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Sample records for technique takes advantage

  1. Deployment technique that takes advantage of the characteristics of Enterprise VRD2: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihara, Hideo; Ishii, Akira; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Arai, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2016-08-31

    Enterprise VRD, a stent frequently used to assist coil embolization of cerebral aneurysms, has been upgraded to reduce the risk of incomplete stent apposition (ISA), a known risk factor for thromboembolic complications. To compare the performances of Enterprise VRD and Enterprise VRD2 in curved vessels, and to investigate a deployment method that takes advantage of the features of Enterprise VRD2 to achieve better vessel wall apposition. A silicone vascular model connected to a temperature-adjustable perfusion circuit was used. First, Enterprise VRD and Enterprise VRD2 were deployed under fluoroscopy and then ISA was evaluated as the stent cross-sectional area ratio at the curved segment of the vessel. For the measurements, each stent was deployed in vessels with different angles of curvature. Second, the incidence of ISA after insertion of Enterprise VRD2 by the 'pushing over outer curve technique', in which stents are deployed along the outer curve of vessels with continuous wire advancement, was compared with 'Heller's push and pull technique'. For all stents, the cross-sectional area ratio decreased with acute curvature of the vessel. Comparisons of the two stents showed that Enterprise VRD2 was better than Enterprise VRD in maintaining a greater cross-sectional area ratio in curved vessels. In addition, kinking with an acute curvature was also minimized with Enterprise VRD2. Furthermore, ISA was reduced using our technique with Enterprise VRD2. Enterprise VRD2 is superior to Enterprise VRD in reducing ISA in curved vessels and can alter ISA according to the deployment technique used. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Coating-removal techniques: Advantages and disadvantages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Wayne E.

    1994-07-01

    The removal of radioactive and nonradio-active coatings from various surfaces is a subject of increasing interest for a variety of reasons, including remaining life assessment, nondestructive evaluation of structural integrity, and life extension through the adoption of new surface-modification methods. This review summarizes the state of the art in coating-removal technologies, presenting their advantages and limitations. The methods covered include laser ablation, microwaves, flashlamps, ice, CO2, and plastic blast media.

  3. Leveraging Diversity Of Thought Through Inclusion: Advantages, Disadvantages, And Taking Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-17

    diverse environments can make an organization more productive in any given business model. In his book, Diversity and Complexity, Scott Page...of thought characterized by self-deception, forced manufacture of consent, and conformity to group 8 values and ethics .”26 Groupthink is a...an organization is not the only benefactor of this advantage. Workplace diversity not only benefits the organization as a whole but also provides

  4. Posterior coronal plating for tibial fractures: technique and advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montu Jain

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Tibial shaft fractures are straightforward to treat but when associated with soft tissue injury particularly at the nail entry/plate insertion site or there is significant comminution proximally or a large butterfly fragment/a second split component in the posterior coronal plane, it is a challenge to the treating surgeon. The aim of the present report is to describe the technique of posterior coronal plating in such a scenario and its advantages. Methods:Between July 2008 and June 2011, 12 patients were pro spectively treated by this approach using 4.5 mm broad dynamic compression plates. Results:The time of bony consolidation and full weight bearing averaged 21.7 weeks (range, 16-26 weeks. Patients were followed up for at least 24 months (range, 24-48 months. At 1 year postoper atively, no loss in reduction or alignment was observed. Mean Hospital for Lower Extremity Measurement Functional Score was 72.8 (range, 64-78. All patients were satisfied with their treatment outcomes. Conclusion:Direct posterior approach and fixation using prone position helps to visualise the fracture fragments and provide rigid fixation. The approach is simple and extensile easily, apart from advantages of less soft tissue and hardware problems compared to standard medial or lateral plating. Key words: Tibial fractures; Bone plates; Orthopedic procedures

  5. Taking Advantages of China's Increasing Demand for Recycled Resources : Case Company: Ni-Met Resources Inc.

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Ye

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to review the feasibility and advise the management of Ni-Met on the location of a warehouse in China. Ni-Met is a global company involved in trading of resources and commodities - primary and secondary metals, minerals and plastics. A sizeable portion of its sales are into China. The objective of this thesis is to suggest the most suitable way for Ni-Met to take advantage of China’s huge demand for commodities and resources. Ni-Met wants to increase...

  6. GREEN TECHNIQUE-SOLVENT FREE SYNTHESIS AND ITS ADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Himaja

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Green Chemistry, the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances is an overarching approach that is applicable to all aspects of chemistry. All synthetic processes involve the use of different solvents. Unfortunately many of the solvents are used in industry and retail are volatile organic compounds (VOCs which lead to environmental damage, through pollution, risks to human health and to resource depletion, we need to develop and apply more environmentally friendly approaches. So, all traditional and old synthetic routes obviously give adverse effects to the mankind and all living beings. Green chemistry provides “Green” paths for different synthetic routes using non-hazardous solvents and environmental- friendly chemicals. Solvent free synthesis has several advantages over the classical method of synthesis. Due to enormous advantages of solvent free reactions, new solvent-free approaches are being discovered for eco-friendly synthesis of many compounds.

  7. Advantages to Indigo mechanical thrombectomy for ALI: device and technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, R; Adams, J; Guimaraes, M; Schönholz, C

    2015-06-01

    Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) has been used as the first therapeutic option for acute limb ischemia (ALI) due to its less invasive nature; however, recent systematic review showed higher incidence of major complications related to lytic infusion, including hemorrhagic stroke. In this setting, aspiration thrombectomy with Indigo has the greatest advantage of not increasing systemic risk of bleeding. The Indigo™ system from Penumbra® (Alameda, CA, USA) promotes active thrombectomy using a vacuum pump that generates substantial suction, enabling aspiration of clots of varying sizes and lengths. The device has three components: aspiration catheter, separator and pump. There are 2 aspiration catheter sizes: CAT 3 and CAT 5. The separators are intended to mobilize the clot and clean the catheter lumen, and therefore restoring flow for continuous aspiration. The pump is small-sized equipment capable of applying near pure vacuum aspiration pressure of -29 mmHg. Aspiration thrombectomy with Indigo has two key advantages: it does not require the use of lytics, and it provides immediate flow reestablishment. Its use when thrombolysis is contraindicated or has failed is already well established and, in the future, it may likely become the first line endovascular option in patients with acute limb ischemia.

  8. Taking Advantage of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) Popularity to Enhance Student/Public Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, T. M.

    2011-12-01

    . Our goal is to expand the use of these modules to a more broad public audience, including at a future campus/public event know as "All Things Water". We have also organized a walking tour/demo with 3rd-5th graders in a small mining town west of Boulder where we hiked to an old historical mine site, measured water quality (pH, dissolved lead, conductivity), and coated the inside of small bottles with silver. Organizing and hosting a conference can also be a great way to facilitate a discussion of ideas within the community. "All Things STEM" organized a broad student research conference related to water quality and water treatment which included research from 22 students from 11 different countries. We worked with 12 local engineering consultants, municipalities, and local businesses to provide 2000 for student awards. Our presentation will focus on lessons we have learned on how to take advantage of student energy, excitement, and time on campus to receive funding opportunities for planning events that engage the public. We will also talk about our experiences in using student energy to develop partnerships with K-12 schools, community groups, and industry professionals.

  9. From field to factory-Taking advantage of shop manufacturing for the pebble bed modular reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, Edward [PBMR Pty. Ltd. (South Africa)]. E-mail: edward.wallace@pbmr.co.za; Matzie, Regis [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC (United States); Heiderd, Roger [Sargent and Lundy LLC (United States); Maddalena, John [PBMR Pty. Ltd. (South Africa)

    2006-03-15

    The move of nuclear plant construction from the field to the factory for small, advanced pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR) designs has significant benefits compared to traditional light water reactor (LWR) field oriented designs. The use of modular factory construction techniques has a growing economic benefit over time through well-established process learning applications. This paper addresses the basic PBMR design objectives and commercialization model that drive this approach; provides a brief technical description of the PBMR design and layout with representative CAD views and discusses derived figures of merit highlighting the relative simplicity of PBMR compared to a modern LWR. The discussion emphasizes that more of PBMR can be built in the factory due to the simple design of a direct helium Brayton cycle compared to an indirect LWR steam cycle with its associated equipment. For the PBMR design there are fewer and less cumbersome auxiliary and safety systems with their attendant support requirements. Additionally, the labor force economic efficiency for nuclear projects is better in the factory than in the field, including consideration of labor costs and nuclear quality programs. Industrial learning is better in the factory because of the more controlled environment, mechanization optimization opportunities and because of the more stable labor force compared to the field. Supply chain benefits are more readily achievable with strategic contracts for module suppliers. Although building a nuclear power plant is not a typical high volume manufacturing process, for the PBMR-type of plant, with its high degree of standardization and relatively small, simplified design, the shift to factory work has a significant impact on overall project cost due to earlier identification and better coordination of parallel construction paths. This is in stark contrast to the construction of a large LWR in the past. Finally, the PBMR modular plant concept continues at the

  10. The pen is mightier than the keyboard: advantages of longhand over laptop note taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Pam A; Oppenheimer, Daniel M

    2014-06-01

    Taking notes on laptops rather than in longhand is increasingly common. Many researchers have suggested that laptop note taking is less effective than longhand note taking for learning. Prior studies have primarily focused on students' capacity for multitasking and distraction when using laptops. The present research suggests that even when laptops are used solely to take notes, they may still be impairing learning because their use results in shallower processing. In three studies, we found that students who took notes on laptops performed worse on conceptual questions than students who took notes longhand. We show that whereas taking more notes can be beneficial, laptop note takers' tendency to transcribe lectures verbatim rather than processing information and reframing it in their own words is detrimental to learning. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Military Base Realignments and Closures: More Guidance and Information Needed to Take Advantage of Opportunities to Consolidate Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    possible levels; a dedicated implementation team that can be held accountable for change; and a strategy measuring progress toward the established...MILITARY BASE REALIGNMENTS AND CLOSURES More Guidance and Information Needed to Take Advantage of Opportunities to...Consolidate Training Report to Congressional Committees February 2016 GAO-16-45 United States Government Accountability Office

  12. Perspective-Taking Ability in Bilingual Children: Extending Advantages in Executive Control to Spatial Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Anastasia; Bellana, Buddhika; Bialystok, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Monolingual and bilingual 8-year-olds performed a computerized spatial perspective-taking task. Children were asked to decide how an observer saw a four-block array from one of three different positions (90 degrees, 180 degrees, and 270 degrees counter-clockwise from the child's position) by selecting one of four responses--the correct response,…

  13. Taking advantage of reduced droplet-surface interaction to optimize transport of bioanalytes in digital microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Sergio L S; Thorne, Nathaniel; Wutkowski, Michael; Dao, Selina

    2014-11-10

    Digital microfluidics (DMF), a technique for manipulation of droplets, is a promising alternative for the development of "lab-on-a-chip" platforms. Often, droplet motion relies on the wetting of a surface, directly associated with the application of an electric field; surface interactions, however, make motion dependent on droplet contents, limiting the breadth of applications of the technique. Some alternatives have been presented to minimize this dependence. However, they rely on the addition of extra chemical species to the droplet or its surroundings, which could potentially interact with droplet moieties. Addressing this challenge, our group recently developed Field-DW devices to allow the transport of cells and proteins in DMF, without extra additives. Here, the protocol for device fabrication and operation is provided, including the electronic interface for motion control. We also continue the studies with the devices, showing that multicellular, relatively large, model organisms can also be transported, arguably unaffected by the electric fields required for device operation.

  14. Social customer relationship management: taking advantage of Web 2.0 and Big Data technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orenga-Roglá, Sergio; Chalmeta, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Web 2.0 and Big Data technologies has allowed a new customer relationship strategy based on interactivity and collaboration called Social Customer Relationship Management (Social CRM) to be created. This enhances customer engagement and satisfaction. The implementation of Social CRM is a complex task that involves different organisational, human and technological aspects. However, there is a lack of methodologies to assist companies in these processes. This paper shows a novel methodology that helps companies to implement Social CRM, taking into account different aspects such as social customer strategy, the Social CRM performance measurement system, the Social CRM business processes, or the Social CRM computer system. The methodology was applied to one company in order to validate and refine it.

  15. Taking advantage of hyperspectral imaging classification of urinary stones against conventional infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Francisco; Lumbreras, Felipe; Serrat, Joan; Siener, Roswitha; Serranti, Silvia; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; López-Mesas, Montserrat; Valiente, Manuel

    2014-12-01

    The analysis of urinary stones is mandatory for the best management of the disease after the stone passage in order to prevent further stone episodes. Thus the use of an appropriate methodology for an individualized stone analysis becomes a key factor for giving the patient the most suitable treatment. A recently developed hyperspectral imaging methodology, based on pixel-to-pixel analysis of near-infrared spectral images, is compared to the reference technique in stone analysis, infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The developed classification model yields >90% correct classification rate when compared to IR and is able to precisely locate stone components within the structure of the stone with a 15 µm resolution. Due to the little sample pretreatment, low analysis time, good performance of the model, and the automation of the measurements, they become analyst independent; this methodology can be considered to become a routine analysis for clinical laboratories.

  16. Taking Advantage of Selective Change Driven Processing for 3D Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pardo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the application of the principles of SCD (Selective Change Driven vision to 3D laser scanning. Two experimental sets have been implemented: one with a classical CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor sensor, and the other one with a recently developed CMOS SCD sensor for comparative purposes, both using the technique known as Active Triangulation. An SCD sensor only delivers the pixels that have changed most, ordered by the magnitude of their change since their last readout. The 3D scanning method is based on the systematic search through the entire image to detect pixels that exceed a certain threshold, showing the SCD approach to be ideal for this application. Several experiments for both capturing strategies have been performed to try to find the limitations in high speed acquisition/processing. The classical approach is limited by the sequential array acquisition, as predicted by the Nyquist - Shannon sampling theorem, and this has been experimentally demonstrated in the case of a rotating helix. These limitations are overcome by the SCD 3D scanning prototype achieving a significantly higher performance. The aim of this article is to compare both capturing strategies in terms of performance in the time and frequency domains, so they share all the static characteristics including resolution, 3D scanning method, etc., thus yielding the same 3D reconstruction in static scenes.

  17. The development of a charge protocol to take advantage of off- and on-peak demand economics at facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Wishart

    2012-02-01

    This document reports the work performed under Task 1.2.1.1: 'The development of a charge protocol to take advantage of off- and on-peak demand economics at facilities'. The work involved in this task included understanding the experimental results of the other tasks of SOW-5799 in order to take advantage of the economics of electricity pricing differences between on- and off-peak hours and the demonstrated charging and facility energy demand profiles. To undertake this task and to demonstrate the feasibility of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and electric vehicle (EV) bi-directional electricity exchange potential, BEA has subcontracted Electric Transportation Applications (now known as ECOtality North America and hereafter ECOtality NA) to use the data from the demand and energy study to focus on reducing the electrical power demand of the charging facility. The use of delayed charging as well as vehicle-to-grid (V2G) and vehicle-to-building (V2B) operations were to be considered.

  18. ADVANTAGES OF ARTIFICIAL REPRODUCTION TECHNIQUES FOR WHITE-CLAWED CRAYFISH (AUSTROPOTAMOBIUS PALLIPES LEREBOULLET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARRAL J. M.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of preserving and increasing endangered stocks of white-clawed crayfish, research on juvenile production has been carried out. Advantages in application of newly developed techniques of egg storage, transport and artificial incubation techniques are discussed. Eggs can be removed from maternal pleopods during the early stages of embryonic development and placed in artificial incubation devices. This practice avoids egg losses caused by aggressive contacts, female disease or death and the production of stage-2 juveniles in different batches by means of temperature manipulation. Furthermore transmission of pathogens from broodstocks to offspring can be minimised. Egg storage and transport have some advantages in the artificial reproduction of crayfish. Firstly, embryonic development continues under storage conditions and thus water and human effort can be saved during this period. Temperature plays an important role on both efficiency rates and duration of embryogenesis. Secondly, egg transport could facilitate restocking programs, as there is no need to move berried females to other habitats. To sum up, the combined use of artificial incubation and storage/transport techniques could have important applications to the development of astacid crayfish culture.

  19. Chimpanzees do not take advantage of very low cost opportunities to deliver food to unrelated group members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, Jennifer; Brosnan, Sarah F; Silk, Joan B; Henrich, Joseph; Richardson, Amanda S; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Povinelli, Daniel J

    2008-05-01

    We conducted experiments on two populations of chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, to determine whether they would take advantage of opportunities to provide food rewards to familiar group members at little cost to themselves. In both of the experiments described here, chimpanzees were able to deliver identical rewards to themselves and to other members of their social groups. We compared the chimpanzees' behaviour when they were paired with another chimpanzee and when they were alone. If chimpanzees are motivated to provide benefits to others, they are expected to consistently deliver rewards to others and to distinguish between the partner-present and partner-absent conditions. Results from both experiments indicate that our subjects were largely indifferent to the benefits they could provide to others. They were less likely to provide rewards to potential recipients as the experiment progressed, and all but one of the 18 subjects were as likely to deliver rewards to an empty enclosure as to an enclosure housing another chimpanzee. These results, in conjunction with similar results obtained in previous experiments, suggest that chimpanzees are not motivated by prosocial sentiments to provide food rewards to other group members.

  20. Application of Thermoluminescence Techniques to Mineral Exploration-Principles and Advantages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The phenomena of TL are connected with the defect structures of the atomic lattice of the material concerned, and hence are very sensitive to changes in defection of the country rocks status as induced by the mineralizing solution. In other words, the TL of the country rocks from the mineralized area should be quite different from that in the intact barren area. Besides the high sensitivity as mentioned above, advantages of the application of TL techniques to the mineral exploration the easiness in accessing to proper samples, the easy preparation of samples and the quickness in sample processing all amount to convenience and economy of the techniques, indicating the high competitiveness of the TL mineral exploration method, especially during the development stage of mining operations.

  1. Bioremediation techniques-classification based on site of application: principles, advantages, limitations and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azubuike, Christopher Chibueze; Chikere, Chioma Blaise; Okpokwasili, Gideon Chijioke

    2016-11-01

    Environmental pollution has been on the rise in the past few decades owing to increased human activities on energy reservoirs, unsafe agricultural practices and rapid industrialization. Amongst the pollutants that are of environmental and public health concerns due to their toxicities are: heavy metals, nuclear wastes, pesticides, green house gases, and hydrocarbons. Remediation of polluted sites using microbial process (bioremediation) has proven effective and reliable due to its eco-friendly features. Bioremediation can either be carried out ex situ or in situ, depending on several factors, which include but not limited to cost, site characteristics, type and concentration of pollutants. Generally, ex situ techniques apparently are more expensive compared to in situ techniques as a result of additional cost attributable to excavation. However, cost of on-site installation of equipment, and inability to effectively visualize and control the subsurface of polluted sites are of major concerns when carrying out in situ bioremediation. Therefore, choosing appropriate bioremediation technique, which will effectively reduce pollutant concentrations to an innocuous state, is crucial for a successful bioremediation project. Furthermore, the two major approaches to enhance bioremediation are biostimulation and bioaugmentation provided that environmental factors, which determine the success of bioremediation, are maintained at optimal range. This review provides more insight into the two major bioremediation techniques, their principles, advantages, limitations and prospects.

  2. [Vitrification: a future technique for ovarian cryopreservation? Physical basis of cryobiology, advantages and limits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbière, B; Baudot, A; Mazoyer, C; Salle, B; Lornage, J

    2009-10-01

    Ovarian cryopreservation is presently indicated in patients who undergo a gonadotoxic treatment, most commonly for anticancer procedures. These procedures can strongly alter fertility by damaging the follicular ovarian reserve. Although six human live births have been described in the world after ovarian tissue cryopreservation and autografting, the techniques of cryopreservation techniques are not consensual. Vitrification is a physical process that allows cryopreservation without formation of ice crystals, by transformation of a highly concentrated solution in a glassy or amorphous state. Vitrification is at present rapidly expanding in the biology of reproduction. With the classic methods of freezing, formation of ice crystals within the ovarian tissue is systematic and can entail cellular lesions. Which is why more and more teams question the theoretical advantage of the vitrification for ovarian cryopreservation. Our objective was to summarize the fundamental physical basis of cryobiology, necessary for an understanding of vitrification. From our experience, we also wanted to point out the practical difficulties of this technique, and we are proposing a model of evaluation and validation that uses differential scanning calorimetry, applicable to any protocol of vitrification.

  3. Adjuvant brachytherapy for endometrial cancer: advantages of the vaginal mold technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoury, Clement; Dumas, Isabelle; Tailleur, Anne; Morice, Philippe; Haie-Meder, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of endometrial carcinoma in the adjuvant setting includes in most cases vaginal brachytherapy. In our institution, we use the customized vaginal mold technique. Herein, we report the advantages of this personalized applicator in terms of target coverage, normal tissue preservation, the incidence of air pockets, and its potential impact on dosimetry. A total of 15 patients receiving postoperative vaginal cuff high-dose-rate brachytherapy with the mold applicator technique were enrolled in this prospective data collection study. Patients were treated with either two or four fractions of 5 Gy prescribed to the clinical target volume, which consisted of an irradiation of the vaginal cuff and the upper third of the vagina. Target coverage; dose to organs at risk, in addition to the volume; and the dosimetric impact of air pockets surrounding the mold were evaluated. In 15 patients, a total of 27 air pockets were identified. The average number of air pockets per patient was 1.8 (range, 0-4), with the average total air pocket volume being 0.1 cc (range, 0.01-0.54). The average dose reduction at 5mm from the air pocket was 26% (range, 6-45%). The minimal clinical target volume coverage reported was 95% and the maximal dose received by 2 cc of the bladder, rectum, and sigmoid never exceeded 110% of the prescribed dose. Vaginal cuff high-dose-rate brachytherapy using the molded applicator provides personalized tailored treatment in terms of anatomical conformity. This translates into a dosimetrical advantage with smaller and fewer air pockets than reported in the literature with the use of cylinders. Copyright © 2015 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Optimum take-off techniques and muscle design for long jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfarth, A; Blickhan, R; Van Leeuwen, J L

    2000-02-01

    A two-segment model based on Alexander (1990; Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 329, 3-10) was used to investigate the action of knee extensor muscles during long jumps. A more realistic representation of the muscle and tendon properties than implemented previously was necessary to demonstrate the advantages of eccentric force enhancement and non-linear tendon properties. During the take-off phase of the long jump, highly stretched leg extensor muscles are able to generate the required vertical momentum. Thereby, serially arranged elastic structures may increase the duration of muscle lengthening and dissipative operation, resulting in an enhanced force generation of the muscle-tendon complex. To obtain maximum performance, athletes run at maximum speed and have a net loss in mechanical energy during the take-off phase. The positive work done by the concentrically operating muscle is clearly less than the work done by the surrounding system on the muscle during the eccentric phase. Jumping performance was insensitive to changes in tendon compliance and muscle speed, but was greatly influenced by muscle strength and eccentric force enhancement. In agreement with a variety of experimental jumping performances, the optimal jumping technique (angle of attack) was insensitive to the approach speed and to muscle properties (muscle mass, the ratio of muscle fibre to tendon cross-sectional area, relative length of fibres and tendon). The muscle properties also restrict the predicted range of the angle of the velocity vector at take-off.

  5. Ultra-mini PNL (UMP): Material, indications, technique, advantages and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Janak D

    2017-01-01

    Stone disease has afflicted mankind since centuries; records from ancient civilisations of India and Egypt have shown stones in human bodies. The scientific mind of humans has always made smart endeavours to remove the kidney stones. From large instruments made like the beaks of different animals and birds in 600 BC (Indian civilisation) to extremely sophisticated and miniaturised endoscopic intruments of today the human race has travelled a long way. The theme has always been to remove the stones with minimal morbidity and mortality and with minimum pain to the patient. The article takes you through the journey of instruments used in 600 BC until today. The story of instrumentation is a symbiosis of the medical minds along with engineering advances. The story of miniaturisation could not have moved further without the development of lasers, fiberoptics and sophisticated cameras. As the field stands today, we remove more complex stones by larger endoscopic intervention and smaller stones by miniaturised instruments. The article discusses all the merits and shortcomings of various techniques: from open surgery to standard PCNL to Mini PCNL to Ultra- Mini PCNL to Micro-PCNL.

  6. Stellar Family Portrait Takes Imaging Technique to New Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    The young star cluster Trumpler 14 is revealed in another stunning ESO image. The amount of exquisite detail seen in this portrait, which beautifully reveals the life of a large family of stars, is due to the Multi-conjugate Adaptive optics Demonstrator (MAD) on ESO's Very Large Telescope. Never before has such a large patch of sky been imaged using adaptive optics [1], a technique by which astronomers are able to remove most of the atmosphere's blurring effects. Noted for harbouring Eta Carinae - one of the wildest and most massive stars in our galaxy - the impressive Carina Nebula also houses a handful of massive clusters of young stars. The youngest of these stellar families is the Trumpler 14 star cluster, which is less than one million years old - a blink of an eye in the Universe's history. This large open cluster is located some 8000 light-years away towards the constellation of Carina (the Keel). A team of astronomers, led by Hugues Sana, acquired astounding images of the central part of Trumpler 14 using the Multi-conjugate Adaptive optics Demonstrator (MAD, [2]) mounted on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). Thanks to MAD, astronomers were able to remove most of the blurring effects of the atmosphere and thus obtain very sharp images. MAD performs this correction over a much larger patch of the sky than any other current adaptive optics instrument, allowing astronomers to make wider, crystal-clear images. Thanks to the high quality of the MAD images, the team of astronomers could obtain a very nice family portrait. They found that Trumpler 14 is not only the youngest - with a refined, newly estimated age of just 500 000 years - but also one of the most populous star clusters within the nebula. The astronomers counted about 2000 stars in their image, spanning the whole range from less than one tenth up to a factor of several tens of times the mass of our own Sun. And this in a region which is only about six light-years across, that is, less than twice the

  7. Quantifying land-cover proportions for urban runoff prediction. The advantage of distributed remote sensing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezowski, T.; Chormanski, J.; Batelaan, O.; Canters, F.; Van de Voorde, T.

    2012-04-01

    that, the subpixel scenario is suggested as a cost effective solution in hydrological applications; hard-classification of high resolution imagery should be used in high risk projects like flood prediction. The standard modeling approach is found not proper for urban application. Moreover, the results prove the usefulness of remote sensing techniques and their advantage over standard methods for quantifying parameters for hydrological models.

  8. Taking Competitive Advantage By Business Model Innovation(İş Modeli İnovasyonu ile Rekabetçi Bir Avantaj Yakalamak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa BEKMEZCİ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the world and Turkey there are many companies that both survive and increase their market shares and profits by changing business models. Business model innovation is one of the best and prevailing methods to tackle with the difficulties emerged in crisis and recession periods and the other endangering factors that should be reacted at once as well as to increase market share and to make profit. In this study, some significant points that companies have to consider for taking competitive advantage by business model innovation are indicated. Taking these findings into consideration will help managers to cope with the crises caused by environmental and/or organizational factors.

  9. Artifacts to avoid while taking advantage of top-down mass spectrometry based detection of protein S-thiolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auclair, Jared R; Salisbury, Joseph P; Johnson, Joshua L; Petsko, Gregory A; Ringe, Dagmar; Bosco, Daryl A; Agar, Nathalie Y R; Santagata, Sandro; Durham, Heather D; Agar, Jeffrey N

    2014-05-01

    Bottom-up MS studies typically employ a reduction and alkylation step that eliminates a class of PTM, S-thiolation. Given that molecular oxygen can mediate S-thiolation from reduced thiols, which are abundant in the reducing intracellular milieu, we investigated the possibility that some S-thiolation modifications are artifacts of protein preparation. Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) was chosen for this case study as it has a reactive surface cysteine residue, which is readily cysteinylated in vitro. The ability of oxygen to generate S-thiolation artifacts was tested by comparing purification of SOD1 from postmortem human cerebral cortex under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. S-thiolation was ∼50% higher in aerobically processed preparations, consistent with oxygen-dependent artifactual S-thiolation. The ability of endogenous small molecule disulfides (e.g. cystine) to participate in artifactual S-thiolation was tested by blocking reactive protein cysteine residues during anaerobic homogenization. A 50-fold reduction in S-thiolation occurred indicating that the majority of S-thiolation observed aerobically was artifact. Tissue-specific artifacts were explored by comparing brain- and blood-derived protein, with remarkably more artifacts observed in brain-derived SOD1. Given the potential for such artifacts, rules of thumb for sample preparation are provided. This study demonstrates that without taking extraordinary precaution, artifactual S-thiolation of highly reactive, surface-exposed, cysteine residues can result.

  10. Anticipatory Cyber Security Research: An Ultimate Technique for the First-Move Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat S.Rawal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Across all industry segments, 96 percent of systems could be breached on average. In the game of cyber security, every moment a new player (attacker is entering the game with new skill sets. An attacker only needs to be effective once while defenders of cyberspace have to be successful all of the time. There will be a first-mover advantage in such a chasing game, which means that the first move often wins. In this paper, in order to face the security challenges brought in by attacker’s first move advantage, we analyzed the past ten years of cyber-attacks, studied the immediate attack’s pattern and offer the tools to predict the next move of the cyber attacker.

  11. Take Advantage of Constitution Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCune, Bonnie F.

    2008-01-01

    The announcement of the mandate for Constitution and Citizenship Day shortly before September, 2005, probably led to groans of dismay. Not another "must-do" for teachers and schools already stressed by federal and state requirements for standardized tests, increasingly rigid curricula, and scrutiny from the public and officials. But the…

  12. Elemental analyses of goundwater: demonstrated advantage of low-flow sampling and trace-metal clean techniques over standard techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creasey, C. L.; Flegal, A. R.

    The combined use of both (1) low-flow purging and sampling and (2) trace-metal clean techniques provides more representative measurements of trace-element concentrations in groundwater than results derived with standard techniques. The use of low-flow purging and sampling provides relatively undisturbed groundwater samples that are more representative of in situ conditions, and the use of trace-element clean techniques limits the inadvertent introduction of contaminants during sampling, storage, and analysis. When these techniques are applied, resultant trace-element concentrations are likely to be markedly lower than results based on standard sampling techniques. In a comparison of data derived from contaminated and control groundwater wells at a site in California, USA, trace-element concentrations from this study were 2-1000 times lower than those determined by the conventional techniques used in sampling of the same wells prior to (5months) and subsequent to (1month) the collections for this study. Specifically, the cadmium and chromium concentrations derived using standard sampling techniques exceed the California Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL), whereas in this investigation concentrations of both of those elements are substantially below their MCLs. Consequently, the combined use of low-flow and trace-metal clean techniques may preclude erroneous reports of trace-element contamination in groundwater. Résumé L'utilisation simultanée de la purge et de l'échantillonnage à faible débit et des techniques sans traces de métaux permet d'obtenir des mesures de concentrations en éléments en traces dans les eaux souterraines plus représentatives que les résultats fournis par les techniques classiques. L'utilisation de la purge et de l'échantillonnage à faible débit donne des échantillons d'eau souterraine relativement peu perturbés qui sont plus représentatifs des conditions in situ, et le recours aux techniques sans éléments en traces limite l

  13. Update: Cardiac Imaging (II). Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Advantages and Limitations of Different Cardiac Imaging Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesnikar, Tomaz; Delgado, Victoria

    2016-03-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement is an established therapy for patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis and contraindications or high risk for surgery. Advances in prostheses and delivery system designs and continuous advances in multimodality imaging, particularly the 3-dimensional techniques, have led to improved outcomes with significant reductions in the incidence of frequent complications such as paravalvular aortic regurgitation. In addition, data on prosthesis durability are accumulating. Multimodality imaging plays a central role in the selection of patients who are candidates for transcatheter aortic valve replacement, procedure planning and guidance, and follow-up of prosthesis function. The strengths and limitations of each imaging technique for transcatheter aortic valve replacement will be discussed in this update article. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Does Malleolus non-Lifting Tympanoplasty have any Advantage Over Malleus Lifting Technique?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Vahidi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In order to achieve a higher success rate for tympanoplasty, different techniques have been developed, and a wide variety of grafting materials have been developed. One of the techniques currently receiving considerable attention involves not lifting the remaining of eardrum from the malleus and embedding the graft underneath in order to repair the eardrum correctly in its original position, as well as minimizing graft lateralization leading to progression of hearing rehabilitation. We compared the effects of tympanoplasty with and without malleus lifting on hearing loss in patients with chronic otitis media.   Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 consecutive patients diagnosed as having chronic otitis media without cholesteatoma were randomly assigned to two tympanoplasty groups; with or without malleus lifting. Air and bone conduction thresholds were recorded before and 45 days after the intervention.   Results: In groups, except for 8000 Hz, the air conduction was significantly improved following surgery. According to air conduction there was no difference between the groups before surgery at different frequencies, although it was improved to a greater degree in the group without lifting at 250 Hz postoperatively. The average post-operative air-bone gap (ABG gain was significantly higher in all study frequencies in the target group. One of the effects of this technique is inner-ear protection from physical trauma to the ossicular chain, and prevention of damage to bone conduction.   Conclusion:  A higher hearing threshold and also higher ABG gain can be achieved by not lifting the remaining eardrum from the malleus and embedding the graft undereath it, especially at lower frequencies.

  15. Changes in long jump take-off technique with increasing run-up speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgett, Lisa A; Linthorne, Nicholas P

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of run-up speed on take-off technique in the long jump. Seventy-one jumps by an elite male long jumper were recorded in the sagittal plane by a high-speed video camera. A wide range of run-up speeds was obtained using direct intervention to set the length of the athlete's run-up. As the athlete's run-up speed increased, the jump distance and take-off speed increased, the leg angle at touchdown remained almost unchanged, and the take-off angle and take-off duration steadily decreased. The predictions of two previously published mathematical models of the long jump take-off are in reasonable agreement with the experimental data.

  16. Changes in long jump take-off technique with increasing run-up speed

    OpenAIRE

    Bridgett, LA; Linthorne, NP

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of run-up speed on take-off technique in the long jump. Seventy-one jumps by an elite male long jumper were recorded in the sagittal plane by a high-speed video camera. A wide range of run-up speeds was obtained using direct intervention to set the length of the athlete's run-up. As the athlete's run-up speed increased, the jump distance and take-off speed increased, the leg angle at touchdown remained almost unchanged, and the take-off ang...

  17. 用B和B′算法求解TSP问题%Sloving TSP Question Taking Advantage of B and B′Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    B算法和B′算法都是A*算法的变种,TSP(Travelling Salesman Problem)问题为NP完全问题,无一般的多项式复杂度算法. 但采用合适的启发函数后,利用B算法或B′算法,可在多项式时间内解出. 作者利用C+ +的继承功能统一算法形式,实现一个完成TSP问题求解的通用搜索算法.%B and B′ algorithm are deformations of A. algorithm. TSP question is a NP complete question. There is no common algorithm whose time complexity equals to ploynomial. However, we can solve it taking advantage of B and B′ algorithm. An unified algorithm is put forward in this paper.

  18. Decomposing the trade-environment nexus for Malaysia: what do the technique, scale, composition, and comparative advantage effect indicate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Chong Hui; Ahmed, Khalid; Binti Muhamad, Rusnah; Shahbaz, Muhammad

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates the impact of trade openness on CO2 emissions using time series data over the period of 1970QI-2011QIV for Malaysia. We disintegrate the trade effect into scale, technique, composition, and comparative advantage effects to check the environmental consequence of trade at four different transition points. To achieve the purpose, we have employed augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and Phillips-Perron (PP) unit root tests in order to examine the stationary properties of the variables. Later, the long-run association among the variables is examined by applying autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach to cointegration. Our results confirm the presence of cointegration. Further, we find that scale effect has positive and technique effect has negative impact on CO2 emissions after threshold income level and form inverted U-shaped relationship-hence validates the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis. Energy consumption adds in CO2 emissions. Trade openness and composite effect improve environmental quality by lowering CO2 emissions. The comparative advantage effect increases CO2 emissions and impairs environmental quality. The results provide the innovative approach to see the impact of trade openness in four sub-dimensions of trade liberalization. Hence, this study attributes more comprehensive policy tool for trade economists to better design environmentally sustainable trade rules and agreements.

  19. Molecular techniques for detecting and typing of bacteria, advantages and application to foodborne pathogens isolated from ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzitey, Frederick; Huda, Nurul; Ali, Gulam Rusul Rahmat

    2013-04-01

    In recent times, several foodborne pathogens have become important and a threat to public health. Surveillance studies have provided data and a better understanding into the existence and spread of foodborne pathogens. The application of molecular techniques for detecting and typing of foodborne pathogens in surveillance studies provide reliable epidemiological data for tracing the source of human infections. A wide range of molecular techniques (including pulsed field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing, random amplified polymorphism deoxyribonucleic acid, repetitive extragenic palindromic, deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing, multiplex polymerase chain reaction and many more) have been used for detecting, speciating, typing, classifying and/or characterizing foodborne pathogens of great significance to humans. Farm animals including chickens, cattle, sheep, goats and pigs, and others (such as domestic and wild animals) have been reported to be primary reservoirs for foodborne pathogens. The consumption of contaminated poultry meats or products has been considered to be the leading source of human foodborne infections. Ducks like other farm animals are important source of foodborne pathogens and have been implicated in some human foodborne illnesses and deaths. Nonetheless, few studies have been conducted to explore the potential of ducks in causing foodborne outbreaks, diseases and its consequences. This review highlights some common molecular techniques, their advantages and those that have been applied to pathogens isolated from ducks and their related sources.

  20. Taking another look with fluorescence microscopy: image processing techniques in Langmuir monolayers for the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stottrup, Benjamin L; Nguyen, Andrew H; Tüzel, Erkan

    2010-07-01

    Fluorescence microscopy has become a powerful and standard complementary technique in the study of amphiphilic films at the air-water interface. For nearly three decades the coupling of traditional thermodynamic measurements with direct visualization has provided a better understanding of self-assembled Langmuir monolayers and their application in the study of the physical properties of membranes and interfaces. As an introduction we provide a brief overview of this established technique and demonstrate its continued utility in the recent observation of novel phase behavior in monolayers of 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-OH) and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC). We then focus our review on new analysis techniques which take advantage of the ability to store, process, and analyze large sets of images. We pay particular attention to efforts measuring the line tension between coexisting two dimensional fluid phases in the Langmuir monolayer. Using non-perturbative methods, we can measure fundamental mechanical properties of these two dimensional systems. Finally, we highlight the use of Model Convolution Microscopy as a new tool to provide insight on the experimental limits in these studies. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Is There a Cosmetic Advantage to Single-Incision Laparoscopic Surgical Techniques Over Standard Laparoscopic Surgery? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Luke; Manley, Kate

    2016-06-01

    Single-incision laparoscopic surgery represents an evolution of minimally invasive techniques, but has been a controversial development. A cosmetic advantage is stated by many authors, but has not been found to be universally present or even of considerable importance by patients. This systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrates that there is a cosmetic advantage of the technique regardless of the operation type. The treatment effect in terms of cosmetic improvement is of the order of 0.63.

  2. The Advantages of an Attenuated Total Internal Reflection Infrared Microspectroscopic Imaging Technique for the Analysis of Polymer Laminates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Chen; Sommer, André J

    2015-06-01

    Until recently, the analysis of polymer laminates using infrared microspectroscopy involved the painstaking separation of individual layers by dissection or by obtaining micrometer thin cross-sections. The latter usually requires the expertise of an individual trained in microtomy and even then, the very structure of the laminate could affect the outcome of the spectral results. The recent development of attenuated total internal reflection (ATR) infrared microspectroscopy imaging has provided a new avenue for the analysis of these multilayer structures. This report compares ATR infrared microspectroscopy imaging with conventional transmission infrared microspectroscopy imaging. The results demonstrate that the ATR method offers improved spatial resolution, eliminates a variety of competing optical processes, and requires minimal sample preparation relative to transmission measurements. These advantages were illustrated using a polymer laminate consisting of 11 different layers whose thickness ranged in size from 4-20 μm. The spatial resolution achieved by using an ATR-FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) imaging technique was diffraction limited. Contrast in the ATR images was enhanced by principal component analysis.

  3. Institutional advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Xavier

    Is there such a thing as institutional advantage—and what does it mean for the study of corporate competitive advantage? In this article, I develop the concept of institutional competitive advantage, as distinct from plain competitive advantage and from comparative institutional advantage. I first

  4. Institutional advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Is there such a thing as institutional advantage—and what does it mean for the study of corporate competitive advantage? In this article, I develop the concept of institutional competitive advantage, as distinct from plain competitive advantage and from comparative institutional advantage. I first i

  5. Institutional advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Is there such a thing as institutional advantage—and what does it mean for the study of corporate competitive advantage? In this article, I develop the concept of institutional competitive advantage, as distinct from plain competitive advantage and from comparative institutional advantage. I first i

  6. The Impact of Using Note Taking's Techniques on the Students' Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asrar Jabir Edan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It is often said that the worst pen is better than the best memory and regardless of how good the students' memory might be, they need to take notes during the lesson or lecture because it is impossible to remember all the details later on. This is so easy to use technique which requires a brief record of important information can help students not only recall what has been said in the class, but also to achieve their learning goals and provide a useful summary of the material to be revised especially before the test. Unfortunately, it is noticed that most of the students, especially at the secondary stage, neglect this important skill. Most of them don’t often write notes unless they are told to do so by the teacher or depend only on the textbooks forgetting that not all the material mentioned during the lesson found in them as some are explanations to the complex and abstract ones and others are related to the teacher's experience in the subject matter. In fact, note taking skill is part of the learning process and to be useful, students need to learn how to do it effectively and what to record because not all what is said is important. This requires acquiring more than one skill on the part of the learners and more effort on the part of the teacher to teach them how to do it properly. For the above reasons, more light will be shed in this research on this topic followed by an experiment and a test to evaluate its effectiveness in learning

  7. Effects of Note-Taking Format and Study Technique on Recall and Relational Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiewra, Kenneth A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Two experiments, involving 195 undergraduates, investigated how different note-taking formats influenced student note taking. Results reconfirmed that a flexible outline framework in which the order of subtopics corresponds to the order of lecture presentation produces more note taking than a collapsed matrix framework presenting fewer subtopics.…

  8. New technique to take samples from environmental surfaces using flocked nylon swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedin, G; Rynbäck, J; Loré, B

    2010-08-01

    Environmental surfaces near infected and/or colonised patients in hospitals are commonly contaminated with potentially pathogenic micro-organisms. At present, however, there is no standardised method for taking samples from surfaces in order to perform quantitative cultures. Usually contact plates or swabs are used, but these methods may give different results. The recovery rate of traditional swabbing, e.g. cotton or rayon, is poor. With a new type of swab utilising flocked nylon, the recovery may be enhanced up to three times compared with a rayon swab. In this study, we inoculated reference strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus hirae onto a bedside table and took samples 1h later when inocula were dry. Sequential samples were taken from the same surface. A new sampling technique using two sequential nylon swabs for each sample was validated. The efficiency of the sampling, percentage recovery of the inoculum and the variation of culture results obtained from repeated experiments are described. Enhanced efficiency and higher recovery of inoculum were demonstrated using two sequential flocked nylon swabs for sampling.

  9. DESIGNING A COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE MODEL WITH TECHNOLOGY ORIENTED APPROACH USING FAHP TECHNIQUE: A CASE STUDY IN COIL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDOLHAMID S. GHADIKOLAEI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the distinctive attributes of today’s successful companies is having at least one competitive advantage in one known area. Technological competency is an important advantage which helps improve the firm’s competitiveness. In fact, suitable use of new technologies can dramatically influence the innovation speed, decrease the time of product development cycle and also increase the rate of new product introduction. Firm-specific technological competencies help explain why a firm is different, how it changes over time, and whether it is capable of remaining competitive. In this study, technological competency factors (technology management, process technology, product technology are prioritized according to the competitive advantage levels(customer satisfaction, brand reputation, new product introduction, market share and competitive priorities (cost, price, quality, flexibility, time using fuzzy Analytic hierarchy process (FAHP with the aim of maximizing the nonfinancial performance at coil manufacture industry. The results indicate that within Iran coil industry, process technology is of greater importance than technology management and product technology.

  10. Taking advantage: high-affinity B cells in the germinal center have lower death rates, but similar rates of division, compared to low-affinity cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Shannon M; Khalil, Ashraf; Uduman, Mohamed; Hershberg, Uri; Louzoun, Yoram; Haberman, Ann M; Kleinstein, Steven H; Shlomchik, Mark J

    2009-12-01

    B lymphocytes producing high-affinity Abs are critical for protection from extracellular pathogens, such as bacteria and parasites. The process by which high-affinity B cells are selected during the immune response has never been elucidated. Although it has been shown that high-affinity cells directly outcompete low-affinity cells in the germinal center (GC), whether there are also intrinsic differences between these cells has not been addressed. It could be that higher affinity cells proliferate more rapidly or are more likely to enter cell cycle, thereby outgrowing lower affinity cells. Alternatively, higher affinity cells could be relatively more resistant to cell death in the GC. By comparing high- and low-affinity B cells for the same Ag, we show here that low-affinity cells have an intrinsically higher death rate than do cells of higher affinity, even in the absence of competition. This suggests that selection in the GC reaction is due at least in part to the control of survival of higher affinity B cells and not by a proliferative advantage conferred upon these cells compared with lower affinity B cells. Control over survival rather than proliferation of low- and high-affinity B cells in the GC allows greater diversity not only in the primary response but also in the memory response.

  11. Recombinant Ag85B vaccine by taking advantage of characteristics of human parainfluenza type 2 virus vector showed Mycobacteria-specific immune responses by intranasal immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kenta; Matsubara, Akihiro; Kawano, Mitsuo; Mizuno, Satoru; Okamura, Tomotaka; Tsujimura, Yusuke; Inada, Hiroyasu; Nosaka, Tetsuya; Matsuo, Kazuhiro; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro

    2014-03-26

    Viral vectors are promising vaccine candidates for eliciting suitable Ag-specific immune response. Since Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) normally enters hosts via the mucosal surface of the lung, the best defense against Mtb is mucosal vaccines that are capable of inducing both systemic and mucosal immunity. Although Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin is the only licensed tuberculosis (TB) vaccine, its efficacy against adult pulmonary forms of TB is variable. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of a novel mucosal TB vaccine using recombinant human parainfluenza type 2 virus (rhPIV2) as a vaccine vector in BALB/c mice. Replication-incompetent rhPIV2 (M gene-eliminated) expressing Ag85B (rhPIV2-Ag85B) was constructed by reverse genetics technology. Intranasal administration of rhPIV2-Ag85B induced Mtb-specific immune responses, and the vaccinated mice showed a substantial reduction in the number of CFU of Mtb in lungs and spleens. Unlike other viral vaccine vectors, the immune responses against Ag85B induced by rhPIV2-Ag85B immunization had an advantage over that against the viral vector. In addition, it was revealed that rhPIV2-Ag85B in itself has an adjuvant activity through the retinoic acid-inducible gene I receptor. These findings provide further evidence for the possibility of rhPIV2-Ag85B as a novel TB vaccine.

  12. Advantageous use of SSA technique to observe effects of thickness, antioxidant and oxygen in gamma irradiated low density polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, C.J., E-mail: cjperez@fi.mdp.edu.ar [Research Institute of Material Science and Technology (INTEMA), National Research Council (CONICET), Engineering Faculty, Mar del Plata University, Av. J.B. Justo 4302, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina); Failla, M.D. [Planta Piloto de Ingenieria Quimica-PLAPIQUI (UNS-CONICET), Camino ' La Carrindanga' Km 7, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Carella, J.M. [Research Institute of Material Science and Technology (INTEMA), National Research Council (CONICET), Engineering Faculty, Mar del Plata University, Av. J.B. Justo 4302, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2012-06-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Information from successive self-nucleation and annealing technique is analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxygen and antioxidants reduce crosslinking efficiency by reaction with free radicals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recognizable differences are obtained in samples irradiated at different atmospheres. - Abstract: Information obtained from successive self-nucleation and annealing (SSA) technique is analyzed, paying special attention to the observable effects of samples thickness and antioxidant and oxygen concentrations. Molecular structure changes for low density polyethylene (LDPE) samples, irradiated under three different atmospheres for doses between 33 and 222 kGy were analyzed, with emphasis on the changes of longer polymethylene crystallizable lengths. Antioxidant and oxygen concentrations were varied for samples of different thickness to study the effects on degradation. The changes in the molecular structure were followed simultaneously by SSA and Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) via carbonyl group concentration. Preliminary quantifications of the SSA technique sensitivity are also advanced.

  13. Burnei's "double X" internal fixation technique for supracondylar humerus fractures in children: indications, technique, advantages and alternative interventions : Study and Research Group in Pediatric Orthopaedics-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, I; Gavriliu, S; Pârvan, A; Martiniuc, A; Japie, E; Ghiță, R; Drăghici, I; Hamei, Ş; Ţiripa, I; El Nayef, T; Dan, D

    2013-06-15

    fractures, in supracondylar fractures with vascular injury, in late presenting fractures, in case of loss of reduction under cast immobilization or in case of surgery with other types of fixation that is deteriorated. We have been using Burnei's osteosynthesis for about 10 years. This paper aims to present the operative technique, its results and advantages. 56 cases were treated with Burnei's "double X" osteosynthesis in "Alexandru Pesamosca" Surgery Clinics, from 2001 to 2011. We used the Kocher approach and the aim of surgery was to obtain a fixation that does not require cast immobilization and that allows motion 24 hours after the surgery. The wires placed in "double X" must not occupy the olecranon fossa. The reduction must be anatomical and the olecranon fossa free. Flexion and extension of the elbow must be in normal range after surgery without crackles or limitations. This surgery was performed on patients with: Loss of reduction after 10 days with cast immobilization; Surgery with other types of fixation, deteriorated; Polytraumatized patients with supracondylar fracture; After neglected or late presenting fractures, without the orthopedic reduction made in emergency; Fractures with edema and blistering. The patients' ages ranged 3 to12 years old, the mean age for girls was 7,3 years and 6,8 for boys. The hospitalization ranged 3 to 7 days, the average period being of 5 days. The wires had been pulled out after 21 days. The total recovery of the flexion and extension motion of the elbow was, depending on the age, between 21 and 40 days with an average period of 30 days. There were 5 cases of minor complications: in 3 cases the wires migrated outwards up to the 10th day and in 2 cases the wires were found in the olecranon fossa. The CT exam highlighted the impingement effect and the wire that passed through the olecranon fossa had to be removed between the 7th and the 9th day. No reported cases of cubitus varus or valgus were reported. The Burnei's "double X

  14. Burnei’s “double X" internal fixation technique for supracondylar humerus fractures in children: indications, technique, advantages and alternative interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, I; Gavriliu, S; Pârvan, A; Martiniuc, A; Japie, E; Ghiță, R; Drăghici, I; Hamei, S; Ţiripa, I; El Nayef, T; Dan, D

    2013-01-01

    patients with supracondylar fractures, in supracondylar fractures with vascular injury, in late presenting fractures, in case of loss of reduction under cast immobilization or in case of surgery with other types of fixation that is deteriorated. We have been using Burnei’s osteosynthesis for about 10 years. Aim. This paper aims to present the operative technique, its results and advantages. Materials and methods. 56 cases were treated with Burnei’s "double X" osteosynthesis in "Alexandru Pesamosca" Surgery Clinics, from 2001 to 2011. We used the Kocher approach and the aim of surgery was to obtain a fixation that does not require cast immobilization and that allows motion 24 hours after the surgery. The wires placed in "double X" must not occupy the olecranon fossa. The reduction must be anatomical and the olecranon fossa free. Flexion and extension of the elbow must be in normal range after surgery without crackles or limitations. This surgery was performed on patients with: • Loss of reduction after 10 days with cast immobilization; • Surgery with other types of fixation, deteriorated; • Polytraumatized patients with supracondylar fracture; • After neglected or late presenting fractures, without the orthopedic reduction made in emergency; • Fractures with edema and blistering. Results and complications. The patients’ ages ranged 3 to12 years old, the mean age for girls was 7,3 years and 6,8 for boys. The hospitalization ranged 3 to 7 days, the average period being of 5 days. The wires had been pulled out after 21 days. The total recovery of the flexion and extension motion of the elbow was, depending on the age, between 21 and 40 days with an average period of 30 days. There were 5 cases of minor complications: in 3 cases the wires migrated outwards up to the 10th day and in 2 cases the wires were found in the olecranon fossa. The CT exam highlighted the impingement effect and the wire that passed through the olecranon fossa had to be removed between the

  15. Absolute advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractA country is said to have an absolute advantage over another country in the production of a good or service if it can produce that good or service using fewer real resources. Equivalently, using the same inputs, the country can produce more output. The concept of absolute advantage can a

  16. Advantages and disadvantages of the use of immunodetection techniques for the enumeration of micro-organisms and toxins in water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kfir, R

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available and disadvantages in the water field include the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and radio-immuno-assays (RIA) for the direct detection of viruses from water concentrates; cyto-immuno-labelling and immunofluorescence techniques specific for rota...

  17. Bridging the gap between science and public health: taking advantage of tobacco control experience in Brazil to inform policies to counter risk factors for non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa e Silva, Vera Luiza; Pantani, Daniela; Andreis, Mônica; Sparks, Robert; Pinsky, Ilana

    2013-08-01

    The historical and economic involvement of Brazil with tobacco, as a major producer and exporter, was considered an insurmountable obstacle to controlling the consumption of this product. Nevertheless, the country was able to achieve significant progress in implementing public policies and to take an international leadership position, meeting its constitutional commitment to protect public health. In this paper we provide a brief historical overview of tobacco control (TC) in Brazil, and analyse the factors that contributed to the major decline in tobacco consumption in the country over the last 20 years, as well as identify the challenges that had to be overcome and those still at play. The Brazilian case demonstrates how cross-sectorial collaborations among health-related groups that capitalize on their respective strengths and capacities can help to influence public policy and overcome industry and population resistance to change. Although Brazil still lags behind some leading TC nations, the country has an extensive collaborative TC network that was built over time and continues to focus upon this issue. The tobacco experience can serve as an example for other fields, such as alcoholic beverages, of how networks can be formed to influence the legislative process and the development of public policies. Brazilian statistics show that problems related to non-communicable diseases are a pressing public health issue, and advocacy groups, policy-makers and government departments can benefit from tobacco control history to fashion their own strategies. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. MEMS Technology Sensors as a More Advantageous Technique for Measuring Foot Plantar Pressure and Balance in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Sanz Morère

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Locomotor activities are part and parcel of daily human life. During walking or running, feet are subjected to high plantar pressure, leading sometimes to limb problems, pain, or foot ulceration. A current objective in foot plantar pressure measurements is developing sensors that are small in size, lightweight, and energy efficient, while enabling high mobility, particularly for wearable applications. Moreover, improvements in spatial resolution, accuracy, and sensitivity are of interest. Sensors with improved sensing techniques can be applied to a variety of research problems: diagnosing limb problems, footwear design, or injury prevention. This paper reviews commercially available sensors used in foot plantar pressure measurements and proposes the utilization of pressure sensors based on the MEMS (microelectromechanical systems technique. Pressure sensors based on this technique have the capacity to measure pressure with high accuracy and linearity up to high pressure levels. Moreover, being small in size, they are highly suitable for this type of measurement. We present two MEMS sensor models and study their suitability for the intended purpose by performing several experiments. Preliminary results indicate that the sensors are indeed suitable for measuring foot plantar pressure. Importantly, by measuring pressure continuously, they can also be utilized for body balance measurements.

  19. Taking advantage of HTML5 browsers to realize the concepts of session state and workflow sharing in web-tool applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suftin, I.; Read, J. S.; Walker, J.

    2013-12-01

    Scientists prefer not having to be tied down to a specific machine or operating system in order to analyze local and remote data sets or publish work. Increasingly, analysis has been migrating to decentralized web services and data sets, using web clients to provide the analysis interface. While simplifying workflow access, analysis, and publishing of data, the move does bring with it its own unique set of issues. Web clients used for analysis typically offer workflows geared towards a single user, with steps and results that are often difficult to recreate and share with others. Furthermore, workflow results often may not be easily used as input for further analysis. Older browsers further complicate things by having no way to maintain larger chunks of information, often offloading the job of storage to the back-end server or trying to squeeze it into a cookie. It has been difficult to provide a concept of "session storage" or "workflow sharing" without a complex orchestration of the back-end for storage depending on either a centralized file system or database. With the advent of HTML5, browsers gained the ability to store more information through the use of the Web Storage API (a browser-cookie holds a maximum of 4 kilobytes). Web Storage gives us the ability to store megabytes of arbitrary data in-browser either with an expiration date or just for a session. This allows scientists to create, update, persist and share their workflow without depending on the backend to store session information, providing the flexibility for new web-based workflows to emerge. In the DSASWeb portal ( http://cida.usgs.gov/DSASweb/ ), using these techniques, the representation of every step in the analyst's workflow is stored as plain-text serialized JSON, which we can generate as a text file and provide to the analyst as an upload. This file may then be shared with others and loaded back into the application, restoring the application to the state it was in when the session file

  20. The advantages, and challenges, in using multiple techniques in the estimation of surface water-groundwater fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanafield, M.; Cook, P. G.

    2014-12-01

    When estimating surface water-groundwater fluxes, the use of complimentary techniques helps to fill in uncertainties in any individual method, and to potentially gain a better understanding of spatial and temporal variability in a system. It can also be a way of preventing the loss of data during infrequent and unpredictable flow events. For example, much of arid Australia relies on groundwater, which is recharged by streamflow through ephemeral streams during flood events. Three recent surface water/groundwater investigations from arid Australian systems provide good examples of how using multiple field and analysis techniques can help to more fully characterize surface water-groundwater fluxes, but can also result in conflicting values over varying spatial and temporal scales. In the Pilbara region of Western Australia, combining streambed radon measurements, vertical heat transport modeling, and a tracer test helped constrain very low streambed residence times, which are on the order of minutes. Spatial and temporal variability between the methods yielded hyporheic exchange estimates between 10-4 m2 s-1 and 4.2 x 10-2 m2 s-1. In South Australia, three-dimensional heat transport modeling captured heterogeneity within 20 square meters of streambed, identifying areas of sandy soil (flux rates of up to 3 m d-1) and clay (flux rates too slow to be accurately characterized). Streamflow front modeling showed similar flux rates, but averaged over 100 m long stream segments for a 1.6 km reach. Finally, in central Australia, several methods are used to decipher whether any of the flow down a highly ephemeral river contributes to regional groundwater recharge, showing that evaporation and evapotranspiration likely accounts for all of the infiltration into the perched aquifer. Lessons learned from these examples demonstrate the influences of the spatial and temporal variability between techniques on estimated fluxes.

  1. Radiosurgery of small skull-base lesions. No advantage for intensity-modulated stereotactic radiosurgery versus conformal arc technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst-Stecken, A.; Sauer, R.; Grabenbauer, G. [Dept. of Radiation Therapy and Novalis Shaped Beam Surgery Center, Univ. of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); Lambrecht, U.; Mueller, R. [Dept. of Radiation Therapy and Novalis Shaped Beam Surgery Center, Univ. of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); Div. of Medical Physics, Dept. of Radiation Therapy, Univ. of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); Ganslandt, O.; Fahlbusch, R. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    Background and purpose: intensity-modulated stereotactic radiotherapy (IMSRT) has shown the ability to conform the dose to concavities and to better avoid critical organs for large tumors. Given the availability of an electronically driven micro-multileaf collimator, both intensity-modulated stereotactic radiosurgery (IMSRS) and dynamic conformal arc (DCA) technique (DCA) can be performed at the Novalis Shaped Beam Surgery Center, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany, since 12/2002. This study evaluates both techniques in small skull-base tumors treated with radiosurgery. Material and methods: between 12/2002 and 04/2004, a total of 109 radiosurgical procedures were performed in 77 patients, equally distributed between patients with acoustic neuroma (AN), pituitary adenoma (PA) and meningeoma (M). Six index patients (n = 2 AN, n = 1 PA, n = 3 M) routinely planned for dynamic arc stereotactic radiosurgery were replanned using the IMSRS approach (BrainScan, BrainLAB, Heimstetten, Germany). The RTOG radiosurgery quality assurance guidelines, isodose volumes, doses to organs at risk (OAR), and dose delivery criteria were compared. Results: DCA was superior to IMSRS for homogeneity and coverage. IMSRS could keep the high-dose-irradiated volumes (90% isodose volume) lower than DCA in the PA and AN with very small volumes, but all other lower dose volumes were larger for IMSRS. Dose maxima to OAR were higher for IMSRS. Treatment delivery time for IMSRS would clearly exceed treatment time for DCA by a factor of 2-3. The integral absorbed dose to the brain was much higher in the IMSRS than in the DCA approach (factor 2-3). Conclusion: RTOG radiosurgery guidelines were best met by the DCA rather than IMSRS approach for the treatment of small skull-base lesions. The IMSRS approach will increase the time for planning, dose delivery and integral dose to the brain. Thus, IMSRT techniques are recommended for fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy to larger volumes rather

  2. Clinical indications, advantages and limits of the expansion-condensing osteotomes technique for the creation of implant bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE VICO, G.; BONINO, M.; SPINELLI, D.; POZZI, A.; BARLATTANI, A.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The “screw shaped” expansion-condenser are hand instruments that were introduced for the first time at the end of the 70’ in order to improve bone density before the positioning of a dental implant. Thanks to these hand instruments it is possibile to compact the bone apically and along the walls of the implant bed (Fig. 3) improving a lot the bone density and the primary stability of the implant even in situations where the starting bone quality is low (es. D3-D4 as in the classification y Lekholm and Zarb 1985) or in cases of severe bone atrophy. Allowing a manageable raising of the shnaiderian membrane through trans-alveolar way, this technique avoids in many cases the necessity to have recourse to the realisation of bone vestibular “gates” when it comes to the techniques of the big sinus lift. The knoledge of the bone visco-elastic and hystologic properties together with the maximum respect of the surgical protocol allows us to obtein % of success superior than traditional surgical protocol in D3-D4 bone class. PMID:23285355

  3. Shape and Surface: The challenges and advantages of 3D techniques in innovative fashion, knitwear and product design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendt, E.

    2016-07-01

    The presentation wants to show what kind of problems fashion and textile designers are facing in 3D-knitwear design, especially regarding fashionable flat-knit styles, and how they can use different kinds of techniques and processes to generate new types of 3D-designs and structures. To create really new things we have to overcome standard development methods and traditional thinking and should start to open our minds again for the material itself to generate new advanced textile solutions. This paper mainly introduces different results of research projects worked out in the master program “Textile Produkte” during lectures in “Innovative Product Design” and “Experimental Knitting”.

  4. Teaching Techniques: Give or Take? Test Review in the ESL/EFL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermelstein, Aaron David

    2016-01-01

    This article describes "Give or Take?", a fun game that teachers can use to review vocabulary in the English as a second language or foreign language (ESL/EFL) classroom. This game is easy to prepare, and it is a fun and efficient way to review for quizzes or larger midterm or final exams. It can be adapted to almost any grade level or…

  5. Construct Legal Norm of Secret Investigation, Thinking Way on the Crime by Taking Advantage of Duty%秘密侦查的法规范建构——职务犯罪视野的思索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜涛

    2011-01-01

    Secrete investigation has an important value in the investigation of Crime-cases by taking advantage of duty. The formal amendment Clauses concern of Criminal Procedure Law should extend the applicable scope of secrete investigation in the crime-cases by taking advantage of duty,not only it is applied to all of the crime-cases by taking advantage of duty, but also secret investigation can be applied to find the facts of crimes before placing a case on file,and collect some evidences after placing a case on file.%不得强迫自证其罪原则的确立,意味着对职务犯罪案件的侦查能力与手段提出了新要求,秘密侦查因能够有效瓦解犯罪人之间基于囚徒困境而订立的攻守同盟,因而在职务犯罪案件侦查中具有重要价值。正式刑事诉讼法修正案应该扩大秘密侦查在职务犯罪案件中的适用范围,不仅应将其适用于所有职务犯罪案件,而且立案之前可以用秘密侦查发现犯罪线索,在立案之后可以用秘密侦查收集犯罪证据。同时,职务犯罪的秘密侦查应该实行司法令状主义。

  6. Comparative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jie; Jensen, Camilla

    2007-01-01

    that are typically explained from the supply-side variables, the comparative advantage of the exporting countries. A simple model is proposed and tested. The results render strong support for the relevance of supply-side factors such as natural endowments, technology, and infrastructure in explaining international...

  7. Triple-balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty: an advantageous technique for percutaneous repair of pulmonary valve stenosis in the large pediatric and adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalera, Robert B; Chase, Thaddeus J; Owada, Carl Y

    2005-11-01

    This report describes a new valvuloplasty procedure for the treatment of pulmonary valve stenosis (PVS) and large pulmonary valve annulus (PVA) diameters using a triple-balloon valvuloplasty (TBV) technique. We sought to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of this new technique. Percutaneous balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty (BPV) is the preferred treatment for PVS. BPV in older patients with large PVA remains a challenge, even when the double-balloon valvuloplasty technique is performed. The technique was first attempted in a case where a large single balloon was unsuccessful and double-balloon valvuloplasty met with technical difficulties. Three subsequent patients underwent the procedure safely and successfully. An algorithm is presented to determine balloon size for TBV. The median PVA diameter was 23.9 mm. Balloon diameters ranged from 12 to 18 mm. The median peak right ventricular-to-pulmonary artery systolic pressure gradient was 43.5 mm Hg before valvuloplasty and was reduced to 12 mm Hg following intervention. No major complications were encountered. Percutaneous valvuloplasty using TBV can be performed safely and provides excellent clinical results. This technique offers advantages over single-balloon and double-balloon valvuloplasty techniques, especially in treatment of PVS in large pediatric or adult patients. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Taking Advantage of a Desperate Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ANTOINE ROSET

    2011-01-01

    For a traveler from Beijing,accustomed to the semiarid expanses of the northem plains,arriving in Sichuan Province looks somewhat like entering a mirage.A Land of Cockaigne,bathed in countless streams running from the Himalayas to the Chengdu Plain,land of mixture of Han and minorities,and door to the Tibetan world,Sichuan is also one of the most important conservatories for fauna and flora in China.Roiling across the plain toward Beichuan Qiang Autonomous County,one embraces a myriad of fields,from which emerge the curved shapes of farmers engaged in transplanting the young rice,while wading birds fish in an irrigation canal.

  9. Cigarette promotional offers: who takes advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Victoria M; White, Martha M; Freeman, Karen; Gilpin, Elizabeth A; Pierce, John P

    2006-03-01

    Promotional offers on cigarettes (e.g., dollar-off, multipack discounts) composed the largest share of tobacco industry marketing expenditures, totaling $8.9 billion, or 72% of the total budget in 2002. Internal industry documents indicate that young adults, potential quitters, and other price-sensitive groups are the targets of these marketing tactics. How effective they are in actually reaching these groups in the general population of smokers has not yet been investigated. Data were from 4618 current smokers responding to the large, random-digit-dialed population-based 2002 California Tobacco Survey. The characteristics were identified of smokers who reported that they used these offers "every time I see one." Thirty-five percent of smokers used promotional offers every time they saw one. Multivariate analyses identified young adults, women, African Americans, those with higher daily cigarette consumption, and those worried about cigarette costs as more likely to use promotional offers at every opportunity. Smokers most committed to quitting were no more likely to use promotional offers than those with no intention to quit. Cigarette brand was highly correlated with age and race/ethnicity, and therefore was not included in the multivariate analysis. Those who smoked menthol cigarettes and Camels, more often young adults and African Americans, were much more likely than those of other brands to use promotional offers. With the exception of smokers intending to quit, cigarette promotional offers are effectively reaching most industry-targeted groups. Importantly, young adults, who have the greatest long-term customer potential, are responding.

  10. Trade Advantages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei Xinyu

    2012-01-01

    As the world's largest trading nation,its largest exporter and second largest importer,China wields extensive influence on global trade and the world economy,China's advantages of course lie not only in the stable foreign trade policy decided by the recently held Central Economic Work Conference,but also in the strength and resilience of a broadbased and fast-growing economy.

  11. 职务犯罪审理:问题及思考——从审判的视角%Crime by taking advantage of duty trying: question and ponder —— From trial angle of view

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚明

    2011-01-01

    打击职务犯罪在审判实践中并不理想,量刑偏轻,犯罪数量有上升趋势,为有效打击职务犯罪,应掌握好宽严相济中“严”的尺度,正确认识量刑轻刑化带来的问题,进一步促进司法公开,克服传统不良因素对审判的影响。%Cracks down on the crime by taking advantage of duty not to be ideal in the trial practice, the discretion of punishment is light, crime quantity has the trend of escalation, for the effective attack crime by taking advantage of duty, should grasp in width strict Jinan "strict" the criterion, understood correctly the discretion of punishment light punishment brings the question, further promotes the judicature to be public, overcomes the traditional bad factor to the trial the influence.

  12. 论职务犯罪侦查中的控制下交付手段%On Controlled Delivery in the Inverstigation of Crime by Taking Advantage of Duty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李润华

    2013-01-01

    It is legitimate and necessary to apply controlled delivery to the investigation of crime by taking ad-vantage of duty , and the new criminal procedure law has authorized the procuratorate to have such right .Therefore , the controlled delivery in the investigation of crime by taking advantage of duty should be ruled in applicable condi -tions, implementing subjects , approval procedures , legal consequences and international cooperation .%在职务犯罪侦查中适用控制下交付既具有法理上的正当性,也具有实践的必要性,此次对刑事诉讼法修改已明确规定检察机关在职务犯罪侦查中可以运用控制下交付。因此,应从控制下交付的适用条件、实施主体、审批程序、法律后果以及国际合作五个方面对职务犯罪侦查中适用控制下交付进行具体的法律规制。

  13. Quartz preferred orientation in naturally deformed mylonitic rocks (Montalto shear zone-Italy): a comparison of results by different techniques, their advantages and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Eugenio; Punturo, Rosalda; Cirrincione, Rosolino; Kern, Hartmut; Pezzino, Antonino; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; Goswami, Shalini; Mamtani, Manish A.

    2016-12-01

    In the geologic record, the quartz c-axis patterns are widely adopted in the investigation of crystallographic preferred orientations (CPO) of naturally deformed rocks. To this aim, in the present work, four different methods for measuring quartz c-axis orientations in naturally sheared rocks were applied and compared: the classical universal stage technique, the computer-integrated polarization microscopy method (CIP), the time-of-flight (TOF) neutron diffraction analysis , and the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Microstructural analysis and CPO patterns of quartz, together with the ones obtained for feldspars and micas in mylonitic granitoid rocks, have been then considered to solve structural and geological questions related to the Montalto crustal scale shear zone (Calabria, southern Italy). Results obtained by applying the different techniques are discussed, and the advantages as well as limitations of each method are highlighted. Importantly, our findings suggest that patterns obtained by means of different techniques are quite similar. In particular, for such mylonites, a subsimple shear (40% simple shear vs 60% pure shear) by shape analysis of porphyroclasts was inferred. A general tendency of an asymmetric c-maximum near to the Z direction (normal to foliation) suggesting dominant basal slip, consistent with fabric patterns related to dynamically recrystallization under greenschist facies, is recognized. Rhombohedral slip was likely active as documented by pole figures of positive and negative rhombs (TOF), which reveal also potential mechanical Dauphiné twinning. Results showed that the most complete CPO characterization on deformed rocks is given by the TOF (from which also other quartz crystallographic axes can be obtained as well as various mineral phases may be investigated). However, this use is restricted by the fact that (a) there are very few TOF facilities around the world and (b) there is loss of any domainal reference, since TOF is a

  14. Solution to the Problem of Static Website Cross-domains By Taking Advantage of the Technology of Dynamic Creation of Script%利用动态创建script技术解决静态网站跨域问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛颖玲

    2012-01-01

    Based on the practical work, this paper is designed to take advantage of the technology of dynamic creation of script to solve the problem of static website cross-domains.This technology has been applied to the university website and proved to be a great Success.%本文从实际工作出发,在扩充静态网站生成技术的基础上,进一步利用动态创建script技术解决了静态网站跨域问题,并应用于学校网站,取得了不错的效果.

  15. Taking Advantage of FollowPsychology to Construct Student Organizational Culture in University%利用从众心理的积极因素建构高校学生组织文化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾尼娃尔·艾合买提; 耿直; 赛福鼎·艾拜

    2013-01-01

      本文阐述了从众心理在高校学生组织文化建构中所起的作用,对怎样利用从众心理的积极因素建构高校学生组织文化提了几点建议,希望对从事教育教学的工作者有所启发。%On the basis of the introduction of how conformity affect students organizational culture constructing , the paper gives some advice on how to taking advantage of conformity psychology to construct student organiza -tional culture in university.

  16. EWB Software at Electronics Technique Applied Advantage within Course%EWB软件在电子技术课程中的应用优势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严新英

    2016-01-01

    介绍了利用EWB(虚拟电子工作台)在电子技术课程教学中所显现出传统教学所不能比拟的优势。探讨如何把EWB仿真软件应用在教学中,最大限度地调动学生的视觉和听觉能力,激发学生学习兴趣,培养学生的创新意识。%This text introduced to make use of EWB(virtual electronics work set) at electronics technique course teaching in a traditional teaching presented can not compare of advantage. Inquire into how to imitate the true software application to EWB in the teaching, with maximum limit transfer the student's sense of vision and sense of hearing ability, stir up student study interest, foster the student's innovation consciousness.

  17. Ultrasound-guided spinal anaesthesia in obstetrics: is there an advantage over the landmark technique in patients with easily palpable spines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, T; Yousef, A; El Gamassy, A; Fayez, M

    2014-08-01

    Data are scarce on the advantage of ultrasound-guided spinal anaesthesia in patients with easily identifiable bony landmarks. In this study, we compared the use of ultrasound to the landmark method in patients with no anticipated technical difficulty, presenting for caesarean delivery under spinal anaesthesia. A total of 150 pregnant women were recruited in this randomized, controlled study. Ultrasound examination and spinal anaesthesia were performed by three anaesthetists with experience in ultrasound-guided neuraxial block. Patients were randomized to either the Ultrasound Group (n=75) or the Landmark Group (n=75). In both groups the level of L3-4 or L4-5 was identified by ultrasound (transverse and longitudinal approach) or palpation. The primary outcome was the procedure time, measured from the time of skin puncture by the introducer to the time of viewing cerebrospinal fluid at the hub of the spinal needle. Secondary outcomes were the number of skin punctures, number of passes, and incidence of successful spinal blockade. The average procedure time, number of skin punctures and needle passes, were similar in both groups. The number of patients with successful spinal anaesthesia after one puncture was not statistically different between the groups. The present results indicate that when performed by anaesthetists experienced in both ultrasound and landmark techniques, the use of ultrasound does not appear to increase the success rate of spinal anaesthesia, or reduce the procedure time or number of attempts in obstetric patients with easily palpable spines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. On Taking Advantage of the Mass Media in Ideological and Political Education%充分发挥大众传媒思想政治教育功能的对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭钟琪; 夏琳

    2012-01-01

    This paper first generalizes the basic principles in taking advantage of mass media in ideological and political education,followed by a deep analysis of the current situations,major problems as well as the causes of these problems in making use of mass media in ideological and political education in China.It is meant to reveal the profoundly inherent constraints behind these problems,and to put forward corresponding strategic proposals,so as to maximize the role of mass media in ideological and political education.%本文归纳总结了切实发挥大众传媒思想政治教育功能应遵循的基本原则,深入分析当前我国发挥大众传媒思想政治教育功能的现状、存在的主要问题以及导致这些问题的原因,并进而深入挖掘隐藏在这些问题背后的深层次制约因素,提出了如何充分发挥大众传媒思想政治教育功能的对策性意见。

  19. Measurement and Modelling: Sequential Use of Analytical Techniques in a Study of Risk-Taking in Decision-Making by School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimmer, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates reasoned risk-taking in decision-making by school principals using a methodology that combines sequential use of psychometric and traditional measurement techniques. Risk-taking is defined as when decisions are made that are not compliant with the regulatory framework, the primary governance mechanism for public schools in…

  20. Results of Using the Take-Away Technique on Students' Achievements and Attitudes in High School Physics and Physical Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carifio, James; Doherty, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The Take-away Technique was used in High School Physics and Physical Science courses for the unit on Newtonian mechanics in a teacher (6) by grade level (4) partially crossed design (N = 272). All classes received the same IE instructional treatment. The experimental group (classrooms) did a short Take-away after each class summarizing the key…

  1. On the Building of Legal Procedures in the Investigation of Crimes by Taking advantage of Duties%职务犯罪技术侦查法治程序构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪铁

    2012-01-01

    当前中国腐败现象较为严重,职务犯罪处于高发态势,犯罪手段不断升级,证据获取困难重重,这与检察机关缺乏有效的技术侦查措施有内在联系。可借鉴其他国家的合理做法,完善检察机关职务犯罪技术侦查权,并严格规定其适用范围、审批程序、执行程序和救济程序。相关程序的合理建构,有利于有效收集诉讼证据,落实刑事程序法治,顺应科技强检趋势,对接国际公约。%Current China faces serious corruption and frequently occurrence of crimes by taking advantage of duties and crime means are increasingly in escalation. It is quite difficult to collect evidence, which is related to the inefficient technical investigation measures in procuratorial organs. The practice in other countries can be taken for reference to improve the technical investigation power of procuratorial organs. However, its scope of application, approval, execution and relief procedures should be strictly prescribed to benefit the collection of evidence, carry out the rule of law in criminal procedures and follow the trend of strengthening procuratorial work with science and docking international conventions.

  2. Low-elevation tracking technique for X-band unmanned aerial vehicle automatic take-off and landing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S.-Y.; Cho, M.-H.; Lin, M.-Y.; Hu, W.-Y.; Sun, J.-S.

    2017-05-01

    In this study, an automatic take-off and landing system (ATOLS) based on radar guidance was developed to provide day/night, all weather, automatic takeoff and landing for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The ATOLS contains a ground-based tracking radar subsystem and an airborne transponder subsystem. This X-band tracking radar can provide precise position information for UAV-control operations (transponder mode) and fire-control systems (skin mode). It provides 360 degrees of azimuth coverage and therefore can be employed for navigation applications. Its maximum tracking range is about 17 km and accuracy of altitude measurement is about 1 ft with a 50-ft decision height above ground level. To substantiate the proposed ATOLS system, a differential global positioning system (DGPS) was also developed. When a UAV at a low-elevation angle is detected and tracked by a tracking radar, multipath propagation often leads to the degradation of tracking accuracy or even cause the radar to break track. As a result, it becomes a potential risk to flight safety of the ATOLS guidance and control of UAVs. To overcome this technical difficulty, this paper proposes a solution based on optimization of radar parameters to mitigate the interference from multipath signals. The feasibility of proposed method has been experimentally proven through the flight trials of UAVs. Compared to the conventional low-elevation tracking techniques, the proposed one employs the radar signal processing, and does not consume additional hardware and resources.

  3. Countermeasures to Crime by Taking Advantage of Duty Committed by Staff of Rural Primary Organizations——Taking Suburb of Kunming as Example%预防农村基层组织人员职务犯罪对策研究——以昆明市近郊农村为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕丽; 凌娜; 裴蕾

    2012-01-01

    农村基层组织人员职务犯罪在现阶段呈蔓延态势,严重干扰了国家支农、惠农政策的落实,损害了农民群众的切身利益,已经成为影响农村社会稳定﹑制约农村经济发展、阻碍农村法治建设的重要因素。惩治只是治标,预防方为治本,预防远比惩治重要和有效。本文以昆明市近郊农村为例,在剖析农村基层组织人员职务犯罪的基本现状,梳理预防措施,有针对性地提出对策建议。%It has been increasing crimes committed by staff of rural primary organizations by abusing their power, which has severely impeded the implementation of national preferential policies for farmers, hurting their vital interests. Such crimes will unsettle the social stability in rural area; hinder its economic develop- ment and legal system construction. Punishment will just be a kind a passive measure taken after the crime committed. Working on the way of prevention can significantly help us to take the initiative to counter the crimes effectively. This essay takes Kunming as an example, analyzing the basic situation of crimes committed by taking advantage of duty in rural area, listing ways of prevention, and further proposing countermeasures .

  4. Self-esteem, personality and emotion situation in criminals taking advantage of duty%职务犯罪服刑人员的自尊、人格特征及情绪状况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳郁; 孙宏伟; 刘金虎; 高树宏; 王恩光; 徐娜

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究职务犯罪服刑人员的外显自尊、内隐自尊的特征,以及不同自尊结构职务犯罪服刑人员的人格特征及情绪状况的差异.方法:方便选取某监狱职务犯罪服刑人员共112名,符合入组条件者共88名.使用大五人格量表简版(NEO-FFI)、简式简明心境问卷(POMS-SF)、自尊量表(SES)以及内隐联想测验(IAT)进行问卷调查及行为学实验.按SES、IAT的平均分为界,将被试分为高外显高内隐组(n=13)、高外显低内隐组(n=14)、低外显高内隐组(n=12)、低外显低内隐组(n=12).结果:获有效问卷51份.内隐联想测验中,被试在相容试验的反应时短于不相容试验的反应时(P =0.022,d=0.45).外显自尊得分与内隐自尊得分无统计学意义相关(r=0.10,P=0.527).高外显自尊两组NEO-FFI的神经质得分低于低外显自尊两组.高外显低内隐组的外向性得分高于高外显高内隐组和低外显低内隐组,开放性得分高于较低外显高内隐组,谨慎性得分高于低外显自尊两组.低外显高内隐组POMS-SF的抑郁-沮丧、愤怒-敌意、疲乏及迷惑-混乱得分均高于高外显自尊两组.外显自尊与外向性、开放性及精力得分呈正相关(r =0.40,0.34,0.34,均P<0.05),而与神经质、抑郁-沮丧、疲乏得分呈负相关(r=-0.52,-0.35,-0.42,P<0.01或0.05);内隐自尊与精力得分呈王相关(r=0.39,P<0.01).结论:职务犯罪服刑人员的外显自尊与内隐自尊是两个相互独立的结构,高外显自尊职务犯罪服刑人员的人格具有情绪相对稳定的特点,低外显高内隐自尊的服刑人员抑郁、愤怒、疲乏及迷惑等负性情绪相对较突出.%Objective: To explore the characteristics of explicit and implicit self-esteem in criminals taking advantage of duty and its difference in personality and emotion with different self-esteem structure. Methods: Totally 112 criminals taking advantage of duty in a prison were selected by convenient

  5. Using EMGs and kinematics data to study the take-off technique of experts and novices for a pole vaulting short run-up educational exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassement, Maud; Garnier, Cyril; Goss-Sampson, Mark; Watelain, Eric; Lepoutre, François-Xavier

    2010-09-01

    This study attempts to characterise the electromyographic activity and kinematics exhibited during the performance of take-off for a pole vaulting short run-up educational exercise, for different expertise levels. Two groups (experts and novices) participated in this study. Both groups were asked to execute their take-off technique for that specific exercise. Among the kinematics variables studied, the knee, hip and ankle angles and the hip and knee angular velocities were significantly different. There were also significant differences in the EMG variables, especially in terms of (i) biceps femoris and gastrocnemius lateralis activity at touchdown and (ii) vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius lateralis activity during take-off. During touchdown, the experts tended to increase the stiffness of the take-off leg to decrease braking. Novices exhibited less stiffness in the take-off leg due to their tendency to maintain a tighter knee angle. Novices also transferred less energy forward during take-off due to lack of contraction in the vastus lateralis, which is known to contribute to forward energy transfers. This study highlights the differences in both groups in terms of muscular and angular control according to the studied variables. Such studies of pole vaulting could be useful to help novices to learn expert's technique.

  6. Syndromes of Indirect Communication : A Functional Analysis of the Static Long-take Technique in Apichatpong Weerasethakul's Feature Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purnama, Ari

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the functional potentialities of the static long-take application, as an alternative filming method to the coverage approach, in the film-making style of Apichatpong Weerasethakul. By employing stylistic analysis on Sang Sattawat/Syndromes and a Century (2006) and Sud Sanaeha/

  7. Syndromes of Indirect Communication : A Functional Analysis of the Static Long-take Technique in Apichatpong Weerasethakul's Feature Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purnama, Ari

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the functional potentialities of the static long-take application, as an alternative filming method to the coverage approach, in the film-making style of Apichatpong Weerasethakul. By employing stylistic analysis on Sang Sattawat/Syndromes and a Century (2006) and Sud Sanaeha/

  8. 冬油菜生产优势与栽培技术%production advantages and cultivation techniques of winter oilseed rape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申淑萍; 郭元发; 王荣

    2013-01-01

      油菜是临夏州的主要油料作物,也是优势经济作物之一。临夏回族自治州地处青藏高原与黄土高原的接壤地带,大部分地区海拔在2000 m以上,年均气温6.3℃,无霜期130~180 d,日照充足,昼夜温差大,有利于油菜生长发育及油分的积累,油籽产量高、品质好,是全国春油菜的最适生态区之一。%Rape is a major oil crops and one of the advantage of economic crops in Linxia. is one. Linxia Hui Au-tonomous Prefecture is a border zone between Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the Loess Plateau, most of the region is more than 2 000 m above sea level, the average annual temperature is 6.3 ℃, frost-free period is 130 ~ 180 d, sunshine is e-nough, big temperature difference between day and night, it is conducive to grow and accumulate rapeseed oil , it is easy to have good quality and it is the optimal ecological zones for spring rape.

  9. On the Advantages of Establishing a Business and Its Route Analysis --Taking Wenzhou as an Example%大学生的创业优势与路径分析——以温州市高校为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳俊丰

    2011-01-01

    温州是创业的热土,大学生创业有着独有优势,温州独特的文化因子、独特的产业结构、成功的温商群体等对大学生创业具有辐射、推动和引导作用。在大学生创业过程中,应该发挥现有优势,整合政府层面、民间资本层面、高校层面、大学生群体自身层面以及侨资层面的合力,探索具有温州特色的大学生创业的路径。%Wenzhou is the hot land of creating a business. University students have special advantage of creating a business. With unique cultural elements, distinctive industrial structure, and successful Wenzhou businessmen, university students get radiation, motivation and guidance. In the process of creating a business, it is necessary to develop the advantages, integrate the levels of government, non-government, university and the students themselves and explore the route of creating a business.

  10. Taking stock of the toolkit: an overview of relevant automated content analysis approaches and techniques for digital journalism scholars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, J.W.; Trilling, D.

    2016-01-01

    When analyzing digital journalism content, journalism scholars are confronted with a number of substantial differences compared to traditional journalistic content. The sheer amount of data and the unique features of digital content call for the application of valuable new techniques. Various other

  11. Taking stock of the toolkit: an overview of relevant automated content analysis approaches and techniques for digital journalism scholars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, J.W.; Trilling, D.

    2016-01-01

    When analyzing digital journalism content, journalism scholars are confronted with a number of substantial differences compared to traditional journalistic content. The sheer amount of data and the unique features of digital content call for the application of valuable new techniques. Various other

  12. Combining X-ray Absorption and X-ray Diffraction Techniques for in Situ Studies of Chemical Transformations in Heterogeneous Catalysis: Advantages and Limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenkel, A.I.; Hanson, J.; Wang, Q.; Marinkovic, N.; Chen, J.G.; Barrio, L.; Si, R.; Lopez Camara, A.; Estrella, A.M.; Rodriguez, J.A.

    2011-08-05

    Recent advances in catalysis instrumentations include synchrotron-based facilities where time-resolved X-ray scattering and absorption techniques are combined in the same in situ or operando experiment to study catalysts at work. To evaluate the advances and limitations of this method, we performed a series of experiments at the new XAFS/XRD instrument in the National Synchrotron Light Source. Nearly simultaneous X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption fine-structure (XAFS) measurements of structure and kinetics of several catalysts under reducing or oxidizing conditions have been performed and carefully analyzed. For CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} under reducing conditions, the combined use of the two techniques allowed us to obtain accurate data on kinetics of nucleation and growth of metallic Cu. For the inverse catalyst CuO/CeO{sub 2} that underwent isothermal reduction (with CO) and oxidation (with O{sub 2}), the XAFS data measured in the same experiment with XRD revealed strongly disordered Cu species that went undetected by diffraction. These and other examples emphasize the unique sensitivity of these two complementary methods to follow catalytic processes in the broad ranges of length and time scales.

  13. Advantages of the synthetic technique for the conduction of short circuit tests to breakers; Ventajas de la tecnica sintetica para realizar pruebas de corto circuito a interruptores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibilski, Henry [Instituto Electrotecnico de Varsovia, Varsovia (Poland); Ochoa Vivanco, Ruben [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1986-12-31

    In this article the operational principle of the synthetic test is described; specifically of the current injection circuit in parallel. Its utilization in the research and development of new breaker models and its wide possibilities regarding its testing characteristics is outlined. Likewise the different tests that can be performed by means of the synthetic technique are described. Finally the importance of the synthetic tests is outlined for the development of own technology in the area of interruption equipment and emphasis is made that in industrialized countries this technique is of common practice. [Espanol] En este articulo se describe el principio de operacion de la prueba sintetica; especificamente del circuito de inyeccion de corriente en paralelo. Se destaca su utilizacion en la investigacion y desarrollo de nuevos modelos de interruptores y sus amplias posibilidades en cuanto a caracteristicas de prueba. Asimismo, se describen las diferentes pruebas que pueden realizarse mediante la tecnica sintetica. Por ultimo, se destaca la importancia de las pruebas sinteticas para el desarrollo de tecnologia propia en el area de equipos de interrupcion, y se hace notar que en paises desarrollados, esta tecnica es practica comun.

  14. Fiches Pratiques: Mots...a croiser; Profitons du cinema; Le discours rapporte; Cent ans (Practical Ideas: Words...to Cross; Let's Take Advantage of the Movies; Relating Others' Discourse; One Hundred Years).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vever, Daniel; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Four class activities for French language instruction are described, including a crossword puzzle exercise emphasizing French culture, use of films for developing a variety of language skills, techniques for helping students discuss others' ideas, and an exercise promoting discussion through photographs of older adults engaged in various…

  15. Analysis of fatty acids in 12 Mediterranean fish species: advantages and limitations of a new GC-FID/GC-MS based technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevigato, Teresina; Masci, Maurizio; Orban, Elena; Di Lena, Gabriella; Casini, Irene; Caproni, Roberto

    2012-07-01

    When fatty acids in fish are analyzed, results in percentage form (profile analysis) are mostly reported. However, the much more useful results expressed as mg/100 g (absolute analysis) is the main information required. Absolute methods based on calibration curves are of good accuracy but with a high degree of complexity if applied to a great number of analytes. Procedures based on the sequence profile analysis-total FA determination-absolute analysis may be suitable for routine use, but suffer from a number of uncertainties that have never been really resolved. These uncertainties are mainly related to the profile analysis. In fact, most profile analyses reported in the literature disagree about the number and type of fatty acids monitored as well as about the total percentage to assign to their sum so leading to possible inaccuracies; in addition the instrumental response factor for all FAME (fatty acid methyl esters) is often considered as a constant, but this is not exactly true. In this work, a set of 24 fatty acids was selected and studied on 12 fish species in the Mediterranean area (variable in lipid content and month of sampling): in our results, and in these species, this set constitutes, on average, 90 ± 3 % of the total fatty acid content. Moreover the error derived from the assumption of a unique response factor was investigated. Two different detection techniques (GC-FID and GC-MS) together with two capillary columns (different in length and polarity) were used in order to acquire complementary data on the same sample. With the protocol here proposed absolute analyses on the 12 cited species are easily achievable by the total FA determination procedure. The accuracy of this approach is good in general, but in some cases (DHA for example) is lower than the accuracy of calibration-based methods. The differences were evaluated on a case by case basis.

  16. 危机情境下的品牌借势营销策略与陷阱规避%Taking advantage of brand marketing strategy and crisis situations to avoid the trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国强; 张朋辉

    2016-01-01

    危机事件作为热点事件的一种特殊类型本身具备较高的价值厚度,但危机情境下的品牌借势营销也需要更高的营销智慧,否则就容易陷入危机黑洞当中。%with the help of hot events to boost their own brand communication in recent years has become a highly respected marketing method, low cost, quick effect, wide spread and a series of advantages of so many businesses are eager to ride on the hot spots received wide attention, on the other hand out from the hot events and condensed in great just a little attention resource utiliG zation, brand information and events with bundled delivery, relying on high exposure event itself has a high degree of concern and will be "four two pounds", while the crisis as a special type of hot events itself also has high value of thickness, but on the other hand, critical under the situation of brand marketing occasion also requires higher marketing wisdom, otherwise it is easy to fall into a black hole in the crisis. In the face of marketing occasion negative effects of increasing current industry emerge in an endless stream of reality, the academic research is lagging behind, from the theoretical level, to distinguish the pros and cons of guidance is a realistic problem.

  17. Taking label-free optical spectroscopy techniques into the operating theatre: biopsy needles and surgical guidance probes (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblond, Frédéric

    2017-02-01

    Recent advances will be described relating to the development and clinical translation of optical spectroscopy techniques designed to guide surgical interventions in brain and prostate oncology applications. The use of molecular imaging guidance systems can enable true intra-operative tissue identification, increasing the effectiveness of cancer surgery and potentially positively impacting patient survival. Surgical resection is a fundamental cancer treatment, but its effectiveness is reduced by the inability to rapidly and accurately identify cancer margins. We will introduce a portable intraoperative label-free multimodal optical spectroscopy system combining intrinsic fluorescence, diffuse reflectance, and Raman spectroscopy that can identify cancer in situ during surgery. We will show that this on-line guidance system can detect primary cancer such as glioma as well as metastatic melanoma and cancer of the lung and colon with an accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 97%, 100%, and 93% respectively. Moreover, a method will be presented, along with preliminary tissue classification results, based on the interrogation of whole human prostates from prostatectomies. The development and in vivo validation of an optical brain needle biopsy instrument will be presented demonstrating its ability to detect bulk tumor using Raman spectroscopy with the goal of reducing the number of non-diagnostic samples during a procedure. The extraction of tissue can cause life-threatening hemorrhage because of significant blood vessel injury during the procedure. We will demonstrate that a sub-diffuse optical tomography technique integrated with a commercial biopsy needle can detect the presence of blood vessels to limit the hemorrhage risk.

  18. 浅谈黑龙江省玉米育苗移栽的优点和技术要点%Discussion on the Advantages and the Main Points of the Cultureseedling Technique of Corn in Heilongjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏国江; 潘冬梅; 刘淑霞

    2011-01-01

    The production status of corn, the advantages and the main points of the cultureseedling technique of corn etc. were summarized.It provided the basis for the corn production of Heilongjiang Province.%阐述了我省玉米生产现状、玉米育苗移栽的优点、玉米育苗移栽需要解决的关键问题及育苗移栽的技术要点,从而为玉米生产提供依据。

  19. Surface modification: advantages, techniques, and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.

    2000-03-01

    Adequate performance of materials at elevated temperatures is a potential problem in many systems within the chemical, petroleum, process, and power-generating industries. Degradation of materials occurs because of interaction between the structural material and the exposure environment. These interactions are generally undesired chemical reactions that can lead to accelerated wastage and alter the functional requirements and/or structural integrity of the materials. Therefore, material selection for high-temperature applications must be based not only on a material strength properties but also on resistance to the complex environments prevalent in the anticipated exposure environment. As plants become larger, the satisfactory performance and reliability of components play a greater role in plant availability and economics. However, system designers are becoming increasingly concerned with finding the least expensive material that will satisfactorily perform the design function for the desired service life. This present paper addresses the benefits of surface modification and identified several criteria for selection and application of modified surfaces in the power sector. A brief review is presented on potential methods for modification of surfaces, with the emphasis on coatings. In the final section of the paper, several examples address the requirements of different energy systems and surface modification avenues that have been applied to resolve the issues.

  20. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Choreography Techniques in the Teaching of Dance Creation%编舞技法在舞蹈创作和教学中的利与弊

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄兰

    2014-01-01

    编舞技法作为舞蹈创作和教学中的一把双刃剑,对创作和教学有利有弊。如何使作品既有创新又不失其内涵和风格;如何使组合教学既有训练价值和风格特点又给人耳目一新。这种利与弊的临界点,究其根本,是编导和教师对编舞技法如何去运用,如何去把握的问题。%The choreography techniques as a double-edged sword, in the dance creation and teaching of creation and the influence of teaching has advantages and disadvantages, that is, how to make the work both innovative and withoug breaking its connotation and style and how to make the combination of teach-ing with characteristics of training value and style leaving fresh impression on people. The base of advan-tages and disadvantages of the critical poin lies in how directors and teachers apply and manage the choreography techniques.

  1. 模块化设计塑造企业竞争优势的机制研究--以珠三角大中型制造企业为例%Study on the Mechanism of Enhancing Enterprise's Competitive Advantage with Modular Design:Taking the Large and Medium-sized Manufacturing Enterprises in Pearl River Delta for Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to study the mechanism of enhancing enterprises' sustainable competitive advantage with modular design. Based on the dynamic capability theory and taking technology innovation as the intermediary variables, the theoretical model of the relationship between modular design and continuous competitive advantage is built. SPSS16.0 and LISREL8.7 structure equation model are used to do empirical analysis to the data of the 300 questionnaires from the large and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises in Pearl River Delta. Results show that modular design can help enterprises to obtain sustainable competitive advantage. Technological innovation plays a fully mediation role in the relationship between modular design and brand advantages, continuous first-mover advantage and mass customization advantage.%为研究模块化设计塑造企业创造持续竞争优势的机制,基于动态能力理论,以技术创新为中介变量,构建了模块化设计与持续竞争优势间关系的理论模型。利用来自珠三角大中型制造企业的300份问卷,应用SPSS16.0与LISREL8.7结构方程模型对问卷数据进行实证分析。结果表明模块化设计能帮助企业获得持续竞争优势,技术创新在模块化设计与品牌优势、连续先动优势和大规模定制优势的关系中均起完全中介作用。

  2. Imaging applications of synchrotron X-ray phase-contrast microtomography in biological morphology and biomaterials science. I. General aspects of the technique and its advantages in the analysis of millimetre-sized arthropod structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Oliver; Wegst, Ulrike; Weide, Daniela; Heethoff, Michael; Helfen, Lukas; Lee, Wah-Keat; Cloetens, Peter

    2007-07-01

    Synchrotron-generated X-rays provide scientists with a multitude of investigative techniques well suited for the analysis of the composition and structure of all types of materials and specimens. Here, we describe the properties of synchrotron-generated X-rays and the advantages that they provide for qualitative morphological research of millimetre-sized biological organisms and biomaterials. Case studies of the anatomy of insect heads, of whole microarthropods and of the three-dimensional reconstruction of the cuticular tendons of jumping beetles, all performed at the beamline ID19 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), are presented to illustrate the techniques of phase-contrast tomography available for anatomical and structural investigations. Various sample preparation techniques are described and compared and experimental settings that we have found to be particularly successful are given. On comparing the strengths and weaknesses of the technique with traditional histological thin sectioning, we conclude that synchrotron radiation microtomography has a great potential in biological microanatomy.

  3. Plasma treatment advantages for textiles

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia

    2008-01-01

    The textile industry is searching for innovative production techniques to improve the product quality, as well as society requires new finishing techniques working in environmental respect. Plasma surface treatments show distinct advantages, because they are able to modify the surface properties of inert materials, sometimes with environment friendly devices. For fabrics, cold plasma treatments require the development of reliable and large systems. Such systems are now existing and the use of plasma physics in industrial problems is rapidly increasing. On textile surfaces, three main effects can be obtained depending on the treatment conditions: the cleaning effect, the increase of microroughness (anti-pilling finishing of wool) and the production of radicals to obtain hydrophilic surfaces. Plasma polymerisation, that is the deposition of solid polymeric materials with desired properties on textile substrates, is under development. The advantage of such plasma treatments is that the modification turns out to ...

  4. Taking Advantage of Alice to Teach Programming Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biju, Soly Mathew

    2013-01-01

    Learning the fundamentals of programming languages has always been a difficult task for students. It is equally challenging for lecturers to teach these concepts. A number of methods have been deployed by teachers to teach these concepts. This article analyses the result of a class test to identify fundamental programming concepts that students…

  5. TAKING ADVANTAGES OF KAIZEN TO IMPROVE LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kostenko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper encapsulates the essence of kaizen system, its main elements and the possibility of use it in enhancing labour productivity. The study examines a specific of kaizen implementation in Japan, the U.S. and Europe as well as in Ukraine and Russia. The comparative analysis of traditional and kaizen management is presented.

  6. Chinese Textile Industry Still Taking Advantage on Export ( Part B )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Diversified export marketsWith China’s textile export markets -- particularlythose in the US -- being strongly affected by the adverseeffects of the ongoing global financial crisis, diversifyingexport markets has become the motto of China’stextile foreign trade policy, a safe way to provide newopportunities to Chinese exporters. In 2008, Chinesetextile exported to 226 countries and regions, of which,38 countries and regions achieved export value of over 1

  7. Take Advantage of Unique Technology for Broader Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Yuaqing

    2004-01-01

    @@ Jianghan Oil Field is an important base for petroleum exploration and development in South China. It is also the base for manufacture and export of China's first-class petroleum machinery equipment. The oil field has actively involved itself in international market competition and achieved satisfactory results in its efforts to implement the multinational operation strategy in recent three years.

  8. Taking advantage of sparsity in multi-task learning

    OpenAIRE

    Lounici, K.; Pontil, M.; Tsybakov, A. B.; van de Geer, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    We study the problem of estimating multiple linear regression equations for the purpose of both prediction and variable selection. Following recent work on multi-task learning Argyriou et al. [2008], we assume that the regression vectors share the same sparsity pattern. This means that the set of relevant predictor variables is the same across the different equations. This assumption leads us to consider the Group Lasso as a candidate estimation method. We show that this estimator enjoys nice...

  9. Physical frailty and sarcopenia: taking advantage of their commonalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Cesari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Physical frailty and sarcopenia are two agerelated conditions indicated as key risk factors for incident disability and health-related negative events in the elderly. Nevertheless, to date, their clinical implementation is still limited, largely because of methodological ambiguities and disagreement about their operationalizations. In order to bypass the current stall-position in the field and try to identify an objective, standardized, and clinically relevant target for interventions, it might be hypothesized to redesign the limits of a pre-disability physical risk condition around the inner core shared by both physical frailty and sarcopenia. Thus, preliminary research initiatives [like the sarcopenia and physical frailty in older people: multicomponent treatment strategies (SPRINTT project] are proposing to explore whether physical frailty (or poor physical performance may represent the clinical manifestation of a specific biological substratum (i.e., low muscle mass on which build up novel interventions against disability in the elderly.

  10. Gaining Relational Competitive Advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Zhang, Si; Li, Jizhen

    2015-01-01

    Establishing strategic technological partnerships (STPs) with foreign partners is an increasingly studied topic within the innovation management literature. Partnering firms can jointly create sources of relational competitive advantage. Chinese firms often lack research and development (R......&D) capabilities but are increasingly becoming preferred technological partners for transnational corporations. We investigate an STP between a Scandinavian and a Chinese firm and try to explore how to gain relational competitive advantage by focusing on its two essential stages: relational rent generation...

  11. Heterozygote advantage for fecundity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil J Gemmell

    Full Text Available Heterozygote advantage, or overdominance, remains a popular and persuasive explanation for the maintenance of genetic variation in natural populations in the face of selection. However, despite being first proposed more than 80 years ago, there remain few examples that fit the criteria for heterozygote advantage, all of which are associated with disease resistance and are maintained only in the presence of disease or other gene-by-environment interaction. Here we report five new examples of heterozygote advantage, based around polymorphisms in the BMP15 and GDF9 genes that affect female fecundity in domesticated sheep and are not reliant on disease for their maintenance. Five separate mutations in these members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta superfamily give phenotypes with fitness differentials characteristic of heterozygous advantage. In each case, one copy of the mutant allele increases ovulation rate, and ultimately litter size per ewe lambing, relative to the wildtype. However, homozygous ewes inheriting mutant alleles from both parents have impaired oocyte development and maturation, which results in small undeveloped ovaries and infertility. Using data collected over many years on ovulation rates, litter size, and lambing rates, we have calculated the equilibrium solution for each of these polymorphisms using standard population genetic theory. The predicted equilibrium frequencies obtained for these mutant alleles range from 0.11 to 0.23, which are amongst the highest yet reported for a polymorphism maintained by heterozygote advantage. These are amongst the most frequent and compelling examples of heterozygote advantage yet described and the first documented examples of heterozygote advantage that are not reliant on a disease interaction for their maintenance.

  12. COMPETITIVE PRODUCT ADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian MICU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost advantages may be either internal or external. Internal economics of scope, scale, or experience, and external economies of focus or logistical integration, enable a company to produce some products at a lower cost than the competition. The coordination of pricing with suppliers, although not actually economizing resources, can improve the efficiency of pricing by avoiding the incrementalization of a supplier's nonincremental fixed costs and profit. Any of these strategies can generate cost advantages that are, at least in the short run, sustainable. Even cost advantages that are not sustainable, however, can generate temporary savings that are often the key to building more sustainable cost or product advantages later.. Even when a product's physical attributes are not readily differentiable, opportunities to develop product advantages remain. The augmented product that customers buy is more than the particular product or service exchanged. It includes all sorts of ancillary services and intangible relationships that make buying thesame product from one company less difficult, less risky, or more pleasant than buying from a competitor. Superior augmentation of the same basic product can add substantial value in the eyes of consumers, leading them to pay willingly what are often considerable price premiums.

  13. Teachers of the Alexander Technique in the UK and the people who take their lessons: A national cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldred, J; Hopton, A; Donnison, E; Woodman, J; MacPherson, H

    2015-06-01

    Given the rising profile of the Alexander Technique in the UK, there is a need for a comprehensive description of its teachers and of those who currently take lessons. In a national survey of Alexander teachers, we set out to address this information gap. A cross-sectional survey of 871 UK members of three main Alexander Technique teachers' professional associations was conducted. A questionnaire requested information about their professional background, teaching practice and methods, and about the people who attend lessons and their reasons for seeking help. With an overall response rate of 61%, 534 teachers responded; 74% were female with median age of 58 years, 60% had a higher education qualification, and 95% were self-employed, many with additional non-Alexander paid employment. The majority (87%) offered lessons on their own premises or in a privately rented room, and 19% provided home visits; both individual and group lessons were provided. People who took lessons were predominantly female (66%) with a median age of 48 years, and 91% paid for their lessons privately. Nearly two-thirds (62%) began lessons for reasons related to musculoskeletal conditions, including back symptoms, posture, neck pain, and shoulder pain. Other reasons were general (18%, including well-being), performance-related (10%, including voice-, music-, and sport-related), psychological (5%) and neurological (3%). We estimate that Alexander teachers in the UK provide approximately 400,000 lessons per year. This study provides an overview of Alexander Technique teaching in the UK today and data that may be useful when planning future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Compositional Advantage and Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    advantage is redefined as the attractiveness of the composition of the producer’s offering in terms of scope and perceived value/price ratio. I identify five ways or basic compositional strategies to improve the value/price ratio. A firm may have an overall compositional strategy that is composed of some......In this paper, I first critique the composition-based view of Yadong Luo and John Child for understanding how resource-poor firms survive and thrive. To remedy the deficiencies in their perspective, I then propose a dynamic theory of compositional advantage and strategy. Here, the compositional...... or all of the five basic compositional strategies. I argue there are three indispensable key success factors for a composition-based competition, i.e., aspiration (ambition-position asymmetry), attitude (being ALERT), and action (turning asymmetry into advantage). I also discuss the particular relevance...

  15. Compositional Advantage and Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    In this paper, I first critique the composition-based view of Yadong Luo and John Child for understanding how resource-poor firms survive and thrive. To remedy the deficiencies in their perspective, I then propose a dynamic theory of compositional advantage and strategy. Here, the compositional...... advantage is redefined as the attractiveness of the composition of the producer’s offering in terms of scope and perceived value/price ratio. I identify five ways or basic compositional strategies to improve the value/price ratio. A firm may have an overall compositional strategy that is composed of some...... or all of the five basic compositional strategies. I argue there are three indispensable key success factors for a composition-based competition, i.e., aspiration (ambition-position asymmetry), attitude (being ALERT), and action (turning asymmetry into advantage). I also discuss the particular relevance...

  16. Accessing offshoring advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mykhaylenko, Alona; Motika, Agnes; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to advance the understanding of factors that affect offshoring performance results. To do so, this paper focuses on the access to location-specific advantages, rather than solely on the properties of the offshoring company, its strategy or environment....... Assuming that different levels of synergy may exist between particular offshoring strategic decisions (choosing offshore outsourcing or captive offshoring and the type of function) and different offshoring advantages, this work advocates that the actual fact of realization of certain offshoring advantages...... (getting or not getting access to them) is a more reliable predictor of offshoring success. Design/methodology/approach – Aset of hypotheses derived from the extant literature is tested on the data from a quantitative survey of 1,143 Scandinavian firms. Findings – The paper demonstrates that different...

  17. Compositional Advantage and Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    In this paper, I first critique the composition-based view of Yadong Luo and John Child for understanding how resource-poor firms survive and thrive. To remedy the deficiencies in their perspective, I then propose a dynamic theory of compositional advantage and strategy. Here, the compositional...... advantage is redefined as the attractiveness of the composition of the producer’s offering in terms of scope and perceived value/price ratio. I identify five ways or basic compositional strategies to improve the value/price ratio. A firm may have an overall compositional strategy that is composed of some...... or all of the five basic compositional strategies. I argue there are three indispensable key success factors for a composition-based competition, i.e., aspiration (ambition-position asymmetry), attitude (being ALERT), and action (turning asymmetry into advantage). I also discuss the particular relevance...

  18. Scandinavian Cooperative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert; Freeman, R. Edward

    2015-01-01

    . We conclude by endorsing the expression “Scandinavian cooperative advantage” in an effort to draw attention to the Scandinavian context and encourage the field of strategic management to shift its focus from achieving a competitive advantage toward achieving a cooperative advantage....... of relationships to these historical contributions. Thus, we propose that Scandinavia offers a particularly promising context from which to draw inspiration regarding effective company-stakeholder cooperation and where ample of examples of what is more recently referred to as “creating shared value” can be found...

  19. Advantages available in the application of the semi-integral electroanalysis technique for the determination of diffusion coefficients in the highly viscous ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Cameron L; Bond, Alan M; Hollenkamp, Anthony F; Mahon, Peter J; Zhang, Jie

    2013-02-19

    While it is common to determine diffusion coefficients from steady-state voltammetric limiting current values, derived from microelectrode/rotating disk electrode measurements or transient peak currents at macroelectrodes, application of these methods is problematic in highly viscous ionic liquids. This study shows that the semi-integral electroanalysis technique is highly advantageous under these circumstances, and it has allowed the diffusion coefficient of cobaltocenium, [Co(Cp)(2)](+) (simple redox process), and iodide, I(-) (complex redox mechanism), to be determined in the highly viscous ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (viscosity = 866 cP at 20 °C) from transient voltammograms obtained using a 1.6 mm diameter Pt electrode. In such a viscous medium, a near-steady-state current is not attainable with a 10 μm diameter microdisk electrode or a 3 mm diameter Pt rotating disk electrode, while peak currents at a macrodisk are subject to ohmic drop problems and the analysis is hampered by difficulties in modeling the processes involved in the oxidation of iodide. The diffusion coefficients of [Co(Cp)(2)](+) and I(-) were determined to be 9.4 (±0.3) × 10(-9) cm(2) s(-1) and 7.3 (±0.3) × 10(-9) cm(2) s(-1), respectively. These results highlight the utility of the semi-integral electroanalysis technique for quantifying the diffusivity of electroactive species in high viscosity media, where the use of steady-state techniques and transient peak currents is often limited.

  20. Sign Language Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Marilyn

    2001-01-01

    Describes Sign in Education, a pilot program in the United Kingdom that integrated Deaf children and hearing children in a hearing classroom with a culturally Deaf teacher who taught the national curriculum in British Sign Language one afternoon a week. Explores the advantage to the Deaf community, as well as the majority culture of adopting such…

  1. Advantages of Team Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, John

    1973-01-01

    Describes a high school biology program which successfully utilizes team teaching. Outlines the advantages of team teaching and how it is used in the large group lecture-discussion situation, with small groups in the laboratory and on field trips. (JR)

  2. Drivers of Collaborative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Gudrid

    Drawing upon extant alliance literature, this article substantiates the argument that we need to look beyond mere structural and formative aspects of cooperation in order to fully understand the performance antecedents of public-private partnerships. Currently, scholarly work on operational...... processes and behavioural dimensions is practically non-existent. This article tries to remedy the current gap in the literature by reviewing research findings on interfirm collaboration (alliances). On that basis a conceptual framework for analyzing partnership processes is developed. Finally......, the antecedents of collaborative advantage are theoretically examined, and the organizational competences contributing to collaborative success are identified. The conclusion is that operational processes and social dynamics are vital drivers of collaborative advantage. Another significant conclusion...

  3. Compositional Advantage and Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    advantage is redefined as the attractiveness of the composition of the producer’s offering in terms of scope and perceived value/price ratio. I identify five ways or basic compositional strategies to improve the value/price ratio. A firm may have an overall compositional strategy that is composed of some...... or all of the five basic compositional strategies. I argue there are three indispensable key success factors for a composition-based competition, i.e., aspiration (ambition-position asymmetry), attitude (being ALERT), and action (turning asymmetry into advantage). I also discuss the particular relevance...... of the present theory to understanding Chinese firms. I conclude with managerial implications and suggestions for future research....

  4. Competitive Advantage through Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Maier, Maximilian; Wimschneider, Christine

    2016-01-01

    to failure several times. Before the current situation of the company, it remains challenging in the future as well. Hence, the Nespresso story provides interesting space for discussion and learning about what innovation is, how innovation emerges, and under which circumstances innovation can serve...... as a source for competitive advantage. Research limitations/implications Especially given the current market situation, the case offers different starting points for discussion about innovation and long-term company success. Practical implications Especially before the current market situation, the case...... offers different starting points for discussion about innovation and the success of a company on the long term. The case is designed to give practitioners a better understanding on what an innovation as, and how competitive advantages can be linked to innovation. Originality/value This case of Nespresso...

  5. Early Mover Advantages

    OpenAIRE

    Bijwaard, Govert; Janssen, Maarten; Maasland, Emiel

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes empirically whether and if so to what extent later entrants in the European mobile telephony industry have a disadvantage vis-à-vis incumbents and early mover entrants. To analyze this question a dynamic model of market share development and a series of static models are considered. There is clear evidence of early mover advantage, mainly caused by the influence of the penetration rate: it pays to enter when still few people have acquired a mobile telephone. Another import...

  6. The Advantages and Development Prospects on Treatment of Explosive Wastewater with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Technique%超临界CO2技术处理火炸药废水的优势及前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋云芸

    2015-01-01

    The common methods in treatment of explosive waste water were reviewed based on physical methods, chemical methods, biochemical methods and other methods. These methods were analyzed and compared through treatment effect and economical efficiency. Simultaneously, application of the emerging technology-supercritical CO2 extraction on the treatment of explosive wastewater was introduced. The characteristic of traditional methods and supercritical CO2 technique was compared. The advantages and development prospects of supercritical CO2 extraction on the treatment of explosive wastewater were pointed out.%综述了近年来火炸药废水处理技术:物理法、化学法、生物法以及各种其它技术的综合应用。从废水处理的效果及经济效益等方面,对各种处理方法进行了分析和对比。同时介绍了近年来的一种新工艺-超临界二氧化碳( SC-CO2)技术在火炸药废水处理方面的应用,对传统处理方法与新工艺各自的特点进行了对比,指出了超临界CO2技术在火炸药废水处理中的应用优势与发展前景。

  7. Localization path of social work in school from the perspective of advantage --Take Zhejiang province Jinhua city as an example%优势视角下学校社会工作本土化路径探析--以浙江省金华市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱凯; 曾辉

    2013-01-01

    学校社会工作在我国尚处于萌芽阶段。文章以浙江金华市为例,通过对十几所中小学的走访调查,结合作者自身实务经验,以优势视角出发,从学校、学生、家长、教师、资源等不同层面分析了金华市发展学校社会工作的挑战与优势,以本土化为基础,提出了发展策略。%The school social work in China is still in the embryonic stage. This paper takes Zhejiang Jinhua as an example, through the investigation on visiting dozens of schools, combines with the author's own practical experience, starting from the perspective of advantages, from different levels of schools, students, parents, teachers, resources, to analyze the challenges and advantages in the development of school social work in Jinhua city, the localization as the foundation, to propose the development strategy.

  8. 基于破坏性创新的后发企业竞争优势--以小米公司为例%The Competitive Advantages of Entrant Enterprises Based on Disruptive Innovation:Taking Xiaomi Company as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙启贵; 范璐

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of summarizing related literature,this article puts forward the analytical framework of disruptive innovation’s competitive advantages for the entrant enterprises.The article takes Xiaomi Company as a case to analyze the disruptive innovation’s competitive advantages for the entrant enterprises from the internal value network and the external ecosystem.The article expounds how the mobile phone company like xiaomi set up their own competitive advantages.The significance of the article lies in further verifying the theory of disruptive innovation,making an effective supplement and development for the theory of disruptive innovation,and providing some references for Chinese entrant enterprises to imple-ment the disruptive innovation.%在梳理相关文献的基础上,构建后发企业实施破坏性创新战略的竞争优势理论框架,以小米公司为例,从内在价值网络和外在生态系统的层面分析后发企业实施破坏性创新战略的竞争优势,阐述小米手机如何建立起自身的竞争优势。其研究意义不仅在于进一步验证破坏性创新理论,而且是对破坏性创新理论的有效补充和发展,以期为我国后发企业如何实施破坏性创新战略提供一些启示。

  9. Constructing Regional advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asheim, Bjørn T.; Boschma, Ron; Cooke, Phil

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a regional innovation policy model based on the idea of constructing regional advantage. This policy model brings together concepts like related variety, knowledge bases and policy platforms. Related variety attaches importance to knowledge spillovers across complementary...... economic development within and between regions in action lines appropriate to incorporate the basic principles behind related variety and differentiated knowledge bases....... sectors. The paper categorizes knowledge into ‘analytical’ (science based), ‘synthetic’ (engineering based) and ‘symbolic’ (arts based) in nature, with different requirements of ‘virtual’ and real proximity mixes. The implications of this are traced for evolving ‘platform policies’ that facilitate...

  10. Constructing Regional advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asheim, Bjørn T.; Boschma, Ron; Cooke, Phil

    2011-01-01

    sectors. The paper categorizes knowledge into ‘analytical’ (science based), ‘synthetic’ (engineering based) and ‘symbolic’ (arts based) in nature, with different requirements of ‘virtual’ and real proximity mixes. The implications of this are traced for evolving ‘platform policies’ that facilitate......This paper presents a regional innovation policy model based on the idea of constructing regional advantage. This policy model brings together concepts like related variety, knowledge bases and policy platforms. Related variety attaches importance to knowledge spillovers across complementary...

  11. RECONSIDERING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Zaharia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of the competitive advantage involves a considerable effort from any organization. In particular, those organizations involved in a strong competitive market require the development of strategies to allocate long-term strategic marketing resources, efficiently and with easily quantifiable results. Faced with a multitude of phenomena and processes sometimes contradictory on different markets of consumption, contemporarily marketing has the mission to develop as creative as possible the business strategy of the organizations, their capacity of interacting with customers and other categories of audience. Such concepts as strategic positioning, relational marketing, management of the relationship with the consumer, marketing integrated research, a.s.o. are only a few of the tools with the help of which the marketing managers will implement successful operational strategies. All these developments are creating a real new paradigm of Marketing aimed to better explain the new types of complex market relationship in which the 21st Century organization is .

  12. Taking Turns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Two people take turns selecting from an even number of items. Their relative preferences over the items can be described as a permutation, then tools from algebraic combinatorics can be used to answer various questions. We describe each person's optimal selection strategies including how each could make use of knowing the other's preferences. We…

  13. #2 Bucket Wheel Machines Take to Anticipate to Spread the Coal Technique Improvement%#2斗轮机斗轮取料散煤技术改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝照环

    2015-01-01

    Because the coal carbon recent years price motion is bigger, occupy the main part in generate electricity cost specific weight, the related coal transports the equipments efficiency with generate electricity the performance of the business enterprise the relation become more close. Zhejiang Energy Wenzhou Power generate electricity the limited compa-ny to burn the coal power plant in the main dint in the region of Wenzhou , generating electricity to use the coal to all be an-chored by coal ship to connect to unload into the factory, being hoarded to by bucket wheel machines coal a warehouse for, according to machine a need being taken by bucket wheel machines anticipating transporting raw coal. Come from the each generating electricity the business enterprise economic consideration, the coal is compound to burn, inventory, heap a safe production for more and more multifariously, so in power station coal transport bucket wheel machines becoming particularly for importance, increasing direct influence in the efficiency of bucket wheel machines electric power business enterprise with economic performance, but spread to fall the coal phenomenon in the bucket wheel machines originally possessed serious, break down multifarious, to take to anticipate parts of techniques improvement, obtain the good result.%由于煤碳近年价格波动较大,在发电成本比重中占主要部分,相关燃煤输送设备效率与发电企业的效益关系变得更为密切。浙能温州发电有限公司是温州地区主力燃煤发电厂,发电用煤均由煤船靠泊接卸入厂,由斗轮机堆料机囤积到煤场,根据机组需求由斗轮机取料输送到原煤仓。出于各发电企业经济性考量,燃煤掺烧、盘存、堆场越来越频繁,所以在电厂燃煤输送中斗轮堆取料机变得尤为重要,提高斗轮堆取料机效率直接影响电力企业的安全生产和经济效益,而原有斗轮机堆取料中散落煤现象严重,故障

  14. Course-Taking Patterns of Community College Students Beginning in STEM: Using Data Mining Techniques to Reveal Viable STEM Transfer Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueli

    2016-01-01

    This research focuses on course-taking patterns of beginning community college students enrolled in one or more non-remedial science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses during their first year of college, and how these patterns are mapped against upward transfer in STEM fields of study. Drawing upon postsecondary transcript…

  15. 'The Research on Regional Tourism Marketing by Taking Advantage of Microblog ----Example of Beijing Dongcheng District Tourism Administration's Official Microblog%微博旅游营销模式:北京市东城区旅游局官方微博的案例研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The microblog has offered a brand-new platform for governmental tourism administrations to conduct the marketing of tourism resources. The paper took the practice of Beijing Dongcheng District Tourism Administration's official microblog as an example, discussed the effective ways for governmental tourism administrations to conduct the marketing of regional tourism resources by taking advantage of microblog, and brought up a couple of marketing strategies such as multi-channel integration marketing, target-interaction relations marketing, celebrities-relied virus marketing, topics-planning events marketing as well as emotion-linked wet marketing, etc, in order to offer a feasible mode of regional tourism marketing through microblog.%微博为政府旅游部门进行旅游资源营销提供了全新的平台。本文以北京市东城区旅游局官方微博的运营为例,探讨了政府旅游部门通过微博进行区域旅游资源营销的有效路径,提出了多渠道的整合营销、加强与受众互动的关系营销、依托名人进行的病毒式营销、策划热点事件的事件营销以及维系受众情感的湿营销等多种营销策略,以期为区域旅游的微博营销提供有效可行的借鉴模式。

  16. Home advantage in professional tennis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Ruud H.

    2011-01-01

    Home advantage is a pervasive phenomenon in sport. It has been established in team sports such as basketball, baseball, American football, and European soccer. Attention to home advantage in individual sports has so far been limited. The aim of this study was to examine home advantage in professiona

  17. Advantages of Parallel Processing and the Effects of Communications Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Wesley M.; Allman, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Many computing tasks involve heavy mathematical calculations, or analyzing large amounts of data. These operations can take a long time to complete using only one computer. Networks such as the Internet provide many computers with the ability to communicate with each other. Parallel or distributed computing takes advantage of these networked computers by arranging them to work together on a problem, thereby reducing the time needed to obtain the solution. The drawback to using a network of computers to solve a problem is the time wasted in communicating between the various hosts. The application of distributed computing techniques to a space environment or to use over a satellite network would therefore be limited by the amount of time needed to send data across the network, which would typically take much longer than on a terrestrial network. This experiment shows how much faster a large job can be performed by adding more computers to the task, what role communications time plays in the total execution time, and the impact a long-delay network has on a distributed computing system.

  18. Competitive advantage and corporate communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic importance of corporate communications and its role in the development of competitive advantage has attracted interest of numerous researchers in the fields of organization, management, marketing and public relations. Recent studies particularly emphasise the growing importance of soft factors, such as reputation in the development of competitive advantage. Concept of reputation is strongly connected with stakeholder theory, which stresses the importance of corporate communications for competitive advantage of firms. The paper focuses on competitive advantage and the link among strategy, reputation and corporate communications.

  19. Study on the Support of Science and Technology in the Development of Regional Advantage Industries---Take the Example of Liaoning%区域优势产业发展的科技支撑作用分析--以辽宁为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢军伟

    2014-01-01

    In the market economy, the development regional economic is decided by the development of advantage industries. Advantage industries can not only affect the regional economic growth, but also can affect the regional economic structure through the changes of the industry structure .In this paper, we deifned the connotation and selection criteria of regional advantage industries include exogenous and endogenous comparative advantages. In the selection of advantage Industries, we should follow ifve principles:resource advantage, technology advantage, market advantage, relational advan-tage and comparative advantage. On this basis, we made the analysis on the advantage industries of Liaoning, using indus-trial gradient coefifcient. Liaoning’s advantage industries can be integrated in 3 major industrial chain ,such as the petroleum chemical industry. Then, we investigate the factors supporting role of science and technology in industrial development, and proposed some suggestions on enhancing scientiifc and technological effects in the development Liaoning’s advantage in-dustries.%在市场经济条件下,任何一个区域的经济发展都是由其具有优势的产业发展所决定的。优势产业的发展不仅可以影响区域经济增长,还可以通过产业结构的变更改变整个区域的经济结构。本文对区域优势产业的内涵与选择基准进行了界定,认为“区域优势产业”应包括外生比较优势产业和内生比较优势产业两种层次,选择中应遵循资源优势、技术优势、市场优势、关联优势和比较优势5大原则。在此基础上,以辽宁为例,利用产业梯度系数分析辽宁的优势产业,认为辽宁的优势工业行业可以整合为石油化工等3大产业链,探讨产业发展中制约科技支撑作用的因素,并从有效发挥政府作用增强科技对辽宁优势产业支撑作用的提出相关建议。

  20. Enraizamento de jabuticabeira (Plinia trunciflora por mergulhia aérea Taking roots of 'jabuticaba' fruit tree (Plinia trunciflora by air layering technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeses Andrigo Danner

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo testar a técnica de mergulhia aérea (alporquia na produção de mudas de jabuticabeira utilizando diferentes concentrações de ácido indolbutírico - AIB (0; 4.000 e 6.000 mg.L-1, em quatro épocas e dois locais: agosto, outubro, dezembro e maio de 2004-2005, em Vitorino-PR (Sítio 1; e agosto, setembro, outubro e novembro de 2004, em Chopinzinho - PR (Sítio 2. Foi avaliado o percentual de enraizamento, através da observação de raízes visíveis externamente ao substrato, aos 180 dias após a realização da alporquia. Com base nestes resultados, é possível afirmar que: a alporquia é um método eficiente para a propagação assexuada da jabuticabeira; a concentração de 4.000 mg.L-1 de AIB foi eficiente na indução de enraizamento em todas as épocas estudadas, exceto quando se realiza a alporquia no mês de dezembro, que dispensa o uso de AIB.The aim of this work was to test the air layering technique in the production of cuttings of 'jabuticaba' fruit tree using different concentrations of Indolbutiric Acid - IBA (0, 4000 and 6000mg.L-1, in different times and in two places: August, October, December and May of 2004/2005 in Vitorino, Paraná, Brazil; and August, September, October and November of 2004 in Chopinzinho, Paraná, Brazil. The percentage of rooting was evaluated, through the observation of externally visible roots to the substrate, a hundred and eighty days after the execution of air layering technique. Based on these results it is possible conclude that: the air layering technique was an efficient assexuated method to propagate "Jabuticaba" fruit trees (Plinia sp.; the concentration of 4000 mg.L-1 was efficient in the induction rooting, exception when the air layering technique is executed in December, dismissing use of IBA.

  1. Dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hinloopen (Jeroen); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage as measured by export shares and the Balassa index using 3-digit and 4-digit sectors for the period 1970 – 1997. We use novel tools to identify periods of rapid structural change and the persistence of comparative advantage, such a

  2. Dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hinloopen; C. van Marrewijk

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage as measured by export shares and the Balassa index using 3-digit and 4-digit sectors for the period 1970 ¿ 1997. We use novel tools to identify periods of rapid structural change and the persistence of comparative advantage, such as Galtonian

  3. Dynamics of Chinese Comparative Advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hinloopen (Jeroen); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage as measured by export shares and the Balassa index using 3-digit and 4-digit sectors for the period 1970 – 1997. We use novel tools to identify periods of rapid structural change and the persistence of comparative advantage, such a

  4. [Surgical technique and advantages of the free temporal fascia flap for covering loss of substance of the dorsum of the foot and around the ankle: report of 12 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duteille, F; Sartre, J Y; Perrot, P; Gouin, F; Pannier, M

    2008-10-01

    The authors report a series of twelve patients with loss of substance of the dorsum of the foot or around the ankle who underwent coverage with a free temporal fascia flap. There were no failure of flaps and no vascular complication at the microanastomosis. There were three complications: partial burn of the flap with a lamp, failure of the split thickness skin graft and an area of scar alopecia at the donor site. With one year of follow up, there were no problems of cicatrisation and no patients had difficulty to the use of normal footwear. The different advantages of this flap led us to recommend it for the covering of wound in this area.

  5. Screening of oil samples on the basis of excitation-emission room-temperature phosphorescence data and multiway chemometric techniques. Introducing the second-order advantage in a classification study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arancibia, Juan A; Boschetti, Carlos E; Olivieri, Alejandro C; Escandar, Graciela M

    2008-04-15

    Room-temperature phosphorescence excitation-emission matrices and multiway methods have been analyzed as potential tools for screening oil samples, based on full matrix information for polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Crude oils obtained from different sources of similar geographic origin, as well as light and heavy lubricating oils, were analyzed. The room-temperature phosphorescence matrix signals were processed by applying multilayer perceptron artificial neural networks, parallel factor analysis coupled to linear discriminant analysis, discriminant unfolded partial least-squares, and discriminant multidimensional partial least-squares (DN-PLS). The ability of the latter algorithm to classify the investigated oils into four categories is demonstrated. In addition, the combination of DN-PLS with residual bilinearization allows for a proper classification of oils containing unsuspected compounds not present in the training sample set. This second-order advantage concept is applied to a classification study for the first time. The employed approach is fast, avoids the use of laborious chromatographic analysis, and is relevant for oil characterization, identification, and determination of accidental spill sources.

  6. 浅析琵琶曲《霸王卸甲》的悲剧表现手段%On the Tragic Expression Techniques in Chinese Lute Music "King Chu Takes off his Armor"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐雪婷

    2012-01-01

    通过对《霸王卸甲》的背景、传谱、题材、演奏形式等进行探析,挖掘琵琶“以悲为美”的器乐特性,从表现、手段上加深对乐曲艺术的理解和掌握。%By taking the Chinese lute music "King Chu takes off his armor" as article studies its background, famiiy spectrum, theme and performance form, the research object, this and meanwhile explores its characteristics of instrumental music ( viewing sorrow as beauty) of Chinese Pipa so as to enhance our understanding of musical art from the expression techniques.

  7. A Comparative Study on Choice of Regional Economic Advantage Industry and Leading Industry---Take the Manufacturing Industry in Chongqing as an Example%地区经济主导产业与优势产业选择比较研究--以重庆市制造业为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯璐璐; 张燕华

    2015-01-01

    基于优势演化视角,对地区经济优势产业与主导产业进行理论辨析,并以市场潜力、产业组织、技术水平为基准选择重庆市优势产业;以增长速度、技术进步率、产业关联性为基准选择重庆市主导产业。通过比较发现:地区经济优势产业和主导产业存在交集—“主导优势产业”,地方政府应致力于在发挥区域外生比较优势的基础上,全面培育“主导优势产业”的内生比较优势,促使其转化为竞争优势,实现地区经济跨越式发展。%Based on the perspective of advantageous evolution, a theoretical analysis is taken on the concepts of regional-economic advantageous industry and leading industry. In order to select the advantageous industry in Chongqing, the benchmarks are established, as the market potential, industrial organization, and technological level. At the same time, the benchmarks are established, as the gr-owth rate, technical progress rate and industry relevance, which are for selecting the leading industry in Chongqing. With comparative analysis, there are some overlapped parts between regional-economic advantageous industries and leading industries, called"the Lead-ing and Advantage Industry". On the basis of regional exogenous comparative advantage , local governments should focus on compreh-ensive cultivation of endogenous comparative advantage on "the Leading and Advantage Industry", and prompt them into a competitive advantage, in order to achieve the regional economic development by leaps and bounds.

  8. Knowledge Resources and Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Gomezelj Omerzel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses some definitions of knowledge as a potential sourceof competitive advantage. It reviews the literature pertaining to the assessmentof knowledge assets. According to the resource-based view,which links the competitive advantage of organizations with resourcesand capabilities that are firm-specific, and difficult to imitate or substitute,a firm’s competitive advantage is built on a set of strategicallyrelevant resources (Barney 1991; Grant 1991; Peteraf 1993. When firmshave access to similar resources, it is those companies that are able tomaximize the utilization of those resources that attain a competitiveadvantage. Among various strategic resources and capabilities that helpdetermine the extent of competitive advantages, a pivotal role is oftenassigned to knowledge – as both a resource in itself and an integratingfactor that makes other resources and capabilities effective – especiallyin complex and dynamic environments.

  9. Multinational team. Advantages and disadvantages.

    OpenAIRE

    Pak, Alena

    2014-01-01

    The topic of the tesis is advantages and disadvantages of work in russian-czech multicultural teams. The research then analyzes the efficiency of such teams primarily from the side of partners and clients of such projects.

  10. Macro-Controls Taking Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The equilibrium of China’s economic development is be ginning to improve. Given this trend , what should the government be doing to take advantage of it and maintain steady economic growth? Chen Dongqi, Deputy Director of the Institute of Economic Research of the National Development and Reform Commission, shared his thoughts on this issue with People’s Daily.

  11. LOGISTICS - SOURCE OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana SCRIOSTEANU; Popescu, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the logistics if source of competitive advantage. Logistics can offer a source of competitive advantage, such as a superior position compared to the competitors regarding cost reductions, service diversity and satisfaction of consumer requirements. The logistic activities generate cost and give value to the final product .Despite that the same logistic activity can be done in many ways, with different costs and performance , the evaluation of the activities and the links b...

  12. Bilingualism Gives a Cognitive Advantage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qing

    2013-01-01

    Recent researches have shown bilingualism has an influence on cognition, both negative and positive. This essay aims to discuss the cognitive disadvantages and advantages bilingualism brings, by emphasizing how it affect children ’s cognitive devel-opment. It will first briefly introduce the disadvantages such as a lower verbal fluency and vocabulary deficit, and then analyse the advantages on non-verbal cognition and attention controlling, a more sensitive metalinguistic awareness and a lower decline rate of cognitive processing.

  13. Corporate Finance and Comparative Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Keuschnigg, Christian; Egger, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Since innovative firms are often financially constrained, access to external funds is important for the expansion of innovative industries. This paper reports four important results. First, comparative advantage is shaped by factor endowments as well as fundamental determinants of corporate finance. In particular, a larger equity ratio of firms and tough governance standards relax finance constraints and create a comparative advantage in innovative industries. Second, factor price equalizatio...

  14. Competitive advantage and corporate communications

    OpenAIRE

    Mitić Sanja; Ognjanov Galjina

    2013-01-01

    Strategic importance of corporate communications and its role in the development of competitive advantage has attracted interest of numerous researchers in the fields of organization, management, marketing and public relations. Recent studies particularly emphasise the growing importance of soft factors, such as reputation in the development of competitive advantage. Concept of reputation is strongly connected with stakeholder theory, which stresses the importance of corporate communications ...

  15. Analysis on Methods of Strengthening the Political Advantage Transformation in Petroleum Enterprises---Taking the Third Branch of Yellow River Drilling Corporation As an Example%石油企业强化政治优势转化效果方法分析--以黄河钻井三公司为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿津

    2013-01-01

    The Third Branch of Yellow River Drilling Corporation has promoted Party building creatively and deeply and developed the transformation of political resource and political advantage as follows :reinforce the grassroots party building and transform the political core function of the Party into the leadership ,reinforce the leading group building and transform the ad-vantage of leadership resource into innovation ,reinforce the talent group building and transform the advantage of human re-source into competitive strength ,reinforce the culture building and transform the advantage of the Party’s culture into soft power ,reinforce the anti-corruption building and transform the advantage of the Party’s philosophy into execution ,keep close ties with the masses and transform the advantage of the Party’s mass work into creativity .%黄河钻井三公司深入推进党建工作创新发展,积极促进政治资源和政治优势转化,做法为:加强基层党组织建设,把党组织的政治核心作用转化为领导力;加强领导班子建设,把领导干部资源优势转化为创新力;加强人才队伍建设,把人力资源优势转化为竞争力;加强思想文化建设,把党的思想文化优势转化为软实力;加强反腐倡廉建设,把党的作风优势转化为执行力;密切联系群众,把党的群众工作优势转化为创造力。

  16. Home advantage in Greek football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armatas, Vasilis; Pollard, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Home advantage as it relates to team performance at football was examined in Superleague Greece using nine seasons of game-by-game performance data, a total of 2160 matches. After adjusting for team ability and annual fluctuations in home advantage, there were significant differences between teams. Previous findings regarding the role of territorial protection were strengthened by the fact that home advantage was above average for the team from Xanthi (P =0.015), while lower for teams from the capital city Athens (P =0.008). There were differences between home and away teams in the incidence of most of the 13 within-game match variables, but associated effect sizes were only moderate. In contrast, outcome ratios derived from these variables, and measuring shot success, had negligible effect sizes. This supported a previous finding that home and away teams differed in the incidence of on-the-ball behaviours, but not in their outcomes. By far the most important predictor of home advantage, as measured by goal difference, was the difference between home and away teams in terms of kicked shots from inside the penalty area. Other types of shots had little effect on the final score. The absence of a running track between spectators and the playing field was also a significant predictor of goal difference, worth an average of 0.102 goals per game to the home team. Travel distance did not affect home advantage.

  17. STRATEGY FROM CONCEPTUALIZATION TO COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giurgiu Catalin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to show how important the process of defining strategy can be for a company in the economical context that we all face now days. This study shows that although the results after a company has defined its strategy can be seen in a longer or shorter period of time, the process is complex and needs managers that can foresee the future. And at the end of every strategy defining the final result should be competitive advantage, this competitive advantage that can bring a company in front of its main competitors, and if the company manages to stay in front of those competitors it can gain sustainable competitive advantage. In fact this should be the goal of every company: to try by all means, off course legal means, to do things better than other companies using the right strategy. Companies can use their capabilities and knowledge in these fields, a constant innovation process can help the society to undergo powerful changes. These changes can be firstly seen in the mentality, the behaviour and the process of knowledge. It is important for a company to understand its role in the modern society. Managers of important companies do their best to keep those respective companies at a level that can secure profit, but profit is not always the entire issue. It takes time in order for those innovations to reach the whole society, because companies are not willing to give information about their products, and keep this information to be able to have future profit. The role of competitive advantage can be seen in any field of activity, it provides the values that keep our society moving forward. Competitive advantage is needed in fields like: medicine, education or environmental protection. Companies have to innovate constantly in order to obtain this competitive advantage, but this competitive advantage can be present today and gone tomorrow, because the conditions on the market are changing at a very fast rate.In the past years

  18. Risk-taking plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sade, Nir; Gebremedhin, Alem; Moshelion, Menachem

    2012-01-01

    Water scarcity is a critical limitation for agricultural systems. Two different water management strategies have evolved in plants: an isohydric strategy and an anisohydric strategy. Isohydric plants maintain a constant midday leaf water potential (Ψleaf) when water is abundant, as well as under drought conditions, by reducing stomatal conductance as necessary to limit transpiration. Anisohydric plants have more variable Ψleaf and keep their stomata open and photosynthetic rates high for longer periods, even in the presence of decreasing leaf water potential. This risk-taking behavior of anisohydric plants might be beneficial when water is abundant, as well as under moderately stressful conditions. However, under conditions of intense drought, this behavior might endanger the plant. We will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these two water-usage strategies and their effects on the plant’s ability to tolerate abiotic and biotic stress. The involvement of plant tonoplast AQPs in this process will also be discussed. PMID:22751307

  19. Achieving a sustainable service advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, K P

    1993-01-01

    Many managers believe that superior service should play little or no role in competitive strategy; they maintain that service innovations are inherently copiable. However, the author states that this view is too narrow. For a company to achieve a lasting service advantage, it must base a new service on a capability gap that competitors cannot or will not copy.

  20. Energy Advantages for Green Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, J. Tim

    2012-01-01

    Because of many advantages associated with central utility systems, school campuses, from large universities to elementary schools, have used district energy for decades. District energy facilities enable thermal and electric utilities to be generated with greater efficiency and higher system reliability, while requiring fewer maintenance and…

  1. Competitive Intelligence and Social Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Elisabeth; Cronin, Blaise

    1994-01-01

    Presents an overview of issues concerning civilian competitive intelligence (CI). Topics discussed include competitive advantage in academic and research environments; public domain information and libraries; covert and overt competitive intelligence; data diversity; use of the Internet; cooperative intelligence; and implications for library and…

  2. An Experiment in Comparative Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupert, Michael J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate economics course experiment designed to teach the concepts of comparative advantage and opportunity costs. Students have a limited number of labor hours and can chose to produce either wheat or steel. As the project progresses, the students trade commodities in an attempt to maximize use of their labor hours. (MJP)

  3. Parenting Advantage in the MNC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip C.; Ambos, Björn

    2013-01-01

    What determines the value an MNC's headquarters adds to its own affiliates? In this paper, we shed light on this question by linking the embeddedness view of the multinational corporation to the literature on parenting advantage. We test our hypotheses on an original dataset of 124 manufacturing ...

  4. Energy Advantages for Green Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, J. Tim

    2012-01-01

    Because of many advantages associated with central utility systems, school campuses, from large universities to elementary schools, have used district energy for decades. District energy facilities enable thermal and electric utilities to be generated with greater efficiency and higher system reliability, while requiring fewer maintenance and…

  5. Information technology : the outsourcing advantage

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Comm. Changes occur rapidly in the Information Technology (IT) environment. It can be very costly to keep up with these rapid changes and at the same time specialist IT skills are hard to come by. Companies have to re-strategize to maintain their competitive advantages. This strategic business concept suggests that management must focus on specialisation, expertise and excellence. In an increasingly competitive and technological advanced world, business focus has shifted from simply mini...

  6. Biomechanical Research and Development of the Taking-off Technique of the Trampoline%蹦床网上起跳技术的生物力学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李广凯; 钱竞光

    2011-01-01

    Trampoline Exercise was started relatively late in China.With the introduction of new rules in 2009,an increase of the height of sub-set of actions which will be calculated by flight time would definitely pose great challenge to the development of the trampoline project of our nation.As the vacated height is closely related to the taking-off of athletes,this paper aims to find out the weak links of previous studies on taking-off techniques and thus provide theoretical basis and technical support for later research and scientific training by summarizing and analyzing the biomechanical literatures about trampoline taking-off publicized in recent years.%蹦床运动在我国起步相对较晚,2009年蹦床新规则出台后,增加了整套动作的高度分,并以腾空时间来计算,对我国蹦床运动的发展又提出了新的挑战。而蹦床的腾空高度与运动员的起跳密切相关,本文通过对近几年蹦床网上起跳的生物力学研究进行总结和分析,力求发现起跳技术研究方面的薄弱环节,为今后蹦床运动的研究和科学训练提供理论依据和技术支持。

  7. Total Ossiculoplasty: Advantages of Two-Point Stabilization Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Berenholz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Evaluate a porous polyethylene prosthesis with two-point stabilization in total ossiculoplasty. This approach utilizes a lateral as well as a medial graft to stabilize a total ossicular prosthesis (TOP. Study Design. Retrospective cohort review of total ossiculoplasty. Methods. All patients who underwent total ossiculoplasty during the years 2004–2007 were included in the study group. Only five patients (10% had primary surgery whereas 45 (90% underwent revision surgery. Cartilage grafts covering the prosthesis (Sheehy, Xomed laterally were used in all patients with areolar tissue being used for medial stabilization at the stapes footplate. Follow-up examination and audiometrics were performed a mean of 8.1 months following surgery. Results. The percentage of patients closing their ABG to within 10 dB was 44% with 66% closing their ABG to within 20 dB. The mean four-frequency hearing gain was 15.7 dB. The mean postoperative ABG was 15.7 dB. Conclusion. Audiometric results following total ossiculoplasty surgery using two-point stabilization exceeded results from the otologic literature. Proper two-point fixation with areolar tissue and stabilization utilizing cartilage were the keys to achieving a relatively high percentage of success in chronic ear disease in this sample.

  8. The Most Advantageous Bangla Keyboard Layout Using Data Mining Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Masum, Abdul Kadar Muhammad; Kamruzzaman, S M

    2010-01-01

    Bangla alphabet has a large number of letters, for this it is complicated to type faster using Bangla keyboard. The proposed keyboard will maximize the speed of operator as they can type with both hands parallel. Association rule of data mining to distribute the Bangla characters in the keyboard is used here. The frequencies of data consisting of monograph, digraph and trigraph are analyzed, which are derived from data wire-house, and then used association rule of data mining to distribute the Bangla characters in the layout. Experimental results on several data show the effectiveness of the proposed approach with better performance. This paper presents an optimal Bangla Keyboard Layout, which distributes the load equally on both hands so that maximizing the ease and minimizing the effort.

  9. Advantages and Limitations of Different SDLC Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika D Amlani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Software engineering is the area which is constantly growing. It is very interesting subject to learn as all the software development industry based on this specified area. Now a days, there are lots of software development life cycle models available. According to the requirements, software industry people are using it as per their requirements. As there are lots of SDLC models, they are used according to their requirements. So, it is needed to know the requirements in which the SDLC models is used. This paper is about the pros and cons of some models. So, user can take the advantage of this paper to find the model best suitable for their need.

  10. Rethinking Marketing for Sustainable Competitive Advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akın KOÇAK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When formal marketing thought developed in the early 1900s, dominant perspective of marketing was about taking things “to market”. After 1950 marketing thought moved to a “market to” orientation. This orientation reflects “product dominant logic”. After radical changes in information technology, knowledge asymmetry between firm and customer is decreased and customer becomes operant resource instead of a resource to be acted on. Therefore, new marketing paradigm has been emerged and main focus moved from “value in exchange” to “value in use” and customer becomes collaborative partner. Firm can only provide value proposition. New definition of marketing comprises “customer relationship”, “share holders”, and “value creation”. Apart from evolving of marketing thought, theories of competitive advantages have been also change form industry perspective to internal resource and dynamic capabilities.

  11. Home advantage in Turkish professional soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seçkin, Aylin; Pollard, Richard

    2008-08-01

    Home advantage is known to play an important role in the outcome of professional soccer games and to vary considerably worldwide. In the Turkish Super League over the last 12 years, 61.5% of the total points gained have been won by the home team, a figure similar to the worldwide average and to the Premier League in England. It is lower (57.7%) for games played between teams from Istanbul and especially high for games involving teams from cities in the more remote and ethnically distinct parts of Turkey (Van and Diyarbakir). Match performance data show that although home teams in Turkey take 26% more shots at goal than away teams, the success rates for shots do not differ. For fouls and disciplinary cards, home and away teams do not differ significantly in Turkey, a finding that differs from games in England, perhaps due to less referee bias.

  12. Radical perineal prostatectomy - the contemporary resurgence of a genuinely minimally invasive procedure: Procedure outline. Comparison of the advantages, disadvantages, and outcomes of different surgical techniques of treating organ-confined prostate cancer (PCa). A literature review with special focus on perineal prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroński, Stanisław

    2012-01-01

    Surgery plays a central role in the management of organ-confined prostate cancer (PCa). Four types of prostatectomy are currently practiced: perineal, retropubic, laparoscopic, and robot-assisted. The qualification criteria for all types are similar. Radical perineal prostatectomy (RPP) was the first method introduced into clinical practice, however, it has been neglected in favor of other procedures. Its resurgence has been facilitated by a multitude of advantages. Unfortunately, nowadays most urologists are not familiar with the perineal approach though many centers have begun to implement it. This manuscript presents the technique of RPP used in the author's institution. It also reviews a vast body of literature on the four techniques of prostatectomy including their advantages and outcomes. The data was collected from the literature and medical databases. RPP proves to be a very efficacious, cost-effective treatment option for localized PCa. The outcomes of RPP, as defined by continence, potency, and complication rate, are equivalent to those accomplished by other methods.

  13. 优秀男子跳远运动员起跳技术的运动学研究--以全国田径锦标赛石家庄站为例%A Study of Kinematics on Take-off Technique of Chinese Elite Long Jump Athelites--Taking National Track and Field Championships in Shijiazhuang Station as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康红哲; 杜鹏; 贾为宗

    2015-01-01

    In the whole course of completing long jump, take-off technique is not only the central part of linking run-up and jump, but also the guarantee of elite athletes achieving outstanding performances. This study makes an analysis of kinematics of eight elite male long jump athletes through two JVC9800 high-speed cameras and Ariel image analytic system. Results show that the elite male long jump athletes in our country have significant differences inlanding angle, sector angle and leg thrust angle from foreign athletes; Long buffer time and far-distanced gravity projection point of the body at take-off moment are the factors that influence the rapid support stretching in takeoff; Enhancing the power of the take-off leg can help improve the long jump performance; At the take-off moment, the angles of ankle joint and knee joint are small and the angle of hip joint is similar to that of the world elite athletes; The horizontal lifting velocity is higher than that of the foreign athelites, but the vertical lifting velocity is lower than theirs.%在完成整个跳远的过程中,起跳技术是衔接助跑与腾空的中心环节,也是运动员创造优异运动成绩的必要保障。通过两台 JVC9800高速摄相机和 Ariel 图像解析系统对8名优秀男子跳远运动员进行运动学分析。结果表明:现阶段我国优秀男子跳远运动员着地角、扇面角和蹬地角都与国外运动员具有显著性的差异;缓冲时间过长,起跳瞬间身体重心投影点较远,是影响快速支撑蹬伸起跳的因素,增强起跳腿的力量有助于提高跳远的成绩;起跳瞬间踝关节角和膝关节角较小,髋关节角度与世界优秀运动员较为接近;腾起水平速度高于国外选手,但是腾起的垂直速度比国外运动员低。

  14. March 2013: Medicare Advantage update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayavong, Sarah; Kemper, Leah; Barker, Abigail; McBride, Timothy

    2013-09-01

    Key Data Findings. (1) From March 2012 to March 2013, rural enrollment in Medicare Advantage (MA) and other prepaid plans increased by over 200,000 enrollees, to more than 1.9 million. (2) Preferred provider organization (PPO) plan enrollment increased to nearly one million enrollees, accounting for more than 51% of the rural MA market (up from 48% in March 2012). (3) Health maintenance organization (HMO) enrollment continued to grow in 2013, with over 31% of the rural MA market, while private fee-for-service (PFFS) plan enrollment decreased to less than 10% of market share. (4) Despite recent changes to MA payment, rural MA enrollment continues to increase.

  15. BUSINESS COMPETITORS AND COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU TITUS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the concept of competition, both from the perspective of the economic sector –where it is characteristic for pure monopole, oligopoly, monopole competition and pure competition, as well asfrom the market’s point of view – where it determines the strategies, objectives, advantages and weaknesses of acompany. The main point of the paper is the criticism of the pure and perfect competition theory. Concluding,the author insists on innovation, especially on the model of open innovation.

  16. Cooperative resources lead to sustainable competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Vieira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyze how organizational resources contribute to cooperatives achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. The theoretical approach of this study is the Resource Based View and VRIO model advocated by Barney and Hesterly (2007. The research was characterized as descriptive and quantitative, through data collection from secondary sources and a survey. The data collection tool was a questionnaire devised by Peacock, Sehnem and Hoffmann (2011. Data collection took place between the months of September 2014 and March 2015. The study sample was composed of a total of 215 cooperatives from across the country, divided into 13 segments. Secondary data was subjected to content analysis. The primary data was analyzed using statistical inference, namely: descriptive statistics, mean, Pearson correlation, Varimax rotation and the Kruskal-Wallis test. The main results showed that human resources are seen as important to achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. This research contributed to and enables new studies concerning the growth of cooperatives taking into account the use of internal resources.

  17. The Critical Advantage: Developing Critical Thinking Skills in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, William T., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    In "The Critical Advantage," noted scholar and early childhood expert William T. Gormley, Jr. takes a wide ranging look at the important role of critical thinking in preparing students for college, careers, and civic life. Drawing on research from psychology, philosophy, business, political science, neuroscience, and other disciplines,…

  18. Advantages and Disadvantages of Weighted Grading. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Karen

    2004-01-01

    What are the advantages and disadvantages of weighted grading? The primary purpose of weighted grading has been to encourage high school students to take more rigorous courses. This effort is then acknowledged by more weight being given to the grade for a specified class. There are numerous systems of weighted grading cited in the literature from…

  19. 运动训练专业建设特色与优势探析——以武汉体育学院为例%Characteristics Building and Advantage Analysis of Sports Training Professional——Take Wuhan Sports University as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷先良

    2011-01-01

    本文根据武汉体育学院运动训练专业发展的现状,总结专业办学经验,对我院在专业建设的特色与优势方面的培养目标,教育教学模式与管理机制,实践教学、开放办学、人才培养质量,进行分析与探讨,为我国运动训练专业的发展提供一定的参考。%Based on the development status of Sports Training Academy of Wuhan Sports University,summary of professional ex-perience in education,professional development for hospital characteristics and advantages of the training objectives,education,teaching and management mechanisms,practice teaching,open schools,quality of personnel training,conduct analysis and discus-sion of China's sports training and professional development to provide a reference.

  20. Corporate reputation and competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Sanja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As the international environment changes, a closer inspection of the competitiveness drivers that change along with it becomes necessary. The rules are changing - competition is getting tougher, stakeholders are multiplying and the role of companies as members of the society grows. Undoubtedly, intangible resources are the key factors of success on the market in the 21st century. A company that can create and improve intangible resources is one that will have a good business performance. This paper aims to describe the role of corporate reputation, as a valuable intangible resource, in gaining competitive advantage. The social relations and interpersonal relationships form the base of corporate reputation. The reputation encompasses all relevant aspects of corporate activity in communication with all stakeholders, both internal and external.

  1. Evolutionary advantages of adaptive rewarding

    CERN Document Server

    Szolnoki, Attila

    2012-01-01

    Our wellbeing depends as much on our personal success, as it does on the success of our society. The realization of this fact makes cooperation a very much needed trait. Experiments have shown that rewards can elevate our readiness to cooperate, but since giving a reward inevitably entails paying a cost for it, the emergence and stability of such behavior remain elusive. Here we show that allowing for the act of rewarding to self-organize in dependence on the success of cooperation creates several evolutionary advantages that instill new ways through which collaborative efforts are promoted. Ranging from indirect territorial battle to the spontaneous emergence and destruction of coexistence, phase diagrams and the underlying spatial patterns reveal fascinatingly reach social dynamics that explains why this costly behavior has evolved and persevered. Comparisons with adaptive punishment, however, uncover an Achilles heel of adaptive rewarding that is due to over-aggression, which in turn hinders optimal utiliz...

  2. Activity and Influence Based Detection of National Advantageous Discipline:Taking Communication Studies as an Example%基于活跃度和影响力的国家优势学科领域发现--以传播学为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳妮; 沈阳

    2015-01-01

    为揭示不同国家(地区)在某一学科领域的特色研究方向,以及学科的不同领域方向上各国家(地区)的竞争优势,提出国家优势学科领域判断矩阵。该矩阵包含两个维度:基于作者关键词的活跃度指数( KAI)和影响力指数( KII)。在实证分析中,从传播学学科12个主要研究国家的文献中提取作者关键词,并揭示出美国、英国、荷兰、中国等国家的传播学特色领域方向,以及不同领域方向上各国家竞争力的差异。结果表明,判断矩阵能较好地综合评估各国在传播学领域方向的竞争力,其揭示的结果对国家优势学科领域竞争力的反映更为细致。%To discover the characteristic research direction of different countries ( regions) in a particular subject area, as well as national ( regional) competitive advantages in different discipline, we proposed the national superiority disciplines judgment matrix. The matrix consists of two dimensions, the keyword activity index ( KAI) and the keyword influence index ( KII) . In the empirical analysis, the au-thor keywords were extracted from communication research literature upon 12 countries. We revealed the different competitive communica-tion research direction of the United States, the UK, the Netherlands, China and other countries in the study, as well as the countryˊs com-petitiveness on the different direction of the communication. The results show that the judgment matrix can better assess the competitive performance of countries in the field of communication direction and reveal national discipline competitiveness in more detail.

  3. Advantages and Uses of AMTEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodhi, M. A. K.

    2012-10-01

    Static conversion systems are gaining importance in recent times because of newer applications of electricity like in spacecraft, hybrid-electric vehicles, military uses and domestic purposes. Of the many new static energy conversion systems that are being considered, one is the Alkali Metal Thermal Electric Converter (AMTEC). It is a thermally regenerative, electrochemical device for the direct conversion of heat to electrical power. As the name suggests, this system uses an alkali metal in its process. The electrochemical process involved in the working of AMTEC is ionization of alkali metal atoms at the interface of electrode and electrolyte. The electrons produced as a result flow through the external load thus doing work, and finally recombine with the metal ions at the cathode. AMTECs convert the work done during the nearly isothermal expansion of metal vapor to produce a high current and low voltage electron flow. Due to its principle of working it has many inherent advantages over other conventional generators. These will be discussed briefly.

  4. 浅析武术之技理技法-以竞技武术为例%Analysis on Wushu Techniques and Theories-Taking the Competitive Wushu for Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴冬玲

    2016-01-01

    Wushu techniques have synchronized with the history of Wushu, bearing differences as rulers in every generation are fond of Wushu in different levels. This paper applies the method of documentary, deductive method, etc., and the development history of Wushu skills techniques was vertically combed and prospected. The study shows that Wushu have a long history, which originated from ancient times, forming in the spring and autumn period and warring states period, being popular in Qin and Han dynasties period, and booming in Ming and Qing dynasties period. It gradually weakened and got worse after the republic of China until the birth of modern competitive Wushu. There are occasional fluctuations in the course, but technical skill always runs through Wushu development, as its origin, never changes In conclusion, there are differences between competitive Wushu and traditional Wushu. However, as long as taking the skills techniques for nature to breakthrough, it will be able to realize the fusion of traditional and modern, and to promote inheritance and development of Wushu.%武术技理技法与武术发展史同步,因各朝代统治者对武术的喜好强弱而遭遇迥异。文章运用文献资料法、演绎法等方法,对其进行纵向梳理与展望。研究发现:武术萌芽于远古时期、成形于春秋战国、流行于秦汉年间、繁荣于明清之际,民国后逐步弱化,至现代竞技武术出世;虽时有波动,但技理技法始终贯穿武术发展,为其本原。研究结论:竞技武术与传统武术虽有分歧,但只要以技理技法为本真求突破,就必能实现传统与现代的融合,推动武术传承与发展。

  5. Tailored logistics: the next advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, J B; O'Conor, J; Rawlinson, R

    1993-01-01

    How many top executives have ever visited with managers who move materials from the factory to the store? How many still reduce the costs of logistics to the rent of warehouses and the fees charged by common carriers? To judge by hours of senior management attention, logistics problems do not rank high. But logistics have the potential to become the next governing element of strategy. Whether they know it or not, senior managers of every retail store and diversified manufacturing company compete in logistically distinct businesses. Customer needs vary, and companies can tailor their logistics systems to serve their customers better and more profitably. Companies do not create value for customers and sustainable advantage for themselves merely by offering varieties of goods. Rather, they offer goods in distinct ways. A particular can of Coca-Cola, for example, might be a can of Coca-Cola going to a vending machine, or a can of Coca-Cola that comes with billing services. There is a fortune buried in this distinction. The goal of logistics strategy is building distinct approaches to distinct groups of customers. The first step is organizing a cross-functional team to proceed through the following steps: segmenting customers according to purchase criteria, establishing different standards of service for different customer segments, tailoring logistics pipelines to support each segment, and creating economics of scale to determine which assets can be shared among various pipelines. The goal of establishing logistically distinct businesses is familiar: improved knowledge of customers and improved means of satisfying them.

  6. Nurses’ Creativity: Advantage or Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavari Isfahani, Sara; Hosseini, Mohammad Ali; Fallahi Khoshknab, Masood; Peyrovi, Hamid; Khanke, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background Recently, global nursing experts have been aggressively encouraging nurses to pursue creativity and innovation in nursing to improve nursing outcomes. Nurses’ creativity plays a significant role in health and well-being. In most health systems across the world, nurses provide up to 80% of the primary health care; therefore, they are critically positioned to provide creative solutions for current and future global health challenges. Objectives The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian nurses’ perceptions and experiences toward the expression of creativity in clinical settings and the outcomes of their creativity for health care organizations. Patients and Methods A qualitative approach using content analysis was adopted. Data were collected through in-depth semistructured interviews with 14 nurses who were involved in the creative process in educational hospitals affiliated to Jahrom and Tehran Universities of Medical Sciences in Iran. Results Four themes emerged from the data analysis, including a) Improvement in quality of patient care, b) Improvement in nurses’ quality of work, personal and social life, c) Promotion of organization, and d) Unpleasant outcomes. Conclusions The findings indicated that nurses’ creativity in health care organizations can lead to major changes of nursing practice, improvement of care and organizational performance. Therefore, policymakers, nurse educators, nursing and hospital managers should provide a nurturing environment that is conducive to creative thinking, giving the nurses opportunity for flexibility, creativity, support for change, and risk taking. PMID:25793116

  7. 全民健身是推动体育产业发展的基础——以发挥河南省体育场的优势促进全民健身的研究为例%The Basis of National Fitness Promoting the Development of Sports Industry——Based on the Research of Taking the Advantages of the Stadium in Henan and Encouraging the National Fitness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马保生

    2012-01-01

    健身运动是适应社会发展大趋势,适应人民生活逐步提高发展的需求,适应体育产业发展规律的必然选择。全民健身是整个产业体系的基础与核心。体育产业依靠全民健身打造浓厚的商业氛围。业余训练既需要浓厚的商业氛围、又需要体育产业的资金支持。因此,发挥河南省体育场的优势促进全民健身,构建河南省体育场的产业化模式,从而推动河南体育产业的科学发展。%National Fitness is the inevitable choice for the adaptation of the trend of social development,the requirement of living improvement,as well as the rules of sports industry,which is also the foundation and core of the whole industrial system.Sports industry depends on national fitness to form a business atmosphere.Amateur training needs not only the business atmosphere but also the capital support from the sports industry.Therefore,taking the advantages of the stadium in Henan and encouraging the national fitness,constructing the industrial model of the stadium in Henan,will promote the scientific development of sports industry in Henan.

  8. Advantages with small control valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Gunnar

    2008-09-15

    Between 1995 and 2005, the Swedish District Heating Association carried out several research projects concerning small dimensions on control valves. This lecture aims at giving a summary of these findings which, if they are carried out, have a great impact on the district heating system. The outcome is advantages on both the production side and the customer side. Some of the project's conclusions are as follows: 1. The simulations show that the consequences of temperature disturbances can be reduced when applying smaller control valves, especially at low outdoor temperatures (-5 deg C). 2. The consequences of flow disturbances (pump stop) are not depending on the outdoor temperature (heat demand), but results over the whole year in reduced maximum flow during the process of operation recovery. With adequately reduced valve size, the resulting maximum flow at restart can be approximately reduced to the half, leading in reduced need of pumping peak power. 3. Similarly, the maximum peak power taken from the net at net recovery will be reduced, however, this effect is not as strong as that for flow. 4. Generally, we have found clear indications for that the adjustment of the K{sub vs}-values of control valves in substations should follow a certain logical order of priority. An important factor is the location of substations in respect to the production plant and to the pressure control points in the network. Another important factor is the absolute K{sub vs}-value of the over sizing, i.e. the difference of the actual installed valve and the targeted valve size. 5. Smaller size of control valves means also an improvement of the everyday operation of the district heating net, especially in the case when flow and power peaks are expected to occur. Examples for that could be the morning peaks with increase heat and hot water demands, or such events when the air temperature is decreasing very fast because of weather phenomena. Smaller control valves will smear out the

  9. Take Charge. Take the Test. PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-07

    As part of the Take Charge. Take the Test. campaign, this 30 second PSA encourages African American women to get tested for HIV. Locations for a free HIV test can be found by visiting hivtest.org/takecharge or calling 1-800-CDC-INFO (1-800-232-4636).  Created: 3/7/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/7/2012.

  10. Genetic techniques for the archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Joel A; Picking, Jonathan W; Santangelo, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Genetic techniques for the Archaea have undergone a rapid expansion in complexity, resulting in increased exploration of the role of Archaea in the environment and detailed analyses of the molecular physiology and information-processing systems in the third domain of life. Complementary gains in describing the ever-increasing diversity of archaeal organisms have allowed these techniques to be leveraged in new and imaginative ways to elucidate shared and unique aspects of archaeal diversity and metabolism. In this review, we introduce the four archaeal clades for which advanced genetic techniques are available--the methanogens, halophiles, Sulfolobales, and Thermococcales--with the aim of providing an overall profile of the advantages and disadvantages of working within each clade, as essentially all of the genetically accessible archaeal organisms require unique culturing techniques that present real challenges. We discuss the full repertoire of techniques possible within these clades while highlighting the recent advances that have been made by taking advantage of the most prominent techniques and approaches.

  11. A quadrant tray and bite registration as an alternative to dual-arch impressions for fixed prosthetics: a clinical and dental laboratory technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Barry D; Myers, Michael L; Haywood, Van B

    2011-01-01

    To perform fixed prosthodontic procedures, dentists take a full-arch or quadrant impression and articulate the casts. The dual-arch impression technique is a popular quadrant technique for crown fabrication. The technique described in this article, which uses a quadrant impression and separate interocclusal record, offers several advantages over the traditional dual-arch method.

  12. Medicare Advantage Plans Pay Hospitals Less Than Traditional Medicare Pays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Laurence C; Bundorf, M Kate; Devlin, Aileen M; Kessler, Daniel P

    2016-08-01

    There is ongoing debate about how prices paid to providers by Medicare Advantage plans compare to prices paid by fee-for-service Medicare. We used data from Medicare and the Health Care Cost Institute to identify the prices paid for hospital services by fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare, Medicare Advantage plans, and commercial insurers in 2009 and 2012. We calculated the average price per admission, and its trend over time, in each of the three types of insurance for fixed baskets of hospital admissions across metropolitan areas. After accounting for differences in hospital networks, geographic areas, and case-mix between Medicare Advantage and FFS Medicare, we found that Medicare Advantage plans paid 5.6 percent less for hospital services than FFS Medicare did. Without taking into account the narrower networks of Medicare Advantage, the program paid 8.0 percent less than FFS Medicare. We also found that the rates paid by commercial plans were much higher than those of either Medicare Advantage or FFS Medicare, and growing. At least some of this difference comes from the much higher prices that commercial plans pay for profitable service lines.

  13. Logistics capabilities for sustainable competitive advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Sandberg, Erik; Abrahamsson, Mats

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how sustainable competitive advantage is generated in two Swedish best practice companies that successfully exploit logistics as a source for competitive advantage. Using a theoretical framework based on the resource-based view of the firm, this research elaborates on the links between operational and dynamic logistics capabilities and sustainable competitive advantage. The findings conclude that a sustainable competitive advantage is based on a combina...

  14. 76 FR 56262 - Community Advantage Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... ADMINISTRATION Community Advantage Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION: Notice of change to Community Advantage Pilot Program. SUMMARY: On February 18, 2011, SBA published a notice and request for comments introducing the Community Advantage Pilot Program. In that notice,...

  15. Taking Advantage of External Funding for Air Force Officer PH.D. Candidates at Civilian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Education,” http://www.afit.edu/grad.cfm. 21 Clarence W. Hannon et al., “Graduate Education within the Armed Forces,” Group Research Project...Force Line Officers, Research Report no. AFHRL-TR-70-7 (Lackland AFB, TX: Personnel Research Division, 1970). 56 Clarence W. Hannon et al...Bolton, Benjamin F. Findley, William S. Mosley, Lawrence Mwambola, Jeffrey N. Renehan, Glenward L. Spivey, John F. Thompson , Jack Weinstein. ―Air

  16. Driving HIV-1 into a Vulnerable Corner by Taking Advantage of Viral Adaptation and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Shigeyoshi; Yoshimura, Kazuhisa

    2017-01-01

    Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) is crucial for controlling human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection. Recently, progress in identifying and characterizing highly potent broadly neutralizing antibodies has provided valuable templates for HIV-1 therapy and vaccine design. Nevertheless, HIV-1, like many RNA viruses, exhibits genetically diverse populations known as quasispecies. Evolution of quasispecies can occur rapidly in response to selective pressures, such as that exerted by ART and the immune system. Hence, rapid viral evolution leading to drug resistance and/or immune evasion is a significant barrier to the development of effective HIV-1 treatments and vaccines. Here, we describe our recent investigations into evolutionary pressure exerted by anti-retroviral drugs and monoclonal neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) on HIV-1 envelope sequences. We also discuss sensitivities of HIV-1 escape mutants to maraviroc, a CCR5 inhibitor, and HIV-1 sensitized to NAbs by small-molecule CD4-mimetic compounds. These studies help to develop an understanding of viral evolution and escape from both anti-retroviral drugs and the immune system, and also provide fundamental insights into the combined use of NAbs and entry inhibitors. These findings of the adaptation and evolution of HIV in response to drug and immune pressure will inform the development of more effective antiviral therapeutic strategies. PMID:28360890

  17. Extend Instruction outside the Classroom: Take Advantage of Your Learning Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Lauren A.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous institutions of higher education have implemented a learning management system (LMS) or are considering doing so. This web-based software package provides self-service and quick (often personalized) access to content in a dynamic environment. Learning management systems support administrative, reporting, and documentation activities. LMSs…

  18. Nordic-Baltic interaction in European Union negotiations: taking advantage of institutionalized cooperation / Ilze Ruse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruse, Ilze

    2014-01-01

    Läänemere riikide koostööst, keskendutakse küsimusele, kuivõrd suudavad need riigid institutsionaalselt tegutsedes tugevdada oma positsioone läbirääkimistel EL-ga ning saavutada seatud eesmärke.

  19. Impure and Multiple! Taking Full Advantage of Belk’s Extensions of Giving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen

    2014-01-01

    to be a person that extends and shares himself ‘out’ profusely. Following his generous example, I wish to share some thoughts on the ‘extensions’ that Belk’s work on gift giving and sharing achieves and/or helps us envision. I discuss five papers, beginning with the ‘Agapic love’ paper (Belk and Coon, 1993......) and the ‘Perfect gift’ paper (Belk, 1996), which I discuss primarily in relation to ‘pure giving’. Next, I move to the more recent triplet of papers on ‘Sharing’ (Belk, 2007, 2010; Belk and Llamas, 2012) which I discuss in light of the multiplicity of giving....

  20. When curiosity breeds intimacy: taking advantage of intimacy opportunities and transforming boring conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashdan, Todd B; McKnight, Patrick E; Fincham, Frank D; Rose, Paul

    2011-12-01

    Curious people seek knowledge and new experiences. In 3 studies, we examined whether, when, and how curiosity contributes to positive social outcomes between unacquainted strangers. Study 1 (98 college students) showed that curious people expect to generate closeness during intimate conversations but not during small talk; less curious people anticipated poor outcomes in both situations. We hypothesized that curious people underestimate their ability to bond with unacquainted strangers during mundane conversations. Studies 2 (90 college students) and 3 (106 college students) showed that curious people felt close to partners during intimate and small-talk conversations; less curious people only felt close when the situation offered relationship-building exercises. Surprise at the pleasure felt during this novel, uncertain situation partially mediated the benefits linked to curiosity. We found evidence of slight asymmetry between self and partner reactions. Results could not be attributed to physical attraction or positive affect. Collectively, results suggest that positive social interactions benefit from an open and curious mind-set.

  1. Chinese Textile Industry Still Taking Advantage on Export(Part A)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In March,Chinese National Textile & Apparel Council (CNTAC) launches acampaign consisting of China International Clothing & Accessories Fair (CHIC),Yarn Expo,and Intertextile Beijing Apparel Fabrics to refresh market and seek moreopportunities.Whatis the.future of China’s textile export when the finance turmoilcontinues to sweep the globe? TA Weekly has the report.

  2. When curiosity breeds intimacy: Taking advantage of intimacy opportunities and transforming boring conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashdan, Todd B.; McKnight, Patrick E.; Fincham, Frank D.; Rose, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Curious people seek knowledge and new experiences. In three studies, we examined whether, when, and how curiosity contributes to positive social outcomes between unacquainted strangers. Study 1 showed that curious people expect to generate closeness during intimate conversations but not during small-talk; less curious people anticipated poor outcomes in both situations. We hypothesized that curious people underestimate their ability to bond with unacquainted strangers during mundane conversations. Studies 2 and 3 showed that curious people felt close to partners during intimate and small-talk conversations; less curious people only felt close when the situation offered relationship-building exercises. Surprise at the pleasure felt during this novel, uncertain situation partially mediated the benefits linked to curiosity. We found evidence of slight asymmetry between self and partner reactions. Results could not be attributed to physical attraction or positive affect. Collectively, results suggest that positive social interactions benefits from an open and curious mindset. PMID:22092143

  3. Cognitive strategies take advantage of the cooperative potential of heterogeneous networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukov, Jeromos; Santos, Francisco C.; Pacheco, Jorge M.

    2012-06-01

    Understanding the emergence and maintenance of cooperation is one of the most challenging topics of our time. Evolutionary game theory offers a very flexible framework within which to address this challenge. Here we use the prisoner's dilemma game to investigate the performance of individuals who are capable of adopting reactive strategies in communities structurally organized by means of Barabási-Albert scale-free networks. We find that basic cognitive abilities, such as the capability to distinguish their partners and act according to their previous actions, enable cooperation to thrive. This result is particularly significant whenever fear is the leading social tension, as this fosters retaliation, thus enforcing and sustaining cooperation. Being able to simultaneously reward fellow cooperators and punish defectors proves instrumental in achieving cooperation and the welfare of the community. As a result, central individuals can successfully lead the community and turn defective players into cooperative ones. Finally, even when participation costs—known to be detrimental to cooperation in scale-free networks—are explicitly included, we find that basic cognitive abilities have enough potential to help cooperation to prevail.

  4. Supplemental Work at Home among Finnish Wage Earners: Involuntary Overtime or Taking the Advantage of Flexibility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satu Ojala

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available It is suggested, that the new flexible work practices are enhanced to meet the work-family demandsand therefore benefit especially women. In the article the focus is on informal flexibilitytaking place at home, for which field studies of the role of gender are rare. Against the assumptions,paid work at home is mostly informal, supplementary overtime by nature. In this article, I explorewhy employees undertake work in their private sphere during their free time and whether gendermakes a difference there. I carry out both qualitative and quantitative analyses. The qualitativedata consists of 21 interviews with white-collar employees and the quantitative data from theFinnish Quality of Work Life survey 2008 for which there are almost 4400 respondents. The methodsinclude content analysis, descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis.According to both the qualitative and quantitative data, job characteristics play the most importantrole for all who work at home; employees with higher education, or supervisory tasks, inparallel with having an autonomous and inspiring job predict both tele- and supplemental work.Importantly, gender plays only a minor role in the puzzles of choosing when and where to work.The social relations at the workplace, including the atmosphere and the support of superiors andthe work community, are only weakly related to work at home. At the same time, supplementalwork is associated with great time pressure and involuntary overtime.

  5. Take advantage of mycorrhizal fungi for improved soil fertility and plant health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal [AM] fungi are naturally-occurring soil fungi that form a beneficial symbiosis with the roots of most crops. The plants benefit because the symbiosis increases mineral nutrient uptake, drought resistance, and disease resistance. These characteristics make utilization of AM f...

  6. Taking advantage of the Mobicents platform in the design of the SINGA environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlodlo, N

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available can store digital objects such as their birth certificate, letters, photo album, cookbook, memory box, etc. My Things will be securely deposited in a trusted repository ? a digital vault. My Games is an environment where a child can learn, play...'s children to play a central role in defining and accessing the information, services and people they need to advance in life. SINGA is about providing scenarios in which a child discovers how to ?do things? that normally would have been difficult in a...

  7. Taking Advantage of Agile while Minimizing Risk: User Stories and Other Fables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    Digital Taskboard ’I Story Mapping • Kanban " Collective Code Ownership " Pair Programming u Automated Acceptance Testing v Analog Taskboard w...Carnegie Mellon University Scaling Agile Brings in More Variation Scaled Agile Framework • Kanban , SCRUM, Value Stream Mapping Disciplined Agile

  8. Taking Advantage of Nature’s Gift: Can Endogenous Neural Stem Cells Improve Myelin Regeneration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Akkermann

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Irreversible functional deficits in multiple sclerosis (MS are directly correlated to axonal damage and loss. Neurodegeneration results from immune-mediated destruction of myelin sheaths and subsequent axonal demyelination. Importantly, oligodendrocytes, the myelinating glial cells of the central nervous system, can be replaced to some extent to generate new myelin sheaths. This endogenous regeneration capacity has so far mainly been attributed to the activation and recruitment of resident oligodendroglial precursor cells. As this self-repair process is limited and increasingly fails while MS progresses, much interest has evolved regarding the development of remyelination-promoting strategies and the presence of alternative cell types, which can also contribute to the restoration of myelin sheaths. The adult brain comprises at least two neurogenic niches harboring life-long adult neural stem cells (NSCs. An increasing number of investigations are beginning to shed light on these cells under pathological conditions and revealed a significant potential of NSCs to contribute to myelin repair activities. In this review, these emerging investigations are discussed with respect to the importance of stimulating endogenous repair mechanisms from germinal sources. Moreover, we present key findings of NSC-derived oligodendroglial progeny, including a comprehensive overview of factors and mechanisms involved in this process.

  9. Hummingbirds as vectors of fungal spores in Moussonia deppeana (Gesneriaceae): taking advantage of a mutualism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Carlos; Ornelas, Juan Francisco

    2003-02-01

    Hummingbirds act as vectors of Fusarium moniliforme spores on protandrous flowers of Moussonia deppeana. The resulting interactions between the pathogen and plant-pollinator interactions were investigated in a 4-yr study to determine the pathogen's impact on host flowering phenology, flower longevity, nectar production, and fruit and seed production. We also evaluated hummingbird behavior on healthy and diseased plants and its effectiveness on spore transmission. Individual plants expressed the disease from year to year, and new infected individuals were detected every year. A fraction of the flowers in a plant expressed the disease, and this varied among and within years. Diseased plants produced more inflorescences, buds, and open healthy flowers than did healthy plants. Further, diseased plants bore proportionally fewer pistillate flowers than did healthy plants when considering only healthy flowers. Neither nectar nor fruit production differed between healthy and diseased plants, but healthy plants produced more seeds. Infected flowers were retained longer than uninfected ones, producing an additional 2 mg · μL(-1) · flower(-1) of nectar sugar. Hummingbirds visited more flowers on diseased plants than they did on healthy plants, regardless of number and sexual phase. Most pollen and spores were deposited within plants. These behavioral outcomes may promote geitonogamy and limit fungal spore mixing.

  10. Taking Advantage of Citation Measures of Scholarly Impact: Hip Hip h Index!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscio, John

    2016-11-01

    Professional decisions about hiring, tenure, promotion, funding, and honors are informed by assessments of scholarly impact. As a measure of influence, citations are produced by experts but accessible to nonexperts. The h index is the largest number h such that an individual has published at least h works cited at least h times apiece. This is easy to understand and calculate, as or more reliable and valid than alternative citation measures, and highly robust to missing or messy data. Striving for a large h index requires both productivity and influence, which provides healthy incentives for researchers striving for eminence through scientific impact. A number of factors that can influence h are discussed to promote the mindful use of what might otherwise be an ambiguous or misleading measure. The h index adds a transparent, objective component to assessments of scholarly impact, and even academic eminence, that merits at least two cheers. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Improving efficiency in cluster-randomized study design and implementation: taking advantage of a crossover

    OpenAIRE

    Reich NG; Milstone AM

    2013-01-01

    Nicholas G Reich,1 Aaron M Milstone2,3 1Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, UMass-Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA; 2Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: While individually randomized trials have long provided the gold standard of clinical evidence, the use of cluster-randomized tr...

  12. Physical parameter determinations of young Ms. Taking advantage of the Virtual Observatory to compare methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Bayo, A; Barrado, D; Allard, F

    2014-01-01

    One of the very first steps astronomers working in stellar physics perform to advance in their studies, is to determine the most common/relevant physical parameters of the objects of study (effective temperature, bolometric luminosity, surface gravity, etc.). Different methodologies exist depending on the nature of the data, intrinsic properties of the objects, etc. One common approach is to compare the observational data with theoretical models passed through some simulator that will leave in the synthetic data the same imprint than the observational data carries, and see what set of parameters reproduce the observations best. Even in this case, depending on the kind of data the astronomer has, the methodology changes slightly. After parameters are published, the community tend to quote, praise and criticize them, sometimes paying little attention on whether the possible discrepancies come from the theoretical models, the data themselves or just the methodology used in the analysis. In this work we perform t...

  13. Taking Advantage of the Study-Abroad Program: Before and After

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Richard C.

    1978-01-01

    The study-abroad trip can contribute vitally to the success of a foreign language program, providing strong motivation for students, cultural awareness for parents and the community, and increased visibility for the foreign language department. (Author)

  14. Taking Advantage of Model-Driven Engineering Foundations for Mixed Interaction Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauffre, Guillaume; Dubois, Emmanuel

    New forms of interactive systems, hereafter referred to as Mixed Interactive Systems (MIS), are based on the use of physical artefacts present in the environment. Mixing the digital and physical worlds affects the development of interactive systems, especially from the point of view of the design resources which need to express new dimensions. Consequently, there is a crucial need to clearly describe the content and utility of the recent models associated to these new interaction forms. Based on existing initiatives in the field of HCI, this chapter first highlights the interest of using a Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) approach for the design of MIS. Then, this chapter retraces the application of a MDE approach on a specific Mixed Interaction design resource. The resulted contribution is a motivated, explicit, complete and standardized definition of the ASUR model, a model for mixed interaction design. This definition constitutes a basis to promote the use of this model, to support its diffusion and to derive design tools from this model. The model-driven development of a flexible ASUR editor is finally introduced, thus facilitating the insertion of model extensions and articulations.

  15. SeDiCi: An Authentication Service Taking Advantage of Zero-Knowledge Proofs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzonkowski, Sławomir

    Transmission of users' profiles over insecure communication means is a crucial task of today's ecommerce applications. In addition, the users have to createmany profiles and remember many credentials. Thus they retype the same information over and over again. Each time the users type their credentials, they expose them to phishing or eavesdropping attempts.These problems could be solved by using Single Sign-on (SSO). The idea of SSO is that the users keep using the same set of credentials when visiting different websites. For web-aplications, OpenID1. is the most prominent solution that partially impelemtns SSO. However, OpenID is prone to phishing attempts and it does not preserve users' privacy [1].

  16. Lynch, Urry and city marketing: Taking advantage of the city as a built and graphic image

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospers, G-J.

    2009-01-01

    City marketing is usually addressed from the perspective of marketing theory. This article follows an alternative approach by exploring city marketing from the viewpoint of urban planning and the sociology of tourism. In his classic ‘The Image of the City’ (1960), planner Kevin Lynch found that peop

  17. Point-of-sale marketing of tobacco products: taking advantage of the socially disadvantaged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Robert; Cheney, Marshall K; Azad, M Raihan

    2009-05-01

    With increasing regulation of tobacco industry marketing practices, point-of-sale advertising has become an important channel for promoting tobacco products. One hundred and ten convenience stores in Oklahoma County were surveyed for tobacco-related advertising. There were significantly more point-of-sale tobacco advertisements in low-income and minority neighborhoods than in better educated, higher-income, predominantly White neighborhoods. Storeowners or managers were also interviewed to determine who has decision-making power regarding store signage and placement, and to elicit perceptions of industry tactics. Contracts with tobacco companies leave storeowners with little or no control over promotion of tobacco products within their store, and many are unaware of the implications of the tobacco industry point-of-sale practices. Local ordinances that regulated outdoor signage reduced outdoor tobacco advertisements, as well as tobacco signage and promotions within the store. Policy change, rather than education targeting storeowners, is recommended as the most effective strategy for reducing point-of-sale tobacco advertising.

  18. Taking Advantage of a Corrosion Problem to Solve a Pollution Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomar-Ramirez, Carlos F.; Bazan-Martinez, Jose A.; Palomar-Pardave, Manuel E.; Romero-Romo, Mario A.; Ramirez-Silva, Maria Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Some simple chemistry is used to demonstrate how Fe(II) ions, formed during iron corrosion in acid aqueous solution, can reduce toxic Cr(VI) species, forming soluble Cr(III) and Fe(III) ions. These ions, in turn, can be precipitated by neutralizing the solution. The procedure provides a treatment for industrial wastewaters commonly found in…

  19. Nordic-Baltic interaction in European Union negotiations: taking advantage of institutionalized cooperation / Ilze Ruse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruse, Ilze

    2014-01-01

    Läänemere riikide koostööst, keskendutakse küsimusele, kuivõrd suudavad need riigid institutsionaalselt tegutsedes tugevdada oma positsioone läbirääkimistel EL-ga ning saavutada seatud eesmärke.

  20. Taking advantage of the positive side-effects of smallpox vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, A

    2004-06-01

    From the introduction of smallpox vaccination approximately 200 years ago right up to its discontinuation (1980), reports by physicians and scientists about positive side-effects such as healing of chronic skin rashes, reduced susceptibility to various infectious diseases, e.g. measles, scarlet fever and whooping cough, and even the prophylactic use of the vaccination, e.g. against syphilis, were published again and again. Comparison with the period after cessation of vaccination confirms the experiences of the above vaccinators. As early as 1956, targeted research on these observations led to evidence of the 'ring-zone phenomenon', i.e. the production of soluble antiviral substances in infected chicken embryos and cell cultures. With the help of modern immunological and bioengineering methods, it was later possible to demonstrate that these effects are based on the activation of lymphoreticular cells and the regulatory effect of certain cytokines within the context of the non-specific immune system. These findings led to the development of paramunization with paraspecific vaccines from highly attenuated animal pox viruses. During attenuation, deletions in the virus DNA occur. Attenuated animal pox strains are therefore suited for the production of vector vaccines. The fact that these vector vaccines demonstrate an especially high level of paraspecific efficacy and lack harmful effects is likewise the result of the attenuated animal pox viruses. Optimum regulation of the entire immune system leads to increased paramunity already in the first few days after vaccination and to enhanced antigen recognition and thus accelerated commencement of specific immunity.

  1. Taking Advantage of Multimedia Network and Constructing a Modern Teaching Mode of College English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhaoXue'ai; XuXiaoyu

    2004-01-01

    In the transition from the traditional classroom to the modernized classroom, the changes in the teaching means completely remodel the modes of instructing, and lead to a pedagogical revolution. The Department of Foreign Languages Education from the Northwestern Polytechnical University has applied the multimedia means in the Reform of College English

  2. Introduction to perturbation techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali H

    2011-01-01

    Similarities, differences, advantages and limitations of perturbation techniques are pointed out concisely. The techniques are described by means of examples that consist mainly of algebraic and ordinary differential equations. Each chapter contains a number of exercises.

  3. BILATERAL COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGES: INDONESIA AND MALAYSIA CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Putu Wiwin Setyari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This studytried tolook more closely at market integration, through export prices channel, inIndonesiaandMalaysia. Severalpreviousstudiestendtorejectthe existence oflawofoneprice(LOP. The law of one price (LOP states that price a given product should be the same in different parts of the world if valued in common currency. However, empirical studies uniformly shows LOP does not describe most markets. Someimportantfactorsthat are consideredinstrumentalin this regardaretransportation costsandprice stickiness. However, there isone characteristicthat is oftenoverlookedin the discussion ofLOP, namelychanges incomparative advantage. The specific objectiveofthispaperis to look atcomparative advantagecorrelationbetween the two countriesandtheir effect onpriceconvergence. Correlationof both selected commodities –using therankspearman's test -indicates the nature ofthemutualsubstitutionof productsthatcarrythe possibility of"price competition" so thatthe pricepointtoconvergeto one another. Tests on theexportprice ofsomeselected productsinboth countriesindicatedthe occurrence ofpriceconvergence, seen from thetwoanalytical techniques: σconvergenceandco-integrationusingJohansen's test. This conclusion is generated by attempted to control the "identical assumption" is to examines prices for similar products (homogeneous using SITC 3-digit, which is produced from the "same" or close locations, with the export destination to the same trading partner

  4. Competitive advantage on a warming planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lash, Jonathan; Wellington, Fred

    2007-03-01

    Whether you're in a traditional smokestack industry or a "clean" business like investment banking, your company will increasingly feel the effects of climate change. Even people skeptical about global warming's dangers are recognizing that, simply because so many others are concerned, the phenomenon has wide-ranging implications. Investors already are discounting share prices of companies poorly positioned to compete in a warming world. Many businesses face higher raw material and energy costs as more and more governments enact policies placing a cost on emissions. Consumers are taking into account a company's environmental record when making purchasing decisions. There's also a burgeoning market in greenhouse gas emission allowances (the carbon market), with annual trading in these assets valued at tens of billions of dollars. Companies that manage and mitigate their exposure to the risks associated with climate change while seeking new opportunities for profit will generate a competitive advantage over rivals in a carbon-constrained future. This article offers a systematic approach to mapping and responding to climate change risks. According to Jonathan Lash and Fred Wellington of the World Resources Institute, an environmental think tank, the risks can be divided into six categories: regulatory (policies such as new emissions standards), products and technology (the development and marketing of climate-friendly products and services), litigation (lawsuits alleging environmental harm), reputational (how a company's environmental policies affect its brand), supply chain (potentially higher raw material and energy costs), and physical (such as an increase in the incidence of hurricanes). The authors propose a four-step process for responding to climate change risk: Quantify your company's carbon footprint; identify the risks and opportunities you face; adapt your business in response; and do it better than your competitors.

  5. Teachable Moment: Google Earth Takes Us There

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ann; Davinroy, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    In the current educational climate, where clearly articulated learning objectives are required, it is clear that the spontaneous teachable moment still has its place. Authors Ann Williams and Thomas Davinroy think that instructors from almost any discipline can employ Google Earth as a tool to take advantage of teachable moments through the…

  6. Teachable Moment: Google Earth Takes Us There

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ann; Davinroy, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    In the current educational climate, where clearly articulated learning objectives are required, it is clear that the spontaneous teachable moment still has its place. Authors Ann Williams and Thomas Davinroy think that instructors from almost any discipline can employ Google Earth as a tool to take advantage of teachable moments through the…

  7. Modern Paradigm of Ensuring Competitive Advantages of an Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klymchuk Alyona O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers evolution of development of the paradigm of ensuring competitive advantages of an enterprise. Foreign and domestic scientists focus on individual directions of development of competitive advantages and pay insufficient attention to new management concepts – development of the information society, knowledge economy and dynamism of integration processes. The goal of the study is formation of the modern paradigm of ensuring competitive advantages of an enterprise with consideration of tendencies of development of the knowledge economy, information society and integration processes. Enterprise competitiveness is a synergetic characteristic, which reflects enterprise capability of dynamic response to changes of the market situation with the aim of keeping predominance over other economic subjects. Management of the future, on the basis of the management 2.0 concept, should take into account interests not only of top management and shareholders but also employees, local communities and territories and meet requirements of the society in general, individual groups of consumers and tendencies of development of managerial and information technologies. The paradigm of the modern theory of ensuring competitive advantages should include models of keeping competitive advantages in the existing markets and models of development of future markets; strategy of development of enterprise competitiveness, human capital development and efficient enterprise management.

  8. Perfuração do esmalte para o tracionamento de caninos: vantagens, desvantagens, descrição da técnica cirúrgica e biomecânica Enamel perforation for canine traction: advantages, disadvantages, surgical technique description and biomechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldino Capelozza Filho

    2011-10-01

    expertise with high rate of clinical success, advantages and disadvantages are discussed comparing EPCT and bonding attachment technique for canine traction (BACT.

  9. Transformation from Comparative Advantage to Competitive Advantage: A Way to Improve Regional Agricultural Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Neng-li

    2011-01-01

    Primarily this paper analyses the internal correlation between comparative advantage and competitive advantage, and holds that there are no conflict and contradiction between the two. the industries with comparative advantage often easily to have strong comparative advantage. Then this paper analyses the factors influencing regional agricultural competitiveness, including resources endowment, ecological environment, quality of labour forces, infrastructure, technology innovation and transform...

  10. Advantages of Group Work in English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志真

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the advantages of group work in English teaching.It is argued that group work can be efficient in teaching English.This paper concludes that:1)group work is one of the greatest education reforms,2)group work has many advantages in English teaching.

  11. Synergetic effect of benchmarking competitive advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P. Tkachova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It is analyzed the essence of synergistic competitive benchmarking. The classification of types of synergies is developed. It is determined the sources of synergies in conducting benchmarking of competitive advantages. It is proposed methodological framework definition of synergy in the formation of competitive advantage.

  12. Synergetic effect of benchmarking competitive advantages

    OpenAIRE

    N.P. Tkachova; P.G. Pererva

    2011-01-01

    It is analyzed the essence of synergistic competitive benchmarking. The classification of types of synergies is developed. It is determined the sources of synergies in conducting benchmarking of competitive advantages. It is proposed methodological framework definition of synergy in the formation of competitive advantage.

  13. The Down Syndrome Advantage: Fact or Fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrice, April M.; Glidden, Laraine Masters

    2009-01-01

    The "Down syndrome advantage" is the popular conception that children with Down syndrome are easier to rear than children with other developmental disabilities. We assessed whether mothers of children with developmental disabilities would demonstrate a consistent Down syndrome advantage as their children aged from 12 to 18 years. Results did not…

  14. The Down Syndrome Advantage: Fact or Fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrice, April M.; Glidden, Laraine Masters

    2009-01-01

    The "Down syndrome advantage" is the popular conception that children with Down syndrome are easier to rear than children with other developmental disabilities. We assessed whether mothers of children with developmental disabilities would demonstrate a consistent Down syndrome advantage as their children aged from 12 to 18 years. Results did not…

  15. Analysis of yield advantage in mixed cropping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranganathan, R.

    1993-01-01

    It has long been recognized that mixed cropping can give yield advantages over sole cropping, but methods that can identify such yield benefits are still being developed. This thesis presents a method that combines physiological and economic principles in the evaluation of yield advantage.

  16. Reasoning about other people's beliefs: bilinguals have an advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Fernández, Paula; Glucksberg, Sam

    2012-01-01

    Bilingualism can have widespread cognitive effects. In this article we investigate whether bilingualism might have an effect on adults' abilities to reason about other people's beliefs. In particular, we tested whether bilingual adults might have an advantage over monolingual adults in false-belief reasoning analogous to the advantage that has been observed with bilingual children. Using a traditional false-belief task coupled with an eye-tracking technique, we found that adults in general suffer interference from their own perspective when reasoning about other people's beliefs. However, bilinguals are reliably less susceptible to this egocentric bias than are monolinguals. Moreover, performance on the false-belief task significantly correlated with performance on an executive control task. We argue that bilinguals' early sociolinguistic sensitivity and enhanced executive control may account for their advantage in false-belief reasoning.

  17. Diagnosis and Analysis on Take-off technique of Excellent Female Long Jumpers —— Taking Top Eight Jumpers in China's Athletics Grand Prix (2011 ) for examples%优秀跳远女运动员起跳技术的指标诊断与分析——以2011年全国田径大奖赛前8名运动员为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩玉柱; 丁伟

    2011-01-01

    本研究采用文献资料法、运动生物力学解析法等,结合运动训练实践提出起跳效率指标,以诊断起跳腿的效能;同时拟定了起跳支撑期重心腾升角指标,并对这两个指标的定义、应用进行了研究,为准确地诊断我国跳远技术,完善训练计划,提高运动员成绩提供参考。%Introduced by the method of literal materials and the analysis of sports biomechanics, this research proposes the diagnosis on efficiency of take-off leg on the basis of take-off efficiency combining with sport training practice. Meantime, it also protocols the standards of rising angles of take-off support center and studies definition and application of the two standards, which has given great references to correct diagnosis on China's long jump technique, perfect training plans and improve athletes' performance.

  18. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE IN THE ENTERPRISE PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRUNEA Ana Daniela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid changes in market characteristics and the technological innovations are common and faster challenges, resulting in products, processes and technologies. The competitive advantage is volatile, difficult to obtain and more difficult to maintain and strengthened with consumers who through their individual choices polarization confirms the recognition performance and award competitive advantages, thus causing the competitive ranking of companies present in a particular market. The competitive advantage lies in the focus of the performance of companies in competitive markets and innovation is a source for obtaining and consolidating it. Companies will need to demonstrate the capacity to adapt to changes in the business environment so as to maintain the helded positions. This paper treats this aspect behavior that companies should adopt to get on the account of innovation a sustainable competitive advantage. I started of the work in the elaboration from the theory of developed by Michael Porter in his book "Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance" we applied methods listed thus trying to point out possible ways of creating competitive advantage by companies. We have presented the sources of competitive advantage and the factors on which depends its creation. Walking theoretical research revealed how lack of competitive advantage leads to a lack of competitiveness of companies and the benefits that arise with the creation of this type of asset. Among the most important benefits is to increase performances. Once the competitive advantage is achieved, it must be maintained and updated market conditions and the methods that can be created a sustainable competitive advantage represent the answers to many of the companies questions are fighting for survival in an environment of fierce competition. The implementation of methods for obtaining competitive advantages, but also exist dangers, that every company should know them

  19. Revealed comparative advantage of Russian agricultural exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Ishchukova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the issue of revealed comparative advantage in the case of the Russian foreign trade in agricultural products and foodstuffs. The objective of this study is to analyze specialization and the competitive performance of the Russian agricultural sector and to determine whether or not patterns of comparative advantage for Russia have undergone significant changes over the period 1998–2010.The analysis is performed using several measures of revealed comparative advantage: classical Balassa’s index, Vollrath’s index and Lafay index. Balassa’s index identified a group of products, which has relatively stable comparative advantage during the whole period. Among those products we can count cereals (wheat, barley, etc., their by-products (for example bran of wheat and products of their processing (cereals preparations, etc., as well as oilseeds, vegetable oils and chocolate.Vollrath’s index showed that the number of products that have revealed competitive advantage was steadily growing during the period. Lafay index, used in the analysis by regions, showed that Russia has comparative advantages in relation to CIS countries and Asian countries due to its geographical location and good trade relations.Primary products have the comparative advantage in relation to EU and Asian countries. In relation to the Commonwealth of Independent States and Americas on the contrary the processed products have comparative advantages, while the most of primary products have comparative disadvantage.In relation to the whole world, analysis has also revealed a shift of comparative advantage from by-products (e.g. bran of wheat, sunflower cake etc. in 1998–2001 to primary products in 2002–2010 (wheat, barley, whole cow milk, sunflower seed etc..

  20. Take the (Exercise) Plunge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167533.html Take the (Exercise) Plunge Pool workouts offer a range of health ... the pool. Whether you swim or do aquatic exercises, working out in water improves strength, flexibility and ...

  1. IT Infrastructure Construction: Based on Competitive Advantage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J(U) Qing-jiang

    2006-01-01

    Information technology (IT) infrastructure is the foundation of information sharing, storage, and processing upon which the entire business depends and it changes not only inner organizational structures but also outer competitive conditions. An IT infrastructure that possesses elements unique to a particular organization and difficult to duplicate can produce competitive advantage. To achieve this advantage, not only the inner integration of technology,personnel and business process in a firm is needed, but also a platform for electronic commerce is required. The purpose of this study is to establish the whole concept framework for IT infrastructure, based on competitive advantage, and to propose ideas about the construction of IT infrastructure system.

  2. Software exporting: a developing country advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Askari

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Software exports have the potential to make a significant contribution to the economies of developing countries and to the global IT industry. Developing countries have demonstrated a comparative advantage in this export sector and the global IT industry can benefit from this developing country advantage. Today, IT is high investment, high risk, and high reward and has graduated from being a critical support function to a key partner, sometimes responsible for directing the strategy of an enterprise. Business and technology managers cannot afford to miss the opportunities provided by the comparative advantage of developing countries in the IT arena.

  3. Paedomorphic facial expressions give dogs a selective advantage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget M Waller

    Full Text Available How wolves were first domesticated is unknown. One hypothesis suggests that wolves underwent a process of self-domestication by tolerating human presence and taking advantage of scavenging possibilities. The puppy-like physical and behavioural traits seen in dogs are thought to have evolved later, as a byproduct of selection against aggression. Using speed of selection from rehoming shelters as a proxy for artificial selection, we tested whether paedomorphic features give dogs a selective advantage in their current environment. Dogs who exhibited facial expressions that enhance their neonatal appearance were preferentially selected by humans. Thus, early domestication of wolves may have occurred not only as wolf populations became tamer, but also as they exploited human preferences for paedomorphic characteristics. These findings, therefore, add to our understanding of early dog domestication as a complex co-evolutionary process.

  4. Protontherapy versus carbon ion therapy advantages, disadvantages and similarities

    CERN Document Server

    d’Ávila Nunes, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comparison analysis of two cancer treatment therapies: carbon ion therapy and protontherapy. It is divided in 5 sections. The first ones gives the reader a brief history of Radiotherapy and types of radiation. In the second section, the techniques and equipments, including new ones in development such as Cyclinac , Laser and DWA, are described. The third section describes biophysical (such as stopping power and LET) and biological (such as RBE and OER) properties, the fundamental experiments and clinical area. The fourth section presents models and the fifth section compares both techniques, showing advantages and disadvantages of each, and their similarities.

  5. Measuring Coding Intensity in Medicare Advantage - SUPP.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In 2004, Medicare implemented a risk-adjustment system that pays Medicare Advantage (MA) plans based on diagnoses reported for their enrollees, giving the plans an...

  6. Measuring Coding Intensity in Medicare Advantage - SUPP.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In 2004, Medicare implemented a risk-adjustment system that pays Medicare Advantage (MA) plans based on diagnoses reported for their enrollees, giving the plans an...

  7. THE HOME ADVANTAGE IN MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marshall B

    2015-12-01

    Home advantage is smaller in baseball than in other major professional sports for men, specifically football, basketball, or soccer. This paper advances an explanation. It begins by reviewing the main observations to support the view that there is little or no home advantage in individual sports. It then presents the case that home advantage originates in impaired teamwork among the away players. The need for teamwork and the extent of it vary from sport to sport. To the extent that a sport requires little teamwork it is more like an individual sport, and the home team would be expected to enjoy only a small advantage. Interactions among players on the same side (teamwork) are much less common in baseball than in the other sports considered.

  8. RESOURCE-ADVANTAGE THEORY: O ESTADO DA ARTE/RESOURCE-ADVANTAGE THEORY: STATE OF ART

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ricardo Messias Rossi; Marina Darahem Mafud

    2014-01-01

    .... According to R-A, competition consists of the constant struggle among firms for a comparative advantage in resources that will yield a marketplace position of competitive advantage and, thereby...

  9. Logistics potentials in business competitive advantage creation

    OpenAIRE

    Rafał Matwiejczuk

    2013-01-01

    Background: Companies constantly search for ways to achieve and sustain long-term competitive advantage. Among the factors influencing the competitive advantage creation there are so called logistics potentials, which constitute a component part of a business strategic potentials. Logistics resources, logistics capabilities and logistics competences are the main components of the logistics potentials structure and hierarchy. Methods: In order to recognize the logistics potentials which de...

  10. The data sharing advantage in astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Dorch, S B F; Ellegaard, O

    2015-01-01

    We present here evidence for the existence of a citation advantage within astrophysics for papers that link to data. Using simple measures based on publication data from NASA Astrophysics Data System we find a citation advantage for papers with links to data receiving on the average significantly more citations per paper than papers without links to data. Furthermore, using INSPEC and Web of Science databases we investigate whether either papers of an experimental or theoretical nature display different citation behavior.

  11. The data sharing advantage in astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorch, Bertil F.; Drachen, Thea M.; Ellegaard, Ole

    2016-10-01

    We present here evidence for the existence of a citation advantage within astrophysics for papers that link to data. Using simple measures based on publication data from NASA Astrophysics Data System we find a citation advantage for papers with links to data receiving on the average significantly more citations per paper than papers without links to data. Furthermore, using INSPEC and Web of Science databases we investigate whether either papers of an experimental or theoretical nature display different citation behavior.

  12. On the Biological Advantage of Chirality

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    The presence of chirality in the main molecules of life may well be not just a structural artifact, but of pure biological advantage. The possibility of the existence of a phenomenon of a special mode of interaction, labeled as "chiral interaction" (CI), for which structural chirality is a necessary condition, is the main reason for such an advantage. In order to demonstrate such a possibility, macroscopic chiral devices are introduced and presented as analogies for such an interaction. For t...

  13. Advantages and risks in service standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veres Zoltán

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparing the advantages and risks in standardizing services, there can be no clear-cut answer concerning the strategy to be followed. Exploiting advantages in the long run is only worth it for a provider of a service that is able to build up a powerful brand image. However, the more successful a service concept, the stronger the temptation to imitation. The success of imitators will sooner or later bring about multibrand loyalty.

  14. Logistics potentials in business competitive advantage creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Matwiejczuk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Companies constantly search for ways to achieve and sustain long-term competitive advantage. Among the factors influencing the competitive advantage creation there are so called logistics potentials, which constitute a component part of a business strategic potentials. Logistics resources, logistics capabilities and logistics competences are the main components of the logistics potentials structure and hierarchy. Methods: In order to recognize the logistics potentials which determine the competitive advantage creation one may use the assumptions and elements of contemporary management concepts, including strategic management. In particular the article deals with Resource-Based View (RBV, Dynamic Capabilities Concept (DCC and - first of all - Competence-Based Management (CBM. Results and conclusions: Several significant research projects have presented a wide scope and a large number of possibilities of logistics potentials (and logistics competences in particular influence on business competitive advantage creation. The article briefly presents the research results conducted by: (1 Michigan State University (USA, (2 European Logistics Association (ELA in cooperation with A.T. Kearney, (3 Computer Sciences Corporation and (4 Capgemini. The research results have pointed out to differentiated but at the same distinctive symptoms of logistics competences influence on competitive advantage creation. The article also refers to the results of the research carried out by the Chair of Logistics & Marketing at Opole University (Poland in companies operating in Poland. The research has been mainly dealing with the significance of logistics competences in competitive advantage creation.

  15. The Oilheat Manufacturers Associations Oilheat Advantages Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedden, R. [Oil Heat Management Services, Pawlet, VT (United States); Bately, J.E. [Energy Research Center, Inc., Easton, CT (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The Oilheat Advantages Project is the Oilheat Manufacturers Association`s first project. It involves the creation and disseminaiton of the unified, well documented, compellingly packaged oilheat story. The project invovles three steps: the first step is to pull together all the existing data on the advantages of oilheat into a single, well documented engineering report. The second step will be to rewrite and package the technical document into a consumer piece and a scripted presentation supported with overheads, and to disseminate the information throughout the industry. The third step will be to fund new research to update existing information and discover new advantages of oilheat. This step will begin next year. The inforamtion will be packaged in the following formats: The Engineering Document. This will include all the technical information including the creditable third party sources for all the findings on the many advantages of oilheat; the Consumer Booklet. This summarizes all the findings in the Engineering Document in simple language with easy to understand illustrations and graphs; a series of single topic Statement Stuffers on each of the advantages; an Overhead Transparency-Supported Scripted Show that can be used by industry representatives for presentations to the general public, schools, civic groups, and service clubs; and the Periodic publication of updates to the Oilheat Advantages Study.

  16. The Current Status of Peer Assessment Techniques and Sociometric Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, William M; Castellanos, Melisa; Persram, Ryan J

    2017-09-01

    Current issues in the use of peer assessment techniques and sociometric methods are discussed. Attention is paid to the contributions of the four articles in this volume. Together these contributions point to the continual level of change and progress in these techniques. They also show that the paradigm underlying these methods has been unchanged for decades. It is argued that this domain is ripe for a paradigm change that takes advantage of recent developments in statistical techniques and technology. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Ultrasonic non invasive techniques for microbiological instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvira, L.; Sierra, C.; Galán, B.; Resa, P.

    2010-01-01

    Non invasive techniques based on ultrasounds have advantageous features to study, characterize and monitor microbiological and enzymatic reactions. These processes may change the sound speed, viscosity or particle distribution size of the medium where they take place, which makes possible their analysis using ultrasonic techniques. In this work, two different systems for the analysis of microbiological liquid media based on ultrasounds are presented. In first place, an industrial application based on an ultrasonic monitoring technique for microbiological growth detection in milk is shown. Such a system may improve the quality control strategies in food production factories, being able to decrease the time required to detect possible contaminations in packed products. Secondly, a study about the growing of the Escherichia coli DH5 α in different conditions is presented. It is shown that the use of ultrasonic non invasive characterization techniques in combination with other conventional measurements like optical density provides complementary information about the metabolism of these bacteria.

  18. Taking minutes of meetings

    CERN Document Server

    Gutmann, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    aking Minutes of Meetings guides you through the entire process behind minute taking: arranging the meeting; writing the agenda; creating the optimum environment; structuring the meeting and writing notes up accurately. The minute-taker is one of the most important and powerful people in a meeting and you can use this opportunity to develop your knowledge, broaden your horizons and build credibility within the organization. Taking Minutes of Meetings is an easy to read 'dip-in, dip-out' guide which shows you how to confidently arrange meetings and produce minutes. It provides hands-on advice about the sections of a meeting as well as tips on how to create an agenda, personal preparation, best practice advice on taking notes and how to improve your accuracy. Brand new chapters of this 4th edition include guidance on using technology to maximize effectiveness and practical help with taking minutes for a variety of different types of meetings. The creating success series of books... With over one million copi...

  19. Take Three: Seasonal Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee describes how to keep from getting seasonal flu and spreading it to others by taking these three steps.  Created: 9/29/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/29/2010.

  20. Take a Bow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Greg; Ogurek, Douglas J.

    2009-01-01

    Performing-arts centers can provide benefits at the high school and collegiate levels, and administrators can take steps now to get the show started. When a new performing-arts center comes to town, local businesses profit. Events and performances draw visitors to the community. Ideally, a performing-arts center will play many roles: entertainment…

  1. Taking the Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China’s musical theater market has yet to take shape for a homegrown repertoire to expand The past summer offered an interesting variety of musical performances. While the Chinese version of Mama Mia!,one of the most popular musicals in the world, tours China on a 200-performance run, homegrown musicals are also gaining ground.

  2. Reformer Takes French Reins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The painful reforms chosen by French voters to rejuvenate their sluggish economy have smoothed the way for Nicolas Sarkozy to take up France’s top political job.The 52-year-old leader of the ruling right-wing Union

  3. Taking the long view

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Patrick; Smith, Emma

    2016-10-01

    A new study of the long-term employment prospects of UK science and engineering students suggests that talk of a skills shortage is overblown, with most graduates in these disciplines taking jobs outside science. Researchers Patrick White and Emma Smith discuss their findings and what they mean for current physics students

  4. Advantages Brought on by Implementing the e-Management within S.M.E.S in Romania by Creating a Durable Development on the Troubled Background within the Business Environment

    OpenAIRE

    CORNELIU GÂRJOABĂ

    2011-01-01

    The informational systems management represents today an indispensable instrument of the modern management. Their continuous improvement doubled by the improvement of calculus techniques offer increased possibilities to take over larger segments of the decision making activity developed by the deciding human factor. In order to obtain economic advantages through capitalizing the benefits brought by the informational society and by the presence of internet, it is necessary to implement the e-M...

  5. ADVANTAGES BROUGHT ON BY IMPLEMENTING THE e-MANAGEMENT WITHIN S.M.E.s IN ROMANIA BY CREATING A DURABLE DEVELOPMENT ON THE TROUBLED BACKGROUND WITHIN THE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORNELIU GÂRJOABĂ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The informational systems management represents today an indispensable instrument of the modern management. Their continuous improvement doubled by the improvement of calculus techniques offer increased possibilities to take over larger segments of the decision making activity developed by the deciding human factor. In order to obtain economic advantages through capitalizing the benefits brought by the informational society and by the presence of internet, it is necessary to implement the e-Management that ensures an increased business management capacity.

  6. General Conceptual View on Resource Advantage Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Yalcin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to continue for an organization to exist it needs to finance itself for its own resource on the other hand service with considering consumers need and expectations by present them lowest price and highest quality also. Under these conditions these kind of organizations need to analyze the behaviour (nature of the rival organizations and position themselves accordingly in order to get advantage on the rival organizations. In this study, a general conceptual view on resource advantage theory is developed. Theory explains having the lowest cost resources than rival organisations geting advantage with organisation resources, market position, financial performance and evironmental factors. Theory is able to achieve efficiency and effectiveness in the organisations and use to have strategic marketing decisions.

  7. RELATIVE COMPETITIVE ECONOMIC ADVANTAGE IN TRADE DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalendu GUHA BIKA

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In the era and process of free trade globalisation the classical and neo-classical theories of comparative and competitive advantages have become short-termed because of new actors and devices in the modern techno-economic advancement. Hence, a new approach seems necessary, respectively the one of relative advantages that are related to economies of scale and marketability, as today, the macroeconomic concept is the concept of Multinational or Transnational, and no longer a national one. At the same time, the micro-concept may be used as concept of an entire international economic sector or branch. Due to these new developments the relative advantages approach focuses more on cost-reduction functions of commodities and services and it plays an important role in both theoretical and practical investigation. The examples presented in the paper are built on three competing Asian countries: China, South Korea and post-emerged Japan.

  8. 柏林田径世锦赛男子三级跳远运动员起跳技术分析%Analysis on Take-off Techniques of Triple Jump Athletes in the Track and Field World Championships in Berlin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁晓毅; 吴冀; 赵俊华

    2011-01-01

    The techniques of triple jump are indivisible and irreversible.The study of the interrelated techniques of the three take-offs that determine the final results is not only a precondition of bringing athletes' potential into full play reasonably,but also a process of deepening the understanding of the techniques.This study,based on the performance of the top eight athletes in the triple jump final of 2009 Berlin World Champions,unfolds the status quo and characteristics of top-level athletes' take-off techniques and provides a reference for narrowing the gap between the techniques of athletes at home and abroad and improving take-off performance of domestic athletes.%三级跳远技术结构是一个不可分割的整体,其技术环节存在不可颠倒性。就三跳而言,三次起跳技术相互关联并直接决定了最后的总成绩,所以对三级跳远技术的深入研究是充分、合理发挥人体潜能的条件,也是人们对三级跳远技术的认识不断完善的一个过程。通过对世界顶尖级运动员三次起跳技术分析,揭示近年高水平运动员起跳技术现状和特点,为我国运动员改进技术找出差距原因,提高起跳效果提供参考依据。

  9. ELECTRONIC BANKING ADVANTAGES FOR FINANCIAL SERVICES DELIVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paun Dragos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available E-banking is a fully automatic service for traditionally banking customers products based on information technology platforms. E-banking services provide customer access to accounts, the ability to move their money between different accounts or making payments via e-channels. The advantages generated by this services have determined an accelerate developing of this industry over the entire world. This paper examines some of the advantages of electronic banking products together with the characteristic management issues generated by the implementation of this new channel for financial services delivery.

  10. THE TAX ADVANTAGES OF INCOME TAX PAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU GHEORGHE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the cost of financing through financial and operational leasing due to the deductibility of depreciation and interest. The shareholders of any company aim to obtain profit and to increase their ownership equity. In order for this to happen, the company must have profit, for which a corporate tax must be paid. A good management translates into choosing the most advantageous means of financing, which will lead to paying a lower corporate tax. Leasing and the non-taxation of reinvested profits are two means through which companies can obtain significant fiscal advantages, by increasing the deductible expenses, or by paying lower taxes.

  11. Microwave Breast Imaging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Rubæk, Tonny

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the applicability of microwave radiation for breast cancer detection. Microwave imaging systems are categorized based on their hardware architecture. The advantages and disadvantages of various imaging techniques are discussed. The fundamental tradeoffs are indicated between v...

  12. Microwave Breast Imaging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Rubæk, Tonny

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the applicability of microwave radiation for breast cancer detection. Microwave imaging systems are categorized based on their hardware architecture. The advantages and disadvantages of various imaging techniques are discussed. The fundamental tradeoffs are indicated between...

  13. 77 FR 6619 - Community Advantage Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ...'') (76 FR 9626). The CA Pilot Program was introduced to increase SBA-guaranteed loans to small businesses... financings that are approved by SBA. (76 FR 56262) In response to comments received on the CA Pilot Program... ADMINISTRATION Community Advantage Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice...

  14. Comparative Advantage Not Cause of Trade Surplus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Since adopting` the reform and opening-up policy in the late 1970s, China has constantly expanded its foreign trade by giving full play to its comparative advantage in production cost. However, nowadays, problems previously camouflaged by high GDP growth

  15. Structural change in OECD comparative advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, Steven; Inklaar, Robert; Van Marrewijk, Charles

    2013-01-01

    In the post-war period, the goods composition of trade in Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries has changed considerably. We analyze the evolution of comparative advantage using a detailed trade data set and a new analytical tool: the Harmonic Mass index (HM index),

  16. Project safety as a sustainable competitive advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechenthin, David

    2004-01-01

    To be consistently profitable, a construction company must complete projects in scope, on schedule, and on budget. At the same time, the nature of the often high-risk work performed by construction companies can result in high accident rates. Clients and other stakeholders are placing increasing pressure on companies to decrease those accident rates. Clients routinely demand copies of safety plans and evidence of past results at the "pre-qualification" or "request for proposal" stages of the procurement process. Are high accident rates and the associated costs just a part of business? Companies that deliver on scope, schedule, and budget have a competitive advantage. Is it possible for projects with low accident rates to use it as a competitive advantage? Is the value added by safety just a temporary or parity issue, or does a successful safety program offer significant advantage to the company and the client? This article concludes that in the case of a high-risk industry, such as the construction industry, an organization with a successful safety program can promote safety performance as a sustainable competitive advantage. It is a choice the company can make.

  17. Processing advantages for focused words in Korean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kember, H.; Choi, J.Y.; Cutler, A.

    2016-01-01

    In Korean, focus is expressed in accentual phrasing. To ascertain whether words focused in this manner enjoy a processing advantage analogous to that conferred by focus as expressed in, e.g, English and Dutch, we devised sentences with target words in one of four conditions: prosodic focus, syntacti

  18. Online Shopping: Advantages over the Offline Alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Dr Joshua Chang

    2003-01-01

    The advent of the Internet as a shopping medium has enabled shoppers to gain shopping benefits such as convenience and time-saving, better information, and price savings. This paper aims to provide a better understanding of the benefits of Internet shopping by identifying and discussing the advantages of Internet shopping over traditional storefront shopping.

  19. Creating Competitive Advantage through Effective Management Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenecker, Clinton O.; Ariss, Sonny S.

    2002-01-01

    Managers trained in executive education programs (n=203) identified ways in which management education can increase an organization's competitive advantage: exposure to new ideas and practices, skill development, and motivation. Characteristics of effective management education included experience-based learning orientation, credible instructors,…

  20. Online Shopping: Advantages over the Offline Alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Dr Joshua Chang

    2003-01-01

    The advent of the Internet as a shopping medium has enabled shoppers to gain shopping benefits such as convenience and time-saving, better information, and price savings. This paper aims to provide a better understanding of the benefits of Internet shopping by identifying and discussing the advantages of Internet shopping over traditional storefront shopping.

  1. Assessing Binocular Advantage in Aided Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Night /day Imaging Technologies, ANIT, Head Mounted Display, Night Vision Goggle , Aided Vision , Binocular...advantage of binocularity in aided vision . Key Words: Head Mounted Display, Night Vision Goggle , Stereopsis, Modulation Transfer Function...veridical perception allows the operator to navigate and manipulate the environment in a natural and efficient manner. Night vision goggles (NVGs),

  2. Advantages and Problems with Merging Data Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cnaan, Ram A.

    1985-01-01

    Presents the Israeli experience with merging different computerized files using a unique identifier. The advantages and disadvantages of this identifier are examined. Four types of problems are identified and some examples of use of an I.D. number as identifier are given. The desirability of merging files and confidentiality issues are also…

  3. [The advantage of multidisciplinary treatment of presbycusis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouccara, Didier; Madjlessi, Arach; Mosnier, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    Attributable to the ageing of the hearing system, presbycusis presents a wide variability in the general population. Early detection is necessary in order to be able to provide the patient with a suitable hearing aid. Collaboration between otolaryngologists and geriatricians proves to be advantageous as a consultation for a memory complaint may be the opportunity to detect presbycusis and vice versa.

  4. Advantages and Disadvantages of E-books

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马立平

    2004-01-01

    The e-book has many advantages over a paper-based product. You .can store lots of books on one computer-in fact your entire library could be stored on the top of your desk. E-books also allow you to mark your page with an electronic bookmark and jump straight to it when you open the book.

  5. Overview of research in the ADVANTAGE project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angjelichinoski, Marko; Cosovic, Mirsad; Kalalas, Charalampos

    2016-01-01

    The European Marie Curie Project ADVANTAGE (Advanced Communications and Information processing in smart grid systems) was launched in 2014. It represents a major inter-disciplinary research project into the topic of Smart Grid technology. A key aspect of the project is to bring together and train...

  6. Advantages of super-light structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2009-01-01

    Super-light structures with pearl-chain reinforcement is a new revolutionary technology that opens possibilities of building load-bearing structures much cheaper and with several other advantages compared to traditional constructions of concrete and steel. Some benefits are: 1 Half price or less. 2...

  7. On the measurement of comparative advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoen, A.R.; Oosterhaven, J.

    This paper shows-that the standard measure of revealed comparative advantage (RCA), ranging from 0 to infinity, has problematic properties. Due to its multiplicative specification, it has a moving mean larger than its expected value of 1, while its distribution strongly depends on the number of

  8. Aviation Expo Taking off

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xinwen; Bai Yifeng

    2007-01-01

    @@ The 12nd Beijing Aviation Expo(Aviation Expo/China 2007) was held this September 19-22 at the China International Exhibition Center.Beijing Aviation Expo is the ONLY aviation exhibition (Civil & Military,including Airport & Air Traffic Control) organized in Beijing,taking place every two years.It is also the most influential aviation exhibition with the longest history in China.

  9. Taking drugs very seriously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlett, J Angelo

    2013-04-01

    Neither anti-illegal drug proponents nor their detractors have wholly plausible arguments for their positions, because neither takes responsibility for drug use sufficiently seriously. Instead, only a policy that places users' responsibility at the forefront of the problem is acceptable, one that is sufficiently respectful of actual or potential nonusers' rights not to be wrongfully harmed, directly or indirectly, by drug use, or coerced to support it in any way.

  10. Perspective Taking in Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zappalà Salvatore

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Workplaces are often described as places in which individuals are motivated by their self-interests and in which negative events like time pressure, anxiety, conflict with co-workers, miscomprehensions, difficulties in solving problems, not-transmitted or not-exchanged information that lead to mistakes, and in some cases to injuries, stress or control, are part of everyday life (Dormann & Zapf, 2002; Schabracq, Winnubst and Cooper, 2003. Such situations are often the result of the limited comprehension of needs, skills, or information available to colleagues, supervisors, subordinates, clients or providers. However, workplaces are also places in which employees take care of clients, support colleagues and subordinates (Rhoades & Eisenberger, 2002, are enthusiastic about their job (Bakker et al., 2008, are motivated by leaders that encourage employees to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the group or the organization and provide them with the confidence to perform beyond expectations (Bass, 1997. Thus positive relationships at work are becoming a new interdisciplinary domain of inquiry (Dutton & Ragins, 2006. Within this positive relationships framework, in this paper we focus on a positive component of workplaces, and particularly on an individual cognitive and emotional process that has an important role in the workplace because it facilitates interpersonal relations and communications: it is the perspective taking process. In order to describe perspective taking, we will refer to some empirical studies and particularly to the review published by Parker, Atkins and Axtell in 2008 on the International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology.

  11. Graph visualization techniques for web clustering engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Emilio; Didimo, Walter; Grilli, Luca; Liotta, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    One of the most challenging issues in mining information from the World Wide Web is the design of systems that present the data to the end user by clustering them into meaningful semantic categories. We show that the analysis of the results of a clustering engine can significantly take advantage of enhanced graph drawing and visualization techniques. We propose a graph-based user interface for Web clustering engines that makes it possible for the user to explore and visualize the different semantic categories and their relationships at the desired level of detail.

  12. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Assessment in Higher Vocational Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ya-tao

    2013-01-01

    Assessment is always considered to be an important component in the field of higher vocational education. It serves the purpose of evaluating students’achievement and supporting learning and teaching. Assessment plays a key role by relating the in-structional activities to increase students’capabilities. The purpose aims to consider the notion of assessment as a prerequisite and will attempt to explore certain strengths and weaknesses of assessment associated with higher vocational education. Some different types and techniques of assessment in higher vocational education alongside their advantages and disadvantages will also be ex-plored.

  13. Physics Take-Outs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riendeau, Diane; Hawkins, Stephanie; Beutlich, Scott

    2016-03-01

    Most teachers want students to think about their course content not only during class but also throughout their day. So, how do you get your students to see how what they learn in class applies to their lives outside of class? As physics teachers, we are fortunate that our students are continually surrounded by our content. How can we get them to notice the physics around them? How can we get them to make connections between the classroom content and their everyday lives? We would like to offer a few suggestions, Physics Take-Outs, to solve this problem.

  14. SUSHILANDIA Take Away

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Lozano, María Helena; Amador Torres, Stephania; Silva Manrique, Kelly Johana

    2016-01-01

    Sushilandia take away es un restaurante que ofrece variedad de ingredientes para la selección por parte del cliente, bajo el concepto de “comida para llevar”. El sistema de funcionamiento se basa en la puesta de un menú estándar que le permite al cliente seguir una cadena dentro del sistema de producción de su comida. Inicialmente están dispuestos tres cortes diferentes de sushi, una vez el cliente escoge el que quiere pasa a la zona de proteínas, seguido de vegetales y adiciones. Seguidament...

  15. The Relational View of Interorganizational Competitive Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Zhang, Si; Li, Jizhen

    Collaborating with external partners on R&D and forming strategic partnership for R&D have been popular phenomena for long, which leads new development in existing theories. Though the relational view of competitive advantage has been proposed for more than a decade, few in-depth empirical...... on interorganizational competitive advantage. At the end of the paper, based on existing theories and the case study result, we will propose our conceptual framework on researching R&D strategic alliance between Scandinavian and Chinese firms....... researches are down within this field, especially case study on R&D strategic alliance from this perspective. On the other hand, when researching on Danish transnational corporations’ R&D in China, we found that they emphasize a lot on cooperating with Chinese local firms. The collaboration between Danish...

  16. Sustainable competitive advantage for accountable care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Michael Alex

    2014-01-01

    In the current period of health industry reform, accountable care organizations (ACOs) have emerged as a new model for the delivery of high-quality and cost-effective healthcare. However, few ACOs operate in direct competition with one another, and the accountable care business model has yet to present a means of continually developing new marginal value for patients and network partners. With value-based purchasing and patient consumerism strengthening as market forces, ACOs must build organizational sustainability and competitive advantage to meet the value demands set by customers and competitors. This essay proposes a strategy, adapted from the disciplines of agile software development and Lean product development, through which ACOs can engage internal and external customers in the development of new products that will provide sustainability and competitive advantage to the organization by decreasing waste in development, promoting specialized knowledge, and closely targeting customer value.

  17. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES ENTERPRISES IN KOOPERATION RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Mikitiuk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Formation of new approaches to the definition of competitive advantage requires different ways to implement them according to market conditions. These paths can be cooperative relations entities that are implemented in the competitive advantage of enterprises in the new stage of development of a competitive society. The result of the interaction of small businesses with industrial and economic structures is the formation and development of such forms of cooperation entities as subcontracting, franchising, leasing, venture finance. The content of these forms is to integrate (interlacing of the functional areas of business including production of functional form is subcontracting relationships, forms of supply – franchising, industrial and financial shape – leasing as a form of innovative functional integration relations is venture financing.

  18. Sustainability in organizations: advantages and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Josende Paz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are currently seeking to adopt sustainable policies and practices, causing a greater search for and use of sustainable models. This article therefore aims to evaluate the advantages of using sustainability principles in organizations, as well as to detect the main difficulties in implementing a sustainable model, identifying the existence of the principles described by Oliveira et al. (2012 and other authors. Bibliographic research was used to understand the “state of the art” in relation to sustainability in organizations, and the data was collected from articles published in journals in the last eight years. The importance of sustainability to organizations, better financial performance, stimulus for innovation, better management and the involvement of stakeholders in their processes were all evident as advantages of using this methodology. Finally, the following challenges were identified: the need for an investigation into the organization’s maturity in the use of sustainable methods and preparation of human resources for organizational change.

  19. Optimization Techniques for RFID Complex Event Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Long Liu; Qun Chen; Zhan-Huai Li

    2009-01-01

    One research crucial to wider adoption of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology is how to efficiently transform sequences of RFID readings into meaningful business events. Contrary to traditional events, RFID readings are usually of high volume and velocity, and have the attributes representing their reading objects, occurrence times and spots. Based on these characteristics and the TVon-deterministic Finite Automata (NFA) implementation framework, this paper studies the performance issues of RFID complex event processing and proposes corresponding optimization techniques. Our techniques include: (1) taking advantage of negation events or exclusiveness between events to prune intermediate results, thus reduces memory consumption; (2) with different selectivities of complex events, purposefully reordering the join operations between events to improve overall efficiency, achieve higher stream throughput; (3) utilizing the slot-based or B+-tree-based approach to optimizing the processing performance with the time window constraint. We present the analytical results of these techniques and validate their effectiveness through experiments.

  20. Online shopping: some advantages and shortcomings

    OpenAIRE

    Sammer, Aleksandra; Malkova, Yana

    2016-01-01

    As we live in the century of rapid development of information technologies, it is very difficult to meet people who haven't heard of online shopping. Hundreds of thousands of Internet users daily resort to services of virtual shops. Internet trade gains steam both in Russia, and all around the world. This paper overviews some advantages and shortcomings of online shopping over shopping malls. Time and money saving possibilities, wide range of goods, convenient delivery and method of payment, ...

  1. Advantages and disadvantages by using safety culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhrberg, Mette Bang

    2003-01-01

    Safety culture is a major issue in accident research. A recently finished ph.d.-study has evaluated the symbolic safety culture approach and found four advantages and two disadvantages. These are presented and discussed in this contribution. It is concluded that the approach can be useful...... in the planning of accident prevention activities if focus is maintained on prevention of accidents and not on changing of the safety culture....

  2. Decision Ambiguity and Incumbent Brand Advantage.

    OpenAIRE

    Muthukrishnan, A. V.

    1995-01-01

    This article examines the role of decision ambiguity in judgments that consumers make about an incumbent (the brand a consumer currently uses) versus an attack brand (a new, superior competitor). It is hypothesized that decision ambiguity creates an advantage for the incumbent. A conceptualization of decision ambiguity is offered. In three experiments, factors that can cause decision ambiguity are manipulated and their effects on preference for the incumbent are investigated. The results unde...

  3. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, the increasing globalization and internationalization bring huge changes to business environment, which has been changed from a lot of dispersed local markets to a single economic market. These changes make businessmen have to think about their international business strategies, such as outsourcing. This article will analyze the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing in the context of global manufacturing strategy in order to help managers handle it more effectively.

  4. Technology and the dynamics of comparative advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Navas, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores how trade openness affects both product and process innovation in a factor proportions model of trade and firm heterogeneity. Trade openness expands the profit opportunities of the most productive firms and expels the less efficient firms out of the market, making process innovation more attractive for the most productive firms in both industries. Incentives, however, are larger in the industry in which the country has the comparative advantage. Trade also increases the pr...

  5. Revealed Comparative Advantage and Competitiveness in Pear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime de Pablo Valenciano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the study of the comparative advantages and competitiveness in the global pear market. First, it will outline a clear distinction between these two concepts, followed by analysis. This paper provides a new index of competitiveness developed by our research based on the insights offered by a wide range of studies on this subject. The aim is to achieve a new line of analysis to improve and expand the possibilities of present day studies.

  6. Relationship dimensions of the 'Down syndrome advantage'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, D B; Hauser-Cram, P; Crossman, M K

    2015-06-01

    Some researchers have proposed an 'advantage' for parents of children with Down syndrome over parents of children with other intellectual disabilities, especially in relation to experiencing less parenting stress. Others have maintained that these differences are an artefact of demographic and related differences. This study extends the investigation of possible differences in dimensions of parenting stress and also examines whether differences exist in maternal and child contingent responsiveness during mother-child interaction in these two groups. Mothers of children with Down syndrome (n = 43) and undifferentiated developmental disabilities (n = 54) completed measures of children's adaptive functioning and behaviour problems, parenting stress and maternal social support. Observers rated the contingent interactions between mothers and children using the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale. Once mother's age, education and social support as well as child adaptive functioning and behaviour problems were considered, neither parent nor child related parenting stress demonstrated an advantage for parents of children with Down syndrome. However, a 'Down syndrome advantage' was apparent for both maternal and child contingent responsiveness after accounting for maternal demographic and contextual variables and child attributes. Children with Down syndrome and their mothers have more positive interactions than children with other developmental disabilities, both in terms of the responsiveness of mothers and of child responses contingent on maternal behaviour. These findings suggest that both children with Down syndrome themselves and their mothers are contributing to a Down syndrome advantage. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Advantages and disadvantages by using safety culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhrberg, Mette Bang

    2003-01-01

    Safety culture is a major issue in accident research. A recently finished ph.d.-study has evaluated the symbolic safety culture approach and found four advantages and two disadvantages. These are presented and discussed in this contribution. It is concluded that the approach can be useful...... in the planning of accident prevention activities if focus is maintained on prevention of accidents and not on changing of the safety culture....

  8. Demonstration of quantum advantage in machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristè, Diego; da Silva, Marcus P.; Ryan, Colm A.; Cross, Andrew W.; Córcoles, Antonio D.; Smolin, John A.; Gambetta, Jay M.; Chow, Jerry M.; Johnson, Blake R.

    2017-04-01

    The main promise of quantum computing is to efficiently solve certain problems that are prohibitively expensive for a classical computer. Most problems with a proven quantum advantage involve the repeated use of a black box, or oracle, whose structure encodes the solution. One measure of the algorithmic performance is the query complexity, i.e., the scaling of the number of oracle calls needed to find the solution with a given probability. Few-qubit demonstrations of quantum algorithms, such as Deutsch-Jozsa and Grover, have been implemented across diverse physical systems such as nuclear magnetic resonance, trapped ions, optical systems, and superconducting circuits. However, at the small scale, these problems can already be solved classically with a few oracle queries, limiting the obtained advantage. Here we solve an oracle-based problem, known as learning parity with noise, on a five-qubit superconducting processor. Executing classical and quantum algorithms using the same oracle, we observe a large gap in query count in favor of quantum processing. We find that this gap grows by orders of magnitude as a function of the error rates and the problem size. This result demonstrates that, while complex fault-tolerant architectures will be required for universal quantum computing, a significant quantum advantage already emerges in existing noisy systems.

  9. Assessing the binocular advantage in aided vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Lawrence K; McIntire, John P; Hopper, Darrel G

    2014-09-01

    Advances in microsensors, microprocessors, and microdisplays are creating new opportunities for improving vision in degraded environments through the use of head-mounted displays. Initially, the cutting-edge technology used in these new displays will be expensive. Inevitably, the cost of providing the additional sensor and processing required to support binocularity brings the value of binocularity into question. Several assessments comparing binocular, binocular, and monocular head-mounted displays for aided vision have concluded that the additional performance, if any, provided by binocular head-mounted displays does not justify the cost. The selection of a biocular [corrected] display for use in the F-35 is a current example of this recurring decision process. It is possible that the human binocularity advantage does not carry over to the aided vision application, but more likely the experimental approaches used in the past have been too coarse to measure its subtle but important benefits. Evaluating the value of binocularity in aided vision applications requires an understanding of the characteristics of both human vision and head-mounted displays. With this understanding, the value of binocularity in aided vision can be estimated and experimental evidence can be collected to confirm or reject the presumed binocular advantage, enabling improved decisions in aided vision system design. This paper describes four computational approaches-geometry of stereopsis, modulation transfer function area for stereopsis, probability summation, and binocular summation-that may be useful in quantifying the advantage of binocularity in aided vision.

  10. Hidden Advantages and Disadvantages of Social Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudeau, Sébastien; Croizet, Jean-Claude

    2017-02-01

    Three studies conducted among fifth and sixth graders examined how school contexts disrupt the achievement of working-class students by staging unfair comparison with their advantaged middle-class peers. In regular classrooms, differences in performance among students are usually showcased in a way that does not acknowledge the advantage (i.e., higher cultural capital) experienced by middle-class students, whose upbringing affords them more familiarity with the academic culture than their working-class peers have. Results of Study 1 revealed that rendering differences in performance visible in the classroom by having students raise their hands was enough to undermine the achievement of working-class students. In Studies 2 and 3, we manipulated students' familiarity with an arbitrary standard as a proxy for social class. Our results suggest that classroom settings that make differences in performance visible undermine the achievement of the students who are less familiar with academic culture. In Study 3, we showed that being aware of the advantage in familiarity with a task restores the performance of the students who have less familiarity with the task.

  11. A Fuzzy-AHP-QFD approach for achieving lean attributes for competitive advantages development, Case study: The Staam Sanat Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Roghanian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As one of the new producing approaches, lean production has brought in new opportunities for producers all around the world. Many producers have adopted the technique for surviving the growing world market. By combining competitive advantages, lean attributes, and lean enablers as three factors, the present study attempts to determine the most suitable enablers for improvement of lean attributes in a case study. Quality Function Deployment (QFD in fuzzy environment and House of Quality (HOQ matrix, successfully employed for development of new products, are adopted as approach of the study. Weights of competitive advantages, lean attributes and enablers are calculated through fuzzy analysis hierarchy process (FAHP, while fuzzy logarithmic least square method (LLSM is used in calculation of the weights. Throughout the methodology, fuzzy logic is the basis for translating linguistic judgments required for the relationships and correlation matrix to numerical values. Moreover, final ranking of lean enablers is represented through area ranking method and taking into account various techniques of decision makers’ risk. Finally, a case study in automotive industry is introduced to demonstrate the implementation of the proposed methodology.

  12. A Pedagogic Cycle for EFL Note-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    More attention has been given to note-taking in EFL classrooms in recent years, probably due to growing numbers of EFL students who attend lectures given in English and the importance of note-taking during language proficiency tests. While textbooks and materials for note-taking practice are readily available, classroom techniques for teaching EFL…

  13. A Pedagogic Cycle for EFL Note-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    More attention has been given to note-taking in EFL classrooms in recent years, probably due to growing numbers of EFL students who attend lectures given in English and the importance of note-taking during language proficiency tests. While textbooks and materials for note-taking practice are readily available, classroom techniques for teaching EFL…

  14. Injuries and home advantage in the NFL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marshall B

    2016-01-01

    In the first decade of this century players in the National Football League, the NFL community, fans, even the public at large, became aware that multiple concussions, heretofore considered inconsequential, could have devastating consequences later in life. Since 1978, each one of the 32 teams in the NFL plays 16 games in the regular season. In the 25 years from 1978 to 2004 home advantage in the regular season tended to increase with Game Number (1-16). Then in the following decade (2005-2014) it changed direction and tended clearly to decrease. The change in direction was highly reliable statistically. The result reported in this paper is an association in time between two striking events, a new consciousness regarding the long-term consequences of concussions in football, and a change in the course of home advantage in the regular season. The paper then advances a possible explanation for this association. The home advantage may be equally well treated as an away disadvantage, the disadvantage being that away players tend to feel on the defensive, that both the hometown crowd and the officials are against them. Injuries put players on both teams on the defensive. The higher the percentage of players on a team who are injured or playing hurt (injury prevalence) the less likely it is that as-yet-uninjured players will adopt an attacking style of play. Injury prevalence increases linearly with Game Number. It turns out, however, that formal considerations require that injury prevalence be the same or close to it for teams playing at home and teams playing away. Therefore, the away disadvantage in total defensiveness (defensiveness due to playing away plus defensiveness due to injury) starts at 1 in the first game of the season, decreases steeply at first, and then decelerates as it approaches .5. This downward course of the away disadvantage in total defensiveness leads directly to a corresponding downward course of the home advantage in game outcome (by the

  15. Kinematical Analysis on the Take-off Technique of Male High Jumpers in the 11th IAAF World Junior Championship%第11届世界青年田径锦标赛男子跳高运动员起跳技术的运动学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石晓峰; 刘生杰; 李建英

    2009-01-01

    对第11届世界青年田径锦标赛男子跳高运动员进行起跳技术的三维运动学分析,结果表明:研究对象最后一步技术与世界优秀运动员的差异性小;H2、成绩和重心最大高度均相对较低;起跳点距离横杆垂直面过近;助跑速度和起跳结束时的身体重心垂直速度低;利用水平速度的能力不够;起跳结束时重心垂直速度与垂直加速距离、摆动腿摆动速度与摆动腿水平角、缓冲时间占总时间的百分比与垂直速度呈显著性正相关.%This paper studies male high jumper's take-off technique in the 11th IAAF World Junior Championship with three-dimensional kinematics analysis method. The result shows that this text is tried the last step technique and the world top jumper's difference being small;the H2, performance and largest height of center are relatively low; some is too near from the ver-tical plane of horizontal pole to take-off; run-up pace and take-off centre of body weight fin-ish,vertical pace low; ability to utilize horizontal pace is not enough; take-off weight vertical pace expire, with accelerate distance vertically, swing the leg and swing the pace with swinging the horizontal angle of leg, buffering the significance positive correlation presented with the vertical pace in the percentage of the time in total time.

  16. Taking Design Games Seriously

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Mette Agger; Brandt, Eva; Mattelmäki, Tuuli;

    2014-01-01

    Using design games at Participatory Design (PD) events is well acknowledged as a fruitful way of staging participation. As PD researchers, we have many such experiences, and we have argued that design games connect participants and promote equalizing power relations. However, in this paper, we...... will (self) critically re-connect and reflect on how people (humans) and materials (non-humans) continually participate and intertwine in various power relations in design game situations. The analysis is of detailed situated actions with one of our recent games, UrbanTransition. Core concepts mainly from...... Bruno Latour’s work on Actor-Network-Theory are applied. The aim is to take design games seriously by e.g. exploring how assemblages of humans and non-humans are intertwined in tacitly-but-tactically staging participation, and opening up for or hindering negotiations and decision-making, thus starting...

  17. Hi-tech products marketing and competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perović Jelena

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The company today, in causes turbulent environment and intensive integrations must cooperate, accept and develop high technology in order to achieve needs of customers. It's only way that companies replay on challenge global environment, decrease costs of investment per capita, decrease the risk, captivate new market and held competitive in causes of global market. High tech technology marketing function is help that results of new technology transfer on economy. Their function is reach need of customers, too. Positive influence of technology is the highest in area of production costs and productivity. Speed years are in front of our and it demands larger productivity, which primary source must be technology changes. High technology marketing is the most provocative framework for take competitive advantage, answer on global change and way of permanent reach rigorous need of customers.

  18. Graft Take-Rates After Tympanoplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts; Aabenhus, Kristine; Glad, Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    , technique, graft material, and revision surgery) for tympanoplasty type I were studied. A comparison with the graft take-rates for tympanoplasty types II to IV and/or cholesteatoma was made. RESULTS: A user-friendly ear surgery database with fast data entry and direct import of audiometric data......OBJECTIVE: To present a prospective ear surgery database and investigate the graft take-rate and prognostic factors for graft take-rate in tympanoplasty using the database. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective database study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: A total of 1606 cases undergoing...... tympanoplasty types I to IV were registered in the database in the period from February 2004 to November 2013. INTERVENTION: A total of 837 cases underwent myringoplasty/tympanoplasty type I. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Graft take-rate and prognostic factors (age, discharge at time of surgery, tuba function...

  19. Happy to be taking part?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H. Kwekkeboom; C.M.C. van Weert

    2008-01-01

    Original title: Meedoen en gelukkig zijn. 'Taking part': that is the central plank of Dutch government policy for people with disabilities. But what exactly does 'taking part' mean, and what is needed to ensure that people are willing or able to take part? Does taking part make people happier?. Doe

  20. Establishing a competitive advantage through quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, R J

    1996-06-01

    The successful dentist of the future will establish a sustainable competitive advantage in the marketplace by recognising that patients undergoing dental treatment cannot see the result before purchase, and that they therefore look for signs of service quality to reduce uncertainty. Thus the successful dentist will implement a quality programme that recognises not only that quality is defined by meeting patients' needs and expectations, but also that quality service is fundamental to successful business strategy. Finally, the successful dentist of the future will realise that the pursuit of quality is a never-ending process which requires leadership by example.

  1. Using information networks for competitive advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, R L

    1995-01-01

    Although the healthcare "information superhighway" has received considerable attention, the use of information technology to create a sustainable competitive advantage is not new to other industries. Economic survival in the new world of managed care may depend on a healthcare delivery system's ability to use network-based communications technologies to differentiate itself in the market, especially through cost savings and demonstration of desirable outcomes. The adaptability of these technologies can help position healthcare organizations to break the paradigms of the past and thrive in a market environment that stresses coordination, efficiency, and quality in various settings.

  2. Hanford reactor and separations facility advantages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-06-27

    This document describes the advantages and limitations of Hanford production facilities. In addition to summarizing the technical parameters of the reactors and separations plants and their mechanical features, the unique aspects of these facilities to the production of special materials in which the Commission may be interested have been discussed. As the primary difference between the B-C-D-DR-F-H reactors and the K reactors and the K reactors is in the number and length of process channels. This report is addressed primarily to the 2000-tube reactors. K reactor characteristics are within the range of lattice and flexibility parameters described.

  3. An Assessment of Comparative Advantage of Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongani Edwin Mushanyuri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigated whether Mauritius has comparative advantage in theproducts it exports in intra-SADC, intra-COMESA and global markets. There is aneed for Mauritius to improve its competitiveness through a combination of bothregional and national strategies via increasing investment in infrastructuraldevelopment, promotion of intra-regional trade and integration, improvingcapacity building, liberalization of the labour market and facilitating the access tobanking resources. The results showed that Mauritius has a revealed comparativeadvantage (RCA index of ≥1 in 529 product codes. The highest RCA index of1694.21 was found in live primates.

  4. Advantage of a lead swimmer in drafting

    CERN Document Server

    Westerweel, J; Pennings, P; Yilmaz, B

    2016-01-01

    We present results from model tests to investigate the effect of drafting in swimming, in particular for the lead swimmer. The drag for scaled-model passive swimmers was determined accurately at Froude numbers comparable to conditions for actual human swimmers. Several positions of a draft swimmer at different separations behind and alongside the lead swimmer were investigated. It was found that a lead swimmer can experience an advantage from a draft swimmer. Several other positions of the draft swimmer relative to the frontal wave generated by the lead swimmer were also considered. These results indicate favourable and undesirable positions during passing.

  5. Advantages of gated silicon single photon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lunghi, T; Barreiro, C; Stucki, D; Sanguinetti, B; Zbinden, H

    2012-01-01

    We present a gated silicon single photon detector based on a commercially available avalanche photodiode. Our detector achieves a photon detection efficiency of 45\\pm5% at 808 nm with 2x 10^-6 dark count per ns at -30V of excess bias and -30{\\deg}C. We compare gated and free-running detectors and show that this mode of operation has significant advantages in two representative experimental scenarios: detecting a single photon either hidden in faint continuous light or after a strong pulse. We also explore, at different temperatures and incident light intensities, the "charge persistence" effect, whereby a detector clicks some time after having been illuminated.

  6. Huffman-based code compression techniques for embedded processors

    KAUST Repository

    Bonny, Mohamed Talal

    2010-09-01

    The size of embedded software is increasing at a rapid pace. It is often challenging and time consuming to fit an amount of required software functionality within a given hardware resource budget. Code compression is a means to alleviate the problem by providing substantial savings in terms of code size. In this article we introduce a novel and efficient hardware-supported compression technique that is based on Huffman Coding. Our technique reduces the size of the generated decoding table, which takes a large portion of the memory. It combines our previous techniques, Instruction Splitting Technique and Instruction Re-encoding Technique into new one called Combined Compression Technique to improve the final compression ratio by taking advantage of both previous techniques. The instruction Splitting Technique is instruction set architecture (ISA)-independent. It splits the instructions into portions of varying size (called patterns) before Huffman coding is applied. This technique improves the final compression ratio by more than 20% compared to other known schemes based on Huffman Coding. The average compression ratios achieved using this technique are 48% and 50% for ARM and MIPS, respectively. The Instruction Re-encoding Technique is ISA-dependent. It investigates the benefits of reencoding unused bits (we call them reencodable bits) in the instruction format for a specific application to improve the compression ratio. Reencoding those bits can reduce the size of decoding tables by up to 40%. Using this technique, we improve the final compression ratios in comparison to the first technique to 46% and 45% for ARM and MIPS, respectively (including all overhead that incurs). The Combined Compression Technique improves the compression ratio to 45% and 42% for ARM and MIPS, respectively. In our compression technique, we have conducted evaluations using a representative set of applications and we have applied each technique to two major embedded processor architectures

  7. Complexity, Competitive Intelligence and the "First Mover" Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellman, Philip Vos; Post, Jonathan Vos

    In the following paper we explore some of the ways in which competitive intelligence and game theory can be employed to assist firms in deciding whether or not to undertake international market diversification and whether or not there is an advantage to being a market leader or a market follower overseas. In attempting to answer these questions, we take a somewhat unconventional approach. We first examine how some of the most recent advances in the physical and biological sciences can contribute to the ways in which we understand how firms behave. Subsequently, we propose a formal methodology for competitive intelligence. While space considerations here do not allow for a complete game-theoretic treatment of competitive intelligence and its use with respect to understanding first and second mover advantage in firm internationalization, that treatment can be found in its entirety in the on-line proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Complex Systems at http://knowledgetoday.org/wiki/indec.php/ICCS06/89

  8. Input Method "Five Strokes": Advantages and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja PETROVČIČ

    2014-03-01

    Since the Five Stroke input method is easily accessible, simple to master and is not pronunciation-based, we would expect that the students will use it to input unknown characters. The survey comprises students of Japanology and Sinology at Department of Asian and African Studies, takes in consideration the grade of the respondent and therefore his/her knowledge of characters. This paper also discusses the impact of typeface to the accuracy of the input.

  9. Rethinking Marketing for Sustainable Competitive Advantages

    OpenAIRE

    KOÇAK, Akın

    2012-01-01

    When formal marketing thought developed in the early 1900s, dominant perspective of marketing was about taking things “to market”. After 1950 marketing thought moved to a “market to” orientation. This orientation reflects “product dominant logic”. After radical changes in information technology, knowledge asymmetry between firm and customer is decreased and customer becomes operant resource instead of a resource to be acted on. Therefore, new marketing paradigm has been emerged and main focus...

  10. Review of MammoSite brachytherapy: Advantages, disadvantages and clinical outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensaleh, Saleh; Bezak, Eva; Borg, Martin (Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia))

    2009-05-15

    Background. The MammoSite radiotherapy system is an alternative treatment option for patients with early-stage breast cancer to overcome the longer schedules associated with external beam radiation therapy. The device is placed inside the breast surgical cavity and inflated with a combination of saline and radiographic contrast to completely fill the cavity. The treatment schedule for the MammoSite monotherapy is 34 Gy delivered in 10 fractions at 1.0 cm from the balloon surface with a minimum of 6 hours between fractions on the same day. Material and methods. This review article presents the advantages, disadvantages, uncertainties and clinical outcomes associated with the MammoSite brachytherapy (MSB). Results. Potential advantages of MSB are: high localised dose with rapid falloff for normal tissue sparing, minimum delay between surgery and RT, catheter moves with breast, improved local control, no exposure to staff, likely side-effects reduction and potential cost/time saving (e.g. for country patients). The optimal cosmetic results depend on the balloon-to-skin distance. Good-to-excellent cosmetic results are achieved for patients with balloon-skin spacing of =7 mm. There have been very few published data regarding the long term tumour control and cosmesis associated with the MSB. The available data on the local control achieved with the MSB were comparable with other accelerated partial breast irradiation techniques. The contrast medium inside the balloon causes dose reduction at the prescription point. Current brachytherapy treatment planning systems (BTPS) do not take into account the increased photon attenuation due to high Z of contrast. Some BTPS predicted up to 10% higher dose near the balloon surface compared with Monte Carlo calculations using various contrast concentrations (5-25%). Conclusion. Initial clinical results have shown that the MammoSite device could be used as a sole radiation treatment for selected patients with early stage breast cancer

  11. Rural Medicare Advantage Plan Payment in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Leah; Barker, Abigail R; McBride, Timothy D; Mueller, Keith

    2015-12-01

    Payment to Medicare Advantage (MA) plans was fundamentally altered in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA). MA plans now operate under a new formula for county-level payment area benchmarks, and in 2012 began receiving quality-based bonus payments. The Medicare Advantage Quality Bonus Payment Demonstration expanded the bonus payments to most MA plans through 2014; however, with the end of the demonstration bonus payments has been reduced for intermediate quality MA plans. This brief examines the impact that these changes in MA baseline payment are having on MA plans and beneficiaries in rural and urban areas. Key Data Findings. (1) Payments to plans in rural areas were 3.9 percent smaller under ACA payment policies in 2015 than they would have been in the absence of the ACA. For plans in urban areas, the payments were 8.8 percent smaller than they would have been. These figures were determined using hypothetical pre-ACA and actual ACA-mandated benchmarks for 2015. (2) MA plans in rural areas received an average annual bonus payment of $326.77 per enrollee in 2014, but only $63.76 per enrollee in 2015, with the conclusion of the demonstration. (3) In 2014, 92 percent of rural MA beneficiaries were in a plan that received quality-based bonus payments under the demonstration, while in March 2015, 56 percent of rural MA beneficiaries were in a plan that was eligible for quality-based bonus payments.

  12. Computational evolution: taking liberties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Luís

    2010-09-01

    Evolution has, for a long time, inspired computer scientists to produce computer models mimicking its behavior. Evolutionary algorithm (EA) is one of the areas where this approach has flourished. EAs have been used to model and study evolution, but they have been especially developed for their aptitude as optimization tools for engineering. Developed models are quite simple in comparison with their natural sources of inspiration. However, since EAs run on computers, we have the freedom, especially in optimization models, to test approaches both realistic and outright speculative, from the biological point of view. In this article, we discuss different common evolutionary algorithm models, and then present some alternatives of interest. These include biologically inspired models, such as co-evolution and, in particular, symbiogenetics and outright artificial operators and representations. In each case, the advantages of the modifications to the standard model are identified. The other area of computational evolution, which has allowed us to study basic principles of evolution and ecology dynamics, is the development of artificial life platforms for open-ended evolution of artificial organisms. With these platforms, biologists can test theories by directly manipulating individuals and operators, observing the resulting effects in a realistic way. An overview of the most prominent of such environments is also presented. If instead of artificial platforms we use the real world for evolving artificial life, then we are dealing with evolutionary robotics (ERs). A brief description of this area is presented, analyzing its relations to biology. Finally, we present the conclusions and identify future research avenues in the frontier of computation and biology. Hopefully, this will help to draw the attention of more biologists and computer scientists to the benefits of such interdisciplinary research.

  13. PCB's take a stroll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Castillo Rodríguez

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to bioaccumulable organochlorine compounds is a reality, not only because of the known presence in tissues of the residue of historic contaminants such as DDT and other pesticides, but also because of the risk of current exposure to compounds still in use, such as lindane, endosulphan and polychlorinated biphenyls or PCBs, among others. The case of the PCBs is of particular importance. Although their production was prohibited due to their hazardous nature, persistence and environmental toxicity, a large number of equipments that contain considerable volumes of PCBs continue functioning. These equipments will reach the residual stage in the next few years, if not already, so that their correct disposal is necessary to avoid their release into the environment. A National Plan for the decontamination and elimination of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs, polychloroterphenyls (PCTs and the equipments that contain them was launched in Spain in 2001. This plan must be implemented taking full account of the possible effects of PBCs on the environment and human health and with the knowledge of those responsible for public health.

  14. Taking the plunge

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On 8 and 15 October, 58 people took the plunge and headed to the Varembé swimming pool in Geneva for their first taste of scuba diving at one of the CERN scuba club’s free trial dives. Club president Alberto Pace, left, taking a new recruit on his first dive. The CERN scuba club was making waves down at the Varembe swimming pool on Wednesday 15 October. Thirty-six people turned up to the club’s second free trial dive. "It was fantastic," said Jörg, one of the new recruits, after his first ever dive. "I’ve always wanted to try diving and this was a free lesson, so I thought I would come and have a go." Fourteen of the club’s fully qualified instructors were there to give one-on-one tuition. After a first dive in the normal pool the new divers moved into the deep pool. Some took to the water like fish, and at one point an impromptu game of aqua-Frisbee broke out, five metres below the surface. Richard Catherall, who organi...

  15. Taking Care of Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortney Davis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available So take good care of time, therefore and how you spend it. -from " The Cloud of Unknowing"Yesterday it was a thousand small coinsringing in your pocket, your hand dipping in, scooping threeat a time, giving them away. Often you'd drop onein the lush grass, unaware it was lost.Spent, tarnished, it is irretrievable.Today time comes to you in a different disguise:a bold of fine silk, vermillion or blue, you measure itlike a woman preparing to sew.Tomorrow, watch out, it comes as something else-thunderstorm, slant rain, February blizzard that drives you inside.Insomniac, you pace and cursethe blue glow of television, computer screen, radio.Soon enough, time will come to you as you were once,newly born and difficult to recognize. You could mistake itfor an elderly coughing man or a woman overrun with disease.Do not stop your ears against its cry.It will ask you to return any small change.It will say, cherish every moment under the leaden sky.

  16. Reducing the effects of eutrophication by aeration. Advantages of the application of this technique upstream in the Potable Water Treatment Plant; Reduccion por aireacion de los efectos de eutrofizacion. Ventajas de la aplicaciond e esta tecnica aguas arriba de las Estaciones de Tratamiento de Agua Potable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraiva de Aguilar, J. l.; Nunes, G.

    2004-07-01

    Several techniques are used to limit the progression of eutrophication in lakes and ponds, and to reduce its main negative effects. One of these techniques consists in maintaining oxidant conditions in deeper water layers of lakes and ponds, and, thus, to reduce or even prevent the release of harmful substances, which would result in higher water treatment costs. This technique, called aeration by the-stratification, consists of the creation of one or several local air curtains, which generate an air life effect, leading water to circulate from bottom to surface and vice-versa. This process is calculated in order to prevent thermal stratification during the warm seasons. Contacting the air at the surface of the pond oxygenates water, the oxygen levels remaining constant throughout the entire water column. (Author)

  17. First mover advantage in launch of platform based variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhuri, Atanu; Singh, Kashi N

    2015-01-01

    Product choice and pricing are critical decisions taken by firms while launching new products. Firms need to consider the effect of competition while taking the above decisions. Extensive literature is available for pricing, positioning and launch sequence determination of differentiated products...... approach generates interesting insights on the competitive behavior of firms and shows that leaders can indeed enjoy first-mover advantage under certain conditions. Key Words: choice of product line, pricing, static and dynamic games, upper bound on prices......Product choice and pricing are critical decisions taken by firms while launching new products. Firms need to consider the effect of competition while taking the above decisions. Extensive literature is available for pricing, positioning and launch sequence determination of differentiated products...... under competition. But, there is need to understand the leader-follower behaviour of firms with differentiated products. The classical game theoretic models do not consider bounds on prices. Hence, applying these models for product choice and pricing decisions in a real-life industrial setting may...

  18. Concomitant vs. Comparative Advantages: Sufficient vs. Necessary Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaningam, Carl D.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the concomitant advantages case in academic debate. Examines the distinction between concomitant and comparative advantages and the implications of this distinction for concomitant advantages as a form of argument. (PD)

  19. An Investigation into the Advantages, Mechanisms, and Developmental Challenges of Scripted Mobile Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    AODV ) routing protocol is designed to take advantage of prior knowledge of topology to improve...data exists, it updates the routing table. If not then it broadcasts RREQs like AODV routing protocol . Using this approach, S- AODV enjoys reduced... routing traffic and route discovery times. S- AODV is compared with Ad Hoc On-demand Distance Vector ( AODV ) routing protocol . S- AODV provides

  20. The advantages of a tapered whisker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christopher M; Kramer, Eric M

    2010-01-20

    The role of facial vibrissae (whiskers) in the behavior of terrestrial mammals is principally as a supplement or substitute for short-distance vision. Each whisker in the array functions as a mechanical transducer, conveying forces applied along the shaft to mechanoreceptors in the follicle at the whisker base. Subsequent processing of mechanoreceptor output in the trigeminal nucleus and somatosensory cortex allows high accuracy discriminations of object distance, direction, and surface texture. The whiskers of terrestrial mammals are tapered and approximately circular in cross section. We characterize the taper of whiskers in nine mammal species, measure the mechanical deflection of isolated felid whiskers, and discuss the mechanics of a single whisker under static and oscillatory deflections. We argue that a tapered whisker provides some advantages for tactile perception (as compared to a hypothetical untapered whisker), and that this may explain why the taper has been preserved during the evolution of terrestrial mammals.

  1. STRATEGIES FOR COMPETETIVE ADVANTAGE IN ELECTRONIC COMMERCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Azadi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite rapid and sustained development of electronic commerce, many companies doing e-business are still in the investment and brand-building phase and have yet to show a profit. However, as e-businesses shift their focus from  building a customer base to increasing revenue growth and profitability, they should reevaluate their current business strategies, if any, and develop strategies that provide a clear path to profitability. This study uses McCarthy’s four marketing mix model and Porter’s five competitive forces model to identify strategies for Internet companies that respond to the five competitive forces and thereby achieve a competitive advantage. The study provides significant new insights into the development and implementation of e-business strategies that contribute to increased profit.

  2. Longitudinal research strategies: advantages, problems, and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, D P

    1991-05-01

    The single-cohort, long-term longitudinal survey has many advantages in comparison with a cross-sectional survey in advancing knowledge about offending and other types of psychopathology, notably in providing information about onset and desistance, about continuity and prediction, and about within-individual change. However, the longitudinal survey also has significant problems, notably in confounding aging and period effects, delayed results, achieving continuity in funding and research direction, and cumulative attrition. This paper suggests the use of a multiple-cohort sequential strategy (the "accelerated longitudinal design") as a way of achieving the benefits of the longitudinal method while minimizing the problems in advancing knowledge about the natural history, causes, prevention, and treatment of psychopathological disorders.

  3. The POP Program: the patient education advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeys, M; Mosher, C; Reesman, D

    1998-01-01

    In 1992, a preoperative education program was developed for total joint replacement patients in a small community hospital. The goals of the program were to increase educational opportunities for the joint replacement patients, prepare patients for hospitalization, plan for discharge needs, and increase efficiency of the orthopaedic program. Since 1992, approximately 600 patients have attended the education program. Outcomes have included positive responses from patients regarding their preparedness for surgery, increased participation in their plan of care, coordinated discharge planning, decreased length of stay, and progression across the continuum of care. A multidisciplinary approach to preparing patients for surgery allows for a comprehensive and efficient education program. Marketing of successful programs can enhance an institution's competitive advantage and help ensure the hospital's viability in the current health care arena.

  4. Review of Researches on Advantages of Intercropping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiang-qian; HUANG Guo-qin; BIAN Xin-min; JIANG Xue-hai; ZHAO Qiguo

    2012-01-01

    Intercropping is a very effective cultivation method in the agricultural production with a long history. The use of intercropping to build a niche complementary crop community can not only enhance the stability of farmland ecosystem and the resistance of crop community to environmental stress but also reduce the damage of diseases, insect pests, environmental pollution and improve the efficiency of resource use to finally achieve high and stable yield of crop community. By collecting the intercropping researches at home and abroad, this thesis describes the impact of intercropping on crop nitrogen fixation and nitrogen transfer, accumulation and distribution of soil nitrate nitrogen, soil microorganism, crop diseases and insect pests, ventilation and light transmission, quality, yield and nutrient absorption, draws a conclusion on intercropping advantages and points out the sections requiring further study in the future.

  5. The competitive advantage of sanctioning institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürerk, Ozgür; Irlenbusch, Bernd; Rockenbach, Bettina

    2006-04-07

    Understanding the fundamental patterns and determinants of human cooperation and the maintenance of social order in human societies is a challenge across disciplines. The existing empirical evidence for the higher levels of cooperation when altruistic punishment is present versus when it is absent systematically ignores the institutional competition inherent in human societies. Whether punishment would be deliberately adopted and would similarly enhance cooperation when directly competing with nonpunishment institutions is highly controversial in light of recent findings on the detrimental effects of punishment. We show experimentally that a sanctioning institution is the undisputed winner in a competition with a sanction-free institution. Despite initial aversion, the entire population migrates successively to the sanctioning institution and strongly cooperates, whereas the sanction-free society becomes fully depopulated. The findings demonstrate the competitive advantage of sanctioning institutions and exemplify the emergence and manifestation of social order driven by institutional selection.

  6. Accounting for the Down syndrome advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, Anna J; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined factors that could explain the higher levels of psychosocial well being observed in past research in mothers of individuals with Down syndrome compared with mothers of individuals with other types of intellectual disabilities. The authors studied 155 mothers of adults with Down syndrome, contrasting factors that might validly account for the ?Down syndrome advantage? (behavioral phenotype) with those that have been portrayed in past research as artifactual (maternal age, social supports). The behavioral phenotype predicted less pessimism, more life satisfaction, and a better quality of the mother?child relationship. However, younger maternal age and fewer social supports, as well as the behavioral phenotype, predicted higher levels of caregiving burden. Implications for future research on families of individuals with Down syndrome are discussed.

  7. The kinematic advantage of electric cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2015-11-01

    Acceleration of a common car with with a turbocharged diesel engine is compared to the same type with an electric motor in terms of kinematics. Starting from a state of rest, the electric car reaches a distant spot earlier than the diesel car, even though the latter has a better specification for engine power and average acceleration from 0 to 100 km h-1. A three phase model of acceleration as a function of time fits the data of the electric car accurately. The first phase is a quadratic growth of acceleration in time. It is shown that the tenfold higher coefficient for the first phase accounts for most of the kinematic advantage of the electric car.

  8. Neural responses to advantageous and disadvantageous inequity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus eFliessbach

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study neural responses to inequitable distributions of rewards despite equal performance. We specifically focus on differences between advantageous (AI and disadvantageous inequity (DI. AI and DI were realized in a hyperscanning fMRI experiment with pairs of subjects simultaneously performing a task in adjacent scanners and observing both subjects' rewards. Results showed i hypoactivation of the ventral striatum under DI but not under AI; ii inequity induced activation of medial and dorsolateral prefrontal regions, that were stronger under DI than AI; iii correlations between subjective evaluations of DI and amygdala activity, and between AI evaluation and right ventrolateral prefrontal activity. Our study provides neurophysiological evidence for different cognitive processes that occur when exposed to DI and AI, respectively. Our data is compatible with the assumption that any form of inequity represents a norm violation, but that important differences between AI and DI emerge from an asymmetric involvement of status concerns.

  9. The advantages of a tapered whisker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Williams

    Full Text Available The role of facial vibrissae (whiskers in the behavior of terrestrial mammals is principally as a supplement or substitute for short-distance vision. Each whisker in the array functions as a mechanical transducer, conveying forces applied along the shaft to mechanoreceptors in the follicle at the whisker base. Subsequent processing of mechanoreceptor output in the trigeminal nucleus and somatosensory cortex allows high accuracy discriminations of object distance, direction, and surface texture. The whiskers of terrestrial mammals are tapered and approximately circular in cross section. We characterize the taper of whiskers in nine mammal species, measure the mechanical deflection of isolated felid whiskers, and discuss the mechanics of a single whisker under static and oscillatory deflections. We argue that a tapered whisker provides some advantages for tactile perception (as compared to a hypothetical untapered whisker, and that this may explain why the taper has been preserved during the evolution of terrestrial mammals.

  10. The Advantage of Going For Vocational Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文辉

    2008-01-01

    With the entering of the 21st century,information technology has become the world's economic and social development trend,China is beginning to see vocational education as important to maintaining fast economic growth and social stability.Every one wants to have a lucrative career and bright future.That is the reason why most people these days take up vocational education.Vocational education is a type of educational attainment that teaches the student trade skills and aptitudes.Vocational school is a school that provides vocational education to individuals who desire to be trained in job-specific skills.

  11. The SSRIs: advantages, disadvantages and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, R; Baldwin, D; Preskorn, S

    1995-01-01

    The highly specific mechanism of action of the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) confers advantages on this group, relative to other classes of antidepressant, and thus represents a significant advance in the pharmacotherapy of depression. Whilst their clinical efficacy is equivalent to that of the tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), the SSRIs have a greatly reduced risk of toxicity in overdose and have been shown to be significantly better tolerated. Specifically, the SSRIs have a low incidence of anticholinergic effects and are essentially devoid of cardiotoxicity. This tolerability advantage may be of significance in improving compliance and hence cost-effectiveness of treatment, particularly in the long term. Despite a lack of sedative effect, there is evidence that SSRIs are more effective than TCAs in the treatment of depression with anxiety. In addition, the SSRIs have been shown to be effective in obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder and social phobia. Although superior efficacy has not been demonstrated for any one of the SSRIs, the structural diversity of this group is reflected in emerging qualitative and quantitative differences in side effects and drug interaction potential. Many of these differential features reflect important variations in pharmacological and pharmacokinetic profiles, including dosage flexibility, washout times, dose-plasma level proportionality and age-related changes in plasma levels. Fluoxetine, for example, has a considerably longer half-life than other SSRIs and side effects and drug interactions may thus occur for an extended period following discontinuation of treatment. Significant differences in the potential for drug interactions in this group are related to their relative potency for inhibition of important liver drug-metabolising enzymes including CYPIID6, CYPIA2 and CYPIIIA4. Large comparative clinical trials of the different SSRIs have yet to be undertaken; however, the differences that have

  12. Changes in urological surgical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay Üçer

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, laparoscopic and afterwards robotic techniques have constituted most of urologic surgery procedures. Open surgery may give place to robotic surgery due to possible widespread use of robots in the future. Studies, that compare these two techniques are usually designed about radical prostatectomy, since it is the most common operation performed by using these techniques. In literature,robotic surgery seems more advantageous than other techniques but the most important disadvantage of this technique is cost-effective problems. In present review,history of open, laparoscopic and robotic surgery, and comparison of advantages, disadvantages and cost of these techniques have been discussed with literature.

  13. Taking centre stage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    HAMLET (Highly Automated Multimedia Light Enhanced Theatre) was the star performance at the recent finals of the `Young Engineer for Britain' competition, held at the Commonwealth Institute in London. This state-of-the-art computer-controlled theatre lighting system won the title `Young Engineers for Britain 1998' for David Kelnar, Jonathan Scott, Ramsay Waller and John Wyllie (all aged 16) from Merchiston Castle School, Edinburgh. HAMLET replaces conventional manually-operated controls with a special computer program, and should find use in the thousands of small theatres, schools and amateur drama productions that operate with limited resources and without specialist expertise. The four students received a £2500 prize between them, along with £2500 for their school, and in addition they were invited to spend a special day with the Royal Engineers. A project designed to improve car locking systems enabled Ian Robinson of Durham University to take the `Working in industry award' worth £1000. He was also given the opportunity of a day at sea with the Royal Navy. Other prizewinners with their projects included: Jun Baba of Bloxham School, Banbury (a cardboard armchair which converts into a desk and chair); Kobika Sritharan and Gemma Hancock, Bancroft's School, Essex (a rain warning system for a washing line); and Alistair Clarke, Sam James and Ruth Jenkins, Bishop of Llandaff High School, Cardiff (a mechanism to open and close the retractable roof of the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff). The two principal national sponsors of the competition, which is organized by the Engineering Council, are Lloyd's Register and GEC. Industrial companies, professional engineering institutions and educational bodies also provided national and regional prizes and support. During this year's finals, various additional activities took place, allowing the students to surf the Internet and navigate individual engineering websites on a network of computers. They also visited the

  14. 中医药典籍英译文与原文多元互文关系及应用探讨——从《黄帝内经》两种英译本翻译现象谈起%Intertextuality of the Target Texts and Its Source Text of TCM Classics and the Practical Advantages-Take the Two English Translations of Huangdi Nei Jing as An Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王继慧

    2011-01-01

    中医药典籍的英译活动在不同历史时期都有所开展.随着中国优秀文化对外传播的发展,中医药典籍的英译工作逐渐成为学界关注的焦点,时代也需要有更多更好的英译语篇问世.那么,中医药典籍的各种英译本与原文本的关系究竟有着怎样的科学理据?怎样理解和评价各种中医药典籍英译本的翻译文化价值?文章拟借助于皮尔斯三元关系理论、语用学理论和语篇互文性理论来阐述以上问题.文章认为,由于译者在翻译过程中又总是处于核心主导地位,而每个译者对于原文的阅读和阐述都是历史的、有限的,所以不同译者通过与原文、译文读者之间发生互明关系而创造出了自己独特的译文.因此,译文与原文关系必然成多样性存在;而且,中医药典籍的各种译本之间和他们与原文本之间,由于分别呈献出某种互文性关系,所以都具有各自存在的不同理由以及对于原文本在不同侧面的传播功能,同时共同服务于不同目标语读者的需要.基于这些认识,作者进一步探讨了对中医药各种文本包括中医药术语的评价方法,提倡以标准化译文为主,各种风格和特色的译文互补共存的局面.%The Chinese-English translation of TCM has been carried out in different times in history. With the development of international cultural exchange, studies in this field are becoming the focus, with the expectation of producing more and better translations. However, for a long time, target texts have been considered and measured in a right-or-wrong model based on the source text. What's the modem view in measuring the varied kinds of the target texts of the same source text in TCM.Taking the two translations of Huangdi Nei Jing ( Huangdi's Inner Classic of Medicine )as an example, this paper analyzes the relationship between the target texts and the source text in the perspectives of Ternary Relation Theory, Pragmatic

  15. Taking Care of Your Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Taking Care of Your Vision KidsHealth > For Teens > Taking Care of Your Vision ... are important parts of keeping your peepers perfect. Vision Basics One of the best things you can ...

  16. Association of soil organic matter with metal phases examined by selective dissolution approach: limitations and advantages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagai, R.; Mayer, L. M.

    2014-12-01

    Positive co-variation of organic matter (OM) with iron and aluminum phases has been known for decades in soil and, in case of OM-Fe, in marine sediments. More recent studies point to the metal control on the mean residence time of organic carbon in soils, suggesting that better understanding of the role of these metal phases and the nature of these organo-metal associations would help to improve the models of soil OM dynamics. We developed a selective dissolution approach to assess these associations (Wagai and Mayer, 2007; Wagai et al., 2013). By taking advantage of well-established extraction techniques that were targeted to dissolve specific metal and aluminosilicate phases in soil, we quantified the amounts of OM co-dissolved by the selective dissolution of these inorganic phases. The inherent limitations in this conceptually simple approach include the presence of C-based compounds (often as complexing agent for metal) in the extractants and the lack of selectivity when dissolving specific inorganic phases. The former was resolved by using nitrogen (N), instead of C, as a surrogate for OM because (i) soil N is mostly present as soil OM with relatively narrow C:N ratio, and (ii) the extractants are N free. We were able to partially overcome the lack of selectivity problem by comparing the co-dissolution of OM from a variety of extractants that use reductive, complexation, and acid/alkaline dissolutions. The potential advantages of our approach include the ability (i) to estimate the contribution of specific inorganic phases to OM stabilization, and (ii) to infer the possible modes of the organo-mineral associations that were extracted from field soils (e.g., adsorptive association vs. coprecipitation of organo-metallic complexes). In this presentation, we will further consider the advantages and limitations of this approach (e.g., methodological cautions), present some of the previous and new findings gained from this approach (including its application to

  17. [Laboratory unification: advantages and disadvantages for clinical microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu, Antonia; Matas, Lurdes

    2010-10-01

    This article aims to reflect on which areas or tasks of microbiology laboratories could be unified with those of clinical biochemistry, hematology, immunology or pathology laboratories to benefit patients and the health system, as well as the areas that should remain independent since their amalgamation would not only fail to provide a benefit but could even jeopardize the quality of microbiological diagnosis, and consequently patient care. To do this, the distinct analytic phases of diagnosis are analyzed, and the advantages and disadvantages of amalgamation are evaluated in each phase. The pros and cons of the unification of certain areas such as the computer system, occupational risk units, customer service, purchasing logistics, and materials storage, etc, are also discussed. Lastly, the effect of unification on urgent microbiology diagnosis is analyzed. Microbiological diagnosis should be unique. The microbiologist should perform an overall evaluation of the distinct techniques used for a particular patient, both those that involve direct diagnosis (staining, culture, antigen detection techniques or molecular techniques) and indirect diagnosis (antibody detection). Moreover, the microbiology laboratory should be independent, with highly trained technicians and specialists in microbiology that provide added value as experts in infection and as key figures in the process of establishing a correct etiological diagnosis.

  18. The Advantages of Traditional Chumash Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Adams

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Chumash healing has been practiced in California for ∼13 000 years. Chumash healers treat their patients with prayer, laughter, dreaming, phytotherapy, aromatherapy, healing ceremonies and other techniques. Healing involves first healing the spirit, then healing the body. Chumash people still maintain their unique identity. Chumash Healers still practice the ancient healing arts in California. This lecture is a brief introduction to Chumash Healing.

  19. The advantages of minimally invasive dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Gordon J

    2005-11-01

    Minimally invasive dentistry, in cases in which it is appropriate, is a concept that preserves dentitions and supporting structures. In this column, I have discussed several examples of minimally invasive dental techniques. This type of dentistry is gratifying for dentists and appreciated by patients. If more dentists would practice it, the dental profession could enhance the public's perception of its honesty and increase its professionalism as well.

  20. Taking a deep breath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Zacharias

    2012-12-01

    be paid to language revision and reference citation. Together with its authors and readers, IJHDR contributes to the development of a kind of knowledge close to the borders of science. Therefore, to establish a valid scientific background, the articles must be clearly written, and based on sound assumptions. High-visibility for articles is a fundamental aspect desired by all authors. As an open and free access journal, IJHDR meets that condition, and we are planning to make our influence and visibility even wider. Inclusion in the major databases has paramount importance in the academic milieu, however, it should be considered as a consequence, rather than a goal. In 2013, IJHDR will chair a collaborative project with several research institutions aiming to deliver information everywhere, increasing the visibility of the published articles. Thus, now it is the time to take a deep breath, relax, and prepare you for the forthcoming work! See you in 2013!

  1. Advantages in functional imaging of the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter eMier

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As neuronal pathologies cause only minor morphological alterations, molecular imaging techniques are a prerequisite for the study of diseases of the brain. The development of molecular probes that specifically bind biochemical markers and the advances of instrumentation have revolutionized the possibilities to gain insight into the human brain organization and beyond this visualize structure-function and brain-behavior relationships. The review describes the development and current applications of functional brain imaging techniques with a focus on applications in psychiatry. A historical overview of the development of functional imaging is followed by the portrayal of the principles and applications of positron emission tomography (PET and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, two key molecular imaging techniques that have revolutionized the ability to image molecular processes in the brain. In the juxtaposition of PET and fMRI in hybrid PET/MRI scanners enhances the significance of both modalities for research in neurology and psychiatry and might pave the way for a new area of personalized medicine.

  2. Empowerment methods and techniques for sport managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THANOS KRIEMADIS

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We live in a globalize economic, social and technological environment where organizations can be successful only if they have required resources (material resources, facilities and equipment, and human resources. The managers and the organizations should empower and enable employees to accomplish their work in meaningful ways. Empowerment has been described as a means to enable employees to make decisions and as a personal phenomenon where individuals take responsibility for their own actions. The aim of the present study was to present effective methods and techniques of employee empowerment which constitute for the organization a source of competitive advantage. The paper will present and explain empowerment methods and techniques such as: (a organizational culture, (b vision statements, (c organizational values, (d teamwork, (e the role of manager - leadership, (f devolving responsibility accountability, (g information sharing, (h continuous training, (i appraisal rewards, (j goal setting, and (k performance appraisal process.

  3. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF STRAW-BALE BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Brojan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on general properties of straw bale as a building material which has been proven by buildings throughout the world to be an appropriate material choice. Still, there are many hesitations about using this alternative building material. The building techniques are relatively easy to learn and the performance of straw bale structures has a high value in terms of several aspects as long as general requirements are followed. The primary benefit of straw bale as a building material is its low embodied energy. It also has high thermal and sound insulation properties. Many previous research studies on straw bale building have been focused on structural stability, fire resistance and assessing moisture content in straw bales which is one of the major issues. Therefore, special attention needs to be devoted to details to insure proper building safety. Render selection is especially crucial and an extremely important step in straw bale building, not only in matters concerning moisture but also structural capacity and fire protection. A major disadvantage of straw bale construction is its lack of material research. The paper is divided into three parts in which advantages and disadvantages of such a building are discussed. In the third part, results are presented for a survey in which correspondents emphasized the advantages and disadvantages of living in a straw bale building.

  4. Endoscopic treatment for gastrointestinal stromal tumor:Advantages and hurdles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyung Hun Kim

    2015-01-01

    One of the most prominent characteristics ofgastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) is theirunpredictable and variable behavior. GISTs arenot classified as "benign" or "malignant" but arerather stratified by their associated clinical risk ofmalignancy as determined by tumor size, location,and number of mitoses identified during surgicalhistology. The difficulty in assessing the malignantpotential and prognoses of GISTs as well as theincreasing incidence of "incidental GISTs" presentschallenges to gastroenterologists. Recently, endoscopicenucleation has been actively performed as both adiagnostic and therapeutic intervention for GISTs.Endoscopic enucleation has several advantages,including keeping the stomach intact after the removalof GISTs, a relatively short hospital stay, a conscioussedation procedure, relatively low cost, and fewerhuman resources required compared with surgery.However, a low complete resection rate and the risk ofperforation could reduce the overall advantages of thisprocedure. Endoscopic full-thickness resection appearsto achieve a very high R0 resection rate. However, thistechnique absolutely requires a very skilled operator.Moreover, there is a risk of peritoneal seeding dueto large active perforation. Laparoscopy endoscopycollaborations have been applied for more stableand pathologically acceptable management. Thesecollaborative procedures have produced excellentoutcomes. Many procedures have been developed andattempted because they were technically possible.However, we should first consider the theoretical basisfor each technique. Until the efficacy and safety ofsole endoscopic access are proved, the laparoscopyendoscopy collaborative procedure appears to be anappropriate method for minimally destructive GISTsurgery.

  5. Pharyngeal Packing during Rhinoplasty: Advantages and Disadvantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Razavi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Controversy remains as to the advantages and disadvantages of pharyngeal packing during septorhinoplasty. Our study investigated the effect of pharyngeal packing on postoperative nausea and vomiting and sore throat following this type of surgery or septorhinoplasty.   Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was performed on 90 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA I or II patients who were candidates for septorhinoplasty. They were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in the study group had received pharyngeal packing while those in the control group had not. The incidence of nausea and vomiting and sore throat based on the visual analog scale (VAS was evaluated postoperatively in the recovery room as well as at 2, 6 and 24 hours.   Results: The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV was 12.3%, with no significant difference between the study and control groups. Sore throat was reported in 50.5% of cases overall (56.8% on pack group and 44.4% on control. Although the severity of pain was higher in the study group at all times, the incidence in the two groups did not differ significantly.   Conclusion: The use of pharyngeal packing has no effect in reducing the incidence of nausea and vomiting and sore throat after surgery. Given that induced hypotension is used as the routine method of anesthesia in septorhinoplasty surgery, with a low incidence of hemorrhage and a high risk of unintended retention of pharyngeal packing, its routine use is not recommended for this procedure.

  6. Vegetarian diets: what are the advantages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitzmann, Claus

    2005-01-01

    A growing body of scientific evidence indicates that wholesome vegetarian diets offer distinct advantages compared to diets containing meat and other foods of animal origin. The benefits arise from lower intakes of saturated fat, cholesterol and animal protein as well as higher intakes of complex carbohydrates, dietary fiber, magnesium, folic acid, vitamin C and E, carotenoids and other phytochemicals. Since vegetarians consume widely divergent diets, a differentiation between various types of vegetarian diets is necessary. Indeed, many contradictions and misunderstandings concerning vegetarianism are due to scientific data from studies without this differentiation. In the past, vegetarian diets have been described as being deficient in several nutrients including protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin B12 and A, n-3 fatty acids and iodine. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the observed deficiencies are usually due to poor meal planning. Well-balanced vegetarian diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including children, adolescents, pregnant and lactating women, the elderly and competitive athletes. In most cases, vegetarian diets are beneficial in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, cancer, osteoporosis, renal disease and dementia, as well as diverticular disease, gallstones and rheumatoid arthritis. The reasons for choosing a vegetarian diet often go beyond health and well-being and include among others economical, ecological and social concerns. The influences of these aspects of vegetarian diets are the subject of the new field of nutritional ecology that is concerned with sustainable life styles and human development.

  7. Clinical advantages of carbon-ion radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujii, Hirohiko; Kamada, Tadashi; Baba, Masayuki; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Kato, Hirotoshi; Kato, Shingo; Yamada, Shigeru; Yasuda, Shigeo; Yanagi, Takeshi; Kato, Hiroyuki; Hara, Ryusuke; Yamamoto, Naotaka; Mizoe, Junetsu

    2008-07-01

    Carbon-ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) possesses physical and biological advantages. It was started at NIRS in 1994 using the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC); since then more than 50 protocol studies have been conducted on almost 4000 patients with a variety of tumors. Clinical experiences have demonstrated that C-ion RT is effective in such regions as the head and neck, skull base, lung, liver, prostate, bone and soft tissues, and pelvic recurrence of rectal cancer, as well as for histological types including adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, malignant melanoma and various types of sarcomas, against which photon therapy could be less effective. Furthermore, when compared with photon and proton RT, a significant reduction of overall treatment time and fractions has been accomplished without enhancing toxicities. Currently, the number of irradiation sessions per patient averages 13 fractions spread over approximately three weeks. This means that in a carbon therapy facility a larger number of patients than is possible with other modalities can be treated over the same period of time.

  8. Self-contained cable systems offer advantages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morello, A.S.; Occhini, E.

    1977-05-01

    Low-pressure oil-filled (LPOF) cable systems, while seldom used in this country, have several advantages of interest to engineers. Less oil and insulating paper is required for low-pressure than for the more commonly used high-pressure systems because of the single core. The lower pessure offers safety features in the event of accidental oil loss. LPOF cables are used internationally because of their good thermal characteristics. Applications besides ac transmission lines include underground and submarine cables, such as those connecting islands with mainland facilities. Cooling can be accomplished either by circulating oil inside the central duct or circulating water through parallel nonmetallic pipes. Forced-cooling of the LPOF cables is less complicated, which allows them to have higher current ratings and makes them more adaptable to thermal transients. Conductor cooling, which increases capacity but prohibits overloads in LPOF cables, is the only system available to high voltage (HVDC) cables. Several experimental and demonstration cable systems are described. (DCK)

  9. Competitive advantages of Caedibacter-infected Paramecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusch, Jürgen; Czubatinski, Lars; Wegmann, Silke; Hubner, Markus; Alter, Margret; Albrecht, Petra

    2002-03-01

    Intracellular bacteria of the genus Caedibacter limit the reproduction of their host, the freshwater ciliate Paramecium. Reproduction rates of infected strains of paramecia were significantly lower than those of genetically identical strains that had lost their parasites after treatment with an antibiotic. Interference competition occurs when infected paramecia release a toxic form of the parasitic bacterium that kills uninfected paramecia. In mixed cultures of infected and uninfected strains of either P tetraurelia or of P novaurelia, the infected strains outcompeted the uninfected strains. Infection of new host paramecia seems to be rare. Infection of new hosts was not observed in either mixtures of infected with uninfected strains, or after incubation of paramecia with isolated parasites. The competitive advantages of the host paramecia, in combination with their vegetative reproduction, makes infection of new hosts by the bacterial parasites unnecessary, and could be responsible for the continued existence of "killer paramecia" in nature. Caedibacter parasites are not a defensive adaptation. Feeding rates and reproduction of the predators Didinium nasutum (Ciliophora) and Amoeba proteus (Amoebozoa, Gymnamoebia) were not influenced by whether or not their paramecia prey were infected. Infection of the predators frequently occurred when they preyed on infected paramecia. Caedibacter-infected predators may influence competition between Paramecium strains by release of toxic parasites into the environment that are harmful to uninfected strains.

  10. Advantages of scaling up gravitational wave detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Dwyer, Sheila E; Ballmer, Stefan; Barsotti, Lisa; Mavalvala, Nergis; Evans, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Twenty years ago, construction began on the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO). Two facilities with $4~{\\rm km}$ long L-shaped vacuum envelops were built at two sites in Washington state and Louisiana. Initial LIGO reached its design sensitivity and finished observing in 2010. Advanced LIGO has just been installed in the same facility and will have 10 times better sensitivity than Initial LIGO. Looking further into the future, design studies for third generation detectors in the same facility are in progress. However, they are severely restricted by the size of the existing vacuum system, leading to no more than a factor of a few improvement in sensitivity. We make a case for the advantages of longer arm cavities and show that a ten-fold increase in sensitivity over Advanced LIGO is possible. Furthermore, this can be achieved by reusing existing Advanced LIGO hardware with only modest changes. This third generation observatory would be able to see binary black hole mergers up to a hori...

  11. INNOVATION AS A COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE IN MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Nikolić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Innovation in management can be defined as a set of activities undertaken by the organization, and are a source for new products or production processes. The development of enterprises and organizations are mainly related to the existence of innovation. Innovation is the commercialization of new ideas or converting it into a specific product, process or service, as well as of competitive advantages in management. Contemporary business environment characterized by high volatility, uncertainty and risk to a company or organization to survive in such an environment, it is necessary to continually invest in research and development and innovation activities. Companies and organizations are trying to combine their existing resources and capabilities and to use them in the new, the best way possible. For those of their activity are derived and innovation are born innovative organization. Innovation is something that is related to the concept of the entrepreneur-manager who strives to always observe the changes, respond to them and accept a high level of risk, and uses it as an option in their operations. But in addition, large companies are precisely those that have the ability and the necessary financial resources to implement innovations.

  12. Advantages and limitations of peer assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Goršak, Karmen Pižorn

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines current theoretical work and research findings regarding the effectiveness of peer assessment. The main purpose of the article is to define peer asses sment and its subcategory peer feedback and to present the advantages and limitations of peer assessment derived from different research findings. In addition, conditions and strategies to successfully guarantee the benefits of peer assessment are presented. The main research studies, mentioned in this article, have been carried out in different disciplines in higher education programmes and their findings reveal positive students’ and teachers’ attitude to peer assessment as well as high correlation between peers’ and te achers’ grades. The main results of the studies show a positive effect of peer assessment on student’s active role in the process of learning and assessment, the development of social and professional skills, student’s autonomy, critical thinking, peer and selfassessment skills. Recommendations for implementing peer assessment within foreign language tea ching, as well as implications for future research work are provided.

  13. The advantages and disadvantages of pacifier use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinar, Dede Nursan

    2004-01-01

    A powerful reflex of the infant in the weeks following birth is sucking. Breastfed babies benefit from both the nutrition in mother's milk and the satisfaction of their sucking instinct. Babies that can not be breastfed due to various reasons may satisfy their sucking instinct by using pacifiers. Pacifier use and digit sucking are believed to be harmless habits. In many places of the world, and especially in developing countries, pacifier use in early childhood is very common. It is said that pacifier use eases the baby and satisfies its sucking instinct. It has been reported in several studies that pacifier use reduces the risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). The most important risks of this non-nutritive sucking habit are failure of breastfeeding, dental deformities, recurrent acute otitis media, and the possibility of accidents. The development of latex allergy, tooth decay, oral ulcers and sleep disorders are other problems encountered with pacifier use. Parents may hesitate to use pacifiers for their babies and consult nurses or midwives on this issue. In this article, the advantages and disadvantages of pacifier use are discussed with the aim of providing guidance to nurses and midwives working in the field of pediatrics and infant health.

  14. IT OUTSOURCING: METHODOLOGY FOR SUPPLIER SELECTION CRITERIA FOR COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Alexandre Simões

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Two criteria are usually adopted to select the provider of IT: lower prices or better service qualification of the supplier. This article proposes a strategic approach: the company should hire the provider that best leverage their competitive advantages. This approach implied the need to develop a methodology. To support it, the authors analyzed four models, Porter, RBV (Resource-Based View, Balanced Scorecard and the Weapons and Field Competition. Preferred the latter to be the most complete, qualiquantitative technique and able to accurately align the goals of the IT service firm's to competitive contracting strategy. The methodology was developed and applied to an insurance company and in face of the excellent results, decided to write this article to disclose it.

  15. Innovative application of virtual display technique in virtual museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiankang

    2017-09-01

    Virtual museum refers to display and simulate the functions of real museum on the Internet in the form of 3 Dimensions virtual reality by applying interactive programs. Based on Virtual Reality Modeling Language, virtual museum building and its effective interaction with the offline museum lie in making full use of 3 Dimensions panorama technique, virtual reality technique and augmented reality technique, and innovatively taking advantages of dynamic environment modeling technique, real-time 3 Dimensions graphics generating technique, system integration technique and other key virtual reality techniques to make sure the overall design of virtual museum.3 Dimensions panorama technique, also known as panoramic photography or virtual reality, is a technique based on static images of the reality. Virtual reality technique is a kind of computer simulation system which can create and experience the interactive 3 Dimensions dynamic visual world. Augmented reality, also known as mixed reality, is a technique which simulates and mixes the information (visual, sound, taste, touch, etc.) that is difficult for human to experience in reality. These technologies make virtual museum come true. It will not only bring better experience and convenience to the public, but also be conducive to improve the influence and cultural functions of the real museum.

  16. Calculating Home Advantage in the First Decade of the 21th Century UEFA Soccer Leagues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Miguel Saavedra; Aguilar, Oscar Gutiérrez; Marques, Paulo Sa; Tobío, Gabriel Torres; Fernández Romero, Juan J

    2013-01-01

    Home advantage has been studied in different sports, establishing its existence and its possible causes. This article analyzes the home advantage in soccer leagues of UEFA countries in the first part of the 21st century. The sample of 52 countries monitored during a period of 10 years allows us to study 520 leagues and 111,030 matches of the highest level in each country associated with UEFA. Home advantage exists and is significant in 32 of the 52 UEFA countries, where it equals 55.6%. A decrease can be observed in the tendency towards home advantage between the years 2000 and 2010. Values between 55 and 56 were observed for home advantage in the top ten leagues in Europe. It has also been observed that home advantage depends on the level of the league evaluated using UEFA's 2010/11 Country coefficients. The home advantage is calculated taking into account the teams' position and the points obtained in each of the leagues. A direct relationship was observed with the number of points gained and an inverse relationship was observed with the team position.

  17. Competitive advantage of PET/MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadvar, Hossein; Colletti, Patrick M

    2014-01-01

    Multimodality imaging has made great strides in the imaging evaluation of patients with a variety of diseases. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is now established as the imaging modality of choice in many clinical conditions, particularly in oncology. While the initial development of combined PET/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) was in the preclinical arena, hybrid PET/MR scanners are now available for clinical use. PET/MRI combines the unique features of MRI including excellent soft tissue contrast, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, fMRI and other specialized sequences as well as MR spectroscopy with the quantitative physiologic information that is provided by PET. Most evidence for the potential clinical utility of PET/MRI is based on studies performed with side-by-side comparison or software-fused MRI and PET images. Data on distinctive utility of hybrid PET/MRI are rapidly emerging. There are potential competitive advantages of PET/MRI over PET/CT. In general, PET/MRI may be preferred over PET/CT where the unique features of MRI provide more robust imaging evaluation in certain clinical settings. The exact role and potential utility of simultaneous data acquisition in specific research and clinical settings will need to be defined. It may be that simultaneous PET/MRI will be best suited for clinical situations that are disease-specific, organ-specific, related to diseases of the children or in those patients undergoing repeated imaging for whom cumulative radiation dose must be kept as low as reasonably achievable. PET/MRI also offers interesting opportunities for use of dual modality probes. Upon clear definition of clinical utility, other important and practical issues related to business operational model, clinical workflow and reimbursement will also be resolved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. National and International Library Collaboration: Necessity, Advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Mark

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of cooperation between research library associations can be demonstrated quite clearly. Where cooperation becomes essential is where there is a common cause to champion or an initiative to pursue for the common good. Thanks in part to the power of information communications technology, research is becoming increasingly international in scope. The members of interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary research teams are frequently drawn from across the world. Correspondingly, scholarly publishing (especially in medicine and the sciences is dominated by a few multinational publishers. In this context, issues that play a vital role in global scholarly communication - such as copyright, journal pricing, the managing of datasets, digital preservation and open access - are issues for the research library community everywhere in the world. Certainly there are many challenges at the local or regional level. However there are definite roles that research library associations can play most effectively at the national or international level. It is clear that by sharing expertise, building partnerships and alliances, it is possible to address common issues much more effectively than when working alone. What is special is that potentially the most powerful form of cooperation is advocacy at the national and international levels. It is essential for research library associations to work together at the political level to move their agenda forward. Examples are lobbying about copyright legislation (nationally, or within the EC or at WIPO; or promoting the cause of Open Access. The unique value of LIBER is to provide a forum and a platform for European research library associations to explore and benefit from cooperation and their shared strength.

  19. Microscopic structured light 3D profilometry: Binary defocusing technique vs. sinusoidal fringe projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Beiwen; Zhang, Song

    2017-09-01

    This paper compares the binary defocusing technique with conventional sinusoidal fringe projection under two different 3D microscopic profilometry systems: (1) both camera and projector use telecentric lenses and (2) only camera uses a telecentric lens. Our simulation and experiments found that the binary defocusing technique is superior to the traditional sinusoidal fringe projection method by improving the measurement resolution approximately 19%. Finally, by taking the speed advantage of the binary defocusing technique, we presented a high-speed (500 Hz) and high-resolution (1600×1200) 3D microscopic profilometry system that could reach kHz.

  20. [Biomarkers for liver fibrosis: advances, advantages and disadvantages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cequera, A; García de León Méndez, M C

    2014-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis in Mexico is one of the most important causes of death in persons between the ages of 25 and 50 years. One of the reasons for therapeutic failure is the lack of knowledge about the molecular mechanisms that cause liver disorder and make it irreversible. One of its prevalent anatomical characteristics is an excessive deposition of fibrous tissue that takes different forms depending on etiology and disease stage. Liver biopsy, traditionally regarded as the gold standard of fibrosis staging, has been brought into question over the past decade, resulting in the proposal for developing non-invasive technologies based on different, but complementary, approaches: a biological one that takes the serum levels of products arising from the fibrosis into account, and a more physical one that evaluates scarring of the liver by methods such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance elastography; some of the methods were originally studied and validated in patients with hepatitis C. There is great interest in determining non-invasive markers for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis, since at present there is no panel or parameter efficient and reliable enough for diagnostic use. In this paper, we describe the biomarkers that are currently being used for studying liver fibrosis in humans, their advantages and disadvantages, as well as the implementation of new-generation technologies and the evaluation of their possible use in the diagnosis of fibrosis. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  1. Slugtests in fractured aquifers - advantages and caveats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Martin

    2017-04-01

    The hydraulic characterisation of fractured aquifers is a challenge due to the large contrast between conductive fractures and a relative low conductive rock matrix. Depending on the type of problem, spanning from water resources issues at catchment scale to contaminant transport at local, borehole scale, different methodological approaches are required. The employment of slugtests as a characterisation method has a major advantage above classical pumping tests since they provide information also for the lower end of the permeability spectrum and are less logistically demanding. However, the volume of investigation of slugtests is generally small and limited to the immediate borehole area. The application of slug tests to fractured systems was investigated by Barker and Black (1983); Dougherty and Babu (1984) and Karasaki et al. (1988). Barker and Black (1983) pointed out the non-uniqueness of type curves with re¬spect to determining reservoir parameters, apart from hydraulic conductivity and sto¬rage coefficients. The unknowns in¬clude fissure densities, apertures and the hy¬draulic parameters of the rock matrix. They found that the Cooper method syste¬matically overestimates aquifer transmis-sivities by a factor of up to three. This figure however applies to a fairly homogeneously fissured aquifer such as the English Chalk. Dougherty and Babu (1984) examined in detail the effects of partial penetration, dif¬ferent skin factors and mass exchange coef-ficients in a double porosity system. They did however not present any parameter estimation solu¬tion. Karasaki et al. (1988) developed type curves for heterogeneous aquifer systems and came to the conclusion that "slug tests suffer problems of non-uniqueness to a greater ex¬tent than other well tests". In this paper, this aspect of non-uniqueness is addressed in detail, based on slugtest data in a fractured and karstified aquifer from the Swabian Alb in the SW of Germany, explanations and models of

  2. The competitive advantage of corporate philanthropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael E; Kramer, Mark R

    2002-12-01

    When it comes to philanthropy, executives increasingly see themselves as caught between critics demanding ever higher levels of "corporate social responsibility" and investors applying pressure to maximize short-term profits. In response, many companies have sought to make their giving more strategic, but what passes for strategic philanthropy is almost never truly strategic, and often isn't particularly effective as philanthropy. Increasingly, philanthropy is used as a form of public relations or advertising, promoting a company's image through high-profile sponsorships. But there is a more truly strategic way to think about philanthropy. Corporations can use their charitable efforts to improve their competitive context--the quality of the business environment in the locations where they operate. Using philanthropy to enhance competitive context aligns social and economic goals and improves a company's long-term business prospects. Addressing context enables a company to not only give money but also leverage its capabilities and relationships in support of charitable causes. The produces social benefits far exceeding those provided by individual donors, foundations, or even governments. Taking this new direction requires fundamental changes in the way companies approach their contribution programs. For example, philanthropic investments can improve education and local quality of life in ways that will benefit the company. Such investments can also improve the company's competitiveness by contributing to expanding the local market and helping to reduce corruption in the local business environment. Adopting a context-focused approach goes against the grain of current philanthropic practice, and it requires a far more disciplined approach than is prevalent today. But it can make a company's philanthropic activities far more effective.

  3. Opportunities and Challenges after the Reconstruction of Basic-level Agricultural Technique Extension System, Taking Agricultural Technique Extension in Counties and Towns of Xinjiang as an Example%基层农技推广体系重构后面临的机遇与挑战——以新疆县乡农技推广为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王馨; 郑戈; 林祥明; 刘艳

    2015-01-01

    The rural economy development must overcome the common problems existing in the basic-level agricultural technique extension. In this paper, the county-level agricultural technique extension in Xinjiang autonomous region as the research object, opportunities the present agricultural technique extension faced were analyzed. Short factors in the process of technology popularization were researched, such as team construction is not perfect, the production project benefits are not matching, social service system is not sound, diversified development bottleneck and so on. Finally, some suggestions were put forward based on the analysis, i.e., constructing platform for agricultural management main body, optimizing the allocation of resources, enhancing the level of scientific research and information, etc.%克服基层农技推广中存在的共性问题是推动农村经济快速发展的关键.文章以新疆县乡农技推广作为研究对象,在对现阶段农业推广所面临的机遇进行分析的基础上,剖析了推广过程中存在的队伍建设不完善、生产项目补助不匹配、社会服务化体系不健全和多元化发展等问题.针对性地提出了搭建农业经营主体平台、优化资源配置、提升科研及信息化水平等建议.

  4. Inequality and Risk-Taking

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Mishra; Son Hing, Leanne S.; Lalumière, Martin L.

    2015-01-01

    Inequality has been associated with risk-taking at the societal level. However, this relationship has not been directly investigated at the individual level. Risk-sensitivity theory predicts that decision makers should increase risk-taking in situations of disparity between one’s present state and desired state. Economic inequality creates such a disparity. In two experiments, we examined whether imposed economic inequality affects risk-taking. In Experiment 1, we examined whether victims of ...

  5. Pudong Takes Six Steps as the World Takes One

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShenHonglei; WuXinyi

    2003-01-01

    The Beijing-based Economic Daily recently carried the headline,“China Takes Three Steps As the World Takes One”——an observation on China's economic growth. Its 16 percent annual GDP growth means that Pudong is advancing at double that speed. This phenomenal growth rate makes Pudong the central focus of this issue.

  6. Improving throughput and user experience for information intensive websites by applying HTTP compression technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malla, Ratnakar

    2008-11-06

    HTTP compression is a technique specified as part of the W3C HTTP 1.0 standard. It allows HTTP servers to take advantage of GZIP compression technology that is built into latest browsers. A brief survey of medical informatics websites show that compression is not enabled. With compression enabled, downloaded files sizes are reduced by more than 50% and typical transaction time is also reduced from 20 to 8 minutes, thus providing a better user experience.

  7. Dynamic Simulations of Combined Transmission and Distribution Systems using Parallel Processing Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Aristidou, P; Van Cutsem, T

    2014-01-01

    Simulating a power system with both transmission and distribution networks modeled in detail is a huge computational challenge. In this paper, we propose a Schur-complement-based domain decomposition algorithm to provide accurate, detailed dynamic simulations of the combined system. The simulation procedure is accelerated with the use of parallel programming techniques, taking advantage of the parallelization opportunities inherent in domain decomposition algorithms. The proposed algorithm is...

  8. An Investigation of the Advantages of Organization-Centered Multi-Agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt

    2010-01-01

    Whereas classical multi-agent systems have the agent in center, there have recently been a development towards focusing more on the organization of the system. This allows the designer to focus on what the system goals are, without considering how the goals should be fulfilled. This paper investigates whether taking this approach has any clear advantages to the classical way of implementing multi-agent systems. The investigation is done by implementing each type of system in the same environment in order to realize what advantages and disadvantages each approach has.

  9. Stars advantages vs parallel coordinates: shape perception as visualization reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishin, Vladimir; Kovalerchuk, Boris

    2013-12-01

    Although shape perception is the main information channel for brain, it has been poor used by recent visualization techniques. The difficulties of its modeling are key obstacles for visualization theory and application. Known experimental estimates of shape perception capabilities have been made for low data dimension, and they were usually not connected with data structures. More applied approach for certain data structures detection by means of shape displays are considered by the example of analytical and experimental comparison of popular now Parallel Coordinates (PCs), i.e. 2D Cartesian displays of data vectors, with polar displays known as stars. Advantages of stars vs. PCs by Gestalt Laws are shown. About twice faster feature selection and classification with stars than PCs are showed by psychological experiments for hyper-tubes structures detection in data space with dimension up to 100-200 and its subspaces. This demonstrates great reserves of visualization enhancement in comparison with many recent techniques usually focused on few data attributes analysis.

  10. Advantage of four-electrode over two-electrode defibrillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragard, J.; Šimić, A.; Laroze, D.; Elorza, J.

    2015-12-01

    Defibrillation is the standard clinical treatment used to stop ventricular fibrillation. An electrical device delivers a controlled amount of electrical energy via a pair of electrodes in order to reestablish a normal heart rate. We propose a technique that is a combination of biphasic shocks applied with a four-electrode system rather than the standard two-electrode system. We use a numerical model of a one-dimensional ring of cardiac tissue in order to test and evaluate the benefit of this technique. We compare three different shock protocols, namely a monophasic and two types of biphasic shocks. The results obtained by using a four-electrode system are compared quantitatively with those obtained with the standard two-electrode system. We find that a huge reduction in defibrillation threshold is achieved with the four-electrode system. For the most efficient protocol (asymmetric biphasic), we obtain a reduction in excess of 80% in the energy required for a defibrillation success rate of 90%. The mechanisms of successful defibrillation are also analyzed. This reveals that the advantage of asymmetric biphasic shocks with four electrodes lies in the duration of the cathodal and anodal phase of the shock.

  11. Spring and Autumn of Technique of Writing and in the Use of Zuo Zhuan --Taking the "Therefore Zhongzi Attributed to Me " as an Example%春秋笔法及其在《左传》中的运用——以“故仲子归于我”为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪; 管世献

    2012-01-01

    "仲子"是解开鲁隐公和鲁惠公、鲁桓公之间微妙关系的重要人物。《左传》中"故仲子归于我"一句所涉及到的正是鲁惠公、仲子、鲁隐公和鲁桓公之间复杂的伦理关系。同时,这一句用语巧妙,意义深远,包含了春秋笔法的运用。以"故仲子归于我"为例,深刻探讨春秋笔法的具体含义和运用。%Zhongzi is an important figure who can solve the relationship among them. "Therefore Zhongzi attributed to me" in Zuo Zhuan is involved the complex ethical relationship of the Luhui Gong, Zhongzi , Lu Yingong and Lu Huangong . Meanwhile, it is skill- fully, far-reaching, including the use of the Spring and Autumn of technique of writing . In this paper, taking "Therefore Zbongzi at- tributed to me "as an example, discusses profoundly the specific meaning of Spring and Autumn technique of writing and use.

  12. Defying the activity-stability trade-off in enzymes: taking advantage of entropy to enhance activity and thermostability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Khawar Sohail

    2017-05-01

    The biotechnological applications of enzymes are limited due to the activity-stability trade-off, which implies that an increase in activity is accompanied by a concomitant decrease in protein stability. This premise is based on thermally adapted homologous enzymes where cold-adapted enzymes show high intrinsic activity linked to enhanced thermolability. In contrast, thermophilic enzymes show low activity around ambient temperatures. Nevertheless, genetically and chemically modified enzymes are beginning to show that the activity-stability trade-off can be overcome. In this review, the origin of the activity-stability trade-off, the thermodynamic basis for enhanced activity and stability, and various approaches for escaping the activity-stability trade-off are discussed. The role of entropy in enhancing both the activity and the stability of enzymes is highlighted with a special emphasis placed on the involvement of solvent water molecules. This review is concluded with suggestions for further research, which underscores the implications of these findings in the context of productivity curves, the Daniel-Danson equilibrium model, catalytic antibodies, and life on cold planets.

  13. Cómo aprovechar el "aprendizaje colaborativo" en el aula How to take advantage of "cooperative learning" in the classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Alberto Collazos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El aprendizaje colaborativo es uno de los modelos de aprendizaje que a pesar de haberse planteado desde hace un largo tiempo, nuevamente comienza a utilizarse dentro del aula de clases. No obstante su auge y la diversidad de estudios que demuestran los beneficios de este método, es muy poco lo que se sabe respecto a cómo puede llevarse a cabo dentro del aula de clases y qué elementos deben considerarse para su implementación. Este artículo presenta algunas consideraciones que deberían tenerse en cuenta, si queremos involucrar este modelo dentro de nuestro proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje. Para poder lograr una colaboración efectiva, es necesario que los roles, tanto de los profesores como de los estudiantes, se modifiquen, de modo que involucren una participación más activa de ambos actores dentro del proceso de aprendizaje.The Cooperative Learning is one of the learning models people are starting to use again in the classroom (although it had been discovered a long time ago. Nevertheless the summit and benefits of this method have been widely demonstrated, people don't know very much about the way to implement it into the classroom nor the elements that should be considered for its implementation. This article presents some regards to be considered if we want to include this model into our teaching-learning process. In order to reach an effective cooperation, it is necessary to modify teachers' and students' roles as well, to make both actors participate more actively into the learning process.

  14. Cómo aprovechar el "aprendizaje colaborativo" en el aula How to take advantage of "cooperative learning" in the classroom

    OpenAIRE

    César Alberto Collazos; Jair Mendoza

    2006-01-01

    El aprendizaje colaborativo es uno de los modelos de aprendizaje que a pesar de haberse planteado desde hace un largo tiempo, nuevamente comienza a utilizarse dentro del aula de clases. No obstante su auge y la diversidad de estudios que demuestran los beneficios de este método, es muy poco lo que se sabe respecto a cómo puede llevarse a cabo dentro del aula de clases y qué elementos deben considerarse para su implementación. Este artículo presenta algunas consideraciones que deberían tenerse...

  15. Host manipulation by an ichneumonid spider ectoparasitoid that takes advantage of preprogrammed web-building behaviour for its cocoon protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasuka, Keizo; Yasui, Tomoki; Ishigami, Toru; Nakata, Kensuke; Matsumoto, Rikio; Ikeda, Kenichi; Maeto, Kaoru

    2015-08-01

    Host manipulation by parasites and parasitoids is a fascinating phenomenon within evolutionary ecology, representing an example of extended phenotypes. To elucidate the mechanism of host manipulation, revealing the origin and function of the invoked actions is essential. Our study focused on the ichneumonid spider ectoparasitoid Reclinervellus nielseni, which turns its host spider (Cyclosa argenteoalba) into a drugged navvy, to modify the web structure into a more persistent cocoon web so that the wasp can pupate safely on this web after the spider's death. We focused on whether the cocoon web originated from the resting web that an unparasitized spider builds before moulting, by comparing web structures, building behaviour and silk spectral/tensile properties. We found that both resting and cocoon webs have reduced numbers of radii decorated by numerous fibrous threads and specific decorating behaviour was identical, suggesting that the cocoon web in this system has roots in the innate resting web and ecdysteroid-related components may be responsible for the manipulation. We also show that these decorations reflect UV light, possibly to prevent damage by flying web-destroyers such as birds or large insects. Furthermore, the tensile test revealed that the spider is induced to repeat certain behavioural steps in addition to resting web construction so that many more threads are laid down for web reinforcement. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. How can we take advantage of halophyte properties to cope with heavy metal toxicity in salt-affected areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutts, Stanley; Lefèvre, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Background Many areas throughout the world are simultaneously contaminated by high concentrations of soluble salts and by high concentrations of heavy metals that constitute a serious threat to human health. The use of plants to extract or stabilize pollutants is an interesting alternative to classical expensive decontamination procedures. However, suitable plant species still need to be identified for reclamation of substrates presenting a high electrical conductivity. Scope Halophytic plant species are able to cope with several abiotic constraints occurring simultaneously in their natural environment. This review considers their putative interest for remediation of polluted soil in relation to their ability to sequester absorbed toxic ions in trichomes or vacuoles, to perform efficient osmotic adjustment and to limit the deleterious impact of oxidative stress. These physiological adaptations are considered in relation to the impact of salt on heavy metal bioavailabilty in two types of ecosystem: (1) salt marshes and mangroves, and (2) mine tailings in semi-arid areas. Conclusions Numerous halophytes exhibit a high level of heavy metal accumulation and external NaCl may directly influence heavy metal speciation and absorption rate. Maintenance of biomass production and plant water status makes some halophytes promising candidates for further management of heavy-metal-polluted areas in both saline and non-saline environments. PMID:25672360

  17. A Content Analysis of Kindergarten-12th Grade School-Based Nutrition Interventions: Taking Advantage of Past Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Mary G.; Riddell, Martha C.; Haynes, Jessica N.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature, identifying proposed recommendations for school-based nutrition interventions, and evaluate kindergarten through 12th grade school-based nutrition interventions conducted from 2000-2008. Design: Proposed recommendations from school-based intervention reviews were developed and used in conducting a content…

  18. The survival advantage for haemodialysis patients taking vitamin D is questioned: findings from the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tentori, Francesca; Albert, Justin M; Young, Eric W; Blayney, Margaret J; Robinson, Bruce M; Pisoni, Ronald L; Akiba, Takashi; Greenwood, Roger N; Kimata, Naoki; Levin, Nathan W; Piera, Luis M; Saran, Rajiv; Wolfe, Robert A; Port, Friedrich K

    Background. Retrospective studies of haemodialysis patients from large dialysis organizations in the United States have indicated that intravenous vitamin D may be associated with a survival benefit...

  19. Taking Advantage of the "Big Mo"—Momentum in Everyday English and Swedish and in Physics Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglund, Jesper; Jeppsson, Fredrik; Ahrenberg, Lars

    2015-06-01

    Science education research suggests that our everyday intuitions of motion and interaction of physical objects fit well with how physicists use the term "momentum". Corpus linguistics provides an easily accessible approach to study language in different domains, including everyday language. Analysis of language samples from English text corpora reveals a trend of increasing metaphorical use of "momentum" in non-science domains, and through conceptual metaphor analysis, we show that the use of the word in everyday language, as opposed to for instance "force", is largely adequate from a physics point of view. In addition, "momentum" has recently been borrowed into Swedish as a metaphor in domains such as sports, politics and finance, with meanings similar to those in physics. As an implication for educational practice, we find support for the suggestion to introduce the term "momentum" to English-speaking pupils at an earlier age than what is typically done in the educational system today, thereby capitalising on their intuitions and experiences of everyday language. For Swedish-speaking pupils, and possibly also relevant to other languages, the parallel between "momentum" and the corresponding physics term in the students' mother tongue could be made explicit..

  20. Taking advantage of dissonance: the development of a CPD model for a children’s integrated service

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, Jenny; Marsh, Glynis; Haider, Sharif; Bardsley, Janet; Bayley, Kenneth; Brown, Gill; Harrington-Vail, Amanda; Dale-Emberton, Ann

    2016-01-01

    The delivery of welfare, health and educational support provision to the majority of children aged between nought and eighteen years of age in England is led by local authorities via their children’s integrated service. When launched in 2004 this service model promised the benefits of integrated and collaborative working in terms of flexibility and responsiveness to national policy, local development and capacity building (Robinson et al., 2008). However, the implementation and ongoing matura...

  1. LUPA: a European initiative taking advantage of the canine genome architecture for unravelling complex disorders in both human and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequarré, Anne-Sophie; Andersson, Leif; André, Catherine; Fredholm, Merete; Hitte, Christophe; Leeb, Tosso; Lohi, Hannes; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Georges, Michel

    2011-08-01

    The domestic dog offers a unique opportunity to explore the genetic basis of disease, morphology and behaviour. Humans share many diseases with our canine companions, making dogs an ideal model organism for comparative disease genetics. Using newly developed resources, genome-wide association studies in dog breeds are proving to be exceptionally powerful. Towards this aim, veterinarians and geneticists from 12 European countries are collaborating to collect and analyse the DNA from large cohorts of dogs suffering from a range of carefully defined diseases of relevance to human health. This project, named LUPA, has already delivered considerable results. The consortium has collaborated to develop a new high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. Mutations for four monogenic diseases have been identified and the information has been utilised to find mutations in human patients. Several complex diseases have been mapped and fine mapping is underway. These findings should ultimately lead to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying complex diseases in both humans and their best friend.

  2. Taking Advantage of the Strengths of 2 Different Dietary Assessment Instruments to Improve Intake Estimates for Nutritional Epidemiology

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, R. J.

    2012-01-24

    With the advent of Internet-based 24-hour recall (24HR) instruments, it is now possible to envision their use in cohort studies investigating the relation between nutrition and disease. Understanding that all dietary assessment instruments are subject to measurement errors and correcting for them under the assumption that the 24HR is unbiased for usual intake, here the authors simultaneously address precision, power, and sample size under the following 3 conditions: 1) 1-12 24HRs; 2) a single calibrated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ); and 3) a combination of 24HR and FFQ data. Using data from the Eating at America\\'s Table Study (1997-1998), the authors found that 4-6 administrations of the 24HR is optimal for most nutrients and food groups and that combined use of multiple 24HR and FFQ data sometimes provides data superior to use of either method alone, especially for foods that are not regularly consumed. For all food groups but the most rarely consumed, use of 2-4 recalls alone, with or without additional FFQ data, was superior to use of FFQ data alone. Thus, if self-administered automated 24HRs are to be used in cohort studies, 4-6 administrations of the 24HR should be considered along with administration of an FFQ.

  3. Turn regional divide into sustained growth potential—Taking advantage of regional gaps in fighting crisis and maintaining growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 蔡志洲

    2009-01-01

    Regional economic disparities are often regarded as signs of a country’s uneven or backward development.After analyzing China’s regional economic performances from 2003 to 2007,this paper concludes that the emergence of interior regions provides new momentum for China’s economic growth,and regional disparities can be taken as an important source in countering the current economic cycle and maintaining rapid growth.

  4. [Eversion carotid endarterectomy: advantages and disadvantages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanchian, P O; Popov, V A; Rudakova, T V; Gaponova, E N

    1998-01-01

    A comparative analysis of results of 70 operations fulfilled by the method of classical with autovein plasty of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and of 103 operations by the method of eversion carotid endarterectomy (CEAE) was made. The time of compression of the carotid artery during the eversion CEAE proved to be considerably less (22.5 +/- 6.5) min, than when using the "classical" method (32.5 +/- 5.3) min. In the nearest postoperative period no neurological complications of embologenic genesis or those associated with acute thrombosis of ICA after the eversion CEAE were noted while after the "classical" method they developed in 3 patients and 2 of them died. After the eversion CEAE 1 patients died of myocardial infarction. In remote periods after the "classical" CEAE the restenosis and reocclusions appeared in 6 patients, while after the eversion method--in 3 patients. CEAE fulfilled by the eversion technique is an effective operation reducing the amount of postoperative neurological complications as well as of late restenosis and reocclusions. It can be used without the applying of the internal bypass.

  5. The Exposure Advantage: Early Exposure to a Multilingual Environment Promotes Effective Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Samantha P; Liberman, Zoe; Keysar, Boaz; Kinzler, Katherine D

    2015-07-01

    Early language exposure is essential to developing a formal language system, but may not be sufficient for communicating effectively. To understand a speaker's intention, one must take the speaker's perspective. Multilingual exposure may promote effective communication by enhancing perspective taking. We tested children on a task that required perspective taking to interpret a speaker's intended meaning. Monolingual children failed to interpret the speaker's meaning dramatically more often than both bilingual children and children who were exposed to a multilingual environment but were not bilingual themselves. Children who were merely exposed to a second language performed as well as bilingual children, despite having lower executive-function scores. Thus, the communicative advantages demonstrated by the bilinguals may be social in origin, and not due to enhanced executive control. For millennia, multilingual exposure has been the norm. Our study shows that such an environment may facilitate the development of perspective-taking tools that are critical for effective communication. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Decision Taking versus Action Determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Decision taking is discussed in the context of the role it may play for various types of agents, and it is contrasted with action determination. Some remarks are made about the role of decision taking and action determination in the ongoing debate concerning the reverse polder development of the

  7. Informatics perspectives on decision taking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    A decision is an act or event of decision taking. Decision making always includes decision taking, the latter not involving significant exchanges with non-deciding agents. A decision outcome is a piece of storable information constituting the result of a decision. Decision outcomes are typed, for in

  8. Taking Chances in Romantic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Lindsey; Knox, David

    2016-01-01

    A 64 item Internet questionnaire was completed by 381 undergraduates at a large southeastern university to assess taking chances in romantic relationships. Almost three fourths (72%) self-identified as being a "person willing to take chances in my love relationship." Engaging in unprotected sex, involvement in a "friends with…

  9. Informatics perspectives on decision taking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    A decision is an act or event of decision taking. Decision making always includes decision taking, the latter not involving significant exchanges with non-deciding agents. A decision outcome is a piece of storable information constituting the result of a decision. Decision outcomes are typed, for in

  10. A Comparative Analysis of Offensive and Defensive Techniques of the Main Defenders from Chinese and Foreign Women's Basketball Teams--Taking the 30th Olympic Games in London for Example%中外女篮主力后卫队员攻防技术对比分析--以第30届伦敦奥运会为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨磊

    2013-01-01

    This article, through literature consultation, video observation, mathematical statistics and comparative analysis, makes a study of the offensive and defensive techniques of the main defenders from Chinese and foreign women’s basketball teams in the 30th Olympic Games in London. Results show that, compared with the powerful teams in the world, the main defenders of the Chinese women’s basketball team need to improve their techniques of shooting, rebounds, stealing the ball, block shots and organization. And when facing the opponents’ oppressive defense, the Chinese basketball players have poor shooting and can not give full play to the peripheral offensive advantage.%  运用文献资料法、录像观察法、数理统计法、对比分析法,对第30届奥运会中外女子篮球主力后卫攻防技术指标进行研究分析。结果表明:与世界强队相比,中国女篮的主力后卫队员在投篮技术运用、篮板球、抢断球、盖帽与组织技术等方面有待提高。而且当面对对手压迫性防守时,进攻投篮命中率较差,并没有充分发挥外围的进攻优势。

  11. Street Vending and Competitive Advantage: Towards Building a Theoretical Framework

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aborampah Amoah-Mensah

    2016-01-01

    ..." (strategic exit and return into business), regular changing of goods and services, exploitation of flexible operating hours, cost-based pricing strategy, sales promotion, trade credit and locational advantage - to gain competitive advantage...

  12. Home advantage in retractable-roof baseball stadia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowich, Paul

    2012-10-01

    This study examined whether the home advantage varies for open-air, domed, or retractable-roof baseball stadia, and whether having the roof open or closed affects the home advantage in retractable-roof baseball stadia. Data from Major League Baseball (MLB) games played between 2001 and 2009 were analyzed for whether or not the presence of a home-advantage was dependent on the type of home stadium used. Home advantage was robust for all three types of stadia. A significant effect of stadium type on home advantage was found, with a greater home advantage for teams playing home games in domed stadia relative to open-air stadia, replicating a previous study. There was a greater home advantage for teams playing home games in domed stadia relative to retractable-roof stadia. No other differences in the home advantage were found; results are discussed in terms of familiarity with the facility.

  13. Home advantage in speed skating : Evidence from individual data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, RH

    2005-01-01

    Home advantage is a well-documented phenomenon in many sports. Home advantage has been shown to exist for team sports (soccer, hockey, football, baseball, basketball) and for countries organizing sports tournaments like the Olympics and World Cup Soccer. There is also some evidence for home advantag

  14. Did Babe Ruth Have a Comparative Advantage as a Pitcher?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scahill, Edward M.

    1990-01-01

    Advocates using baseball statistics to illustrate the advantages of specialization in production. Using Babe Ruth's record as an analogy, suggests a methodology for determining a player's comparative advantage as a teaching illustration. Includes the team's statistical profile in five tables to explain comparative advantage and profit maximizing.…

  15. Quality Competence: a Source of Sustained Competitive Advantage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of quality management and competitive advantage, and explores the notion of strategic status of quality as a source of sustained competitive advantage. In addition, the paper presents a number of suggestions to the Chinese telecommunications industry on the development of quality competence in order to sustain an advantage over foreign competitors.

  16. Take Charge. Take the Test. "You Know" PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-07

    As part of the Take Charge. Take the Test. campaign, this 60 second PSA encourages African American women to get tested for HIV. Locations for a free HIV test can be found by visiting hivtest.org/takecharge or calling 1-800-CDC-INFO (1-800-232-4636).  Created: 3/7/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/7/2012.

  17. Managing patients taking edoxaban in dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curto, Daniel; Sanchez, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Background Anticoagulation therapy is used in several conditions to prevent or treat thromboembolism. A new group of oral anticoagulants with clear advantages over classic dicoumarin oral anticoagulants (warfarin and acenocoumarol) has been developed in recent years. The Food and Drug Administration has approved edoxaban, dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban. Their advantages include: predictable pharmacokinetics, drug interactions and limited food, rapid onset of action and short half-life. However, they lack a specific reversal agent. Material and Methods This paper examines the available evidence regarding rivaroxaban and sets out proposals for clinical guidance of dental practitioners treating these patients in primary dental care. A literature search was conducted through July 2016 for publications in PubMed and Cochrane Library using the keywords “edoxaban”, “dabigatran”, “rivaroxaban”, “apixaban”, “new oral anticoagulants”, “novel oral anticoagulants”, “bleeding” and “dental treatment” with the “and” boolean operator in the last 10 years. Results The number of patients taking edoxaban is increasing. There is no need for regular coagulation monitoring of patients on edoxaban therapy. For patients requiring minor oral surgery procedures, interruption of edoxaban is not generally necessary. Management of patients on anticoagulation therapy requires that dentists can accurately assess the patient prior to dental treatments. Conclusions Their increased use means that oral care clinicians should have a sound understanding of the mechanism of action, pharmacology, reversal strategies and management of bleeding in patients taking edoxaban. There is a need for further clinical studies in order to establish more evidence-based guidelines for dental patients requiring edoxaban. Key words:Edoxaban, dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, novel oral anticoagulants, bleeding. PMID:28210454

  18. Discover Advantages, Develop Advantages and Exploit Advantage%发现优势 发展优势 发挥优势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王克勤

    2012-01-01

    To discover advantage begins with the identification of TALENTS which is a source of talents:right deep in mind;to develop advantages is that identify and discover the advantages of learning around knowledge and skills;to exploit advantages to full means focusing on the creation of the environment and management advantages.%发现优势,始于识别talents,talents的源泉:头脑深处;发展优势,在于围绕识别和发现的优势进行知识和技能的学习;发挥优势,重在创造环境和管理优势。

  19. Children's understanding of certainty and evidentiality: advantage of grammaticalized forms over lexical alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Tomoko; Miura, Yui

    2009-01-01

    In verbal communication, the hearer takes advantage of the linguistic expressions of certainty and evidentiality to assess how committed the speaker might be to the truth of the informational content of the utterance. Little is known, however, about the precise developmental mechanism of this ability. In this chapter, we approach the question by elucidating factors that are likely to constrain young children's understanding of linguistically encoded certainty and evidentiality, including the types of linguistic form of these expressions, namely, grammaticalized or lexical forms.

  20. Using history to help refine international business theory: ownership advantages and the eclectic paradigm.

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva Lopes, T.

    2010-01-01

    In John Dunning’s eclectic paradigm firms need to have ownership, location, and internalisation advantages in order to cross borders and engage in foreign direct investment. By drawing on historical evidence on the evolution of a group of leading marketing-based multinationals in consumer goods, this paper claims that, despite its richness, the eclectic paradigm, and in particular the concept of ‘ownership advantages’, needs to be revised and extended, to take into account different levels of...

  1. Optimising the Use of Note-Taking as an External Cognitive Aid for Increasing Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makany, Tamas; Kemp, Jonathan; Dror, Itiel E.

    2009-01-01

    Taking notes is of uttermost importance in academic and commercial use and success. Different techniques for note-taking utilise different cognitive processes and strategies. This experimental study examined ways to enhance cognitive performance via different note-taking techniques. By comparing performances of traditional, linear style…

  2. Take the Cake:排第一

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彦

    2009-01-01

    Take the cake的字面意思是“拿蛋糕”.但实际意思是“排第一”、“得头奖”。比如:As far as technique goes,Katee definitely takes the cake.(就技巧来讲,Katee肯定排第一。)对于很多英语非母语者来说,从“拿蛋糕”到“排第一”的跳跃有些莫名其妙.总觉得两者之间似乎没有什么联系,不方便记忆。

  3. Experimental Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyer, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Gas-phase ion spectroscopy requires specialised apparatus, both when it comes to measuring photon absorption and light emission (fluorescence). The reason is much lower ion densities compared to solution-phase spectroscopy. In this chapter different setups are described, all based on mass spectro...... in data interpretation, and the advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques are clarified. New instrumental developments involving cryo-cooled storage rings, which show great promise for the future, are briefly touched upon.......Gas-phase ion spectroscopy requires specialised apparatus, both when it comes to measuring photon absorption and light emission (fluorescence). The reason is much lower ion densities compared to solution-phase spectroscopy. In this chapter different setups are described, all based on mass...... to circumvent this is discussed based on a chemical approach, namely tagging of ammonium groups by crown ether. Prompt dissociation can sometimes be identified from the total beam depletion differing from that due to statistical dissociation. Special emphasis in this chapter is on the limitations and pitfalls...

  4. Take Care with Pet Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Emails CDC Features Take Care with Pet Reptiles and Amphibians Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... messages, and helpful resources. Safe Handling Tips for Reptiles and Amphibians Always wash your hands thoroughly after ...

  5. Opaqueness and Bank Risk Taking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Behr

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between opaqueness and bank risk taking. Using a sample of 199 banks from 38 countries over the period January 1996 to December 2006, I analyze whether more opaque banks are riskier than less opaque banks. I find suggestive evidence that commonly used proxies for bank opaqueness are significantly related to bank risk taking as measured by the Merton PD and the bank-individual Z-score, even after accounting for potential simultaneity between risk taking and opaqueness. More opaque banks seem to engage more in risk taking than less opaque banks. This result provides support to the common view that bank opaqueness is problematic and that transparency among financial institutions should be increased.

  6. Taking Action for Healthy Kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Jill E.

    2003-01-01

    Summarizes research on relationship between physical activity, good nutrition, and academic performance. Offers several recommendations for how schools can take action to improve the nutrition and fitness of students. (PKP)

  7. Comparative study of Authorship Identification Techniques for Cyber Forensics Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Nirkhi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Authorship Identification techniques are used to identify the most appropriate author from group of potential suspects of online messages and find evidences to support the conclusion. Cybercriminals make misuse of online communication for sending blackmail or a spam email and then attempt to hide their true identities to void detection.Authorship Identification of online messages is the contemporary research issue for identity tracing in cyber forensics. This is highly interdisciplinary area as it takes advantage of machine learning, information retrieval, and natural language processing. In this paper, a study of recent techniques and automated approaches to attributing authorship of online messages is presented. The focus of this review study is to summarize all existing authorship identification techniques used in literature to identify authors of online messages. Also it discusses evaluation criteria and parameters for authorship attribution studies and list open questions that will attract future work in this area.

  8. Combined Error Correction Techniques for Quantum Computing Architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Byrd, M S; Byrd, Mark S.; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2003-01-01

    Proposals for quantum computing devices are many and varied. They each have unique noise processes that make none of them fully reliable at this time. There are several error correction/avoidance techniques which are valuable for reducing or eliminating errors, but not one, alone, will serve as a panacea. One must therefore take advantage of the strength of each of these techniques so that we may extend the coherence times of the quantum systems and create more reliable computing devices. To this end we give a general strategy for using dynamical decoupling operations on encoded subspaces. These encodings may be of any form; of particular importance are decoherence-free subspaces and quantum error correction codes. We then give means for empirically determining an appropriate set of dynamical decoupling operations for a given experiment. Using these techniques, we then propose a comprehensive encoding solution to many of the problems of quantum computing proposals which use exchange-type interactions. This us...

  9. Organic foods: health and environmental advantages and disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Joel; Silverstein, Janet

    2012-11-01

    The US market for organic foods has grown from $3.5 billion in 1996 to $28.6 billion in 2010, according to the Organic Trade Association. Organic products are now sold in specialty stores and conventional supermarkets. Organic products contain numerous marketing claims and terms, only some of which are standardized and regulated. In terms of health advantages, organic diets have been convincingly demonstrated to expose consumers to fewer pesticides associated with human disease. Organic farming has been demonstrated to have less environmental impact than conventional approaches. However, current evidence does not support any meaningful nutritional benefits or deficits from eating organic compared with conventionally grown foods, and there are no well-powered human studies that directly demonstrate health benefits or disease protection as a result of consuming an organic diet. Studies also have not demonstrated any detrimental or disease-promoting effects from an organic diet. Although organic foods regularly command a significant price premium, well-designed farming studies demonstrate that costs can be competitive and yields comparable to those of conventional farming techniques. Pediatricians should incorporate this evidence when discussing the health and environmental impact of organic foods and organic farming while continuing to encourage all patients and their families to attain optimal nutrition and dietary variety consistent with the US Department of Agriculture's MyPlate recommendations. This clinical report reviews the health and environmental issues related to organic food production and consumption. It defines the term "organic," reviews organic food-labeling standards, describes organic and conventional farming practices, and explores the cost and environmental implications of organic production techniques. It examines the evidence available on nutritional quality and production contaminants in conventionally produced and organic foods. Finally, this

  10. Principles and advantages of robotics in urologic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renda, Antonio; Vallancien, Guy

    2003-04-01

    Although the available minimally invasive surgical techniques (ie, laparoscopy) have clear advantages, these procedures continue to cause problems for patients. Surgical tools are limited by set axes of movement, restricting the degree of freedom available to the surgeon. In addition, depth perception is lost with the use of two-dimensional viewing systems. As surgeons view a "virtual" target on a television screen, they are hampered by decreased sensory input and a concurrent loss of dexterity. The development of robotic assistance systems in recent years could be the key to overcoming these difficulties. Using robotic systems, surgeons can experience a more natural and ergonomic surgical "feel." Surgical assistance, dexterity and precision enhancement, systems networking, and image-guided therapy are among the benefits offered by surgical robots. In return, the surgeon gains a shorter learning curve, reduced fatigue, and the opportunity to perform complex procedures that would be difficult using conventional laparoscopy. With the development of image-guided technology, robotic systems will become useful tools for surgical training and simulation. Remote surgery is not a routine procedure, but several teams are working on this and experiencing good results. However, economic concerns are the major drawbacks of these systems; before remote surgery becomes routinely feasible, the clinical benefits must be balanced with high investment and running costs.

  11. Immediate-loading post extractive implants: indications, advantages and limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mampieri, G; Ottria, L; Barlattani, A

    2008-07-01

    The possibility of rehabilitating immediately an edentulous patient offers today remarkable advantages because it satisfies the patient's demands for comfort, aesthetics, and functionality and reduces the surgical stages for the professional.In the last years clinicians and companies have been concentrating their efforts in the development of new surgical techniques and biomaterials in order to speed up the osteointegration process, which fosters the functionality, that is the immediate-loading.This clinical report, based on the analysis of the literature and on the presentation of a case report, shows how satisfying results in functionality and aesthetic can be obtained by a careful diagnosis and an accurate therapeutic planning, reducing at the same time the stress for the patient and the surgical stages for the professional.In any case, it is necessary to have the rehabilitations with immediate-loaded implants directed by workers with a good knowledge and experience in surgery, periodontology, and prosthesis or by a work team able to face all the complications such advanced rehabilitations may cause.

  12. Internal septorhinoplasty technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Peter D

    2012-02-01

    The internal septorhinoplasty was the standard operating procedure until the popularity of the external or open rhinoplasty technique. The internal technique of the rhinoplasty should be in the armamentarium of every cosmetic surgeon. There will always be indications for both internal and external rhinoplasty. The advantages of the internal technique are several. Rhinoplasty should be treatment planned based on the individual diagnosis. With experience, most surgeons find the internal rhinoplasty to be successful and extremely rewarding. A simple internal rhinoplasty will produce a good result and satisfied patients.

  13. CANE WEAVING IN ONITSHA: PROCESSES, TECHNIQUES AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    printserver

    problem this study investigates cane weaving in Nigeria using Onitsha as a case study to understudy the ... In order to meet the demands of the Nigerian society, and take advantage of the existence of these abundant ... furnitures from abroad.

  14. Resource hijacking as a bricolage technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rok Stritar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurs work in a resource-constrained environment. What is more, the resources controlled by new ventures are often much more limited compared to the resources controlled by existing competitors. In order to overcome the gap between needed and controlled resources, entrepreneurs use techniques such as financial bootstrapping (Ebben & Johnson, 2006 and bricolage (Philips & Tracey, 2007. This study extends the concept of entrepreneurial bricolage by introducing the concept of resource hijacking, which explains how entrepreneurs take advantage of resources controlled by others to extend their resource base and develop new ventures. Using an exploratory grounded theory approach, this study aims to: (1 conceptualize resource hijacking, (2 identify different dimensions and variants of resource hijacking, (3 provide empirical evidence of resource hijacking in practice, and (4 fit the emergent concept into the existing body of literature on bootstrapping and bricolage within the entrepreneurial process.

  15. Techniques of Integrating Datalog with PROLOG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱扬勇; 郭德培; 等

    1997-01-01

    Since extending DATALOG to a general-purpose programming language seems very difficult,many projects have embedded a DATALOG-based query laguage into a procedural host language,such as CORAL,Glue-Nail,etc.Although DATALOG can be consideed as function-free PROLOG,they are very different in many aspects.For instance,DATALOG is declarative while PROLOG isn't,DATALOG takes “a-set-at-a-time” mode of evaluation but PROLOG takes “a-tuple-at-a-time”one,DATALOG is only a query language whereas PROLOG is a general-purpose programming language.It is thought that integrating DATALOG with PROLOG may take their advantages.KBASEP is such a language.It uses KBASE as the query language and PROLOG as its procedural host language,where KBASE is a ne extemsion of DATALOG with negation and function.This paper introduces the integration techniques used in KBASE-P system.

  16. Novel information theory techniques for phonon spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hague, J P [Department of Physics, Loughborough University, Loughborough, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2007-12-15

    The maximum entropy method (MEM) and spectral reverse Monte Carlo (SRMC) techniques are applied to the determination of the phonon density of states (PDOS) from heat-capacity data. The approach presented here takes advantage of the standard integral transform relating the PDOS with the specific heat at constant volume. MEM and SRMC are highly successful numerical approaches for inverting integral transforms. The formalism and algorithms necessary to carry out the inversion of specific heat curves are introduced, and where possible, I have concentrated on algorithms and experimental details for practical usage. Simulated data are used to demonstrate the accuracy of the approach. The main strength of the techniques presented here is that the resulting spectra are always physical: Computed PDOS is always positive and properly applied information theory techniques only show statistically significant detail. The treatment set out here provides a simple, cost-effective and reliable method to determine phonon properties of new materials. In particular, the new technique is expected to be very useful for establishing where interesting phonon modes and properties can be found, before spending time at large scale facilities.

  17. Feasibility of Establishing Sports Technique Diagnosis Laboratory in Sports Universities Taking Wuhan Institute of Physical Education as an Example%体育院校建立运动技术诊断实验室可行性研究——以武汉体育学院为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷先良

    2012-01-01

    Combining with theoretical results and practical experience of sports technique diagnosis laboratory in Wuhan Institute of Physical Education, using the advantages of the instruments and equipment resources, playing laboratory technology services and research function, to national key project preparation for the Olympics and key players for object, winning law research projects in the physical ability test and analysis, based on the research of combining with sports training study, athletes science knowledge and achievement, the formulation, implementation and for the coaches adjusting physical stamina training and recovery plan to provide the theory basis and the practical guidance for Chinese elite athletes, preparation for major competitions for effective technology service.%本文结合武汉体育学院在运动技术诊断实验室方面的理论成果和实践经验等优势,利用实验仪器设备资源,发挥实验室的科技服务和科研功能,以国家队备战奥运会重点项目和重点运动员为对象,在项目制胜规律研究、运动员体能测试与分析研究的基础上,结合运动训练学、运动人体科学等学科的知识和成果,为教练员制定、实施和调整体能训练与恢复计划提供理论依据和实践指导,为我国优秀运动员备战重大赛事进行有效的科技服务。

  18. EXTERNAL SOURCES OF URBAN COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Tao-fang; GU Chao-lin; CHEN Xiu-ying

    2005-01-01

    Urban competition refers to capacities of cities for attracting, capturing, controlling, dominating and transforming certain resources during urban development, and capacities for wealth creating, life-standard improving and sustainable development maintenance. This paper first analyzes the external sources of urban competitive advantages: the global network-based advantages and the location-based ones. Then with the aid of method of principal component analysis in SPSS 10.0 for Windows, the Chinese urban global and local competitive advantages are explored. The finding is that the global network-and location-based advantages are remarkable for the cities in the eastern China. While for those in the western and the middle regions, affected by much lower regional competitive advantages and lower degrees of urban-regional integration, the urban competitive advantages are deeply influenced and weakened.

  19. Pipeline crossing across Manori Creek, Bombay; advantages of marine acoustic techniques in route selection

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vora, K.H.; Moraes, C.

    The National Institute of Oceanography (NIO) had carried out such survey in Bombay for obtaining geological informations in order to plan and design a pipeline route crossing Manori Creek to transport fresh water. The survey comprising...

  20. The Advantages of Using Factoring, as Financing Technique on International Transactions Market

    OpenAIRE

    Oana-Mihaela Orheian

    2012-01-01

    Factoring appears as a contract between one party (called adherent), providing goods or service and a banking company or a financial institution specialized (called factor), which the last one shall finance debts pursuing and preservation against credit risks and adherent gives factor by way of sale, debts arising from the sale of goods or services to third parties. Factoring is a means of financing business, especially export-import transactions, less known in Romani, but it is present in Ro...

  1. Dynamics-based Nondestructive Structural Monitoring Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    in the practice of non- destructive evaluation ( NDE ) and structural health monitoring (SHM). Guided wave techniques have several advantages over...conventional bulk wave ultrasonic NDE /SHM techniques. Some of these advantages are outlined in Table I. However, in addition to the advantages of...PVDF transducers for SHM applications with controlled guided wave modes and frequencies [7]. Wilcox used EMATs with circular coils in a guided wave

  2. Romania’s Competitive Advantages on the Global Outsourcing Market

    OpenAIRE

    Boscor, D.; Baltescu, C.

    2014-01-01

    The paper applies a conceptual approach combined with analyses of statistics and secondary material and presents advantages and risks of outsourcing, the most important competitive advantages of Asian countries and Romania’s position on the global outsourcing market. The conclusions of the research highlight the strategies that should be used in Romania for sustaining and improving the competitive advantages. Strategies proposed are linked to higher investments in education, infrastructur...

  3. Biomimetization of butterfly wings by the conformal-evaporated-film-by-rotation technique for photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Palma, R. J.; Pantano, C. G.; Lakhtakia, A.

    2008-08-01

    Mimetization of biological structures aims to take advantage of their spatial features for the development of devices of tailored functionality. In this work, we replicated the wing of a butterfly at the micro- and nanoscales by implementing the conformal-evaporated-film-by-rotation (CEFR) technique. Chalcogenide glasses were used due to their good optical and mechanical properties. Morphological characterization and optical measurements indicate high-fidelity replication of the original biotemplate; furthermore, the optical properties of the butterfly wings have a structural origin. The CEFR technique might be useful for the fabrication of highly efficient, biomimetic optical devices.

  4. Informatics Perspectives on Decision Taking

    CERN Document Server

    Bergstra, J A

    2011-01-01

    A decision is an act or event of decision taking. Decision making always includes decision taking, the latter not involving significant exchanges with non-deciding agents. A decision outcome is a piece of storable information constituting the result of a decision. Decision outcomes are typed, for instance: plan, command, assertion, or boolean reply to a question. A decision effect is any consequence of putting a decision outcome into effect. Decision outcomes must be expected by the decider to lead to certain decision effects, by way of their being put into effect. The availability of a model or of a theory of the causal chain leading from a decision outcome to one or more decision effects is assumed for the decision taker, otherwise the decision outcome is merely an utterance. Decision effectiveness measures the decision effects against objectives meant to be served with the decision. Decision taking is positioned amidst many similar notions including: decision making, decision process, decision making proce...

  5. Supply chain management and relational competitive advantage in footwear industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fernando Luiz Emerenciano Viana; José de Paula Barros Neto; Miguel Eduardo Moreno Añez

    2014-01-01

    This work investigated the supply chain management contribution to competitive advantage for companies in the footwear industry, with a primary focus on the inter-organizational relationship analysis...

  6. Plant circadian clocks increase photosynthesis, growth, survival, and competitive advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Antony N; Salathia, Neeraj; Hall, Anthony; Kévei, Eva; Tóth, Réka; Nagy, Ferenc; Hibberd, Julian M; Millar, Andrew J; Webb, Alex A R

    2005-07-22

    Circadian clocks are believed to confer an advantage to plants, but the nature of that advantage has been unknown. We show that a substantial photosynthetic advantage is conferred by correct matching of the circadian clock period with that of the external light-dark cycle. In wild type and in long- and short-circadian period mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana, plants with a clock period matched to the environment contain more chlorophyll, fix more carbon, grow faster, and survive better than plants with circadian periods differing from their environment. This explains why plants gain advantage from circadian control.

  7. Generating Relational Competitive Advantage from Strategic Technological Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Zhang, Si; Li, Jizhen

    2012-01-01

    Collaborating with external partners on strategic technological partnerships (STPs) have been popular phenomena for long, which leads new development in existing theories on competitive advantage. Under the relational view, the competitive advantage is jointly generated by alliance firms. Though ...... appropriation. In order to avoid opportunism and learning races, the success of an STP requires an integration and interaction among three ways of governance: economic investments or hostage, legal contract and trustful social relationships.......Collaborating with external partners on strategic technological partnerships (STPs) have been popular phenomena for long, which leads new development in existing theories on competitive advantage. Under the relational view, the competitive advantage is jointly generated by alliance firms. Though...

  8. Supra-Clavicular Brachial Plexus Block: Ultra-Sonography Guided Technique Offer Advantage Over Peripheral Nerve Stimulator Guided Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutika B Rupera

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: Ultrasonography guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block is quick to perform, offers improved safety and accuracy in identifying the position of the nerves to be blocked and of the structures. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(3.000: 241-244

  9. Crack and flip phacoemulsification technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, I H; Maloney, W F; Dillman, D M

    1993-11-01

    The crack and flip phacoemulsification technique combines the advantages of circumferential division of the nucleus and nucleofactis techniques. As such, it adds safety and control to the procedure. We describe each of the surgical maneuvers, including machine settings, and explain the rationale for maneuvers and machine settings.

  10. Take-all or nothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernández-Restrepo, M.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Elliott, M.L.; Canning, G.; McMillan, V.E.; Crous, P.W.

    2016-01-01

    Take-all disease of Poaceae is caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis (Magnaporthaceae). Four varieties are recognised in G. graminis based on ascospore size, hyphopodial morphology and host preference. The aim of the present study was to clarify boundaries among species and varieties in Gaeumannomyces b

  11. Take-all or nothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernández-Restrepo, M.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Elliott, M.L.; Canning, G.; McMillan, V.E.; Crous, P.W.

    2016-01-01

    Take-all disease of Poaceae is caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis (Magnaporthaceae). Four varieties are recognised in G. graminis based on ascospore size, hyphopodial morphology and host preference. The aim of the present study was to clarify boundaries among species and varieties in Gaeumannomyce

  12. Influenza Round Table: Take Three

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-11-03

    In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee describes how to keep from getting the flu and spreading it to others by taking these three steps.  Created: 11/3/2009 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 11/3/2009.

  13. Take-all or nothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernández-Restrepo, M.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Elliott, M.L.; Canning, G.; McMillan, V.E.; Crous, P.W.

    2016-01-01

    Take-all disease of Poaceae is caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis (Magnaporthaceae). Four varieties are recognised in G. graminis based on ascospore size, hyphopodial morphology and host preference. The aim of the present study was to clarify boundaries among species and varieties in Gaeumannomyces

  14. Take-all or nothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernández-Restrepo, M.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Elliott, M.L.; Canning, G.; McMillan, V.E.; Crous, P.W.

    2016-01-01

    Take-all disease of Poaceae is caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis (Magnaporthaceae). Four varieties are recognised in G. graminis based on ascospore size, hyphopodial morphology and host preference. The aim of the present study was to clarify boundaries among species and varieties in

  15. Sleep Deprivation and Advice Taking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hausser, J.A.; Leder, J.; Ketturat, C.; Dresler, M.; Faber, N.S.

    2016-01-01

    Judgements and decisions in many political, economic or medical contexts are often made while sleep deprived. Furthermore, in such contexts individuals are required to integrate information provided by - more or less qualified - advisors. We asked if sleep deprivation affects advice taking. We

  16. Computer assisted medical history taking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Quaak; A.P.M. Hasman (Arie)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis a study is described which was performed to explore the possibilities of computer-assisted history taking to support patient care. A system was developed by which the patient himself enters his medical data into a computer. The system enables an unexperienced user, i.e.

  17. Taking control of anorexia together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Elaine

    2015-02-27

    Many people with anorexia receive inadequate treatment for what is a debilitating, relentless and life-threatening illness. In Lincolnshire an innovative nurse-led day programme is helping people stay out of hospital and take back control from the illness. Peer support is crucial to the programme's success.

  18. Experiencing discrimination increases risk taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Jeremy P; Koslov, Katrina; Nock, Matthew K; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2013-02-01

    Prior research has revealed racial disparities in health outcomes and health-compromising behaviors, such as smoking and drug abuse. It has been suggested that discrimination contributes to such disparities, but the mechanisms through which this might occur are not well understood. In the research reported here, we examined whether the experience of discrimination affects acute physiological stress responses and increases risk-taking behavior. Black and White participants each received rejecting feedback from partners who were either of their own race (in-group rejection) or of a different race (out-group rejection, which could be interpreted as discrimination). Physiological (cardiovascular and neuroendocrine) changes, cognition (memory and attentional bias), affect, and risk-taking behavior were assessed. Significant participant race × partner race interactions were observed. Cross-race rejection, compared with same-race rejection, was associated with lower levels of cortisol, increased cardiac output, decreased vascular resistance, greater anger, increased attentional bias, and more risk-taking behavior. These data suggest that perceived discrimination is associated with distinct profiles of physiological reactivity, affect, cognitive processing, and risk taking, implicating direct and indirect pathways to health disparities.

  19. Computer assisted medical history taking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Quaak; A.P.M. Hasman (Arie)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis a study is described which was performed to explore the possibilities of computer-assisted history taking to support patient care. A system was developed by which the patient himself enters his medical data into a computer. The system enables an unexperienced user, i.e. a

  20. Taking Care After A Concussion

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-03-17

    This podcast describes how to take care of yourself after a concussion, including proper recognition and response recommendations.  Created: 3/17/2010 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 3/17/2010.

  1. When perspective taking increases taking: reactive egoism in social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epley, Nicholas; Caruso, Eugene; Bazerman, Max H

    2006-11-01

    Group members often reason egocentrically, believing that they deserve more than their fair share of group resources. Leading people to consider other members' thoughts and perspectives can reduce these egocentric (self-centered) judgments such that people claim that it is fair for them to take less; however, the consideration of others' thoughts and perspectives actually increases egoistic (selfish) behavior such that people actually take more of available resources. A series of experiments demonstrates this pattern in competitive contexts in which considering others' perspectives activates egoistic theories of their likely behavior, leading people to counter by behaving more egoistically themselves. This reactive egoism is attenuated in cooperative contexts. Discussion focuses on the implications of reactive egoism in social interaction and on strategies for alleviating its potentially deleterious effects.

  2. Experimental techniques; Techniques experimentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel-Chomaz, P. [GANIL CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/DSM, 14 - Caen (France)

    2007-07-01

    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, {gamma} detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  3. The Relationship between Puberty and Risk Taking in the Real World and in the Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Rodriguez, A; MacPherson, L; Kurdziel, G; Rosenberg, L A; Lejuez, C W

    2014-10-01

    Adolescence is marked by the emergence and escalation of risk taking. Puberty has been long-implicated as constituting vulnerability for risk behavior during this developmental period. Sole reliance on self-reports of risk taking however poses limitations to understanding this complex relationship. There exist potential advantages of complementing self-reports by using the BART-Y laboratory task, a well-validated measure of adolescent risk taking. Toward this end, we examined the association between self-reported puberty and both self-reported and BART-Y risk taking in 231 adolescents. Results showed that pubertal status predicted risk taking using both methodologies above and beyond relevant demographic characteristics. Advantages of a multimodal assessment toward understanding the effects of puberty in adolescent risk taking are discussed and future research directions offered.

  4. Reasoning about Other People's Beliefs: Bilinguals Have an Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Fernandez, Paula; Glucksberg, Sam

    2012-01-01

    Bilingualism can have widespread cognitive effects. In this article we investigate whether bilingualism might have an effect on adults' abilities to reason about other people's beliefs. In particular, we tested whether bilingual adults might have an advantage over monolingual adults in false-belief reasoning analogous to the advantage that has…

  5. Home advantage in speed skating : evidence from individual data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Ruud H.

    2003-01-01

    Home advantage is a well documented phenomena in many types of sports. Home advantage has been shown to exist for team sports (soccer, hockey, football, baseball, basketball) and for countries organizing sports tournaments like the Olympics and World Cup Soccer. There is also some evidence for home

  6. Comparative Advantage, Relative Wages, and the Accumulation of Human Capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teulings, Coen N.

    2005-01-01

    I apply Ricardo's principle of comparative advantage to a theory of factor substitutability in a model with a continuum of worker and job types. Highly skilled workers have a comparative advantage in complex jobs. The model satisfies the distance-dependent elasticity of substitution (DIDES) characteristic: substitutability between types declines…

  7. Information Technology, Core Competencies, and Sustained Competitive Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Terry Anthony

    2001-01-01

    Presents a model that depicts a possible connection between competitive advantage and information technology. Focuses on flexibility of the information technology infrastructure as an enabler of core competencies, especially mass customization and time-to-market, that have a relationship to sustained competitive advantage. (Contains 82…

  8. Home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games 1976-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Darryl; Ramchandani, Girish

    2017-01-01

    There is a limited amount of home advantage research concerned with winter sports. There is also a distinct lack of studies that investigate home advantage in the context of para sport events. This paper addresses this gap in the knowledge by examining home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games. Using a standardised measure of success, we compared the performances of host nations at home with their own performances away from home between 1976 and 2014. Both country level and individual sport level analysis is conducted for this time period. Comparisons are also drawn with the Winter Olympic Games since 1992, the point from which both the Winter Olympic Games and the Winter Paralympic Games have been hosted by the same nations and in the same years. Clear evidence of a home advantage effect in the Winter Paralympic Games was found at country level. When examining individual sports, only alpine skiing and cross country skiing returned a significant home advantage effect. When comparing home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games with the Winter Olympic Games for the last seven host nations (1992-2014), we found that home advantage was generally more pronounced (although not a statistically significant difference) in the case of the former. The causes of home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games are unclear and should be investigated further.

  9. The Female Educational Advantage among Adolescent Children of Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciano, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    The female advantage in educational achievement is especially puzzling in the case of children of immigrants because it departs from the pattern in most immigrants' home countries. Using data from the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS), this study explores the female advantage in grades and expectations among adolescents and finds…

  10. Product Market Integration, Comparative Advantages and Labour Market Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Rose Skaksen, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Product Market Integration, Comparative Advantages andLabour Market Performance@*In a two-country model with trade driven by comparative advantages, it is considered howimperfectly competitive labour markets are affected by lower frictions in international goodstrade. Easier goods trading...

  11. Referee bias contributes to home advantage in English Premiership football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, Ryan H; Boyko, Adam R; Boyko, Mark G

    2007-09-01

    Officiating bias is thought to contribute to home advantage. Recent research has shown that sports with subjective officiating tend to experience greater home advantage and that referees' decisions can be influenced by crowd noise, but little work has been done to examine whether individual referees vary in their home bias or whether biased decisions contribute to overall home advantage. We develop an ordinal regression model to determine whether various measures of home advantage are affected by the official for the match and by crowd size while controlling for team ability. We examine 5244 English Premier League (EPL) match results involving 50 referees and find that home bias differs between referees. Individual referees give significantly different levels of home advantage, measured as goal differential between the home and away teams, although the significance of this result depends on one referee with a particularly high home advantage (an outlier). Referees vary significantly and robustly in their yellow card and penalty differentials even excluding the outlier. These results confirm that referees are responsible for some of the observed home advantage in the EPL and suggest that home advantage is dependent on the subjective decisions of referees that vary between individuals. We hypothesize that individual referees respond differently to factors such as crowd noise and suggest further research looking at referees' psychological and behavioural responses to biased crowds.

  12. Polysemy Advantage with Abstract but Not Concrete Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Bernadet; Cleland, Alexandra A.

    2016-01-01

    It is a robust finding that ambiguous words are recognized faster than unambiguous words. More recent studies (e.g., Rodd et al. in "J Mem Lang" 46:245-266, 2002) now indicate that this "ambiguity advantage" may in reality be a "polysemy advantage": caused by related senses (polysemy) rather than unrelated meanings…

  13. Quantum communication complexity advantage implies violation of a Bell inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buhrman, H.; Czekaj, L.; Grudka, A.; Horodecki, M.; Horodecki, P.; Markiewicz, M.; Speelman, F.; Strelchuk, S.

    2015-01-01

    We obtain a general connection between a quantum advantage in communication complexity and non-locality. We show that given any protocol offering a (sufficiently large) quantum advantage in communication complexity, there exists a way of obtaining measurement statistics which violate some Bell inequ

  14. STRATEGY OF MAIZE'S CONCENTRATING TO ADVANTAGE AREAS IN JILIN PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hui-ming; GU Li-li

    2003-01-01

    Jilin Province is one of the main grain-producing provinces of China, which has dominant position in maize production, by the view of its advantages in policy, location, breed and market. And after entering WTO,some measures have been taken to enhance maize competitive ability. But there are some difficulties in concentrating production to maize advantaged areas. This paper expounds the basis that Jilin Province becomes the advantage area of maize, analyzes the problems and puts forward the supporting policy. Some strategic measures are proposed,as developing comparable advantages, carrying out the strategy of un-equilibrium development and cultivating advantaged product areas of maize to rapidly improve the international competitive ability and productivity of maize in Jilin Province, cast the agricultural predicament off and promote the agricultural development into a new stage.

  15. Home advantage in the Six Nations Rugby Union tournament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sion; Reeves, Colin; Bell, Andrew

    2008-02-01

    This study examined whether home advantage occurred in the Six Nations Rugby Union tournament. Data were gathered using the final championship standings from the tournament's inception in 2000 to the recently completed 2007 season. Home advantage for each championship season was defined as the number of points won by teams playing at home, expressed as a percentage of all points gained either at home or away. An analysis of home advantage for each of eight seasons of competition ranged from 53% (2005) to 70% (2006). There was an overall statistically significant home advantage of 61% for 120 matches played in the Six Nations tournament between 2000 and 2007. Also analysed were the percentage of points won at home by each country. Again, evidence supported home advantage amongst all competing nations regardless of the team's quality.

  16. More on Measuring the Overall Revealed Comparative Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselin Hadzhiev

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The overall revealed comparative advantages approach aims to summarize the divergent expression of comparative advantages by commodity groups and countries. It represents an alternative to the traditional approach of Bella Balassa, Thomas Vollrath and others. The innovativeness of the overall revealed comparative advantages approach preconditions a certain prudence with regard to its use and interpretation. It is necessary to explore the potential of the approach in different conditions and different circumstances. It was found that the approach of overall revealed comparative advantages is resistant to the Euclidean distances and commodity classifications used for metrification. It has the potential to synthesize uniformly divergent changes in specialization by country and commodity groups and is a useful tool for the analysis of comparative advantages.

  17. Beyond the University of Racial Diversity: Some Remarks on Race, Diversity, (Dis)Advantage and Affirmative Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghid, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The compelling essays in this issue of the journal take on the often contentious and complex issue of racial affirmative action. I do not wish to repeat the arguments authors offer either in defence or against student admissions to a university on the grounds of race, (dis)advantage, class, gender, and so on. Rather, I wish to respond to a…

  18. Genomic methods take the plunge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cammen, Kristina M.; Andrews, Kimberly R.; Carroll, Emma L.

    2016-01-01

    The dramatic increase in the application of genomic techniques to non-model organisms (NMOs) over the past decade has yielded numerous valuable contributions to evolutionary biology and ecology, many of which would not have been possible with traditional genetic markers. We review this recent...... of fitness, demography, and population structure. Here we review the primary options for generating genomic data, introduce several emerging techniques, and discuss the suitability of each approach for different applications in the study of NMOs....

  19. The Implementation of Knowledge Strategy-Based Entrepreneurial Capacity to Achieve Sustainable Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widodo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a model of knowledge strategy-based entrepreneurial capacity to achieve sustainable competitive advantage of rurol banking in Central Java province. The sampling method is ‘‘Purposive sampling’’ by considering the characteristics of the population items, namely: operational experience for at least 5 years and representatives of each area of rurol banking in Semarang, Surakarta and Purwokerto. Then, the sample size is 150 of 251 (59.7% of top managers of rurol banking. To analyze the data in this study, it used the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM, of the, AMOS software package. The findings of this study explain that 1. The first step in promoting a sustainable competitive advantage through knowledge sharing is by prioritizing the quality of interaction, willingness and ability. 2. Efforts to improve a sustainable competitive advantage through knowledge exploitation built by knowledge sharing are by prioritizing to actively accept changes and introduction, solve problems together, use and combine new knowledge in operation. 3. Efforts to improve a sustainable competitive advantage through the knowledge exploitation built by risk-taking are by prioritizing a strong tendency for high-risk projects (with the possibility of gaining high-return, a high courage for the actions necessary to achieve the goal, having an aggressive attitude to optimize the possibility of utilizing existing potential opportunities and enjoying the challenge of the risk situation. 4. Efforts to improve a sustainable competitive advantage through knowledge exploitation built by a pro-active are by prioritizing to anticipate problem more quickly than competitors, future oriented, addressed by technology, launching product selectively and systematically search for new ideas. 5. Efforts to improve a sustainable competitive advantage through knowledge exploitation built by the innovativeness are by prioritizing the speed of developing products

  20. Take Five for Customer Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J. Ax-Fultz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Businesses leverage excellent customer service to improve profitability. Although not profit-driven, libraries should leverage excellent customer service to achieve their unique missions. Evaluating and improving customer service practices will help a library determine if it is successfully serving its customers. The library should review three areas to improve customer service: the physical space of the library, how library employees work with library policies, and the communication skills of the library staff. By using the Take Five model, the library can make immediate, no-cost changes or plan for future improvements by taking just five minutes, every day, to assess specific areas. Over a few weeks or months, these small changes will result in better customer service.

  1. Take-all or nothing

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández-Restrepo, M.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Elliott, M L; Canning, G; McMillan, V.E.; Crous, P.W.

    2016-01-01

    Take-all disease of Poaceae is caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis (Magnaporthaceae). Four varieties are recognised in G. graminis based on ascospore size, hyphopodial morphology and host preference. The aim of the present study was to clarify boundaries among species and varieties in Gaeumannomyces by combining morphology and multi-locus phylogenetic analyses based on partial gene sequences of ITS, LSU, tef1 and rpb1. Two new genera, Falciphoriella and Gaeumannomycella were subsequently introd...

  2. What Are the Advantages of 3D Cameras in Gynaecological Laparoscopy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, S; Sillem, M; Ney, J T; Baum, A; Friedrich, M; Radosa, J; Kramer, K M; Gronwald, B; Gottschling, S; Solomayer, E F; Rody, A; Joukhadar, R

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Minimally invasive operative techniques are being used increasingly in gynaecological surgery. The expansion of the laparoscopic operation spectrum is in part the result of improved imaging. This study investigates the practical advantages of using 3D cameras in routine surgical practice. Materials and Methods Two different 3-dimensional camera systems were compared with a 2-dimensional HD system; the operating surgeon's experiences were documented immediately postoperatively using a questionnaire. Results Significant advantages were reported for suturing and cutting of anatomical structures when using the 3D compared to 2D camera systems. There was only a slight advantage for coagulating. The use of 3D cameras significantly improved the general operative visibility and in particular the representation of spacial depth compared to 2-dimensional images. There was not a significant advantage for image width. Depiction of adhesions and retroperitoneal neural structures was significantly improved by the stereoscopic cameras, though this did not apply to blood vessels, ureter, uterus or ovaries. Conclusion 3-dimensional cameras were particularly advantageous for the depiction of fine anatomical structures due to improved spacial depth representation compared to 2D systems. 3D cameras provide the operating surgeon with a monitor image that more closely resembles actual anatomy, thus simplifying laparoscopic procedures.

  3. Does being female provide a neuroprotective advantage following spinal cord injury?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey P Datto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been controversial whether gender has any effect on recovery following spinal cord injury (SCI. Past experimental and clinical research aimed at addressing this subject has led to constrasting findings on whether females hold any advantage in locomotor recovery. Additionally, for studies supporting the notion of a female gender related advantage, a definite cause has not been explained. In a recent study, using large sample sizes for comparative male and female spinal cord injury cohorts, we reported that a significant gender advantage favoring females existed in both tissue preservation and functional recovery after taking into consideration discrepancies in age and weight of the animals across sexes. Prior animal research frequently used sample sizes that were too small to determine significance with certainty and also did not account for two other factors that influence locomotor performance: age and weight. Our finding is important in light of controversy surrounding the effect of gender on outcome and the fact that SCI affects more than ten thousand new individuals annually, a population that is disproportionately male. By deepening our understanding of why a gender advantage exists, potential new therapeutics can be designed to improve recovery for the male population following the initial trauma or putatively augment the neuroprotective privilege in females for enhanced outcomes.

  4. Radiographic constant exposure technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1985-01-01

    The constant exposure technique has been applied to assess various industrial radiographic systems. Different X-ray films and radiographic papers of two producers were compared. Special attention was given to fast film and paper used with fluorometallic screens. Radiographic image quality...... was tested by the use of ISO wire IQI's and ASTM penetrameters used on Al and Fe test plates. Relative speed and reduction of kilovoltage obtained with the constant exposure technique were calculated. The advantages of fast radiographic systems are pointed out...

  5. Competitive advantage for differentiation of Pereira International Free Trade Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Andrea Echeverri Gutiérrez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The best way to know if a company is at the heart of success is by determining its competitive advantage. For Pereira International Free Trade Zone, foreign trade platform and recent project implementation, it is important to identify its competitive advantage, so it can develop strategies for entering and staying in the market. In this research, an analysis of the five forces industry free zones was performed, the value chain of the Pereira International Free Trade Zone was defined, finally the factors that influence their competitive advantage was determined.

  6. Knowledge And Knowledge Management As A Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bratić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modern business environment with high turbulence and complexity, an organization’s force to create and sustain competitive advantage lies in what it knows not what it owns. Establishment of a knowledge management in organization will ensure sustainable competitive advantage because the intellectual capital has become the primary bases of core competencies and the key to superior performance. The transition from industrial to knowledge society, effective use of knowledge is one of the deciding factors in the struggle for competitiveness because it will ensure the rationality, efficiency and flexibility in operations, and only through the realization of those graphics company can gain a competitive advantage on the market.

  7. Consumer Insight as Competitive Advantage Using Big Data and Analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Veysel Ertemel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital revolution serves as a competitive advantage to businesses that are able to analyze consumer behavior in order to gain insights for their strategic advantage. After the advent of Internet, the past two decades witnessed generation of vast amount of business data. The amount of data is so huge that traditional database management system approaches falls short of managing and analyzing this data. This paper explores the characteristics of this phenomenon called Big Data together with Analytics as a tool for marketers to gain insights about consumer behavior and hence provide competitive advantage to the businesses. It also discusses some best practices as case studies.

  8. Romania’s Competitive Advantages on the Global Outsourcing Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boscor, D.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper applies a conceptual approach combined with analyses of statistics and secondary material and presents advantages and risks of outsourcing, the most important competitive advantages of Asian countries and Romania’s position on the global outsourcing market. The conclusions of the research highlight the strategies that should be used in Romania for sustaining and improving the competitive advantages. Strategies proposed are linked to higher investments in education, infrastructure, a better use of tax incentives and a national strategy for attracting investors.

  9. POL regarded as a competitive advantage and as a mean to maintain programmes updated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesby, Egon

    2004-01-01

    .   The organisational setup must find ways for a structure where the essential changes can take place in order to harvest the full benefit from an educational system that depend on cooperation with Industry or Society and which depends on the latest developments in science and research.......The title of this article indicate that Project Oriented and Problem Based Learning ? POPBL - can be regarded as a competitive advantage for an institution, and be a way of keeping programmes updated with respect to the demands from a modern and fast developing society and demands from students...... as well. And indeed this is a possibility, but it is not a natural consequence of a change into a POPBL teaching and learning environment. In order to have these advantages developed, the education needs to have built in mechanisms that actually allow the desired objectives the possibility to develop...

  10. STRATEGIC ALLIANCES – VIABLE ALTERNATIVE TO CREATE A COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE IN A GLOBAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina NICOLAU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past years, in the light of the economic turbulences all around the world, one of the most important ways to assure a competitive advantage is creating a strategic alliance. Such collaborative ventures between firms were developed as a response to the changes which have been happening to the world economy as increased competition, higher costs of developing new products, accelerated technological changes and, maybe the most important – the recent world economic crises. Being part of a strategic alliance creates competitive advantage for the companies by establishing their presence worldwide, by building up operating experience in overseas markets and gaining access to those national markets that were inaccessible before. At the same time, a strategic alliance means management commitment, special skills and forward planning for each company which takes part to an alliance.

  11. Renal Tumor Biopsy Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Zhang; Xue-Song Li; Li-Qun Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To review hot issues and future direction of renal tumor biopsy (RTB) technique.Data Sources:The literature concerning or including RTB technique in English was collected from PubMed published from 1990 to 2015.Study Selection:We included all the relevant articles on RTB technique in English,with no limitation of study design.Results:Computed tomography and ultrasound were usually used for guiding RTB with respective advantages.Core biopsy is more preferred over fine needle aspiration because of superior accuracy.A minimum of two good-quality cores for a single renal tumor is generally accepted.The use of coaxial guide is recommended.For biopsy location,sampling different regions including central and peripheral biopsies are recommended.Conclusion:In spite of some limitations,RTB technique is relatively mature to help optimize the treatment of renal tumors.

  12. Educators must take the electronic revolution seriously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodorow, S

    1996-03-01

    The advanced fields in the physical sciences and quantitative social sciences began using computers years ago. But only recently has the electronic revolution reached the point where educators in both medicine and the humanities must take it seriously. This is because (1) computers have finally become powerful enough to permit the creation of teaching machines (called multimedia packages) that can manipulate the massive amounts of information involved in medicine and the humanities; and (2) the Internet is now fast enough and widely distributed enough to change teaching practices. Multimedia packages will drastically change traditional teaching and learning; the author reviews these and other likely impacts of these packages. For example, faculty members' effective contact with students will not be bound by time and place; students can learn at their own paces in their preferred modes; and the distinction between elementary and advanced learning will be virtually impossible to maintain. The Internet makes it possible to offer classes to students no matter where they or the teacher are located, to ignore strict constraints of time (a class discussion can go on for days), and to create "electronic communities" of students and faculty. The author reviews the great advantages of these capabilities, but states that this development of the virtual university could seriously undermine actual universities (e.g., difficulties of maintaining faculty competence in their disciplines; impossibility of deciding issues of department size and diversity; questions of the effectiveness of learning that does not take place face-to-face; problems of students' and teachers' time management, on which the traditional structures of curricula and teaching methods are built). Despite the fundamental adjustments that will be necessary, the author sees the electronic revolution in education as a necessary consequence of what is already taking place in research, where multimedia packages and

  13. A time-over-threshold technique for PMT signals processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xuzong; LIU Shubin; AN Qi

    2007-01-01

    A novel front-end circuit designed for PMT signals processing considering the solution of "Time Walk"correction is discussed in this paper. We are trying to apply the TOT (Time over Threshold) technique to our research.Different from traditional ways, where amplitude is measured, time width is measured for slew correction here, which takes the advantage of TDC. Expensive fast ADCs are abandoned and the whole time measurement electronics design becomes more effective and economical. Test boards have been developed and a convenient method is introduced to evaluate our TOT technique. Results have shown that a 10ps slew correction resolution is achieved throughout the amplitude range from -108mV to -2000mV for negative signals of both 5 ns leading and trailing edge with 10 ns 50%-50% pulse width.

  14. INFLUENTIAL FACTORS COMBINATION AND COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES IN STAGES OF URBAN COMPETITIVENESS--Case Study of Suzhou in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Tao-fang; GU Chao-lin

    2004-01-01

    The urban competitive advantages rely on the combination and interaction of influential factors As a dynamic progressive process,the city at different time has different competition influential factors combination.Be cause of this,the urban competitive advantages take on time-series characteristics.Stages of urban competition can be summed up into three ones,the basic factor-driven,the investment-driven and the innovation-driven.The finding of the study on the stages of urban competitive advantages in Suzhou is that in the current stage of Suzhou its com petitive advantage is the investment-driven.The investment,especially FDI,plays remarkable functions for Suzhou competition with other cities.

  15. Potential advantages of a cesium fluoride scintillator for a time-of-flight positron camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemand, R; Gresset, C; Vacher, J

    1980-02-01

    In order to improve the quality of positron tomographic imaging, a time-of-flight technique combined with a classical reconstruction method has been investigated. The decay time of NaI(Tl) and bismuth germanate (BGO) scintillators is too long for this application, and efficiency of the plastic scintillators is too low. Cesium fluoride appears to be a very promising detector material. This paper presents preliminary results obtained with a time-of-flight technique using CsF scintillators. The expected advantages were realized.

  16. Measuring Coding Intensity in the Medicare Advantage Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In 2004, Medicare implemented a risk-adjustment system that pays Medicare Advantage (MA) plans based on diagnoses reported for their enrollees, giving the plans an...

  17. Measuring Coding Intensity in the Medicare Advantage Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In 2004, Medicare implemented a risk-adjustment system that pays Medicare Advantage (MA) plans based on diagnoses reported for their enrollees, giving the plans an...

  18. Medicare Advantage-Part D Contract and Enrollment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Advantage (MA) - Part D Contract and Enrollment Data section serves as a centralized repository for publicly available data on contracts and plans,...

  19. Advantages of thin silicon solar cells for use in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denman, O. S.

    1978-01-01

    A system definition study on the Solar Power Satellite System showed that a thin, 50 micrometers, silicon solar cell has significant advantages. The advantages include a significantly lower performance degradation in a radiation environment and high power-to-mass ratios. The advantages of such cells for an employment in space is further investigated. Basic questions concerning the operation of solar cells are considered along with aspects of radiation induced performance degradation. The question arose in this connection how thin a silicon solar cell had to be to achieve resistance to radiation degradation and still have good initial performance. It was found that single-crystal silicon solar cells could be as thin as 50 micrometers and still develop high conversion efficiencies. It is concluded that the use of 50 micrometer silicon solar cells in space-based photovoltaic power systems would be advantageous.

  20. Trust, Commitment and Competitive Advantage in SMEs Export Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Daud Ismail

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The entry of small businesses into international markets has intensified. However, despite the growing presence of small businesses in international markets, studies into their international behavior, particularly regarding the effect of international relationships on international outcomes, remain limited. This study investigates the cross-border relationships of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs by examining the effects of the dimensions of the key relationship on the competitive advantage and performance of SMEs in export markets. These dimensions include trust and commitment. Results indicate that trust is significantly related to commitment and export performance. Commitment is positively related to competitive advantage but not to export performance. Trust affects competitive advantage through commitment. The effect of commitment on export performance is mediated by competitive advantage. The methodology and results are presented. The conclusion, implications, and limitations of this study are also discussed.