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Sample records for technique termed selective

  1. A Comparative Analysis of Biomarker Selection Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Dessì

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Feature selection has become the essential step in biomarker discovery from high-dimensional genomics data. It is recognized that different feature selection techniques may result in different set of biomarkers, that is, different groups of genes highly correlated to a given pathological condition, but few direct comparisons exist which quantify these differences in a systematic way. In this paper, we propose a general methodology for comparing the outcomes of different selection techniques in the context of biomarker discovery. The comparison is carried out along two dimensions: (i measuring the similarity/dissimilarity of selected gene sets; (ii evaluating the implications of these differences in terms of both predictive performance and stability of selected gene sets. As a case study, we considered three benchmarks deriving from DNA microarray experiments and conducted a comparative analysis among eight selection methods, representatives of different classes of feature selection techniques. Our results show that the proposed approach can provide useful insight about the pattern of agreement of biomarker discovery techniques.

  2. SELECTIVE PRESSURE IMPRESSION TECHNIQUE: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Impression is basically an interaction between tissues and impression material. The variety of impression materials and the range of working characteristics of these materials, make possible the development of impression procedures best suited for specific conditions. Our method for making impressions should be based on the basic principles of maximum area coverage and intimate contact so as to achieve the objectives of retention, support, stability, esthetics, preservation of ridge (supporting structures. Various impression techniques have been mentioned in the literature for recording impression of edentulous ridges. These techniques have been classified by different authors as functional, mucostatic, mucocompressive, selective pressure, minimal pressure etc. However none of these techniques has been designated as the ‘time best’ for a particular patient though selective pressure technique has got much attention in the literature. This article is presenting a critical review on the selective pressure impression technique used for edentulous patients.

  3. Implementing Variable Selection Techniques in Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Jerome D.

    Variable selection techniques in stepwise regression analysis are discussed. In stepwise regression, variables are added or deleted from a model in sequence to produce a final "good" or "best" predictive model. Stepwise computer programs are discussed and four different variable selection strategies are described. These…

  4. A Study on Feature Selection Techniques in Educational Data Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Ramaswami, M

    2009-01-01

    Educational data mining (EDM) is a new growing research area and the essence of data mining concepts are used in the educational field for the purpose of extracting useful information on the behaviors of students in the learning process. In this EDM, feature selection is to be made for the generation of subset of candidate variables. As the feature selection influences the predictive accuracy of any performance model, it is essential to study elaborately the effectiveness of student performance model in connection with feature selection techniques. In this connection, the present study is devoted not only to investigate the most relevant subset features with minimum cardinality for achieving high predictive performance by adopting various filtered feature selection techniques in data mining but also to evaluate the goodness of subsets with different cardinalities and the quality of six filtered feature selection algorithms in terms of F-measure value and Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) value, generat...

  5. A technique for long term continent gastrostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locker, D L; Foster, J E; Craun, M L; Torma, M J

    1985-01-01

    The use of the continent gastrostomy described herein offers several advantages: 1, the elimination of an indwelling catheter; 2, prevention of soiling at skin level; 3, long term access to the normal gastrointestinal track for alimentation without fear of tube erosion; 4, little compromise to gastric volume, and 5, ease of stoma care. We recommend this operation in instances when long term tube feedings are indicated either because of damage to the central nervous system or as a palliative treatment for patients with higher obstructing gastrointestinal malignant disease. The procedure may also be useful for patients in whom esophagogastric continuity has been interrupted (surgically or traumatically) and in whom reconstruction of the gastrointestinal tract would not seem feasible within a three to six month interval.

  6. Term frequency inverse document frequency (TF-IDF) technique and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Term frequency inverse document frequency (TF-IDF) technique and artificial neural ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... Electronic mail contents are extracted and Term Frequency Inverse ...

  7. Analysis of growth characteristics in short-term divergently selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of growth characteristics in short-term divergently selected Japanese quail. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... This study was carried out to examine the effect of short-term selection for ...

  8. Short-term wind speed predictions with machine learning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, M. A.; Khatibi, R.; FazeliFard, M. H.; Naghipour, L.; Makarynskyy, O.

    2016-02-01

    Hourly wind speed forecasting is presented by a modeling study with possible applications to practical problems including farming wind energy, aircraft safety and airport operations. Modeling techniques employed in this paper for such short-term predictions are based on the machine learning techniques of artificial neural networks (ANNs) and genetic expression programming (GEP). Recorded values of wind speed were used, which comprised 8 years of collected data at the Kersey site, Colorado, USA. The January data over the first 7 years (2005-2011) were used for model training; and the January data for 2012 were used for model testing. A number of model structures were investigated for the validation of the robustness of these two techniques. The prediction results were compared with those of a multiple linear regression (MLR) method and with the Persistence method developed for the data. The model performances were evaluated using the correlation coefficient, root mean square error, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient and Akaike information criterion. The results indicate that forecasting wind speed is feasible using past records of wind speed alone, but the maximum lead time for the data was found to be 14 h. The results show that different techniques would lead to different results, where the choice between them is not easy. Thus, decision making has to be informed of these modeling results and decisions should be arrived at on the basis of an understanding of inherent uncertainties. The results show that both GEP and ANN are equally credible selections and even MLR should not be dismissed, as it has its uses.

  9. Selective therapeutic hypothermia: A review of invasive and noninvasive techniques

    OpenAIRE

    David Straus; Vinay Prasad; Lorenzo Munoz

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Therapeutic hypothermia is a promising treatment to prevent secondary neurologic injury. Clinical utility is limited by systemic complications of global hypothermia. Selective brain cooling remains a largely uninvestigated application. We review techniques of inducing selective brain cooling. METHOD: Literature review. RESULTS: Strategies of inducing selective brain cooling were divided between non-invasive and invasive techniques. Non-invasive techniques were surface cooling and c...

  10. Machine learning techniques to select variable stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Varela, Alejandro; Pérez, Muriel; Sabogal, Beatriz; Quiroz, Adolfo

    2017-09-01

    In order to perform a supervised classification of variable stars, we propose and evaluate a set of six features extracted from the magnitude density of the light curves. They are used to train automatic classification systems using state-of-the-art classifiers implemented in the R statistical computing environment. We find that random forests is the most successful method to select variables.

  11. Machine learning techniques to select variable stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Varela Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to perform a supervised classification of variable stars, we propose and evaluate a set of six features extracted from the magnitude density of the light curves. They are used to train automatic classification systems using state-of-the-art classifiers implemented in the R statistical computing environment. We find that random forests is the most successful method to select variables.

  12. Selecting a Sustainable Disinfection Technique for Wastewater Reuse Projects

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    Jorge Curiel-Esparza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP by integrating a Delphi process for selecting the best sustainable disinfection technique for wastewater reuse projects. The proposed methodology provides project managers a tool to evaluate problems with multiple criteria and multiple alternatives which involve non-commeasurable decision criteria, with expert opinions playing a major role in the selection of these treatment technologies. Five disinfection techniques for wastewater reuse have been evaluated for each of the nine criteria weighted according to the opinions of consulted experts. Finally, the VIKOR method has been applied to determine a compromise solution, and to establish the stability of the results. Therefore, the expert system proposed to select the optimal disinfection alternative is a hybrid method combining the AHP with the Delphi method and the VIKOR technique, which is shown to be appropriate in realistic scenarios where multiple stakeholders are involved in the selection of a sustainable disinfection technique for wastewater reuse projects.

  13. 7 CFR 982.33 - Selection and term of office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Hazelnut Control Board § 982.33 Selection and term of office....

  14. Selective therapeutic hypothermia: A review of invasive and noninvasive techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Straus

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Therapeutic hypothermia is a promising treatment to prevent secondary neurologic injury. Clinical utility is limited by systemic complications of global hypothermia. Selective brain cooling remains a largely uninvestigated application. We review techniques of inducing selective brain cooling. METHOD: Literature review. RESULTS: Strategies of inducing selective brain cooling were divided between non-invasive and invasive techniques. Non-invasive techniques were surface cooling and cooling via the upper airway. Invasive cooling methods include transvascular and compartmental (epidural, subdural, subarachnoid and intraventricular cooling methods to remove heat from the brain. CONCLUSION: Selective brain cooling may offer the best strategy for achieving hypothermic neuroprotection. Non-invasive strategies have proven disappointing in human trials. There is a paucity of human experiments using invasive methods of selective brain cooling. Further application of invasive cooling strategies is needed.

  15. Short term pumped storage scheduling using two proposed techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Salama, M.M. Elgazar, S.M. Abdelmaksoud, H.A. Henry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a genetic algorithm and constriction factor based particle swarm optimization technique are proposed for solving the short term pumped storage hydro thermal scheduling problem. The performance efficiency of the proposed techniques is demonstrated on hydrothermal test system comprising of five thermal units and one pumped storage power plant. A wide rang of thermal and hydraulic constraints are taken into consideration such as real power balance constraint, minimum and maximum limits of thermal units and pumped storage power plant, water discharge and water pumping rate limits and reservoir storage volume constraints. The simulation results obtained from the constriction factor based particle swarm optimization technique are compared with the outcomes obtained from the genetic algorithm in terms of cost saving and execution time to reveal the validity and verify the feasibility of the proposed methods. The test results show that the constriction factor based particle swarm optimization technique performs better than genetic algorithm in solving this problem in terms of cost saving and computational time.

  16. Non-independent Term Selection for Chinese Text Categorization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jingyang; SUN Maosong

    2009-01-01

    Chinese text categorization differs from English text categorization due to its much larger term set (of words or character n-grams),which results in very slow training and working of modern high-performance classifiers.This study assumes that this high-dimensionality problem is related to the redundancy in the term set,which cannot be solved by traditional term selection methods.A greedy algorithm framework named "non-independent term selection" is presented,which reduces the redundancy according to string-level correlations.Several preliminary implementations of this idea are demonstrated.Experiment results show that a good tradeoff can be reached between the performance and the size of the term set.

  17. Novel technique for mode selection in a multimode fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, J M O; Chan, J S P; Kim, J W; Sahu, J K; Ibsen, M; Clarkson, W A

    2011-06-20

    A simple technique for transverse mode selection in a large-mode-area (multimode) fiber laser is described. The technique exploits the different spectral responses of feedback elements based on a fiber Bragg grating and a volume Bragg grating to achieve wavelength-dependent mode filtering. This approach has been applied to a cladding-pumped thulium-doped fiber laser with a multimode core to achieve a single-spatial-mode output beam with a beam propagation factor (M2) of 1.05 at 1923 nm. Without mode selection the free-running fiber laser has a multimode output beam with an M2 parameter of 3.3. Selective excitation of higher order modes is also possible via the technique and preliminary results for laser oscillation on the LP11 mode are also discussed along with the prospects for scaling to higher power levels.

  18. Aerosol model selection and uncertainty modelling by adaptive MCMC technique

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    M. Laine

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a new technique for model selection problem in atmospheric remote sensing. The technique is based on Monte Carlo sampling and it allows model selection, calculation of model posterior probabilities and model averaging in Bayesian way.

    The algorithm developed here is called Adaptive Automatic Reversible Jump Markov chain Monte Carlo method (AARJ. It uses Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC technique and its extension called Reversible Jump MCMC. Both of these techniques have been used extensively in statistical parameter estimation problems in wide area of applications since late 1990's. The novel feature in our algorithm is the fact that it is fully automatic and easy to use.

    We show how the AARJ algorithm can be implemented and used for model selection and averaging, and to directly incorporate the model uncertainty. We demonstrate the technique by applying it to the statistical inversion problem of gas profile retrieval of GOMOS instrument on board the ENVISAT satellite. Four simple models are used simultaneously to describe the dependence of the aerosol cross-sections on wavelength. During the AARJ estimation all the models are used and we obtain a probability distribution characterizing how probable each model is. By using model averaging, the uncertainty related to selecting the aerosol model can be taken into account in assessing the uncertainty of the estimates.

  19. Verification of long-term load measurement technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe

    The present report is the final effort of tasks carried out under UPWIND WP1B2 transmission and conversion, which describes: 1) results and recommendations developed in the course of developing the long-term load measurement technique 2) the hardware details, type of sensors and location, data...... storage and 3) data analysis technique to verify design load assumptions. The work is carried out under Contract no 019945 (SES6) "UPWIND" within the European Commission The interaction between the mechanical and electrical generator subsystems is described rudimentarily, based primarily on HAWC2...... simulations below stall of the mechanical system with simple generator and gearbox systems. The electrical system simulations were not carried out as intended in DOW[2], but indications of the conditions for establishing the interaction have been described by measurements and by argument, that this might have...

  20. A simple technique for long-term preservation of leptospires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samir, Ahmed; Wasfy, Momtaz O

    2013-03-01

    The viability of six serovars of Leptospira spp. was studied after long storage at -70°C. The bacteria were either preserved in Ellinghausen-McCullough-Johnson-Harris (EMJH) liquid growth medium or in sheep blood added as a cryoprotectant. The viability of the strains was observed on a monthly basis by dark-ground microscopy over a period of 20 months at -70°C. Addition of sheep blood was not significantly advantageous, since leptospires that were stored in EMJH showed a slight increase in number after recovery. The results suggest a very simple and useful technique for long-term preservation of such Leptospira.

  1. Methodological Aspects of Project Techniques Selection for Innovation Project Management

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    Anna Yakovleva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Project Management offers a variety of methodologies which provides managers with different techniques and tools to use during project planning and implementation. At the same time there is a substantial lack of systematized approaches to the management of innovation projects. In this article key factors in the selection of appropriate techniques in innovation project management will first be identified. Theoretical analysis of different project management standards and possibility of their use will then be discussed. In addition how the techniques can be applied will be investigated through academic paper analysis. . This research makes a theoretical contribution to the field of project management by selecting and determining which project management techniques can be adapted and applied to innovation projects. Recommendations for practical application are based on theoretical findings of the research. These include two main factors, which are: influencing the choice of project management techniques and the structure of project selection process. The significance of the results obtained is confirmed by creation of theoretical knowledge, which permits to thoroughly understand and capture issues which may emerge during innovation project planning and implementation, through the use of established project management methodology. Keywords: Project management, Innovation, Project management standard, innovation project, PMBoK, PRINCE2, ICB.

  2. TOPSIS Based Multi-Criteria Decision Making of Feature Selection Techniques for Network Traffic Dataset

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    Raman Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion detection systems (IDS have to process millions of packets with many features, which delay the detection of anomalies. Sampling and feature selection may be used to reduce computation time and hence minimizing intrusion detection time. This paper aims to suggest some feature selection algorithm on the basis of The Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS. TOPSIS is used to suggest one or more choice(s among some alternatives, having many attributes. Total ten feature selection techniques have been used for the analysis of KDD network dataset. Three classifiers namely Naïve Bayes, J48 and PART have been considered for this experiment using Weka data mining tool. Ranking of the techniques using TOPSIS have been calculated by using MATLAB as a tool. Out of these techniques Filtered Subset Evaluation has been found suitable for intrusion detection in terms of very less computational time with acceptable accuracy.

  3. Memorization techniques: Using mnemonics to learn fifth grade science terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Juan O.

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether mnemonic instruction could assist students in learning fifth-grade science terminology more effectively than traditional-study methods of recall currently in practice The task was to examine if fifth-grade students were able to learn a mnemonic and then use it to understand science vocabulary; subsequently, to determine if students were able to remember the science terms after a period of time. The problem is that in general, elementary school students are not being successful in science achievement at the fifth grade level. In view of this problem, if science performance is increased at the elementary level, then it is likely that students will be successful when tested at the 8th and 10th grade in science with the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) in the future. Two research questions were posited: (1) Is there a difference in recall achievement when a mnemonic such as method of loci, pegword method, or keyword method is used in learning fifth-grade science vocabulary as compared to the traditional-study method? (2) If using a mnemonic in learning fifth-grade science vocabulary was effective on recall achievement, would this achievement be maintained over a span of time? The need for this study was to assist students in learning science terms and concepts for state accountability purposes. The first assumption was that memorization techniques are not commonly applied in fifth-grade science classes in elementary schools. A second assumption was that mnemonic devices could be used successfully in learning science terms and increase long term retention. The first limitation was that the study was conducted on one campus in one school district in South Texas which limited the generalization of the study. The second limitation was that it included random assigned intact groups as opposed to random student assignment to fifth-grade classroom groups.

  4. The technique of flashback in selected Northern Sotho literary texts

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    M.J. Mojalefa

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at investigating and explaining the application of the technique of flashback in selected Northern Sotho literary texts. Five kinds of flashback are distinguished, namely external retrospection, internal retrospection, mixed retrospection, flashback to complicate events and flashback of similar events. These kinds of flashback have certain and specific functions, such as reminding readers of past events, foregrounding themes of the text, and so on. This technique is evident in a text when ordinary, everyday events turn out to be the key to surprising secrets that are revealed later. Though flashback seems to be similar to foreshadowing (prolepsis in that both techniques contain features of repetition and the narration of a specific experience, the techniques, however, differ in that flashback focuses on the elements of secrecy, suspense and surprise, and foreshadowing does not. This article also reveals that a relationship between flashback and the structure of detective stories can be indicated.

  5. Center-configuration selection technique for the reconfigurable modular robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The reconfigurable modular robot has an enormous amount of configurations to adapt to various environments and tasks. It greatly increases the complexity of configuration research in that the possible configuration number of the reconfigurable modular robot grows exponentially with the increase of module number. Being the initial configuration or the basic configuration of the reconfigurable robot, the center-configuration plays a crucial role in system's actual applications. In this paper, a novel center-configuration selection technique has been proposed for reconfigurable modular robots. Based on the similarities between configurations' transformation and graph theory, configuration network has been applied in the modeling and analyzing of these configurations. Configuration adjacency matrix, reconfirmation cost matrix, and center-configuration coefficient have been defined for the configuration network correspondingly. Being similar to the center-location problem, the center configuration has been selected according to the largest center-configuration coefficient. As an example of the reconfigurable robotic system, AMOEBA-I, a three-module reconfigurable robot with nine configurations which was developed in Shenyang Institute of Automation (SIA), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), has been introduced briefly. According to the numerical simulation result, the center-configuration coefficients for these nine configurations have been calculated and compared to validate this technique. Lastly, a center- configuration selection example is provided with consideration of the adjacent configurations. The center-configuration selection technique proposed in this paper is also available to other reconfigurable modular robots.

  6. A systematic method for search term selection in systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jenna; Davis, Jacqueline; Mazerolle, Lorraine

    2014-06-01

    The wide variety of readily available electronic media grants anyone the freedom to retrieve published references from almost any area of research around the world. Despite this privilege, keeping up with primary research evidence is almost impossible because of the increase in professional publishing across disciplines. Systematic reviews are a solution to this problem as they aim to synthesize all current information on a particular topic and present a balanced and unbiased summary of the findings. They are fast becoming an important method of research across a number of fields, yet only a small number of guidelines exist on how to define and select terms for a systematic search. This article presents a replicable method for selecting terms in a systematic search using the semantic concept recognition software called leximancer (Leximancer, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia). We use this software to construct a set of terms from a corpus of literature pertaining to transborder interventions for drug control and discuss the applicability of this method to systematic reviews in general. This method aims to contribute a more 'systematic' approach for selecting terms in a manner that is entirely replicable for any user.

  7. "Enzyme Test Bench," a high-throughput enzyme characterization technique including the long-term stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachinskiy, Kirill; Schultze, Hergen; Boy, Matthias; Bornscheuer, Uwe; Büchs, Jochen

    2009-06-01

    A new high throughput technique for enzyme characterization with specific attention to the long term stability, called "Enzyme Test Bench," is presented. The concept of the Enzyme Test Bench consists of short term enzyme tests in 96-well microtiter plates under partly extreme conditions to predict the enzyme long term stability under moderate conditions. The technique is based on the mathematical modeling of temperature dependent enzyme activation and deactivation. Adapting the temperature profiles in sequential experiments by optimal non-linear experimental design, the long term deactivation effects can be purposefully accelerated and detected within hours. During the experiment the enzyme activity is measured online to estimate the model parameters from the obtained data. Thus, the enzyme activity and long term stability can be calculated as a function of temperature. The engineered instrumentation provides for simultaneous automated assaying by fluorescent measurements, mixing and homogenous temperature control in the range of 10-85 +/- 0.5 degrees C. A universal fluorescent assay for online acquisition of ester hydrolysis reactions by pH-shift is developed and established. The developed instrumentation and assay are applied to characterize two esterases. The results of the characterization, carried out in microtiter plates applying short term experiments of hours, are in good agreement with the results of long term experiments at different temperatures in 1 L stirred tank reactors of a week. Thus, the new technique allows for both: the enzyme screening with regard to the long term stability and the choice of the optimal process temperature regarding such process parameters as turn over number, space time yield or optimal process duration. The comparison of the temperature dependent behavior of both characterized enzymes clearly demonstrates that the frequently applied estimation of long term stability at moderate temperatures by simple activity measurements

  8. Selection of models to calculate the LLW source term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T.M. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

    1991-10-01

    Performance assessment of a LLW disposal facility begins with an estimation of the rate at which radionuclides migrate out of the facility (i.e., the source term). The focus of this work is to develop a methodology for calculating the source term. In general, the source term is influenced by the radionuclide inventory, the wasteforms and containers used to dispose of the inventory, and the physical processes that lead to release from the facility (fluid flow, container degradation, wasteform leaching, and radionuclide transport). In turn, many of these physical processes are influenced by the design of the disposal facility (e.g., infiltration of water). The complexity of the problem and the absence of appropriate data prevent development of an entirely mechanistic representation of radionuclide release from a disposal facility. Typically, a number of assumptions, based on knowledge of the disposal system, are used to simplify the problem. This document provides a brief overview of disposal practices and reviews existing source term models as background for selecting appropriate models for estimating the source term. The selection rationale and the mathematical details of the models are presented. Finally, guidance is presented for combining the inventory data with appropriate mechanisms describing release from the disposal facility. 44 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  9. The General Technique of Selected Harmonics Elimination for Multilevel Converters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    For high power applications, multilevel converters have many advantages in comparison with other circuit topologies with output transformers. Cascaded inverters are one type of multilevel converters, they are easy to implement, very suitable for modularized layout and packaging. Their manufacturing cost is low. A multilevel PWM technique, called as General Technique of Selected Harmonics Elimination(GTSHE), is proposed in the paper. A general harmonic elimination equation for N cells, M pulses per half cycle, nth harmonic is derived, and verified by simulation results.

  10. On the selection of dimension reduction techniques for scientific applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Y J; Kamath, C

    2012-02-17

    Many dimension reduction methods have been proposed to discover the intrinsic, lower dimensional structure of a high-dimensional dataset. However, determining critical features in datasets that consist of a large number of features is still a challenge. In this paper, through a series of carefully designed experiments on real-world datasets, we investigate the performance of different dimension reduction techniques, ranging from feature subset selection to methods that transform the features into a lower dimensional space. We also discuss methods that calculate the intrinsic dimensionality of a dataset in order to understand the reduced dimension. Using several evaluation strategies, we show how these different methods can provide useful insights into the data. These comparisons enable us to provide guidance to a user on the selection of a technique for their dataset.

  11. Long-Term Results of Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy by "Destandau's Technique"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamble, Bhavna; Patond, Kisan

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Prospective study. Purpose The aim of the study was to present long-term results from a 10-year follow-up after endoscopic lumbar discectomy (ELD) by "Destandau's technique". Overview of Literature Endoscopic disc surgery by Destandau's technique using ENDOSPINE Karl Storz system is a relatively new technique. It was introduced in 1993. It has been gaining popularity among the spine surgeons, as it is attractive for small skin incision and allows a gentle and excellent tissue dissection with excellent visualization. Many authors have published results of their own studies; however, in all these studies the long-term follow up of the patients has not been emphasized. Methods A total of 21 patients selected on basis of strict inclusion criteria's underwent ELD from November 2004 to March 2005. Surgery outcome was assessed by using "Prolo's Anatomic-Functional-Economic Rating System" (1986). Patients were followed up to 10 years. In addtion, we compared the results of our study with other studies. Results Outcomes were excellent in 17 patients (80.95%), good in 3 (14.28%) and fair in 1 (4.78%), with no patients having a poor result. In our study, 19 patients (90.47%) were able to resume their previous works/jobs, and only 2 (9.52%) needed to change their jobs for lighter work. No patient retired from his or her previous daily routine following the operation. Conclusions The initial and long-term results are very good for endoscopic lumbar discectomy by Destandau's technique. In properly selected patients it is a safe and minimally invasive technique, and we recommend ELD in properly selected patients. PMID:27114770

  12. Modified Nucleoside Triphosphates for in-vitro Selection Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarren, Adolfo; Dellafiore, María; Montserrat, Javier

    2016-05-01

    The development of SELEX (Selective Enhancement of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment) provides a powerful tool for the search of functional oligonucleotides with the ability to bind ligands with high affinity and selectivity (aptamers) and for the discovery of nucleic acid sequences with diverse enzymatic activities (ribozymes and DNAzymes). This technique has been extensively applied to the selection of natural DNA or RNA molecules but, in order to improve chemical and structural diversity as well as for particular applications where further chemical or biological stability is necessary, the extension of this strategy to modified oligonucleotides is desirable. Taking into account these needs, this review intends to collect the research carried out during the past years, focusing mainly on the use of modified nucleotides in SELEX and the development of mutant enzymes for broadening nucleoside triphosphates acceptance. In addition, comments regarding the synthesis of modified nucleoside triphosphate will be briefly discussed.

  13. [Cardiac transplantation. Selection of patients and long-term results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, C; Gandjbakhch, I; Pavie, A; Bors, V; Cabrol, A; Léger, P; Vaissier, E; Simmoneau, F; Chomette, G; Aupetit, B

    1987-12-01

    Performed for the first time in the world, in December 1967, by Barnard in Capetown, and for the first time in Europe by our team in April 1968, cardiac transplantation has now 20 years of clinical applications. A best selection of the recipients, a more precise selection of donors, refinements in surgical technique, a better and earlier diagnosis of post-operative complications, more effective therapeutic means especially cyclosporin, have brought us, from 1981, such major improvements that many teams were prompted to resume the procedure. In our experience of more than 400 transplants at La Pitié Hospital, a five-year follow-up shows that 70 p. cent of the patients are alive, having resumed a normal familial, social, professional and often sporting life. Much progress remains to be achieved, but this procedure now seems to be quite common if not routine, only limited by the insufficient number of donors.

  14. Selection of productivity improvement techniques via mathematical modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahassan M. Khater

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new mathematical model to select an optimal combination of productivity improvement techniques. The proposed model of this paper considers four-stage cycle productivity and the productivity is assumed to be a linear function of fifty four improvement techniques. The proposed model of this paper is implemented for a real-world case study of manufacturing plant. The resulted problem is formulated as a mixed integer programming which can be solved for optimality using traditional methods. The preliminary results of the implementation of the proposed model of this paper indicate that the productivity can be improved through a change on equipments and it can be easily applied for both manufacturing and service industries.

  15. Feature Selection for Generator Excitation Neurocontroller Development Using Filter Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ghani Abro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Essentially, motive behind using control system is to generate suitable control signal for yielding desired response of a physical process. Control of synchronous generator has always remained very critical in power system operation and control. For certain well known reasons power generators are normally operated well below their steady state stability limit. This raises demand for efficient and fast controllers. Artificial intelligence has been reported to give revolutionary outcomes in the field of control engineering. Artificial Neural Network (ANN, a branch of artificial intelligence has been used for nonlinear and adaptive control, utilizing its inherent observability. The overall performance of neurocontroller is dependent upon input features too. Selecting optimum features to train a neurocontroller optimally is very critical. Both quality and size of data are of equal importance for better performance. In this work filter technique is employed to select independent factors for ANN training.

  16. Educational assessment center techniques for entrance selection in medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Cate, Olle; Smal, Ko

    2002-07-01

    Dutch higher education is freely accessible for those who have proper high school qualifications. However, admission to medical schools has been limited by government to regulate manpower planning. Selection has been carried out by a national lottery approach since 1972, but in 2000, the Dutch government asked medical schools to experiment with qualitative selection procedures at their own institutions. The University Medical Center Utrecht School of Medical Sciences has used a technique derived from assessment-center approaches to assist in the medical school admission process. Dutch assessment centers use observation procedures in which candidates act in simulated activities that are characteristic of the vacant position. In April 2001, 61 candidates for 23 places were invited for selection days. After a selection interview, candidates were asked to perform activities that are characteristic of course requirements: (1) studying a three-to-five page text about diagnostic and therapeutic procedures of disease A during one hour; (2) explaining the studied procedures to another candidate and receiving information about disease B, studied by this other candidate, during one hour; (3) answering the questions of a standardized patient about disease A in 15 minutes; and (4) answering the questions of a standardized patient about disease B in 15 minutes. A three-person selection committee behind a one-way screen observed the two 15-minute interviews with the standardized patients. The selection committee independently scored content quality of the information that was given to the standardized patients as well as the quality of attitude towards and communication with both patients. The average scores for these three criteria were weighted equally to arrive at a total score. In addition, each candidate received a score resulting from the interview with the other candidate who explained disease B. This score was combined with the other three to a final score. The Utrecht

  17. NVC Based Model for Selecting Effective Requirement Elicitation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rizwan Beg

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Requirement Engineering process starts from gathering of requirements i.e.; requirements elicitation. Requirementselicitation (RE is the base building block for a software project and has very high impact onsubsequent design and builds phases as well. Accurately capturing system requirements is the major factorin the failure of most of software projects. Due to the criticality and impact of this phase, it is very importantto perform the requirements elicitation in no less than a perfect manner. One of the most difficult jobsfor elicitor is to select appropriate technique for eliciting the requirement. Interviewing and Interactingstakeholder during Elicitation process is a communication intensive activity involves Verbal and Nonverbalcommunication (NVC. Elicitor should give emphasis to Non-verbal communication along with verbalcommunication so that requirements recorded more efficiently and effectively. In this paper we proposea model in which stakeholders are classified by observing non-verbal communication and use it as a basefor elicitation technique selection. We also propose an efficient plan for requirements elicitation which intendsto overcome on the constraints, faced by elicitor.

  18. Analytical Technique of Selection of Constructive Parameters Pneumatichydraulic Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Tsipilev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article "Technique for Analytical Selection of Design Parameters of Pneumatichydraulic Springs concerns the ride smoothness of high-speed vehicles. Author of article Tsipilev A.A. is an assistant at chair "Multi-purpose Tracked Vehicles and Mobile Robots" of BMSTU. The article represents a synthesis of known information on the springing systems and an analysis of relation between spring design data and running gear. It describes standard units of running gear of vehicle in the context of springing systems. Classification of springing systems is considered. Modernization general policy for existing suspensions and prospects for creation of new ones are given. The article considers a design of various pneumatic-hydraulic springs to be set on domestic tracked vehicles. A developed technique allows us to have elastic characteristics of pneumatic-hydraulic springs of various types using these design data and kinematics of the running gear. The article provides recommendations to calculate characteristics of springing systems. The adequacy analysis of the given technique based on the comparison of real and rated characteristics of the existing suspension is conducted. This article can be useful to the experts dealing with springing systems of wheel and tracked vehicles.

  19. Long-term outcomes five years after selective dorsal rhizotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagergren Jan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR is a well accepted neurosurgical procedure performed for the relief of spasticity interfering with motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP. The goal is to improve function, but long-term outcome studies are rare. The aims of this study were to evaluate long-term functional outcomes, safety and side effects during five postoperative years in all children with diplegia undergoing SDR combined with physiotherapy. Methods This study group consisted of 35 children, consecutively operated, with spastic diplegia, of which 26 were Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS levels III–V. Mean age was 4.5 years (range 2.5–6.6. They were all assessed by the same multidisciplinary team at pre- and at 6, 12, 18 months, 3 and 5 years postoperatively. Clinical and demographic data, complications and number of rootlets cut were prospectively registered. Deep tendon reflexes and muscle tone were examined, the latter graded with the modified Ashworth scale. Passive range of motion (PROM was measured with a goniometer. Motor function was classified according to the GMFCS and measured with the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88 and derived into GMFM-66. Parent's opinions about the children's performance of skills and activities and the amount of caregiver assistance were measured with Pediatric Evaluation Disability Inventory (PEDI. Results The mean proportion of rootlets cut in S2-L2 was 40%. Muscle tone was immediately reduced in adductors, hamstrings and dorsiflexors (p Conclusion SDR is a safe and effective method for reducing spasticity permanently without major negative side effects. In combination with physiotherapy, in a group of carefully selected and systematically followed young children with spastic diplegia, it provides lasting functional benefits over a period of at least five years postoperatively.

  20. Studies on selected polymeric materials using the photoacoustic spectroscopic technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hukum Singh

    2011-01-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate-graft-polybisphenol-A-carbonate (PMMA-G-PC) with 50% grafting is synthesized. The acid (0.18 M, 100 ml) in air at (45±12) ℃ for 3.0 h. Condensation of (PMMA-G-PC) with N-[p-(carboxyl phenyl amino acetic acid)] hydrazide (PCPH) affords polybisphenol-A-carbonate-graft-polymethylmethacrylate hydrazide (PCGH).The photoacoustic (PA) spectra of (PCGH) are recorded in a wavelength range from 200 nm to 800 nm at a modulation frequency of 22 Hz, and compared with those of pure polybisphenol-A-carbonate (PC), (PMMA-G-PC) and (PCPH).In the present work, a non-destructive and non-contact analytical method, namely the photoacoustic technique, is successfully implemented for optical and thermal characterization of selected polymeric materials. The indigenous PA spectrometer used in the present study consists of a 300-W xenon arc lamp, a lock-in amplifier, a chopper, a (1/8)-m monochromator controlled by computer and a home-made PA cell.

  1. Comparison between Scheduling Techniques in Long Term Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Habaebi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Long-Term Evolution (LTE is a recently evolving technology characterized by very high speed data rate that allows users to access internet through their mobile as well as through other electronic devices.  Such technology is intended to support variety of IP-based heterogeneous traffic types. Traffic scheduling plays an important role in LTE technology by assigning the shared resources among users in the most efficient manner. This paper discusses the performance of three types of scheduling algorithms namely: Round Robin, best Channel Quality Indicator (CQI and Proportional Fair (PF schedulers representing the extreme cases in scheduling. The scheduling algorithms performances on the downlink were measured in terms of throughput and block error rate using a MATLAB-based system level simulation. Results indicate that the best CQI algorithm outperforms other algorithms in terms of throughput levels but on the expense of fairness to other users suffering from bad channel conditions. ABSTRAK: Teknologi baru Evolusi Jangka Panjang (LTE sentiasa berubah dan ia bercirikan kelajuan kadar data sangat tinggi yang membolehkan pengguna mengakses internet melalui telefon bimbit dan peranti elektronik lain. Teknologi seperti ini bertujuan menyokong pelbagai jenis trafik heterogen berasaskan IP. Penjadualan trafik memainkan peranan penting dalam teknologi LTE bagi mengagihkan sumber perkongsian secara paling berkesan di kalangan pengguna. Kertas ini membincangkan prestasi tiga jenis algoritma penjadualan iaitu: pusingan Robin, penunjuk kualiti saluran (CQI terbaik dan  penjadualan berkadar adil (PF yang merupakan kes ekstrem dalam penjadualan. Prestasi penjadualan Algoritma di pautan turun diukur dari segi daya pemprosesan dan kadar ralat blok melalui simulasi  sistem menggunakan MATLAB. Hasil kajian menunjukkan algoritma CQI adalah yang terbaik berbanding hasil algoritma lain dari segi tahap daya pemprosesan tetapi algoritma ini menyebabkan pengguna lain

  2. Evaluating Acoustic Emission Signals as an in situ process monitoring technique for Selective Laser Melting (SLM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Karl A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Candy, Jim V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Guss, Gabe [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mathews, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-10-14

    In situ real-time monitoring of the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process has significant implications for the AM community. The ability to adjust the SLM process parameters during a build (in real-time) can save time, money and eliminate expensive material waste. Having a feedback loop in the process would allow the system to potentially ‘fix’ problem regions before a next powder layer is added. In this study we have investigated acoustic emission (AE) phenomena generated during the SLM process, and evaluated the results in terms of a single process parameter, of an in situ process monitoring technique.

  3. Genome-wide effects of long-term divergent selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Johansson

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available To understand the genetic mechanisms leading to phenotypic differentiation, it is important to identify genomic regions under selection. We scanned the genome of two chicken lines from a single trait selection experiment, where 50 generations of selection have resulted in a 9-fold difference in body weight. Analyses of nearly 60,000 SNP markers showed that the effects of selection on the genome are dramatic. The lines were fixed for alternative alleles in more than 50 regions as a result of selection. Another 10 regions displayed strong evidence for ongoing differentiation during the last 10 generations. Many more regions across the genome showed large differences in allele frequency between the lines, indicating that the phenotypic evolution in the lines in 50 generations is the result of an exploitation of standing genetic variation at 100s of loci across the genome.

  4. Spacing Techniques in Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition: Short-Term Gains vs. Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetze, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of two experiments using the spacing technique (Leitner, 1972; Landauer & Bjork, 1978) in second language vocabulary acquisition. In the past, studies in this area have produced mixed results attempting to differentiate between massed, uniform and expanded intervals of spacing (Balota, Duchek, & Logan,…

  5. Spacing Techniques in Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition: Short-Term Gains vs. Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetze, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of two experiments using the spacing technique (Leitner, 1972; Landauer & Bjork, 1978) in second language vocabulary acquisition. In the past, studies in this area have produced mixed results attempting to differentiate between massed, uniform and expanded intervals of spacing (Balota, Duchek, & Logan,…

  6. Long-term selection experiment with Afrikaner cattle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mariob

    A selection and line x environment interaction study with grade Afrikaner cattle ... were offered supplements during the dry season (9 kg maize silage and 1 kg ..... the Afrikaner could be referred to as a stable genotype, as oppossed to a plastic .... y formed part of the first author's doctorate thesis who benefited from funding ...

  7. SEMANTIC WEB SERVICES – DISCOVERY, SELECTION AND COMPOSITION TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya Kamath S

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Web services are already one of the most important resources on the Internet. As an integrated solution for realizing the vision of the Next Generation Web, semantic web services combine semantic web technology with web service technology, envisioning automated life cycle management of web services. This paper discusses the significance and importance of service discovery & selection to business logic, and the requisite current research in the various phases of the semantic web service lifecycle like discovery and selection. We also present several different composition strategies, based on current research, and provide an outlook towards critical future work.

  8. Long term scheduling technique for wastewater minimisation in multipurpose batch processes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nonyane, DR

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the methodologies published in literature on wastewater minimisation for batch processes are based on short term scheduling techniques. When these methods are applied to longer time horizons, the computational time becomes intractable, hence...

  9. Individual patient information to select patients for different radiation techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quik, E. H.; Feenstra, T. L.; Postmus, D.; Slotman, B. J.; Leemans, C. R.; Krabbe, P. F. M.; Langendijk, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose: Proton therapy is an emerging technique in radiotherapy which results in less dose to the normal tissues with similar target dose than photon therapy, the current standard. Patient-level simulation models support better decision making on which patients would benefit most. Ma

  10. The effect of selected staining techniques on bull sperm morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaszewska, Dorota; Andraszek, Katarzyna; Czubaszek, Magdalena; Biesiada-Drzazga, Barbara

    2015-08-01

    Sperm morphometry has some value as an indicator of reproductive capacity in males. In laboratory practice a variety of slide-staining methods are used during morphological evaluation of semen to predict male fertility. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of staining of semen using four different techniques on the morphometry of the bull sperm cell. The material for the study consisted of semen collected from test bulls of the Black-and-White variety of Holstein-Friesians. The results obtained in the study indicate differences in the dimensions of bull sperm heads when different slide staining techniques were used. The most similar results for sperm head dimensions were obtained in the case of SpermBlue(®) and eosin+gentian violet complex, although statistically significant differences were found between all the staining techniques. Extreme values were noted for the other staining techniques - lowest for the Papanicolaou and highest for silver nitrate, which may indicate more interference in the cell by the reagents used in the staining process. However, silver nitrate staining was best at identifying the structures of the sperm cell. Hence it is difficult to determine which of the staining methods most faithfully reveals the dimensions and shape of the bull sperm.

  11. A new technique to efficiently select Compton-thick AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Severgnini, P; Della Ceca, R

    2012-01-01

    We present a new efficient diagnostic method, based on mid-infrared and X-ray data, to select local (z-0.2. We build up a sample of 43 CT AGN candidates using data from IRAS-PSC and 2XMM catalogue. In order to test the efficiency of the proposed method in selecting CT AGN we use the results of the X-ray spectral analysis performed on all the sources of our sample. After taking into account the different selection effects, we have estimated the number of CT in the local Universe and their density down to the IRAS flux limit of F25=0.5Jy. We find that the diagnostic plot proposed here is an efficient method to select Compton-thick AGN in the nearby Universe since ~84% of the sources populating the proposed CT region are actually CT AGN. Twenty percent are newly-discovered CT AGN. We then estimate the surface density of CT AGN down to the IRAS PSC catalogue flux limit (F25=0.5Jy) that turns out to be ~3e-3 src deg-2. After estimating an equivalent IR-hard X-ray limiting flux, we compare our result with those fou...

  12. An Approximation Technique For Variable Selection Using Cost Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas P.

    1978-01-01

    The problem of selecting regression variables using cost criteria is considered. A method is presented which approximates the optimal solution of one of several criterion functions which might be employed. Examples are given and the results are compared with the results of other methods. (Author/JKS)

  13. Tunnel-Site Selection by Remote Sensing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study of the role of remote sensing for geologic reconnaissance for tunnel-site selection was commenced. For this study, remote sensing was defined...conventional remote sensing . Future research directions are suggested, and the extension of remote sensing to include airborne passive microwave

  14. Query Expansion: Term Selection using the EWC Semantic Relatedness Measure

    CERN Document Server

    Klyuev, Vitaly

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the efficiency of the EWC semantic relatedness measure in an ad-hoc retrieval task. This measure combines the Wikipedia-based Explicit Semantic Analysis measure, the WordNet path measure and the mixed collocation index. In the experiments, the open source search engine Terrier was utilised as a tool to index and retrieve data. The proposed technique was tested on the NTCIR data collection. The experiments demonstrated promising results.

  15. A Manual for Selecting Sampling Techniques in Research

    OpenAIRE

    Alvi, Mohsin

    2016-01-01

    The Manual for Sampling Techniques used in Social Sciences is an effort to describe various types of sampling methodologies that are used in researches of social sciences in an easy and understandable way. Characteristics, benefits, crucial issues/ draw backs, and examples of each sampling type are provided separately. The manual begins by describing What is Sampling and its Purposes then it moves forward discussing the two broader types: probability sampling and non-probability sampling. Lat...

  16. A stable and accurate relaxation technique using multiple penalty terms in space and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenander, Hannes; Nordström, Jan

    2017-09-01

    A new method for data relaxation based on weak imposition of external data is introduced. The technique is simple, easy to implement, and the resulting numerical scheme is unconditionally stable. Numerical experiments show that the error growth naturally present in long term simulations can be prevented by using the new technique.

  17. Carotid endovascular interventions: patient selection, devices, techniques and tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosiers, M; Deloose, K; Peeters, P

    2010-02-01

    The optimal treatment of patients with asymptomatic or symptomatic carotid artery disease (CAD) has been a long-lasting debate. The choice between carotid endarterectomy (CEA), carotid artery stenting (CAS) and/or optimal medical therapy to treat patients with CAD, depends on their risk profile. Recent data from EVA-3S, SPACE randomized trials failed to demonstrate non-inferiority for CAS over CEA. However, other publications suggest that with growing experience and the development of dedicated CAS technology, CAS can be performed safely and efficiently. The success of carotid stenting does not solely depend on the operator's skills and experience, but also on the adequate selection of carotid stents and cerebral protection devices. Currently, CAS practitioners are confronted with a large number of dedicated CAS devices (stents and embolic protection devices). This wide array of products makes individual treatment strategies difficult to generalise as no single device possesses all of the optimal features to treat all types of carotid plaques and patients. This article reviews the principles of patient selection and device selection in contemporary CAS practice.

  18. Diversity Techniques for Single-Carrier Packet Retransmissions over Frequency-Selective Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inbar Fijalkow

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In data packet communication systems over multipath frequency-selective channels, hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ protocols are usually used in order to ensure data reliability. For single-carrier packet transmission in slow fading environment, an identical retransmission of the same packet, due to a decoding failure, does not fully exploit the available time diversity in retransmission-based HARQ protocols. In this paper, we compare two transmit diversity techniques, namely, cyclic frequency-shift diversity and bit-interleaving diversity. Both techniques can be integrated in the HARQ scheme in order to improve the performance of the joint detector. Their performance in terms of pairwise error probability is investigated using maximum likelihood detection and decoding. The impact of the channel memory and the modulation order on the performance gain is emphasized. In practice, we use low complexity linear filter-based equalization which can be efficiently implemented in the frequency domain. The use of iterative equalization and decoding is also considered. The performance gain in terms of frame error rate and data throughput is evaluated by numerical simulations.

  19. Russian-English Glossary of International Maritime Law Terms (and Selected Terms in Related Disciplines.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naval Intelligence Support Center, Washington, DC.

    This glossary contains over 750 terms encountered in international maritime law texts. It includes terms of the art, fairly common abbreviations, geographic names, and prepositional phrases routinely encountered in international treaties, conventions, and agreements. The prepositional phrases are recorded exactly as they appear in formal texts.…

  20. An Experimental Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Selected Techniques and Resources on Instruction in Vocational Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, Alan A.

    The study was designed to test new instructional techniques in vocational agriculture, determine their effectiveness on student achievement, and compare individual and group instructional techniques. Forty-eight randomly selected Iowa high school vocational agriculture programs with enrollments of 35 students or more, were selected for testing the…

  1. Selective criteria for successful long-term prosthetic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, M J; Delitto, A

    1985-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify criteria contributing to successful long-term prosthetic use in patients with an amputation secondary to vascular disease. All elderly patients with a unilateral below-knee amputation or an above-knee amputation, secondary to vascular disease, seen in our clinic between 1977 and 1982 were included in this telephone survey. Of those contacted, 37 of 38 below-knee amputees (BKAs) and 7 of 18 above-knee amputees (AKAs) still wore their prostheses at least part of every day (success). We used a two-tailed chi-square to compare the success of the BKAs with the success of the AKAs. The BKAs were successful more often (X2 = 24.81, df = 1, p less than .001). All AKAs also were characterized according to age, time from prescription, obesity, ambulatory status, strength, range of motion, sex, general compliance, and medical problems after prosthetic prescription. Of these criteria, only compliance and medical problems after prescription showed a significant difference between successful and nonsuccessful long-term AKA prosthetic users (X2 = 5.76, df = 1, p less than .05 for each criterion). As the demands of quality assurance and diagnostic related groupings increase, these results can assist the physical therapy clinician in setting realistic goals for the geriatric amputee and help predict if the patient will be a successful prosthetic user.

  2. Appraisal and Analysis on Diversified Web Service Selection Techniques based on QoS Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Balaji

    Full Text Available Numerous monumental changes have been made in the existing web service selection to provide quality of services. The quality of service is a major bottle neck in the recent development. Hitherto various QoS based Web Service Selection Techniques exist. But these techniques lacks in functional and non-functional attributes. This paper consists with the following tasks; segregate various QoS based Web Service selection techniques with their respective merits and demerits, an extensive comparative study on different QoS aware service selection techniques with respect to the user requirements and multiple QoS properties and preferences. This paper also evaluates the performance of discussed techniques based on the strength of various QoS aware Web service selection functionalitiesusing a set of evaluation metrics.

  3. Tunable DBR Lasers Fabricated by Selective Area Growth Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Guoli; ZHANG Jingyuan; WANG Xiaojie; ZHANG Baijun; WANG Wei

    2000-01-01

    The tunable ridge waveguide distributed Brag g reflector (DBR) lasers grown by selective area growth and designed for WDM communication systems at 1.55 μm is reported. The threshold of DBR lasers is 62 mA and the output power is more than 8 mW; the isolation resistance between the active region and Bragg region is 30 kΩ; the tuning range is 6.5 nm which can provide 6 WDM channels with a 100 GHz spacing; in thetuning range, the single mode suppression ratio (SMSR) is more than 32 dB and the output power variation of different wavelengths is less than 3 dB.

  4. Comparing fairness perceptions of personnel selection techniques of American, French and South African job applicants.

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether job applicants' perceptions of commonly used selection procedures vary across nationalities, because a negative impression of prospective employers that use selection techniques that are viewed as unfair, may result. In this study the fairness perceptions of 179 South African employees were compared with results obtained with 142 American and 117 French participants with regard to ten selection techniques using the framework of organisational ...

  5. Interrupter technique in infancy: Higher airway resistance and lower short-term variability in preterm versus term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usemann, Jakob; Demann, Désirée; Anagnostopoulou, Pinelopi; Korten, Insa; Gorlanova, Olga; Schulzke, Sven; Frey, Urs; Latzin, Philipp

    2017-10-01

    In preschool children, measurement of airway resistance using interrupter technique (Rint) is feasible to assess the degree of bronchial obstruction. Although some studies measured Rint in infancy, values of Rint and its variability in preterm infants are unknown. In this study, Rint and its variability was measured at infancy and compared between healthy term and preterm infants. High quality Rint measurements in term (n = 50) and preterm (n = 48) infants were obtained at postmenstrual age of 42-50 weeks in two study centers in Switzerland. Intra-measurement variability of Rint in one measurement and inter-measurement variability between two subsequent measurements was assessed by coefficient of variation (CV). Mean Rint in term infants was 4.2 ± (SD; 1.9) kPa · s · L(-1) and in preterm infants was 5.6 ± (2.8) kPa · s · L(-1) . Mean CV in term infants was 29.6 ± (14.9)% and in preterm infants was 20.2 ± (8.4)%. Rint was significantly lower (95%CI -2.31 to -0.38; P = 0.007) and CV significantly higher (95%CI 4.53-14.3; P preterm infants. There were no differences in mean Rint and mean CV between the first and the second measurement obtained in a subgroup of term (n = 24, 48%) and preterm (n = 22, 45%) infants. Our results suggest that differences in airway mechanics between term and preterm infants can be assessed with the interrupter technique during early infancy. Before clinical application of Rint measurements in this age group, reasons underlying the variability of measurements should be further investigated. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Selective Chemical-Lithographic Reaction Techniques Using Radiation Technology for Biological Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Kwan Woo; Kim, Keo Su; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Hee Suk; Lee, Mi Jin [Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    This report, titled 'selective Chemical-Lithographic Reaction Techniques Using Radiation Technology for Biological Application' contains a research summary, 1) development of selective reaction technology using irradiation of electron beams, 2) preparation of functional surfaces using selective radiation technology on carbon-based nanomaterials, and 3) development of bio-applicable biochips using combinatorial surface modification

  7. A TOTAL MANUFACTURING SOLUTIONS TECHNIQUE TO SELECT APPROPRIATE IMPROVEMENT STRATEGY: CASE STUDY OF A FOOTWEAR FACTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gezahegn Tesfaye

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Government of Ethiopia is promoting the manufacturing sector to join the global market in a large scale. Due to its comparative advantages, the Ethiopian leather and leather products industry have been given due attention. To fully utilize such advantages, the country shifted its export items from hides/skins to footwear products. Nevertheless, the performance of the leather sector in general and footwear sub-sector in particular is far below the desired standards. The improvement strategies applied hitherto were mainly to tackle a small portion of their total problems. If the Ethiopian footwear companies have to become globally competitive, their entire business spectrum has to be assessed and appropriate improvement strategies must be selected. In this research, we used a Total manufacturing solutions (TMS technique to identify areas of improvement and improvement strategy of one of Ethiopian footwear companies. For this purpose, we conducted two surveys using structured questionnaire. The first survey was to test the TMS technique against the context of footwear industry. The result proved that the original TMS model can be used to measure the performance of footwear companies. The second survey was done to identify company's total problems, map its current position and select appropriate improvement strategy. The result revealed that the company has company-wide problems and its current position is a plodder. For plodders which have company-wide problems, the improvement strategy must include aggressive application of BPR; and the implementation of best practices to develop workers skills that encourages networking and promotion, a market-led manufacturing strategy, employee involvement and team work cultures. According to the findings of this research, we suggested that a BPR technique followed by a continuous improvement programme could be an appropriate improvement strategy for this company. The company requires long-term improvement

  8. Astronomical Site Selection for Turkey Using GIS Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Aksaker, Nazim; Erdogan, M Akif; Erdi, Erdem; Kaba, Kazim; Ak, Tansel; Aslan, Zeki; Bakis, Volkan; Demircan, Osman; Evren, Serdar; Keskin, Varol; Kucuk, Ibrahim; Ozdemir, Tuncay; Ozisik, Tuncay; Selam, Selim O

    2015-01-01

    A site selection of potential observatory locations in Turkey have been carried out by using Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) coupled with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and satellite imagery which in turn reduced cost and time and increased the accuracy of the final outcome. The layers of cloud cover, digital elevation model, artificial lights, precipitable water vapor, aerosol optical thickness and wind speed were studied in the GIS system. In conclusion of MCDA, the most suitable regions were found to be located in a strip crossing from southwest to northeast including also a diverted region in southeast of Turkey. These regions are thus our prime candidate locations for future on-site testing. In addition to this major outcome, this study has also been applied to locations of major observatories sites. Since no goal is set for \\textit{the best}, the results of this study is limited with a list of positions. Therefore, the list has to be further confirmed with on-site tests. A national fundi...

  9. Evaluation of long-term patency rates of different techniques of arterial anastomosis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemionow, M

    1987-01-01

    The results of 160 arterial anastomoses performed with four different techniques are presented. The popliteal arteries (mean diameter 0.7 mm) of 40 rabbits in each of four groups were anastomosed using: I. End-to-end technique with assymetrical sleeving of the adventitia; II. end-to-end technique with symetrical sleeving of the adventitia and wrapping of the suture site with a collagen cuff; III. end-to-end technique with symetrical trimming of the adventitia; and IV. end-in-end technique. Long-term patency rates for the above techniques were as follows: Group I, 92.5%; Group II, 87.5%; Group III, 92.5%; Group IV, 90.0%. Group IV anastomoses were completed in an average of 15 minutes compared with an overall average of 24 minutes for the other three groups.

  10. A Novel Trajectory Clustering technique for selecting cluster heads in Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Munaga, Hazarath; Venkateswarlu, N B

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) suffers from the hot spot problem where the sensor nodes closest to the base station are need to relay more packet than the nodes farther away from the base station. Thus, lifetime of sensory network depends on these closest nodes. Clustering methods are used to extend the lifetime of a wireless sensor network. However, current clustering algorithms usually utilize two techniques; selecting cluster heads with more residual energy, and rotating cluster heads periodically to distribute the energy consumption among nodes in each cluster and lengthen the network lifetime. Most of the algorithms use random selection for selecting the cluster heads. Here, we propose a novel trajectory clustering technique for selecting the cluster heads in WSNs. Our algorithm selects the cluster heads based on traffic and rotates periodically. It provides the first trajectory based clustering technique for selecting the cluster heads and to extenuate the hot spot problem by prolonging the network lif...

  11. BOAT: automatic alignment of biomedical ontologies using term informativeness and candidate selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Watson Wei Khong; Kim, Jung-Jae

    2012-04-01

    The biomedical sciences is one of the few domains where ontologies are widely being developed to facilitate information retrieval and knowledge sharing, but there still remains the problem that applications using different ontologies cannot share knowledge without explicit references between overlapping concepts. Ontology alignment is the task of identifying such equivalence relations between concepts across ontologies. Its application to the biomedical domain should address two open issues: (1) determining the equivalence of concept-pairs which have overlapping terms in their names, and (2) the high run-time required to align large ontologies which are typical in the biomedical domain. To address them, we present a novel approach, named the Biomedical Ontologies Alignment Technique (BOAT), which is state-of-the-art in terms of F-measure, precision and speed. A key feature of BOAT is that it considers the informativeness of each component word in the concept labels, which has significant impact on biomedical ontologies, resulting in a 12.2% increase in F-measure. Another important feature of BOAT is that it selects for comparison only concept pairs that show high likelihoods of equivalence, based on the similarity of their annotations. BOAT's F-measure of 0.88 for the alignment of the mouse and human anatomy ontologies is on par with that of another state-of-the-art matcher, AgreementMaker, while taking a shorter time.

  12. Autonomous selection of PDE inpainting techniques vs. exemplar inpainting techniques for void fill of high resolution digital surface models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmes, Mark; Yates, J. Harlan; Allen, Josef DeVaughn; Kelley, Patrick

    2007-04-01

    High resolution Digital Surface Models (DSMs) may contain voids (missing data) due to the data collection process used to obtain the DSM, inclement weather conditions, low returns, system errors/malfunctions for various collection platforms, and other factors. DSM voids are also created during bare earth processing where culture and vegetation features have been extracted. The Harris LiteSite TM Toolkit handles these void regions in DSMs via two novel techniques. We use both partial differential equations (PDEs) and exemplar based inpainting techniques to accurately fill voids. The PDE technique has its origin in fluid dynamics and heat equations (a particular subset of partial differential equations). The exemplar technique has its origin in texture analysis and image processing. Each technique is optimally suited for different input conditions. The PDE technique works better where the area to be void filled does not have disproportionately high frequency data in the neighborhood of the boundary of the void. Conversely, the exemplar based technique is better suited for high frequency areas. Both are autonomous with respect to detecting and repairing void regions. We describe a cohesive autonomous solution that dynamically selects the best technique as each void is being repaired.

  13. Modification of the coaxial technique for selective salpingography with measurement of tubal perfusion pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Spyros; Afnan, Masoud; McHugo, Josephine M; Coomarasamy, Aravinthan; Ola, Bolarinde; Sharif, Khaldoun

    2003-05-01

    This article describes the use of the fallopotorque catheter system for transcervical selective salpingography and tubal catheterization under fluoroscopic guidance for the diagnosis and treatment of obstruction of the proximal Fallopian tube. The technique of tubal perfusion pressure assessment during the procedure, using the same catheter system, is also described. The relative advantages of this method of selective salpingography and tubal catheterization are then discussed in the background of previously described techniques.

  14. Short-term solar irradiance and irradiation forecasts via different time series techniques: A preliminary study

    CERN Document Server

    Join, Cédric; Fliess, Michel; Muselli, Marc; Nivet, Marie Laure; Paoli, Christophe; Chaxel, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    This communication is devoted to solar irradiance and irradiation short-term forecasts, which are useful for electricity production. Several different time series approaches are employed. Our results and the corresponding numerical simulations show that techniques which do not need a large amount of historical data behave better than those which need them, especially when those data are quite noisy.

  15. A Feature Selection Approach Based on Interclass and Intraclass Relative Contributions of Terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongfang; Guo, Jie; Wang, Yinghui; Zhao, Minghua

    2016-01-01

    Feature selection plays a critical role in text categorization. During feature selecting, high-frequency terms and the interclass and intraclass relative contributions of terms all have significant effects on classification results. So we put forward a feature selection approach, IIRCT, based on interclass and intraclass relative contributions of terms in the paper. In our proposed algorithm, three critical factors, which are term frequency and the interclass relative contribution and the intraclass relative contribution of terms, are all considered synthetically. Finally, experiments are made with the help of kNN classifier. And the corresponding results on 20 NewsGroup and SougouCS corpora show that IIRCT algorithm achieves better performance than DF, t-Test, and CMFS algorithms.

  16. A Rank Aggregation Algorithm for Ensemble of Multiple Feature Selection Techniques in Credit Risk Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Dahiya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In credit risk evaluation the accuracy of a classifier is very significant for classifying the high-risk loan applicants correctly. Feature selection is one way of improving the accuracy of a classifier. It provides the classifier with important and relevant features for model development. This study uses the ensemble of multiple feature ranking techniques for feature selection of credit data. It uses five individual rank based feature selection methods. It proposes a novel rank aggregation algorithm for combining the ranks of the individual feature selection methods of the ensemble. This algorithm uses the rank order along with the rank score of the features in the ranked list of each feature selection method for rank aggregation. The ensemble of multiple feature selection techniques uses the novel rank aggregation algorithm and selects the relevant features using the 80%, 60%, 40% and 20% thresholds from the top of the aggregated ranked list for building the C4.5, MLP, C4.5 based Bagging and MLP based Bagging models. It was observed that the performance of models using the ensemble of multiple feature selection techniques is better than the performance of 5 individual rank based feature selection methods. The average performance of all the models was observed as best for the ensemble of feature selection techniques at 60% threshold. Also, the bagging based models outperformed the individual models most significantly for the 60% threshold. This increase in performance is more significant from the fact that the number of features were reduced by 40% for building the highest performing models. This reduces the data dimensions and hence the overall data size phenomenally for model building. The use of the ensemble of feature selection techniques using the novel aggregation algorithm provided more accurate models which are simpler, faster and easy to interpret.

  17. Selection of Instructional Methods and Techniques: The Basic Consideration of Teachers at Secondary School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Saira Ijaz; Malik, Samina; Irum, Jamila; Zahid, Rabia

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to identify the instructional methods and techniques used by the secondary school teachers to transfer the instructions to the students and to explore the basic considerations of the teachers about the selection of these instructional methods and techniques. Participants of the study included were 442 teachers…

  18. Efficient Structure-Aware Selection Techniques for 3D Point Cloud Visualizations with 2DOF Input

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Lingyun; Efstathiou, Konstantinos; Isenberg, Petra; Isenberg, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Data selection is a fundamental task in visualization because it serves as a pre-requisite to many follow-up interactions. Efficient spatial selection in 3D point cloud datasets consisting of thousands or millions of particles can be particularly challenging. We present two new techniques, TeddySele

  19. Efficient Structure-Aware Selection Techniques for 3D Point Cloud Visualizations with 2DOF Input

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Lingyun; Efstathiou, Konstantinos; Isenberg, Petra; Isenberg, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Data selection is a fundamental task in visualization because it serves as a pre-requisite to many follow-up interactions. Efficient spatial selection in 3D point cloud datasets consisting of thousands or millions of particles can be particularly challenging. We present two new techniques,

  20. Selected applications of photothermal and photoluminescence heterodyne techniques for process control in silicon wafer manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlert, Andreas; Kerstan, Michael; Lundt, Holger; Huber, Anton; Helmreich, Dieter; Geiler, Hans-Dieter; Karge, Harald; Wagner, Matthias

    1997-02-01

    Two noncontact laser-based heterodyne techniques, photothermal heterodyne (PTH) and photoluminescence heterodyne (PLH), are introduced and applied to processing and quality control in silicon wafer manufacturing. The crystallographic characteristics of process-induced defects in silicon wafers are suitable for the application of PTH and PLH techniques, which are demonstrated on selected examples from different steps of silicon wafer production. Both PLH and PTH techniques meet the demand for nondestructive and on-line-suitable measurement in the semiconductor industry.

  1. The influence of elements of synchronized swimming on technique of the selected swimming strokes

    OpenAIRE

    Široký, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Title: The influence of elements of synchronized swimming on technique of the selected swimming strokes Objectives: The objective of the thesis is to assess the effect of the elements of synchronized swimming at improving the techniques of swimming. Methods: The results were detected by overt observation with active participation and subsequent scaling on the ordinal scale 1 to 5. Results: The results show that the influence of the elements of synchronized swimming on improving the technique ...

  2. Medium-term responses to and changes in fitness with selection for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    medium-term, the observed direct responses to selection for parameters of the allometric-autoregressive model were irregular, and ... function seems to be the only parameter worth considering as a selection criterion. .... (generations 5, 6, 7), and later (generations 10, 11, 12) .... H. The fact that there were no differences.

  3. Reducing wrong patient selection errors: exploring the design space of user interface techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopan, Awalin; Plaisant, Catherine; Powsner, Seth; Shneiderman, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Wrong patient selection errors are a major issue for patient safety; from ordering medication to performing surgery, the stakes are high. Widespread adoption of Electronic Health Record (EHR) and Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) systems makes patient selection using a computer screen a frequent task for clinicians. Careful design of the user interface can help mitigate the problem by helping providers recall their patients' identities, accurately select their names, and spot errors before orders are submitted. We propose a catalog of twenty seven distinct user interface techniques, organized according to a task analysis. An associated video demonstrates eighteen of those techniques. EHR designers who consider a wider range of human-computer interaction techniques could reduce selection errors, but verification of efficacy is still needed.

  4. Long-term density evolution through semi-analytical and differential algebra techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, Alexander; Colombo, Camilla; Armellin, Roberto

    2017-08-01

    This paper introduces and combines for the first time two techniques to allow long-term density propagation in astrodynamics. First, we introduce an efficient method for the propagation of phase space densities based on differential algebra (DA) techniques. Second, this DA density propagator is used in combination with a DA implementation of the averaged orbital dynamics through semi-analytical methods. This approach combines the power of orbit averaging with the efficiency of DA techniques. While the DA-based method for the propagation of densities introduced in this paper is independent of the dynamical system under consideration, the particular combination of DA techniques with averaged equations of motion yields a fast and accurate technique to propagate large clouds of initial conditions and their associated probability density functions very efficiently for long time. This enables the study of the long-term behavior of particles subjected to the given dynamics. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, the evolution of a cloud of high area-to-mass objects in Medium Earth Orbit is reproduced considering the effects of solar radiation pressure, the Earth's oblateness and luni-solar perturbations. The method can propagate 10,000 random fragments and their density for 1 year within a few seconds on a common desktop PC.

  5. Detection techniques of selective forwarding attacks in wireless sensor networks: a survey

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Preeti; Saluja, Krishan Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The wireless sensor network has become a hot research area due its wide range of application in military and civilian domain, but as it uses wireless media for communication these are easily prone to security attacks. There are number of attacks on wireless sensor networks like black hole attack, sink hole attack, Sybil attack, selective forwarding attacks etc. in this paper we will concentrate on selective forwarding attacks In selective forwarding attacks, malicious nodes behave like normal nodes and selectively drop packets. The selection of dropping nodes may be random. Identifying such attacks is very difficult and sometimes impossible. In this paper we have listed up some detection techniques, which have been proposed by different researcher in recent years, there we also have tabular representation of qualitative analysis of detection techniques

  6. Mobile Cell Selection In 4G Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtadha Ali Nsaif Shukur

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the high demands for broadband mobile wireless communications and the emergence of new wireless multimedia applications constitute the motivation to the development of broadband wireless access technologies in recent years. The Long Term Evolution/System Architecture Evolution (LTE/SAE system has been specified by the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP on the way towards fourth-generation (4G mobile to ensure 3GPP keeping the dominance of the cellular communication technologies. Through the design and optimization of new radio access techniques and a further evolution of the LTE-A systems, Cell selection is the process of determining the cell(s that provide service to each mobile station. By study the potential benefits of global cell selection versus the current local mobile SNR-based decision protocol. In particular, and present the new possibility available in OFDMA & SC-FDMA based systems, such as IEEE 802.16m and LTEAdvanced, of satisfying the minimal demand of a mobile station simultaneously by more than one base station. After formalized the problems as an optimization problem; it's present how the mobile unit establishes this connection with the strongest cell station in vicinity. To do this, the mobile unit has to overcome the challenges of estimating the channel to communicate with the cell site and frequency synchronization. Also, multiple mobile units communicate to the same receiver and from various distances. Hence, it is up to the mobile to synchronize itself appropriately to the base stations. LTE-A uses two signals, the Primary Synchronization Signal and the Secondary Synchronization Signal sequentially to determine which of the available cell sites, a mobile would lock in to it. While inter-cell interference (ICI one of problems for the downlink and uplink of multi-cell systems (in general and OFDMA& SC-FDMA networks (in particular.

  7. Biomechanical and energetic determinants of technique selection in classical cross-country skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Barbara; Zoppirolli, Chiara; Bortolan, Lorenzo; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Zamparo, Paola; Schena, Federico

    2013-12-01

    Classical cross-country skiing can be performed using three main techniques: diagonal stride (DS), double poling (DP), and double poling with kick (DK). Similar to other forms of human and animal gait, it is currently unclear whether technique selection occurs to minimize metabolic cost or to keep some mechanical factors below a given threshold. The aim of this study was to find the determinants of technique selection. Ten male athletes roller skied on a treadmill at different slopes (from 0° to 7° at 10km/h) and speeds (from 6 to 18km/h at 2°). The technique preferred by skiers was gathered for every proposed condition. Biomechanical parameters and metabolic cost were then measured for each condition and technique. Skiers preferred DP for skiing on the flat and they transitioned to DK and then to DS with increasing slope steepness, when increasing speed all skiers preferred DP. Data suggested that selections mainly occur to remain below a threshold of poling force. Second, critically low values of leg thrust time may limit the use of leg-based techniques at high speeds. A small role has been identified for the metabolic cost of locomotion, which determined the selection of DP for flat skiing.

  8. Combined FTIR-micrometeorological techniques for long term measurements of greenhouse gas fluxes from agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Anna Katinka [Institut fuer Umweltphysik (IUP), Universitaet Bremen (Germany); Griffith, David; Naylor, Travis [Centre for Atmospheric Chemistry, University of Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Harvey, Mike; Smith, Murray [National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), Wellington (New Zealand)

    2009-07-01

    Agricultural systems can be sources or sinks of atmospheric trace gases, and the measurement of the fluxes is necessary when evaluating both the environmental impact of agricultural activities and the impact of atmospheric pollution on agricultural production and sustainability. With the exception of CO{sub 2}, micrometeorological measurements of the fluxes of greenhouse gases are still mostly possible only in campaign mode due to the complexity and logistical requirements of the existing techniques. We have developed an instrument system for long-term flux measurements through a combination of micrometeorological flux measurement techniques (Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) and Flux-Gradient (FG)) with FTIR spectroscopy. The combined technique is capable of simultaneous flux measurements of N{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} at paddock to regional scales continuously, over longer terms. The system was tested on a 3 weeks field campaign. The flux of the atmospheric CO{sub 2} was measured by Relaxed Eddy Accumulation, Flux-Gradient, and Eddy Correlation. Simultaneously, fluxes of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O were measured by REA and FG technique.

  9. Effects of implant angulation, material selection, and impression technique on impression accuracy: a preliminary laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkunas, Vygandas; Sveikata, Kestutis; Savickas, Raimondas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary laboratory study was to evaluate the effects of 5- and 25-degree implant angulations in simulated clinical casts on an impression's accuracy when using different impression materials and tray selections. A convenience sample of each implant angulation group was selected for both open and closed trays in combination with one polyether and two polyvinyl siloxane impression materials. The influence of material and technique appeared to be significant for both 5- and 25-degree angulations (P impression accuracy. The open-tray technique was more accurate with highly nonaxially oriented implants for the small sample size investigated.

  10. Case selection criteria and a simplified technique for placing and finishing direct composite veneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Jeff T

    2002-09-01

    This article addresses the key obstacles clinicians face when considering direct composite veneers as a treatment option for the cosmetic correction of anterior teeth. These obstacles include case selection, material selection, the best technique to allow the expeditious placement of the veneers, and, ultimately, final esthetics. The best clinical situations for choosing direct composite veneers are identified, and a new microhybrid composite resin system, Esthet-X, which offers a simplified solution to shade matching and polishing, is introduced. A clinical case demonstrates a simplified technique for the placement of stratified, polychromatic direct veneers, and describes a new polishing system that generates a microfill type of shine with modern microhybrids.

  11. Principal Stratification in sample selection problems with non normal error terms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocci, Roberto; Mellace, Giovanni

    The aim of the paper is to relax distributional assumptions on the error terms, often imposed in parametric sample selection models to estimate causal effects, when plausible exclusion restrictions are not available. Within the principal stratification framework, we approximate the true distribut......The aim of the paper is to relax distributional assumptions on the error terms, often imposed in parametric sample selection models to estimate causal effects, when plausible exclusion restrictions are not available. Within the principal stratification framework, we approximate the true...... distribution of the error terms with a mixture of Gaussian. We propose an EM type algorithm for ML estimation. In a simulation study we show that our estimator has lower MSE than the ML and two-step Heckman estimators with any non normal distribution considered for the error terms. Finally we provide...... an application to the Job Corps training program....

  12. Integrated DFB-DBR laser modulator grown by selective area metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy growth technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanbun-Ek, T.; Chen, Y. K.; Grenko, J. A.; Byrne, E. K.; Johnson, J. E.; Logan, R. A.; Tate, A.; Sergent, A. M.; Wecht, K. W.; Sciortine, P. F.; Chu, S. N. G.

    1994-12-01

    A device quality of selective epitaxy growth of InGaAsP/InP multiple quantum well (MQW) structure using low-pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) technique is described. The technique is applied to a monolithically integrated electroabsorption modulator with distributed feedback (DFB) and distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) lasers. Superior device characteristics such as efficient modulation, low threshold current and high efficiency operation of the integrated devices are obtained.

  13. Depletion of Serotonin Selectively Impairs Short-Term Memory without Affecting Long-Term Memory in Odor Learning in the Terrestrial Slug "Limax Valentianus"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa, Tomofumi; Kirino, Yutaka; Watanabe, Satoshi; Shirahata, Takaaki; Tsunoda, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    The terrestrial slug "Limax" is able to acquire short-term and long-term memories during aversive odor-taste associative learning. We investigated the effect of the selective serotonergic neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) on memory. Behavioral studies indicated that 5,7-DHT impaired short-term memory but not long-term memory. HPLC…

  14. Depletion of Serotonin Selectively Impairs Short-Term Memory without Affecting Long-Term Memory in Odor Learning in the Terrestrial Slug "Limax Valentianus"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa, Tomofumi; Kirino, Yutaka; Watanabe, Satoshi; Shirahata, Takaaki; Tsunoda, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    The terrestrial slug "Limax" is able to acquire short-term and long-term memories during aversive odor-taste associative learning. We investigated the effect of the selective serotonergic neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) on memory. Behavioral studies indicated that 5,7-DHT impaired short-term memory but not long-term memory. HPLC…

  15. Sample size estimation and sampling techniques for selecting a representative sample

    OpenAIRE

    Aamir Omair

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this article is to provide a general understanding of the concepts of sampling as applied to health-related research. Sample Size Estimation: It is important to select a representative sample in quantitative research in order to be able to generalize the results to the target population. The sample should be of the required sample size and must be selected using an appropriate probability sampling technique. There are many hidden biases which can adversely affect ...

  16. Long-term effectiveness of four pulpotomy techniques: 3-year randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Karin Christine; Hajek-Al-Khatar, Niran; Wolf, Petra; Ilie, Nicoleta; Hickel, Reinhard; Paschos, Ekaterini

    2012-08-01

    A pulpotomy is the therapy for management of pulp exposures due to caries in symptom-free primary molars. The aim was to longitudinally compare the relative effectiveness of the Er:YAG laser, calcium hydroxide and ferric sulphate techniques with dilute formocresol in retaining symptom-free molars. Two hundred primary molars in 107 healthy children were included and randomly allocated to one technique. The treated teeth were blindly reevaluated after 6, 12, 18, 24 and 36 months. Descriptive data analysis and logistic regression analysis accounting for multiple observations per patient by generalised estimating equation were used. Additionally, various influences including tooth type, upper and lower jaws, type of anaesthesia, operator and the final restoration on treatment success were evaluated (Wald chi-square test). After 36 months, the following total (considering clinical and clinically symptom-free radiographic failures) and clinical success rates were determined (in percent): Formocresol 72 (92), laser 73 (89), calcium hydroxide 46 (75), ferric sulphate 76 (97). No significant differences were detected between formocresol and any other technique after 36 months. However, the odds ratio of failure appeared to be three times higher for calcium hydroxide than for formocresol. No significant differences in total success rates were seen regarding the aforementioned influencing clinical parameters. The correct diagnosis of the pulpal status, bleeding control and the specific technique are highly important for long-term success of pulpotomies in primary molars. According to the presented long-term data, pulpotomies using ferric sulphate revealed the best treatment outcome among the used techniques, while calcium hydroxide resulted in the lowest success rates after 3 years. Therefore, we can recommend ferric sulphate for easy and successful treatment of primary molars with caries-exposed pulps.

  17. Preparation of protein imprinted materials by hierarchical imprinting techniques and application in selective depletion of albumin from human serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinxiang; Deng, Qiliang; Tao, Dingyin; Yang, Kaiguang; Zhang, Lihua; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Yukui

    2014-06-01

    Hierarchical imprinting was developed to prepare the protein imprinted materials, as the artificial antibody, for the selective depletion of HSA from the human serum proteome. Porcine serum albumin (PSA) was employed as the dummy template for the fabrication of the recognition sites. To demonstrate the advantages of the hierarchical imprinting, molecularly imprinted polymers prepared by hierarchical imprinting technique (h-MIPs) were compared with those obtained by bulk imprinting (b-MIPs), in terms of the binding capacity, adsorption kinetics, selectivity and synthesis reproducibility. The binding capacity of h-MIPs could reach 12 mg g-1. And saturation binding could be reached in less than 20 min for the h-MIPs. In the protein mixture, h-MIPs exhibit excellent selectivity for PSA, with imprinting factors as about 3.6, much higher than those for non-template proteins. For the proteomic application, the identified protein group number in serum treated by h-MIPs was increased to 422, which is 21% higher than that obtained from the original serum, meanwhile the identified protein group number for the Albumin Removal kit was only 376. The results demonstrate that protein imprinted polymers prepared by hierarchical imprinting technique, might become the artificial antibodies for the selective depletion of high abundance proteins in proteome study.

  18. Impact of Auditory Selective Attention on Verbal Short-Term Memory and Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerus, Steve; Heiligenstein, Lucie; Gautherot, Nathalie; Poncelet, Martine; Van der Linden, Martial

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the role of auditory selective attention capacities as a possible mediator of the well-established association between verbal short-term memory (STM) and vocabulary development. A total of 47 6- and 7-year-olds were administered verbal immediate serial recall and auditory attention tasks. Both task types probed processing…

  19. Binding among Select Episodic Elements Is Altered via Active Short-Term Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Donna J.; Voss, Joel L.

    2015-01-01

    Of the many elements that comprise an episode, are any disproportionately bound to the others? We tested whether active short-term retrieval selectively increases binding. Individual objects from multiobject displays were retrieved after brief delays. Memory was later tested for the other objects. Cueing with actively retrieved objects facilitated…

  20. A Long-Term Outcome Study of Selective Mutism in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Wachter, Miriam; Laimbock, Karin; Metzke, Christa Winkler

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Controlled study of the long-term outcome of selective mutism (SM) in childhood. Method: A sample of 33 young adults with SM in childhood and two age- and gender-matched comparison groups were studied. The latter comprised 26 young adults with anxiety disorders in childhood (ANX) and 30 young adults with no psychiatric disorders during…

  1. An Evaluation of Risk Factors and Preventive Techniques for Decubitus Ulcers in Selected Nigeria Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onigbinde A. Teslim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this study was to determine if in-patients in some selected Nigeria hospitals are at risk of developing pressure sore and to determine the preventive techniques adopted by Health Care Professionals. METHOD: A questionnaire was used for this study and it was divided into two parts. The part A is a structured questionnaire that took care of socio-demographic data and preventive techniques while part B is the Braden Scale which was used to assess the risk of developing pressure ulcer. Three hundred and eighteen (318 In-patients in five Nigeria purposively selected hospitals in southwest Nigeria volunteered to participate in this study. The statistical method that was employed was descriptive statistics. RESULTS: The result of the study showed that In-patients in the selected hospitals are “at risk” of developing pressure ulcers. Also, General Practitioners (50.47% and nursing staff (49.52% mostly prescribed at least one of the preventive techniques while few (31.23% reported that physiotherapists prescribed at least one of the preventive techniques. However, a considerable number of the patients (35.02% were never informed by any of the health staff on preventive measures. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that In-patients in Nigeria hospitals are “at risk” of developing pressure ulcers and that health care providers in Nigeria are not prescribing adequate preventive techniques to prevent pressure ulcers. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(4.000: 415-420

  2. Selection of Hidden Layer Neurons and Best Training Method for FFNN in Application of Long Term Load Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Navneet K.; Singh, Asheesh K.; Tripathy, Manoj

    2012-05-01

    For power industries electricity load forecast plays an important role for real-time control, security, optimal unit commitment, economic scheduling, maintenance, energy management, and plant structure planning etc. A new technique for long term load forecasting (LTLF) using optimized feed forward artificial neural network (FFNN) architecture is presented in this paper, which selects optimal number of neurons in the hidden layer as well as the best training method for the case study. The prediction performance of proposed technique is evaluated using mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of Thailand private electricity consumption and forecasted data. The results obtained are compared with the results of classical auto-regressive (AR) and moving average (MA) methods. It is, in general, observed that the proposed method is prediction wise more accurate.

  3. Long-term recurrence and complication rates after incisional hernia repair with the open onlay technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Peter Holst; Klein, Mads; Gögenur, Ismail;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Incisional hernia after abdominal surgery is a well-known complication. Controversy still exists with respect to the choice of hernia repair technique. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term recurrence rate as well as surgical complications in a consecutive group......% follow-up. The median follow-up was 35 months (range 4-151). Recurrent incisional hernia was found in 8 of 56 patients (15%, 95% CI: 6-24). The overall complication rate was 13% (95% CI, 4-22). All complications were minor and needed no hospital admission. CONCLUSION: This study with a long follow......-up showed low recurrence and complication rates in patients undergoing incisional hernia repair with the open onlay technique....

  4. A Hybrid Model for the Mid-Long Term Runoff Forecasting by Evolutionary Computaion Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Xiu-fen; Kang Li-shan; Cae Hong-qing; Wu Zhi-jian

    2003-01-01

    The mid-long term hydrology forecasting is one of most challenging problems in hydrological studies. This paper proposes an efficient dynamical system prediction model using evolutionary computation techniques. The new model overcomes some disadvantages of conventional hydrology fore casting ones. The observed data is divided into two parts: the slow "smooth and steady" data, and the fast "coarse and fluctuation" data. Under the divide and conquer strategy, the behavior of smooth data is modeled by ordinary differential equations based on evolutionary modeling, and that of the coarse data is modeled using gray correlative forecasting method. Our model is verified on the test data of the mid-long term hydrology forecast in tbe northeast region of China. The experimental results show that the model is superior to gray system prediction model (GSPM).

  5. Application of Fisher Score and mRMR Techniques for Feature Selection in Compressed Medical Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamsidhar Enireddy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In nowadays there is a large increase in the digital medical images and different medical imaging equipments are available for diagnoses, medical professionals are increasingly relying on computer aided techniques for both indexing these images and retrieving similar images from large repositories. To develop systems which are computationally less intensive without compromising on the accuracy from the high dimensional feature space is always challenging. In this paper an investigation is made on the retrieval of compressed medical images. Images are compressed using the visually lossless compression technique. Shape and texture features are extracted and best features are selected using the fisher technique and mRMR. Using these selected features RNN with BPTT was utilized for classification of the compressed images.

  6. A Novel Technique of Error Concealment Method Selection in Texture Images Using ALBP Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Tothova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available There are many error concealment techniques for image processing. In the paper, the focus is on restoration of image with missing blocks or macroblocks. Different methods can be optimal for different kinds of images. In recent years, great attention was dedicated to textures, and specific methods were developed for their processing. Many of them use classification of textures as an integral part. It is also of an advantage to know the texture classification to select the best restoration technique. In the paper, selection based on texture classification with advanced local binary patterns and spatial distribution of dominant patterns is proposed. It is shown, that for classified textures, optimal error concealment method can be selected from predefined ones, resulting then in better restoration. For testing, three methods of extrapolation and texture synthesis were used.

  7. Selective low temperature microcap packaging technique through flip chip and wafer level alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, C. T.

    2004-04-01

    In this study, a new technique of selective microcap bonding for packaging 3-D MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) devices is presented. Microcap bonding on a selected area of the host wafer was successfully demonstrated through flip chip and wafer level alignment. A passivation treatment was developed to separate the microcap from the carrier wafer. A thick metal nickel (Ni) microcap was fabricated by an electroplating process. Its stiffness is superior to that of thin film poly-silicon made by the surface micromachining technique. For the selective microcap packaging process, photo definable materials served as the intermediate adhesive layer between the host wafer and the metal microcap on the carrier wafer. Several types of photo definable material used as the adhesive layer were tested and characterized for bonding strength. The experimental result shows that excellent bonding strength at low bonding temperature can be achieved.

  8. A RANDOMIZED SELECTIVE ENCRYPTION USING HASHING TECHNIQUE FOR SECURING VIDEO STREAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizyflorance. C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Digital video transmissions are widely used in network nowadays. Hence, securing its contents and keeping privacy is vital. Several encryption algorithms have been proposed earlier to achieve securevideo transmission. But altogether attaining efficiency, security and flexibility is a major challenge. To transmit a digital video, encryption is necessary to protect its contents from attacks. As the size of the videos are usually large their contents has to be compressed before transmission. Encryption is applied on the video content after compression. One of the encryption technique selective encryption is used for encrypting video. It encrypts only a subset of data. The selective encryption algorithm reduces the amount of the data to be encrypted and achieves a required level of security. In this paper we study the existing selective encryption algorithm and its classifications. The challenges in the selective encryptionalgorithms and some future directions are presented.

  9. Enhancement of bimetallic Fe-Mn/CNTs nano catalyst activity and product selectivity using microemulsion technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zahra; Zolfaghari; Ahmad; Tavasoli; Saber; Tabyar; Ali; Nakhaei; Pour

    2014-01-01

    Bimetallic Fe-Mn nano catalysts supported on carbon nanotubes(CNTs) were prepared using microemulsion technique with water-to-surfactant ratios of 0.4-1.6. The nano catalysts were extensively characterized by different methods and their activity and selectivity in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis(FTS) have been assessed in a fixed-bed microreactor. The physicochemical properties and performance of the nanocatalysts were compared with the catalyst prepared by impregnation method. Very narrow particle size distribution has been produced by the microemulsion technique at relatively high loading of active metal. TEM images showed that small metal nano particles in the range of 3–7 nm were not only confined inside the CNTs but also located on the outer surface of the CNTs. Using microemulsion technique with water to surfactant ratio of0.4 decreased the average iron particle sizes to 5.1 nm. The reduction percentage and dispersion percentage were almost doubled. Activity and selectivity were found to be dependent on the catalyst preparation method and average iron particle size. CO conversion and FTS rate increased from 49.1% to 71.0% and 0.144 to 0.289 gHC/(gcat h), respectively. While the WGS rate decreased from 0.097 to 0.056 gCO2/(gcat h). C5+liquid hydrocarbons selectivity decreased slightly and olefins selectivity almost doubled.

  10. Effects of trawl selectivity and genetic parameters on fish body length under long-term trawling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Sun, Peng; Cui, He; Sheng, Huaxiang; Zhao, Fenfang; Tang, Yanli; Chen, Zelin

    2015-10-01

    Long-term fishing pressure affects the biological characteristics of exploited fish stocks. The biological characteristics of hairtail ( Trichiurus lepturus) in the East China Sea are unable to recover because of long-term trawling. Fishing induces evolutionary effects on the fish's biological characteristics. Evidence of these changes includes small size at age, a shift to earlier age structure, and early maturation. Natural and artificial selection usually affect the fish's life history. Selection can induce different chances of reproduction, and individual fish can give a different genetic contribution to the next generation. In this study, analysis of time-dependent probability of significance and test of sensitivity were used to explore the effects of fish exploitation rate, mesh size, and heritability with long-term trawling. Results showed that fishing parameters were important drivers to exploited fish population. However, genetic traits altered by fishing were slow, and the changes in biological characteristics were weaker than those caused by fishing selection. Exploitation rate and mesh size exhibited similar evolutionary trend tendency under long-term fishing. The time-dependent probability of significance trend showed a gradual growth and tended to be stable. Therefore, the direction of fishing-induced evolution and successful management of fish species require considerable attention to contribute to sustainable fisheries in China.

  11. Chinese undergraduates' preferences for altruistic traits in mate selection and personal advertisement: Evidence from Q-sort technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qingke; Feng, Linlin; Wang, Mingming

    2017-04-01

    Human's preferences for altruistic mates have been confirmed by many researchers. Under the deep influence of Confucianism that authorised more parental control over offspring's mate selection, Chinese people's mating strategies and mate preferences may be different from what the evolutionary psychologists have suggested. This study used the Q-sort technique to assess the roles of altruistic traits in mate selection and personal advertisement. A total of 200 university students participated in the Q-sort procedures and were asked to sort 50 traits (among which altruistic traits were mixed) according to their importance when choosing (or advertising to) a long-term (LT) or a short-term (ST) mate. Our findings were quite different from prior studies. When Chinese participants chose a mate or advertised themselves to a potential mate, kin altruism was considered to be the most important trait; altruistic traits were more preferred by males than by females and females tended to advertise themselves as more altruistic; preferences for altruistic traits showed no difference between LT and ST mate selections (or between personal advertisement to a LT and a ST mate).

  12. Long-term crustal deformation monitored by gravity and space geodetic techniques at Medicina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, B.; Zerbini, S.; Lago, L.; Romagnoli, C.; Simon, D.

    2003-04-01

    In the framework of an international collaboration, during 1996, at Medicina, Italy, a continuous GPS (CGPS) and a superconducting gravimeter (SG) were installed by the University of Bologna and the Bundesamt fuer Kartographie und Geodaesie, Frankfurt, respectively. The main purpose of the research was the establishment and the demonstration of an observational procedure leading to a reliable estimate of height variations and to interpret gravity variations/changes in conjunction with mass variations/changes within and above the Earth's crust. To fulfill the stated objectives, additional information is needed. In particular, continuous registrations of meteoclimatic parameters such as sacrificial water table level, electrical conductivity and temperature, deep well levels, rainfall, air pressure and temperature and balloon radio sonde data. A comparison, performed over a period of more than six years of data, between the CGPS and SG series has shed light on the existence of relevant seasonal fluctuations in both data sets, quite similar in amplitude and phase. They were interpreted and modeled as the sum of various environmental loadings for the height and gravity series and the Newtonian attraction components for gravity alone. The removal of the observed oscillations is most important in order to estimate properly the long-term trends, which characterize the CGPS and SG series. Moreover, the combination of SG and repeated absolute gravity measurements shows the capability of both techniques to determine the long-term trend in gravity. Just the combined view allows a significant trend analysis. In addition, the CGPS measurements are compared with other geodetic space techniques available at the Medicina station. In total, a strategy has been developed demonstrating how the present day available techniques should be combined to monitor crustal deformations and achieve relevant information for possible causes.

  13. Selective evaluation of high density lipoprotein from mouse small intestine by an in situ perfusion technique[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Zhang, Bo; Tomonaga, Takeshi; Seino, Utako; Kanagawa, Akiko; Segawa, Masaru; Nagasaka, Hironori; Suzuki, Akira; Miida, Takashi; Yamada, Sohsuke; Sasaguri, Yasuyuki; Doi, Takefumi; Saku, Keijiro; Okazaki, Mitsuyo; Tochino, Yoshihiro; Hirano, Ken-ichi

    2014-01-01

    The small intestine (SI) is the second-greatest source of HDL in mice. However, the selective evaluation of SI-derived HDL (SI-HDL) has been difficult because even the origin of HDL obtained in vivo from the intestinal lymph duct of anesthetized rodents is doubtful. To shed light on this question, we have developed a novel in situ perfusion technique using surgically isolated mouse SI, with which the possible filtration of plasma HDL into the SI lymph duct can be prevented. With the developed method, we studied the characteristics of and mechanism for the production and regulation of SI-HDL. Nascent HDL particles were detected in SI lymph perfusates in WT mice, but not in ABCA1 KO mice. SI-HDL had a high protein content and was smaller than plasma HDL. SI-HDL was rich in TG and apo AIV compared with HDL in liver perfusates. SI-HDL was increased by high-fat diets and reduced in apo E KO mice. In conclusion, with our in situ perfusion model that enables the selective evaluation of SI-HDL, we demonstrated that ABCA1 plays an important role in intestinal HDL production, and SI-HDL is small, dense, rich in apo AIV, and regulated by nutritional and genetic factors. PMID:24569139

  14. Population size and selection intensity effects on short-term response for a selection index in Tribolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, J L; Turrado, H

    1997-01-12

    The effects of population size and selection intensity on the short-term response to selection were investigated in an experiment with Tribolium, using a two-trait empirical selection index for pupal and adult weights. Twenty lines were selected following a factorial design of five population sizes (1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 pairs of parents) and four selection intensities (20, 25, 33, and 50%), with three replicates. For each replicate, an unselected control with 16 pairs of parents was produced. There were four generations of selection per line. Selection response was significant in all lines with the 20% selection intensity and/or the 16-pair population size. Selection intensity and population size were significant effects and there was significant interaction between them. Higher selection intensities produced more overall significant response to selection (20% > (25% = 33%) > 50%); this significance was also found for the 16-pair population size. There was an overall significant difference among population sizes, with the larger population sizes giving more response than the smaller sizes (16-pair = 8-pair = 4-pair) > (2-pair = 1-pair); this significance was also found for the 20% selection intensity. There was a good agreement between observed and expected responses, except for the 50% selection intensity and/or 1-pair population size; expected values in generation 1 overestimated observed values. The realized heritability was similar in all lines. With equal and high numbers of individuals scored, it was better to choose a high selection intensity than a large population size. The results show that the effect of population size cannot be ignored, even in short-term selection response; the main influence of population size is through selection differential. RESUMEN: Los efectos del tamaño de población y la intensidad de selección sobre la respuesta a corto plazo para un índice de selección en Tribolium Los efectos del tamaño de población y la intensidad de

  15. Long-term fidelity of foraging techniques in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunhold, Tina; Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    The formation of behavioral traditions has been considered as one of the main building blocks of culture. Numerous studies on social learning in different animal species provide evidence for their capability of successful transmission of information. However, questions concerning the memory and maintenance of this information have received comparably little attention. After the innovation and initial spread of a novel behavior, the behavior should stabilize and be maintained over time. Otherwise, the behavioral pattern might collapse and no tradition formation would be possible. The aim of this study was to investigate long-term preferences in a two-action manipulation task in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Three captive family groups (23 individuals in total) were trained on one of two possible techniques to open a wooden box and gain access to a food reward, by either pulling or pushing a flap door. The training phase took place in a family group setting, while the test phase was conducted individually. Although the subjects could experience the alternative technique during the test sessions, the majority preferentially used the technique learned in the group setting. Moreover, the subjects were re-tested six times over a period of more than four years, in order to examine the fidelity of their preferences. The longest break without exposure the task lasted for 3.5 years. In all tests, the marmosets showed a similar preference as in the first test block shortly after the training. To our knowledge, this is the first lab study that experimentally demonstrates memory and fidelity of experimentally seeded information in a manipulation task over a time period of several years, supporting the assumption that socially learned foraging techniques can lead to relatively stable behavioral traditions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Development of technique on the induction and selection of in vitro mutant lines (Potato, Solanum tuberosum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jang Ryoel; Lee, Yeong Il; Song, Hee Seop; Kim, Jae Seong; Sin, In Cheol; Lee, Sang Jae; Lee, Ki Un; Lim, Yong Taek [Korea Atomic Energy Res. Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-09-01

    For the development of the technique on the plant tissue culture and application of nuclear technique in the in vitro mutation breeding, present research laid emphasis on the development of techniques of potato tissue culture, and on the induction and selection of radiation mutation. Another culture for haploid induction, optimum radiation dosage for cybrid formation of potato and mutation induction from in vitro cultured microtuber and plantlets were investigated for modelling the technique on the induction and selection of in vitro mutant lines. Inheritance stability of the selected mutants were also studied in field condition. In vitro system of micropropagation and selection of mutation was summarized.

  17. A Comparison of Techniques for Camera Selection and Hand-Off in a Video Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiming; Bhanu, Bir

    Video networks are becoming increasingly important for solving many real-world problems. Multiple video sensors require collaboration when performing various tasks. One of the most basic tasks is the tracking of objects, which requires mechanisms to select a camera for a certain object and hand-off this object from one camera to another so as to accomplish seamless tracking. In this chapter, we provide a comprehensive comparison of current and emerging camera selection and hand-off techniques. We consider geometry-, statistics-, and game theory-based approaches and provide both theoretical and experimental comparison using centralized and distributed computational models. We provide simulation and experimental results using real data for various scenarios of a large number of cameras and objects for in-depth understanding of strengths and weaknesses of these techniques.

  18. Short-Term Effects of Foreign Bank Entry on Bank Performance in Selected CEE Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Janek Uiboupin

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the short-term impact of foreign bank entry on bank performance in ten Central and Eastern European countries. A panel of 319 banks was analysed over the period 1995–2001. The Arellano-Bond dynamic panel estimation technique was used. The results indicate that foreign bank entry is associated with lower beforetax profits, non-interest income, interest income on interest earning assets and loan loss provisions. Foreign bank entry tends to increase the overhead costs of loca...

  19. Power and selection of contract terms: The case from the Brazilian orange juice sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuiuki Costa Ito

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We propose a model to explain how contract terms are selected in the presence of a form of economic power: contract power. The orange juice sector is used to illustrate an analysis that demonstrates the effects of contract power on the economic organization of the sector. We define contract power as the ability to exploit contractual gaps or failures of contractual provisions, which are strategically left incomplete. Empirical evidence from content analysis of antitrust documents supports the logic of contract power in the orange juice sector in three forms: avoiding changes to payment methods from weight to solid contents (quality; using information asymmetries to manipulate indexes that calculate the formula of orange prices; and deliberately harvesting oranges late in order to dehydrate the fruit, which consequently reduces weight and price. The paper contributes to understanding the selection of contract terms and the debate about how antitrust offices can deal with this issue.

  20. An improvement direction for filter selection techniques using information theory measures and quadratic optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waad Bouaguel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Filter selection techniques are known for their simplicity and efficiency. However this kind of methods doesn’t take into consideration the features inter-redundancy. Consequently the un-removed redundant features remain in the final classification model, giving lower generalization performance. In this paper we propose to use a mathematical optimization method that reduces inter-features redundancy and maximize relevance between each feature and the target variable.

  1. Comparison of Selective Culturing and Biochemical Techniques for Measuring Biological Activity in Geothermal Process Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryfogle, Peter Albert

    2000-09-01

    For the past three years, scientists at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory have been conducting studies aimed at determining the presence and influence of bacteria found in geothermal plant cooling water systems. In particular, the efforts have been directed at understanding the conditions that lead to the growth and accumulation of biomass within these systems, reducing the operational and thermal efficiency. Initially, the methods selected were based upon the current practices used by the industry and included the collection of water quality parameters, the measurement of soluble carbon, and the use of selective medial for the determination of the number density of various types of organisms. This data has been collected on a seasonal basis at six different facilities located at the Geysers’ in Northern California. While this data is valuable in establishing biological growth trends in the facilities and providing an initial determination of upset or off-normal conditions, more detailed information about the biological activity is needed to determine what is triggering or sustaining the growth in these facilities in order to develop improved monitoring and treatment techniques. In recent years, new biochemical approaches, based upon the analyses of phospholipid fatty acids and DNA recovered from environmental samples, have been developed and commercialized. These techniques, in addition to allowing the determination of the quantity of biomass, also provide information on the community composition and the nutritional status of the organisms. During the past year, samples collected from the condenser effluents of four of the plants from The Geysers’ were analyzed using these methods and compared with the results obtained from selective culturing techniques. The purpose of this effort was to evaluate the cost-benefit of implementing these techniques for tracking microbial activity in the plant study, in place of the selective culturing

  2. CNTRICS Imaging Biomarkers Final Task Selection: Long-Term Memory and Reinforcement Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Ragland, John D.; Neal J Cohen; Cools, Roshan; Frank, Michael J.; Deborah E Hannula; Ranganath, Charan

    2011-01-01

    Functional imaging paradigms hold great promise as biomarkers for schizophrenia research as they can detect altered neural activity associated with the cognitive and emotional processing deficits that are so disabling to this patient population. In an attempt to identify the most promising functional imaging biomarkers for research on long-term memory (LTM), the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) initiative selected “item encoding and ret...

  3. Sample size estimation and sampling techniques for selecting a representative sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamir Omair

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this article is to provide a general understanding of the concepts of sampling as applied to health-related research. Sample Size Estimation: It is important to select a representative sample in quantitative research in order to be able to generalize the results to the target population. The sample should be of the required sample size and must be selected using an appropriate probability sampling technique. There are many hidden biases which can adversely affect the outcome of the study. Important factors to consider for estimating the sample size include the size of the study population, confidence level, expected proportion of the outcome variable (for categorical variables/standard deviation of the outcome variable (for numerical variables, and the required precision (margin of accuracy from the study. The more the precision required, the greater is the required sample size. Sampling Techniques: The probability sampling techniques applied for health related research include simple random sampling, systematic random sampling, stratified random sampling, cluster sampling, and multistage sampling. These are more recommended than the nonprobability sampling techniques, because the results of the study can be generalized to the target population.

  4. Survey of Techniques for Deep Web Source Selection and Surfacing the Hidden Web Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushboo Khurana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Large and continuously growing dynamic web content has created new opportunities for large-scale data analysis in the recent years. There is huge amount of information that the traditional web crawlers cannot access, since they use link analysis technique by which only the surface web can be accessed. Traditional search engine crawlers require the web pages to be linked to other pages via hyperlinks causing large amount of web data to be hidden from the crawlers. Enormous data is available in deep web that can be useful to gain new insight for various domains, creating need to access the information from the deep web by developing efficient techniques. As the amount of Web content grows rapidly, the types of data sources are proliferating, which often provide heterogeneous data. So we need to select Deep Web Data sources that can be used by the integration systems. The paper discusses various techniques that can be used to surface the deep web information and techniques for Deep Web Source Selection.

  5. Minimally invasive selective osteotomy of the knee: A new surgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, H O; Blanco, C E; Guthrie, T B

    2001-05-01

    We present a simple surgical technique created by the authors to address degenerative chondral lesions of the knee and its application in a limited prospective case series. The technique assumes the concept of beneficial epiphyseal changes caused by disruption of the subchondral bone in improving symptoms, as with drilling, microfracture, periarticular osteotomy, and other invasive procedures. Minimally invasive selective osteotomy (MISO) is an expansion of the arthroscopic treatment of the knee, specifically targeting symptomatic lesions with minimal additional trauma and cost, while avoiding disruption of the articular surface of the subchondral bone. The technique involves a mimimal access approach with selective saw cuts placed with a 1-cm oscillating blade parallel to the joint surface 1 to 1.5 cm deep to identified lesions. The technique does not address malalignment but can address lesions not addressed by classic osteotomies and, as such, may be combined with other corrective alignment procedures as necessary. We present the results of MISO of the knee in a case series of 62 outpatients carried out at the Orthopaedic Division of the Clinical and Surgical Hermanos Ameijeiras Hospital in Havana, Cuba. At 2-year follow-up, there was improvement of symptoms without significant complications.

  6. A short-term longitudinal analysis of friendship selection on early adolescent substance use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, François; Kiesner, Jeff; Pedersen, Sara; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    There is a strong empirical connection between individual and peer substance use during adolescence. The determination of whether this level of covariation reflects influence or selection is obscured by both the design and measurement strategies used. This present study utilizes a short-term longitudinal design with bi-monthly assessments to address the following two hypotheses: a) Adolescents select friends on the basis of their substance use, and b) New friend substance use predicts changes in future use. French Canadian adolescents (n = 143) were interviewed on their friendship networks and substance use behaviors (e.g., tobacco, alcohol and marijuana) four times during a school year. Cross-lag panel models revealed that adolescents who use substances tend to select new friends who use. Moreover, once in the network, these new friends also contribute to changes in the adolescents’ substance use. These findings are relevant to understanding the multiple functions of adolescent substance use. PMID:21354504

  7. Regression Model Term Selection for the Analysis of Strain-Gage Balance Calibration Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Norbert Manfred; Volden, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    The paper discusses the selection of regression model terms for the analysis of wind tunnel strain-gage balance calibration data. Different function class combinations are presented that may be used to analyze calibration data using either a non-iterative or an iterative method. The role of the intercept term in a regression model of calibration data is reviewed. In addition, useful algorithms and metrics originating from linear algebra and statistics are recommended that will help an analyst (i) to identify and avoid both linear and near-linear dependencies between regression model terms and (ii) to make sure that the selected regression model of the calibration data uses only statistically significant terms. Three different tests are suggested that may be used to objectively assess the predictive capability of the final regression model of the calibration data. These tests use both the original data points and regression model independent confirmation points. Finally, data from a simplified manual calibration of the Ames MK40 balance is used to illustrate the application of some of the metrics and tests to a realistic calibration data set.

  8. Minimax robust relay selection based on uncertain long-term CSI

    KAUST Repository

    Nisar, Muhammad Danish

    2014-02-01

    Cooperative communications via multiple relay nodes is known to provide the benefits of increase diversity and coverage. Simultaneous transmission via multiple relays, however, requires strong coordination between nodes either in terms of slot-based transmission or distributed space-time (ST) code implementation. Dynamically selecting a single best relay out of multiple relays and then using it alone for cooperative transmission alleviates the need for this strong coordination while still reaping the benefits of increased diversity and coverage. In this paper, we consider the design of relay selection (RS) under an imperfect knowledge of long-term channel state information (CSI) at the relay nodes, and we pursue minimax optimization to arrive at a robust RS approach that promises the best guarantee on the worst-case end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We provide some intuitive examples and extensive simulation results, not only in terms of worst-case SNR performance but also in terms of average bit-error-rate (BER) performance, to demonstrate the benefits of the proposed minimax robust RS scheme. © 2013 IEEE.

  9. High resolution x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy - a new technique for site- and spin-selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xin [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Science

    1996-12-01

    X-ray spectroscopy has long been used to elucidate electronic and structural information of molecules. One of the weaknesses of x-ray absorption is its sensitivity to all of the atoms of a particular element in a sample. Through out this thesis, a new technique for enhancing the site- and spin-selectivity of the x-ray absorption has been developed. By high resolution fluorescence detection, the chemical sensitivity of K emission spectra can be used to identify oxidation and spin states; it can also be used to facilitate site-selective X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) and site-selective Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS). The spin polarization in K fluorescence could be used to generate spin selective XANES or spin-polarized EXAFS, which provides a new measure of the spin density, or the nature of magnetic neighboring atoms. Finally, dramatic line-sharpening effects by the combination of absorption and emission processes allow observation of structure that is normally unobservable. All these unique characters can enormously simplify a complex x-ray spectrum. Applications of this novel technique have generated information from various transition-metal model compounds to metalloproteins. The absorption and emission spectra by high resolution fluorescence detection are interdependent. The ligand field multiplet model has been used for the analysis of K{alpha} and K{beta} emission spectra. First demonstration on different chemical states of Fe compounds has shown the applicability of site selectivity and spin polarization. Different interatomic distances of the same element in different chemical forms have been detected using site-selective EXAFS.

  10. Robotic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: Our centre's technique with short-term experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Mohit; Mathur, Winni; Mishra, Arun Kumar; Chandorkar, Daksha

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is one of the most widely performed bariatric surgeries in the world. Performing an RYGB by a Da Vinci Surgical System is a new advancement. The aim of this study is to describe single docking-single quadrant technique and its short-term results. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2013 and December 2013, 140 robotic RYGB were performed. The RYGB was performed through single docking, single quadrant approach. The data were analysed retrospectively. Intra- and post-operative details of every patient were documented. Follow-up was done as per protocol at 6 months; 1 and 2 years. In total, 120 patients completed the follow-up protocol as per our database. RESULTS: Mean age of the patients was 42.7 ± 12.11 years. Ratio of males: females were equal. The mean operative time was 97.48 ± 23.79 min. Early mortality was seen 7 days post-surgery. Two late complications were documented with no late mortality. The average length of stay was 2.89 ± 1.06 days. Average blood loss was 55.79 ± 11.91 ml. There was no hospital re-admission after the surgery. CONCLUSION: Single docking-single quadrant technique is simple, effective and time saving without having complicated port position, multiple docking with minimal complications. PMID:28281471

  11. A new technique to monitor the long-term stability of an optoelectronic oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Toan Thang; Ledoux-Rak, Isabelle; Journet, Bernard; Vu, Van Yem

    2015-01-01

    The main advantage of an optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) is the ability to synthesize directly very high spectral purity frequency in microwave domain. Beside applications in radar, telecommunication and satellite systems, OEO can also be used in sensor applications such as refractive index or distance measurements. However, the long-term stability of the OEO is easily affected by ambient environment variations. The optical fiber loop effective refractive index varies corresponding to its surrounding temperature changes. Consequently, it makes the optical transmission path inside the fiber loop differ from the initial state, leading to oscillation frequency changes. To stabilize the single loop OEO, it is essential to keep its high Q elements in a well-controlled thermal box as much as possible. Unfortunately, in the real implementation condition, this requirement is difficult to be satisfied. In this paper, we present a new technique to estimate the oscillation frequency variation under the room temperature by using a vector network analyzer (VNA). Experimental results show a good correlation between OEO oscillation frequency drift and the phase measured by the VNA. This technique can be implemented to apply corrections when using the OEO as a distance variation or a refractive index measurement tool. We also tracked the temperature of the fiber loop at the same time with the VNAbased experiment to compare two correlations of temperature and phase with OEO oscillation frequency.

  12. Verification Techniques for Parameter Selection and Bayesian Model Calibration Presented for an HIV Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentworth, Mami Tonoe

    Uncertainty quantification plays an important role when making predictive estimates of model responses. In this context, uncertainty quantification is defined as quantifying and reducing uncertainties, and the objective is to quantify uncertainties in parameter, model and measurements, and propagate the uncertainties through the model, so that one can make a predictive estimate with quantified uncertainties. Two of the aspects of uncertainty quantification that must be performed prior to propagating uncertainties are model calibration and parameter selection. There are several efficient techniques for these processes; however, the accuracy of these methods are often not verified. This is the motivation for our work, and in this dissertation, we present and illustrate verification frameworks for model calibration and parameter selection in the context of biological and physical models. First, HIV models, developed and improved by [2, 3, 8], describe the viral infection dynamics of an HIV disease. These are also used to make predictive estimates of viral loads and T-cell counts and to construct an optimal control for drug therapy. Estimating input parameters is an essential step prior to uncertainty quantification. However, not all the parameters are identifiable, implying that they cannot be uniquely determined by the observations. These unidentifiable parameters can be partially removed by performing parameter selection, a process in which parameters that have minimal impacts on the model response are determined. We provide verification techniques for Bayesian model calibration and parameter selection for an HIV model. As an example of a physical model, we employ a heat model with experimental measurements presented in [10]. A steady-state heat model represents a prototypical behavior for heat conduction and diffusion process involved in a thermal-hydraulic model, which is a part of nuclear reactor models. We employ this simple heat model to illustrate verification

  13. Long- and short-term selective forces on malaria parasite genomes

    KAUST Repository

    Nygaard, Sanne

    2010-09-09

    Plasmodium parasites, the causal agents of malaria, result in more than 1 million deaths annually. Plasmodium are unicellular eukaryotes with small ~23 Mb genomes encoding ~5200 protein-coding genes. The protein-coding genes comprise about half of these genomes. Although evolutionary processes have a significant impact on malaria control, the selective pressures within Plasmodium genomes are poorly understood, particularly in the non-protein-coding portion of the genome. We use evolutionary methods to describe selective processes in both the coding and non-coding regions of these genomes. Based on genome alignments of seven Plasmodium species, we show that protein-coding, intergenic and intronic regions are all subject to purifying selection and we identify 670 conserved non-genic elements. We then use genome-wide polymorphism data from P. falciparum to describe short-term selective processes in this species and identify some candidate genes for balancing (diversifying) selection. Our analyses suggest that there are many functional elements in the non-genic regions of these genomes and that adaptive evolution has occurred more frequently in the protein-coding regions of the genome. © 2010 Nygaard et al.

  14. Natural selection. V. How to read the fundamental equations of evolutionary change in terms of information theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, S A

    2012-12-01

    The equations of evolutionary change by natural selection are commonly expressed in statistical terms. Fisher's fundamental theorem emphasizes the variance in fitness. Quantitative genetics expresses selection with covariances and regressions. Population genetic equations depend on genetic variances. How can we read those statistical expressions with respect to the meaning of natural selection? One possibility is to relate the statistical expressions to the amount of information that populations accumulate by selection. However, the connection between selection and information theory has never been compelling. Here, I show the correct relations between statistical expressions for selection and information theory expressions for selection. Those relations link selection to the fundamental concepts of entropy and information in the theories of physics, statistics and communication. We can now read the equations of selection in terms of their natural meaning. Selection causes populations to accumulate information about the environment.

  15. A framework for landfill site selection using geographic information systems and multi criteria decision making technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat, Nur Azriati; Benjamin, Aida Mauziah; Abdul-Rahman, Syariza; Wibowo, Antoni

    2016-10-01

    The solid waste disposal is one of the facilities which can cause harm to human health and also contribute to severe environmental pollution if it is not properly managed. Therefore, an effective decision on a landfill site selection in order to identify the most suitable area as a new landfill is very important. Since 25 years ago, the integration of geographic information systems (GIS) and multi criteria decision analysis (MCDA) has drawn significant interest among researchers. This integrated technique is commonly used for land use planning and selecting a new landfill site is one of the plan. This paper proposes a framework of landfill site selection with a consideration of resource requirement. This framework is developed by using the integration of GIS and MCDA to identify an appropriate location for landfill siting. A list of selection criteria obtained from the literature considered in selecting the best landfill site is also presented. The results of this study could later be used to help the waste management team in developing an efficient solid waste management system.

  16. Does Angling Technique Selectively Target Fishes Based on Their Behavioural Type?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander D M Wilson

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been growing recognition that fish harvesting practices can have important impacts on the phenotypic distributions and diversity of natural populations through a phenomenon known as fisheries-induced evolution. Here we experimentally show that two common recreational angling techniques (active crank baits versus passive soft plastics differentially target wild largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides and rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris based on variation in their behavioural tendencies. Fish were first angled in the wild using both techniques and then brought back to the laboratory and tested for individual-level differences in common estimates of personality (refuge emergence, flight-initiation-distance, latency-to-recapture and with a net, and general activity in an in-lake experimental arena. We found that different angling techniques appear to selectively target these species based on their boldness (as characterized by refuge emergence, a standard measure of boldness in fishes but not other assays of personality. We also observed that body size was independently a significant predictor of personality in both species, though this varied between traits and species. Our results suggest a context-dependency for vulnerability to capture relative to behaviour in these fish species. Ascertaining the selective pressures angling practices exert on natural populations is an important area of fisheries research with significant implications for ecology, evolution, and resource management.

  17. Comparison of different measurement techniques and variable selection methods for FT-MIR in wine analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Matthias; Patz, Claus-Dieter; Dietrich, Helmut

    2013-12-15

    For more than a decade, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with partial least squares (PLS) regression has been used as a fast and reliable method for simultaneous estimation of multiple parameters in wine. In this study, different FTIR instruments (single bounce attenuated total reflection, transmission with variable and defined pathlength) and different variable selection techniques (full spectrum PLS, genetic algorithm PLS, interval PLS, principal variable PLS) were compared on an identical sample set of international wines and ten wine parameters. Results suggest that the single bounce attenuated total reflection technique is well suited for the analysis of ethanol, relative density and sugars, but less accurate in the analysis of organic acid content. The transmission instrument with variable pathlength shows good validation results for the analysis of organic acids, but less accurate results for the analysis of ethanol and relative density as compared to the other instruments. The transmission instrument with defined pathlength was well suited for the analysis for all parameters investigated in this study. Variable selection improved model robustness and calibration results, with genetic algorithm PLS being the most effective technique.

  18. The ability of sperm selection techniques to remove single-or double-strand DNA damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria Enciso; Miriam Iglesias; Isabel Galin; Jonas Sarasa; Antonio Gosalvez; Jaime Gosalvez

    2011-01-01

    @@ A wide variety of techniques for the preparation of sperm are currently available,of which the most commonly employed are densitygradient centrifugation (DGC) and swim-up (SUP).To date,these methods appear to be effective in selecting functional sperm for assisted reproduction techniques (ART),but they may have negative effects on sperm DNA.In this study,the ability of these semen processing techniques to eliminate spermatozoa containing single- and double-strand DNA damage was assessed by the two-tailed comet assay and the sperm chromatin dispersion test in 1[57]semen samples from patients seeking assisted reproduction treatment.Our results indicated that SUP and DGC are equally efficient in eliminating spermatozoa containing double-strand DNA damage and sperm with highly damaged (degraded) DNA,as characterized by the presence of both single- and double-strand DNA breaks.However,DGC is more efficient than SUP in selecting spermatozoa that are free from single-strand DNA damage.Future studies should characterise the importance of the various types of DNA damage and examine the sperm processing protocols used in each laboratory to determine their ability to eliminate DNA damage and hence,prevent the potential transmission of genetic mutations via ART.

  19. LTP promotes a selective long-term stabilization and clustering of dendritic spines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias De Roo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic spines are the main postsynaptic site of excitatory contacts between neurons in the central nervous system. On cortical neurons, spines undergo a continuous turnover regulated by development and sensory activity. However, the functional implications of this synaptic remodeling for network properties remain currently unknown. Using repetitive confocal imaging on hippocampal organotypic cultures, we find that learning-related patterns of activity that induce long-term potentiation act as a selection mechanism for the stabilization and localization of spines. Through a lasting N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor and protein synthesis-dependent increase in protrusion growth and turnover, induction of plasticity promotes a pruning and replacement of nonactivated spines by new ones together with a selective stabilization of activated synapses. Furthermore, most newly formed spines preferentially grow in close proximity to activated synapses and become functional within 24 h, leading to a clustering of functional synapses. Our results indicate that synaptic remodeling associated with induction of long-term potentiation favors the selection of inputs showing spatiotemporal interactions on a given neuron.

  20. Selective deficit of spatial short-term memory: Role of storage and rehearsal mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnì, Sonia; Perri, Roberta; Fadda, Lucia; Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Koch, Giacomo; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto

    2014-10-01

    We report the neuropsychological and MRI investigation of a patient (GP) who developed a selective impairment of spatial short-term memory (STM) following damage to the dorso-mesial areas of the right frontal lobe. We assessed in this patient spatial STM with an experimental procedure that evaluated immediate and 5-20 s delayed recall of verbal, visual and spatial stimuli. The patient scored significantly worse than normal controls on tests that required delayed recall of spatial data. This could not be ascribed to a deficit of spatial episodic long-term memory because amnesic patients performed normally on these tests. Conversely, the patient scored in the normal range on tests of immediate recall of verbal, visual and spatial data and tests of delayed recall of verbal and visual data. Comparison with a previously described patient who had a selective deficit in immediate spatial recall and an ischemic lesion that affected frontal and parietal dorso-mesial areas in the right hemisphere (Carlesimo GA, Perri R, Turriziani P, Tomaiuolo F, Caltagirone C. Remembering what but not where: independence of spatial and visual working memory in the human brain. Cortex. 2001 Sep; 37(4):519-34) suggests that the right parietal areas are involved in the short-term storage of spatial information and that the dorso-mesial regions of the right frontal underlie mechanisms for the delayed maintenance of the same data.

  1. Criteria to assess and select sites for long-term avian monitoring in an urbanizing landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Lorne P; Milne, Robert J

    2004-06-01

    A methodology was developed to prioritize the suitability of sites for long-term monitoring of avian populations, including vulnerable species, both to enhance assessment of changes in ecological resources and to facilitate land-use planning at the regional scale. This paper argues that a successful monitoring program begins with a site prioritization procedure that integrates scores based on spatial controls with ecological and socio-economic indicators, particularly those dependent on community involvement. The evaluation strategy in this study combines 1) spatial controls such as land ownership and accessibility, with 2) biological and habitat indicators such as vulnerable species and habitat connectivity, and 3) community and agency variables such as volunteer commitment and agency priorities. In total, a set of ten indicators was identified. This strategy was applied to predominantly agricultural landscapes, which are experiencing increasing human pressures, in three sub-watersheds of the Credit River, Southern Ontario. Specifically, bird populations were recorded during the breeding seasons of 2000-2002 in nine land units or habitat types including marsh, deciduous forest, and grasslands as mapped by Credit Valley Conservation (CVC) following Ecological Land Classification (ELC) guidelines. CVC selected sites for long-term monitoring in 2002 and the relationships between the scored (or ranked) sites and the selected long-term monitoring sites are discussed.

  2. Transobturator Tape Technique For Stress Urinary Incontinance and Long Term Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Ekici

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Even though vairous surgical procedures are developed to treatment of stress urinary incontinance, there has not been yet a gold standard treatment. In this study, we aimed to discuss the application of TOT technique, its complications, safety and the six year follow up results. Material And Methods: 30 patients applied to our clinic and diagnosed SUI were performed TOT. Mean patient age was 49,9±9,4 (23-64. Demographic parameters, physical and pelvic examination, q tip test, stress test, cystoscopy, ICIQ-SF score, duration of surgery, intraoperative complications, early and late postoperative complications were recorded. Mean follow up was 72,5±7,1 (44-88 months. Patients were evaluated after 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after surgery. Operations were performed by outside-inside method and by using Safyre(promedon. The outcomes were analysed using Shapiro wilk, paired sample t test, Friedman test and Wilcoxon test. Outcomes: Mean operation time and hospital stay were 21,8(15-35 and 1,3 days(1-2 respectively. Peroperatively, one patient(3,3% had her vaginal wall pierced by the needle. Bladder, uretral or vascular damage were not seen in any patients. Self catheterization was required for only one (3,3% patient. At late postoperative period, 1 patient developed de novo urge incontinence (3,3% and one patient developed (3,3% left leg pain. 73% of the patients with a median follow up of 72,5±7,1 (44-88 months were dry. Preopearative ICIQ-SF median value of 12.4 (8-20 were decreased to 1.7 (0-6, and similarly, ped use was decreased from 2,9 (1-8 to 0,4 (0-3. Results: TOT is a safe and effective treatment of SUI with its long term outcomes. However, long term outcomes with comparison with other techniques and including higher cohorts is required. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 574-580

  3. The kick-out mass selection technique for ions stored in an Electrostatic Ion Beam Trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toker, Y; Altstein, N; Aviv, O; Rappaport, M L; Heber, O; Schwalm, D; Strasser, D; Zajfman, D [Department of Particle Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, 76100 (Israel)], E-mail: jtoker@weizmann.ac.il

    2009-09-15

    A simple mass selection technique which allows one to clean a keV ion beam of undesirable masses while stored in an Electrostatic Ion Beam Trap (EIBT) is described. The technique is based on the time-of-flight principle and takes advantage of the long storage times and self-bunching that are possible in this type of traps (self bunching being the effect that keeps ions of the same mass bunched in spite of their finite distributions of velocities and trajectories). As the oscillation period is proportional to the square root of the ion mass, bunches containing ions of different masses will separate in space with increasing storage time and can be kicked out by a pulsed deflector mounted inside the trap. A mass selector of this type has been implemented successfully in an EIBT connected to an Even-Lavie supersonic expansion source and is routinely used in ongoing cluster experiments.

  4. A Multiple Criteria Decision Modelling approach to selection of estimation techniques for fitting extreme floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckstein, L.; Bobée, B.; Ashkar, F.

    1991-09-01

    The problem of fitting a probability distribution, here log-Pearson Type III distribution, to extreme floods is considered from the point of view of two numerical and three non-numerical criteria. The six techniques of fitting considered include classical techniques (maximum likelihood, moments of logarithms of flows) and new methods such as mixed moments and the generalized method of moments developed by two of the co-authors. The latter method consists of fitting the distribution using moments of different order, in particular the SAM method (Sundry Averages Method) uses the moments of order 0 (geometric mean), 1 (arithmetic mean), -1 (harmonic mean) and leads to a smaller variance of the parameters. The criteria used to select the method of parameter estimation are: - the two statistical criteria of mean square error and bias; - the two computational criteria of program availability and ease of use; - the user-related criterion of acceptability. These criteria are transformed into value functions or fuzzy set membership functions and then three Multiple Criteria Decision Modelling (MCDM) techniques, namely, composite programming, ELECTRE, and MCQA, are applied to rank the estimation techniques.

  5. Low-Complexity Discriminative Feature Selection From EEG Before and After Short-Term Memory Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadfar, Neda; Firoozabadi, S Mohammad P; Badie, Kambiz

    2016-10-01

    A reliable and unobtrusive quantification of changes in cortical activity during short-term memory task can be used to evaluate the efficacy of interfaces and to provide real-time user-state information. In this article, we investigate changes in electroencephalogram signals in short-term memory with respect to the baseline activity. The electroencephalogram signals have been analyzed using 9 linear and nonlinear/dynamic measures. We applied statistical Wilcoxon examination and Davis-Bouldian criterion to select optimal discriminative features. The results show that among the features, the permutation entropy significantly increased in frontal lobe and the occipital second lower alpha band activity decreased during memory task. These 2 features reflect the same mental task; however, their correlation with memory task varies in different intervals. In conclusion, it is suggested that the combination of the 2 features would improve the performance of memory based neurofeedback systems. © EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ECNS) 2016.

  6. A survey on filter techniques for feature selection in gene expression microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Cosmin; Taminau, Jonatan; Meganck, Stijn; Steenhoff, David; Coletta, Alain; Molter, Colin; de Schaetzen, Virginie; Duque, Robin; Bersini, Hugues; Nowé, Ann

    2012-01-01

    A plenitude of feature selection (FS) methods is available in the literature, most of them rising as a need to analyze data of very high dimension, usually hundreds or thousands of variables. Such data sets are now available in various application areas like combinatorial chemistry, text mining, multivariate imaging, or bioinformatics. As a general accepted rule, these methods are grouped in filters, wrappers, and embedded methods. More recently, a new group of methods has been added in the general framework of FS: ensemble techniques. The focus in this survey is on filter feature selection methods for informative feature discovery in gene expression microarray (GEM) analysis, which is also known as differentially expressed genes (DEGs) discovery, gene prioritization, or biomarker discovery. We present them in a unified framework, using standardized notations in order to reveal their technical details and to highlight their common characteristics as well as their particularities.

  7. Supplier Selection in the Thermal Tourism Enterprises with Using Multi Criteria Decision Making Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Gündüz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Turkey has many natural health resources and the interest in Thermal Tourism has increased. Thermal Tourism Enterprises serve their experienced medical staff, treatment methods and the curative springs for the purpose of care services. On the other hand, these enterprises are also the place to have both a rest and a good time. In this study, the supplier selection application is performed in the Thermal Tourism Enterprise that offers a combination of services as health, recreation and entertainment. The criteria as product quality and performance, product information, product arrival time, price, quality practices, flexibility and the collaboration level have been considered. By using multi-criteria decision making techniques as Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and TOPSIS then the suggestions on the selecting the best supplier are offered.

  8. Long-Term Prognostic Validity of Talent Selections: Comparing National and Regional Coaches, Laypersons and Novices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Schorer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In most sports, the development of elite athletes is a long-term process of talent identification and support. Typically, talent selection systems administer a multi-faceted strategy including national coach observations and varying physical and psychological tests when deciding who is chosen for talent development. The aim of this exploratory study was to evaluate the prognostic validity of talent selections by varying groups 10 years after they had been conducted. This study used a unique, multi-phased approach. Phase 1 involved players (n = 68 in 2001 completing a battery of general and sport-specific tests of handball ‘talent’ and performance. In Phase 2, national and regional coaches (n = 7 in 2001 who attended training camps identified the most talented players. In Phase 3, current novice and advanced handball players (n = 12 in each group selected the most talented from short videos of matches played during the talent camp. Analyses compared predictions among all groups with a best model-fit derived from the motor tests. Results revealed little difference between regional and national coaches in the prediction of future performance and little difference in forecasting performance between novices and players. The best model-fit regression by the motor-tests outperformed all predictions. While several limitations are discussed, this study is a useful starting point for future investigations considering athlete selection decisions in talent identification in sport.

  9. Long term safety of fluoroscopically guided selective salpingography and tubal catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, S; Afnan, M; Coomarasamy, A; Ola, B; Hammadieh, N; Temperton, D H; McHugo, J M; Sharif, K

    2002-02-01

    The irradiation of the ovaries of reproductive age women during fluoroscopically guided selective salpingography and tubal catheterization has raised concern about the safety of the procedure. In addition to the risk of cancer induction, which exists with the irradiation of all tissues, with the gonads, the induction of hereditary disorders is possible. The objective of this study was to estimate these risks and present them in a clinically meaningful way. Retrospective analysis was undertaken of 366 consecutive cases of selective salpingography and tubal catheterization performed at the Birmingham Women's Hospital, UK. The radiation doses of different types of procedure were compared with the background annual radiation dose. The risks of cancer and genetic disorders induction were calculated using conversion coefficients published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The radiation dose women were exposed to during selective salpingography and tubal catheterization under fluoroscopic guidance was a fraction of the background annual radiation dose. The excess lifetime risks of cancer and hereditary disorders were in the order of four to 13 and two to six per million procedures respectively. The long term risks of selective salpingography and tubal catheterization under fluoroscopic guidance are low.

  10. Selective laser melted titanium implants: a new technique for the reconstruction of extensive zygomatic complex defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotaru, Horatiu; Schumacher, Ralf; Kim, Seong-Gon; Dinu, Cristian

    2015-12-01

    The restoration of extensive zygomatic complex defects is a surgical challenge owing to the difficulty of accurately restoring the normal anatomy, symmetry, proper facial projection and facial width. In the present study, an extensive post-traumatic zygomatic bone defect was reconstructed using a custom-made implant that was made with a selective laser melting (SLM) technique. The computer-designed implant had the proper geometry and fit perfectly into the defect without requiring any intraoperative adjustments. A one-year follow-up revealed a stable outcome with no complications.

  11. The use of selected theatre rehearsal technique activities with African-American adolescents labeled "behavior disordered".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, M G

    1992-01-01

    The extensive literature on the overrepresentation of adolescent African-American male learners in classes for students identified as behavior disordered has essentially not addressed the problems caused by teacher reactions to adolescent conversational language use, the qualitative differences in language choices, or the impact of the conversational choices of adolescents on their educational treatment. This article explores how the dramaturgical perspective of selected Theatre Rehearsal Technique (TRT) activities can be used as learning experiences in communication with this student population. If these students gain quantifiable success in their social communication interactions, reassessment of their special education placement might facilitate their entrance into less restrictive educational environments.

  12. Strong Selection Significantly Increases Epistatic Interactions in the Long-Term Evolution of a Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Gupta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Epistatic interactions between residues determine a protein's adaptability and shape its evolutionary trajectory. When a protein experiences a changed environment, it is under strong selection to find a peak in the new fitness landscape. It has been shown that strong selection increases epistatic interactions as well as the ruggedness of the fitness landscape, but little is known about how the epistatic interactions change under selection in the long-term evolution of a protein. Here we analyze the evolution of epistasis in the protease of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 using protease sequences collected for almost a decade from both treated and untreated patients, to understand how epistasis changes and how those changes impact the long-term evolvability of a protein. We use an information-theoretic proxy for epistasis that quantifies the co-variation between sites, and show that positive information is a necessary (but not sufficient condition that detects epistasis in most cases. We analyze the "fossils" of the evolutionary trajectories of the protein contained in the sequence data, and show that epistasis continues to enrich under strong selection, but not for proteins whose environment is unchanged. The increase in epistasis compensates for the information loss due to sequence variability brought about by treatment, and facilitates adaptation in the increasingly rugged fitness landscape of treatment. While epistasis is thought to enhance evolvability via valley-crossing early-on in adaptation, it can hinder adaptation later when the landscape has turned rugged. However, we find no evidence that the HIV-1 protease has reached its potential for evolution after 9 years of adapting to a drug environment that itself is constantly changing. We suggest that the mechanism of encoding new information into pairwise interactions is central to protein evolution not just in HIV-1 protease, but for any protein adapting to a changing

  13. Mining for diagnostic information in body surface potential maps: A comparison of feature selection techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCullagh Paul J

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In body surface potential mapping, increased spatial sampling is used to allow more accurate detection of a cardiac abnormality. Although diagnostically superior to more conventional electrocardiographic techniques, the perceived complexity of the Body Surface Potential Map (BSPM acquisition process has prohibited its acceptance in clinical practice. For this reason there is an interest in striking a compromise between the minimum number of electrocardiographic recording sites required to sample the maximum electrocardiographic information. Methods In the current study, several techniques widely used in the domains of data mining and knowledge discovery have been employed to mine for diagnostic information in 192 lead BSPMs. In particular, the Single Variable Classifier (SVC based filter and Sequential Forward Selection (SFS based wrapper approaches to feature selection have been implemented and evaluated. Using a set of recordings from 116 subjects, the diagnostic ability of subsets of 3, 6, 9, 12, 24 and 32 electrocardiographic recording sites have been evaluated based on their ability to correctly asses the presence or absence of Myocardial Infarction (MI. Results It was observed that the wrapper approach, using sequential forward selection and a 5 nearest neighbour classifier, was capable of choosing a set of 24 recording sites that could correctly classify 82.8% of BSPMs. Although the filter method performed slightly less favourably, the performance was comparable with a classification accuracy of 79.3%. In addition, experiments were conducted to show how (a features chosen using the wrapper approach were specific to the classifier used in the selection model, and (b lead subsets chosen were not necessarily unique. Conclusion It was concluded that both the filter and wrapper approaches adopted were suitable for guiding the choice of recording sites useful for determining the presence of MI. It should be noted however

  14. Short-Term Forecasting Models for Photovoltaic Plants: Analytical versus Soft-Computing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Monteiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present and compare two short-term statistical forecasting models for hourly average electric power production forecasts of photovoltaic (PV plants: the analytical PV power forecasting model (APVF and the multiplayer perceptron PV forecasting model (MPVF. Both models use forecasts from numerical weather prediction (NWP tools at the location of the PV plant as well as the past recorded values of PV hourly electric power production. The APVF model consists of an original modeling for adjusting irradiation data of clear sky by an irradiation attenuation index, combined with a PV power production attenuation index. The MPVF model consists of an artificial neural network based model (selected among a large set of ANN optimized with genetic algorithms, GAs. The two models use forecasts from the same NWP tool as inputs. The APVF and MPVF models have been applied to a real-life case study of a grid-connected PV plant using the same data. Despite the fact that both models are quite different, they achieve very similar results, with forecast horizons covering all the daylight hours of the following day, which give a good perspective of their applicability for PV electric production sale bids to electricity markets.

  15. Optimally invasive exposure in revision total hip arthroplasty: a guide to selection and technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toms, Andrew; Greidanus, Nelson; Garbuz, Donald; Masri, Bassam A; Duncan, Clive P

    2006-01-01

    Revision total hip arthroplasty requires a careful surgical plan. Selection of the appropriate exposure is an essential step for success. Exposure is important not only for the complete and safe visualization and extraction of components and cement, but also for the achievement of a stable construct at the end of the procedure. In addition, controlled exposure minimizes intraoperative complications and bone and soft-tissue damage, essential considerations for eradication of infection. Three questions need to be addressed at the preoperative stage: (1) Is this a straightforward revision that can be handled with a standard approach? (2) Is this a more complex revision requiring an extensile exposure? (3) Is this an unusual revision requiring special techniques to allow adequate access that cannot be obtained using standard extensile techniques? Each group of exposures presents three further possibilities, each of which has specific indications, advantages, and disadvantages. In conjunction with the preoperative analysis, this knowledge should enable the revision surgeon to select the most appropriate approach, resulting in optimal exposure for each individual revision scenario.

  16. Security threats to automotive CAN networks-Practical examples and selected short-term countermeasures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, Tobias, E-mail: tobias.hoppe@iti.cs.uni-magdeburg.d [Otto-von-Guericke University of Magdeburg, ITI Research Group on Multimedia and Security, Universitaetsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany); Kiltz, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.kiltz@iti.cs.uni-magdeburg.d [Otto-von-Guericke University of Magdeburg, ITI Research Group on Multimedia and Security, Universitaetsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany); Dittmann, Jana, E-mail: jana.dittmann@iti.cs.uni-magdeburg.d [Otto-von-Guericke University of Magdeburg, ITI Research Group on Multimedia and Security, Universitaetsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The IT security of automotive systems is an evolving area of research. To analyse the current situation and the potentially growing tendency of arising threats we performed several practical tests on recent automotive technology. With a focus on automotive systems based on CAN bus technology, this article summarises the results of four selected tests performed on the control systems for the window lift, warning light and airbag control system as well as the central gateway. These results are supplemented in this article by a classification of these four attack scenarios using the established CERT taxonomy and an analysis of underlying security vulnerabilities, and especially, potential safety implications. With respect to the results of these tests, in this article we further discuss two selected countermeasures to address basic weaknesses exploited in our tests. These are adaptations of intrusion detection (discussing three exemplary detection patterns) and IT-forensic measures (proposing proactive measures based on a forensic model). This article discusses both looking at the four attack scenarios introduced before, covering their capabilities and restrictions. While these reactive approaches are short-term measures, which could already be added to today's automotive IT architecture, long-term concepts also are shortly introduced, which are mainly preventive but will require a major redesign. Beneath a short overview on respective research approaches, we discuss their individual requirements, potential and restrictions.

  17. Surgery for left ventricular aneurysm after myocardial infarction:techniques selection and results assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xin; QIU Zhi-bing; XU Ming; LIU Le-le; JIANG Ying-shuo; WANG Li-ming

    2012-01-01

    Background The most appropriate surgical approach for patients with post-infarction left ventricular (LV) aneurysm remains undetermined.We compared the efficacy of the linear versus patch repair techniques,and investigated the mid-term changes of LV geometry and cardiac function,for repair of LV aneurysms.Methods We reviewed the records of 194 patients who had surgery for a post-infarction LV aneurysm between 1998 and 2010.Short-term and mid-term outcomes,including complications,cardiac function and mortality,were assessed.LV end-diastolic and systolic dimensions (LVEDD and LVESD),LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volume indexes (LVEDVI and LVESVI) and LV ejection fraction (LVEF) were measured on pre-operative and follow-up echocardiography.Results Overall in-hospital mortality was 4.12%,and major morbidity showed no significant differences between the two groups.Multivariate analysis identified preoperative left ventricular end diastolic pressure >20 mmHg,low cardiac output and aortic clamping time >2 hours as risk factors for early mortality.Follow-up revealed that LVEF improved from 37% pre-operation to 45% 12 months post-operation in the patch group (P=0.008),and from 44% pre-operation to 40% 12 months postoperation in the linear group (P=0.032).In contrast,the LVEDVI and LVESVI in the linear group were significantly reduced immediately after the operation,and increased again at follow-up.However,in the patch group,the LVEDVI and LVESVI were significantly reduced at follow-up.And there were significant differences in the correct value changes of LVEF and left ventricular remodeling between linear repair and patch groups.Conclusions Persistent reduction of LV dimensions after the patch repair procedure seems to be a procedure-related problem.The choice of the technique should be tailored on an individual basis and surgeon's preference.The patch remodeling technique results in a better LVEF improvement,further significant reductions in LV dimensions

  18. Positive Changes in Perceptions and Selections of Healthful Foods by College Students after a Short-Term Point-of-Selection Intervention at a Dining Hall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sharon; Duncan, Diana Poovey; Null, Dawn Bloyd; Roth, Sara Long; Gill, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Determine the effects of a short-term, multi-faceted, point-of-selection intervention on college students' perceptions and selection of 10 targeted healthful foods in a university dining hall and changes in their self-reported overall eating behaviors. Participants: 104 college students, (age 18-23) completed pre-I and post-I surveys.…

  19. Positive Changes in Perceptions and Selections of Healthful Foods by College Students after a Short-Term Point-of-Selection Intervention at a Dining Hall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sharon; Duncan, Diana Poovey; Null, Dawn Bloyd; Roth, Sara Long; Gill, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Determine the effects of a short-term, multi-faceted, point-of-selection intervention on college students' perceptions and selection of 10 targeted healthful foods in a university dining hall and changes in their self-reported overall eating behaviors. Participants: 104 college students, (age 18-23) completed pre-I and post-I surveys.…

  20. Evaluation of Select Surface Processing Techniques for In Situ Application During the Additive Manufacturing Build Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book, Todd A.; Sangid, Michael D.

    2016-07-01

    Although additive manufacturing offers numerous performance advantages for different applications, it is not being used for critical applications due to uncertainties in structural integrity as a result of innate process variability and defects. To minimize uncertainty, the current approach relies on the concurrent utilization of process monitoring, post-processing, and non-destructive inspection in addition to an extensive material qualification process. This paper examines an alternative approach by evaluating the application of select surface process techniques, to include sliding severe plastic deformation (SPD) and fine particle shot peening, on direct metal laser sintering-produced AlSi10Mg materials. Each surface processing technique is compared to baseline as-built and post-processed samples as a proof of concept for surface enhancement. Initial results pairing sliding SPD with the manufacture's recommended thermal stress relief cycle demonstrated uniform recrystallization of the microstructure, resulting in a more homogeneous distribution of strain among the microstructure than as-built or post-processed conditions. This result demonstrates the potential for the in situ application of various surface processing techniques during the layerwise direct metal laser sintering build process.

  1. Selective harvesting and habitat loss produce long-term life history changes in a mouflon population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garel, Mathieu; Cugnasse, Jean-Marc; Maillard, Daniel; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Hewison, A J Mark; Dubray, Dominique

    2007-09-01

    We examined the long-term effects (28 years) of habitat loss and phenotype-based selective harvest on body mass, horn size, and horn shape of mouflon (Ovis gmelini musimon) in southern France. This population has experienced habitat deterioration (loss of 50.8% of open area) since its introduction in 1956 and unrestricted selective hunting of the largest horned males since 1973. Both processes are predicted to lead to a decrease in phenotype quality by decreasing habitat quality and by reducing the reproductive contribution of individuals carrying traits that are targeted by hunters. Body mass and body size of both sexes and horn measurements of males markedly decreased (by 3.4-38.3%) in all age classes from the 1970s. Lamb body mass varied in relation to the spatiotemporal variation of habitat closure within the hunting-free reserve, suggesting that habitat closure explains part of these changes. However, the fact that there was no significant spatial variation in body mass in the early part of the study, when a decline in phenotypic quality already had occurred, provided support for the influence of selective harvesting. We also found that the allometric relationship between horn breadth and horn length changed over the study period. For a given horn length, horn breadth was lower during the second part of the study. This result, as well as changes in horn curve diameter, supports the interpretation that selective harvesting of males based on their horn configuration had evolutionary consequences for horn shape, since this phenotypic trait is less likely to be affected by changes in habitat characteristics. Moreover, males required more time (approximately four years) to develop a desirable trophy, suggesting that trophy hunting favors the reproductive contribution of animals with slow-growing horns. Managers should exploit hunters' desire for trophy males to finance management strategies which ensure a balance between the population and its environment. However

  2. Stress within a restricted time window selectively affects the persistence of long-term memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Yang

    Full Text Available The effects of stress on emotional memory are distinct and depend on the stages of memory. Memory undergoes consolidation and reconsolidation after acquisition and retrieval, respectively. Stress facilitates the consolidation but disrupts the reconsolidation of emotional memory. Previous research on the effects of stress on memory have focused on long-term memory (LTM formation (tested 24 h later, but the effects of stress on the persistence of LTM (tested at least 1 week later are unclear. Recent findings indicated that the persistence of LTM requires late-phase protein synthesis in the dorsal hippocampus. The present study investigated the effect of stress (i.e., cold water stress during the late phase after the acquisition and retrieval of contextual fear memory in rats. We found that stress and corticosterone administration during the late phase (12 h after acquisition, referred to as late consolidation, selectively enhanced the persistence of LTM, whereas stress during the late phase (12 h after retrieval, referred to as late reconsolidation, selectively disrupted the restabilized persistence of LTM. Moreover, the effects of stress on the persistence of LTM were blocked by the corticosterone synthesis inhibitor metyrapone, which was administered before stress, suggesting that the glucocorticoid system is involved in the effects of stress on the persistence of LTM. We conclude that stress within a restricted time window after acquisition or retrieval selectively affects the persistence of LTM and depends on the glucocorticoid system.

  3. Stress within a Restricted Time Window Selectively Affects the Persistence of Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qin; Chai, Ning; Zhao, Li-Yan; Xue, Yan-Xue; Luo, Yi-Xiao; Jian, Min; Han, Ying; Shi, Hai-Shui; Lu, Lin; Wu, Ping; Wang, Ji-Shi

    2013-01-01

    The effects of stress on emotional memory are distinct and depend on the stages of memory. Memory undergoes consolidation and reconsolidation after acquisition and retrieval, respectively. Stress facilitates the consolidation but disrupts the reconsolidation of emotional memory. Previous research on the effects of stress on memory have focused on long-term memory (LTM) formation (tested 24 h later), but the effects of stress on the persistence of LTM (tested at least 1 week later) are unclear. Recent findings indicated that the persistence of LTM requires late-phase protein synthesis in the dorsal hippocampus. The present study investigated the effect of stress (i.e., cold water stress) during the late phase after the acquisition and retrieval of contextual fear memory in rats. We found that stress and corticosterone administration during the late phase (12 h) after acquisition, referred to as late consolidation, selectively enhanced the persistence of LTM, whereas stress during the late phase (12 h) after retrieval, referred to as late reconsolidation, selectively disrupted the restabilized persistence of LTM. Moreover, the effects of stress on the persistence of LTM were blocked by the corticosterone synthesis inhibitor metyrapone, which was administered before stress, suggesting that the glucocorticoid system is involved in the effects of stress on the persistence of LTM. We conclude that stress within a restricted time window after acquisition or retrieval selectively affects the persistence of LTM and depends on the glucocorticoid system. PMID:23544051

  4. Evaluation of the leucine incorporation technique for detection of pollution-induced community tolerance to copper in a long-term agricultural field trial with urban waste fertilizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Magid, Jakob; Holm, Peter Engelund

    2014-01-01

    Copper (Cu) is known to accumulate in agricultural soils receiving urban waste products as fertilizers. We here report the use of the leucine incorporation technique to determine pollution-induced community tolerance (Leu-PICT) to Cu in a long-term agricultural field trial. A significantly...... speciation and bioavailability artifacts during Leu-PICT detection. Hence, the agricultural application of urban wastes (sewage sludge or composted municipal waste) simulating more than 100 years of use did not result in sufficient accumulation of Cu to select for Cu resistance. Our findings also have...

  5. Poly(methyl methacrylate) Composites with Size-selected Silver Nanoparticles Fabricated Using Cluster Beam Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhammad, Hanif; Juluri, Raghavendra R.; Chirumamilla, Manohar

    2016-01-01

    based on cluster beam technique allowing the formation of monocrystalline size-selected silver nanoparticles with a ±5–7% precision of diameter and controllable embedment into poly (methyl methacrylate). It is shown that the soft-landed silver clusters preserve almost spherical shape with a slight......An embedment of metal nanoparticles of well-defined sizes in thin polymer films is of significant interest for a number of practical applications, in particular, for preparing materials with tunable plasmonic properties. In this article, we present a fabrication route for metal–polymer composites...... tendency to flattening upon impact. By controlling the polymer hardness (from viscous to soft state) prior the cluster deposition and annealing conditions after the deposition the degree of immersion of the nanoparticles into polymer can be tuned, thus, making it possible to create composites with either...

  6. A post-fabrication selective magnetic annealing technique in standard MEMS processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, A.; Karmakar, N. C.; Yuce, M. R.

    2016-11-01

    A selective electrothermal magnetic annealing technique is introduced that provides programming capabilities for mechanical micro-resonators. In the proposed approach, the magnetic properties of resonators can be locally tuned in a post-fabrication batch-compatible process step. A prototype is implemented in a standard microfabrication process, where resonating ferromagnetic elements are suspended on top of a polysilicon resistive heater. The ferromagnetic elements consist of electroplated Nickel (Ni) with minor Iron (Fe) impurities. The electro-thermo-mechanical heating phenomenon is simulated for design purposes. The magnetization of micro-resonators with and without magnetic annealing is measured. The resulting magnetic property enhancement is illustrated by hysteresis (M-H) loop variations.

  7. Treatment of Prolapsing Hemorrhoids in HIV-Infected Patients with Tissue-Selecting Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the outcome of a tissue-selecting therapy stapler (TST for prolapsing hemorrhoids in HIV-infected patients. Sixty-two patients with stage III-IV hemorrhoidal prolapse were treated with TST by a single surgeon between June and November 2014. The TST group comprised 32 patients (4 females, and the TST + HIV group comprised 30 HIV-infected patients (3 females. Age, gender, and preoperative examination as well as intraoperative and postoperative features were assessed. There was no marked difference in hemorrhoidal prolapse between the TST and HIV + TST groups, except for patient satisfaction at 12 months. TST is an effective and safe technique for treatment of prolapsing hemorrhoids in HIV-infected patients.

  8. Determination of Diffusion Coefficients of Selected Long Chain Hydrocarbons using Reversed- Flow Gas Chromatographic Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalisanni Khalid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The reversed-flow gas chromatography (RF-GC technique was used to study the evaporation rate and estimating the diffusion coefficient of samples. The RF-GC system comprises of six-port valve, sampling and diffusion column, detector and modified commercial gas chromatography machine. Selected long chain of hydrocarbons (99.99% purity was used as samples. The solute (stationary phase were carried out by carrier gas (mobile phase to the detector. The data obtained from the RF-GC analysis were analysed by deriving the elution curve of the sample peaks using mathematical expression to find the diffusion coefficients values of respective liquids. The values obtained were compared with theoretical values to ensure the accuracy of readings. The interesting findings of the research showed the theoretical values of equilibrium at liquid-gas interphase lead to profound an agreement with the experimental evidence, which contributes for the references of future studies.

  9. Development of Experimental Setup of Metal Rapid Prototyping Machine using Selective Laser Sintering Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, S. N.; Mulay, A. V.; Ahuja, B. B.

    2016-08-01

    Unlike in the traditional manufacturing processes, additive manufacturing as rapid prototyping, allows designers to produce parts that were previously considered too complex to make economically. The shift is taking place from plastic prototype to fully functional metallic parts by direct deposition of metallic powders as produced parts can be directly used for desired purpose. This work is directed towards the development of experimental setup of metal rapid prototyping machine using selective laser sintering and studies the various parameters, which plays important role in the metal rapid prototyping using SLS technique. The machine structure in mainly divided into three main categories namely, (1) Z-movement of bed and table, (2) X-Y movement arrangement for LASER movements and (3) feeder mechanism. Z-movement of bed is controlled by using lead screw, bevel gear pair and stepper motor, which will maintain the accuracy of layer thickness. X-Y movements are controlled using timing belt and stepper motors for precise movements of LASER source. Feeder mechanism is then developed to control uniformity of layer thickness metal powder. Simultaneously, the study is carried out for selection of material. Various types of metal powders can be used for metal RP as Single metal powder, mixture of two metals powder, and combination of metal and polymer powder. Conclusion leads to use of mixture of two metals powder to minimize the problems such as, balling effect and porosity. Developed System can be validated by conducting various experiments on manufactured part to check mechanical and metallurgical properties. After studying the results of these experiments, various process parameters as LASER properties (as power, speed etc.), and material properties (as grain size and structure etc.) will be optimized. This work is mainly focused on the design and development of cost effective experimental setup of metal rapid prototyping using SLS technique which will gives the feel of

  10. Transcortical selective amygdalohippocampectomy technique through the middle temporal gyrus revisited: An anatomical study laboratory investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Baran; da Silva Centeno, Ricardo; Chaddad-Neto, Feres; da Costa, Marcos Devanir Silva; Goiri, Marcelo Augusto Acosta; Karadag, Ali; Tugcu, Bekir; Ovalioglu, Talat Cem; Tanriover, Necmettin; Kaya, Serdar; Yagmurlu, Kaan; Grande, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    The anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) and selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SelAH) have been used for surgical treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. We examined the comprehensive white matter tract anatomy of the temporal lobe to gain an insight into the trans-middle temporal gyrus, a lateral approach which has been commonly used. The transmiddle temporal gyrus approach was performed in a stepwise manner on cadaveric human heads to examine the traversing white matter pathways through it and the structures located in the temporal horn. We reviewed the literature to compare the trans-middle temporal gyrus approach with other SelAH techniques based on surgical outcomes. There does not appear to be a significant difference in seizure outcome between SelAH and ATL. However, the SelAH provides a better neuropsychological outcomes than the ATL in selected patients. Each SelAH approach has individual advantages and disadvantages. Based on our anatomical study, in the transcortical amygdalohippocampectomy technique through the middle temporal gyrus the white matter pathways to be encountered. In the temporal horn, the collateral eminence, hippocampus, lateral ventricular sulcus, choroidal fissure, inferior choroidal point, choroid plexus, fimbria of the fornix, and amygdala are exposed. The subpial dissection is performed along the lateral ventricular sulcus from the collateral eminence on lateral side and from the choroidal fissure on medial side by microdissector for en bloc resection of the hippocampus proper. The trans-middle temporal gyrus approach is commonly used in treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy patients. A better anatomical and functional understanding of the structures of the temporal lobe is crucial for safer and more accurate surgery.

  11. Endovascular treatment of thrombosed inferior vena cava filters: Techniques and short-term outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Arabi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To present the techniques for endovascular treatment of thrombosed filter-bearing inferior vena cavae (IVCs, along with short-term clinical and imaging follow-up. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 consecutive patients (17 females and 28 males, aged 19-79 years (mean age of 49 years, who had IVC filter placement complicated by symptomatic acute or chronic iliocaval thrombosis and underwent endovascular therapy were studied. All patients presented with lower extremity swelling and/or pain. One patient also had bilateral lower extremity swelling and chronic gastrointestinal (GI bleeding which was secondary to chronic systemic to portal venous collaterals. Patients underwent one or more of the following endovascular treatments depending on the chronicity and extent of thrombosis: (a catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT (n = 25, (b pharmacomechanical thrombolysis (PMT (n = 15, (c balloon angioplasty (n = 45, and/or (d stent placement across the filter (n = 42. In addition, 16 patients underwent groin arteriovenous fistula (AVF creation (36% and 3 (7% had femoral venous thrombectomy to improve flow in the recanalized iliac veins and IVCs. Results: Anatomical success was achieved in all patients. Follow-up was not available in 10 patients (lost to follow-up, n = 4; expired due to comorbidities, n = 2; lost to follow-up after re-intervention, n = 4. At a mean follow-up time of 13.3 months (range 1-48 months, clinical success was achieved in 27 patients (60%, i.e. in 21 patients without re-intervention and in 6 patients with re-intervention. Clinical success was not achieved despite re-intervention in eight patients. Higher clinical success was noted in patients who did not require repeat interventions (P = 0.03 and the time to re-intervention was significantly shorter in patients who had clinical failure (P = 0.01. AVF creation did not improve the clinical success rate (P = 1. There was no significant difference in clinical success between

  12. CNTRICS imaging biomarkers final task selection: Long-term memory and reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragland, John D; Cohen, Neal J; Cools, Roshan; Frank, Michael J; Hannula, Deborah E; Ranganath, Charan

    2012-01-01

    Functional imaging paradigms hold great promise as biomarkers for schizophrenia research as they can detect altered neural activity associated with the cognitive and emotional processing deficits that are so disabling to this patient population. In an attempt to identify the most promising functional imaging biomarkers for research on long-term memory (LTM), the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) initiative selected "item encoding and retrieval," "relational encoding and retrieval," and "reinforcement learning" as key LTM constructs to guide the nomination process. This manuscript reports on the outcome of the third CNTRICS biomarkers meeting in which nominated paradigms in each of these domains were discussed by a review panel to arrive at a consensus on which of the nominated paradigms could be recommended for immediate translational development. After briefly describing this decision process, information is presented from the nominating authors describing the 4 functional imaging paradigms that were selected for immediate development. In addition to describing the tasks, information is provided on cognitive and neural construct validity, sensitivity to behavioral or pharmacological manipulations, availability of animal models, psychometric characteristics, effects of schizophrenia, and avenues for future development.

  13. Surface properties and corrosion behavior of Co-Cr alloy fabricated with selective laser melting technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xian-zhen; Chen, Jie; Xiang, Nan; Wei, Bin

    2013-01-01

    We sought to study the corrosion behavior and surface properties of a commercial cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloy which was fabricated with selective laser melting (SLM) technique. For this purpose, specimens were fabricated using different techniques, such as SLM system and casting methods. Surface hardness testing, microstructure observation, surface analysis using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrochemical corrosion test were carried out to evaluate the corrosion properties and surface properties of the specimens. We found that microstructure of SLM specimens was more homogeneous than that of cast specimens. The mean surface hardness values of SLM and cast specimens were 458.3 and 384.8, respectively; SLM specimens showed higher values than cast ones in hardness. Both specimens exhibited no differences in their electrochemical corrosion properties in the artificial saliva through potentiodynamic curves and EIS, and no significant difference via XPS. Therefore, we concluded that within the scope of this study, SLM-fabricated restorations revealed good surface properties, such as proper hardness, homogeneous microstructure, and also showed sufficient corrosion resistance which could meet the needs of dental clinics.

  14. Selective cerebro-myocardial perfusion in complex congenital aortic arch pathology: a novel technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rita, Fabrizio; Lucchese, Gianluca; Barozzi, Luca; Menon, Tiziano; Faggian, Giuseppe; Mazzucco, Alessandro; Luciani, Giovanni Battista

    2011-11-01

    Simultaneous cerebro-myocardial perfusion has been described in neonatal and infant arch surgery, suggesting a reduction in cardiac morbidity. Here reported is a novel technique for selective cerebral perfusion combined with controlled and independent myocardial perfusion during surgery for complex or recurrent aortic arch lesions. From April 2008 to April 2011, 10 patients with arch pathology underwent surgery (two hypoplastic left heart syndrome [HLHS], four recurrent arch obstruction, two aortic arch hypoplasia + ventricular septal defect [VSD], one single ventricle + transposition of the great arteries + arch hypoplasia, one interrupted aortic arch type B + VSD). Median age was 63 days (6 days-36 years) and median weight 4.0 kg (1.6-52). Via midline sternotomy, an arterial cannula (6 or 8 Fr for infants) was directly inserted into the innominate artery or through a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft (for neonates cerebro-myocardial perfusion was 39 ± 18 min (17-69). Weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass was achieved without inotropic support in three and with low dose in seven patients. One patient required veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Four patients, body weight cerebro-myocardial perfusion is feasible in patients with complex or recurrent aortic arch disease, starting from premature newborn less than 2.0 kg of body weight to adults. The technique is as safe as previously reported methods of cerebro-myocardial perfusion and possibly more versatile.

  15. New evaluation methods for conceptual design selection using computational intelligence techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hong Zhong; Liu, Yu; Li, Yanfeng; Wang, Zhonglai [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu (China); Xue, Lihua [Higher Education Press, Beijing (China)

    2013-03-15

    The conceptual design selection, which aims at choosing the best or most desirable design scheme among several candidates for the subsequent detailed design stage, oftentimes requires a set of tools to conduct design evaluation. Using computational intelligence techniques, such as fuzzy logic, neural network, genetic algorithm, and physical programming, several design evaluation methods are put forth in this paper to realize the conceptual design selection under different scenarios. Depending on whether an evaluation criterion can be quantified or not, the linear physical programming (LPP) model and the RAOGA-based fuzzy neural network (FNN) model can be utilized to evaluate design alternatives in conceptual design stage. Furthermore, on the basis of Vanegas and Labib's work, a multi-level conceptual design evaluation model based on the new fuzzy weighted average (NFWA) and the fuzzy compromise decision-making method is developed to solve the design evaluation problem consisting of many hierarchical criteria. The effectiveness of the proposed methods is demonstrated via several illustrative examples.

  16. An ssDNA library immobilized SELEX technique for selection of an aptamer against ractopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Nuo; Gong, Wenhui; Wu, Shijia; Wang, Zhouping

    2017-04-08

    An improved SELEX technique was developed for selecting aptamers against ractopamine (RAC) by immobilizing ssDNA library on the magnetic beads. After sixteen selection rounds, a highly enriched ssDNA pool was sequenced and nine families were grouped according to their homology and secondary structures analysis. One representative aptamer candidate from each family was picked out for binding affinity identification by graphene oxide (GO) adsorption platform. The aptamer RAC-6 was demonstrated as the optimal aptamer with high specificity and dissociation constant (Kd) value of 54.22 ± 8.02 nM. To prove the potential application of aptamer RAC-6 in the quantitative determination of RAC, a fluorescent bioassay with aptamer RAC-6 was developed. The linear range for RAC was from 0.10 ng/mL to 100 ng/mL and the limit of detection was as low as 0.04 ng/mL. Furthermore, the method was validated for the analysis of RAC spiked real samples, and the recoveries were between 82.57% and 104.65%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Plant selection and soil legacy enhance long-term biodiversity effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuppinger-Dingley, Debra; Flynn, Dan F B; De Deyn, Gerlinde B; Petermann, Jana S; Schmid, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Plant-plant and plant-soil interactions can help maintain plant diversity and ecosystem functions. Changes in these interactions may underlie experimentally observed increases in biodiversity effects over time via the selection of genotypes adapted to low or high plant diversity. Little is known, however, about such community-history effects and particularly the role of plant-soil interactions in this process. Soil-legacy effects may occur if co-evolved interactions with soil communities either positively or negatively modify plant biodiversity effects. We tested how plant selection and soil legacy influence biodiversity effects on productivity, and whether such effects increase the resistance of the communities to invasion by weeds. We used two plant selection treatments: parental plants growing in monoculture or in mixture over 8 yr in a grassland biodiversity experiment in the field, which we term monoculture types and mixture types. The two soil-legacy treatments used in this study were neutral soil inoculated with live or sterilized soil inocula collected from the same plots in the biodiversity experiment. For each of the four factorial combinations, seedlings of eight species were grown in monocultures or four-species mixtures in pots in an experimental garden over 15 weeks. Soil legacy (live inoculum) strongly increased biodiversity complementarity effects for communities of mixture types, and to a significantly weaker extent for communities of monoculture types. This may be attributed to negative plant-soil feedbacks suffered by mixture types in monocultures, whereas monoculture types had positive plant-soil feedbacks, in both monocultures and mixtures. Monocultures of mixture types were most strongly invaded by weeds, presumably due to increased pathogen susceptibility, reduced biomass, and altered plant-soil interactions of mixture types. These results show that biodiversity effects in experimental grassland communities can be modified by the evolution of

  18. GLOBAL CONVERGENCE RESULTS OF A THREE TERM MEMORY GRADIENT METHOD WITH A NON-MONOTONE LINE SEARCH TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Qingying

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new class of three term memory gradient method with nonmonotone line search technique for unconstrained optimization is presented. Global convergence properties of the new methods are discussed. Combining the quasi-Newton method with the new method, the former is modified to have global convergence property. Numerical results show that the new algorithm is efficient.

  19. Demonstration of a Benchmarking Technique to Compare Graduate Education Level of Air Force Project Managers and Selected Benchmarking Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    the 1,450th file. This 46 technique sampled files on a nonprobability representation basis; some files did not have a nonzero chance of being reviewed...04 ELECTE: 4 t- OF A DEMONSTRATION OF A BENCHMARKING * ’~ TECHNIQUE TO COMPARE GRADUATE EDUCATION LEVELS OF AIR FORCE PROJECT MANAGERS AND SELECTED...8217,- -AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY .Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio AFIT/GSM/LAS/94S-3 A DEMONSTRATION OF A BENCHMARKING TECHNIQUE TO COMPARE

  20. Susceptibility of Ostrinia furnacalis to Bacillus thuringiensis and Bt Corn Under Long-Term Laboratory Selection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Li-ping; HE Kang-lai; WANG Zhen-ying; ZHOU Da-rong; BAI Shu-xiong

    2005-01-01

    The susceptibility of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) formulation and Bt corn was evaluated using insect bioassays for 6 years. Four strains of O. furnacalis were developed by laboratory selection from the laboratory strain reared on a non-agar semi-artificial diet. The RR-1 strain was exposed to a commercial formulation of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Btk) incorporated into the artificial diet, the RR-2 strain was exposed to Bt corn (MON810)tissue incorporated into the diet, and the SS-1 and SS-2 strains were reared on the standard diet with or without non-Bt corn tissues material. Decreasing susceptibility of O. furnacalis to Bt and to Bt corn were found in each selected strain although the ED50 and larval weight fluctuated from generation to generation. The resistance of Bt-exposed strain (RR-1)to Btk increased 48-fold by generation 39; the Bt corn-exposed strain (RR-2) increased its resistance 37-fold to Btk by generation 24. No larvae of SS-1 survived when they were exposed to the leaves of Bt corn, Bt1 1 and MON810. However,2-54% of the RR-1 (generation 46) and RR-2 (generation 20) larvae survived a 3 day-exposure to the leaves of Bt1 1 and MON810. The survival of both selected strains on Bt corn silk increased by 10-69%, and the larval weights after many generations selection were increased by 15-22% compared with the unselected susceptible strain. The young larvae were much more susceptible to Bt than older larvae. The highest mortality occurred when the larvae were exposed to Bt at the neonate stage. All of the results suggested that ACB could not only develop resistance to Bt preparation but also to Bt corn. Bt had significant effects on the growth and development of Asian corn borer than on the larval mortality. In order to maintain the long-term effectiveness of Bt pesticide and Bt corn, the resistance management should pay much attention to the larvae that may have opportunities to grow and developed on non

  1. Selective cerebral perfusion with aortic cannulation and short-term hypothermic circulatory arrest in aortic arch reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkoz, R; Saritas, B; Ozker, E; Vuran, C; Yoruker, U; Balci, S; Altun, D; Turkoz, A

    2014-01-01

    The deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) technique has been used in aortic arch and isthmus hypoplasia for many years. However, with the demonstration of the deleterious effects of prolonged DHCA, selective cerebral perfusion (SCP) has started to be used in aortic arch repair. For SCP, perfusion via the innominate artery route is generally preferred (either direct innominate artery cannulation or re-routing of the cannula in the aorta is used). Herein, we describe our technique and the result of arch reconstruction in combination with selective cerebral and myocardial perfusion (SCMP) and short-term total circulatory arrest (TCA) (5-10 min) through ascending aortic cannulation. Thirty-seven cases with aortic arch and isthmus hypoplasia accompanying cardiac defects were operated on with SCMP and short TCA in Baskent University Istanbul Research and Training Hospital between January 2007 and Sep 2012. There were 17 cases with ventricular septal defect (VSD)-coarctation with aortic arch hypoplasia (CoAAH), 4 cases of transposition of the great arteries-VSD-CoAAH, 4 cases of Taussing Bing Anomaly-CoAAH, 2 cases complete atrioventricular canal defect-CoAAH, 3 cases single ventricle-CoAAH, 3 cases of type A interruption-VSD, 2 subvalvular aortic stenosis-CoAAH and 2 cases of isolated CoAAH. The aorta was cannulated in the middle of the ascending aorta in all cases. The cross-clamp was applied to the aortic arch distal to either the innominate artery or the left carotid artery. In addition, a side-biting clamp was applied to the descending aorta. The aorta between these two clamps was reconstructed with gluteraldehyde-treated autogeneous pericardium, using SCMP. The proximal arch and distal ascending aorta reconstructions were carried out under short TCA. The mean age of the patients was 2.5 ± 2 months. The mean cardiopulmonary bypass and cross-clamp times were 144 ± 58 and 43 ± 27 minutes, respectively. The mean SCMP and descending aorta ischemia times were 22

  2. A study of Consistency in the Selection of Search Terms and Search Concepts: A Case Study in National Taiwan University

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    Mu-hsuan Huang

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the consistency in the selection of search terms and search contents of college and graduate students in National Taiwan University when they are using PsycLIT CD-ROM database. 31 students conducted pre-assigned searches, doing 59 searches generating 609 search terms. The study finds the consistency in selection of search terms of first level is 22.14% and second level is 35%. These results are similar with others’ researches. About the consistency in search concepts, no matter the overlaps of searched articles or judge relevant articles are lower than other researches. [Article content in Chinese

  3. Solid transport in mountain rivers: monitoring techniques and long term assessment as flood prevention tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longoni, Laura; Brambilla, Davide; Ivanov, Vladislav; Messa, Giacomo; Veronelli, Andrea; Radice, Alessio; Papini, Monica

    2017-04-01

    Floods are calamitous phenomena with an ever-increasing frequency around the globe, that often result in socio-economic damage and casualties. The role of the solid fraction in the river dynamic has been widely debated in the last decade and its importance is recognized as critical and not negligible in flood simulations as it has been evidenced that the severity of an event is often the result of the coupling of a flood wave with elevated solid transport rates. Nevertheless, assessing the quantity of sediment mobilized in a particular event is not feasible without a long term analysis of the river's dynamics and its morphological evolution since it is defined by past events. This work is focused on the techniques to improve knowledge about sediment production and transport through hydrological networks as a necessary component of a wise flood prevention planning. In particular, a multidisciplinary approach that combines hydraulic and geological knowledge is required in order to understand the evolution of the river sediment and how it will influence the following critical event. The methods are presented through a case study in Italy where a series of different approaches have been integrated to gain a comprehensive understanding of the problem: the sediment movement has been studied by a Eulerian as well as a Lagrangian approaches while hydraulic properties of the stream have been measured. The research started with an attempt to monitor sediment movements: in June 2016 300 sample pebbles, equipped with RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) transponders, have been deployed in the river and tracked after every major rainfall event. The obtained data-set has been combined with a morphological analysis and a river flow discharge computed through PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) method in order to identify the relation between a given rainfall event and sediment transport. Moreover, critical sediment size has been estimated from field data using three approaches: two

  4. NERBio: using selected word conjunctions, term normalization, and global patterns to improve biomedical named entity recognition

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    Hung Hsieh-Chuan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomedical named entity recognition (Bio-NER is a challenging problem because, in general, biomedical named entities of the same category (e.g., proteins and genes do not follow one standard nomenclature. They have many irregularities and sometimes appear in ambiguous contexts. In recent years, machine-learning (ML approaches have become increasingly common and now represent the cutting edge of Bio-NER technology. This paper addresses three problems faced by ML-based Bio-NER systems. First, most ML approaches usually employ singleton features that comprise one linguistic property (e.g., the current word is capitalized and at least one class tag (e.g., B-protein, the beginning of a protein name. However, such features may be insufficient in cases where multiple properties must be considered. Adding conjunction features that contain multiple properties can be beneficial, but it would be infeasible to include all conjunction features in an NER model since memory resources are limited and some features are ineffective. To resolve the problem, we use a sequential forward search algorithm to select an effective set of features. Second, variations in the numerical parts of biomedical terms (e.g., "2" in the biomedical term IL2 cause data sparseness and generate many redundant features. In this case, we apply numerical normalization, which solves the problem by replacing all numerals in a term with one representative numeral to help classify named entities. Third, the assignment of NE tags does not depend solely on the target word's closest neighbors, but may depend on words outside the context window (e.g., a context window of five consists of the current word plus two preceding and two subsequent words. We use global patterns generated by the Smith-Waterman local alignment algorithm to identify such structures and modify the results of our ML-based tagger. This is called pattern-based post-processing. Results To develop our ML

  5. Simulating future uncertainty to guide the selection of survey designs for long-term monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garman, Steven L.; Schweiger, E. William; Manier, Daniel J.; Gitzen, Robert A.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Cooper, Andrew B.; Licht, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    A goal of environmental monitoring is to provide sound information on the status and trends of natural resources (Messer et al. 1991, Theobald et al. 2007, Fancy et al. 2009). When monitoring observations are acquired by measuring a subset of the population of interest, probability sampling as part of a well-constructed survey design provides the most reliable and legally defensible approach to achieve this goal (Cochran 1977, Olsen et al. 1999, Schreuder et al. 2004; see Chapters 2, 5, 6, 7). Previous works have described the fundamentals of sample surveys (e.g. Hansen et al. 1953, Kish 1965). Interest in survey designs and monitoring over the past 15 years has led to extensive evaluations and new developments of sample selection methods (Stevens and Olsen 2004), of strategies for allocating sample units in space and time (Urquhart et al. 1993, Overton and Stehman 1996, Urquhart and Kincaid 1999), and of estimation (Lesser and Overton 1994, Overton and Stehman 1995) and variance properties (Larsen et al. 1995, Stevens and Olsen 2003) of survey designs. Carefully planned, “scientific” (Chapter 5) survey designs have become a standard in contemporary monitoring of natural resources. Based on our experience with the long-term monitoring program of the US National Park Service (NPS; Fancy et al. 2009; Chapters 16, 22), operational survey designs tend to be selected using the following procedures. For a monitoring indicator (i.e. variable or response), a minimum detectable trend requirement is specified, based on the minimum level of change that would result in meaningful change (e.g. degradation). A probability of detecting this trend (statistical power) and an acceptable level of uncertainty (Type I error; see Chapter 2) within a specified time frame (e.g. 10 years) are specified to ensure timely detection. Explicit statements of the minimum detectable trend, the time frame for detecting the minimum trend, power, and acceptable probability of Type I error (

  6. Esophagogastric pathology in morbid obese patient: preoperative diagnosis and influence in the selection of surgical technique

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    Sergio Estévez-Fernández

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Given the difficulty in accessing to the excluded stomach after gastric bypass and the increase in gastroesophageal reflux after sleeve gastrectomy, it is justified to perform a preoperative fibrogastroscopy. The influence of the fibrogastroscopy (FGS findings in the therapeutic approach is analyzed. Patients and methods: A retrospective study of preoperative FGS findings is performed, from 04/06 to 12/12. The influence of the FGS results on the surgical technique selection, in the endoscopic or medical treatment and its relation to gastric fistula is analyzed by means of multivariate regression (confounding factors: Age, body mass index, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, antiplatelet therapy, surgical technique (bariatric surgery, sleeve gastrectomy. Results: Three hundred thirty one patients are included: 32.6% biopsy of gastric lesion; 27% gastritis; 18.1% hiatal hernia; 3% metaplasia; 0.6% Barrett esophagus; 2.1% esophagitis; 0.3% dysplasia; 0.3 Schatzky's ring; 1.5% incompetent cardia; 2.4% duodenitis; 0.3% gastric erosions; 0.6% gastric xanthoma; 1.8%, gastric polyp; 1.6% duodenal ulcer; 0.6% papulo-erosive gastritis; 0.6% esophageal papilloma; 0.3% submucosal tumor. Helicobacter pylori+ 30.2% (triple therapy eradication in all patients. The FGS findings led to a variation in the surgical technique or to the completion of endoscopic treatment in 22.2% of cases. The gastric lesions did not influence the development of gastric fistula. Independent prognostic factors of fistula: Sleeve gastrectomy (7.9% vs. 2.7%; p = 0.02; OR: 1.38 IC95: 1.01-1.87 and the body mass index > 50 kg/m² (6.7% vs. 2.2%; p = 0.04; OR: 3.7 IC95: 1.12-12.4. Conclusions: The diagnosis of gastroesophageal disease through preoperative FGS motivated variations in the therapeutic approach in 52% of patients, so we consider essential to include the preoperative FGS in bariatric surgery.

  7. Effect of Planned Early Recommended Ambulation Technique on Selected Post caesarean Biophysiological Health Parameters

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    Jyoti V. Dube

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caesarean section has been a part of human culture since ancient times. It has been used effectively throughout the 20th century and among the major abdominal surgeries, it is the most common, oldest worldwide surgery performed in obstetrics. Despite the life saving advantages, there are several adverse consequences of caesarean delivery for a woman and to her household. The rate and risk of these complications increases due to the increasing incidence mainly in countries like India. The role of nurse midwife is to act in the best interest of patient and newborn and make the patient independent in carrying out the activities of daily living as soon as possible. This can lead to a faster recovery and shorter hospital stay. Also it can indirectly help in reducing the complications associated with prolonged bed rest and can improve the maternal newborn bonding. Aim and Objectives: The present study was done to evaluate the effect of planned early ambulation on selected biophysiological health parameters of post caesarean patients. Material and Methods: The study included total 500 study subjects, 250 in experimental and 250 in control group. Quasi experimental approach with multiple time series design was adopted for the study. The experimental group was given an early planned recommended ambulation technique starting from the day of surgery. This consisted of deep breathing exercise, cough exercise, leg exercise and early mobilization. Over and above, the routine general health care was given by the doctors and nurses. The control group received only by routine general care by doctors and nurses and mobilization on third post operative day as per strategy adopted by the hospital. The deep breathing exercises, coughing exercises and leg exercises were not given routinely and hence were not given to the control group. Post caesarean biophysiological parameters chart was used to assess the selected parameters for first five post operative

  8. Selected Remarks about Computer Processing in Terms of Flow Control and Statistical Mechanics

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    Dominik Strzałka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that much has been said about processing in computer science, it seems that there is still much to do. A classical approach assumes that the computations done by computers are a kind of mathematical operation (calculations of functions values and have no special relations to energy transformation and flow. However, there is a possibility to get a new view on selected topics, and as a special case, the sorting problem is presented; we know many different sorting algorithms, including those that have complexity equal to O(n lg(n , which means that this problem is algorithmically closed, but it is also possible to focus on the problem of sorting in terms of flow control, entropy and statistical mechanics. This is done in relation to the existing definitions of sorting, connections between sorting and ordering and some important aspects of computer processing understood as a flow that are not taken into account in many theoretical considerations in computer science. The proposed new view is an attempt to change the paradigm in the description of algorithms’ performance by computational complexity and processing, taking into account the existing references between the idea of Turing machines and their physical implementations. This proposal can be expressed as a physics of computer processing; a reference point to further analysis of algorithmic and interactive processing in computer systems.

  9. Comparison of selective head cooling therapy and whole body cooling therapy in newborns with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy: short term results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atıcı, Aytuğ; Çelik, Yalçın; Gülaşı, Selvi; Turhan, Ali Haydar; Okuyaz, Çetin; Sungur, Mehmet Ali

    2015-01-01

    Aim: In this study, it was aimed to investigate which method was superior by applying selective head cooling or whole body cooling therapy in newborns diagnosed with moderate or severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Materials and Method: Newborns above the 35th gestational age diagnosed with moderate or severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy were included in the study and selective head cooling or whole body cooling therapy was performed randomly. The newborns who were treated by both methods were compared in terms of adverse effects in the early stage and in terms of short-term results. Ethics committee approval was obtained for the study (06.01.2010/35). Results: Fifty three babies diagnosed with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy were studied. Selective head cooling was applied to 17 babies and whole body cooling was applied to 12 babies. There was no significant difference in terms of adverse effects related to cooling therapy between the two groups. When the short-term results were examined, it was found that the hospitalization time was 34 (7–65) days in the selective head cooling group and 18 (7–57) days in the whole body cooling group and there was no significant difference between the two groups (p=0.097). Four patients in the selective head cooling group and two patients in the whole body cooling group were discharged with tracheostomy because of the need for prolonged mechanical ventilation and there was no difference between the groups in terms of discharge with tracheostomy (p=0.528). Five patients in the selective head cooling group and three patients in the whole body cooling group were discharged with a gastrostomy tube because they could not be fed orally and there was no difference between the groups in terms of discharge with a gastrostomy tube (p=0.586). One patient who was applied selective head cooling and one patient who was applied whole body cooling died during hospitalization and there was no difference between the groups in terms of

  10. Numerical analysis of radiation propagation in innovative volumetric receivers based on selective laser melting techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Fabrizio; Santiago, Sergio; Roccabruna, Mattia; Luque, Salvador; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Jose; Crema, Luigi; Romero, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    Volumetric absorbers constitute one of the key elements in order to achieve high thermal conversion efficiencies in concentrating solar power plants. Regardless of the working fluid or thermodynamic cycle employed, design trends towards higher absorber output temperatures are widespread, which lead to the general need of components of high solar absorptance, high conduction within the receiver material, high internal convection, low radiative and convective heat losses and high mechanical durability. In this context, the use of advanced manufacturing techniques, such as selective laser melting, has allowed for the fabrication of intricate geometries that are capable of fulfilling the previous requirements. This paper presents a parametric design and analysis of the optical performance of volumetric absorbers of variable porosity conducted by means of detailed numerical ray tracing simulations. Sections of variable macroscopic porosity along the absorber depth were constructed by the fractal growth of single-cell structures. Measures of performance analyzed include optical reflection losses from the absorber front and rear faces, penetration of radiation inside the absorber volume, and radiation absorption as a function of absorber depth. The effects of engineering design parameters such as absorber length and wall thickness, material reflectance and porosity distribution on the optical performance of absorbers are discussed, and general design guidelines are given.

  11. Manufacturing of individual biodegradable bone substitute implants using selective laser melting technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Markus; Hoeges, Simon; Meiners, Wilhelm; Wissenbach, Konrad; Smeets, Ralf; Telle, Rainer; Poprawe, Reinhart; Fischer, Horst

    2011-06-15

    The additive manufacturing technique selective laser melting (SLM) has been successfully proved to be suitable for applications in implant manufacturing. SLM is well known for metal parts and offers direct manufacturing of three-dimensional (3D) parts with high bulk density on the base of individual 3D data, including computer tomography models of anatomical structures. Furthermore, an interconnecting porous structure with defined and reproducible pore size can be integrated during the design of the 3D virtual model of the implant. The objective of this study was to develop the SLM processes for a biodegradable composite material made of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and poly(D, L)-lactide (PDLLA). The development of a powder composite material (β-TCP/PDLLA) suitable for the SLM process was successfully performed. The microstructure of the manufactured samples exhibit a homogeneous arrangement of ceramic and polymer. The four-point bending strength was up to 23 MPa. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the samples confirmed β-TCP as the only present crystalline phase and the gel permeations chromatography (GPC) analysis documented a degradation of the polymer caused by the laser process less than conventional manufacturing processes. We conclude that SLM presents a new possibility to manufacture individual biodegradable implants made of β-TCP/PDLLA.

  12. Phenotypic and Genetic Characterization of Circulating Tumor Cells by Combining Immunomagnetic Selection and FICTION Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, María; Prior, Celia; Warleta, Fernando; Zudaire, Isabel; Ruíz-Mora, Jesús; Catena, Raúl; Calvo, Alfonso; Gaforio, José J.

    2008-01-01

    The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in breast cancer patients has been proven to have clinical relevance. Cytogenetic characterization of these cells could have crucial relevance for targeted cancer therapies. We developed a method that combines an immunomagnetic selection of CTCs from peripheral blood with the fluorescence immunophenotyping and interphase cytogenetics as a tool for investigation of neoplasm (FICTION) technique. Briefly, peripheral blood (10 ml) from healthy donors was spiked with a predetermined number of human breast cancer cells. Nucleated cells were separated by double density gradient centrifugation of blood samples. Tumor cells (TCs) were immunomagnetically isolated with an anti-cytokeratin antibody and placed onto slides for FICTION analysis. For immunophenotyping and genetic characterization of TCs, a mixture of primary monoclonal anti-pancytokeratin antibodies was used, followed by fluorescent secondary antibodies, and finally hybridized with a TOP2A/HER-2/CEP17 multicolor probe. Our results show that TCs can be efficiently isolated from peripheral blood and characterized by FICTION. Because genetic amplification of TOP2A and ErbB2 (HER-2) in breast cancer correlates with response to anthracyclines and herceptin therapies, respectively, this novel methodology could be useful for a better classification of patients according to the genetic alterations of CTCs and for the application of targeted therapies. (J Histochem Cytochem 56:667–675, 2008) PMID:18413646

  13. Chemical characterization of selected high copper dental amalgams using XPS and XRD techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talik, E. [A. Chelkowski Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland)]. E-mail: talik@us.edu.pl; Babiarz-Zdyb, R. [A. Chelkowski Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Dziedzic, A. [Medical University of Silesia, Department of Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, Akademicki 17 Sqr., 41-209 Bytom (Poland)

    2005-08-02

    The study was carried out to analyze some dependencies between the composition of seven high copper dental amalgams and mercury release behavior, as well as oxygen reactivity of metallic elements. Chemical comparative analysis of selected dental amalgams was carried out using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique and X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. The X-ray powder diffraction measurements revealed two main phases for measured amalgams: {gamma}{sub 1}-(Ag{sub 2}Hg{sub 3}) and {eta}'-(Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5}). The amount of mercury obtained by the XPS method was lower than the value quoted in the manufacturer's literature, which suggested evaporation of mercury under the UHV conditions. A linear decrease of oxygen and carbon contamination with the growing amount of Cu and Ag was observed. The XPS analysis showed that a high Sn concentration caused less resistance to oxidation. Some of the amalgams contained some extra elements, such as Bi, In, and Zn. All samples contained lead in metallic state and oxides. The amount of Ag, Cu, Sn ingredients determines the main properties of high copper amalgams and plays an important role in mercury evaporation. High tin concentration combined with the presence of smaller amounts of silver and copper (high Sn/Ag ratio) may influence the increase of mercury vaporization.

  14. Prospective study of ultrasound-guided percutaneous renal cryotherapy: case selection as an optimization factor for a technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Faba, O; Palou, J; Rosales, A; de la Torre, P; Martí, J; Palazzetti, A; Villavicencio, H

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the technical and oncological effectiveness of ultrasound-guided percutaneous renal cryotherapy (PRC) in a selected group of patients with renal cancer. We conducted a prospective study of 28 patients with posterior-facing T1a renal tumors with middle and inferior external borders. All patients underwent ultrasound-guided PRC. Follow-up was conducted with computed tomography at 1 month and then every 6 months, with a good result defined as the total absence of contrast incorporation. We performed a descriptive and survival study using the Kaplan-Meier estimator. The 28 patients had a mean age (SD) of 68.3 (10.1) years, and the group underwent 28 procedures. The mean (SD) size of the tumors was 25.5 (7.5) mm, the mean nephrometry score was 1.41 (0.52) and the mean preoperative creatinine level was 133.5 (144.1) mmol/L. There were no intraoperative complications. In terms of postoperative complications, there was only 1 case (3.5%) of a skin lesion resulting from treating a tumor in a transplanted kidney (Clavien II). The median follow-up was 25 months, and the mean (SD) postoperative creatinine level was 135.5 (110.3) mmol/L. Two cases presented radiological recurrence (93% efficacy), with a mean time to recurrence of 12 and 19 months, respectively. There were no tumor-related deaths. Our series (the largest on PRC in our country to date) shows that, with an appropriate selection of tumors, PRC is a safe technique with minimal morbidity. Ultrasonography enables the controlled performance of the procedure and saves the patient from radiation and reduces costs. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Plastibell Device Circumcision versus Bone Cutter Technique in terms of Operative Outcomes and Parent's Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Tahir; Azam, Hammad; Tariq, Muhammad; Iqbal, Zafar; Mehmood, Hassan; Shah, Syed Asif Hussain

    2016-01-01

    To compare the rate of complications of Plastibell and bone cutter circumcision technique and recognition of top worries and satisfaction rate in the mind of parents before and after the procedure of Plastibell device (PD) circumcision in infants less than 6 months of age. It was a descriptive prospective study conducted at department of surgery Sheikh Zayed Hospital, Rahim Yar Khan. Two hundred parents of infants of less than six months of age were recruited for this study. Infants were divided into two equal groups. Group I included Plastibell circumcision technique and Group II included Bone Cutter Circumcision technique. Data was analyzed using SPSS Version 17. Independent sample t-test and chi-square test was used to compare quantitative and qualitative variables respectively. P-value fever (42.0%). Fear of pain and bleeding (66.0%). Plastibell Device method was associated with less operation time and bleeding as compared to bone cutter method (P-value Post-operatively, 98% parents showed complete procedural satisfaction in Plastibell group versus 87% parents in bone cutter one month after surgery (P-value 0.003). About 4% parents in bone cutter method group showed cosmetic displeasure versus only 1% parents in plastibell device group. The study concluded that Plastibell Device circumcision is a safer technique for circumcision and is associated with highest level of parent's satisfaction.

  16. Long-term Evaluation of a Modified Double Staple Technique for Low Anterior Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, G; Carboni, F; Ceccanei, G; Pacilè, M A; Pizzardi, G; Palumbo, P; Vietri, F

    2014-01-01

    When performing low anterior resection for rectal cancer with the double staple technique, -closing the rectum with a linear stapler in the abdomen can be challenging, especially when dealing with a narrow pelvis. For such instances we proposed to modify this technique by pulling the rectal stump through the anus, doing an extra-anal resection of the tumor and linear suture of the rectal stump, before performing a standard, stapled colorectal anastomosis. The purpose of this study was to assess the adequacy of this modification of the double staple technique. Retrospective review of 108 patients undergoing a stapled, low colorectal or coloanal anastomosis, after -eversion, extra-anal resection of the tumor and linear closure of the rectal stump for colorectal cancer, from January 1990 to December 2012. Operative mortality was 0.9%. Fourteen patients (13%) presented early, surgery-related complications -consisting of 7 anastomotic leaks, 5 wound infections, 1 ureteral lesion, and 1 peristomal abscess. Late complications related to surgery included 5 incisional hernias (4.6%), 4 anastomotic strictures (3.7%), 4 neurogenic bladders (3.7%) and 2 fecal incontinences (1.8%). The incidence of local disease recurrence was 10%. Surgical and oncological results validate the proposed modification of the double staple technique, when facing difficulties in suturing the rectum from the abdomen. Copyright© Acta Chirurgica Belgica.

  17. Selective CdTe Nanoheteroepitaxial Growth on Si(100) Substrates Using the Close-Spaced Sublimation Technique Without the Use of a Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, A.; Quinones, S. A.; Ferrer, D. A.

    2013-06-01

    The development of HgCdTe detectors requires high sensitivity, small pixel size, low defect density, long-term thermal-cycling reliability, and large-area substrates. CdTe bulk substrates were initially used for epitaxial growth of HgCdTe films. However, CdTe has a lattice mismatch with long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) and middle-wavelength infrared (MWIR) HgCdTe that results in detrimental dislocation densities above mid-106 cm-2. This work explores the use of CdTe/Si as a possible substrate for HgCdTe detectors. Although there is a 19% lattice mismatch between CdTe and Si, the nanoheteroepitaxy (NHE) technique makes it possible to grow CdTe on Si substrates with fewer defects at the CdTe/Si interface. In this work, Si(100) was patterned using photolithography and dry etching to create 500-nm to 1- μm pillars. CdTe was selectively deposited on the pillar surfaces using the close-spaced sublimation (CSS) technique. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the CdTe selective growth and grain morphology, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to analyze the structure and quality of the grains. CdTe selectivity was achieved for most of the substrate and source temperatures used in this study. The ability to selectively deposit CdTe on patterned Si(100) substrates without the use of a mask or seed layer has not been observed before using the CSS technique. The results from this study confirm that CSS has the potential to be an effective and low-cost technique for selective nanoheteroepitaxial growth of CdTe films on Si(100) substrates for infrared detector applications.

  18. A Short-term Comparison Between Result of Palisade Cartilage Tympanoplasty and Temporalis Fascia Technique

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    Mahmood Shishegar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of cartilage as a grafting material has been advocated in cases where there is a high risk of graft failure, such as subtotal perforations, adhesive processes, and residual defects after primary tympanoplasties. The purpose of this study was to compare the graft acceptance rates and auditory outcomes of cartilage tympanoplasty operations using a palisade technique with those of primary tympanoplasty using temporalis fascia in a homogenous group of patients. Study Design: Prospective study.  Materials and Methods:The study population included 54 patients who were operated on in two groups (palisade technique & temporalis fascia technique with each group containing 27 patients. Patients with pure subtotal perforations (perforation of >50% of the whole tympanic membrane [TM] area, an intact ossicular chain, at least a one month dry period, and normal middle ear mucosa were included in the study. Grafts acceptance rates and pre- and post-operative audiograms were compared. The follow-up time was six months.  Results: Graft acceptance was achieved in all patients (100% in the palisade cartilage tympanoplasty group and in 25 patients (92.5% in the temporalis fascia group. This difference was not statistically significant (P= 0.15. Comparison of the increases in mean speech reception threshold, air–bone gap, and pure-tone average scores between both techniques showed no significant changes.    Conclusion: Our experience with the palisade cartilage technique demonstrates that subtotal or total perforation at high risk for graft failure can be treated efficiently, and that a durable and resistant reconstruction of the TM with reasonable auditory function can be achieved.  

  19. A short-term evaluation between the result of palisade cartilage tympanoplasty and temporalis fascia technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Ul Shamas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of cartilage as a grafting material has been advocated in cases where there is a high risk of graft failure, such as subtotal perforations, adhesive processes, and residual defects after primary tympanoplasties. The purpose of this study was to compare the graft acceptance rates and auditory outcomes of cartilage tympanoplasty operations using a palisade technique with those of primary tympanoplasty using temporalis fascia in a homogenous group of patients. Study Design: Prospective study. Materials and Methods: The study population included 54 patients who were operated on in two groups (palisade technique and temporalis fascia technique with each group containing 27 patients. Patients with pure subtotal perforations (perforation of >50% of the whole tympanic membrane [TM] area, an intact ossicular chain, at least 1 month dry period, and normal middle ear mucosa were included in the study. Grafts acceptance rates and pre and postoperative audiograms were compared. The follow-up time was 6 months. Results: Graft acceptance was achieved in all patients (100% in the palisade cartilage tympanoplasty group and in 25 patients (92.5% in the temporalis fascia group. This difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.15. Comparison of the increases in mean speech reception threshold, air-bone gap, and pure-tone average scores between both techniques showed no significant changes. Conclusion: Our experience with the palisade cartilage technique demonstrates that subtotal or total perforation at high risk for graft failure can be treated efficiently, and that a durable and resistant reconstruction of the TM with reasonable auditory function can be achieved.

  20. Short-term outcome after Onstep versus Lichtenstein technique for inguinal hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, K; Burcharth, J; Fonnes, S;

    2015-01-01

    Because of the high number of patients with chronic pain following inguinal hernia repair, a new, simple and safe method of repair is needed. Onstep is a new type of inguinal hernia repair that might be able to reduce postoperative acute and chronic pain. The aim of this study was to investigate...... patients, > 18 years, with a primary inguinal hernia. Experimental treatment in this study was the Onstep technique, which was compared with the Lichtenstein repair. Primary outcome was postoperative pain during the first 10 days following surgery. Secondary outcomes included duration of surgery, period...... between the groups regarding early postoperative pain or minor postoperative complications. Four patients had a recurrence within the first 10 days of follow-up, one patient in the Lichtenstein group and three patients in the Onstep group, p = 0.30. The Onstep technique for inguinal hernia repair was safe...

  1. Study of techniques of identifying the earthquake precursory anomalies in terms of mathematical modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Zun-guo; QIAN Jia-dong; CHEN Jun-hua; LI Sheng-le

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals mainly with the key technique of identifying the anomalous signals without distortion, which might be the precursors associated with earthquakes, from the real time series of observations that would be usually the mixture of the anomalous signals, the normal background variations, some interference and noises. The key technique of 2 un-biased estimation2 is to construct an empirical time series and set up the criterion for identifying the anomalous variation on the bases of time series analysis. To the end of testing the method, a man-made time series including the normal variations and random interference as well as specific anomaly, has been constructed. And the test of picking up the anomaly has been conducted with the intuitive and effective way of identifying the anomalous signal from a complicated time series. Test results confirms that the techniques under discussion are effective and applicable, and the signals extracted from the analysis, could be clear and precise, and is almost similar to the known simulated anomalous signals in the experiments.

  2. Changes in selected biochemical indices resulting from various pre-sampling handling techniques in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chloupek, Petr; Bedanova, Iveta; Chloupek, Jan; Vecerek, Vladimir

    2011-05-13

    Since it is not yet clear whether it is possible to satisfactorily avoid sampling-induced stress interference in poultry, more studies on the pattern of physiological response and detailed quantification of stress connected with the first few minutes of capture and pre-sampling handling in poultry are required. This study focused on detection of changes in the corticosterone level and concentrations of other selected biochemical parameters in broilers handled in two different manners during blood sampling (involving catching, carrying, restraint, and blood collection itself) that lasted for various time periods within the interval 30-180 seconds. Stress effects of pre-sampling handling were studied in a group (n = 144) of unsexed ROSS 308 broiler chickens aged 42 d. Handling (catching, carrying, restraint, and blood sampling itself) was carried out in a gentle (caught, held and carried carefully in an upright position) or rough (caught by the leg, held and carried with lack of care in inverted position) manner and lasted for 30 s, 60 s, 90 s, 120 s, 150 s, and 180 s. Plasma corticosterone, albumin, glucose, cholesterol, lactate, triglycerides and total protein were measured in order to assess the stress-induced changes to these biochemical indices following handling in the first few minutes of capture. Pre-sampling handling in a rough manner resulted in considerably higher plasma concentrations of all biochemical indices monitored when compared with gentle handling. Concentrations of plasma corticosterone after 150 and 180 s of handling were considerably higher (P technique. Concentrations of plasma lactate were also increased by prolonged handling duration. Handling for 90-180 seconds resulted in a highly significant elevation of lactate concentration in comparison with 30 s handling regardless of handling technique. Similarly to corticosterone concentrations, a strong positive correlation was found between plasma lactate and duration of pre-sampling handling

  3. SURGICAL TECHNIQUE, SHORT- AND LONG-TERM RESULTS OF THE HORSESHOE KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. R. Galeev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The experience of horseshoe kidney transplant operations is significantly restricted. Transplant surgeons often refuse to use horseshoe kidney due to a number of serious abnormalities of vessels and upper urinary tract in these organs. However, the constant shortage of donor organs and an increase in patients on the waiting list for kidney transplantation make us reconsider our approach to the selection of donor organs. The aim of this work was to demonstrate our result of horseshoe kidney transplantation. 

  4. Technique and short-term outcomes of single-port surgery for rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulut, O; Aslak, K K; Rosenstock, S

    2013-01-01

    Although conventional laparoscopic surgery is less traumatic than open surgery, it does cause tissue trauma and multiple scar formation. The size and number of ports determine the extent of the trauma. Single-port laparoscopic surgery is assumed to minimize and perhaps eliminate the potential...... adverse effects of conventional laparoscopy. The aim of this study was to examine short-term outcomes of single-port laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer....

  5. Long term selection for reduced or increased pecking behaviour in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buitenhuis, A J; Kjaer, J B

    2008-01-01

    Feather pecking in laying hens is an important issue in animal welfare. Four studies in laying hens were selected which investigated increased or reduced pecking behaviour using direct or indirect measures of feather pecking behaviour. Direct comparison of the selected experiments is difficult...... selection for reduced pecking behaviour changes the immune response. Feather pecking in laying hens is an important issue in animal welfare. Four studies in laying hens were selected which investigated increased or reduced pecking behaviour using direct or indirect measures of feather pecking behaviour...... consensus as to the relation between selection on pecking behaviour and laying performance and egg quality, d) Plasma serotonin level in the blood was reduced in the lines selected against pecking behaviour in both the individual selected lines and the group selected lines and there were indications...

  6. Curved Microneedle Array-Based sEMG Electrode for Robust Long-Term Measurements and High Selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjae; Kim, Taewan; Kim, Dong Sung; Chung, Wan Kyun

    2015-07-06

    Surface electromyography is widely used in many fields to infer human intention. However, conventional electrodes are not appropriate for long-term measurements and are easily influenced by the environment, so the range of applications of sEMG is limited. In this paper, we propose a flexible band-integrated, curved microneedle array electrode for robust long-term measurements, high selectivity, and easy applicability. Signal quality, in terms of long-term usability and sensitivity to perspiration, was investigated. Its motion-discriminating performance was also evaluated. The results show that the proposed electrode is robust to perspiration and can maintain a high-quality measuring ability for over 8 h. The proposed electrode also has high selectivity for motion compared with a commercial wet electrode and dry electrode.

  7. Curved Microneedle Array-Based sEMG Electrode for Robust Long-Term Measurements and High Selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjae Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface electromyography is widely used in many fields to infer human intention. However, conventional electrodes are not appropriate for long-term measurements and are easily influenced by the environment, so the range of applications of sEMG is limited. In this paper, we propose a flexible band-integrated, curved microneedle array electrode for robust long-term measurements, high selectivity, and easy applicability. Signal quality, in terms of long-term usability and sensitivity to perspiration, was investigated. Its motion-discriminating performance was also evaluated. The results show that the proposed electrode is robust to perspiration and can maintain a high-quality measuring ability for over 8 h. The proposed electrode also has high selectivity for motion compared with a commercial wet electrode and dry electrode.

  8. Data Selection for Fast Projection Techniques Applied to Adaptive Nulling: A Comparative Study of Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    point de vue d’annulation des brouilleurs, le dernier 6tant moins rapide mais donnant une meilleure annulation. En effet , ces algorithmes donnent un...techniques avec celui de la technique "sample matrix inversion ou SMI" pour trois scenarios diffdrents; ces trois derniers ddmontrent les effets du nombre de...eigenvector analysis, such as the MUSIC technique [2], are effective for both interference suppression and spectral estimation. These techniques yield

  9. Effect Of Single And Short-Term Aerobics On Selected Mental State Parametres In Adult Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyselovičová Oľga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the degree of the influence of aerobic program on mental state of the trainees after a single and short-term application. We tried to find out the positive effects of an aerobics on the selected parameters of mental state of women that performed aerobics recreationally. Twenty-two healthy women (age 35 ± 5 years were involved in the specific aerobic program with mini trampolines (jumping over the period of 5 weeks. To measure the psychological parameters a modified questionnaire of type X-STAI was distributed before and after the single work out at the beginning of the study and after the 5 weeks period. Chi-quadrat analysis was used to evaluate the data. The greatest and statistically the most significant differences were recorded in the parameters ´enthusiastic´, ´boosted by energy´ and ´relaxed´, in comparison with the emotions at the beginning and at the end of the lesson in initial measuring. Comparison of changes after the 5 weeks period at the beginning and at the end of the lesson shows statistical significance in all parameters, except ´tired´. No statistical changes occurred at either the beginning or the end of the lesson comparing initial and final phases. Based on the results, we can conclude that specialized aerobic training provokes immediate changes in psychological state of the trainees via increase of their positive and decrease of negative emotions right after the lesson and when compared to its beginning. This leads to a better mental stability and a greater resistance to the influences of outer environment on mental state.

  10. Optimum contribution selection combined with weighting rare favourable alleles increases long-term genetic gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Huiming; Sørensen, Anders Christian; Berg, Peer

    simulated by combining GEBV or wGEBV and truncation selection (TS) or OCS. Optimum contribution selection was further categorized into OCSA and OCSG depending on whether pedigree (A) or genomic data (G) was used for penalizing average co-ancestry. The selection was performed for 40 generations. It was shown...

  11. Advances in flowing afterglow and selected-ion flow tube techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Robert R.

    1992-09-01

    New developments in flowing afterglow and selected-ion flow tube (SIFT) techniques are briefly reviewed. Particular emphasis is given to the new chemical and physical information that can be obtained with use of the tandem flowing afterglow-triple quadrupole apparatus developed in the author's laboratory. Several outstanding recent achievements in the design and utilization of flowing afterglow and SIFT instruments in other laboratories are briefly highlighted that illustrate the power and flexibility of flow-tube-based methods. These include isotope tracer experiments with the tandem flowing afterglow-SIFT instrument in Boulder, studies of large molecular cluster ions with the variable temperature facility at Penn State, and gas-phase metal ion reactions with the laser ablation/fast flow reactor in Madison. Recent applications of the flowing afterglow-triple quadrupole instrument in our laboratory have made use of collision-induced dissociation (CID) as a tool for synthesizing novel ions and for obtaining new thermo-chemical information from threshold energy measurements. Collision-induced decar☐ylation of organic car☐ylate ions provides access to a variety of unusual and highly basic carbanions that cannot be generated with conventional ion sources. The formation and properties of saturated alkyl ions and studies of gas-phase reactions of the methyl anion are briefly described. We have developed a new method for carrying out "preparative CID" in a flowing afterglow with use of a mini-drift tube; some recent applications of this new ion source are presented. Measurement of CID thresholds for simple cleavage reactions of thermalized ions can provide accurate measures of bond strengths, gas-phase acidities and basicities, and heats of formation for ions and reactive neutral species. Applications of this approach in the thermochemical characterization of carbenes, benzynes and biradicals are described. Future prospects for the continued development of flow

  12. Application of data mining techniques to a selected business organization with special reference to buying behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejaswini Abhijit Hilage

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Data mining is a new concept & an exploration and analysis of large data sets, in order to discover meaningful patterns and rules. Many organizations are now using the data mining techniques to find outmeaningful patterns from the database. The present paper studies how data mining techniques can be apply to the large database. These data mining techniques give certain behavioral pattern from the database. The results which come after analysis of the database are useful for organization. This paper examines theresult after applying association rule mining technique, rule induction technique and Apriori algorithm. These techniques are applied to the database of shopping mall. Market basket analysis is performing by the above mentioned techniques and some important results are found such as buying behavior.

  13. Application of Data Mining Techniques to a Selected Business Organisation with Special Reference to Buying Behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    Hilage, Tejaswini

    2011-01-01

    Data mining is a new concept & an exploration and analysis of large data sets, in order to discover meaningful patterns and rules. Many organizations are now using the data mining techniques to find out meaningful patterns from the database. The present paper studies how data mining techniques can be apply to the large database. These data mining techniques give certain behavioral pattern from the database. The results which come after analysis of the database are useful for organization. This paper examines the result after applying association rule mining technique, rule induction technique and Apriori algorithm. These techniques are applied to the database of shopping mall. Market basket analysis is performing by the above mentioned techniques and some important results are found such as buying behavior.

  14. Non-invasive scanning ion-selective electrode technique and its applications to the research of higher plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Tong; Xu Yue; Li Peng; Yu Shangguan; Yin Liping

    2007-01-01

    The process of various ions and molecules getting into and out of cells is critical for plant survival. The non-invasive scanning ion-selective electrode technique (SIET) is a non-invasive method to obtain the information of ions/molecules across membranes in plant. This technique can measure the absolute concentration of ions and molecules, and also their fluxes and directions of movement.The samples to be analyzed can be a single cell, a piece of tissue, a whole organ and even an intact seedling. This article reviews the recent progress made in plant physiology by using this technique and discusses its potentials in future studies on plant physiology.

  15. Exact and Direct Modeling Technique for Rotor-Bearing Systems with Arbitrary Selected Degrees-of-Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilin Chen

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available An exact and direct modeling technique is proposed for modeling of rotor-bearing systems with arbitrary selected degrees-of-freedom. This technique is based on the combination of the transfer and dynamic stiffness matrices. The technique differs from the usual combination methods in that the global dynamic stiffness matrix for the system or the subsystem is obtained directly by rearranging the corresponding global transfer matrix. Therefore, the dimension of the global dynamic stiffness matrix is independent of the number of the elements or the substructures. In order to show the simplicity and efficiency of the method, two numerical examples are given.

  16. Changes in selected parameters of swimming technique in the back crawl and the front crawl in young novice swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerszyński, Damian; Antosiak-Cyrak, Katarzyna; Habiera, Małgorzata; Wochna, Krystian; Rostkowska, Elżbieta

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to examine changes in selected angular characteristics and duration of the stroke cycle in the back crawl and the front crawl in children learning to swim. Nine boys and two girls, aged 8-13 years, performed seven consecutive swimming tests. The children's movement technique was recorded with the use of three video cameras. The studied parameters included the angle of incidence between the trunk long axis and the waterline, elbow angle, shoulders roll, stroke cycle duration and stroke length. The results illustrate the development of swimming technique in youth swimmers. The results of the present study indicate the variability and phasing of learning of swimming technique by children.

  17. LONG TERM FOLLOW UP RESULTS OF RUPTURE TENDO CALCANEUM TREATED BY LINDHOLM TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibaji

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Rupture of tendon calcaneum is a common problem.There are proponents of both conservative and operative methods.Inadequate strength and re ruptures are frequent. To address both the problems we have chosen Lindholm technique and doing it for last 20 yrs with very good results. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 1994 to August 2013, 112 consecutive patients were treated by this method, 85 cases were fresh ruptures, 23 were neglected ruptures and four cases were re rupture after operation done elsewhere. Torn tendo calcaneum was repaired by Kessler suture, it was then augmented with two 8cm by 1cm turn down flap of gastrosoleus apponeurosis. Skin suture was done with utmost care. BK pop cast was done in equinus position of ankle for four weeks, followed by gradual weight bearing with heel raised shoe for six months. RESULTS: All patients went back to their pre injury activity level. In four patients there were superficial skin infection which healed without skin necrosis. One patient needed rotation flap. Evaluation was done by modified Rupp score. It was found to be excellent in 47% cases good in 43% cases and fair in 8% cases. CONCLUSION: Lindholm technique was originally described for neglected cases, we used it in all cases to avoid any complication in fresh cases and found it universally successful.

  18. A Comparison of four pulpotomy techniques in primary molars: a long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonmez, Deniz; Sari, Saziye; Cetinbaş, Tuğba

    2008-08-01

    The study evaluated the effects of formocresol (FC), ferric sulphate (FS), calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH](2)), and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as pulp dressing agents in pulpotomized primary molars. Sixteen children each with at least four primary molars requiring pulpotomy were selected. Eighty selected teeth were divided into four groups and treated with one of the pulpotomy agent. The children were recalled for clinical and radiographic examination every 6 months during 2 years of follow-up. Eleven children with 56 teeth arrived for clinical and radiographic follow-up evaluation at 24 months. The follow-up evaluations revealed that the success rate was 76.9% for FC, 73.3% for FS, 46.1% for Ca(OH)(2), and 66.6% for MTA. In conclusion, Ca(OH)(2)is less appropriate for primary teeth pulpotomies than the other pulpotomy agents. FC and FS appeared to be superior to the other agents. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups.

  19. [Distraction osteogenesis in the midface. Indications, technique and first long-term results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Peter; Kloss, Frank; Hirschfelder, Ursula; Neukam, Friedrich Wilhelm; Wiltfang, Jörg

    2003-01-01

    Since the beginning of 1998, eleven patients have been treated by osteodistraction to correct hypoplasia of the maxilla and midface of various origins. Among them were six patients who were treated by high LeFort I osteotomies and insertion of subcutaneous intraoral distraction devices in the malar region. In the remaining five patients extraoral distraction devices were applied after LeFort I, II and III osteotomies. Distraction osteogenesis was successful in all cases, resulting in a mean sagittal bone gain measured parallel to the skull base of 9.5 mm (range 4.5-12.0) in the group treated with intraoral distractors and a mean of 19.4 mm in the extraoral distraction group (range 15.0-25.0). All patients were kept under orthodontic supervision before, during, and after osteodistraction. In eight patients long-term cephalometric and clinical evaluation after a mean follow-up period of 24 months in the intraoral distraction group (range 22-26) and 12 months in the extraoral distraction group (range 10-14) show stable results concerning the skeletal and dental relations. Long-term follow-up is necessary.

  20. Long term fine aerosol analysis by XRF and PIXE techniques in the city of Rijeka, Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivošević, Tatjana [Faculty of Engineering, University of Rijeka, Vukovarska 58, HR-51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Orlić, Ivica [Department of Physics, University of Rijeka, Radmile Matejčić 2, HR-51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Radović, Iva Bogdanović [Laboratory for Ion Beam Interaction, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • For the first time in Croatia, long term of fine aerosol pollution is reported. - Abstract: The results of a long term, multi elemental XRF and PIXE analysis of fine aerosol pollution in the city of Rijeka, Croatia, are reported for the first time. The samples were collected during a seven months period (6th Aug 2013–28th Feb 2014) on thin stretched Teflon filters and analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) at the Laboratory for Elemental Micro-Analysis (LEMA), University of Rijeka and by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) using 1.6 MeV protons at the Laboratory for Ion Beam Interactions (LIBI), Ruđer Bošković Institute, Zagreb. The newly developed micro-XRF system at LEMA provided results for 19 elements in the range from Si to Pb. The PIXE at the LIBI provided information for the same elements as well for the light elements such as Na, Mg and Al. Black carbon was determined with the Laser Integrated Plate Method (LIPM). The results were statistically evaluated by means of the positive matrix factorization (PMF). The seven major pollution sources were identified together with their relative contributions, these are: secondary sulfates, road traffic, smoke, road dust, sea spray, ship emissions and soil dust.

  1. Long-term cardiopulmonary function after thoracic sympathectomy: comparison between the conventional and simplified techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce González, Miguel Angel; Serdá, Gabriel Juliá; Rodriguez Suarez, Pedro; Perez-Peñate, Gregorio; Freixinet Gilart, Jorge; Cabrera Navarro, Pedro

    2010-02-01

    We sought to compare the long-term effects of conventional and simplified thoracic sympathectomy on cardiopulmonary function. We performed a prospective and randomized study of 32 patients with diagnoses of primary hyperhidrosis who were candidates for either conventional or simplified thoracic sympathectomy. Patients were randomized according to the type of procedure: conventional thoracic sympathectomy (18 patients) and simplified thoracic sympathectomy (14 patients). Before surgical intervention, forced spirometry, body plethysmography, measurement of the diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO), and exercise tests were carried out in all patients. These evaluations were performed again 1 year after the procedure to assess the long-term effects of sympathectomy. Lung function tests revealed a significant decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity (FEF(25%-75%)) in both groups (FEV(1) of -6.3% and FEF(25%-75%) of -9.1% in the conventional thoracic sympathectomy group and FEV(1) of -3.5% and FEF(25%-75%) of -12.3% in the simplified thoracic sympathectomy group). DLCO and heart rate at rest and maximal values after exercise were also significantly reduced in both groups (DLCO of -4.2%, DLCO corrected by alveolar volume of -6.1%, resting heart rate of -11.8 beats/min, and maximal heart rate of -9.5 beats/min in the conventional thoracic sympathectomy group and DLCO of -3.9%, DLCO corrected by alveolar volume of -5.2%, resting heart rate of -10.7 beats/min, and maximal heart rate of -17.6 beats/min in the simplified thoracic sympathectomy group). Airway resistance increased significantly in the group of patients undergoing conventional thoracic sympathectomy (+13%). Despite all these changes, the patients remained asymptomatic. No significant differences were found between the conventional and simplified thoracic sympathectomy groups. Simplified and conventional thoracic

  2. Performance Comparison in Terms of Communication Overhead for Wireless Sensor Network Based on Clustering Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv Prasad Kori

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network refers to a group of spatially distributed and dedicated sensors for monitoring and recording the physical conditions of environment like temperature, sound, pollution levels, humidity, wind speed with direction and pressure. Sensors are self powered nodes which also possess limited processing capabilities and the nodes communicate wirelessly through a gateway. The capability of sensing, processing and communication found in sensor networks lead to a vast number of applications of wireless sensor networks in areas such as environmental monitoring, warfare, education, agriculture to name a few. In the present work, the comparative evaluation of communication overhead for the wireless sensor network based of on clustering technique is carried out. It has been be observed that overhead in cluster based protocol is not much dependent upon update time. Simulation a result indicates that cluster based protocol has low communication overheads compared with the BBM based protocol when sink mobility is high

  3. The future qualities of workforces : a simulation study of the long-term consequences of minor selection decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, Wilfred S. J.; van Veen, Kees

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we argue that in the HR literature, scant attention has been paid to the implementation and long-term effects of personnel selection policies. Our analysis focuses on how these policies affect the distribution of employees within a job structure over time. We simulate job-mobility patt

  4. Characterisation of PDO olive oil Chianti Classico by non-selective (UV-visible, NIR and MIR spectroscopy) and selective (fatty acid composition) analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casale, M., E-mail: monica@dictfa.unige.it [Universita degli Studi di Genova, Department of Chemistry and Food and Pharmaceutical Technologies, Via Brigata Salerno 13, I-16147, Genoa (Italy); Oliveri, P.; Casolino, C. [Universita degli Studi di Genova, Department of Chemistry and Food and Pharmaceutical Technologies, Via Brigata Salerno 13, I-16147, Genoa (Italy); Sinelli, N. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Department of Food Science and Technology, Via Celoria, 2 - I-20133 Milan (Italy); Zunin, P.; Armanino, C.; Forina, M.; Lanteri, S. [Universita degli Studi di Genova, Department of Chemistry and Food and Pharmaceutical Technologies, Via Brigata Salerno 13, I-16147, Genoa (Italy)

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterisation of the Italian PDO extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison between non-selective (UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectroscopy) and selective (fatty acid composition) analytical techniques. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synergy among spectroscopic techniques, by the fusion of the respective spectra. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prediction of the content of oleic and linoleic acids in the olive oils. - Abstract: An authentication study of the Italian PDO (protected designation of origin) extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico was performed; UV-visible (UV-vis), Near-Infrared (NIR) and Mid-Infrared (MIR) spectroscopies were applied to a set of samples representative of the whole Chianti Classico production area. The non-selective signals (fingerprints) provided by the three spectroscopic techniques were utilised both individually and jointly, after fusion of the respective profile vectors, in order to build a model for the Chianti Classico PDO olive oil. Moreover, these results were compared with those obtained by the gas chromatographic determination of the fatty acids composition. In order to characterise the olive oils produced in the Chianti Classico PDO area, UNEQ (unequal class models) and SIMCA (soft independent modelling of class analogy) were employed both on the MIR, NIR and UV-vis spectra, individually and jointly, and on the fatty acid composition. Finally, PLS (partial least square) regression was applied on the UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectra, in order to predict the content of oleic and linoleic acids in the extra virgin olive oils. UNEQ, SIMCA and PLS were performed after selection of the relevant predictors, in order to increase the efficiency of both classification and regression models. The non-selective information obtained from UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectroscopy allowed to build reliable models for checking the authenticity of the Italian PDO extra virgin olive oil

  5. Long- and short-term selective forces on malaria parasite genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Sanne; Braunstein, Alexander; Malsen, Gareth;

    2010-01-01

    a significant impact on malaria control, the selective pressures within Plasmodium genomes are poorly understood, particularly in the non-protein-coding portion of the genome. We use evolutionary methods to describe selective processes in both the coding and non-coding regions of these genomes. Based on genome...

  6. A surgical rat model of sleeve gastrectomy with staple technique: long-term weight loss results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrikakos, Panagiotis; Toutouzas, Konstantinos G; Perrea, Despoina; Menenakos, Evangelos; Pantopoulou, Alkistis; Thomopoulos, Theodore; Papadopoulos, Stefanos; Bramis, John I

    2009-11-01

    Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) is one of the surgical procedures applied for treating morbid obesity consisting of removing the gastric fundus and transforming the stomach into a narrow gastric tube. The aim of this experimental study is to create a functional model of SG and to present the long-term weight loss results. Twenty adult Wistar rats were fed with high fat diet for 12 weeks before being divided randomly in two groups of ten rats each. One group underwent SG performed with the use of staples, and the other group underwent a sham operation (control group). The animals' weight was evaluated weekly for 15 weeks after the operation. All animals survived throughout the experiment. After the operation both groups started to lose weight with maximum weight loss on the seventh postoperative day (POD) for the sham-operated group and on the 15th POD for the SG group. Thereafter, both groups started to regain weight but with different rates. By the fourth postoperative week (POW), the average weight of the sham group did not differ statistically significantly compared to the preoperative weight, while after the eighth POW, rats' average weight was statistically significantly increased compared to the preoperative value. On the other hand, average weight of the SG group was lower postoperatively until the end of the study compared to the preoperative average weight. We have created a surgical rat model of experimental SG model, enabling the further study of biochemical and hormonal parameters.

  7. A neutral network based technique for short-term forecasting of anomalous load periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sforna, M. [ENEL, s.p.a, Italian Power Company (Italy); Lamedica, R.; Prudenzi, A. [Rome Univ. `La Sapienza`, Rome (Italy); Caciotta, M.; Orsolini Cencelli, V. [Rome Univ. III, Rome (Italy)

    1995-01-01

    The paper illustrates a part of the research activity conducted by authors in the field of electric Short Term Load Forecasting (STLF) based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) architectures. Previous experiences with basic ANN architectures have shown that, even though these architecture provide results comparable with those obtained by human operators for most normal days, they evidence some accuracy deficiencies when applied to `anomalous` load conditions occurring during holidays and long weekends. For these periods a specific procedure based upon a combined (unsupervised/supervised) approach has been proposed. The unsupervised stage provides a preventive classification of the historical load data by means of a Kohonen`s Self Organizing Map (SOM). The supervised stage, performing the proper forecasting activity, is obtained by using a multi-layer percept ron with a back propagation learning algorithm similar to the ones above mentioned. The unconventional use of information deriving from the classification stage permits the proposed procedure to obtain a relevant enhancement of the forecast accuracy for anomalous load situations.

  8. Heart-shaped anastomosis for Hirschsprung's disease: Operative technique and long-term follow-up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Wang; Xiao-Yi Sun; Ming-Fa Wei; Yi-Zhen Weng

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the long-term therapeutic effect of "heartshaped" anastomosis for Hirschsprung's disease.METHODS: From January 1986 to October 1997, we performed one-stage "heart-shaped" anastomosis for 193 patients with Hirschsprung's disease (HD). One hundred and fiftytwo patients were followed up patients (follow-up rate 79%).The operative outcome and postoperative complications were retrospectively analyzed.RESULTS: Early complications included urine retention in 2patients, enteritis in 10, anastomotic stricture in 1, and intestinal obstruction in 2. No infection of abdominal cavity or wound and anastomotic leakage or death occurred in any patients. Late complications were present in 22 cases,including adhesive intestinal obstruction in 2, longer anal in 5, incision hernia in 2, enteritis in 6, occasional stool stains in 7 and 6 related with improper diet. No constipation or incontinence occurred in any patient.CONCLUSION: The early and late postoperative complication rates were 7.8% and 11.4% respectively in our "heartshaped anastomosis" procedure. "Heart-shaped"anastomosis procedure for Hirschsprung's disease provides a better therapeutic effect compared to classic procedures.

  9. A time-selective technique for free-field reciprocity calibration of condenser microphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrera Figueroa, Salvador; Rasmussen, Knud; Jacobsen, Finn

    2003-01-01

    of the diffraction of the body of the microphone, and thus, its sensitivity will change. In the two cases, a technique based on the reciprocity theorem can be applied for obtaining the absolute sensitivity either under uniform pressure or free-field conditions. In this paper, signal-processing techniques...

  10. Differential Cyclic Voltammetry - a Novel Technique for Selective and Simultaneous Detection using Redox Cycling Based Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odijk, M.; Wiedemair, J.; Megen, M.J.J; Olthuis, W.; Berg, van den A.

    2010-01-01

    Redox cycling (RC) is an effect that is used to amplify electrochemical signals. However, traditional techniques such as cyclic voltammetry (CV) do not provide clear insight for a mixture of multiple redox couples while RC is applied. Thus, we have developed a new measurement technique which deliver

  11. Differential Cyclic Voltammetry - a Novel Technique for Selective and Simultaneous Detection using Redox Cycling Based Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odijk, Mathieu; Wiedemair, Justyna; van Megen, M.J.J.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2010-01-01

    Redox cycling (RC) is an effect that is used to amplify electrochemical signals. However, traditional techniques such as cyclic voltammetry (CV) do not provide clear insight for a mixture of multiple redox couples while RC is applied. Thus, we have developed a new measurement technique which

  12. Evaluation of the leucine incorporation technique for detection of pollution-induced community tolerance to copper in a long-term agricultural field trial with urban waste fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Magid, Jakob; Holm, Peter E; Nybroe, Ole; Brandt, Kristian Koefoed

    2014-11-01

    Copper (Cu) is known to accumulate in agricultural soils receiving urban waste products as fertilizers. We here report the use of the leucine incorporation technique to determine pollution-induced community tolerance (Leu-PICT) to Cu in a long-term agricultural field trial. A significantly increased bacterial community tolerance to Cu was observed for soils amended with organic waste fertilizers and was positively correlated with total soil Cu. However, metal speciation and whole-cell bacterial biosensor analysis demonstrated that the observed PICT responses could be explained entirely by Cu speciation and bioavailability artifacts during Leu-PICT detection. Hence, the agricultural application of urban wastes (sewage sludge or composted municipal waste) simulating more than 100 years of use did not result in sufficient accumulation of Cu to select for Cu resistance. Our findings also have implications for previously published PICT field studies and demonstrate that stringent PICT detection criteria are needed for field identification of specific toxicants.

  13. Application of the Fuzzy Comprehensive Assessment Technique to Optimal Selection of Pipeline Design Alternative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChuFeixue; ChuYanfan; LiuXiumin

    2005-01-01

    Regarding the influencing factors in an optimal selection of pipeline design alternative as fuzzy variables with different weights, a fuzzy comprehensive assessment was applied to an optimal selection of the design alternative. Giving the Lanzhou-Chengdu pipeline as an example to explain the process, the result shows that this method is acceptable.

  14. Comparison of Feature Selection Techniques in Machine Learning for Anatomical Brain MRI in Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohka, Jussi; Moradi, Elaheh; Huttunen, Heikki

    2016-07-01

    We present a comparative split-half resampling analysis of various data driven feature selection and classification methods for the whole brain voxel-based classification analysis of anatomical magnetic resonance images. We compared support vector machines (SVMs), with or without filter based feature selection, several embedded feature selection methods and stability selection. While comparisons of the accuracy of various classification methods have been reported previously, the variability of the out-of-training sample classification accuracy and the set of selected features due to independent training and test sets have not been previously addressed in a brain imaging context. We studied two classification problems: 1) Alzheimer's disease (AD) vs. normal control (NC) and 2) mild cognitive impairment (MCI) vs. NC classification. In AD vs. NC classification, the variability in the test accuracy due to the subject sample did not vary between different methods and exceeded the variability due to different classifiers. In MCI vs. NC classification, particularly with a large training set, embedded feature selection methods outperformed SVM-based ones with the difference in the test accuracy exceeding the test accuracy variability due to the subject sample. The filter and embedded methods produced divergent feature patterns for MCI vs. NC classification that suggests the utility of the embedded feature selection for this problem when linked with the good generalization performance. The stability of the feature sets was strongly correlated with the number of features selected, weakly correlated with the stability of classification accuracy, and uncorrelated with the average classification accuracy.

  15. The Analysis of Long-Term Frequency and Damping Wandering in Buildings Using the Random Decrement Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Mikael, Ali; Bard, Pierre-Yves; Roux, Philippe; Langlais, Mickael; 10.1785/0120120048

    2013-01-01

    The characterization and monitoring of buildings is an issue that has attracted the interest of many sectors over the last two decades. With the increasing use of permanent, continuous and real-time networks, ambient vibrations can provide a simple tool for the identification of dynamic building parameters. This study is focused on the long-term variation of frequency and damping in several buildings, using the Random Decrement Technique (RDT). RDT provides a fast, robust and accurate long-term analysis and improves the reliability of frequency and damping measurements for structural health monitoring. This reveals particularly useful information in finding out precisely how far changes in modal parameters can be related to changes in physical properties. This paper highlights the reversible changes of the structure's dynamic parameters, correlated with external forces, such as temperature and exposure to the sun. Contrasting behaviors are observed, including correlation and anti-correlation with temperature ...

  16. Spray Drying as a Processing Technique for Syndiotactic Polystyrene to Powder Form for Part Manufacturing Through Selective Laser Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mys, N.; Verberckmoes, A.; Cardon, L.

    2016-11-01

    Selective laser sintering (SLS) is a rapidly expanding field of the three-dimensional printing concept. One stumbling block in the evolution of the technique is the limited range of materials available for processing with SLS making the application window small. This article aims at identifying syndiotactic polystyrene (sPS) as a promising material. sPS pellets were processed into powder form with a lab-scale spray dryer with vibrating nozzle. This technique is the focus of this scope as it almost eliminates the agglomeration phenomenon often encountered with the use of solution-based processing techniques. Microspheres obtained were characterized in shape and size by scanning electron microscopy and evaluation of the particle size distribution. The effect the processing technique imparts on the intrinsic properties of the material was examined by differential scanning calorimetry analysis.

  17. Effects of sampling techniques on physical parameters and concentrations of selected persistent organic pollutants in suspended matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlert, Thorsten; Hillebrand, Gudrun; Breitung, Vera

    2011-06-01

    This study focusses on the effect of sampling techniques for suspended matter in stream water on subsequent particle-size distribution and concentrations of total organic carbon and selected persistent organic pollutants. The key questions are whether differences between the sampling techniques are due to the separation principle of the devices or due to the difference between time-proportional versus integral sampling. Several multivariate homogeneity tests were conducted on an extensive set of field-data that covers the period from 2002 to 2007, when up to three different sampling techniques were deployed in parallel at four monitoring stations of the River Rhine. The results indicate homogeneity for polychlorinated biphenyls, but significant effects due to the sampling techniques on particle-size, organic carbon and hexachlorobenzene. The effects can be amplified depending on the site characteristics of the monitoring stations.

  18. Spray Drying as a Processing Technique for Syndiotactic Polystyrene to Powder Form for Part Manufacturing Through Selective Laser Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mys, N.; Verberckmoes, A.; Cardon, L.

    2017-03-01

    Selective laser sintering (SLS) is a rapidly expanding field of the three-dimensional printing concept. One stumbling block in the evolution of the technique is the limited range of materials available for processing with SLS making the application window small. This article aims at identifying syndiotactic polystyrene (sPS) as a promising material. sPS pellets were processed into powder form with a lab-scale spray dryer with vibrating nozzle. This technique is the focus of this scope as it almost eliminates the agglomeration phenomenon often encountered with the use of solution-based processing techniques. Microspheres obtained were characterized in shape and size by scanning electron microscopy and evaluation of the particle size distribution. The effect the processing technique imparts on the intrinsic properties of the material was examined by differential scanning calorimetry analysis.

  19. Vertical mammaplasty associated with accelerated partial breast radiotherapy: how oncoplastic surgery techniques associated with modern techniques of radiotherapy can improve the aesthetic outcome in selected patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couto, Henrique Lima, E-mail: enriquecouto@hotmail.com [Santa Fe Women' s and Maternity Hospital, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Amorim, Washington Cancado; Guimaraes, Rodrigo [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Hospital Geral; Ramires, Leandro Cruz; Castilho, Marcus Simoes [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina; Dominguez, Lorena Lima Coto [Universidade Estacio de Sa (UNESA), Rio de Janeiro, EJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    Breast cancer is the second most common type of cancer in the world, being the most common among women, responsible for 22% of new cases each year. It's surgical and radiation treatment evolved from radical procedures (Halsted radical mastectomy and total external breast radiotherapy) to less radical and more conservative procedures. With the use of modern oncoplastic surgery techniques and accelerated partial breast radiotherapy, selected patients can benefit with better aesthetic results, fewer side effects, and more comfortable and brief treatments. (author)

  20. The long-term evolution of multilocus traits under frequency-dependent disruptive selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Doorn, G. Sander; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    Frequency-dependent disruptive selection is widely recognized as an important source of genetic variation. Its evolutionary consequences have been extensively studied using phenotypic evolutionary models, based on quantitative genetics, game theory, or adaptive dynamics. However, the genetic

  1. Long-term responses to selection for parameters of the allometric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pluimveebedryf. Keywords: Allometric model, correlated response, direct response, intercept, slope. * Author to .... infertility, the two best males and females from each family were selected as ..... Voluntary feed intake, growth, body composition ...

  2. GATEWAY Demonstrations: Long-Term Evaluation of SSL Field Performance in Select Interior Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Tess E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Davis, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wilkerson, Andrea M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-02-28

    The GATEWAY program evaluated the long-term performance characteristics (chromaticity change, maintained illuminance, and operations and maintenance) of LED lighting systems in four field installations previously documented in separate DOE GATEWAY reports.

  3. Long-term genetic selection reduced prevalence of hip and elbow dysplasia in 60 dog breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, G. G.; Famula, T. R.

    2017-01-01

    Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) and elbow dysplasia (ED) impact the health and welfare of all dogs. The first formally organized assessment scheme to improve canine health centered on reducing the prevalence of these orthopedic disorders. Phenotypic screening of joint conformation remains the currently available strategy for breeders to make selection decisions. The present study evaluated the efficacy of employing phenotypic selection on breed improvement of hips and elbows using the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals complete database spanning the 1970–2015 time period. Sixty breeds having more than 1000 unique hip evaluations and 500 elbow evaluations (1,056,852 and 275,129 hip and elbow records, respectively) were interrogated to derive phenotypic improvement, sex and age at time of assessment effects, correlation between the two joints, heritability estimates, estimated breeding values (EBV), and effectiveness of maternal/paternal selection. The data demonstrated that there has been overall improvement in hip and elbow conformation with a reduction in EBV for disease liability, although the breeds differed in the magnitude of the response to selection. Heritabilities also differed substantially across the breeds as did the correlation of the joints; in the absence of a universal association of these differences with breed size, popularity, or participation in screening, it appears that the breeds themselves vary in genetic control. There was subtle, though again breed specific, impact of sex and older ages on CHD and ED. There was greater paternal impact on a reduction of CHD. In the absence of direct genetic tests for either of these two diseases, phenotypic selection has proven to be effective. Furthermore, the data underscore that selection schemes must be breed specific and that it is likely the genetic profiles will be unique across the breeds for these two conditions. Despite the advances achieved with phenotypic selection, incorporation of EBVs into

  4. Bicoid Signal Extraction with a Selection of Parametric and Nonparametric Signal Processing Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zara Ghodsi; Emmanuel Sirimal Silva; Hossein Hassani

    2015-01-01

    The maternal segmentation coordinate gene bicoid plays a significant role during Drosophila embryogenesis. The gradient of Bicoid, the protein encoded by this gene, determines most aspects of head and thorax development. This paper seeks to explore the applicability of a variety of signal processing techniques at extracting bicoid expression signal, and whether these methods can outperform the current model. We evaluate the use of six different powerful and widely-used models representing both parametric and nonparametric signal processing techniques to determine the most efficient method for signal extraction in bicoid. The results are evaluated using both real and simulated data. Our findings show that the Singular Spectrum Analysis technique proposed in this paper outperforms the synthesis diffusion degradation model for filtering the noisy protein profile of bicoid whilst the exponential smoothing technique was found to be the next best alternative followed by the autoregressive integrated moving average.

  5. Bicoid signal extraction with a selection of parametric and nonparametric signal processing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodsi, Zara; Silva, Emmanuel Sirimal; Hassani, Hossein

    2015-06-01

    The maternal segmentation coordinate gene bicoid plays a significant role during Drosophila embryogenesis. The gradient of Bicoid, the protein encoded by this gene, determines most aspects of head and thorax development. This paper seeks to explore the applicability of a variety of signal processing techniques at extracting bicoid expression signal, and whether these methods can outperform the current model. We evaluate the use of six different powerful and widely-used models representing both parametric and nonparametric signal processing techniques to determine the most efficient method for signal extraction in bicoid. The results are evaluated using both real and simulated data. Our findings show that the Singular Spectrum Analysis technique proposed in this paper outperforms the synthesis diffusion degradation model for filtering the noisy protein profile of bicoid whilst the exponential smoothing technique was found to be the next best alternative followed by the autoregressive integrated moving average.

  6. Method to Select Technical Terms for Glossaries in Support of Joint Task Force Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    goals. While the present method underpins a capability that serves only one specific group, the foundation of the method explained here justifies...material that supports the bilingual work. Thus, physicians want to see medical terms, attorneys want to see legal terms, and Soldiers want to see...prepared for one document in particular, the first text in Stanford Law School’s Afghan Legal Education Project (ALEP), An Introduction to the Law of

  7. Selection of machining datum and allocation of tolerance through tolerance charting technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilak, Manoharan; Sivakumar, Karuppan; Jayaprakash, Govindharajalu

    2012-07-01

    Tolerance charting is an effective tool to determine the optimal allocation of working dimensions and working tolerances such that the blueprint dimensions and tolerances can be achieved to accomplish the cost objectives. The selection of machining datum and allocation of tolerances are critical in any machining process planning as they directly affect any setup methods/machine tools selection and machining time. This paper mainly focuses on the selection of optimum machining datums and machining tolerances simultaneously in process planning. A dynamic tolerance charting constraint scheme is developed and implemented in the optimization procedure. An optimization model is formulated for selecting machining datum and tolerances and implemented with an algorithm namely Elitist Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II).The computational results indicate that the proposed methodology is capable and robust in finding the optimal machining datum set and tolerances.

  8. Cervical selective dorsal rhizotomy for treating spasticity in upper limb neurosurgical way to neurosurgical technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Duan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Selective dorsal rhizotomy is an effective method to reduce spasticity of the lower limbs. However, functional outcomes in the upper limb following selective dorsal rhizotomy at the cervical level have not been reported. Here we report the clinical course after selective dorsal rhizotomy at the cervical level in a patient with hemiplegic spasticity caused by brain injury. The selective dorsal rootlets at the cervical level were sectioned under electrophysiological monitoring. The patient was followed for 1 year to evaluate the outcome of surgery. The spasticity in the upper limb was reduced and the passive range of motion and function of movement improved. However, the effectiveness and the safety of operation should be studied further in clinical trials.

  9. Evaluation of Fat Suppression of Diffusion-weighted Imaging Using Section Select Gradient Reversal Technique on 3 T Breast MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemori, Daichi; Kimura, Daisuke; Yamada, Eiji; Higashida, Mitsuji

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluates fat suppression of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) using section select gradient reversal (SSGR) technique in clinical images on 3 T breast MRI. A total of 20 patients with breast cancer were examined at a Philips Ingenia 3 T MRI. We acquired DWI with SPAIR, SSGR-SPAIR, STIR, and SSGR-STIR. We evaluated contrast between the fat region and lesion, the coefficient of variance (CV) of the fat region and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of normal breast tissue and lesion. The contrast between the fat region and lesion was improved with SSGR technique. The CV of the fattest region did not have any significant difference in SPAIR technique (p>0.05), but it was significantly decreased in the STIR technique using SSGR technique (p<0.05). Positive correlation was observed in ADC value between SPAIR and other fat suppression techniques (SSGR-SPAIR, STIR, SSGR-STIR). DWI using SSGR technique was suggested to be effective on 3 T breast MRI.

  10. Understanding vaccination resistance: vaccine search term selection bias and the valence of retrieved information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Jeanette B; Bell, Robert A

    2014-10-07

    Dubious vaccination-related information on the Internet leads some parents to opt out of vaccinating their children. To determine if negative, neutral and positive search terms retrieve vaccination information that differs in valence and confirms searchers' assumptions about vaccination. A content analysis of first-page Google search results was conducted using three negative, three neutral, and three positive search terms for the concepts "vaccine," "vaccination," and "MMR"; 84 of the 90 websites retrieved met inclusion requirements. Two coders independently and reliably coded for the presence or absence of each of 15 myths about vaccination (e.g., "vaccines cause autism"), statements that countered these myths, and recommendations for or against vaccination. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Across all websites, at least one myth was perpetuated on 16.7% of websites and at least one myth was countered on 64.3% of websites. The mean number of myths perpetuated on websites retrieved with negative, neutral, and positive search terms, respectively, was 1.93, 0.53, and 0.40. The mean number of myths countered on websites retrieved with negative, neutral, and positive search terms, respectively, was 3.0, 3.27, and 2.87. Explicit recommendations regarding vaccination were offered on 22.6% of websites. A recommendation against vaccination was more often made on websites retrieved with negative search terms (37.5% of recommendations) than on websites retrieved with neutral (12.5%) or positive (0%) search terms. The concerned parent who seeks information about the risks of childhood immunizations will find more websites that perpetuate vaccine myths and recommend against vaccination than the parent who seeks information about the benefits of vaccination. This suggests that search term valence can lead to online information that supports concerned parents' misconceptions about vaccines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Technical Description of the Use of Selective Perfusion Techniques During the Norwood Procedure for Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, David Leonard; Polimenakos, Anastasios C.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Since the introduction of the Norwood procedure for surgical palliation of hypoplastic left heart syndrome in 1983, refinements have been made to the original procedure to improve patient outcomes while still accomplishing the original goals of the procedure. One of these refinements has been the introduction of regional selective perfusion to limit the duration of circulatory arrest times and optimize the regional flow distribution. In this paper we describe our technique for performing selective cerebral and lower body perfusion during the Norwood procedure. PMID:22416608

  12. Long-term follow-up after mesh removal and selective neurectomy for persistent inguinal postherniorrhaphy pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff, J M; Enghuus, Casper Nørskov; Werner, M U;

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Persistent inguinal pain, influencing daily activities, is seen in about 5 % of patients following inguinal herniorrhaphy. Surgical treatment of patients with persistent postherniorrhaphy pain has been associated with pain relief and improvement in functional status. However, the detailed...... long-term outcome effects remain to be clarified. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term effects of mesh removal and selective neurectomy in patients with persistent postherniorrhaphy pain after previous open repair. METHODS: The study consecutively included 54 inguinal postherniorrhaphy...

  13. Adhesive dentistry: the development of immediate dentin sealing/selective etching bonding technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helvey, Gregg A

    2011-01-01

    A major objective of dental research over the past 60 years has been a search for the "dream-team" of dental adhesives. In fact, a recent Medline search produced more than 6,500 papers on dentin bonding and its techniques. Adhesive systems are designed to retain direct and indirect restorations, minimize leakage at the margin, and be simple to place while producing consistent results. The development of materials and techniques has an interesting history; some have recirculated from the past and are being used in some form today. Buonocore used the etchant phosphoric acid at the beginning of the adhesive revolution. Though not accepted for many years it eventually became the "gold standard" for etching enamel. Technique sensitivity moved it out of favor and, through the development of self-etching acidic primers, was eliminated from some adhesive systems. Although these primers may have successfully addressed postoperative sensitivity, adhesion was compromised. The bond strength of these systems has now been improved with the incorporation of phosphoric acid-etch to condition enamel prior to using the adhesive system. This article will trace the history of adhesive techniques and materials and how it has led to the creation of a new technique that combines two bonding methods.

  14. Severe accident source term characteristics for selected Peach Bottom sequences predicted by the MELCOR Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbajo, J.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to compare in-containment source terms developed for NUREG-1159, which used the Source Term Code Package (STCP), with those generated by MELCOR to identify significant differences. For this comparison, two short-term depressurized station blackout sequences (with a dry cavity and with a flooded cavity) and a Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) concurrent with complete loss of the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) were analyzed for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (a BWR-4 with a Mark I containment). The results indicate that for the sequences analyzed, the two codes predict similar total in-containment release fractions for each of the element groups. However, the MELCOR/CORBH Package predicts significantly longer times for vessel failure and reduced energy of the released material for the station blackout sequences (when compared to the STCP results). MELCOR also calculated smaller releases into the environment than STCP for the station blackout sequences.

  15. Accelerated partial breast irradiation with brachytherapy: patient selection and technique considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifiletti DM

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Daniel M Trifiletti,1 Kara D Romano,1 Shayna L Showalter,2 Kelli A Reardon,1 Bruce Libby,1 Timothy N Showalter11Department of Radiation Oncology, 2Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA, USAAbstract: Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI through breast brachytherapy is a relatively recent development in breast radiotherapy that has gained international favor because of its reduction in treatment duration and normal tissue irradiation while maintaining favorable cancer-specific and cosmetic outcomes. Despite the fact that several large national trials have not reported final results yet, many providers are currently offering APBI to select patients and APBI is listed as a treatment option for selecting patients in the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines. Multiple consensus guidelines exist in selecting patients for APBI, some with conflicting recommendations. In this review, the existing patient selection guidelines are reported, compared, and critiqued, grouping them in helpful subcategories. Unique patient and technical selection factors for APBI with brachytherapy are explored.Keywords: breast cancer, APBI, breast brachytherapy

  16. Long- and short-term selective forces on malaria parasite genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Sanne; Braunstein, Alexander; Malsen, Gareth

    2010-01-01

    Plasmodium parasites, the causal agents of malaria, result in more than 1 million deaths annually. Plasmodium are unicellular eukaryotes with small ~23 Mb genomes encoding ~5200 protein-coding genes. The protein-coding genes comprise about half of these genomes. Although evolutionary processes have...... a significant impact on malaria control, the selective pressures within Plasmodium genomes are poorly understood, particularly in the non-protein-coding portion of the genome. We use evolutionary methods to describe selective processes in both the coding and non-coding regions of these genomes. Based on genome...

  17. Elaboration of Method of Long-Term Culturing and Selection of Enzyme Producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blieva Raushan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the conducted researches on pectin lyase and proteolytic enzyme biosynthesis by Penicillium and Asperaillus micromycetes we have developed efficient methods for their cultivation and selection. We theoretically substantiated and experimentally confirmed an advantage of growing micromycetes in a new filament-spongy immobilized growth structure on the substrate relative to the traditional method of deep cultivation of free cells in the form of pellets. When comparing a traditional with our innovative method of cultivation, many advantages of the latter are revealed, above all being the possibility of the formation of new highly selective cultures in the long process of their growth with modified culturally - morphological properties.

  18. Review on Feature Selection Techniques and the Impact of SVM for Cancer Classification using Gene Expression Profile

    CERN Document Server

    George, G Victo Sudha; 10.5121/ijcses.2011.2302

    2011-01-01

    The DNA microarray technology has modernized the approach of biology research in such a way that scientists can now measure the expression levels of thousands of genes simultaneously in a single experiment. Gene expression profiles, which represent the state of a cell at a molecular level, have great potential as a medical diagnosis tool. But compared to the number of genes involved, available training data sets generally have a fairly small sample size for classification. These training data limitations constitute a challenge to certain classification methodologies. Feature selection techniques can be used to extract the marker genes which influence the classification accuracy effectively by eliminating the un wanted noisy and redundant genes This paper presents a review of feature selection techniques that have been employed in micro array data based cancer classification and also the predominant role of SVM for cancer classification.

  19. Cloud Package Selection for Academic Requirements using Multi Criteria Decision Making based Modified Ant Colony Optimization Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Madhumathi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Quality of Service (QoS and user satisfaction are two of the major requirements considered by the current cloud service providers. In-order to incorporate these qualities in the cloud resource selection framework, user’s requirements must be clearly known. This paper presents an effective cloud package allocation technique that utilizes the user’s logs and fuzzy user inputs to identify the user requirements to perform optimal allocations. Since cloud packages are predefined and do not correspond to the direct user requirements, optimal package allocation is the only option. This process is carried out by Ant Colony Optimization (ACO. Due to the metaheuristic nature of ACO, the results obtained from this selection technique was found to be optimal and the results were obtained faster even with the usage of a large number of agents (ants. Experiments show that ACO provides optimal and fast allocations.

  20. Judgments in the selection of path generation techniques: a meta-analytic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    objective judgments for effective route choice set generation. Initially, path generation techniques are implemented within a synthetic network to generate possible subjective choice sets considered by travelers. Next, “true model estimates” and “postulated predicted routes” are assumed from the simulation...... synthesizing the effect of judgments on the implementation of path generation techniques, since a large number of models generate a large amount of results that are otherwise difficult to summarize and to process. Meta-analysis estimates suggest that modelers should apply stochastic approaches...

  1. A review of multi-criteria decision making techniques for supplier evaluation and selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince Agarwal

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Supplier evaluation and selection has been a vital issue of strategic importance for long time. Different multi-criteria decision making (MCDM approaches have been proposed by the researchers in past, to solve the supplier evaluation and selection problem. In this paper, we present a review of various MCDM methodologies reported in the literature for solving the supplier evaluation and selection process. The review is solely based on sixty-eight research articles, including eight review articles in the academic literature from 2000 to 2011. We try to find out the most prevalent approach in the articles and thereby present the future scope of arriving at an optimal solution to the problem, based on the specifications, the strategies and the requirements of the buyers. The study presents that with the change in processes and the requirements, how the approach of the manufacturing industry has shifted from striving for operational effectiveness to the strategic partnership in the dyadic relationship.

  2. Selective reflection technique as a probe to monitor the growth of a metallic thin film on dielectric surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, Weliton Soares; Chevrollier, Martine; de Silans, Thierry Passerat

    2013-01-01

    Controlling thin film formation is technologically challenging. The knowledge of physical properties of the film and of the atoms in the surface vicinity can help improve control over the film growth. We investigate the use of the well-established selective reflection technique to probe the thin film during its growth, simultaneously monitoring the film thickness, the atom-surface van der Waals interaction and the vapor properties in the surface vicinity.

  3. An Approach for Optimal Feature Subset Selection using a New Term Weighting Scheme and Mutual Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shine N Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the web, large numbers of documents are available on the Internet and they are growing drastically day by day. Hence automatic text categorization becomes more and more important for dealing with massive data. However the major problem of document categorization is the high dimensionality of feature space.  The measures to decrease the feature dimension under not decreasing recognition effect are called the problems of feature optimum extraction or selection. Dealing with reduced relevant feature set can be more efficient and effective. The objective of feature selection is to find a subset of features that have all characteristics of the full features set. Instead Dependency among features is also important for classification. During past years, various metrics have been proposed to measure the dependency among different features. A popular approach to realize dependency is maximal relevance feature selection: selecting the features with the highest relevance to the target class. A new feature weighting scheme, we proposed have got a tremendous improvements in dimensionality reduction of the feature space. The experimental results clearly show that this integrated method works far better than the others.

  4. Selection harvests in Amazonian rainforests: long-term impacts on soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.L. McNabb; M.S. Miller; B.G. Lockaby; B.J. Stokes; R.G. Clawson; John A. Stanturf; J.N.M. Silva

    1997-01-01

    Surface soil properties were compared among disturbance classes associated with a single-tree selection harvest study installed in 1979 in the Brazilian Amazon. Response variables included pH, total N, total organic C, extractable P, exchangeable K, Ca, Mg, and bulk density. In general, concentrations of all elements displayed residual effects 16 years after harvests...

  5. Ponce de Leon Inlet, Florida, Site Investigation Report 1, Selected Portions of Long-Term Measurements, 1995-1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Technical Report CHL-99-1 January 1999 US Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station Coastal Inlets Research Program Ponce de Leon ...Report CHL-99-1 Research Program January 1999 Ponce de Leon Inlet, Florida, Site Investigation Report 1 Selected Portions of Long-Term Measurements...AREA OF RESERVAT«» • J?s»lon Waterways Experiment Station Cataloging-in-Publication Data Ponce de Leon Inlet, Florida, site investigation. Report

  6. Differential prioritization between relevance and redundancy in correlation-based feature selection techniques for multiclass gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetty Madhu

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the large number of genes in a typical microarray dataset, feature selection looks set to play an important role in reducing noise and computational cost in gene expression-based tissue classification while improving accuracy at the same time. Surprisingly, this does not appear to be the case for all multiclass microarray datasets. The reason is that many feature selection techniques applied on microarray datasets are either rank-based and hence do not take into account correlations between genes, or are wrapper-based, which require high computational cost, and often yield difficult-to-reproduce results. In studies where correlations between genes are considered, attempts to establish the merit of the proposed techniques are hampered by evaluation procedures which are less than meticulous, resulting in overly optimistic estimates of accuracy. Results We present two realistically evaluated correlation-based feature selection techniques which incorporate, in addition to the two existing criteria involved in forming a predictor set (relevance and redundancy, a third criterion called the degree of differential prioritization (DDP. DDP functions as a parameter to strike the balance between relevance and redundancy, providing our techniques with the novel ability to differentially prioritize the optimization of relevance against redundancy (and vice versa. This ability proves useful in producing optimal classification accuracy while using reasonably small predictor set sizes for nine well-known multiclass microarray datasets. Conclusion For multiclass microarray datasets, especially the GCM and NCI60 datasets, DDP enables our filter-based techniques to produce accuracies better than those reported in previous studies which employed similarly realistic evaluation procedures.

  7. Toxicity of selected plant volatiles in microbial and mammalian short-term assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stammati, A.; Bonsi, P.; Zucco, F.; Moezelaar, R.; Alakomi, H.L.; von Wright, A.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, several short-term microbial and mammalian in vitro assays were used to evaluate cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of four plant volatiles showing antifungal activity: cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, thymol and S(+)-carvone. All inhibited viability and proliferation of Hep-2 cells in a dose-de

  8. Terminology of European Education and Training Policy: A Selection of 130 Key Terms. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This multilingual glossary defines 130 key terms used in European education and training policy. It is an extended and updated version of "Terminology of European education and training policy" (2008) and "Terminology of vocational training policy" (2004). It considers new priorities of European union policy, mainly in skills…

  9. Toxicity of selected plant volatiles in microbial and mammalian short-term assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stammati, A.; Bonsi, P.; Zucco, F.; Moezelaar, R.; Alakomi, H.L.; Wright, von A.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, several short-term microbial and mammalian in vitro assays were used to evaluate cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of four plant volatiles showing antifungal activity: cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, thymol and S(+)-carvone. All inhibited viability and proliferation of Hep-2 cells in a dose-de

  10. A NOVEL TECHNIQUE FOR MULTIPLE FAULTS AND THEIR LOCATIONS DETECTION AND START ELECTRODE SELECTION IN MICROFLUIDIC DIGITAL BIOCHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUKTA MAJUMDER

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A device, that is used for biomedical operation or safety-critical applications like point-of-care health assessment, massive parallel DNA analysis, automated drug discovery, air-quality monitoring and food-safety testing, must have the attributes like reliability, dependability and correctness. As the biochips are used for these purposes; therefore, these devices must be fault free all the time. Naturally before using these chips, they must be well tested. We are proposing a novel technique that can detect multiple faults, locate the fault positions within the biochip, as well as calculate the traversal time if the biochip is fault free. The proposed technique also highlights a new idea how to select the appropriate base node or pseudo source (start electrode. The main idea of the proposed technique is to form multiple loops with the neighboring electrode arrays and then test each loop by traversing test droplet to check whether there is any fault. If a fault is detected then the proposed technique also locates it by backtracking the test droplet. In case, no fault is detected, the biochip is fault free then the proposed technique also calculates the time to traverse the chip. The result suggests that the proposed technique is efficient and shows significant improvement to calculate fault-free biochip traversal time over existing method.

  11. Long-term Carbon Loss and Recovery Following Selective Logging in Amazon Forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Maoyi; Asner, Gregory P.

    2010-09-30

    Amazon deforestation contributes significantly to global carbon (C) emissions. In comparison, the contribution from selective logging to atmospheric CO2 emissions, and its impact on regional C dynamics, is highly uncertain. Using a new geographically-based modeling approach in combination with high resolution remote sensing data from 1999-2002, we estimate that C emissions were 0.04 – 0.05 Pg C yr-1 due to selective logging from a ~2,664,960 km2 region of the Brazilian Amazon. Selective logging was responsible for 15-19% higher carbon emissions than reported from deforestation (clear-cutting) alone. Our simulations indicated that forest carbon lost via selective logging lasts two to three decades following harvest, and that the original live biomass takes up to a century to recover, if the forests are not subsequently cleared. The two- to three-decade loss of carbon results from the biomass damaged by logging activities, including leaves, wood, and roots, estimated to be 89.1 Tg C yr-1 from 1999-2002 over the study region, leaving 70.0 Tg C yr-1 and 7.9 Tg C yr-1 to accumulate as coarse woody debris and soil C, respectively. While avoided deforestation is central to crediting rainforest nations for reduced carbon emissions, the extent and intensity of selective logging are also critical to determining carbon emissions in the context of Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD). We show that a combination of automated high-resolution satellite monitoring and detailed forest C modeling can yield spatially explicit estimates of harvest related C losses and subsequent recovery in support of REDD and other international carbon market mechanisms.

  12. COMPARISON OF MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES FOR QUANTIFYING SELECTED ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM KEROSENE SPACE HEATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report goes results of (1) a comparison the hood and chamber techniques for quantifying pollutant emission rates from unvented combustion appliances, and (2) an assessment of the semivolatile and nonvolatile organic-compound emissions from unvented kerosene space heaters. In ...

  13. Pelvic Fixation in Adult and Pediatric Spine Surgery: Historical Perspective, Indications, and Techniques: AAOS Exhibit Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Amit; Hassanzadeh, Hamid; Strike, Sophia A; Menga, Emmanuel N; Sponseller, Paul D; Kebaish, Khaled M

    2015-09-16

    Achieving solid osseous fusion across the lumbosacral junction has historically been, and continues to be, a challenge in spine surgery. Robust pelvic fixation plays an integral role in achieving this goal. The goals of this review are to describe the history of and indications for spinopelvic fixation, examine conventional spinopelvic fixation techniques, and review the newer S2-alar-iliac technique and its outcomes in adult and pediatric patients with spinal deformity. Since the introduction of Harrington rods in the 1960s, spinal instrumentation has evolved substantially. Indications for spinopelvic fixation as a means to achieve lumbosacral arthrodesis include a long arthrodesis (five or more vertebral levels) or use of three-column osteotomies in the lower thoracic or lumbar spine, surgical treatment of high-grade spondylolisthesis, and correction of lumbar deformity and pelvic obliquity. A variety of techniques have been described over the years, including Galveston iliac rods, Jackson intrasacral rods, the Kostuik transiliac bar, iliac screws, and S2-alar-iliac screws. Modern iliac screws and S2-alar-iliac screws are associated with relatively low rates of pseudarthrosis. S2-alar-iliac screws have the advantages of less implant prominence and inline placement with proximal spinal anchors. Collectively, these techniques provide powerful methods for obtaining control of the pelvis in facilitating lumbosacral arthrodesis.

  14. Selection of micro-fabrication techniques on stainless steel sheet for skin friction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Sheng; Zeng, Xiangqiong; Matthews, David Thomas Allan; Igartua, A.; Rodriguez Vidal, E.; Contreras Fortes, J.; Saenz de Viteri, V.; Pagano, F.; Wadman, B.; Wiklund, E.D.; van der Heide, Emile

    2016-01-01

    This review gives a concise introduction to the state-of-art techniques used for surface texturing, e.g., wet etching, plasma etching, laser surface texturing (LST), 3D printing, etc. In order to fabricate deterministic textures with the desired geometric structures and scales, the innovative textur

  15. Donor Selection in Flow Replacement Bypass Surgery for Cerebral Aneurysms: Quantitative Analysis of Long-term Native Donor Flow Sufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustemi, Oriela; Amin-Hanjani, Sepideh; Shakur, Sophia F; Du, Xinjian; Charbel, Fady T

    2016-03-01

    Graft selection in extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery for cerebral aneurysms has traditionally been based on clinical impression and operator preference. However, decision making can be optimized with a donor selection algorithm based on intraoperative flow data. To present long-term follow-up and quantitative assessment of flow sufficiency for native donors selected in this manner. Patients with bypass for anterior circulation intracranial aneurysms using only a native donor (superficial temporal artery) selected on the basis of an intraoperative flow algorithm over a 10-year period were retrospectively studied. Intracranial hemispheric and bypass flows were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively when available with quantitative magnetic resonance angiography. Twenty-two patients with flow data were included (median aneurysm size, 22 mm). The intraoperative flow offer (cut flow) of the superficial temporal artery was sufficient in these cases relative to the flow demand in the sacrificed vessel (59 vs 28 mL/min) to warrant its use. Bypass flow averaged 81 mL/min postoperatively (n = 19). Bypass flows were highest in the immediate postoperative period but remained stable between the intermediate and final follow-up (40 vs 52 mL/min; P = .39; n = 8). Mean ipsilateral hemisphere flows were maintained after bypass (299 vs 335 mL/min; P = .42; n = 7), and remained stable over intermediate and long-term follow-up. Ipsilateral hemispheric flows remained similar to contralateral flows at all time points. Despite a relative reduction in bypass flow over time, hemispheric flows were maintained, indicating that simple native donors can carry sufficient flow for territory demand long term when an intraoperative flow-based algorithm is used for donor selection.

  16. Using the Nominal Group Technique to Select the Most Appropriate Topics for Postgraduate Research Students' Seminars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sandra C.

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, the Faculty of Health & Behavioural Sciences at our university offered a series of postgraduate research seminars. The series of seminars, selected by a three-person faculty team, received a mixed reaction--some seminars attracted a large proportion of the students whereas others were poorly attended. Thus, it was decided to continue…

  17. The dilemma of selecting suitable proximal carious lesions in primary molars for restoration using ART technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemoli, A.M.; van Amerongen, W.E.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the examiner's accuracy in selecting proximal carious lesions in primary molars for restoration using the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach. BASIC RESEARCH DESIGN: Intervention study. CLINICAL SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 804 six to eight year-olds from

  18. The dilemma of selecting suitable proximal carious lesions in primary molars for restoration using ART technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemoli, A.M.; van Amerongen, W.E.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the examiner's accuracy in selecting proximal carious lesions in primary molars for restoration using the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach. BASIC RESEARCH DESIGN: Intervention study. CLINICAL SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 804 six to eight year-olds from

  19. Long-term efficacy of a mini-course in radiation-reducing techniques in invasive cardiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuon, E. [Klinik Fraenkische Schweiz, Ebermannstadt (Germany). Abt. fuer Kardiologie; Empen, K.; Hummel, A.; Doerr, M.; Reffelmann, T.; Felix, S.B. [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, Greifswald (Germany). Abt. fuer Innere Medizin B; Weitmann, K.; Hoffmann, W. [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, Greifswald (Germany). Inst. fuer Versorgungsmedizin; Staudt, A. [Helios Kliniken, Schwerin (Germany). Abt. fuer Kardiologie und Angiologie

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To validate the long-term efficacy of a 90-min. educational mini-course in less-irradiating cardiac interventional techniques. Materials and Methods: Before, two months after, and two years after the mini-course (periods I, II, and III), we analyzed the following radiation dose parameters for ten coronary angiographies (CA), performed by each of 7 cardiologists: total dose-area product (DAP), radiographic and fluoroscopic DAP fractions, number of radiographic frames and runs, and fluoroscopy time. Results: The median patient DAP for periods I, II and III was 31.4, 15.8 and 8.5 Gy x cm{sup 2}, respectively. The long-term effect was related to shorter median fluoroscopy times (180, 172, and 120 s), shorter (57, 52, and 45) and fewer (12, 12, and 10) radiographic runs, consistent collimation and restriction to an adequate image quality. Both radiographic DAP/frame (28.7, 17.0, and 18.4 mGy x cm{sup 2}) and fluoroscopic DAP/second (45.7, 24.2, and 10.0 mGy x cm{sup 2}) decreased significantly. The multivariate linear regression analysis confirmed the increasing efficacy of the mini-course itself (-44.6 and -60.7 %), and revealed a decreasing influence of the interventionalist's experience (-8.6 % and -4.9 % per 1,000 CAs, lifelong performed until the mini-course). The number of CAs performed after the mini-course did not influence the long-term DAP results. Conclusion: The presented educational mini-course allows a significant, long-lasting, and apparently ongoing reduction of patient radiation exposure due to CA. A self-surveillant documentation of relevant radiation parameters is well suited to monitor and improve each operator's individual long-term radiation-reducing efforts. (orig.)

  20. Flexible selection of a single treatment incorporating short-term endpoint information in a phase II/III clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, Nigel; Kunz, Cornelia Ursula; Todd, Susan; Parsons, Nicholas; Friede, Tim

    2015-10-15

    Seamless phase II/III clinical trials in which an experimental treatment is selected at an interim analysis have been the focus of much recent research interest. Many of the methods proposed are based on the group sequential approach. This paper considers designs of this type in which the treatment selection can be based on short-term endpoint information for more patients than have primary endpoint data available. We show that in such a case, the familywise type I error rate may be inflated if previously proposed group sequential methods are used and the treatment selection rule is not specified in advance. A method is proposed to avoid this inflation by considering the treatment selection that maximises the conditional error given the data available at the interim analysis. A simulation study is reported that illustrates the type I error rate inflation and compares the power of the new approach with two other methods: a combination testing approach and a group sequential method that does not use the short-term endpoint data, both of which also strongly control the type I error rate. The new method is also illustrated through application to a study in Alzheimer's disease. © 2015 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Selective CD28 Antagonist Blunts Memory Immune Responses and Promotes Long-Term Control of Skin Inflammation in Nonhuman Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Nicolas; Chevalier, Melanie; Mary, Caroline; Hervouet, Jeremy; Minault, David; Baker, Paul; Ville, Simon; Le Bas-Bernardet, Stephanie; Dilek, Nahzli; Belarif, Lyssia; Cassagnau, Elisabeth; Scobie, Linda; Blancho, Gilles; Vanhove, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Novel therapies that specifically target activation and expansion of pathogenic immune cell subsets responsible for autoimmune attacks are needed to confer long-term remission. Pathogenic cells in autoimmunity include memory T lymphocytes that are long-lived and present rapid recall effector functions with reduced activation requirements. Whereas the CD28 costimulation pathway predominantly controls priming of naive T cells and hence generation of adaptive memory cells, the roles of CD28 costimulation on established memory T lymphocytes and the recall of memory responses remain controversial. In contrast to CD80/86 antagonists (CTLA4-Ig), selective CD28 antagonists blunt T cell costimulation while sparing CTLA-4 and PD-L1-dependent coinhibitory signals. Using a new selective CD28 antagonist, we showed that Ag-specific reactivation of human memory T lymphocytes was prevented. Selective CD28 blockade controlled both cellular and humoral memory recall in nonhuman primates and induced long-term Ag-specific unresponsiveness in a memory T cell-mediated inflammatory skin model. No modification of memory T lymphocytes subsets or numbers was observed in the periphery, and importantly no significant reactivation of quiescent viruses was noticed. These findings indicate that pathogenic memory T cell responses are controlled by both CD28 and CTLA-4/PD-L1 cosignals in vivo and that selectively targeting CD28 would help to promote remission of autoimmune diseases and control chronic inflammation. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  2. Selected aspects of the piece production of iron alloy castings in terms of their environmental impact

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Maniowski; M. Młynski; Z. Sierant; Z. Żółkiewicz

    2010-01-01

    Problems of environmental protection are nowadays one of the top priorities in a policy programme adopted by the European Community.Reducing the negative impact of the domestic foundry industry on environment should result from complex and long-lasting activities,targeted not only at modernisation of the dust collecting units, but also at searches and implementation of alternative, innovative and more pro-ecology oriented means and techniques of casting manufacture. Reducing to minimum the le...

  3. Long-Term Evaluation of SSL Field Performance in Select Interior Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrin, Tess E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Davis, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wilkerson, Andrea M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-02-28

    This GATEWAY project evaluated four field installations to better understand the long-term performance of a number of LED products, which can hopefully stimulate improvements in designing, manufacturing, specifying, procuring, and installing LED products. Field studies provide the opportunity to discover and investigate issues that cannot be simulated or uncovered in a laboratory, but the installed performance over time of commercially available LED products has not been well documented. Improving long-term performance can provide both direct energy savings by reducing the need to over-light to account for light loss and indirect energy savings through better market penetration due to SSL’s competitive advantages over less-efficient light source technologies. The projects evaluated for this report illustrate that SSL use is often motivated by advantages other than energy savings, including maintenance savings, easier integration with control systems, and improved lighting quality.

  4. Relations between Select21 Predictor Measures and First-Term Attrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    Control X X X Interpersonal Skills- Diplomacy X X X Lie Scale X X X Narcissism X X X Peer Leadership X X X 1.76 Respect for Authority X Self - Esteem X X X...attrition, namely Fitness Motivation, Self - Esteem , Army Identification, and Stress Tolerance (see Table 12). For the most part, these scales...top predictors of training attrition in Project First Term (e.g., pre-service fitness, generalized self -efficacy, pre-service positive affect towards

  5. Metrizamide lumbar epidurography with Seldinger technique through the sacral notch and selective nerve root injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatten, H.P. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Lumbar epidurography serves as an important radiographic procedure in the evaluation of patients with equivocal myelography and confusing or non-diagnostic physical findings. It is particularly valuable in patients with a wide ventral epidural space secondary to previous surgery, arachnoiditis or on a congenital basis. Several techniques and various contrast agents have been employed for the procedure. A pure Seldinger technique with a caudal approach through the sacral hiatus and injection of metrizamide gives excellent visualization of the epidural space and nerve root sleeves. The proper concentration of metrizamide is crucial for optimal results. Lateral, AP, and AP oblique radiographs, occasionally combined with lateral, complex motion tomography, clearly demonstrate the root sleeves and ventral epidural space. CT scanning, with present technology, does not provide the necessary detail for evaluating the epidural space.

  6. Assembly of Oriented Virus Arrays by Chemo-Selective Ligation Methods and Nanolithography Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camarero, J A; Cheung, C L; Lin, T; Johnson, J E; Weeks, B L; Noy, A; De Yoreo, J J

    2002-12-02

    The present work describes our ongoing efforts towards the creation of nano-scaled ordered arrays of protein/virus covalently attached to site-specific chemical linkers patterned by different nanolithograpy techniques. We will present a new and efficient solid-phase approach for the synthesis of chemically modified long alkyl-thiols. These compounds can be used to introduce chemoselective reacting groups onto gold and silicon-based surfaces. Furthermore, these modified thiols have been used to create nanometric patterns by using different nanolithography techniques. We will show that these patterns can react chemoselectively with proteins and/or virus which have been chemically or recombinantly modified to contain complementary chemical groups at specific positions thus resulting in the oriented attachment of the protein or virus to the surface.

  7. RESPONSE OF SELECTED LOCAL PLANTAIN CULTIVARS TO PIBS (PLANTS ISSUS DE BOURGEONS SECONDAIRES TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beloved Mensah DZOMEKU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One major constraint to plantain production has been inadequate healthy planting materials at the time of planting. Several technologies for multiplying healthy planting materials exist but could not meet farmers’ demand. A study was conducted to assess the performance of various landraces plantain to plants issus de bourgeons secondaires (PIBS technique. Five cultivars of Musa sapientum (Apantu (False Horn, Asamienu (True Horn, Oniaba (intermediate French plantain and FHIA-21 (tetraploid hybrid plantain were tested to determine their response to the PIBS technique. Sword suckers of each cultivar with weight of between 0.2-0.5 kg were prepared and buried in fine sawdust in a humidity chamber built using transparent polyethylene sheets. Results at harvest showed that removal of rooted sprouts started three weeks after planting and every week thereafter for eight weeks. The intermediate French plantain cultivar (Oniaba produced the least average number (about 20 of healthy planting. Apantu (False Horn produced an average of about 75 healthy planting materials. The hybrid FHIA-21 on the other hand generated an average of about 85 healthy planting materials. Asamienu (True Horn produced the highest healthy seedlings of about 90 healthy planting materials. The results revealed that the leaf scar carries a primary bud at the intersection of each leaf sheath and several eyes along the entire length of the leaf sheath which could not have developed into suckers. However, with this technique the eyes could be activated to sprout as healthy planting materials. The technique proved as an efficient method of multiplying healthy planting materials for plantain and could thus be recommended for adoption not only by peasant farmers but also to others who could become commercial seed producers. But there will be a need for certification guidelines for seed growing systems.

  8. Survey of Techniques for Deep Web Source Selection and Surfacing the Hidden Web Content

    OpenAIRE

    Khushboo Khurana; M.B. Chandak

    2016-01-01

    Large and continuously growing dynamic web content has created new opportunities for large-scale data analysis in the recent years. There is huge amount of information that the traditional web crawlers cannot access, since they use link analysis technique by which only the surface web can be accessed. Traditional search engine crawlers require the web pages to be linked to other pages via hyperlinks causing large amount of web data to be hidden from the crawlers. Enormous data is available in...

  9. Survey of Techniques for Deep Web Source Selection and Surfacing the Hidden Web Content

    OpenAIRE

    Khushboo Khurana; M B Chandak

    2016-01-01

    Large and continuously growing dynamic web content has created new opportunities for large-scale data analysis in the recent years. There is huge amount of information that the traditional web crawlers cannot access, since they use link analysis technique by which only the surface web can be accessed. Traditional search engine crawlers require the web pages to be linked to other pages via hyperlinks causing large amount of web data to be hidden from the crawlers. Enormous data is available in...

  10. Structure-selection techniques applied to continuous-time nonlinear models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Luis A.; Freitas, Ubiratan S.; Letellier, Christophe; Maquet, Jean

    2001-10-01

    This paper addresses the problem of choosing the multinomials that should compose a polynomial mathematical model starting from data. The mathematical representation used is a nonlinear differential equation of the polynomial type. Some approaches that have been used in the context of discrete-time models are adapted and applied to continuous-time models. Two examples are included to illustrate the main ideas. Models obtained with and without structure selection are compared using topological analysis. The main differences between structure-selected models and complete structure models are: (i) the former are more parsimonious than the latter, (ii) a predefined fixed-point configuration can be guaranteed for the former, and (iii) the former set of models produce attractors that are topologically closer to the original attractor than those produced by the complete structure models.

  11. The Effect of Selected Cleaning Techniques on Berkshire Lee Marble: A Scientific Study at Philadelphia City Hall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossotti, Victor G.; Eldeeb, A. Raouf; Fries, Terry L.; Coombs, Mary Jane; Naude, Virginia N.; Soderberg, Lisa; Wheeler, George S.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes a scientific investigation of the effects of eight different cleaning techniques on the Berkshire Lee marble component of the facade of the East Center Pavilion at Philadelphia City Hall; the study was commissioned by the city of Philadelphia. The eight cleaning techniques evaluated in this study were power wash (proprietary gel detergent followed by water rinse under pressure), misting (treatment with potable, nebulized water for 24-36 hours), gommage (proprietary Thomann-Hanry low-pressure, air-driven, small-particle, dry abrasion), combination (gommage followed by misting), Armax (sodium bicarbonate delivered under pressure in a water wash), JOS (dolomite powder delivered in a low-pressure, rotary-vortex water wash), laser (thermal ablation), and dry ice (powdered-dry-ice abrasion delivered under pressure). In our study approximately 160 cores were removed from the building for laboratory analysis. We developed a computer program to analyze scanning-electron-micrograph images for the microscale surface roughness and other morphologic parameters of the stone surface, including the near-surface fracture density of the stone. An analysis of more than 1,100 samples cut from the cores provided a statistical basis for crafting the essential elements of a reduced-form, mixed-kinetics conceptual model that represents the deterioration of calcareous stone in terms of self-organized soiling and erosion patterns. This model, in turn, provided a basis for identifying the variables that are affected by the cleaning techniques and for evaluating the extent to which such variables influence the stability of the stone. The model recognizes three classes of variables that may influence the soiling load on the stone, including such exogenous environmental variables as airborne moisture, pollutant concentrations, and local aerodynamics, and such endogenous stone variables as surface chemistry and microstructure (fracturing, roughness, and so on). This study

  12. Extended voice-sparing surgery in selected pyriform sinus carcinoma: Techniques and outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Hamoir, Marc; Fievez, Juliette; Schmitz, Sandra; Velasco, Dorris; Lengelé, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Organ-preservation approaches are frequently favored in the treatment of advanced pyriform sinus carcinoma. In selected cases, use of free flaps allows voice-sparing surgery. METHODS:Thirteen patients underwent conservative extended laryngopharyngectomy. In 11 patients, the resection included the supraglottic larynx, whereas the whole hemilarynx was resected in 2. Reconstruction was achieved with a radial forearm free flap with the palmaris longus tendon. In hemilarynx resection, ...

  13. Electromembrane extraction as a rapid and selective miniaturized sample preparation technique for biological fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Seip, Knut Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    This special report discusses the sample preparation method electromembrane extraction, which was introduced in 2006 as a rapid and selective miniaturized extraction method. The extraction principle is based on isolation of charged analytes extracted from an aqueous sample, across a thin film....... Technical aspects of electromembrane extraction, important extraction parameters as well as a handful of examples of applications from different biological samples and bioanalytical areas are discussed in the paper....

  14. Supplier Selection in the Thermal Tourism Enterprises with Using Multi Criteria Decision Making Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Turkey has many natural health resources and the interest in Thermal Tourism has increased. Thermal Tourism Enterprises serve their experienced medical staff, treatment methods and the curative springs for the purpose of care services. On the other hand, these enterprises are also the place to have both a rest and a good time. In this study, the supplier selection application is performed in the Thermal Tourism Enterprise that offers a combination of services as health, recreation and enterta...

  15. Binary classification of chalcone derivatives with LDA or KNN based on their antileishmanial activity and molecular descriptors selected using the Successive Projections Algorithm feature-selection technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Mohammad; Saeys, Wouter; de Araujo, Mario Cesar Ugulino; Galvão, Roberto Kawakami Harrop; Vander Heyden, Yvan

    2014-01-23

    Chalcones are naturally occurring aromatic ketones, which consist of an α-, β-unsaturated carbonyl system joining two aryl rings. These compounds are reported to exhibit several pharmacological activities, including antiparasitic, antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, immunomodulatory, nitric oxide inhibition and anti-inflammatory effects. In the present work, a Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) study is carried out to classify chalcone derivatives with respect to their antileishmanial activity (active/inactive) on the basis of molecular descriptors. For this purpose, two techniques to select descriptors are employed, the Successive Projections Algorithm (SPA) and the Genetic Algorithm (GA). The selected descriptors are initially employed to build Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) models. An additional investigation is then carried out to determine whether the results can be improved by using a non-parametric classification technique (One Nearest Neighbour, 1NN). In a case study involving 100 chalcone derivatives, the 1NN models were found to provide better rates of correct classification than LDA, both in the training and test sets. The best result was achieved by a SPA-1NN model with six molecular descriptors, which provided correct classification rates of 97% and 84% for the training and test sets, respectively.

  16. Targeted Curing of All Lysogenic Bacteriophage from Streptococcus pyogenes Using a Novel Counter-selection Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, Chad W; Juncosa, Barbara; Ryan, Patricia A; Deutsch, Douglas R; McShan, W Michael; Fischetti, Vincent A

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a human commensal and a bacterial pathogen responsible for a wide variety of human diseases differing in symptoms, severity, and tissue tropism. The completed genome sequences of >37 strains of S. pyogenes, representing diverse disease-causing serotypes, have been published. The greatest genetic variation among these strains is attributed to numerous integrated prophage and prophage-like elements, encoding several virulence factors. A comparison of isogenic strains, differing in prophage content, would reveal the effects of these elements on streptococcal pathogenesis. However, curing strains of prophage is often difficult and sometimes unattainable. We have applied a novel counter-selection approach to identify rare S. pyogenes mutants spontaneously cured of select prophage. To accomplish this, we first inserted a two-gene cassette containing a gene for kanamycin resistance (KanR) and the rpsL wild-type gene, responsible for dominant streptomycin sensitivity (SmS), into a targeted prophage on the chromosome of a streptomycin resistant (SmR) mutant of S. pyogenes strain SF370. We then applied antibiotic counter-selection for the re-establishment of the KanS/SmR phenotype to select for isolates cured of targeted prophage. This methodology allowed for the precise selection of spontaneous phage loss and restoration of the natural phage attB attachment sites for all four prophage-like elements in this S. pyogenes chromosome. Overall, 15 mutants were constructed that encompassed every permutation of phage knockout as well as a mutant strain, named CEM1ΔΦ, completely cured of all bacteriophage elements (a ~10% loss of the genome); the only reported S. pyogenes strain free of prophage-like elements. We compared CEM1ΔΦ to the WT strain by analyzing differences in secreted DNase activity, as well as lytic and lysogenic potential. These mutant strains should allow for the direct examination of bacteriophage relationships within S. pyogenes and

  17. Rotational state selection and orientation of diatomic and asymmetric top molecules via the electric hexapole technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hain, Toby Douglas

    2000-11-01

    The hexapole rotational state selection of 2∏ Ω diatomic and asymmetric top molecules is investigated. Classical molecular trajectory simulations are shown to reproduce experimental focusing spectra in these large classes of molecules. Deviations from linear Stark effects introduce significant effects in the focusing behavior of both the 2∏ and asymmetric rotor species. The laboratory frame distributions of orientations of the state-selected molecules are quantified by quantum mechanical orientational probability distribution functions (opdf's). Chapter 1 introduces preliminary data for the hexapole focusing of hydroxyl radicals and shows the deviation of the structured focusing curves from the first-order Stark effect. In Chapter 2, the focusing theory is developed for 2∏ diatomics, and the focusing spectra presented in Chapter 1 are analyzed using the theory. The Λ-doublet splitting is found to be the important parameter for simulating the measured focusing spectra. The high field limit opdf's are calculated, and highly anisotropic orientational distributions for the selected states are shown. Chapter 3 shows the laboratory orientation of 2∏ molecules is tunable via the electric field strength of an orienting field for post- hexapole selected rotational states. A laser induced fluorescence experiment is detailed allowing experimental validation of the theoretical opdf's. Chapter 4 explores the scattering of hexapole selected OD rotational states with various target gases. Elastic scattering cross sections are reported for OD + M (M = He, Ar, H2O, CO2, NH3, and CH3F). Hexapole focusing and the subsequent orientation of asymmetric rotors are the subjects of Chapter 5. Matrix treatments are used to calculate the field-free and Stark energies exactly. Perturbation and intermediate Stark effect approximations are compared to the exact matrix method, yielding several general rules useful in analyzing and predicting experimental focusing spectra. The theory

  18. Targeted Curing of All Lysogenic Bacteriophage from Streptococcus pyogenes Using a Novel Counter-selection Technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad W Euler

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes is a human commensal and a bacterial pathogen responsible for a wide variety of human diseases differing in symptoms, severity, and tissue tropism. The completed genome sequences of >37 strains of S. pyogenes, representing diverse disease-causing serotypes, have been published. The greatest genetic variation among these strains is attributed to numerous integrated prophage and prophage-like elements, encoding several virulence factors. A comparison of isogenic strains, differing in prophage content, would reveal the effects of these elements on streptococcal pathogenesis. However, curing strains of prophage is often difficult and sometimes unattainable. We have applied a novel counter-selection approach to identify rare S. pyogenes mutants spontaneously cured of select prophage. To accomplish this, we first inserted a two-gene cassette containing a gene for kanamycin resistance (KanR and the rpsL wild-type gene, responsible for dominant streptomycin sensitivity (SmS, into a targeted prophage on the chromosome of a streptomycin resistant (SmR mutant of S. pyogenes strain SF370. We then applied antibiotic counter-selection for the re-establishment of the KanS/SmR phenotype to select for isolates cured of targeted prophage. This methodology allowed for the precise selection of spontaneous phage loss and restoration of the natural phage attB attachment sites for all four prophage-like elements in this S. pyogenes chromosome. Overall, 15 mutants were constructed that encompassed every permutation of phage knockout as well as a mutant strain, named CEM1ΔΦ, completely cured of all bacteriophage elements (a ~10% loss of the genome; the only reported S. pyogenes strain free of prophage-like elements. We compared CEM1ΔΦ to the WT strain by analyzing differences in secreted DNase activity, as well as lytic and lysogenic potential. These mutant strains should allow for the direct examination of bacteriophage relationships within S

  19. An improved SELEX technique for selection of DNA aptamers binding to M-type 11 of Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamula, Camille L A; Peng, Hanyong; Wang, Zhixin; Tyrrell, Gregory J; Li, Xing-Fang; Le, X Chris

    2016-03-15

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a clinically important pathogen consisting of various serotypes determined by different M proteins expressed on the cell surface. The M type is therefore a useful marker to monitor the spread of invasive S. pyogenes in a population. Serotyping and nucleic acid amplification/sequencing methods for the identification of M types are laborious, inconsistent, and usually confined to reference laboratories. The primary objective of this work is to develop a technique that enables generation of aptamers binding to specific M-types of S. pyogenes. We describe here an in vitro technique that directly used live bacterial cells and the Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) strategy. Live S. pyogenes cells were incubated with DNA libraries consisting of 40-nucleotides randomized sequences. Those sequences that bound to the cells were separated, amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), purified using gel electrophoresis, and served as the input DNA pool for the next round of SELEX selection. A specially designed forward primer containing extended polyA20/5Sp9 facilitated gel electrophoresis purification of ssDNA after PCR amplification. A counter-selection step using non-target cells was introduced to improve selectivity. DNA libraries of different starting sequence diversity (10(16) and 10(14)) were compared. Aptamer pools from each round of selection were tested for their binding to the target and non-target cells using flow cytometry. Selected aptamer pools were then cloned and sequenced. Individual aptamer sequences were screened on the basis of their binding to the 10 M-types that were used as targets. Aptamer pools obtained from SELEX rounds 5-8 showed high affinity to the target S. pyogenes cells. Tests against non-target Streptococcus bovis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Enterococcus species demonstrated selectivity of these aptamers for binding to S. pyogenes. Several aptamer sequences were found to bind

  20. An improved survivability prognosis of breast cancer by using sampling and feature selection technique to solve imbalanced patient classification data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kung-Jeng; Makond, Bunjira; Wang, Kung-Min

    2013-11-09

    Breast cancer is one of the most critical cancers and is a major cause of cancer death among women. It is essential to know the survivability of the patients in order to ease the decision making process regarding medical treatment and financial preparation. Recently, the breast cancer data sets have been imbalanced (i.e., the number of survival patients outnumbers the number of non-survival patients) whereas the standard classifiers are not applicable for the imbalanced data sets. The methods to improve survivability prognosis of breast cancer need for study. Two well-known five-year prognosis models/classifiers [i.e., logistic regression (LR) and decision tree (DT)] are constructed by combining synthetic minority over-sampling technique (SMOTE), cost-sensitive classifier technique (CSC), under-sampling, bagging, and boosting. The feature selection method is used to select relevant variables, while the pruning technique is applied to obtain low information-burden models. These methods are applied on data obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. The improvements of survivability prognosis of breast cancer are investigated based on the experimental results. Experimental results confirm that the DT and LR models combined with SMOTE, CSC, and under-sampling generate higher predictive performance consecutively than the original ones. Most of the time, DT and LR models combined with SMOTE and CSC use less informative burden/features when a feature selection method and a pruning technique are applied. LR is found to have better statistical power than DT in predicting five-year survivability. CSC is superior to SMOTE, under-sampling, bagging, and boosting to improve the prognostic performance of DT and LR.

  1. A two-stage short-term traffic flow prediction method based on AVL and AKNN techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟梦; 王博彬; 邵春福; 李慧轩; 黃育兆

    2015-01-01

    Short-term traffic flow prediction is one of the essential issues in intelligent transportation systems (ITS). A new two-stage traffic flow prediction method named AKNN-AVL method is presented, which combines an advancedk-nearest neighbor (AKNN) method and balanced binary tree (AVL) data structure to improve the prediction accuracy. The AKNN method uses pattern recognition two times in the searching process, which considers the previous sequences of traffic flow to forecast the future traffic state. Clustering method and balanced binary tree technique are introduced to build case database to reduce the searching time. To illustrate the effects of these developments, the accuracies performance of AKNN-AVL method,k-nearest neighbor (KNN) method and the auto-regressive and moving average (ARMA) method are compared. These methods are calibrated and evaluated by the real-time data from a freeway traffic detector near North 3rd Ring Road in Beijing under both normal and incident traffic conditions. The comparisons show that the AKNN-AVL method with the optimal neighbor and pattern size outperforms both KNN method and ARMA method under both normal and incident traffic conditions. In addition, the combinations of clustering method and balanced binary tree technique to the prediction method can increase the searching speed and respond rapidly to case database fluctuations.

  2. Long-term results of the surgical treatment of Peyronie's disease with Egydio's technique: a European multicentre study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salvatore Sansalone; Giulio Garaffa; Rados Djinovic; Stefano Pecoraro; Mauro Silvanis; Guido Barbagli; Alessandro Zucchi; Giuseppe Vespasiani; Carla Loreto8

    2011-01-01

    The long-term outcomes of 157 patients affected by Peyronie's disease (PD) who underwent penile straightening with Egydio's technique between January 2004 and December 2008 are reported.Only patients with PD who were stable for at least 6-12 months prior to surgery were enrolled in this study.Preoperative assessment included a dynamic echo colour Doppler ultrasound scan to evaluate the degree of penile deformity and the peak systolic velocity in the cavernosal arteries and an assessment of erectile function with the administration of the International Index of Erectile Function 5 (11EF-5) questionnaire.Stretched penile length was recorded pre-and postoperatively.Surgical complications,cosmesis and sexual function,patient satisfaction and postoperative erectile function were assessed postoperatively at 3 months,i year and 2 years,respectively.After a median follow-up period of 20 months (range:12-24 months),we found that mild residual curvature (12%) and glans hypoesthesia (3%) were the only causes of partial dissatisfaction.No rejection of the graft was observed.All patients recovered their ability to penetrate with no difficulty.In addition,an intraoperative average increase of 2.5 cm (range:1.7-4.1 cm) in stretched penile length was recorded,with all patients engaging in penetrative sexual intercourse.In conclusion,this procedure represents a safe and reproducible technique for the correction of penile curvature resulting from PD and yields excellent cosmetic and functional results.

  3. Evaluation of selected near-term energy-conservation options for the Midwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, A.R.; Colsher, C.S.; Hamilton, R.W.; Buehring, W.A.

    1978-11-01

    This report evaluates the potential for implementation of near-term energy-conservation practices for the residential, commercial, agricultural, industrial, transportation, and utility sectors of the economy in twelve states: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. The information used to evaluate the magnitude of achievable energy savings includes regional energy use, the regulatory/legislative climate relating to energy conservation, technical characteristics of the measures, and their feasibility of implementation. This work is intended to provide baseline information for an ongoing regional assessment of energy and environmental impacts in the Midwest. 80 references.

  4. Adaptive filtering techniques for gravitational wave interferometric data Removing long-term sinusoidal disturbances and oscillatory transients

    CERN Document Server

    Chassande-Mottin, E

    2001-01-01

    It is known by the experience gained from the gravitational wave detector proto-types that the interferometric output signal will be corrupted by a significant amount of non-Gaussian noise, large part of it being essentially composed of long-term sinusoids with slowly varying envelope (such as violin resonances in the suspensions, or main power harmonics) and short-term ringdown noise (which may emanate from servo control systems, electronics in a non-linear state, etc.). Since non-Gaussian noise components make the detection and estimation of the gravitational wave signature more difficult, a denoising algorithm based on adaptive filtering techniques (LMS methods) is proposed to separate and extract them from the stationary and Gaussian background noise. The strength of the method is that it does not require any precise model on the observed data: the signals are distinguished on the basis of their autocorrelation time. We believe that the robustness and simplicity of this method make it useful for data prep...

  5. JUGULAR CENTRAL VENOUS CATHETER PLACEMENT THROUGH A MODIFIED SELDINGER TECHNIQUE FOR LONG-TERM VENOUS ACCESS IN CHELONIANS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Mariana A; Divers, Stephen

    2016-03-01

    Long-term or repeated venous access in chelonians is difficult to obtain and manage, but can be critically important for administration of medications and blood sampling in hospitalized patients. Jugular catheterization provides the most rapid and secure route for vascular access, but catheters can be difficult to place, and maintaining catheter patency may be challenging. Long multilumen polyurethane catheters provide flexibility and sampling access, and minimize difficulties, such as catheter displacement, that have been encountered with traditional over-the-needle catheters. We describe placement of 4 Fr. 13-cm polyurethane catheters in three chelonians with the use of a modified Seldinger technique. Venous access was obtained with the use of an over-the-needle catheter, which allowed placement of a 0.018-in.-diameter wire, over which the polyurethane catheter was placed. Indwelling time has ranged between 1 and 4 mo currently. All tortoises were sedated for this procedure. Polyurethane central catheters provide safe, long-term venous access that allows clinicians to perform serial blood sampling as well as intravenous administration of medications, anesthetic agents, and fluids. A jugular catheter can also allow central venous pressure measurement. Utilization of central line catheters was associated with improvements in diagnostic efficiency and therapeutic case management, with minimal risks and complications.

  6. Liver transplantation in the rat: single-center experience with technique, long-term survival, and functional and histologic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matevossian, E; Doll, D; Hüser, N; Brauer, R; Sinicina, I; Nährig, J; Friess, H; Stangl, M; Assfalg, V

    2009-01-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in rats is frequently used as an experimental model. Numerous surgical techniques have been developed that enable the investigator to conduct clinically relevant studies. The objective of this study was to develop a rat model of acute and chronic rejection, to explicitly study technical modifications of vascular anastomoses with precision, and to examine histopathologic and functional changes in the graft. With DA-(RT1av1) rats as donors and Lewis-(RT1) rats as recipients, arterialized OLT was performed using a combined suture, cuff, and splint method. Recipients were divided into 5 groups: syngeneic control rats (group 1), allogeneic control rats (group 2), allogeneic OLT rats with low-dose tacrolimus (FK506) immunosuppression (group 3), allogeneic OLT rats with high-dose tacrolimus immunosuppression (group 4), and allogeneic OLT rats with high-dose tacrolimus immunosuppression and retrograde reperfusion via the infrahepatic caval vein (group 5). After OLT, serum parameters were determined and hepatic biopsy specimens were sampled. We examined the effects of acute rejection with or without immunosuppression therapy at histopathologic evaluation. Liver grafts in syngeneic and allogeneic rats (groups 1, 2, 4, and 5) demonstrated normal serum parameters and histopathologic findings at 10 days after OLT, and 93% survival at 3 months. The simplified technique using 1 suture and 2 cuff anastomoses provided the best short- and long-term survival after OLT in all groups. Retrograde perfusion via the infrahepatic caval vein resulted in lower postoperative liver enzyme values. The present model is feasible, enabling comprehensive preclinical experimental research on liver transplantation. Furthermore, we provide helpful instructions for learning this surgical technique.

  7. Feature selection for multi-class problems by using pairwise-class and all-class techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Mingyu; Li, Guo-Zheng

    2011-05-01

    Feature selection has been a key technology in massive data processing, e.g. in microarray data analysis with few samples but high-dimensional genes. One common problem in multi-class microarray data analysis is the unbalanced recognition or prediction accuracies among classes, which usually leads to poor system performance. One of the main reasons is the unfair feature (gene) selection method. In this paper, a novel feature selection framework by using pairwise-class and all-class techniques (namely FrPA) is proposed to balance the performance among classes and improve the average accuracy. The feature (gene) rank list on all classes and the lists on each pair of classes are all taken into consideration during feature selection. The strategy of round-robin is embedded into the framework to select final features from the different rank lists. Experimental results on several microarray data sets show that FrPA helps to achieve higher classification accuracy and balance the performance among classes.

  8. The contribution of attenuated selection in utero to small-for-gestational-age (SGA) among term African American male infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Julia M; Karasek, Deborah; Anderson, Elizabeth; Catalano, Ralph A

    2013-07-01

    Natural selection conserves mechanisms allowing women to spontaneously abort gestations least likely to yield fit offspring. Small gestational size has been proposed as an indicator of fitness observable by maternal biology. Previous research suggests that exposure to ambient stress in utero results in more "culling" of small fetuses and therefore lower rates of small-for-gestational-age (SGA). However, African American women persistently have higher rates of SGA than non-Hispanic white women, despite experiencing more ambient stress. This paper tests whether attenuation of the stress response among highly stressed African American women, as suggested by the weathering hypothesis, may help to explain this apparent inconsistency. We apply time-series modeling to over 2 million African American and non-Hispanic white male term births in California over the period of January 1989 through December 2010. We test for the parabolic (i.e., "U" shaped) relationship, implied by an attenuated stress response, between unusually strong labor market contraction and the rate of SGA among African American term male infants, and a linear relationship among non-Hispanic whites. We find the hypothesized parabolic relationship among term male African American infants. As expected, we find a linear relationship between unexpected layoffs and the rate of SGA among term male non-Hispanic whites. These results are robust to sensitivity analyses. These results may help to explain the high rates of SGA among term male African American infants, despite greater maternal exposure to ambient stress during pregnancy.

  9. Clinical observation and quality of life in terms of nasal sinusitis after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: long-term results from different nasal irrigation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, H-H; Fu, Z-C; Liao, S-G; Li, D-S

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between nasal irrigation techniques (NIT) and the survival rate and the quality of life (QOL) in patients with nasal sinusitis (NS). Methods: We studied data from 1134 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) who received radical radiotherapy, which were randomly divided into three groups (A, B and C). Group A used nasal irrigator; Group B used homemade nasal irrigation (NI) connector combined with enemator; and Group C used nasal sprayer. The clinical effects, 5-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were observed. Furthermore, the QOL in patients with NS was evaluated using the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test 20. Results: The median follow-up time was 69 months. The 5-year OS and PFS were 80.5% and 73.2%, respectively, for all patients. There was no significant difference in OS, PFS, xerostomia and neck skin toxicity grade 3 and greater among groups. There was no difference among groups. The incidence of NS was the highest in group C. Conclusion: The symptoms of NS seriously affected the QOL period of 1 year. Group C showed no improvement during the follow-up period, which for A and B, by contrast, had after 1 year. Although the exact mechanism remains to be explored in NIT, our findings suggest that patients with NPC should nasal irrigate for 2 years after radiotherapy. Advances in knowledge: Our study shows that a nasal irrigator is necessary for patients with NPC for a high QOL in terms of NS. PMID:24814695

  10. Promising short-term results following selective bundle reconstruction in partial anterior cruciate ligament tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abat, Ferran; Gelber, Pablo Eduardo; Erquicia, Juan I; Pelfort, Xavier; Tey, Marc; Monllau, Juan Carlos

    2013-10-01

    The different functions of the two anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) bundles have increased interest in tears of only one of these two bundles. The purpose of this study was to assess the outcome of selective reconstruction of an injured bundle of isolated anteromedial bundle (AMB) or posterolateral bundle (PLB) tears. Consecutive series of 147 ACL reconstructions was prospectively analyzed. Patients with partial ACL tears who underwent selective bundle reconstructions were studied. Stability was assessed with the Lachman, anterior-drawer and pivot-shift tests and KT-1000. Functional assessment was performed with Lysholm and Tegner questionnaires. The preoperative MRI was analyzed to detect differences from arthroscopic findings. Twenty-eight patients (19%) were included. The minimum follow-up period was 30months. Eighteen had AMB and 10 PLB tears. Only 19% of their MRI's were categorized as partial ACL tears. The Lysholm score improved from 66.1/65.5 to 96.6/95.2 in the AMB/PLB groups, respectively (prate of minor complications at a minimum 2.5years' follow-up. Arthroscopic examination was the most reliable tool for properly diagnosing and treating a condition observed in almost one out of every five ACL reconstructed knee in this series. Therapeutic case series; level 4. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Helping consumers to select an appropriate long-term care insurance policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firman, J P

    1992-01-01

    Consumers who purchase long term care insurance policies can get good value for their money but there are several residual risks. Advisers have an important responsibility to make sure that their clients fully understand these risks. We recommend that consumers who are appropriate candidates for long term care insurance take into account the following guidelines: Make sure that a policy is bought from a well-known, financially secure company that has an A.M. Best Company rating of A or A+ or at least an A rating from Standard & Poor's. Avoid companies that have a history of consumer complaints, post-claims underwriting, high agent commissions, high lapse rates, or abuses in the Medigap market. Buy a policy with level premiums but understand that in the absence of explicit rate guarantees, premiums may be increased in the future. Seek policies that are guaranteed renewable, explicitly ensure fair access to policy upgrades, provide protection in case of late premium payments, and guarantee protection from potential changes in government benefits.

  12. Use of the AIC with the EM algorithm: A demonstration of a probability model selection technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glosup, J.G.; Axelrod M.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The problem of discriminating between two potential probability models, a Gaussian distribution and a mixture of Gaussian distributions, is considered. The focus of our interest is a case where the models are potentially non-nested and the parameters of the mixture model are estimated through the EM algorithm. The AIC, which is frequently used as a criterion for discriminating between non-nested models, is modified to work with the EM algorithm and is shown to provide a model selection tool for this situation. A particular problem involving an infinite mixture distribution known as Middleton`s Class A model is used to demonstrate the effectiveness and limitations of this method.

  13. Forecasting macroeconomic variables using neural network models and three automated model selection techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Anders Bredahl; Teräsvirta, Timo

    2016-01-01

    When forecasting with neural network models one faces several problems, all of which influence the accuracy of the forecasts. First, neural networks are often hard to estimate due to their highly nonlinear structure. To alleviate the problem, White (2006) presented a solution (Quick......Net) that converts the specification and nonlinear estimation problem into a linear model selection and estimation problem. We shall compare its performance to that of two other procedures building on the linearization idea: the Marginal Bridge Estimator and Autometrics. Second, one must decide whether forecasting...

  14. Why Does Romania Have a Negative Selection in Parliamentary Elections? An Analysis of the Recruitment and Selection System During the Last Three Legislative Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana MUNTEAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers theoretical perspectives on the recruitment and selection of political party candidates, in order to analyze the recruitment and selection process of Romanian MPs during the last three legislative terms. The Romanian proportional closed-list electoral system was replaced in 2008 by a majoritarian one, with single-member districts. In the wake of this change, party selectorates have loosened the admission criteria for candidates in parliamentary elections. Selectorates started considering candidates mostly because of their financial power and notoriety, while their education was overlooked. Our analysis shows that the quality of MPs’ diplomas has decreased significantly since 2008. Romanian MPs complete their education, most frequently technical, with MA or PhD degrees. Some get a second BA in fields complementary to their activity in Parliament – such as political, administrative or social sciences. These courses are usually taken later in life, at private universities, which are characterized by easy admission and graduation. Since there is no general rule for submitting their CVs, some MPs omit mentioning the information regarding the educational bodies that issued their diplomas. Romania continues to be characterized by a heterogeneous parliamentarian elite, as opposed to solid democracies, where the elite is formed in renowned universities. The latter also share a common background and are thus rather homogenous. We consider that a successful political reform in Romania should start within the party selectorates and their selection criteria of candidates for parliamentary elections.

  15. Characterisation of PDO olive oil Chianti Classico by non-selective (UV-visible, NIR and MIR spectroscopy) and selective (fatty acid composition) analytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, M; Oliveri, P; Casolino, C; Sinelli, N; Zunin, P; Armanino, C; Forina, M; Lanteri, S

    2012-01-27

    An authentication study of the Italian PDO (protected designation of origin) extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico was performed; UV-visible (UV-vis), Near-Infrared (NIR) and Mid-Infrared (MIR) spectroscopies were applied to a set of samples representative of the whole Chianti Classico production area. The non-selective signals (fingerprints) provided by the three spectroscopic techniques were utilised both individually and jointly, after fusion of the respective profile vectors, in order to build a model for the Chianti Classico PDO olive oil. Moreover, these results were compared with those obtained by the gas chromatographic determination of the fatty acids composition. In order to characterise the olive oils produced in the Chianti Classico PDO area, UNEQ (unequal class models) and SIMCA (soft independent modelling of class analogy) were employed both on the MIR, NIR and UV-vis spectra, individually and jointly, and on the fatty acid composition. Finally, PLS (partial least square) regression was applied on the UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectra, in order to predict the content of oleic and linoleic acids in the extra virgin olive oils. UNEQ, SIMCA and PLS were performed after selection of the relevant predictors, in order to increase the efficiency of both classification and regression models. The non-selective information obtained from UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectroscopy allowed to build reliable models for checking the authenticity of the Italian PDO extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantitative Imaging of D-2-Hydroxyglutarate in Selected Histological Tissue Areas by a Novel Bioluminescence Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelxen, Nadine F; Walenta, Stefan; Proescholdt, Martin; Dettmer, Katja; Pusch, Stefan; Mueller-Klieser, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Patients with malignant gliomas have a poor prognosis with average survival of less than 1 year. Whereas in other tumor entities the characteristics of tumor metabolism are successfully used for therapeutic approaches, such developments are very rare in brain tumors, notably in gliomas. One metabolic feature characteristic of gliomas, in particular diffuse astrocytomas and oligodendroglial tumors, is the variable content of D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D2HG), a metabolite that was discovered first in this tumor entity. D2HG is generated in large amounts due to various "gain-of-function" mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenases IDH1 and IDH2. Meanwhile, D2HG has been detected in several other tumor entities, including intrahepatic bile-duct cancer, chondrosarcoma, acute myeloid leukemia, and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. D2HG is barely detectable in healthy tissue (bioluminescence assay for determining D2HG in sections of snap-frozen tissue. The assay was verified independently by photometric tests and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The novel technique allows the microscopically resolved determination of D2HG in a concentration range of 0-10 μmol/g tissue (wet weight). In combination with the already established bioluminescence imaging techniques for ATP, glucose, pyruvate, and lactate, the novel D2HG assay enables a comparative characterization of the metabolic profile of individual tumors in a further dimension.

  17. Effect of Extraction Solvent/Technique on the Antioxidant Activity of Selected Medicinal Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushra Sultana

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Theeffects of four extracting solvents [absolute ethanol, absolute methanol, aqueous ethanol (ethanol: water, 80:20 v/v and aqueous methanol (methanol: water, 80:20 v/v] and two extraction techniques (shaking and reflux on the antioxidant activity of extracts of barks of Azadirachta indica, Acacia nilotica, Eugenia jambolana, Terminalia arjuna, leaves and roots of Moringa oleifera, fruit of Ficus religiosa,and leaves of Aloe barbadensis were investigated. The tested plant materials contained appreciable amounts of total phenolic contents (0.31-16.5 g GAE /100g DW, total flavonoid (2.63-8.66 g CE/100g DW; reducing power at 10 mg/mL extract concentration (1.36-2.91, DPPH. scavenging capacity (37.2-86.6%, and percent inhibition of linoleic acid (66.0-90.6%. Generally higher extract yields, phenolic contents and plant material antioxidant activity were obtained using aqueous organic solvents, as compared to the respective absolute organic solvents. Although higher extract yields were obtained by the refluxing extraction technique, in general higher amounts of total phenolic contents and better antioxidant activity were found in the extracts prepared using a shaker.

  18. Water solubility of selected C9-C18 alkanes using a slow-stir technique: Comparison to structure - property models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letinski, Daniel J; Parkerton, Thomas F; Redman, Aaron D; Connelly, Martin J; Peterson, Brian

    2016-05-01

    Aqueous solubility is a fundamental physical-chemical substance property that strongly influences the distribution, fate and effects of chemicals upon release into the environment. Experimental water solubility was determined for 18 selected C9-C18 normal, branched and cyclic alkanes. A slow-stir technique was applied to obviate emulsion formation, which historically has resulted in significant overestimation of the aqueous solubility of such hydrophobic liquid compounds. Sensitive GC-MS based methods coupled with contemporary sample extraction techniques were employed to enable reproducible analysis of low parts-per billion aqueous concentrations. Water solubility measurements for most of the compounds investigated, are reported for the first time expanding available data for branched and cyclic alkanes. Measured water solubilities spanned four orders of magnitude ranging from 0.3 μg/L to 250 μg/L. Good agreement was observed for selected alkanes tested in this work and reported in earlier literature demonstrating the robustness of the slow-stir water solubility technique. Comparisons of measured alkane water solubilities were also made with those predicted by commonly used quantitative structure-property relationship models (e.g. SPARC, EPIWIN, ACD/Labs). Correlations are also presented between alkane measured water solubilities and molecular size parameters (e.g. molar volume, solvent accessible molar volume) affirming a mechanistic description of empirical aqueous solubility results and prediction previously reported for a more limited set of alkanes.

  19. A comparative analysis of different hybrid MCDM techniques considering a case of selection of 3D printers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debapriyo Paul

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A multitude of techniques fall under the domain of Multi- Criteria Decision Making (MCDM which is used to select the best alternative among the available ones. The objective of this paper is to compare some of these techniques with respect to the problem of selection of 3D printers, which is associated with multiple attributes. The weights of the criteria were determined using analytical network process (ANP. Next, the alternatives were ranked using three different MCDM techniques- 1.TOPSIS which ranks alternatives having the shortest distance to the ideal solution as well as the greatest distance from the negative-ideal solution 2. Deng’s Similarity based Approach where the most preferred alternative should have the highest degree of similarity to the positive ideal solution and the lowest degree of similarity to the negative-ideal solution and 3.PROMETHEE and GAIA. The solutions for each of these three cases were analyzed thoroughly, and reasons for any deviations were discussed.

  20. A review of metaphase chromosome image selection techniques for automatic karyotype generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Tanvi; Dhir, Renu

    2016-08-01

    The karyotype is analyzed to detect the genetic abnormalities. It is generated by arranging the chromosomes after extracting them from the metaphase chromosome images. The chromosomes are non-rigid bodies that contain the genetic information of an individual. The metaphase chromosome image spread contains the chromosomes, but these chromosomes are not distinct bodies; they can either be individual chromosomes or be touching one another; they may be bent or even may be overlapping and thus forming a cluster of chromosomes. The extraction of chromosomes from these touching and overlapping chromosomes is a very tedious process. The segmentation of a random metaphase chromosome image may not give us correct and accurate results. Therefore, before taking up a metaphase chromosome image for analysis, it must be analyzed for the orientation of the chromosomes it contains. The various reported methods for metaphase chromosome image selection for automatic karyotype generation are compared in this paper. After analysis, it has been concluded that each metaphase chromosome image selection method has its advantages and disadvantages.

  1. Improving Efficiency of Classification using PCA and Apriori based Attribute Selection Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rajeswari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to select significant features that contribute for accuracy in classification. Data mining is a field where we find lots of data which can be useful or useless in any form available in Data Warehouse. Implementing classification on these huge, uneven, useless data sets with large number of features is just a waste of time degrading the efficiency of classification algorithms and hence the results are not much accurate. Hence we propose a system in which we first use PCA (Principal Component Analysis for selection of the attributes on which we perform Classification using Bayes theorem, Multi-Layer Perceptron, Decision tree J48 which indeed has given us better result than that of performing Classification on the huge complete data sets with all the attributes. Also association rule mining using traditional Apriori algorithm is experimented to find out sub set of features related to class label. The experiments are conducted using WEKA 3.6.0 Tool.

  2. [Maxillary Cancer with Metastasis to the Rouviere Nodes -- Complete Response to Chemoradiotherapy Using a Selective Intra-Arterial Infusion Technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashiro, Keita; Heianna, Joichi; Azama, Kimei; Iraha, Yuko; Yamashiro, Tsuneo; Kinoshita, Ryo; Toita, Takafumi; Toyama, Masatomo; Agena, Shinya; Maeda, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Mikio; Murayama, Sadayuki

    2016-02-01

    We report a case of advanced maxillary cancer with multiple lymph node metastases, including metastasis to the Rouviere nodes, which were successfully treated with chemoradiotherapy using a selective intra-arterial infusion technique.A 71-yearold man presented to our hospital with complaints of a staggering gait and epistaxis.He was diagnosed with maxillary cancer (squamous cell carcinoma)classified as T4a disease.Because multiple lymph node metastases were detected, including metastasis to the Rouviere nodes, radical surgical treatment was considered inadequate.Thus, the patient was treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy with selective intra-arterial infusion of nedaplatin and docetaxel.After chemoradiotherapy, the maxillary cancer and lymph metastasis nearly resolved and the patient achieved a complete response.No additional surgery was needed, and the patient was discharged.We suggest that chemoradiotherapy using a selective intra-arterial infusion technique is a highly effective treatment option for patients with maxillary cancer and metastasis to the Rouviere nodes.

  3. A controlled single-case treatment of severe long-term selective mutism in a child with mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facon, Bruno; Sahiri, Safia; Rivière, Vinca

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the efficacy of combining two operant learning procedures--shaping and fading--for treating selective mutism. The participant was a 12-year-old boy with mental retardation presenting a severe long-term selective mutism. The treatment was aimed at increasing the loudness of his vocalizations in an increasingly social milieu. The treatment was conducted over the course of about 20 weeks, with four 15-minute sessions per week. A gradual increase in speech loudness was observed. Data indicated a close correspondence between the changes in speech loudness and the criteria for reinforcement successively applied by the therapist, thereby confirming the causal link between the child's progress and the changes in reinforcement contingencies. In addition, good generalization was noted during the stimulus fading phase. Six-month follow up showed that loudness of verbalizations was still satisfactory in the classroom despite a change of school and peer group. The impressive improvement of the child's verbal behavior shows that the implementation of a treatment package including both shaping and stimulus fading is a worthwhile therapeutic option, even in the case of severe long-term selective mutism associated with mental retardation.

  4. Long-term cost-effectiveness of single indirect restorations in selected dental practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, P G; Smales, R J

    2004-05-22

    To determine the relative cost-effectiveness of alternative methods for restoring large tooth substance loss in adults. Long-term survival estimates and discounted costs for 245 large indirect restorations were used to calculate their incremental cost-effectiveness over 15 years when compared with direct placement Class II cusp-overlay amalgams and Class IV multisurface resin composites, placed in 100 patients from three private dental practices. The direct placement restorations were more cost-effective than the indirect restorations at all time intervals over the 15-year study period. The full gold crown and the ceramometal crown were the most cost-effective indirect posterior and anterior restorations respectively. The cast gold onlay and the porcelain jacket crown were the least cost-effective indirect posterior and anterior restorations respectively. When clinically practicable, large direct placement restorations should be placed initially in preference to indirect restorations.

  5. Genetic Structure and Selection of a Core Collection for Long Term Conservation of Avocado in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Luis F.; Machida-Hirano, Ryoko; Borrayo, Ernesto; Cortés-Cruz, Moisés; Espíndola-Barquera, María del Carmen; Heredia García, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Mexico, as the center of origin of avocado (Persea americama Mill.), harbors a wide genetic diversity of this species, whose identification may provide the grounds to not only understand its unique population structure and domestication history, but also inform the efforts aimed at its conservation. Although molecular characterization of cultivated avocado germplasm has been studied by several research groups, this had not been the case in Mexico. In order to elucidate the genetic structure of avocado in Mexico and the sustainable use of its genetic resources, 318 avocado accessions conserved in the germplasm collection in the National Avocado Genebank were analyzed using 28 markers [9 expressed sequence tag-Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) and 19 genomic SSRs]. Deviation from Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium and high inter-locus linkage disequilibrium were observed especially in drymifolia, and guatemalensis. Total averages of the observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.59 and 0.75, respectively. Although clear genetic differentiation was not observed among 3 botanical races: americana, drymifolia, and guatemalensis, the analyzed Mexican population can be classified into two groups that correspond to two different ecological regions. We developed a core-collection by K-means clustering method. The selected 36 individuals as core-collection successfully represented more than 80% of total alleles and showed heterozygosity values equal to or higher than those of the original collection, despite its constituting slightly more than 10% of the latter. Accessions selected as members of the core collection have now become candidates to be introduced in cryopreservation implying a minimum loss of genetic diversity and a back-up for existing field collections of such important genetic resources. PMID:28286510

  6. Comparative performance of selected variability detection techniques in photometric time series data

    CERN Document Server

    Sokolovsky, K V; Karampelas, A; Antipin, S V; Bellas-Velidis, I; Benni, P; Bonanos, A Z; Burdanov, A Y; Derlopa, S; Hatzidimitriou, D; Khokhryakova, A D; Kolesnikova, D M; Korotkiy, S A; Lapukhin, E G; Moretti, M I; Popov, A A; Pouliasis, E; Samus, N N; Spetsieri, Z; Veselkov, S A; Volkov, K V; Yang, M; Zubareva, A M

    2016-01-01

    Photometric measurements are prone to systematic errors presenting a challenge to low-amplitude variability detection. In search for a general-purpose variability detection technique able to recover a broad range of variability types including currently unknown ones, we test 18 statistical characteristics quantifying scatter and/or correlation between brightness measurements. We compare their performance in identifying variable objects in seven time-series datasets obtained with telescopes ranging in size from a telephoto lens to 1m-class and probing variability on timescales from minutes to decades. The test datasets together include lightcurves of 127539 objects, among them 1251 variable stars of various types and represent a range of observing conditions often found in ground-based variability surveys. The real data are complemented by simulations. We propose a combination of two indices that together recover a broad range of variability types from photometric data characterized by a wide variety of sampli...

  7. Selective Ring Oscillator PUF with Statistics Correction Technique and its Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Masaya; Asai, Toshiya; Shiozaki, Mitsuru; Fujino, Takeshi

    The physical unclonable function (PUF) is a method to derive ID information peculiar to a device by detecting random physical features that cannot be controlled during the device’s manufacture. Because information such as the ID information is difficult to replicate, PUF is used as a technique to prevent forgery. PUF has two major application fields: an authentication scheme, and protection of intellectual property of the semiconductor industry. Several circuit systems to compose PUF have been reported. This study proposes a new PUF based on ring oscillator PUF. By incorporating a mechanism to correct the oscillation frequency dispersion that results from the layout, the proposed PUF can generate ID accurately. We verified the proposed PUF’s validity by conducting experiments using an FPGA that incorporates the proposed PUF.

  8. Biodesulfurization techniques: Application of selected microorganisms for organic sulfur removal from coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmore, B.B.

    1993-08-01

    As an alternative to post-combustion desulfurization of coal and pre-combustion desulfurization using physicochemical techniques, the microbial desulfurization of coal may be accomplished through the use of microbial cultures that, in an application of various microbial species, may remove both the pyritic and organic fractions of sulfur found in coal. Organisms have been isolated that readily depyritize coal but often at prohibitively low rates of desulfurization. Microbes have also been isolated that may potentially remove the organic-sulfur fraction present in coal (showing promise when acting on organic sulfur model compounds such as dibenzothiophene). The isolation and study of microorganisms demonstrating a potential for removing organic sulfur from coal has been undertaken in this project. Additionally, the organisms and mechanisms by which coal is microbially depyritized has been investigated. Three cultures were isolated that grew on dibenzothiophene (DBT), a model organic-sulfur compound, as the sole sulfur source. These cultures (UMX3, UMX9, and IGTS8) also grew on coal samples as the sole sulfur source. Numerous techniques for pretreating and ``cotreating`` coal for depyritization were also evaluated for the ability to improve the rate or extent of microbial depyritization. These include prewashing the coal with various solvents and adding surfactants to the culture broth. Using a bituminous coal containing 0.61% (w/w) pyrite washed with organic solvents at low slurry concentrations (2% w/v), the extent of depyritization was increased approximately 25% in two weeks as compared to controls. At slurry concentrations of 20% w/v, a tetrachloroethylene treatment of the coal followed by depyritization with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans increased both the rate and extent of depyritization by approximately 10%.

  9. Regression Test-Selection Technique Using Component Model Based Modification: Code to Test Traceability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad A. Saifan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Regression testing is a safeguarding procedure to validate and verify adapted software, and guarantee that no errors have emerged. However, regression testing is very costly when testers need to re-execute all the test cases against the modified software. This paper proposes a new approach in regression test selection domain. The approach is based on meta-models (test models and structured models to decrease the number of test cases to be used in the regression testing process. The approach has been evaluated using three Java applications. To measure the effectiveness of the proposed approach, we compare the results using the re-test to all approaches. The results have shown that our approach reduces the size of test suite without negative impact on the effectiveness of the fault detection.

  10. Techniques for selecting topology and implementing the distributed control system network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyi, S.

    2016-04-01

    On grounds of reviews devoted to flows analysis methods in the data processing networks within the automated control systems for the technological process and assessment of these methods by the selected set of requirements, one may make conclusion about expediency of using the combination of graph flow algorithms and the queuing theory. The outputs of the research concerning the impact of network dynamics on the drilling platform distributed system control quality prove the fact that the quality of the transient depends upon the frequency of discretization and intensity of flows. With increasing the intensity of flows, the static error of the control enlarges. It was concluded that in order to control the automation objects in the real-time mode it is required to minimize the delays in transmitting packets in the network.

  11. Central pancreatectomy:a new technique for resection of selected pancreatic tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Omar J Shah; Irfan Robbani; Parvez Nazir; Athar B Khan

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pancreatic tumors located in the neck region usually require pancreaticoduodenectomy or splenopancreatectomy. For small benign tumors enucleation is not usually feasible due to their size and localization; then pancreatectomy is often needed. Central pancreatectomy consists of a limited resection of the midportion of the pancreas and can be offered in benign and low-grade malignant tumors of the neck of the pancreas. The study aimed to evaluate whether central pancreatectomy has a place in pancreatic surgery. METHODS: In this study, which covered a period of 14 months, we performed central pancreatectomy in four selected patients. Preoperative evaluation and operative frozen section biopsy in indicated cases allowed proper selection for the procedure. Operative details, complications and follow-up were recorded. RESULTS: Four patients, two with serous cystadenoma, and one with an islet cell tumor, and one with a hydatid cyst, were identiifed for the procedure. The mean tumor size was 3 cm, the mean operative time was 217.5 minutes, and the mean blood loss was 382.5 ml. There was no morbidity or mortality in this series. No endocrine or exocrine deifciency was observed in any patient during a mean follow-up of 22.7 months. CONCLUSIONS: Central pancreatectomy is a procedure that offers excellent results in benign and low-grade malignant tumors. It preserves functional elements (endocrine and exocrine) of the pancreas and also eliminates the infective and hematological effects of splenectomy. Thus, central pancreatectomy should be included in the armamentarium of pancreatic surgery, and in order to obtain good results, proper indications and adequate experience are recommended.

  12. Pancreatoduodenectomy for chronic pancreatitis: anatomic selection criteria and subsequent long-term outcome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, L W; Kozarek, R A

    1997-01-01

    present. Total pancreatectomy was associated with peptic ulceration. CONCLUSIONS: Using selection criteria, the outcome analysis standardized anatomic and clinical variables as to how they were associated with the outcome events (calibrated the effects of the operation with each variable). In these selected patients, PD is safe and significantly relieves pain. Sequelae are from diabetes, provided total pancreatectomy is avoided. PMID:9351711

  13. Determination of Effective Criteria for location Selection of WPC Plants from agricultural residues in Iran by AHP Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hasan alizadeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at determining the effective criteria for location selection of WPC Plants from agricultural residues in Iran. For this purpose, after review and studies papers and books, Six criteria" products and materials, regulations, technical and human, economic, infrastructure and environmental and also 30 sub-criteria were identified. The priority rates of these criteria and sub-criteria were evaluated by AHP technique. The results indicated that among 30 effective sub-criteria in location selection of the WPC plants from agricultural residues, amount of wastes supply (0.087, continuity of wastes supply, cost of wastes supply, amount of sales and export, granted facilities and less Hazards for the environment and forest had the highest priorities, which were rated as 0.071, 0.067, 0.065, 0.064 and 0.062 respectively.

  14. Long-term effect of dexfenfluramine on amino acid profiles and food selection in obese patients during weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, L; Møller, S E; Andersen, T;

    1996-01-01

    .2-5.0 MJ/d diet. Maximum weight loss was obtained after 6 months (dF 12.8 +/- 5.4 kg; PL 13.8 +/- 9.2 kg, x +/- s.d., ns). Plasma Trp/LNAA and Tyr/LNAA were found to be lower than in normal weight controls and were further reduced during treatment (p ... groups. Macronutrient selection was not affected by the dF treatment. In the placebo group weight loss was associated with a high pre-treatment energy intake and a high carbohydrate-protein ratio (p protein intake (%) and age was found to explain 82......% of the variation in weight loss (p food selection nor basal plasma amino acid profiles were predictors of weight loss during long-term treatment...

  15. Selected aspects of the piece production of iron alloy castings in terms of their environmental impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Maniowski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Problems of environmental protection are nowadays one of the top priorities in a policy programme adopted by the European Community.Reducing the negative impact of the domestic foundry industry on environment should result from complex and long-lasting activities,targeted not only at modernisation of the dust collecting units, but also at searches and implementation of alternative, innovative and more pro-ecology oriented means and techniques of casting manufacture. Reducing to minimum the level of emissions escaping to the environment should be considered at all stages of the casting manufacturing process. In this study, the discussion was restricted to the process of the manufacture of moulds and cores for piece production of the heavy castings. The environmental impact of the technology of making moulds and cores in sands with chemical binders, used most often in piece production of large castings poured from iron alloys, was highlighted. As an alternative technology of mould preparation for the piece production of castings, the ecological and economic aspects of the full mould process were presented.

  16. The Israeli Long-Term Care Insurance Law: selected issues in providing home care services to the frail elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Hillel

    2005-05-01

    The paper describes and analyses selected issues related to the provision of home care services to frail elderly people following the Israeli Long-Term Care Insurance Law (1988). The goals and principles of the Law, which mandates the provision of home care services to frail elderly people, are presented. The paper also evaluates its contribution toward enhancing the well-being of elderly clients. Several major dilemmas that arose following implementation of the Law are analysed and evaluated in comparison with other countries that have enacted and implemented similar laws. These dilemmas are community vs institutional care; services in kind vs monetary allowances; service provision through contracting out with nongovernmental agencies; unstable and unskilled labour force; and service quality. Finally, policy implications are discussed, mainly in the following areas: investment in human resources as a condition for achieving high service quality, and the need for coordination between the agencies that provide long-term care services to elderly people.

  17. Exploring fish bioassay of textile dye wastewaters and their selected constituents in terms of mortality and erythrocyte disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shweta; Sharma, Subhasini; Singh, P K; Swami, R C; Sharma, K P

    2009-07-01

    Acute (4 day) and short-term (7 day) toxicity studies (at 1/5th and 1/10th of LC(50)) of textile dye wastewaters and their selected ingredients (azo dye methyl red and heavy metals Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn) were made on a freshwater fish Gambusia affinis under laboratory conditions. LC(50) value was found to be the lowest in four cases, and the EC(50) value for reduction in erythrocyte counts in the remaining four tests. Thus, the reduction in erythrocyte counts to the 50% level was similar in sensitivity to fish mortality. The short-term toxicity studies revealed significant disorders in erythrocyte morphology (poikilocytosis) and its counts to be the better indices for toxicity monitoring in the absence of fish mortality.

  18. The Importance of Knowledge Management in Terms of Increasing Social Capital in Selected Slovene Technology Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riko Novak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the importance of knowledge management (KM and how it is influencing social capital (SC in selected organisations that are members of Slovene technology parks. The purpose of this article is to point out statistical important characteristics between the dependant variable and several independent variables on the basis of preliminary studied empirical data based on a population of 667 organisations chosen from the subjects of the innovative environment database maintained by the Public Agency of the Republic of Slovenia for Entrepreneurship and Foreign Investments (JAPTI. On the basis of a multivariate regression analysis we wanted to present empirical findings, namely, whether communication technologies and the capability (ability of the employed to access information sources influences KM. With this article we want to present the final findings which define the development of a conceptual framework for understanding the influence of KM in small and medium sized companies on the development of social capital. We came to the conclusion that in an organisation the importance of intellectual and social capital, intangible capital assets and their continuous measurement has to be emphasised in order to increase the importance (awareness of KM.

  19. Long-Term Wind Characteristics at Selected Locations in Mauritius for Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. Dhunny

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interests in wind energy have gained impetus in many developed and developing countries worldwide during the last three decades. This is due to awareness of the population about the depletion of fossil fuels as well as Government campaigns and initiatives to encourage the use of renewable sources of energy. This work focuses on the wind energy potential at two selected locations (Plaisance and Vacoas in Mauritius. The emphasis is to assess whether small-wind turbines have a potential in these regions for generation of power for domestic applications. Such wind turbines can range in size from 400 W to 10 kW depending on the amount of electricity to be generated. The assessment is based on the correlation of the local wind speed data to a two-parameter Weibull probability distribution in order to effectively estimate the average wind power density of the sites. Nearly 40 years of mean wind speed data is utilized. Of the two sites investigated it is found that Plaisance yielded the highest wind velocity (as compared to Vacoas. The study also estimates the energy output of six commercial small-wind turbines of capacity ranging from 1 kW to 3 kW at these two sites, placed at multiple heights.

  20. Routine maintenance: safety term based work selection; Selecao de trabalho baseado no prazo seguro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, Albair de; Filho, Antnio S.; Brendler, Fabiano E.; Adamatti, Gilberto A.; Naruto, Itiro; Araujo, Luiz C.F.; Puerari, Roberto [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This work has objective to present the experience of improvement of routine maintenance system in some refineries of the PETROBRAS system, with the purpose to increase the efficiency in the Industrial Maintenance Management (cost), Utilization and HSE (Health, Safety and Environment), key of success of a petroleum company. The new system is based on the implantation of the culture of work selection in the safe period, through elaboration of new maintenance procedure, with emphasis in decisions shared between Operation and Maintenance Team, resulting in reduction of emergencies, making possible contract of services of maintenance for packages and improved allocation of resources. This work treat about improvement of the system in use, in view of that it has already taken in consideration the consequence of fail in the maintenance with participation of the operators. Besides of these challenge, this modification was made without causing riots in the process of implantation of SAP. As main result, financial profits had got better of resources with increase of safety, considering that they are analyzed in a way it that systematized potential risks. (author)

  1. Toxicity of selected plant volatiles in microbial and mammalian short-term assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stammati, A; Bonsi, P; Zucco, F; Moezelaar, R; Alakomi, H L; von Wright, A

    1999-08-01

    In this study, several short-term microbial and mammalian in vitro assays were used to evaluate cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of four plant volatiles showing antifungal activity: cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, thymol and S(+)-carvone. All inhibited viability and proliferation of Hep-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. IC50 ranged from 0.3 mM (cinnamaldehyde) to 0.7 mM (thymol) in viability tests and from 0.2 mM (carvacrol) to 0.9 mM (carvone) in the proliferation test. The morphological analysis suggested an involvement of apoptosis in the cases of carvone, carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde. At nontoxic doses, carvacrol and thymol increased the number of revertants in the Ames test by 1.5-1.7 times, regardless of metabolic activation. In the SOS-chromotest, none of the four plant volatiles caused DNA damage at non-toxic doses. In the DNA repair test, a marked dose-dependent differential toxicity was observed with carvone and, to a lesser extent, with cinnamaldehyde, while with thymol and carvacrol, this effect was less pronounced. In conclusion, the considered in vitro cytotoxicity assays have shown to be sensitive enough to highlight a variety of toxic effects at the cellular level, which can be rather different between chemically closely related compounds, such as isomers.

  2. Definitions of selected ground-water terms, revisions and conceptual refinements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Stanley William

    1972-01-01

    For many years there has been a need for redefinition or more precise definition of certain ground-water terms used in publications by members of the U.S . Geological Survey. Another problem has been the expression of the coefficient of permeability (herein redefined as hydraulic conductivity) and the coefficient of transmissibility (herein redefined as transmissivity) in inconsistent units that included the U.S . gallon, the foot, and in some expressions, the mile. Such inconsistent units and the attendant confusing numerical conversion factors used in flow equations, such as 527.7, 264, and 114.6, makes it unnecessarily difficult for hydrologists, especially in foreign countries, to follow and use our published results. Because of this it is advisable that basic ground-water flow equations in publications by members of the Geological Survey contain only the pure dimensionless numbers that result from the derivation of the equations, such as 2, 2.30, e, π , and 4, and that numerical results having dimensions should be expressed in consistent units of measurement.

  3. A multi-wavelength survey of AGN in the XMM-LSS field: I. Quasar selection via the KX technique

    CERN Document Server

    Nakos, Th; Andreon, S; Surdej, J; Riaud, P; Hatziminaoglou, E; Garcet, O; Alloin, D; Baes, M; Galaz, G; Pierre, M; Quintana, H; Page, M J; Tedds, J A; Ceballos, M T; Corral, A; Ebrero, J; Krumpe, M; Mateos, S

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: We present a sample of candidate quasars selected using the KX-technique. The data cover 0.68 deg^2 of the X-ray Multi-Mirror (XMM) Large-Scale Structure (LSS) survey area where overlapping multi-wavelength imaging data permits an investigation of the physical nature of selected sources. METHODS: The KX method identifies quasars on the basis of their optical (R and z') to near-infrared (Ks) photometry and point-like morphology. We combine these data with optical (u*,g'r',i',z') and mid-infrared (3.6-24 micron) wavebands to reconstruct the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of candidate quasars. RESULTS: Of 93 sources selected as candidate quasars by the KX method, 25 are classified as quasars by the subsequent SED analysis. Spectroscopic observations are available for 12/25 of these sources and confirm the quasar hypothesis in each case. Even more, 90% of the SED-classified quasars show X-ray emission, a property not shared by any of the false candidates in the KX-selected sample. Applying a photometr...

  4. Detection of Thermal Sublethal Injury in Escherichia coli via the Selective Medium Plating Technique: Mechanisms and Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espina, Laura; García-Gonzalo, Diego; Pagán, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    In food preservation, the synergistic combination of different technologies aims to maximize the total lethality of the process and minimize the intensity of each hurdle. This is especially the case when at least one of the treatments can cause sublethal (reparable) injury in a great proportion of the population, so that sublethally injured cells can end up being entirely inactivated by the other hurdle(s). The selective medium plating technique (SMPT) is extensively used to enumerate bacterial sublethal injury after inimical treatments, being sodium chloride added to the recovery medium to detect damaged bacterial envelopes. However, little work has been done to explain the reasons for the inability of sublethally injured cells to outgrow in selective agar media, whereas they are able to grow in non-selective agar. In the present paper, the performance of SMPT on Escherichia coli cells after heat treatments is explored by applying different selective agents in the recovery media, using mutants lacking factors involved in osmoregulation, and also by examining the integrity of the cytoplasmic membrane. In view of the results, the possibility of a specific toxic effect of Na+ as the main mechanism under SMPT was discarded, since the same level of sublethal injury was detected using KCl instead of NaCl. The synthesis of the osmoprotectant trehalose determined the maximum osmotolerance of intact cells to the selective agents, but was not crucial in the quantification of sublethal injury. Moreover, for the first time, the extent of sublethal injury detected via SMPT was directly correlated with the physical loss of integrity of the cell membrane in 99.999% of the initial population. This was achieved through statistical analysis of flow cytometry data using propidium iodide-exclusion technique when that dye was added before thermal treatments. The present work confirms the adequacy of SMPT as a tool for detecting the occurrence and quantity of sublethally injured cells

  5. A HEURISTIC MOVING VEHICLE LOCATION PREDICTION TECHNIQUE VIA OPTIMAL PATHS SELECTION WITH AID OF GENETIC ALGORITHM AND FEED FORWARD BACK PROPAGATION NEURAL NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Duraiswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The moving object or vehicle location prediction based on their spatial and temporal information is an important task in many applications. Different methods were utilized for performing the vehicle movement detection and prediction process. In such works, there is a lack of analysis in predicting the vehicles location in current as well as in future. Moreover, such methods compute the vehicles movement by finding the topological relationships among trajectories and locations, whereas the representative GPS points are determined by the 30 m circular window. Due to this process, the performance of the method is degraded because such 30 m circular window is selected by calculating the error range in the given input image and such error range may vary from image to image. To reduce the drawback presented in the existing method, in this study a heuristic moving vehicle location prediction algorithm is proposed. The proposed heuristic algorithm mainly comprises two techniques namely, optimization GA algorithm and FFBNN. In this proposed technique, initially the vehicles frequent paths are collected by monitoring all the vehicles movement in a specific period. Among the frequent paths, the vehicles optimal paths are computed by the GA algorithm. The selected optimal paths for each vehicle are utilized to train the FFBNN. The well trained FFBNN is then utilized to find the vehicle movement from the current location. By combining the proposed heuristic algorithm with GA and FFBNN, the vehicles location is predicted efficiently. The implementation result shows the effectiveness of the proposed heuristic algorithm in predicting the vehicles future location from the current location. The performance of the heuristic algorithm is evaluated by comparing the result with the RBF classifier. The comparison result shows our proposed technique acquires an accurate vehicle location prediction ratio than the RBF prediction ratio, in terms of accuracy.

  6. A Framework to Implement IoT Network Performance Modelling Techniques for Network Solution Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Declan T. Delaney

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available No single network solution for Internet of Things (IoT networks can provide the required level of Quality of Service (QoS for all applications in all environments. This leads to an increasing number of solutions created to fit particular scenarios. Given the increasing number and complexity of solutions available, it becomes difficult for an application developer to choose the solution which is best suited for an application. This article introduces a framework which autonomously chooses the best solution for the application given the current deployed environment. The framework utilises a performance model to predict the expected performance of a particular solution in a given environment. The framework can then choose an apt solution for the application from a set of available solutions. This article presents the framework with a set of models built using data collected from simulation. The modelling technique can determine with up to 85% accuracy the solution which performs the best for a particular performance metric given a set of solutions. The article highlights the fractured and disjointed practice currently in place for examining and comparing communication solutions and aims to open a discussion on harmonising testing procedures so that different solutions can be directly compared and offers a framework to achieve this within IoT networks.

  7. Post-selection technique for quantum channels with applications to quantum cryptography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christandl, Matthias [University of Munich (Germany); Koenig, Robert [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Renner, Renato [ETH Zurich (Switzerland)

    2009-07-01

    We propose a general method for studying properties of quantum channels acting on an n-partite system, whose action is invariant under permutations of the subsystems. Our main result is that, in order to prove that a certain property holds for any arbitrary input, it is sufficient to consider the special case where the input is a particular de Finetti-type state, i.e., a state which consists of n identical and independent copies of an (unknown) state on a single subsystem. A similar statement holds for more general channels which are covariant with respect to the action of an arbitrary finite or locally compact group. Our technique can be applied to the analysis of information-theoretic problems. For example, in quantum cryptography, we get a simple proof for the fact that security of a discrete-variable quantum key distribution protocol against collective attacks implies security of the protocol against the most general attacks. The resulting security bounds are tighter than previously known bounds obtained by proofs relying on the exponential de Finetti theorem.

  8. Implementation of Novel Technique for Selective Harmonic Elimination in Multilevel Inverters Based on ICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ajami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eliminating the specific harmonics especially low-order harmonics of the output voltage of 9-level inverter using SHE-PWM control scheme is investigated. Harmonic minimization is the intricate optimization problems because the nonlinear transcendental equations have multiple local optima. Increasing the degrees of freedom in the suggested method means that the number of switching angles increases. The suggested method is able to eliminate high number of undesired harmonics. As the number of switching angles increases, using either traditional iterative techniques or resultant theory method gets useless. In this paper to overcome this problem the imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA is used. Also a DC-DC converter is used to enhance the SHE performance in the range for which the conventional SHE methods do not have any solution. Experimental and simulation results of a 9-level inverter show that the proposed method effectively minimizes a large number of particular harmonics so the total harmonics distortion of output voltage will be lower.

  9. Selective and validated data processing techniques for performance improvement of automatic lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Aponte Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of the data processing techniques of accelerometers and force transducers allowed to get information about actions in order to improve the behavior of a cutting stage of a converting machinery for diapers production. In particular, different mechanical configurations have been studied and compared in order to reduce the solicitations due to the impacts between knives and anvil, to get clean and accurate cuts and to reduce wear of knives themselves. Reducing the uncertainty of measurements allowed to correctly individuate the best configuration for the pneumatic system that realize the coupling between anvil and knife. The size of pipes, the working pressure and the type of the fluid used in the coupling system have been examined. Experimental results obtained by means of acceleration and force measurements allowed to identify in a reproducible and coherent way the geometry of the pushing device and the working pressure range of the hydraulic fluid. The remarkable reduction of knife and anvil vibrations is expected to strongly reduce the wear of the cutting stage components.

  10. A Framework to Implement IoT Network Performance Modelling Techniques for Network Solution Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Declan T; O'Hare, Gregory M P

    2016-12-01

    No single network solution for Internet of Things (IoT) networks can provide the required level of Quality of Service (QoS) for all applications in all environments. This leads to an increasing number of solutions created to fit particular scenarios. Given the increasing number and complexity of solutions available, it becomes difficult for an application developer to choose the solution which is best suited for an application. This article introduces a framework which autonomously chooses the best solution for the application given the current deployed environment. The framework utilises a performance model to predict the expected performance of a particular solution in a given environment. The framework can then choose an apt solution for the application from a set of available solutions. This article presents the framework with a set of models built using data collected from simulation. The modelling technique can determine with up to 85% accuracy the solution which performs the best for a particular performance metric given a set of solutions. The article highlights the fractured and disjointed practice currently in place for examining and comparing communication solutions and aims to open a discussion on harmonising testing procedures so that different solutions can be directly compared and offers a framework to achieve this within IoT networks.

  11. A Framework to Implement IoT Network Performance Modelling Techniques for Network Solution Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Declan T.; O’Hare, Gregory M. P.

    2016-01-01

    No single network solution for Internet of Things (IoT) networks can provide the required level of Quality of Service (QoS) for all applications in all environments. This leads to an increasing number of solutions created to fit particular scenarios. Given the increasing number and complexity of solutions available, it becomes difficult for an application developer to choose the solution which is best suited for an application. This article introduces a framework which autonomously chooses the best solution for the application given the current deployed environment. The framework utilises a performance model to predict the expected performance of a particular solution in a given environment. The framework can then choose an apt solution for the application from a set of available solutions. This article presents the framework with a set of models built using data collected from simulation. The modelling technique can determine with up to 85% accuracy the solution which performs the best for a particular performance metric given a set of solutions. The article highlights the fractured and disjointed practice currently in place for examining and comparing communication solutions and aims to open a discussion on harmonising testing procedures so that different solutions can be directly compared and offers a framework to achieve this within IoT networks. PMID:27916929

  12. Production of genetically and developmentally modified seaweeds: exploiting the potential of artificial selection techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, Bénédicte; Rolland, Elodie; Gupta, Vishal; Reddy, C R K

    2015-01-01

    Plant feedstock with specific, modified developmental features has been a quest for centuries. Since the development and spread of agriculture, there has been a desire for plants producing disproportionate-or more abundant and more nutritional-biomass that meet human needs better than their native counterparts. Seaweed aquaculture, targeted for human consumption and the production of various raw materials, is a rapidly expanding field and its stakeholders have increasing vested interest for cost-effective and lucrative seaweed cultivation processes. Thus, scientific research on seaweed development is particularly timely: the potential for expansion of seaweed cultivation depends on the sector's capacity to produce seaweeds with modified morphological features (e.g., thicker blades), higher growth rates or delayed (or even no) fertility. Here, we review the various technical approaches used to modify development in macroalgae, which have attracted little attention from developmental biologists to date. Because seaweed (or marine macroalgae) anatomy is much less complex than that of land plants and because seaweeds belong to three different eukaryotic phyla, the mechanisms controlling their morphogenesis are key to understanding their development. Here, we present efficient sources of developmentally and genetically modified seaweeds-somatic variants, artificial hybrids and mutants-as well as the future potential of these techniques.

  13. Production of genetically and developmentally modified seaweeds: Exploiting the potential of artificial selection techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bénédicte eCharrier

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant feedstock with specific, modified developmental features has been a quest for centuries. Since the development and spread of agriculture, there has been a desire for plants producing disproportionate — or more abundant and more nutritional — biomass that meet human needs better than their native counterparts. Seaweed aquaculture, targeted for human consumption and the production of various raw materials, is a rapidly expanding field and its stakeholders have increasing vested interest for cost-effective and lucrative seaweed cultivation processes. Thus, scientific research on seaweed development is particularly timely: the potential for expansion of seaweed cultivation depends on the sector’s capacity to produce seaweeds with modified morphological features (e.g. thicker blades, higher growth rates or delayed (or even no fertility. Here, we review the various technical approaches used to modify development in macroalgae, which have attracted little attention from developmental biologists to date. Because seaweed (or marine macroalgae anatomy is much less complex than that of land plants and because seaweeds belong to three different eukaryotic phyla, the mechanisms controlling their morphogenesis are key to understanding their development. Here, we present efficient sources of developmentally and genetically modified seaweeds — somatic variants, artificial hybrids and mutants — as well as the future potential of these techniques.

  14. Post-CMOS selective electroplating technique for the improvement of CMOS-MEMS accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Chia; Tsai, Ming-Han; Tang, Tsung-Lin; Fang, Weileun

    2011-10-01

    This study presents a simple approach to improve the performance of the CMOS-MEMS capacitive accelerometer by means of the post-CMOS metal electroplating process. The metal layer can be selectively electroplated on the MEMS structures at low temperature and the thickness of the metal layer can be easily adjusted by this process. Thus the performance of the capacitive accelerometer (i.e. sensitivity, noise floor and the minimum detectable signal) can be improved. In application, the proposed accelerometers have been implemented using (1) the standard CMOS 0.35 µm 2P4M process by CMOS foundry, (2) Ti/Au seed layers deposition/patterning by MEMS foundry and (3) in-house post-CMOS electroplating and releasing processes. Measurements indicate that the sensitivity is improved 2.85-fold, noise is decreased near 1.7-fold and the minimum detectable signal is improved from 1 to 0.2 G after nickel electroplating. Moreover, unwanted structure deformation due to the temperature variation is significantly suppressed by electroplated nickel.

  15. Loading of red blood cells with an analyte-sensitive dye for development of a long-term monitoring technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Sarah C.; Meissner, Kenith E.

    2012-03-01

    Measurement of blood analytes, such as pH and glucose, provide crucial information about a patient's health. Some such analytes, such as glucose in the case of diabetes, require long-term or near-continuous monitoring for proper disease management. However, current monitoring techniques are far from ideal: multiple-per-day finger stick tests are inconvenient and painful for the patient; implantable sensors have short functional life spans (i.e., 3-7 days). Red blood cells serve as an attractive alternative for carriers of analyte sensors. Once reintroduced to the blood stream, these carriers may continue to live for the remainder of their life span (120 days for humans). They are also biodegradable and biocompatible, thereby eliminating the immune system response common for many implanted devices. The proposed carrier system takes advantage of the ability of the red blood cells to swell in response to a decrease in the osmolarity of the extracellular solution. Just before the membranes lyse, they develop small pores on the scale of tens of nanometers. Analyte-sensitive dyes in the extracellular solution may then diffuse into the perforated red blood cells and become entrapped upon restoration of physiological temperature and osmolarity. Because the membranes contain various analyte transporters, intracellular analyte levels rapidly equilibrate to those of the extracellular solution. A fluorescent dye has been loaded inside of red blood cells using a preswelling technique. Alterations in preparation parameters have been shown to affect characteristics of the resulting dye-loaded red blood cells (e.g., intensity of fluorescence).

  16. Endometrial changes from short-term therapy with CDB-4124, a selective progesterone receptor modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioffe, Olga B; Zaino, Richard J; Mutter, George L

    2009-03-01

    Selective progesterone receptor modulators are a class of drugs with progesterone antagonist activity that may confer therapeutic benefit for reproductive disorders in premenopausal women. Endometrial structure, which is dynamically controlled by circulating sex hormones, is likely to be perturbed by progesterone receptor modulators through their progesterone antagonist properties. We examined endometrial histology in 58 premenopausal women treated with the progesterone receptor modulator CDB-4124 (also known as Proellex) for endometriosis or uterine leiomyomata in two clinical trials. Endometrial biopsies obtained after 3 or 6 months with doses of 12.5, 25, or 50 mg daily oral CDB-4124 were reviewed independently by three pathologists. Consensus diagnoses using the World Health Organization hyperplasia scoring system, comments on specific histologic features, and clinical annotation were collected and analyzed. The majority of the endometrial biopsies (103 of 174 biopsies) contained histologic changes that are not seen during normal menstrual cycles. The histology of CDB-4124-treated patients was generally inactive or atrophic, and less frequently, proliferative or secretory, superimposed upon which were novel changes including formation of cystically dilated glands, and secretory changes coexisting with mitoses and apoptotic bodies. With increasing treatment dose and duration, the cysts became predominant and their lining inactive or atrophic. Cystic glands in the CDB-4124-treated subjects correlated with increased endometrial thickness by ultrasound. None of the CDB-4124-treated patients developed endometrial carcinoma or hyperplasia while on therapy. CDB-4124 therapy for 3-6 months produces histologic changes that are sufficiently novel that they might easily be misinterpreted by pathologists, particularly as disordered proliferative or hyperplastic endometrium. Knowledge of the constellation of endometrial changes associated with this agent and other

  17. An Examination of Selected Datacom Options for the Near-Term Implementation of Trajectory Based Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Walter W.; Lachter, Joel B.; Battiste, Vernol; Lim, Veranika; Brandt, Summer L.; Koteskey, Robert W.; Dao, Arik-Quang V.; Ligda, Sarah V.; Wu, Shu-Chieh

    2011-01-01

    A primary feature of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is trajectory based operations (TBO). Under TBO, aircraft flight plans are known to computer systems on the ground that aid in scheduling and separation. The Future Air Navigation System (FANS) was developed to support TBO, but relatively few aircraft in the US are FANSequipped. Thus, any near-term implementation must provide TBO procedures for non-FANS aircraft. Previous research has explored controller clearances, but any implementation must also provide procedures for aircraft requests. The work presented here aims to surface issues surrounding TBO communication procedures for non-FANS aircraft and for aircraft requesting deviations around weather. Three types of communication were explored: Voice, FANS, and ACARS,(Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System). ACARS and FANS are datacom systems that differ in that FANS allows uplinked flight plans to be loaded into the Flight Management System (FMS), while ACARS delivers flight plans as text that must be entered manually via the Control Display Unit (CDU). Sixteen pilots (eight two-person flight decks) and four controllers participated in 32 20-minute scenarios that required the flight decks to navigate through convective weather as they approached their top of descents (TODs). Findings: The rate of non-conformance was higher than anticipated, with aircraft off path more than 20% of the time. Controllers did not differentiate between the ACARS and FANS datacom, and were mixed in their preference for Voice vs. datacom (ACARS and FANS). Pilots uniformly preferred Voice to datacom, particularly ACARS. Much of their dislike appears to result from the slow response times in the datacom conditions. As a result, participants frequently resorted to voice communication. These results imply that, before implementing TBO in environments where pilots make weather deviation requests, further research is needed to develop communication

  18. Long-term sensory deprivation selectively rearranges functional inhibitory circuits in mouse barrel cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peijun; Rudolph, Uwe; Huntsman, Molly M

    2009-07-21

    Long-term whisker removal alters the balance of excitation and inhibition in rodent barrel cortex, yet little is known about the contributions of individual cells and synapses in this process. We studied synaptic inhibition in four major types of neurons in live tangential slices that isolate layer 4 in the posteromedial barrel subfield. Voltage-clamp recordings of layer 4 neurons reveal that fast decay of synaptic inhibition requires alpha1-containing GABA(A) receptors. After 7 weeks of deprivation, we found that GABA(A)-receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in the inhibitory low-threshold-spiking (LTS) cell recorded in deprived barrels exhibited faster decay kinetics and larger amplitudes in whisker-deprived barrels than those in nondeprived barrels in age-matched controls. This was not observed in other cell types. Additionally, IPSCs recorded in LTS cells from deprived barrels show a marked increase in zolpidem sensitivity. To determine if the faster IPSC decay in LTS cells from deprived barrels indicates an increase in alpha1 subunit functionality, we deprived alpha1(H101R) mutant mice with zolpidem-insensitive alpha1-containing GABA(A) receptors. In these mice and matched wild-type controls, IPSC decay kinetics in LTS cells were faster after whisker removal; however, the deprivation-induced sensitivity to zolpidem was reduced in alpha1(H101R) mice. These data illustrate a change of synaptic inhibition in LTS cells via an increase in alpha1-subunit-mediated function. Because alpha1 subunits are commonly associated with circuit-specific plasticity in sensory cortex, this switch in LTS cell synaptic inhibition may signal necessary circuit changes required for plastic adjustments in sensory-deprived cortex.

  19. Comparative performance of selected variability detection techniques in photometric time series data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolovsky, K. V.; Gavras, P.; Karampelas, A.; Antipin, S. V.; Bellas-Velidis, I.; Benni, P.; Bonanos, A. Z.; Burdanov, A. Y.; Derlopa, S.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Khokhryakova, A. D.; Kolesnikova, D. M.; Korotkiy, S. A.; Lapukhin, E. G.; Moretti, M. I.; Popov, A. A.; Pouliasis, E.; Samus, N. N.; Spetsieri, Z.; Veselkov, S. A.; Volkov, K. V.; Yang, M.; Zubareva, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Photometric measurements are prone to systematic errors presenting a challenge to low-amplitude variability detection. In search for a general-purpose variability detection technique able to recover a broad range of variability types including currently unknown ones, we test 18 statistical characteristics quantifying scatter and/or correlation between brightness measurements. We compare their performance in identifying variable objects in seven time series data sets obtained with telescopes ranging in size from a telephoto lens to 1 m-class and probing variability on time-scales from minutes to decades. The test data sets together include light curves of 127 539 objects, among them 1251 variable stars of various types and represent a range of observing conditions often found in ground-based variability surveys. The real data are complemented by simulations. We propose a combination of two indices that together recover a broad range of variability types from photometric data characterized by a wide variety of sampling patterns, photometric accuracies and percentages of outlier measurements. The first index is the interquartile range (IQR) of magnitude measurements, sensitive to variability irrespective of a time-scale and resistant to outliers. It can be complemented by the ratio of the light-curve variance to the mean square successive difference, 1/η, which is efficient in detecting variability on time-scales longer than the typical time interval between observations. Variable objects have larger 1/η and/or IQR values than non-variable objects of similar brightness. Another approach to variability detection is to combine many variability indices using principal component analysis. We present 124 previously unknown variable stars found in the test data.

  20. Comparative performance of selected variability detection techniques in photometric time series data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolovsky, K. V.; Gavras, P.; Karampelas, A.; Antipin, S. V.; Bellas-Velidis, I.; Benni, P.; Bonanos, A. Z.; Burdanov, A. Y.; Derlopa, S.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Khokhryakova, A. D.; Kolesnikova, D. M.; Korotkiy, S. A.; Lapukhin, E. G.; Moretti, M. I.; Popov, A. A.; Pouliasis, E.; Samus, N. N.; Spetsieri, Z.; Veselkov, S. A.; Volkov, K. V.; Yang, M.; Zubareva, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    Photometric measurements are prone to systematic errors presenting a challenge to low-amplitude variability detection. In search for a general-purpose variability detection technique able to recover a broad range of variability types including currently unknown ones, we test 18 statistical characteristics quantifying scatter and/or correlation between brightness measurements. We compare their performance in identifying variable objects in seven time-series datasets obtained with telescopes ranging in size from a telephoto lens to 1 m-class and probing variability on timescales from minutes to decades. The test datasets together include lightcurves of 127539 objects, among them 1251 variable stars of various types and represent a range of observing conditions often found in ground-based variability surveys. The real data are complemented by simulations. We propose a combination of two indices that together recover a broad range of variability types from photometric data characterized by a wide variety of sampling patterns, photometric accuracies, and percentages of outlier measurements. The first index is the interquartile range (IQR) of magnitude measurements, sensitive to variability irrespective of a timescale and resistant to outliers. It can be complemented by the ratio of the lightcurve variance to the mean square successive difference, 1/η, which is efficient in detecting variability on timescales longer than the typical time interval between observations. Variable objects have larger 1/η and/or IQR values than non-variable objects of similar brightness. Another approach to variability detection is to combine many variability indices using principal component analysis. We present 124 previously unknown variable stars found in the test data.

  1. Intelligent feature selection techniques for pattern classification of Lamb wave signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinders, Mark K.; Miller, Corey A. [College of William and Mary, Department of Applied Science, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187-8795 (United States)

    2014-02-18

    Lamb wave interaction with flaws is a complex, three-dimensional phenomenon, which often frustrates signal interpretation schemes based on mode arrival time shifts predicted by dispersion curves. As the flaw severity increases, scattering and mode conversion effects will often dominate the time-domain signals, obscuring available information about flaws because multiple modes may arrive on top of each other. Even for idealized flaw geometries the scattering and mode conversion behavior of Lamb waves is very complex. Here, multi-mode Lamb waves in a metal plate are propagated across a rectangular flat-bottom hole in a sequence of pitch-catch measurements corresponding to the double crosshole tomography geometry. The flaw is sequentially deepened, with the Lamb wave measurements repeated at each flaw depth. Lamb wave tomography reconstructions are used to identify which waveforms have interacted with the flaw and thereby carry information about its depth. Multiple features are extracted from each of the Lamb wave signals using wavelets, which are then fed to statistical pattern classification algorithms that identify flaw severity. In order to achieve the highest classification accuracy, an optimal feature space is required but it’s never known a priori which features are going to be best. For structural health monitoring we make use of the fact that physical flaws, such as corrosion, will only increase over time. This allows us to identify feature vectors which are topologically well-behaved by requiring that sequential classes “line up” in feature vector space. An intelligent feature selection routine is illustrated that identifies favorable class distributions in multi-dimensional feature spaces using computational homology theory. Betti numbers and formal classification accuracies are calculated for each feature space subset to establish a correlation between the topology of the class distribution and the corresponding classification accuracy.

  2. Micromultileaf collimator-based stereotactic radiosurgery for selected arteriovenous malformations: Technique and preliminary experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalali Rakesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To report our experience of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS in consecutively treated patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs. Materials and Methods : Of the 87 patients, 23 patients qualified and were treated with SRS as per predefined protocol according to AVM size, location, neurological status, prior bleeding, and the AVM score. All had Spletzer-Martin grade II/III and AVM scores < 2.5. Patients underwent SRS using micromultileaf collimators delivering multiple noncoplanar fixed fields. Doses were prescribed using the Flickinger model. Patients were followed up with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA and digitally subtracted angiography (DSA. Results : The mean nidus volume was 3.65 cc. The mean prescribed maximum dose was 22 Gy and the marginal dose was 19.24 Gy; 12 Gy normal brain volume was 8.39 cc and 12 Gy marginal volume was 5.03 cc. Mean dose to brain stem, pituitary hypothalamic axis, and optic chiasm was 2.5, 0.72, and 0.49 Gy, respectively. At a median follow-up of 22 months (range 1.5-71.2 months, 7 of 10 patients presenting with a neurological deficit showed significant improvement. All 15 patients who underwent MRA 1.5-2 years after SRS had no residual nidus yielding an MRA complete obliteration rate of 100%. Twelve patients also underwent a check DSA, which confirmed obliteration in 11 of them resulting in an accuracy of MRA of 92%. One patient after SRS had transient deterioration of motor power, which resolved completely after a short course of steroids and another had mild worsening of the hemiparesis. All patients are able to lead an active functional life. Conclusions : Careful selection of cases suitable for SRS provides optimum obliteration rates with low toxicity.

  3. Changes in Selected Biochemical Indices Resulting from Various Pre-sampling Handling Techniques in Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloupek Petr

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since it is not yet clear whether it is possible to satisfactorily avoid sampling-induced stress interference in poultry, more studies on the pattern of physiological response and detailed quantification of stress connected with the first few minutes of capture and pre-sampling handling in poultry are required. This study focused on detection of changes in the corticosterone level and concentrations of other selected biochemical parameters in broilers handled in two different manners during blood sampling (involving catching, carrying, restraint, and blood collection itself that lasted for various time periods within the interval 30-180 seconds. Methods Stress effects of pre-sampling handling were studied in a group (n = 144 of unsexed ROSS 308 broiler chickens aged 42 d. Handling (catching, carrying, restraint, and blood sampling itself was carried out in a gentle (caught, held and carried carefully in an upright position or rough (caught by the leg, held and carried with lack of care in inverted position manner and lasted for 30 s, 60 s, 90 s, 120 s, 150 s, and 180 s. Plasma corticosterone, albumin, glucose, cholesterol, lactate, triglycerides and total protein were measured in order to assess the stress-induced changes to these biochemical indices following handling in the first few minutes of capture. Results Pre-sampling handling in a rough manner resulted in considerably higher plasma concentrations of all biochemical indices monitored when compared with gentle handling. Concentrations of plasma corticosterone after 150 and 180 s of handling were considerably higher (P Conclusions These results indicate that the pre-sampling procedure may be a considerably stressful procedure for broilers, particularly when carried out with lack of care and exceeding 120 seconds.

  4. Development and Testing of a Simple Calibration Technique for Long-Term Hydrological Impact Assessment (L-THIA) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukrishnan, S.; Harbor, J.

    2001-12-01

    Hydrological studies are significant part of every engineering, developmental project and geological studies done to assess and understand the interactions between the hydrology and the environment. Such studies are generally conducted before the beginning of the project as well as after the project is completed, such that a comprehensive analysis can be done on the impact of such projects on the local and regional hydrology of the area. A good understanding of the chain of relationships that form the hydro-eco-biological and environmental cycle can be of immense help in maintaining the natural balance as we work towards exploration and exploitation of the natural resources as well as urbanization of undeveloped land. Rainfall-Runoff modeling techniques have been of great use here for decades since they provide fast and efficient means of analyzing vast amount of data that is gathered. Though process based, detailed models are better than the simple models, the later ones are used more often due to their simplicity, ease of use, and easy availability of data needed to run them. The Curve Number (CN) method developed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is one of the most widely used hydrologic modeling tools in the US, and has earned worldwide acceptance as a practical method for evaluating the effects of land use changes on the hydrology of an area. The Long-Term Hydrological Impact Assessment (L-THIA) model is a basic, CN-based, user-oriented model that has gained popularity amongst watershed planners because of its reliance on readily available data, and because the model is easy to use (http://www.ecn.purdue.edu/runoff) and produces results geared to the general information needs of planners. The L-THIA model was initially developed to study the relative long-term hydrologic impacts of different land use (past/current/future) scenarios, and it has been successful in meeting this goal. However, one of the weaknesses of L-THIA, as well as other

  5. Long-term results and comparison of the three different high tibial osteotomy and fixation techniques in medial compartment arthrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Gökhan; Balcı, Halil İbrahim; Çakmak, Mehmet Fevzi; Demirel, Mehmet; Şen, Cengiz; Aşık, Mehmet

    2017-03-16

    The purpose of this study is to report and analyze the long-term outcomes of the patients who underwent high tibial osteotomy (HTO) with three different techniques for the treatment of medial compartment arthrosis. A total of 187 patients (195 knees) who underwent HTO between 1990 and 2010 were retrospectively evaluated. Eighty-eight knees, opening-wedge osteotomy with Puddu plate (group A); 51 knees, transverse osteotomy below the tubercle with external fixator (group B); and 29 knees, closing-wedge osteotomy with staple fixation (group C) were included in the study. The patients (mean age 44.9 ± 10.6 years, mean follow-up of 12.4 ± 3.2 years) were called for final controls and survival rates of the knees, and functional evaluations of the patients were performed using Knee Society Score (KSS) and Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) knee score assessments. In the comparison of the three groups, there were no differences regarding the mean age, preoperative arthrosis levels, or preoperative deformity analyses (n.s.). The main finding of these comparisons showed that the closing-wedge osteotomy has the greatest lateralization effect on mechanical axis deviation (MAD) (p = 0.024), the greatest valgization effect on medial proximal tibial angles (MPTA) (p = 0.026), and the lowest posterior tibial slope (PTS) angles (p = 0.032) in comparison to the other groups. There were no functional differences between the three groups in the long-term assessment of patients with KSS and HSS knee scores. According to the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, the probability of the survival of the native knee joint after HTO was 93.4% in 5 years and 71.2% in 10 years in our study group. During the follow-up of the 168 knees, revision surgery with total knee replacement was needed in 27 knees (16%). The mean time from HTO to total knee replacement was 8.9 years in these patients. HTO has acceptable long-term clinical and functional results that should not be

  6. Statistical Mechanics Ideas and Techniques Applied to Selected Problems in Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Fort

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem dynamics provides an interesting arena for the application of a plethora concepts and techniques from statistical mechanics. Here I review three examples corresponding each one to an important problem in ecology. First, I start with an analytical derivation of clumpy patterns for species relative abundances (SRA empirically observed in several ecological communities involving a high number n of species, a phenomenon which have puzzled ecologists for decades. An interesting point is that this derivation uses results obtained from a statistical mechanics model for ferromagnets. Second, going beyond the mean field approximation, I study the spatial version of a popular ecological model involving just one species representing vegetation. The goal is to address the phenomena of catastrophic shifts—gradual cumulative variations in some control parameter that suddenly lead to an abrupt change in the system—illustrating it by means of the process of desertification of arid lands. The focus is on the aggregation processes and the effects of diffusion that combined lead to the formation of non trivial spatial vegetation patterns. It is shown that different quantities—like the variance, the two-point correlation function and the patchiness—may serve as early warnings for the desertification of arid lands. Remarkably, in the onset of a desertification transition the distribution of vegetation patches exhibits scale invariance typical of many physical systems in the vicinity a phase transition. I comment on similarities of and differences between these catastrophic shifts and paradigmatic thermodynamic phase transitions like the liquid-vapor change of state for a fluid. Third, I analyze the case of many species interacting in space. I choose tropical forests, which are mega-diverse ecosystems that exhibit remarkable dynamics. Therefore these ecosystems represent a research paradigm both for studies of complex systems dynamics as well as to

  7. Correlation between selective inhibition of the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and the contractile activity in human pregnant myometrium near term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, M J; Cedrin, I; Breuiller, M; Giovagrandi, Y; Ferre, F

    1989-01-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the ability of various pharmacological agents to selectively inhibit each cytosolic form of phosphodiesterase isolated from the longitudinal layer of human myometria near term. Among the drugs tested, zaprinast specifically inhibits the first form of PDE which hydrolyses both substrates (cAMP and cGMP) and is stimulated by the Ca2+-calmodulin complex. A second form of PDE specific for cAMP hydrolysis and Ca2+-calmodulin insensitive is only present during pregnancy. Rolipram is the most potent and selective inhibitor of this second form. It is also the most efficient compound to inhibit in vitro the spontaneous contractions of near term myometria. The double effect of rolipram suggests an important role of the second form of PDE in the mechanisms of contractility during the pregnancy. In addition rolipram or other derivatives might be of a therapeutic interest in the prevention of prematurity in so far as they are devoid of undesirable maternal and fetal side effects.

  8. A Novel Technique for the Assessment of Preoperative Cardiovascular Risk: Reactive Hyperemic Response to Short-Term Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Schier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Perioperative vascular function has been widely studied using noninvasive techniques that measure reactive hyperemia as a surrogate marker of vascular function. However, studies are limited to a static setting with patients tested at rest. We hypothesized that exercise would increase reactive hyperemia as measured by digital thermal monitoring (DTM in association to patients' cardiometabolic risk. Methods. Thirty patients (58 ± 9 years scheduled for noncardiac surgery were studied prospectively. Preoperatively, temperature rebound (TR following upper arm cuff occlusion was measured before and 10 minutes after exercise. Data are presented as means ± SD. Statistical analysis utilized ANOVA and Fisher’s exact test, with P values <0.05 regarded as significant. Results. Following exercise, TR-derived parameters increased significantly (absolute: 0.53 ± 0.95 versus 0.04 ± 0.42∘C, P=0.04, and % change: 1.78 ± 3.29 versus 0.14 ± 1.27 %, P=0.03. All patients with preoperative cardiac risk factors had a change in TR (after/before exercise, ΔTR with values falling in the lower two tertiles of the study population (ΔTR <1.1%. Conclusion. Exercise increased the reactive hyperemic response to ischemia. This dynamic response was blunted in patients with cardiac risk factors. The usability of this short-term effect for the preoperative assessment of endothelial function warrants further study.

  9. Intermediate-Term Outcomes of Dual Adult versus Single-Kidney Transplantation: Evolution of a Surgical Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana K. Islam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acceptance of dual kidney transplantation (DKT has proven difficult, due to surgical complexity and concerns regarding long-term outcomes. We herein present a standard technique for ipsilateral DKT and compare outcomes to single-kidney transplant (SKT recipients. Methods. A retrospective single-center comparison of DKT and SKT performed between February 2007 and July 2013. Results. Of 516 deceased donor kidney transplants, 29 were DKT and 487 were SKT. Mean follow-up was 43 ± 67 months. DKT recipients were older and more likely than SKT recipients to receive an extended criteria graft (p<0.001. For DKT versus SKT, the rates of delayed graft function (10.3 versus 9.2% and acute rejection (20.7 versus 22.4% were equivalent (p = ns. A higher than expected urologic complication rate in the DKT cohort (14 versus 2%, p<0.01 was reduced through modification of the ureteral anastomosis. Graft survival was equivalent between DKT and SKT groups (p = ns with actuarial 3-year DKT patient and graft survivals of 100% and 93%. At 3 years, the groups had similar renal function (p = ns. Conclusions. By utilizing extended criteria donor organs as DKT, the donor pool was enlarged while providing excellent patient and graft survival. The DKT urologic complication rate was reduced by modification of the ureteral anastomosis.

  10. Myofascial pain of the jaw muscles: comparison of short-term effectiveness of botulinum toxin injections and fascial manipulation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarda-Nardini, Luca; Stecco, Antonio; Stecco, Carla; Masiero, Stefano; Manfredini, Daniele

    2012-04-01

    A randomized controlled trial was performed to compare the short-term effectiveness of botulinum toxin injections and physiatric treatment provided by means of Fascial Manipulation techniques in the management of myofascial pain of jaw muscles. Thirty patients with a Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) diagnosis of myofascial pain were randomized to receive either single-session botulinum toxin injections (Group A) or multiple-session Fascial Manipulation (Group B). Maximum pain levels (VAS ratings) and jaw range of motion in millimeters (maximum mouth opening, protrusion, right and left laterotrusion) were assessed at baseline, at the end of treatment, and at a three-month follow-up. Both treatment protocols provided significant improvement over time for pain symptoms. The two treatments seem to be almost equally effective, Fascial Manipulation being slightly superior to reduce subjective pain perception, and botulinum toxin injections being slightly superior to increase jaw range of motion. Differences between the two treatment protocols as to changes in the outcome parameters at the three-months follow-up were not relevant clinically. Findings from the present investigation are in line with literature data supporting the effectiveness of a wide spectrum of conservative treatment approaches to myofascial pain of the jaw muscles. Future studies on larger samples over a longer follow-up span are needed on the way to identify tailored treatment strategies.

  11. Intermediate-Term Outcomes of Dual Adult versus Single-Kidney Transplantation: Evolution of a Surgical Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Ana K; Knight, Richard J; Mayer, Wesley A; Hollander, Adam B; Patel, Samir; Teeter, Larry D; Graviss, Edward A; Saharia, Ashish; Podder, Hemangshu; Asham, Emad H; Gaber, A Osama

    2016-01-01

    Background. Acceptance of dual kidney transplantation (DKT) has proven difficult, due to surgical complexity and concerns regarding long-term outcomes. We herein present a standard technique for ipsilateral DKT and compare outcomes to single-kidney transplant (SKT) recipients. Methods. A retrospective single-center comparison of DKT and SKT performed between February 2007 and July 2013. Results. Of 516 deceased donor kidney transplants, 29 were DKT and 487 were SKT. Mean follow-up was 43 ± 67 months. DKT recipients were older and more likely than SKT recipients to receive an extended criteria graft (p < 0.001). For DKT versus SKT, the rates of delayed graft function (10.3 versus 9.2%) and acute rejection (20.7 versus 22.4%) were equivalent (p = ns). A higher than expected urologic complication rate in the DKT cohort (14 versus 2%, p < 0.01) was reduced through modification of the ureteral anastomosis. Graft survival was equivalent between DKT and SKT groups (p = ns) with actuarial 3-year DKT patient and graft survivals of 100% and 93%. At 3 years, the groups had similar renal function (p = ns). Conclusions. By utilizing extended criteria donor organs as DKT, the donor pool was enlarged while providing excellent patient and graft survival. The DKT urologic complication rate was reduced by modification of the ureteral anastomosis.

  12. Analysis of Drug Design for a Selection of G Protein-Coupled Neuro- Receptors Using Neural Network Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agerskov, Claus; Mortensen, Rasmus M; Bohr, Henrik G

    2015-01-01

    A study is presented on how well possible drug-molecules can be predicted with respect to their function and binding to a selection of neuro-receptors by the use of artificial neural networks. The ligands investigated in this study are chosen to be corresponding to the G protein-coupled receptors µ-opioid, serotonin 2B (5-HT2B) and metabotropic glutamate D5. They are selected due to the availability of pharmacological drug-molecule binding data for these receptors. Feedback and deep belief artificial neural network architectures (NNs) were chosen to perform the task of aiding drugdesign. This is done by training on structural features, selected using a "minimum redundancy, maximum relevance"-test, and testing for successful prediction of categorized binding strength. An extensive comparison of the neural network performances was made in order to select the optimal architecture. Deep belief networks, trained with greedy learning algorithms, showed superior performance in prediction over the simple feedback NNs. The best networks obtained scores of more than 90 % accuracy in predicting the degree of binding drug molecules to the mentioned receptors and with a maximal Matthew`s coefficient of 0.925. The performance of 8 category networks (8 output classes for binding strength) obtained a prediction accuracy of above 60 %. After training the networks, tests were done on how well the systems could be used as an aid in designing candidate drug molecules. Specifically, it was shown how a selection of chemical characteristics could give the lowest observed IC50 values, meaning largest bio-effect pr. nM substance, around 0.03-0.06 nM. These ligand characteristics could be total number of atoms, their types etc. In conclusion, deep belief networks trained on drug-molecule structures were demonstrated as powerful computational tools, able to aid in drug-design in a fast and cheap fashion, compared to conventional pharmacological techniques.

  13. A data-driven multi-model methodology with deep feature selection for short-term wind forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Cong; Cui, Mingjian; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Zhang, Jie

    2017-03-01

    With the growing wind penetration into the power system worldwide, improving wind power forecasting accuracy is becoming increasingly important to ensure continued economic and reliable power system operations. In this paper, a data-driven multi-model wind forecasting methodology is developed with a two-layer ensemble machine learning technique. The first layer is composed of multiple machine learning models that generate individual forecasts. A deep feature selection framework is developed to determine the most suitable inputs to the first layer machine learning models. Then, a blending algorithm is applied in the second layer to create an ensemble of the forecasts produced by first layer models and generate both deterministic and probabilistic forecasts. This two-layer model seeks to utilize the statistically different characteristics of each machine learning algorithm. A number of machine learning algorithms are selected and compared in both layers. This developed multi-model wind forecasting methodology is compared to several benchmarks. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is evaluated to provide 1-hour-ahead wind speed forecasting at seven locations of the Surface Radiation network. Numerical results show that comparing to the single-algorithm models, the developed multi-model framework with deep feature selection procedure has improved the forecasting accuracy by up to 30%.

  14. On the selection of optimization parameters for an inverse treatment planning replacement of a forward planning technique for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, Dimitre H; Moftah, Belal A; Charrois, Colette; Parker, William; Souhami, Luis; Podgorsak, Ervin B

    2002-01-01

    The influence of organ volume sampling, lateral scatter inclusion, and the selection of objectives and constraints on the inverse treatment planning process with a commercial treatment planning system is investigated and suitable parameters are identified for an inverse treatment planning replacement of a clinical forward planning technique for prostate cancer. For the beam geometries of the forward technique, a variable set of parameters is used for the calculation of dose from pencil beams. An optimal set is identified after the evaluation of optimized plans that correspond to different sets of pencil-beam parameters. This set along with a single, optimized set of objectives and constraints is used to perform inverse planning on ten randomly selected patients. The acceptability of the resulting plans is verified by comparisons to the clinical ones calculated with the forward techniques. For the particular commercial treatment planning system, the default values of the pencil beam parameters are found adequate for inverse treatment planning. For all ten patients, the optimized, single set of objectives and constraints results in plans with target coverage comparable to that of the forward plans. Furthermore inverse treatment planning reduces the overall mean rectal and bladder doses by 4.8% and 5.8% of the prescription dose respectively. The study indicates that (i) inverse treatment planning results depend implicitly on the sampling of the dose distribution, (ii) inverse treatment planning results depend on the method used by the dose calculation model to account for scatter, and (iii) for certain sites, a single set of optimization parameters can be used for all patient plans.

  15. Preliminary Study on Some Properties of Co-Cr Dental Alloy Formed by Selective Laser Melting Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Biao; HUANG Qirong; GAO Yang; LUO Peng; ZHAO Chuang

    2012-01-01

    The surface condition,some properties and ion releasing behavior of cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr)dental alloy formed by selective laser melting (SLM) technique were investigated.Before porcelain fused firing,the surface condition of the Co-Cr alloy was observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM),and then the density and hardness were examined.After porcelain fused firing,the interface of porcelain and alloy was observed,and then the metal-ion release of the samples was tested.SLM technique provides Co-Cr alloy higher hardness than casting method.After degassing-oxidation procedure and porcelain fused firing,the interface of the alloy and porcelain showed excellent combination.Co ion was more than Cr ion released from SLM Co-Cr alloy,the amounts of Co and Cr ions were safe according to ISO security criterion.Considering the properties before and after porcelain fused sintering process,SLM technique is suitable for dental Co-Cr alloy restoration.

  16. Automatic irradiation control by an optical feedback technique for selective retina treatment (SRT) in a rabbit model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Eric; Roh, Young-Jung; Fritz, Andreas; Park, Young Gun; Kang, Seungbum; Theisen-Kunde, Dirk; Brinkmann, Ralf

    2013-06-01

    Selective Retina Therapy (SRT) targets the Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE) without effecting neighboring layers as the photoreceptors or the choroid. SRT related RPE defects are ophthalmoscopically invisible. Owing to this invisibility and the variation of the threshold radiant exposure for RPE damage the treating physician does not know whether the treatment was successful or not. Thus measurement techniques enabling a correct dosing are a demanded element in SRT devices. The acquired signal can be used for monitoring or automatic irradiation control. Existing monitoring techniques are based on the detection of micro-bubbles. These bubbles are the origin of RPE cell damage for pulse durations in the ns and μs time regime 5μs. The detection can be performed by optical or acoustical approaches. Monitoring based on an acoustical approach has already been used to study the beneficial effects of SRT on diabetic macula edema and central serous retinopathy. We have developed a first real time feedback technique able to detect micro-bubble induced characteristics in the backscattered laser light fast enough to cease the laser irradiation within a burst. Therefore the laser energy within a burst of at most 30 pulses is increased linearly with every pulse. The laser irradiation is ceased as soon as micro-bubbles are detected. With this automatic approach it was possible to observe invisible lesions, an intact photoreceptor layer and a reconstruction of the RPE within one week.

  17. Task-irrelevant distractors in the delay period interfere selectively with visual short-term memory for spatial locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Francesco; Scott, Jerry; Aron, Adam R; Ester, Edward F

    2017-07-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) enables the representation of information in a readily accessible state. VSTM is typically conceptualized as a form of "active" storage that is resistant to interference or disruption, yet several recent studies have shown that under some circumstances task-irrelevant distractors may indeed disrupt performance. Here, we investigated how task-irrelevant visual distractors affected VSTM by asking whether distractors induce a general loss of remembered information or selectively interfere with memory representations. In a VSTM task, participants recalled the spatial location of a target visual stimulus after a delay in which distractors were presented on 75% of trials. Notably, the distractor's eccentricity always matched the eccentricity of the target, while in the critical conditions the distractor's angular position was shifted either clockwise or counterclockwise relative to the target. We then computed estimates of recall error for both eccentricity and polar angle. A general interference model would predict an effect of distractors on both polar angle and eccentricity errors, while a selective interference model would predict effects of distractors on angle but not on eccentricity errors. Results showed that for stimulus angle there was an increase in the magnitude and variability of recall errors. However, distractors had no effect on estimates of stimulus eccentricity. Our results suggest that distractors selectively interfere with VSTM for spatial locations.

  18. A Permutation Importance-Based Feature Selection Method for Short-Term Electricity Load Forecasting Using Random Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nantian Huang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The prediction accuracy of short-term load forecast (STLF depends on prediction model choice and feature selection result. In this paper, a novel random forest (RF-based feature selection method for STLF is proposed. First, 243 related features were extracted from historical load data and the time information of prediction points to form the original feature set. Subsequently, the original feature set was used to train an RF as the original model. After the training process, the prediction error of the original model on the test set was recorded and the permutation importance (PI value of each feature was obtained. Then, an improved sequential backward search method was used to select the optimal forecasting feature subset based on the PI value of each feature. Finally, the optimal forecasting feature subset was used to train a new RF model as the final prediction model. Experiments showed that the prediction accuracy of RF trained by the optimal forecasting feature subset was higher than that of the original model and comparative models based on support vector regression and artificial neural network.

  19. Nominal group technique to select attributes for discrete choice experiments: an example for drug treatment choice in osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiligsmann M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mickael Hiligsmann,1-3 Caroline van Durme,2 Piet Geusens,2 Benedict GC Dellaert,4 Carmen D Dirksen,3 Trudy van der Weijden,5 Jean-Yves Reginster,6 Annelies Boonen21Department of Health Services Research, School for Public Health and Primary Care (CAPHRI, Maastricht University, The Netherlands, 2Department of Internal Medicine, CAPHRI, Maastricht University, The Netherlands, 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Medical Technology Assessment, CAPHRI, Maastricht University, The Netherlands, 4Department of Business Economics, Erasmus Rotterdam University, The Netherlands, 5Department of General Practice, CAPHRI, Maastricht University, The Netherlands, 6Department of Public Health, Epidemiology and Health Economics, University of Liege, BelgiumBackground: Attribute selection represents an important step in the development of discrete-choice experiments (DCEs, but is often poorly reported. In some situations, the number of attributes identified may exceed what one may find possible to pilot in a DCE. Hence, there is a need to gain insight into methods to select attributes in order to construct the final list of attributes. This study aims to test the feasibility of using the nominal group technique (NGT to select attributes for DCEs.Methods: Patient group discussions (4–8 participants were convened to prioritize a list of 12 potentially important attributes for osteoporosis drug therapy. The NGT consisted of three steps: an individual ranking of the 12 attributes by importance from 1 to 12, a group discussion on each of the attributes, including a group review of the aggregate score of the initial rankings, and a second ranking task of the same attributes.Results: Twenty-six osteoporotic patients participated in five NGT sessions. Most (80% of the patients changed their ranking after the discussion. However, the average initial and final ranking did not differ markedly. In the final ranking, the most important medication attributes were

  20. Preparation of Imprinted PVB/β-CD Nanofiber by Electrospinning Technique and Its Selective Binding Abilities for Naringin%Preparation of Imprinted PVB/β-CD Nanofiber by Electrospinning Technique and Its Selective Binding Abilities for Naringin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马秀玲; 陈震; 陈晓; 陈日耀; 郑曦

    2011-01-01

    A novel molecularly imprinted composite nanofiber was prepared by a simple electrospinning technique, in which polyvinylbutyral (PVB) was chosen as matrix, fl-cyclodextrin (β-CD) was used as a functional monomer and naringin (NG) as template molecules. After cross-linked by hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI), the composite nanofiber exhibited a high specific binding capacity. The morphological structure of the nanofibers was studied by means of infrared spectrum (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The β-CD molecules were mostly homogeneously distributed within the PVB nanofiber without forming phase separated crystalline aggregates. Compared with traditional imprinted β-CD polymer, the binding experiments demonstrated that the molecularly imprinted composite nanofiber shows the specific binding sites and the selective binding ability for NG. The molecularly imprinted nanofiber could be used at least six times without any loss in binding capacity.

  1. Short-and long-term outcomes of kidney transplants with kidneys lavaged by retrograde perfusion technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-Wu Han; Xiao-Dong Zhang; Yong Wang; Xi-Quan Tian; Jian-Wen Wang; Bu-He Amin; Wei Yan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical safety and efficacy of the retrograde perfusion technique in kidney transplantation.Methods: Between January 2001 and June 2011, 24 cases of kidney transplantation with kidneys perfused using the retrograde perfusion technique due to renal artery variations or injury were selected as the observation group (retrograde perfussion roup, RP group).Twenty-two cases of kidney transplantation via conventional perfusion were chosen as the control group (antegrade perfussion group, AP group).There were no statistically significant differences in donor data between the two groups.Cold ischemia time, warm ischemia time, renal perfusion time, amount of perfusion fluid, acute renal tubular necrosis, wound infection, urinary fistula, graft kidney function, and the 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year survival rates for the grafted kidney in both groups were observed and recorded.Results: The kidney perfusion time was shorter in the RP group than that in the AP group (3.14 ± 1.00 vs.5.02 ± 1.15 min, P =0.030).There were 10 cases of acute renal tubule necrosis in the RP group and 5 in the AP group.The length of hospital stay was 40 ± 14 d in the RP group and 25 ± 12 d in the AP group.The follow-up time was 3.5-8.5 years (mean 6.25 years).The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates for the grafted kidney were 95.8%, 75.5%, and 65.5% in the RP group and 97.1%, 82.5%, and 68.4% in the AP group, respectively (P>0.05).Conclusions: This study indicates that retrograde perfusion is safe and practicable for cadaveric kidney harvesting and can be regarded as a better alternative or remedial measure for a poorly perfused kidney due to vascular deformity or injury.Copyright 2015, Chinese Medical Association Production.Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.on behalf of KeAi Communications Co., Ltd.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/ by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  2. The comparative analysis of selected interactive data presentation techniques on the example of the land use structure in the commune of Tomice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Król Karol

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors present the results of a comparative analysis of selected techniques and programming tools for building interactive data presentation in the form of diagrams and maps generated in the browser.

  3. Inkjet printed paper based frequency selective surfaces and skin mounted RFID tags: The interrelation between silver nanoparticle ink, paper substrate and low temperature sintering technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Romaguera, V.; Wünscher, S.; Turki, B.M.; Abbel, R.; Barbosa, S.; Tate, D.J.; Oyeka, D.; Batchelor, J.C.; Parker, E.A.; Schubert, U.S.; Yeates, S.G.

    2015-01-01

    Inkjet printing of functional frequency selective surfaces (FSS) and radio frequency identification (RFID) tags on commercial paper substrates using silver nanoparticle inks sintered using low temperature thermal, plasma and photonic techniques is reported. Printed and sintered FSS devices demonstra

  4. A Positive Buck Boost Converter with Mode Select Circuit and Feed Forward Techniques Using Fuzzy Logic Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latha. S. C

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The portable devices development of semiconductor manufacturing technology, conversion efficiency, power consumption, and the size of devices have become the most important design criteria of switching power converters. For portable applications better conveniences extension of battery life and improves the conversion efficiency of power converters .It is essential to develop accurate switching power converters, which can reduce more wasted power energy. The proposed topology can achieve faster transient responses when the supply voltages are changed for the converter by making use of the feed forward network .With mode select circuit the conduction & switching losses are reduced the positive buck–boost converter operate in buck, buck–boost, or boost converter. By adding feed-forward techniques, the proposed converter can improve transient response when the supply voltages are changed. The designing, modeling & experimental results were verified in MATLAB/ Simulink. The fuzzy logic controller is used as controller.

  5. Short-term choice behaviour in a mixed fishery: investigating métier selection in the Danish gillnet fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bo Sølgaard; Ulrich, Clara; Eigaard, Ole Ritzau;

    2012-01-01

    fishers in a mixed fishery make use of a number of decision variables used previously in the literature, but also a number of decision parameters rarely explicitly accounted for, such as price, weather, and management regulation. The seasonal availability of individual target species and within......The study presents a short-term effort allocation modelling approach based on a discrete choice random utility model combined with a survey questionnaire to examine the selection of métiers (a combination of fishing area and target species) in the Danish North Sea gillnet fishery. Key decision...... variables were identified from the survey questionnaire, and relevant proxies for the decision function were identified based on available landings and effort information. Additional variables from the survey questionnaire were further used to validate and verify the outcome of the choice model. Commercial...

  6. The short- and medium-term effectiveness of CT-guided selective cervical nerve root injection for pain and disability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, Amidevi; Saha, Shouvik; Sharma, Naveen; Huckerby, Lauren; Houghton, Russell [Guy' s and St. Thomas' Hospitals, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-15

    CT-guided cervical nerve root injection with corticosteroid and/or local anesthetic is a recognized technique in the evaluation and treatment of cervical radiculopathy. There are few prospective studies on the efficacy of the various techniques employed in cervical nerve root injection. We present our results from a 1-year prospective series using a CT-guided anterolateral transforaminal approach for cervical nerve root injection of bupivacaine and dexamethasone. Pain using a numeric rating scale was assessed at pre-injection, 15 min post-injection, 1 month, and 3 months. Disability was assessed using the Oswestry Neck Disability Index (NDI) questionnaire at pre-injection, 1 month post-injection, and 3 months. In total, 50 patients were followed for 3 months. The mean reductions in pain were: 15 min (77 %), 1 month (39 %), and 3 months (33 %). The mean reductions in NDI were: 1 month (26 %) and 3 months (also 26 %). Results were statistically significant. CT-guided selective cervical nerve root injection in the treatment of cervical radicular pain and related disability produces statistically significant reductions in pain and disability to at least 3 months post-procedure. (orig.)

  7. Conception of forming of system of training, selection of sportsmen and their orientation in the process of long-term perfection

    OpenAIRE

    Shinkaruk O.A.

    2012-01-01

    Directions of development of the technological providing of process of forming of integral knowledge are considered about the system of selection and orientation of training of sportsmen in a long-term process. It is marked that the enormous array of scientific knowledge is not incorporated in the integral system, in which the process of sporting selection, orientations of sporting training, is organically tied up with the stages of long-term perfection of sportsmen. Conception of forming of ...

  8. Unique and shared techniques in cognitive-behavioural and short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy: a content analysis of randomised trials on depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Jürgen; Michlig, Nadja; Munder, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of psychotherapeutic interventions assume that specific techniques are used in treatments, which are responsible for changes in the client's symptoms. This assumption also holds true for meta-analyses, where evidence for specific interventions and techniques is compiled. However, it has also been argued that different treatments share important techniques and that an upcoming consensus about useful treatment strategies is leading to a greater integration of treatments. This makes assumptions about the effectiveness of specific interventions ingredients questionable if the shared (common) techniques are more often used in interventions than are the unique techniques. This study investigated the unique or shared techniques in RCTs of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (STPP). Psychotherapeutic techniques were coded from 42 masked treatment descriptions of RCTs in the field of depression (1979–2010). CBT techniques were often used in studies identified as either CBT or STPP. However, STPP techniques were only used in STPP-identified studies. Empirical clustering of treatment descriptions did not confirm the original distinction of CBT versus STPP, but instead showed substantial heterogeneity within both approaches. Extraction of psychotherapeutic techniques from the treatment descriptions is feasible and could be used as a content-based approach to classify treatments in systematic reviews and meta-analyses. PMID:25750827

  9. Transsylvian selective amygdalohippocampectomy for treatment of medial temporal lobe epilepsy: Surgical technique and operative nuances to avoid complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Kovanda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of different surgical techniques are effective for treatment of drug-resistant medial temporal lobe epilepsy. Of these, transsylvian selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SA, which was originally developed to maximize temporal lobe preservation, is arguably the most technically demanding to perform. Recent studies have suggested that SA may result in better neuropsychological outcomes with similar postoperative seizure control as standard anterior temporal lobectomy, which involves removal of the lateral temporal neocortex. Methods: In this article, the authors describe technical nuances to improve the safety of SA. Results: Wide sylvian fissure opening and use of neuronavigation allows an adequate exposure of the amygdala and hippocampus through a corticotomy within the inferior insular sulcus. Avoidance of rigid retractors and careful manipulation and mobilization of middle cerebral vessels will minimize ischemic complications. Identification of important landmarks during amygdalohippocampectomy, such as the medial edge of the tentorium and the third nerve within the intact arachnoid membranes covering the brainstem, further avoids operator disorientation. Conclusion: SA is a safe technique for resection of medial temporal lobe epileptogenic foci leading to drug-resistant medial temporal lobe epilepsy.

  10. Processing of Polysulfone to Free Flowing Powder by Mechanical Milling and Spray Drying Techniques for Use in Selective Laser Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Mys

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Polysulfone (PSU has been processed into powder form by ball milling, rotor milling, and spray drying technique in an attempt to produce new materials for Selective Laser Sintering purposes. Both rotor milling and spray drying were adept to make spherical particles that can be used for this aim. Processing PSU pellets by rotor milling in a three-step process resulted in particles of 51.8 μm mean diameter, whereas spray drying could only manage a mean diameter of 26.1 μm. The resulting powders were characterized using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC and X-ray Diffraction measurements (XRD. DSC measurements revealed an influence of all processing techniques on the thermal behavior of the material. Glass transitions remained unaffected by spray drying and rotor milling, yet a clear shift was observed for ball milling, along with a large endothermic peak in the high temperature region. This was ascribed to the imparting of an orientation into the polymer chains due to the processing method and was confirmed by XRD measurements. Of all processed powder samples, the ball milled sample was unable to dissolve for GPC measurements, suggesting degradation by chain scission and subsequent crosslinking. Spray drying and rotor milling did not cause significant degradation.

  11. Brief treatment with a highly selective immunoproteasome inhibitor promotes long-term cardiac allograft acceptance in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sula Karreci, Esilida; Fan, Hao; Uehara, Mayuko; Mihali, Albana B.; Singh, Pradeep K.; Kurdi, Ahmed T.; Solhjou, Zhabiz; Riella, Leonardo V.; Ghobrial, Irene; Laragione, Teresina; Routray, Sujit; Assaker, Jean Pierre; Wang, Rong; Sukenick, George; Shi, Lei; Barrat, Franck J.; Nathan, Carl F.; Lin, Gang; Azzi, Jamil

    2016-01-01

    Constitutive proteasomes (c-20S) are ubiquitously expressed cellular proteases that degrade polyubiquitinated proteins and regulate cell functions. An isoform of proteasome, the immunoproteasome (i-20S), is highly expressed in human T cells, dendritic cells (DCs), and B cells, suggesting that it could be a potential target for inflammatory diseases, including those involving autoimmunity and alloimmunity. Here, we describe DPLG3, a rationally designed, noncovalent inhibitor of the immunoproteasome chymotryptic subunit β5i that has thousands-fold selectivity over constitutive β5c. DPLG3 suppressed cytokine release from blood mononuclear cells and the activation of DCs and T cells, diminished accumulation of effector T cells, promoted expression of exhaustion and coinhibitory markers on T cells, and synergized with CTLA4-Ig to promote long-term acceptance of cardiac allografts across a major histocompatibility barrier. These findings demonstrate the potential value of using brief posttransplant immunoproteasome inhibition to entrain a long-term response favorable to allograft survival as part of an immunomodulatory regimen that is neither broadly immunosuppressive nor toxic. PMID:27956634

  12. Inverted Nipple Correction with Selective Dissection of Lactiferous Ducts Using an Operative Microscope and a Traction Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowa, Yoshihiro; Itsukage, Sizu; Morita, Daiki; Numajiri, Toshiaki

    2017-04-13

    An inverted nipple is a common congenital condition in young women that may cause breastfeeding difficulty, psychological distress, repeated inflammation, and loss of sensation. Various surgical techniques have been reported for correction of inverted nipples, and all have advantages and disadvantages. Here, we report a new technique for correction of an inverted nipple using an operative microscope and traction that results in low recurrence and preserves lactation function and sensation. Between January 2010 and January 2013, we treated eight inverted nipples in seven patients with selective lactiferous duct dissection using an operative microscope. An opposite Z-plasty was added at the junction of the nipple and areola. Postoperatively, traction was applied through an apparatus made from a rubber gasket attached to a sterile syringe. Patients were followed up for 15-48 months. Adequate projection was achieved in all patients, and there was no wound dehiscence or complications such as infection. Three patients had successful pregnancies and subsequent breastfeeding that was not adversely affected by the treatment. There was no loss of sensation in any patient during the postoperative period. Our technique for treating an inverted nipple is effective and preserves lactation function and nipple sensation. The method maintains traction for a longer period, which we believe increases the success rate of the surgery for correction of severely inverted nipples. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  13. Selection of bioindicators to detect lead pollution in Ebro delta microbial mats, using high-resolution microscopic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, J; Solé, A; Puyen, Z M; Esteve, I

    2011-07-01

    Lead (Pb) is a metal that is non-essential to any metabolic process and, moreover, highly deleterious to life. In microbial mats - benthic stratified ecosystems - located in coastal areas, phototrophic microorganisms (algae and oxygenic phototrophic bacteria) are the primary producers and they are exposed to pollution by metals. In this paper we describe the search for bioindicators among phototrophic populations of Ebro delta microbial mats, using high-resolution microscopic techniques that we have optimized in previous studies. Confocal laser scanning microscopy coupled to a spectrofluorometric detector (CLSM-λscan) to determine in vivo sensitivity of different cyanobacteria to lead, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), both coupled to energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX), to determine the extra- and intracellular sequestration of this metal in cells, were the techniques used for this purpose. Oscillatoria sp. PCC 7515, Chroococcus sp. PCC 9106 and Spirulina sp. PCC 6313 tested in this paper could be considered bioindicators for lead pollution, because all of these microorganisms are indigenous, have high tolerance to high concentrations of lead and are able to accumulate this metal externally in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and intracellularly in polyphosphate (PP) inclusions. Experiments made with microcosms demonstrated that Phormidium-like and Lyngbya-like organisms selected themselves at the highest concentrations of lead assayed. In the present study it is shown that all cyanobacteria studied (both in culture and in microcosms) present PP inclusions in their cytoplasm and that these increase in number in lead polluted cultures and microcosms. We believe that the application of these microscopic techniques open up broad prospects for future studies of metal ecotoxicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Selection of bioindicators to detect lead pollution in Ebro delta microbial mats, using high-resolution microscopic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldonado, J.; Sole, A.; Puyen, Z.M. [Departament de Genetica i Microbiologia, Facultat de Biociencies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici C, Campus de la UAB, Cerdanyola del Valles, Bellaterra (Spain); Esteve, I., E-mail: isabel.esteve@uab.cat [Departament de Genetica i Microbiologia, Facultat de Biociencies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici C, Campus de la UAB, Cerdanyola del Valles, Bellaterra (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Lead (Pb) is a metal that is non-essential to any metabolic process and, moreover, highly deleterious to life. In microbial mats - benthic stratified ecosystems - located in coastal areas, phototrophic microorganisms (algae and oxygenic phototrophic bacteria) are the primary producers and they are exposed to pollution by metals. In this paper we describe the search for bioindicators among phototrophic populations of Ebro delta microbial mats, using high-resolution microscopic techniques that we have optimized in previous studies. Confocal laser scanning microscopy coupled to a spectrofluorometric detector (CLSM-{lambda}scan) to determine in vivo sensitivity of different cyanobacteria to lead, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), both coupled to energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX), to determine the extra- and intracellular sequestration of this metal in cells, were the techniques used for this purpose. Oscillatoria sp. PCC 7515, Chroococcus sp. PCC 9106 and Spirulina sp. PCC 6313 tested in this paper could be considered bioindicators for lead pollution, because all of these microorganisms are indigenous, have high tolerance to high concentrations of lead and are able to accumulate this metal externally in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and intracellularly in polyphosphate (PP) inclusions. Experiments made with microcosms demonstrated that Phormidium-like and Lyngbya-like organisms selected themselves at the highest concentrations of lead assayed. In the present study it is shown that all cyanobacteria studied (both in culture and in microcosms) present PP inclusions in their cytoplasm and that these increase in number in lead polluted cultures and microcosms. We believe that the application of these microscopic techniques open up broad prospects for future studies of metal ecotoxicity.

  15. STUDIES ON SURFACE TENSION OF SELECTED MOUTHWASH FORMULATION BY DROP NUMBER METHOD USING TRAUBE’S STALAGMOMETER TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghindora Ghanshayam L

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The selected marketed mouthwash formulations was carried out using Traube’s stalagmometer technique by drop number method to determine their individual surface tension for further identification, structure elucidation and chemical constituents. The formulation I (Potassium nitrate & sodium fluoride, formulation II (Chlorhexidine gluconate, formulation III (Thymol, eucalyptol and menthol were selected for the case study. These formulations were also evaluated to their same quantity mixture ratio with distilled water combination for estimation of different percent composition. The main aim and rationale of the study was to evaluate the surface tension of three selected formulations with distilled water. In individual surface tension study, it was noted that formulation II (48.29 dyne/cm showed highest value and formulation III (40.81 dyne/cm showed lowest value comparison between the three formulations under laboratory conditions. The 50% formulation mixture with distilled water showed minimum surface tension (49.20 dyne/cm and 90% formulation mixture with distilled water showed maximum surface tension (54.30 dyne/cm amongst other composition. In our present study, all the percent composition values were less than standard surface tension value. The 20% (50.31 dyne/cm, 70% (50.64 dyne/cm, 80% (50.26 dyne/cm and 30% (49.30 dyne/cm, 50% (49.20 dyne/cm and also 40% (51.73 dyne/cm, 60% (51.26 dyne/cm formulation mixture with distilled water showed approximately same surface tension values.

  16. Applying data mining techniques for increasing implantation rate by selecting best sperms for intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirroshandel, Seyed Abolghasem; Ghasemian, Fatemeh; Monji-Azad, Sara

    2016-12-01

    Aspiration of a good-quality sperm during intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is one of the main concerns. Understanding the influence of individual sperm morphology on fertilization, embryo quality, and pregnancy probability is one of the most important subjects in male factor infertility. Embryologists need to decide the best sperm for injection in real time during ICSI cycle. Our objective is to predict the quality of zygote, embryo, and implantation outcome before injection of each sperm in an ICSI cycle for male factor infertility with the aim of providing a decision support system on the sperm selection. The information was collected from 219 patients with male factor infertility at the infertility therapy center of Alzahra hospital in Rasht from 2012 through 2014. The prepared dataset included the quality of zygote, embryo, and implantation outcome of 1544 injected sperms into the related oocytes. In our study, embryo transfer was performed at day 3. Each sperm was represented with thirteen clinical features. Data preprocessing was the first step in the proposed data mining algorithm. After applying more than 30 classifiers, 9 successful classifiers were selected and evaluated by 10-fold cross validation technique using precision, recall, F1, and AUC measures. Another important experiment was measuring the effect of each feature in prediction process. In zygote and embryo quality prediction, IBK and RandomCommittee models provided 79.2% and 83.8% F1, respectively. In implantation outcome prediction, KStar model achieved 95.9% F1, which is even better than prediction of human experts. All these predictions can be done in real time. A machine learning-based decision support system would be helpful in sperm selection phase of ICSI cycle to improve the success rate of ICSI treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. THE RIGOROUS EXAMINATION OF VALUE ENGINEERING WHICH IS A NEGLECTED MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUE IN TERMS OF ITS THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    AYAN, Altan; KAHRAMAN, Güner

    2013-01-01

    Value engineering is seen as a management technique. Thanks to value engineering applications, costs can be reduced, and accordingly quality can be improved. In this study, first of all, value engineering technique is discussed. Secondly, the elements of value engineering technique are emphasized. Lastly, the present and future of the researches on value engineering are carefully evaluated. Thus the importance of the issue has been exhaustively examined via giving a major dimension to the the...

  18. The application of a selection of decision-making techniques by employees in a transport work environment in conjunction with their perceived decision-making success and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theuns F.J. Oosthuizen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A lack of optimum selection and application of decision-making techniques, in conjunction with suitable decision-making practice and perception of employees in a transport work environment demands attention to improve overall performance. Although multiple decision-making techniques exist, five prevalent techniques were considered in this article, namely the Kepner-Tregoe, Delphi, stepladder, nominal group and brainstorming techniques. A descriptive research design was followed, using an empirical survey which was conducted among 210 workers employed in a transport work environment and studying in the field of transport management. The purpose was to establish to what extent the five decision-making techniques are used in their work environment and furthermore how the decision-making practice of using gut-feel and/or a step-by-step decision-making process and their perception of their decision-making success relate. The research confirmed that the use of decision-making techniques is correlated to perceived decision-making success. Furthermore, the Kepner-Tregoe, stepladder, Delphi and brainstorming techniques are associated with a step-by-step decision-making process. No significant association was confirmed between the use of gut-feel and decision-making techniques. Brainstorming was found to be the technique most frequently used by transport employees; however, it has limitations as a comprehensive decision-making technique. Employees working in a transport work environment need training in order to select and use the four comprehensive decision-making techniques.

  19. Functional, motor developmental, and long-term outcome after the component separation technique in children with giant omphalocele: A case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijck, F.C. van; Vlimmeren, L.A. van; Wijnen, R.M.H.; Klein, W.; Kruijen, I.; Pillen, S.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term functional and motor development and abdominal muscle quantity in children operated on for giant omphalocele (GOC) with the Component Separation Technique (CST). METHODS: Between 2004 and 2007, CST was applied in eleven co

  20. Low-Intensity Wheelchair Training in Inactive People with Long-Term Spinal Cord Injury : A Randomized Controlled Trial on Propulsion Technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, Jan W.; de Groot, Sonja; Vegter, Riemer J. K.; Hartog, Johanneke; Tepper, Marga; Slootman, Hans; Veeger, DirkJan H. E. J.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a low-intensity wheelchair training on propulsion technique in inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury. Design Participants in this multicenter nonblinded randomized controlled trial were inactive manual wheelchair

  1. Management of post-biopsy renal allograft arteriovenous fistulas with selective arterial embolization: immediate and long-term outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loffroy, R. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Dijon School of Medicine, Bocage Teaching Hospital, Dijon (France)], E-mail: loffroy.romaric@neuf.fr; Guiu, B.; Lambert, A. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Dijon School of Medicine, Bocage Teaching Hospital, Dijon (France); Mousson, C.; Tanter, Y. [Department of Nephrology and Renal Transplantation (France); Martin, L. [Department of Pathology, University of Dijon School of Medicine, Bocage Teaching Hospital, Dijon (France); Cercueil, J.-P.; Krause, D. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Dijon School of Medicine, Bocage Teaching Hospital, Dijon (France)

    2008-06-15

    Aim: To evaluate the outcomes after transcatheter embolization of percutaneous biopsy-related arteriovenous fistulas in renal allografts. Materials and methods: All post-biopsy renal-transplant vascular injuries referred for embolization between June 1999 and October 2006 were reviewed retrospectively. There were six male and six female patients with a mean age of 49.8 years (range 25-67 years); nine patients were symptomatic, three asymptomatic. Colour Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) and angiography showed one intra-renal arteriovenous fistula in 10 patients and two in two patients, combined with a pseudoaneurysm in six patients. Superselective embolization using a single catheter or coaxial microcatheter was performed with 0.035'' coils or 0.018''microcoils, respectively, in all 12 cases. 24-h creatinine clearance values before (the day of biopsy) and after (7-14 days; 3 months) the procedure were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Physical examination and CDUS were performed after 1, 6, and 12 months, and yearly thereafter. Mean follow-up was 33.6 months. Results: Complete definitive occlusion of the fistula was achieved consistently with a single procedure. No procedure-related complications occurred. Renal infarction was minor in all patients (0-10% in nine and 10-20% in three). Symptoms resolved completely. Creatinine clearance values obtained before and after embolization were not statistically different (p = 0.168;.889 respectively). No late recurrences were reported. Conclusion: Transcatheter embolization with coaxial or single-catheter techniques was effective and safe for treating post-biopsy arteriovenous fistulas in renal transplants. The loss of renal parenchyma was minimal and no mid-term deterioration of allograft function was noted. The long-term survival of the renal allograft seemed to be not affected by embolization.

  2. ADRA2B deletion variant selectively predicts stress-induced enhancement of long-term memory in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Kalchik, Andrea E; Hoffman, Mackenzie M; Aufdenkampe, Rachael L; Lyle, Sarah M; Peters, David M; Brown, Callie M; Cadle, Chelsea E; Scharf, Amanda R; Dailey, Alison M; Wolters, Nicholas E; Talbot, Jeffery N; Rorabaugh, Boyd R

    2014-10-01

    Clarifying the mechanisms that underlie stress-induced alterations of learning and memory may lend important insight into susceptibility factors governing the development of stress-related psychological disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Previous work has shown that carriers of the ADRA2B Glu(301)-Glu(303) deletion variant exhibit enhanced emotional memory, greater amygdala responses to emotional stimuli and greater intrusiveness of traumatic memories. We speculated that carriers of this deletion variant might also be more vulnerable to stress-induced enhancements of long-term memory, which would implicate the variant as a possible susceptibility factor for traumatic memory formation. One hundred and twenty participants (72 males, 48 females) submerged their hand in ice cold (stress) or warm (no stress) water for 3min. Immediately afterwards, they studied a list of 42 words varying in emotional valence and arousal and then completed an immediate free recall test. Twenty-four hours later, participants' memory for the word list was examined via free recall and recognition assessments. Stressed participants exhibiting greater heart rate responses to the stressor had enhanced recall on the 24-h assessment. Importantly, this enhancement was independent of the emotional nature of the learned information. In contrast to previous work, we did not observe a general enhancement of memory for emotional information in ADRA2B deletion carriers. However, stressed female ADRA2B deletion carriers, particularly those exhibiting greater heart rate responses to the stressor, did demonstrate greater recognition memory than all other groups. Collectively, these findings implicate autonomic mechanisms in the pre-learning stress-induced enhancement of long-term memory and suggest that the ADRA2B deletion variant may selectively predict stress effects on memory in females. Such findings lend important insight into the physiological mechanisms underlying stress

  3. Implementation of multivariate techniques for the selection of volatile compounds as indicators of sensory quality of raw beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Cristina; Oliveira, I; Silva, J A; Martins, C; Ventanas, J; García, C

    2015-06-01

    This study was performed in order to select volatile compounds to predict the off-odour and overall assessment of raw beef's freshness Maronesa breed, using multivariate analysis. M. longissimus dorsi packed in vacuum and MAP (70 % O2/20 % CO2/10 % N2) stored at 4 ºC were examined for off-odour perception as well as the overall assessment of freshness at 10 and 21 days post mortem. The results achieved in this study demonstrated that the selected volatile compounds could be considered as volatile indicators of beef spoilage, enclosing information for discrimination of Maronesa beef samples in sensory classes of odour corresponding to unspoiled and spoiled levels. Fifty-four volatile compounds were detected. A significant increase of aldehydes, ketones and alcohols were observed during storage in MAP. 2 and 3-methylbutanal, 2 and 3-methylbutanol, 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol, 2,3-octanedione, 3,5-octanedione, octanal and nonanal were suggested as indicators of beef spoilage. 3-methylpentane was considered as a marker in the first stages of spoilage in beef, decreasing during storage. Data were examined using PCR and PLSR models for different optimal subsets of volatile compounds. The simplicity and usefulness of the technique in using 0/1 data in preserving high levels of accuracy was also prevalent. The powerful analytical methodologies for reducing variables and the choice of optimal subsets could be advantageous in both basic research and the routine quality control of chilled beef.

  4. Ion-selective electrodes for potentiometric determination of ranitidine hydrochloride, applying batch and flow injection analysis techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Yousry M; Badawy, Sayed S; Mutair, Ali A

    2005-12-01

    New ranitidine hydrochloride (RaCl)-selective electrodes of the conventional polymer membrane type are described. They are based on incorporation of ranitidine-tetraphenylborate (Ra-TPB) ion-pair or ranitidine-phosphotungstate (RaPT) ion-associate in a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane plasticized with dioctylphthalate (DOP) or dibutylphthalate (DBP). The electrodes are fully characterized in terms of the membrane composition, solution temperature, and pH. The sensors showed fast and stable responses. Nernstian response was found over the concentration range of 2.0 x 10(-5) M to 1.0 x 10(-2) M and 1.0 x 10(-5) M to 1.0 x 10(-2) M in the case of Ra-TPB electrode and over the range of 1.03 x 10(-5) M to 1.00 x 10(-2) M and 1.0 x 10(-5) M to 1.0 x 10(-2) M in the case of Ra-PT electrode for batch and FIA systems, respectively. The electrodes exhibit good selectivity for RaCl with respect to a large number of common ions, sugars, amino acids, and components other than ranitidine hydrochloride of the investigated mixed drugs. The electrodes have been applied to the potentiometric determination of RaCl in pure solutions and in pharmaceutical preparations under batch and flow injection conditions with a lower detection limit of 1.26 x 10(-5) M and 5.62 x 10(-6) M at 25 +/- 1 degrees C. An average recovery of 100.91% and 100.42% with a relative standard deviation of 0.72% and 0.53% has been achieved.

  5. Acne conglobata in a long-term survivor with trisomy 13, accompanied by selective IgM deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Chiyoko N; Tanaka, Yoshiko; Tabata, Nobuko

    2017-05-07

    Trisomy 13 (T13) is a congenital chromosomal disorder that is usually fatal within 2 years of birth, and only a few patients have been reported to reach adolescence. Here, we report a male long-term survivor of T13, currently 15 years of age, with a several-year history of extensive acne conglobata (AC) with abscesses on the face and neck. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was consistently isolated from the pustular lesions. Serum IgM levels were extremely low at 10 mg/dl. There were no abnormalities in neutrophil and total B cell number, or in serum IgA and IgG levels. Increased CD8+ T cell counts and inversion of the CD4/CD8 ratio were observed repeatedly. The patient's clinical features and laboratory data support a diagnosis of selective IgM deficiency (SIgMD) with concurrent AC. Immunoglobulin replacement therapy elevated serum IgM levels to the normal range and reduced the severity of AC. We suggest that T13 may represent a syndromic disorder associated with multiple organ malformation and a risk of developing immunodeficiency involving SIgMD. Because pediatric SIgMD is rare and an immunological abnormality in T13 patients has not previously been reported, we describe the patient's clinical course. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Exploring the Relationships Between Just-In-Time Technique and Manufacturing Performance: Empirical Evidence From Selected Nigerian Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. John Kolade Obamiro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the relationship between just-in-time technique and manufacturing performance of some selected Nigerian companies. Just-in time was considered to be an overall organisational phenomenon. Data were obtained through a structured questionnaire from a sample size of 300 knowledgeable employees to test the developed model and formulated hypotheses that cover both just-intime and the supporting infrastructures. Bivariate correlation analysis was used to test the three hypotheses. The results showed that: (1 there was a significant relationship between total quality management (supporting infrastructure and just-in-time practices; (2 Human resources management (supporting infrastructure was positively related to just-in-time practices; (3 there was a positive significant relationship between Just-in-time practices and manufacturing performance. These results demonstrate that justin- time practices can be successfully implemented if certain supporting infrastructures are provided, and also support the notion that just-in-time should be practiced at all levels and departments of the organisation, rather than viewing it strictly for shop floor workers.

  7. Selective pressurized liquid extraction technique capable of analyzing dioxins, furans, and PCBs in clams and crab tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Bikram; Aguilar, Lissette; Williams, E Spencer; Brooks, Bryan W; Usenko, Sascha

    2014-04-01

    A selective pressurized liquid extraction technique (SPLE) was developed for the analysis of polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (dl-PCBs) in clam and crab tissue. The SPLE incorporated multiple cleanup adsorbents (alumina, florisil, silica gel, celite, and carbopack) within the extraction cell. Tissue extracts were analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography coupled with electron capture negative ionization mass spectrometry. Mean recovery (n = 3) and percent relative standard deviation for PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in clam and crabs was 89 ± 2.3 and 85 ± 4.0, respectively. The SPLE method was applied to clams and crabs collected from the San Jacinto River Waste Pits, a Superfund site in Houston, TX. The dl-PCBs concentrations in clams and crabs ranged from 50 to 2,450 and 5 to 800 ng/g ww, respectively. Sample preparation time and solvents were reduced by 92 % and 65 %, respectively, as compared to USEPA method 1613.

  8. Portal vein embolization for induction of selective hepatic hypertrophy prior to major hepatectomy: rationale, techniques, outcomes and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, David; Madoff, David C.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to modulate the future liver remnant (FLR) is a key component of modern oncologic hepatobiliary surgery practice and has extended surgical candidacy for patients who may have been previously thought unable to survive liver resection. Multiple techniques have been developed to augment the FLR including portal vein embolization (PVE), associating liver partition and portal vein ligation (ALPPS), and the recently reported transhepatic liver venous deprivation (LVD). PVE is a well-established means to improve the safety of liver resection by redirecting blood flow to the FLR in an effort to selectively hypertrophy and ultimately improve functional reserve of the FLR. This article discusses the current practice of PVE with focus on summarizing the large number of published reports from which outcomes based practices have been developed. Both technical aspects of PVE including volumetry, approaches, and embolization agents; and clinical aspects of PVE including data supporting indications, and its role in conjunction with chemotherapy and transarterial embolization will be highlighted. PVE remains an important aspect of oncologic care; in large part due to the substantial foundation of information available demonstrating its clear clinical benefit for hepatic resection candidates with small anticipated FLRs. PMID:28154774

  9. Improving the sampling strategy of the Joint Danube Survey 3 (2013) by means of multivariate statistical techniques applied on selected physico-chemical and biological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamchevici, Carmen; Udrea, Ion

    2013-11-01

    The concept of basin-wide Joint Danube Survey (JDS) was launched by the International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River (ICPDR) as a tool for investigative monitoring under the Water Framework Directive (WFD), with a frequency of 6 years. The first JDS was carried out in 2001 and its success in providing key information for characterisation of the Danube River Basin District as required by WFD lead to the organisation of the second JDS in 2007, which was the world's biggest river research expedition in that year. The present paper presents an approach for improving the survey strategy for the next planned survey JDS3 (2013) by means of several multivariate statistical techniques. In order to design the optimum structure in terms of parameters and sampling sites, principal component analysis (PCA), factor analysis (FA) and cluster analysis were applied on JDS2 data for 13 selected physico-chemical and one biological element measured in 78 sampling sites located on the main course of the Danube. Results from PCA/FA showed that most of the dataset variance (above 75%) was explained by five varifactors loaded with 8 out of 14 variables: physical (transparency and total suspended solids), relevant nutrients (N-nitrates and P-orthophosphates), feedback effects of primary production (pH, alkalinity and dissolved oxygen) and algal biomass. Taking into account the representation of the factor scores given by FA versus sampling sites and the major groups generated by the clustering procedure, the spatial network of the next survey could be carefully tailored, leading to a decreasing of sampling sites by more than 30%. The approach of target oriented sampling strategy based on the selected multivariate statistics can provide a strong reduction in dimensionality of the original data and corresponding costs as well, without any loss of information.

  10. The significant impact of framing coils on long-term outcomes in endovascular coiling for intracranial aneurysms: how to select an appropriate framing coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Wataru; Sato, Masayuki; Amano, Tatsuo; Matsumaru, Yuji

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE The importance of a framing coil (FC)-the first coil inserted into an aneurysm during endovascular coiling, also called a lead coil or a first coil-is recognized, but its impact on long-term outcomes, including recanalization and retreatment, is not well established. The purposes of this study were to test the hypothesis that the FC is a significant factor for aneurysmal recurrence and to provide some insights on appropriate FC selection. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed endovascular coiling for 280 unruptured intracranial aneurysms and gathered data on age, sex, aneurysm location, aneurysm morphology, maximal size, neck width, adjunctive techniques, recanalization, retreatment, follow-up periods, total volume packing density (VPD), volume packing density of the FC, and framing coil percentage (FCP; the percentage of FC volume in total coil volume) to clarify the associated factors for aneurysmal recurrence. RESULTS Of 236 aneurysms included in this study, 33 (14.0%) had recanalization, and 18 (7.6%) needed retreatment during a mean follow-up period of 37.7 ± 16.1 months. In multivariate analysis, aneurysm size (odds ratio [OR] = 1.29, p < 0.001), FCP < 32% (OR 3.54, p = 0.009), and VPD < 25% (OR 2.96, p = 0.015) were significantly associated with recanalization, while aneurysm size (OR 1.25, p < 0.001) and FCP < 32% (OR 6.91, p = 0.017) were significant predictors of retreatment. VPD as a continuous value or VPD with any cutoff value could not predict retreatment with statistical significance in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS FCP, which is equal to the FC volume as a percentage of the total coil volume and is unaffected by the morphology of the aneurysm or the measurement error in aneurysm length, width, or height, is a novel predictor of recanalization and retreatment and is more significantly predictive of retreatment than VPD. To select FCs large enough to meet the condition of FCP ≥ 32% is a potential relevant factor for better

  11. Laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery by a colon lifting-up technique that decreases the number of access ports: comparison by propensity scoring of short-term and long-term outcomes with standard multiport laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Shoichi; Watanabe, Kazuteru; Ota, Mitsuyoshi; Watanabe, Jun; Ichikawa, Yasushi; Yamagishi, Shigeru; Tatsumi, Kenji; Suwa, Hirokazu; Kunisaki, Chikara; Taguri, Masataka; Morita, Satoshi; Endo, Itaru

    2012-02-01

    Laparoscopic colectomy for colorectal cancer has become established as a minimally invasive surgical approach. However, many disposable instruments are required, and there is an associated disadvantage of cost. We have developed a new technique, which uses a suture string to lift up the colon. This method is expected to reduce the number of access ports required without compromising the radical cure. A suture string piercing the abdominal wall is passed through the mesocolon. The colon is retracted anteriorly and is fixed at the abdominal wall. The main mesenteric vessels are under tension, and lymph node dissection is performed easily by a medial approach. The working space is more stable because the colon is fixed to the abdominal wall. This study examined the short-term and long-term surgical outcomes of laparoscopic resection for colorectal cancer using our colon lifting-up technique (CLT), compared with the standard multiport technique. The study design was a case-matched control by propensity scoring. Analyzed variables were sex, age, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, cancer in a different organ, multiple colorectal cancer, operator, operative year, tumor location, operative procedure, adjuvant chemotherapy, and International Union Against Cancer TNM stage. From 2000 to 2010, 301 patients underwent CLT and 436 standard multiport technique, 148 patients were matched by propensity score and analyzed. Regarding short-term outcomes, there was no difference between the 2 groups. The mean number of ports needed was 3.37±0.48 for CLT (93 with 3 ports, 55 with 4). There were no differences in recurrence-free survival and overall survival in long-term follow-up results for each stage. There were neither recurrences nor complications due to CLT. The CLT facilitated laparoscopic colectomy without compromising cure rates. It is a useful method to keep a stable view and to conserve medical resources.

  12. Issues and Techniques in Translating Scientific Terms from English to Khmer for a University-Level Text in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Cassie; Oliviera, Alandeom W.; Curry, Alastair; Buck, Gayle

    2011-01-01

    Teachers and students spend much time interacting with written resources such as textbooks, tests, or worksheets during classroom instruction. What if no text is available, however, in the language of the learners? This case study describes the processes and techniques adopted by two university lecturers in Cambodia, as they translated an L1…

  13. Repeatability of riparian vegetation sampling methods: how useful are these techniques for broad-scale, long-term monitoring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc C. Coles-Ritchie; Richard C. Henderson; Eric K. Archer; Caroline Kennedy; Jeffrey L. Kershner

    2004-01-01

    Tests were conducted to evaluate variability among observers for riparian vegetation data collection methods and data reduction techniques. The methods are used as part of a largescale monitoring program designed to detect changes in riparian resource conditions on Federal lands. Methods were evaluated using agreement matrices, the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity metric, the...

  14. ACCOUNTING TECHNIQUES SPECIFIC TO EXPORTS OF GOODS ON ITS OWN BEHALF WITH LONG-TERM COMMERCIAL LENDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paliu - Popa Lucia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the consideration that, under increasingly fierce global competition, no country can remain passive on the results arising from international commercial transactions, developing countries and thus foreign trade companies have developed in turn, financial and institutional mechanisms aimed at continuous improvement of their position in global trade, the context in which the export of complex goods, of high values is performed, operation that requires a great financial of those entities, covered by financing of the international delivery from bank loans whose repayment term is longer than one year. Looking from this perspective, the scientific approach made at the entities carrying out foreign trade activities is aimed at developing accounting models specific to the export made on its own behalf with long-term commercial lending, procedures that will be formulated in congruence with the level and structure of the foreign price, the delivery term of the goods and the settlement term of debts or receivables, so that the accounting analysis should enable us to draw relevant conclusions that will help guide the management decisions to adopt those forms to achieve external transactions that are deemed to be the best.

  15. Techniques and long-term outcomes of cotton-clipping and cotton-augmentation strategies for management of cerebral aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi-Abbasi, Sam; Moron, Felix; Sun, Hai; Oppenlander, Mark E; Kalani, M Yashar S; Mulholland, Celene B; Zabramski, Joseph M; Nakaji, Peter; Spetzler, Robert F

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To address the challenges of microsurgically treating broad-based, frail, and otherwise complex aneurysms that are not amenable to direct clipping, alternative techniques have been developed. One such technique is to use cotton to augment clipping ("cotton-clipping" technique), which is also used to manage intraoperative aneurysm neck rupture, and another is to reinforce unclippable segments or remnants of aneurysm necks with cotton ("cotton-augmentation" technique). This study reviews the natural history of patients with aneurysms treated with cotton-clipping and cotton-augmentation techniques. METHODS The authors queried a database consisting of all patients with aneurysms treated at Barrow Neurological Institute in Phoenix, Arizona, between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2014, to identify cases in which cotton-clipping or cotton-augmentation strategies had been used. Management was categorized as the cotton-clipping technique if cotton was used within the blades of the aneurysm clip and as the cotton-clipping technique if cotton was used to reinforce aneurysms or portions of the aneurysm that were unclippable due to the presence of perforators, atherosclerosis, or residual aneurysms. Data were reviewed to assess patient outcomes and annual rates of aneurysm recurrence or hemorrhage after the initial procedures were performed. RESULTS The authors identified 60 aneurysms treated with these techniques in 57 patients (18 patients with ruptured aneurysms and 39 patients with unruptured aneurysms) whose mean age was 53.1 years (median 55 years; range 24-72 years). Twenty-three aneurysms (11 cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage) were treated using cotton-clipping and 37 with cotton-augmentation techniques (7 cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage). In total, 18 patients presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. The mean Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score at the time of discharge was 4.4. At a mean follow-up of 60.9 ± 35.6 months (median 70 months; range 10-126 months

  16. Selective pressurized liquid extraction technique for halogenated organic pollutants in marine mammal blubber: a lipid-rich matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, E M; Jia, M; Trumble, S J; Usenko, S

    2015-03-13

    Analytical methods for unique and rare samples, such as marine mammal tissue, strive to reduce opportunities for analyte loss and contamination. Historically, analytical methodologies for marine mammal tissues required an extraction followed by multiple cleanup and concentration steps. These steps increase the opportunity for analyte loss and sample contamination. Selective pressurized liquid extractions (SPLE; an analytical technique that combines PLE with in-cell adsorbent cleanup) have the potential to reduce and/or eliminate the number of steps. A SPLE method was developed for the simultaneous extraction of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from bowhead whale blubber. This SPLE utilized acidic silica with a fat-to-fat retainer ratio of 0.02 as well as eliminated post-extraction cleanup steps, such as size-exclusion chromatography step. In addition, neutral silica was placed beneath the acidic silica as an acid buffer, thereby preventing acid from contaminating the extraction system. Analysis was performed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in electron capture negative ionization mode. PBDE, PCB and OCP triplicate recoveries averaged 84±1%, 83±3%, and 76±11%, respectively. Overall, measurements of NIST Whale Blubber SRM 1945 were within±30% of certified values. PBDEs were measured for the first time in bowhead whale blubber; average concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 1.4 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww). Average OCPs and PCBs concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 37 ng g(-1)ww and 0.1 to 3.0 ng g(-1)ww, respectively, which were within one order of magnitude lower than those previously reported in bowhead whale blubber.

  17. Comparison between two different selective spinal anesthesia techniques in ambulatory knee arthroscopy as fast-track anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Hassan, Hossam Ibrahim Eldesuky

    2015-01-01

    Background: There were several studies using either low dose Bupivacaine as unilateral selective spinal anesthesia (SSA) or low dose lidocaine SSA for ambulatory knee arthroscopy. There were many concerns about high failure rate, complications, and different times to home readiness discharges. Aim of the Study: The study aimed to: (1) Compare the clinical efficacy and side effects of two different techniques of SSA in subarachnoid block for ambulatory knee arthroscopy (2) evaluate the possibility of a shorter stay in post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) or eligibility for fast tracking anesthesia (bypassing PACU) after SSA and numbers of patient bypassed PACU (3) compare the time to ambulate and time to home readiness. Patients and Methods: Prospective, randomized and open study was conducted, including 50 outpatients undergoing knee arthroscopy. Patients allocated into two groups: Bupivacaine group (group B); was injected with 3 mg bupivacaine and 10 ug fentanyl intrathecally in lateral decubitus position and remained for 20 min then supine position. Lidocaine group (group L) was injected with 20 mg lidocaine, plus 25 ug fentanyl intrathecally and immediately keeps in the supine position after injection. The quality and durations of motor and sensory block were compared between groups. Sensory block assessed by pin brick method and motor block assessed by Bromage scale. Time spent in PACU, the time to ambulate, and times to home-readiness were compared. Number of patients bypassed PACU was recorded. Side effects as pain, nausea, vomiting, postdural puncture headache, transient neurological symptoms, retention of urine and pruritus were evaluated and compared after SSA. Results: Bupivacaine group provided unilateral spinal anesthesia with significantly longer duration of both motor and sensory blocks than bilateral spinal of lidocaine group P 0.05. Group L patients did not stay in PACU, and all patients bypassed it P anesthesia than bupivacaine spinal with shorter time

  18. Short-term comparative study of high frequency chest wall oscillation and European airway clearance techniques in patients with cystic fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Osman, Leyla P; Roughton, Michael; Hodson, Margaret E; Pryor, Jennifer A

    2009-01-01

    Background High frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO) is standard treatment for airway clearance in the USA and has recently been introduced in the UK and Europe. There is little published research comparing HFCWO with airway clearance techniques (ACTs) frequently used in the UK and Europe. The aim of this study was to compare the short-term effects of HFCWO with usual ACTs in patients with cystic fibrosis hospitalised with an infective pulmonary exacerbation. Methods A 4-day randomised cr...

  19. Short Term Effects of Mobilization Techniques on Neck Pain and Deep Neck Flexor Muscle Endurance in Patients with Mechanical Chronic Neck Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Kılınç, Hasan Erkan; Harput, Gülcan; Baltacı, Gül; İnce, Deniz İnal

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate short term effects of cervical and scapular mobilization techniques on neck pain and deep cervical muscles endurance in chronical mechanical neck pain patients. Methods: 22 chronical mechanic neck pain patients four male 18 female (mean age: mean±sd 35.59± 15.85) were included. Before treatment, neck pain level (visual analog scale) and deep neck flexor muscles endurance (in supine position with digital chronometer) of all patients were eval...

  20. A Review of the State-of-the-Art on Combining Multiple NDT Techniques in Terms of Precise Fault Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Khaira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present industrial scenario demands optimum quality, feasible processing time and enhanced machine availability to cope-up with continuously increasing customer expectations. To achieve this target, it is mandatory to ensure the optimum performance and higher availability of machinery. Therefore, the present work begins with, review of the research work of different researchers, which includes the applied combinations from year 2000-2016 proceed with discussion on the parameters being checked before making combination of NDT and finally, covers the maintenance performance parameters for quantifying improvement in performance after combining NDT. The result indicates that very few researches uses combination of NDT’s, in areas like aeronautical, compressors etc., and most of the works done in composites to be tested without using any decision making technique.  The researchers and practitioners can use the outcome of this work as a guideline for combining multiple NDT technique to achieve precise fault prediction and forecasting of upcoming failures.

  1. Determination optimum technologists and models of selection of children on the initial stage of long-term improvement (on an example rowed on kayaks and canoe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matviyenko I.S.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of introduction of pedagogical technology of selection of children are lighted up. Optimum technology and model of selection is certain on the stage of initial preparation. Expedient is bringing in of maximal amount of children of optimum age to the system of school sport. Directions of transition of the selected contingent of capable children are rotined in the system child-youth sport. Specific gravity of training time a trainer is in a position to spare teaching a rational technique rowed, to forming of base of functional preparedness.

  2. Long-term crustal deformation monitored by gravity and space techniques at Medicina, Italy and Wettzell, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, B.; Zerbini, S.; Matonti, F.; Simon, D.

    2004-10-01

    Series of gravity recordings at the stations Medicina (Italy) and Wettzell (Germany) are investigated to separate seasonal gravity variations from long-term trends in gravity. The findings are compared to height variations monitored by continuous GPS observations. To study the origin of these variations in height and gravity the environmental parameters at the stations are included in the fact finding. In Medicina, a clear seasonal signal is visible in the gravity and height data series, caused by seasonal fluctuations in the atmosphere including mass redistribution, the ocean, groundwater but also by geo-mechanical effects such as soil consolidation and thermal expansion of the structure supporting the GPS antenna. In Wettzell, no seasonal effect could be clearly identified, and the long-term trend in gravity is mainly caused by ground water variations. The successful combination of height and gravity series with the derived ratio of gravity to height changes indicates that the long-term trends in height and gravity are most likely due to mass changes rather than to tectonic movements.

  3. Development Of The Technique Of Assessment Of Banking Risks Of Long-Term Crediting Of Investments (On The Example Of Banks Of Sevastopol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulyana Viktorovna Dremova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The external destabilizing factor — financial crisis — has significantly influenced on the level increase of riskiness of the banking credit operations. Taking into account that the increased level of risk follows long-term credits, these operations has been influenced the most, that can be as one of the constraining conditions for the provision of bank long-term credit resources. It, in turn, causes the need to develop the risk assessment technique of long-term credits in regulation of banks’ long-term credit operations. As the risk assessment of credit operations in banking practice is generally limited to the calculation of credit risk, it is efficient to consider the scientifically reasonable approach to a risks assessment of long-term crediting including influence of private risks for the purpose of carrying out the generalized assessment of riskiness both separate types of long-term credits, and a long-term credit portfolio in general. The offered method is based on the calculation of aggregate risk coefficient of the long-term credits, calculated by means of mathematical method of principal component. In the work, it is offered to perform an assessment of private risks by means of statistics: the expectation value, mean square deviation, and the coefficient of a variation. The use of the principal components’ method at the risk assessment of longterm crediting meets such requirements as a lack of value judgment, accounting of specific features of private risks of long-term credits, mathematical validity. It gives the chance to apply the offered risk assessment method of long-term credits in banking. The conclusion is made that the application of an aggregative risk indicator of a long-term crediting will allow banks to trace more accurately the level of riskiness of a long-term credit portfolio and separate types of long-term credits that will strengthen the bank information and analytical base on risk regulation in the field and

  4. Numerical simulation of flow induced by a pitched blade turbine. Comparison of the sliding mesh technique and an averaged source term method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majander, E.O.J.; Manninen, M.T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The flow induced by a pitched blade turbine was simulated using the sliding mesh technique. The detailed geometry of the turbine was modelled in a computational mesh rotating with the turbine and the geometry of the reactor including baffles was modelled in a stationary co-ordinate system. Effects of grid density were investigated. Turbulence was modelled by using the standard k-{epsilon} model. Results were compared to experimental observations. Velocity components were found to be in good agreement with the measured values throughout the tank. Averaged source terms were calculated from the sliding mesh simulations in order to investigate the reliability of the source term approach. The flow field in the tank was then simulated in a simple grid using these source terms. Agreement with the results of the sliding mesh simulations was good. Commercial CFD-code FLUENT was used in all simulations. (author)

  5. Placement of replace select Ti-Unite-coated type implants using a combination of immediate and submerge techniques after tooth extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coen Pramono D

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The high success rate of immediate implant placement both in the anterior and posterior regions were reported by many authors, therefore applying this techniques can be considered as a safe surgical procedure and minimizing the dental office visit for patient satisfaction. This paper reports the outcome of immediate placement of implants following extraction of anterior maxillary teeth. Combination technique of immediate and submerge implant placements including bone grafting procedure were used. Four implants with TiUnite surface type were placed immediately in two patients with the short-term result indicated that this technique may serve as a simple and safe procedure for immediate implant placement. It was concluded that immediate implant placement technique combined with TiUnite implant surface was successful in treating region directly after tooth extraction therefore this technique can be use as an alternative surgical method for dental implant rehabilitation.

  6. Comparison of Surgical Blade and Cryosurgery with Liquid Nitrogen Techniques in Treatment of Physiologic Gingival Pigmentation: Short Term Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Rahmati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Melanin pigmentation of the gingiva is a crucial esthetic problem. A variety of methods have been used for gingival depigmentation. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the results of two treatment modalities: scalpel technique and cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen in treatment of gingival pigmentation. Materials and Method: Twenty patients with chief complaint of gingival pigmentation participated in our study. 10 patients were treated with cryotherapy and remaining 10 participants were undergone the scalpel technique surgery. We evaluated acquiescence and comfort of the patients, degree of depigmentation, based on the area of pigmentation shown by gridlines option in Microsoft Paint software, and the presence or absence of gingival recession before and one month after treatment. Data was analyzed using Mann-Whitney and Chi-Square tests. A significance level of p≤ 0.05 was adopted. Results: Mean value and standard deviation of depigmentation for group A and group B was 96.17±2.51 and 95±2.48, respectively. The difference was not statistically significant (p= 0.225. There was no association between the treatment modality and the gingival recession (p= 0.303 or the treatment modality and the patient satisfaction (p= 0.346. No significant difference was found between gingival recession measures before and after the operation in the two treatment modalities. Conclusion: Surgical blade and cryosurgery with liquid nitrogen had no significant difference in treatment of physiologic gingival pigmentation. Both Techniques are acceptable in the treatment of gingival pigmentation.

  7. Short-term effects of three slow expiratory airway clearance techniques in patients with bronchiectasis: a randomised crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Cortina, B; Vilaró, J; Martí, D; Torres, A; San Miguel-Pagola, M; Alcaraz, V; Polverino, E

    2016-12-01

    To compare the efficacy of three slow expiratory airway clearance techniques (ACTs). Randomised crossover trial. Tertiary hospital. Thirty-one outpatients with bronchiectasis and chronic sputum expectoration. Autogenic drainage (AD), slow expiration with glottis opened in lateral posture (ELTGOL), and temporary positive expiratory pressure (TPEP). Sputum expectoration during each session (primary endpoint) and in the 24-hour period after each session. Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) score and spirometry results were recorded at the beginning and after each week of treatment. Data were summarised as median difference [95% confidence interval (CI)]. Median (interquartile range) daily expectoration at baseline was 21.1 (15.3 to 35.6)g. During physiotherapy sessions, AD and ELTGOL expectorated more sputum than TPEP [AD vs TPEP 3.1g (95% CI 1.5 to 4.8); ELTGOL vs TPEP 3.6g (95% CI 2.8 to 7.1)], while overall expectoration in the 24-hour period after each session was similar for all techniques (P=0.8). Sputum clearance at 24hours post-intervention was lower than baseline assessment for all techniques [AD vs baseline -10.0g (95% CI -15.0 to -6.8); ELTGOL vs baseline -9.2g (95% CI -14.2 to -7.9); TPEP vs baseline -6.0g (95% CI -12.0 to -6.1)]. The LCQ score increased with all techniques (AD 0.5, 95% CI 0.1 to 0.5; ELTGOL 0.9, 95% CI 0.5 to 2.1; TPEP 0.4, 95% CI 0.1 to 1.2), being similar for all ACTs (P=0.6). No changes in lung function were observed. Slow expiratory ACTs enhance mucus clearance during treatment sessions, and reduce expectoration for the rest of the day in patients with bronchiectasis. NCT01854788. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Posterior Scar Brachioplasty with Fascial Suspension: A Long-term Follow-up of a Modified Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy Elkhatib, MD

    2013-09-01

    Conclusions: The current posterior scar maneuver with fascial suspension prevented the tension on the suture line and consequently prevented the widening of the scar and facilitated the modeling procedure by removing the appropriate amount of skin and subcutaneous tissues. It creates a low-lying, posterior, well-hidden scar when viewed from the patient’s front or patient’s lateral. The scar is partially (upper third visible when viewed from patient’s back. The technique is avoiding injury to the sensory and motor nerves of the arm and decreases the insult to the lymphatic.

  9. Short Term Effects of Neurodynamic Stretching and Static Stretching Techniques on Hamstring Muscle Flexibility in Healthy Male Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Rashad Ahmed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Flexibility is a key component of rehabilitation and inadequate muscle extensibility remains a commonly accepted factor for musculoskeletal disorders. Studies on the most optimal technique for improving muscle flexibility are a widely debated. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of neurodynamic and static stretching techniques on hamstring flexibility in healthy male subjects. This study was a randomized experimental trial; forty healthy male subjects with hamstring tightness were randomly divided into two equal groups: The neurodynamic group and the static stretching group. Treatment was given for 5 consecutive days and the outcomes were measured using Active knee Extension Test and Straight Leg Raising. There was a significant improvement in hamstring flexibility following application of both neurodynamic and static stretching but the improvement in the neurodynamic group (p<0.001 was better than that of the static group (p<0.02. Results suggest that a neurodynamic stretching could increase hamstring flexibility to a greater extent than static stretching in healthy male subjects with a tight hamstring.

  10. Antibiotic pressure mediated selection of non-biofilm forming strain of Elizabethkingia meningosepticum causing fatal nosocomial meningitis in a term infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Rai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a fatal case of hospital acquired meningitis in a term infant due to the antibiotic pressure mediated selection of Elizabethkingia meningosepticum. The antibiotics were administered for multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infection. The strain was also phenotypically characterized for beta lactamase production, biofilm forming capability and resistance to in use disinfectants.

  11. Evaluation of a rabbit model for osteomyelitis by high field, high resolution imaging using the chemical-shift-specific-slice-selection technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, A; Crémieux, A C; Belmatoug, N; Vallois, J M; Pocidalo, J J; Carbon, C

    1994-01-01

    The rabbit model of osteomyelitis introduced by C.W. Norden, based on injection of an infecting solution (Staphylococcus aureus, sodium morrhuate) into the tibia, was studied at 4.7 Tesla with a time-efficient chemical shift selective imaging technique, Chemical Shift Specific Slice Selection (C4S). The evolution of the disease over several weeks was followed on water-selective, fat-selective, and sum images obtained simultaneously with this imaging sequence. Experiments were performed either on different groups of rabbits at different times after infection with subsequent sacrifice of the animal and microbiological analysis of the infected tibia or on the same group of animals imaged several times after infection. Associated analysis of the water and fat selective images revealed marrow modifications very early (Day 5 after inoculation) demonstrating the high sensitivity of the employed imaging technique. Later on, bone modifications were best identified on the sum images. Additional experiments performed on animals injected with a noninfecting solution containing only sodium morrhuate showed however that the sclerosing agent alone can yield images similar to those produced by infection at early stages after inoculation. Therefore, the Norden model would not be suitable for monitoring quantitatively outcome of therapy by magnetic resonance imaging. It is however well adapted for the evaluation and optimization of MRI techniques or protocols intended to detect early changes of bone marrow produced by septic or aseptic infarct.

  12. Fish recognition based on the combination between robust feature selection, image segmentation and geometrical parameter techniques using Artificial Neural Network and Decision Tree

    CERN Document Server

    Alsmadi, Mutasem Khalil Sari; Noah, Shahrul Azman; Almarashdah, Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    We presents in this paper a novel fish classification methodology based on a combination between robust feature selection, image segmentation and geometrical parameter techniques using Artificial Neural Network and Decision Tree. Unlike existing works for fish classification, which propose descriptors and do not analyze their individual impacts in the whole classification task and do not make the combination between the feature selection, image segmentation and geometrical parameter, we propose a general set of features extraction using robust feature selection, image segmentation and geometrical parameter and their correspondent weights that should be used as a priori information by the classifier. In this sense, instead of studying techniques for improving the classifiers structure itself, we consider it as a black box and focus our research in the determination of which input information must bring a robust fish discrimination.The main contribution of this paper is enhancement recognize and classify fishes...

  13. Σύντροφος : Un terme technique Macédonien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Μιλτιάδης Χατζόπουλος

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Σύντροφος is a term familiar to epigraphists who study Greek inscriptions of the Roman period, especially from Asia Minor, and also to epigraphists and historians of the Hellenistic period. In the former case the term applies to actual foster brothers, to wit children who have been reared together, but also to persons engaged in other forms of professional or affective relationships. Students of the Hellenistic period, on the other hand, are in disagreement. Some interpret this term as an honorific title denoting a fictitious kinship with the king, while others maintain that it qualifies persons of the same age as the king who have actually been brought up with him. The institution of syntrophoi is attested in almost all Hellenistic courts with the exception of the Ptolemies. In Macedonia the relevant evidence extends from the reign of Philip II to that of Philip V. The parallelism between courtly and civic educa- tional institutions (βασιλικοὶ παῖδες and παῖδες in the civic gymnasia, βασιλικοὶ κυνηγοὶ and civic ἔφηβοι, βασιλικοὶ νεανίσκοι and νέοι in the civic gymnasia ought to have prepared us to expect a civic equivalent to royal σύντροφοι. Such an equivalent is now attested in Philip V’s diagramma regulating military ser- vice. It appears thus that the Macedonian “civic” syntropohoi, like the Spartan mothakes, were boys of inferior social or financial status who were raised in the family of well-to-do boys of the same age, were thus enabled to receive the same education as they in the gymnasia, and could in case of need replace their foster brothers in their miltary obligations.

  14. Long-term invariant parameters obtained from 24-h Holter recordings: A comparison between different analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Sergio; Esposti, Federico; Ferrario, Manuela; Sassi, Roberto; Signorini, Maria Gabriella

    2007-03-01

    Over the last two decades, a large number of different methods had been used to study the fractal-like behavior of the heart rate variability (HRV). In this paper some of the most used techniques were reviewed. In particular, the focus is set on those methods which characterize the long memory behavior of time series (in particular, periodogram, detrended fluctuation analysis, rescale range analysis, scaled window variance, Higuchi dimension, wavelet-transform modulus maxima, and generalized structure functions). The performances of the different techniques were tested on simulated self-similar noises (fBm and fGn) for values of α, the slope of the spectral density for very small frequency, ranging from -1 to 3 with a 0.05 step. The check was performed using the scaling relationships between the various indices. DFA and periodogram showed the smallest mean square error from the expected values in the range of interest for HRV. Building on the results obtained from these tests, the effective ability of the different methods in discriminating different populations of patients from RR series derived from Holter recordings, was assessed. To this extent, the Noltisalis database was used. It consists of a set of 30, 24-h Holter recordings collected from healthy subjects, patients suffering from congestive heart failure, and heart transplanted patients. All the methods, with the exception at most of rescale range analysis, were almost equivalent in distinguish between the three groups of patients. Finally, the scaling relationships, valid for fBm and fGn, when empirically used on HRV series, also approximately held.

  15. Application of a Shape-Memory Alloy Concentrator in Displaced Patella Fractures: Technique and Long-Term Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuntong; Wang, Panfeng; Xia, Yan; Zhou, Panyu; Xie, Yang; Xu, Shuogui; Zhang, Chuncai

    2017-02-01

    Operative treatment is usually recommended in displaced patella fractures. Several techniques have been advocated for internal fixation of patella fractures. Despite the relatively good clinical outcomes that have been demonstrated in many studies, postoperative morbidities such as fixation failure, nonunion, infection, and knee stiffness are not uncommon. We present a new alternative treatment technique for displaced patellar fractures. Between April 1995 and May 2005, we used the Nitinol Patella Concentrator (NTPC) to treat 156 consecutive patients with displaced patellar fractures. Injuries arose from vehicular accidents in 56 (35.9%) cases, direct falls onto the knee in 85 (54.5%) cases, and sports injuries in 15 (9.6%) cases. The mean patient age was 46.3 years (range, 25-77 years). Clinical assessments were made using the Böstman knee score and the MOS SF-36 questionnaire (Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short-form health survey), which were both recorded at the final follow-up visit. The mean follow-up was 7.3 years (range, 6-17 years). At the final follow-up, the Böstman knee scores were excellent in 88 cases (28-30), good in 55 (20-27), and unsatisfactory in 13 (<20). According to the MOS SF-36 evaluation, the average score was 84.5 (range, 62-91). Treatment of patellar fracture with the NTPC not only may serve as an effective and rigid fixation method in multifragmented displaced and inferior pole fractures, but also may provide continuous concentrative compression during the osseous healing process. Thus, use of the NTPC may help restore the functional integrity of the extensor mechanism and permit early rehabilitation with a lower incidence of postoperative complications. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. A Best Practice for Selecting Your QEP: Techniques for Facilitating Mission-Based Stakeholder Involvement in the Selection of the Institutional Quality Enhancement Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tincher-Ladner, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    How can comprehensive community colleges serve students with diverse learning needs today while determining a single Quality Enhancement Plan (QEP) to improve student learning? During the reaffirmation planning process, Mississippi Gulf Coast Community College (MGCCC) recognized this challenge and responded by designing a plan for the selection of…

  17. Selective Processing Techniques for Electronics and Opto-Electronic Applications: Quantum-Well Devices and Integrated Optic Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-10

    conventionally 11. LASER FABRICATION OF RIB.LIKE WAVEGUIDES fabricated devices. Experimental results are described by simple theoretical models. The technique...the and important issue which laser fabrication techniques may be experiment for the range of angles used. capable of addressing, Finally, the

  18. Characterization and Source Term Assessments of Radioactive Particles from Marshall Islands Using Non-Destructive Analytical Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jernstrom, J; Eriksson, M; Simon, R; Tamborini, G; Bildstein, O; Carlos-Marquez, R; Kehl, S R; Betti, M; Hamilton, T

    2005-06-11

    A considerable fraction of radioactivity entering the environment from different nuclear events is associated with particles. The impact of these events can only be fully assessed where there is some knowledge about the mobility of particle bound radionuclides entering the environment. The behavior of particulate radionuclides is dependent on several factors, including the physical, chemical and redox state of the environment, the characteristics of the particles (e.g., the chemical composition, crystallinity and particle size) and on the oxidative state of radionuclides contained in the particles. Six plutonium-containing particles stemming from Runit Island soil (Marshall Islands) were characterized using non-destructive analytical and microanalytical methods. By determining the activity of {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am isotopes from their gamma peaks structural information related to Pu matrix was obtained, and the source term was revealed. Composition and elemental distribution in the particles were studied with synchrotron radiation based micro X-ray fluorescence (SR-{mu}-XRF) spectrometry. Scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray detector (SEMEDX) and secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS) were used to examine particle surfaces. Based on the elemental composition the particles were divided into two groups; particles with plain Pu matrix, and particles where the plutonium is included in Si/O-rich matrix being more heterogeneously distributed. All of the particles were identified as fragments of initial weapons material. As containing plutonium with low {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atomic ratio, {approx}2-6%, which corresponds to weapons grade plutonium, the source term was identified to be among the safety tests conducted in the history of Runit Island.

  19. Examining the Influence of Selected Factors on Perceived Co-Op Work-Term Quality from a Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewery, David; Nevison, Colleen; Pretti, T. Judene; Cormier, Lauren; Barclay, Sage; Pennaforte, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    This study discusses and tests a conceptual model of co-op work-term quality from a student perspective. Drawing from an earlier exploration of co-op students' perceptions of work-term quality, variables related to role characteristics, interpersonal dynamics, and organizational elements were used in a multiple linear regression analysis to…

  20. Terminology of Documentation; A Selection of 1,200 Basic Terms Published in English, French, German, Russian and Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wersig, Gernot, Comp.; Neveling, Ulrich, Comp.

    This work provides a five-language translation of 1200 technical terms covering various aspects of documentation activities including: linguistic problems; information sciences; systems analysis, design, and evaluation; cataloging and classification; and general concepts of electronic data processing. Each term is listed according to subject area,…

  1. Selective impact of disease on short-term and long-term components of self-reported memory: a population-based HUNT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almkvist, Ove; Bosnes, Ole; Bosnes, Ingunn; Stordal, Eystein

    2017-05-09

    Subjective memory is commonly considered to be a unidimensional measure. However, theories of performance-based memory suggest that subjective memory could be divided into more than one dimension. To divide subjective memory into theoretically related components of memory and explore the relationship to disease. In this study, various aspects of self-reported memory were studied with respect to demographics and diseases in the third wave of the HUNT epidemiological study in middle Norway. The study included all individuals 55 years of age or older, who responded to a nine-item questionnaire on subjective memory and questionnaires on health (n=18 633). A principle component analysis of the memory items resulted in two memory components; the criterion used was an eigenvalue above 1, which accounted for 54% of the total variance. The components were interpreted as long-term memory (LTM; the first component; 43% of the total variance) and short-term memory (STM; the second component; 11% of the total variance). Memory impairment was significantly related to all diseases (except Bechterew's disease), most strongly to brain infarction, heart failure, diabetes, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and whiplash. For most diseases, the STM component was more affected than the LTM component; however, in cancer, the opposite pattern was seen. Subjective memory impairment as measured in HUNT contained two components, which were differentially associated with diseases. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Long-term selection using a single trait criterion, non-destructive deformation, in White Leghorns: Effect over time on genetic parameters for traits related to egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Olivier; Nirasawa, Keijiro; Vincenot, Christian E; Nagamine, Yoshitaka; Moriya, Kazuyuki

    2017-02-01

    Although non-destructive deformation is relevant for assessing eggshell strength, few long-term selection experiments are documented which use non-destructive deformation as a selection criterion. This study used restricted maximum likelihood-based methods with a four-trait animal model to analyze the effect of non-destructive deformation on egg production, egg weight and sexual maturity in a two-way selection experiment involving 17 generations of White Leghorns. In the strong shell line, corresponding to the line selected for low non-destructive deformation values, the heritability estimates were 0.496 for non-destructive deformation, 0.253 for egg production, 0.660 for egg weight and 0.446 for sexual maturity. In the weak shell line, corresponding to the line selected for high non-destructive deformation values, the heritabilities were 0.372, 0.162, 0.703 and 0.404, respectively. An asymmetric response to selection was observed for non-destructive deformation, egg production and sexual maturity, whereas egg weight decreased for both lines. Using non-destructive deformation to select for stronger eggshell had a small negative effect on egg production and sexual maturity, suggesting the need for breeding programs to balance selection between eggshell traits and egg production traits. However, the analysis of the genetic correlation between non-destructive deformation and egg weight revealed that large eggs are not associated with poor eggshell quality.

  3. Pulley Reconstruction As Part of the Surgical Treatment for de Quervain Disease: Surgical Technique with Medium-Term Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wijk, Jacobien; Goubau, Jean F; Mermuys, Koen; van Hoonacker, Petrus; Vanmierlo, Bert; Kerckhove, Diederick; Berghs, Bart

    2015-08-01

    Background Simple decompression of the first extensor compartment is commonly used for treating de Quervain disease, with the possible complication of subluxation of the tendons of the abductor pollicis longus (APL) and extensor pollicis brevis (EPB) over the radial styloid. To prevent this painful subluxation of the tendons, several methods of reconstructing the pulley have been proposed. Questions/Purposes The purpose of our study was to evaluate a new technique for reconstructing the first extensor compartment following a release for de Quervain disease. Patients and Methods A retrospective study (mean length 40.4 months) was performed in 45 patients. The outcome assessment involved two different questionnaires and ultrasound evaluation of any tendon subluxation. Results None of the patients required reoperation for tendon instability or incomplete decompression of the first extensor compartment. Two patients experienced clicking around the radial styloid after surgery. This was not related to the amount of volar migration of the tendons. Conclusions We believe the reconstruction proposed here is an effective method of preventing painful subluxation of the APL and EPB following a release of the first extensor compartment.

  4. Long term storage of Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor isolates using different cryopreservation techniques and its impact on laccase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichlerová, Ivana; Homolka, Ladislav; Tomšovský, Michal; Lisá, Ludmila

    2015-12-01

    The strain Pleurotus ostreatus Florida f6, its 45 basidiospore-derived isolates (both monokaryons and dikaryons prepared in our laboratory), Trametes versicolor strain CCBAS 614 and 22 other T. versicolor isolates obtained from the sporocarps collected in distant localities were successfully preserved for 12 y using perlite and straw cryopreservation protocols. All tested isolates survived a 12-year storage in liquid nitrogen (LN) and their laccase production and Poly B411 decolorization capacity was preserved. Also mycelium extension rate and the types of colony appearance of individual isolates remained unchanged. Different cryopreservation techniques were also tested for the short time (24 h) and the long time (6 m) storage of the culture liquid with extracellular laccase produced by T. versicolor strain CCBAS 614. The results showed that 10 % glycerol was the most suitable cryopreservant. The absence of the cryopreservant did not cause high loss of laccase activity in the samples; the presence of DMSO (5 or 10 %) in LN-stored samples caused mostly a decrease of laccase activity. For the preservation of laccase activity in the liquid culture the storage in the freezer at -80 °C is more convenient than the storage in liquid nitrogen.

  5. Characterising smoking cessation smartphone applications in terms of behaviour change techniques, engagement and ease-of-use features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubhi, Harveen Kaur; Michie, Susan; Kotz, Daniel; van Schayck, Onno C P; Selladurai, Abiram; West, Robert

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether or not behaviour change techniques (BCTs) as well as engagement and ease-of-use features used in smartphone applications (apps) to aid smoking cessation can be identified reliably. Apps were coded for presence of potentially effective BCTs, and engagement and ease-of-use features. Inter-rater reliability for this coding was assessed. Inter-rater agreement for identifying presence of potentially effective BCTs ranged from 66.8 to 95.1 % with 'prevalence and bias adjusted kappas' (PABAK) ranging from 0.35 to 0.90 (p features and (b) a set of ease-of-use features, which were included, were 0.77 and 0.75, respectively (p 50 % for rewarding abstinence. The average proportions of specified engagement and ease-of-use features included in the apps were 69 and 83 %, respectively. The study found that it is possible to identify potentially effective BCTs, and engagement and ease-of-use features in smoking cessation apps with fair to high inter-rater reliability.

  6. Observing versus Predicting: Initial Patterns of Filling Predict Long-Term Adherence More Accurately Than High-Dimensional Modeling Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Jessica M; Shrank, William H; Lii, Joyce; Krumme, Alexis K; Matlin, Olga S; Brennan, Troyen A; Choudhry, Niteesh K

    2016-02-01

    Despite the proliferation of databases with increasingly rich patient data, prediction of medication adherence remains poor. We proposed and evaluated approaches for improved adherence prediction. We identified Medicare beneficiaries who received prescription drug coverage through CVS Caremark and initiated a statin. A total of 643 variables were identified at baseline from prior claims and linked Census data. In addition, we identified three postbaseline predictors, indicators of adherence to statins during each of the first 3 months of follow-up. We estimated 10 models predicting subsequent adherence, using logistic regression and boosted logistic regression, a nonparametric data-mining technique. Models were also estimated within strata defined by the index days supply. In 77,703 statin initiators, prediction using baseline variables only was poor with maximum cross-validated C-statistics of 0.606 and 0.577 among patients with index supply ≤30 days and >30 days, respectively. Using only indicators of initial statin adherence improved prediction accuracy substantially among patients with shorter initial dispensings (C = 0.827/0.518), and, when combined with investigator-specified variables, prediction accuracy was further improved (C = 0.842/0.596). Observed adherence immediately after initiation predicted future adherence for patients whose initial dispensings were relatively short. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  7. A review on durability issues and restoration techniques in long-term operations of direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Asad; Scibioh, M. Aulice; Prabhuram, Joghee; An, Myung-Gi; Ha, Heung Yong

    2015-11-01

    Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) remain attractive among advanced energy conversion technologies due to their high energy density and simple system configuration. Although they made an early market entry but failed to attain a large-scale commercialization mainly because of their inferior performance sustainment in lifetime operations and high production costs. There have been lots of R&D efforts made to upgrade the long-term durability of DMFCs to a commercially acceptable standard. These rigorous efforts have been useful in gaining insights about various degradation mechanisms and their origins. This review first briefly describes the recent progress in lifetime enhancement of DMFC technology reported by various groups in academia and industry. Then, it is followed by comprehensive discussions on the major performance degradation routes and associated physico-chemical origins, and influence of operational parameters, together with the methods which have been employed to alleviate and restore the performance losses. Finally, a brief summary of the presented literature survey is provided in conjunction with some possible future research directions.

  8. Evolving techniques in text-based medical consultation - Physicians' long-term experiences at an Ask the doctor service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, Anna Bell; Hillborg, Helene; Augutis, Marika; Umefjord, Göran

    2017-09-01

    Both the demands and the options for patients to communicate with health care providers utilizing eHealth solutions are increasing. Some patients, or relatives to patients, want to consult another health care provider than the regular one, merely in text. To improve text-based medical consultation by learning from long-term experiences. Physicians with comprehensive experience of answering free-text medical inquiries at an official health portal in Sweden were interviewed. The interviews were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Over time, the interviewed physicians developed strategies on how to formulate the answer to a medical inquiry from a previously unknown inquirer. The answering physicians experienced their primary role as providers of medical information and as mediators between an inquirer and the regular health care provider. Many of the answering physicians experienced a personal development with improved communication skills, also in face-to-face meetings with patients. Text-based medical consultation is part of an expanding area in eHealth. The development of strategies, guidelines, ethical considerations as well as educational efforts are needed to optimize the skills of asynchronous text-based health consultation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Long-term results of Troidl's technique of endoscopic pneumatic dilatation for achalasia of the esophagus. A prospective clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eypasch, E; Troidl, H; Sommer, H; Vestweber, K H

    1987-01-01

    In a prospective clinical trial, 26 consecutive patients underwent endoscopic pneumatic dilatation over a 10-year period. Dilatation was achieved by means of a balloon attached to a normal gastrointestinal fiberscope. With the endoscope in an inverse position, the device was placed in the cardia and the dilatation process was monitored macroscopically. Before dilatation, patients suffered from dysphagia (92%), reduced speed of swallowing (100%), symptom aggravation under stress (73%), weight loss (50%), aspiration, pain, regurgitation, and vomiting. After dilatation and long-term follow-up (mean of 5 years), symptoms could be markedly reduced, especially the speed of eating and symptom aggravation under stress. Excellent and good results (Visick scale) were achieved in 76%. Fair results were achieved in 20%. To date, perforation and other complications have not occurred. Mortality was zero. Our series was an uncontrolled trial, so the results are hardly comparable to other studies. Furthermore, the small number of patients in our study represents a weak point with regard to complications. We conclude that the main advantages of the procedure are its simplicity and practicability. The simple procedure may be the method of choice in elderly patients. Of course, no final decision can be made until a well-designed controlled trial has been carried out.

  10. Using historic aerial photography and paleohydrologic techniques to assess long-term ecological response to two Montana dam removals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Denine; Blank, Matt; Ammondt, Selita; Patten, Duncan T

    2009-07-01

    The restorative potential of dam removal on ecosystem function depends on the reversibility of dam effects and its operations. While dam removal is an established engineering practice, the need for an understanding of the ecological response remains. We used paleoflood hydrology, hydrologic modeling, and aerial photo interpretation to investigate the long-term ecologic responses to dam failure and breach. We investigated downstream geomorphic and vegetation responses to a dam failure (Pattengail Dam in 1927) and a controlled dam breach, which used natural sediment removal (Mystic Lake Dam in 1985). Our data showed vegetation responses indicative of channel and floodplain evolution at Pattengail. The size of the flood following the Pattengail dam failure initiated a series of channel adjustments and reworked over 19ha of floodplain downstream of the dam. In Mystic, we observed few flood stage indicators and a slight response in floodplain vegetation. We made several findings. (1) Dam removal effects on channel evolution and floodplain development depend on reach types and their responsiveness to flow regime change. (2) Ecologic response to dam removal depends on the sizes and timing of high flow events during and following removal. (3) Paleohydrology can be used to assess historic floods (>20 years). We see the utility of assessing the ecological responsiveness of a system to previous fluvial events or changes in flow regime. Informed about the character of a system based on its history, dam removal scientists can use these tools to set realistic restoration goals for removing a dam.

  11. The selection of best tillage implements in terms of energy use efficiency using simple additive weighting methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Andekaeizadeh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Main part of energy consumption in agricultural mechanization is tillage operations therefore optimization of energy consumption in tillage operation is very important. A management method for system to optimize in agriculture is Simple Additive Weighting (SAW methodology that this method can operate according to criteria of the systems. This method states that, which system has better performance? (for example the system for agricultural tractors, type of implements, methods of tillage, planting and harvesting, and etc. Fuel consumption is the most important factor in terms of energy consumption in tractor because the fuel energy contributes to help tractor to work . Specific draught is important force that measured for investigation of energy consumption of tillage implements, it can show the amount of drawbar force that optimized (for work width 1 meter implements tillage by using this method. The multiplication of the drawbar force in forward speed factor resulted drawbar power. The most common method is using of tractors drawbar power in mechanized agriculture. Important factor for assessment and determination performance of tractor is drawbar power. Several studies have been showed that about 20 to 55%of available drawbar power was wasting by implements tillage. Another important parameters that affect on traction efficiency pull’s machine is slip. A simple additive weighting two-step procedure involving basic weighted as follows: (1 scale the values of all attributes to make them comparable; (2 sum up the values of the all attributes for each alternative. Materials and Methods In this study, three implements tillage were studied including moldboard plow, disk plow and disk harrow and they called A, B and C , respectively. Three different forward speeds of 3, 4, 5, 6 Km/h for each implements were selected according to the type of work at various depths. In this study fuel consumption factor was measured by means of micro

  12. ELECTRODIALYSIS AS A TECHNIQUE FOR EXTENDING ELECTROLESS NICKEL BATH LIFE-IMPROVING SELECTIVITY AND REDUCING LOSSES OF VALUABLE BATH COMPONENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the last decade electrodialysis has emerged as an effective technique for removing accumulated reactant counterions (sodium and sulfate) and reaction products (orthophosphite) that interfere with the electroless nickel plating process, thus extending bath life by up to 50 me...

  13. Résultats à long terme de l'évidement pétro-mastoïdien en technique ouverte

    OpenAIRE

    Castrillón, Rodrigo

    2001-01-01

    Introduction: Cette étude évalue les résultats anatomiques et fonctionnels à long terme de l'évidement pétro-mastoïdien en technique ouverte (EPMto). Méthode: Sont analysés les résultats de 259 opérations de première intention avec tympano-ossiculoplastie dans le même temps opératoire, réalisées entre 1974 et 1998 chez des patients souffrant d'oto-mastoïdite ou d'otite chronique cholestéatomateuse. Résultats: A long terme, la cavité était propre dans 95% des cas et l'audition préservée ou amé...

  14. Résultats à long terme de l'évidement pétro-mastoïdien en technique ouverte

    OpenAIRE

    Castrillón, Rodrigo; Guyot, Jean-Philippe

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Cette étude évalue les résultats anatomiques et fonctionnels à long terme de l'évidement pétro-mastoïdien en technique ouverte (EPMto). Méthode: Sont analysés les résultats de 259 opérations de première intention avec tympano-ossiculoplastie dans le même temps opératoire, réalisées entre 1974 et 1998 chez des patients souffrant d'oto-mastoïdite ou d'otite chronique cholestéatomateuse. Résultats: A long terme, la cavité était propre dans 95% des cas et l'audition préservée ou am...

  15. Analysis of the Long-Term Corrosion Behavior of X80 Pipeline Steel in Acidic Red Soil Using Electrical Resistance Test Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaixing Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The long-term corrosion rate of X80 steel in an acidic red soil was monitored in situ by using a precise electrical resistance (ER test system. The corrosion characteristics of X80 steel were examined via SEM, EDS, and XRD. The results indicated that the corrosion rate determined from ER test was very similar to that obtained from the mass loss test. The ER test technique made it possible to predict the long-term corrosion rate of steel in soil in situ. The corrosion rate of X80 steel in acidic red soil was about 0.0902 mm/a at 38 weeks, but the corrosion rate was dropped to 0.0226 mm/a after 5 years. The final corrosion product layer was composed mainly of FeOOH, γ-Fe2O3, and FeCO3.

  16. Afferent-specific properties of interneuron synapses underlie selective long-term regulation of feedback inhibitory circuits in CA1 hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, Ariane; Pelletier, Joe Guillaume; Tartas, Maylis; Lacaille, Jean-Claude

    2010-06-15

    Hebbian long-term potentiation (LTP) develops at specific synapses onto hippocampal CA1 oriens/alveus interneurons (OA-INs), suggesting selective regulation of distinct input pathways. Afferent-specific properties at interneuron synapses have been characterized extensively in CA3 stratum lucidum cells, but given interneuron diversity these rules of transmission and plasticity may not hold in other interneuron types. Here, we used paired recordings and demonstrate that CA2/3 pyramidal cell (PC) feedforward and CA1 PC feedback synapses onto OA-INs show distinct AMPA receptor rectification and Ca(2+) permeability, short-term plasticity and mGluR2/3-mediated inhibition. Only feedback synapses undergo Hebbian LTP. OA-IN firing during repeated synaptic stimulation displays onset-transient or late-persistent responses consistent with activation of feedforward and feedback inputs, respectively. Input-output functions are preserved after theta-burst stimulation, but late-persistent responses selectively show mGluR1-dependent long-term increases. Thus, cell type- and afferent-specific rules of transmission and plasticity underlie distinct OA-IN input-output functions, providing selective long-term regulation in feedback inhibitory networks.

  17. Mathematical optimization techniques for managing selective catalytic reduction for a fleet of coal-fired power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanis Pena, Antonio Alejandro

    Major commercial electricity generation is done by burning fossil fuels out of which coal-fired power plants produce a substantial quantity of electricity worldwide. The United States has large reserves of coal, and it is cheaply available, making it a good choice for the generation of electricity on a large scale. However, one major problem associated with using coal for combustion is that it produces a group of pollutants known as nitrogen oxides (NO x). NOx are strong oxidizers and contribute to ozone formation and respiratory illness. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates the quantity of NOx emitted to the atmosphere in the United States. One technique coal-fired power plants use to reduce NOx emissions is Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). SCR uses layers of catalyst that need to be added or changed to maintain the required performance. Power plants do add or change catalyst layers during temporary shutdowns, but it is expensive. However, many companies do not have only one power plant, but instead they can have a fleet of coal-fired power plants. A fleet of power plants can use EPA cap and trade programs to have an outlet NOx emission below the allowances for the fleet. For that reason, the main aim of this research is to develop an SCR management mathematical optimization methods that, with a given set of scheduled outages for a fleet of power plants, minimizes the total cost of the entire fleet of power plants and also maintain outlet NO x below the desired target for the entire fleet. We use a multi commodity network flow problem (MCFP) that creates edges that represent all the SCR catalyst layers for each plant. This MCFP is relaxed because it does not consider average daily NOx constraint, and it is solved by a binary integer program. After that, we add the average daily NOx constraint to the model with a schedule elimination constraint (MCFPwSEC). The MCFPwSEC eliminates, one by one, the solutions that do not satisfy the average daily

  18. [Analysis on the long-term effects of modified double endobutton technique in the treatment of Tossy type III acromioclavicular joint dislocations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Rui-Jian; Lu, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Chun

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the long-term clinical effects of modified double Endobutton technique for the treatment of acromioclavicular joint dislocations of Tossy type III. A retrospective study was done in 42 patients with acromioclavicular joint dislocations of Tossy type III treated with modified double Endobutton technique from December 2008 to December 2010. There were 24 males and 18 females, ranging in age from 21 to 56 years old (averaged, 32.5 years old). All the patients were treated with open reduction, coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction using double Endobutton technique, and repair of acromioclavicular ligament. The Karlsson system was used to evaluate therapeutic effects. The distance from coracoid to clavicle was measured to evaluate reduction loss. All the patients were followed up, and the duration ranged from 2.0 to 3.2 years (averaged,2.4 years). According to Karlsson system, 32 patients got an A degree and 10 patients got a B degree at three months post-operatively; 26 patients got an A degree and 16 patients got a B degree at the latest follow-up; 6 patients got an A degree at 3 months after operation lowered to B degree at the latest follow-up. The coracoid-clavicle distance increased from (26.91 +/- 0.91) mm at 3 months after operation to (27.41 +/- 1.10) mm at the latest follow-up. Te patients treated with over-reduction during operation or with heavy physical labour work after operation had obvious widened coracoid-clavicle distance. Bone absorption was found around the plate in most cases, mainly in the clavicular side. Treatment for acromioclavicular joint dislocations of Tossy type III with modified double Endobutton technique has satisfactory early clinical results. But with time passing, loss of reduction and bone absorption around the plate could be observed, and clinical outcomes of some cases downgrade during the long-term follow-up.

  19. Equivalent Selection in Specialized e-Lexicography: A Case Study with Spanish Accounting Terms Ekwivalent-seleksie in gespesialiseerde e-leksikografie: 'n Gevallestudie met Spaanse rekeningkundige terme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Fuertes-Olivera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Interest in specialized lexicography has been propelled both by the development of LSP communication in academic circles and by the consolidation of function-based approaches to lexicography that have identified the existence of several user types, e.g., experts, semi-experts and interested laypersons, and use situations, typically cognitive-oriented and communicative-oriented (Bergenholtz and Tarp, 2003, 2004. This paper follows suit and elaborates on the selection of Spanish equivalents in a particular dictionary project: the Diccionario Inglés–Español de Contabilidad, one of the Accounting dictionaries. This dictionary aims to satisfy the needs of translators (primary user group, accountants and financial experts (secondary user group, as well as students of accountancy and translation, journalists, and interested laypersons (tertiary user group. It addresses the issue as a lexicographical problem and makes comments on the decisions taken by elaborating on three lexicographical principles that take into consideration the nature of lexicography, the technical options the Internet offers, and the defining characteristics of specialized discourse: relevance, proscription and recreation.

    Belangstelling in gespesialiseerde leksikografie is aangevuur deur sowel die ontwikkeling van TSD-kommunikasie in akademiese kringe as die konsolidasie van funksie-gebaseerde benaderings tot leksikografie. Laasgenoemde benadering het die bestaan van verskeie gebruikerstipes, bv. kundiges, semi-kundiges en geïnteresseerde leke, en gebruiksituasies, tipies kognitief-georiënteerde en kommunikatief-goriënteerde situasies, geïdentifiseer (Bergenholtz and Tarp, 2003, 2004. Hierdie artikel volg hierdie ontwikkelings na en wei uit oor die seleksie van Spaanse ekwivalente in 'n spesifieke woordeboekprojek: die Diccionario Inglés–Español de Contabilidad, 'n

  20. Intermediate to long-term results following the bernese periacetabular osteotomy and predictors of clinical outcome: surgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheney, Travis; Kim, Young-Jo; Zurakowski, David; Matero, Catherine; Millis, Michael

    2010-09-01

    The Bernese periacetabular osteotomy is a commonly used non-arthroplasty option to treat developmental hip dysplasia in symptomatic younger patients. Predicting which hips will remain preserved and which hips will go on to require arthroplasty following periacetabular osteotomy is a major challenge. In the present study, we assessed the intermediate to long-term results following periacetabular osteotomy to demonstrate the clinical outcomes for patients with varying amounts of dysplasia and arthritis. From these results, a probability-of-failure analysis was conducted to predict the likelihood of hip preservation and to improve surgical decision-making. Of the 189 hips (in 157 patients) that were treated with periacetabular osteotomy by a single surgeon from May 1991 to September 1998, thirty-one had diagnoses other than developmental hip dysplasia and twenty-three were lost to follow-up. The remaining 135 hips (in 109 patients) were retrospectively reviewed at an average of nine years. Hips were evaluated with use of the pain subscale of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index postoperatively as well as with radiographs that were made preoperatively and at one and more than five years postoperatively. Osteotomy failure was defined as a pain score of ≥10 or the need for total hip arthroplasty. One hundred and two hips (76%) remained preserved at an average of nine years, with an average Western Ontario and McMaster Universities pain score of 2.4 of 20. Thirty-three hips (24%) met the failure criteria: seventeen underwent arthroplasty at an average of 6.1 years after the osteotomy, and sixteen had a postoperative pain score of ≥10. Kaplan-Meier analysis with arthroplasty as the end point revealed a survival rate of 96% (95% confidence interval, 93% to 99%) at five years and 84% (95% confidence interval, 77% to 90%) at ten years. Complications occurred in twenty hips. Fifteen hips (11%) were treated with a subsequent arthroscopy because

  1. Long-term habitat selection and chronic root herbivory: explaining the relationship between periodical cicada density and tree growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Louie H; Karban, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) are insect herbivores that feed on host tree roots, but their distribution among hosts is determined largely by the oviposition of female cicadas in the previous generation. A pattern of decreasing tree growth rates with increasing cicada densities is predicted when considering the costs of chronic root herbivory, but the opposite pattern is expected when considering adaptive habitat selection. Here, we report observations indicating that the relationship between periodical cicada densities and host tree growth rates is hump shaped. We suggest that both herbivory and habitat selection are likely to be key processes explaining this pattern, resulting in regions of positive and negative correlation. These results suggest that the effects of cicada herbivory are most apparent at relatively high cicada densities, while habitat selection tends to distribute cicada herbivory on host trees that are able to compensate for cicada root herbivory up to threshold cicada densities.

  2. A clarification of the terms used in comparing semi-automated particle selection algorithms in cryo-EM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Robert; Frank, Joachim

    2011-09-01

    Many cyro-EM datasets are heterogeneous stemming from molecules undergoing conformational changes. The need to characterize each of the substrates with sufficient resolution entails a large increase in the data flow and motivates the development of more effective automated particle selection algorithms. Concepts and procedures from the machine-learning field are increasingly employed toward this end. However, a review of recent literature has revealed a discrepancy in terminology of the performance scores used to compare particle selection algorithms, and this has subsequently led to ambiguities in the meaning of claimed performance. In an attempt to curtail the perpetuation of this confusion and to disentangle past mistakes, we review the performance of published particle selection efforts with a set of explicitly defined performance scores using the terminology established and accepted within the field of machine learning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Selectivity and delignification kinetics for oxidative and nonoxidative lime pretreatment of poplar wood, part III: long-term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Rocio; Garcia, Laura A; Holtzapple, Mark Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Lime pretreatment is an effective method for improving lignocellulose digestibility by removing lignin. For several weeks, mixtures of poplar wood, water, and calcium hydroxide (lime) were submitted to temperatures from 25 to 65°C, with and without aeration. Kinetic models for lignin and carbohydrate degradation were obtained as functions of temperature, time, and aeration using first-order kinetics in lignin and carbohydrates. Model 1 considered two reacting moieties (slow and fast), and Model 2 considered three (slow, medium, and fast). Model 1 was statistically better and was employed to determine differential and integral selectivities, which measure the ability of pretreatment to retain carbohydrates while removing lignin. During the first 2 weeks, when lignin content ≥ 0.80 g/g lignin in raw biomass, both glucan and xylan differential and integral selectivities decreased rapidly. Afterwards, selectivities were nearly constant ranging between 0 and 3 g lignin removed/g carbohydrate degraded.

  4. Mutual Information Analyses of Neuron Selection Techniques in Synchronous Exponential Chaotic Tabu Search for Quadratic Assignment Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Tetsuo; Horio, Yoshihiko; Hasegawa, Mikio

    The tabu search was implemented on a neural network with chaotic neuro-dynamics. This chaotic exponential tabu search shows great performance in solving quadratic assignment problems (QAPs). To exploit inherent parallel processing abilities of analog hardware systems, a synchronous updating scheme, where all the neurons in the network are updated at the same time, was proposed. However, several neurons may fire simultaneously with the synchronous updating. As a result, we cannot determine only one candidate for the 2-opt exchange from the many fired neurons. To solve this problem, several neuron selection methods, which select one specific neuron among the fired neurons, were proposed. These neuron selection methods improved the performance of the synchronous updating scheme. In this paper, we analyze the dynamics of the chaotic neural network with the neuron selection methods by means of the spatial and temporal mutual information. Through the analyses, the network solution search dynamics of the exponential chaotic tabu search with different neuron selection methods are evaluated.

  5. CoolSim: using industrial modeling techniques to examine the impact of selective head cooling in a model of perinatal regionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, James; Geva, Alon; Zheng, Zheng; Zupancic, John A F

    2008-01-01

    A selective head-cooling device for the treatment of moderate to severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in the United States. To reflect the complexity of health care delivery at the systems level, we used the industrial modeling technique of discrete event simulation to analyze the impact of various deployment strategies for selective head cooling and its partner technology, amplitude-integrated electroencephalography. We modeled the course through the perinatal system of all births in Massachusetts over a 1-year period. Cohort and care characteristics were drawn from existing databases. Results of a recently published trial were used to estimate the effects of selective head cooling. One thousand cohort replications were conducted to assess uncertainty. Several policy alternatives were examined, including no use of selective head cooling and scenarios that altered the number and placement of selective head-cooling and amplitude-integrated electroencephalography units throughout the state. Patient-level outcome and cost data were assessed. For all scenarios tested, the use of amplitude-integrated electroencephalography/selective head cooling resulted in better outcomes at lower cost. However, substantial differences in transfer rates, failure-to-cool rates, and total costs were seen across scenarios. Optimal decision-making regarding the number and placement of devices led to a 16% improvement in cost savings and a 10-fold decrease in failure-to-cool rates, compared with other deployment scenarios. These results were insensitive to significant changes in model inputs. On the basis of currently available data, the package of amplitude-integrated electroencephalography and selective head cooling seems to be an economically desirable intervention. Quantifiable techniques to assess system-wide technology performance provide a powerful approach to informing decisions regarding the structure and function of

  6. Analysis of Drug Design for a Selection of G Protein-Coupled Neuro-Receptors Using Neural Network Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Claus; Mortensen, Rasmus M.; Bohr, Henrik G.

    2015-01-01

    networks, trained with greedy learning algorithms, showed superior performance in prediction over the simple feedback NNs. The best networks obtained scores of more than 90 % accuracy in predicting the degree of binding drug molecules to the mentioned receptors and with a maximal Matthew's coefficient of 0......-design. This is done by training on structural features, selected using a "minimum redundancy, maximum relevance"-test, and testing for successful prediction of categorized binding strength. An extensive comparison of the neural network performances was made in order to select the optimal architecture. Deep belief.......925. The performance of 8 category networks (8 output classes for binding strength) obtained a prediction accuracy of above 60 %. After training the networks, tests were done on how well the systems could be used as an aid in designing candidate drug molecules. Specifically, it was shown how a selection of chemical...

  7. Riboswitch-Mediated Aptamer Binding for Imaging and Therapy (RABIT): A Novel Technique to Selectively Target an Intracelluar Ligand Specific for Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0554 TITLE: Riboswitch- Mediated Aptamer Binding for Imaging and Therapy (RABIT): A Novel Technique to Selectively...ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE December 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 15Sep2012 - 14Sep2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Riboswitch- Mediated Aptamer...As proof of concept that an aptamer can mediate cell uptake into cultured cells , ES2 ovarian cancer cells were exposed to a DNA EpCAM aptamer

  8. Micropropagation and in vitro grafting techniques to assist the selection of a pistachio rootstock from a population of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) collected in the SE of Spain

    OpenAIRE

    García Martín, Elena; Imbroda, I.; Lorente Alonso, Pilar; Marín Velázquez, Juan Antonio; Arbeloa Matute, Arancha; Padilla, I. M. G.; Barceló, A.; Andreu Puyal, Pilar

    2011-01-01

    Pistachio culture is hampered both by the difficulty of propagation by grafting cultivars of interest and by the lack of a clonal selected rootstock. The application of in vitro culture techniques would allow the clonal propagation of Pistacia species, as well as to perform in-depth studies of factors affecting grafting. In vitro P. vera cultures were initiated from nodal explants, whereas cultures of P. terebinthus were initiated from in vitro-germinated seeds. The multiplication rate of bot...

  9. Long-term responses of populations and communities of trees to selective logging in tropical rain forests in Guyana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arets, E.J.M.M. (Eric Jacobus Monica Maria)

    2005-01-01

    Since only a small area of Guyana's forest can be effectively protected and because timber harvesting is an important source of income, logged forests will play an important role in the conservation of biodiversity in Guyana. Selective logging, in which only a few trees per hectare are harvested and

  10. Long-term fertility prognosis following selective salpingography and tubal catheterization in women with proximal tubal blockage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Spyros; Afnan, Masoud; Girling, Alan J; Coomarasamy, Aravinthan; Ola, Borarinde; Olufowobi, Olufemi; McHugo, Josephine M; Hammadieh, Nahed; Sharif, Khaldoun

    2002-09-01

    The possibility of conception following selective salpingography and tubal catheterization is believed to decline sharply a few months after the procedure. This observation may be due to the relatively small number of patients and short follow-up of previous studies. Furthermore, couples with other causes of infertility apart from proximal tubal blockage have usually been excluded. Survival analysis of conceptions of 218 consecutive infertile women with proximal tubal blockage who underwent selective salpingography and tubal catheterization was performed. There were no exclusion criteria. Follow-up ranged from 16 to 56 months. A total of 47.2% of spontaneous conceptions and 43.2% of all conceptions, apart from those achieved by IVF or ICSI treatments, occurred after the first 12 months following selective salpingography and tubal catheterization. The decline in the possibility of pregnancy during the study period (conception hazard rate) was only minimal. In a population of infertile women with proximal tubal blockage, a significant proportion of conceptions occur after the first 12 months following selective salpingography and tubal catheterization. The presence of any additional causes of infertility in the couple should not be regarded as an absolute contraindication to the procedure.

  11. Dutch iliac stent trial : Long-term results in patients randomized for primary or selective stent placement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, W.M.; van der Graaf, Y.; Seegers, J.; Spithoven, J.H.; Buskens, E.; van Baal, J.G.; Buth, J.; Moll, F.L.; Overtoom, T.T.C.; van Sambeek, M.R.H.M.; Mali, W.P.T.M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine long-term results of the prospective Dutch Iliac Stent Trial. Materials and Methods: The study protocol was approved by local institutional review boards. All patients gave written informed consent. Two hundred seventy-nine patients (201 men, 78 women; mean age, 58 years) with

  12. Induced Versus Spontaneous Rehearsal in Short-Term Memory in Nursery School Children. Study M: Development of Selective Attention Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, Phillip R.; Hagen, John W.

    Eighty nursery school children were randomly divided into four groups of 20 and given a serial short-term memory task in which difficult-to-label stimuli were used. Three experimental groups were provided with labels for the stimuli. Of these, one group overtly pronounced the labels and rehearsed them during the task, one group merely pronounced…

  13. Working Memory, Short-Term Memory, and Reading Disabilities: A Selective Meta-Analysis of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, H. Lee; Zheng, Xinhua; Jerman, Olga

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to synthesize research that compares children with and without reading disabilities (RD) on measures of short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM). Across a broad age, reading, and IQ range, 578 effect sizes (ESs) were computed, yielding a mean ES across studies of -0.89 (SD = 1.03). A total of 257 ESs…

  14. KAPANDJI TECHNIQUE AS AMINIMALLY INVASIVE PROCEDURE FOR SELECTED PATIENTS WITH TWO- AND THREE-PART FRACTURES OF THE PROXIMAL HUMERUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamseddine, Ali Hassan; Abdallah, Amer Camille; Zein, Hadi Khaled

    2016-01-01

    Current algorithms for decision making in proximal humerus fractures consider the fracture pattern along with the patient characteristics and surgeon’s experience. Minimally invasive techniques for reduction and internal fixation of many types of these fractures have recently been widely promoted, especially with the use of the newly developed locking plate systems. Intramedullary flexible nailing is one of the oldest techniques using minimally invasive reduction and fixation of proximal humerus fractures. Kapandji technique uses the “Deltoid V” landmark as entry point for intramedullary insertion of the flexible nails into the humeral head. The authors report their experience with this procedure in twenty-six, relatively young patients with good bone quality, presenting with displaced 2- or 3-part extra-articular fracture of the proximal humerus, treated with percutaneous reduction and intramedullary flexible nailing as described by Kapandji. Nineteen medical records were available for this retrospective review, with 9 to 12 months follow-up. There were 15 excellent and 1 good results when patients were assessed for pain, function and range of motion of the shoulder. The authors submit that Kapandji technique is a valuable procedure for management of extra-articular displaced 2- and 3- part proximal humerus fractures in young patients with good bone quality.

  15. Determining the most important factors for sustainable energy technology selection in Africa: application of the Delphi technique

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barry, M-L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available into account when identifying the most sustainable technological systems in the African context. The study utilised the Delphi technique. The questionnaire of the first round was based on factors identified during a focus group exercise with energy experts...

  16. Classroom Modified Split-Root Technique and Its Application in a Plant Habitat Selection Experiment at the College Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Shannon S.; Winter, Peggy A.

    2011-01-01

    The split-root technique produces a plant with two equal root masses. Traditionally, the two root masses of the single plant are cultivated in adjacent pots with or without roots from competitors for the purpose of elucidating habitat preferences. We have tailored this technology for the classroom, adjusting protocols to match resources and time…

  17. Comparative short-term effects of two thoracic spinal manipulation techniques in subjects with chronic mechanical neck pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova-Méndez, Amaloha; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Angel; Rodriguez-Blanco, Cleofás; Heredia-Rizo, Alberto Marcos; Gogorza-Arroitaonandia, Kristobal; Almazán-Campos, Ginés

    2014-08-01

    Spinal Manipulation (SM) has been purported to decrease pain and improve function in subjects with non-specific neck pain. Previous research has investigated which individuals with non-specific neck pain will be more likely to benefit from SM. It has not yet been proven whether or not the effectiveness of thoracic SM depends on the specific technique being used. This double-blind randomized trial has compared the short-term effects of two thoracic SM maneuvers in subjects with chronic non-specific neck pain. Sixty participants were distributed randomly into two groups. One group received the Dog technique (n = 30), with the subject in supine position, and the other group underwent the Toggle-Recoil technique (n = 30), with the participant lying prone, T4 being the targeted area in both cases. Evaluations were made of self-reported neck pain (Visual Analogue Scale); neck mobility (Cervical Range of Motion); and pressure pain threshold at the cervical and thoracic levels (C4 and T4 spinous process) and over the site described for location of tense bands of the upper trapezius muscle. Measurements were taken before intervention, immediately afterward, and 20 min later. Both maneuvers improved neck mobility and mechanosensitivity and reduced pain in the short term. No major or clinical differences were found between the groups. In the between-groups comparison slightly better results were observed in the Toggle-Recoil group only for cervical extension (p = 0.009), right lateral flexion (p = 0.004) and left rotation (p < 0.05).

  18. A Review of Selected Engineered Nanoparticles in the Atmosphere: Sources, Transformations, and Techniques for Sampling and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A state-of-the-science review was undertaken to identify and assess sampling and analysis methods to detect and quantify selected nanomaterials (NMs) in the ambient atmosphere. The review is restricted to five types of NMs of interest to the Office of Research and Development Nan...

  19. Long-term therapeutic efficacy of lipoprotein apheresis on circulating oxidative stress parameters--A comparison of two different apheresis techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopprasch, Steffi; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bergmann, Sybille; Graessler, Juergen; Julius, Ulrich

    2015-05-01

    A chronic lipoprotein apheresis therapy leads to an expressed reduction in the incidence of cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. In addition to the elimination of atherogenic lipoproteins such as LDL and lipoprotein(a), an antioxidative effect of lipoprotein apheresis has been suspected. We investigated long-term biochemical effects in sixteen patients undergoing lipoprotein apheresis - lipid filtration (LF, n = 7) or dextran sulfate adsorption (DSA, n = 9). Systemic oxidative stress markers (blood phagocyte chemiluminescence, levels of oxidized LDL and antioxLDL antibodies) were examined at the 1st, 40th and 80th apheresis sessions. In DSA patients, the 80th apheresis session was associated with significantly higher LDL cholesterol removal and lower HDL cholesterol deprivation as compared to LF patients. In contrast to LF patients, DSA patients showed a long-term progressive decrease in circulating oxidant generating activity as evaluated by whole blood chemiluminescence (p < 0.05). Moreover, a single LF apheresis session was associated with higher systemic generation of reactive oxygen species over time. Compared to LF, long-term DSA apheresis is associated with a gradual reduction of circulating oxidative burden and may be considered a beneficial molecular mechanism of this technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hemispheric specialisation in selective attention and short-term memory: A fine-coarse model of left and right ear disadvantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Marsh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Serial short-term memory is impaired by irrelevant sound, particularly when the sound changes acoustically. This acoustic effect is larger when the sound is presented to the left compared to the right ear (a left-ear disadvantage. Serial memory appears relatively insensitive to distraction from the semantic properties of a background sound. In contrast, short-term free recall of semantic-category exemplars is impaired by the semantic properties of background speech and relatively insensitive to the sound’s acoustic properties. This semantic effect is larger when the sound is presented to the right compared to the left ear (a right-ear disadvantage. In this paper, we outline a speculative neurocognitive fine-coarse model of these hemispheric differences in relation to short-term memory and selective attention, and explicate empirical directions in which this model can be critically evaluated.

  1. Evidence of long-term gene flow and selection during domestication from analyses of Eurasian wild and domestic pig genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Laurent A F; Schraiber, Joshua G; Madsen, Ole; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Cagan, Alex; Bosse, Mirte; Paudel, Yogesh; Crooijmans, Richard P M A; Larson, Greger; Groenen, Martien A M

    2015-10-01

    Traditionally, the process of domestication is assumed to be initiated by humans, involve few individuals and rely on reproductive isolation between wild and domestic forms. We analyzed pig domestication using over 100 genome sequences and tested whether pig domestication followed a traditional linear model or a more complex, reticulate model. We found that the assumptions of traditional models, such as reproductive isolation and strong domestication bottlenecks, are incompatible with the genetic data. In addition, our results show that, despite gene flow, the genomes of domestic pigs have strong signatures of selection at loci that affect behavior and morphology. We argue that recurrent selection for domestic traits likely counteracted the homogenizing effect of gene flow from wild boars and created 'islands of domestication' in the genome. Our results have major ramifications for the understanding of animal domestication and suggest that future studies should employ models that do not assume reproductive isolation.

  2. Scarring and Mortality Selection Among Civil War POWs: A Long-Term Mortality, Morbidity and Socioeconomic Follow-Up

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Dora L.

    2012-01-01

    Debilitating events could leave either more frail or more robust survivors, depending on the extent of scarring and mortality selection. The majority of empirical analyses find more frail survivors. I find heterogeneous effects. Among severely stressed former Union Army prisoners of war (POWs), the effect that dominates 35 years after the end of the Civil War depends on age at imprisonment. Among survivors to 1900, those younger than 30 at imprisonment faced higher old-age mortality and morbi...

  3. Selectivity and delignification kinetics for oxidative short-term lime pretreatment of poplar wood, Part I: Constant-pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Ramírez, Rocío; Garcia, Laura A; Holtzapple, Mark Thomas

    2011-07-01

    Kinetic models applied to oxygen bleaching of paper pulp focus on the degradation of polymers, either lignin or carbohydrates. Traditionally, they separately model different moieties that degrade at three different rates: rapid, medium, and slow. These models were successfully applied to lignin and carbohydrate degradation of poplar wood submitted to oxidative pretreatment with lime at the following conditions: temperature 110-180°C, total pressure 7.9-21.7 bar, and excess lime loading of 0.5 g Ca(OH)2 per gram dry biomass. These conditions were held constant for 1-6 h. The models properly fit experimental data and were used to determine pretreatment selectivity in two fashions: differential and integral. By assessing selectivity, the detrimental effect of pretreatment on carbohydrates at high temperatures and at low lignin content was determined. The models can be used to identify pretreatment conditions that selectively remove lignin while preserving carbohydrates. Lignin removal≥50% with glucan preservation≥90% was observed for differential glucan selectivities between ∼10 and ∼30 g lignin degraded per gram glucan degraded. Pretreatment conditions complying with these reference values were preferably observed at 140°C, total pressure≥14.7 bars, and for pretreatment times between 2 and 6 h depending on the total pressure (the higher the pressure, the less time). They were also observed at 160°C, total pressure of 14.7 and 21.7 bars, and pretreatment time of 2 h. Generally, at 110°C lignin removal is insufficient and at 180°C carbohydrates do not preserve well.

  4. A Sociolinguistic Analysis of Polish and American Prison Slang within the Context of Selected Translation Techniques in Films with Subtitles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Sandra Nosek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cultural differences around the world may pose problems for translators who face issues connected with finding equivalents in source and target language occurred in the films. One of the most difficult styles is constantly changing, the hermetic and colloquial variety known as slang. Depending on the environment, it may vary, even in one language, of which an example is prison slang used by convicts to communicate with one another. Although very pejorative and full of negative connotations, it is a very curious subject matter to analyze, as well as, to investigate how it is translated, because more and more films about criminal environments are being produced. This study examines which translation techniques were used in the cases of the movies: Lockdown (2000, American Me (1992 and Animal Factory (2000. The research focuses on the issues connected with the most often used translation techniques, the reasons of using them, the other possible solutions, the untranslatable phrases and with translating taboo words.

  5. Techniques and short-term outcomes for total minimally invasive Ivor Lewis esophageal resection in distal esophageal and gastroesophageal junction cancers: pooled data from six European centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straatman, Jennifer; van der Wielen, Nicole; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard A P; Rosman, Camiel; Roig, Josep; Scheepers, Joris J G; Cuesta, Miguel A; Luyer, Misha D P; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark I; van Workum, Frans; Gisbertz, Suzanne S; van der Peet, Donald L

    2017-01-01

    Esophagectomy for cancer can be performed in a two-stage procedure with an intrathoracic anastomosis: the Ivor Lewis esophagectomy. A growing incidence of distal and gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinomas and increasing use of minimally invasive techniques have prompted interest in this procedure. The aim of this study was to assess short-term results of minimally invasive Ivor Lewis esophagectomy (MIE-IL). A retrospective cohort study was performed from June 2007 until September 2014, including patients that underwent MIE-IL for distal esophageal and gastroesophageal junction cancer in six different hospitals in the Netherlands and Spain. Data were collected with regard to operative techniques, pathology and postoperative complications. In total, 282 patients underwent MIE-IL, of which 90.2 % received neoadjuvant therapy. Anastomotic leakage was observed in 43 patients (15.2 %), of whom 13 patients (4.6 %) had empyema, necessitating thoracotomy for decortication. With an aggressive treatment of complications, the 30-day and in-hospital mortality rate was 2.1 %. An R0-resection was obtained in 92.5 % of the patients. After neoadjuvant therapy, 20.1 % of patients had a complete response. Minimally invasive Ivor Lewis esophagectomy for distal esophageal and gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinomas is an upcoming approach for reducing morbidity caused by laparotomy and thoracotomy. Anastomotic leakage rate is still high possibly due to technical diversity of anastomotic techniques, and a high percentage of patients treated by neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. An aggressive approach to complications leads to a low mortality of 2.1 %. Further improvement and standardization in the anastomotic technique are needed in order to perform a safe intrathoracic anastomosis.

  6. A selective medium for the rapid detection by an impedance technique of Pseudomonas spp. associated with poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvat, G; Rudelle, S; Humbert, F; Colin, P; Lahellec, C

    1997-10-01

    A new medium for detecting and enumerating Pseudomonas spp. associated with poultry meat spoilage by a rapid impedance technique was developed, after testing potential growth promoters for eight Pseudomonas strains and inhibitors against eight competing strains (Enterobacteriaceae) able to grow on the medium of Mead and Adams (1977). Four basal media (brain heart infusion, brucella broth, Shaedler broth and Whitley impedance broth (WIB)) and a synthetic medium were evaluated. Whitley impedance broth was the best basal medium for detecting variations in impedance in relation to Pseudomonas growth. The efficiency of WIB was improved by adding compounds which enhanced the growth of Pseudomonas on the synthetic medium. Among the incubation temperatures tested, 22 degrees C proved to be the best compromise between growth of Pseudomonas associated with poultry meat spoilage and inhibition of competitors. Among the 15 inhibitory substances evaluated against Pseudomonas competitors, five were chosen for inclusion in the final medium: metronidazole, carbenicilline, cetrimide, cycloheximide and diamide (MCCCD medium). Preliminary results obtained from experiments with beef and pork meat showed that this medium could also be used without diamide and at an incubation temperature of 25 degrees C. The impedance technique using MCCCD medium was then compared with an official method which uses the medium of Mead and Adams (1977) on 106 samples of poultry neck skin. The linear regression coefficient between the two techniques was approximately r = 0.85. Impedance was able to detect 10(3) Pseudomonas g-1 within less than 19 h making it a promising technique for predicting poultry meat spoilage.

  7. Survey of historical and current site selection techniques for the placement of small wind energy conversion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzenberg, Rick; Pierson, Chris; Fry, Sheldon; Drees, Herman; Drees, Carolyn; Wolff, Ben; Blake, Steve; Saylor, John; Park, Jack; Park, Helen

    1977-12-01

    Individuals and groups who purchase and install wind energy conversion systems (WECS) for either generation of electricity or pumping water have to go through a process by which a specific location is selected for each WECS. The purpose of this study was to identify and document methods and practices used in siting of WECS. The study covers the period from the early 1900s to the present day. 174 references.

  8. Survey of historical and current site selection techniques for the placement of small wind energy conversion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzenberg, Rick; Pierson, Chris; Fry, Sheldon; Drees, Herman; Drees, Carolyn; Wolff, Ben; Blake, Steve; Saylor, John; Park, Jack; Park, Helen

    1977-12-01

    Individuals and groups who purchase and install wind energy conversion systems (WECS) for either generation of electricity or pumping water have to go through a process by which a specific location is selected for each WECS. The purpose of this study was to identify and document methods and practices used in siting of WECS. The study covers the period from the early 1900s to the present day. 174 references.

  9. Long-Term Results of Mini-Open Repair Technique in the Treatment of Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taşatan, Ersin; Emre, Tuluhan Yunus; Demircioğlu, Demet Tekdöş; Demiralp, Bahtiyar; Kırdemir, Vecihi

    2016-01-01

    An ideal surgical treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture includes restoring the original length of the tendon, minimizing possible adhesions with the surrounding tissues, minimizing the risk of repeat rupture, alleviating wound problems, and providing an acceptable cosmetic outcome. In the mini-open repair technique, unlike the percutaneous repair technique, the quality of the tenodesis can be visualized without disturbing the healing potential of the surrounding tissues, thus minimizing wound problems. The purpose of the present study was to assess the long-term results of the mini-open repair technique in patients with acute Achilles tendon rupture. A total of 20 consecutive patients with acute Achilles tendon rupture, admitted to our inpatient clinic from October 2003 to March 2008, were included in the present study. The patients underwent Achilles tenodesis with the mini-open repair technique, and each patient was followed up for 5 years. The study was completed in April 2013. The surgical procedure was performed with the assistance of a device designed in our orthosis laboratories, similarly to that defined by Assal et al. Of the 20 patients, 18 were male and 2 were female. Their mean age was 39.3 (range 21 to 55) years. The Achilles tendon rupture was located on the left side in 15 patients (75%) and on the right side in 5 patients (25%). The mean follow-up duration was 58.5 (range 18 to 60) months and no complications occurred during the follow-up period, including repeat rupture, wound site infection, and sural nerve injury. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society scale score for the patients was 99.2 (range 94 to 100) points at the final follow-up visit. All our patients were able to return to work and sporting activities. According to the Trillat scores, the outcome was excellent in 19 patients and good in 1 patient at the 18th postoperative month. No complaint, such as pain or loss of function, that might have a negative effect on the

  10. Determination of Genetic Diversity Using 15 Simple Sequence Repeats Markers in Long Term Selected Japanese Quail Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabağ, Kemal; Balcıoğlu, Murat Soner; Karlı, Taki; Alkan, Sezai

    2016-01-01

    Japanese quail is still used as a model for poultry research because of their usefulness as laying, meat, and laboratory animals. Microsatellite markers are the most widely used molecular markers, due to their relative ease of scoring and high levels of polymorphism. The objective of the research was to determine genetic diversity and population genetic structures of selected Japanese quail lines (high body weight 1 [HBW1], HBW2, low body weight [LBW], and layer [L]) throughout 15th generations and an unselected control (C). A total of 69 individuals from five quail lines were genotyped by fifteen microsatellite markers. When analyzed profiles of the markers the observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosity ranged from 0.04 (GUJ0027) to 0.64 (GUJ0087) and 0.21 (GUJ0027) to 0.84 (GUJ0037), respectively. Also, Ho and He were separated from 0.30 (L and LBW) to 0.33 (C and HBW2) and from 0.52 (HBW2) to 0.58 (L and LBW), respectively. The mean polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.46 (HBW2) to 0.52 (L). Approximately half of the markers were informative (PIC≥0.50). Genetic distances were calculated from 0.09 (HBW1 and HBW2) to 0.33 (C and L). Phylogenetic dendrogram showed that the quail lines were clearly defined by the microsatellite markers used here. Bayesian model-based clustering supported the results from the phylogenetic tree. These results reflect that the set of studied markers can be used effectively to capture the magnitude of genetic variability in selected Japanese quail lines. Also, to identify markers and alleles which are specific to the divergence lines, further generations of selection are required. PMID:27165027

  11. [Long-term results of mitral percutaneous valvuloplasty with Inoue technique. Seven-years experience at the Cardiology Hospital of the National Medical Center "Siglo XXI", IMSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Flores, Jesús; Ledesma Velasco, Mariano; Palomo Villada, José Antonio; Montoya Guerrero, Silvestre; Estrada Gallegos, Joel; Astudillo Sandoval, Raúl; Abundes Velasco, Arturo; González Díaz, Belinda; Argüero Sánchez, Rubén; Farell Campa, Javier

    2006-01-01

    Since the last decade, percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty with Inoue catheter is considered the treatment of choice for selected patients (mobile valve, no calcification and minimal subvalvular disease) with rheumatic mitral stenosis. We present the seven-year follow-up experience of 456 patients treated with this technique in the catheter laboratory of the Cardiology Hospital in National Medical Center SXXI. It is a retrospective, transversal and observational study performed with data obtained from January 1994 and December 2000, with a follow-up of 58.5 +/- 26.6 months (range 12-96 mean 22). We achieve an initial success of 82.8%, improvement of initial mitral valve area from 0.9 +/- 0.1 to 1.8 +/- 0.3 cm2, with a gain area from 88 to 106% (p 90%. From these patients, 93.1% remained in NYHA-II or -I functional class and the incidence of restenosis decreased.

  12. The National Fuel End-Use Efficiency Field Test: Energy Savings and Performance of an Improved Energy Conservation Measure Selection Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ternes, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    The performance of an advanced residential energy conservation measure (ECM) selection technique was tested in Buffalo, New York, to verify the energy savings and program improvements achieved from use of the technique in conservation programs and provide input into determining whether utility investments in residential gas end-use conservation are cost effective. The technique analyzes a house to identify all ECMs that are cost effective in the building envelope, space-heating system, and water-heating system. The benefit-to-cost ratio (BCR) for each ECM is determined and cost-effective ECMs (BCR > 1.0) are selected once interactions between ECMs are taken into account. Eighty-nine houses with the following characteristics were monitored for the duration of the field test: occupants were low-income, houses were single-family detached houses but not mobile homes, and primary space- and water-heating systems were gas-fired. Forty-five houses received a mix of ECMs as selected by the measure selection technique (audit houses) and 44 served as a control group. Pre-weatherization data were collected from January to April 1988 and post-weatherization data were collected from December 1988 to April 1989. Space- and waterheating gas consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the two winters. A house energy consumption model and regression analysis were employed to normalize the space-heating energy savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and a 68 F indoor temperature. Space and water-heating energy savings for the audit houses were adjusted by the savings for the control houses. The average savings of 257 therms/year for the audit houses was 17% of the average pre-weatherization house gas consumption and 78% of that predicted. Average space-heating energy savings was 252 therms/year (25% of pre-weatherization space-heating energy consumption and 85% of the predicted value) and average water-heating savings was 5 therms/year (2% of pre

  13. Developing novel techniques for readout, calibration and event selection in the NOvA long-baseline neutrino experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Ryan [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Backhouse, Christopher [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Bays, Kirk [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Lozier, Joseph [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Pershey, Daniel [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The NOvA long-baseline neutrino experiment uses a fine-grained, low-Z, fully active detector that offers unprecedented electron neutrino identification capabilities for a detector of its scale. In this award’s proposal, the PI outlined the development and implementation of novel techniques for channel readout, detector calibration, and event reconstruction that make full use of the strengths of the NOvA detector technology. In particular, this included designing custom event reconstruction algorithms that utilize the rich information available in the substructure of hadronic and electromagnetic showers. Exploiting this information provides not only substantial improvement in background rejection for the electron neutrino search but also better shower energy resolution (improving the precision on measured oscillation parameters) and a high-energy electromagnetic calibration source (through neutral pion events). The PI further proposed developing and deploying a new electronics readout scheme compatible with the existing hardware that can reduce near detector event pile-up and can offer powerful timing information to the reconstruction, allowing for cosmic ray muon tagging via track direction determination, among other things. In conjunction with the above, the PI proposed leading the calibration of the NOvA detectors, including characterizing individual electronics channels, correcting for spatial variations across the detector, and establishing absolute event energy scales. All three of these lines of effort have been successfully completed, feeding directly into the NOvA’s recent exciting neutrino oscillation results. The techniques developed under this award are detailed in this final technical report.

  14. Developing novel techniques for readout, calibration and event selection in the NOvA long-baseline neutrino experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Ryan [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Backhouse, Christopher [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Bays, Kirk [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Lozier, Joseph [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Pershey, Daniel [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2016-10-06

    The NOvA long-baseline neutrino experiment uses a fine-grained, low-Z, fully active detector that offers unprecedented electron neutrino identification capabilities for a detector of its scale. In this award’s proposal, the PI outlined the development and implementation of novel techniques for channel readout, detector calibration, and event reconstruction that make full use of the strengths of the NOvA detector technology. In particular, this included designing custom event reconstruction algorithms that utilize the rich information available in the substructure of hadronic and electromagnetic showers. Exploiting this information provides not only substantial improvement in background rejection for the electron neutrino search but also better shower energy resolution (improving the precision on measured oscillation parameters) and a high-energy electromagnetic calibration source (through neutral pion events). The PI further proposed developing and deploying a new electronics readout scheme compatible with the existing hardware that can reduce near detector event pile-up and can offer powerful timing information to the reconstruction, allowing for cosmic ray muon tagging via track direction determination, among other things. In conjunction with the above, the PI proposed leading the calibration of the NOvA detectors, including characterizing individual electronics channels, correcting for spatial variations across the detector, and establishing absolute event energy scales. All three of these lines of effort have been successfully completed, feeding directly into the NOvA’s recent exciting neutrino oscillation results. The techniques developed under this award are detailed in this final technical report.

  15. A lossless data reduction technique for wireless EEG recorders and its use in selective data filtering for seizure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chengliang Dai; Bailey, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a time-domain based lossless data reduction technique called Log2 Sub-band encoding, which is designed for reducing the size of data recorded on a wireless electroencephalogram (EEG) recorder. A data reduction unit can help to save power from the wireless transceiver and from the storage medium since it allows lower data transmission and read/write rates, and then extends the life time of the battery on the device. Our compression ratio(CR) results show that Log2 Sub-band encoding is comparable and even superior to Huffman coding, a well known entropy encoding method, whilst requiring minimal hardware resource, and it can also be used to extract features from EEG to achieve seizure detection during the compression process. The power consumption when compressing the EEG data is presented to evaluate the system0s overall improvement on its power performance, and our results indicate that a noticeable power saving can be achieved with our technique. The possibility of applying this method to other biomedical signals will also be noted.

  16. Integrating knowledge-based multi-criteria evaluation techniques with GIS for landfill site selection: A case study using AHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagbohun, B. J.; Aladejana, O. O.

    2016-09-01

    A major challenge in most growing urban areas of developing countries, without a pre-existing land use plan is the sustainable and efficient management of solid wastes. Siting a landfill is a complicated task because of several environmental regulations. This challenge gives birth to the need to develop efficient strategies for the selection of proper waste disposal sites in accordance with all existing environmental regulations. This paper presents a knowledge-based multi-criteria decision analysis using GIS for the selection of suitable landfill site in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. In order to identify suitable sites for landfill, seven factors - land use/cover, geology, river, soil, slope, lineament and roads - were taken into consideration. Each factor was classified and ranked based on prior knowledge about the area and existing guidelines. Weights for each factor were determined through pair-wise comparison using Saaty's 9 point scale and AHP. The integration of factors according to their weights using weighted index overlay analysis revealed that 39.23 km2 within the area was suitable to site a landfill. The resulting suitable area was classified as high suitability covering 6.47 km2 (16.49%), moderate suitability 25.48 km2 (64.95%) and low suitability 7.28 km2 (18.56%) based on their overall weights.

  17. Low coherence technique to interrogate optical sensors based on selectively filled double-core photonic crystal fiber for temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Jiang, Meng; Zhao, Zhongze; Wang, Zeming

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, an optical fiber sensing system based on low coherence interferometry (LCI) is proposed and demonstrated to interrogate sensors comprised of selectively filled double-core photonic crystal fiber (SFDC-PCF). The sensor used here is made by selectively filling about 1/3 area of air holes in the cladding of photonic crystal fiber with distilled water. So the dual-core in the sensor has different effective refractive indices, resulting in a phase delay between two lights transmitting in the fiber. The phase delay of the sensor can be compensated by a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a scanning optical tunable delay line in one arm of the interferometer, namely temporal interrogation. By tracking the value of phase delay, the change of the measurand can be detected. Temperature measurement is carried out to testify the system performance. An average sensitivity of 0.9 μm/°C is achieved within the temperature range of 29-92 °C. This work provides a new thinking for fiber sensing technology based on LCI. The proposed all-fiber sensing system, with the merits of cost-effective, stability, and flexibility, can demodulate the SFDC-PCF sensor signals well. Further improvements such as better sensitivity, larger measurement range and multiplexing efficiency can be realized by tailoring the PCF sensor's structure.

  18. Inverted Internal Limiting Membrane Flap Technique for Repair of Large Macular Holes: A Short-term Follow-up of Anatomical and Functional Outcomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhe Chen; Chan Zhao; Jun-Jie Ye; Xu-Qian Wang; Rui-Fang Sui

    2016-01-01

    Background:Inverted internal limiting membrane (ILM) flap technique has recently been reported in a limited number of studies as an effective surgical technique for the management of large macular holes (MHs) with fair MH closure rates as well as gains in visual acuity.In the current study,longitudinal changes in multi-focal electroretinogram (mfERG) responses,best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) were evaluated in eyes with large MHs managed by this technique.Methods:A prospective noncontrolled interventional study of eight patients (eight eyes) with large MHs (minimum diameter >400 μm) was conducted.All MHs were treated with pars plana vitrectomy and indocyanine green-assisted inverted ILM flap technique.SD-OCT images were used to assess the anatomical outcomes of surgery while BCVA and mfERG were used to evaluate the functional outcomes during a 3-month follow-up.Results:All patients underwent successful intended manipulation and translocation of the ILM flap without flap dislocation and achieved complete anatomical closure.Partial microstructural reconstruction,demonstrated on SD-OCT as restoration of the external limiting membrane and the ellipsoid zone,was observed in all cases as early as 1 month after surgery.Functionally,as compared to baseline,all patients showed improvements in BCVA and all but one in mfERG response during follow-up.However,Pearson's test revealed no significant correlations between BCVA and mfERG responses of the fovea and of the macular area at each evaluation time point.Conclusions:Inverted ILM flap technique appeares to be a safe and effective approach for the management of large idiopathic MHs with favorable short-term anatomical and functional results.Postoperative reconstruction of the microstructure generally shows good consistency with improvements in both BCVA and mfERG response,of which the latter might be a supplement for the former in postoperative functional follow-up.

  19. Determining differential item functioning and its effect on the test scores of selected pib indexes, using item response theory techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Schaap

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to present the results of an investigation into the item and test characteristics of two tests of the Potential Index Batteries (PIB in terms of differential item functioning (DIP and the effect thereof on test scores of different race groups. The English Vocabulary (Index 12 and Spelling Tests (Index 22 of the PIB were analysed for white, black and coloured South Africans. Item response theory (IRT methods were used to identify items which function differentially for white, black and coloured race groups. Opsomming Die doel van hierdie artikel is om die resultate van n ondersoek na die item- en toetseienskappe van twee PIB (Potential Index Batteries toetse in terme van itemsydigheid en die invloed wat dit op die toetstellings van rassegroepe het, weer te gee. Die Potential Index Batteries (PIB se Engelse Woordeskat (Index 12 en Spellingtoetse (Index 22 is ten opsigte van blanke, swart en gekleurde Suid-Afrikaners ontleed. Itemresponsteorie (IRT is gebruik om items te identifiseer wat as sydig (DIP vir die onderskeie rassegroepe beskou kan word.

  20. Long-term application of computer-based pleoptics in home therapy: selected results of a prospective multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämpf, Uwe; Shamshinova, Angelika; Kaschtschenko, Tamara; Mascolus, Wilfried; Pillunat, Lutz; Haase, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents selected results of a prospective multicenter study. The reported study was aimed at the evaluation of a software-based stimulation method of computer training applied in addition to occlusion as a complementary treatment for therapy-resistant cases of amblyopia. The stimulus was a drifting sinusoidal grating of a spatial frequency of 0.3 cyc/deg and a temporal frequency of 1 cyc/sec, reciprocally coordinated with each other to a drift of 0.33 deg/sec. This pattern was implemented as a background stimulus into simple computer games to bind attention by sensory-motor coordination tasks. According to an earlier proposed hypothesis, the stimulation aims at the provocation of stimulus-induced phase-coupling in order to contribute to the refreshment of synchronization and coordination processes in the visual transmission channels. To assess the outcome of the therapy, we studied the development of the visual acuity during a period of 6 months. Our cooperating partners of this prospective multicenter study were strabologic departments in ophthalmic clinics and private practices as well. For the issue of therapy control, a partial sample of 55 patients from an overall sample of 198 patients was selected, according to the criterion of strong therapy resistance. The visual acuity was increased about two logarithmic steps by an occlusion combined with computer training in addition to the earlier obtained gain of the same amount by occlusion alone. Recalculated relatively to the duration of the therapy periods, the computer training combined with occlusion was found to be about twice as effective as the preceding occlusion alone. The results of combined computer training and occlusion show an additional increase of the same amount as the preceding occlusion alone, which yielded at its end no further advantage to the development of visual acuity in the selected sample of our 55 therapy-resistant patients. In a concluding theoretical note, a preliminary