficiency, i.e., performance vs the number of control pulses, high-fidelity DD in realizable systems is difficult to achieve due to intrinsic pulse imperfections which further contribute to decoherence. As a second consideration, it is shown how one can overcome this hurdle and achieve robustness and recover high-fidelity DD in the presence of faulty control pulses using Genetic Algorithm optimization and sequence symmetrization. Thirdly, to illustrate the implementation of DD in conjunction with QC, the utilization of DD and quantum error correction codes (QECCs) as a protection method for adiabatic quantum

  5. Ocean atmosphere thermal decoupling in the eastern equatorial Indian ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Sudheer; Ravichandran, M.; Kumar, B. Praveen; Jampana, Raju V.; Han, Weiqing

    2017-07-01

    Eastern equatorial Indian ocean (EEIO) is one of the most climatically sensitive regions in the global ocean, which plays a vital role in modulating Indian ocean dipole (IOD) and El Niño southern oscillation (ENSO). Here we present evidences for a paradoxical and perpetual lower co-variability between sea-surface temperature (SST) and air-temperature (Tair) indicating instantaneous thermal decoupling in the same region, where signals of the strongly coupled variability of SST anomalies and zonal winds associated with IOD originate at inter-annual time scale. The correlation minimum between anomalies of Tair and SST occurs in the eastern equatorial Indian ocean warm pool region (≈70°E-100°E, 5°S-5°N), associated with lower wind speeds and lower sensible heat fluxes. At sub-monthly and Madden-Julian oscillation time scales, correlation of both variables becomes very low. In above frequencies, precipitation positively contributes to the low correlation by dropping Tair considerably while leaving SST without any substantial instant impact. Precipitation is led by positive build up of SST and post-facto drop in it. The strong semi-annual response of SST to mixed layer variability and equatorial waves, with the absence of the same in the Tair, contributes further to the weak correlation at the sub-annual scale. The limited correlation found in the EEIO is mainly related to the annual warming of the region and ENSO which is hard to segregate from the impacts of IOD.

  6. STATISTICAL DECOUPLING OF A LAGRANGIAN FLUID PARCEL IN NEWTONIAN COSMOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xin; Szalay, Alex, E-mail: xwang@cita.utoronto.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2016-03-20

    The Lagrangian dynamics of a single fluid element within a self-gravitational matter field is intrinsically non-local due to the presence of the tidal force. This complicates the theoretical investigation of the nonlinear evolution of various cosmic objects, e.g., dark matter halos, in the context of Lagrangian fluid dynamics, since fluid parcels with given initial density and shape may evolve differently depending on their environments. In this paper, we provide a statistical solution that could decouple this environmental dependence. After deriving the evolution equation for the probability distribution of the matter field, our method produces a set of closed ordinary differential equations whose solution is uniquely determined by the initial condition of the fluid element. Mathematically, it corresponds to the projected characteristic curve of the transport equation of the density-weighted probability density function (ρPDF). Consequently it is guaranteed that the one-point ρPDF would be preserved by evolving these local, yet nonlinear, curves with the same set of initial data as the real system. Physically, these trajectories describe the mean evolution averaged over all environments by substituting the tidal tensor with its conditional average. For Gaussian distributed dynamical variables, this mean tidal tensor is simply proportional to the velocity shear tensor, and the dynamical system would recover the prediction of the Zel’dovich approximation (ZA) with the further assumption of the linearized continuity equation. For a weakly non-Gaussian field, the averaged tidal tensor could be expanded perturbatively as a function of all relevant dynamical variables whose coefficients are determined by the statistics of the field.

  7. Statistical Decoupling of a Lagrangian Fluid Parcel in Newtonian Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Szalay, Alex

    2016-03-01

    The Lagrangian dynamics of a single fluid element within a self-gravitational matter field is intrinsically non-local due to the presence of the tidal force. This complicates the theoretical investigation of the nonlinear evolution of various cosmic objects, e.g., dark matter halos, in the context of Lagrangian fluid dynamics, since fluid parcels with given initial density and shape may evolve differently depending on their environments. In this paper, we provide a statistical solution that could decouple this environmental dependence. After deriving the evolution equation for the probability distribution of the matter field, our method produces a set of closed ordinary differential equations whose solution is uniquely determined by the initial condition of the fluid element. Mathematically, it corresponds to the projected characteristic curve of the transport equation of the density-weighted probability density function (ρPDF). Consequently it is guaranteed that the one-point ρPDF would be preserved by evolving these local, yet nonlinear, curves with the same set of initial data as the real system. Physically, these trajectories describe the mean evolution averaged over all environments by substituting the tidal tensor with its conditional average. For Gaussian distributed dynamical variables, this mean tidal tensor is simply proportional to the velocity shear tensor, and the dynamical system would recover the prediction of the Zel’dovich approximation (ZA) with the further assumption of the linearized continuity equation. For a weakly non-Gaussian field, the averaged tidal tensor could be expanded perturbatively as a function of all relevant dynamical variables whose coefficients are determined by the statistics of the field.

  8. Ocean atmosphere thermal decoupling in the eastern equatorial Indian ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Sudheer; Ravichandran, M.; Kumar, B. Praveen; Jampana, Raju V.; Han, Weiqing

    2016-09-01

    Eastern equatorial Indian ocean (EEIO) is one of the most climatically sensitive regions in the global ocean, which plays a vital role in modulating Indian ocean dipole (IOD) and El Niño southern oscillation (ENSO). Here we present evidences for a paradoxical and perpetual lower co-variability between sea-surface temperature (SST) and air-temperature (Tair) indicating instantaneous thermal decoupling in the same region, where signals of the strongly coupled variability of SST anomalies and zonal winds associated with IOD originate at inter-annual time scale. The correlation minimum between anomalies of Tair and SST occurs in the eastern equatorial Indian ocean warm pool region (≈70°E-100°E, 5°S-5°N), associated with lower wind speeds and lower sensible heat fluxes. At sub-monthly and Madden-Julian oscillation time scales, correlation of both variables becomes very low. In above frequencies, precipitation positively contributes to the low correlation by dropping Tair considerably while leaving SST without any substantial instant impact. Precipitation is led by positive build up of SST and post-facto drop in it. The strong semi-annual response of SST to mixed layer variability and equatorial waves, with the absence of the same in the Tair, contributes further to the weak correlation at the sub-annual scale. The limited correlation found in the EEIO is mainly related to the annual warming of the region and ENSO which is hard to segregate from the impacts of IOD.

  9. Automatic Titling of Electronic Documents with Noun Phrase Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    LOPEZ, Cédric; Prince, Violaine; Roche, Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Automatic titling (i.e. providing titles) is one of key domains of Web site accessibility. This paper provides an approach allowing the automatic titling of texts (e.g. emails, fora, etc.) relying on the morphosyntactic study of human written titles in a corpus of various texts. The method is developed in four stages: Corpus acquisition, candidate sentences determination for titling, noun phrase extraction in the candidate sentences, and finally, selecting a particular...

  10. Title I: Time to Get It Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roza, Marguerite; Lake, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Congress enacted the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) 50 years ago as part of President Lyndon B. Johnson's "War on Poverty." The most expansive federal education bill ever passed, it was developed as redress, establishing that poor children needed more educational services than wealthier children. Title I of the ESEA…

  11. Fast title extraction method for business documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuyama, Yutaka; Naoi, Satoshi

    1997-04-01

    Conventional electronic document filing systems are inconvenient because the user must specify the keywords in each document for later searches. To solve this problem, automatic keyword extraction methods using natural language processing and character recognition have been developed. However, these methods are slow, especially for japanese documents. To develop a practical electronic document filing system, we focused on the extraction of keyword areas from a document by image processing. Our fast title extraction method can automatically extract titles as keywords from business documents. All character strings are evaluated for similarity by rating points associated with title similarity. We classified these points as four items: character sitting size, position of character strings, relative position among character strings, and string attribution. Finally, the character string that has the highest rating is selected as the title area. The character recognition process is carried out on the selected area. It is fast because this process must recognize a small number of patterns in the restricted area only, and not throughout the entire document. The mean performance of this method is an accuracy of about 91 percent and a 1.8 sec. processing time for an examination of 100 Japanese business documents.

  12. Multicultural Titles for Holidays and Celebrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell-Powell, Brenda

    1993-01-01

    This bibliography (14 sources) of holiday-oriented titles provides resources for school, library, and home use that present engaging perspectives on cultural celebrations, informative content, and potential for interactive use. All incorporate diversity as an everyday way of life rather than a special occasion posture. (SLD)

  13. 24 CFR 3500.16 - Title companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Title companies. 3500.16 Section 3500.16 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  14. Names, Nicknames, and Titles in Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantas, Andrei

    1994-01-01

    Considers the problems related to the translation of names, nicknames, and titles. Discusses the general challenges requiring extensive cultural background, along with special challenges revealing an author's subjective intentions in the form of humor, invention, allusion, or distortion. Provides a method for dealing with such translational…

  15. Decoupling as a mechanism of change in mindfulness and acceptance: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael E; Luoma, Jason B; Haeger, Jack A

    2015-11-01

    A growing body of research within the acceptance and mindfulness-based therapies suggests that these treatments may function in part by reducing or eliminating (i.e., decoupling) the normative relationships between internal experiences and other internal/overt behavior. Examples of decoupling effects found in this review include reduced relationships between urges to smoke and smoking behavior, between dysphoric mood and depressive cognitions, and between pain intensity and persistence in a painful task. A literature review identified 44 studies on acceptance and mindfulness that demonstrated decoupling effects. Overall, preliminary evidence for decoupling effects were found across a broad range of problem areas, including substance abuse, depression, eating disorders, overeating, chronic pain, anxiety, relationships, anger, avoidance behavior, and self-harm, with the strongest evidence currently available in the area of substance abuse. However, the review also notes a general lack of replication studies on decoupling effects and the need for more well-powered and controlled research testing specific decoupling hypotheses. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Decoupling Control Design for the Module Suspension Control System in Maglev Train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An engineering oriented decoupling control method for the module suspension system is proposed to solve the coupling issues of the two levitation units of the module in magnetic levitation (maglev train. According to the format of the system transfer matrix, a modified adjoint transfer matrix based decoupler is designed. Then, a compensated controller is obtained in the light of a desired close loop system performance. Optimization between the performance index and robustness index is also carried out to determine the controller parameters. However, due to the high orders and complexity of the obtained resultant controller, model reduction method is adopted to get a simplified controller with PID structure. Considering the modeling errors of the module suspension system as the uncertainties, experiments have been performed to obtain the weighting function of the system uncertainties. By using this, the robust stability of the decoupled module suspension control system is checked. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed decoupling design method is validated by simulations and physical experiments. The results illustrate that the presented decoupling design can result in a satisfactory decoupling and better dynamic performance, especially promoting the reliability of the suspension control system in practical engineering application.

  17. Eco-Efficiency Trends and Decoupling Analysis of Environmental Pressures in Tianjin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes Tianjin’s eco-efficiency trends during the period 2001–2013 and reasons for their changes, with the aim of contributing to efforts to ensure the city’s sustainable development. While eco-efficiency of all of the indicators that we analyzed showed improvements during the study period, a gap remained in comparison to the more advanced eco-efficiency observed both domestically and internationally. We subsequently introduced decoupling indices to examine the decoupling relationship between environmental pressure and economic growth. This analysis demonstrated that some progress occurred during the study period resulting from the implementation of existing policies and measures entailing resource conservation and reduction in the emission of pollutants. The latter applied, especially, to sulfur dioxide (SO2 and chemical oxygen demand (COD, which both retained strong decoupling states from 2006 to 2013. Other indicators showed an apparent tendency toward decoupling, but most displayed weak decoupling. These findings indicate that further efforts are urgently required to promote strong decoupling. At the end of the twelfth Five-Year Plan period, Tianjin should consider formulating policies from the perspectives of resource consumption and pollutant emissions reduction to promote further sustainable development.

  18. Research on Coordinated Robotic Motion Control Based on Fuzzy Decoupling Method in Fluidic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The underwater recovery of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV is a process of 6-DOF motion control, which is related to characteristics with strong nonlinearity and coupling. In the recovery mission, the vehicle requires high level control accuracy. Considering an AUV called BSAV, this paper established a kinetic model to describe the motion of AUV in the horizontal plane, which consisted of nonlinear equations. On the basis of this model, the main coupling variables were analyzed during recovery. Aiming at the strong coupling problem between the heading control and sway motion, we designed a decoupling compensator based on the fuzzy theory and the decoupling theory. We analyzed to the rules of fuzzy compensation, the input and output membership functions of fuzzy compensator, through compose operation and clear operation of fuzzy reasoning, and obtained decoupling compensation quantity. Simulation results show that the fuzzy decoupling controller effectively reduces the overshoot of the system, and improves the control precision. Through the water tank experiments and analysis of experimental data, the effectiveness and feasibility of AUV recovery movement coordinated control based on fuzzy decoupling method are validated successful, and show that the fuzzy decoupling control method has a high practical value in the recovery mission.

  19. Decoupling economic growth from CO2 emissions: A decomposition analysis of China's household energy consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wei Ma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes Chinese household CO2 emissions in 1994–2012 based on the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI structure decomposition model, and discusses the relationship between household CO2 emissions and economic growth based on a decoupling indicator. The results show that in 1994–2012, household CO2 emissions grew in general and displayed an accelerated growth trend during the early 21st century. Economic growth leading to an increase in energy consumption is the main driving factor of CO2 emission growth (an increase of 1.078 Gt CO2 with cumulative contribution rate of 55.92%, while the decline in energy intensity is the main cause of CO2 emission growth inhibition (0.723 Gt CO2 emission reduction with cumulative contribution rate of 38.27%. Meanwhile, household CO2 emissions are in a weak state of decoupling in general. The change in CO2 emissions caused by population and economic growth shows a weak decoupling and expansive decoupling state, respectively. The CO2 emission change caused by energy intensity is in a state of strong decoupling, and the change caused by energy consumption structure fluctuates between a weak and a strong decoupling state.

  20. Decomposing the Decoupling of Water Consumption and Economic Growth in China’s Textile Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Unprecedented economic achievement in China’s textile industry (TI has occurred along with rising water consumption. The goal of industrial sustainable development requires the decoupling of economic growth from resource consumption. This paper examines the relationship between water consumption and economic growth, and the internal influence mechanism of China’s TI and its three sub-sectors: the manufacture of textiles (MT sector, the Manufacture of Textile Wearing Apparel, Footwear, and Caps (MTWA sector, and the manufacture of chemical fibers (MCF sector. A decoupling analysis was performed and the Laspeyres decomposition method was applied to the period from 2001 to 2014. We showed that six of the fourteen years analyzed (2003, 2006, 2008, 2009, 2011, and 2013 exhibited a strong decoupling effect and three of the fourteen years (2005, 2007, and 2010 exhibited a weak decoupling effect. Overall, China’s TI experienced a good decoupling between economic growth and water consumption from 2002 to 2014. For the three sub-sectors, the MTWA sector experienced a more significant positive decoupling than the MT and MCF sectors. The decomposition results confirm that the industrial scale factor is the most important driving force of China’s TI water consumption increase, while the water efficiency factor is the most important inhibiting force. The industrial structure adjustment does not significantly affect water consumption. The industrial scale and water use efficiency factors are also the main determinants of change in water consumption for the three sub-sectors.

  1. Application of dynamic decoupling fuzzy control method in aircraft gust alleviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Aijun; Tan, Jian; Zhang, Weiguo; Sun, Xun

    2006-11-01

    Dynamic inversion method can not only remove a system's nonlinear factors, but also achieve the system's dynamic decoupling. But its decoupling effect completely depends on the accuracy of the mathematical model of the system. A dynamic decoupling fuzzy control method for MIMO system is presented in this paper, which employs the dynamic inversion method to decouple the multivariable system and introduces a fuzzy controller, without quantification, with correcting function, and expressed in analytic form to overcome the poor decoupling effect when the system model is inaccurate. It is feasible and convenient to compute, tune, and realize the control rules by computer, to adjust the parameters of the controller and to optimize the design of the control system, for the rules are described by analytical expression. The method is adopted to design vertical transition mode of an active control aircraft for gust alleviation. The control laws and simulation diagrams of the system are designed. Simulation results in MATLAB show that the vertical transition mode designed by dynamic decoupling fuzzy control method increases the gust-against effect by about 34% compared with that of a normal aircraft.

  2. Robust and efficient 19F heteronuclear dipolar decoupling using refocused continuous-wave rf irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinther, Joachim M.; Khaneja, Navin; Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2013-01-01

    Refocused continuous wave (rCW) decoupling is presented as an efficient and robust means to obtain well-resolved magic-angle-spinning solid-state NMR spectra of low-γ spins, such as 13C dipolar coupled to fluorine. The rCW decoupling sequences, recently introduced for 1H decoupling, are very robust towards large isotropic and anisotropic shift ranges as often encountered for 19F spins. In rCW decoupling, the so-called refocusing pulses inserted into the CW irradiation eliminate critical residual second- and third-order dipolar coupling and dipolar-coupling against chemical shielding anisotropy cross-terms in the effective Hamiltonian through time-reversal (i.e. refocusing). As important additional assets, the rCW decoupling sequences are robust towards variations in rf amplitudes, operational at low to high spinning speeds, and easy to set-up for optimal performance experimentally. These aspects are demonstrated analytically/numerically and experimentally in comparison to state-of-the-art decoupling sequences such as TPPM, SPINAL-64, and frequency-swept variants of these.

  3. Have Market-oriented Reforms Decoupled China’s CO2 Emissions from Total Electricity Generation? An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Achieving the decoupling of electric CO2 emissions from total electricity generation is important in ensuring the sustainable socioeconomic development of China. To realize this, China implemented market-oriented reforms to its electric power industry at the beginning of 2003. This study used the Tapio decoupling index, the Laspeyres decomposition algorithm, and decoupling-related data from 1993 to 2012 to evaluate the effect of these reforms. Several conclusions can be drawn based on the empirical analysis. (1 The reforms changed the developmental trend of the decoupling index and facilitated its progress towards strong decoupling. (2 The results forecasted through fitting the curve to the decoupling index indicate that strong decoupling would be realized by 2030. (3 Limiting the manufacturing development and upgrading the generation equipment of the thermal power plants are essential for China to achieve strong decoupling at an early date. (4 China should enhance regulatory pressures and guidance for appropriate investment in thermal power plants to ensure the stable development of the decoupling index. (5 Transactions between multiple participants and electricity price bidding play active roles in the stable development of the decoupling index.

  4. Numerical and theoretical analyses of underground explosion cavity decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R.; Aldridge, D. F.; Chael, E. P.

    2013-12-01

    It has long been established that the amplitudes of seismic waves radiated from an underground explosion can be reduced by detonating the explosive within a fluid-filled cavity of adequate size. Significant amplitude reduction occurs because the reflection coefficient at the fluid/rock interface (i.e., the cavity wall) is large. In fact, the DC frequency limit of the reflection coefficient for a spherically-diverging seismic wave incident upon a concentric spherical interface is -1.0, independent of radius of curvature and all material properties. In order to quantify to the degree of amplitude reduction expected in various realistic scenarios, we are conducting mathematical and numerical investigations into the so-called 'cavity decoupling problem' for a buried explosion. Our working tool is a numerical algorithm for simulating fully-coupled seismic and acoustic wave propagation in mixed solid/fluid media. Solution methodology involves explicit, time-domain, finite differencing of the elastodynamic velocity-stress partial differential system on a three-dimensional staggered spatial grid. Conditional logic is used to avoid shear stress updating within fluid zones; this approach leads to computational efficiency gains for models containing a significant proportion of ideal fluid. Numerical stability and accuracy are maintained at air/rock interfaces (where the contrast in mass density is on the order of 1 to 2000) via an FD operator 'order switching' formalism. The fourth-order spatial FD operator used throughout the bulk of the earth model is reduced to second-order in the immediate vicinity of a high-contrast interface. Point explosions detonated at the center of an air-filled or water-filled spherical cavity lead to strong resonant oscillations in radiated seismic energy, with period controlled by cavity radius and sound speed of the fill fluid. If the explosion is off-center, or the cavity is non-spherical, shear waves are generated in the surrounding elastic

  5. Contrasting cloud composition between coupled and decoupled marine boundary layer clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Mora Ramirez, Marco; Dadashazar, Hossein; MacDonald, Alex B.; Crosbie, Ewan; Bates, Kelvin H.; Coggon, Matthew M.; Craven, Jill S.; Lynch, Peng; Campbell, James R.; Azadi Aghdam, Mojtaba; Woods, Roy K.; Jonsson, Haflidi; Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.; Sorooshian, Armin

    2016-10-01

    Marine stratocumulus clouds often become decoupled from the vertical layer immediately above the ocean surface. This study contrasts cloud chemical composition between coupled and decoupled marine stratocumulus clouds for dissolved nonwater substances. Cloud water and droplet residual particle composition were measured in clouds off the California coast during three airborne experiments in July-August of separate years (Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment 2011, Nucleation in California Experiment 2013, and Biological and Oceanic Atmospheric Study 2015). Decoupled clouds exhibited significantly lower air-equivalent mass concentrations in both cloud water and droplet residual particles, consistent with reduced cloud droplet number concentration and subcloud aerosol (Dp > 100 nm) number concentration, owing to detachment from surface sources. Nonrefractory submicrometer aerosol measurements show that coupled clouds exhibit higher sulfate mass fractions in droplet residual particles, owing to more abundant precursor emissions from the ocean and ships. Consequently, decoupled clouds exhibited higher mass fractions of organics, nitrate, and ammonium in droplet residual particles, owing to effects of long-range transport from more distant sources. Sodium and chloride dominated in terms of air-equivalent concentration in cloud water for coupled clouds, and their mass fractions and concentrations exceeded those in decoupled clouds. Conversely, with the exception of sea-salt constituents (e.g., Cl, Na, Mg, and K), cloud water mass fractions of all species examined were higher in decoupled clouds relative to coupled clouds. Satellite and Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System-based reanalysis data are compared with each other, and the airborne data to conclude that limitations in resolving boundary layer processes in a global model prevent it from accurately quantifying observed differences between coupled and decoupled cloud composition.

  6. Influences of Cultural Differences on Translation of Titles of Laws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾秀梅

    2014-01-01

    For whatever kind of literary forms, the first thing that we come into contact with is the title. The title functions as not only the eye catcher but also the summary of the context. Any legal document starts with its title and a good translation of the ti-tle lays the foundation for the interpretation of follow-up terms and conditions. However, translating titles of laws is affected by different factors, especially cultural differences, such as history, diction and conventions. Anyway, cultural impact on translation of law titles can be handled tactfully.

  7. Influences of Cultural Differences on Translation of Titles of Songs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈彩珍

    2014-01-01

    A title is like an eye that reveals its character. A good title of great originality can concentrate on the main points and arouse readers’interests. The title plays a significant part especially in the times of eyeball economy. However, though short as titles are, they always contain a lot of connotations which are quite difficult to translate. Translation is substantially kind of cross-cultural information communication, and translation of song titles is no exception. Due to different origins, Chinese and Western cultures possess their own characteristics in cultural images, ways of thinking, and historical allusions, which should be considered when translating song titles.

  8. Structure des titres et enseignes (The Structure of Titles and Signs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbris, Genevieve

    1982-01-01

    Seeks to discover in advertising slogans, titles of all kinds, signs, and commercials, allusions to and reflections of French culture. Cultural allusions are treated according to source, technique used, and way of achieving double meaning. The structural aspect is studied according to the diverse forms of play on words. (AMH)

  9. Flight test of a decoupler pylon for wing/store flutter suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazier, F. W., Jr.; Kehoe, M. W.

    1986-01-01

    The decoupler pylon is a NASA concept of passive wing-store flutter suppression achieved by providing a low store-pylon pitch frequency. Flight tests were performed on an F-16 aircraft carrying on each wing an AIM-9J wingtip missile, a GBU-8 bomb near midspan, and an external fuel tank. Baseline flights with the GBU-8 mounted on a standard pylon established that this configuration is characterized by an antisymmetric limited amplitude flutter oscillation within the operational envelope. The airplane was then flown with the GBU-8 mounted on the decoupler pylon. The decoupler pylon successfully suppressed wing-store flutter throughout the flight envelope. A 37-percent increase in flutter velocity over the standard pylon was demonstrated. Maneuvers with load factors to 4g were performed. Although the static store displacements during maneuvers were not sufficiently large to be of concern, a store pitch alignment system was tested and performed successfully. One GBU-8 was ejected demonstrating that weapon separation from the decoupler pylon is normal. Experience with the present decoupler pylon design indicated that friction in the pivoting mechanism could affect its proper functioning as a flutter suppressor.

  10. Pupillometric Evidence for the Decoupling of Attention from Perceptual Input during Offline Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Jonathan; Brown, Kevin S.; Tipper, Christine; Giesbrecht, Barry; Franklin, Michael S.; Mrazek, Michael D.; Carlson, Jean M.; Schooler, Jonathan W.

    2011-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the brain can efficiently process both external and internal information. The processing of internal information is a distinct “offline” cognitive mode that requires not only spontaneously generated mental activity; it has also been hypothesized to require a decoupling of attention from perception in order to separate competing streams of internal and external information. This process of decoupling is potentially adaptive because it could prevent unimportant external events from disrupting an internal train of thought. Here, we use measurements of pupil diameter (PD) to provide concrete evidence for the role of decoupling during spontaneous cognitive activity. First, during periods conducive to offline thought but not during periods of task focus, PD exhibited spontaneous activity decoupled from task events. Second, periods requiring external task focus were characterized by large task evoked changes in PD; in contrast, encoding failures were preceded by episodes of high spontaneous baseline PD activity. Finally, high spontaneous PD activity also occurred prior to only the slowest 20% of correct responses, suggesting high baseline PD indexes a distinct mode of cognitive functioning. Together, these data are consistent with the decoupling hypothesis, which suggests that the capacity for spontaneous cognitive activity depends upon minimizing disruptions from the external world. PMID:21464969

  11. Pupillometric evidence for the decoupling of attention from perceptual input during offline thought.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Smallwood

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that the brain can efficiently process both external and internal information. The processing of internal information is a distinct "offline" cognitive mode that requires not only spontaneously generated mental activity; it has also been hypothesized to require a decoupling of attention from perception in order to separate competing streams of internal and external information. This process of decoupling is potentially adaptive because it could prevent unimportant external events from disrupting an internal train of thought. Here, we use measurements of pupil diameter (PD to provide concrete evidence for the role of decoupling during spontaneous cognitive activity. First, during periods conducive to offline thought but not during periods of task focus, PD exhibited spontaneous activity decoupled from task events. Second, periods requiring external task focus were characterized by large task evoked changes in PD; in contrast, encoding failures were preceded by episodes of high spontaneous baseline PD activity. Finally, high spontaneous PD activity also occurred prior to only the slowest 20% of correct responses, suggesting high baseline PD indexes a distinct mode of cognitive functioning. Together, these data are consistent with the decoupling hypothesis, which suggests that the capacity for spontaneous cognitive activity depends upon minimizing disruptions from the external world.

  12. Temperature-induced coupled–decoupled transition in perpendicular pseudo spin valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, M.; Mohseni, S. M.

    2017-03-01

    The effect of spacer and ferromagnetic layer thickness on temperature-dependent magnetostatic coupling in perpendicular magnetic anisotropy pseudo spin valves (PMA-PSVs) with the structure of [Ni/Co]5/Cu(d Cu)/[Ni/Co] n is explored theoretically. We introduce an effective field that controls the domain replication mechanism and coupling in PSVs. The decoupling temperature (T decoupling) can be determined by considering the temperature dependence of the effective field and the coercivity of the hard layer of the PSVs. This study reveals that by increasing the spacer layer thickness, the effective field decreases and T decoupling has an increasing trend. Furthermore, by increasing the hard ferromagnetic layer thickness, which is accompanied by an increase in the anisotropy of the layer, T decoupling again has an increasing trend. The results are comparable to recently reported experimental ones for PMA-PSVs with various spacer thicknesses, d Cu, and the number of bilayer repeats, n. As a practical result, this work gives a deep understanding of the magnetostatically driven domain replication mechanism and temperature-induced coupled–decoupled transitions in PMA-PSVs.

  13. Application of Domestication Theory in Translation of Movie Titles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明亮; 刘智慧

    2011-01-01

    This thesis attempts to discuss Chinese and English movie titles translation from the perspective of domestication theory and concludes domestication translation can break through restricts at the linguistic level to convey the meaning and spirit of movie titles efficiently.

  14. Highly efficient F-19 heteronuclear decoupling in solid-state NMR spectroscopy using supercycled refocused-CW irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Equbal, Asif; Basse, Kristoffer; Nielsen, Niels Christian

    2016-01-01

    We present heteronuclear F-19 refocused CW (rCW) decoupling pulse sequences for solid-state magic-angle- spinning NMR applications. The decoupling sequences have been designed specifically to ensure suppression of the pertinent C-13-F-19 dipolar coupling interactions while simultaneously suppress......We present heteronuclear F-19 refocused CW (rCW) decoupling pulse sequences for solid-state magic-angle- spinning NMR applications. The decoupling sequences have been designed specifically to ensure suppression of the pertinent C-13-F-19 dipolar coupling interactions while simultaneously...

  15. Influences of Cultural Differences on Translation of Titles of Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈彩珍

    2014-01-01

    When translating the titles of films, translators are faced with not only different meanings of Chinese and English lan-guage, but also various cultural connotations behind the titles. Therefore, translators should take cultural differences into account in order to make the translated titles close to the connotations of the source culture. Such cultural differences as religious dissimi-larities, historical allusions and idiomatic expressions (or idioms) are major concerns when translating film titles.

  16. 29 CFR 452.7 - Bill of Rights, title I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bill of Rights, title I. 452.7 Section 452.7 Labor... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Other Provisions of the Act Affecting Title IV § 452.7 Bill of Rights, title I. The provisions of title I, “Bill of Rights of Members of Labor Organizations” 7 (particularly section 101(a)(1...

  17. Decoupling social status and status certainty effects on health in macaques: a network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Darcy L.; Nathman, Amy C.; Capitanio, John P.; Hsieh, Fushing; Atwill, Edward R.; McCowan, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Background Although a wealth of literature points to the importance of social factors on health, a detailed understanding of the complex interplay between social and biological systems is lacking. Social status is one aspect of social life that is made up of multiple structural (humans: income, education; animals: mating system, dominance rank) and relational components (perceived social status, dominance interactions). In a nonhuman primate model we use novel network techniques to decouple two components of social status, dominance rank (a commonly used measure of social status in animal models) and dominance certainty (the relative certainty vs. ambiguity of an individual’s status), allowing for a more complex examination of how social status impacts health. Methods Behavioral observations were conducted on three outdoor captive groups of rhesus macaques (N = 252 subjects). Subjects’ general physical health (diarrhea) was assessed twice weekly, and blood was drawn once to assess biomarkers of inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP)). Results Dominance rank alone did not fully account for the complex way that social status exerted its effect on health. Instead, dominance certainty modified the impact of rank on biomarkers of inflammation. Specifically, high-ranked animals with more ambiguous status relationships had higher levels of inflammation than low-ranked animals, whereas little effect of rank was seen for animals with more certain status relationships. The impact of status on physical health was more straightforward: individuals with more ambiguous status relationships had more frequent diarrhea; there was marginal evidence that high-ranked animals had less frequent diarrhea. Discussion Social status has a complex and multi-faceted impact on individual health. Our work suggests an important role of uncertainty in one’s social status in status-health research. This work also suggests that

  18. Decoupling social status and status certainty effects on health in macaques: a network approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica J. Vandeleest

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Although a wealth of literature points to the importance of social factors on health, a detailed understanding of the complex interplay between social and biological systems is lacking. Social status is one aspect of social life that is made up of multiple structural (humans: income, education; animals: mating system, dominance rank and relational components (perceived social status, dominance interactions. In a nonhuman primate model we use novel network techniques to decouple two components of social status, dominance rank (a commonly used measure of social status in animal models and dominance certainty (the relative certainty vs. ambiguity of an individual’s status, allowing for a more complex examination of how social status impacts health. Methods Behavioral observations were conducted on three outdoor captive groups of rhesus macaques (N = 252 subjects. Subjects’ general physical health (diarrhea was assessed twice weekly, and blood was drawn once to assess biomarkers of inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, and C-reactive protein (CRP. Results Dominance rank alone did not fully account for the complex way that social status exerted its effect on health. Instead, dominance certainty modified the impact of rank on biomarkers of inflammation. Specifically, high-ranked animals with more ambiguous status relationships had higher levels of inflammation than low-ranked animals, whereas little effect of rank was seen for animals with more certain status relationships. The impact of status on physical health was more straightforward: individuals with more ambiguous status relationships had more frequent diarrhea; there was marginal evidence that high-ranked animals had less frequent diarrhea. Discussion Social status has a complex and multi-faceted impact on individual health. Our work suggests an important role of uncertainty in one’s social status in status-health research. This work also

  19. 29 CFR 4022.63 - Estimated title IV benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Estimated title IV benefit. 4022.63 Section 4022.63 Labor... PAYABLE IN TERMINATED SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Benefit Reductions in Terminating Plans § 4022.63 Estimated... administrator shall determine each participant's estimated title IV benefit. The estimated title IV...

  20. 14 CFR 1245.109 - Assignment of title to NASA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assignment of title to NASA. 1245.109... INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS Patent Waiver Regulations § 1245.109 Assignment of title to NASA. (a) The instrument of waiver set forth in § 1245.115(c) shall be voided by NASA with respect to the domestic title...

  1. 44 CFR 208.27 - Title to equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Cooperative Agreements § 208.27 Title to equipment. Title to equipment purchased by a Sponsoring Agency with funds provided under a DHS Preparedness Cooperative Agreement vests in the Sponsoring Agency, provided that DHS reserves the right to transfer title to the Federal Government or a third party that DHS...

  2. A Robust DC-Split-Capacitor Power Decoupling Scheme for Single-Phase Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Wenli; Loh, Poh Chiang; Tang, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Instead of bulky electrolytic capacitors, active power decoupling circuit can be introduced to a single-phase converter for diverting second harmonic ripple away from its dc source or load. One possible circuit consists of a half-bridge and two capacitors in series for forming a dc-split capacitor......, instead of the usual single dc-link capacitor bank. Methods for regulating this power decoupler have earlier been developed, but almost always with equal capacitances assumed for forming the dc-split capacitor, even though it is not realistic in practice. The assumption should, hence, be evaluated more...... thoroughly, especially when it is shown in the paper that even a slight mismatch can render the power decoupling scheme ineffective and the IEEE 1547 standard to be breached. A more robust compensation scheme is, thus, needed for the dc-split capacitor circuit, as proposed and tested experimentally...

  3. Zero Dynamics Analysis for Inverse Decoupling Control of Asynchronous Traction Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiying Dong

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Considering the problem for inverse system method in EMU AC induction traction motor linear decoupling, the zero dynamics subsystem will be separated from the original dynamic system through coordinate transformation. Firstly, a getting method for zero dynamics of the multiple input multiple output nonlinear system is discussed when γ<n. Second, the zero dynamics analysis for five order nonlinear model of asynchronous traction motor which base on the stationary coordinate system is given by using inverse decoupling method. The analysis results show that if the stability of the zero dynamics can be ensured, then the entire linearization of original nonlinear system is not necessary, need only partial linearization which effect on the external dynamic portion. The inverse decoupling process of asynchronous traction motor can be simplified by this conclusion.

  4. Study of the choice of the decoupling layout for the ITER ICRH system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vervier, M., E-mail: michel.vervier@rma.ac.be; Messiaen, A.; Ongena, J.; Durodié, F.

    2015-12-10

    10 decouplers are used to neutralize the mutual coupling effects and to control the current amplitude of the 24 straps array of the ITER ICRH antenna in the case of current drive phasing. In the case of heating phasing only 4 decouplers are active and the array current control needs to act on the ratio between the power delivered by the 4 generators. This ratio is very sensitive to the precise adjustment of the antenna array phasing. The maximum total radiated power capability is then limited when the power of one generator reaches its maximum value. With the addition of four switches all 10 installed decouplers are made active and can act on all mutual coupling effects with equal source power from the 4 generators. With four more switches the current drive phasing could work with a reduced poloidal phasing resulting in a 35% increase of its coupling to the plasma.

  5. Decoupling capabilities of split-loop resonator structure for 7 Tesla MRI surface array coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurshkainen, A.; Kurdjumov, S.; Simovski, C.; Glybovski, S.; Melchakova, I.; van den Berg, C. A. T.; Raaijmakers, A.; Belov, P.

    2017-09-01

    In this work we studied electromagnetic properties of one-dimentional periodic structures composed of split-loop res-onators (SLRs) and investigated their capabilities in decoupling of two dipole antennas for full-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Two different finite structures comprising a single-SLR and a double-SLR constitutive elements were studied. Numerical simulations of the structures were performed to evaluate their decoupling capabilities. As it was demonstrated two dipole antennas equipped with either a single or a double-SLR structure exhibit high isolation even for an electrically short distance between the dipoles. Double-SLR structure while dramatically improving isolation of the dipoles keeps the field created by each of the decoupled dipoles comparable with one of a single dipole inside the target area.

  6. D-FNN Based Modeling and BP Neural Network Decoupling Control of PVC Stripping Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-zhi Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available PVC stripping process is a kind of complicated industrial process with characteristics of highly nonlinear and time varying. Aiming at the problem of establishing the accurate mathematics model due to the multivariable coupling and big time delay, the dynamic fuzzy neural network (D-FNN is adopted to establish the PVC stripping process model based on the actual process operation datum. Then, the PVC stripping process is decoupled by the distributed neural network decoupling module to obtain two single-input-single-output (SISO subsystems (slurry flow to top tower temperature and steam flow to bottom tower temperature. Finally, the PID controller based on BP neural networks is used to control the decoupled PVC stripper system. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed integrated intelligent control method.

  7. Efficient dipolar double quantum filtering under magic angle spinning without a (1)H decoupling field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Joseph M; Rienstra, Chad M

    2016-08-01

    We present a systematic study of dipolar double quantum (DQ) filtering in (13)C-labeled organic solids over a range of magic-angle spinning rates, using the SPC-n recoupling sequence element with a range of n symmetry values from 3 to 11. We find that efficient recoupling can be achieved for values n⩾7, provided that the (13)C nutation frequency is on the order of 100kHz or greater. The decoupling-field dependence was investigated and explicit heteronuclear decoupling interference conditions identified. The major determinant of DQ filtering efficiency is the decoupling interference between (13)C and (1)H fields. For (13)C nutation frequencies greater than 75kHz, optimal performance is observed without an applied (1)H field. At spinning rates exceeding 20kHz, symmetry conditions as low as n=3 were found to perform adequately.

  8. Multi-faults decoupling on turbo-expander using differential-based ensemble empirical mode decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongguang; Li, Ming; Li, Cheng; Li, Fucai; Meng, Guang

    2017-09-01

    This paper dedicates on the multi-faults decoupling of turbo-expander rotor system using Differential-based Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (DEEMD). DEEMD is an improved version of DEMD to resolve the imperfection of mode mixing. The nonlinear behaviors of the turbo-expander considering temperature gradient with crack, rub-impact and pedestal looseness faults are investigated respectively, so that the baseline for the multi-faults decoupling can be established. DEEMD is then utilized on the vibration signals of the rotor system with coupling faults acquired by numerical simulation, and the results indicate that DEEMD can successfully decouple the coupling faults, which is more efficient than EEMD. DEEMD is also applied on the vibration signal of the misalignment coupling with rub-impact fault obtained during the adjustment of the experimental system. The conclusion shows that DEEMD can decompose the practical multi-faults signal and the industrial prospect of DEEMD is verified as well.

  9. Coupling Mechanism and Decoupled Suspension Control Model of a Half Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailong Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A structure decoupling control strategy of half-car suspension is proposed to fully decouple the system into independent front and rear quarter-car suspensions in this paper. The coupling mechanism of half-car suspension is firstly revealed and formulated with coupled damping force (CDF in a linear function. Moreover, a novel dual dampers-based controllable quarter-car suspension structure is proposed to realize the independent control of pitch and vertical motions of the half car, in which a newly added controllable damper is suggested to be installed between the lower control arm and connection rod in conventional quarter-car suspension structure. The suggested damper constantly regulates the half-car pitch motion posture in a smooth and steady operation condition meantime achieving the expected completely structure decoupled control of the half-car suspension, by compensating the evolved CDF.

  10. An efficient implementation of two-component relativistic exact-decoupling methods for large molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Daoling; Weigend, Florian; Reiher, Markus

    2013-01-01

    We present an efficient algorithm for one- and two-component relativistic exact-decoupling calculations. The spin-orbit coupling was taken into account for the evaluation of relativistically transformed Hamiltonian. The relativistic decoupling transformation has to be evaluated with primitive functions so that the construction of the relativistic one-electron Hamiltonian becomes the bottleneck of the whole calculation for large molecules. We apply our recently developed local DLU scheme [J. Chem. Phys. 136 (2012) 244108] to accelerate this step. With our new implementation two-component relativistic density functional calculations can be performed invoking the resolution-of-identity density-fitting approximation and (Abelian as well as non-Abelian) point group symmetries to accelerate both the exact-decoupling and the two-electron part. The capability of our implementation is illustrated at the example of silver clusters with up to 309 atoms, for which the cohesive energy is calculated and extrapolated to the...

  11. Decoupling A and B model in open string theory Topological adventures in the world of tadpoles

    CERN Document Server

    Bonelli, Giulio; Tanzini, Alessandro; Yang, Jie

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the problem of tadpole cancellation in open topological strings. We prove that the inclusion of unorientable worldsheet diagrams guarantees a consistent decoupling of A and B model for open superstring amplitudes at all genera. This is proven by direct microscopic computation in Super Conformal Field Theory. For the B-model we explicitly calculate one loop amplitudes in terms of analytic Ray-Singer torsions of appropriate vector bundles and obtain that the decoupling corresponds to the cancellation of D-brane and orientifold charges. Local tadpole cancellation on the worldsheet then guarantees the decoupling at all loops. The holomorphic anomaly equations for open topological strings at one loop are also obtained and compared with the results of the Quillen formula.

  12. One-Shot Decoupling and Page Curves from a Dynamical Model for Black Hole Evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brádler, Kamil; Adami, Christoph

    2016-03-11

    One-shot decoupling is a powerful primitive in quantum information theory and was hypothesized to play a role in the black hole information paradox. We study black hole dynamics modeled by a trilinear Hamiltonian whose semiclassical limit gives rise to Hawking radiation. An explicit numerical calculation of the discretized path integral of the S matrix shows that decoupling is exact in the continuous limit, implying that quantum information is perfectly transferred from the black hole to radiation. A striking consequence of decoupling is the emergence of an output radiation entropy profile that follows Page's prediction. We argue that information transfer and the emergence of Page curves is a robust feature of any multilinear interaction Hamiltonian with a bounded spectrum.

  13. Note: Decoupling design for high frequency piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers with their clamping connections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, F. J., E-mail: wangfujun@tju.edu.cn; Liang, C. M.; Tian, Y. L.; Zhao, X. Y.; Zhang, D. W. [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Equipment Design and Manufacturing Technology, School of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhang, H. J. [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Modern Mechatronics Equipment Technology, School of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China)

    2015-12-15

    This work presents the flexure-mechanism based decoupling design between high frequency piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers and their clamping connections to improve ultrasonic energy transmission efficiency. The ring, prismatic beam, and circular notched hinge based flanges were presented, and the crucial geometric dimensions of the transducers with the flexure decoupling flanges were determined. Finite element analysis (FEA) was carried out to investigate the dynamic characteristics of the transducers. Finally, experiments were conducted to examine and verify the effects of the proposed decoupling flanges. FEA and experimental results show that smaller frequency deviations and larger tip displacement amplitudes have been achieved by using the transducers with the flexure flanges compared with the transducer with a rigid ring-type flange, and thus the ultrasonic transmission efficiency can be improved through the flexure flanges.

  14. Precompensation decoupling control with H∞ performance for 4WS velocity-varying vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingxing; Jia, Yingmin

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a new decoupling control strategy with H∞ performance for the three-degree-of-freedom model, including the longitudinal velocity, the lateral velocity, and the yaw rate is presented and discussed. A sliding mode controller only depending on the longitudinal velocity for the longitudinal system and a precompensation decoupling controller with H∞ performance for the steering system are designed. These controllers are established by feeding back longitudinal velocity and yaw rate, thus observation or measurement for the lateral velocity is not required. Simulation results show that our strategy can improve the handling characteristics, safety, and comfort significantly.

  15. Digitalization decoupling method and its application to the phased array in MRI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Xiaoyu; WANG Weidong; ZHANG Bida; LEI Ming; BAO Shanglian

    2003-01-01

    A general network decoupling method for phased array radio frequency coil used in magnetic resonance imaging is developed. A more flexible digital approach further simplifies the method, which has an even higher signal-to-noise ratio. The performance of the digitalized decoupling method was confirmed by the calculated result by using a high frequency structure simulation software with the method of finite element for a tree-port phased array RF coil. The consistence was well established between the theoretical and simulated results.

  16. Analysis of the Decoupled Access for Downlink and Uplink in Wireless Heterogeneous Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smiljkovikj, K.; Popovski, Petar; Gavrilovska, L.

    2015-01-01

    the downlink (DL) traffic from one BS and send uplink (UL) traffic through another BS. Such a situation is referred to as decoupled DL/UL access. Using the framework of stochastic geometry, we derive the association probability for DL/UL. To maximize the average received power, as the relative density of FBSs...... initially increases, a large fraction of devices chooses decoupled access, i.e., receive from a MBS in DL and transmit through a FBS in UL. We analyze the impact that this type of association has on the average throughput in the system....

  17. Majorana Neutrino Magnetic Moment and Neutrino Decoupling in Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Vassh, N; Balantekin, A B; Fuller, G M

    2015-01-01

    We examine the physics of the early universe when neutrinos (electron neutrino, muon neutrino, tau neutrino) possess transition magnetic moments. These extra couplings beyond the usual weak interaction couplings alter the way neutrinos decouple from the plasma of electrons/positrons and photons. We calculate how transition magnetic moment couplings modify neutrino decoupling temperatures, and then use a full weak, strong, and electromagnetic reaction network to compute corresponding changes in Big Bang Nucleosynthesis abundance yields. We find that light element observational constraints and other cosmological constraints may allow probes of neutrino transition magnetic moments which are not directly available in the laboratory.

  18. How decoupled is the Single Farm Payment and does it matter for international trade?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urban, Kirsten; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Brockmeier, Martina

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which decoupled agricultural support – including the European Union Single Farm Payment (SFP) – creates production incentives remains unclear. We apply an extended version of the standard Global Trade Analysis Project model and generate a set of 21 databases that captures a comprehe......The extent to which decoupled agricultural support – including the European Union Single Farm Payment (SFP) – creates production incentives remains unclear. We apply an extended version of the standard Global Trade Analysis Project model and generate a set of 21 databases that captures...

  19. Wage growth and productivity growth: the myth and reality of 'decoupling'

    OpenAIRE

    Joao Paulo Pessoa; John Van Reenen

    2013-01-01

    Employees in the UK are not being denied their fair share of economic growth, according to research by João Paulo Pessoa and John Van Reenen. Their investigation of claims that wage growth has become 'decoupled' from productivity growth finds that decoupling has been overstated and cannot be used to justify redressing the balance between wages and profits. They show that the share of UK income going to labour is basically the same now as it was 40 years ago. The real problem is inequality amo...

  20. Use of UPFC device controlled by fuzzy logic controllers for decoupled power flow control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivković Sanja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the possibility of decoupled active and reactive power flow control in a power system using a UPFC device controlled by fuzzy logic controllers. A Brief theoretical review of the operation principles and applications of UPFC devices and design principles of the fuzzy logic controller used are given. A Matlab/Simulink model of the system with UPFC, the fuzzy controller setup, and graphs of the results are presented. Conclusions are drawn regarding the possibility of using this system for decoupled control of the power flow in power systems based on analysis of these graphs.

  1. Filter-design perspective applying to dynamical decoupling of a multi-qubit system

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi-Kun, Su; Shao-Ji, Jiang

    2011-01-01

    We employ the filter-design perspective and derive the filter functions according to nested Uhrig dynamical decoupling (NUDD) and Symmetric dynamical decoupling (SDD) in the pure-dephasing spin-boson model with N qubits. The performances of NUDD and SDD are discussed in detail for a two-qubit system. The analysis shows that (i) SDD outperforms NUDD for the bath with a soft cutoff while NUDD approaches SDD as the cutoff becomes harder; (ii) if the qubits are coupled to a common reservoir, SDD ...

  2. A critical realist perspective on decoupling negative environmental impacts from housing sector growth and economic growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Jin

    2012-01-01

    The question that motivates this article has been a matter of dispute: Is it possible to combine perpetual economic growth and longterm environmental sustainability based on the premise that economic growth can be fully decoupled from negative environmental impacts? The article addresses this que......The question that motivates this article has been a matter of dispute: Is it possible to combine perpetual economic growth and longterm environmental sustainability based on the premise that economic growth can be fully decoupled from negative environmental impacts? The article addresses...

  3. Academic Achievement Differences between Title I Students Enrolled in Music Classes and Title I Students Who Are Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of the study was to determine academic achievement differences between those Title I students enrolled in music classes and Title I students who are not enrolled in music classes. A second purpose was to determine educators' perceptions regarding the educational justice implications of excluding nonproficient Title I students…

  4. Academic Achievement Differences between Title I Students Enrolled in Music Classes and Title I Students Who Are Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of the study was to determine academic achievement differences between those Title I students enrolled in music classes and Title I students who are not enrolled in music classes. A second purpose was to determine educators' perceptions regarding the educational justice implications of excluding nonproficient Title I students…

  5. Guidance for implementing the long-term surveillance program for UMTRA Project Title I Disposal Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This guidance document has two purposes: it provides guidance for writing site-specific long-term surveillance plans (LTSP) and it describes site surveillance, monitoring, and long-term care techniques for Title I disposal sites of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC Section 7901 et seq.). Long-term care includes monitoring, maintenance, and emergency measures needed to protect public health and safety and the environment after remedial action is completed. This document applies to the UMTRCA-designated Title I disposal sites. The requirements for long-term care of the Title I sites and the contents of the LTSPs are provided in U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations (10 CFR Section 40.27) provided in Attachment 1.

  6. Futurist Art: Motion and Aesthetics As a Function of Title

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastandrea, Stefano; Umiltà, Maria A.

    2016-01-01

    Very often the titles of Futurist paintings contain words denoting movement in order to satisfy their artistic poetic focused on motion and velocity. The aim of the present study is to investigate the reported dynamism and aesthetic quality of several Futurist artworks as a function of their title. Ten Futurist artworks with a movement-related word in the title were selected for this study. The titles were manipulated, resulting in four conditions for each painting: the “original title” with the movement word; an “increased” title in which an adjective was added in order to intensify the sense of dynamism; a “decreased” title, in which the movement word was eliminated; no title. Participants evaluated the movement suggested by each painting in the four different title conditions, rated their beauty and reported how much they liked the work. Results showed that the manipulation of the title had an effect on the reported movement: compared to the others, paintings presented with the “original” and with the “increased” title received significant higher movement scores. Of interest, beauty did not differ across conditions, but liking was higher for the conditions with more movement. Lastly, positive correlations between the quantity of perceived movement and aesthetic evaluation were found. From the present results it can be concluded that Futurists attributed much relevance to the titles of their artworks in order to effectively increase the expression of the movement represented. PMID:27242471

  7. The Circuit-Level Decoupling Modulation Strategy for Three-Level Neutral-Point-Clamped (TL-NPC) Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a circuit-level decoupling modulation strategy is proposed for the three-level (TL) neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverters. With the proposed modulation scheme, the TL-NPC inverter can be decoupled into two three-level Buck converters in each defined operating section, which makes...... without any feedback control. The simulation results show the validity of theoretical analysis....

  8. A Comparison of Methods for Decoupling Tongue and Lower Lip from Jaw Movements in 3D Articulography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Rafael Neto; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: One popular method to study the motion of oral articulators is 3D electromagnetic articulography. For many studies, it is important to use an algorithm to decouple the motion of the tongue and the lower lip from the motion of the mandible. In this article, the authors describe and compare 4 methods for decoupling jaw motion by using 3D…

  9. The Circuit-Level Decoupling Modulation Strategy for Three-Level Neutral-Point-Clamped (TL-NPC) Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a circuit-level decoupling modulation strategy is proposed for the three-level (TL) neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverters. With the proposed modulation scheme, the TL-NPC inverter can be decoupled into two three-level Buck converters in each defined operating section, which makes...

  10. Decoupling Economic Growth and Environmental Degradation: Reviewing Progress to Date in the Small Island State of Malta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Conrad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the challenge of decoupling economic growth from environmental degradation; in contrast to several large-scale cross-country analyses that focus on limited indicators of environmental degradation, we analyze in some depth the experience of a single small-scale island state setting (Malta. We use available statistical data to derive decoupling factors, in order to consider the extent to which decoupling has been achieved in four sectors: (i energy intensity, climate change, and air quality; (ii water; (iii waste; and (iv land. Results indicate relative decoupling between economic growth and several indicators considered, and to a lesser extent, relative decoupling between population growth and the same indicators of environmental pressure. Absolute decoupling has been achieved in at least one instance but there has been no decoupling of land development from either economic or population growth. Land use and population thus appear to be notable sources of pressure. The results suggest that decoupling analyses that present environmental degradation in terms of single variables (e.g., carbon emissions may misrepresent somewhat the state of the environment at local level. Furthermore, the study highlights the need for methodologies that factor in the “embedding” of small-scale settings within much larger trade networks, for a more accurate estimation of environmental impact, and points to some limitations of solely quantitative analyses of environment-ecology relationships.

  11. Fault Ride-through Capability Implementation in Wind Turbine Converters Using a Decoupled Double Synchronous Reference Frame PLL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Pedro; Alloza, Alvaro Luna; Teodorescu, Remus

    2007-01-01

    This work exploits the Decoupled Double Synchronous Reference Frame PLL (DDSRF-PLL) as an effective method for grid synchronization of WT's power converters in the presence of transient faults in the grid. The DDSRF-PLL uses a dual synchronous reference frame and a decoupling network to effectively...

  12. Robust, Decoupled, Flight Control Design with Rate Saturating Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, S. A.; Hess, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    Techniques for the design of control systems for manually controlled, high-performance aircraft must provide the following: (1) multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) solutions, (2) acceptable handling qualities including no tendencies for pilot-induced oscillations, (3) a tractable approach for compensator design, (4) performance and stability robustness in the presence of significant plant uncertainty, and (5) performance and stability robustness in the presence actuator saturation (particularly rate saturation). A design technique built upon Quantitative Feedback Theory is offered as a candidate methodology which can provide flight control systems meeting these requirements, and do so over a considerable part of the flight envelope. An example utilizing a simplified model of a supermaneuverable fighter aircraft demonstrates the proposed design methodology.

  13. Decoupled equations for reverse time migration in tilted transversely isotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Ge

    2012-03-01

    Conventional modeling and migration for tilted transversely isotropic (TTI) media may suffer from numerical instabilities and shear wave artifacts due to the coupling of the P-wave and SV-wave modes in the TTI coupled equations. Starting with the separated P- and SV-phase velocity expressions for vertical transversely isotropic (VTI) media, we extend these decoupled equations for modeling and reverse time migration (RTM) in acoustic TTI media. Compared with the TTI coupled equations published in the geophysical literature, the new TTI decoupled equations provide a more stable solution due to the complete separation of the P-wave and SV-wave modes. The pseudospectral method is the most convenient method to implement these equations due to the form of wavenumber expressions and has the added benefit of being highly accurate and thus avoiding numerical dispersion. The rapid expansion method (REM) in time is employed to produce a broad band numerically stable time evolution of the wavefields. Synthetic results validate the proposed TTI decoupled equations and show that modeling and RTM in TTI media with the decoupled equations remain numerically stable even for models with strong anisotropy and sharp contrasts. © 2012 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  14. Perancangan dan Implementasi Kontroler PID dengan Nonlinear Decoupling pada Sistem Kendali UAV Quadcopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Jadid Anggarjito

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Quadcopter merupakan salah salah satu jenis rotorcraft yang memiliki 4 buah rotor yang harus dikendalikan masing-masing rotornya untuk dapat menggerakkan quadcopter. Gerak lateral merupakan gerak quadcopter secara horizontal pada ketinggian atau gerak translasi, gerakan ini sangat vital untuk memenuhi kebutuhan quadcopter dalam mencapai way-to-way point yang telah ditentukan. Pada tugas akhir ini untuk mengatur gerakan lateral dari quadcopter digunakan sistem kendali PID dengan Decoupling Nonlinear. Ada 2 buah kontroler individual yang digunakan yaitu kontroler PID dengan Nonlinear Decoupling untuk mengatur pitch dan roll gerak rotasi, serta kontroler PD untuk mengatur translasi sumbu X dan sumbu Y. Perancangan sistem kontrol PID Decoupling Nonlinear pada simulasi yang digunakan untuk mempertahankan gerak lateral quadcopter dalam mencapai way-to-way point yang ditentukan. Nilai parameter yang didapatkan dari hasil tuning terstruktur pada simulasi adalah pada kontroler PID dengan Nonlinear Decoupling pitch dan roll Kp=5 Ki=0,01 Kd=10 sedangkan pada kontroler PD sumbu X dan sumbu Y Kp=0,05 Kd=0,2. Respon hasil implementasi pada quadcopter belum sesuai pada hasil simulasi. Pada hasil simulasi masih terdapat koreksi pada translasi sumbu X dan sumbu Y masih terdapat kesalahan sebesar ± 0,02 cm, sedangkan pada implementasi gerak lateral menggunakan remote control sistem dapat bergerak stabil menuju way-to-way point yang ditentukan.

  15. Small-signal model of a decoupled double synchronous reference frame current controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dowlatabadi, Mohammadkazem Bakhshizadeh; Hjerrild, Jester; Kocewiak, Lukasz;

    2016-01-01

    the dq signals are not dc anymore, and therefore, linearization cannot be done. In this paper a Decoupled Double Synchronous Frame PLL is used to eliminate the oscillations in the dq frame signals. The small signal model of this PLL including an unbalanced current controller is presented in this paper....

  16. Decoupling limit and throat geometry of non-susy D3 brane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayek, Kuntal; Roy, Shibaji

    2017-03-01

    Recently it has been shown by us that, like BPS Dp branes, bulk gravity gets decoupled from the brane even for the non-susy Dp branes of type II string theories indicating a possible extension of AdS/CFT correspondence for the non-supersymmetric case. In that work, the decoupling of gravity on the non-susy Dp branes has been shown numerically for the general case as well as analytically for some special case. Here we discuss the decoupling limit and the throat geometry of the non-susy D3 brane when the charge associated with the brane is very large. We show that in the decoupling limit the throat geometry of the non-susy D3 brane, under appropriate coordinate change, reduces to the Constable-Myers solution and thus confirming that this solution is indeed the holographic dual of a (non-gravitational) gauge theory discussed there. We also show that when one of the parameters of the solution takes a specific value, it reduces, under another coordinate change, to the five-dimensional solution obtained by Csaki and Reece, again confirming its gauge theory interpretation.

  17. Power decoupling with autonomous reference generation for single-phase differential inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Wenli; Zhang, Xiaobin; Wang, Xiongfei

    2015-01-01

    are used for realizing an improved power decoupling control, capacitor voltage and inductor current regulation. By substituting the corresponding parameter into unified model, the proposed control loop can be applied to different inverter types (Buck, Buck-Boost and Boost). Finally, detailed laboratory...

  18. Voltage Management in Unbalanced Low Voltage Networks Using a Decoupled Phase-Tap-Changer Transformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coppo, Massimiliano; Turri, Roberto; Marinelli, Mattia

    2014-01-01

    The paper studies a medium voltage-low voltage transformer with a decoupled on load tap changer capability on each phase. The overall objective is the evaluation of the potential benefits on a low voltage network of such possibility. A realistic Danish low voltage network is used for the analysis...

  19. Numerical evidence of spin-chirality decoupling in the three-dimensional heisenberg spin glass model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viet, Dao Xuan; Kawamura, Hikaru

    2009-01-16

    Ordering of the three-dimensional Heisenberg spin glass with Gaussian coupling is studied by extensive Monte Carlo simulations. The model undergoes successive chiral-glass and spin-glass transitions at nonzero temperatures T_{CG}>T_{SG}>0, exhibiting spin-chirality decoupling.

  20. Ouantitative Analysis on Postponement Strategies of Decoupling Points in Mass Customization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪蓉; 邵晓峰; 黄培清; 季建华

    2003-01-01

    The key to mass customizing effectively is postponing the deco upling point of customer order in the supply network. This paper focused on quantitative analysis on postponement strategies of multiple decoupling points in mass customization to improve operating efficiency and quickly meet customer demands with a minimum amount of inventory.

  1. A Decoupling Control Strategy for Multilayer Register System in Printed Electronic Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanhui Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Register accuracy is an important index to evaluate the quality of electronic products printed by gravure printed electronic equipment. However, the complex relationships of multilayer register system make the problem of decoupling control difficult to be solved, which has limited the improvement of register accuracy for the gravure printed electronic equipment. Therefore, this paper presents an integrated decoupling control strategy based on feedforward control and active disturbance rejection control (ADRC to solve the strong coupling, strong interference, and time-delay problems of multilayer register system. First of all, a coupling and nonlinear model is established according to the multilayer register working principle in gravure printing, and then a linear model of the register system is derived based on the perturbation method. Secondly, according to the linear model, a decoupling control strategy is designed based on feedforward control and ADRC for the multilayer register system. Finally, the results of computer simulation show that the proposed control methodology can realize a decoupling control and has good control performance for multilayer register system.

  2. Nonlinear Decoupling of Torque and Field Amplitude in an Induction Motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Vadstrup, P.; Børsting, H.

    1997-01-01

    A novel approach to control of induction motors, based on nonlinear state feedback, is presented. The resulting scheme gives a linearized input-output decoupling of the torque and the amplitude of the field. The proposed approach is used to design controllers for the field amplitude and the motor...... torque. The method is tested both by simulation and by experiments on a motor drive....

  3. On the physical Hilbert space of $QCD_2$ in the decoupled formulation

    CERN Document Server

    Cabra, D C

    1997-01-01

    We consider the QCD$_2$ partition function in the non-local, decoupled formulation and systematically establish which subset of the nilpotent Noether charges is required to vanish on the physical states. The implications for the Hilbert space structure are also examined.

  4. Compactness of the difference between the porous thermoelastic semigroup and its decoupled semigroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mustapha Ait Benhassi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Under suitable assumptions, we prove the compactness of the difference between the porous thermoelastic semigroup and its decoupled one. This will be achieved by proving the norm continuity of this difference and the compactness of the difference between the resolvents of their generators. Applications to porous thermoelastic systems are given.

  5. Structural Decoupling between the VET and the Employment Systems: Challenges Manifested in Assessment of Practical Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umarik, Meril; Loogma, Krista; Hinno, Krista

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to analyse how structural decoupling, which is an especially relevant problem for school-based vocational education and training (VET) systems, reveals itself in the assessment of practical training. Niklas Luhmann's social system theory has been applied to the analysis of assessment practices as a communication act between the…

  6. Decoupling of unphysical states in the minimal pure spinor formalism II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Berkovits; J. Hoogeveen; K. Skenderis

    2009-01-01

    This is the second of a series of two papers where decoupling of unphysical states in the minimal pure spinor formalism is investigated. The multi-loop amplitude prescription for the minimal pure spinor superstring formulated in hep-th/0406055 involves the insertion of picture changing operators in

  7. Decoupling limit and throat geometry of non-susy D3 brane

    CERN Document Server

    Nayek, Kuntal

    2016-01-01

    In a previous work, we have shown that, like BPS Dp branes, bulk gravity gets decoupled from the brane even for the non-susy Dp branes of type II string theories indicating a possible extension of AdS/CFT correspondence for the non-supersymmetric case. In that work, the decoupling of gravity on the non-susy Dp branes has been shown numerically for the general case as well as analytically for some special case. Here we discuss the decoupling limit and the throat geometry of the non-susy D3 brane when the charge associated with the brane is very large. We show that in the decoupling limit the throat geometry of the non-susy D3 brane, under appropriate coordinate change, reduces to the Constable-Myers solution and thus confirming that this solution is indeed the holographic dual of a (non-gravitational) gauge theory discussed there. We also show that when one of the parameters of the solution takes a specific value, it reduces, under another coordinate change, to the five-dimensional solution obtained by Csaki a...

  8. Utilization of Spent Resources in Support of Eco-Economic Decoupling in Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuril Fikri Aulia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of the development is often cause adverse environmental impacts. Adverse effects are environmental degradation and decreasing availability of resources. To overcome this, it is necessary that the development can still continue, the environment is not damaged, and the availability of resources is maintained. One effort is through eco - economic decoupling activities with the use of spent resources. The aim of study to determine the potential of spent resources in Central Java, knows the problems in the utilization of spent resources in Central Java, and to determine the impact of the utilization of spent resources in Central Java by a qualitative descriptive method. The results show that in the study have the potential of eco-economic decoupling indicated by the availability of spent resources and had done utilization of spent resources. However, this potential has not been optimally developed, because there are still some problems in its utilization. Problems in the use of spent resources are the lack of knowledge about eco-economic decoupling and spent resources among stakeholder, there is no specific policy on eco - economic decoupling, the lack of Local Government 's role in the utilization of spent resource, and the lack of synergy programs and activities in supporting the utilization of spent resources. Utilization of spent resources have positive impact to reduce pressure on the environment and natural resources, create a new job, and increase incomes for society.

  9. Structural Decoupling between the VET and the Employment Systems: Challenges Manifested in Assessment of Practical Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umarik, Meril; Loogma, Krista; Hinno, Krista

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to analyse how structural decoupling, which is an especially relevant problem for school-based vocational education and training (VET) systems, reveals itself in the assessment of practical training. Niklas Luhmann's social system theory has been applied to the analysis of assessment practices as a communication act between the…

  10. Decoupling Principle Analysis and Development of a Parallel Three-Dimensional Force Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanzhi; Jiao, Leihao; Weng, Dacheng; Zhang, Dan; Zheng, Rencheng

    2016-09-15

    In the development of the multi-dimensional force sensor, dimension coupling is the ubiquitous factor restricting the improvement of the measurement accuracy. To effectively reduce the influence of dimension coupling on the parallel multi-dimensional force sensor, a novel parallel three-dimensional force sensor is proposed using a mechanical decoupling principle, and the influence of the friction on dimension coupling is effectively reduced by making the friction rolling instead of sliding friction. In this paper, the mathematical model is established by combining with the structure model of the parallel three-dimensional force sensor, and the modeling and analysis of mechanical decoupling are carried out. The coupling degree (ε) of the designed sensor is defined and calculated, and the calculation results show that the mechanical decoupling parallel structure of the sensor possesses good decoupling performance. A prototype of the parallel three-dimensional force sensor was developed, and FEM analysis was carried out. The load calibration and data acquisition experiment system are built, and then calibration experiments were done. According to the calibration experiments, the measurement accuracy is less than 2.86% and the coupling accuracy is less than 3.02%. The experimental results show that the sensor system possesses high measuring accuracy, which provides a basis for the applied research of the parallel multi-dimensional force sensor.

  11. Experiments on the search for the NN-decoupled NN{pi}-resonance d'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doroshkevich, E.; Brodowski, W.; Paetzold, J.; Clement, H.; Meier, R.; Wagner, G.J. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, 72076, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2003-11-01

    The status on the search for NN-decoupled NN{pi}-resonances is reviewed with regard to recent experimental searches in the pionic double-charge exchange in nuclei, the two-pion production in nucleon-nucleon collisions, the photo pion-production on the deuteron and the electro pion-production in nuclei. (orig.)

  12. Status on the Search for the Nn-Decoupled NNπ Resonance d'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshkevich, E.; Brodowski, W.; Pätzold, J.; Clement, H.; Meier, R.; Wagner, G. J.

    2003-01-01

    The status on the search for the as of yet hypothetical NN-decoupled NNπ resonance d' is reviewed with regard to recent experimental searches in the pionic double charge exchange in nuclei, the two-pion production in nucleon-nucleon collisions, the photo pion-production on the deuteron and the electro pion-production in nuclei.

  13. Isotopic decoupling during porous melt flow: A case-study in the Lherz peridotite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, V.; Bodinier, J.-L.; Alard, O.; O'Reilly, S. Y.; Griffin, W. L.

    2009-03-01

    Most peridotite massifs and mantle xenoliths show a wide range of isotopic variations, often involving significant decoupling between Hf, Nd and Sr isotopes. These variations are generally ascribed either to mingling of individual components of contrasted isotopic compositions or to time integration of parent-element enrichment by percolating melts/fluids, superimposed onto previous depletion event(s). However, strong isotopic decoupling may also arise during porous flow as a result of daughter-elements fractionation during solid-liquid interaction. Although porous flow is recognized as an important process in mantle rocks, its effects on mantle isotopic variability have been barely investigated so far. The peridotites of the Lherz massif (French Pyrenees) display a frozen melt percolation front separating highly refractory harzburgites from refertilized lherzolites. Isotopic signatures observed at the melt percolation front show a strong decoupling of Hf from Nd and Sr isotopes that cannot be accounted for by simple mixing involving the harzburgite protolith and the percolating melt. Using one dimensional percolation-diffusion and percolation-reaction modeling, we show that these signatures represent transient isotopic compositions generated by porous flow. These signatures are governed by a few critical parameters such as daughter element concentrations in melt and peridotite, element diffusivity, and efficiency of isotopic homogenization rather than by the chromatographic effect of melt transport and the refertilization reaction. Subtle variations in these parameters may generate significant inter-isotopic decoupling and wide isotopic variations in mantle rocks.

  14. Randomized dynamical decoupling strategies and improved one-way key rates for quantum cryptography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, Oliver

    2009-05-25

    The present thesis deals with various methods of quantum error correction. It is divided into two parts. In the first part, dynamical decoupling methods are considered which have the task of suppressing the influence of residual imperfections in a quantum memory. Such imperfections might be given by couplings between the finite dimensional quantum systems (qudits) constituting the quantum memory, for instance. The suppression is achieved by altering the dynamics of an imperfect quantum memory with the help of a sequence of local unitary operations applied to the qudits. Whereas up to now the operations of such decoupling sequences have been constructed in a deterministic fashion, strategies are developed in this thesis which construct the operations by random selection from a suitable set. Formulas are derived which estimate the average performance of such strategies. As it turns out, randomized decoupling strategies offer advantages and disadvantages over deterministic ones. It is possible to benefit from the advantages of both kind of strategies by designing combined strategies. Furthermore, it is investigated if and how the discussed decoupling strategies can be employed to protect a quantum computation running on the quantum memory. It is shown that a purely randomized decoupling strategy may be used by applying the decoupling operations and adjusted gates of the quantum algorithm in an alternating fashion. Again this method can be enhanced by the means of deterministic methods in order to obtain a combined decoupling method for quantum computations analogously to the combining strategies for quantum memories. The second part of the thesis deals with quantum error-correcting codes and protocols for quantum key distribution. The focus is on the BB84 and the 6-state protocol making use of only one-way communication during the error correction and privacy amplification steps. It is shown that by adding additional errors to the preliminary key (a process called

  15. Reverse-time Migration in Tilted Transversely Isotropic Media with Decoupled Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Ge

    2012-12-01

    Conventional modeling and migration for tilted transversely isotropic (TTI) media may suffer from numerical instabilities and shear wave artifacts due to the coupling of the P-wave and SV-wave modes in the TTI coupled equations. Starting with the separated P- and SV-phase velocity expressions for vertical transversely isotropic (VTI) media, I extend these decoupled equations for modeling and reverse-time migration (RTM) in acoustic TTI media. Compared with the TTI coupled equations published in the geophysical literature, the new TTI decoupled equations provide a more stable solution due to the complete separation of the P-wave and SV-wave modes. The pseudospectral (PS) method is the most convenient method to implement these equations due to the form of wavenumber expressions and has the added benefit of being highly accurate and thus avoiding numerical dispersion. The rapid expansion method (REM) in time is employed to produce a broad band numerically stable time evolution of the wavefields. Synthetic results validate the proposed TTI decoupled equations and show that modeling and RTM in TTI media with the decoupled P-wave equation remain numerically stable even for models with strong anisotropy and sharp contrasts. The most desirable feature of the TTI decoupled P-wave equation is that it is absolutely free of shear-wave artifacts and the consequent alleviation of numerical instabilities generally suffered by some systems of coupled equations. However, due to several forward-backward Fourier transforms in wavefield extrapolation at each time step, the computational cost is also high, and thereby hampers its prevalence. I hereby propose to use a hybrid pseudospectral and finite-difference (FD) scheme to solve the TTI decoupled P-wave equation. In the hybrid solution, most of the cost-consuming wavenumber terms in the equation are replaced by inexpensive FD operators, which in turn accelerates the computation and reduces the computational cost. To demonstrate the

  16. Editorial: The HTML Title Tag and Its Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Noruzi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The Title Tag is an HTML code. The text embedded in the title tag of a web page appears as the title of the web page in search engine results. Moreover, the information contained in a title tag appears as a header or label at the top of the screen in the reverse bar of a web browser window (such as Internet Explorer to present obviously the title of the web page that is being viewed. It should be pointed out that checking the web pages presented as "Untitled Document", indicated that some of them have their unique titles and are not untitled. In other words, search engines present many web pages as untitled documents, while they have their unique titles. The question is why such pages are retrieved in response to the title command (i.e. allintitle:Untitled or intitle:Untitled? This is also true for other search engines, like Yahoo, as we tested the title command on Yahoo (title:Untitled.

  17. What Difference Does a Title Make

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    2006-01-01

    out by Gerard Genette, by naming and “designat[ing] it as precisely as possible and without too much risk of confusion” (Genette, 1997). In accordance with its title the poem thus represents the discourse of a newsreader neutrally reporting the events of war scenario. However, each section of the poem....... On such a reading, the poem is often given further significance through a contextual interpretation, taking into consideration that its time of writing coincided with the Vietnam War. In this light, the poem is interpreted as a critical comment on how through its ostensibly objective and neutral tone news reporting...... as a news report, its subtitles section and transform it into a list of aesthetically pleasing emblems, whose literal reference to so many scenes of war is really the figurative expression of a gooseneck lamp, a typewriter, a pile of mss., typed sheet, etc. The main claim of this paper is that Bishop’s poem...

  18. Evaluation of Mining Titles Based on Option-Pricing Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Limitations exist in applying discounted cash flow and analogy sales methods to evaluate mining titles. In order to find a more appropriate way of evaluating mining titles, the Black-Scholes model is discussed in this paper. The authors pay particular attention to the determination of the time to maturity of the option on the basis of characteristics of the mining industry, pointing out that a reasonable time to maturity of the option should be the remaining time after deducting the essential time, needed by exploitation of the mineral resources within the mining property, from the life of the mining title. Several conclusions, related to the exercise of mineral resource management, are drawn from a case study analysis; extending the life of a mining title within a certain range could increase the revenue to the seller of the mining title. Application of the Black-Scholes model to evaluate mining titles would encourage an expansion of the scale of production.

  19. 20 CFR 411.552 - What effect will the subsequent entitlement to title II benefits have on EN payments for title...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to title II benefits have on EN payments for title XVI beneficiaries after they assign their ticket... to title II benefits have on EN payments for title XVI beneficiaries after they assign their ticket... outcome for which an EN can be paid, but the beneficiary later becomes entitled to title II benefits,...

  20. The formalization fix? Land titling and land concessions in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Dwyer, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Issuing land titles to smallholder farmers has long been embraced as a way to promote lending and land markets, but is increasingly being reframed as a way to protect smallholders from irresponsible agricultural investment. This brief examines the case of Cambodia, where over the last decade extensive land titling efforts have occurred alongside a wave of large-scale land concessions. The problem, however, is that titling has failed to live up to the rhetoric of systematic coverage, and has o...

  1. Benchmark of AC and DC active power decoupling circuits for second-order harmonic mitigation in kW-scale single-phase inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Tang, Yi; Loh, Poh Chiang;

    2015-01-01

    studied, where the commercially available film capacitors, circuit topologies, and control strategies for active power decoupling are all taken into account. Then, an adaptive decoupling voltage control method is proposed to further improve the performance of dc decoupling in terms of efficiency...

  2. Influences of Cultural Differences on Translation of Titles of Novels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾秀梅

    2014-01-01

    With the fast-pacing of globalization, cross-cultural communications are becoming increasingly frequent. Translation of the literary works, or novels is one of the most popular models of cultural exchange. While the translation of novel titles comes with first importance as successful translation of the titles facilitates a bird’s eye view of the whole context. However, the transla-tion of novel titles is no easy without consideration of cultural differences which directly influence people’s thoughts and under-standing. Therefore, translating novel titles requires an overall analysis of such cultural elements as religion, cultural images, way of thinking, and historical allusions.

  3. On Translating English Movie Titles into Chinese Introduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王奥南

    2013-01-01

    Movie is an art and a commodity as well. With the opening of the Chinese market, we have more English movies. The translation of movie titles must be accurate and embody the commercial values. As the huge differences between two kinds of culture, language in the film titles translation, how to do to“faithfulness, expressiveness, elegance?”For various types of Eng⁃lish movie titles translation, several principles should be obeyed. After the analysis of the current problems and principles of transla⁃tion of English movie titles, the translation skills are summarized.

  4. Video Game Title Translation Functional Translation Theory Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-rong

    2016-01-01

    The video game plays an important role in inter-cultural communication studies. However, few have ventured the field of E-C translation of video game titles. Within the frame of Skopostheorie, this paper focuses on the three translation strategies brought up by the functions and features of video game titles. When preserving the structure and meaning of the original title is possible, literal translation should be used. However, the fact that some translators ignore the context of the title causes rigid translation. Transliteration is recommended when the title is the name of a person or place because the meaning of the title is hard to be preserved by the other two strategies. Since there are cultural differences between China and western world, when lit-eral translation and transliteration cannot present the meaning of the title, free translation should be used. Translators should bear the content and game play of the game in mind in order to free themselves from the formal equivalence for a properly translated title. Free translation does not mean translators can do the translation as whatever they want in the name of Skopos, they should avoid arbitrary translation. The aim of this paper is to help people to understand more about the E-C translation of video game ti-tle as well as the practical translation strategies and Sino-western inter-cultural communication.

  5. Getting to One from Title 10 + Title 32: Unity of Effort in the Homeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Program,” with the purpose of “collecting operational and reconnaissance data, conducting research, and analyzing data on tropical cyclones to assist...natural disasters under Title 14 of U.S. Code. This authority was utilized following the January 12, 2010 earthquake disaster in Haiti when Secretary...Secretary Napolitano stated, “activating our reserve Coast Guard forces will expand our capacity to assist in aid efforts in Haiti ” (Department of

  6. Type Synthesis of fully-Decoupled 2T2R Parallel Mechanisms Based on Driven-Chain Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Cao; Hai Chen; Youlei Qin; Shuyi Ge; Hui Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Based on the screw theory and the driven⁃chain principle, a methodology of structural synthesis for fully⁃decoupled two⁃translational ( 2T) and two⁃rotational ( 2R) parallel mechanism is proposed by analyzing the characteristics of the input⁃output relations for fully⁃decoupled parallel mechanisms. Firstly, according to the desired kinematic characteristics of fully⁃decoupled parallel mechanisms, a method is proposed by virtue of screw theory to synthesize the desired forms for both the direct and the inverse Jacobian matrices. Secondly, according to the feature of the direct and the inverse Jacobian matrices, the effective screws, the actuated screws and the mobile un⁃actuated screws of each leg are established based on the reciprocal screw theory and all possible topology structures fulfilling the requirements are obtained. Finally, the desired fully⁃decoupled parallel mechanisms can be synthesized by using the structural synthesis rule and structural synthesis of fully⁃decoupled 2T2R parallel mechanisms can be obtained exploiting the abovementioned methodology. In particular, the direct Jacobian matrix of each synthesized fully⁃decoupled 2T2R parallel mechanism is a non⁃zero diagonal matrix throughout the entire workspace. Motors are mounted on each leg and each one of them actuates one degree⁃of⁃freedom ( DoF) of the fully⁃decoupled parallel mechanism through a one⁃to⁃one velocity relation.

  7. A robust static decoupling algorithm for 3-axis force sensors based on coupling error model and ε-SVR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junqing; Song, Aiguo; Xiao, Jing

    2012-10-29

    Coupling errors are major threats to the accuracy of 3-axis force sensors. Design of decoupling algorithms is a challenging topic due to the uncertainty of coupling errors. The conventional nonlinear decoupling algorithms by a standard Neural Network (NN) are sometimes unstable due to overfitting. In order to avoid overfitting and minimize the negative effect of random noises and gross errors in calibration data, we propose a novel nonlinear static decoupling algorithm based on the establishment of a coupling error model. Instead of regarding the whole system as a black box in conventional algorithm, the coupling error model is designed by the principle of coupling errors, in which the nonlinear relationships between forces and coupling errors in each dimension are calculated separately. Six separate Support Vector Regressions (SVRs) are employed for their ability to perform adaptive, nonlinear data fitting. The decoupling performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with the conventional method by utilizing obtained data from the static calibration experiment of a 3-axis force sensor. Experimental results show that the proposed decoupling algorithm gives more robust performance with high efficiency and decoupling accuracy, and can thus be potentially applied to the decoupling application of 3-axis force sensors.

  8. Decoupling Action Potential Bias from Cortical Local Field Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen V. David

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurophysiologists have recently become interested in studying neuronal population activity through local field potential (LFP recordings during experiments that also record the activity of single neurons. This experimental approach differs from early LFP studies because it uses high impendence electrodes that can also isolate single neuron activity. A possible complication for such studies is that the synaptic potentials and action potentials of the small subset of isolated neurons may contribute disproportionately to the LFP signal, biasing activity in the larger nearby neuronal population to appear synchronous and cotuned with these neurons. To address this problem, we used linear filtering techniques to remove features correlated with spike events from LFP recordings. This filtering procedure can be applied for well-isolated single units or multiunit activity. We illustrate the effects of this correction in simulation and on spike data recorded from primary auditory cortex. We find that local spiking activity can explain a significant portion of LFP power at most recording sites and demonstrate that removing the spike-correlated component can affect measurements of auditory tuning of the LFP.

  9. Detection of decoupled input/output pairs in multivariable systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Alain Segundo; Massaro, Leandro Cuenca; Garcia, Claudio

    2015-03-01

    A method is proposed to detect if there is no coupling between an input and an output in systems operating in open-loop, that is, without a supervisory controller. The proposed technique is applicable to multiple input multiple output (MIMO) systems, whose intent is to detect no-model input/output (IO) combinations in a transfer matrix. Traditional approaches for selecting IO pairs are usually performed after the plant model is identified. The presented approach is applied during the pre-identification stage and is based on IO cross-correlation, signal filtering and fuzzy logic analysis. A case study involving the identification of a 7×6 simulated Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) is discussed, as well as an influence analysis of detecting no-model IO pairs in the identification process and in the performance index of a Model Predictive Controller (MPC) applied to a 2×2 simulated distillation column. Finally, the method is tested with a real dataset obtained from an FCC unit of a petrol refinery.

  10. Fuzzy Logic Decoupled Lateral Control for General Aviation Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerksen, Noel

    1997-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that a human pilot uses the same set of generic skills to control a wide variety of aircraft. If this is true, then it should be possible to construct an electronic controller which embodies this generic skill set such that it can successfully control different airplanes without being matched to a specific airplane. In an attempt to create such a system, a fuzzy logic controller was devised to control aileron or roll spoiler position. This controller was used to control bank angle for both a piston powered single engine aileron equipped airplane simulation and a business jet simulation which used spoilers for primary roll control. Overspeed, stall and overbank protection were incorporated in the form of expert systems supervisors and weighted fuzzy rules. It was found that by using the artificial intelligence techniques of fuzzy logic and expert systems, a generic lateral controller could be successfully used on two general aviation aircraft types that have very different characteristics. These controllers worked for both airplanes over their entire flight envelopes. The controllers for both airplanes were identical except for airplane specific limits (maximum allowable airspeed, throttle ]ever travel, etc.). This research validated the fact that the same fuzzy logic based controller can control two very different general aviation airplanes. It also developed the basic controller architecture and specific control parameters required for such a general controller.

  11. Fuzzy Logic Decoupled Longitudinal Control for General Aviation Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerksen, Noel

    1996-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that a human pilot uses the same set of generic skills to control a wide variety of aircraft. If this is true, then it should be possible to construct an electronic controller which embodies this generic skill set such that it can successfully control difference airplanes without being matched to a specific airplane. In an attempt to create such a system, a fuzzy logic controller was devised to control throttle position and another to control elevator position. These two controllers were used to control flight path angle and airspeed for both a piston powered single engine airplane simulation and a business jet simulation. Overspeed protection and stall protection were incorporated in the form of expert systems supervisors. It was found that by using the artificial intelligence techniques of fuzzy logic and expert systems, a generic longitudinal controller could be successfully used on two general aviation aircraft types that have very difference characteristics. These controllers worked for both airplanes over their entire flight envelopes including configuration changes. The controllers for both airplanes were identical except for airplane specific limits (maximum allowable airspeed, throttle lever travel, etc.). The controllers also handled configuration changes without mode switching or knowledge of the current configuration. This research validated the fact that the same fuzzy logic based controller can control two very different general aviation airplanes. It also developed the basic controller architecture and specific control parameters required for such a general controller.

  12. Lifetime Estimation of DC-link Capacitors in a Single-phase Converter with an Integrated Active Power Decoupling Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Siyuan; Wang, Haoran; Tang, Junchaojie;

    2016-01-01

    -link capacitor capacitance can be decreased. However, few research is about the effect of DC side and AC side decoupling on the DC-link capacitor reliability considering its electro-thermal stresses. This paper presents a quantitative analysis on the lifetime of capacitors with power decoupling circuits......In single-phase inverters, DC-link capacitors are installed at the DC-link to buffer the ripple power between the AC side and DC side. Active decoupling methods introduce additional circuits at the DC side or AC side to partially or fully supply the ripple power. So that the demanded DC...

  13. 20 CFR 408.931 - How much will we withhold from your title II and title XVI benefits to recover a title VIII...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... willfully misrepresented or concealed material information in connection with the overpayment. (c) In... withholding from title VIII benefits. (d) If you or your spouse willfully misrepresented or concealed material...

  14. Nonlinear decoupling controller design based on least squares support vector regression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Xiang-jun; ZHANG Yu-nong; YAN Wei-wu; XU Xiao-ming

    2006-01-01

    Support Vector Machines (SVMs) have been widely used in pattern recognition and have also drawn considerable interest in control areas. Based on a method of least squares SVM (LS-SVM) for multivariate function estimation, a generalized inverse system is developed for the linearization and decoupling control ora general nonlinear continuous system. The approach of inverse modelling via LS-SVM and parameters optimization using the Bayesian evidence framework is discussed in detail. In this paper, complex high-order nonlinear system is decoupled into a number of pseudo-linear Single Input Single Output (SISO) subsystems with linear dynamic components. The poles of pseudo-linear subsystems can be configured to desired positions. The proposed method provides an effective alternative to the controller design of plants whose accurate mathematical model is unknown or state variables are difficult or impossible to measure. Simulation results showed the efficacy of the method.

  15. Decoupling Conditions for Elasto-plastic Consolidation Question Based onNumerical Modeling Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Tao; Wang Jingtao; Dong Bichang

    2005-01-01

    Elasto-plastic consolidation is one of the classic coupling questions in geomechanics. To solve this problem, an elasto-plastic constitutive model is derived based on the numerical modeling method. The model is applied to Biot's consolidation theory. Incremental governing partial differential equations are established using this method. According to the stress path, the decoupling condition of these equations is discussed. Based on these conditions, an incremental diffusion equation and uncoupling governing equations are presented. The method is then applied to numerical analyses of three examples. The results show that (1) the effect of the stress path should be taken into account in the simulation of the soil consolidation question; (2) this decoupling method can predict the evolvement of pore water pressure; (3) the settlement using cam-clay model is less than that using numerical model because of dilatancy.

  16. Smith predictor with inverted decoupling for square multivariable time delay systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Juan; Vázquez, Francisco; Morilla, Fernando; Normey-Rico, Julio E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology to design multivariable Smith predictor for n×n processes with multiple time delays based on the centralised inverted decoupling structure. The controller elements are calculated in order to achieve good reference tracking and decoupling response. Independent of the system size, very simple general expressions for the controller elements are obtained. The realisability conditions are provided and the particular case of processes with all of its elements as first-order plus time delay systems is discussed in more detail. A diagonal filter is added to the proposed control structure in order to improve the disturbance rejection without modifying the nominal set-point response and to obtain a stable output prediction in unstable plants. The effectiveness of the method is illustrated through different simulation examples in comparison with other works.

  17. Decoupling optical function and geometrical form using conformal flexible dielectric metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa; Arbabi, Ehsan; Horie, Yu; Faraon, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Physical geometry and optical properties of objects are correlated: cylinders focus light to a line, spheres to a point, and arbitrarily shaped objects introduce optical aberrations. Multi-functional components with decoupled geometrical form and optical function are needed when specific optical functionalities must be provided while the shapes are dictated by other considerations like ergonomics, aerodynamics, or esthetics. Here we demonstrate an approach for decoupling optical properties of objects from their physical shape using thin and highly transparent flexible dielectric metasurfaces which conform to objects' surface and change their optical properties. The conformal metasurfaces are composed of silicon nano-posts embedded in a polymer substrate that locally modify optical wavefronts. As proof of concept, we show that cylindrical lenses covered with metasurfaces can be transformed to function as aspherical lenses focusing light to a point. The conformal metasurface concept introduces a novel paradigm ...

  18. Functions and requirements document, WESF decoupling project, low-level liquid waste system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, J.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-27

    The Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) was constructed in 1974 to encapsulate and store cesium and strontium which were isolated at B Plant from underground storage tank waste. The WESF, Building 225-B, is attached physically to the west end of B Plant, Building 221-B, 200 East area. The WESF currently utilizes B Plant facilities for disposing liquid and solid waste streams. With the deactivation of B Plant, the WESF Decoupling Project will provide replacement systems allowing WESF to continue operations independently from B Plant. Four major systems have been identified to be replaced by the WESF Decoupling Project, including the following: Low Level Liquid Waste System, Solid Waste Handling System, Liquid Effluent Control System, and Deionized Water System.

  19. Decoupling optical function and geometrical form using conformal flexible dielectric metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa; Arbabi, Amir; Arbabi, Ehsan; Horie, Yu; Faraon, Andrei

    2016-05-01

    Physical geometry and optical properties of objects are correlated: cylinders focus light to a line, spheres to a point and arbitrarily shaped objects introduce optical aberrations. Multi-functional components with decoupled geometrical form and optical function are needed when specific optical functionalities must be provided while the shapes are dictated by other considerations like ergonomics, aerodynamics or aesthetics. Here we demonstrate an approach for decoupling optical properties of objects from their physical shape using thin and flexible dielectric metasurfaces which conform to objects' surface and change their optical properties. The conformal metasurfaces are composed of silicon nano-posts embedded in a polymer substrate that locally modify near-infrared (λ=915 nm) optical wavefronts. As proof of concept, we show that cylindrical lenses covered with metasurfaces can be transformed to function as aspherical lenses focusing light to a point. The conformal metasurface concept is highly versatile for developing arbitrarily shaped multi-functional optical devices.

  20. Decoupling charge transport from the structural dynamics in room temperature ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Phillip [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Agapov, Alexander L [ORNL; Kisliuk, Alexander [ORNL; Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Novikov, Vladimir [ORNL; Sokolov, Alexei P [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Light scattering and dielectric spectroscopy measurements were performed on the room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) [C4mim][NTf2] in a broad temperature and frequency range. Ionic conductivity was used to estimate self-diffusion of ions, while light scattering was used to study structural relaxation. We demonstrate that the ionic diffusion decouples from the structural relaxation process as the temperature of the sample decreases toward Tg. The strength of the decoupling appears to be significantly lower than that expected for a supercooled liquid of similar fragility. The structural relaxation process in the RTIL follows well the high-temperature mode coupling theory (MCT) scenario. Using the MCT analysis we estimated the dynamic crossover temperature in [C4mim][NTf2] to be Tc 225 5 K. However, our analysis reveals no sign of the dynamic crossover in the ionic diffusion process.

  1. System identification of civil engineering structures with multiple inputs by decoupling output signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Ruiz-Sandoval, Manuel; Spencer, Billie F.; Elnashai, Amr S.

    2014-03-01

    System identification of civil engineering structures are often formulated as Multiple-Input, Multiple-Output (MIMO) problems due to the complexity of loading conditions such as differential ground motion, which is also multi-directional in nature. Such MIMO system identification problems are challenging due to strong coupling between the contributions of multiple ground motion inputs to each individual response. Compared with Single-Input, Multiple-Output (SIMO) system identification, MIMO problems are often more computationally complex and error prone. In this paper, a new system identification strategy is proposed in which a more complex MIMO problem is converted into a number of SIMO problems by decoupling the contribution of multiple inputs to the outputs. A QR-factorization based approach is adopted for the decoupling and its accuracy is investigated. The effectiveness of the proposed strategy is demonstrated through applications to a two-span straight bridge and a four-span curved bridge, both are highway bridges.

  2. Leaf economics and hydraulic traits are decoupled in five species-rich tropical-subtropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le; McCormack, M Luke; Ma, Chengen; Kong, Deliang; Zhang, Qian; Chen, Xiaoyong; Zeng, Hui; Niinemets, Ülo; Guo, Dali

    2015-09-01

    Leaf economics and hydraulic traits are critical to leaf photosynthesis, yet it is debated whether these two sets of traits vary in a fully coordinated manner or there is room for independent variation. Here, we tested the relationship between leaf economics traits, including leaf nitrogen concentration and leaf dry mass per area, and leaf hydraulic traits including stomatal density and vein density in five tropical-subtropical forests. Surprisingly, these two suites of traits were statistically decoupled. This decoupling suggests that independent trait dimensions exist within a leaf, with leaf economics dimension corresponding to light capture and tissue longevity, and the hydraulic dimension to water-use and leaf temperature maintenance. Clearly, leaf economics and hydraulic traits can vary independently, thus allowing for more possible plant trait combinations. Compared with a single trait dimension, multiple trait dimensions may better enable species adaptations to multifarious niche dimensions, promote diverse plant strategies and facilitate species coexistence.

  3. Non-decoupling and lepton number violation in left-right models

    CERN Document Server

    Barenboim, G

    1996-01-01

    We argue that large non-decoupling effects of heavy neutrinos can appear naturally in manifestly left-right symmetric models due to the minimization conditions of the scalar potential and the structure of vev's imposed by phenomenology. We derive constraints on off-diagonal light-heavy and heavy-heavy neutrino mixings from the searches for lepton violating decays nuclei. The most stringent limits come from the latter process because its amplitude shows a quadratic non-decoupling dependence on the heavy neutrino mass. Due to the suppression of right-handed currents by large $W_R$ mass the present experiments are not sensitive to the intergenerational mixings between heavy neutrinos if $M_{W_R}>200$ TeV.

  4. Fully Decoupled Compliant Parallel Mechanism: a New Solution for the Design of Multidimensional Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen GAO

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel multidimensional accelerometer is proposed based on fully decoupled compliant parallel mechanism. Three separated chains, which are served as the elastic body, are perpendicular to each other for sensing the kinetic information in different directions without decoupling process. As the crucial part of the whole sensor structure, the revolute and prismatic joints in three pairwise orthogonal branches of the parallel mechanism are manufactured with the alloy aluminium as flexure hinge-based compliant joints. The structure development is first introduced, followed by the comprehensive finite-element analysis including the strain of the sensitive legs, modal analysis for total deformation under different frequency, and the performance of harmonic response. Then, the shape optimization is conducted to reduce the unnecessary parts. Compliance optimization with particle swarm algorithm is implemented to redesign the dimension of the sensitive legs. The research supplies a new viewpoint for the mechanical design of physical sensor, especially acceleration sensor.

  5. Acoustic omni meta-atom for decoupled access to all octants of a wave parameter space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Sukmo; Cho, Choonlae; Jeong, Jun-ho; Park, Namkyoo

    2016-01-01

    The common behaviour of a wave is determined by wave parameters of its medium, which are generally associated with the characteristic oscillations of its corresponding elementary particles. In the context of metamaterials, the decoupled excitation of these fundamental oscillations would provide an ideal platform for top–down and reconfigurable access to the entire constitutive parameter space; however, this has remained as a conceivable problem that must be accomplished, after being pointed out by Pendry. Here by focusing on acoustic metamaterials, we achieve the decoupling of density ρ, modulus B−1 and bianisotropy ξ, by separating the paths of particle momentum to conform to the characteristic oscillations of each macroscopic wave parameter. Independent access to all octants of wave parameter space (ρ, B−1, ξ)=(+/−,+/−,+/−) is thus realized using a single platform that we call an omni meta-atom; as a building block that achieves top–down access to the target properties of metamaterials. PMID:27687689

  6. Generalized Shape and Gauge Decoupling Load Distribution Optimization Based on IGA for Tandem Cold Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Peng; YANG Quan

    2009-01-01

    Load distribution is the foundation of shape control and gauge control, in which it is necessary to take into account the shape control ability of TCM (tandem cold mill) for strip shape and gauge quality. First, the objective function of generalized shape and gauge decoupling load distribution optimization was established, which considered the rolling force characteristics of the first and last stands in TCM, the relative power, and the TCM shape control ability. Then, IGA (immune genetic algorithm) was used to accomplish this multi-objective load distribution optimization for TCM. After simulation and comparison with the practical load distribution strategy in one tandem cold mill, general-ized shape and gauge decoupling load distribution optimization on the basis of IGA approved good ability of optimizing shape control and gauge control simultaneously.

  7. State Feedback Decoupling with In-Loop Lead Compensator in Stand-Alone VSIs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, de Bosio; Pastorelli, Michele; de Sousa Ribeiro, Luiz Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The performance of current and voltage regulators during transients and steady-state is of primary concern for power converters intended for stand-alone applications. Dynamics performance and command tracking capability are enhanced by actively decoupling the controlled states variables. To furth...... requiring even more a proper anti-wind up scheme to avoid saturation of the integral term during demanding transients. Lab-tests are performed in accordance with standards imposed to uninterruptible power supplies, verifying the theoretical analysis.......The performance of current and voltage regulators during transients and steady-state is of primary concern for power converters intended for stand-alone applications. Dynamics performance and command tracking capability are enhanced by actively decoupling the controlled states variables. To further...

  8. Inductor Compensation in Three Phase PFC Control with Decoupling the Input Voltage and Bus Voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Guang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the nonlinear structure of the boost ac/dc topology, the PFC is difficult to be controlled. The average state space theory has revealed that the choke current is determined by duty-ratio coupled with input voltage and bus voltage, which makes the high-performance sine-wave current track control more challenging. To remove disturbing variables and reduce the zero-crossing distortion, the decoupling control strategy is presented. Also, it is shown in this paper that the variable inductance has a great influence on PFC and THDI. As the inductor in boost converter varies with the current, a compensating coefficient of current is also proposed. The decoupling strategy and the inductor compensation strategy are implemented on a UPS with three phase input voltage. Numerical simulation and experimental results has indicated the high-performance of these control strategy.

  9. Filter-design perspective applying to dynamical decoupling of multi-qubit system

    CERN Document Server

    Zhi-Kun, Su

    2011-01-01

    We employ the filter-design perspective and derive the filter functions according to nested Uhrig dynamical decoupling (NUDD) and Symmetric dynamical decoupling (SDD) in the pure-dephasing spin-boson model with N qubits. The performances of NUDD and SDD are discussed in detail for a two-qubit system. The analysis shows that (i) SDD outperforms NUDD for the bath with a soft cutoff while NUDD approaches SDD as the cutoff becomes harder; (ii) if the qubits are coupled to a common reservoir, SDD helps to protect the decoherence-free subspace while NUDD destroys it; (iii) when the the imperfect control pulses with finite width are considered, NUDD is affected in both the high-fidelity regime and coherence time regime while SDD is obviously affected in the coherence time regime only.

  10. Non-decoupling effects of SUSY in the physics of Higgs bosons and their phenomenological implications

    CERN Document Server

    Curiel, A M; Temes, D; Curiel, Ana M.; Herrero, Maria J.; Temes, David

    2003-01-01

    We consider a plausible scenario in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) where all the genuine supersymmetric (SUSY) particles are heavier than the electroweak scale. In this situation, indirect searches via their radiative corrections to low energy observables are complementary to direct searches, and they can be crucial if the SUSY masses are at the TeV energy range. We summarize the most relevant heavy SUSY radiative effects in Higgs boson physics and emphasize those that manifest a non-decoupling behaviour. We focus, in particular, on the SUSY-QCD non-decoupling effects in fermionic Higgs decays, flavour changing Higgs decays and Yukawa couplings. Some of their phenomenological implications at future colliders are also studied.

  11. Decoupling Design and Verification of a Free-Piston Linear Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Sun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a decoupling design approach for a free-piston linear generator (FPLG constituted of three key components, including a combustion chamber, a linear generator and a gas spring serving as rebounding device. The approach is based on the distribution of the system power and efficiency, which provides a theoretical design method from the viewpoint of the overall power and efficiency demands. The energy flow and conversion processes of the FPLG are analyzed, and the power and efficiency demands of the thermal-mechanical and mechanical-electrical energy conversion are confirmed. The energy and efficiency distributions of the expansion and compression strokes within a single stable operation cycle are analyzed and determined. Detailed design methodologies of crucial geometric dimensions and operational parameters of each key component are described. The feasibility of the proposed decoupling design approach is validated through several design examples with different output power.

  12. Acoustic holography based on composite metasurface with decoupled modulation of phase and amplitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ye; Wei, Qi; Cheng, Ying; Liu, Xiaojun

    2017-05-01

    Acoustic holography has extensive possibilities in acoustic sensing, acoustic illusion, contactless particle manipulation, and medical imaging. Based on coating unit cells and perforated panels, an acoustic composite metasurface is constructed with a decoupled modulation of phase and amplitude, which has been used to design acoustic holography. This proposal not only has lower complexity than conventional acoustic holography of active arrays due to the avoidance of complex structures and circuits but also provides more flexibility than acoustic holography based on the acoustic metasurface with phase-only modulation benefitting from the efficient decoupled modulation of phase and amplitude. We have further demonstrated three acoustic holographic applications, such as multi-directional transmission, multi-focal focusing, and holographic imaging. Due to the low complexity and the great flexibility, this proposal has potential to achieve the high-quality holograms with high information content, fine resolution, and large scale.

  13. Renormalization Group and Decoupling in Curved Space II. The Standard Model and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbar, E V; Gorbar, Eduard V.; Shapiro, Ilya L.

    2003-01-01

    We continue the study of the renormalization group and decoupling of massive fields in curved space, started in the previous article and analyse the higher derivative sector of the vacuum metric-dependent action of the Standard Model. The QCD sector at low-energies is described in terms of the composite effective fields. For fermions and scalars the massless limit shows perfect correspondence with the conformal anomaly, but similar limit in a massive vector case requires an extra compensating scalar. In all three cases the decoupling goes smoothly and monotonic. A particularly interesting case is the renormalization group flow in the theory with broken supersymmetry, where the sign of one of the beta-functions changes on the way from the UV to IR.

  14. Voltage Management in Unbalanced Low Voltage Networks Using a Decoupled Phase-Tap-Changer Transformer

    OpenAIRE

    Coppo, Massimiliano; Turri, Roberto; Marinelli, Mattia; Han, Xue

    2014-01-01

    The paper studies a medium voltage-low voltage transformer with a decoupled on load tap changer capability on each phase. The overall objective is the evaluation of the potential benefits on a low voltage network of such possibility. A realistic Danish low voltage network is used for the analysis. The load profiles are characterized by using single phase measurement data on voltages, currents and active powers with a 10 minutes resolution. Different scenarios are considered: no tap action, th...

  15. Nonlinear decoupling of torque and field amplitude in an induction motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, H. [Aalborg University, Aalborg (Denmark); Vadstrup, P.; Boersting, H. [Grundfos A/S, Bjerringbro (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    A novel approach to control of induction motors, based on nonlinear state feedback, is presented. The resulting scheme gives a linearized input-output decoupling of the torque and the amplitude of the field. The proposed approach is used to design controllers for the field amplitude and the motor torque. The method is tested both by simulation and by experiments on a motor drive. (orig.) 12 refs.

  16. De-coupling of Exchange and Persistence Times in Atomistic Models of Glass Formers

    OpenAIRE

    Hedges, Lester O.; Maibaum, Lutz; Chandler, David; Juan P Garrahan

    2007-01-01

    With molecular dynamics simulations of a fluid mixture of classical particles interacting with pair-wise additive Weeks-Chandler-Andersen potentials, we consider the time series of particle displacements and thereby determine distributions for local persistence times and local exchange times. These basic characterizations of glassy dynamics are studied over a range of super-cooled conditions and shown to have behaviors, most notably de-coupling, similar to those found in kinetically constrain...

  17. Decoupling electrocaloric effect from Joule heating in a solid state cooling device

    OpenAIRE

    Quintero, M.; Gomez-Marlasca, F.; Ghivelder, L.; Parisi, F.

    2011-01-01

    We report a heat dynamics analysis of the electrocaloric effect (ECE) in commercial multilayer capacitors based on BaTiO3 dielectric, a promising candidate for applications as a solid state cooling device. Direct measurements of the time evolution of the sample's temperature changes under different applied voltages allow us to decouple the contributions from Joule heating and from the ECE. Heat balance equations were used to model the thermal coupling between different parts of the system. Fi...

  18. Challenges and Development of a Multi-Scale Computational Model for Photosystem I Decoupled Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This biological process couples the energy derived from photo-excitation to split water and reduce CO2 in order to create complex carbohydrates in plants...algae (3–6) through metabolic (7–9) and later genetic controls (8, 10). More recent work has focused on decoupling photosynthesis by crosslinking PSI...2006, 124, 024301. 31. Yin, S.; Dahlbom, M. G.; Canfield, P. J.; Hush, N. S.; Kobayashi, R.; Reimers, J. R. Assignment of the Q y absorption spectrum

  19. Decoupling of excitation and receive coils in pulsed magnetic resonance using sinusoidal magnetic field modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseytlin, Mark; Epel, Boris; Sundramoorthy, Subramanian; Tipikin, Dmitriy; Halpern, Howard J.

    2016-11-01

    In pulsed magnetic resonance, the excitation power is many orders of magnitude larger than that induced by the spin system in the receiving coil or resonator. The receiver must be protected during and immediately after the excitation pulse to allow for the energy stored in the resonator to dissipate to a safe level. The time during which the signal is not detected, the instrumental dead-time, can be shortened by using magnetically decoupled excitation and receive coils. Such coils are oriented, with respect to each other, in a way that minimizes the total magnetic flux produced by one coil in the other. We suggest that magnetically decoupled coils can be isolated to a larger degree by tuning them to separate frequencies. Spins are excited at one frequency, and the echo signal is detected at another. Sinusoidal magnetic field modulation that rapidly changes the Larmor frequency of the spins between the excitation and detection events is used to ensure the resonance conditions for both coils. In this study, the relaxation times of trityl-CD3 were measured in a field-modulated pulsed EPR experiment and compared to results obtained using a standard spin echo method. The excitation and receive coils were tuned to 245 and 256.7 MHz, respectively. Using an available rapid-scan, cross-loop EPR resonator, we demonstrated an isolation improvement of approximately 20-30 dB due to frequency decoupling. Theoretical analysis, numerical simulations, and proof-of-concept experiments demonstrated that substantial excitation-detection decoupling can be achieved. A pulsed L-band system, including a small volume bi-modal resonator equipped with modulation coils, was constructed to demonstrate fivefold dead-time reduction in comparison with the standard EPR experiment. This was achieved by detuning of the excitation and receive coils by 26 MHz and using sinusoidal modulation at 480 kHz.

  20. Modeling UK Natural Gas Prices when Gas Prices Periodically Decouple from the Oil Price

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    When natural gas prices are subject to periodic decoupling from oil prices, for instance due to peak-load pricing, conventional linear models of price dynamics such as the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) can lead to erroneous inferences about cointegration relationships, price adjustments and relative values. We propose the use of regime-switching models to address these issues. Our regime switching model uses price data to infer whether pricing is oil-driven (integrated) or gas-specific...

  1. Decoupled deblurring filter and its application to elastic migration and inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Zongcai

    2017-08-17

    We present a decoupled deblurring filter that approximates the multiparameter Hessian inverse by using local filters to approximate its submatrices for the same and different parameter classes. Numerical tests show that the filter not only reduces the footprint noise, balances the amplitudes and increases the resolution of the elastic migration images, but also mitigates the crosstalk artifacts. When used as a preconditioner, it accelerates the convergence rate for elastic inversion.

  2. A Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition algorithm for linear economic model predictive control of dynamically decoupled subsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil; Standardi, Laura; Edlund, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a warm-started Dantzig–Wolfe decomposition algorithm tailored to economic model predictive control of dynamically decoupled subsystems. We formulate the constrained optimal control problem solved at each sampling instant as a linear program with state space constraints, input....... In the presence of process and measurement noise, such a regularization term is critical for achieving a well-behaved closed-loop performance....

  3. Voltage and Current Regulators Design of Power Converters in Islanded Microgrids based on State Feedback Decoupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, de Bosio; de Sousa Ribeiro, Luiz Antonio; Freijedo Fernandez, Francisco Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In stand-alone microgrids based on voltage source inverters state feedback coupling between the capacitor voltage and inductor current degrades significantly the dynamics performance of voltage and current regulators. The decoupling of the controlled states is proposed, considering the limitations...... introduced by system delays. Moreover, a proportional resonant voltage controller is designed according to Nyquist criterion taking into account application requirements. Experimental tests performed in compliance with the UPS standards verify the theoretical analysis....

  4. 24 CFR 203.37 - Nature of title to realty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nature of title to realty. 203.37 Section 203.37 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... § 203.37 Nature of title to realty. A mortgage, to be eligible for insurance, must be on real...

  5. Book Title Output and Average Prices: 2008-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Catherine; Harbison, Constance

    2012-01-01

    The print publishing industry is showing signs of recovering from the worst of the economic downturn even as the surge in popularity of ebooks raises questions about the future of printed materials. From a high of 190,502 titles in 2007, overall American book title output fell to 178,841 in 2009 but climbed back to 186,344 in 2010; preliminary…

  6. 28 CFR 33.22 - Title to personal property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Title to personal property. 33.22 Section 33.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE BUREAU OF JUSTICE ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAMS Criminal Justice Block Grants Allocation of Funds § 33.22 Title to personal property. Section 808 of...

  7. The Translation of Films: Sub-Titling versus Dubbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voge, Hans

    1977-01-01

    A study of film translation. Well-documented opinions are given on the advantages and disadvantages of both dubbing and sub-titling. One of the tentative conclusions is that sub-titling is to be preferred because it preserves the original dialogue and allows the audience verying degrees of comprehension. A bibliography is provided. (AMH)

  8. Targeting Schools: Study of Title I Allocations within School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stullich, Stephanie; Donly, Brenda; Stolzberg, Simeon

    Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) is intended to support state and local efforts to ensure that all children reach challenging standards by providing additional resources for schools and students that have the farthest to go. The 1994 reauthorization of the ESEA included a number of changes to Title I allocation…

  9. Titling indigenous communities protects forests in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Allen; Corral, Leonardo; Lima, Eirivelthon Santos; Asner, Gregory P

    2017-04-18

    Developing countries are increasingly decentralizing forest governance by granting indigenous groups and other local communities formal legal title to land. However, the effects of titling on forest cover are unclear. Rigorous analyses of titling campaigns are rare, and related theoretical and empirical research suggests that they could either stem or spur forest damage. We analyze such a campaign in the Peruvian Amazon, where more than 1,200 indigenous communities comprising some 11 million ha have been titled since the mid-1970s. We use community-level longitudinal data derived from high-resolution satellite images to estimate the effect of titling between 2002 and 2005 on contemporaneous forest clearing and disturbance. Our results indicate that titling reduces clearing by more than three-quarters and forest disturbance by roughly two-thirds in a 2-y window spanning the year title is awarded and the year afterward. These results suggest that awarding formal land titles to local communities can advance forest conservation.

  10. 24 CFR 234.65 - Nature of title.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nature of title. 234.65 Section 234.65 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... OWNERSHIP MORTGAGE INSURANCE Eligibility Requirements-Individually Owned Units § 234.65 Nature of title....

  11. Evaluation Report, Brookville EEE Program, ESEA Title I, Summer, 1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Don L.

    Contained in this report is an evaluation of the ESEA Title I Environmental-Ecological Education Program for educationally disadvantaged students operated by the Brookville Area School District, Pennsylvania. The program is a modification of a previously operated ESEA Title III Rural Youth Enrichment Program. Conducted during the summer of 1970,…

  12. Foreignizing Translation and Domesticating Translation of Hong Kong Movie Titles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林慧韵

    2014-01-01

    Generally,the movie title translation strategy would be divided into two:domesticating translation strategy and foreignizing translation strategy.The movie title translation in Hong Kong is chosen to be the material for the analysis of the domesticating translation strategy and foreignizing translation strategy,compared with that of Mainland China.

  13. 24 CFR 203.389 - Waived title objections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SINGLE FAMILY MORTGAGE INSURANCE Contract Rights and Obligations Property Title Transfers and Title..., and other customary easements for public utilities, party walls, driveways, and other purposes. (2... exercise of the rights thereunder do not interfere with any of the buildings or improvements located on the...

  14. Implementation of single-photon quantum routing and decoupling using a nitrogen-vacancy center and a whispering-gallery-mode resonator-waveguide system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Cong; Duan, Yu-Wen; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Ru; Wang, Tie-Jun; Wang, Chuan

    2017-07-24

    Quantum router is a key element needed for the construction of future complex quantum networks. However, quantum routing with photons, and its inverse, quantum decoupling, are difficult to implement as photons do not interact, or interact very weakly in nonlinear media. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of implementing photonic quantum routing based on effects in cavity quantum electrodynamics, and present a scheme for single-photon quantum routing controlled by the other photon using a hybrid system consisting of a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center coupled with a whispering-gallery-mode resonator-waveguide structure. Different from the cases in which classical information is used to control the path of quantum signals, both the control and signal photons are quantum in our implementation. Compared with the probabilistic quantum routing protocols based on linear optics, our scheme is deterministic and also scalable to multiple photons. We also present a scheme for single-photon quantum decoupling from an initial state with polarization and spatial-mode encoding, which can implement an inverse operation to the quantum routing. We discuss the feasibility of our schemes by considering current or near-future techniques, and show that both the schemes can operate effectively in the bad-cavity regime. We believe that the schemes could be key building blocks for future complex quantum networks and large-scale quantum information processing.

  15. Customer Order Decoupling Point Selection Model in Mass Customization Based on MAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xuanguo; LI Xiangyang

    2006-01-01

    Mass customization relates to the ability of providing individually designed products or services to customer with high process flexibility or integration. Literatures on mass customization have been focused on mechanism of MC, but little on customer order decoupling point selection. The aim of this paper is to present a model for customer order decoupling point selection of domain knowledge interactions between enterprises and customers in mass customization. Based on the analysis of other researchers' achievements combining the demand problems of customer and enterprise, a model of group decision for customer order decoupling point selection is constructed based on quality function deployment and multi-agent system. Considering relatively the decision makers of independent functional departments as independent decision agents, a decision agent set is added as the third dimensionality to house of quality, the cubic quality function deployment is formed. The decision-making can be consisted of two procedures: the first one is to build each plane house of quality in various functional departments to express each opinions; the other is to evaluate and gather the foregoing sub-decisions by a new plane quality function deployment. Thus, department decision-making can well use its domain knowledge by ontology, and total decision-making can keep simple by avoiding too many customer requirements.

  16. Calculation of the piezoelectric and flexoelectric effects in nanowires using a decoupled finite element analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Geng, Dalong; Wang, Xudong

    2016-04-01

    A simple and effective decoupled finite element analysis method was developed for simulating both the piezoelectric and flexoelectric effects of zinc oxide (ZnO) and barium titanate (BTO) nanowires (NWs). The piezoelectric potential distribution on a ZnO NW was calculated under three deformation conditions (cantilever, three-point, and four-point bending) and compared to the conventional fully coupled method. The discrepancies of the electric potential maximums from these two methods were found very small, validating the accuracy and effectiveness of the decoupled method. Both ZnO and BTO NWs yielded very similar potential distributions. Comparing the potential distributions induced by the piezoelectric and flexoelectric effects, we identified that the middle segment of a four-point bending NW beam is the ideal place for measuring the flexoelectric coefficient, because the uniform parallel plate capacitor-like potential distribution in this region is exclusively induced by the flexoelectric effect. This decoupled method could provide a valuable guideline for experimental measurements of the piezoelectric effects and flexoelectric effects in the nanometer scale.

  17. Decoupling of nutrient element cycles in soil and plants across an altitude gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qiqi; Wang, Guoan

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have examined the decoupling of C, N, and P under rapid changes in climate. While this may occur in different environment types, such climactic changes have been reported over short distances in mountainous terrain. We hypothesized that the decoupling of C, N, and P could also occur in response to increases in altitude. We sampled soil and plants from Mount Gongga, Sichuan Province, China. Soil C and N were not related to altitude, whereas soil P increased with altitude. Soil N did not change with mean annual temperature (MAT), mean annual precipitation (MAP), vegetation and soil types, whereas soil P varied with MAT and vegetation type. Plant C remained constant with increasing altitude; plant N exhibited a quadratic change trend along the altitude gradient, with a turning point at 2350 m above average sea level; and plant P decreased with altitude. MAP mostly accounted for the variation in plant P. MAT was responsible for the variation of plant N at elevations below 2350 m, whereas MAT and vegetation type were the dominant influential factors of plants growing above 2350 m. Thus, the decoupling of C, N, and P in both soil and plants was significantly affected by altitude.

  18. Innovative group-decoupling design of a segment erector based on G F set theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wentao; Guo, Weizhong; Gao, Feng; Mo, Pinxi

    2013-03-01

    The segment erector is a key part of the shield machines for tunnel engineering. The available segment erectors are all of serial configuration which is suffering from the problems of low rigidity and accumulative motion errors. The current research mainly focuses on improving assembly accuracy and control performance of serial segment erectors. An innovative design method is proposed featuring motion group-decoupling, based on which a new type of segment erector is developed and investigated. Firstly, the segment installation manipulation is analyzed and decomposed into three motion groups that are decoupled. Then the type synthesis for the 4-DOF motion group is performed based on the general function( G F ) set theory and a new configuration of (1T⊕1R⊕1PS&3UPS) is attained according to the segment manipulation requirements. Consequently, the kinematic models are built and the reducibility and accuracy are analyzed. The dexterity is verified though numerical simulation and no singular points appear in the workspace. Finally, a positioning experiment is carried out by using the prototype developed in the lab that demonstrates a 13.1% improvement of positioning accuracy and the feasibility of the new segment erector. The presented group-decoupling design method is able to invent new type of hybrid segment erectors that avoid the accumulative motion error of erecting.

  19. Dynamic decoupling and local atomic order of a model multicomponent metallic glass-former

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongmin; Sung, Bong June

    2015-06-01

    The dynamics of multicomponent metallic alloys is spatially heterogeneous near glass transition. The diffusion coefficient of one component of the metallic alloys may also decouple from those of other components, i.e., the diffusion coefficient of each component depends differently on the viscosity of metallic alloys. In this work we investigate the dynamic heterogeneity and decoupling of a model system for multicomponent Pd43Cu27Ni10P20 melts by using a hard sphere model that considers the size disparity of alloys but does not take chemical effects into account. We also study how such dynamic behaviors would relate to the local atomic structure of metallic alloys. We find, from molecular dynamics simulations, that the smallest component P of multicomponent Pd43Cu27Ni10P20 melts becomes dynamically heterogeneous at a translational relaxation time scale and that the largest major component Pd forms a slow subsystem, which has been considered mainly responsible for the stabilization of amorphous state of alloys. The heterogeneous dynamics of P atoms accounts for the breakdown of Stokes-Einstein relation and also leads to the dynamic decoupling of P and Pd atoms. The dynamically heterogeneous P atoms decrease the lifetime of the local short-range atomic orders of both icosahedral and close-packed structures by orders of magnitude.

  20. Replenishment and mobilization of intracellular nitrogen pools decouples wine yeast nitrogen uptake from growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Alicia; Sancho, Marta; Beltran, Gemma; Guillamon, José Manuel; Warringer, Jonas

    2016-04-01

    Wine yeast capacity to take up nitrogen from the environment and catabolize it to support population growth, fermentation, and aroma production is critical to wine production. Under nitrogen restriction, yeast nitrogen uptake is believed to be intimately coupled to reproduction with nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR) suggested mediating this link. We provide a time- and strain-resolved view of nitrogen uptake, population growth, and NCR activity in wine yeasts. Nitrogen uptake was found to be decoupled from growth due to early assimilated nitrogen being used to replenish intracellular nitrogen pools rather than being channeled directly into reproduction. Internally accumulated nitrogen was later mobilized to support substantial population expansion after external nitrogen was depleted. On good nitrogen sources, the decoupling between nitrogen uptake and growth correlated well with relaxation of NCR repression, raising the potential that the latter may be triggered by intracellular build-up of nitrogen. No link between NCR activity and nitrogen assimilation or growth on poor nitrogen sources was found. The decoupling between nitrogen uptake and growth and its influence on NCR activity is of relevance for both wine production and our general understanding of nitrogen use.

  1. The Neurocognitive Consequences of the Wandering Mind: A Mechanistic Account of Sensory-Motor Decoupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia W. Y. Kam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A unique human characteristic is our ability to mind wander – a state in which we are free to engage in thoughts that are not directly tied to sensations and perceptions from our immediate physical environment. From a neurocognitive perspective, it has been proposed that during mind wandering, our executive resources are decoupled from the external environment and directed to these internal thoughts. In this review, we examine an underappreciated aspect of this phenomenon – attenuation of sensory-motor processing – from two perspectives. First, we describe the range of widespread sensory, cognitive and motor processes attenuated during mind wandering states, and how this impacts our neurocognitive processing of external events. We then consider sensory-motor attenuation in a class of clinical neurocognitive disorders that have ties to pathological patterns of decoupling, reviews suggesting that mind wandering and these clinical states may share a common mechanism of sensory-motor attenuation. Taken together, these observations suggest the sensory-motor consequences of decoupled thinking are integral to normal and pathological neurocognitive states.

  2. The neurocognitive consequences of the wandering mind: a mechanistic account of sensory-motor decoupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Julia W Y; Handy, Todd C

    2013-10-14

    A unique human characteristic is our ability to mind wander - a state in which we are free to engage in thoughts that are not directly tied to sensations and perceptions from our immediate physical environment. From a neurocognitive perspective, it has been proposed that during mind wandering, our executive resources are decoupled from the external environment and directed to these internal thoughts. In this review, we examine an underappreciated aspect of this phenomenon - attenuation of sensory-motor processing - from two perspectives. First, we describe the range of widespread sensory, cognitive and motor processes attenuated during mind wandering states, and how this impacts our neurocognitive processing of external events. We then consider sensory-motor attenuation in a class of clinical neurocognitive disorders that have ties to pathological patterns of decoupling, reviews suggesting that mind wandering and these clinical states may share a common mechanism of sensory-motor attenuation. Taken together, these observations suggest the sensory-motor consequences of decoupled thinking are integral to normal and pathological neurocognitive states.

  3. Tuning of Feedback Decoupling Controller for Two-Dimensional Heat Plate by Using VRFT Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Nobutomo; Nakano, Masahiko; Okajima, Hiroshi; Kawaji, Shigeyasu

    In manufacturing processes, inappropriate thermal distribution, which is observed in both steady and transient states of the thermal plant, leads to inferior quality. For a plant with strong thermal interaction, decoupling control is effective in precisely tuning the control system. We proposed the decoupling controller based on the temperature-difference feedback model. However, no parameter-identification method of thermal interaction has been presented so far. Traditionally, iterative tuning by trial and error has been used to tune the controller parameters. In the case of an industrial plant, the tuning time would be long because of the large time constants of the plant. Recently, the virtual reference feedback tuning (VRFT) method, which can be used for off-line tuning of the controller parameters using a set of I/O data, has been studied to examine the possibility of shortening the tuning time. In this paper, a VRFT method for the feedback decoupling controller is proposed for a two-dimensional heat plate by taking consideration the thermal interaction property. The effectiveness of this VRFT method is evaluated by performing an experimental simulation.

  4. UPFC converter-level control system using internally calculated system quantities for decoupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papic, I.; Zunko, P. [Ljubljana Univ., Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2003-10-01

    The paper presents a Unified power flow controller (UPFC) converter-level control system which enables the device to track the changes in reference values of the active and reactive power flow through the transmission line, and of the reactive power exchange with the shunt branch. First, a co-ordinated control of both branches of the device is presented, where all quantities being controlled are also dynamically mutually decoupled. This is possible only if on-line values of input quantities are available in the controller. Under practical operating conditions, the input values are filtered and processed with certain delay, which means that they cannot be directly used for decoupling too. To overcome this problem, a modified control structure was formulated. It is based on the calculation of system quantities in the controller by using the mathematical model of the device. The decoupled UPFC control can significantly reduce interactions with other controls in the system. The derived control was tested with digital simulation (Author)

  5. Genetic Optimization Algorithm of PID Decoupling Control for VAV Air-Conditioning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiangjiang; AN Dawei; ZHANG Chunfa; JING Youyin

    2009-01-01

    Variable-air-volume (VAV) air-conditioning system is a multi-variable system and has multi coupling control loops. While all of the control loops are working together, they interfere and influence each other. A multi-variable decoupling PID controller is designed for VAV air-conditioning system. Diagonal matrix decoupling method is employed to eliminate the coupling between the loop of supply air temperature and that of thermal-space air temperature. The PID controller parameters are optimized by means of an improved genetic algorithm in floating point representations to obtain better performance. The population in the improved genetic algorithm mutates before crossover, which is helpful for the convergence. Additionally the micro mutation algorithm is proposed and applied to improve the convergence during the later evolution. To search the best parameters, the optimized parameters ranges should be amplified l0 times the initial ideal parameters. The simulation and experiment results show that the decoupling control system is effective and feasible. The method can overcome the strong coupling feature of the system and has shorter governing time and less over-shoot than non-optimization PID control.

  6. Wind tunnel experiments: cold-air pooling and atmospheric decoupling above a melting snow patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, Rebecca; Paterna, Enrico; Horender, Stefan; Crivelli, Philip; Lehning, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The longevity of perennial snowfields is not fully understood, but it is known that strong atmospheric stability and thus boundary-layer decoupling limit the amount of (sensible and latent) heat that can be transmitted from the atmosphere to the snow surface. The strong stability is typically caused by two factors, (i) the temperature difference between the (melting) snow surface and the near-surface atmosphere and (ii) cold-air pooling in topographic depressions. These factors are almost always a prerequisite for perennial snowfields to exist. For the first time, this contribution investigates the relative importance of the two factors in a controlled wind tunnel environment. Vertical profiles of sensible heat and momentum fluxes are measured using two-component hot-wire and one-component cold-wire anemometry directly over the melting snow patch. The comparison between a flat snow surface and one that has a depression shows that atmospheric decoupling is strongly increased in the case of topographic sheltering but only for low to moderate wind speeds. For those conditions, the near-surface suppression of turbulent mixing was observed to be strongest, and the ambient flow was decoupled from the surface, enhancing near-surface atmospheric stability over the single snow patch.

  7. Wind tunnel experiments: cold-air pooling and atmospheric decoupling above a melting snow patch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mott

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The longevity of perennial snow fields is not fully understood but it is known that strong atmospheric stability and thus boundary layer decoupling limits the amount of (sensible and latent heat that can be transmitted to the snow surface. The strong stability is typically caused by two factors, (i the temperature difference between the (melting snow surface and the near-surface atmosphere and (ii cold-air pooling in topographic depressions. These factors are almost always a prerequisite for perennial snow fields to exist. For the first time, this contribution investigates the relative importance of the two factors in a controlled wind tunnel environment. Vertical profiles of sensible heat fluxes are measured using two-component hot wire and one-component cold-wire anemometry directly over the melting snow patch. The comparison between a flat snow surface and one that has a depression shows that atmospheric decoupling is strongly increased in the case of topographic sheltering but only for low to moderate wind speeds. For those conditions, the near-surface suppression of turbulent mixing was observed to be strongest and drainage flows were decoupled from the surface enhancing atmospheric stability and promoting the cold-air pooling over the single snow patch. Further work is required to systematically and quantitatively describe the flux distribution for varying terrain geometry, wind speeds and air temperatures.

  8. Dynamic decoupling and local atomic order of a model multicomponent metallic glass-former.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongmin; Sung, Bong June

    2015-06-17

    The dynamics of multicomponent metallic alloys is spatially heterogeneous near glass transition. The diffusion coefficient of one component of the metallic alloys may also decouple from those of other components, i.e., the diffusion coefficient of each component depends differently on the viscosity of metallic alloys. In this work we investigate the dynamic heterogeneity and decoupling of a model system for multicomponent Pd43Cu27Ni10P20 melts by using a hard sphere model that considers the size disparity of alloys but does not take chemical effects into account. We also study how such dynamic behaviors would relate to the local atomic structure of metallic alloys. We find, from molecular dynamics simulations, that the smallest component P of multicomponent Pd43Cu27Ni10P20 melts becomes dynamically heterogeneous at a translational relaxation time scale and that the largest major component Pd forms a slow subsystem, which has been considered mainly responsible for the stabilization of amorphous state of alloys. The heterogeneous dynamics of P atoms accounts for the breakdown of Stokes-Einstein relation and also leads to the dynamic decoupling of P and Pd atoms. The dynamically heterogeneous P atoms decrease the lifetime of the local short-range atomic orders of both icosahedral and close-packed structures by orders of magnitude.

  9. Mechanical Coupling Error Suppression Technology for an Improved Decoupled Dual-Mass Micro-Gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents technology for the suppression of the mechanical coupling errors for an improved decoupled dual-mass micro-gyroscope (DDMG. The improved micro-gyroscope structure decreases the moment arm of the drive decoupled torque, which benefits the suppression of the non-ideal decoupled error. Quadrature correction electrodes are added to eliminate the residual quadrature error. The structure principle and the quadrature error suppression means of the DDMG are described in detail. ANSYS software is used to simulate the micro-gyroscope structure to verify the mechanical coupling error suppression effect. Compared with the former structure, simulation results demonstrate that the rotational displacements of the sense frame in the improved structure are substantially suppressed in the drive mode. The improved DDMG structure chip is fabricated by the deep dry silicon on glass (DDSOG process. The feedback control circuits with quadrature control loops are designed to suppress the residual mechanical coupling error. Finally, the system performance of the DDMG prototype is tested. Compared with the former DDMG, the quadrature error in the improved dual-mass micro-gyroscope is decreased 9.66-fold, and the offset error is decreased 6.36-fold. Compared with the open loop sense, the feedback control circuits with quadrature control loop decrease the bias drift by 20.59-fold and the scale factor non-linearity by 2.81-fold in the ±400°/s range.

  10. Mechanical Coupling Error Suppression Technology for an Improved Decoupled Dual-Mass Micro-Gyroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Wang, Xingjun; Deng, Yunpeng; Hu, Di

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents technology for the suppression of the mechanical coupling errors for an improved decoupled dual-mass micro-gyroscope (DDMG). The improved micro-gyroscope structure decreases the moment arm of the drive decoupled torque, which benefits the suppression of the non-ideal decoupled error. Quadrature correction electrodes are added to eliminate the residual quadrature error. The structure principle and the quadrature error suppression means of the DDMG are described in detail. ANSYS software is used to simulate the micro-gyroscope structure to verify the mechanical coupling error suppression effect. Compared with the former structure, simulation results demonstrate that the rotational displacements of the sense frame in the improved structure are substantially suppressed in the drive mode. The improved DDMG structure chip is fabricated by the deep dry silicon on glass (DDSOG) process. The feedback control circuits with quadrature control loops are designed to suppress the residual mechanical coupling error. Finally, the system performance of the DDMG prototype is tested. Compared with the former DDMG, the quadrature error in the improved dual-mass micro-gyroscope is decreased 9.66-fold, and the offset error is decreased 6.36-fold. Compared with the open loop sense, the feedback control circuits with quadrature control loop decrease the bias drift by 20.59-fold and the scale factor non-linearity by 2.81-fold in the ±400°/s range.

  11. Decoupling negative damping signals in a power system through dynamic gain reduction measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coowar, F.; Magdy, M.A. (Univ. of Wollongong, Wollongong, N.S.W. (AU)); Grainger, W. (Electricity Commission of New South Wales, Sydney, N.S.W. (AU))

    1992-08-01

    Low frequency oscillations occurring in a power system can be accentuated in generators through a feedback loop which connects the output of the system to the summing junction of the Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) where the Power System Stabilizer (PSS) is also connected. A method of decoupling these oscillations without compromising the benevolent effects of other control loops in that system is presented. A notch filter, located in the forward path of the negative damping signal, provides the necessary Dynamic Gain Reduction (DGR) for switching off the detrimental signals. This paper provides relevant frequency domain analysis of the closed loop transfer function of a typical power system which reflects the effect of tie-line disturbances on power angle oscillations. This leads to a restructuring of the transfer blocks in the system and the design of a DGR block that allows the decoupling of the negative damping signals. Additional insight into the effect of negative damping signals and their subsequent decoupling is provided through the examination of loop and transfer block signals.

  12. Epigenetics decouples mutational from environmental robustness. Did it also facilitate multicellularity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Gombar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of ever increasing complex life forms has required innovations at the molecular level in order to overcome existing barriers. For example, evolving processes for cell differentiation, such as epigenetic mechanisms, facilitated the transition to multicellularity. At the same time, studies using gene regulatory network models, and corroborated in single-celled model organisms, have shown that mutational robustness and environmental robustness are correlated. Such correlation may constitute a barrier to the evolution of multicellularity since cell differentiation requires sensitivity to cues in the internal environment during development. To investigate how this barrier might be overcome, we used a gene regulatory network model which includes epigenetic control based on the mechanism of histone modification via Polycomb Group Proteins, which evolved in tandem with the transition to multicellularity. Incorporating the Polycomb mechanism allowed decoupling of mutational and environmental robustness, thus allowing the system to be simultaneously robust to mutations while increasing sensitivity to the environment. In turn, this decoupling facilitated cell differentiation which we tested by evaluating the capacity of the system for producing novel output states in response to altered initial conditions. In the absence of the Polycomb mechanism, the system was frequently incapable of adding new states, whereas with the Polycomb mechanism successful addition of new states was nearly certain. The Polycomb mechanism, which dynamically reshapes the network structure during development as a function of expression dynamics, decouples mutational and environmental robustness, thus providing a necessary step in the evolution of multicellularity.

  13. Essay Titles – Getting the Best out of Students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetka Sokolov

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Essay titles are important (demotivating factors that have an immense influence on the quality of students’ writing. The article focuses on two questionnaires aimed at students of English, and at lecturers teaching, writing skills at the Department of English at the Faculty of Arts in Ljubljana. Both groups of respondents were asked to consider a list of essay titles taken from various authentic sources, deciding whether, to what extent, and under what circumstances they found them suitable. In addition, the respondents were asked to paraphrase each title in their own words to convey their interpretation and understanding of a particular title. The results and conclusions arrived at by means of the questionnaires are presented and compared to my prior expectations, stemming primarily from my teaching experience. The topic is also discussed in the light of what experts on essay writing say about essay titles.

  14. Simulating propagation of decoupled elastic waves using low-rank approximate mixed-domain integral operators for anisotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Jiubing

    2016-03-15

    In elastic imaging, the extrapolated vector fields are decoupled into pure wave modes, such that the imaging condition produces interpretable images. Conventionally, mode decoupling in anisotropic media is costly because the operators involved are dependent on the velocity, and thus they are not stationary. We have developed an efficient pseudospectral approach to directly extrapolate the decoupled elastic waves using low-rank approximate mixed-domain integral operators on the basis of the elastic displacement wave equation. We have applied k-space adjustment to the pseudospectral solution to allow for a relatively large extrapolation time step. The low-rank approximation was, thus, applied to the spectral operators that simultaneously extrapolate and decompose the elastic wavefields. Synthetic examples on transversely isotropic and orthorhombic models showed that our approach has the potential to efficiently and accurately simulate the propagations of the decoupled quasi-P and quasi-S modes as well as the total wavefields for elastic wave modeling, imaging, and inversion.

  15. An Inviscid Decoupled Method for the Roe FDS Scheme in the Reacting Gas Path of FUN3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kyle B.; Gnoffo, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    An approach is described to decouple the species continuity equations from the mixture continuity, momentum, and total energy equations for the Roe flux difference splitting scheme. This decoupling simplifies the implicit system, so that the flow solver can be made significantly more efficient, with very little penalty on overall scheme robustness. Most importantly, the computational cost of the point implicit relaxation is shown to scale linearly with the number of species for the decoupled system, whereas the fully coupled approach scales quadratically. Also, the decoupled method significantly reduces the cost in wall time and memory in comparison to the fully coupled approach. This work lays the foundation for development of an efficient adjoint solution procedure for high speed reacting flow.

  16. A fully autonomous power management interface for frequency up-converting harvesters using load decoupling and inductor sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, M.; Paul, O.; Galchev, T.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the design and simulation results of a self-starting electrical interface circuit for Parametric Frequency Increased Generator (PFIG) vibrational energy harvesters. A significant challenge with these types of harvesters is the ring down of the transducer, introducing an exponential decrease in efficiency when interfaced with standard passive rectifiers. This work aims to address these challenges by interfacing a standard active rectifier to a buck-boost stage in order to decouple the load and always provide an optimal impedance to the transducer. Because PFIG harvesters have two outputs, an inductor sharing technique allows the hardware to be reused. The active buck-boost power management circuit is designed for XFAB's 0.35 μm 2P5M CMOS process. It can provide an efficiency between 75% - 93% for input voltages in the range of 0.5 - 2 V, reaching its maximum efficiency at 1.8 V. The active power consumption of the power converter is 800 nW. The system can start from as low as 800 mV of input voltage and 3 μW of input power.

  17. Decoupling Water Consumption and Environmental Impact on Textile Industry by Using Water Footprint Method: A Case Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of China’s textile industry has led to consumption and pollution of large volumes of water. Therefore, the textile industry has been the focus of water conservation and waste reduction in China’s 13th Five-Year Plan (2016–2020. The premise of sustainable development is to achieve decoupling of economic growth from water consumption and wastewater discharge. In this work, changes in the blue water footprint, grey water footprint, and the total water footprint of the textile industry from 2001 to 2014 were calculated. The relationship between water footprint and economic growth was then examined using the Tapio decoupling model. Furthermore, factors influencing water footprint were determined through logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI method. Results show that the water footprint of China’s textile industry has strongly decoupled for five years (2003, 2006, 2008, 2011, and 2013 and weakly decoupled for four years (2005, 2007, 2009, and 2010. A decoupling trend occurred during 2001–2014, but a steady stage of decoupling had not been achieved yet. Based on the decomposition analysis, the total water footprint mainly increased along with the production scale. On the contrary, technical level is the most important factor in inhibiting the water footprint. In addition, the effect of industrial structure adjustment is relatively weak.

  18. Inscribing Authority: Female Title Bearers in Jewish Inscriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Duncan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates representations of gender in the material culture of the ancient synagogue. The pertinent data are numerous dedicatory and funerary inscriptions linking individual Jews, men and women, with titles seemingly associated with leadership in Late Antique synagogues (ca. 200–600 CE. Bernadette Brooten’s influential 1982 monograph argued against the prevailing tendency to characterize these titles as indications of power, authority, and responsibility when associated with men but as meaningless flattery when applied to women. She suggests that synagogue titles denote power, authority and responsibility on all title bearers equally, both men and women. I question the continued utility of proffering female title-holders as enumerable examples of powerful women rescued from their forgotten place in history. Using theoretical insights developed by historians Elizabeth Clark and Gabrielle Spiegel, this paper will engage a comparative analysis with the work of Riet van Bremen and Saba Mahmood to develop new methods of conceptualizing women’s authority in early Jewish communities. I propose that viewing women’s synagogue titles as culturally constructed representations allows for a fruitful inquiry into how women’s titles were used by male-dominated synagogue communities in their self-articulation and public presentation of Judaism.

  19. Influences of cultural differences on the translation of titles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田琦

    2007-01-01

    Every country in the world has titles since the ancient times which describe a person's social status or economic power.But because of the different cultures,there are many difficulties in the title translation.This dissertation talks about the cultural differences from these aspects: history,religion,thought,country situation,custom,and economy.And also,this dissertation gives five principles to the title translation.They are principles of levels,principles of changelessness,principles of shortness and conciseness,principles of common use,principles of exceptions.

  20. Learning Approaches toward Title Word Selection on Indic Script

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Vijayapal Reddy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Title is a compact representation of a document which distill the important information from the document. In this paper we studied the selection words as title words by using different learning approachesnamely nearest neighbor approach (NN, Naive Bayes approach with limited-vocabulary (NBL, Naive Bayes approach with full vocabulary (NBF and by using a term weighing approach (tf-idf. We compare theperformance of these approaches by using F1 metric. We compare the F1 metric results both on English Script and Indic Script ' Telugu'. We concluded the influence of linguistic complexity in the process of Title word selection.