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Sample records for technique based expert

  1. Evaluation of a Delphi technique based expert judgement method for LCA valuation - DELPHI II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakala, S.; Wilson, B.

    1999-01-01

    Transparency and certainty are essential qualities for an acceptable and trusted valuation method. Based on the evaluation of the expert judgement method developed in the Delphi I study both of these criteria may be only partially accomplished by such a method. As for the technical procedure the method is well documented and transparency is good. Argumentation of the judgements, however, should be increased. The quality of the valuation indexes is explicitly available, but their certainty is very low for most interventions. The opinions of the experts differ much from each other. How much this depends on different values and how much on differences in knowledge etc. is impossible to assess. Also, how much the technique used and the statistical handling of the expert answers may have impacted the eventual scores of different interventions is difficult to assess. However, application of the expert judgement by means of the Delphi-technique to LCA valuation is a new idea, and, consequently, the method is still very much under development, far from maturity. This should be taken into account when considering the results out of the evaluation of the case study, which was the third of the kind in Europe

  2. Evaluation of a Delphi technique based expert judgement method for LCA valuation - DELPHI II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virtanen, Y.; Torkkeli, S. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland). Environmental Technology; Wilson, B. [Landbank Environmental Research and Consulting, London (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    Because of the complexity and trade-offs between different points of the life cycles of the analysed systems, a method which measures the environmental damage caused by each intervention is needed in order to make a choice between the products. However, there is no commonly agreed methodology for this particular purpose. In most of the methods the valuation is implicitly or explicitly based on economic criteria. For various reasons, however, economically obtained criteria do not necessarily reflect ecological arguments correctly. Thus, there is a need for new, ecologically based valuation methods. One such approach is the expert judgement method, based on the Delphi technique, which rejects the economic basis in favour of the judgements of a group of environmental experts. However, it is not self evident that the expert judgement based environmental rating of interventions will be essentially more correct and certain than other methods. In this study the method was evaluated at different points of the procedure in order to obtain a picture of the quality of the indexes produced. The evaluation was based on an actual Delphi study made in 1995-1996 in Finland, Sweden and Norway. The main questions addressed were the significance of the results and the operational quality of the Delphi procedure. The results obtained by applying the expert method indexes were also compared with the results obtained with other valuation methods for the background life cycle inventory of the case study. Additional material included feedback data from panellists of the case study, collected with a questionnaire. The questionnaire data was analysed to identify major dimensions in the criteria for evaluating interventions and correlation of the final indexes of the Delphi I study with these dimensions. The rest of the questionnaire material was used to document panellists' opinions and experiences of the Delphi process, familiarity with the environmental impacts of various

  3. Evaluation of a Delphi technique based expert judgement method for LCA valuation - DELPHI II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virtanen, Y.; Torkkeli, S.

    1999-01-01

    Because of the complexity and trade-offs between different points of the life cycles of the analysed systems, a method which measures the environmental damage caused by each intervention is needed in order to make a choice between the products. However, there is no commonly agreed methodology for this particular purpose. In most of the methods the valuation is implicitly or explicitly based on economic criteria. For various reasons, however, economically obtained criteria do not necessarily reflect ecological arguments correctly. Thus, there is a need for new, ecologically based valuation methods. One such approach is the expert judgement method, based on the Delphi technique, which rejects the economic basis in favour of the judgements of a group of environmental experts. However, it is not self evident that the expert judgement based environmental rating of interventions will be essentially more correct and certain than other methods. In this study the method was evaluated at different points of the procedure in order to obtain a picture of the quality of the indexes produced. The evaluation was based on an actual Delphi study made in 1995-1996 in Finland, Sweden and Norway. The main questions addressed were the significance of the results and the operational quality of the Delphi procedure. The results obtained by applying the expert method indexes were also compared with the results obtained with other valuation methods for the background life cycle inventory of the case study. Additional material included feedback data from panellists of the case study, collected with a questionnaire. The questionnaire data was analysed to identify major dimensions in the criteria for evaluating interventions and correlation of the final indexes of the Delphi I study with these dimensions. The rest of the questionnaire material was used to document panellists' opinions and experiences of the Delphi process, familiarity with the environmental impacts of various interventions

  4. Techniques and implementation of the embedded rule-based expert system using Ada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Eugene M.; Jones, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    Ada is becoming an increasingly popular programming language for large Government-funded software projects. Ada with its portability, transportability, and maintainability lends itself well to today's complex programming environment. In addition, expert systems have also assured a growing role in providing human-like reasoning capability and expertise for computer systems. The integration of expert system technology with Ada programming language, specifically a rule-based expert system using an ART-Ada (Automated Reasoning Tool for Ada) system shell is discussed. The NASA Lewis Research Center was chosen as a beta test site for ART-Ada. The test was conducted by implementing the existing Autonomous Power EXpert System (APEX), a Lisp-base power expert system, in ART-Ada. Three components, the rule-based expert system, a graphics user interface, and communications software make up SMART-Ada (Systems fault Management with ART-Ada). The main objective, to conduct a beta test on the ART-Ada rule-based expert system shell, was achieved. The system is operational. New Ada tools will assist in future successful projects. ART-Ada is one such tool and is a viable alternative to the straight Ada code when an application requires a rule-based or knowledge-based approach.

  5. Computer Based Expert Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, James D.; Ferrara, Joseph M.

    1985-01-01

    Claims knowledge-based expert computer systems can meet needs of rural schools for affordable expert advice and support and will play an important role in the future of rural education. Describes potential applications in prediction, interpretation, diagnosis, remediation, planning, monitoring, and instruction. (NEC)

  6. Oil palm fresh fruit bunch ripeness classification based on rule- based expert system of ROI image processing technique results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfatni, M S M; Shariff, A R M; Marhaban, M H; Shafie, S B; Saaed, O M B; Abdullah, M Z; BAmiruddin, M D

    2014-01-01

    There is a processing need for a fast, easy and accurate classification system for oil palm fruit ripeness. Such a system will be invaluable to farmers and plantation managers who need to sell their oil palm fresh fruit bunch (FFB) for the mill as this will avoid disputes. In this paper,a new approach was developed under the name of expert rules-based systembased on the image processing techniques results of thethree different oil palm FFB region of interests (ROIs), namely; ROI1 (300x300 pixels), ROI2 (50x50 pixels) and ROI3 (100x100 pixels). The results show that the best rule-based ROIs for statistical colour feature extraction with k-nearest neighbors (KNN) classifier at 94% were chosen as well as the ROIs that indicated results higher than the rule-based outcome, such as the ROIs of statistical colour feature extraction with artificial neural network (ANN) classifier at 94%, were selected for further FFB ripeness inspection system

  7. An expert botanical feature extraction technique based on phenetic features for identifying plant species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoshang Kolivand

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new method to recognise the leaf type and identify plant species using phenetic parts of the leaf; lobes, apex and base detection. Most of the research in this area focuses on the popular features such as the shape, colour, vein, and texture, which consumes large amounts of computational processing and are not efficient, especially in the Acer database with a high complexity structure of the leaves. This paper is focused on phenetic parts of the leaf which increases accuracy. Detecting the local maxima and local minima are done based on Centroid Contour Distance for Every Boundary Point, using north and south region to recognise the apex and base. Digital morphology is used to measure the leaf shape and the leaf margin. Centroid Contour Gradient is presented to extract the curvature of leaf apex and base. We analyse 32 leaf images of tropical plants and evaluated with two different datasets, Flavia, and Acer. The best accuracy obtained is 94.76% and 82.6% respectively. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed technique without considering the commonly used features with high computational cost.

  8. An expert botanical feature extraction technique based on phenetic features for identifying plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fern, Bong Mei; Rahim, Mohd Shafry Mohd; Sulong, Ghazali; Baker, Thar; Tully, David

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new method to recognise the leaf type and identify plant species using phenetic parts of the leaf; lobes, apex and base detection. Most of the research in this area focuses on the popular features such as the shape, colour, vein, and texture, which consumes large amounts of computational processing and are not efficient, especially in the Acer database with a high complexity structure of the leaves. This paper is focused on phenetic parts of the leaf which increases accuracy. Detecting the local maxima and local minima are done based on Centroid Contour Distance for Every Boundary Point, using north and south region to recognise the apex and base. Digital morphology is used to measure the leaf shape and the leaf margin. Centroid Contour Gradient is presented to extract the curvature of leaf apex and base. We analyse 32 leaf images of tropical plants and evaluated with two different datasets, Flavia, and Acer. The best accuracy obtained is 94.76% and 82.6% respectively. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed technique without considering the commonly used features with high computational cost. PMID:29420568

  9. Expert system based radionuclide identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarnio, P.A.; Ala-Heikkil, J.J.; Hakulinen, T.T.; Nikkinen, M.T.

    1998-01-01

    An expert system coupled with the gamma spectrum analysis system SAMPO has been developed for automating the qualitative identification of radionuclides as well as for determining the quantitative parameters of the spectrum components. The program is written in C-language and runs in various environments ranging from PCs to UNIX workstations. The expert system utilizes a complete gamma library with over 2600 nuclides and 80,000 lines, and a rule base of about fifty criteria including energies, relative peak intensities, genesis modes, half lives, parent-daughter relationships, etc. The rule base is furthermore extensible by the user. This is not an original contribution but a somewhat updated version of papers and reports previously published elsewhere. (author)

  10. Expert system reasoning techniques applicable to the electric power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touchton, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the applicability of three problem solving paradigms adopted from the artificial intelligence discipline of computer sciences, which have been used in developing nuclear plant expert systems. Each technique is briefly defined and an example is presented that shows how that technique was used in developing an expert system application prototype. The three paradigms and their associated example systems are: (1) rule-based reasoning: reactor emergency action level monitor (REALM) for the Electric Power Research Institute, (2) object-oriented programming: accident diagnosis and prognosis aid for the US Department of Energy, and (3) model-based reasoning: knowledge-based monitoring and control system for the Electric Power Research Institute

  11. Expert System Techniques and Applications in AEC-Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tom

    This part of a book presents expert system techniques applicable to building design and construction, and it reports and evaluates on systems developed in thar domain.......This part of a book presents expert system techniques applicable to building design and construction, and it reports and evaluates on systems developed in thar domain....

  12. Integrating Evidence From Systematic Reviews, Qualitative Research, and Expert Knowledge Using Co-Design Techniques to Develop a Web-Based Intervention for People in the Retirement Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Nicola; Heaven, Ben; Teal, Gemma; Evans, Elizabeth H; Cleland, Claire; Moffatt, Suzanne; Sniehotta, Falko F; White, Martin; Mathers, John C; Moynihan, Paula

    2016-08-03

    Integrating stakeholder involvement in complex health intervention design maximizes acceptability and potential effectiveness. However, there is little methodological guidance about how to integrate evidence systematically from various sources in this process. Scientific evidence derived from different approaches can be difficult to integrate and the problem is compounded when attempting to include diverse, subjective input from stakeholders. The intent of the study was to describe and appraise a systematic, sequential approach to integrate scientific evidence, expert knowledge and experience, and stakeholder involvement in the co-design and development of a complex health intervention. The development of a Web-based lifestyle intervention for people in retirement is used as an example. Evidence from three systematic reviews, qualitative research findings, and expert knowledge was compiled to produce evidence statements (stage 1). Face validity of these statements was assessed by key stakeholders in a co-design workshop resulting in a set of intervention principles (stage 2). These principles were assessed for face validity in a second workshop, resulting in core intervention concepts and hand-drawn prototypes (stage 3). The outputs from stages 1-3 were translated into a design brief and specification (stage 4), which guided the building of a functioning prototype, Web-based intervention (stage 5). This prototype was de-risked resulting in an optimized functioning prototype (stage 6), which was subject to iterative testing and optimization (stage 7), prior to formal pilot evaluation. The evidence statements (stage 1) highlighted the effectiveness of physical activity, dietary and social role interventions in retirement; the idiosyncratic nature of retirement and well-being; the value of using specific behavior change techniques including those derived from the Health Action Process Approach; and the need for signposting to local resources. The intervention

  13. Integrating Evidence From Systematic Reviews, Qualitative Research, and Expert Knowledge Using Co-Design Techniques to Develop a Web-Based Intervention for People in the Retirement Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Nicola; Heaven, Ben; Teal, Gemma; Evans, Elizabeth H; Cleland, Claire; Moffatt, Suzanne; Sniehotta, Falko F; White, Martin; Mathers, John C

    2016-01-01

    Background Integrating stakeholder involvement in complex health intervention design maximizes acceptability and potential effectiveness. However, there is little methodological guidance about how to integrate evidence systematically from various sources in this process. Scientific evidence derived from different approaches can be difficult to integrate and the problem is compounded when attempting to include diverse, subjective input from stakeholders. Objective The intent of the study was to describe and appraise a systematic, sequential approach to integrate scientific evidence, expert knowledge and experience, and stakeholder involvement in the co-design and development of a complex health intervention. The development of a Web-based lifestyle intervention for people in retirement is used as an example. Methods Evidence from three systematic reviews, qualitative research findings, and expert knowledge was compiled to produce evidence statements (stage 1). Face validity of these statements was assessed by key stakeholders in a co-design workshop resulting in a set of intervention principles (stage 2). These principles were assessed for face validity in a second workshop, resulting in core intervention concepts and hand-drawn prototypes (stage 3). The outputs from stages 1-3 were translated into a design brief and specification (stage 4), which guided the building of a functioning prototype, Web-based intervention (stage 5). This prototype was de-risked resulting in an optimized functioning prototype (stage 6), which was subject to iterative testing and optimization (stage 7), prior to formal pilot evaluation. Results The evidence statements (stage 1) highlighted the effectiveness of physical activity, dietary and social role interventions in retirement; the idiosyncratic nature of retirement and well-being; the value of using specific behavior change techniques including those derived from the Health Action Process Approach; and the need for signposting to local

  14. TU Delft expert judgment data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, Roger M.; Goossens, Louis L.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    We review the applications of structured expert judgment uncertainty quantification using the 'classical model' developed at the Delft University of Technology over the last 17 years [Cooke RM. Experts in uncertainty. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1991; Expert judgment study on atmospheric dispersion and deposition. Report Faculty of Technical Mathematics and Informatics No.01-81, Delft University of Technology; 1991]. These involve 45 expert panels, performed under contract with problem owners who reviewed and approved the results. With a few exceptions, all these applications involved the use of seed variables; that is, variables from the experts' area of expertise for which the true values are available post hoc. Seed variables are used to (1) measure expert performance, (2) enable performance-based weighted combination of experts' distributions, and (3) evaluate and hopefully validate the resulting combination or 'decision maker'. This article reviews the classical model for structured expert judgment and the performance measures, reviews applications, comparing performance-based decision makers with 'equal weight' decision makers, and collects some lessons learned

  15. Application of expert elicitation techniques in human reliability, assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyasi Rao, V.V.S.; Saraf, R.K.; Ghosh, A.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2006-01-01

    Expert elicitation techniques are being used, in the area of technological forecasting, in estimating data needed for analysis when it is either difficult to arrive at the data by experimental means or when it is quite involved to plan and conduct the experiment. In this study, expert elicitation techniques are applied to the evaluation of the frequencies of the various accident sequences that can result from the initiating event (IE) 'High Pressure Process Water (HPPW) system failure' in typical Indian Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (IPHWR) of the older generation. The Operating Procedure under Emergency Conditions (OPEC) for this IE involves human actions according to a pre-defined procedure. The Human Error Probabilities for all these human actions are obtained using expert elicitation techniques. These techniques aim at eliciting the opinion of the experts in the area of interest with regard to the issue in question. The uncertainty is analysed by employing the measure of dissonance and the most probable range of human error probabilities are arrived at by maximizing this measure. These values are combined using the same procedures mentioned above to yield a distribution representing the uncertainty associated with the predictions. (author)

  16. A fuzzy expert system based on relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, L.O.; Kandel, A.

    1986-01-01

    The Fuzzy Expert System (FESS) is an expert system which makes use of the theory of fuzzy relations to perform inference. Relations are very general and can be used for any application, which only requires different types of relations be implemented and used. The incorporation of fuzzy reasoning techniques enables the expert system to deal with imprecision in a well-founded manner. The knowledge is represented in relational frames. FESS may operate in either a forward chaining or backward chaining manner. It uses primarily implication and factual relations. A unique methodology for combination of evidence has been developed. It makes uses of a blackboard for communication between the various knowledge sources which may operate in parallel. The expert system has been designed in such a manner that it may be used for diverse applications

  17. Expert system for web based collaborative CAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Liang; Lin, Zusheng

    2006-11-01

    An expert system for web based collaborative CAE was developed based on knowledge engineering, relational database and commercial FEA (Finite element analysis) software. The architecture of the system was illustrated. In this system, the experts' experiences, theories and typical examples and other related knowledge, which will be used in the stage of pre-process in FEA, were categorized into analysis process and object knowledge. Then, the integrated knowledge model based on object-oriented method and rule based method was described. The integrated reasoning process based on CBR (case based reasoning) and rule based reasoning was presented. Finally, the analysis process of this expert system in web based CAE application was illustrated, and an analysis example of a machine tool's column was illustrated to prove the validity of the system.

  18. Risk and reliability analyses (LURI) and expert judgement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyy, P.; Pulkkinen, U.

    1998-01-01

    Probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) is currently used as a regulatory licensing tool in risk informed and plant performance based regulation. More often also utility safety improvements are based on PSA calculations as one criterion. PSA attempts to comprehensively identify all important risk contributors, compare them with each other, assess the safety level and suggest improvements based on its findings. The strength of PSA is that it is capable to provide decision makers with numerical estimates of risks. This makes decision making easier than the comparison of purely qualitative results. PSA is the only comprehensive tool that compactly attempts to include all the important risk contributors in its scope. Despite the demonstrated strengths of PSA, there are some features that have reduced its uses. For example, the PSA scope has been limited to the power operation and process internal events (transients and LOCAs). Only lately, areas such as shutdown, external events and severe accidents have been included in PSA models in many countries. Problems related to modelling are, e.g., that rather static fault and event tree models are commonly used in PSA to model dynamic event sequences. Even if a valid model may be generated, there may not be any other data sources to be used than expert judgement. Furthermore, there are a variety of different techniques for human reliability assessment (HRA) giving varying results. In the project Reliability and Risk Analyses (LURI) these limitations and shortcomings have been studied. In the decision making area, case studies on the application of decision analysis and a doctoral thesis have been published. Further, practical aid has been given to utilities and regulatory decision making. Model uncertainty effect on PSA results has been demonstrated by two case studies. Human reliability has been studied both in the integrated safety analysis study and in the study of maintenance originated NPP component faults based on the

  19. Integrated Knowledge Based Expert System for Disease Diagnosis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbaiy, Nureize; Sulaiman, Shafiza Eliza; Hassan, Norlida; Afizah Afip, Zehan

    2017-08-01

    The role and importance of healthcare systems to improve quality of life and social welfare in a society have been well recognized. Attention should be given to raise awareness and implementing appropriate measures to improve health care. Therefore, a computer based system is developed to serve as an alternative for people to self-diagnose their health status based on given symptoms. This strategy should be emphasized so that people can utilize the information correctly as a reference to enjoy healthier life. Hence, a Web-based Community Center for Healthcare Diagnosis system is developed based on expert system technique. Expert system reasoning technique is employed in the system to enable information about treatment and prevention of the diseases based on given symptoms. At present, three diseases are included which are arthritis, thalassemia and pneumococcal. Sets of rule and fact are managed in the knowledge based system. Web based technology is used as a platform to disseminate the information to users in order for them to optimize the information appropriately. This system will benefit people who wish to increase health awareness and seek expert knowledge on the diseases by performing self-diagnosis for early disease detection.

  20. Feed type based expert systems in mineral processing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamsa-Jounela, S.-L.; Laine, S.; Laurila, H.

    1999-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence includes excellent tools for the control and supervision of industrial processes. Several thousand industrial applications have been reported worldwide. Recently, the designers of the AI systems have begun to hybridize the intelligent techniques, expert systems, fuzzy logic and neural networks, to enhance the capability of the AI systems. Expert systems have proved to be ideal candidates especially for the control of mineral processes. As successful case projects, expert system based on on-line classification of the feed type is described in this paper. The essential feature of this expert system is the classification of different feed types and their distinct control strategies at the plant. In addition to the classification, the expert system has a database containing information about how to handle the determined feed type. This self-learning database scans historical process data to suggest the best treatment for the ore type under processing. The system has been tested in two concentrators, the Outokumpu Finnmines Oy, Hitura mine and Outokumpu Chrome Oy, Kemi mine. (author)

  1. An expert system based software sizing tool, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, David

    1990-01-01

    A software tool was developed for predicting the size of a future computer program at an early stage in its development. The system is intended to enable a user who is not expert in Software Engineering to estimate software size in lines of source code with an accuracy similar to that of an expert, based on the program's functional specifications. The project was planned as a knowledge based system with a field prototype as the goal of Phase 2 and a commercial system planned for Phase 3. The researchers used techniques from Artificial Intelligence and knowledge from human experts and existing software from NASA's COSMIC database. They devised a classification scheme for the software specifications, and a small set of generic software components that represent complexity and apply to large classes of programs. The specifications are converted to generic components by a set of rules and the generic components are input to a nonlinear sizing function which makes the final prediction. The system developed for this project predicted code sizes from the database with a bias factor of 1.06 and a fluctuation factor of 1.77, an accuracy similar to that of human experts but without their significant optimistic bias.

  2. Which Behavior Change Techniques May Help Waterpipe Smokers to Quit? An Expert Consensus Using a Modified Delphi Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Nancy; Dogar, Omara; Jawad, Mohammed; Kellar, Ian; Kanaan, Mona; Siddiqi, Kamran

    2018-01-05

    Waterpipe smoking is addictive and harmful. The determinants of waterpipe smoking may differ from those of cigarette smoking; therefore, behavioral approaches to support quitting may also differ between these two tobacco products. While some evidence exists on effective behavioral change techniques (BCTs) to facilitate cigarette smoking cessation, there is little research on waterpipe smoking cessation. Twenty-four experts were selected from the author lists of peer-reviewed, randomized controlled trials on waterpipe smoking cessation. They were invited to two rounds of a consensus development exercise using modified Delphi technique. Experts ranked 55 BCTs categorized further into those that promote; "awareness of harms of waterpipe smoking and advantages of quitting" (14), "preparation and planning to quit" (29), and "relapse prevention and sustaining an ex-smoker identity" (12) on their potential effectiveness. Kendall's W statistics was used to assess agreement. Fifteen experts responded in round 1 and 14 completed both rounds. A strong consensus was achieved for BCTs that help in "relapse prevention and sustaining ex-smoker identity" (w = 0.7; p consequences of waterpipe smoking and its cessation, assessing readiness and ability to quit, and making people aware of the withdrawal symptoms, were the three highest-ranking BCTs. Based on expert consensus, an inventory of BCTs ordered for their potential effectiveness can be useful for health professionals offering cessation support to waterpipe smokers. Waterpipe smoking is addictive, harmful, and gaining global popularity, particularly among youth. An expert consensus on behavior change techniques, likely to be effective in supporting waterpipe smokers to quit, has practice and research implications. Smoking cessation advisors can use these techniques to counsel waterpipe smokers who wish to quit. Behavioral and public health scientists can also use these to develop and evaluate behavioral support interventions

  3. Expert system and process optimization techniques for real-time monitoring and control of plasma processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jie; Qian, Zhaogang; Irani, Keki B.; Etemad, Hossein; Elta, Michael E.

    1991-03-01

    To meet the ever-increasing demand of the rapidly-growing semiconductor manufacturing industry it is critical to have a comprehensive methodology integrating techniques for process optimization real-time monitoring and adaptive process control. To this end we have accomplished an integrated knowledge-based approach combining latest expert system technology machine learning method and traditional statistical process control (SPC) techniques. This knowledge-based approach is advantageous in that it makes it possible for the task of process optimization and adaptive control to be performed consistently and predictably. Furthermore this approach can be used to construct high-level and qualitative description of processes and thus make the process behavior easy to monitor predict and control. Two software packages RIST (Rule Induction and Statistical Testing) and KARSM (Knowledge Acquisition from Response Surface Methodology) have been developed and incorporated with two commercially available packages G2 (real-time expert system) and ULTRAMAX (a tool for sequential process optimization).

  4. Expert systems and computer based industrial systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunand, R.

    1989-01-01

    Framentec is the artificial intelligence subsidiary of FRAMATOME. It is involved in expert-system activities of Shells, developments, methodology and software for maintenance (Maintex) and consulting and methodology. Specific applications in the nuclear field are presented. The first is an expert system to assist in the piping support design prototype, the second is an expert system that assists an ultrasonic testing operator in determining the nature of a welding defect and the third is a welding machine diagnosis advisor. Maintex is a software tool to provide assistance in the repair of complex industrial equipment. (author)

  5. ART-Ada: An Ada-based expert system tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. Daniel; Allen, Bradley P.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Defense mandate to standardize on Ada as the language for software systems development has resulted in increased interest in making expert systems technology readily available in Ada environments. NASA's Space Station Freedom is an example of the large Ada software development projects that will require expert systems in the 1990's. Another large scale application that can benefit from Ada based expert system tool technology is the Pilot's Associate (PA) expert system project for military combat aircraft. Automated Reasoning Tool (ART) Ada, an Ada Expert system tool is described. ART-Ada allow applications of a C-based expert system tool called ART-IM to be deployed in various Ada environments. ART-Ada is being used to implement several prototype expert systems for NASA's Space Station Freedom Program and the U.S. Air Force.

  6. Knowledge based expert system approach to instrumentation selection (INSEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Barai

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The selection of appropriate instrumentation for any structural measurement of civil engineering structure is a complex task. Recent developments in Artificial Intelligence (AI can help in an organized use of experiential knowledge available on instrumentation for laboratory and in-situ measurement. Usually, the instrumentation decision is based on the experience and judgment of experimentalists. The heuristic knowledge available for different types of measurement is domain dependent and the information is scattered in varied knowledge sources. The knowledge engineering techniques can help in capturing the experiential knowledge. This paper demonstrates a prototype knowledge based system for INstrument SELection (INSEL assistant where the experiential knowledge for various structural domains can be captured and utilized for making instrumentation decision. In particular, this Knowledge Based Expert System (KBES encodes the heuristics on measurement and demonstrates the instrument selection process with reference to steel bridges. INSEL runs on a microcomputer and uses an INSIGHT 2+ environment.

  7. An expert fitness diagnosis system based on elastic cloud computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Kevin C; Wu, Chia-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an expert diagnosis system based on cloud computing. It classifies a user's fitness level based on supervised machine learning techniques. This system is able to learn and make customized diagnoses according to the user's physiological data, such as age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). In addition, an elastic algorithm based on Poisson distribution is presented to allocate computation resources dynamically. It predicts the required resources in the future according to the exponential moving average of past observations. The experimental results show that Naïve Bayes is the best classifier with the highest accuracy (90.8%) and that the elastic algorithm is able to capture tightly the trend of requests generated from the Internet and thus assign corresponding computation resources to ensure the quality of service.

  8. An Expert Fitness Diagnosis System Based on Elastic Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C. Tseng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an expert diagnosis system based on cloud computing. It classifies a user’s fitness level based on supervised machine learning techniques. This system is able to learn and make customized diagnoses according to the user’s physiological data, such as age, gender, and body mass index (BMI. In addition, an elastic algorithm based on Poisson distribution is presented to allocate computation resources dynamically. It predicts the required resources in the future according to the exponential moving average of past observations. The experimental results show that Naïve Bayes is the best classifier with the highest accuracy (90.8% and that the elastic algorithm is able to capture tightly the trend of requests generated from the Internet and thus assign corresponding computation resources to ensure the quality of service.

  9. Strategies for adding adaptive learning mechanisms to rule-based diagnostic expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stclair, D. C.; Sabharwal, C. L.; Bond, W. E.; Hacke, Keith

    1988-01-01

    Rule-based diagnostic expert systems can be used to perform many of the diagnostic chores necessary in today's complex space systems. These expert systems typically take a set of symptoms as input and produce diagnostic advice as output. The primary objective of such expert systems is to provide accurate and comprehensive advice which can be used to help return the space system in question to nominal operation. The development and maintenance of diagnostic expert systems is time and labor intensive since the services of both knowledge engineer(s) and domain expert(s) are required. The use of adaptive learning mechanisms to increment evaluate and refine rules promises to reduce both time and labor costs associated with such systems. This paper describes the basic adaptive learning mechanisms of strengthening, weakening, generalization, discrimination, and discovery. Next basic strategies are discussed for adding these learning mechanisms to rule-based diagnostic expert systems. These strategies support the incremental evaluation and refinement of rules in the knowledge base by comparing the set of advice given by the expert system (A) with the correct diagnosis (C). Techniques are described for selecting those rules in the in the knowledge base which should participate in adaptive learning. The strategies presented may be used with a wide variety of learning algorithms. Further, these strategies are applicable to a large number of rule-based diagnostic expert systems. They may be used to provide either immediate or deferred updating of the knowledge base.

  10. Comparison of a new expert elicitation model with the Classical Model, equal weights and single experts, using a cross-validation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flandoli, F. [Dip.to di Matematica Applicata, Universita di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Giorgi, E. [Dip.to di Matematica Applicata, Universita di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Pisa, via della Faggiola 32, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Aspinall, W.P. [Dept. of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, and Aspinall and Associates, Tisbury (United Kingdom); Neri, A., E-mail: neri@pi.ingv.it [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Pisa, via della Faggiola 32, 56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    The problem of ranking and weighting experts' performances when quantitative judgments are being elicited for decision support is considered. A new scoring model, the Expected Relative Frequency model, is presented, based on the closeness between central values provided by the expert and known values used for calibration. Using responses from experts in five different elicitation datasets, a cross-validation technique is used to compare this new approach with the Cooke Classical Model, the Equal Weights model, and individual experts. The analysis is performed using alternative reward schemes designed to capture proficiency either in quantifying uncertainty, or in estimating true central values. Results show that although there is only a limited probability that one approach is consistently better than another, the Cooke Classical Model is generally the most suitable for assessing uncertainties, whereas the new ERF model should be preferred if the goal is central value estimation accuracy. - Highlights: > A new expert elicitation model, named Expected Relative Frequency (ERF), is presented. > A cross-validation approach to evaluate the performance of different elicitation models is applied. > The new ERF model shows the best performance with respect to the point-wise estimates.

  11. A living PSA based on use of expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancelin, C.; Bouissou, M.; Le, P.; De Saint-Quentin, S.; Villatte, N.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the expert systems that are developed by EDF in the framework of the French PSA. Aimed at automatically generating reliability models (fault trees, state graphs....), these expert systems are used for the reliability studies of safety systems in the Paluel nuclear power plant. Beyond the description of the implemented method, this paper insists on the new approach proposed to the reliability engineer, when using artificial intelligence techniques

  12. A Belief Rule-Based Expert System to Diagnose Influenza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Mohammad Shahadat; Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Akter, Shamima

    2014-01-01

    , development and application of an expert system to diagnose influenza under uncertainty. The recently developed generic belief rule-based inference methodology by using the evidential reasoning (RIMER) approach is employed to develop this expert system, termed as Belief Rule Based Expert System (BRBES......). The RIMER approach can handle different types of uncertainties, both in knowledge representation, and in inference procedures. The knowledge-base of this system was constructed by using records of the real patient data along with in consultation with the Influenza specialists of Bangladesh. Practical case...

  13. Application Of Expert System Techniques To A Visual Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myler, Harley R.; Thompson, Wiley E.; Flachs, Gerald M.

    1985-04-01

    A structure for visual tracking system is presented which relies on information developed from previous tracking scenarios stored in a knowledge base to enhance tracking performance. The system is comprised of a centroid tracker front end which supplies segmented image features to a data reduction algorithm which holds the reduced data in a temporary data base relation. This relation is then classified vio two separate modes, learn and track. Under learn mode, an external teacher-irector operator provides identification and weighting cues for membership in a long-term storage relation within a knowledge base. Track mode operates autonomously from the learn mode where the system determines feature validity by applying fuzzy set membership criteria to previously stored track information in the database. Results determined from the classification generate tracker directives which either enhance or permit current tracking to continue or cause the tracker to search for alternate targets based upon analysis of a global target tracking list. The classification algorithm is based on correlative analysis of the tracker's segmented output presentation after low pass filtering derives lower order harmonics of the feature. The fuzzy set membership criteria is based on size, rotation, Irame location, and past history of the feature. The first three factors are lin-ear operations on the spectra, while the last is generated as a context relation in the knowledge base. The context relation interlinks data between features to facilitate tracker operation during feature occlusion or presence of countermeasures.

  14. MSC/NASTRAN ''expert'' techniques developed and applied to the TFTR poloidal field coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Toole, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The TFTR poloidal field (PF) coils are being analyzed by PPPL and Grumman using MSC/NASTRAN as a part of an overall effort to establish the absolute limiting conditions of operation for TFTR. Each of the PF coils will be analyzed in depth, using a detailed set of finite element models. Several of the models developed are quite large because each copper turn, as well as its surrounding insulation, was modeled using solid elements. Several of the finite element models proved large enough to tax the capabilities of the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center (NMFECC), specifically disk storage space. To allow the use of substructuring techniques with their associated data bases for the larger models, it became necessary to employ certain infrequently used MSC/NASTRAN ''expert'' techniques. The techniques developed used multiple data bases and data base sets to divide each problem into a series of computer runs. For each run, only the data required was kept on active disk space, the remainder being placed in inactive ''FILEM'' storage, thus, minimizing active disk space required at any time and permitting problem solution using the NMFECC. A representative problem using the TFTR OH-1 coil global model provides an example of the techniques developed. The special considerations necessary to obtain proper results are discussed

  15. An Embedded Rule-Based Diagnostic Expert System in Ada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert E.; Liberman, Eugene M.

    1992-01-01

    Ada is becoming an increasingly popular programming language for large Government-funded software projects. Ada with it portability, transportability, and maintainability lends itself well to today's complex programming environment. In addition, expert systems have also assumed a growing role in providing human-like reasoning capability expertise for computer systems. The integration is discussed of expert system technology with Ada programming language, especially a rule-based expert system using an ART-Ada (Automated Reasoning Tool for Ada) system shell. NASA Lewis was chosen as a beta test site for ART-Ada. The test was conducted by implementing the existing Autonomous Power EXpert System (APEX), a Lisp-based power expert system, in ART-Ada. Three components, the rule-based expert systems, a graphics user interface, and communications software make up SMART-Ada (Systems fault Management with ART-Ada). The rules were written in the ART-Ada development environment and converted to Ada source code. The graphics interface was developed with the Transportable Application Environment (TAE) Plus, which generates Ada source code to control graphics images. SMART-Ada communicates with a remote host to obtain either simulated or real data. The Ada source code generated with ART-Ada, TAE Plus, and communications code was incorporated into an Ada expert system that reads the data from a power distribution test bed, applies the rule to determine a fault, if one exists, and graphically displays it on the screen. The main objective, to conduct a beta test on the ART-Ada rule-based expert system shell, was achieved. The system is operational. New Ada tools will assist in future successful projects. ART-Ada is one such tool and is a viable alternative to the straight Ada code when an application requires a rule-based or knowledge-based approach.

  16. A Study on Satellite Diagnostic Expert Systems Using Case-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Tack Park

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Many research works are on going to monitor and diagnose diverse malfunctions of satellite systems as the complexity and number of satellites increase. Currently, many works on monitoring and diagnosis are carried out by human experts but there are needs to automate much of the routine works of them. Hence, it is necessary to study on using expert systems which can assist human experts routine work by doing automatically, thereby allow human experts devote their expertise more critical and important areas of monitoring and diagnosis. In this paper, we are employing artificial intelligence techniques to model human experts' knowledge and inference the constructed knowledge. Especially, case-based approaches are used to construct a knowledge base to model human expert capabilities which use previous typical exemplars. We have designed and implemented a prototype case-based system for diagnosing satellite malfunctions using cases. Our system remembers typical failure cases and diagnoses a current malfunction by indexing the case base. Diverse methods are used to build a more user friendly interface which allows human experts can build a knowledge base in as easy way.

  17. Ask-the-expert: Active Learning Based Knowledge Discovery Using the Expert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kamalika; Avrekh, Ilya; Matthews, Bryan; Sharma, Manali; Oza, Nikunj

    2017-01-01

    Often the manual review of large data sets, either for purposes of labeling unlabeled instances or for classifying meaningful results from uninteresting (but statistically significant) ones is extremely resource intensive, especially in terms of subject matter expert (SME) time. Use of active learning has been shown to diminish this review time significantly. However, since active learning is an iterative process of learning a classifier based on a small number of SME-provided labels at each iteration, the lack of an enabling tool can hinder the process of adoption of these technologies in real-life, in spite of their labor-saving potential. In this demo we present ASK-the-Expert, an interactive tool that allows SMEs to review instances from a data set and provide labels within a single framework. ASK-the-Expert is powered by an active learning algorithm for training a classifier in the backend. We demonstrate this system in the context of an aviation safety application, but the tool can be adopted to work as a simple review and labeling tool as well, without the use of active learning.

  18. Rule - based Fault Diagnosis Expert System for Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Xiao-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the trend of increasing installed capacity of wind power, the intelligent fault diagnosis of wind turbine is of great significance to the safe and efficient operation of wind farms. Based on the knowledge of fault diagnosis of wind turbines, this paper builds expert system diagnostic knowledge base by using confidence production rules and expert system self-learning method. In Visual Studio 2013 platform, C # language is selected and ADO.NET technology is used to access the database. Development of Fault Diagnosis Expert System for Wind Turbine. The purpose of this paper is to realize on-line diagnosis of wind turbine fault through human-computer interaction, and to improve the diagnostic capability of the system through the continuous improvement of the knowledge base.

  19. Combining NDE and fracture mechanics by artifical intelligence expert systems techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucciardi, A.N.; Riccardella, P.C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a PC-based expert system for non-destructive evaluation. Software tools from the expert systems subfield of artificial intelligence are being used to combine both NDE and fracture mechanics algorithms into one, unified package. The system incorporates elements of computer-enhanced ultrasonic signal processing, featuring artificial intelligence learning capability, state-of-the-art fracture mechanics analytical tools, and all relevant metallurgical and design data necessary to emulate the decisions of the panel(s) of experts typically involved in generating and dispositioning NDE data

  20. The microcomputer-based expert system in CAD-PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Qin, S.

    1987-01-01

    As a branch of artificial intelligence, expert system has been revealed day after day in more and more engineering scopes since the successful applications of MYCIN in diagnosis and DENDRAL in the molecular structure of organic compounds etc.. But in the design scope of pressure vessel, as we know, only a few papers have so far been published with respect to the expert system. The necessity and feasibility of accompanying CAD-PV with expert system attracted more scholars to engage in. Although many countries, including China, have regularized the design standards or codes for pressure vessel, but of which no one can solve all of the problems concerning the various practical occasions and experiences. In general, the more domain knowledges a design engineer possesses of, the better decision will be made by him. By virtue of the expert system any less experienced engineer could make the optimum decision in design as well as a skilled senior engineer in addition to the application of design code. It is the due significance for developing high level expert system as an intelligence assistant in the plan option of CAD-PV. In this paper we attempt to introduce a specified software JACKPV used in the design procedure of jacketed pressure vessel as an intelligence front in CAD-PV. JACKPV consists of the function of expert system based on the personal computer IBM-PC/XT with the language PASCAL in its program. It was proved that an ordinary CAD software could be effectively improved while equipped with expert system. (orig.)

  1. Model-based expert systems for linac computer controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.J.

    1988-09-01

    The use of machine modeling and beam simulation programs for the control of accelerator operation has become standard practice. The success of a model-based control operation depends on how the parameter to be controlled is measured, how the measured data is analyzed, how the result of the analysis is interpreted, and how a solution is implemented. There is considerable interest in applying expert systems technology that can automate all of these processes. The design of an expert system to control the beam trajectory in linear accelerators will be discussed as an illustration of this approach. 4 figs., 1 tab

  2. Web-based expert system for foundry pollution prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Gary P.

    2004-02-01

    Pollution prevention is a complex task. Many small foundries lack the in-house expertise to perform these tasks. Expert systems are a type of computer information system that incorporates artificial intelligence. As noted in the literature, they provide a means of automating specialized expertise. This approach may be further leveraged by implementing the expert system on the internet (or world-wide web). This will allow distribution of the expertise to a variety of geographically-dispersed foundries. The purpose of this research is to develop a prototype web-based expert system to support pollution prevention for the foundry industry. The prototype system identifies potential emissions for a specified process, and also provides recommendations for the prevention of these contaminants. The system is viewed as an initial step toward assisting the foundry industry in better meeting government pollution regulations, as well as improving operating efficiencies within these companies.

  3. Determination of the ecological connectivity between landscape patches obtained using the knowledge engineer (expert) classification technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, Serdar; Sonmez, Namik Kemal; Onur, Isin; Coslu, Mesut

    2017-10-01

    Connection of similar landscape patches with ecological corridors supports habitat quality of these patches, increases urban ecological quality, and constitutes an important living and expansion area for wild life. Furthermore, habitat connectivity provided by urban green areas is supporting biodiversity in urban areas. In this study, possible ecological connections between landscape patches, which were achieved by using Expert classification technique and modeled with probabilistic connection index. Firstly, the reflection responses of plants to various bands are used as data in hypotheses. One of the important features of this method is being able to use more than one image at the same time in the formation of the hypothesis. For this reason, before starting the application of the Expert classification, the base images are prepared. In addition to the main image, the hypothesis conditions were also created for each class with the NDVI image which is commonly used in the vegetation researches. Besides, the results of the previously conducted supervised classification were taken into account. We applied this classification method by using the raster imagery with user-defined variables. Hereupon, to provide ecological connections of the tree cover which was achieved from the classification, we used Probabilistic Connection (PC) index. The probabilistic connection model which is used for landscape planning and conservation studies via detecting and prioritization critical areas for ecological connection characterizes the possibility of direct connection between habitats. As a result we obtained over % 90 total accuracy in accuracy assessment analysis. We provided ecological connections with PC index and we created inter-connected green spaces system. Thus, we offered and implicated green infrastructure system model takes place in the agenda of recent years.

  4. Bases for conceptualisation of the notion of expert thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjaić Zora

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Institute of Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Belgrade This paper presents the bases for conceptualisation of the notion of expert thinking: the key concepts from the L.S. Vygotsky's theory and modern theories of giftedness, as well as empirical findings about the differences in achievement of gifted students from different academic study groups. We first present the conceptual core of the notion of expert thinking, i.e. the concept of artificial development from the sociocultural-historical theory of Vygotsky. Then we proceed to the bases which refer to relevant theoretical discussions and empirical findings about the development of giftedness and expertise, indicating that the phenomena of giftedness and expert thinking can be considered as general developmental psychological problems and in the context of general cognitive development and thinking. Special part refers to empirical data about differences in achievement in psychological tests by the most successful intellectually gifted students from various academic study groups. The paper also includes the working definition of expert thinking, which is defined as thinking of higher order, developed under the influence of culture and systematic education, in the course of which deep knowledge structures are acquired, enabling performance of specific patterns of intellectual operations which depend on particular epistemological nature of individual knowledge domains.

  5. An expert systems application to space base data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Stephen M.

    1988-01-01

    The advent of space vehicles with their increased data requirements are reflected in the complexity of future telemetry systems. Space based operations with its immense operating costs will shift the burden of data processing and routine analysis from the space station to the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV). A research and development project is described which addresses the real time onboard data processing tasks associated with a space based vehicle, specifically focusing on an implementation of an expert system.

  6. An Expert System-Based Approach to Hospitality Company Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Balfe, Andrew; O'Connor, Peter; McDonnell, Ciaran

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a prototype Expert System-based Analysis and Diagnostic (ESAD) package for the Hotel and Catering Industry. This computerised tool aids the hospitality manager in methodically scrutinising the hotel unit and environment, combining key information with systematic reasoning. The system searches through its extensive knowledge base, investigating complicated relationships. The number of possibilities considered is increased which will broaden the depth and...

  7. Developing a personal computer based expert system for radionuclide identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarnio, P.A.; Hakulinen, T.T.

    1990-01-01

    Several expert system development tools are available for personal computers today. We have used one of the LISP-based high end tools for nearly two years in developing an expert system for identification of gamma sources. The system contains a radionuclide database of 2055 nuclides and 48000 gamma transitions with a knowledge base of about sixty rules. This application combines a LISP-based inference engine with database management and relatively heavy numerical calculations performed using C-language. The most important feature needed has been the possibility to use LISP and C together with the more advanced object oriented features of the development tool. Main difficulties have been long response times and the big amount (10-16 MB) of computer memory required

  8. Neural network based expert system for fault diagnosis of particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewidar, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    Particle accelerators are generators that produce beams of charged particles, acquiring different energies, depending on the accelerator type. The MGC-20 cyclotron is a cyclic particle accelerator used for accelerating protons, deuterons, alpha particles, and helium-3 to different energies. Its applications include isotope production, nuclear reaction, and mass spectroscopy studies. It is a complicated machine, it consists of five main parts, the ion source, the deflector, the beam transport system, the concentric and harmonic coils, and the radio frequency system. The diagnosis of this device is a very complex task. it depends on the conditions of 27 indicators of the control panel of the device. The accurate diagnosis can lead to a high system reliability and save maintenance costs. so an expert system for the cyclotron fault diagnosis is necessary to be built. In this thesis , a hybrid expert system was developed for the fault diagnosis of the MGC-20 cyclotron. Two intelligent techniques, multilayer feed forward back propagation neural network and the rule based expert system, are integrated as a pre-processor loosely coupled model to build the proposed hybrid expert system. The architecture of the developed hybrid expert system consists of two levels. The first level is two feed forward back propagation neural networks, used for isolating the faulty part of the cyclotron. The second level is the rule based expert system, used for troubleshooting the faults inside the isolated faulty part. 4-6 tabs., 4-5 figs., 36 refs

  9. Experts: despite time constraints, motivational interviewing techniques can have lasting impact on drinkers, drug abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Researchers have found that the Brief Negotiation Interview (BNI), a tool developed at Yale School of Medicine in New Haven, CT, can curb harmful drinking in patients when the tool is used with these patients in the emergency setting. Further, by using the same motivational interviewing techniques employed in the tool, experts say providers can help patients curb other harmful behaviors as well. The BNI consists of a series of questions that take about seven minutes to discuss with patients. The tool prompts patients to come up with their own reasons for changing harmful behaviors. To implement the BNI, emergency providers need training and constant reinforcement. Ideally, experts say the motivational interviewing techniques employed in the BNI need to become routine to have a lasting impact on patient care.

  10. A PC-based expert system for nondestructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, R.; Williams, R.; Smith, C.; Selby, G.

    1991-01-01

    Rule-based decision logic which can emulate problem-solving expertise of humans is being explored for power plant nondestructive evaluation (NDE) applications. This paper describes an effort underway at the EPRI NDE Center to assist in the interpretation of NDE data acquired by automatic systems during ultrasonic weld examination of boiling-water reactors (BWRs). A personal computer (PC) -based expert system shell was used to encode rules and assemble knowledge to address the discrimination of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) from benign reflectors in the inspection of pipe-to-component welds. The rules attempt to factor in plant inspection history, ultrasonic examination data nd, if available, radiography testing data; a majority of them deal with specific ultrasonic signal temporal and spatial behavior during automatic scanning. The paper describes the efforts in the development of the expert system

  11. Knowledge based economy: The role of expert diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Jovan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diasporas stand out as an economic or cultural avant-garde of transformation. This is especially true for academic and other intellectual Diaspora communities, because science and knowledge creation are global enterprises. Proclivity of knowledge workers to move in order to improve and absorb transnational knowledge through Diaspora networks might be an essential quality of an emerging national economy of a developing country. The article treats the role of expert Diaspora in knowledge based economy, innovation and talent management. Besides presenting the essentials of knowledge based economy and innovation, it discusses the role of expert Diaspora in science, technology and innovation (STI capacity building. Also, the article emphasizes the importance of leadership for talent and its implications for Diaspora. Using WEF statistics, it illustrates negative consequences of the sad policy of “Chaseaway the brightest and the best” for innovative capacity, competitiveness, and prosperity of nations.

  12. Designing Fuzzy Rule Based Expert System for Cyber Security

    OpenAIRE

    Goztepe, Kerim

    2016-01-01

    The state of cyber security has begun to attract more attention and interest outside the community of computer security experts. Cyber security is not a single problem, but rather a group of highly different problems involving different sets of threats. Fuzzy Rule based system for cyber security is a system consists of a rule depository and a mechanism for accessing and running the rules. The depository is usually constructed with a collection of related rule sets. The aim of this study is to...

  13. An expert system for vibration based diagnostics of rotating machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korteniemi, A.

    1990-01-01

    Very often changes in the mechanical condition of the rotating machinery can be observed as changes in its vibration. This paper presents an expert system for vibration-based diagnosis of rotating machines by describing the architecture of the developed prototype system. The importance of modelling the problem solving knowledge as well as the domain knowledge is emphasized by presenting the knowledge in several levels

  14. Applying of Reliability Techniques and Expert Systems in Management of Radioactive Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldaihan, S.; Alhbaib, A.; Alrushudi, S.; Karazaitri, C.

    1998-01-01

    Accidents including radioactive exposure have variety of nature and size. This makes such accidents complex situations to be handled by radiation protection agencies or any responsible authority. The situations becomes worse with introducing advanced technology with high complexity that provide operator huge information about system working on. This paper discusses the application of reliability techniques in radioactive risk management. Event tree technique from nuclear field is described as well as two other techniques from nonnuclear fields, Hazard and Operability and Quality Function Deployment. The objective is to show the importance and the applicability of these techniques in radiation risk management. Finally, Expert Systems in the field of accidents management are explored and classified upon their applications

  15. Estimating distribution and connectivity of recolonizing American marten in the northeastern United States using expert elicitation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, C.M.; Murdoch, J.D.; Donovan, Therese M.; Kilpatrick, C.W.; Bernier, C.; Katz, J.

    2018-01-01

    The American marten Martes americana is a species of conservation concern in the northeastern United States due to widespread declines from over‐harvesting and habitat loss. Little information exists on current marten distribution and how landscape characteristics shape patterns of occupancy across the region, which could help develop effective recovery strategies. The rarity of marten and lack of historical distribution records are also problematic for region‐wide conservation planning. Expert opinion can provide a source of information for estimating species–landscape relationships and is especially useful when empirical data are sparse. We created a survey to elicit expert opinion and build a model that describes marten occupancy in the northeastern United States as a function of landscape conditions. We elicited opinions from 18 marten experts that included wildlife managers, trappers and researchers. Each expert estimated occupancy probability at 30 sites in their geographic region of expertise. We, then, fit the response data with a set of 58 models that incorporated the effects of covariates related to forest characteristics, climate, anthropogenic impacts and competition at two spatial scales (1.5 and 5 km radii), and used model selection techniques to determine the best model in the set. Three top models had strong empirical support, which we model averaged based on AIC weights. The final model included effects of five covariates at the 5‐km scale: percent canopy cover (positive), percent spruce‐fir land cover (positive), winter temperature (negative), elevation (positive) and road density (negative). A receiver operating characteristic curve indicated that the model performed well based on recent occurrence records. We mapped distribution across the region and used circuit theory to estimate movement corridors between isolated core populations. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of expert‐opinion data at modeling occupancy for rare

  16. Distributed Web-Based Expert System for Launch Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardina, Jorge E.; Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar

    2005-01-01

    The simulation and modeling of launch operations is based on a representation of the organization of the operations suitable to experiment of the physical, procedural, software, hardware and psychological aspects of space flight operations. The virtual test bed consists of a weather expert system to advice on the effect of weather to the launch operations. It also simulates toxic gas dispersion model, and the risk impact on human health. Since all modeling and simulation is based on the internet, it could reduce the cost of operations of launch and range safety by conducting extensive research before a particular launch. Each model has an independent decision making module to derive the best decision for launch.

  17. International, Expert-Based, Consensus Statement Regarding the Management of Acute Diverticulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, D Peter; Lynch, Noel; Clancy, Cillian; Winter, Desmond C; Myers, Eddie

    2015-09-01

    This Delphi study provides consensus related to many aspects of acute diverticulitis and identifies other areas in need of research. To generate an international, expert-based, consensus statement to address controversies in the management of acute diverticulitis. This study was conducted using the Delphi technique from April 3 through October 21, 2014. A survey website was used and a panel of acute diverticulitis experts was formed via the snowball method. The top 5 acute diverticulitis experts in 5 international geographic regions were identified based on their number of publications related to acute diverticulitis. The Delphi study used 3 rounds of questions, after which the consensus statement was collated. A consensus statement related to the management of acute diverticulitis. Twenty items were selected for inclusion in the consensus statement following 3 rounds of questioning. A clear definition of uncomplicated and complicated diverticulitis is provided. In uncomplicated diverticulitis, consensus was reached regarding appropriate laboratory and radiological evaluation of patients as well as nonsurgical, surgical, and follow-up strategies. A number of important topics, including antibiotic treatment, failed to reach consensus. In addition, consensus was reached regarding many nonsurgical and surgical treatment strategies in complicated diverticulitis. Controversy continues internationally regarding the management of acute diverticulitis. This study demonstrates that there is more nonconsensus among experts than consensus regarding most issues, even in the same region. It also provides insight into the status quo regarding the treatment of acute diverticulitis and provides important direction for future research.

  18. Structure of the knowledge base for an expert labeling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, N. S.

    1981-01-01

    One of the principal objectives of the NASA AgRISTARS program is the inventory of global crop resources using remotely sensed data gathered by Land Satellites (LANDSAT). A central problem in any such crop inventory procedure is the interpretation of LANDSAT images and identification of parts of each image which are covered by a particular crop of interest. This task of labeling is largely a manual one done by trained human analysts and consequently presents obstacles to the development of totally automated crop inventory systems. However, development in knowledge engineering as well as widespread availability of inexpensive hardware and software for artificial intelligence work offers possibilities for developing expert systems for labeling of crops. Such a knowledge based approach to labeling is presented.

  19. Use of a FORTH-based PROLOG for real-time expert systems. 1: Spacelab life sciences experiment application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloski, William H.; Odette, Louis L.; Krever, Alfred J.; West, Allison K.

    1987-01-01

    A real-time expert system is being developed to serve as the astronaut interface for a series of Spacelab vestibular experiments. This expert system is written in a version of Prolog that is itself written in Forth. The Prolog contains a predicate that can be used to execute Forth definitions; thus, the Forth becomes an embedded real-time operating system within the Prolog programming environment. The expert system consists of a data base containing detailed operational instructions for each experiment, a rule base containing Prolog clauses used to determine the next step in an experiment sequence, and a procedure base containing Prolog goals formed from real-time routines coded in Forth. In this paper, we demonstrate and describe the techniques and considerations used to develop this real-time expert system, and we conclude that Forth-based Prolog provides a viable implementation vehicle for this and similar applications.

  20. A methodology for uncertainty quantification in quantitative technology valuation based on expert elicitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Muhammad Farooq Bin

    uncertainty propagation. Non-linear behavior in technology interactions is captured through expert elicitation based technology synergy matrices (TSM). Proposed TSMs increase the fidelity of current technology forecasting methods by including higher order technology interactions. A test case for quantification of epistemic uncertainty on a large scale problem of combined cycle power generation system was selected. A detailed multidisciplinary modeling and simulation environment was adopted for this problem. Results have shown that evidence theory based technique provides more insight on the uncertainties arising from incomplete information or lack of knowledge as compared to deterministic or probability theory methods. Margin analysis was also carried out for both the techniques. A detailed description of TSMs and their usage in conjunction with technology impact matrices and technology compatibility matrices is discussed. Various combination methods are also proposed for higher order interactions, which can be applied according to the expert opinion or historical data. The introduction of technology synergy matrix enabled capturing the higher order technology interactions, and improvement in predicted system performance.

  1. 29 CFR 18.703 - Bases of opinion testimony by experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Bases of opinion testimony by experts. The facts or data in the particular case upon which an expert... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Bases of opinion testimony by experts. 18.703 Section 18.703 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS...

  2. An expert system for improving the gamma-ray scanning technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laraki, K.; Alami, R.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Bensitel, A.; El Badri, L.

    2007-01-01

    The gamma-ray scanning technique is widely used in the diagnosis and identification of industrial installations, in general and, in particular, of distillation columns considered as the most critical components in petrochemical plants. It provides essential data to optimise the performance of columns and identify maintenance requirements. Due to the various difficulties that can arise while analysing a scanning profile and in order to benefit from the continuous advent of new technologies in the field of electronics and data processing, the team of the Division of Instrumentation and Industrial Applications of CNESTEN have conducted a project aiming the elaboration of an expert system for acquisition, processing and interpretation of the scanning results. This system consists of two main modules: the first one is devoted to the preparation and control of the scanning operation conditions, while the second module has been developed to carry out easily and effectively the automatic (on-line) analysis and interpretation of the scan profiles

  3. A new Expert Finding model based on Term Correlation Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Pornour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the enormous volume of unstructured information available on the Web and inside organization, finding an answer to the knowledge need in a short time is difficult. For this reason, beside Search Engines which don’t consider users individual characteristics, Recommender systems were created which use user’s previous activities and other individual characteristics to help users find needed knowledge. Recommender systems usage is increasing every day. Expert finder systems also by introducing expert people instead of recommending information to users have provided this facility for users to ask their questions form experts. Having relation with experts not only causes information transition, but also with transferring experiences and inception causes knowledge transition. In this paper we used university professors academic resume as expert people profile and then proposed a new expert finding model that recommends experts to users query. We used Term Correlation Matrix, Vector Space Model and PageRank algorithm and proposed a new hybrid model which outperforms conventional methods. This model can be used in internet environment, organizations and universities that experts have resume dataset.

  4. The cardiovascular responses of male subjects to kung fu techniques. Expert/novice paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M A; Unnithan, V B

    1998-12-01

    The primary aim was to assess cardiovascular responses of expert and novice subjects to kung fu techniques. It was hypothesised that experienced subjects would demonstrate improved economy of movement during the techniques, evidenced by reduced exercise intensity. a comparative design was established utilising two groups; experienced (group E), and novice (group N). the experimentation took place under laboratory conditions, but was designed to maximise external validity. the only preselection variables were regular attendance at training and experience. Nine experienced males (group E, exp 9.5 +/- 5.2 yrs) and nine novice males (group N, exp 1.2 +/- 0.1 yrs) participated. The only exclusion guidelines were contraindications to participate within a maximal test, no subjects were excluded upon this basis. N/A. each subject participated in three kung fu protocols (forms, kicking and punching). Each protocol, randomly allocated, consisted of ten work (30 sec) and ten rest periods (30 sec). MEASURES taken during the protocols were heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (VO2). These were expressed as a percentage of maximal values to reflect exercise intensity. During both the form protocol and punching protocol group E were found to be working at a significantly (p kung fu techniques differ depending upon experience level. It is difficult to directly relate this to improved economy since work output could not be accurately quantified. It was also found that kung fu protocols elicited exercise intensity into the cardiovascular training zone.

  5. Rule base system in developing groundwater pollution expert system: predicting model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongkon Ta-oun; Mohamed Daud; Mohd Zohadie Bardaie; Shamshuddin Jusop

    2000-01-01

    New techniques are now available for use in the protection of the environment. One of these techniques is the use of expert system for prediction groundwater pollution potential. Groundwater Pollution Expert system (GWPES) rules are a collection of principles and procedures used to know the comprehension of groundwater pollution prediction. The rules of groundwater pollution expert system in the form of questions, choice, radio-box, slide rule, button or frame are translated in to IF-THEN rule. The rules including of variables, types, domains and descriptions were used by the function of wxCLIPS (C Language Integrate Production System) expert system shell. (author)

  6. Expert music performance: cognitive, neural, and developmental bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M; Zatorre, Robert J; Penhune, Virginia B

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we explore what happens in the brain of an expert musician during performance. Understanding expert music performance is interesting to cognitive neuroscientists not only because it tests the limits of human memory and movement, but also because studying expert musicianship can help us understand skilled human behavior in general. In this chapter, we outline important facets of our current understanding of the cognitive and neural basis for music performance, and developmental factors that may underlie musical ability. We address three main questions. (1) What is expert performance? (2) How do musicians achieve expert-level performance? (3) How does expert performance come about? We address the first question by describing musicians' ability to remember, plan, execute, and monitor their performances in order to perform music accurately and expressively. We address the second question by reviewing evidence for possible cognitive and neural mechanisms that may underlie or contribute to expert music performance, including the integration of sound and movement, feedforward and feedback motor control processes, expectancy, and imagery. We further discuss how neural circuits in auditory, motor, parietal, subcortical, and frontal cortex all contribute to different facets of musical expertise. Finally, we address the third question by reviewing evidence for the heritability of musical expertise and for how expertise develops through training and practice. We end by discussing outlooks for future work. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Rule-based expert system for maritime anomaly detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Jean

    2010-04-01

    Maritime domain operators/analysts have a mandate to be aware of all that is happening within their areas of responsibility. This mandate derives from the needs to defend sovereignty, protect infrastructures, counter terrorism, detect illegal activities, etc., and it has become more challenging in the past decade, as commercial shipping turned into a potential threat. In particular, a huge portion of the data and information made available to the operators/analysts is mundane, from maritime platforms going about normal, legitimate activities, and it is very challenging for them to detect and identify the non-mundane. To achieve such anomaly detection, they must establish numerous relevant situational facts from a variety of sensor data streams. Unfortunately, many of the facts of interest just cannot be observed; the operators/analysts thus use their knowledge of the maritime domain and their reasoning faculties to infer these facts. As they are often overwhelmed by the large amount of data and information, automated reasoning tools could be used to support them by inferring the necessary facts, ultimately providing indications and warning on a small number of anomalous events worthy of their attention. Along this line of thought, this paper describes a proof-of-concept prototype of a rule-based expert system implementing automated rule-based reasoning in support of maritime anomaly detection.

  8. The BASES expert statement on emotion regulation in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Andrew M; Beedie, Chris J; Jones, Marc V; Uphill, Mark; Devonport, Tracey J

    2012-01-01

    Emotions experienced before and during sports competition have been found to influence sports performance. Emotion regulation is defined as the automatic or deliberate use of strategies to initiate, maintain, modify or display emotions (Gross & Thompson, 2007) and is proposed to occur when a discrepancy exists between current and desired emotions. Two distinct motivations to regulate emotion - hedonic and instrumental (in short, for pleasure or for purpose) - have been proposed (Tamir, 2009). The instrumental approach might provide a more fruitful area of investigation for sports researchers as some athletes hold beliefs that supposedly pleasant emotions such as happiness and calmness associate with poor performance and supposedly unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and anger associate with good performance (Hanin, 2010). Athletes are more likely to try to regulate an emotion if they believe that doing so will facilitate performance. Strategies that encourage re-appraisal of factors that trigger emotions are proposed to be preferable. In this British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences (BASES) expert statement, a summary of the key theoretical issues are offered leading to evidence-based recommendations for practitioners and researchers.

  9. The Potential of Computer-Based Expert Systems for Special Educators in Rural Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, James D.; Ferrara, Joseph M.

    Knowledge-based expert computer systems are addressing issues relevant to all special educators, but are particularly relevant in rural settings where human experts are less available because of distance and cost. An expert system is an application of artificial intelligence (AI) that typically engages the user in a dialogue resembling the…

  10. Matrix Failure Modes and Effects Analysis as a Knowledge Base for a Real Time Automated Diagnosis Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrin, Stephanie; Iverson, David; Spukovska, Lilly; Souza, Kenneth A. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Failure Modes and Effects Analysis contain a wealth of information that can be used to create the knowledge base required for building automated diagnostic Expert systems. A real time monitoring and diagnosis expert system based on an actual NASA project's matrix failure modes and effects analysis was developed. This Expert system Was developed at NASA Ames Research Center. This system was first used as a case study to monitor the Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF), a Space Shuttle payload that is used to house and monitor animals in orbit so the effects of space flight and microgravity can be studied. The techniques developed for the RAHF monitoring and diagnosis Expert system are general enough to be used for monitoring and diagnosis of a variety of other systems that undergo a Matrix FMEA. This automated diagnosis system was successfully used on-line and validated on the Space Shuttle flight STS-58, mission SLS-2 in October 1993.

  11. A Web-Based Rice Plant Expert System Using Rule-Based Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Setiawan Honggowibowo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice plants can be attacked by various kinds of diseases which are possible to be determined from their symptoms. However, it is to recognize that to find out the exact type of disease, an agricultural expert’s opinion is needed, meanwhile the numbers of agricultural experts are limited and there are too many problems to be solved at the same time. This makes a system with a capability as an expert is required. This system must contain the knowledge of the diseases and symptom of rice plants as an agricultural expert has to have. This research designs a web-based expert system using rule-based reasoning. The rule are modified from the method of forward chaining inference and backward chaining in order to to help farmers in the rice plant disease diagnosis. The web-based rice plants disease diagnosis expert system has the advantages to access and use easily. With web-based features inside, it is expected that the farmer can accesse the expert system everywhere to overcome the problem to diagnose rice diseases.

  12. Evaluation of a Performance-Based Expert Elicitation: WHO Global Attribution of Foodborne Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aspinall, W. P.; Cooke, R. M.; Havelaar, A. H.

    2016-01-01

    . This paper presents new findings from a large-scale international SEJ study intended to estimate the global burden of foodborne disease on behalf of WHO. The study involved 72 experts distributed over 134 expert panels, with panels comprising thirteen experts on average. Elicitations were conducted in five...... languages. Performance-based weighted solutions for target questions of interest were formed for each panel. These weights were based on individual expert's statistical accuracy and informativeness, determined using between ten and fifteen calibration variables from the experts' field with known values...

  13. DG Allocation Based on Reliability, Losses and Voltage Sag Considerations: an expert system approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Abdel Moneim Moussa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Expert System (ES as a branch of Artificial Intelligence (AI methodology can potentially help in solving complicated power system problems. This may be more appropriate methodology than conventional optimization techniques when contradiction between objectives appears in reaching the optimum solution. When this contradiction is the hindrance in reaching the required system operation through the application of traditional methods ES can give a hand in such case. In this paper, the  knowledge- based ES technique is proposed to reach near-optimum solution which is further directed to the optimum solution through particle swarm optimization (PSO technique. This idea is known as Hybrid-Expert-System (HES. The proposed idea is used in getting the optimum allocation of a number of distributed generation (DG units on Distribution System (DS busbars taking into consideration three issues; reliability, voltage sag, and line losses. Optimality is assessed on the economic basis by calculating money benefits (or losses resulting from DG addition considering the three aforementioned issues. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is ascertained through example.

  14. IDEA-system - a new computer based expert system for incorporation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerfel, H.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: There is an increasing number of national and international recommendations and guidelines for incorporation monitoring (ICRP Publications, IAEA Safety Reports, ISO Standards, etc.). These recommendations cover different phases of incorporation monitoring and they provide general requirements for the measuring techniques, the monitoring procedures and for the procedures to evaluate intakes and doses from the monitoring results. There is, however, still a strong need for giving guidance to the dosimetrists on how to apply all the regulations properly. Thus, the EU project IDEAS was launched in order to provide general guidelines for the assessment of internal dose from incorporation monitoring data. These guidelines have recently been discussed in a virtual workshop on the internet (www.ideas-workshop.de) and they are being considered by ICRP for possible adoption in the near future. Recently, in the Karlsruhe Research Centre, a computer-based expert system has been developed for assisting dosimetrists in applying the relevant recommendations and guidelines for incorporation monitoring and internal dosimetry. The expert system gives guidance to the user with respect to: planning of monitoring (estimation of potential exposures, decision on the requirements of monitoring, definition of optimum measuring techniques and monitoring intervals); performing routine and special monitoring and evaluation of primary monitoring results. The evaluation of primary monitoring results is done according to the IDEAS guidelines in a threestage procedure according to the expected level of exposure (E = committed effective dose): standard evaluation with default or site specific parameter values (E 6 mSv). With these well-defined procedures the expert system follows the aim, that all recommendations and guidelines are applied properly and thus: internal exposures of more than 1 mSv are very likely to be detected in all situations; the results in terms of committed effective

  15. NDT-based bridge condition assessment supported by expert tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bień, J.; KuŻawa, M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper is focused on the progress in the application of Expert Tools supporting integration of inspection and NDT testing findings in order to effectuate effective decision making by bridge owners. Possibilities of knowledge representation in the intelligent computer Expert Tools by means of the multi-level hybrid network technology are described. These multi-level hybrid networks can be built of neural, fuzzy and functional components depending on the problem that needs to be solved and on the type of available information. Application of the technology is illustrated by an example of the Bridge Evaluation Expert Function (BEEF) implemented in the Railway Bridge Management System "SMOK" operated by the Polish State Railways.

  16. Expert-systems and computer-based industrial systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrien, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Framatome makes wide use of expert systems, computer-assisted engineering, production management and personnel training. It has set up separate business units and subsidiaries and also participates in other companies which have the relevant expertise. Five examples of the products and services available in these are discussed. These are in the field of applied artificial intelligence and expert-systems, in integrated computer-aid design and engineering, structural analysis, computer-related products and services and document management systems. The structure of the companies involved and the work they are doing is discussed. (UK)

  17. Development of a QFD-based expert system for CNC turning centre selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Kanika; Chakraborty, Shankar

    2015-12-01

    Computer numerical control (CNC) machine tools are automated devices capable of generating complicated and intricate product shapes in shorter time. Selection of the best CNC machine tool is a critical, complex and time-consuming task due to availability of a wide range of alternatives and conflicting nature of several evaluation criteria. Although, the past researchers had attempted to select the appropriate machining centres using different knowledge-based systems, mathematical models and multi-criteria decision-making methods, none of those approaches has given due importance to the voice of customers. The aforesaid limitation can be overcome using quality function deployment (QFD) technique, which is a systematic approach for integrating customers' needs and designing the product to meet those needs first time and every time. In this paper, the adopted QFD-based methodology helps in selecting CNC turning centres for a manufacturing organization, providing due importance to the voice of customers to meet their requirements. An expert system based on QFD technique is developed in Visual BASIC 6.0 to automate the CNC turning centre selection procedure for different production plans. Three illustrative examples are demonstrated to explain the real-time applicability of the developed expert system.

  18. A Fuzzy Rule-Based Expert System for Evaluating Intellectual Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Fazel Zarandi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A fuzzy rule-based expert system is developed for evaluating intellectual capital. A fuzzy linguistic approach assists managers to understand and evaluate the level of each intellectual capital item. The proposed fuzzy rule-based expert system applies fuzzy linguistic variables to express the level of qualitative evaluation and criteria of experts. Feasibility of the proposed model is demonstrated by the result of intellectual capital performance evaluation for a sample company.

  19. SP-100 shield design automation process using expert system and heuristic search techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcille, T.F.; Protsik, R.; Deane, N.A.; Hoover, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    The SP-100 shield subsystem design process has been modified to utilize the GE Corporate Reserch and Development program, ENGINEOUS (Tong 1990). ENGINEOUS is a software system that automates the use of Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) analysis programs in the engineering design process. The shield subsystem design process incorporates a nuclear subsystems design and performance code, a two-dimensional neutral particle transport code, several input processors and two general purpose neutronic output processors. Coupling these programs within ENGINEOUS provides automatic transition paths between applications, with no source code modifications. ENGINEOUS captures human design knowledge, as well as information about the specific CAE applications and stores this information in knowledge base files. The knowledge base information is used by the ENGINEOUS expert system to drive knowledge directed and knowledge supplemented search modules to find an optimum shield design for a given reactor definition, ensuring that specified constraints are satisfied. Alternate designs, not accommodated in the optimization design rules, can readily be explored through the use of a parametric study capability

  20. Expert Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, P.J.F.

    2005-01-01

    Expert systems mimic the problem-solving activity of human experts in specialized domains by capturing and representing expert knowledge. Expert systems include a knowledge base, an inference engine that derives conclusions from the knowledge, and a user interface. Knowledge may be stored as if-then rules, orusing other formalisms such as frames and predicate logic. Uncertain knowledge may be represented using certainty factors, Bayesian networks, Dempster-Shafer belief functions, or fuzzy se...

  1. Simulation-based expert system for nuclear reactor control and diagnostics. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.C.; Martin, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    This research concerns the development of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques suitable for application to the diagnostics and control of nuclear power plant systems. The overall objective of the current effort is to build a prototype simulation-based expert system for diagnosing accidents in nuclear reactors. The system is being designed to analyze plant data heuristically using fuzzy logic to form a set of hypotheses about a particular transient. Hypothesis testing, fault magnitude estimation and transient analysis is performed using simulation programs to model plant behavior. An adaptive learning technique has been developed for achieving accurate simulations of plant dynamics using low-order physical models of plant components. The results of the diagnostics and simulation analysis of the plant transient are to be analyzed by an expert system for final diagnoses and control guidance. To date, significant progress has been made toward achieving the primary goals of this project. Based on a critical safety functions approach, an overall design for the nuclear plant expert system has been developed. The methodology for performing diagnostic reasoning on plant signals has been developed and the algorithms implemented and tested. A methodology for utilizing the information contained in the physical models of plant components has also been developed. This work included the derivation of a unique Kalman filtering algorithm for using power plant data to systematically improve on-line simulations through the judicious adjustment of key model parameters. A few simulation models of key plant components have been developed and implemented to demonstrate the method on a realistic accident scenario. The chosen transient is a loss of feed flow exasperated by a stuck open relief valve, similar to the initiating event of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 accident in 1979

  2. Method for distributed agent-based non-expert simulation of manufacturing process behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivezic, Nenad; Potok, Thomas E.

    2004-11-30

    A method for distributed agent based non-expert simulation of manufacturing process behavior on a single-processor computer comprises the steps of: object modeling a manufacturing technique having a plurality of processes; associating a distributed agent with each the process; and, programming each the agent to respond to discrete events corresponding to the manufacturing technique, wherein each discrete event triggers a programmed response. The method can further comprise the step of transmitting the discrete events to each agent in a message loop. In addition, the programming step comprises the step of conditioning each agent to respond to a discrete event selected from the group consisting of a clock tick message, a resources received message, and a request for output production message.

  3. The BASES expert statement in safeguarding in the sport sciences.

    OpenAIRE

    Kavanagh, Emma J.; Knowles, Z.; Brady, A.; Rhind, D.; Gervis, M.; Miles, A.; Davison, R.

    2016-01-01

    Within the context of sport and exercise science, safeguarding concerns a professional obligation to protect all parties (for example the client, athlete and/or self) from maltreatment or harm (Mountjoy et al., 2016). Safeguarding should embrace relational (others), individual (self) and organisational (culture) considerations. The understanding of physical, emotional and social well-being and freedom from discrimination are the focus of safeguarding education. In this expert statement we pro...

  4. Neural network-based expert system for severe accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klopp, G.T.; Silverman, E.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the second phase of a three-phase Severe Accident Management expert system program underway at Commonwealth Edison Company (CECo). Phase I successfully demonstrated the feasibility of Artificial Neural Networks to support several of the objectives of severe accident management. Simulated accident scenarios were generated by the Modular Accident Analysis Program (MAAP) code currently in use by CECo as part of their Individual Plant Evaluations (IPE)/Accident Management Program. The primary objectives of the second phase were to develop and demonstrate four capabilities of neural networks with respect to nuclear power plant severe accident monitoring and prediction. The results of this work would form the foundation of a demonstration system which included expert system performance features. These capabilities included the ability to: (1) Predict the time available prior to support plate (and reactor vessel) failure; (2) Calculate the time remaining until recovery actions were too late to prevent core damage; (3) Predict future parameter values of each of the MAAP parameter variables; and (4) Detect simulated sensor failure and provide best-value estimates for further processing in the presence of a sensor failure. A variety of accident scenarios for the Zion and Dresden plants were used to train and test the neural network expert system. These included large and small break LOCAs as well as a range of transient events. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  5. Appropriate Urban Livability Indicators for Metropolitan Johor, Malaysia via Expert-Stakeholder Approach: a Delphi technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Gallares Pampanga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Metro Johor is one of the fast emerging metropolitan urban centers where its current progress and spatial transformation have made it a key player in the economic growth of Malaysia. The recent creation of the Iskandar Malaysia, an economic strategy which aims to be a global player as potential destination for high-value investments, has certainly added social, environmental and economic stress to its urban citizens. This paper intends to develop urban livability indicators for Metropolitan Johor anchored on the changing urban complexion in the face of climate change, economic, governance, social and cultural dynamics, among others. The urban livability conundrum of Metro Johor illustrates that indicators are imperative, especially policy-based indicators, which would aid to scale-up the desired progress according to urban livability metrics. The study involves iterative 3-rounds of Delphi blind survey with Likert scale’s degree of agreement, and finally assigning weightings to each sub-indicator. Thus, with the expert-stakeholders involvement, constituting broad-sectoral community representation, a robust and appropriate urban livability index for Metro Johor was generated - a comprehensive framework yet prospective benchmark in appropriating timely policy decisions that would redound to the benefit of urban citizens ensuring a livable Metropolitan Johor.

  6. Development of a rule-based diagnostic platform on an object-oriented expert system shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wenlin; Yang, Ming; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Multilevel Flow Model represents system knowledge as a domain map in expert system. • Rule-based fault diagnostic expert system can identify root cause via a causal chain. • Rule-based fault diagnostic expert system can be used for fault simulation training. - Abstract: This paper presents the development and implementation of a real-time rule-based diagnostic platform. The knowledge is acquired from domain experts and textbooks and the design of the fault diagnosis expert system was performed in the following ways: (i) establishing of corresponding classes and instances to build the domain map, (ii) creating of generic fault models based on events, and (iii) building of diagnostic reasoning based on rules. Knowledge representation is a complicated issue of expert systems. One highlight of this paper is that the Multilevel Flow Model has been used to represent the knowledge, which composes the domain map within the expert system as well as providing a concise description of the system. The developed platform is illustrated using the pressure safety system of a pressurized water reactor as an example of the simulation test bed; the platform is developed using the commercial and industrially validated software G2. The emulation test was conducted and it has been proven that the fault diagnosis expert system can identify the faults correctly and in a timely way; this system can be used as a simulation-based training tool to assist operators to make better decisions.

  7. Time-based air traffic management using expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, L.; Scoggins, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    A prototype expert system was developed for the time scheduling of aircraft into the terminal area. The three functions of the air traffic control schedule advisor are as follows: first, for each new arrival, it develops an admissible flight plan for that aircraft. Second, as the aircraft progresses through the terminal area, it monitors deviations from the flight plan and provides advisories to return the aircraft to its assigned schedule. Third, if major disruptions such as missed approaches occur, it develops a revised plan. The advisor is operational on a Symbolics 3600, and is programed in MRS (a logic programming language), Lisp, and FORTRAN.

  8. Seeing the System through the End Users' Eyes: Shadow Expert Technique for Evaluating the Consistency of a Learning Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzinger, Andreas; Stickel, Christian; Fassold, Markus; Ebner, Martin

    Interface consistency is an important basic concept in web design and has an effect on performance and satisfaction of end users. Consistency also has significant effects on the learning performance of both expert and novice end users. Consequently, the evaluation of consistency within a e-learning system and the ensuing eradication of irritating discrepancies in the user interface redesign is a big issue. In this paper, we report of our experiences with the Shadow Expert Technique (SET) during the evaluation of the consistency of the user interface of a large university learning management system. The main objective of this new usability evaluation method is to understand the interaction processes of end users with a specific system interface. Two teams of usability experts worked independently from each other in order to maximize the objectivity of the results. The outcome of this SET method is a list of recommended changes to improve the user interaction processes, hence to facilitate high consistency.

  9. Brazilian medical students’ perceptions of expert versus non-expert facilitators in a (non problem-based learning environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucélio B. Couto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In problem-based learning (PBL, the facilitator plays an important role in guiding the student learning process. However, although content expertise is generally regarded as a useful but non-essential prerequisite for effective PBL facilitation, the perceived importance of content knowledge may be subject to cultural, contextual, and/or experiential influences. Aim: We sought to examine medical students’ perceptions of subject-matter expertise among PBL facilitators in a region of the world (Brazil where such active learning pedagogies are not widely used in university or pre-university settings. Results: Of the 252 Brazilian medical students surveyed, significantly (p≤0.001 greater proportions viewed content expert facilitators to be more effective than their non-expert counterparts at building knowledge (95% vs. 6%, guiding the learning process (93% vs. 7%, achieving cognitive learning (92% vs. 18%, generating learning goals (87% vs. 15%, and motivating self-study (80% vs. 15%. Discussion/conclusion: According to Brazilian medical students, subject-matter expertise among PBL facilitators is essential to the learning process. We believe this widespread perception is due, in large part, to the relative lack of prior educational exposure to such pedagogies.

  10. A knowledge based expert system for propellant system monitoring at the Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, J. R.; Delaune, C.; Scarl, E.

    1985-01-01

    The Lox Expert System (LES) is the first attempt to build a realtime expert system capable of simulating the thought processes of NASA system engineers, with regard to fluids systems analysis and troubleshooting. An overview of the hardware and software describes the techniques used, and possible applications to other process control systems. LES is now in the advanced development stage, with a full implementation planned for late 1985.

  11. SEM-based characterization techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    The scanning electron microscope is now a common instrument in materials characterization laboratories. The basic role of the SEM as a topographic imaging system has steadily been expanding to include a variety of SEM-based analytical techniques. These techniques cover the range of basic semiconductor materials characterization to live-time device characterization of operating LSI or VLSI devices. This paper introduces many of the more commonly used techniques, describes the modifications or additions to a conventional SEM required to utilize the techniques, and gives examples of the use of such techniques. First, the types of signals available from a sample being irradiated by an electron beam are reviewed. Then, where applicable, the type of spectroscopy or microscopy which has evolved to utilize the various signal types are described. This is followed by specific examples of the use of such techniques to solve problems related to semiconductor technology. Techniques emphasized include: x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, electron beam induced current (EBIC), stroboscopic voltage analysis, cathodoluminescnece and electron beam IC metrology. Current and future trends of some of the these techniques, as related to the semiconductor industry are discussed

  12. Expert System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas Troels; Cattani, Gian Luca

    2016-01-01

    An expert system is a computer system for inferring knowledge from a knowledge base, typically by using a set of inference rules. When the concept of expert systems was introduced at Stanford University in the early 1970s, the knowledge base was an unstructured set of facts. Today the knowledge b...... for the application of expert systems, but also raises issues regarding privacy and legal liability....

  13. A Quality Function Deployment-Based Expert System for Cotton Fibre Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shankar; Prasad, Kanika

    2018-06-01

    The textile industries have seen resurgence in customers' demand for quality products during the preceding few years. This product range is extremely varied, with hand-spun and hand-woven products at one end of the spectrum, while products manufactured from the capital intensive sophisticated machineries at the other end. Since, cotton fibres are predominantly employed as the raw material for manufacturing these products, their proper selection is crucial for sustainable development of the textile/spinning industries. However, availability of numerous cotton fibre alternatives with various physical properties makes this selection process unwieldy and time consuming. Thus, there is need for a structured approach that can incorporate customers' demand into the selection process. This paper demonstrates the application of a structured and logical procedure of selecting the best cotton fibre type to fulfill a set of specified end product requirements through design and development of a quality function deployment (QFD)-based expert system. The QFD technique is employed here to provide due importance to the customers' spoken and unspoken needs, and subsequently calculate the priority weights of the considered cotton fibre properties. Two real time illustrative examples are presented to explicate the applicability and potentiality of the developed expert system to resolve cotton fibre selection problems.

  14. A Quality Function Deployment-Based Expert System for Cotton Fibre Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shankar; Prasad, Kanika

    2018-01-01

    The textile industries have seen resurgence in customers' demand for quality products during the preceding few years. This product range is extremely varied, with hand-spun and hand-woven products at one end of the spectrum, while products manufactured from the capital intensive sophisticated machineries at the other end. Since, cotton fibres are predominantly employed as the raw material for manufacturing these products, their proper selection is crucial for sustainable development of the textile/spinning industries. However, availability of numerous cotton fibre alternatives with various physical properties makes this selection process unwieldy and time consuming. Thus, there is need for a structured approach that can incorporate customers' demand into the selection process. This paper demonstrates the application of a structured and logical procedure of selecting the best cotton fibre type to fulfill a set of specified end product requirements through design and development of a quality function deployment (QFD)-based expert system. The QFD technique is employed here to provide due importance to the customers' spoken and unspoken needs, and subsequently calculate the priority weights of the considered cotton fibre properties. Two real time illustrative examples are presented to explicate the applicability and potentiality of the developed expert system to resolve cotton fibre selection problems.

  15. On the performance of social network and likelihood-based expert weighting schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, Roger M.; ElSaadany, Susie; Huang Xinzheng

    2008-01-01

    Using expert judgment data from the TU Delft's expert judgment database, we compare the performance of different weighting schemes, namely equal weighting, performance-based weighting from the classical model [Cooke RM. Experts in uncertainty. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1991.], social network (SN) weighting and likelihood weighting. The picture that emerges with regard to SN weights is rather mixed. SN theory does not provide an alternative to performance-based combination of expert judgments, since the statistical accuracy of the SN decision maker is sometimes unacceptably low. On the other hand, it does outperform equal weighting in the majority of cases. The results here, though not overwhelmingly positive, do nonetheless motivate further research into social interaction methods for nominating and weighting experts. Indeed, a full expert judgment study with performance measurement requires an investment in time and effort, with a view to securing external validation. If high confidence in a comparable level of validation can be obtained by less intensive methods, this would be very welcome, and would facilitate the application of structured expert judgment in situations where the resources for a full study are not available. Likelihood weights are just as resource intensive as performance-based weights, and the evidence presented here suggests that they are inferior to performance-based weights with regard to those scoring variables which are optimized in performance weights (calibration and information). Perhaps surprisingly, they are also inferior with regard to likelihood. Their use is further discouraged by the fact that they constitute a strongly improper scoring rule

  16. Development of a tool for knowledge base verification of expert system based on Design/CPN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Hyun

    1998-02-01

    Verification is a necessary work in developing a reliable expert system. Verification is a process aimed at demonstrating whether a system meets it's specified requirements. As expert systems are used in various applications, the knowledge base verification of systems takes an important position. The conventional Petri net approach that has been studied recently in order to verify the knowledge base is found that it is inadequate to verify the knowledge base of large and complex system, such as alarm processing system of nuclear power plant. Thus, we propose an improved method that models the knowledge base as enhanced colored Petri net. In this study, we analyze the reachability and the error characteristics of the knowledge base. Generally, verification process requires computational support by automated tools. For this reason, this study developed a tool for knowledge base verification based on Design/CPN, which is a tool for editing, modeling, and simulating Colored Petri net. This tool uses Enhanced Colored Petri net as a modeling method. By applying this tool to the knowledge base of nuclear power plant, it is noticed that it can successfully check most of the anomalies that can occur in a knowledge base

  17. Knowledge base to develop expert system prototype for predicting groundwater pollution from nitrogen fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ta-oun, M.; Daud, M.; Bardaie, M.Z.; Jusop, S.

    1999-01-01

    An expert system for prediction the impact of nitrogen fertilizer on groundwater pollution potential was established by using CLIPS (NASA's Jonson Space Centre). The knowledge base could be extracted from FAO reports, ministry of agriculture and rural development Malaysia report, established literature and domain expert for preparing an expert system skeleton. An expert system was used to correlate the availability of nitrogen fertilizer with the vulnerability of groundwater to pollution in Peninsula Malaysia and to identify potential groundwater quality problems. An n-fertilizer groundwater pollution potential index produced b using the vulnerability of groundwater to pollution yields a more accurate screening toll for identifying potential pollution problems than by considering vulnerability alone. An expert system can predict the groundwater pollution potential under several conditions of agricultural activities and existing environments. (authors)

  18. EXPERT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiana Marin; Mihai Catalin Andrei

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades IT and computer systems have evolved rapidly in economic informatics field. The goal is to create user friendly information systems that respond promptly and accurately to requests. Informatics systems evolved into decision assisted systems, and such systems are converted, based on gained experience, in expert systems for creative problem solving that an organization is facing. Expert systems are aimed at rebuilding human reasoning on the expertise obtained from experts, sto...

  19. A method of knowledge base verification and validation for nuclear power plants expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Il Won

    1996-02-01

    The adoption of expert systems mainly as operator supporting systems is becoming increasingly popular as the control algorithms of system become more and more sophisticated and complicated. As a result of this popularity, a large number of expert systems are developed. The nature of expert systems, however, requires that they be verified and validated carefully and that detailed methodologies for their development be devised. Therefore, it is widely noted that assuring the reliability of expert systems is very important, especially in nuclear industry, and it is also recognized that the process of verification and validation is an essential part of reliability assurance for these systems. Research and practices have produced numerous methods for expert system verification and validation (V and V) that suggest traditional software and system approaches to V and V. However, many approaches and methods for expert system V and V are partial, unreliable, and not uniform. The purpose of this paper is to present a new approach to expert system V and V, based on Petri nets, providing a uniform model. We devise and suggest an automated tool, called COKEP (Checker Of Knowledge base using Extended Petri net), for checking incorrectness, inconsistency, and incompleteness in a knowledge base. We also suggest heuristic analysis for validation process to show that the reasoning path is correct

  20. Online-Expert: An Expert System for Online Database Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahir, Sajjad; Chang, Chew Lik

    1992-01-01

    Describes the design and development of a prototype expert system called ONLINE-EXPERT that helps users select online databases and vendors that meet users' needs. Search strategies are discussed; knowledge acquisition and knowledge bases are described; and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), a decision analysis technique that ranks databases,…

  1. Knowledge acquisition from natural language for expert systems based on classification problem-solving methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Fernando

    1989-01-01

    It is shown how certain kinds of domain independent expert systems based on classification problem-solving methods can be constructed directly from natural language descriptions by a human expert. The expert knowledge is not translated into production rules. Rather, it is mapped into conceptual structures which are integrated into long-term memory (LTM). The resulting system is one in which problem-solving, retrieval and memory organization are integrated processes. In other words, the same algorithm and knowledge representation structures are shared by these processes. As a result of this, the system can answer questions, solve problems or reorganize LTM.

  2. Plant Distribution Data Show Broader Climatic Limits than Expert-Based Climatic Tolerance Estimates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline A Curtis

    Full Text Available Although increasingly sophisticated environmental measures are being applied to species distributions models, the focus remains on using climatic data to provide estimates of habitat suitability. Climatic tolerance estimates based on expert knowledge are available for a wide range of plants via the USDA PLANTS database. We aim to test how climatic tolerance inferred from plant distribution records relates to tolerance estimated by experts. Further, we use this information to identify circumstances when species distributions are more likely to approximate climatic tolerance.We compiled expert knowledge estimates of minimum and maximum precipitation and minimum temperature tolerance for over 1800 conservation plant species from the 'plant characteristics' information in the USDA PLANTS database. We derived climatic tolerance from distribution data downloaded from the Global Biodiversity and Information Facility (GBIF and corresponding climate from WorldClim. We compared expert-derived climatic tolerance to empirical estimates to find the difference between their inferred climate niches (ΔCN, and tested whether ΔCN was influenced by growth form or range size.Climate niches calculated from distribution data were significantly broader than expert-based tolerance estimates (Mann-Whitney p values << 0.001. The average plant could tolerate 24 mm lower minimum precipitation, 14 mm higher maximum precipitation, and 7° C lower minimum temperatures based on distribution data relative to expert-based tolerance estimates. Species with larger ranges had greater ΔCN for minimum precipitation and minimum temperature. For maximum precipitation and minimum temperature, forbs and grasses tended to have larger ΔCN while grasses and trees had larger ΔCN for minimum precipitation.Our results show that distribution data are consistently broader than USDA PLANTS experts' knowledge and likely provide more robust estimates of climatic tolerance, especially for

  3. Real time expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asami, Tohru; Hashimoto, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Seiichi

    1992-01-01

    Recently, aiming at the application to the plant control for nuclear reactors and traffic and communication control, the research and the practical use of the expert system suitable to real time processing have become conspicuous. In this report, the condition for the required function to control the object that dynamically changes within a limited time is presented, and the technical difference between the real time expert system developed so as to satisfy it and the expert system of conventional type is explained with the actual examples and from theoretical aspect. The expert system of conventional type has the technical base in the problem-solving equipment originating in STRIPS. The real time expert system is applied to the fields accompanied by surveillance and control, to which conventional expert system is hard to be applied. The requirement for the real time expert system, the example of the real time expert system, and as the techniques of realizing real time processing, the realization of interruption processing, dispersion processing, and the mechanism of maintaining the consistency of knowledge are explained. (K.I.)

  4. Expert2OWL: A Methodology for Pattern-Based Ontology Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahar, Kais; Xu, Jie; Herre, Heinrich

    2017-01-01

    The formalization of expert knowledge enables a broad spectrum of applications employing ontologies as underlying technology. These include eLearning, Semantic Web and expert systems. However, the manual construction of such ontologies is time-consuming and thus expensive. Moreover, experts are often unfamiliar with the syntax and semantics of formal ontology languages such as OWL and usually have no experience in developing formal ontologies. To overcome these barriers, we developed a new method and tool, called Expert2OWL that provides efficient features to support the construction of OWL ontologies using GFO (General Formal Ontology) as a top-level ontology. This method allows a close and effective collaboration between ontologists and domain experts. Essentially, this tool integrates Excel spreadsheets as part of a pattern-based ontology development and refinement process. Expert2OWL enables us to expedite the development process and modularize the resulting ontologies. We applied this method in the field of Chinese Herbal Medicine (CHM) and used Expert2OWL to automatically generate an accurate Chinese Herbology ontology (CHO). The expressivity of CHO was tested and evaluated using ontology query languages SPARQL and DL. CHO shows promising results and can generate answers to important scientific questions such as which Chinese herbal formulas contain which substances, which substances treat which diseases, and which ones are the most frequently used in CHM.

  5. Expert Systems Based Clinical Assessment and Tutorial Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Frank; Shores, Jay

    This project at the Texas College of Osteopathic Medicine (Fort Worth) evaluated the use of an artificial-intelligence-derived measure, "Knowledge-Based Inference Tool" (KBIT), as the basis for assessing medical students' diagnostic capabilities and designing instruction to improve diagnostic skills. The instrument was designed to…

  6. Bases of technique of sprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Druz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the biomechanical consistent patterns of a movement of a body providing the highest speed of sprinting. Material and Methods: the analysis of scientific and methodical literature on the considered problem, the anthropometrical characteristics of the surveyed contingent of sportsmen, the analysis of high-speed shootings of the leading runners of the world. Results: the biomechanical bases of technique of sprinting make dispersal and movement of the general center of body weight of the sportsman on a parabolic curve in a start phase taking into account the initial height of its stay in a pose of a low start. Its further movement happens on a cycloidal trajectory which is formed due to a pendulum movement of the extremities creating the lifting power which provides flight duration more in a running step, than duration of a basic phase. Conclusions: the received biomechanical regularities of technique of sprinting allow increasing the efficiency of training of sportsmen in sprinting.

  7. Cell Phone-Based Expert Systems for Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    intervention program. C.1 Demographics The sample (n=446) was composed of individuals from all but three U.S. states and Puerto Rico . There were...as comprehensive interventions, i.e., with minimal or no clinician contact, for panic disorder18, depression19–23, weight loss24, and diabetes self...Feil EG, Boles SM, Barrera MJ. Internet-based diabetes self- manage- ment and support: Initial outcomes from the diabetes network project

  8. A rule-based expert system for generating control displays at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulter, K.J.

    1993-01-01

    The integration of a rule-based expert system for generating screen displays for controlling and monitoring instrumentation under the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is presented. The expert system is implemented using CLIPS, an expert system shell from the Software Technology Branch at Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. The user selects the hardware input and output to be displayed and the expert system constructs a graphical control screen appropriate for the data. Such a system provides a method for implementing a common look and feel for displays created by several different users and reduces the amount of time required to create displays for new hardware configurations. Users are able to modify the displays as needed using the EPICS display editor tool

  9. A rule-based expert system for generating control displays at the advanced photon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulter, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    The integration of a rule-based expert system for generating screen displays for controlling and monitoring instrumentation under the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is presented. The expert system is implemented using CLIPS, an expert system shell from the Software Technology Branch at Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. The user selects the hardware input and output to be displayed and the expert system constructs a graphical control screen appropriate for the data. Such a system provides a method for implementing a common look and feel for displays created by several different users and reduces the amount of time required to create displays for new hardware configurations. Users are able to modify the displays as needed using the EPICS display editor tool. ((orig.))

  10. Expert ease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-04-01

    Expert-ease allows the most inexperienced of computer users to build an expert system in a matter of hours. It is nothing more or less than a computer based problem-solving system. It allows the expert to preserve his or her knowledge in the form of rules, which can be applied to problems put to the system by the non-expert. The crucial piece of software at the heart of Expert-Ease extracts rules from data, and is called the analogue concept learning system. It was developed by Intelligent Terminals Ltd. and supplied to Export Software International to be incorporated into a commercially attractive package for business users. The resulting product runs on the Act Sirius and the IBM PC and compatibles. It is a well conceived and polished product with a popular appeal that should ensure widespread acceptance even at a cost of >1500 plus vat.

  11. Developing a Web-Based Advisory Expert System for Implementing Traffic Calming Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Falamarzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lack of traffic safety has become a serious issue in residential areas. In this paper, a web-based advisory expert system for the purpose of applying traffic calming strategies on residential streets is described because there currently lacks a structured framework for the implementation of such strategies. Developing an expert system can assist and advise engineers for dealing with traffic safety problems. This expert system is developed to fill the gap between the traffic safety experts and people who seek to employ traffic calming strategies including decision makers, engineers, and students. In order to build the expert system, examining sources related to traffic calming studies as well as interviewing with domain experts have been carried out. The system includes above 150 rules and 200 images for different types of measures. The system has three main functions including classifying traffic calming measures, prioritizing traffic calming strategies, and presenting solutions for different traffic safety problems. Verifying, validating processes, and comparing the system with similar works have shown that the system is consistent and acceptable for practical uses. Finally, some recommendations for improving the system are presented.

  12. Design of a Fuzzy Rule Base Expert System to Predict and Classify ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of design of a rule base expert system using fuzzy logic approach is to predict and forecast the risk level of cardiac patients to avoid sudden death. In this proposed system, uncertainty is captured using rule base and classification using fuzzy c-means clustering is discussed to overcome the risk level, ...

  13. Use of Occupancy Models to Evaluate Expert Knowledge-based Species-Habitat Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica N. Iglecia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Expert knowledge-based species-habitat relationships are used extensively to guide conservation planning, particularly when data are scarce. Purported relationships describe the initial state of knowledge, but are rarely tested. We assessed support in the data for suitability rankings of vegetation types based on expert knowledge for three terrestrial avian species in the South Atlantic Coastal Plain of the United States. Experts used published studies, natural history, survey data, and field experience to rank vegetation types as optimal, suitable, and marginal. We used single-season occupancy models, coupled with land cover and Breeding Bird Survey data, to examine the hypothesis that patterns of occupancy conformed to species-habitat suitability rankings purported by experts. Purported habitat suitability was validated for two of three species. As predicted for the Eastern Wood-Pewee (Contopus virens and Brown-headed Nuthatch (Sitta pusilla, occupancy was strongly influenced by vegetation types classified as "optimal habitat" by the species suitability rankings for nuthatches and wood-pewees. Contrary to predictions, Red-headed Woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus models that included vegetation types as covariates received similar support by the data as models without vegetation types. For all three species, occupancy was also related to sampling latitude. Our results suggest that covariates representing other habitat requirements might be necessary to model occurrence of generalist species like the woodpecker. The modeling approach described herein provides a means to test expert knowledge-based species-habitat relationships, and hence, help guide conservation planning.

  14. Developing a project-based computational physics course grounded in expert practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Christopher J.; Atherton, Timothy J.

    2017-04-01

    We describe a project-based computational physics course developed using a backwards course design approach. From an initial competency-based model of problem solving in computational physics, we interviewed faculty who use these tools in their own research to determine indicators of expert practice. From these, a rubric was formulated that enabled us to design a course intended to allow students to learn these skills. We also report an initial implementation of the course and, by having the interviewees regrade student work, show that students acquired many of the expert practices identified.

  15. A conversational case-based reasoning approach to assisting experts in solving professional problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Armaghan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, organizations attempt to retrieve, collect, preserve and manage knowledge and experience of experts in order to reuse them later and to promote innovation. In this sense, Experience Management is one of the important organizational issues. This article is discussed the main ideas of a future Conversational Case-Based Reasoning (CCBR intended to assist the experts of after-sales service in a French industrial company. The aim of this research is to formalize the experience of experts in after-sales service in order to better reuse them for similar problems in future. The research opts for an action research method which consists of two main parts: description of failure and proposition of decision protocol. The data were complemented by questionnaires, documentary analysis (including technical reports and other technical documents, observation and many interviews with experts. The findings include several aspects: the formalization of Problem-solving Cards, proposing the structure of case base, as well as the framework of proposed system. These formalizations permit after-sales service experts to provide effective diagnosis and problem-solving.

  16. Identification and management of comorbidity in psoriatic arthritis: evidence- and expert-based recommendations from a multidisciplinary panel from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre-Alonso, Juan Carlos; Carmona, Loreto; Moreno, Mireia; Galíndez, Eva; Babío, Jesús; Zarco, Pedro; Linares, Luis; Collantes-Estevez, Eduardo; Barrial, Manuel Fernández; Hermosa, Juan Carlos; Coto, Pablo; Suárez, Carmen; Almodóvar, Raquel; Luelmo, Jesús; Castañeda, Santos; Gratacós, Jordi

    2017-08-01

    The objective is to establish recommendations, based on evidence and expert opinion, for the identification and management of comorbidities in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). The following techniques were applied: discussion group, systematic review, and Delphi survey for agreement. A panel of professionals from four specialties defined the users, the sections of the document, possible recommendations, and what systematic reviews should be performed. A second discussion was held with the results of the systematic reviews. Recommendations were formulated in the second meeting and voted online from 1 (total disagreement) to 10 (total agreement). Agreement was considered if at least 70% voted ≥7. The level of evidence and grade of recommendation were assigned using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine guidance. The full document was critically appraised by the experts, and the project was supervised at all times by a methodologist. In a final step, the document was reviewed and commented by a patient and a health management specialist. Fourteen recommendations were produced, together with a checklist to facilitate the implementation. The items with the largest support from evidence were those related to cardiovascular disease and risk factors. The panel recommends paying special attention to obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption, as they are all modifiable factors with an impact on treatment response or complications of PsA. Psychological and organizational aspects were also deemed important. We herein suggest practical recommendations for the management of comorbidities in PsA based on evidence and expert opinion.

  17. Automated implementation of rule-based expert systems with neural networks for time-critical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthy, P. A.; Huang, Song; Govind, Girish

    1991-01-01

    In fault diagnosis, control and real-time monitoring, both timing and accuracy are critical for operators or machines to reach proper solutions or appropriate actions. Expert systems are becoming more popular in the manufacturing community for dealing with such problems. In recent years, neural networks have revived and their applications have spread to many areas of science and engineering. A method of using neural networks to implement rule-based expert systems for time-critical applications is discussed here. This method can convert a given rule-based system into a neural network with fixed weights and thresholds. The rules governing the translation are presented along with some examples. We also present the results of automated machine implementation of such networks from the given rule-base. This significantly simplifies the translation process to neural network expert systems from conventional rule-based systems. Results comparing the performance of the proposed approach based on neural networks vs. the classical approach are given. The possibility of very large scale integration (VLSI) realization of such neural network expert systems is also discussed.

  18. Expert system in PNC, 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobita, Yoshimasa; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Matsumoto, Mitsuo; Ono, Kiyoshi.

    1990-01-01

    The computer code system which can evaluate the mass balance and cycle cost in nuclear fuel cycle has been developing a PNC using an artificial intelligence technique. This system is composed of the expert system, data base and analysis codes. The expert system is the most important one in the system and the content of the expert system is explained in this paper. The expert system has the three functions. The first is the function of understanding the meaning of user's questions by natural language, the second is the function of selecting the best way to solve the problem given by the user using the knowledge which is already installed in the system, and the last is the function of answering the questions. The knowledge of the experts installed in the expert system is represented by the frame-type rules. Therefore, the knowledge will be simply added to the system, and consequently the system will be easily extended. (author)

  19. NEPHRUS: model of intelligent multilayers expert system for evaluation of the renal system based on scintigraphic images analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jose W.E. da; Schirru, Roberto; Boasquevisque, Edson M.

    1997-01-01

    This work develops a prototype for the system model based on Artificial Intelligence devices able to perform functions related to scintigraphic image analysis of the urinary system. Criteria used by medical experts for analysis images obtained with 99m Tc+DTPA and/or 99m Tc+DMSA were modeled and a multi resolution diagnosis technique was implemented. Special attention was given to the programs user interface design. Human Factor Engineering techniques were considered so as to ally friendliness and robustness. Results obtained using Artificial Neural Networks for the qualitative image analysis and the knowledge model constructed shows the feasibility of Artificial Intelligence implementation that use 'inherent' abilities of each technique in the resolution of diagnosis image analysis problems. (author). 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  20. SLC beam line error analysis using a model-based expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.; Kleban, S.

    1988-02-01

    Commissioning particle beam line is usually a very time-consuming and labor-intensive task for accelerator physicists. To aid in commissioning, we developed a model-based expert system that identifies error-free regions, as well as localizing beam line errors. This paper will give examples of the use of our system for the SLC commissioning. 8 refs., 5 figs

  1. Comparing the creativity of children's design solutions based on expert assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thang, B.; Sluis - Thiescheffer, R.J.W.; Bekker, M.M.; Eggen, J.H.; Vermeeren, A.P.O.S.; Ridder, de H.

    2008-01-01

    LOBBI Netherlands Consortium Subscribe (Full Service) Register (Limited Service, Free) Login Search: The ACM Digital Library The Guide Feedback Comparing the creativity of children's design solutions based on expert assessment Full text Pdf (3.04 MB) Source Interaction Design and Children archive

  2. Belief-rule-based expert systems for evaluation of e-government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Mohammad Shahadat; Zander, Pär-Ola Mikael; Kamal, Md Sarwar

    2015-01-01

    , known as the Belief Rule Based Expert System (BRBES) and implemented in the local e-government of Bangladesh. The results have been compared with a recently developed method of evaluating e-government, and it is demonstrated that the results of the BRBES are more accurate and reliable. The BRBES can...

  3. Learning from the experts: exploring playground experience and activities using a write and draw technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Zoe Rebecca; Parnell, Daniel; Stratton, Gareth; Ridgers, Nicola Diane

    2013-03-01

    Qualitative research into the effect of school recess on children's physical activity is currently limited. This study used a write and draw technique to explore children's perceptions of physical activity opportunities during recess. 299 children age 7-11 years from 3 primary schools were enlisted. Children were grouped into Years 3 & 4 and Years 5 & 6 and completed a write and draw task focusing on likes and dislikes. Pen profiles were used to analyze the data. Results indicated 'likes' focused on play, positive social interaction, and games across both age groups but showed an increasing dominance of games with an appreciation for being outdoors with age. 'Dislikes' focused on dysfunctional interactions linked with bullying, membership, equipment, and conflict for playground space. Football was a dominant feature across both age groups and 'likes/dislikes' that caused conflict and dominated the physically active games undertaken. Recess was important for the development of conflict management and social skills and contributed to physical activity engagement. The findings contradict suggestions that time spent in recess should be reduced because of behavioral issues.

  4. The Use of Web Based Expert System Application for Identification and Intervention of Children with Special Needs in Inclusive School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Atnantomi Wiliyanto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research is conducted to determine the effectiveness of web based expert system application for identification and intervention of children with special needs in inclusive school. 40 teachers of inclusive school in Surakarta participated in this research. The result showed that: (1 web based expert system application was suitable with the needs of teachers/officers, had 50% (excellence criteria, (2 web based expert system application was worthwhile for identification of children with special needs, had 50% (excellence criteria, (3 web based expert system application was easy to use, had 52.5% (good criteria, and (4 web based expert system application had result accuracy in making decision, had 52.5% (good criteria. It shows that the use of web based expert system application is effective to be used by teachers in inclusive school in conducting identification and intervention with percentage on average was more than 50%.

  5. Web Based Cattle Disease Expert System Diagnosis with forward Chaining Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamsuri, Ahmad; Syafitri, Wenni; Sadar, Muhamad

    2017-12-01

    Cattle is one of the livestock who have high economic potential, whether for livestock, cattle seed, or even for food stock. Everything that comes from Cattle is a treasure for example the Milk, the Meat, and Cattle-hide. The factor that cause Cattles to die is the spread of disease that could crock up the Cattle’s health. So that the Expert system is needed to utilize and analye the Cattle’s disease so it could detect the disease without going to the veterinarian. Forward chaining method is one of the correct method in this expert system wherein began with Symptoms to determine the illness. From this matter, we built a web based expert system application on Cattles disease to ease the disease detection and showing the brief information about the Cattles itself.

  6. Expert judgment based multi-criteria decision model to address uncertainties in risk assessment of nanotechnology-enabled food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flari, Villie; Chaudhry, Qasim; Neslo, Rabin; Cooke, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Currently, risk assessment of nanotechnology-enabled food products is considered difficult due to the large number of uncertainties involved. We developed an approach which could address some of the main uncertainties through the use of expert judgment. Our approach employs a multi-criteria decision model, based on probabilistic inversion that enables capturing experts’ preferences in regard to safety of nanotechnology-enabled food products, and identifying their opinions in regard to the significance of key criteria that are important in determining the safety of such products. An advantage of these sample-based techniques is that they provide out-of-sample validation and therefore a robust scientific basis. This validation in turn adds predictive power to the model developed. We achieved out-of-sample validation in two ways: (1) a portion of the expert preference data was excluded from the model’s fitting and was then predicted by the model fitted on the remaining rankings and (2) a (partially) different set of experts generated new scenarios, using the same criteria employed in the model, and ranked them; their ranks were compared with ranks predicted by the model. The degree of validation in each method was less than perfect but reasonably substantial. The validated model we applied captured and modelled experts’ preferences regarding safety of hypothetical nanotechnology-enabled food products. It appears therefore that such an approach can provide a promising route to explore further for assessing the risk of nanotechnology-enabled food products.

  7. Effectiveness of User- and Expert-Driven Web-based Hypertension Programs: an RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sam; Brooks, Dina; Thomas, Scott G; Eysenbach, Gunther; Nolan, Robert P

    2018-04-01

    The effectiveness of self-guided Internet-based lifestyle counseling (e-counseling) varies, depending on treatment protocol. Two dominant procedures in e-counseling are expert- and user-driven. The influence of these procedures on hypertension management remains unclear. The objective was to assess whether blood pressure improved with expert-driven or user-driven e-counseling over control intervention in patients with hypertension over a 4-month period. This study used a three-parallel group, double-blind randomized controlled design. In Toronto, Canada, 128 participants (aged 35-74 years) with hypertension were recruited. Participants were recruited using online and poster advertisements. Data collection took place between June 2012 and June 2014. Data were analyzed from October 2014 to December 2016. Controls received a weekly e-mail newsletter regarding hypertension management. The expert-driven group was prescribed a weekly exercise and diet plan (e.g., increase 1,000 steps/day this week). The user-driven group received weekly e-mail, which allowed participants to choose their intervention goals (e.g., [1] feel more confident to change my lifestyle, or [2] self-help tips for exercise or a heart healthy diet). Primary outcome was systolic blood pressure measured at baseline and 4-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes included cholesterol, 10-year Framingham cardiovascular risk, daily steps, and dietary habits. Expert-driven groups showed a greater systolic blood pressure decrease than controls at follow-up (expert-driven versus control: -7.5 mmHg, 95% CI= -12.5, -2.6, p=0.01). Systolic blood pressure reduction did not significantly differ between user- and expert-driven. Expert-driven compared with controls also showed a significant improvement in pulse pressure, cholesterol, and Framingham risk score. The expert-driven intervention was significantly more effective than both user-driven and control groups in increasing daily steps and fruit intake. It may be

  8. The Desired Learning Outcomes of School-Based Nutrition/Physical Activity Health Education: A Health Literacy Constructed Delphi Survey of Finnish Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormshaw, Michael James; Kokko, Sami Petteri; Villberg, Jari; Kannas, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to utilise the collective opinion of a group of Finnish experts to identify the most important learning outcomes of secondary-level school-based health education, in the specific domains of physical activity and nutrition. Design/ Methodology/ Approach: The study uses a Delphi survey technique to collect the…

  9. Knowledge based expert system to minimise environmental pollution in Malaysian construction sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Hadu, Ibrahiem Abdul Razak; Sidek, Lariyah Mohd; Desa, Mohamad Nor Mohamad [Civil Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Basri, Noor Ezlin Ahmad [Civil Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-07-01

    Construction activities generate enormous amount of erosion and sediments sediments that is the result of soil disturbance during construction activities, thus, will pollute the adjacent water bodies and make it unfeasible for different uses. This paper aimed to develop and create the main features of an expert system prototype (ESCES) for minimising erosion and sedimentation due to stormwater generated from the construction activities by recommending a feasible BMPs. Multi criteria Analysis (MCA) technique has been integrated so as to select the best control measure among many stormwater control alternatives. A questionnaire has been distributed to the relevant experts so as to rank the stormwater control measures to be used in the MCA technique. Using Visual Basic 6, Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) were developed. The knowledge and experience were acquired from various textural sources (i.e. guidelines, manuals, literature, and human expert). Results from this study showed that the Best Management Practices (BMPs) reommended have good suited the site characteristics. As a conclusion from this study, the ESCES can be considered as part of the 'Green Technology Tool' since it helps in protecting the environment and preserve good quality of water adjacent to the construction sites in Malaysia.

  10. Web-based Weather Expert System (WES) for Space Shuttle Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardina, Jorge E.; Rajkumar, T.

    2003-01-01

    The Web-based Weather Expert System (WES) is a critical module of the Virtual Test Bed development to support 'go/no go' decisions for Space Shuttle operations in the Intelligent Launch and Range Operations program of NASA. The weather rules characterize certain aspects of the environment related to the launching or landing site, the time of the day or night, the pad or runway conditions, the mission durations, the runway equipment and landing type. Expert system rules are derived from weather contingency rules, which were developed over years by NASA. Backward chaining, a goal-directed inference method is adopted, because a particular consequence or goal clause is evaluated first, and then chained backward through the rules. Once a rule is satisfied or true, then that particular rule is fired and the decision is expressed. The expert system is continuously verifying the rules against the past one-hour weather conditions and the decisions are made. The normal procedure of operations requires a formal pre-launch weather briefing held on Launch minus 1 day, which is a specific weather briefing for all areas of Space Shuttle launch operations. In this paper, the Web-based Weather Expert System of the Intelligent Launch and range Operations program is presented.

  11. A fault diagnosis and operation advising cooperative expert system based on multi-agent technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, W.; Bai, X.; Ding, J.; Fang, Z.; Li, Z. [China Electric Power Research Inst., Haidian District, Beijing (China)

    2006-07-01

    Power systems are becoming more and more complex. In addition, the amount of real-time alarm messages from the supervisory control and data acquisition, energy management systems and wide area measurement systems about switchgear and protection are also increasing to a point far beyond the operator's capacity to digest the information. Research and development of a fault diagnosis system is necessary for the timely identification of fault or malfunctioning devices and for realizing the automation functions of dynamic supervisory control system. The prevailing fault diagnosis approaches in power systems include the expert system, artificial neural network, and fault diagnosis based on optimal theory. This paper discussed the advantages and disadvantages of each of these approaches for diagnosing faults. The paper also proposed a new fault diagnosis and operational processing approach based on a cooperative expert system combined with a multi-agent architecture. For solving complex and correlative faults, the cooperative expert system can overcome the deficiency of a single expert system. It can be used not only for diagnosing complex faults in real time but also in providing timely operational advice. The proposed system has been used successfully in a district power grid in China's Shangdong province for a year. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  12. A development process meta-model for Web based expert systems: The Web engineering point of view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dokas, I.M.; Alapetite, Alexandre

    2006-01-01

    raised their complexity. Unfortunately, there is so far no clear answer to the question: How may the methods and experience of Web engineering and expert systems be combined and applied in order todevelop effective and successful Web based expert systems? In an attempt to answer this question...... on Web based expert systems – will be presented. The idea behind the presentation of theaccessibility evaluation and its conclusions is to show to Web based expert system developers, who typically have little Web engineering background, that Web engineering issues must be considered when developing Web......Similar to many legacy computer systems, expert systems can be accessed via the Web, forming a set of Web applications known as Web based expert systems. The tough Web competition, the way people and organizations rely on Web applications and theincreasing user requirements for better services have...

  13. GIS Supported Landslide Susceptibility Modeling at Regional Scale: An Expert-Based Fuzzy Weighting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Chalkias

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is landslide susceptibility assessment using fuzzy expert-based modeling. Factors that influence landslide occurrence, such as elevation, slope, aspect, lithology, land cover, precipitation and seismicity were considered. Expert-based fuzzy weighting (EFW approach was used to combine these factors for landslide susceptibility mapping (Peloponnese, Greece. This method produced a landslide susceptibility map of the investigated area. The landslides under investigation have more or less same characteristics: lateral based and downslope shallow movement of soils or rocks. The validation of the model reveals, that predicted susceptibility levels are found to be in good agreement with the past landslide occurrences. Hence, the obtained landslide susceptibility map could be acceptable, for landslide hazard prevention and mitigation at regional scale.

  14. Integrating clinicians, knowledge and data: expert-based cooperative analysis in healthcare decision support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Alonso Carlos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decision support in health systems is a highly difficult task, due to the inherent complexity of the process and structures involved. Method This paper introduces a new hybrid methodology Expert-based Cooperative Analysis (EbCA, which incorporates explicit prior expert knowledge in data analysis methods, and elicits implicit or tacit expert knowledge (IK to improve decision support in healthcare systems. EbCA has been applied to two different case studies, showing its usability and versatility: 1 Bench-marking of small mental health areas based on technical efficiency estimated by EbCA-Data Envelopment Analysis (EbCA-DEA, and 2 Case-mix of schizophrenia based on functional dependency using Clustering Based on Rules (ClBR. In both cases comparisons towards classical procedures using qualitative explicit prior knowledge were made. Bayesian predictive validity measures were used for comparison with expert panels results. Overall agreement was tested by Intraclass Correlation Coefficient in case "1" and kappa in both cases. Results EbCA is a new methodology composed by 6 steps:. 1 Data collection and data preparation; 2 acquisition of "Prior Expert Knowledge" (PEK and design of the "Prior Knowledge Base" (PKB; 3 PKB-guided analysis; 4 support-interpretation tools to evaluate results and detect inconsistencies (here Implicit Knowledg -IK- might be elicited; 5 incorporation of elicited IK in PKB and repeat till a satisfactory solution; 6 post-processing results for decision support. EbCA has been useful for incorporating PEK in two different analysis methods (DEA and Clustering, applied respectively to assess technical efficiency of small mental health areas and for case-mix of schizophrenia based on functional dependency. Differences in results obtained with classical approaches were mainly related to the IK which could be elicited by using EbCA and had major implications for the decision making in both cases. Discussion This

  15. Integrating clinicians, knowledge and data: expert-based cooperative analysis in healthcare decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, Karina; García-Alonso, Carlos; Salvador-Carulla, Luis

    2010-09-30

    Decision support in health systems is a highly difficult task, due to the inherent complexity of the process and structures involved. This paper introduces a new hybrid methodology Expert-based Cooperative Analysis (EbCA), which incorporates explicit prior expert knowledge in data analysis methods, and elicits implicit or tacit expert knowledge (IK) to improve decision support in healthcare systems. EbCA has been applied to two different case studies, showing its usability and versatility: 1) Bench-marking of small mental health areas based on technical efficiency estimated by EbCA-Data Envelopment Analysis (EbCA-DEA), and 2) Case-mix of schizophrenia based on functional dependency using Clustering Based on Rules (ClBR). In both cases comparisons towards classical procedures using qualitative explicit prior knowledge were made. Bayesian predictive validity measures were used for comparison with expert panels results. Overall agreement was tested by Intraclass Correlation Coefficient in case "1" and kappa in both cases. EbCA is a new methodology composed by 6 steps:. 1) Data collection and data preparation; 2) acquisition of "Prior Expert Knowledge" (PEK) and design of the "Prior Knowledge Base" (PKB); 3) PKB-guided analysis; 4) support-interpretation tools to evaluate results and detect inconsistencies (here Implicit Knowledg -IK- might be elicited); 5) incorporation of elicited IK in PKB and repeat till a satisfactory solution; 6) post-processing results for decision support. EbCA has been useful for incorporating PEK in two different analysis methods (DEA and Clustering), applied respectively to assess technical efficiency of small mental health areas and for case-mix of schizophrenia based on functional dependency. Differences in results obtained with classical approaches were mainly related to the IK which could be elicited by using EbCA and had major implications for the decision making in both cases. This paper presents EbCA and shows the convenience of

  16. Automated planning target volume generation: an evaluation pitting a computer-based tool against human experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketting, Case H.; Austin-Seymour, Mary; Kalet, Ira; Jacky, Jon; Kromhout-Schiro, Sharon; Hummel, Sharon; Unger, Jonathan; Fagan, Lawrence M.; Griffin, Tom

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Software tools are seeing increased use in three-dimensional treatment planning. However, the development of these tools frequently omits careful evaluation before placing them in clinical use. This study demonstrates the application of a rigorous evaluation methodology using blinded peer review to an automated software tool that produces ICRU-50 planning target volumes (PTVs). Methods and Materials: Seven physicians from three different institutions involved in three-dimensional treatment planning participated in the evaluation. Four physicians drew partial PTVs on nine test cases, consisting of four nasopharynx and five lung primaries. Using the same information provided to the human experts, the computer tool generated PTVs for comparison. The remaining three physicians, designated evaluators, individually reviewed the PTVs for acceptability. To exclude bias, the evaluators were blinded to the source (human or computer) of the PTVs they reviewed. Their scorings of the PTVs were statistically examined to determine if the computer tool performed as well as the human experts. Results: The computer tool was as successful as the human experts in generating PTVs. Failures were primarily attributable to insufficient margins around the clinical target volume and to encroachment upon critical structures. In a qualitative analysis, the human and computer experts displayed similar types and distributions of errors. Conclusions: Rigorous evaluation of computer-based radiotherapy tools requires comparison to current practice and can reveal areas for improvement before the tool enters clinical practice

  17. Optimizing the Timing of Expert Feedback During Simulation-Based Spaced Practice of Endourologic Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason Young; McDougall, Elspeth M; Lineberry, Matthew; Tekian, Ara

    2016-08-01

    Provision of expert feedback is widely acknowledged to be an essential component of simulation-based training. However, little is known about the most effective and efficient ways to provide feedback to novices. Optimizing the timing of expert feedback may improve outcomes while reducing resource requirements. The main objective of this study was to determine the impact of providing early versus late expert feedback to novice learners engaged in a flexible ureteroscopy (fURS) training curriculum. Senior medical students were recruited to participate in this study. Each student participated in a comprehensive fURS training curriculum that included 3 deliberate, independent practice sessions. Baseline and postcourse fURS skill was assessed for each student using a standardized fURS test task. Each student was randomized to either an early feedback group (EFG) or late feedback group (LFG). The EFG participants were provided expert feedback immediately after the baseline skill test, whereas LFG participants were given feedback before their final deliberate, independent practice session. Eighteen senior medical students completed the study (9 EFG and 9 LFG participants). There were no discernible demographic differences between the groups at baseline. When controlling for pretest performance, early rather than late feedback was associated with both shorter postcourse time to completion of the task (19.2 vs. 21.5 minutes, P feedback when learning a novel skill. Further study is required.

  18. Identifying content-based and relational techniques to change behaviour in motivational interviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, Sarah J; Fortier, Michelle; Blake, Nicola; Hagger, Martin S

    2017-03-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is a complex intervention comprising multiple techniques aimed at changing health-related motivation and behaviour. However, MI techniques have not been systematically isolated and classified. This study aimed to identify the techniques unique to MI, classify them as content-related or relational, and evaluate the extent to which they overlap with techniques from the behaviour change technique taxonomy version 1 [BCTTv1; Michie, S., Richardson, M., Johnston, M., Abraham, C., Francis, J., Hardeman, W., … Wood, C. E. (2013). The behavior change technique taxonomy (v1) of 93 hierarchically clustered techniques: Building an international consensus for the reporting of behavior change interventions. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 46, 81-95]. Behaviour change experts (n = 3) content-analysed MI techniques based on Miller and Rollnick's [(2013). Motivational interviewing: Preparing people for change (3rd ed.). New York: Guildford Press] conceptualisation. Each technique was then coded for independence and uniqueness by independent experts (n = 10). The experts also compared each MI technique to those from the BCTTv1. Experts identified 38 distinct MI techniques with high agreement on clarity, uniqueness, preciseness, and distinctiveness ratings. Of the identified techniques, 16 were classified as relational techniques. The remaining 22 techniques were classified as content based. Sixteen of the MI techniques were identified as having substantial overlap with techniques from the BCTTv1. The isolation and classification of MI techniques will provide researchers with the necessary tools to clearly specify MI interventions and test the main and interactive effects of the techniques on health behaviour. The distinction between relational and content-based techniques within MI is also an important advance, recognising that changes in motivation and behaviour in MI is a function of both intervention content and the interpersonal style

  19. The PWI [plutonium waste incinerator] expert system: Real time, PC-based process analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.G.; Smith, F.G.

    1987-01-01

    A real time, microcomputer-based expert system is being developed for a prototype plutonium waste incinerator (PWI) process at Du Pont's Savannah River Laboratory. The expert system will diagnose instrumentation problems, assist operator training, serve as a repository for engineering knowledge about the process, and provide continuous operation and performance information. A set of necessary operational criteria was developed from process and engineering constraints; it was used to define hardware and software needs. The most important criterion is operating speed because the analysis operates in real time. TURBO PROLOG by Borland International was selected. The analysis system is divided into three sections: the user-system interface, the inference engine and rule base, and the files representing the blackboard information center

  20. Clarification of Safe Delivery by Iranian Experts Based on Clinical Governance: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forozun Olfati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To clarify the principles of a safe delivery based on Clinical Governance Criteria, as recommended by the pertinent experts.Materials and methods:The current study was part of a qualitative research conducted by content analysis method in 2013 and purposive sampling, performing 24 in-depth interviews based on semi-structured questions and analyzed using thematic content analysis. The participants in this research included midwives, obstetricians, managers, and hospital doctors. The data were under continuous consideration and comparative analysis in order to achieve data saturation.Results:The main concepts derived from interpretations of the pertinent experts include: Patient & Public involvement; Risk Management; Education; Clinical efficiency; Clinical audit; Personnel & Management.Conclusion:In a safe delivery, there is a vicious cycle of causes the elimination of which is only possible through benchmarking patterns that attend to most aspects of a safe delivery.Changes to services require utilization of appropriate change management strategies.

  1. Expert consensus v. evidence-based approaches in the revision of the DSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K S; Solomon, M

    2016-08-01

    The development of DSM-III through DSM-5 has relied heavily on expert consensus. In this essay, we provide an historical and critical perspective on this process. Over the last 40 years, medicine has struggled to find appropriate methods for summarizing research results and making clinical recommendations. When such recommendations are issued by authorized organizations, they can have widespread influence (i.e. DSM-III and its successors). In the 1970s, expert consensus conferences, led by the NIH, reviewed research about controversial medical issues and successfully disseminated results. However, these consensus conferences struggled with aggregating the complex available evidence. In the 1990s, the rise of evidence-based medicine cast doubt on the reliability of expert consensus. Since then, medicine has increasingly relied on systematic reviews, as developed by the evidence-based medicine movement, and advocated for their early incorporation in expert consensus efforts. With the partial exception of DSM-IV, such systematic evidence-based reviews have not been consistently integrated into the development of the DSMs, leaving their development out of step with the larger medical field. Like the recommendations made for the NIH consensus conferences, we argue that the DSM process should be modified to require systematic evidence-based reviews before Work Groups make their assessments. Our suggestions - which would require leadership and additional resources to set standards for appropriate evidence hierarchies, carry out systematic reviews, and upgrade the group process - should improve the objectivity of the DSM, increase the validity of its results, and improve the reception of any changes in nosology.

  2. Developing a PC-based expert system for fault analysis of reactor instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diwakar, M.P.; Rathod, N.C.; Bairi, B.R.; Darbhe, M.D.; Joglekar, S.S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an expert system for fault analysis of electronic instruments in the CIRUS nuclear reactor. The system was developed in Prolog on an IBM PC-XT compatible computer. A 'model-based' approach (Button et al, 1986) was adopted combining 'frames' and 'rules' to provide flexible control over the inferencing mechanisms. Frames represent the domain-objects as well as the inter-object relationships. They include 'demons' or 'active values' for triggering actions. Rules, along with frames, are used for fault analysis. The rules can be activated either in a data-driven or a goal-driven manner. The use of frames makes rule management easier. It is felt that developing in-house shell proved advantageous, compared to using commercially available shells. Choosing the model-based approach was efficient compared to a production system architecture. Therefore, the use of hybrid representations for diagnostic applications is advocated. Based on the experience, some general recommendations for developing such systems are presented. The expert system helps novice operators to understand the process of diagnosis and achieve a significant required level of competence. The system may not achieve the required level of proficiency by itself, but it can be used to train operators to become experts. (author). 12 refs

  3. An approach to build a knowledge base for reactor accident diagnostic expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, K.; Fujii, M.; Fujiki, K.; Yokobayashi, M.; Kohsaka, A.; Aoyagi, T.; Hirota, Y.

    1987-01-01

    In the development of a rule based expert system, one of the key issues is how to acquire knowledge and to build knowledge base (KB). On building the KB of DISKET, which is an expert system for nuclear reactor accident diagnosis developed in JAERI, several problems have been experienced as follows. To write rules is a time consuming task, and it is difficult to keep the objectivity and consistency of rules as the number of rules increase. Further, certainty factors (CFs) must be often determined according to engineering judgment, i.e., empirically or intuitively. A systematic approach was attempted to handle these difficulties and to build an objective KB efficiently. The approach described in this paper is based on the concept that a prototype KB, colloquially speaking an initial guess, should first be generated in a systematic way and then is to be modified and/or improved by human experts for practical use. Statistical methods, principally Factor Analysis, were used as the systematic way to build a prototype KB for the DISKET using a PWR plant simulator data. The source information is a number of data obtained from the simulation of transients, such as the status of components and annunciator etc., and major process parameters like pressures, temperatures and so on

  4. Cogent Confabulation based Expert System for Segmentation and Classification of Natural Landscape Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRAOVIC, M.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ever since there has been an increase in the number of automatic wildfire monitoring and surveillance systems in the last few years, natural landscape images have been of great importance. In this paper we propose an expert system for fast segmentation and classification of regions on natural landscape images that is suitable for real-time applications. We focus primarily on Mediterranean landscape images since the Mediterranean area and areas with similar climate are the ones most associated with high wildfire risk. The proposed expert system is based on cogent confabulation theory and knowledge bases that contain information about local and global features, optimal color spaces suitable for classification of certain regions, and context of each class. The obtained results indicate that the proposed expert system significantly outperforms well-known classifiers that it was compared against in both accuracy and speed, and that it is effective and efficient for real-time applications. Additionally, we present a FESB MLID dataset on which we conducted our research and that we made publicly available.

  5. A Knowledge-Based Expert System Using MFM Model for Operator Supporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo, Kun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a knowledge-based expert system using MFM (Multi-level Flow Modeling) is proposed for enhancing the operators' ability to cope with various situations in nuclear power plant. There are many complicated situations, in which regular and suitable operations should be done by operators accordingly. In order to help the operator to assess the situations promptly and accurately, and to regulate their operations according to these situations. it is necessary to develop an expert systems to help the operator for the fault diagnosis, alarm analysis, and operation results estimation for each operation. Many kinds of operator supporting systems focusing on different functions have been developed. Most of them used various methodologies for single diagnosis function or operation permission function. The proposed system integrated functions of fault diagnosis, alarm analysis and operation results estimation by the MFM basic algorithm for the operator supporting

  6. Expert System Development on On-line Measurement of Sewage Treatment Based Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun QIN

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article puts forward a solution in which an instrument on-line automatic measurement and expert system process are optimized according to the complexity and great process dynamics of sewage treatment process. Firstly modeling has been set up with configuration sewage treatment process in which the process has been integrated into the computer software environment. Secondly certain number of water quality automatic monitoring instruments and sensor probes are set in the reaction tanks according to the needs of process changes and management. The data information acquired can be displayed and recorded at the real time. A human-machine integration expert system featuring computer automation management is developed for the base by one-off method thus to realize the intelligent and unmanned management. The advantages brought about from it can fill up the inexperience of the on-site management personnel and solve the contradiction between the water quality dynamics and difficulty in the process adjustment.

  7. A simulation-based expert system for nuclear power plant diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassberger, J.A.; Lee, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    An expert system for diagnosing operational transients in a nuclear power plant is discussed. Hypothesis and test is used as the problem-solving strategy with hypotheses generated by an expert system that monitors the plant for patterns of data symptomatic of known failure modes. Fuzzy logic is employed as the inferencing mechanism with two complementary implication schemes to handle scenarios involving competing failures. Hypothesis testing is performed. An artificial intelligence framework based on a critical functions approach is used to deal with the complexity of a nuclear plant. A prototype system for diagnosing transients in the reactor coolant system of a pressurized water reactor has been developed to test the algorithms described here. Results are presented for the diagnosis of data from the Three Mile Island Unit 2 loss-of-feedwater/small-break loss-of-collant accident

  8. Larger right posterior parietal volume in action video game experts: a behavioral and voxel-based morphometry (VBM study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Tanaka

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that action video game players exhibit superior performance in visuospatial cognitive tasks compared with non-game players. However, the neural basis underlying this visuospatial cognitive performance advantage remains largely unknown. The present human behavioral and imaging study compared gray matter volume in action video game experts and non-experts using structural magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometry analysis. The results revealed significantly larger gray matter volume in the right posterior parietal cortex in experts compared with non-experts. Furthermore, the larger gray matter volume in the right posterior parietal cortex significantly correlated with individual performance in a visual working memory task in experts. These results suggest that differences in brain structure may be linked to extensive video game play, leading to superior visuospatial cognitive performance in action video game experts.

  9. Which Dimensions of Patient-Centeredness Matter? - Results of a Web-Based Expert Delphi Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jördis M Zill

    Full Text Available Present models and definitions of patient-centeredness revealed a lack of conceptual clarity. Based on a prior systematic literature review, we developed an integrative model with 15 dimensions of patient-centeredness. The aims of this study were to 1 validate, and 2 prioritize these dimensions.A two-round web-based Delphi study was conducted. 297 international experts were invited to participate. In round one they were asked to 1 give an individual rating on a nine-point-scale on relevance and clarity of the dimensions, 2 add missing dimensions, and 3 prioritize the dimensions. In round two, experts received feedback about the results of round one and were asked to reflect and re-rate their own results. The cut-off for the validation of a dimension was a median < 7 on one of the criteria.105 experts participated in round one and 71 in round two. In round one, one new dimension was suggested and included for discussion in round two. In round two, this dimension did not reach sufficient ratings to be included in the model. Eleven dimensions reached a median ≥ 7 on both criteria (relevance and clarity. Four dimensions had a median < 7 on one or both criteria. The five dimensions rated as most important were: patient as a unique person, patient involvement in care, patient information, clinician-patient communication and patient empowerment.11 out of the 15 dimensions have been validated through experts' ratings. Further research on the four dimensions that received insufficient ratings is recommended. The priority order of the dimensions can help researchers and clinicians to focus on the most important dimensions of patient-centeredness. Overall, the model provides a useful framework that can be used in the development of measures, interventions, and medical education curricula, as well as the adoption of a new perspective in health policy.

  10. Nephrus: expert system model in intelligent multilayers for evaluation of urinary system based on scintigraphic image analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jorge Wagner Esteves da; Schirru, Roberto; Boasquevisque, Edson Mendes

    1999-01-01

    Renal function can be measured noninvasively with radionuclides in a extremely safe way compared to other diagnosis techniques. Nevertheless, due to the fact that radioactive materials are used in this procedure, it is necessary to maximize its benefits, therefore all efforts are justifiable in the development of data analysis support tools for this diagnosis modality. The objective of this work is to develop a prototype for a system model based on Artificial Intelligence devices able to perform functions related to cintilographic image analysis of the urinary system. Rules used by medical experts in the analysis of images obtained with 99m Tc+DTPA and /or 99m Tc+DMSA were modeled and a Neural Network diagnosis technique was implemented. Special attention was given for designing programs user-interface. Human Factor Engineering techniques were taking in account allowing friendliness and robustness. The image segmentation adopts a model based on Ideal ROIs, which represent the normal anatomic concept for urinary system organs. Results obtained using Artificial Neural Networks for qualitative image analysis and knowledge model constructed show the feasibility of Artificial Neural Networks for qualitative image analysis and knowledge model constructed show feasibility of Artificial Intelligence implementation that uses inherent abilities of each technique in the medical diagnosis image analysis. (author)

  11. Microprocessor based techniques at CESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannini, G.; Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY

    1981-01-01

    Microprocessor based systems succesfully used in connection with the High Energy Physics experimental program at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring are described. The multiprocessor calibration system for the CUSB calorimeter is analyzed in view of present and future applications. (orig.)

  12. Analysis, Simulation, and Verification of Knowledge-Based, Rule-Based, and Expert Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchey, Mike; Rash, James; Erickson, John; Gracanin, Denis; Rouff, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Mathematically sound techniques are used to view a knowledge-based system (KBS) as a set of processes executing in parallel and being enabled in response to specific rules being fired. The set of processes can be manipulated, examined, analyzed, and used in a simulation. The tool that embodies this technology may warn developers of errors in their rules, but may also highlight rules (or sets of rules) in the system that are underspecified (or overspecified) and need to be corrected for the KBS to operate as intended. The rules embodied in a KBS specify the allowed situations, events, and/or results of the system they describe. In that sense, they provide a very abstract specification of a system. The system is implemented through the combination of the system specification together with an appropriate inference engine, independent of the algorithm used in that inference engine. Viewing the rule base as a major component of the specification, and choosing an appropriate specification notation to represent it, reveals how additional power can be derived from an approach to the knowledge-base system that involves analysis, simulation, and verification. This innovative approach requires no special knowledge of the rules, and allows a general approach where standardized analysis, verification, simulation, and model checking techniques can be applied to the KBS.

  13. A Belief Rule Based Expert System to Assess Mental Disorder under Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Mohammad Shahadat; Afif Monrat, Ahmed; Hasan, Mamun

    2016-01-01

    to ignorance, incompleteness, and randomness. So, a belief rule-based expert system (BRBES) has been designed and developed with the capability of handling the uncertainties mentioned. Evidential reasoning works as the inference engine and the belief rule base as the knowledge representation schema......Mental disorder is a change of mental or behavioral pattern that causes sufferings and impairs the ability to function in ordinary life. In psychopathology, the assessment methods of mental disorder contain various types of uncertainties associated with signs and symptoms. This study identifies...

  14. Learning from the Pros: Influence of Web-Based Expert Commentary on Vicarious Learning about Financial Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Matthew W.; Kent, Daniel W.; Devoto, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Web-based financial commentary, in which experts routinely express market-related thought processes, is proposed as a means for college students to learn vicariously about financial markets. Undergraduate business school students from a regional university were exposed to expert market commentary from a single financial Web site for a 6-week…

  15. A Computer-Based, Interactive Videodisc Job Aid and Expert System for Electron Beam Lithography Integration and Diagnostic Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Kimberly

    This master's thesis describes the development of an expert system and interactive videodisc computer-based instructional job aid used for assisting in the integration of electron beam lithography devices. Comparable to all comprehensive training, expert system and job aid development require a criterion-referenced systems approach treatment to…

  16. A method of knowledge base verification for nuclear power plant expert systems using extended Petri Nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, I. W.; Seong, P. H.

    1996-01-01

    The adoption of expert systems mainly as operator supporting systems is becoming increasingly popular as the control algorithms of system become more and more sophisticated and complicated. The verification phase of knowledge base is an important part for developing reliable expert systems, especially in nuclear industry. Although several strategies or tools have been developed to perform potential error checking, they often neglect the reliability of verification methods. Because a Petri net provides a uniform mathematical formalization of knowledge base, it has been employed for knowledge base verification. In this work, we devise and suggest an automated tool, called COKEP(Checker of Knowledge base using Extended Petri net), for detecting incorrectness, inconsistency, and incompleteness in a knowledge base. The scope of the verification problem is expended to chained errors, unlike previous studies that assume error incidence to be limited to rule pairs only. In addition, we consider certainty factor in checking, because most of knowledge bases have certainly factors. 8 refs,. 2 figs,. 4 tabs. (author)

  17. Bases en technique du vide

    CERN Document Server

    Rommel, Guy

    2017-01-01

    Cette seconde édition, 20 ans après la première, devrait continuer à aider les techniciens pour la réalisation de leur système de vide. La technologie du vide est utilisée, à présent, dans de nombreux domaines très différents les uns des autres et avec des matériels très fiables. Or, elle est souvent bien peu étudiée, de plus, c'est une discipline où le savoir-faire prend tout son sens. Malheureusement la transmission par des ingénieurs et techniciens expérimentés ne se fait plus ou trop rapidement. La technologie du vide fait appel à la physique, à la chimie, à la mécanique, à la métallurgie, au dessin industriel, à l'électronique, à la thermique, etc. Cette discipline demande donc de maîtriser des techniques de domaines très divers, et ce n'est pas chose facile. Chaque installation est en soi un cas particulier avec ses besoins, sa façon de traiter les matériaux et celle d'utiliser les matériels. Les systèmes de vide sont parfois copiés d'un laboratoire à un autre et le...

  18. Knowledge base expert system control of spatial xenon oscillations in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alten, S.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear reactor operators are required to pay special attention to spatial xenon oscillations during the load-follow operation of pressurized water reactors. They are expected to observe the axial offset of the core, and to estimate the correct time and amount of necessary control action based on heuristic rules given in axial xenon oscillations are knowledge intensive, and heuristic in nature. An expert system, ACES (Axial offset Control using Expert Systems) is developed to implement a heuristic constant axial offset control procedure to aid reactor operators in increasing the plant reliability by reducing the human error component of the failure probability. ACES is written in a production system language, OPS5, based on the forward chaining algorithm. It samples reactor data with a certain time interval in terms of measurable parameters, such as the power, period, and the axial offset of the core. It then processes the core status utilizing a set of equations which are used in a back of the envelope calculations by domain experts. Heuristic rules of ACES identify the control variable to be used among the full and part length control rods and boron concentration, while a knowledge base is used to determine the amount of control. ACES is designed as a set of generic rules to avoid reducing the system into a set of patterns. Instead ACES evaluates the system, determines the necessary corrective actions in terms of reactivity insertion, and provides this reactivity insertion using the control variables. The amount of control action is determined using a knowledge base which consists of the differential rod worth curves, and the boron reactivity worth of a given reactor. Having the reactor dependent parameters in its knowledge base, ACES is applicable to an arbitrary reactor for axial offset control purposes

  19. IDEA system - a new computer-based expert system for incorporation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerfel, H.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, at the Karlsruhe Research Centre, a computer-based expert system, Internal Dose Equivalent Assessment System (IDEA System), has been developed for assisting dosimetrists in applying the relevant recommendations and guidelines for internal dosimetry. The expert system gives guidance to the user with respect to: (a) planning of monitoring, (b) performing routine and special monitoring, and (c) evaluation of primary monitoring results. The evaluation is done according to the IDEA System guidelines (Doerfel, H. et al., General guidelines for the estimation of committed effective dose from incorporation monitoring data. Research Report FZKA 7243, Research Center Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (2006). ISSN 0947-8260.) in a three-stage procedure according to the expected level of exposure. At the first level the evaluation is performed with default or site-specific parameter values, at the second level case-specific parameter values are applied and at the third level a special evaluation is performed with individual adjustment of model parameter values. With these well-defined procedures the expert system follows the aim, in which all recommendations and guidelines are applied properly and the results in terms of committed effective and organ doses are close to the best estimate. (author)

  20. A knowledge-base verification of NPP expert systems using extended Petri nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Il Won; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1995-01-01

    The verification phase of knowledge base is an important part for developing reliable expert systems, especially in nuclear industry. Although several strategies or tools have been developed to perform potential error checking, they often neglect the reliability of verification methods. Because a Petri net provides a uniform mathematical formalization of knowledge base, it has been employed for knowledge base verification. In this work, we devise and suggest an automated tool, called COKEP (Checker Of Knowledge base using Extended Petri net), for detecting incorrectness, inconsistency, and incompleteness in a knowledge base. The scope of the verification problem is expanded to chained errors, unlike previous studies that assumed error incidence to be limited to rule pairs only. In addition, we consider certainty factor in checking, because most of knowledge bases have certainty factors

  1. Implementasi Rule Based Expert Systems untuk Realtime Monitoring Penyelesaian Perkara Pidana Menggunakan Teknologi Radio Frequency Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Fuah

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems in the criminal case completions is that the difficulty of making decision to estimate when the settlement of the case file will be fulfilled. It is caused by the number of case files handled and detention time changing. Therefore, the fast and accurate information is needed. The research aims to develop a monitoring system tracking and tracking of scheduling rules using Rule Based Expert Systems method with 17 rules, and supported by Radio Frequency Identification technology (RFID in the form of computer applications. Based on the output of the system, an analysis is performed in the criminal case settlement process with a set of IF-THEN rules. The RFID reader read the data of case files through radio wave signals emitted by the antenna toward active-Tag attached in the criminal case file. The system is designed to monitor the tracking and tracing of RFID-based scheduling rules in realtime way that was built in the form of computer application in accordance with the system design. This study results in no failure in reading active tags by the RFID reader to detect criminal case files that had been examined. There were many case files handled in three different location, they were the constabulary, prosecutor, and judges of district court and RFID was able to identify them simultaneously. So, RFID supports the implementation of Rule Based Expert Systems very much for realtime monitoring in criminal case accomplishment.

  2. Identifying influenza-like illness presentation from unstructured general practice clinical narrative using a text classifier rule-based expert system versus a clinical expert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRae, Jayden; Love, Tom; Baker, Michael G; Dowell, Anthony; Carnachan, Matthew; Stubbe, Maria; McBain, Lynn

    2015-10-06

    We designed and validated a rule-based expert system to identify influenza like illness (ILI) from routinely recorded general practice clinical narrative to aid a larger retrospective research study into the impact of the 2009 influenza pandemic in New Zealand. Rules were assessed using pattern matching heuristics on routine clinical narrative. The system was trained using data from 623 clinical encounters and validated using a clinical expert as a gold standard against a mutually exclusive set of 901 records. We calculated a 98.2 % specificity and 90.2 % sensitivity across an ILI incidence of 12.4 % measured against clinical expert classification. Peak problem list identification of ILI by clinical coding in any month was 9.2 % of all detected ILI presentations. Our system addressed an unusual problem domain for clinical narrative classification; using notational, unstructured, clinician entered information in a community care setting. It performed well compared with other approaches and domains. It has potential applications in real-time surveillance of disease, and in assisted problem list coding for clinicians. Our system identified ILI presentation with sufficient accuracy for use at a population level in the wider research study. The peak coding of 9.2 % illustrated the need for automated coding of unstructured narrative in our study.

  3. An expert system-based aid for analysis of Emergency Operating Procedures in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubowski, Z.; Beraha, D.

    1996-01-01

    Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs) generally and an accident management (AM) particularly play a significant part in the safety philosophy on NPPs since many years. A better methodology for development and validation of EOPs is desired. A prototype of an Emergency Operating Procedures Analysis System (EOPAS), which has been developed at GRS, is presented in the paper. The hardware configuration and software organisation of the system is briefly reviewed. The main components of the system such as the knowledge base of an expert system and the engineering simulator are described. (author)

  4. Text mining and natural language processing approaches for automatic categorization of lay requests to web-based expert forums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmel, Wolfgang; Reincke, Ulrich; Michelmann, Hans Wilhelm

    2009-07-22

    Both healthy and sick people increasingly use electronic media to obtain medical information and advice. For example, Internet users may send requests to Web-based expert forums, or so-called "ask the doctor" services. To automatically classify lay requests to an Internet medical expert forum using a combination of different text-mining strategies. We first manually classified a sample of 988 requests directed to a involuntary childlessness forum on the German website "Rund ums Baby" ("Everything about Babies") into one or more of 38 categories belonging to two dimensions ("subject matter" and "expectations"). After creating start and synonym lists, we calculated the average Cramer's V statistic for the association of each word with each category. We also used principle component analysis and singular value decomposition as further text-mining strategies. With these measures we trained regression models and determined, on the basis of best regression models, for any request the probability of belonging to each of the 38 different categories, with a cutoff of 50%. Recall and precision of a test sample were calculated as a measure of quality for the automatic classification. According to the manual classification of 988 documents, 102 (10%) documents fell into the category "in vitro fertilization (IVF)," 81 (8%) into the category "ovulation," 79 (8%) into "cycle," and 57 (6%) into "semen analysis." These were the four most frequent categories in the subject matter dimension (consisting of 32 categories). The expectation dimension comprised six categories; we classified 533 documents (54%) as "general information" and 351 (36%) as a wish for "treatment recommendations." The generation of indicator variables based on the chi-square analysis and Cramer's V proved to be the best approach for automatic classification in about half of the categories. In combination with the two other approaches, 100% precision and 100% recall were realized in 18 (47%) out of the 38

  5. Information systems development of analysis company financial state based on the expert-statistical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Ivliev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to methods of analysis the company financial condition, including aggregated ratings. It is proposed to use the generalized solvency and liquidity indicator and the capital structure composite index. Mathematically, the generalized index is a sum of variables-characteristics and weighting factors characterizing the relative importance of individual characteristics composition. It is offered to select the significant features from a set of standard financial ratios, calculated according to enterprises balance sheets. To obtain the weighting factors values it is proposed to use one of the expert statistical approaches, the analytic hierarchy process. The method is as follows: we choose the most important characteristic and after the experts determine the degree of preference for the main feature based on the linguistic scale. Further, matrix of pairwise comparisons based on the assigned ranks is compiled, which characterizes the relative importance of attributes. The required coefficients are determined as elements of a vector of priorities, which is the first vector of the matrix of paired comparisons. The paper proposes a mechanism for finding the fields for rating numbers analysis. In addition, the paper proposes a method for the statistical evaluation of the balance sheets of various companies by calculating the mutual correlation matrices. Based on the considered mathematical methods to determine quantitative characteristics of technical objects financial and economic activities, was developed algorithms, information and software allowing to realize of different systems economic analysis.

  6. Probabilistic safety assessment based expert systems in support of dynamic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varde, P.V.; Sharma, U.L.; Marik, S.K.; Raina, V.K.; Tikku, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) studies are being performed, world over as part of integrated risk assessment for Nuclear Power Plants and in many cases PSA insight is utilized in support of decision making. Though the modern plants are built with inherent safety provisions, particularly to reduce the supervisory requirements during initial period into the accident, it is always desired to develop an efficient user friendly real-time operator advisory system for handling of plant transients/emergencies which would be of immense benefit for the enhancement of operational safety of the plant. This paper discusses an integrated approach for the development of operator support system. In this approach, PSA methodology and the insight obtained from PSA has been utilized for development of knowledge based or rule based experts system. While Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approach has been employed for transient identification, rule-base expert system shell environment was used for the development of diagnostic module in this system. Attempt has been made to demonstrate that this approach offers an efficient framework for addressing requirements related to handling of real-time/dynamic scenario. (author)

  7. The diagnose of oil palm disease using Naive Bayes Method based on Expert System Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nababan, Marlince; Laia, Yonata; Sitanggang, Delima; Sihombing, Oloan; Indra, Evta; Siregar, Saut; Purba, Windania; Mancur, Roy

    2018-04-01

    Expert system is dealt with system that used computer-based human intelligence to overcome particular problem which is commonly conducted by an expert. Frequent problem faced by the farmers of oil palm is the difficulty in defining the type of plant disease. As a result, the delay treatment of plant disease brings out the declining of farm products. An application system is needed to deal with the obstacles and diagnosing the type of oil palm plant disease. The researcher designed an intelligence-based application with input-output plan which is able to diagnose the type of oil palm plant disease by applying naive bayes method. Based on the research result by conducting bayes method with recognized symptom, diagnose of oil palm plant disease could be accomplished. The data of symptoms found are leaves turned yellow 0.4, dead leaves 0.4, black and brown color among the veins of leaves 0.5, young and old fruit with whole space 0.4, and decay of bunches is 0.3. The roots are tender in the amount of 0.5, and damage on sheath is 0.3. Through the chosen symptoms as mentioned above, the value of bayes is 80% with the type of disease is rotten bunch.

  8. A diagnostic expert system for NPP based on hybrid knowledge approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Joon On; Chang, Soon Heung

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a diagnostic expert system, HYPOSS (Hybrid Knowledge Based Plant Operation Supporting System), which has been developed to support operators' decision making during the transients of nuclear power plant. HYPOSS adopts the hybrid knowledge approach which combines shallow and deep knowledge to couple the merits of both approaches. In HYPOSS, four types of knowledge are used according to the steps of diagnosis procedure: structural, functional, behavioral and heuristic knowledge. The structural and functional knowledge is represented by three fundamental primitives and five types of functions respectively. The behavioral knowledge is represented using constraints. The inference procedure is based on the human problem solving behavior modeled in HYPOSS. For the validation of HYPOSS, several tests have been performed based on the data produced by a plant simulator. The results of validation studies showed a good applicability of HYPOSS to the anomaly diagnosis of nuclear power plant

  9. Automated Individual Prescription of Exercise with an XML-based Expert System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, S; Park, S R; Jang, Y; Park, J; Yoon, Y; Park, S

    2005-01-01

    Continuously motivating people to exercise regularly is more important than finding a barriers such as lack of time, cost of equipment or gym membership, lack of nearby facilities and poor weather or night-time lighting. Our proposed system presents practicable methods of motivation through a web-based exercise prescription service. Users are instructed to exercise according to their physical ability by means of an automated individual prescription of exercise checked and approved by a personal trainer or exercise specialist after being tested with the HIMS, fitness assessment system. Furthermore, utilizing BIOFIT exercise prescriptions scheduled by an expert system can help users exercise systematically. Automated individual prescriptions are built in XML based documents because the data needs to be flexible, expansible and convertible structures to process diverse exercise templates. Web-based exercise prescription service makes users stay interested in exercise even if they live in many different environments.

  10. An American knowledge base in England - Alternate implementations of an expert system flight status monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, G. F.; Graves, A. T.; Disbrow, J. D.; Duke, E. L.

    1989-01-01

    A joint activity between the Dryden Flight Research Facility of the NASA Ames Research Center (Ames-Dryden) and the Royal Aerospace Establishment (RAE) on knowledge-based systems has been agreed. Under the agreement, a flight status monitor knowledge base developed at Ames-Dryden has been implemented using the real-time AI (artificial intelligence) toolkit MUSE, which was developed in the UK. Here, the background to the cooperation is described and the details of the flight status monitor and a prototype MUSE implementation are presented. It is noted that the capabilities of the expert-system flight status monitor to monitor data downlinked from the flight test aircraft and to generate information on the state and health of the system for the test engineers provides increased safety during flight testing of new systems. Furthermore, the expert-system flight status monitor provides the systems engineers with ready access to the large amount of information required to describe a complex aircraft system.

  11. A study on development of a rule based expert system for steam generator life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Kyun

    1994-02-01

    The need of predicting the integrity of the steam generator(SG) tubes and environmental conditions that affect their integrity is growing to secure nuclear power plant(NPP) safety and enhance plant availability. To achieve their objectives it is important to diagnose the integrity of the SG tubes. An expert system called FEMODES(failure mode diagnosis expert system) has been developed for diagnosis of such tube degradation phenomena as denting, intergranular attack(IGA) and stress corrosion cracking(SCC) in the secondary side of the SG. It is possible with use of FEMODES to estimate possibilities of SG tube degradation and diagnosis environmental conditions that influence such tube degradation. The method of certainty factor theory(CFT) and the rule based backward reasoning inference strategy are used to develop FEMODES. The information required for diagnosis is acquired from SG tube degradation experiences of two local reference plants, some limited oversea plants and technical reports/research papers about such tube degradation. Overall results estimated with use of FEMODES are in reasonable agreement with actual SG tube degradation. Some discrepancy observed in several estimated values of SG tube degradation appears to be due to insufficient heuristic knowledge for knowledge data base of FEMODES

  12. Assessing socioeconomic vulnerability to dengue fever in Cali, Colombia: statistical vs expert-based modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenlocher, Michael; Delmelle, Eric; Casas, Irene; Kienberger, Stefan

    2013-08-14

    As a result of changes in climatic conditions and greater resistance to insecticides, many regions across the globe, including Colombia, have been facing a resurgence of vector-borne diseases, and dengue fever in particular. Timely information on both (1) the spatial distribution of the disease, and (2) prevailing vulnerabilities of the population are needed to adequately plan targeted preventive intervention. We propose a methodology for the spatial assessment of current socioeconomic vulnerabilities to dengue fever in Cali, a tropical urban environment of Colombia. Based on a set of socioeconomic and demographic indicators derived from census data and ancillary geospatial datasets, we develop a spatial approach for both expert-based and purely statistical-based modeling of current vulnerability levels across 340 neighborhoods of the city using a Geographic Information System (GIS). The results of both approaches are comparatively evaluated by means of spatial statistics. A web-based approach is proposed to facilitate the visualization and the dissemination of the output vulnerability index to the community. The statistical and the expert-based modeling approach exhibit a high concordance, globally, and spatially. The expert-based approach indicates a slightly higher vulnerability mean (0.53) and vulnerability median (0.56) across all neighborhoods, compared to the purely statistical approach (mean = 0.48; median = 0.49). Both approaches reveal that high values of vulnerability tend to cluster in the eastern, north-eastern, and western part of the city. These are poor neighborhoods with high percentages of young (i.e., local expertise, statistical approaches could be used, with caution. By decomposing identified vulnerability "hotspots" into their underlying factors, our approach provides valuable information on both (1) the location of neighborhoods, and (2) vulnerability factors that should be given priority in the context of targeted intervention

  13. Desirability and feasibility of sustainable urban transport systems. An expert-based strategic scenario approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nijkamp, P.; Ouwersloot, H.; Rienstra, S.A. [Department of Spatial Economics, Faculty of Economics and Econometrics, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1995-09-01

    Current trends in transport indicate that the system is moving away from sustainability and that major changes are necessary to make the transport system more compatible with environmental sustainability. Main problems may occur in urban transport, where not many promising solutions are expected, while the problems are severe. In view of the great number of uncertainties, we will in our paper resort to scenarios. In the paper, expert scenarios, which lead to a sustainable transport system are constructed by applying the recently developed `Spider model`. Based on a set of distinct characteristics, leading to eight axes in the spatial, institutional, economic and social-psychological field, an evaluation framework is constructed, which visualizes the driving forces that largely influence the future of the transport system. Next, expected and desired scenarios are constructed by means of opinions of Dutch transport experts - both average scenarios and scenarios of segments of the respondents - which have been investigated by means of a survey. The expected scenarios indicate that many current trends will continue, while the transport system is largely the same as the current one. The desired scenarios on the other hand, suggest the emergence and the need for a more collective system, in which also many new modes are operating. In the paper the resulting urban transport systems are also discussed. By calculating the CO2 emissions in the average expected and desired scenario, it appears that the expected scenario does not lead to a large scale reduction of those emissions; the desired scenario however, may lead to a large scale reduction of the emissions. The conclusion is that the differences in expert opinion are small and that the road towards a sustainable (urban) transport system is still far away, although the compact city concept may perhaps offer some solution. 6 figs., 2 tabs., 18 refs.

  14. Image-based teleconsultation using smartphones or tablets: qualitative assessment of medical experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissin, Constance; Blom, Lisa; Wallis, Lee; Laflamme, Lucie

    2017-02-01

    Mobile health has promising potential in improving healthcare delivery by facilitating access to expert advice. Enabling experts to review images on their smartphone or tablet may save valuable time. This study aims at assessing whether images viewed by medical specialists on handheld devices such as smartphones and tablets are perceived to be of comparable quality as when viewed on a computer screen. This was a prospective study comparing the perceived quality of 18 images on three different display devices (smartphone, tablet and computer) by 27 participants (4 burn surgeons and 23 emergency medicine specialists). The images, presented in random order, covered clinical (dermatological conditions, burns, ECGs and X-rays) and non-clinical subjects and their perceived quality was assessed using a 7-point Likert scale. Differences in devices' quality ratings were analysed using linear regression models for clustered data adjusting for image type and participants' characteristics (age, gender and medical specialty). Overall, the images were rated good or very good in most instances and more so for the smartphone (83.1%, mean score 5.7) and tablet (78.2%, mean 5.5) than for a standard computer (70.6%, mean 5.2). Both handheld devices had significantly higher ratings than the computer screen, even after controlling for image type and participants' characteristics. Nearly all experts expressed that they would be comfortable using smartphones (n=25) or tablets (n=26) for image-based teleconsultation. This study suggests that handheld devices could be a substitute for computer screens for teleconsultation by physicians working in emergency settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. A fuzzy expert system to Trust-Based Access Control in crowdsourcing environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun Folorunso

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Crowdsourcing has been widely accepted across a broad range of application areas. In crowdsourcing environments, the possibility of performing human computation is characterized with risks due to the openness of their web-based platforms where each crowd worker joins and participates in the process at any time, causing serious effect on the quality of its computation. In this paper, a combination of Trust-Based Access Control (TBAC strategy and fuzzy-expert systems was used to enhance the quality of human computation in crowdsourcing environment. A TBAC-fuzzy algorithm was developed and implemented using MATLAB 7.6.0 to compute trust value (Tvalue, priority value as evaluated by fuzzy inference system (FIS and finally generate access decision to each crowd-worker. In conclusion, the use of TBAC is feasible in improving quality of human computation in crowdsourcing environments.

  16. General purpose - expert system for the analysis and design of base plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shawaf, T.D.; Hahn, W.F.; Ho, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    As an expert system, the IMPLATE program uses plant specific information to make decisions in modeling and analysis of baseplates. The user supplies a minimum of information which is checked for validity and reasonableness. Once this data is supplied, the program automatically generates a compatible mesh and finite element model from its data base accounting for the attachments, stiffeners, anchor bolts and plate/concrete interface. Based on the loading direction, the program deletes certain degrees of freedom and performs a linear or a nonlinear solution, whichever is appropriate. Load step sizes and equilibrium iteration are automatically selected by the program to ensure a convergent solution. Once the analysis is completed, a code check is then performed and a summary of results is produced. Plots of the plate deformation pattern and stress contours are also generated. (orig.)

  17. A semi-linguistic approach based on fuzzy set theory: application to expert judgments aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghyym, Seong Ho

    1998-01-01

    In the present work, a semi-linguistic fuzzy algorithm is proposed to obtain the fuzzy weighting values for multi-criterion, multi-alternative performance evaluation problem, with application to the aggregated estimate in the aggregation process of multi-expert judgments. The algorithm framework proposed is composed of the hierarchical structure, the semi-linguistic approach, the fuzzy R-L type integral value, and the total risk attitude index. In this work, extending the Chang/Chen method for triangular fuzzy numbers, the total risk attitude index is devised for a trapezoidal fuzzy number system. To illustrate the application of the algorithm proposed, a case problem available in literature is studied in connection to the weighting value evaluation of three-alternative (i.e., the aggregation of three-expert judgments) under seven-criterion. The evaluation results such as overall utility value, aggregation weighting value, and aggregated estimate obtained using the present fuzzy model are compared with those for other fuzzy models based on the Kim/Park method, the Liou/Wang method, and the Chang/Chen method

  18. A semi-linguistic approach based on fuzzy set theory: application to expert judgments aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghyym, Seong Ho [KEPRI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    In the present work, a semi-linguistic fuzzy algorithm is proposed to obtain the fuzzy weighting values for multi-criterion, multi-alternative performance evaluation problem, with application to the aggregated estimate in the aggregation process of multi-expert judgments. The algorithm framework proposed is composed of the hierarchical structure, the semi-linguistic approach, the fuzzy R-L type integral value, and the total risk attitude index. In this work, extending the Chang/Chen method for triangular fuzzy numbers, the total risk attitude index is devised for a trapezoidal fuzzy number system. To illustrate the application of the algorithm proposed, a case problem available in literature is studied in connection to the weighting value evaluation of three-alternative (i.e., the aggregation of three-expert judgments) under seven-criterion. The evaluation results such as overall utility value, aggregation weighting value, and aggregated estimate obtained using the present fuzzy model are compared with those for other fuzzy models based on the Kim/Park method, the Liou/Wang method, and the Chang/Chen method.

  19. Accident diagnosis system based on real-time decision tree expert system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolau, Andressa dos S.; Augusto, João P. da S. C.; Schirru, Roberto

    2017-06-01

    Safety is one of the most studied topics when referring to power stations. For that reason, sensors and alarms develop an important role in environmental and human protection. When abnormal event happens, it triggers a chain of alarms that must be, somehow, checked by the control room operators. In this case, diagnosis support system can help operators to accurately identify the possible root-cause of the problem in short time. In this article, we present a computational model of a generic diagnose support system based on artificial intelligence, that was applied on the dataset of two real power stations: Angra1 Nuclear Power Plant and Santo Antônio Hydroelectric Plant. The proposed system processes all the information logged in the sequence of events before a shutdown signal using the expert's knowledge inputted into an expert system indicating the chain of events, from the shutdown signal to its root-cause. The results of both applications showed that the support system is a potential tool to help the control room operators identify abnormal events, as accidents and consequently increase the safety.

  20. Investigating Cognitive Task Difficulties and Expert Skills in E-Learning Storyboards Using a Cognitive Task Analysis Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Nor'ain Mohd; Salim, Siti Salwah

    2012-01-01

    E-learning storyboards have been a useful approach in distance learning development to support interaction between instructional designers and subject-matter experts. Current works show that researchers are focusing on different approaches for use in storyboards, and there is less emphasis on the effect of design and process difficulties faced by…

  1. A distributed agent architecture for real-time knowledge-based systems: Real-time expert systems project, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. Daniel

    1990-01-01

    We propose a distributed agent architecture (DAA) that can support a variety of paradigms based on both traditional real-time computing and artificial intelligence. DAA consists of distributed agents that are classified into two categories: reactive and cognitive. Reactive agents can be implemented directly in Ada to meet hard real-time requirements and be deployed on on-board embedded processors. A traditional real-time computing methodology under consideration is the rate monotonic theory that can guarantee schedulability based on analytical methods. AI techniques under consideration for reactive agents are approximate or anytime reasoning that can be implemented using Bayesian belief networks as in Guardian. Cognitive agents are traditional expert systems that can be implemented in ART-Ada to meet soft real-time requirements. During the initial design of cognitive agents, it is critical to consider the migration path that would allow initial deployment on ground-based workstations with eventual deployment on on-board processors. ART-Ada technology enables this migration while Lisp-based technologies make it difficult if not impossible. In addition to reactive and cognitive agents, a meta-level agent would be needed to coordinate multiple agents and to provide meta-level control.

  2. Strategy for Developing Expert-System-Based Internet Protocols (TCP/IP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.

    1997-01-01

    The Satellite Networks and Architectures Branch of NASA's Lewis Research is addressing the issue of seamless interoperability of satellite networks with terrestrial networks. One of the major issues is improving reliable transmission protocols such as TCP over long latency and error-prone links. Many tuning parameters are available to enhance the performance of TCP including segment size, timers and window sizes. There are also numerous congestion avoidance algorithms such as slow start, selective retransmission and selective acknowledgment that are utilized to improve performance. This paper provides a strategy to characterize the performance of TCP relative to various parameter settings in a variety of network environments (i.e. LAN, WAN, wireless, satellite, and IP over ATM). This information can then be utilized to develop expert-system-based Internet protocols.

  3. Composite Techniques Based Color Image Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Ibrahim Abood

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Compression for color image is now necessary for transmission and storage in the data bases since the color gives a pleasing nature and natural for any object, so three composite techniques based color image compression is implemented to achieve image with high compression, no loss in original image, better performance and good image quality. These techniques are composite stationary wavelet technique (S, composite wavelet technique (W and composite multi-wavelet technique (M. For the high energy sub-band of the 3rd level of each composite transform in each composite technique, the compression parameters are calculated. The best composite transform among the 27 types is the three levels of multi-wavelet transform (MMM in M technique which has the highest values of energy (En and compression ratio (CR and least values of bit per pixel (bpp, time (T and rate distortion R(D. Also the values of the compression parameters of the color image are nearly the same as the average values of the compression parameters of the three bands of the same image.

  4. A Belief Rule-Based Expert System to Assess Bronchiolitis Suspicion from Signs and Symptoms Under Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karim, Rezuan; Hossain, Mohammad Shahadat; Khalid, Md. Saifuddin

    2017-01-01

    developed generic belief rule-based inference methodology by using evidential reasoning (RIMER) acts as the inference engine of this BRBES while belief rule base as the knowledge representation schema. The knowledge base of the system is constructed by using real patient data and expert opinion from...

  5. 39 VetoMed : un système expert à base d'icônes pour la médecine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PR BOKO

    Mots-clés: système expert, générateur de systèmes expert, base de connaissances, médecine traditionnelle vétérinaire, plantes médicinales, interface iconique, tradipraticien. Abstract. VetoMed : An icon-based expert system for Traditional Veterinary Medicine. In this paper we propose an expert system in which, icons are ...

  6. Empirical guidelines for forest management decision support systems based on the past experiences of the expert's community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, A. F.; Ficko, A.; Kangas, A.; Rosset, C.; Ferreti, F.; Rasinmaki, J.; Packalen, T.; Gordom, S.

    2013-09-01

    Aim of the study: Decision support systems for forest management (FMDSS) have been developed world wide to account for a broad range of forest ecosystems, management goals and organizational frameworks (e.g. the wiki page of the FORSYS project reports 62 existing FMDSSs from 23 countries). The need to enhance the collaboration among this diverse community of developers and users fostered the rise of new group communication processes that could capture useful knowledge from past experiences in order to efficiently provide it to new FMDSS development efforts. Material and methods: This paper presents and tests an exploratory process aiming to identify the empirical guidelines assisting developers and users of FMDSS. This process encompasses a Delphi survey built upon the consolidation of the lessons-learned statements that summarize the past experiences of the experts involved in the FORSYS project. The experts come from 34 countries and have diverse interests, ranging from forest planners, IT developers, social scientists studying participatory planning, and researchers with interests in knowledge management and in quantitative models for forest planning. Main results: The proposed 37 empirical guidelines that group 102 lessons-learned cover a broad range of issues including the DSS development cycle, involvement of the stakeholders, methods, models and knowledge based techniques in use. Research highlights: These results may be used for improving new FMDSS development processes, teaching and training and further suggest new features of FMDSS and future research topics. Furthermore, the guidelines may constitute a knowledge repository that may be continuously improved by a community of practice. (Author)

  7. Spectral information interpretation of X-ray analysis based on expert system approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drakunov, Yu.M.; Lezin, A.N.; Pukha, N.P.; Silachev, I.Yu.

    2000-01-01

    An expert subprogram for automated identification for element composition of the samples of different nature according to the result of energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis is elaborated, The flowchart of the subprogram is presented, brief description of expert system structure and its algorithm is given. (author)

  8. Expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haldy, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    The definitions of the terms 'artificial intelligence' and 'expert systems', the methodology, areas of employment and limits of expert systems are discussed. The operation of an expert system is described, especially the presentation and organization of knowledge as well as interference and control. Methods and tools for expert system development are presented and their application in nuclear energy are briefly addressed. 7 figs., 2 tabs., 6 refs

  9. A probabilistic risk assessment for field radiography based on expert judgment and opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Han-Ki; Ryu, Hyung-Joon; Kim, Ji-Young; Lee, Jai-Ki; Cho, Kun-Woo

    2011-01-01

    A probabilistic approach was applied to assess radiation risk associated with the field radiography using gamma sources. The Delphi method based on the expert judgments and opinions was used in the process of characterization of parameters affecting risk, which are inevitably subject to large uncertainties. A mathematical approach applying the Bayesian inferences was employed for data processing to improve the Delphi results. This process consists of three phases: (1) setting prior distributions, (2) constructing the likelihood functions and (3) deriving the posterior distributions based on the likelihood functions. The approach for characterizing input parameters using the Bayesian inference is provided for improved risk estimates without intentional rejection of part of the data, which demonstrated utility of Bayesian updating of distributions of uncertain input parameters in PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment). The data analysis portion for PRA in field radiography is addressed for estimates of the parameters used to determine the frequencies and consequences of the various events modeled. In this study, radiological risks for the worker and the public member in the vicinity of the work place are estimated for field radiography system in Korea based on two-dimensional Monte Carlo Analysis (2D MCA). (author)

  10. Evidence - based pharmacological treatment of atopic dermatitis: An expert opinion and new expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold P Oranje

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is one of the most common skin diseases with a complex multifactorial background. The clinical presentation, the aggravating factors and the complications vary according to the age of the patients. Most cases, approximately 60-80%, present for the 1 st time before the age of 12 months. Adult-onset AD has been observed as a special variant. Pruritus is the worst sign of AD, which also often indicates an exacerbation and is considered to be the most annoying symptom of AD. Treatment is preferably started based on the severity of AD. In only 10% of the cases, AD is so severe that systemic treatment is necessary. Systemic treatment including topical wet-wrap treatment is indicated in the worst and recalcitrant cases of AD. Systemic treatment of AD is discussed with regards to the evidence-based efficacy and safety aspects. I prefer wet-wraps as a crisis intervention in severe childhood cases, whereas UV and systemic treatments are the choices in patients older than 10 years. Probiotics are not useful in the treatment. If they have any effect at all it may only be in food-allergic children with AD. Finally, anti-histamines are not effective against pruritus in AD. They are only effective against urticarial flares and in cases with food-allergy. This article consists of an expert opinion on evidence-based pharmacological treatment of AD, but it is not a systemic review.

  11. A novel AIDS/HIV intelligent medical consulting system based on expert systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Alireza Pour; Toloui Ashlaghi, Abbas; Mahdavy Rad, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel intelligent model for AIDS/HIV data based on expert system and using it for developing an intelligent medical consulting system for AIDS/HIV. In this descriptive research, 752 frequently asked questions (FAQs) about AIDS/HIV are gathered from numerous websites about this disease. To perform the data mining and extracting the intelligent model, the 6 stages of Crisp method has been completed for FAQs. The 6 stages include: Business understanding, data understanding, data preparation, modelling, evaluation and deployment. C5.0 Tree classification algorithm is used for modelling. Also, rational unified process (RUP) is used to develop the web-based medical consulting software. Stages of RUP are as follows: Inception, elaboration, construction and transition. The intelligent developed model has been used in the infrastructure of the software and based on client's inquiry and keywords related FAQs are displayed to the client, according to the rank. FAQs' ranks are gradually determined considering clients reading it. Based on displayed FAQs, test and entertainment links are also displayed. The accuracy of the AIDS/HIV intelligent web-based medical consulting system is estimated to be 78.76%. AIDS/HIV medical consulting systems have been developed using intelligent infrastructure. Being equipped with an intelligent model, providing consulting services on systematic textual data and providing side services based on client's activities causes the implemented system to be unique. The research has been approved by Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education for being practical.

  12. An expert system design to diagnose cancer by using a new method reduced rule base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başçiftçi, Fatih; Avuçlu, Emre

    2018-04-01

    A Medical Expert System (MES) was developed which uses Reduced Rule Base to diagnose cancer risk according to the symptoms in an individual. A total of 13 symptoms were used. With the new MES, the reduced rules are controlled instead of all possibilities (2 13 = 8192 different possibilities occur). By controlling reduced rules, results are found more quickly. The method of two-level simplification of Boolean functions was used to obtain Reduced Rule Base. Thanks to the developed application with the number of dynamic inputs and outputs on different platforms, anyone can easily test their own cancer easily. More accurate results were obtained considering all the possibilities related to cancer. Thirteen different risk factors were determined to determine the type of cancer. The truth table produced in our study has 13 inputs and 4 outputs. The Boolean Function Minimization method is used to obtain less situations by simplifying logical functions. Diagnosis of cancer quickly thanks to control of the simplified 4 output functions. Diagnosis made with the 4 output values obtained using Reduced Rule Base was found to be quicker than diagnosis made by screening all 2 13 = 8192 possibilities. With the improved MES, more probabilities were added to the process and more accurate diagnostic results were obtained. As a result of the simplification process in breast and renal cancer diagnosis 100% diagnosis speed gain, in cervical cancer and lung cancer diagnosis rate gain of 99% was obtained. With Boolean function minimization, less number of rules is evaluated instead of evaluating a large number of rules. Reducing the number of rules allows the designed system to work more efficiently and to save time, and facilitates to transfer the rules to the designed Expert systems. Interfaces were developed in different software platforms to enable users to test the accuracy of the application. Any one is able to diagnose the cancer itself using determinative risk factors. Thereby

  13. History of nuclear power plants safety in France (1945-2000) - Engineer techniques, expert evaluation, topical issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foasso, Cyrille

    2003-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation relates the history of the mastery of risks in civil nuclear plants in France. Since 1960, it's known as the 'surete nucleaire'. Over a fifty-year period separating the discovery or the atomic fission and its industrial application on a large scale this PhD shows which technical means were used over the years by engineers to handle this risk which is said to be huge. It also studies the various processes in expert evaluation and in decision making elaborated to evaluate if the risk was acceptable or not. Beyond the conflicts between nuclear advocates and opponents, this thesis shows how ever among nuclear engineer the growing distinction between roles (promoters, experts and controlling authorities) and the various jobs (designers, builders and plant operators) triggered different estimations as far as the methods to obtain a satisfactory safety. Thanks to the progress of knowledge through research programs, thanks to the lessons drawn from the functioning or dysfunction of nuclear plants, thanks to the reinforcement of regulations (which more or less reflects the public's opinion concerning this industry) the safety has progressively improved. Thus, this historical study is multiple: a technical history of technology, a history of scientific, industrial and administrative organization, a social history and finally an international and comparative history since the nuclear energy history quickly developed beyond national boundaries. (author) [fr

  14. The Evaluation of the Cognitive Learning Process of the Renewed Bloom Taxonomy Using a Web Based Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goksu, Idris

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop the Web Based Expert System (WBES) which provides analyses and reports based on the cognitive processes of Renewed Bloom Taxonomy (RBT), and to put forward the impact of the supportive education provided in line with these reports, on the academic achievement and mastery learning state of the students. The study…

  15. IMAGE ANALYSIS BASED ON EDGE DETECTION TECHNIQUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纳瑟; 刘重庆

    2002-01-01

    A method that incorporates edge detection technique, Markov Random field (MRF), watershed segmentation and merging techniques was presented for performing image segmentation and edge detection tasks. It first applies edge detection technique to obtain a Difference In Strength (DIS) map. An initial segmented result is obtained based on K-means clustering technique and the minimum distance. Then the region process is modeled by MRF to obtain an image that contains different intensity regions. The gradient values are calculated and then the watershed technique is used. DIS calculation is used for each pixel to define all the edges (weak or strong) in the image. The DIS map is obtained. This help as priority knowledge to know the possibility of the region segmentation by the next step (MRF), which gives an image that has all the edges and regions information. In MRF model,gray level l, at pixel location i, in an image X, depends on the gray levels of neighboring pixels. The segmentation results are improved by using watershed algorithm. After all pixels of the segmented regions are processed, a map of primitive region with edges is generated. The edge map is obtained using a merge process based on averaged intensity mean values. A common edge detectors that work on (MRF) segmented image are used and the results are compared. The segmentation and edge detection result is one closed boundary per actual region in the image.

  16. An Expert System for Diagnosis of Sleep Disorder Using Fuzzy Rule-Based Classification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septem Riza, Lala; Pradini, Mila; Fitrajaya Rahman, Eka; Rasim

    2017-03-01

    Sleep disorder is an anomaly that could cause problems for someone’ sleeping pattern. Nowadays, it becomes an issue since people are getting busy with their own business and have no time to visit the doctors. Therefore, this research aims to develop a system used for diagnosis of sleep disorder using Fuzzy Rule-Based Classification System (FRBCS). FRBCS is a method based on the fuzzy set concepts. It consists of two steps: (i) constructing a model/knowledge involving rulebase and database, and (ii) prediction over new data. In this case, the knowledge is obtained from experts whereas in the prediction stage, we perform fuzzification, inference, and classification. Then, a platform implementing the method is built with a combination between PHP and the R programming language using the “Shiny” package. To validate the system that has been made, some experiments have been done using data from a psychiatric hospital in West Java, Indonesia. Accuracy of the result and computation time are 84.85% and 0.0133 seconds, respectively.

  17. Assessment of features for automatic CTG analysis based on expert annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudácek, Vacláv; Spilka, Jirí; Lhotská, Lenka; Janku, Petr; Koucký, Michal; Huptych, Michal; Bursa, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Cardiotocography (CTG) is the monitoring of fetal heart rate (FHR) and uterine contractions (TOCO) since 1960's used routinely by obstetricians to detect fetal hypoxia. The evaluation of the FHR in clinical settings is based on an evaluation of macroscopic morphological features and so far has managed to avoid adopting any achievements from the HRV research field. In this work, most of the ever-used features utilized for FHR characterization, including FIGO, HRV, nonlinear, wavelet, and time and frequency domain features, are investigated and the features are assessed based on their statistical significance in the task of distinguishing the FHR into three FIGO classes. Annotation derived from the panel of experts instead of the commonly utilized pH values was used for evaluation of the features on a large data set (552 records). We conclude the paper by presenting the best uncorrelated features and their individual rank of importance according to the meta-analysis of three different ranking methods. Number of acceleration and deceleration, interval index, as well as Lempel-Ziv complexity and Higuchi's fractal dimension are among the top five features.

  18. [Isolated primary nocturnal enuresis: international evidence based management. Consensus recommendations by French expert group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, D; Berard, E; Blanc, J-P; Lenoir, G; Liard, F; Lottmann, H

    2010-05-01

    The causes and treatment of isolated primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) are the subject of ongoing controversy. We are proposing consensus practical recommendations, based on a formalised analysis of the literature and validated by a large panel of experts. A task force of six experts based its work on the guide for literature analysis and recommendations and recommendation grading of the French Haute Autorité de Santé (formalized consensus process methodological guidelines) to evaluate the level of scientific proof (grade of 1 to 4) and the strength of the recommendations (grade A, B, C) of the publications on PNE. As a result of this, 223 articles from 2003 on were identified, of which only 127 (57 %) have an evaluable level of proof. This evaluation was then reviewed by a 19-member rating group. Several recommendations, poorly defined by the literature, had to be proposed by a professional agreement resulting from a consultation between the members of the task force and those of the rating group. For its final validation, the document was submitted to a reading group of 21 members working in a wide range of specialist areas and practices but all involved in PNE. The definition of PNE is very specific: intermittent incontinence during sleep, from the age of 5, with no continuous period of continence longer than 6 months, with no other associated symptom, particularly during the day. Its diagnosis is clinical by the exclusion of all other urinary pathologies. Two factors must be identified during the consultation: nocturnal polyuria promoted by excessive fluid intake, inverse secretion of vasopressin, snoring and sleep apnoea. It is sensitive to desmopressin; small bladder capacity evaluated according to a voiding diary and the ICCS formula. It may be associated with diurnal hyperactivity of the detrusor (30 %). It is resistant to desmopressin. Problems associated with PNE are: abnormal arousal threshold, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (10 %), low

  19. MANAGEMENT OF RISKS BASED ON INTERACTION BETWEEN CONSTRUCTION EXPERT AND CUSTOMER ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Васильевич Харитонович

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes problems connected to management of risk and key characteristics of interaction of construction expert and organization-customer of expert services. We have conducted the analysis of different schemes used for management of risk, their advantages and disadvantages. In addition authors describe the main opportunities that appear in the organization as a result of the systematic engagement of an external expert at different stages of investment and construction project (getting recommendations aimed at improving of the organization adaptability to changes and risks; improving the efficiency of management of investment and construction projects etc..

  20. Expert system. Based advisory system for the operator's mental activities support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gieci, A.; Macko, J.; Mosny, J.

    2000-01-01

    The operator's mental activity is the most important part of his work. A processing of a large amount of the information by the operator is possible only if he/she possesses appropriate cognitive skills. To facilitate the novice's acquisition of the experienced operator's cognitive skills of the decision-making process a special type of the expert system was developed. The cognitive engineering's models and problem-solving methodology constitutes the basis of this expert system. The article gives an account of the prototype of the mentioned expert system developed to aid the whole mental activity of the nuclear power plant operator during his decision-making process. (author)

  1. Rule Based Expert System for Monitoring Real Time Drug Supply in Hospital Using Radio Frequency Identification Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driandanu, Galih; Surarso, Bayu; Suryono

    2018-02-01

    A radio frequency identification (RFID) has obtained increasing attention with the emergence of various applications. This study aims to examine the implementation of rule based expert system supported by RFID technology into a monitoring information system of drug supply in a hospital. This research facilitates in monitoring the real time drug supply by using data sample from the hospital pharmacy. This system able to identify and count the number of drug and provide warning and report in real time. the conclusion is the rule based expert system and RFID technology can facilitate the performance in monitoring the drug supply quickly and precisely.

  2. A novel computer based expert decision making model for prostate cancer disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Martin B; Forman, Ernest H; Bayazit, Yildirim; Einstein, Douglas B; Resnick, Martin I; Stovsky, Mark D

    2005-12-01

    We propose a strategic, computer based, prostate cancer decision making model based on the analytic hierarchy process. We developed a model that improves physician-patient joint decision making and enhances the treatment selection process by making this critical decision rational and evidence based. Two groups (patient and physician-expert) completed a clinical study comparing an initial disease management choice with the highest ranked option generated by the computer model. Participants made pairwise comparisons to derive priorities for the objectives and subobjectives related to the disease management decision. The weighted comparisons were then applied to treatment options to yield prioritized rank lists that reflect the likelihood that a given alternative will achieve the participant treatment goal. Aggregate data were evaluated by inconsistency ratio analysis and sensitivity analysis, which assessed the influence of individual objectives and subobjectives on the final rank list of treatment options. Inconsistency ratios less than 0.05 were reliably generated, indicating that judgments made within the model were mathematically rational. The aggregate prioritized list of treatment options was tabulated for the patient and physician groups with similar outcomes for the 2 groups. Analysis of the major defining objectives in the treatment selection decision demonstrated the same rank order for the patient and physician groups with cure, survival and quality of life being more important than controlling cancer, preventing major complications of treatment, preventing blood transfusion complications and limiting treatment cost. Analysis of subobjectives, including quality of life and sexual dysfunction, produced similar priority rankings for the patient and physician groups. Concordance between initial treatment choice and the highest weighted model option differed between the groups with the patient group having 59% concordance and the physician group having only 42

  3. Using Fuzzy Logic to Increase the Accuracy of E-Commerce Risk Assessment Based on an Expert System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Beheshti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Strong adaptive control can be exercised even without access to accurate data inputs. Such control is possible through fuzzy mathematics, which is a meta-collection of Boolean logic principles that imply relative accuracy. Fuzzy mathematics find applications in e-commerce, where different risk analysis methods are available for risk assessment and estimation. Such approaches can be quantitative or qualitative, depending on the type of examined data. Quantitative methods are grounded in statistics, whereas qualitative methods are based on expert judgments and fuzzy set theory. Given that qualitative methods are very subjective and deal with vague or inaccurate data, fuzzy logic can be used to extract useful information from data inaccuracies. In this study, a model based on the opinions of e-commerce security experts was designed and implemented by using fuzzy expert systems and MATLAB. A case study was conducted to validate the effectiveness of the Model.

  4. Feasibility of an AI-Based Measure of the Hand Motions of Expert and Novice Surgeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munenori Uemura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether parameters derived from hand motions of expert and novice surgeons accurately and objectively reflect laparoscopic surgical skill levels using an artificial intelligence system consisting of a three-layer chaos neural network. Sixty-seven surgeons (23 experts and 44 novices performed a laparoscopic skill assessment task while their hand motions were recorded using a magnetic tracking sensor. Eight parameters evaluated as measures of skill in a previous study were used as inputs to the neural network. Optimization of the neural network was achieved after seven trials with a training dataset of 38 surgeons, with a correct judgment ratio of 0.99. The neural network that prospectively worked with the remaining 29 surgeons had a correct judgment rate of 79% for distinguishing between expert and novice surgeons. In conclusion, our artificial intelligence system distinguished between expert and novice surgeons among surgeons with unknown skill levels.

  5. Proposal for a structured computed tomography report in the evaluation of pancreatic neoplasms based on expert opinions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Paulo Gustavo Maciel; Matsumoto, Carlos Alberto; Lobo, Edson José; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe, E-mail: pgmlopes87@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de São Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Medicina

    2018-03-15

    Objective: To create a structured computed tomography (CT) report for the systematic evaluation of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), based on the opinions of clinicians and surgeons. Materials And Methods: This was a prospective study in which we applied a 21-item questionnaire to experts in pancreatic diseases in order to create a model of a structured abdominal CT report. The questionnaire addressed the location and size of PDACs, as well as their effects on adjacent structures and on the vasculature, together with metastases. We used a Likert scale to determine which of those parameters should be included in the model. Results: A total of 18 experts (12 surgeons and 6 clinicians) from 9 institutions completed the questionnaire. All of the experts agreed that the following (if present) should be described in the CT report on a PDAC: the degree of enhancement; the diameter and location of the lesion; pancreatic duct obstruction; biliary dilatation; pancreatic atrophy; liver metastases; peritoneal nodules; ascites; lymph node enlargement; and invasion of adjacent structures. More than 80% of the experts agreed that the report should also describe the relationship between the PDAC and the surrounding vasculature. Conclusion: We have developed a template for a CT report on patients with PDAC, based on the opinions of experts involved in the treatment of such patients. (author)

  6. Analytical research using synchrotron radiation based techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Shambhu Nath

    2015-01-01

    There are many Synchrotron Radiation (SR) based techniques such as X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRF), SR-Fourier-transform Infrared (SRFTIR), Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (HAXPS) etc. which are increasingly being employed worldwide in analytical research. With advent of modern synchrotron sources these analytical techniques have been further revitalized and paved ways for new techniques such as microprobe XRF and XAS, FTIR microscopy, Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (HAXPS) etc. The talk will cover mainly two techniques illustrating its capability in analytical research namely XRF and XAS. XRF spectroscopy: XRF spectroscopy is an analytical technique which involves the detection of emitted characteristic X-rays following excitation of the elements within the sample. While electron, particle (protons or alpha particles), or X-ray beams can be employed as the exciting source for this analysis, the use of X-ray beams from a synchrotron source has been instrumental in the advancement of the technique in the area of microprobe XRF imaging and trace level compositional characterisation of any sample. Synchrotron radiation induced X-ray emission spectroscopy, has become competitive with the earlier microprobe and nanoprobe techniques following the advancements in manipulating and detecting these X-rays. There are two important features that contribute to the superb elemental sensitivities of microprobe SR induced XRF: (i) the absence of the continuum (Bremsstrahlung) background radiation that is a feature of spectra obtained from charged particle beams, and (ii) the increased X-ray flux on the sample associated with the use of tunable third generation synchrotron facilities. Detection sensitivities have been reported in the ppb range, with values of 10 -17 g - 10 -14 g (depending on the particular element and matrix). Keeping in mind its demand, a microprobe XRF beamline has been setup by RRCAT at Indus-2 synchrotron

  7. Image-based teleconsultation using smartphones or tablets: qualitative assessment of medical experts

    OpenAIRE

    Boissin, Constance; Blom, Lisa; Wallis, Lee; Laflamme, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    Background Mobile health has promising potential in improving healthcare delivery by facilitating access to expert advice. Enabling experts to review images on their smartphone or tablet may save valuable time. This study aims at assessing whether images viewed by medical specialists on handheld devices such as smartphones and tablets are perceived to be of comparable quality as when viewed on a computer screen. Methods This was a prospective study comparing the perceived quality of 18 images...

  8. Using experts’ consensus (the Delphi method) to evaluate weighting techniques in web surveys not based on probability schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toepoel, V.; Emerson, Hannah

    2017-01-01

    Weighting techniques in web surveys based on no probability schemes are devised to correct biases due to self-selection, undercoverage, and nonresponse. In an interactive panel, 38 survey experts addressed weighting techniques and auxiliary variables in web surveys. Most of them corrected all biases

  9. Exploiting Expert Knowledge to Enhance Simulation-based Optimization of Environmental Remediation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reslink, C. F.; Matott, L. S.

    2012-12-01

    Designing cost-effective systems to safeguard national water supplies from contaminated sites is often aided by simulation-based optimization - where a flow or transport model is linked with an "off-the-shelf" global optimization search algorithm. However, achieving good performance from these types of optimizers within a reasonable computational budget has proven to be difficult. Therefore, this research seeks to boost optimization efficiency by augmenting search procedures with non-traditional information, such as site-specific knowledge and practitioner rules-of-thumb. An example application involving pump-and-treat optimization is presented in which a series of extraction wells are to be installed to intercept pollutants at a contaminated site in Billings, Montana. Selected heuristic algorithms (e.g. Genetic Algorithm) are interfaced with a rules engine that makes inline adjustments to the well locations of candidate pump-and-treat designs. If necessary, the rules engine modifies a given pump-and-treat design so that: (1) wells are placed within plume boundaries; and (2) well placement is biased toward areas where, if left untreated, the plume is predicted to spread most rapidly. Results suggest that incorporating this kind of expert knowledge can significantly increase the search efficiency of many popular global optimizers.

  10. Artificial Immune Ecosystems: the role of expert-based learning in artificial cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Parrend

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid evolution of IT ecosystems significantly challenges the security models our infrastructures rely on. Beyond the old dichotomy between open and closed systems, it is now necessary to handle securely the interaction between heterogeneous devices building dynamic ecosystems. To this regard, bio-inspired approaches provide a rich set of conceptual tools, but they have failed to lay the basis for robust and efficient solutions. Our research effort intends to revisit the contribution of artificial immune system research to bring immune properties: security, resilience, distribution, memory, into IT infrastructures. Artificial immune ecosystems support a comprehensive model for anomaly detection and characterization, but their cognitive capacity are limited by the state of the art in machine learning and the rapid evolution of cybersecurity threats so far. We therefore propose to enrich the cognitive process with expert-based learning for reinforcement, classification and investigation. Application to system supervision using system logs and supervision time series confirms the relevance and performance of this model.

  11. Anaesthetic neurotoxicity and neuroplasticity: an expert group report and statement based on the BJA Salzburg Seminar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevtovic-Todorovic, V.; Absalom, A. R.; Blomgren, K.; Brambrink, A.; Crosby, G.; Culley, D. J.; Fiskum, G.; Giffard, R. G.; Herold, K. F.; Loepke, A. W.; Ma, D.; Orser, B. A.; Planel, E.; Slikker, W.; Soriano, S. G.; Stratmann, G.; Vutskits, L.; Xie, Z.; Hemmings, H. C.

    2013-01-01

    Although previously considered entirely reversible, general anaesthesia is now being viewed as a potentially significant risk to cognitive performance at both extremes of age. A large body of preclinical as well as some retrospective clinical evidence suggest that exposure to general anaesthesia could be detrimental to cognitive development in young subjects, and might also contribute to accelerated cognitive decline in the elderly. A group of experts in anaesthetic neuropharmacology and neurotoxicity convened in Salzburg, Austria for the BJA Salzburg Seminar on Anaesthetic Neurotoxicity and Neuroplasticity. This focused workshop was sponsored by the British Journal of Anaesthesia to review and critically assess currently available evidence from animal and human studies, and to consider the direction of future research. It was concluded that mounting evidence from preclinical studies reveals general anaesthetics to be powerful modulators of neuronal development and function, which could contribute to detrimental behavioural outcomes. However, definitive clinical data remain elusive. Since general anaesthesia often cannot be avoided regardless of patient age, it is important to understand the complex mechanisms and effects involved in anaesthesia-induced neurotoxicity, and to develop strategies for avoiding or limiting potential brain injury through evidence-based approaches. PMID:23722106

  12. Technological change in Swiss thermal waste treatment: An expert-based socio-technical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoerri, Andy; Lang, Daniel J.; Staeubli, Beat; Scholz, Roland W.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding technological change provides a crucial basis for governing sustainability transitions. In this paper we present an analysis of technological change using the example of Swiss thermal waste processing. In recent years, increased concerns about the low quality of residues from grate-firing systems led to the examination of alternative technologies. Yet despite clear indications of a potential better performance with respect to residue quality, none of these alternatives has been adopted. Based on a two-stage knowledge integration among 15 leading experts, in a retrospective analysis we identified factors that have significantly affected technological change in Swiss thermal waste processing. These factors were then related to three technological options representing different types of technological change, i.e., from incremental improvements of the existing to the implementation of a new technology. The results indicate that technological change is currently in a technological lock-in and provide detailed insights on the causes. The lock-in results in the step-wise further development of the status quo grate-firing system despite its limitations for improving the residue qualities. Almost all factors (legal, economic, societal, technological) of the existing 'thermal waste management' system have been well adapted to the cost- and energy-efficient grate-firing technology, blocking innovative technologies from entering the Swiss market. In addition, pressures from the context, e.g., societal pressure related to landfill risks, have not been strong enough to promote non-incremental change.

  13. Clarifying Delirium Management: Practical, Evidenced-Based, Expert Recommendations for Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirrello, Rosene D.; Hirst, Jeremy M.; Buckholz, Gary T.; Ferris, Frank D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Delirium is highly prevalent in those with serious or advanced medical illnesses. It is associated with many adverse consequences, including significant patient, family, and health care provider distress. This article suggests a novel approach to delirium assessment and management and provides useful, practical guidance for clinicians based on a complete review of the existing literature and the expert clinical opinion of the authors and their colleagues, derived from over a decade of collective bedside experience. Comprehensive assessment includes careful description of observed symptoms, signs, and behaviors; and an understanding of the patient's situation, including primary diagnosis, associated comorbidities, functional status, and prognosis. The importance of incorporating goals of care for the patient and family is discussed. The concepts of potential reversibility versus irreversible delirium and delirium subtype are proffered, with a description of how diagnostic and management strategies follow from these concepts. Pharmacological interventions that provide rapid, effective, and safe relief are presented. Employing both pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions, including patient and family education, improves symptoms and relieves patient and family distress, whether the delirium is reversible or irreversible, hyperactive or hypoactive. All interventions can be provided in any setting of care, including patients' homes. PMID:23480299

  14. Upper arm elevation and repetitive shoulder movements: a general population job exposure matrix based on expert ratings and technical measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbøge, Annett; Hansson, Gert-Åke; Frost, Poul; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Heilskov-Hansen, Thomas; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff

    2016-08-01

    We recently constructed a general population job exposure matrix (JEM), The Shoulder JEM, based on expert ratings. The overall aim of this study was to convert expert-rated job exposures for upper arm elevation and repetitive shoulder movements to measurement scales. The Shoulder JEM covers all Danish occupational titles, divided into 172 job groups. For 36 of these job groups, we obtained technical measurements (inclinometry) of upper arm elevation and repetitive shoulder movements. To validate the expert-rated job exposures against the measured job exposures, we used Spearman rank correlations and the explained variance[Formula: see text] according to linear regression analyses (36 job groups). We used the linear regression equations to convert the expert-rated job exposures for all 172 job groups into predicted measured job exposures. Bland-Altman analyses were used to assess the agreement between the predicted and measured job exposures. The Spearman rank correlations were 0.63 for upper arm elevation and 0.64 for repetitive shoulder movements. The expert-rated job exposures explained 64% and 41% of the variance of the measured job exposures, respectively. The corresponding calibration equations were y=0.5%time+0.16×expert rating and y=27°/s+0.47×expert rating. The mean differences between predicted and measured job exposures were zero due to calibration; the 95% limits of agreement were ±2.9% time for upper arm elevation >90° and ±33°/s for repetitive shoulder movements. The updated Shoulder JEM can be used to present exposure-response relationships on measurement scales. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Expert Systems for the Analytical Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Monchy, Allan R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses two computer problem solving programs: rule-based expert systems and decision analysis expert systems. Explores the application of expert systems to automated chemical analyses. Presents six factors to consider before using expert systems. (MVL)

  16. Graph based techniques for tag cloud generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leginus, Martin; Dolog, Peter; Lage, Ricardo Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Tag cloud is one of the navigation aids for exploring documents. Tag cloud also link documents through the user defined terms. We explore various graph based techniques to improve the tag cloud generation. Moreover, we introduce relevance measures based on underlying data such as ratings...... or citation counts for improved measurement of relevance of tag clouds. We show, that on the given data sets, our approach outperforms the state of the art baseline methods with respect to such relevance by 41 % on Movielens dataset and by 11 % on Bibsonomy data set....

  17. Recommendations for radioembolisation after liver surgery using yttrium-90 resin microspheres based on a survey of an international expert panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samim, Morsal [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Surgery, Utrecht (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Veenendaal, Linde M. van; Braat, Manon N.G.J.A.; Hoven, Andor F. van den; Bosch, Maurice A.A.J. van den; Lam, Marnix G.E.H. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Hillegersberg, Richard van [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Surgery, Utrecht (Netherlands); Sangro, Bruno [Clinica Universidad de Navarra-IDISNA and CIBEREHD, Liver Unit, Pamplona (Spain); Kao, Yung Hsiang [Cabrini Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Melbourne (Australia); Liu, Dave [Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, Department of Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Louie, John D.; Sze, Daniel Y. [Stanford University Medical Center, Division of Interventional Radiology, Stanford (United States); Rose, Steven C. [University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego (United States); Brown, Daniel B. [Vanderbilt University, Medical Center North, Department of Radiology, Nashville (United States); Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat [University Hospital Bonn, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany); Kim, Edward [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, New York (United States)

    2017-12-15

    Guidelines on how to adjust activity in patients with a history of liver surgery who are undergoing yttrium-90 radioembolisation ({sup 90}Y-RE) are lacking. The aim was to study the variability in activity prescription in these patients, between centres with extensive experience using resin microspheres {sup 90}Y-RE, and to draw recommendations on activity prescription based on an expert consensus. The variability in activity prescription between centres was investigated by a survey of international experts in the field of {sup 90}Y-RE. Six representative post-surgical patients (i.e. comparable activity prescription, different outcome) were selected. Information on patients' disease characteristics and data needed for activity calculation was presented to the expert panel. Reported was the used method for activity prescription and whether, how and why activity reduction was found indicated. Ten experts took part in the survey. Recommendations on activity reduction were highly variable between the expert panel. The median intra-patient range was 44 Gy (range 18-55 Gy). Reductions in prescribed activity were recommended in 68% of the cases. In consensus, a maximum D{sub Target} of 50 Gy was recommended. With a current lack of guidelines, large variability in activity prescription in post-surgical patients undergoing {sup 90}Y-RE exists. In consensus, D{sub Target} ≤50 Gy is recommended. (orig.)

  18. Recommendations for radioembolisation after liver surgery using yttrium-90 resin microspheres based on a survey of an international expert panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samim, Morsal; Veenendaal, Linde M. van; Braat, Manon N.G.J.A.; Hoven, Andor F. van den; Bosch, Maurice A.A.J. van den; Lam, Marnix G.E.H.; Hillegersberg, Richard van; Sangro, Bruno; Kao, Yung Hsiang; Liu, Dave; Louie, John D.; Sze, Daniel Y.; Rose, Steven C.; Brown, Daniel B.; Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat; Kim, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Guidelines on how to adjust activity in patients with a history of liver surgery who are undergoing yttrium-90 radioembolisation ( 90 Y-RE) are lacking. The aim was to study the variability in activity prescription in these patients, between centres with extensive experience using resin microspheres 90 Y-RE, and to draw recommendations on activity prescription based on an expert consensus. The variability in activity prescription between centres was investigated by a survey of international experts in the field of 90 Y-RE. Six representative post-surgical patients (i.e. comparable activity prescription, different outcome) were selected. Information on patients' disease characteristics and data needed for activity calculation was presented to the expert panel. Reported was the used method for activity prescription and whether, how and why activity reduction was found indicated. Ten experts took part in the survey. Recommendations on activity reduction were highly variable between the expert panel. The median intra-patient range was 44 Gy (range 18-55 Gy). Reductions in prescribed activity were recommended in 68% of the cases. In consensus, a maximum D Target of 50 Gy was recommended. With a current lack of guidelines, large variability in activity prescription in post-surgical patients undergoing 90 Y-RE exists. In consensus, D Target ≤50 Gy is recommended. (orig.)

  19. Evolving Expert Knowledge Bases: Applications of Crowdsourcing and Serious Gaming to Advance Knowledge Development for Intelligent Tutoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floryan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents a novel effort to develop ITS technologies that adapt by observing student behavior. In particular, we define an evolving expert knowledge base (EEKB) that structures a domain's information as a set of nodes and the relationships that exist between those nodes. The structure of this model is not the particularly novel…

  20. Clinical Guidelines for Management of Bone Health in Rett Syndrome Based on Expert Consensus and Available Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jefferson, Amanda; Leonard, Helen; Siafarikas, Aris

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We developed clinical guidelines for the management of bone health in Rett syndrome through evidence review and the consensus of an expert panel of clinicians. METHODS: An initial guidelines draft was created which included statements based upon literature review and 11 open-ended que...

  1. Development of Learning Models Based on Problem Solving and Meaningful Learning Standards by Expert Validity for Animal Development Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lufri, L.; Fitri, R.; Yogica, R.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to produce a learning model based on problem solving and meaningful learning standards by expert assessment or validation for the course of Animal Development. This research is a development research that produce the product in the form of learning model, which consist of sub product, namely: the syntax of learning model and student worksheets. All of these products are standardized through expert validation. The research data is the level of validity of all sub products obtained using questionnaire, filled by validators from various field of expertise (field of study, learning strategy, Bahasa). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. The result of the research shows that the problem solving and meaningful learning model has been produced. Sub products declared appropriate by expert include the syntax of learning model and student worksheet.

  2. Inductive acquisition of expert knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muggleton, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    Expert systems divide neatly into two categories: those in which (1) the expert decisions result in changes to some external environment (control systems), and (2) the expert decisions merely seek to describe the environment (classification systems). Both the explanation of computer-based reasoning and the bottleneck (Feigenbaum, 1979) of knowledge acquisition are major issues in expert-systems research. The author contributed to these areas of research in two ways: 1. He implemented an expert-system shell, the Mugol environment, which facilitates knowledge acquisition by inductive inference and provides automatic explanation of run-time reasoning on demand. RuleMaster, a commercial version of this environment, was used to advantage industrially in the construction and testing of two large classification systems. 2. He investigated a new techniques called 'sequence induction' that can be used in construction of control systems. Sequence induction is based on theoretical work in grammatical learning. He improved existing grammatical learning algorithms as well as suggesting and theoretically characterizing new ones. These algorithms were successfully applied to acquisition of knowledge for a diverse set of control systems, including inductive construction of robot plans and chess end-gam strategies.

  3. A human error probability estimate methodology based on fuzzy inference and expert judgment on nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, C.S. do; Mesquita, R.N. de

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies point human error as an important factor for many industrial and nuclear accidents: Three Mile Island (1979), Bhopal (1984), Chernobyl and Challenger (1986) are classical examples. Human contribution to these accidents may be better understood and analyzed by using Human Reliability Analysis (HRA), which has being taken as an essential part on Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) of nuclear plants. Both HRA and PSA depend on Human Error Probability (HEP) for a quantitative analysis. These probabilities are extremely affected by the Performance Shaping Factors (PSF), which has a direct effect on human behavior and thus shape HEP according with specific environment conditions and personal individual characteristics which are responsible for these actions. This PSF dependence raises a great problem on data availability as turn these scarcely existent database too much generic or too much specific. Besides this, most of nuclear plants do not keep historical records of human error occurrences. Therefore, in order to overcome this occasional data shortage, a methodology based on Fuzzy Inference and expert judgment was employed in this paper in order to determine human error occurrence probabilities and to evaluate PSF's on performed actions by operators in a nuclear power plant (IEA-R1 nuclear reactor). Obtained HEP values were compared with reference tabled data used on current literature in order to show method coherence and valid approach. This comparison leads to a conclusion that this work results are able to be employed both on HRA and PSA enabling efficient prospection of plant safety conditions, operational procedures and local working conditions potential improvements (author)

  4. A Web Based Sweet Orange Crop Expert System using Rule Based System and Artificial Bee Colony Optimization Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Prof.M.S.Prasad Babu,; Mrs.J.Anitha,; K.Hari Krishna

    2010-01-01

    Citrus fruits have a prominent place among popular and exclusively grown tropical and sub-tropical fruits. Their nature ,multifold nutritional and medicinal values have made them so important. Sweet Orange Crop expert advisory system is aimed at a collaborative venture with eminent Agriculture Scientist and Experts in the area of Sweet Orange Plantation with an excellent team of computer Engineers, Programmers and designers. This Expert System contains two main parts one is Sweet Orange Infor...

  5. CLIPS/Ada: An Ada-based tool for building expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, W. A.

    1990-01-01

    Clips/Ada is a production system language and a development environment. It is functionally equivalent to the CLIPS tool. CLIPS/Ada was developed in order to provide a means of incorporating expert system technology into projects where the use of the Ada language had been mandated. A secondary purpose was to glean information about the Ada language and its compilers. Specifically, whether or not the language and compilers were mature enough to support AI applications. The CLIPS/Ada tool is coded entirely in Ada and is designed to be used by Ada systems that require expert reasoning.

  6. Considerations Regarding the Expert Systems in the Economy and the Use Method of the Production Systems Based on Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia IANCU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As it is known, the expert systems- particularlyreferring to the ones in the economical area, represent a currentissue of our days, them being approached by all the economicalbranches. Starting from these aspects, we wish to present somenecessary principles and considerations regarding the expertsystems, representation of the facts, systems based onproduction rules. The objective of this paper is aimed toidentifying the exigencies of the production system based onrules.

  7. Assessment of giant panda habitat based on integration of expert system and neural network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X.; Skidmore, A.K.; Bronsveld, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    To conserve giant panda effectively, it is important to understand the spatial pattern and temporal change of its habitat. Mapping is an effective approach for wildlife habitat evaluation and monitoring. The application of recently developed artificial intelligence tools, including expert systems

  8. Overall welfare assessment of pregnant sow housing systems based on interviews with experts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Metz, J.H.M.; Spruijt, B.M.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    In interviews with 11 pig experts the main housing systems for pregnant sows were identified as tethering (T), individual housing in stalls (IS), group housing with stalls (GS), trickle feeding or biofix (B), electronic sow feeding (ESF), and outdoor housing with huts (O). The family pen system

  9. Insulation diagnosis of rotating machines for elevators by an expert system based on fuzzy inference. Fuzzy suiron wo donyushita expert system ni yoru shokokiyo kaitenki no zetsuen shindan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, K.; Oshima, H. (Tokai Univ., Tokyo (Japan)); Yamada, N.; Iijima, T. (Mitsubishi Electric Building Techno-Service Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-11-20

    Using the data measured with the insulation deterioration diagnostic system for rotating machines for elevators, which is newly developed utilizing the past experience, an expert system which enables insulation deterioration diagnosis even by field maintenance engineers to some extent. In this system, the knowledge and experience of specialists are loaded in a personal computer as the rule for insulation deterioration diagnosis to perform insulation deterioration diagnosis by fuzzy inference and 'hypothesis-verification' type backward reasoning inference. The structured expert system is outlined. The result of insulation diagnosis by this system s compared with that made by specialists to evaluate the effectiveness of the diagnosed result of this system, and shows 84% agreement with the results obtained by specialists. It is, therefore, considered to be a highly practical expert system. 10 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Artificial Intelligence based technique for BTS placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alenoghena, C. O.; Emagbetere, J. O.; Aibinu, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    The increase of the base transceiver station (BTS) in most urban areas can be traced to the drive by network providers to meet demand for coverage and capacity. In traditional network planning, the final decision of BTS placement is taken by a team of radio planners, this decision is not fool proof against regulatory requirements. In this paper, an intelligent based algorithm for optimal BTS site placement has been proposed. The proposed technique takes into consideration neighbour and regulation considerations objectively while determining cell site. The application will lead to a quantitatively unbiased evaluated decision making process in BTS placement. An experimental data of a 2km by 3km territory was simulated for testing the new algorithm, results obtained show a 100% performance of the neighbour constrained algorithm in BTS placement optimization. Results on the application of GA with neighbourhood constraint indicate that the choices of location can be unbiased and optimization of facility placement for network design can be carried out.

  11. Artificial Intelligence based technique for BTS placement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alenoghena, C O; Emagbetere, J O; 1 Minna (Nigeria))" data-affiliation=" (Department of Telecommunications Engineering, Federal University of Techn.1 Minna (Nigeria))" >Aibinu, A M

    2013-01-01

    The increase of the base transceiver station (BTS) in most urban areas can be traced to the drive by network providers to meet demand for coverage and capacity. In traditional network planning, the final decision of BTS placement is taken by a team of radio planners, this decision is not fool proof against regulatory requirements. In this paper, an intelligent based algorithm for optimal BTS site placement has been proposed. The proposed technique takes into consideration neighbour and regulation considerations objectively while determining cell site. The application will lead to a quantitatively unbiased evaluated decision making process in BTS placement. An experimental data of a 2km by 3km territory was simulated for testing the new algorithm, results obtained show a 100% performance of the neighbour constrained algorithm in BTS placement optimization. Results on the application of GA with neighbourhood constraint indicate that the choices of location can be unbiased and optimization of facility placement for network design can be carried out

  12. Furthering patient adherence: a position paper of the international expert forum on patient adherence based on an internet forum discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dulmen, Sandra; Sluijs, Emmy; van Dijk, Liset; de Ridder, Denise; Heerdink, Rob; Bensing, Jozien

    2008-02-27

    As the problem of patient non-adherence persists and a solution appears hard to be found, it continues to be important to look for new ways to further the issue. We recently conducted a meta-review of adherence intervention studies which yielded a preliminary agenda for future research, practice and theory development in patient adherence. The objective of the present project was to find out to what extent adherence experts consider this agenda relevant and feasible. The thirty-five corresponding authors of the review studies included in the meta-review were invited to join the International Expert Forum on Patient Adherence and to participate in a four-week web-based focus group discussion. The discussion was triggered by the points on the preliminary agenda presented as propositions to which forum members could react. Two researchers analysed the transcripts and selected relevant phrases. Twenty adherence experts participated. Various ideas and viewpoints were raised. After the closure of the web-site, the expert forum was asked to authorize the synthesis of the discussion, to list the propositions in order of priority and to answer a few questions on the use of the web-based focus group as a tool to obtain expert opinions. Their ranking showed that the development of simple interventions is the most promising step to take in fostering patient adherence, preferably within a multidisciplinary setting of medical, pharmaceutical, social and technical science and, not in the least, by incorporating patients' perspectives. For enhancing adherence, the development of simple interventions originating from a multidisciplinary perspective including patients' input, appears most promising. Disclosing patients' perspectives requires open communication about patients' expectations, needs and experiences in taking medication and about what might help them to become and remain adherent.

  13. Furthering patient adherence: A position paper of the international expert forum on patient adherence based on an internet forum discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heerdink Rob

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the problem of patient non-adherence persists and a solution appears hard to be found, it continues to be important to look for new ways to further the issue. We recently conducted a meta-review of adherence intervention studies which yielded a preliminary agenda for future research, practice and theory development in patient adherence. The objective of the present project was to find out to what extent adherence experts consider this agenda relevant and feasible. Methods The thirty-five corresponding authors of the review studies included in the meta-review were invited to join the International Expert Forum on Patient Adherence and to participate in a four-week web-based focus group discussion. The discussion was triggered by the points on the preliminary agenda presented as propositions to which forum members could react. Two researchers analysed the transcripts and selected relevant phrases. Results Twenty adherence experts participated. Various ideas and viewpoints were raised. After the closure of the web-site, the expert forum was asked to authorize the synthesis of the discussion, to list the propositions in order of priority and to answer a few questions on the use of the web-based focus group as a tool to obtain expert opinions. Their ranking showed that the development of simple interventions is the most promising step to take in fostering patient adherence, preferably within a multidisciplinary setting of medical, pharmaceutical, social and technical science and, not in the least, by incorporating patients' perspectives. Conclusion For enhancing adherence, the development of simple interventions originating from a multidisciplinary perspective including patients' input, appears most promising. Disclosing patients' perspectives requires open communication about patients' expectations, needs and experiences in taking medication and about what might help them to become and remain adherent.

  14. Modeling the Construct of an Expert Evidence-Adaptive Knowledge Base for a Pressure Injury Clinical Decision Support System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peck Chui Betty Khong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The selection of appropriate wound products for the treatment of pressure injuries is paramount in promoting wound healing. However, nurses find it difficult to decide on the most optimal wound product(s due to limited live experiences in managing pressure injuries resulting from successfully implemented pressure injury prevention programs. The challenges of effective decision-making in wound treatments by nurses at the point of care are compounded by the yearly release of wide arrays of newly researched wound products into the consumer market. A clinical decision support system for pressure injury (PI-CDSS was built to facilitate effective decision-making and selection of optimal wound treatments. This paper describes the development of PI-CDSS with an expert knowledge base using an interactive development environment, Blaze Advisor. A conceptual framework using decision-making and decision theory, knowledge representation, and process modelling guided the construct of the PI-CDSS. This expert system has incorporated the practical and relevant decision knowledge of wound experts in assessment and wound treatments in its algorithm. The construct of the PI-CDSS is adaptive, with scalable capabilities for expansion to include other CDSSs and interoperability to interface with other existing clinical and administrative systems. The algorithm was formatively evaluated and tested for usability. The treatment modalities generated after using patient-specific assessment data were found to be consistent with the treatment plan(s proposed by the wound experts. The overall agreement exceeded 90% between the wound experts and the generated treatment modalities for the choice of wound products, instructions, and alerts. The PI-CDSS serves as a just-in-time wound treatment protocol with suggested clinical actions for nurses, based on the best evidence available.

  15. An Expert-Based Assessment Model for Evaluating Habitat Suitability of Pond-Breeding Amphibians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Ruoh Juang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Farm ponds are important habitats for amphibians, birds, and other wildlife. In Taiwan, artificial ponds were originally created on farmlands for irrigation purposes and the needs of the domestic water supply. Although pond creation is a typical farming practice, it also provides habitats for pond-breeding amphibians. Thus, it is essential to understand the current status of habitats and their vulnerability regarding urgent conservation needs for target species. Günther’s frog (Hylarana guentheri, a pond-breeding amphibian, has a high sensitivity towards surrounding environmental changes, and can be used as an indicator species to assess habitat suitability. The purpose of this study is to establish a systematic framework to assess the habitat suitability of pond-breeding amphibians by using Günther’s frog as a pilot-study species. First, we collected frog survey data from Chiayi, Taiwan, from winter 2013 to spring 2015, and investigated the present status of the environmental conditions around the ponds. Next, expert questionnaires and the fuzzy Delphi method were applied to establish the hierarchical evaluation criteria regarding the habitat suitability assessment. Four indicators: the aquatic environments of farm ponds; the terrestrial environments around ponds; landscape connectivity; and the conservation perceptions of the residents, were determined as first-layer factors in the assessment criteria, while ten other indicators were defined as second-layer factors. Based on the established assessment criteria, we performed in situ habitat suitability evaluations on 69 selected sites and surveyed the perceptions of the residents using questionnaires. Results revealed that 19% of locations were rich in frog species with a high habitat suitability. However, 67% of locations showed signs of habitat degradation, which may imply a higher need in practicing habitat improvement or restoration. The Kappa value was 0.6061, which indicated a high

  16. Expert systems: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdejo, F.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce readers to the basic principles of rule-based expert systems. Four topics are discussed in subsequent sections: (1) Definition; (2) Structure of an expert system; (3) State of the art and (4) Impact and future research. (orig.)

  17. Expert Witness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    formal rules of evidence apply) to help it understand the issues of a case and ... statements on medical expert witness by professional representative bodies in .... determining the size of the financial settlement that may have to be made to the.

  18. Expert Panel Elicitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, M. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Waste Management and Environmental Protection; Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)

    2005-09-15

    Scientists are now frequently in a situation where data cannot be easily assessed, since they may have conflicting or uncertain sources. While expert judgment reflects private choices, it is possible both reduce the personal aspect as well as in crease confidence in the judgments by using formal protocols for choice and elicitation of experts. A full-scale elicitation made on seismicity following glaciation, now in its late phase and presented here in a preliminary form, illustrates the value of the technique and some essential issues in connection with the decision to launch such a project. The results show an unusual low variation between the experts.

  19. THE BOTS EXPERTS BASED ON THE PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE CREATION INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Володимир Олександрович ТІМОФЄЄВ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Now the world web answers the questions "who?", "what?", "where?" and "when?" fast and completely. But not the question "how?", especially "how to settle emergency situation?” (which refers to procedural knowledge usually, private user’s advice from various forums is employed as the response. And this is despite the real boom of bots - programs that mimic human action through the Internet interfaces and of the so-called chatbots, that are the programs to provide answers within individual sites. The differences in knowledge representation forms make it impossible to use existing chatbot creation information technologies for dissemination the procedural knowledge in the bot-experts form via Internet. For the problem solution, the original information technology is offered. The article is addressed to IT-specialists, experts in various areas and to heads of the enterprises to use for creating the Internet consulting business or to solve organizational problems in an existing business.

  20. A comparison of CLIPS- and LISP-based approaches to the development of a real-time expert system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frainier, R.; Groleau, N.; Bhatnagar, R.; Lam, C.; Compton, M.; Colombano, S.; Lai, S.; Szolovits, P.; Manahan, M.; Statler, I.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing expert system development effort started in 1988 which is evaluating both CLIPS- and LISP- based approaches. The expert system is being developed to a project schedule and is planned for flight on Space Shuttle Mission SLS-2 in 1992. The expert system will help astronauts do the best possible science for a vestibular physiology experiment already scheduled for that mission. The system gathers and reduces data from the experiment, flags 'interesting' results, and proposes changes in the experiment both to exploit the in-flight observations and to stay within the time allowed by Mission Control for the experiment. These tasks must all be performed in real time. Two Apple Macintosh computers are used. The CLIPS- and LISP- based environments are layered above the Macintosh computer Operating System. The 'CLIPS-based' environment includes CLIPS and HyperCard. The LlSP-based environment includes Common LISP, Parmenides (a frame system), and FRuleKit (a rule system). Important evaluation factors include ease of programming, performance against real-time requirements, usability by an astronaut, robustness, and ease of maintenance. Current results on the factors of ease of programming, performance against real-time requirements, and ease of maintenance are discussed.

  1. A rule-based expert system for control rod pattern of boiling water reactors by hovering around haling exposure shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, P.-W.; Lin, L.-S.; Yang, J.-T.

    2004-01-01

    Feasible strategies for automatic BWR control rod pattern generation have been implemented in a rule-based expert system. These strategies are majorly based on a concept for which exposure distributions are hovering around the Haling exposure distribution through a cycle while radial and axial power distributions are dominantly controlled by some abstracted factors indicating the desired distributions. The system can either automatically generate expert-level control rod patterns or search for criteria-satisfied patterns originated from user's input. It has successfully been demonstrated by generating control rod patterns for the the 1775 MWth Chinshan plant in Unit I Cycle 13 alternate loading pattern and Unit 2 Cycle 8 but with longer cycle length. All rod patterns for two cycles result in all-rod-out at EOC and no violation against the four criteria. The demonstrations show that the system is considerably good in choosing initial trial rod patterns and adjusting rod patterns to satisfy the design criteria. (author)

  2. Influence of experience and qualification on PET-based target volume delineation. When there is no expert - ask your colleague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, C.; Grosu, A.L.; Nestle, U.; Duncker-Rohr, V.; Ruecker, G.; Mix, M.; MacManus, M.; Ruysscher, D. de; Vogel, W.; Eriksen, J.G.; Oyen, W.; Weber, W.

    2014-01-01

    The integration of positron emission tomography (PET) information for target volume delineation in radiation treatment planning is routine in many centers. In contrast to automatic contouring, research on visual-manual delineation is scarce. The present study investigates the dependency of manual delineation on experience and qualification. A total of 44 international interdisciplinary observers each defined a [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET based gross tumor volume (GTV) using the same PET/CT scan from a patient with lung cancer. The observers were ''experts'' (E; n = 3), ''experienced interdisciplinary pairs'' (EP; 9 teams of radiation oncologist (RO) + nuclear medicine physician (NP)), ''single field specialists'' (SFS; n = 13), and ''students'' (S; n = 10). Five automatic delineation methods (AM) were also included. Volume sizes and concordance indices within the groups (pCI) and relative to the experts (eCI) were calculated. E (pCI = 0.67) and EP (pCI = 0.53) showed a significantly higher agreement within the groups as compared to SFS (pCI = 0.43, p = 0.03, and p = 0.006). In relation to the experts, EP (eCI = 0.55) showed better concordance compared to SFS (eCI = 0.49) or S (eCI = 0.47). The intermethod variability of the AM (pCI = 0.44) was similar to that of SFS and S, showing poorer agreement with the experts (eCI = 0.35). The results suggest that interdisciplinary cooperation could be beneficial for consistent contouring. Joint delineation by a radiation oncologist and a nuclear medicine physician showed remarkable agreement and better concordance with the experts compared to other specialists. The relevant intermethod variability of the automatic algorithms underlines the need for further standardization and optimization in this field. (orig.) [de

  3. The BfR publishes workshop report based on the expert meeting on endocrine disruptors

    OpenAIRE

    German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment

    2016-01-01

    On the occasion of an expert meeting organised by the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) held in Berlin on 11 and 12 April 2016, a consensus was reached on the identification of endocrine disruptors. The BfR has now published the workshop report from the conference. It contains, among other things, the consensus paper agreed by all participants. The report is published at http://www.bfr.bund.de/cm/349/scientific-principles-for-the-identification-of-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-a-co...

  4. Hospital-based expert model for health technology procurement planning in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniati, R; Cecconi, G; Frosini, F; Dori, F; Regolini, J; Iadanza, E; Biffi Gentili, G

    2014-01-01

    Although in the last years technology innovation in healthcare brought big improvements in care level and patient quality of life, hospital complexity and management cost became higher. For this reason, necessity of planning for medical equipment procurement within hospitals is getting more and more important in order to sustainable provide appropriate technology for both routine activity and innovative procedures. In order to support hospital decision makers for technology procurement planning, an expert model was designed as reported in the following paper. It combines the most widely used approaches for technology evaluation by taking into consideration Health Technology Assessment (HTA) and Medical Equipment Replacement Model (MERM). The designing phases include a first definition of prioritization algorithms, then the weighting process through experts' interviews and a final step for the model validation that included both statistical testing and comparison with real decisions. In conclusion, the designed model was able to provide a semi-automated tool that through the use of multidisciplinary information is able to prioritize different requests of technology acquisition in hospitals. Validation outcomes improved the model accuracy and created different "user profiles" according to the specific needs of decision makers.

  5. Research and development of LANDSAT-based crop inventory techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, R.; Cicone, R. C.; Malila, W. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    A wide spectrum of technology pertaining to the inventory of crops using LANDSAT without in situ training data is addressed. Methods considered include Bayesian based through-the-season methods, estimation technology based on analytical profile fitting methods, and expert-based computer aided methods. Although the research was conducted using U.S. data, the adaptation of the technology to the Southern Hemisphere, especially Argentina was considered.

  6. Quantifying characteristics of information-technology applications based on expert knowledge for detection of oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asseldonk, M A; Huirne, R B; Dijkhuizen, A A

    1998-10-09

    Expert opinions were elicited about the characteristics at the commercial-farm level of on-line information technology (IT) applications that are able to detect oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows. Since actual data of these characteristics are not available, judgmental data provided an alternative means to interpret the implications of research results for commercial farms. Applications included were activity measurement, milk-production measurement, electrical conductivity of quarter milk, automated concentrate feeders and milk-temperature measurement. Sensitivity and specificity of detection of oestrus (OD), clinical-mastitis (CMD) and subclinical-mastitis (SCMD) were ascertained. Conjoint-analysis was used to assess the effect of each application indirectly by decomposing the evaluated overall detection characteristics of a predefined number of IT combinations. The individual experts were consistent in evaluating the alternatives, but there was variation in estimates among experts. Estimations of the main effects of the applications and important first-order interactions were incorporated into the detection models. Implementation of all applications under study resulted in overall sensitivities and specificities of 82% and 90%, 73% and 87%, 58% and 82% for OD, CMD and SCMD, respectively. Further research is necessary that should take into account costs and benefits of the different detection systems based on the current status of farm performance (e.g. OD and mastitis incidence) and farm structure (e.g. farm size, years in operation of the milking parlour and parlour layout). Research to do this is currently in progress.

  7. Natural representation of the deduction; applying to the temporal reasoning for expert systems based on production rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudin, Patrick

    1990-01-01

    The expert systems development within a real time context, requires both to master the necessary reasoning about the time as well as to master the necessary response time for reasoning. Although rigorous temporal logic formalisms exist, strategies for temporal reasoning are either incomplete or else imply unacceptable response times. The first part presents the logic formalism upon which is based the production system. This formalism contains a three-valued logic system with truth-valued matrix, and a deductive system with a formal system. It does a rigorous work for this no standard logic, where the notions of consistency and completeness can be studied. Its development supports itself on the will to formalise the reasoning used at the elaboration time of the strategies to make them more explicit as the natural deduction method. The second part proposes an extension for the source logic formalism to take explicitly the time into account. The approach proposed through 'TANIS', the prototype of such an expert system shell, using a natural reasoning application is proposed. It allows, at the generation time, the implementation within the expert system, of an adapted deduction strategy to the symbolic temporal reasoning which is complete and ease the determination of the response time. (author) [fr

  8. Intelligent Control of Welding Gun Pose for Pipeline Welding Robot Based on Improved Radial Basis Function Network and Expert System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwen Tian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the control system of the welding gun pose in whole-position welding is complicated and nonlinear, an intelligent control system of welding gun pose for a pipeline welding robot based on an improved radial basis function neural network (IRBFNN and expert system (ES is presented in this paper. The structure of the IRBFNN is constructed and the improved genetic algorithm is adopted to optimize the network structure. This control system makes full use of the characteristics of the IRBFNN and the ES. The ADXRS300 micro-mechanical gyro is used as the welding gun position sensor in this system. When the welding gun position is obtained, an appropriate pitch angle can be obtained through expert knowledge and the numeric reasoning capacity of the IRBFNN. ARM is used as the controller to drive the welding gun pitch angle step motor in order to adjust the pitch angle of the welding gun in real-time. The experiment results show that the intelligent control system of the welding gun pose using the IRBFNN and expert system is feasible and it enhances the welding quality. This system has wide prospects for application.

  9. SU-F-T-244: Radiotherapy Risk Estimation Based On Expert Group Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, J; Yoon, M [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, W; Chung, M; Kim, D [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Gangdong-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the reliability of RPN (Risk Priority Number) decided by expert group and to provide preliminary data for adapting FMEA in Korea. Methods: 1163 Incidents reported in ROSIS for 11 years were used as a real data to be compared with, and were categorized into 146 items. The questionnaire was composed of the 146 items and respondents had to valuate ‘occurrence (O)’, ‘severity (S)’, ‘detectability (D)’ of each item on a scale from 1 to 10 according to the proposed AAPM TG-100 rating scales. 19 medical physicists from 19 different organizations in Korea had participated in the survey. Because the number of ROSIS items was not evenly spread enough to be classified into 10 grades, 1–5 scale was chosen instead of 1–10 and survey result was also fit to 5 grades to compare. Results: The average O,S,D were 1.77, 3.50, 2.13, respectively and the item which had the highest RPN(32) was ‘patient movement during treatment’ in the survey. When comparing items ranked in the top 10 of each survey(O) and ROSIS database, two items were duplicated and ‘Simulation’ and ’Treatment’ were the most frequently ranked RT process in top 10 of survey and ROSIS each. The Chronbach α of each RT process were ranged from 0.74 to 0.99 and p-value was <0.001. When comparing O*D, the average difference was 1.4. Conclusion: This work indicates the deviation between actual risk and expectation. Considering that the respondents were Korean and ROSIS is mainly composed of incidents happened in European countries and some of the top 10 items of ROSIS cannot be applied in radiotherapy procedure in Korea, the deviation could have been came from procedural difference. Moreover, if expert group was consisted of experts from various parts, expectation might have been more accurate. Therefore, further research on radiotherapy risk estimation is needed.

  10. SU-F-T-244: Radiotherapy Risk Estimation Based On Expert Group Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, J; Yoon, M; Chung, W; Chung, M; Kim, D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the reliability of RPN (Risk Priority Number) decided by expert group and to provide preliminary data for adapting FMEA in Korea. Methods: 1163 Incidents reported in ROSIS for 11 years were used as a real data to be compared with, and were categorized into 146 items. The questionnaire was composed of the 146 items and respondents had to valuate ‘occurrence (O)’, ‘severity (S)’, ‘detectability (D)’ of each item on a scale from 1 to 10 according to the proposed AAPM TG-100 rating scales. 19 medical physicists from 19 different organizations in Korea had participated in the survey. Because the number of ROSIS items was not evenly spread enough to be classified into 10 grades, 1–5 scale was chosen instead of 1–10 and survey result was also fit to 5 grades to compare. Results: The average O,S,D were 1.77, 3.50, 2.13, respectively and the item which had the highest RPN(32) was ‘patient movement during treatment’ in the survey. When comparing items ranked in the top 10 of each survey(O) and ROSIS database, two items were duplicated and ‘Simulation’ and ’Treatment’ were the most frequently ranked RT process in top 10 of survey and ROSIS each. The Chronbach α of each RT process were ranged from 0.74 to 0.99 and p-value was <0.001. When comparing O*D, the average difference was 1.4. Conclusion: This work indicates the deviation between actual risk and expectation. Considering that the respondents were Korean and ROSIS is mainly composed of incidents happened in European countries and some of the top 10 items of ROSIS cannot be applied in radiotherapy procedure in Korea, the deviation could have been came from procedural difference. Moreover, if expert group was consisted of experts from various parts, expectation might have been more accurate. Therefore, further research on radiotherapy risk estimation is needed.

  11. Diagnosis - Using automatic test equipment and artificial intelligence expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, J. E., Jr.

    Three expert systems (ATEOPS, ATEFEXPERS, and ATEFATLAS), which were created to direct automatic test equipment (ATE), are reviewed. The purpose of the project was to develop an expert system to troubleshoot the converter-programmer power supply card for the F-15 aircraft and have that expert system direct the automatic test equipment. Each expert system uses a different knowledge base or inference engine, basing the testing on the circuit schematic, test requirements document, or ATLAS code. Implementing generalized modules allows the expert systems to be used for any different unit under test. Using converted ATLAS to LISP code allows the expert system to direct any ATE using ATLAS. The constraint propagated frame system allows for the expansion of control by creating the ATLAS code, checking the code for good software engineering techniques, directing the ATE, and changing the test sequence as needed (planning).

  12. Wind power in Finland up to the year 2025--'soft' scenarios based on expert views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varho, Vilja; Tapio, Petri

    2005-01-01

    In this article we present a method of constructing 'soft' scenarios applied to the wind power development in Finland up to the year 2025. We asked 14 experts to describe probable and preferable futures using a quantitative questionnaire and qualitative interviews. Wind power production grows in all scenarios but there were differences in the order of magnitude of 10. The growth rate of electricity consumption slows down in all scenarios. Qualitative arguments varied even within clusters, with wind power policy emerging as the main dividing factor. The differences revealed diverse values and political objectives, as well as great uncertainties in assumptions about future developments. These influence wind power policy and were also believed to have contributed to the slow development of wind power in Finland. Re-thinking of the Finnish wind power policy is recommended. The 'soft' scenario method is considered valuable in finding diverse views, constructing transparent scenarios and assisting energy policy making

  13. Valuation of Construction Projects Based on of Quantity Scale by using Expert System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Entisar Kadhim Rasheed

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The subject of an valuation of quality of construction projects is one of the topics which it becomes necessary of the absence of the quantity standards in measuring the control works and the quality valuation standards in constructional projects. In the time being it depends on the experience of the workers which leads to an apparent differences in the valuation. The idea of this research came to put the standards to evaluate the quality of the projects in a special system depending on quantity scale nor quality specifying in order to prepare an expert system “ Crystal “ to apply this special system to able the engineers to valuate the quality of their projects easily and in more accurate ways.

  14. Prototype of an expert system based nuclear power plant information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegh, J.; Bodnar, M.; Buerger, L.; Tanyi, M.; Sefesik, F.

    1994-01-01

    The components and functioning of the GPCS information system applicable for intelligent process monitoring and alarm generation in a WWER-440 type nuclear power plant are described. The prototype system has been developed by using the G2 expert system, plant measurements were simulated by a WWER-440 compact simulator and by archive replay sessions performed by the VERONA-u core monitoring system. The GPCS contains an object oriented description of the basic subsystems of the plant and concentrates on the fast evaluation/displaying of measurements and alarms. The high-level information reflecting actual plant safety status is synthesized from primary measured data, by forming global alarms and by evaluating logical diagrams. (author). 10 refs, 4 figs

  15. Land Degradation Monitoring in the Ordos Plateau of China Using an Expert Knowledge and BP-ANN-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaojie Yue

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Land degradation monitoring is of vital importance to provide scientific information for promoting sustainable land utilization. This paper presents an expert knowledge and BP-ANN-based approach to detect and monitor land degradation in an effort to overcome the deficiencies of image classification and vegetation index-based approaches. The proposed approach consists of three generic steps: (1 extraction of knowledge on the relationship between land degradation degree and predisposing factors, which are NDVI and albedo, from domain experts; (2 establishment of a land degradation detecting model based on the BP-ANN algorithm; and (3 land degradation dynamic analysis. A comprehensive analysis was conducted on the development of land degradation in the Ordos Plateau of China in 1990, 2000 and 2010. The results indicate that the proposed approach is reliable for monitoring land degradation, with an overall accuracy of 91.2%. From 1990–2010, a reverse trend of land degradation is observed in Ordos Plateau. Regions with relatively high land degradation dynamic were mostly located in the northeast of Ordos Plateau. Additionally, most of the regions have transferred from a hot spot of land degradation to a less changed area. It is suggested that land utilization optimization plays a key role for effective land degradation control. However, it should be highlighted that the goals of such strategies should aim at the main negative factors causing land degradation, and the land use type and its quantity must meet the demand of population and be reconciled with natural conditions. Results from this case study suggest that the expert knowledge and BP-ANN-based approach is effective in mapping land degradation.

  16. Expert Systems: What Is an Expert System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Beverly K.; Main, Linda

    1994-01-01

    Describes expert systems and discusses their use in libraries. Highlights include parts of an expert system; expert system shells; an example of how to build an expert system; a bibliography of 34 sources of information on expert systems in libraries; and a list of 10 expert system shells used in libraries. (Contains five references.) (LRW)

  17. DCT-based cyber defense techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsalem, Yaron; Puzanov, Anton; Bedinerman, Anton; Kutcher, Maxim; Hadar, Ofer

    2015-09-01

    With the increasing popularity of video streaming services and multimedia sharing via social networks, there is a need to protect the multimedia from malicious use. An attacker may use steganography and watermarking techniques to embed malicious content, in order to attack the end user. Most of the attack algorithms are robust to basic image processing techniques such as filtering, compression, noise addition, etc. Hence, in this article two novel, real-time, defense techniques are proposed: Smart threshold and anomaly correction. Both techniques operate at the DCT domain, and are applicable for JPEG images and H.264 I-Frames. The defense performance was evaluated against a highly robust attack, and the perceptual quality degradation was measured by the well-known PSNR and SSIM quality assessment metrics. A set of defense techniques is suggested for improving the defense efficiency. For the most aggressive attack configuration, the combination of all the defense techniques results in 80% protection against cyber-attacks with PSNR of 25.74 db.

  18. Use of expert judgment in the development and evaluation of risk-based inservice testing strategies for pumps and valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAllister, W.J.; Perdue, R.K.; Balkey, K.R.; Closky, N.B. [and others

    1996-12-01

    This paper describes a rigorous approach for quantitatively evaluating inservice testing effectiveness that evolved from two pilot plant studies. These studies prototyped methodologies for designing and selecting inservice testing (IST) strategies in a manner structured to insure that the targeted components will perform their required safety functions while minimizing life cycle inservice testing costs. The paper concentrates on the use of expert judgment in developing test effectiveness measures that move risk-based methods beyond ranking to optimization of plant IST programs. Selected results for check valves and pumps are shown to illustrate the practical significance of the approach.

  19. Use of expert judgment in the development and evaluation of risk-based inservice testing strategies for pumps and valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAllister, W.J.; Perdue, R.K.; Balkey, K.R.; Closky, N.B.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a rigorous approach for quantitatively evaluating inservice testing effectiveness that evolved from two pilot plant studies. These studies prototyped methodologies for designing and selecting inservice testing (IST) strategies in a manner structured to insure that the targeted components will perform their required safety functions while minimizing life cycle inservice testing costs. The paper concentrates on the use of expert judgment in developing test effectiveness measures that move risk-based methods beyond ranking to optimization of plant IST programs. Selected results for check valves and pumps are shown to illustrate the practical significance of the approach

  20. Nasal base narrowing: the combined alar base excision technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the role of the combined alar base excision technique in narrowing the nasal base and correcting excessive alar flare. The study included 60 cases presenting with a wide nasal base and excessive alar flaring. The surgical procedure combined an external alar wedge resection with an internal vestibular floor excision. All cases were followed up for a mean of 32 (range, 12-144) months. Nasal tip modification and correction of any preexisting caudal septal deformities were always completed before the nasal base narrowing. The mean width of the external alar wedge excised was 7.2 (range, 4-11) mm, whereas the mean width of the sill excision was 3.1 (range, 2-7) mm. Completing the internal excision first resulted in a more conservative external resection, thus avoiding any blunting of the alar-facial crease. No cases of postoperative bleeding, infection, or keloid formation were encountered, and the external alar wedge excision healed with an inconspicuous scar that was well hidden in the depth of the alar-facial crease. Finally, the risk of notching of the alar rim, which can occur at the junction of the external and internal excisions, was significantly reduced by adopting a 2-layered closure of the vestibular floor (P = .01). The combined alar base excision resulted in effective narrowing of the nasal base with elimination of excessive alar flare. Commonly feared complications, such as blunting of the alar-facial crease or notching of the alar rim, were avoided by using simple modifications in the technique of excision and closure.

  1. Physiotherapy in the intensive care unit: an evidence-based, expert driven, practical statement and rehabilitation recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Juultje; Engelbert, Raoul HH; Dettling-Ihnenfeldt, Daniela; Gosselink, Rik; Spronk, Peter E; Nollet, Frans; van der Schaaf, Marike

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To develop evidence-based recommendations for effective and safe diagnostic assessment and intervention strategies for the physiotherapy treatment of patients in intensive care units. Methods: We used the EBRO method, as recommended by the ‘Dutch Evidence Based Guideline Development Platform’ to develop an ‘evidence statement for physiotherapy in the intensive care unit’. This method consists of the identification of clinically relevant questions, followed by a systematic literature search, and summary of the evidence with final recommendations being moderated by feedback from experts. Results: Three relevant clinical domains were identified by experts: criteria to initiate treatment; measures to assess patients; evidence for effectiveness of treatments. In a systematic literature search, 129 relevant studies were identified and assessed for methodological quality and classified according to the level of evidence. The final evidence statement consisted of recommendations on eight absolute and four relative contra-indications to mobilization; a core set of nine specific instruments to assess impairments and activity restrictions; and six passive and four active effective interventions, with advice on (a) physiological measures to observe during treatment (with stopping criteria) and (b) what to record after the treatment. Conclusions: These recommendations form a protocol for treating people in an intensive care unit, based on best available evidence in mid-2014. PMID:25681407

  2. The effect of case-based discussion of topics with experts on learners' opinions: implications for spinal education and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berjano, Pedro; Villafañe, Jorge Hugo; Vanacker, Gerard; Cecchinato, Riccardo; Ismael, Maryem; Gunzburg, Robert; Marruzzo, Daniele; Lamartina, Claudio

    2017-10-01

    This investigation aimed to examine the extent to which case-based discussion with experts could influence the audience's opinions on the treatment of patients during a continuing medical education event for spine surgeons. We conducted a prospective controlled crossover study of 90 surgeons. During a continuing medical education activity using case-based discussion, quiz questions were used which asked participants (attendants and faculty group) their opinions on the best choices about diagnosis and treatment in a number of cases. No answer was considered correct, but we evaluated the number of participants choosing each specific answer among a number of valid options. Quiz questions were collected with an automated response system at the entry and at the end of each case discussion. Change in participant's opinions was estimated from the change in the preferred answers between the entry and exit quizzes. Chi-square analysis was performed to determine significance. Sixty-two attendants out of eighty three (75%) and six faculties out of twelve (50%) responded to the survey. After the case discussion, 68.2% (p < 0.04, Chi-square test) of the attendants changed their opinion on the appropriate treatment. The faculty answers, however, showed no significant change in opinions regarding the identification of the appropriate treatment. On the basis of our results, case-based discussion driven by experts, as a form of teaching, has a measurable effect in terms of changes in the learners' opinions.

  3. Development of the Risk-Based Inspection Techniques and Pilot Plant Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Risk-based techniques have been developed for commercial nuclear power plants. System boundaries and success criteria is defined using the probabilistic risk analysis or probabilistic safety analysis developed to meet the individual plant evaluation. Final ranking of components is by a plant expert panel similar to the one developed for maintenance rule. Components are identified as being high risk-significant or low-risk significant. Maintenance and resources are focused on those components that have the highest risk-significance. The techniques have been developed and applied at a number of pilot plants. Results from the first risk-based inspection pilot plant indicates that safety due to pipe failure can be doubled while the inspection reduced to about 80% when compared with current inspection programs. The reduction in inspection reduces the person-rem exposure resulting in further increases in safety. These techniques have been documented in publication by the ASME CRTD

  4. Medication regularity of pulmonary fibrosis treatment by contemporary traditional Chinese medicine experts based on data mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suxian; Wu, Hao; Liu, Jie; Gu, Huihui; Li, Xiujuan; Zhang, Tiansong

    2018-03-01

    Treatment of pulmonary fibrosis by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has accumulated important experience. Our interest is in exploring the medication regularity of contemporary Chinese medical specialists treating pulmonary fibrosis. Through literature search, medical records from TCM experts who treat pulmonary fibrosis, which were published in Chinese and English medical journals, were selected for this study. As the object of study, a database was established after analysing the records. After data cleaning, the rules of medicine in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis in medical records of TCM were explored by using data mining technologies such as frequency analysis, association rule analysis, and link analysis. A total of 124 medical records from 60 doctors were selected in this study; 263 types of medicinals were used a total of 5,455 times; the herbs that were used more than 30 times can be grouped into 53 species and were used a total of 3,681 times. Using main medicinals cluster analysis, medicinals were divided into qi-tonifying, yin-tonifying, blood-activating, phlegm-resolving, cough-suppressing, panting-calming, and ten other major medicinal categories. According to the set conditions, a total of 62 drug compatibility rules have been obtained, involving mainly qi-tonifying, yin-tonifying, blood-activating, phlegm-resolving, qi-descending, and panting-calming medicinals, as well as other medicinals used in combination. The results of data mining are consistent with clinical practice and it is feasible to explore the medical rules applicable to the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis in medical records of TCM by data mining.

  5. Viewing the triarchic model of psychopathy through general personality and expert-based lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D; Lamkin, Joanna; Maples-Keller, Jessica L; Lynam, Donald R

    2016-07-01

    The recently articulated and increasingly prominent triarchic model of psychopathy (TPM) posits the existence of 3 components of meanness, disinhibition, and boldness. In the current studies, 2 issues are addressed. First, although typically conceptualized in isolation from trait models of personality, the TPM components may be manifestations of basic personality dimensions. In Study 1 (N = 335), we test whether basic traits from the five-factor model (FFM) can account for the TPM's psychopathy domains. The FFM domains (Mean R2 = .65) and facets (Mean R2 = .75) accounted for substantial variance in the TPM domains, suggesting that the TPM can be viewed as being nested within a broader trait framework. Second, there is disagreement about which personality components are necessary and sufficient for psychopathy. In Study 2, we examine this issue using a between subject design in which expert raters (N = 46) were asked to view an FFM profile of the TPM domains and total score derived in Study 1 and rate the degree to which an individual with this profile would manifest symptoms of psychopathy, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) personality disorders, and a variety of other psychiatric disorders. As expected, the profile associated with boldness was rated as less emblematic of psychopathy and related disorders (e.g., antisocial personality disorder; externalizing disorders) than the profiles for meanness or the total TPM score. These findings contribute to an ongoing debate addressing the degree to which domains like those articulated in the TPM are necessary or sufficient for the construct of psychopathy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Reliability-Based and Cost-Oriented Product Optimization Integrating Fuzzy Reasoning Petri Nets, Interval Expert Evaluation and Cultural-Based DMOPSO Using Crowding Distance Sorting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxi Hong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In reliability-based and cost-oriented product optimization, the target product reliability is apportioned to subsystems or components to achieve the maximum reliability and minimum cost. Main challenges to conducting such optimization design lie in how to simultaneously consider subsystem division, uncertain evaluation provided by experts for essential factors, and dynamic propagation of product failure. To overcome these problems, a reliability-based and cost-oriented product optimization method integrating fuzzy reasoning Petri net (FRPN, interval expert evaluation and cultural-based dynamic multi-objective particle swarm optimization (DMOPSO using crowding distance sorting is proposed in this paper. Subsystem division is performed based on failure decoupling, and then subsystem weights are calculated with FRPN reflecting dynamic and uncertain failure propagation, as well as interval expert evaluation considering six essential factors. A mathematical model of reliability-based and cost-oriented product optimization is established, and the cultural-based DMOPSO with crowding distance sorting is utilized to obtain the optimized design scheme. The efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by the numerical example of the optimization design for a computer numerically controlled (CNC machine tool.

  7. Expert consensus statement to guide the evidence-based classification of Paralympic athletes with vision impairment: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravensbergen, H J C Rianne; Mann, D L; Kamper, S J

    2016-04-01

    Paralympic sports are required to develop evidence-based systems that allocate athletes into 'classes' on the basis of the impact of their impairment on sport performance. However, sports for athletes with vision impairment (VI) classify athletes solely based on the WHO criteria for low vision and blindness. One key barrier to evidence-based classification is the absence of guidance on how to address classification issues unique to VI sport. The aim of this study was to reach expert consensus on how issues specific to VI sport should be addressed in evidence-based classification. A four-round Delphi study was conducted with 25 participants who had expertise as a coach, athlete, classifier and/or administrator in Paralympic sport for VI athletes. The experts agreed that the current method of classification does not fulfil the requirements of Paralympic classification, and that the system should be different for each sport to account for the sports' unique visual demands. Instead of relying only on tests of visual acuity and visual field, the panel agreed that additional tests are required to better account for the impact of impairment on sport performance. There was strong agreement that all athletes should not be required to wear a blindfold as a means of equalising the impairment during competition. There is strong support within the Paralympic movement to change the way that VI athletes are classified. This consensus statement provides clear guidance on how the most important issues specific to VI should be addressed, removing key barriers to the development of evidence-based classification. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. OARSI recommendations for the management of hip and knee osteoarthritis, Part II: OARSI evidence-based, expert consensus guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W; Moskowitz, R W; Nuki, G; Abramson, S; Altman, R D; Arden, N; Bierma-Zeinstra, S; Brandt, K D; Croft, P; Doherty, M; Dougados, M; Hochberg, M; Hunter, D J; Kwoh, K; Lohmander, L S; Tugwell, P

    2008-02-01

    To develop concise, patient-focussed, up to date, evidence-based, expert consensus recommendations for the management of hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA), which are adaptable and designed to assist physicians and allied health care professionals in general and specialist practise throughout the world. Sixteen experts from four medical disciplines (primary care, rheumatology, orthopaedics and evidence-based medicine), two continents and six countries (USA, UK, France, Netherlands, Sweden and Canada) formed the guidelines development team. A systematic review of existing guidelines for the management of hip and knee OA published between 1945 and January 2006 was undertaken using the validated appraisal of guidelines research and evaluation (AGREE) instrument. A core set of management modalities was generated based on the agreement between guidelines. Evidence before 2002 was based on a systematic review conducted by European League Against Rheumatism and evidence after 2002 was updated using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, the Cochrane Library and HTA reports. The quality of evidence was evaluated, and where possible, effect size (ES), number needed to treat, relative risk or odds ratio and cost per quality-adjusted life years gained were estimated. Consensus recommendations were produced following a Delphi exercise and the strength of recommendation (SOR) for propositions relating to each modality was determined using a visual analogue scale. Twenty-three treatment guidelines for the management of hip and knee OA were identified from the literature search, including six opinion-based, five evidence-based and 12 based on both expert opinion and research evidence. Twenty out of 51 treatment modalities addressed by these guidelines were universally recommended. ES for pain relief varied from treatment to treatment. Overall there was no statistically significant difference between non-pharmacological therapies [0.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.16, 0.34] and

  9. Evolving MCDM Applications Using Hybrid Expert-Based ISM and DEMATEL Models: An Example of Sustainable Ecotourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-Ming Chuang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological degradation is an escalating global threat. Increasingly, people are expressing awareness and priority for concerns about environmental problems surrounding them. Environmental protection issues are highlighted. An appropriate information technology tool, the growing popular social network system (virtual community, VC, facilitates public education and engagement with applications for existent problems effectively. Particularly, the exploration of related involvement behavior of VC member engagement is an interesting topic. Nevertheless, member engagement processes comprise interrelated sub-processes that reflect an interactive experience within VCs as well as the value co-creation model. To address the top-focused ecotourism VCs, this study presents an application of a hybrid expert-based ISM model and DEMATEL model based on multi-criteria decision making tools to investigate the complex multidimensional and dynamic nature of member engagement. Our research findings provide insightful managerial implications and suggest that the viral marketing of ecotourism protection is concerned with practitioners and academicians alike.

  10. Evolving MCDM Applications Using Hybrid Expert-Based ISM and DEMATEL Models: An Example of Sustainable Ecotourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Huan-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Ecological degradation is an escalating global threat. Increasingly, people are expressing awareness and priority for concerns about environmental problems surrounding them. Environmental protection issues are highlighted. An appropriate information technology tool, the growing popular social network system (virtual community, VC), facilitates public education and engagement with applications for existent problems effectively. Particularly, the exploration of related involvement behavior of VC member engagement is an interesting topic. Nevertheless, member engagement processes comprise interrelated sub-processes that reflect an interactive experience within VCs as well as the value co-creation model. To address the top-focused ecotourism VCs, this study presents an application of a hybrid expert-based ISM model and DEMATEL model based on multi-criteria decision making tools to investigate the complex multidimensional and dynamic nature of member engagement. Our research findings provide insightful managerial implications and suggest that the viral marketing of ecotourism protection is concerned with practitioners and academicians alike. PMID:24453902

  11. Development of an Index for the Assessment of Welfare of Finishing Pigs from Farm to Slaughter based on Expert Opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Pia; Rousing, Tine; Herskin, Mette S

    2017-01-01

    by aggregating 25 primarily animal-based measurements based on 38 experts opinion on inter-measurement and inter-stage weights. AWIs were calculated on animal level as the weighted sums of prevalence of the measurements, and were calculated for each of the six stages: pick-up pen, loading, transport, unloading......, lairage and race (AWIStage) and across the stages (AWIOverall). The AWIs were tested in 5 farms including a total of 45 fattening pigs delivered to two Danish abattoirs. Possible inter-relations between the AWI and heart rate measurements were examined. For each welfare measurement within stage......, this work has suggested a potential model for the aggregation of animal welfare measurements into animal welfare indexes for slaughter pigs on the day of slaughter. Further validation may allow simple comparison of the level of welfare between lorries, days, abattoirs etc. and may be used for future...

  12. Evolving MCDM applications using hybrid expert-based ISM and DEMATEL models: an example of sustainable ecotourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Huan-Ming; Lin, Chien-Ku; Chen, Da-Ren; Chen, You-Shyang

    2013-01-01

    Ecological degradation is an escalating global threat. Increasingly, people are expressing awareness and priority for concerns about environmental problems surrounding them. Environmental protection issues are highlighted. An appropriate information technology tool, the growing popular social network system (virtual community, VC), facilitates public education and engagement with applications for existent problems effectively. Particularly, the exploration of related involvement behavior of VC member engagement is an interesting topic. Nevertheless, member engagement processes comprise interrelated sub-processes that reflect an interactive experience within VCs as well as the value co-creation model. To address the top-focused ecotourism VCs, this study presents an application of a hybrid expert-based ISM model and DEMATEL model based on multi-criteria decision making tools to investigate the complex multidimensional and dynamic nature of member engagement. Our research findings provide insightful managerial implications and suggest that the viral marketing of ecotourism protection is concerned with practitioners and academicians alike.

  13. PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF QUALITY DATA PROCESSING AND A RULE –BASED EXPERT SYSTEM FOR QUALITY OF LIFE EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena L. ATANASOVA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important challenges the European Union was facing at the beginning of the 21st century was to balance economic development with the improvement of quality of its citizens life. A new approach for assessing the quality of life using the ten-degree global scale is revealed in this article. The aptness of this approach to exploring the social area and determining the quality of life of people in different countries and regions are also discussed. There are being examined some practical aspects of setting up an expert system for social area.The article describes the implementation of such a system for evaluating the quality of life – QLIFEX. The expert system is an innovative research project based entirely on qualitative methods, which aims at helping in understanding of how in an era of great changes residents from different countries live and work in diverse economic organizations, and how they would rate their work and life.

  14. Including values in evidence-based policy making for breast screening: An empirically grounded tool to assist expert decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa

    2017-07-01

    Values are an important part of evidence-based decision making for health policy: they guide the type of evidence that is collected, how it is interpreted, and how important the conclusions are considered to be. Experts in breast screening (including clinicians, researchers, consumer advocates and senior administrators) hold differing values in relation to what is important in breast screening policy and practice, and committees may find it difficult to incorporate the complexity and variety of values into policy decisions. The decision making tool provided here is intended to assist with this process. The tool is modified from more general frameworks that are intended to assist with ethical decision making in public health, and informed by data drawn from previous empirical studies on values amongst Australian breast screening experts. It provides a structured format for breast screening committees to consider and discuss the values of themselves and others, suggests relevant topics for further inquiry and highlights areas of need for future research into the values of the public. It enables committees to publicly explain and justify their decisions with reference to values, improving transparency and accountability. It is intended to act alongside practices that seek to accommodate the values of individual women in the informed decision making process for personal decision making about participation in breast screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. ABOUT CLINICAL EXPERT SYSTEM BASED ON RULES USING DATA MINING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Martsenyuk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the work the topics of software implementation of rule induction method based on sequential covering algorithm are considered. Such approach allows us to develop clinical decision support system. The project is implemented within Netbeans IDE based on Java-classes.

  16. SLIM-MAUD - a computer based technique for human reliability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrey, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Success Likelihood Index Methodology (SLIM) is a widely applicable technique which can be used to assess human error probabilities in both proceduralized and cognitive tasks (i.e. those involving decision making, problem solving, etc.). It assumes that expert assessors are able to evaluate the relative importance (or weights) of different factors called Performance Shaping Factors (PSFs), in determining the likelihood of error for the situations being assessed. Typical PSFs are the extent to which good procedures are available, operators are adequately trained, the man-machine interface is well designed, etc. If numerical ratings are made of the PSFs for the specific tasks being evaluated, these can be combined with the weights to give a numerical index, called the Success Likelihood Index (SLI). The SLI represents, in numerical form, the overall assessment of the experts of the likelihood of task success. The SLI can be subsequently transformed to a corresponding human error probability (HEP) estimate. The latest form of the SLIM technique is implemented using a microcomputer based system called MAUD (Multi-Attribute Utility Decomposition), the resulting technique being called SLIM-MAUD. A detailed description of the SLIM-MAUD technique and case studies of applications are available. An illustrative example of the application of SLIM-MAUD in probabilistic risk assessment is given

  17. A Web-based Multilingual Intelligent Tutor System based on Jackson's Learning Styles Profiler and Expert Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ghadirli, Hossein Movafegh; Rastgarpour, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) are so regarded in order to improve education quality via new technologies in this area. One of the problems is that the language of ITSs is different from the learner's. It forces the learners to learn the system language. This paper tries to remove this necessity by using an Automatic Translator Component in system structure like Google Translate API. This system carry out a pre-test and post-test by using Expert System and Jackson Model before ...

  18. THE GHOST IN THE MACHINE? THE VALUE OF EXPERT ADVICE IN THE PRODUCTION OF EVIDENCE-BASED GUIDANCE: A MIXED METHODS STUDY OF THE NICE INTERVENTIONAL PROCEDURES PROGRAMME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyebode, Oyinlola; Patrick, Hannah; Walker, Alexander; Campbell, Bruce; Powell, John

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the aspects of expert advice that decision makers find most useful in the development of evidence-based guidance and to identify the characteristics of experts providing the most useful advice. First, semi-structured interviews were conducted with seventeen members of the Interventional Procedures Advisory Committee of the UK's National Institute of Health and Care Excellence. Interviews examined the usefulness of expert advice during guidance development. Transcripts were analyzed inductively to identify themes. Second, data were extracted from 211 experts' questionnaires for forty-one consecutive procedures. Usefulness of advice was scored using an index developed through the qualitative work. Associations between usefulness score and characteristics of the expert advisor were investigated using univariate and multivariate analyses. Expert opinion was seen as a valued complement to empirical evidence, providing context and tacit knowledge unavailable in published literature, but helpful for interpreting it. Interviewees also valued advice on the training and experience required to perform a procedure, on patient selection criteria and the place of a procedure within a clinical management pathway. Limitations of bias in expert opinion were widely acknowledged and skepticism expressed regarding the anecdotal nature of advice on safety or efficacy outcomes. Quantitative analysis demonstrated that the most useful advice was given by clinical experts with direct personal experience of the procedure, particularly research experience. Evidence-based guidance production is often characterized as a rational, pipeline process. This ignores the valuable role that expert opinion plays in guidance development, complementing and supporting the interpretation of empirical data.

  19. A Functional Architecture for a Logistics Expert System in a Sea Based Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cook, Henry B; Hicks, David M

    2005-01-01

    .... One of the major characteristics associated with future military concepts is that they employ Joint and Coalition Forces from a sea base conducting a full range of operations in the littoral regions of the world...

  20. Fuzzy Concurrent Object Oriented Expert System for Fault Diagnosis in 8085 Microprocessor Based System Board

    OpenAIRE

    Mr.D. V. Kodavade; Dr. Mrs.S.D.Apte

    2014-01-01

    With the acceptance of artificial intelligence paradigm, a number of successful artificial intelligence systems were created. Fault diagnosis in microprocessor based boards needs lot of empirical knowledge and expertise and is a true artificial intelligence problem. Research on fault diagnosis in microprocessor based system boards using new fuzzy-object oriented approach is presented in this paper. There are many uncertain situations observed during fault diagnosis. These uncertain situations...

  1. Synchrotron radiation based analytical techniques (XAS and XRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Shambhu Nath

    2014-01-01

    A brief description of the principles of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques is given in this article with emphasis on the advantages of using synchrotron radiation-based instrumentation/beamline. XAS technique is described in more detail to emphasize the strength of the technique as a local structural probe. (author)

  2. Unintended Side Effects of the Digital Transition: European Scientists’ Messages from a Proposition-Based Expert Round Table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland W. Scholz

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the main messages of a European Expert Round Table (ERT on the unintended side effects (unseens of the digital transition. Seventeen experts provided 42 propositions from ten different perspectives as input for the ERT. A full-day ERT deliberated communalities and relationships among these unseens and provided suggestions on (i what the major unseens are; (ii how rebound effects of digital transitioning may become the subject of overarching research; and (iii what unseens should become subjects of transdisciplinary theory and practice processes for developing socially robust orientations. With respect to the latter, the experts suggested that the “ownership, economic value, use and access of data” and, related to this, algorithmic decision-making call for transdisciplinary processes that may provide guidelines for key stakeholder groups on how the responsible use of digital data can be developed. A cluster-based content analysis of the propositions, the discussion and inputs of the ERT, and a theoretical analysis of major changes to levels of human systems and the human–environment relationship resulted in the following greater picture: The digital transition calls for redefining economy, labor, democracy, and humanity. Artificial Intelligence (AI-based machines may take over major domains of human labor, reorganize supply chains, induce platform economics, and reshape the participation of economic actors in the value chain. (Digital Knowledge and data supplement capital, labor, and natural resources as major economic variables. Digital data and technologies lead to a post-fuel industry (post- capitalism. Traditional democratic processes can be (intentionally or unintentionally altered by digital technologies. The unseens in this field call for special attention, research and management. Related to the conditions of ontogenetic and phylogenetic development (humanity, the ubiquitous, global, increasingly AI-shaped interlinkage of

  3. Influence of experience and qualification on PET-based target volume delineation. When there is no expert - ask your colleague

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doll, C.; Grosu, A.L.; Nestle, U. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Radiation Oncology Department, Freiburg/Breisgau (Germany); Duncker-Rohr, V. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Radiation Oncology Department, Freiburg/Breisgau (Germany); Ortenau Clinical Center Offenburg, Radiation Oncology Department, Offenburg (Germany); Ruecker, G. [University of Freiburg, Institute of Medical Biometry und Medical Informatics, Freiburg (Germany); Mix, M. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Nuclear Medicine Department, Freiburg (Germany); MacManus, M. [University of Melbourne, The Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, Melbourne (Australia); Ruysscher, D. de [University Hospital Leuven/KU Leuven, Department of Radiation Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); Vogel, W. [Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Eriksen, J.G. [Odense University Hospital, Department of Oncology, Odense (Denmark); Oyen, W. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Weber, W. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Nuclear Medicine Department, Freiburg (Germany); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology/Molecular Imaging and Therapy Service, New York (United States)

    2014-06-15

    The integration of positron emission tomography (PET) information for target volume delineation in radiation treatment planning is routine in many centers. In contrast to automatic contouring, research on visual-manual delineation is scarce. The present study investigates the dependency of manual delineation on experience and qualification. A total of 44 international interdisciplinary observers each defined a [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET based gross tumor volume (GTV) using the same PET/CT scan from a patient with lung cancer. The observers were ''experts'' (E; n = 3), ''experienced interdisciplinary pairs'' (EP; 9 teams of radiation oncologist (RO) + nuclear medicine physician (NP)), ''single field specialists'' (SFS; n = 13), and ''students'' (S; n = 10). Five automatic delineation methods (AM) were also included. Volume sizes and concordance indices within the groups (pCI) and relative to the experts (eCI) were calculated. E (pCI = 0.67) and EP (pCI = 0.53) showed a significantly higher agreement within the groups as compared to SFS (pCI = 0.43, p = 0.03, and p = 0.006). In relation to the experts, EP (eCI = 0.55) showed better concordance compared to SFS (eCI = 0.49) or S (eCI = 0.47). The intermethod variability of the AM (pCI = 0.44) was similar to that of SFS and S, showing poorer agreement with the experts (eCI = 0.35). The results suggest that interdisciplinary cooperation could be beneficial for consistent contouring. Joint delineation by a radiation oncologist and a nuclear medicine physician showed remarkable agreement and better concordance with the experts compared to other specialists. The relevant intermethod variability of the automatic algorithms underlines the need for further standardization and optimization in this field. (orig.) [German] Die Daten aus der Positronenemissionstomographie (PET) werden in vielen Kliniken routinemaessig zur

  4. Time-based tags for fiction movies : comparing experts to novices using a video labeling game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estrada, Liliana Melgar; Hildebrand, Michiel; de Boer, Victor; van Ossenbruggen, Jacco

    2017-01-01

    The cultural heritage sector has embraced social tagging as a way to increase both access to online content and to engage users with their digital collections. In this article, we build on two current lines of research. (a) We use Waisda?, an existing labeling game, to add time-based annotations to

  5. Expert System for ASIC Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shri N.; Arshak, Khalil I.; McDonnell, Pearse; Boyce, Conor; Duggan, Andrew

    1989-07-01

    With the developments in the techniques of artificial intelligence over the last few years, development of advisory, scheduling and similar class of problems has become very convenient using tools such as PROLOG. In this paper an expert system has been described which helps lithographers and process engineers in several ways. The methodology used is to model each work station according to its input, output and control parameters, combine these work stations in a logical sequence based on past experience and work out process schedule for a job. In addition, all the requirements vis-a-vis a particular job parameters are converted into decision rules. One example is the exposure time, develop time for a wafer with different feature sizes would be different. This expert system has been written in Turbo Prolog. By building up a large number of rules, one can tune the program to any facility and use it for as diverse applications as advisory help, trouble shooting etc. Leitner (1) has described an advisory expert system that is being used at National Semiconductor. This system is quite different from the one being reported in the present paper. The approach is quite different for one. There is stress on job flow and process for another.

  6. An expert-based job exposure matrix for large scale epidemiologic studies of primary hip and knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubak, Tine Steen; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff; Andersen, Johan Hviid

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: When conducting large scale epidemiologic studies, it is a challenge to obtain quantitative exposure estimates, which do not rely on self-report where estimates may be influenced by symptoms and knowledge of disease status. In this study we developed a job exposure matrix (JEM) for use...... in population studies of the work-relatedness of hip and knee osteoarthritis. METHODS: Based on all 2227 occupational titles in the Danish version of the International Standard Classification of Occupations (D-ISCO 88), we constructed 121 job groups comprising occupational titles with expected homogeneous....../day), and frequency of lifting loads weighing ≥20 kg (times/day). Weighted kappa statistics were used to evaluate inter-rater agreement on rankings of the job groups for four of these exposures (whole-body vibration could not be evaluated due to few exposed job groups). Two external experts checked the face validity...

  7. Accelerator based techniques for contraband detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vourvopoulos, George

    1994-05-01

    It has been shown that narcotics, explosives, and other contraband materials, contain various chemical elements such as H, C, N, O, P, S, and Cl in quantities and ratios that differentiate them from each other and from other innocuous substances. Neutrons and γ-rays have the ability to penetrate through various materials at large depths. They are thus able, in a non-intrusive way, to interrogate volumes ranging from suitcases to Sea-Land containers, and have the ability to image the object with an appreciable degree of reliability. Neutron induced reactions such as (n, γ), (n, n') (n, p) or proton induced γ-resonance absorption are some of the reactions currently investigated for the identification of the chemical elements mentioned above. Various DC and pulsed techniques are discussed and their advantages, characteristics, and current progress are shown. Areas where use of these methods is currently under evaluation are detection of hidden explosives, illicit drug interdiction, chemical war agents identification, nuclear waste assay, nuclear weapons destruction and others.

  8. An Intervention Based on Video Feedback and Questioning to Improve Tactical Knowledge in Expert Female Volleyball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, M Perla; Moreno, Alberto; García-González, Luis; Ureña, Aurelio; Hernández, César; Del Villar, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    This study applied an intervention program, based on video feedback and questioning, to expert female volleyball players to improve their tactical knowledge. The sample consisted of eight female attackers (26 ± 2.6 years old) from the Spanish National Volleyball Team, who were divided into an experimental group (n = 4) and a control group (n = 4). The video feedback and questioning program applied in the study was developed over eight reflective sessions and consisted of three phases: viewing of the selected actions, self-analysis and reflection by the attacker, and joint player-coach analysis. The attackers were videotaped in an actual game and four clips (situations) of each of the attackers were chosen for each reflective session. Two of the clips showed a correct action by the attacker, and two showed an incorrect decision. Tactical knowledge was measured by problem representation with a verbal protocol. The members of the experimental group showed adaptations in long-term memory, significantly improving their tactical knowledge. With respect to conceptual content, there was an increase in the total number of conditions verbalized by the players; with respect to conceptual sophistication, there was an increase in the indication of appropriate conditions with two or more details; and finally, with respect to conceptual structure, there was an increase in the use of double or triple conceptual structures. The intervention program, based on video feedback and questioning, in addition to on-court training sessions of expert volleyball players, appears to improve the athletes' tactical knowledge. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Selection Input Output by Restriction Using DEA Models Based on a Fuzzy Delphi Approach and Expert Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsad, Roslah; Nasir Abdullah, Mohammad; Alias, Suriana; Isa, Zaidi

    2017-09-01

    Stock evaluation has always been an interesting problem for investors. In this paper, a comparison regarding the efficiency stocks of listed companies in Bursa Malaysia were made through the application of estimation method of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). One of the interesting research subjects in DEA is the selection of appropriate input and output parameter. In this study, DEA was used to measure efficiency of stocks of listed companies in Bursa Malaysia in terms of the financial ratio to evaluate performance of stocks. Based on previous studies and Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM), the most important financial ratio was selected. The results indicated that return on equity, return on assets, net profit margin, operating profit margin, earnings per share, price to earnings and debt to equity were the most important ratios. Using expert information, all the parameter were clarified as inputs and outputs. The main objectives were to identify most critical financial ratio, clarify them based on expert information and compute the relative efficiency scores of stocks as well as rank them in the construction industry and material completely. The methods of analysis using Alirezaee and Afsharian’s model were employed in this study, where the originality of Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes (CCR) with the assumption of Constant Return to Scale (CSR) still holds. This method of ranking relative efficiency of decision making units (DMUs) was value-added by the Balance Index. The interested data was made for year 2015 and the population of the research includes accepted companies in stock markets in the construction industry and material (63 companies). According to the ranking, the proposed model can rank completely for 63 companies using selected financial ratio.

  10. Hemodynamic behavior modeling of a Virtual Surgical Patient based on a Fuzzy Expert System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Farias Paiva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Virtual Reality (VR allows its users to experience a sense of being immersed in synthetic 3D scenarios generated by computer graphics. The so-called Virtual Environments (VEs based on RV can be applied to medical education, enabling: repetitive training and the development of psychomotor skills in surgical procedures without compromising real patients. Surgical simulators that feature Dynamic Virtual Patients (VPs, that is, reacts physiologically to interventions and medical decisions made during the training. These systems present more realism while it offers the possibility of varying clinical cases. This work has as main objective to discuss important issues of modeling the hemodynamic performance of a VP, specifically to simulate blood pressure values (both sistolic and diastolic variables. The model of a VP is presented as result as well as is presented an architecture for its integration to simulators based on VR.

  11. Fuzzy Logic-based expert system for evaluating cake quality of freeze-dried formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trnka, Hjalte; Wu, Jian-Xiong; van de Weert, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Freeze-drying of peptide and protein-based pharmaceuticals is an increasingly important field of research. The diverse nature of these compounds, limited understanding of excipient functionality, and difficult-to-analyze quality attributes together with the increasing importance of the biosimilar......Freeze-drying of peptide and protein-based pharmaceuticals is an increasingly important field of research. The diverse nature of these compounds, limited understanding of excipient functionality, and difficult-to-analyze quality attributes together with the increasing importance...... critical visual features such as the degree of cake collapse, glassiness, and color uniformity. On the basis of the IA outputs, a fuzzy logic system for analysis of these freeze-dried cakes was constructed. After this development phase, the system was tested with a new screening well plate. The developed...

  12. Fuzzy Logic-based expert system for evaluating cake quality of freeze-dried formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnka, Hjalte; Wu, Jian X; Van De Weert, Marco; Grohganz, Holger; Rantanen, Jukka

    2013-12-01

    Freeze-drying of peptide and protein-based pharmaceuticals is an increasingly important field of research. The diverse nature of these compounds, limited understanding of excipient functionality, and difficult-to-analyze quality attributes together with the increasing importance of the biosimilarity concept complicate the development phase of safe and cost-effective drug products. To streamline the development phase and to make high-throughput formulation screening possible, efficient solutions for analyzing critical quality attributes such as cake quality with minimal material consumption are needed. The aim of this study was to develop a fuzzy logic system based on image analysis (IA) for analyzing cake quality. Freeze-dried samples with different visual quality attributes were prepared in well plates. Imaging solutions together with image analytical routines were developed for extracting critical visual features such as the degree of cake collapse, glassiness, and color uniformity. On the basis of the IA outputs, a fuzzy logic system for analysis of these freeze-dried cakes was constructed. After this development phase, the system was tested with a new screening well plate. The developed fuzzy logic-based system was found to give comparable quality scores with visual evaluation, making high-throughput classification of cake quality possible. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  13. Expert Advisor (EA) Evaluation System Using Web-based ELECTRE Method in Foreign Exchange (Forex) Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satibi; Widodo, Catur Edi; Farikhin

    2018-02-01

    This research aims to optimize forex trading profit automatically using EA but its still keep considering accuracy and drawdown levels. The evaluation system will classify EA performance based on trading market sessions (Sydney, Tokyo, London and New York) to determine the right EA to be used in certain market sessions. This evaluation system is a web-based ELECTRE methods that interact in real-time with EA through web service and are able to present real-time charts performance dashboard using web socket protocol communications. Web applications are programmed using NodeJs. In the testing period, all EAs had been simulated 24 hours in all market sessions for three months, the best EA is valued by its profit, accuracy and drawdown criteria that calculated using web-based ELECTRE method. The ideas of this research are to compare the best EA on testing period with collaboration performances of each best classified EA by market sessions. This research uses three months historical data of EUR/USD as testing period and other 3 months as validation period. As a result, performance of collaboration four best EA classified by market sessions can increase profits percentage consistently in testing and validation periods and keep securing accuracy and drawdown levels.

  14. Expert Advisor (EA Evaluation System Using Web-based ELECTRE Method in Foreign Exchange (Forex Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satibi Satibi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to optimize forex trading profit automatically using EA but its still keep considering accuracy and drawdown levels. The evaluation system will classify EA performance based on trading market sessions (Sydney, Tokyo, London and New York to determine the right EA to be used in certain market sessions. This evaluation system is a web-based ELECTRE methods that interact in real-time with EA through web service and are able to present real-time charts performance dashboard using web socket protocol communications. Web applications are programmed using NodeJs. In the testing period, all EAs had been simulated 24 hours in all market sessions for three months, the best EA is valued by its profit, accuracy and drawdown criteria that calculated using web-based ELECTRE method. The ideas of this research are to compare the best EA on testing period with collaboration performances of each best classified EA by market sessions. This research uses three months historical data of EUR/USD as testing period and other 3 months as validation period. As a result, performance of collaboration four best EA classified by market sessions can increase profits percentage consistently in testing and validation periods and keep securing accuracy and drawdown levels.

  15. An Authentication Technique Based on Classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李钢; 杨杰

    2004-01-01

    We present a novel watermarking approach based on classification for authentication, in which a watermark is embedded into the host image. When the marked image is modified, the extracted watermark is also different to the original watermark, and different kinds of modification lead to different extracted watermarks. In this paper, different kinds of modification are considered as classes, and we used classification algorithm to recognize the modifications with high probability. Simulation results show that the proposed method is potential and effective.

  16. Laser-based techniques for combustion diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgiev, N.

    1997-04-01

    Two-photon-induced Degenerate Four-Wave Mixing, DFWM, was applied for the first time to the detection of CO, and NH{sub 3} molecules. Measurements were performed in a cell, and in atmospheric-pressure flames. In the cell measurements, the signal dependence on the pressure and on the laser beam intensity was studied. The possibility of simultaneous detection of NH{sub 3} and OH was investigated. Carbon monoxide and ammonia were also detected employing two-photon-induced Polarization Spectroscopy, PS. In the measurements performed in a cold gas flow, the signal strength dependence on the laser intensity, and on the polarization of the pump beam, was investigated. An approach to improve the spatial resolution of the Amplified Stimulated Emission, ASE, was developed. In this approach, two laser beams at different frequencies were crossed in the sample. If the sum of the frequencies of the two laser beams matches a two photon resonance of the investigated species, only the molecules in the intersection volume will be excited. NH{sub 3} molecules and C atoms were studied. The potential of using two-photon LIF for two-dimensional imaging of combustion species was investigated. Although LIF is species specific, several species can be detected simultaneously by utilizing spectral coincidences. Combining one- and two-photon process, OH, NO, and O were detected simultaneously, as well as OH, NO, and NH{sub 3}. Collisional quenching is the major source of uncertainty in quantitative applications of LIF. A technique for two-dimensional, absolute species concentration measurements, circumventing the problems associated with collisional quenching, was developed. By applying simple mathematics to the ratio of two LIF signals generated from two counterpropagating laser beams, the absolute species concentration could be obtained. 41 refs

  17. An Approach to Verifying Completeness and Consistency in a Rule-Based Expert System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    peolea with the se e S knowlede base by observing en t om. W0hile thorough testing is an "samt4 Pert of V*flfyL the ooIlst4ftl and capleteness of a...physicians at Stanford’s Oncology Day Care Center on the management of patients who are on experimental treatment protocols. These protocols serve to...for oncology protocol management . Prooceedings of 7th IJCAI, pp. 876- 881, Vancouver, B.C., August 1981. I. van Melle, W. A Domain-Independent system

  18. The MMPI Assistant: A Microcomputer Based Expert System to Assist in Interpreting MMPI Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Barry A.

    1989-01-01

    The Assistant is an MS DOS program to aid clinical psychologists in interpreting the results of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). Interpretive hypotheses are based on the professional literature and the author's experience. After scores are entered manually, the Assistant produces a hard copy which is intended for use by a psychologist knowledgeable about the MMPI. The rules for each hypothesis appear first on the monitor, and then in the printed output, followed by the patient's scores on the relevant scales, and narrative hypotheses for the scores. The data base includes hypotheses for 23 validity configurations, 45 two-point clinical codes, 10 high scoring single-point clinical scales, and 10 low scoring single-point clinical scales. The program can accelerate the production of test reports, while insuring that actuarial rules are not overlooked. It has been especially useful as a teaching tool with graduate students. The Assistant requires an IBM PC compatible with 128k available memory, DOS 2.x or higher, and a printer.

  19. Fuzzy Expert System based on a Novel Hybrid Stem Cell (HSC) Algorithm for Classification of Micro Array Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, S Arul Antran; GaneshKumar, P

    2018-02-21

    In the growing scenario, microarray data is extensively used since it provides a more comprehensive understanding of genetic variants among diseases. As the gene expression samples have high dimensionality it becomes tedious to analyze the samples manually. Hence an automated system is needed to analyze these samples. The fuzzy expert system offers a clear classification when compared to the machine learning and statistical methodologies. In fuzzy classification, knowledge acquisition would be a major concern. Despite several existing approaches for knowledge acquisition much effort is necessary to enhance the learning process. This paper proposes an innovative Hybrid Stem Cell (HSC) algorithm that utilizes Ant Colony optimization and Stem Cell algorithm for designing fuzzy classification system to extract the informative rules to form the membership functions from the microarray dataset. The HSC algorithm uses a novel Adaptive Stem Cell Optimization (ASCO) to improve the points of membership function and Ant Colony Optimization to produce the near optimum rule set. In order to extract the most informative genes from the large microarray dataset a method called Mutual Information is used. The performance results of the proposed technique evaluated using the five microarray datasets are simulated. These results prove that the proposed Hybrid Stem Cell (HSC) algorithm produces a precise fuzzy system than the existing methodologies.

  20. Advisory expert system for test rig operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielczynski, P.

    1994-01-01

    The advisory expert system MAESTRO (Modular Advisory Expert System for Test Rig Operator) has been designed to guide the operator of large experimental installation during start-up, steady state and shut down. The installation is located in the research reactor MARIA in the Institute of Atomic Energy in Swierk, Poland. The system acquires and analyses on line signals from installation and performs two tasks in real time: leading the operator and monitoring of the installation (including signal validation). Systems tasks, architecture and knowledge representation concepts are described. The system is based on expert systems techniques what makes in phases of continuous change of process parameters and it has been achieved by special knowledge representation allowing its dynamical modification. (author). 147 refs, 42 figs, 5 tab

  1. A demonstration of expert systems applications in transportation engineering : volume II, TRANZ, a prototype expert system for traffic control in highway work zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The development of a prototype knowledge-based expert system (KBES) for selecting appropriate traffic control strategies and management techniques around highway work zones was initiated. This process was encompassed by the steps that formulate the p...

  2. Time and order estimation of paintings based on visual features and expert priors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Ricardo S.; Costeira, João P.; de La Torre, Fernando; Bernardino, Alexandre; Carneiro, Gustavo

    2011-03-01

    Time and order are considered crucial information in the art domain, and subject of many research efforts by historians. In this paper, we present a framework for estimating the ordering and date information of paintings and drawings. We formulate this problem as the embedding into a one dimension manifold, which aims to place paintings far or close to each other according to a measure of similarity. Our formulation can be seen as a manifold learning algorithm, albeit properly adapted to deal with existing questions in the art community. To solve this problem, we propose an approach based in Laplacian Eigenmaps and a convex optimization formulation. Both methods are able to incorporate art expertise as priors to the estimation, in the form of constraints. Types of information include exact or approximate dating and partial orderings. We explore the use of soft penalty terms to allow for constraint violation to account for the fact that prior knowledge may contain small errors. Our problem is tested within the scope of the PrintART project, which aims to assist art historians in tracing Portuguese Tile art "Azulejos" back to the engravings that inspired them. Furthermore, we describe other possible applications where time information (and hence, this method) could be of use in art history, fake detection or curatorial treatment.

  3. Huffman-based code compression techniques for embedded processors

    KAUST Repository

    Bonny, Mohamed Talal

    2010-09-01

    The size of embedded software is increasing at a rapid pace. It is often challenging and time consuming to fit an amount of required software functionality within a given hardware resource budget. Code compression is a means to alleviate the problem by providing substantial savings in terms of code size. In this article we introduce a novel and efficient hardware-supported compression technique that is based on Huffman Coding. Our technique reduces the size of the generated decoding table, which takes a large portion of the memory. It combines our previous techniques, Instruction Splitting Technique and Instruction Re-encoding Technique into new one called Combined Compression Technique to improve the final compression ratio by taking advantage of both previous techniques. The instruction Splitting Technique is instruction set architecture (ISA)-independent. It splits the instructions into portions of varying size (called patterns) before Huffman coding is applied. This technique improves the final compression ratio by more than 20% compared to other known schemes based on Huffman Coding. The average compression ratios achieved using this technique are 48% and 50% for ARM and MIPS, respectively. The Instruction Re-encoding Technique is ISA-dependent. It investigates the benefits of reencoding unused bits (we call them reencodable bits) in the instruction format for a specific application to improve the compression ratio. Reencoding those bits can reduce the size of decoding tables by up to 40%. Using this technique, we improve the final compression ratios in comparison to the first technique to 46% and 45% for ARM and MIPS, respectively (including all overhead that incurs). The Combined Compression Technique improves the compression ratio to 45% and 42% for ARM and MIPS, respectively. In our compression technique, we have conducted evaluations using a representative set of applications and we have applied each technique to two major embedded processor architectures

  4. Integrative oncology for breast cancer patients: introduction of an expert-based model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobos, Gustav J; Voiss, Petra; Schwidde, Ilka; Choi, Kyung-Eun; Paul, Anna; Kirschbaum, Barbara; Saha, Felix J; Kuemmel, Sherko

    2012-01-01

    Malignant breast neoplasms are among the most frequent forms of cancer in the Western world. Conventional treatment of breast cancer may include surgery, hormonal therapy, chemotherapy, radiation and/or immunotherapy, all of which are often accompanied by severe side effects. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments have been shown to be effective in alleviating those symptoms. Furthermore, with patient survival rates increasing, oncologists, psychologists and other therapists have to become more sensitive to the needs of cancer survivors that go beyond than the mere alleviation of symptoms. Many CAM methods are geared to treat the patient in a holistic manner and thus are also concerned with the patient’s psychological and spiritual needs. The use of certain CAM methods may become problematic when, as frequently occurs, patients use them indiscriminately and without informing their oncologists. Herbal medicines and dietary supplements, especially, may interfere with primary cancer treatments or have other detrimental effects. Thus, expertise in this highly specialized field of integrative medicine should be available to patients so that they can be advised about the benefits and negative effects of such preparations and practices. Being a beneficial combination of conventional and CAM care, integrative oncology makes possible the holistic approach to cancer care. The concept of integrative oncology for breast cancer is jointly practiced by the Department of Internal and Integrative Medicine, Kliniken Essen-Mitte, academic teaching hospital of the University of Duisburg-Essen, and the Breast Center at Kliniken Essen-Mitte in Germany. This model is introduced here; its scope is reviewed, and its possible implications for the practice of integrative medicine are discussed. Evidence-based integrative care is crucial to the field of oncology in establishing state-of-the-art care for breast cancer patients

  5. Physiotherapy movement based classification approaches to low back pain: comparison of subgroups through review and developer/expert survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karayannis Nicholas V

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several classification schemes, each with its own philosophy and categorizing method, subgroup low back pain (LBP patients with the intent to guide treatment. Physiotherapy derived schemes usually have a movement impairment focus, but the extent to which other biological, psychological, and social factors of pain are encompassed requires exploration. Furthermore, within the prevailing 'biological' domain, the overlap of subgrouping strategies within the orthopaedic examination remains unexplored. The aim of this study was "to review and clarify through developer/expert survey, the theoretical basis and content of physical movement classification schemes, determine their relative reliability and similarities/differences, and to consider the extent of incorporation of the bio-psycho-social framework within the schemes". Methods A database search for relevant articles related to LBP and subgrouping or classification was conducted. Five dominant movement-based schemes were identified: Mechanical Diagnosis and Treatment (MDT, Treatment Based Classification (TBC, Pathoanatomic Based Classification (PBC, Movement System Impairment Classification (MSI, and O'Sullivan Classification System (OCS schemes. Data were extracted and a survey sent to the classification scheme developers/experts to clarify operational criteria, reliability, decision-making, and converging/diverging elements between schemes. Survey results were integrated into the review and approval obtained for accuracy. Results Considerable diversity exists between schemes in how movement informs subgrouping and in the consideration of broader neurosensory, cognitive, emotional, and behavioural dimensions of LBP. Despite differences in assessment philosophy, a common element lies in their objective to identify a movement pattern related to a pain reduction strategy. Two dominant movement paradigms emerge: (i loading strategies (MDT, TBC, PBC aimed at eliciting a phenomenon

  6. Array-based techniques for fingerprinting medicinal herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Charlie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Poor quality control of medicinal herbs has led to instances of toxicity, poisoning and even deaths. The fundamental step in quality control of herbal medicine is accurate identification of herbs. Array-based techniques have recently been adapted to authenticate or identify herbal plants. This article reviews the current array-based techniques, eg oligonucleotides microarrays, gene-based probe microarrays, Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH-based arrays, Diversity Array Technology (DArT and Subtracted Diversity Array (SDA. We further compare these techniques according to important parameters such as markers, polymorphism rates, restriction enzymes and sample type. The applicability of the array-based methods for fingerprinting depends on the availability of genomics and genetics of the species to be fingerprinted. For the species with few genome sequence information but high polymorphism rates, SDA techniques are particularly recommended because they require less labour and lower material cost.

  7. Muscle Injuries in Sports: A New Evidence-Informed and Expert Consensus-Based Classification with Clinical Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Xavier; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Tol, Johannes L; Hamilton, Bruce; Garrett, William E; Pruna, Ricard; Til, Lluís; Gutierrez, Josep Antoni; Alomar, Xavier; Balius, Ramón; Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Monllau, Joan Carles; Whiteley, Rodney; Witvrouw, Erik; Samuelsson, Kristian; Rodas, Gil

    2017-07-01

    Muscle injuries are among the most common injuries in sport and continue to be a major concern because of training and competition time loss, challenging decision making regarding treatment and return to sport, and a relatively high recurrence rate. An adequate classification of muscle injury is essential for a full understanding of the injury and to optimize its management and return-to-play process. The ongoing failure to establish a classification system with broad acceptance has resulted from factors such as limited clinical applicability, and the inclusion of subjective findings and ambiguous terminology. The purpose of this article was to describe a classification system for muscle injuries with easy clinical application, adequate grouping of injuries with similar functional impairment, and potential prognostic value. This evidence-informed and expert consensus-based classification system for muscle injuries is based on a four-letter initialism system: MLG-R, respectively referring to the mechanism of injury (M), location of injury (L), grading of severity (G), and number of muscle re-injuries (R). The goal of the classification is to enhance communication between healthcare and sports-related professionals and facilitate rehabilitation and return-to-play decision making.

  8. Expert System For Diagnosis Pest And Disease In Fruit Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewanto, Satrio; Lukas, Jonathan

    2014-03-01

    This paper discussed the development of an expert system to diagnose pests and diseases on fruit plants. Rule base method was used to store the knowledge from experts and literatures. Control technique using backward chain and started from the symptoms to get conclusions about the pests and diseases that occur. Development of the system has been performed using software Corvid Exsys developed by Exsys company. Results showed that the development of this expert system can be used to assist users in identifying the type of pests and diseases on fruit plants. Further development and possibility of using internet for this system are proposed.

  9. Base Oils Biodegradability Prediction with Data Mining Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malika Trabelsi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we apply various data mining techniques including continuous numeric and discrete classification prediction models of base oils biodegradability, with emphasis on improving prediction accuracy. The results show that highly biodegradable oils can be better predicted through numeric models. In contrast, classification models did not uncover a similar dichotomy. With the exception of Memory Based Reasoning and Decision Trees, tested classification techniques achieved high classification prediction. However, the technique of Decision Trees helped uncover the most significant predictors. A simple classification rule derived based on this predictor resulted in good classification accuracy. The application of this rule enables efficient classification of base oils into either low or high biodegradability classes with high accuracy. For the latter, a higher precision biodegradability prediction can be obtained using continuous modeling techniques.

  10. Expert Systems: An Overview for Teacher-Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orwig, Gary; Barron, Ann

    1992-01-01

    Provides an overview of expert systems for teacher librarians. Highlights include artificial intelligence and expert systems; the development of the MYCIN medical expert system; rule-based expert systems; the use of expert system shells to develop a specific system; and how to select an appropriate application for an expert system. (11 references)…

  11. A study of diagnostics expert system for accelerator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Y.; Banerji, Anil; Kotaiah, S.

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge based techniques are proving to be useful in a number of problem domains which typically requires human expertise. Expert systems employing knowledge based techniques are a recent product of artificial intelligence. Methods developed in the artificial intelligence area can be applied with success for certain classes of problems in accelerator. Accelerators are complex devices with thousands of components. The number of possible faults or problems that can appear is enormous. A diagnostics expert system can provide great help in finding and diagnosing problems in Indus-II accelerator sub-systems. (author)

  12. Development and testing of a prototype NPP information system based on the G2 expert system shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegh, J.; Bodnar, M.; Brueger, L.; Tanyi, M.; Sefcsik, F.

    1994-01-01

    The components and functioning of the GPCS information system is described as applied for process monitoring and alarm generation in WWER-440 type nuclear power plant. The prototype system was developed by using the G2 real-time expert system shell, measurements were simulated by a WWER-440 compact simulator and by the archive replay of a core monitoring system. The benefits of the object oriented technology description, expert system approach and information integration are emphasized. (author) 21 refs.; 17 figs

  13. An expert system for the conception of industrial gauges based on beta, gamma or X ray transmission (JANU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tola, F.

    2000-01-01

    A knowledge based software (named JANU expert system) for radiogauges design mainly density, thickness, mass per unit area, level and two-phase flows gauges, was prepared recently. Its aim is to optimise the different components of a transmission gauge (radioactive source, detector, electronic device, collimators and shielding), taking into account parameters and constraints linked to the configuration (nature and composition of materials, presence of shields and walls, ...), as well as users requirements (accuracy, counting time, beam collimating, duration of tests, ...). The database includes characteristics of radionuclides and industrial sources, photon cross sections, build-up factors, specific dose constants, physical properties of elements, usual scintillation detectors and shielding materials. It allows the determination of the most suited emitter, as well as a precise characterisation of a given emitter, including required source activity, expected counting rates, dose rates, etc. It has been extended to X rays generators, voltage and current intensity replacing in this case the energy and activity of the source. Information supplied by JANU has been validated by applications developed during the past 30 years. Its choices have always revealed most judicious and in general, numerical results in good agreement with experiments. Thus, it has become an essential and reliable tool for gauge designers. (author)

  14. A first-principles generic methodology for representing the knowledge base of a process diagnostic expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reifman, J.; Briggs, L.L.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we present a methodology for identifying faulty component candidates of process malfunctions through basic physical principles of conservation, functional classification of components and information from the process schematics. The basic principles of macroscopic balance of mass, momentum and energy in thermal hydraulic control volumes are applied in a novel approach to incorporate deep knowledge into the knowledge base. Additional deep knowledge is incorporated through the functional classification of process components according to their influence in disturbing the macroscopic balance equations. Information from the process schematics is applied to identify the faulty component candidates after the type of imbalance in the control volumes is matched against the functional classification of the components. Except for the information from the process schematics, this approach is completely general and independent of the process under consideration. The use of basic first-principles, which are physically correct, and the process-independent architecture of the diagnosis procedure allow for the verification and validation of the system. A prototype process diagnosis expert system is developed and a test problem is presented to identify faulty component candidates in the presence of a single failure in a hypothetical balance of plant of a liquid metal nuclear reactor plant

  15. Technology Development of Salak (Salacca Zalacca) Chips With Vacuum Frying Machine Base On Expert System In Kramat-Bangkalan Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosida, D. F.; Happyanto; Anggraeni; Sugiarto; Hapsari

    2018-01-01

    Agropolitan Program is one form of regional development to improve agribusiness system and effort to improve the welfare of the community. One of the leading commodities in Bangkalan agroclimates is salak which is a potentially very large commodity to be developed. Salak commodities in Kramat Bangkalan Indonesia have developed varous salak produced such as dates of salak, syrup and dodol salak. Salak chips was the target of innovation from processed salak. The Production of salak chips using frying technology with vacuum system to obtain crunchy chips. To get the results need to be developed synergy technology to combine the process conditions and the right system in producing good quality salak chips. Bangkalan Regency is the potential to continue to develop products using a variety of salak to the processed form of vacuum frying machine based on expert system so that the resulting product would be great texture, aroma and taste. This will make the area of Bangkalan, Indonesia be more independent in producing and increasing revenue.

  16. improvement of digital image watermarking techniques based on FPGA implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Hadedy, M.E

    2006-01-01

    digital watermarking provides the ownership of a piece of digital data by marking the considered data invisibly or visibly. this can be used to protect several types of multimedia objects such as audio, text, image and video. this thesis demonstrates the different types of watermarking techniques such as (discrete cosine transform (DCT) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and their characteristics. then, it classifies these techniques declaring their advantages and disadvantages. an improved technique with distinguished features, such as peak signal to noise ratio ( PSNR) and similarity ratio (SR) has been introduced. the modified technique has been compared with the other techniques by measuring heir robustness against differ attacks. finally, field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) based implementation and comparison, for the proposed watermarking technique have been presented and discussed

  17. Genotoxicity Expert Panel review: weight of evidence evaluation of the genotoxicity of glyphosate, glyphosate-based formulations, and aminomethylphosphonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusick, David; Aardema, Marilyn; Kier, Larry; Kirkland, David; Williams, Gary

    2016-09-01

    In 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) published a monograph concluding there was strong evidence for genotoxicity of glyphosate and glyphosate formulations and moderate evidence for genotoxicity of the metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). These conclusions contradicted earlier extensive reviews supporting the lack of genotoxicity of glyphosate and glyphosate formulations. The IARC Monograph concluded there was strong evidence of induction of oxidative stress by glyphosate, glyphosate formulations, and AMPA. The Expert Panel reviewed the genotoxicity and oxidative stress data considered in the IARC Monograph, together with other available data not considered by IARC. The Expert Panel defined and used a weight of evidence (WoE) approach that included ranking of studies and endpoints by the strength of their linkage to events associated with carcinogenic mechanisms. Importantly, the Expert Panel concluded that there was sufficient information available from a very large number of regulatory genotoxicity studies that should have been considered by IARC. The WoE approach, the inclusion of all relevant regulatory studies, and some differences in interpretation of individual studies led to significantly different conclusions by the Expert Panel compared with the IARC Monograph. The Expert Panel concluded that glyphosate, glyphosate formulations, and AMPA do not pose a genotoxic hazard and the data do not support the IARC Monograph genotoxicity evaluation. With respect to carcinogenicity classification and mechanism, the Expert Panel concluded that evidence relating to an oxidative stress mechanism of carcinogenicity was largely unconvincing and that the data profiles were not consistent with the characteristics of genotoxic carcinogens.

  18. Rapid analysis of steels using laser-based techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremers, D.A.; Archuleta, F.L.; Dilworth, H.C.

    1985-01-01

    Based on the data obtained by this study, we conclude that laser-based techniques can be used to provide at least semi-quantitative information about the elemental composition of molten steel. Of the two techniques investigated here, the Sample-Only method appears preferable to the LIBS (laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy) method because of its superior analytical performance. In addition, the Sample-Only method would probably be easier to incorporate into a steel plant environment. However, before either technique can be applied to steel monitoring, additional research is needed

  19. Expert Systems in Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roysdon, Christine, Ed.; White, Howard D., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Eleven articles introduce expert systems applications in library and information science, and present design and implementation issues of system development for reference services. Topics covered include knowledge based systems, prototype development, the use of artificial intelligence to remedy current system inadequacies, and an expert system to…

  20. Behaviour based Mobile Robot Navigation Technique using AI System: Experimental Investigation on Active Media Pioneer Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Parasuraman, V.Ganapathy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A key issue in the research of an autonomous robot is the design and development of the navigation technique that enables the robot to navigate in a real world environment. In this research, the issues investigated and methodologies established include (a Designing of the individual behavior and behavior rule selection using Alpha level fuzzy logic system  (b Designing of the controller, which maps the sensors input to the motor output through model based Fuzzy Logic Inference System and (c Formulation of the decision-making process by using Alpha-level fuzzy logic system. The proposed method is applied to Active Media Pioneer Robot and the results are discussed and compared with most accepted methods. This approach provides a formal methodology for representing and implementing the human expert heuristic knowledge and perception-based action in mobile robot navigation. In this approach, the operational strategies of the human expert driver are transferred via fuzzy logic to the robot navigation in the form of a set of simple conditional statements composed of linguistic variables.Keywards: Mobile robot, behavior based control, fuzzy logic, alpha level fuzzy logic, obstacle avoidance behavior and goal seek behavior

  1. Development Model of Basic Technique Skills Training Shot-Put Obrien Style Based Biomechanics Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    danang rohmat hidayanto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The background of this research is the unavailability of learning model of basic technique technique of O'Brien style force that integrated in skill program based on biomechanics study which is used as a reference to build the basic technique skill of the O'Brien style force among students. The purpose of this study is to develop a model of basic-style technique of rejecting the O'Brien-style shot put based on biomechanical studies for beginner levels, including basic prefix technique, glide, final stage, repulsion, further motion and repulsion performance of O'Brien style, all of which arranged in a medium that is easily accessible whenever, by anyone and anywhere, especially in SMK Negeri 1 Kalijambe Sragen . The research method used is "Reasearch and Developement" approach. "Preliminary studies show that 43.0% of respondents considered that the O'Brien style was very important to be developed with a model of skill-based exercise based on biomechanics, as many as 40.0% ressponden stated that it is important to be developed with biomechanics based learning media. Therefore, it is deemed necessary to develop the learning media of the O'Brien style-based training skills based on biomechanical studies. Development of media starts from the design of the storyboard and script form that will be used as media. The design of this model is called the draft model. Draft models that have been prepared are reviewed by the multimedia expert and the O'Brien style expert to get the product's validity. A total of 78.24% of experts declare a viable product with some input. In small groups with n = 6, earned value 72.2% was obtained or valid enough to be tested in large groups. In the large group test with n = 12,values obtained 70.83% or quite feasible to be tested in the field. In the field test, experimental group was prepared with treatment according to media and control group with free treatment. From result of counting of significance test can be

  2. Geographic information systems-based expert system modelling for shoreline sensitivity to oil spill disaster in Rivers State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju Lawal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of adequate and appropriate actions, hazards often result in disaster. Oil spills across any environment are very hazardous; thus, oil spill contingency planning is pertinent, supported by Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI mapping. However, a significant data gap exists across many low- and middle-income countries in aspect of environmental monitoring. This study developed a geographic information system (GIS-based expert system (ES for shoreline sensitivity to oiling. It focused on the biophysical attributes of the shoreline with Rivers State as a case study. Data on elevation, soil, relative wave exposure and satellite imageries were collated and used for the development of ES decision rules within GIS. Results show that about 70% of the shoreline are lined with swamp forest/mangroves/nympa palm, and 97% have silt and clay as dominant sediment type. From the ES, six ranks were identified; 61% of the shoreline has a rank of 9 and 19% has a rank of 3 for shoreline sensitivity. A total of 568 km out of the 728 km shoreline is highly sensitive (ranks 7–10. There is a clear indication that the study area is a complex mixture of sensitive environments to oil spill. GIS-based ES with classification rules for shoreline sensitivity represents a rapid and flexible framework for automatic ranking of shoreline sensitivity to oiling. It is expected that this approach would kick-start sensitivity index mapping which is comprehensive and openly available to support disaster risk management around the oil producing regions of the country.

  3. GIS-based bivariate statistical techniques for groundwater potential analysis (an example of Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghizadeh, Ali; Moghaddam, Davoud Davoudi; Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater potential analysis prepares better comprehension of hydrological settings of different regions. This study shows the potency of two GIS-based data driven bivariate techniques namely statistical index (SI) and Dempster-Shafer theory (DST) to analyze groundwater potential in Broujerd region of Iran. The research was done using 11 groundwater conditioning factors and 496 spring positions. Based on the ground water potential maps (GPMs) of SI and DST methods, 24.22% and 23.74% of the study area is covered by poor zone of groundwater potential, and 43.93% and 36.3% of Broujerd region is covered by good and very good potential zones, respectively. The validation of outcomes displayed that area under the curve (AUC) of SI and DST techniques are 81.23% and 79.41%, respectively, which shows SI method has slightly a better performance than the DST technique. Therefore, SI and DST methods are advantageous to analyze groundwater capacity and scrutinize the complicated relation between groundwater occurrence and groundwater conditioning factors, which permits investigation of both systemic and stochastic uncertainty. Finally, it can be realized that these techniques are very beneficial for groundwater potential analyzing and can be practical for water-resource management experts.

  4. Surgical experts: born or made?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadideen, Hazim; Alvand, Abtin; Saadeddin, Munir; Kneebone, Roger

    2013-01-01

    The concept of surgical expertise and the processes involved in its development are topical, and there is a constant drive to identify reliable measures of expert performance in surgery. This review explores the notion of whether surgical experts are "born" or "made", with reference to educational theory and pertinent literature. Peer-reviewed publications, books, and online resources on surgical education, expertise and training were reviewed. Important themes and aspects of expertise acquisition were identified in order to better understand the concept of a surgical expert. The definition of surgical expertise and several important aspects of its development are highlighted. Innate talent plays an important role, but is insufficient on its own to produce a surgical expert. Multiple theories that explore motor skill acquisition and memory are relevant, and Ericsson's theory of the development of competence followed by deliberate self-practice has been especially influential. Psychomotor and non-technical skills are necessary for progression in the current climate in light of our training curricula; surgical experts are adaptive experts who excel in these. The literature suggests that surgical expertise is reached through practice; surgical experts are made, not born. A deeper understanding of the nature of expert performance and its development will ensure that surgical education training programmes are of the highest possible quality. Surgical educators should aim to develop an expertise-based approach, with expert performance as the benchmark. Copyright © 2013 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. NEPHRUS: model of intelligent multilayers expert system for evaluation of the renal system based on scintigraphic images analysis; NEPRUS: modelo de sistema especialista em multicamadas inteligentes para avaliacao do sistema urinario baseado na analise de imagens cintilograficas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jose W.E. da; Schirru, Roberto [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia; Boasquevisque, Edson M. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear

    1997-10-01

    This work develops a prototype for the system model based on Artificial Intelligence devices able to perform functions related to scintigraphic image analysis of the urinary system. Criteria used by medical experts for analysis images obtained with {sup 99m} Tc+DTPA and/or {sup 99m} Tc+DMSA were modeled and a multi resolution diagnosis technique was implemented. Special attention was given to the programs user interface design. Human Factor Engineering techniques were considered so as to ally friendliness and robustness. Results obtained using Artificial Neural Networks for the qualitative image analysis and the knowledge model constructed shows the feasibility of Artificial Intelligence implementation that use `inherent` abilities of each technique in the resolution of diagnosis image analysis problems. (author). 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Hearing the Signal in the Noise: A Software-Based Content Analysis of Patterns in Responses by Experts and Students to a New Venture Investment Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostager, Todd J.; Voiovich, Jason; Hughes, Raymond K.

    2013-01-01

    The authors apply a software-based content analysis method to uncover differences in responses by expert entrepreneurs and undergraduate entrepreneur majors to a new venture investment proposal. Data analyzed via the Leximancer software package yielded conceptual maps highlighting key differences in the nature of these responses. Study methods and…

  7. 77 FR 50172 - Expert Forum on the Use of Performance-Based Regulatory Models in the U.S. Oil and Gas Industry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) invite interested parties to...] Expert Forum on the Use of Performance-Based Regulatory Models in the U.S. Oil and Gas Industry, Offshore... and gas industry. The meeting will take place at the College of the Mainland, and hosted by the Gulf...

  8. An Expert Instructor's Use of Social Congruence, Cognitive Congruence, and Expertise in an Online Case-Based Instructional Design Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sunnie Lee; Koehler, Adrie A.; Ertmer, Peggy; Kim, WooRi; Rico, Rudy

    2018-01-01

    Promoting and sustaining effective discussion--that which contributes to learning--is a skill that eludes many instructors (Darling-Hammond, 2008; Ge, Yamashiro, & Lee, 2000). This study explored the role and strategies of an expert instructor in an online advanced instructional design (ID) course that utilized a case-based learning (CBL)…

  9. Biogeosystem technique as a base of Sustainable Irrigated Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batukaev, Abdulmalik

    2016-04-01

    The world water strategy is to be changed because the current imitational gravitational frontal isotropic-continual paradigm of irrigation is not sustainable. This paradigm causes excessive consumption of fresh water - global deficit - up to 4-15 times, adverse effects on soils and landscapes. Current methods of irrigation does not control the water spread throughout the soil continuum. The preferable downward fluxes of irrigation water are forming, up to 70% and more of water supply loses into vadose zone. The moisture of irrigated soil is high, soil loses structure in the process of granulometric fractions flotation decomposition, the stomatal apparatus of plant leaf is fully open, transpiration rate is maximal. We propose the Biogeosystem technique - the transcendental, uncommon and non-imitating methods for Sustainable Natural Resources Management. New paradigm of irrigation is based on the intra-soil pulse discrete method of water supply into the soil continuum by injection in small discrete portions. Individual volume of water is supplied as a vertical cylinder of soil preliminary watering. The cylinder position in soil is at depth form 10 to 30 cm. Diameter of cylinder is 1-2 cm. Within 5-10 min after injection the water spreads from the cylinder of preliminary watering into surrounding soil by capillary, film and vapor transfer. Small amount of water is transferred gravitationally to the depth of 35-40 cm. The soil watering cylinder position in soil profile is at depth of 5-50 cm, diameter of the cylinder is 2-4 cm. Lateral distance between next cylinders along the plant raw is 10-15 cm. The soil carcass which is surrounding the cylinder of non-watered soil remains relatively dry and mechanically stable. After water injection the structure of soil in cylinder restores quickly because of no compression from the stable adjoining volume of soil and soil structure memory. The mean soil thermodynamic water potential of watered zone is -0.2 MPa. At this potential

  10. Expert Guide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    , their benefits and limitations, economical feasibility and impact on energy savings, company image, comfort, productivity, building functionality and flexibility and gives guidance on design of these concepts, including integration of responsive building elements and HVAC-systems and build examples......This guide summarizes the work of Subtask B of IEA-ECBCS Annex 44 “Integrating Environmentally Responsive Elements in Buildings” and is based on the contributions from the participating countries. The publication is an official Annex report. With a focus on innovative building concepts...

  11. Power system stabilizers based on modern control techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, O P; Chen, G P; Zhang, Y; El-Metwally, K [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1994-12-31

    Developments in digital technology have made it feasible to develop and implement improved controllers based on sophisticated control techniques. Power system stabilizers based on adaptive control, fuzzy logic and artificial networks are being developed. Each of these control techniques possesses unique features and strengths. In this paper, the relative performance of power systems stabilizers based on adaptive control, fuzzy logic and neural network, both in simulation studies and real time tests on a physical model of a power system, is presented and compared to that of a fixed parameter conventional power system stabilizer. (author) 16 refs., 45 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Simulation-based optimization parametric optimization techniques and reinforcement learning

    CERN Document Server

    Gosavi, Abhijit

    2003-01-01

    Simulation-Based Optimization: Parametric Optimization Techniques and Reinforcement Learning introduces the evolving area of simulation-based optimization. The book's objective is two-fold: (1) It examines the mathematical governing principles of simulation-based optimization, thereby providing the reader with the ability to model relevant real-life problems using these techniques. (2) It outlines the computational technology underlying these methods. Taken together these two aspects demonstrate that the mathematical and computational methods discussed in this book do work. Broadly speaking, the book has two parts: (1) parametric (static) optimization and (2) control (dynamic) optimization. Some of the book's special features are: *An accessible introduction to reinforcement learning and parametric-optimization techniques. *A step-by-step description of several algorithms of simulation-based optimization. *A clear and simple introduction to the methodology of neural networks. *A gentle introduction to converg...

  13. REXS : A financial risk diagnostic expert system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Richter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Artificial intelligence techniques are rapidly emerging as important contributors to more effective management. One of the greatest growth areas probably lies in the use of Expert System methodology for supporting managerial decision processes.
    Existing Decision Support Systems often attempt to apply analytical techniques in combination with traditional data access and retrieval functions. One of the problems usually encountered while developing such decision support systems is the need to transform an unstructured problem environment into a structured analytical model. Using an expert system approach to strategic decision making in such unstructured problem environments may provide significant advantages.
    The financial Risk diagnostic EXpert System (REXS concentrates on Financial Risk Analysis. Based on a Forecasting Model the system will, with the support of several expert system knowledge bases, attempt to evaluate the financial risk of a business and provide guidelines for improvement.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Tegnieke gebaseer op Kunsmatige Intelligensie toon tans die belofte om belangrike bydraes te maak tot meerBestaande Besluitsteunstelsels poog dikwels om analitiese tegnieke en lradisionele datatoegang- en onttrekkingsfunksies te kombineer. Een van die probleme wat gewoonlik ondervind word gedurende die ontwikkeling van '0 besluitsteunstelsel bestaan uit die behoefte om 'n ongestruktueerde probleemomgewing te transformeer na 'n gestruktueerde analitiese model. 'n Ekspertstelselbenadering lot strategiese besluitneming in 'n ongeSlruktureerde probleemomgewing mag betekenisvolle voordele inhou.
    Die "financial Risk diagnostic EXpert System (REXS" konsentreer op fmansiele risiko-analise. Uitgaande vanaf 'n Vooruitskattingsmode~ en deur gebruik te maak van verskeie ekspertstelselkennisbasisse, poog die stelsel om die fmansiele risiko van 'n onderneming te evalueer en riglyne vir moontlike verbetering

  14. Expert opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrer, Marta; Boccon-Gibod, Isabelle; Gonçalo, Margarida

    2017-01-01

    Omalizumab (a recombinant, humanized anti-immunoglobulin-E antibody) has been shown in three pivotal Phase III trials (ASTERIA I, II and GLACIAL) and real-world studies to be effective and well-tolerated for the treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU), and is the only licensed third......-line treatment for CSU. However, the definition of response to omalizumab treatment often differs between clinical trials, real-world studies, and daily practice of individual physicians globally. As such, a consensus definition of "complete", "partial" and "non-response" to omalizumab is required in order...... into a patient's disease burden and its changes during treatment. A potential omalizumab treatment approach based on speed and pattern of response at 1-3 and 3-6 months is suggested. In cases where there is no response during the first 1-3 months, physicians should consider reassessing the original CSU diagnosis...

  15. An Electronic Engineering Curriculum Design Based on Concept-Mapping Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, S. L.; Martinez-Torres, M. R.; Barrero, F.; Gallardo, S.; Duran, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    Curriculum design is a concern in European Universities as they face the forthcoming European Higher Education Area (EHEA). This process can be eased by the use of scientific tools such as Concept-Mapping Techniques (CMT) that extract and organize the most relevant information from experts' experience using statistics techniques, and helps a…

  16. An expert system framework for nondestructive waste assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.K.

    1996-01-01

    Management and disposition of transuranic (RU) waste forms necessitates determining entrained RU and associated radioactive material quantities as per National RU Waste Characterization Program requirements. Technical justification and demonstration of a given NDA method used to determine RU mass and uncertainty in accordance with program quality assurance is difficult for many waste forms. Difficulties are typically founded in waste NDA methods that employ standards compensation and/or employment of simplifying assumptions on waste form configurations. Capability to determine and justify RU mass and mass uncertainty can be enhanced through integration of waste container data/information using expert system and empirical data-driven techniques with conventional data acquisition and analysis. Presented is a preliminary expert system framework that integrates the waste form data base, alogrithmic techniques, statistical analyses, expert domain knowledge bases, and empirical artificial intelligence modules into a cohesive system. The framework design and bases in addition to module development activities are discussed

  17. An Image Registration Based Technique for Noninvasive Vascular Elastography

    OpenAIRE

    Valizadeh, Sina; Makkiabadi, Bahador; Mirbagheri, Alireza; Soozande, Mehdi; Manwar, Rayyan; Mozaffarzadeh, Moein; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza

    2018-01-01

    Non-invasive vascular elastography is an emerging technique in vascular tissue imaging. During the past decades, several techniques have been suggested to estimate the tissue elasticity by measuring the displacement of the Carotid vessel wall. Cross correlation-based methods are the most prevalent approaches to measure the strain exerted in the wall vessel by the blood pressure. In the case of a low pressure, the displacement is too small to be apparent in ultrasound imaging, especially in th...

  18. Memory Based Machine Intelligence Techniques in VLSI hardware

    OpenAIRE

    James, Alex Pappachen

    2012-01-01

    We briefly introduce the memory based approaches to emulate machine intelligence in VLSI hardware, describing the challenges and advantages. Implementation of artificial intelligence techniques in VLSI hardware is a practical and difficult problem. Deep architectures, hierarchical temporal memories and memory networks are some of the contemporary approaches in this area of research. The techniques attempt to emulate low level intelligence tasks and aim at providing scalable solutions to high ...

  19. The Research of Histogram Enhancement Technique Based on Matlab Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Kai

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Histogram enhancement technique has been widely applied as a typical pattern in digital image processing. The paper is based on Matlab software, through the two ways of histogram equalization and histogram specification technologies to deal with the darker images, using two methods of partial equilibrium and mapping histogram to transform the original histograms, thereby enhanced the image information. The results show that these two kinds of techniques both can significantly improve the image quality and enhance the image feature.

  20. Naïve Bayes Approach for Expert System Design of Children Skin Identification Based on Android

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartatik; Purnomo, A.; Hartono, R.; Munawaroh, H.

    2018-03-01

    The development of technology gives some benefits to each person that we can use it properly and correctly. Technology has helped humans in every way. Such as the excess task of an expert in providing information or answers to a problem. Thus problem that often occurs is skin disease that affecting on child. That because the skin of children still vulnerable to the environment. The application was developed using the naïve Bayes algorithm. Through this application, users can consult with a system like an expert to know the symptoms that occur to the child and find the correct treatment to solve the problems.

  1. Using fuzzy logic to improve the project time and cost estimation based on Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Habibi

    2018-09-01

    Full Text Available Among different factors, correct scheduling is one of the vital elements for project management success. There are several ways to schedule projects including the Critical Path Method (CPM and Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT. Due to problems in estimating dura-tions of activities, these methods cannot accurately and completely model actual projects. The use of fuzzy theory is a basic way to improve scheduling and deal with such problems. Fuzzy theory approximates project scheduling models to reality by taking into account uncertainties in decision parameters and expert experience and mental models. This paper provides a step-by-step approach for accurate estimation of time and cost of projects using the Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT and expert views as fuzzy numbers. The proposed method included several steps. In the first step, the necessary information for project time and cost is estimated using the Critical Path Method (CPM and the Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT. The second step considers the duration and cost of the project activities as the trapezoidal fuzzy numbers, and then, the time and cost of the project are recalculated. The duration and cost of activities are estimated using the questionnaires as well as weighing the expert opinions, averaging and defuzzification based on a step-by-step algorithm. The calculating procedures for evaluating these methods are applied in a real project; and the obtained results are explained.

  2. Is the secure base phenomenon evident here, there, and anywhere? A cross-cultural study of child behavior and experts' definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada, German; Lu, Ting; Trumbell, Jill; Kaloustian, Garene; Trudel, Marcel; Plata, Sandra J; Peña, Paola P; Perez, Jennifer; Tereno, Susana; Dugravier, Romain; Coppola, Gabrielle; Constantini, Alessandro; Cassibba, Rosalinda; Kondo-Ikemura, Kiyomi; Nóblega, Magaly; Haya, Ines M; Pedraglio, Claudia; Verissimo, Manuela; Santos, Antonio J; Monteiro, Ligia; Lay, Keng-Ling

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionary rationale offered by Bowlby implies that secure base relationships are common in child-caregiver dyads and thus, child secure behavior observable across diverse social contexts and cultures. This study offers a test of the universality hypothesis. Trained observers in nine countries used the Attachment Q-set to describe the organization of children's behavior in naturalistic settings. Children (N = 547) were 10-72 months old. Child development experts (N = 81) from all countries provided definitions of optimal child secure base use. Findings indicate that children from all countries use their mother as a secure base. Children's organization of secure base behavior was modestly related to each other both within and across countries. Experts' descriptions of the optimally attached child were highly similar across cultures. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  3. ExpertFOAF recommends experts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iofcu, Tereza; Diederich, Joerg; Dolog, Peter

    2007-01-01

    FOAF files are often used for publishing simple information about persons and about their community. Our proposal is to extend the user's FOAF files with automatically generated user profiles, which are based on a histogram of the user's interest and which are also semantically enriched using...... recommender systems for finding users with similar interests and, hence, expertise in different domains. We consider a well-defined user profile to express best the user's current interests in a domain, where the domain (such as the research environment with students and professors) is defined by a collection...

  4. Laser-based direct-write techniques for cell printing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiele, Nathan R; Corr, David T [Biomedical Engineering Department, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States); Huang Yong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States); Raof, Nurazhani Abdul; Xie Yubing [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany, SUNY, Albany, NY (United States); Chrisey, Douglas B, E-mail: schien@rpi.ed, E-mail: chrisd@rpi.ed [Material Science and Engineering Department, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Fabrication of cellular constructs with spatial control of cell location ({+-}5 {mu}m) is essential to the advancement of a wide range of applications including tissue engineering, stem cell and cancer research. Precise cell placement, especially of multiple cell types in co- or multi-cultures and in three dimensions, can enable research possibilities otherwise impossible, such as the cell-by-cell assembly of complex cellular constructs. Laser-based direct writing, a printing technique first utilized in electronics applications, has been adapted to transfer living cells and other biological materials (e.g., enzymes, proteins and bioceramics). Many different cell types have been printed using laser-based direct writing, and this technique offers significant improvements when compared to conventional cell patterning techniques. The predominance of work to date has not been in application of the technique, but rather focused on demonstrating the ability of direct writing to pattern living cells, in a spatially precise manner, while maintaining cellular viability. This paper reviews laser-based additive direct-write techniques for cell printing, and the various cell types successfully laser direct-written that have applications in tissue engineering, stem cell and cancer research are highlighted. A particular focus is paid to process dynamics modeling and process-induced cell injury during laser-based cell direct writing. (topical review)

  5. Laser-based direct-write techniques for cell printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiele, Nathan R; Corr, David T; Huang Yong; Raof, Nurazhani Abdul; Xie Yubing; Chrisey, Douglas B

    2010-01-01

    Fabrication of cellular constructs with spatial control of cell location (±5 μm) is essential to the advancement of a wide range of applications including tissue engineering, stem cell and cancer research. Precise cell placement, especially of multiple cell types in co- or multi-cultures and in three dimensions, can enable research possibilities otherwise impossible, such as the cell-by-cell assembly of complex cellular constructs. Laser-based direct writing, a printing technique first utilized in electronics applications, has been adapted to transfer living cells and other biological materials (e.g., enzymes, proteins and bioceramics). Many different cell types have been printed using laser-based direct writing, and this technique offers significant improvements when compared to conventional cell patterning techniques. The predominance of work to date has not been in application of the technique, but rather focused on demonstrating the ability of direct writing to pattern living cells, in a spatially precise manner, while maintaining cellular viability. This paper reviews laser-based additive direct-write techniques for cell printing, and the various cell types successfully laser direct-written that have applications in tissue engineering, stem cell and cancer research are highlighted. A particular focus is paid to process dynamics modeling and process-induced cell injury during laser-based cell direct writing. (topical review)

  6. Expert system based on cases for a diagnosis system in real time; Sistema experto basado en casos para un sistema de diagnostico en tiempo real

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa R, Alfredo; Quintero R, Agustin; Zambrano D, S Venecia [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    This article presents the development of an Expert System based in the Reasoning Based on Cases methodology. Such system was performed with the purpose of creating an information system in charge of supervising and diagnosing the status of the main equipment of fossil fuel power plants for electricity generation. Here is presented the reasons why this methodology was used for the expert system and why Induce-It -the specialized tool that implements it- was also chosen, as well as the analysis made for the disposition of the operative architecture of the Expert System, the very development of this software architecture and, finally, the validation of the correct operation of this system by means of a simulator that simultaneously puts to the test the error handling of the Expert System. [Spanish] Este articulo presenta el procedimiento que siguio el desarrollo de un Sistema Experto asentado en la metodologia de Razonamiento Basado en Casos; realizado con el fin de crear un sistema de informacion encargado de supervisar y diagnosticar el estado de los equipos principales de centrales de generacion termoelectrica. Se expone justificadamente la seleccion de la metodologia del sistema experto y de la herramienta especializada que lo implementa (Induce-It), asi como el analisis realizado para la disposicion de la arquitectura operativa del Sistema Experto, el desarrollo mismo de esta arquitectura del software y, finalmente, la validacion del correcto funcionamiento de este sistema mediante un simulador que a la vez pone a prueba el manejo de errores del Sistema Experto.

  7. Horizon 2020 Priorities in Clinical Mental Health Research: Results of a Consensus-Based ROAMER Expert Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Elfeddali

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Within the ROAMER project, which aims to provide a Roadmap for Mental Health Research in Europe, a two-stage Delphi survey among 86 European experts was conducted in order to identify research priorities in clinical mental health research. Expert consensus existed with regard to the importance of three challenges in the field of clinical mental health research: (1 the development of new, safe and effective interventions for mental disorders; (2 understanding the mechanisms of disease in order to be able to develop such new interventions; and (3 defining outcomes (an improved set of outcomes, including alternative outcomes to use for clinical mental health research evaluation. Proposed actions involved increasing the utilization of tailored approaches (personalized medicine, developing blended eHealth/mHealth decision aids/guidance tools that help the clinician to choose between various treatment modalities, developing specific treatments in order to better target comorbidity and (further development of biological, psychological and psychopharmacological interventions. The experts indicated that addressing these priorities will result in increased efficacy and impact across Europe; with a high probability of success, given that Europe has important strengths, such as skilled academics and a long research history. Finally, the experts stressed the importance of creating funding and coordinated networking as essential action needed in order to target the variety of challenges in clinical mental health research.

  8. METHODS OF IMPROVING THE RELIABILITY OF THE CONTROL SYSTEM TRACTION POWER SUPPLY OF ELECTRIC TRANSPORT BASED ON AN EXPERT INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Matusevych

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The author proposed the numerous methods of solving the multi-criterion task – increasing of reliability of control system on the basis of expert information. The information, which allows choosing thoughtfully the method of reliability increasing for a control system of electric transport, is considered.

  9. You Get What You Need: An Examination of Purpose-Based Inheritance Reasoning in Undergraduates, Preschoolers, and Biological Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Elizabeth A.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    This set of seven experiments examines reasoning about the inheritance and acquisition of physical properties in preschoolers, undergraduates, and biology experts. Participants (N = 390) received adoption vignettes in which a baby animal was born to one parent but raised by a biologically unrelated parent, and they judged whether the offspring…

  10. The use of expert elicitation to quantify uncertainty in incomplete sorption data bases for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.R.; Trauth, K.M.; Hora, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Iterative, annual performance-assessment calculations are being performed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a planned underground repository in southeastern New Mexico, USA for the disposal of transuranic waste. The performance-assessment calculations estimate the long-term radionuclide releases from the disposal system to the accessible environment. Because direct experimental data in some areas are presently of insufficient quantity to form the basis for the required distributions. Expert judgment was used to estimate the concentrations of specific radionuclides in a brine exiting a repository room or drift as it migrates up an intruding borehole, and also the distribution coefficients that describe the retardation of radionuclides in the overlying Culebra Dolomite. The variables representing these concentrations and coefficients have been shown by 1990 sensitivity analyses to be among the set of parameters making the greatest contribution to the uncertainty in WIPP performance-assessment predictions. Utilizing available information, the experts (one expert panel addressed concentrations and a second panel addressed retardation) developed an understanding of the problem and were formally elicited to obtain probability distributions that characterize the uncertainty in fixed, but unknown, quantities. The probability distributions developed by the experts are being incorporated into the 1991 performance-assessment calculations. 16 refs., 4 tabs

  11. The Knowledge Base of Subject Matter Experts in Teaching: A Case Study of a Professional Scientist as a Beginning Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diezmann, Carmel M.; Watters, James J.

    2015-01-01

    One method of addressing the shortage of science and mathematics teachers is to train scientists and other science-related professionals to become teachers. Advocates argue that as discipline experts these career changers can relate the subject matter knowledge to various contexts and applications in teaching. In this paper, through interviews and…

  12. Expert Systems: An Introduction -46 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Research Scientist in the. Knowledge Based. Computer Systems Group at NeST. He is one of the ... Expert systems encode human expertise in limited domains ... answers questions the user has and provides an explanation of its reasoning.

  13. ALICE Expert System

    CERN Document Server

    Ionita, C

    2014-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN employs a number of human operators (shifters), who have to make sure that the experiment is always in a state compatible with taking Physics data. Given the complexity of the system and the myriad of errors that can arise, this is not always a trivial task. The aim of this paper is to describe an expert system that is capable of assisting human shifters in the ALICE control room. The system diagnoses potential issues and attempts to make smart recommendations for troubleshooting. At its core, a Prolog engine infers whether a Physics or a technical run can be started based on the current state of the underlying sub-systems. A separate C++ component queries certain SMI objects and stores their state as facts in a Prolog knowledge base. By mining the data stored in dierent system logs, the expert system can also diagnose errors arising during a run. Currently the system is used by the on-call experts for faster response times, but we expect it to be adopted as a standard tool by reg...

  14. ALICE Expert System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionita, C; Carena, F

    2014-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN employs a number of human operators (shifters), who have to make sure that the experiment is always in a state compatible with taking Physics data. Given the complexity of the system and the myriad of errors that can arise, this is not always a trivial task. The aim of this paper is to describe an expert system that is capable of assisting human shifters in the ALICE control room. The system diagnoses potential issues and attempts to make smart recommendations for troubleshooting. At its core, a Prolog engine infers whether a Physics or a technical run can be started based on the current state of the underlying sub-systems. A separate C++ component queries certain SMI objects and stores their state as facts in a Prolog knowledge base. By mining the data stored in different system logs, the expert system can also diagnose errors arising during a run. Currently the system is used by the on-call experts for faster response times, but we expect it to be adopted as a standard tool by regular shifters during the next data taking period

  15. Bioethics for Technical Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Shigetaka

    Along with rapidly expanding applications of life science and technology, technical experts have been implicated more and more often with ethical, social, and legal problems than before. It should be noted that in this background there are scientific and social uncertainty elements which are inevitable during the progress of life science in addition to the historically-established social unreliability to scientists and engineers. In order to solve these problems, therefore, we should establish the social governance with ‘relief’ and ‘reliance’ which enables for both citizens and engineers to share the awareness of the issues, to design social orders and criterions based on hypothetical sense of values for bioethics, to carry out practical use management of each subject carefully, and to improve the sense of values from hypothetical to universal. Concerning these measures, the technical experts can learn many things from the present performance in the medical field.

  16. Expert tool use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Kathrine Liedtke; Ravn, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    on a case study of elite rope skipping, we argue that the phenomenological concept of incorporation does not suffice to adequately describe how expert tool users feel when interacting with their tools. By analyzing a combination of insights gained from participant observation of 11 elite rope skippers......According to some phenomenologists, a tool can be experienced as incorporated when, as a result of habitual use or deliberate practice, someone is able to manipulate it without conscious effort. In this article, we specifically focus on the experience of expertise tool use in elite sport. Based...... and autoethnographic material from one former elite skipper, we take some initial steps toward the development of a more nuanced understanding of the concept of incorporation; one that is able to accommodate the experiences of expert tool users. In sum, our analyses indicate that the possibility for experiencing...

  17. Landscape Capacity for Ecosystem Services Provision Based on Expert Knowledge and Public Perception (Case Study from the Northwest Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezák Peter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Landscape represents appropriate spatial dimension for a study of ecosystems, especially due to ability to translate scientific knowledge into proper guidance for land use practice and enhancing the inclusion of local stakeholders in decision-making procedures. We tested social preferences method to reach initial and raw overview of the ecosystem services (ES distribution and their values in the study areas. Perception of experts and local residents about capacities of relevant CORINE land cover (CLC types to provide various ES was linked with Geographic Information System databases. We quantified the results on the basis of the mean values for each CLC type and the ES groups and these were interpreted also in spatial context. The expectation about perceptible capacities of forest to provide goods and services was fulfilled by responses of the experts, as was the expected difficulty to assess capacities of transitional woodland shrub or complex cultivation patterns. However, additional land cover types in question are meadows and pastures or discon-tinuous urban fabric. Mostly middle ranking values prevail in responses of local residents and uncertainty in the background is much greater comparing to the experts. On the other hand, rural people may better recognise diversified fow of services due to their everyday close connection to more ES. Large variation in the scores of some valued CLC classes in responses of the local residents and also experts seems resulting from lack of knowledge in the background and differences in viewpoint and appreciation. We understand the gaps in evaluating ES by the experts and resident population as good experience and key challenge for the further steps and fine-tuning of the research methods.

  18. A case-based reasoning tool for breast cancer knowledge management with data mining concepts and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demigha, Souâd.

    2016-03-01

    The paper presents a Case-Based Reasoning Tool for Breast Cancer Knowledge Management to improve breast cancer screening. To develop this tool, we combine both concepts and techniques of Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) and Data Mining (DM). Physicians and radiologists ground their diagnosis on their expertise (past experience) based on clinical cases. Case-Based Reasoning is the process of solving new problems based on the solutions of similar past problems and structured as cases. CBR is suitable for medical use. On the other hand, existing traditional hospital information systems (HIS), Radiological Information Systems (RIS) and Picture Archiving Information Systems (PACS) don't allow managing efficiently medical information because of its complexity and heterogeneity. Data Mining is the process of mining information from a data set and transform it into an understandable structure for further use. Combining CBR to Data Mining techniques will facilitate diagnosis and decision-making of medical experts.

  19. Guidelines for the verification and validation of expert system software and conventional software: Evaluation of knowledge base certification methods. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.A.; Hayes, J.E.; Mirsky, S.M.

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results of the Knowledge Base Certification activity of the expert systems verification and validation (V ampersand V) guideline development project which is jointly funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Electric Power Research Institute. The ultimate objective is the formulation of guidelines for the V ampersand V of expert systems for use in nuclear power applications. This activity is concerned with the development and testing of various methods for assuring the quality of knowledge bases. The testing procedure used was that of behavioral experiment, the first known such evaluation of any type of V ampersand V activity. The value of such experimentation is its capability to provide empirical evidence for -- or against -- the effectiveness of plausible methods in helping people find problems in knowledge bases. The three-day experiment included 20 participants from three nuclear utilities, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Technical training Center, the University of Maryland, EG ampersand G Idaho, and SAIC. The study used two real nuclear expert systems: a boiling water reactor emergency operating procedures tracking system and a pressurized water reactor safety assessment systems. Ten participants were assigned to each of the expert systems. All participants were trained in and then used a sequence of four different V ampersand V methods selected as being the best and most appropriate for study on the basis of prior evaluation activities. These methods either involved the analysis and tracing of requirements to elements in the knowledge base (requirements grouping and requirements tracing) or else involved direct inspection of the knowledge base for various kinds of errors. Half of the subjects within each system group used the best manual variant of the V ampersand V methods (the control group), while the other half were supported by the results of applying real or simulated automated tools to the knowledge bases

  20. Estimate-Merge-Technique-based algorithms to track an underwater ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D V A N Ravi Kumar

    2017-07-04

    Jul 4, 2017 ... In this paper, two novel methods based on the Estimate Merge Technique ... mentioned advantages of the proposed novel methods is shown by carrying out Monte Carlo simulation in .... equations are converted to sequential equations to make ... estimation error and low convergence time) at feasibly high.

  1. GIS-Based bivariate statistical techniques for groundwater potential ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    24

    This study shows the potency of two GIS-based data driven bivariate techniques namely ... In the view of these weaknesses , there is a strong requirement for reassessment of .... Font color: Text 1, Not Expanded by / Condensed by , ...... West Bengal (India) using remote sensing, geographical information system and multi-.

  2. Learning Physics through Project-Based Learning Game Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Medine; Maskan, Abdulkadir; Yasar, Seyma

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study, in which Project and game techniques are used together, is to examine the impact of project-based learning games on students' physics achievement. Participants of the study consist of 34 9th grade students (N = 34). The data were collected using achievement tests and a questionnaire. Throughout the applications, the…

  3. Developing a HACCP-like system for improving animal health and welfare in organic egg production - based on an expert panel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegelund, L; Sørensen, J T

    2007-08-01

    In the process of developing a generic Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP)-like system for securing animal health and welfare in organic egg production, an expert panel analysis was used to perform the initial hazard analysis. Eighteen advisers and researchers in organic egg production were included in the expert panel. In a series of four questionnaires, the expert panel first scored 34 health and welfare problems seen in Danish organic egg production. Based on scorings of severity and occurrence, 10 problems were selected for further analysis. The experts subsequently suggested and scored risk factors for those problems and finally suggested control points, alarm values indicating the need for corrective actions in order to control the risk factors and monitoring frequencies of these. The 10 selected problems were hunger, thirst, piling, crop impaction, blackhead, pasteurellosis, bone fractures, cannibalism, predators and red mites. A total of 154 different risk factors were suggested for these problems. The 41 risk factors which rated highest in a combined scoring of importance and occurrence were selected for further analysis. There was a high degree of consensus between experts when scoring both problems and risk factors. The level of consensus, as defined by an interquartile range 1, was 79% to 100% when scoring the health and welfare problems (scale 1-5) and 77% to 95% when scoring the risk factors (scale 1-4). On average, 5.8 control points were suggested for every risk factor. Alarm values were often not detailed enough to be of practical significance and further analysis is needed in order to define these. The experts were highly diverse in their suggested monitoring frequencies and establishment of monitoring schemes should be part of developing the farm specific systems. An expert panel analysis based on questionnaires was a useful tool during the first steps of developing a HACCP plan, conducting a hazard analysis and suggesting control

  4. Expert opinion vs. empirical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Raybould, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion is often sought by government regulatory agencies when there is insufficient empirical evidence to judge the safety implications of a course of action. However, it can be reckless to continue following expert opinion when a preponderance of evidence is amassed that conflicts with this opinion. Factual evidence should always trump opinion in prioritizing the information that is used to guide regulatory policy. Evidence-based medicine has seen a dramatic upturn in recent years spurred by examples where evidence indicated that certain treatments recommended by expert opinions increased death rates. We suggest that scientific evidence should also take priority over expert opinion in the regulation of genetically modified crops (GM). Examples of regulatory data requirements that are not justified based on the mass of evidence are described, and it is suggested that expertise in risk assessment should guide evidence-based regulation of GM crops. PMID:24637724

  5. Ultrabroadband Phased-Array Receivers Based on Optical Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-26

    bandwidths, and with it receiver noise floors , are unavoidable. Figure 1. SNR of a thermally limited receiver based on Friis equation showing the...techniques for RF and photonic integration based on liquid crystal polymer substrates were pursued that would aid in the realization of potential imaging...These models assumed that sufficient LNA gain was used on the antenna to set the noise floor of the imaging receiver, which necessitated physical

  6. Steam Generator Inspection Planning Expert System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzasa, P.

    1987-01-01

    Applying Artificial Intelligence technology to steam generator non-destructive examination (NDE) can help identify high risk locations in steam generators and can aid in preparing technical specification compliant eddy current test (ECT) programs. A steam Generator Inspection Planning Expert System has been developed which can assist NDE or utility personnel in planning ECT programs. This system represents and processes its information using an object oriented declarative knowledge base, heuristic rules, and symbolic information processing, three artificial intelligence based techniques incorporated in the design. The output of the system is an automated generation of ECT programs. Used in an outage inspection, this system significantly reduced planning time

  7. What defines an Expert? - Uncertainty in the interpretation of seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, C. E.

    2008-12-01

    Studies focusing on the elicitation of information from experts are concentrated primarily in economics and world markets, medical practice and expert witness testimonies. Expert elicitation theory has been applied in the natural sciences, most notably in the prediction of fluid flow in hydrological studies. In the geological sciences expert elicitation has been limited to theoretical analysis with studies focusing on the elicitation element, gaining expert opinion rather than necessarily understanding the basis behind the expert view. In these cases experts are defined in a traditional sense, based for example on: standing in the field, no. of years of experience, no. of peer reviewed publications, the experts position in a company hierarchy or academia. Here traditional indicators of expertise have been compared for significance on affective seismic interpretation. Polytomous regression analysis has been used to assess the relative significance of length and type of experience on the outcome of a seismic interpretation exercise. Following the initial analysis the techniques used by participants to interpret the seismic image were added as additional variables to the analysis. Specific technical skills and techniques were found to be more important for the affective geological interpretation of seismic data than the traditional indicators of expertise. The results of a seismic interpretation exercise, the techniques used to interpret the seismic and the participant's prior experience have been combined and analysed to answer the question - who is and what defines an expert?

  8. Optical supervised filtering technique based on Hopfield neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Abdullah

    2004-11-01

    Hopfield neural network is commonly preferred for optimization problems. In image segmentation, conventional Hopfield neural networks (HNN) are formulated as a cost-function-minimization problem to perform gray level thresholding on the image histogram or the pixels' gray levels arranged in a one-dimensional array [R. Sammouda, N. Niki, H. Nishitani, Pattern Rec. 30 (1997) 921-927; K.S. Cheng, J.S. Lin, C.W. Mao, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 15 (1996) 560-567; C. Chang, P. Chung, Image and Vision comp. 19 (2001) 669-678]. In this paper, a new high speed supervised filtering technique is proposed for image feature extraction and enhancement problems by modifying the conventional HNN. The essential improvement in this technique is to use 2D convolution operation instead of weight-matrix multiplication. Thereby, neural network based a new filtering technique has been obtained that is required just 3 × 3 sized filter mask matrix instead of large size weight coefficient matrix. Optical implementation of the proposed filtering technique is executed easily using the joint transform correlator. The requirement of non-negative data for optical implementation is provided by bias technique to convert the bipolar data to non-negative data. Simulation results of the proposed optical supervised filtering technique are reported for various feature extraction problems such as edge detection, corner detection, horizontal and vertical line extraction, and fingerprint enhancement.

  9. Video Multiple Watermarking Technique Based on Image Interlacing Using DWT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital watermarking is one of the important techniques to secure digital media files in the domains of data authentication and copyright protection. In the nonblind watermarking systems, the need of the original host file in the watermark recovery operation makes an overhead over the system resources, doubles memory capacity, and doubles communications bandwidth. In this paper, a robust video multiple watermarking technique is proposed to solve this problem. This technique is based on image interlacing. In this technique, three-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT is used as a watermark embedding/extracting domain, Arnold transform is used as a watermark encryption/decryption method, and different types of media (gray image, color image, and video are used as watermarks. The robustness of this technique is tested by applying different types of attacks such as: geometric, noising, format-compression, and image-processing attacks. The simulation results show the effectiveness and good performance of the proposed technique in saving system resources, memory capacity, and communications bandwidth.

  10. Video multiple watermarking technique based on image interlacing using DWT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Abdel Kader, Neamat S; Zorkany, M

    2014-01-01

    Digital watermarking is one of the important techniques to secure digital media files in the domains of data authentication and copyright protection. In the nonblind watermarking systems, the need of the original host file in the watermark recovery operation makes an overhead over the system resources, doubles memory capacity, and doubles communications bandwidth. In this paper, a robust video multiple watermarking technique is proposed to solve this problem. This technique is based on image interlacing. In this technique, three-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is used as a watermark embedding/extracting domain, Arnold transform is used as a watermark encryption/decryption method, and different types of media (gray image, color image, and video) are used as watermarks. The robustness of this technique is tested by applying different types of attacks such as: geometric, noising, format-compression, and image-processing attacks. The simulation results show the effectiveness and good performance of the proposed technique in saving system resources, memory capacity, and communications bandwidth.

  11. Medical Expert Systems Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Nasser, Bassem S.

    2017-01-01

    International audience; There is an increased interest in the area of Artificial Intelligence in general and expert systems in particular. Expert systems are rapidly growing technology. Expert systems are a branch of Artificial Intelligence which is having a great impact on many fields of human life. Expert systems use human expert knowledge to solve complex problems in many fields such as Health, science, engineering, business, and weather forecasting. Organizations employing the technology ...

  12. Computer-Based Image Analysis for Plus Disease Diagnosis in Retinopathy of Prematurity: Performance of the "i-ROP" System and Image Features Associated With Expert Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataer-Cansizoglu, Esra; Bolon-Canedo, Veronica; Campbell, J Peter; Bozkurt, Alican; Erdogmus, Deniz; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Patel, Samir; Jonas, Karyn; Chan, R V Paul; Ostmo, Susan; Chiang, Michael F

    2015-11-01

    We developed and evaluated the performance of a novel computer-based image analysis system for grading plus disease in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and identified the image features, shapes, and sizes that best correlate with expert diagnosis. A dataset of 77 wide-angle retinal images from infants screened for ROP was collected. A reference standard diagnosis was determined for each image by combining image grading from 3 experts with the clinical diagnosis from ophthalmoscopic examination. Manually segmented images were cropped into a range of shapes and sizes, and a computer algorithm was developed to extract tortuosity and dilation features from arteries and veins. Each feature was fed into our system to identify the set of characteristics that yielded the highest-performing system compared to the reference standard, which we refer to as the "i-ROP" system. Among the tested crop shapes, sizes, and measured features, point-based measurements of arterial and venous tortuosity (combined), and a large circular cropped image (with radius 6 times the disc diameter), provided the highest diagnostic accuracy. The i-ROP system achieved 95% accuracy for classifying preplus and plus disease compared to the reference standard. This was comparable to the performance of the 3 individual experts (96%, 94%, 92%), and significantly higher than the mean performance of 31 nonexperts (81%). This comprehensive analysis of computer-based plus disease suggests that it may be feasible to develop a fully-automated system based on wide-angle retinal images that performs comparably to expert graders at three-level plus disease discrimination. Computer-based image analysis, using objective and quantitative retinal vascular features, has potential to complement clinical ROP diagnosis by ophthalmologists.

  13. [Adolescent arsonists--psychodynamics, family dynamics and attempt at framing a typology based on 40 expert opinions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosinski, G; Bertsch, S L

    2001-02-01

    Psychiatric, psychological and medical data of 40 adolescent firesetters are obtained from a retrospective analysis of expert opinions which have been drawn up by the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Tübingen over a period of 16 years (1981-1997). This analysis mainly focusses on the patients' physical and psychosexual development, their social integration and competence and their family dynamics. It further concentrates on the psychic situation at the time of the offense, the reasons and motives given for firesetting (by the patient and by the expert) and specific psychological test results. According to the results three different characteristic groups can be found: 1st a group of offenders who have set fires to their parents' house, 2nd firesetters being member of the firebrigade, and 3rd an unspecific inhomogeneous group of firesetters.

  14. Reactor based plutonium disposition - physics and fuel behaviour benchmark studies of an OECD/NEA experts group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Hondt, P.; Gehin, J.; Na, B.C.; Sartori, E.; Wiesenack, W.

    2001-01-01

    One of the options envisaged for disposing of weapons grade plutonium, declared surplus for national defence in the Russian Federation and Usa, is to burn it in nuclear power reactors. The scientific/technical know-how accumulated in the use of MOX as a fuel for electricity generation is of great relevance for the plutonium disposition programmes. An Expert Group of the OECD/Nea is carrying out a series of benchmarks with the aim of facilitating the use of this know-how for meeting this objective. This paper describes the background that led to establishing the Expert Group, and the present status of results from these benchmarks. The benchmark studies cover a theoretical reactor physics benchmark on a VVER-1000 core loaded with MOX, two experimental benchmarks on MOX lattices and a benchmark concerned with MOX fuel behaviour for both solid and hollow pellets. First conclusions are outlined as well as future work. (author)

  15. Reliability and validity of expert assessment based on airborne and urinary measures of nickel and chromium exposure in the electroplating industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Coble, Joseph B; Deziel, Nicole C; Ji, Bu-Tian; Xue, Shouzheng; Lu, Wei; Stewart, Patricia A; Friesen, Melissa C

    2014-11-01

    The reliability and validity of six experts' exposure ratings were evaluated for 64 nickel-exposed and 72 chromium-exposed workers from six Shanghai electroplating plants based on airborne and urinary nickel and chromium measurements. Three industrial hygienists and three occupational physicians independently ranked the exposure intensity of each metal on an ordinal scale (1-4) for each worker's job in two rounds: the first round was based on responses to an occupational history questionnaire and the second round also included responses to an electroplating industry-specific questionnaire. The Spearman correlation (r(s)) was used to compare each rating's validity to its corresponding subject-specific arithmetic mean of four airborne or four urinary measurements. Reliability was moderately high (weighted kappa range=0.60-0.64). Validity was poor to moderate (r(s)=-0.37-0.46) for both airborne and urinary concentrations of both metals. For airborne nickel concentrations, validity differed by plant. For dichotomized metrics, sensitivity and specificity were higher based on urinary measurements (47-78%) than airborne measurements (16-50%). Few patterns were observed by metal, assessment round, or expert type. These results suggest that, for electroplating exposures, experts can achieve moderately high agreement and (reasonably) distinguish between low and high exposures when reviewing responses to in-depth questionnaires used in population-based case-control studies.

  16. Randomized controlled trial of supervised patient self-testing of warfarin therapy using an internet-based expert system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, F

    2009-08-01

    Increased frequency of prothrombin time testing, facilitated by patient self-testing (PST) of the International Normalized Ratio (INR) can improve the clinical outcomes of oral anticoagulation therapy (OAT). However, oversight of this type of management is often difficult and time-consuming for healthcare professionals. This study reports the first randomized controlled trial of an automated direct-to-patient expert system, enabling remote and effective management of patients on OAT.

  17. Furthering patient adherence: A position paper of the international expert forum on patient adherence based on an internet forum discussion

    OpenAIRE

    van Dulmen, Sandra; Sluijs, Emmy; van Dijk, Liset; de Ridder, Denise; Heerdink, Rob; Bensing, Jozien

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background As the problem of patient non-adherence persists and a solution appears hard to be found, it continues to be important to look for new ways to further the issue. We recently conducted a meta-review of adherence intervention studies which yielded a preliminary agenda for future research, practice and theory development in patient adherence. The objective of the present project was to find out to what extent adherence experts consider this agenda relevant and feasible. Metho...

  18. Development of an Expert System as a Diagnostic Support of Cervical Cancer in Atypical Glandular Cells, Based on Fuzzy Logics and Image Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karem R. Domínguez Hernández

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the second largest cause of death among women worldwide. Nowadays, this disease is preventable and curable at low cost and low risk when an accurate diagnosis is done in due time, since it is the neoplasm with the highest prevention potential. This work describes the development of an expert system able to provide a diagnosis to cervical neoplasia (CN precursor injuries through the integration of fuzzy logics and image interpretation techniques. The key contribution of this research focuses on atypical cases, specifically on atypical glandular cells (AGC. The expert system consists of 3 phases: (1 risk diagnosis which consists of the interpretation of a patient’s clinical background and the risks for contracting CN according to specialists; (2 cytology images detection which consists of image interpretation (IM and the Bethesda system for cytology interpretation, and (3 determination of cancer precursor injuries which consists of in retrieving the information from the prior phases and integrating the expert system by means of a fuzzy logics (FL model. During the validation stage of the system, 21 already diagnosed cases were tested with a positive correlation in which 100% effectiveness was obtained. The main contribution of this work relies on the reduction of false positives and false negatives by providing a more accurate diagnosis for CN.

  19. The ontological model and the hybrid expert system for products and processes quality identification involving the approach based on system analysis and quality function deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriev Aleksandr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Discussed model of quality of identification has improved mathematical tools and allows you to use a variety of additional information. The proposed robust method is a matrix MTQFD (Matrix Technique Quality Function Deployment allows you to determine not only the priorities but also the assessment of the target values of the product characteristics and process parameters, with the possible use of the information on the negative relationship. Designed ontological model, method and model of expert system versatile and can be used to identify the quality of services.

  20. BBMRI-ERIC as a resource for pharmaceutical and life science industries: the development of biobank-based Expert Centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ommen, Gert-Jan B; Törnwall, Outi; Bréchot, Christian; Dagher, Georges; Galli, Joakim; Hveem, Kristian; Landegren, Ulf; Luchinat, Claudio; Metspalu, Andres; Nilsson, Cecilia; Solesvik, Ove V; Perola, Markus; Litton, Jan-Eric; Zatloukal, Kurt

    2015-07-01

    Biological resources (cells, tissues, bodily fluids or biomolecules) are considered essential raw material for the advancement of health-related biotechnology, for research and development in life sciences, and for ultimately improving human health. Stored in local biobanks, access to the human biological samples and related medical data for transnational research is often limited, in particular for the international life science industry. The recently established pan-European Biobanking and BioMolecular resources Research Infrastructure-European Research Infrastructure Consortium (BBMRI-ERIC) aims to improve accessibility and interoperability between academic and industrial parties to benefit personalized medicine, disease prevention to promote development of new diagnostics, devices and medicines. BBMRI-ERIC is developing the concept of Expert Centre as public-private partnerships in the precompetitive, not-for-profit field to provide a new structure to perform research projects that would face difficulties under currently established models of academic-industry collaboration. By definition, Expert Centres are key intermediaries between public and private sectors performing the analysis of biological samples under internationally standardized conditions. This paper presents the rationale behind the Expert Centres and illustrates the novel concept with model examples.

  1. An outline of a model-based expert system to identify optimal remedial strategies for restoring contaminated aquatic ecosystems: the project MOIRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelgren, A.; Bergstrom, U.; Brittain, J.; Monte, L.

    1996-10-01

    The present report describes the fundamental principles of the research programme MOIRA (a model based computerized system for management support to Identify optimal remedial strategies for Restoring radionuclide contaminated Aquatic ecosystems and drainage areas) financed by the EC (European Community) (Contract N F14P-CT96-0036). The interventions to restore radionuclides contaminated aquatic systems may result in detrimental ecological, social and economical effects. Decision makers must carefully evaluate these impacts. The main aim of the MOIRA project is the development of an expert system based on validated models predicting the evolution of the radioactive contamination of fresh water systems following countermeasure applications and their relevant ecological, social and economical impacts. The expert system will help decision makers, that are not necessarily gifted with experience in environmental modeling, to identify optimal remedial strategies for restoring contaminated fresh water systems

  2. An outline of a model-based expert system to identify optimal remedial strategies for restoring contaminated acquatic ecosystems: The project ``moira``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelgren, A.; Bergstrom, U. [Studsvik Eco and AB, Nykoping (Sweden); Brittain, J. [Oslo Univ. (Norway). LFI Zoological Museum; Gallego Diaz, E. [Madrid Universidad Politecnica (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Nuclear; Hakanson, L. [KEMA Nuclear, Arnhem (Niger); Monte, L. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Ambiente

    1996-10-01

    The present report describes the fundamental principles of the research programme MOIRA (a model based computerized system for management support to Identify optimal remedial strategies for Restoring radionuclide contaminated Aquatic ecosystems and drainage areas) financed by the EC (European Community) (Contract N F14P-CT96-0036). The interventions to restore radionuclides contaminated aquatic systems may result in detrimental ecological, social and economical effects. Decision makers must carefully evaluate these impacts. The main aim of the MOIRA project is the development of an expert system based on validated models predicting the evolution of the radioactive contamination of fresh water systems following countermeasure applications and their relevant ecological, social and economical impacts. The expert system will help decision makers, that are not necessarily gifted with experience in environmental modeling, to identify optimal remedial strategies for restoring contaminated fresh water systems.

  3. Intelligent programs-expert systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gledhill, V X

    1982-01-01

    In recent years, computer scientists have developed what are called expert systems. These programs have three fundamental components: a knowledge base, which changes with experience; an inference engine which enables the program to make decisions; and an interface that allows the program to communicate with the person using the system. Expert systems have been developed successfully in areas such as medical diagnosis, geology, and computer maintenance. This paper describes the evolution and basic principles of expert systems and give some examples of their use.

  4. Line impedance estimation using model based identification technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai; Agelidis, Vassilios; Teodorescu, Remus

    2011-01-01

    The estimation of the line impedance can be used by the control of numerous grid-connected systems, such as active filters, islanding detection techniques, non-linear current controllers, detection of the on/off grid operation mode. Therefore, estimating the line impedance can add extra functions...... into the operation of the grid-connected power converters. This paper describes a quasi passive method for estimating the line impedance of the distribution electricity network. The method uses the model based identification technique to obtain the resistive and inductive parts of the line impedance. The quasi...

  5. Biometric image enhancement using decision rule based image fusion techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagayee, G. Mary Amirtha; Arumugam, S.

    2010-02-01

    Introducing biometrics into information systems may result in considerable benefits. Most of the researchers confirmed that the finger print is widely used than the iris or face and more over it is the primary choice for most privacy concerned applications. For finger prints applications, choosing proper sensor is at risk. The proposed work deals about, how the image quality can be improved by introducing image fusion technique at sensor levels. The results of the images after introducing the decision rule based image fusion technique are evaluated and analyzed with its entropy levels and root mean square error.

  6. Electromagnetism based atmospheric ice sensing technique - A conceptual review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Mughal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic and vibrational properties of ice can be used to measure certain parameters such as ice thickness, type and icing rate. In this paper we present a review of the dielectric based measurement techniques for matter and the dielectric/spectroscopic properties of ice. Atmospheric Ice is a complex material with a variable dielectric constant, but precise calculation of this constant may form the basis for measurement of its other properties such as thickness and strength using some electromagnetic methods. Using time domain or frequency domain spectroscopic techniques, by measuring both the reflection and transmission characteristics of atmospheric ice in a particular frequency range, the desired parameters can be determined.

  7. Proposing a Wiki-Based Technique for Collaborative Essay Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Ortiz Navarrete

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at proposing a technique for students learning English as a foreign language when they collaboratively write an argumentative essay in a wiki environment. A wiki environment and collaborative work play an important role within the academic writing task. Nevertheless, an appropriate and systematic work assignment is required in order to make use of both. In this paper the proposed technique when writing a collaborative essay mainly attempts to provide the most effective way to enhance equal participation among group members by taking as a base computer mediated collaboration. Within this context, the students’ role is clearly defined and individual and collaborative tasks are explained.

  8. Knowledge based systems advanced concepts, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    1997-01-01

    The field of knowledge-based systems (KBS) has expanded enormously during the last years, and many important techniques and tools are currently available. Applications of KBS range from medicine to engineering and aerospace.This book provides a selected set of state-of-the-art contributions that present advanced techniques, tools and applications. These contributions have been prepared by a group of eminent researchers and professionals in the field.The theoretical topics covered include: knowledge acquisition, machine learning, genetic algorithms, knowledge management and processing under unc

  9. Case-based reasoning diagnostic technique based on multi-attribute similarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makoto, Takahashi [Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan); Akio, Gofuku [Okayama University, Okayamaa (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    Case-based diagnostic technique has been developed based on the multi-attribute similarity. Specific feature of the developed system is to use multiple attributes of process signals for similarity evaluation to retrieve a similar case stored in a case base. The present technique has been applied to the measurement data from Monju with some simulated anomalies. The results of numerical experiments showed that the present technique can be utilizes as one of the methods for a hybrid-type diagnosis system.

  10. An Observed Voting System Based On Biometric Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Devikiruba

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article describes a computational framework which can run almost on every computer connected to an IP based network to study biometric techniques. This paper discusses with a system protecting confidential information puts strong security demands on the identification. Biometry provides us with a user-friendly method for this identification and is becoming a competitor for current identification mechanisms. The experimentation section focuses on biometric verification specifically based on fingerprints. This article should be read as a warning to those thinking of using methods of identification without first examine the technical opportunities for compromising mechanisms and the associated legal consequences. The development is based on the java language that easily improves software packages that is useful to test new control techniques.

  11. Institutional and Actor-Oriented Factors Constraining Expert-Based Forest Information Exchange in Europe: A Policy Analysis from an Actor-Centred Institutionalist Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Baycheva-Merger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Adequate and accessible expert-based forest information has become increasingly in demand for effective decisions and informed policies in the forest and forest-related sectors in Europe. Such accessibility requires a collaborative environment and constant information exchange between various actors at different levels and across sectors. However, information exchange in complex policy environments is challenging, and is often constrained by various institutional, actor-oriented, and technical factors. In forest policy research, no study has yet attempted to simultaneously account for these multiple factors influencing expert-based forest information exchange. By employing a policy analysis from an actor-centred institutionalist perspective, this paper aims to provide an overview of the most salient institutional and actor-oriented factors that are perceived as constraining forest information exchange at the national level across European countries. We employ an exploratory research approach, and utilise both qualitative and quantitative methods to analyse our data. The data was collected through a semi-structured survey targeted at forest and forest-related composite actors in 21 European countries. The results revealed that expert-based forest information exchange is constrained by a number of compound and closely interlinked institutional and actor-oriented factors, reflecting the complex interplay of institutions and actors at the national level. The most salient institutional factors that stand out include restrictive or ambiguous data protection policies, inter-organisational information arrangements, different organisational cultures, and a lack of incentives. Forest information exchange becomes even more complex when actors are confronted with actor-oriented factors such as issues of distrust, diverging preferences and perceptions, intellectual property rights, and technical capabilities. We conclude that expert-based forest information

  12. Knowledge-based radiation therapy (KBRT) treatment planning versus planning by experts: validation of a KBRT algorithm for prostate cancer treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwankwo, Obioma; Mekdash, Hana; Sihono, Dwi Seno Kuncoro; Wenz, Frederik; Glatting, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    A knowledge-based radiation therapy (KBRT) treatment planning algorithm was recently developed. The purpose of this work is to investigate how plans that are generated with the objective KBRT approach compare to those that rely on the judgment of the experienced planner. Thirty volumetric modulated arc therapy plans were randomly selected from a database of prostate plans that were generated by experienced planners (expert plans). The anatomical data (CT scan and delineation of organs) of these patients and the KBRT algorithm were given to a novice with no prior treatment planning experience. The inexperienced planner used the knowledge-based algorithm to predict the dose that the OARs receive based on their proximity to the treated volume. The population-based OAR constraints were changed to the predicted doses. A KBRT plan was subsequently generated. The KBRT and expert plans were compared for the achieved target coverage and OAR sparing. The target coverages were compared using the Uniformity Index (UI), while 5 dose-volume points (D 10 , D 30, D 50 , D 70 and D 90 ) were used to compare the OARs (bladder and rectum) doses. Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test was used to check for significant differences (p < 0.05) between both datasets. The KBRT and expert plans achieved mean UI values of 1.10 ± 0.03 and 1.10 ± 0.04, respectively. The Wilcoxon test showed no statistically significant difference between both results. The D 90 , D 70, D 50 , D 30 and D 10 values of the two planning strategies, and the Wilcoxon test results suggests that the KBRT plans achieved a statistically significant lower bladder dose (at D 30 ), while the expert plans achieved a statistically significant lower rectal dose (at D 10 and D 30 ). The results of this study show that the KBRT treatment planning approach is a promising method to objectively incorporate patient anatomical variations in radiotherapy treatment planning

  13. Evaluating a web-based health risk assessment with tailored feedback: what does an expert focus group yield compared to a web-based end-user survey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosbergen, Sandra; Mahieu, Guy R; Laan, Eva K; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A; Jaspers, Monique Wm; Peek, Niels

    2014-01-02

    Increasingly, Web-based health applications are developed for the prevention and management of chronic diseases. However, their reach and utilization is often disappointing. Qualitative evaluations post-implementation can be used to inform the optimization process and ultimately enhance their adoption. In current practice, such evaluations are mainly performed with end-user surveys. However, a review approach by experts in a focus group may be easier to administer and might provide similar results. The aim of this study was to assess whether industrial design engineers in a focus group would address the same issues as end users in a Web-based survey when evaluating a commercial Web-based health risk assessment (HRA) with tailored feedback. Seven Dutch companies used the HRA as part of their corporate health management strategy. Employees using the HRA (N=2289) and 10 independent industrial designers were invited to participate in the study. The HRA consisted of four components: (1) an electronic health questionnaire, (2) biometric measurements, (3) laboratory evaluation, and (4) individually tailored feedback generated by decision support software. After participating in the HRA as end users, both end users and designers evaluated the program. End users completed an evaluation questionnaire that included a free-text field. Designers participated in a focus group discussion. Constructs from user satisfaction and technology acceptance theories were used to categorize and compare the remarks from both evaluations. We assessed and qualitatively analyzed 294 remarks of 189 end users and 337 remarks of 6 industrial designers, pertaining to 295 issues in total. Of those, 137 issues were addressed in the end-user survey and 148 issues in the designer focus group. Only 7.3% (10/137) of the issues addressed in the survey were also addressed in the focus group. End users made more remarks about the usefulness of the HRA and prior expectations that were not met. Designers made

  14. Expert systems in clinical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstanley, Trevor; Courvalin, Patrice

    2011-07-01

    This review aims to discuss expert systems in general and how they may be used in medicine as a whole and clinical microbiology in particular (with the aid of interpretive reading). It considers rule-based systems, pattern-based systems, and data mining and introduces neural nets. A variety of noncommercial systems is described, and the central role played by the EUCAST is stressed. The need for expert rules in the environment of reset EUCAST breakpoints is also questioned. Commercial automated systems with on-board expert systems are considered, with emphasis being placed on the "big three": Vitek 2, BD Phoenix, and MicroScan. By necessity and in places, the review becomes a general review of automated system performances for the detection of specific resistance mechanisms rather than focusing solely on expert systems. Published performance evaluations of each system are drawn together and commented on critically.

  15. Current STR-based techniques in forensic science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuvadol Thanakiatkrai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA analysis in forensic science is mainly based on short tandem repeat (STR genotyping. The conventional analysis is a three-step process of DNA extraction, amplification and detection. An overview of various techniques that are currently in use and are being actively researched for STR typing is presented. The techniques are separated into STR amplification and detection. New techniques for forensic STR analysis focus on increasing sensitivity, resolution and discrimination power for suboptimal samples. These are achieved by shifting primer-binding sites, using high-fidelity and tolerant polymerases and applying novel methods to STR detection. Examples in which STRs are used in criminal investigations are provided and future research directions are discussed.

  16. Hierarchical Model of Assessing and Selecting Experts

    OpenAIRE

    Chernysheva, Tatiana Yurievna; Korchuganova, Mariya Anatolievna; Borisov, V. V.; Minkov, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Revealing experts' competences is a multi-objective issue. Authors of the paper deal with competence assessing methods of experts seen as objects, and criteria of qualities. An analytic hierarchy process of assessing and ranking experts is offered, which is based on paired comparison matrices and scores, quality parameters are taken into account as well. Calculation and assessment of experts is given as an example.

  17. Hybrid expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoukalas, L.; Ikonomopoulos, A.; Uhrig, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology that couples rule-based expert systems using fuzzy logic, to pre-trained artificial neutral networks (ANN) for the purpose of transient identification in Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). In order to provide timely concise, and task-specific information about the may aspects of the transient and to determine the state of the system based on the interpretation of potentially noisy data a model-referenced approach is utilized. In it, the expert system performs the basic interpretation and processing of the model data, and pre-trained ANNs provide the model. having access to a set of neural networks that typify general categories of transients, the rule based system is able to perform identification functions. Membership functions - condensing information about a transient in a form convenient for a rule-based identification system characterizing a transient - are the output of neural computations. This allows the identification function to be performed with a speed comparable to or faster than that of the temporal evolution of the system. Simulator data form major secondary system pipe rupture is used to demonstrate the methodology. The results indicate excellent noise-tolerance for ANN's and suggest a new method for transient identification within the framework of Fuzzy Logic

  18. MEMS-Based Power Generation Techniques for Implantable Biosensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Lueke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Implantable biosensing is attractive for both medical monitoring and diagnostic applications. It is possible to monitor phenomena such as physical loads on joints or implants, vital signs, or osseointegration in vivo and in real time. Microelectromechanical (MEMS-based generation techniques can allow for the autonomous operation of implantable biosensors by generating electrical power to replace or supplement existing battery-based power systems. By supplementing existing battery-based power systems for implantable biosensors, the operational lifetime of the sensor is increased. In addition, the potential for a greater amount of available power allows additional components to be added to the biosensing module, such as computational and wireless and components, improving functionality and performance of the biosensor. Photovoltaic, thermovoltaic, micro fuel cell, electrostatic, electromagnetic, and piezoelectric based generation schemes are evaluated in this paper for applicability for implantable biosensing. MEMS-based generation techniques that harvest ambient energy, such as vibration, are much better suited for implantable biosensing applications than fuel-based approaches, producing up to milliwatts of electrical power. High power density MEMS-based approaches, such as piezoelectric and electromagnetic schemes, allow for supplemental and replacement power schemes for biosensing applications to improve device capabilities and performance. In addition, this may allow for the biosensor to be further miniaturized, reducing the need for relatively large batteries with respect to device size. This would cause the implanted biosensor to be less invasive, increasing the quality of care received by the patient.

  19. MEMS-based power generation techniques for implantable biosensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueke, Jonathan; Moussa, Walied A

    2011-01-01

    Implantable biosensing is attractive for both medical monitoring and diagnostic applications. It is possible to monitor phenomena such as physical loads on joints or implants, vital signs, or osseointegration in vivo and in real time. Microelectromechanical (MEMS)-based generation techniques can allow for the autonomous operation of implantable biosensors by generating electrical power to replace or supplement existing battery-based power systems. By supplementing existing battery-based power systems for implantable biosensors, the operational lifetime of the sensor is increased. In addition, the potential for a greater amount of available power allows additional components to be added to the biosensing module, such as computational and wireless and components, improving functionality and performance of the biosensor. Photovoltaic, thermovoltaic, micro fuel cell, electrostatic, electromagnetic, and piezoelectric based generation schemes are evaluated in this paper for applicability for implantable biosensing. MEMS-based generation techniques that harvest ambient energy, such as vibration, are much better suited for implantable biosensing applications than fuel-based approaches, producing up to milliwatts of electrical power. High power density MEMS-based approaches, such as piezoelectric and electromagnetic schemes, allow for supplemental and replacement power schemes for biosensing applications to improve device capabilities and performance. In addition, this may allow for the biosensor to be further miniaturized, reducing the need for relatively large batteries with respect to device size. This would cause the implanted biosensor to be less invasive, increasing the quality of care received by the patient.

  20. Power system dynamic state estimation using prediction based evolutionary technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basetti, Vedik; Chandel, Ashwani K.; Chandel, Rajeevan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new robust LWS (least winsorized square) estimator is proposed for dynamic state estimation of a power system. One of the main advantages of this estimator is that it has an inbuilt bad data rejection property and is less sensitive to bad data measurements. In the proposed approach, Brown's double exponential smoothing technique has been utilised for its reliable performance at the prediction step. The state estimation problem is solved as an optimisation problem using a new jDE-self adaptive differential evolution with prediction based population re-initialisation technique at the filtering step. This new stochastic search technique has been embedded with different state scenarios using the predicted state. The effectiveness of the proposed LWS technique is validated under different conditions, namely normal operation, bad data, sudden load change, and loss of transmission line conditions on three different IEEE test bus systems. The performance of the proposed approach is compared with the conventional extended Kalman filter. On the basis of various performance indices, the results thus obtained show that the proposed technique increases the accuracy and robustness of power system dynamic state estimation performance. - Highlights: • To estimate the states of the power system under dynamic environment. • The performance of the EKF method is degraded during anomaly conditions. • The proposed method remains robust towards anomalies. • The proposed method provides precise state estimates even in the presence of anomalies. • The results show that prediction accuracy is enhanced by using the proposed model.

  1. Expert opinion vs. empirical evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, Rod A; Raybould, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion is often sought by government regulatory agencies when there is insufficient empirical evidence to judge the safety implications of a course of action. However, it can be reckless to continue following expert opinion when a preponderance of evidence is amassed that conflicts with this opinion. Factual evidence should always trump opinion in prioritizing the information that is used to guide regulatory policy. Evidence-based medicine has seen a dramatic upturn in recent years sp...

  2. Expert software for accident identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobnikar, M.; Nemec, T.; Muehleisen, A.

    2003-01-01

    Each type of an accident in a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) causes immediately after the start of the accident variations of physical parameters that are typical for that type of the accident thus enabling its identification. Examples of these parameter are: decrease of reactor coolant system pressure, increase of radiation level in the containment, increase of pressure in the containment. An expert software enabling a fast preliminary identification of the type of the accident in Krsko NPP has been developed. As input data selected typical parameters from Emergency Response Data System (ERDS) of the Krsko NPP are used. Based on these parameters the expert software identifies the type of the accident and also provides the user with appropriate references (past analyses and other documentation of such an accident). The expert software is to be used as a support tool by an expert team that forms in case of an emergency at Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) with the task to determine the cause of the accident, its most probable scenario and the source term. The expert software should provide initial identification of the event, while the final one is still to be made after appropriate assessment of the event by the expert group considering possibility of non-typical events, multiple causes, initial conditions, influences of operators' actions etc. The expert software can be also used as an educational/training tool and even as a simple database of available accident analyses. (author)

  3. Fractal Image Compression Based on High Entropy Values Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douaa Younis Abbaas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There are many attempts tried to improve the encoding stage of FIC because it consumed time. These attempts worked by reducing size of the search pool for pair range-domain matching but most of them led to get a bad quality, or a lower compression ratio of reconstructed image. This paper aims to present a method to improve performance of the full search algorithm by combining FIC (lossy compression and another lossless technique (in this case entropy coding is used. The entropy technique will reduce size of the domain pool (i. e., number of domain blocks based on the entropy value of each range block and domain block and then comparing the results of full search algorithm and proposed algorithm based on entropy technique to see each of which give best results (such as reduced the encoding time with acceptable values in both compression quali-ty parameters which are C. R (Compression Ratio and PSNR (Image Quality. The experimental results of the proposed algorithm proven that using the proposed entropy technique reduces the encoding time while keeping compression rates and reconstruction image quality good as soon as possible.

  4. Characterization techniques for graphene-based materials in catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maocong Hu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Graphene-based materials have been studied in a wide range of applications including catalysis due to the outstanding electronic, thermal, and mechanical properties. The unprecedented features of graphene-based catalysts, which are believed to be responsible for their superior performance, have been characterized by many techniques. In this article, we comprehensively summarized the characterization methods covering bulk and surface structure analysis, chemisorption ability determination, and reaction mechanism investigation. We reviewed the advantages/disadvantages of different techniques including Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and Diffuse Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (DRIFTS, X-Ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS, atomic force microscopy (AFM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET, and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM. The application of temperature-programmed reduction (TPR, CO chemisorption, and NH3/CO2-temperature-programmed desorption (TPD was also briefly introduced. Finally, we discussed the challenges and provided possible suggestions on choosing characterization techniques. This review provides key information to catalysis community to adopt suitable characterization techniques for their research.

  5. The naked experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, B.

    1982-01-01

    In an article critical of experts, the cases argued for and against nuclear power are discussed under the headings: environmental hazards arising from the nuclear fuel cycle; proliferation of nuclear weapons capabilities via expansion of the nuclear power industry; political and social threats and restraints of a nuclear society (terrorism, reduction in civil liberties, centralised political and economic power); economic and employment disadvantages of nuclear power; impact of uranium mining on (Australian) aboriginal culture; inadequacy of nuclear power as a solution to energy problems; advantages of a 'soft energy path' based around conservation and renewable energy technologies. (U.K.)

  6. Confirmation bias in web-based search: a randomized online study on the effects of expert information and social tags on information search and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiger, Stefan; Oeberst, Aileen; Cress, Ulrike

    2014-03-26

    The public typically believes psychotherapy to be more effective than pharmacotherapy for depression treatments. This is not consistent with current scientific evidence, which shows that both types of treatment are about equally effective. The study investigates whether this bias towards psychotherapy guides online information search and whether the bias can be reduced by explicitly providing expert information (in a blog entry) and by providing tag clouds that implicitly reveal experts' evaluations. A total of 174 participants completed a fully automated Web-based study after we invited them via mailing lists. First, participants read two blog posts by experts that either challenged or supported the bias towards psychotherapy. Subsequently, participants searched for information about depression treatment in an online environment that provided more experts' blog posts about the effectiveness of treatments based on alleged research findings. These blogs were organized in a tag cloud; both psychotherapy tags and pharmacotherapy tags were popular. We measured tag and blog post selection, efficacy ratings of the presented treatments, and participants' treatment recommendation after information search. Participants demonstrated a clear bias towards psychotherapy (mean 4.53, SD 1.99) compared to pharmacotherapy (mean 2.73, SD 2.41; t173=7.67, Pinformation search and evaluation. This bias was significantly reduced, however, when participants were exposed to tag clouds with challenging popular tags. Participants facing popular tags challenging their bias (n=61) showed significantly less biased tag selection (F2,168=10.61, Pinformation as presented in blog posts, compared to supporting expert information (n=81), decreased the bias in information search with regard to blog post selection (F1,168=4.32, P=.04, partial eta squared=0.025). No significant effects were found for treatment recommendation (Ps>.33). We conclude that the psychotherapy bias is most effectively

  7. IoT Security Techniques Based on Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Liang; Wan, Xiaoyue; Lu, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Yanyong; Wu, Di

    2018-01-01

    Internet of things (IoT) that integrate a variety of devices into networks to provide advanced and intelligent services have to protect user privacy and address attacks such as spoofing attacks, denial of service attacks, jamming and eavesdropping. In this article, we investigate the attack model for IoT systems, and review the IoT security solutions based on machine learning techniques including supervised learning, unsupervised learning and reinforcement learning. We focus on the machine le...

  8. Developing a HACCP-like system for improving animal health and welfare in organic egg production - based on an expert panel analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegelund, Lene; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2007-01-01

    In the process of developing a generic Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP)-like system for securing animal health and welfare in organic egg production, an expert panel analysis was used to perform the initial hazard analysis. Eighteen advisers and researchers in organic egg...... specific systems. An expert panel analysis based on questionnaires was a useful tool during the first steps of developing a HACCP plan, conducting a hazard analysis and suggesting control points. However, care should be taken regarding the panel's size and fields of expertise in order to assure...... that the panel fully covers the field of interest throughout the study. A further development of the hazard analysis into a farm-specific HACCP system would include assembling an on-farm HACCP team consisting of farmers and advisors for the practical application of control points, alarm values and monitoring...

  9. Guidelines for the verification and validation of expert system software and conventional software: Volume 4, Evaluation of knowledge base certification methods. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.A.; Hayes, J.E.; Mirsky, S.M.

    1995-05-01

    Objective is the formulation of guidelines for the V ampersand V of expert systems for use in nuclear power applications. This activity is concerned with the development and testing of various methods for assuring the quality of knowledge bases. The testing procedure used was that of behavioral experiment, the first known such evaluation of any of V ampersand V activity; the value lies in the capability to provide empirical evidence for or against the effectiveness of plausible methods in helping people find problems in knowledge bases. The three-day experiment included 20 participants from three nuclear utilities, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Technical training Center, University of Maryland, EG ampersand G Idaho, and SAIC. The study used two real nuclear expert systems: a boiling water reactor emergency operating procedures tracking system and a pressurized water reactor safety assessment systems. Ten participants were assigned to each of the expert systems. All participants were trained in and then used a sequence of four different V ampersand V methods selected as being the best and most appropriate. These methods either involved the analysis and tracing of requirements to elements in the knowledge base or direct inspection of the knowledge base for various kinds of errors. Half of the subjects within each system group used the best annual variant of the V ampersand V methods (the control group), while the other half were supported by the results of applying real or simulated automated tools to the knowledge bases (the experimental group). The four groups of participants were similar in nuclear engineering and software experience characteristics. It is concluded that the use of tools in static knowledge base certification results in significant improvement in detecting all types of defects, avoiding false alarms, and completing the effort in less time. The simulated knowledge-checking tool, based on supplemental engineering information about the systems

  10. An Image Morphing Technique Based on Optimal Mass Preserving Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Yang, Yan; Haker, Steven; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2013-01-01

    Image morphing, or image interpolation in the time domain, deals with the metamorphosis of one image into another. In this paper, a new class of image morphing algorithms is proposed based on the theory of optimal mass transport. The L2 mass moving energy functional is modified by adding an intensity penalizing term, in order to reduce the undesired double exposure effect. It is an intensity-based approach and, thus, is parameter free. The optimal warping function is computed using an iterative gradient descent approach. This proposed morphing method is also extended to doubly connected domains using a harmonic parameterization technique, along with finite-element methods. PMID:17547128

  11. Expert systems and optimisation in process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamdani, A.; Efstathiou, J.

    1986-01-01

    This report brings together recent developments both in expert systems and in optimisation, and deals with current applications in industry. Part One is concerned with Artificial Intellegence in planning and scheduling and with rule-based control implementation. The tasks of control maintenance, rescheduling and planning are each discussed in relation to new theoretical developments, techniques available, and sample applications. Part Two covers model based control techniques in which the control decisions are used in a computer model of the process. Fault diagnosis, maintenance and trouble-shooting are just some of the activities covered. Part Three contains case studies of projects currently in progress, giving details of the software available and the likely future trends. One of these, on qualitative plant modelling as a basis for knowledge-based operator aids in nuclear power stations is indexed separately. (author)

  12. Comparing Four Touch-Based Interaction Techniques for an Image-Based Audience Response System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorritsma, Wiard; Prins, Jonatan T.; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the most appropriate touch-based interaction technique for I2Vote, an image-based audience response system for radiology education in which users need to accurately mark a target on a medical image. Four plausible techniques were identified: land-on, take-off,

  13. Nephrus: expert system model in intelligent multilayers for evaluation of urinary system based on scintigraphic image analysis; Nephrus: modelo de sistema especialista em multicamadas inteligentes para avaliacao do sistema urinario baseado na analise de imagens cintilograficas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jorge Wagner Esteves da; Schirru, Roberto [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Boasquevisque, Edson Mendes [Hospital dos Servidores do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear

    1999-11-01

    Renal function can be measured noninvasively with radionuclides in a extremely safe way compared to other diagnosis techniques. Nevertheless, due to the fact that radioactive materials are used in this procedure, it is necessary to maximize its benefits, therefore all efforts are justifiable in the development of data analysis support tools for this diagnosis modality. The objective of this work is to develop a prototype for a system model based on Artificial Intelligence devices able to perform functions related to cintilographic image analysis of the urinary system. Rules used by medical experts in the analysis of images obtained with {sup 99m} Tc+DTPA and /or {sup 99m} Tc+DMSA were modeled and a Neural Network diagnosis technique was implemented. Special attention was given for designing programs user-interface. Human Factor Engineering techniques were taking in account allowing friendliness and robustness. The image segmentation adopts a model based on Ideal ROIs, which represent the normal anatomic concept for urinary system organs. Results obtained using Artificial Neural Networks for qualitative image analysis and knowledge model constructed show the feasibility of Artificial Neural Networks for qualitative image analysis and knowledge model constructed show feasibility of Artificial Intelligence implementation that uses inherent abilities of each technique in the medical diagnosis image analysis. (author) 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. The role of human-at-work systems in business sustainability: perspectives based on expert and qualified production workers in a manufacturing enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genaidy, Ash M; Rinder, Maria M; Sequeira, Reynold; A-Rehim, Amal

    2010-04-01

    and enterprise levels, in terms of organisational/social/technological environment. This is particularly noted for the organisational environment. The compatibility values obtained for the experienced domains mirror those obtained for acting domains. The overall workload was assessed as requiring major redesign during the day shift and needing added responsibilities for the night shift according to both expert and qualified workers. The assessment of qualified workers is comparable with that of expert workers for the job content and immediate surroundings. Differences are more observed for process- and enterprise-based factors; thereby, providing company management different perspectives in order to devise organisational strategies conducive for optimum human and corporate health and pointing to the probable interactions of the different systems impacting individual and enterprise performance. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This research examines similarities and differences between qualified and expert workers in their assessment of the worker-work environment interface. The contribution to improved understanding of the complex interactions of human-at-work and enterprise systems should be beneficial to organisations in their quest to remain competitive in a global economy.

  15. Communication skills training in oncology: a position paper based on a consensus meeting among European experts in 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiefel, F; Barth, J; Bensing, J; Fallowfield, L; Jost, L; Razavi, D; Kiss, A

    2010-02-01

    Communication in cancer care has become a major topic of interest. Since there is evidence that ineffective communication affects both patients and oncology clinicians (physicians and nurses), so-called communication skills trainings (CSTs) have been developed over the last decade. While these trainings have been demonstrated to be effective, there is an important heterogeneity with regard to implementation and with regard to evidence of different aspects of CST. In order to review and discuss the scientific literature on CST in oncology and to formulate recommendations, the Swiss Cancer League has organised a consensus meeting with European opinion leaders and experts in the field of CST, as well as oncology clinicians, representatives of oncology societies and patient organisations. On the basis of a systematic review and a meta-analysis, recommendations have been developed and agreed upon. Recommendations address (i) the setting, objectives and participants of CST, (ii) its content and pedagogic tools, (iii) organisational aspects, (iv) outcome and (v) future directions and research. This consensus meeting, on the basis of European expert opinions and a systematic review and meta-analysis, defines key elements for the current provision and future development and evaluation of CST in oncology.

  16. A DIFFERENT WEB-BASED GEOCODING SERVICE USING FUZZY TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pahlavani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Geocoding – the process of finding position based on descriptive data such as address or postal code - is considered as one of the most commonly used spatial analyses. Many online map providers such as Google Maps, Bing Maps and Yahoo Maps present geocoding as one of their basic capabilities. Despite the diversity of geocoding services, users usually face some limitations when they use available online geocoding services. In existing geocoding services, proximity and nearness concept is not modelled appropriately as well as these services search address only by address matching based on descriptive data. In addition there are also some limitations in display searching results. Resolving these limitations can enhance efficiency of the existing geocoding services. This paper proposes the idea of integrating fuzzy technique with geocoding process to resolve these limitations. In order to implement the proposed method, a web-based system is designed. In proposed method, nearness to places is defined by fuzzy membership functions and multiple fuzzy distance maps are created. Then these fuzzy distance maps are integrated using fuzzy overlay technique for obtain the results. Proposed methods provides different capabilities for users such as ability to search multi-part addresses, searching places based on their location, non-point representation of results as well as displaying search results based on their priority.

  17. Expert robots in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, J.S.; Fisher, J.J.; DeVries, K.R.; Martin, T.P.

    1987-01-01

    Expert robots enhance a safety and operations in nuclear plants. E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Savannah River Laboratory, is developing expert mobile robots for deployment in nuclear applications at the Savannah River Plant. Knowledge-based expert systems are being evaluated to simplify operator control, to assist in navigation and manipulation functions, and to analyze sensory information. Development work using two research vehicles is underway to demonstrate semiautonomous, intelligence, expert robot system operation in process areas. A description of the mechanical equipment, control systems, and operating modes is presented, including the integration of onboard sensors. A control hierarchy that uses modest computational methods is being used to allow mobile robots to autonomously navigate and perform tasks in known environments without the need for large computer systems

  18. Expert robots in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, J.S.; Fisher, J.J.; DeVries, K.R.; Martin, T.P.

    1987-01-01

    Expert robots will enhance safety and operations in nuclear plants. E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Savannah River Laboratory, is developing expert mobile robots for deployment in nuclear applications at the Savannah River Plant. Knowledge-based expert systems are being evaluated to simplify operator control, to assist in navigation and manipulation functions, and to analyze sensory information. Development work using two research vehicles is underway to demonstrate semiautonomous, intelligent, expert robot system operation in process areas. A description of the mechanical equipment, control systems, and operating modes is presented, including the integration of onboard sensors. A control hierarchy that uses modest computational methods is being used to allow mobile robots to autonomously navigate and perform tasks in known environments without the need for large computer systems

  19. SKILLS-BASED ECLECTIC TECHNIQUES MATRIX FOR ELT MICROTEACHINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İskender Hakkı Sarıgöz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Foreign language teaching undergoes constant changes due to the methodological improvement. This progress may be examined in two parts. They are the methods era and the post-methods era. It is not pragmatic today to propose a particular language teaching method and its techniques for all purposes. The holistic inflexibility of mid-century methods has long gone. In the present day, constructivist foreign language teaching trends attempt to see the learner as a whole person and an individual who may be different from the other students in many respects. At the same time, the individual differences should not keep the learners away from group harmony. For this reason, current teacher training programs require eclectic teaching matrixes for unit design considering the mixed ability student groups. These matrixes can be prepared in a multidimensional fashion because there are many functional techniques in different methods and other new techniques to be created by instructors freely in accordance with the teaching aims. The hypothesis in this argument is that the collection of foreign language teaching techniques compiled in ELT microteachings for a particular group of learners has to be arranged eclectically in order to update the teaching process. Nevertheless, designing a teaching format of this sort is a demanding and highly criticized task. This study briefly argues eclecticism in language-skills based methodological struggle from the perspective of ELT teacher education.

  20. Expert auditors’ services classification

    OpenAIRE

    Jolanta Wisniewska

    2013-01-01

    The profession of an expert auditor is a public trust occupation with a distinctive feature of taking responsibility for actions in the public interest. The main responsibility of expert auditors is performing financial auditing; however, expert auditors are prepared to carry out different tasks which encompass a wide plethora of financial and auditing services for different kinds of institutions and companies. The aim of the article is first of all the description of expert auditors’ service...

  1. Investigation of an expert health monitoring system for aeronautical structures based on pattern recognition and acousto-ultrasonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibaduiza-Burgos, Diego Alexander; Torres-Arredondo, Miguel Angel

    2015-08-01

    Aeronautical structures are subjected to damage during their service raising the necessity for periodic inspection and maintenance of their components so that structural integrity and safe operation can be guaranteed. Cost reduction related to minimizing the out-of-service time of the aircraft, together with the advantages offered by real-time and safe-life service monitoring, have led to a boom in the design of inexpensive and structurally integrated transducer networks comprising actuators, sensors, signal processing units and controllers. These kinds of automated systems are normally referred to as smart structures and offer a multitude of new solutions to engineering problems and multi-functional capabilities. It is thus expected that structural health monitoring (SHM) systems will become one of the leading technologies for assessing and assuring the structural integrity of future aircraft. This study is devoted to the development and experimental investigation of an SHM methodology for the detection of damage in real scale complex aeronautical structures. The work focuses on each aspect of the SHM system and highlights the potentialities of the health monitoring technique based on acousto-ultrasonics and data-driven modelling within the concepts of sensor data fusion, feature extraction and pattern recognition. The methodology is experimentally demonstrated on an aircraft skin panel and fuselage panel for which several damage scenarios are analysed. The detection performance in both structures is quantified and presented.

  2. Fuzzy Expert System for Heart Attack Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Norlida; Arbaiy, Nureize; Shah, Noor Aziyan Ahmad; Afizah Afif@Afip, Zehan

    2017-08-01

    Heart attack is one of the serious illnesses and reported as the main killer disease. Early prevention is significant to reduce the risk of having the disease. The prevention efforts can be strengthen through awareness and education about risk factor and healthy lifestyle. Therefore the knowledge dissemination is needed to play role in order to distribute and educate public in health care management and disease prevention. Since the knowledge dissemination in medical is important, there is a need to develop a knowledge based system that can emulate human intelligence to assist decision making process. Thereby, this study utilized hybrid artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to develop a Fuzzy Expert System for Diagnosing Heart Attack Disease (HAD). This system integrates fuzzy logic with expert system, which helps the medical practitioner and people to predict the risk and as well as diagnosing heart attack based on given symptom. The development of HAD is expected not only providing expert knowledge but potentially become one of learning resources to help citizens to develop awareness about heart-healthy lifestyle.

  3. Delegating Decisions to Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Suen, Wing

    2004-01-01

    We present a model of delegation with self-interested and privately informed experts. A team of experts with extreme but opposite biases is acceptable to a wide range of decision makers with diverse preferences, but the value of expertise from such a team is low. A decision maker wants to appoint experts who are less partisan than he is in order…

  4. FDTD technique based crosstalk analysis of bundled SWCNT interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duksh, Yograj Singh; Kaushik, Brajesh Kumar; Agarwal, Rajendra P.

    2015-01-01

    The equivalent electrical circuit model of a bundled single-walled carbon nanotube based distributed RLC interconnects is employed for the crosstalk analysis. The accurate time domain analysis and crosstalk effect in the VLSI interconnect has emerged as an essential design criteria. This paper presents a brief description of the numerical method based finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique that is intended for estimation of voltages and currents on coupled transmission lines. For the FDTD implementation, the stability of the proposed model is strictly restricted by the Courant condition. This method is used for the estimation of crosstalk induced propagation delay and peak voltage in lossy RLC interconnects. Both functional and dynamic crosstalk effects are analyzed in the coupled transmission line. The effect of line resistance on crosstalk induced delay, and peak voltage under dynamic and functional crosstalk is also evaluated. The FDTD analysis and the SPICE simulations are carried out at 32 nm technology node for the global interconnects. It is observed that the analytical results obtained using the FDTD technique are in good agreement with the SPICE simulation results. The crosstalk induced delay, propagation delay, and peak voltage obtained using the FDTD technique shows average errors of 4.9%, 3.4% and 0.46%, respectively, in comparison to SPICE. (paper)

  5. IMAGE SEGMENTATION BASED ON MARKOV RANDOM FIELD AND WATERSHED TECHNIQUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纳瑟; 刘重庆

    2002-01-01

    This paper presented a method that incorporates Markov Random Field(MRF), watershed segmentation and merging techniques for performing image segmentation and edge detection tasks. MRF is used to obtain an initial estimate of x regions in the image under process where in MRF model, gray level x, at pixel location i, in an image X, depends on the gray levels of neighboring pixels. The process needs an initial segmented result. An initial segmentation is got based on K-means clustering technique and the minimum distance, then the region process in modeled by MRF to obtain an image contains different intensity regions. Starting from this we calculate the gradient values of that image and then employ a watershed technique. When using MRF method it obtains an image that has different intensity regions and has all the edge and region information, then it improves the segmentation result by superimpose closed and an accurate boundary of each region using watershed algorithm. After all pixels of the segmented regions have been processed, a map of primitive region with edges is generated. Finally, a merge process based on averaged mean values is employed. The final segmentation and edge detection result is one closed boundary per actual region in the image.

  6. Adaptive differential correspondence imaging based on sorting technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Wu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We develop an adaptive differential correspondence imaging (CI method using a sorting technique. Different from the conventional CI schemes, the bucket detector signals (BDS are first processed by a differential technique, and then sorted in a descending (or ascending order. Subsequently, according to the front and last several frames of the sorted BDS, the positive and negative subsets (PNS are created by selecting the relative frames from the reference detector signals. Finally, the object image is recovered from the PNS. Besides, an adaptive method based on two-step iteration is designed to select the optimum number of frames. To verify the proposed method, a single-detector computational ghost imaging (GI setup is constructed. We experimentally and numerically compare the performance of the proposed method with different GI algorithms. The results show that our method can improve the reconstruction quality and reduce the computation cost by using fewer measurement data.

  7. Wear Detection of Drill Bit by Image-based Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukeri, Maziyah; Zulhilmi Paiz Ismadi, Mohd; Rahim Othman, Abdul; Kamaruddin, Shahrul

    2018-03-01

    Image processing for computer vision function plays an essential aspect in the manufacturing industries for the tool condition monitoring. This study proposes a dependable direct measurement method to measure the tool wear using image-based analysis. Segmentation and thresholding technique were used as the means to filter and convert the colour image to binary datasets. Then, the edge detection method was applied to characterize the edge of the drill bit. By using cross-correlation method, the edges of original and worn drill bits were correlated to each other. Cross-correlation graphs were able to detect the difference of the worn edge despite small difference between the graphs. Future development will focus on quantifying the worn profile as well as enhancing the sensitivity of the technique.

  8. Underwater Time Service and Synchronization Based on Time Reversal Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hao; Wang, Hai-bin; Aissa-El-Bey, Abdeldjalil; Pyndiah, Ramesh

    2010-09-01

    Real time service and synchronization are very important to many underwater systems. But the time service and synchronization in existence cannot work well due to the multi-path propagation and random phase fluctuation of signals in the ocean channel. The time reversal mirror technique can realize energy concentration through self-matching of the ocean channel and has very good spatial and temporal focusing properties. Based on the TRM technique, we present the Time Reversal Mirror Real Time service and synchronization (TRMRT) method which can bypass the processing of multi-path on the server side and reduce multi-path contamination on the client side. So TRMRT can improve the accuracy of time service. Furthermore, as an efficient and precise method of time service, TRMRT could be widely used in underwater exploration activities and underwater navigation and positioning systems.

  9. Does expert opinion match the operational definition of the Lupus Low Disease Activity State (LLDAS)? A case-based construct validity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golder, Vera; Huq, Molla; Franklyn, Kate; Calderone, Alicia; Lateef, Aisha; Lau, Chak Sing; Lee, Alfred Lok Hang; Navarra, Sandra Teresa V; Godfrey, Timothy; Oon, Shereen; Hoi, Alberta Yik Bun; Morand, Eric Francis; Nikpour, Mandana

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the construct validity of the Lupus Low Disease Activity State (LLDAS), a treatment target in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Fifty SLE case summaries based on real patients were prepared and assessed independently for meeting the operational definition of LLDAS. Fifty international rheumatologists with expertise in SLE, but with no prior involvement in the LLDAS project, responded to a survey in which they were asked to categorize the disease activity state of each case as remission, low, moderate, or high. Agreement between expert opinion and LLDAS was assessed using Cohen's kappa. Overall agreement between expert opinion and the operational definition of LLDAS was 77.96% (95% CI: 76.34-79.58%), with a Cohen's kappa of 0.57 (95% CI: 0.55-0.61). Of the cases (22 of 50) that fulfilled the operational definition of LLDAS, only 5.34% (59 of 22 × 50) of responses classified the cases as moderate/high activity. Of the cases that did not fulfill the operational definition of LLDAS (28 of 50), 35.14% (492 of 28 × 50) of responses classified the cases as remission/low activity. Common reasons for discordance were assignment to remission/low activity of cases with higher corticosteroid doses than defined in LLDAS (prednisolone ≤ 7.5mg) or with SLEDAI-2K >4 due to serological activity (high anti-dsDNA antibody and/or low complement). LLDAS has good construct validity with high overall agreement between the operational definition of LLDAS and expert opinion. Discordance of results suggests that the operational definition of LLDAS is more stringent than expert opinion at defining a low disease activity state. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Counseling, Artificial Intelligence, and Expert Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illovsky, Michael E.

    1994-01-01

    Considers the use of artificial intelligence and expert systems in counseling. Limitations are explored; candidates for counseling versus those for expert systems are discussed; programming considerations are reviewed; and techniques for dealing with rational, nonrational, and irrational thoughts and feelings are described. (Contains 46…

  11. Vision based techniques for rotorcraft low altitude flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Suorsa, Ray; Smith, Philip

    1991-01-01

    An overview of research in obstacle detection at NASA Ames Research Center is presented. The research applies techniques from computer vision to automation of rotorcraft navigation. The development of a methodology for detecting the range to obstacles based on the maximum utilization of passive sensors is emphasized. The development of a flight and image data base for verification of vision-based algorithms, and a passive ranging methodology tailored to the needs of helicopter flight are discussed. Preliminary results indicate that it is possible to obtain adequate range estimates except at regions close to the FOE. Closer to the FOE, the error in range increases since the magnitude of the disparity gets smaller, resulting in a low SNR.

  12. Expert systems and nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltracchi, L.

    1990-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Electric Power Research Institute have initiated a broad-based exploration of means to evaluate the potential applications of expert systems in the nuclear industry. This exploratory effort will assess the use of expert systems to augment the diagnostic and decision-making capabilities of personnel with the goal of enhancing productivity, reliability, and performance. The initial research effort is the development and documentation of guidelines for verifying and validating (V and V) expert systems. An initial application of expert systems in the nuclear industry is to aid operations and maintenance personnel in decision-making tasks. The scope of the decision aiding covers all types of cognitive behavior consisting of skill, rule, and knowledge-based behavior. For example, procedure trackers were designed and tested to support rule-based behavior. Further, these systems automate many of the tedious, error-prone human monitoring tasks, thereby reducing the potential for human error. The paper version of the procedure contains the knowledge base and the rules and thus serves as the basis of the design verification of the procedure tracker. Person-in-the-loop tests serve as the basis for the validation of a procedure tracker. When conducting validation tests, it is important to ascertain that the human retains the locus of control in the use of the expert system

  13. Combination Base64 Algorithm and EOF Technique for Steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Robbi; Nurdiyanto, Heri; Hidayat, Rahmat; Saleh Ahmar, Ansari; Siregar, Dodi; Putera Utama Siahaan, Andysah; Faisal, Ilham; Rahman, Sayuti; Suita, Diana; Zamsuri, Ahmad; Abdullah, Dahlan; Napitupulu, Darmawan; Ikhsan Setiawan, Muhammad; Sriadhi, S.

    2018-04-01

    The steganography process combines mathematics and computer science. Steganography consists of a set of methods and techniques to embed the data into another media so that the contents are unreadable to anyone who does not have the authority to read these data. The main objective of the use of base64 method is to convert any file in order to achieve privacy. This paper discusses a steganography and encoding method using base64, which is a set of encoding schemes that convert the same binary data to the form of a series of ASCII code. Also, the EoF technique is used to embed encoding text performed by Base64. As an example, for the mechanisms a file is used to represent the texts, and by using the two methods together will increase the security level for protecting the data, this research aims to secure many types of files in a particular media with a good security and not to damage the stored files and coverage media that used.

  14. Expert status and performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Burgman

    Full Text Available Expert judgements are essential when time and resources are stretched or we face novel dilemmas requiring fast solutions. Good advice can save lives and large sums of money. Typically, experts are defined by their qualifications, track record and experience. The social expectation hypothesis argues that more highly regarded and more experienced experts will give better advice. We asked experts to predict how they will perform, and how their peers will perform, on sets of questions. The results indicate that the way experts regard each other is consistent, but unfortunately, ranks are a poor guide to actual performance. Expert advice will be more accurate if technical decisions routinely use broadly-defined expert groups, structured question protocols and feedback.

  15. Expert judgment for nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Sung; Lee, Sun Ho; Lee, Byong Whi

    2000-01-01

    Public perception on nuclear energy is much influenced by subjective impressions mostly formed through sensational and dramatic news of mass media or anti-nuclear groups. However, nuclear experts, those who have more relevant knowledge and information about nuclear energy, may have reasonable opinion based on scientific facts or inferences. Thus their opinion and consensus should be examined and taken into account during the process of nuclear energy policy formulation. For the purpose of eliciting experts' opinion, the web-based on-line survey system (eBOSS) was developed. Using the survey system, experts' views on nuclear energy were tallied, analyzed and compared with the public's. Based on the survey results, the paper suggests some recommendations about the future direction of the public information program in Korea

  16. Full-duplex MIMO system based on antenna cancellation technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foroozanfard, Ehsan; Franek, Ondrej; Tatomirescu, Alexandru

    2014-01-01

    The performance of an antenna cancellation technique for a multiple-input– multiple-output (MIMO) full-duplex system that is based on null-steering beamforming and antenna polarization diversity is investigated. A practical implementation of a symmetric antenna topology comprising three dual......-polarized patch antennas operating at 2.4 GHz is described. The measurement results show an average of 60 dB self-interference cancellation over 200 MHz bandwidth. Moreover, a decoupling level of up to 22 dB is achieved for MIMO multiplexing using antenna polarization diversity. The performance evaluation...

  17. Cooperative Technique Based on Sensor Selection in Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISLAM, M. R.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available An energy efficient cooperative technique is proposed for the IEEE 1451 based Wireless Sensor Networks. Selected numbers of Wireless Transducer Interface Modules (WTIMs are used to form a Multiple Input Single Output (MISO structure wirelessly connected with a Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP. Energy efficiency and delay of the proposed architecture are derived for different combination of cluster size and selected number of WTIMs. Optimized constellation parameters are used for evaluating derived parameters. The results show that the selected MISO structure outperforms the unselected MISO structure and it shows energy efficient performance than SISO structure after a certain distance.

  18. Nitrous oxide-based techniques versus nitrous oxide-free techniques for general anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rao; Jia, Wen Qin; Zhang, Peng; Yang, KeHu; Tian, Jin Hui; Ma, Bin; Liu, Yali; Jia, Run H; Luo, Xiao F; Kuriyama, Akira

    2015-11-06

    Nitrous oxide has been used for over 160 years for the induction and maintenance of general anaesthesia. It has been used as a sole agent but is most often employed as part of a technique using other anaesthetic gases, intravenous agents, or both. Its low tissue solubility (and therefore rapid kinetics), low cost, and low rate of cardiorespiratory complications have made nitrous oxide by far the most commonly used general anaesthetic. The accumulating evidence regarding adverse effects of nitrous oxide administration has led many anaesthetists to question its continued routine use in a variety of operating room settings. Adverse events may result from both the biological actions of nitrous oxide and the fact that to deliver an effective dose, nitrous oxide, which is a relatively weak anaesthetic agent, needs to be given in high concentrations that restrict oxygen delivery (for example, a common mixture is 30% oxygen with 70% nitrous oxide). As well as the risk of low blood oxygen levels, concerns have also been raised regarding the risk of compromising the immune system, impaired cognition, postoperative cardiovascular complications, bowel obstruction from distention, and possible respiratory compromise. To determine if nitrous oxide-based anaesthesia results in similar outcomes to nitrous oxide-free anaesthesia in adults undergoing surgery. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2014 Issue 10); MEDLINE (1966 to 17 October 2014); EMBASE (1974 to 17 October 2014); and ISI Web of Science (1974 to 17 October 2014). We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles, conference proceedings, and ongoing trials up to 17 October 2014 on specific websites (http://clinicaltrials.gov/, http://controlled-trials.com/, and http://www.centerwatch.com). We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing general anaesthesia where nitrous oxide was part of the anaesthetic technique used for the induction or maintenance of general

  19. Failure Mechanism of Rock Bridge Based on Acoustic Emission Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic emission (AE technique is widely used in various fields as a reliable nondestructive examination technology. Two experimental tests were carried out in a rock mechanics laboratory, which include (1 small scale direct shear tests of rock bridge with different lengths and (2 large scale landslide model with locked section. The relationship of AE event count and record time was analyzed during the tests. The AE source location technology and comparative analysis with its actual failure model were done. It can be found that whether it is small scale test or large scale landslide model test, AE technique accurately located the AE source point, which reflected the failure generation and expansion of internal cracks in rock samples. Large scale landslide model with locked section test showed that rock bridge in rocky slope has typical brittle failure behavior. The two tests based on AE technique well revealed the rock failure mechanism in rocky slope and clarified the cause of high speed and long distance sliding of rocky slope.

  20. Radiation synthesized protein-based nanoparticles: A technique overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varca, Gustavo H.C.; Perossi, Gabriela G.; Grasselli, Mariano; Lugão, Ademar B.

    2014-01-01

    Seeking for alternative routes for protein engineering a novel technique – radiation induced synthesis of protein nanoparticles – to achieve size controlled particles with preserved bioactivity has been recently reported. This work aimed to evaluate different process conditions to optimize and provide an overview of the technique using γ-irradiation. Papain was used as model protease and the samples were irradiated in a gamma cell irradiator in phosphate buffer (pH=7.0) containing ethanol (0–35%). The dose effect was evaluated by exposure to distinct γ-irradiation doses (2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy) and scale up experiments involving distinct protein concentrations (12.5–50 mg mL −1 ) were also performed. Characterization involved size monitoring using dynamic light scattering. Bityrosine detection was performed using fluorescence measurements in order to provide experimental evidence of the mechanism involved. Best dose effects were achieved at 10 kGy with regard to size and no relevant changes were observed as a function of papain concentration, highlighting very broad operational concentration range. Bityrosine changes were identified for the samples as a function of the process confirming that such linkages play an important role in the nanoparticle formation. - Highlights: • Synthesis of protein-based nanoparticles by γ-irradiation. • Optimization of the technique. • Overview of mechanism involved in the nanoparticle formation. • Engineered papain nanoparticles for biomedical applications

  1. Reliability and validity of expert assessment based on airborne and urinary measures of nickel and chromium exposure in the electroplating industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Coble, Joseph B; Deziel, Nicole C.; Ji, Bu-Tian; Xue, Shouzheng; Lu, Wei; Stewart, Patricia A; Friesen, Melissa C

    2014-01-01

    The reliability and validity of six experts’ exposure ratings were evaluated for 64 nickel-exposed and 72 chromium-exposed workers from six Shanghai electroplating plants based on airborne and urinary nickel and chromium measurements. Three industrial hygienists and three occupational physicians independently ranked the exposure intensity of each metal on an ordinal scale (1–4) for each worker's job in two rounds: the first round was based on responses to an occupational history questionnaire and the second round also included responses to an electroplating industry-specific questionnaire. Spearman correlation (rs) was used to compare each rating's validity to its corresponding subject-specific arithmetic mean of four airborne or four urinary measurements. Reliability was moderately-high (weighted kappa range=0.60–0.64). Validity was poor to moderate (rs= -0.37–0.46) for both airborne and urinary concentrations of both metals. For airborne nickel concentrations, validity differed by plant. For dichotomized metrics, sensitivity and specificity were higher based on urinary measurements (47–78%) than airborne measurements (16–50%). Few patterns were observed by metal, assessment round, or expert type. These results suggest that, for electroplating exposures, experts can achieve moderately-high agreement and (reasonably) distinguish between low and high exposures when reviewing responses to in-depth questionnaires used in population-based case-control studies. PMID:24736099

  2. A biomechanical analysis of the roundhouse kicking technique of expert practitioners: A comparison between the martial arts disciplines of Muay Thai, Karate, and Taekwondo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin J Gavagan

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was first, to determine whether there were differences in the roundhouse kicking leg kinematics performed by highly skilled Muay Thai, Karate and Taekwondo practitioners (n = 8 per group. Next, analysis aimed to identify the kinematic determinants of effective roundhouse kicking performance. Three-dimensional (3D lower limb kinematics were recorded using a nine camera infra-red motion capture system (500 Hz during three maximal roundhouse kicks. Impact forces were recorded using a strain gauge (1000 Hz attached to a kicking pad positioned at the height of each participant's mastoid process. Results showed that linear foot velocity at impact was moderately correlated with relative impact force (r = 0.66, P = 0.001. Discipline specific analyses of the temporal data indicated that the Muay Thai group had a shorter execution time (1.02 ± 0.15 s than Taekwondo (1.54 ± 0.52 s, P = 0.028. Analysis of lower limb kinematic data indicated that both Karate (-947 ± 94 deg/s, P = 0.010 and Taekwondo (-943 ± 106 deg/s, P = 0.011 practitioners had faster knee extension velocities than the Muay Thai group (-706 ± 200 deg/s. Conversely, the Muay Thai practitioners (1.24 ± 0.15 m/s had greater vertical centre of mass movement than both Karate (0.78 ± 0.24 m/s, P = 0.001 and Taekwondo groups (0.93 ± 0.19 m/s, P = 0.02. Our findings show that several fundamental movement patterns were common to the roundhouse kicking techniques across the Muay Thai, Karate, and Taekwondo disciplines. Effective roundhouse kicking performance was characterized by rapid pelvic axial rotation, hip abduction, hip flexion and knee extension velocities, combined with rapid movements of the COM towards the target.

  3. A biomechanical analysis of the roundhouse kicking technique of expert practitioners: A comparison between the martial arts disciplines of Muay Thai, Karate, and Taekwondo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavagan, Colin J; Sayers, Mark G L

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was first, to determine whether there were differences in the roundhouse kicking leg kinematics performed by highly skilled Muay Thai, Karate and Taekwondo practitioners (n = 8 per group). Next, analysis aimed to identify the kinematic determinants of effective roundhouse kicking performance. Three-dimensional (3D) lower limb kinematics were recorded using a nine camera infra-red motion capture system (500 Hz) during three maximal roundhouse kicks. Impact forces were recorded using a strain gauge (1000 Hz) attached to a kicking pad positioned at the height of each participant's mastoid process. Results showed that linear foot velocity at impact was moderately correlated with relative impact force (r = 0.66, P = 0.001). Discipline specific analyses of the temporal data indicated that the Muay Thai group had a shorter execution time (1.02 ± 0.15 s) than Taekwondo (1.54 ± 0.52 s, P = 0.028). Analysis of lower limb kinematic data indicated that both Karate (-947 ± 94 deg/s, P = 0.010) and Taekwondo (-943 ± 106 deg/s, P = 0.011) practitioners had faster knee extension velocities than the Muay Thai group (-706 ± 200 deg/s). Conversely, the Muay Thai practitioners (1.24 ± 0.15 m/s) had greater vertical centre of mass movement than both Karate (0.78 ± 0.24 m/s, P = 0.001) and Taekwondo groups (0.93 ± 0.19 m/s, P = 0.02). Our findings show that several fundamental movement patterns were common to the roundhouse kicking techniques across the Muay Thai, Karate, and Taekwondo disciplines. Effective roundhouse kicking performance was characterized by rapid pelvic axial rotation, hip abduction, hip flexion and knee extension velocities, combined with rapid movements of the COM towards the target.

  4. Structural level characterization of base oils using advanced analytical techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Hourani, Nadim

    2015-05-21

    Base oils, blended for finished lubricant formulations, are classified by the American Petroleum Institute into five groups, viz., groups I-V. Groups I-III consist of petroleum based hydrocarbons whereas groups IV and V are made of synthetic polymers. In the present study, five base oil samples belonging to groups I and III were extensively characterized using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC), and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) equipped with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) sources. First, the capabilities and limitations of each analytical technique were evaluated, and then the availed information was combined to reveal compositional details on the base oil samples studied. HPLC showed the overwhelming presence of saturated over aromatic compounds in all five base oils. A similar trend was further corroborated using GC×GC, which yielded semiquantitative information on the compound classes present in the samples and provided further details on the carbon number distributions within these classes. In addition to chromatography methods, FT-ICR MS supplemented the compositional information on the base oil samples by resolving the aromatics compounds into alkyl- and naphtheno-subtituted families. APCI proved more effective for the ionization of the highly saturated base oil components compared to APPI. Furthermore, for the detailed information on hydrocarbon molecules FT-ICR MS revealed the presence of saturated and aromatic sulfur species in all base oil samples. The results presented herein offer a unique perspective into the detailed molecular structure of base oils typically used to formulate lubricants. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  5. Expert systems: an alternative paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, M.; Alty, J.

    1984-01-01

    There has recently been a significant effort by the AI community to interest industry in the potential of expert systems. However, this has resulted in far fewer substantial applications projects than might be expected. This article argues that this is because human experts are rarely required to perform the role that computer-based experts are programmed to adopt. Instead of being called in to answer well-defined problems, they are more often asked to assist other experts to extend and refine their understanding of a problem area at the junction of their two domains of knowledge. This more properly involves educational rather than problem-solving skills. An alternative approach to expert system design is proposed based upon guided discovery learning. The user is provided with a supportive environment for a particular class of problem, the system predominantly acting as an adviser rather than directing the interaction. The environment includes a database of domain knowledge, a set of procedures for its application to a concrete problem, and an intelligent machine-based adviser to judge the user's effectiveness and advise on strategy. The procedures focus upon the use of user generated explanations both to promote the application of domain knowledge and to expose understanding difficulties. Simple database PROLOG is being used as the subject material for the prototype system which is known as MINDPAD. 30 references.

  6. Eliciting expert opinion for economic models: an applied example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, José; Wordsworth, Sarah; Legood, Rosa; Blair, Edward

    2007-01-01

    Expert opinion is considered as a legitimate source of information for decision-analytic modeling where required data are unavailable. Our objective was to develop a practical computer-based tool for eliciting expert opinion about the shape of the uncertainty distribution around individual model parameters. We first developed a prepilot survey with departmental colleagues to test a number of alternative approaches to eliciting opinions on the shape of the uncertainty distribution around individual parameters. This information was used to develop a survey instrument for an applied clinical example. This involved eliciting opinions from experts to inform a number of parameters involving Bernoulli processes in an economic model evaluating DNA testing for families with a genetic disease, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The experts were cardiologists, clinical geneticists, and laboratory scientists working with cardiomyopathy patient populations and DNA testing. Our initial prepilot work suggested that the more complex elicitation techniques advocated in the literature were difficult to use in practice. In contrast, our approach achieved a reasonable response rate (50%), provided logical answers, and was generally rated as easy to use by respondents. The computer software user interface permitted graphical feedback throughout the elicitation process. The distributions obtained were incorporated into the model, enabling the use of probabilistic sensitivity analysis. There is clearly a gap in the literature between theoretical elicitation techniques and tools that can be used in applied decision-analytic models. The results of this methodological study are potentially valuable for other decision analysts deriving expert opinion.

  7. Comparación de efectividad de las técnicas de educción de requisitos software: visión novel y experta Comparison on effectiveness of the software requirements elicitation techniques: novice and expert vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante Carrizo Moreno

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La Ingeniería de Requisitos puede hacer uso de una gran cantidad de técnicas para educir las necesidades de los usuarios. No obstante, apenas existen guías y criterios prácticos para realizar la selección de técnicas en un proyecto de desarrollo de software. Este artículo intenta conocer la visión que tienen los ingenieros de requisitos noveles acerca de la efectividad de las técnicas de educción y compararlas con la visión de expertos en requisitos. Para efectuar la comparación se utiliza la técnica de emparrillado que permite conocer indirectamente la opinión de los sujetos respecto de las técnicas. Los resultados muestran una sustancial diferencia entre ambas visiones respecto a la efectividad de las técnicas y contexto de la educción. Esto implica que una más amplia formación, y principalmente práctica, es necesaria para que los ingenieros noveles puedan reconocer diferencias de efectividad de las técnicas y poder decidir con mayor certeza sobre las técnicas más adecuadas a utilizar en las sesiones de educción de requisitos.Requirements engineering can use a lot of techniques to gather the users' needs. However, currently there are few practical guidelines and criteria for selecting techniques in a software development project. This paper tries to know the vision that novice requirements engineers have about the effectiveness of requirements elicitation techniques and compare it with the requirements experts' vision. To carry out the comparison, repertory grid technique was used. This technique allows knowing indirectly the subject's opinion on the techniques. The results show a substantial difference between both visions with regard to the techniques and elicitation context. This implies that a more extensive training, and primarily practice, is necessary in order for novice engineers to recognize differences in techniques effectiveness and decide with greater certainty about the most appropriate techniques to use in

  8. Medical expert system for assessment of coronary heart disease destabilization based on the analysis of the level of soluble vascular adhesion molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serkova, Valentina K.; Pavlov, Sergey V.; Romanava, Valentina A.; Monastyrskiy, Yuriy I.; Ziepko, Sergey M.; Kuzminova, Nanaliya V.; Wójcik, Waldemar; DzierŻak, RóŻa; Kalizhanova, Aliya; Kashaganova, Gulzhan

    2017-08-01

    Theoretical and practical substantiation of the possibility of the using the level of soluble vascular adhesion molecules (sVCAM) is performed. Expert system for the assessment of coronary heart disease (CHD) destabilization on the base of the analysis of soluble vascular adhesion molecules level is developed. Correlation between the increase of VCAM level and C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with different variants of CHD progression is established. Association of chronic nonspecific vascular inflammation activation and CHD destabilization is shown. The expedience of parallel determination of sVCAM and CRP levels for diagnostics of CHD destabilization and forecast elaboration is noted.

  9. On HTML and XML based web design and implementation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezboruah, B.; Kalita, M.

    2006-05-01

    Web implementation is truly a multidisciplinary field with influences from programming, choosing of scripting languages, graphic design, user interface design, and database design. The challenge of a Web designer/implementer is his ability to create an attractive and informative Web. To work with the universal framework and link diagrams from the design process as well as the Web specifications and domain information, it is essential to create Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) or other software and multimedia to accomplish the Web's objective. In this article we will discuss Web design standards and the techniques involved in Web implementation based on HTML and Extensible Markup Language (XML). We will also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of HTML over its successor XML in designing and implementing a Web. We have developed two Web pages, one utilizing the features of HTML and the other based on the features of XML to carry out the present investigation. (author)

  10. Efficient Identification Using a Prime-Feature-Based Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Haq, Shaiq A.; Valente, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    . Fingerprint identification system, implemented on PC/104 based real-time systems, can accurately identify the operator. Traditionally, the uniqueness of a fingerprint is determined by the overall pattern of ridges and valleys as well as the local ridge anomalies e.g., a ridge bifurcation or a ridge ending......, which are called minutiae points. Designing a reliable automatic fingerprint matching algorithm for minimal platform is quite challenging. In real-time systems, efficiency of the matching algorithm is of utmost importance. To achieve this goal, a prime-feature-based indexing algorithm is proposed......Identification of authorized train drivers through biometrics is a growing area of interest in locomotive radio remote control systems. The existing technique of password authentication is not very reliable and potentially unauthorized personnel may also operate the system on behalf of the operator...

  11. Designing on ICT reconstruction software based on DSP techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinhui; Xiang Xincheng

    2006-01-01

    The convolution back project (CBP) algorithm is used to realize the CT image's reconstruction in ICT generally, which is finished by using PC or workstation. In order to add the ability of multi-platform operation of CT reconstruction software, a CT reconstruction method based on modern digital signal processor (DSP) technique is proposed and realized in this paper. The hardware system based on TI's C6701 DSP processor is selected to support the CT software construction. The CT reconstruction software is compiled only using assembly language related to the DSP hardware. The CT software can be run on TI's C6701 EVM board by inputting the CT data, and can get the CT Images that satisfy the real demands. (authors)

  12. The application of the Contingent Valuation method towards the assessment of the impacts emerged from the March 2006 floods in the Evros River. An experts-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markantonis, V.; Bithas, K.

    2009-04-01

    In March 2006 Greece was struck by a severe flooding, which caused significant damages in the Prefecture of Evros, on the Eastern border of Greece. 250 million m² of farmland was flooded causing severe damages to agriculture, transport and water supply networks. Total direct damages are estimated at € 372 million. The negative effect on economic activity caused by the floods, considered the worst over the last 50 years, took place in an area that had already been severely affected by floods in 2005. Apart from the direct damages critical were also the indirect impacts on the environmental and the social level. The need for economic analysis concerning the design and implementation of efficient flood management policies is well emphasized in the natural hazards' policies. Within this framework, the present paper is analyzing the application of stated preferences valuation techniques for the assessment of the damages caused in the Prefecture of Evros by the severe floods of March 2006. The objective of this paper is to define the role of economic valuation techniques in assisting the design of efficient and sustainable policies for flood management. More specific, the Contingent Valuation (CV) method is applied in order to valuate the impacts of the March 2006 floods, including the environmental impacts as far as concerns the soil, the biodiversity and the aesthetic environment of the flooded areas. The paper begins with a discussion of the theoretical economic framework, and particularly, the contingent valuation method framework that can be used to evaluate flood impacts. Understanding public preferences for complex environmental policy changes, such as flood impacts, is a preeminent challenge for environmental economists and other social scientists. Information issues are central to the design and application of the survey-based contingent valuation (CV) method for valuing environmental goods. While content is under the control of the analyst, how this

  13. New calibration technique for KCD-based megavoltage imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samant, Sanjiv S.; Zheng, Wei; DiBianca, Frank A.; Zeman, Herbert D.; Laughter, Joseph S.

    1999-05-01

    In megavoltage imaging, current commercial electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs), despite having the advantage of immediate digital imaging over film, suffer from poor image contrast and spatial resolution. The feasibility of using a kinestatic charge detector (KCD) as an EPID to provide superior image contrast and spatial resolution for portal imaging has already been demonstrated in a previous paper. The KCD system had the additional advantage of requiring an extremely low dose per acquired image, allowing for superior imaging to be reconstructed form a single linac pulse per image pixel. The KCD based images utilized a dose of two orders of magnitude less that for EPIDs and film. Compared with the current commercial EPIDs and film, the prototype KCD system exhibited promising image qualities, despite being handicapped by the use of a relatively simple image calibration technique, and the performance limits of medical linacs on the maximum linac pulse frequency and energy flux per pulse delivered. This image calibration technique fixed relative image pixel values based on a linear interpolation of extrema provided by an air-water calibration, and accounted only for channel-to-channel variations. The counterpart of this for area detectors is the standard flat fielding method. A comprehensive calibration protocol has been developed. The new technique additionally corrects for geometric distortions due to variations in the scan velocity, and timing artifacts caused by mis-synchronization between the linear accelerator and the data acquisition system (DAS). The role of variations in energy flux (2 - 3%) on imaging is demonstrated to be not significant for the images considered. The methodology is presented, and the results are discussed for simulated images. It also allows for significant improvements in the signal-to- noise ratio (SNR) by increasing the dose using multiple images without having to increase the linac pulse frequency or energy flux per pulse. The

  14. Risk-based maintenance-Techniques and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunraj, N.S.; Maiti, J.

    2007-01-01

    Plant and equipment, however well designed, will not remain safe or reliable if it is not maintained. The general objective of the maintenance process is to make use of the knowledge of failures and accidents to achieve the possible safety with the lowest possible cost. The concept of risk-based maintenance was developed to inspect the high-risk components usually with greater frequency and thoroughness and to maintain in a greater manner, to achieve tolerable risk criteria. Risk-based maintenance methodology provides a tool for maintenance planning and decision making to reduce the probability of failure of equipment and the consequences of failure. In this paper, the risk analysis and risk-based maintenance methodologies were identified and classified into suitable classes. The factors affecting the quality of risk analysis were identified and analyzed. The applications, input data and output data were studied to understand their functioning and efficiency. The review showed that there is no unique way to perform risk analysis and risk-based maintenance. The use of suitable techniques and methodologies, careful investigation during the risk analysis phase, and its detailed and structured results are necessary to make proper risk-based maintenance decisions

  15. Generation of Quasi-Gaussian Pulses Based on Correlation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POHOATA, S.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Gaussian pulses have been mostly used within communications, where some applications can be emphasized: mobile telephony (GSM, where GMSK signals are used, as well as the UWB communications, where short-period pulses based on Gaussian waveform are generated. Since the Gaussian function signifies a theoretical concept, which cannot be accomplished from the physical point of view, this should be expressed by using various functions, able to determine physical implementations. New techniques of generating the Gaussian pulse responses of good precision are approached, proposed and researched in this paper. The second and third order derivatives with regard to the Gaussian pulse response are accurately generated. The third order derivates is composed of four individual rectangular pulses of fixed amplitudes, being easily to be generated by standard techniques. In order to generate pulses able to satisfy the spectral mask requirements, an adequate filter is necessary to be applied. This paper emphasizes a comparative analysis based on the relative error and the energy spectra of the proposed pulses.

  16. WINE ADVISOR EXPERT SYSTEM USING DECISION RULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinuca Elena Claudia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article I focus on developing an expert system for advising the choice of wine that best matches a specific occasion. An expert system is a computer application that performs a task that would be performed by a human expert. The implementation is done using Delphi programming language. I used to represent the knowledge bases a set of rules. The rules are of type IF THEN ELSE rules, decision rules based on different important wine features.

  17. Estimation of performance shaping factors for overtime and shift length using expert judgment based on related assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vickroy, S.C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study to estimate human performance and error rate under several amounts of overtime and different shifts without the use of human subjects. Ten chronobiology, fatigue, and shift scheduling experts were administered a questionnaire to rate the effects that several shifts and overtime amounts might have on the performance of individuals working under their constraints. The data from the ratings were transformed to generate performance shaping factors used for sensitivity analyses on three previously published probabilistic risk assessments. This procedure was performed to determine the effect that different shift schedules and amounts of overtime would have on overall plant performance. The results of the analysis suggest that the risk due to human errors caused by the shift scheduling and overtime could increase the risk of accidents at a nuclear power plant caused by humans by up to a factor of five. This could increase the chance for an accident at a nuclear power plant by a factor of about three

  18. Selection of the Best Wastewater Treatment Alternative for RIPI Based on Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP and Expert Choice Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    faramarz Tarkian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available RIPI as one of the largest and most important research centers in Iran is located in zone 22 of Tehran municipality. According to the environmental priorities in the region taking all necessary measures to control pollution sources is necessary. In this paper, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP method is used for the selection of the best wastewater treatment method for RIPI. For this purpose four alternatives including SBR, Extended aeration activated sludge, Rotating MBR, Fix MBR were evaluated. These alternatives were weighted by four main criteria: Environment, Economic, Technical, Management and the defined sub-criteria ,then paired compared with respect to any form of wastewater treatment alternatives and ultimately the results was evaluated by Expert Choice software. The evaluation results indicate that Rotating MBR was the most suitable alternative of wastewater treatment method for RIPI. After the Rotating MBR, the Fix MBR, SBR and Extended activated sludge were considered suitable respectively. Degree of inconsistency is equal to 0.07, indicating that the number of paired comparisons is consistent.

  19. Social workers as "experts" in the family court system: is evidence-based practice a missing link or host-created knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Dana E

    2013-10-01

    The graduate school curriculum for social workers requires that students learn to critically distinguish between opinion-based knowledge and evidence-based practices, or empirically-supported interventions. Once graduated, licensed social workers are often called upon to offer diagnostic and predictive opinions as experts in a variety of macro-environments. When the family courts are that "host" environment, social workers proffer expert opinions that may categorize and label parents or children for purposes of a judge's allocation of physical or legal custody. In this article, it is suggested that the social work profession, within all three domains of education, practice, and research, should more precisely link the design and fidelity of an evidence-based practice (EBP) with its potential misapplication or warping when proffered as science in "host" environments like family courts. As Foucault and other scholars warn, the failure to verify that an intervention is applied correctly may actually enhance the risk of social injustice by interpreting and translating EBP knowledge in the non-empirical form of authority-by-license. This article, therefore, proposes that the social work profession, from the classroom to the field, has an obligation to thoroughly understand and engage interdisciplinary practices that assure respect for the strengths and limits of social work knowledge.

  20. [Development and application of a web-based expert system using artificial intelligence for management of mental health by Korean emigrants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jeongyee

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop an international web-based expert system using principals of artificial intelligence and user-centered design for management of mental health by Korean emigrants. Using this system, anyone can access the system via computer access to the web. Our design process utilized principles of user-centered design with 4 phases: needs assessment, analysis, design/development/testing, and application release. A survey was done with 3,235 Korean emigrants. Focus group interviews were also conducted. Survey and analysis results guided the design of the web-based expert system. With this system, anyone can check their mental health status by themselves using a personal computer. The system analyzes facts based on answers to automated questions, and suggests solutions accordingly. A history tracking mechanism enables monitoring and future analysis. In addition, this system will include intervention programs to promote mental health status. This system is interactive and accessible to anyone in the world. It is expected that this management system will contribute to Korean emigrants' mental health promotion and allow researchers and professionals to share information on mental health.

  1. Refractive index sensor based on optical fiber end face using pulse reference-based compensation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Qiang; Song, Zhangqi; Zhang, Xueliang; Yu, Yang; Chen, Yuzhong

    2018-03-01

    We proposed a refractive index sensor based on optical fiber end face using pulse reference-based compensation technique. With good compensation effect of this compensation technique, the power fluctuation of light source, the change of optic components transmission loss and coupler splitting ratio can be compensated, which largely reduces the background noise. The refractive index resolutions can achieve 3.8 × 10-6 RIU and1.6 × 10-6 RIU in different refractive index regions.

  2. Enhancing the effectiveness of IST through risk-based techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floyd, S.D.

    1996-12-01

    Current IST requirements were developed mainly through deterministic-based methods. While this approach has resulted in an adequate level of safety and reliability for pumps and valves, insights from probabilistic safety assessments suggest a better safety focus can be achieved at lower costs. That is, some high safety impact pumps and valves are currently not tested under the IST program and should be added, while low safety impact valves could be tested at significantly greater intervals than allowed by the current IST program. The nuclear utility industry, through the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), has developed a draft guideline for applying risk-based techniques to focus testing on those pumps and valves with a high safety impact while reducing test frequencies on low safety impact pumps and valves. The guideline is being validated through an industry pilot application program that is being reviewed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NEI and the ASME maintain a dialogue on the two groups` activities related to risk-based IST. The presenter will provide an overview of the NEI guideline, discuss the methodological approach for applying risk-based technology to IST and provide the status of the industry pilot plant effort.

  3. Der Patient als Experte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubs

    1998-01-01

    Patients as Experts: Determining Benefit by Using Assessments of Ability (ICIDH)When health economy and quality mangement are dealing with the cost-benefit relationship, to this day description, calculation, and assessment of the benefit are missing to a great extent. Deliberations in terms of cause and effect do not go beyond the model of pathogenesis (etiology - pathology - manifestation) and descriptions on the organ level (ICD). Only the international classification of impairments, disabilities, and handicaps (ICIDH) as a separate estimation of the resulting manifestations of illness on the levels of organ, individual, and society is capable to elucidate this benefit. It is the patient who is the expert to decide what he needs, what he wants, and what he can do, thus, evaluating on an individual level his loss of capability. The ICIDH is regarded as the key for the management of chronic diseases. The characteristics of being chronically ill require the integration of salutogenesis and the consideration of the hierarchy of needs. The specially developed MARA model serves as pragmatic basis for the description of the benefits of carried out and omitted interventions as changes of abilities by using the MARA curve (mean age-related ability) as ethical guideline. In quality circles the MARA model, which is based on ICIDH, hierarchy of needs and salutogenesis, can offer apatient-oriented basis of discussion for benefit assessments, and, in a pragmatical way, it can facilitate the introduction of evidence-based medicine. By the change of view from the organ level with multifactorial aspects to the individual level, in which the abilities can be understood as a monofactor, a high consensus potential between several participants of discussion in health service is possible.

  4. Application of expert systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basden, A

    1983-11-01

    This article seeks to bring together a number of issues relevant to the application of expert systems by discussing their advantages and limitations, their roles and benefits, and the influence that real-life applications might have on the design of expert systems software. Part of the expert systems strategy of one major chemical company is outlined. Because it was in constructing one particular expert system that many of these issues became important this system is described briefly at the start of the paper and used to illustrate much of the later discussion. It is of the plausible-inference type and has application in the field of materials engineering. 22 references.

  5. Being an expert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechet, Y.; Musseau, O.; Bruna, G.; Sperandio, M.; Roulleaux-Dugage, M.; Andrieux, S.; Metteau, L.

    2014-01-01

    This series of short articles are dedicated to the role of the expert in the enterprise. There is an important difference between a scientific counsellor and an expert, the expert, recognized by his peers, can speak publicly in his field of expertise but has a duty of transparency while the job of a scientific counsellor requires confidentiality. The making and the use of an expert in an enterprise requires a dedicated organization. The organization of the expertise in 5 enterprises in nuclear industry are considered: CEA (French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission), IRSN (Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety), AREVA, ANDRA (National Radioactive Waste Management Agency) and EDF (Electricity of France)

  6. Detecting Molecular Properties by Various Laser-Based Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsin, Tse-Ming [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Four different laser-based techniques were applied to study physical and chemical characteristics of biomolecules and dye molecules. These techniques are liole burning spectroscopy, single molecule spectroscopy, time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy and laser-induced fluorescence microscopy. Results from hole burning and single molecule spectroscopy suggested that two antenna states (C708 & C714) of photosystem I from cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803 are connected by effective energy transfer and the corresponding energy transfer time is ~6 ps. In addition, results from hole burning spectroscopy indicated that the chlorophyll dimer of the C714 state has a large distribution of the dimer geometry. Direct observation of vibrational peaks and evolution of coumarin 153 in the electronic excited state was demonstrated by using the fs/ps CARS, a variation of time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy. In three different solvents, methanol, acetonitrile, and butanol, a vibration peak related to the stretch of the carbonyl group exhibits different relaxation dynamics. Laser-induced fluorescence microscopy, along with the biomimetic containers-liposomes, allows the measurement of the enzymatic activity of individual alkaline phosphatase from bovine intestinal mucosa without potential interferences from glass surfaces. The result showed a wide distribution of the enzyme reactivity. Protein structural variation is one of the major reasons that are responsible for this highly heterogeneous behavior.

  7. Model-checking techniques based on cumulative residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, D Y; Wei, L J; Ying, Z

    2002-03-01

    Residuals have long been used for graphical and numerical examinations of the adequacy of regression models. Conventional residual analysis based on the plots of raw residuals or their smoothed curves is highly subjective, whereas most numerical goodness-of-fit tests provide little information about the nature of model misspecification. In this paper, we develop objective and informative model-checking techniques by taking the cumulative sums of residuals over certain coordinates (e.g., covariates or fitted values) or by considering some related aggregates of residuals, such as moving sums and moving averages. For a variety of statistical models and data structures, including generalized linear models with independent or dependent observations, the distributions of these stochastic processes tinder the assumed model can be approximated by the distributions of certain zero-mean Gaussian processes whose realizations can be easily generated by computer simulation. Each observed process can then be compared, both graphically and numerically, with a number of realizations from the Gaussian process. Such comparisons enable one to assess objectively whether a trend seen in a residual plot reflects model misspecification or natural variation. The proposed techniques are particularly useful in checking the functional form of a covariate and the link function. Illustrations with several medical studies are provided.

  8. Determination of rock fragmentation based on a photographic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehgan Banadaki, M.M.; Majdi, A.; Raessi Gahrooei, D.

    2002-01-01

    The paper represents a physical blasting model in laboratory scale along with a photographic approach to describe the distribution of blasted rock materials. For this purpose, based on wobble probability distribution function, eight samples each weighted 100 kg,were obtained. Four pictures from four different section of each sample were taken. Then, pictures were converted into graphic files with characterizing boundary of each piece of rocks in the samples. Error caused due to perspective were eliminated. Volume of each piece of the blasted rock materials and hence the required sieve size, each piece of rock to pass through, were calculated. Finally, original blasted rock size distribution was compared with that obtained from the photographic method. The paper concludes with presenting an approach to convert the results of photographic technique into size distribution obtained by seine analysis with sufficient verification

  9. Whitelists Based Multiple Filtering Techniques in SCADA Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DongHo Kang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet of Things (IoT consists of several tiny devices connected together to form a collaborative computing environment. Recently IoT technologies begin to merge with supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA sensor networks to more efficiently gather and analyze real-time data from sensors in industrial environments. But SCADA sensor networks are becoming more and more vulnerable to cyber-attacks due to increased connectivity. To safely adopt IoT technologies in the SCADA environments, it is important to improve the security of SCADA sensor networks. In this paper we propose a multiple filtering technique based on whitelists to detect illegitimate packets. Our proposed system detects the traffic of network and application protocol attacks with a set of whitelists collected from normal traffic.

  10. Demand Management Based on Model Predictive Control Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser A. Davizón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Demand management (DM is the process that helps companies to sell the right product to the right customer, at the right time, and for the right price. Therefore the challenge for any company is to determine how much to sell, at what price, and to which market segment while maximizing its profits. DM also helps managers efficiently allocate undifferentiated units of capacity to the available demand with the goal of maximizing revenue. This paper introduces control system approach to demand management with dynamic pricing (DP using the model predictive control (MPC technique. In addition, we present a proper dynamical system analogy based on active suspension and a stability analysis is provided via the Lyapunov direct method.

  11. Clustering economies based on multiple criteria decision making techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Momeni

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary concerns on many countries is to determine different important factors affecting economic growth. In this paper, we study some factors such as unemployment rate, inflation ratio, population growth, average annual income, etc to cluster different countries. The proposed model of this paper uses analytical hierarchy process (AHP to prioritize the criteria and then uses a K-mean technique to cluster 59 countries based on the ranked criteria into four groups. The first group includes countries with high standards such as Germany and Japan. In the second cluster, there are some developing countries with relatively good economic growth such as Saudi Arabia and Iran. The third cluster belongs to countries with faster rates of growth compared with the countries located in the second group such as China, India and Mexico. Finally, the fourth cluster includes countries with relatively very low rates of growth such as Jordan, Mali, Niger, etc.

  12. Diagnosis of Dengue Infection Using Conventional and Biosensor Based Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkash, Om; Hanim Shueb, Rafidah

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is an arthropod-borne viral disease caused by four antigenically different serotypes of dengue virus. This disease is considered as a major public health concern around the world. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine or antiviral drug available for the prevention and treatment of dengue disease. Moreover, clinical features of dengue are indistinguishable from other infectious diseases such as malaria, chikungunya, rickettsia and leptospira. Therefore, prompt and accurate laboratory diagnostic test is urgently required for disease confirmation and patient triage. The traditional diagnostic techniques for the dengue virus are viral detection in cell culture, serological testing, and RNA amplification using reverse transcriptase PCR. This paper discusses the conventional laboratory methods used for the diagnosis of dengue during the acute and convalescent phase and highlights the advantages and limitations of these routine laboratory tests. Subsequently, the biosensor based assays developed using various transducers for the detection of dengue are also reviewed. PMID:26492265

  13. An RSS based location estimation technique for cognitive relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Qaraqe, Khalid A.

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, a received signal strength (RSS) based location estimation method is proposed for a cooperative wireless relay network where the relay is a cognitive radio. We propose a method for the considered cognitive relay network to determine the location of the source using the direct and the relayed signal at the destination. We derive the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) expressions separately for x and y coordinates of the location estimate. We analyze the effects of cognitive behaviour of the relay on the performance of the proposed method. We also discuss and quantify the reliability of the location estimate using the proposed technique if the source is not stationary. The overall performance of the proposed method is presented through simulations. ©2010 IEEE.

  14. Astronomical Image Compression Techniques Based on ACC and KLT Coder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schindler

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a compression of image data in applications in astronomy. Astronomical images have typical specific properties — high grayscale bit depth, size, noise occurrence and special processing algorithms. They belong to the class of scientific images. Their processing and compression is quite different from the classical approach of multimedia image processing. The database of images from BOOTES (Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring System has been chosen as a source of the testing signal. BOOTES is a Czech-Spanish robotic telescope for observing AGN (active galactic nuclei and the optical transient of GRB (gamma ray bursts searching. This paper discusses an approach based on an analysis of statistical properties of image data. A comparison of two irrelevancy reduction methods is presented from a scientific (astrometric and photometric point of view. The first method is based on a statistical approach, using the Karhunen-Loeve transform (KLT with uniform quantization in the spectral domain. The second technique is derived from wavelet decomposition with adaptive selection of used prediction coefficients. Finally, the comparison of three redundancy reduction methods is discussed. Multimedia format JPEG2000 and HCOMPRESS, designed especially for astronomical images, are compared with the new Astronomical Context Coder (ACC coder based on adaptive median regression.

  15. An investigation of a video-based patient repositioning technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Yulong; Song Yulin; Boyer, Arthur L.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: We have investigated a video-based patient repositioning technique designed to use skin features for radiotherapy repositioning. We investigated the feasibility of the clinical application of this system by quantitative evaluation of performance characteristics of the methodology. Methods and Materials: Multiple regions of interest (ROI) were specified in the field of view of video cameras. We used a normalized correlation pattern-matching algorithm to compute the translations of each ROI pattern in a target image. These translations were compared against trial translations using a quadratic cost function for an optimization process in which the patient rotation and translational parameters were calculated. Results: A hierarchical search technique achieved high-speed (compute correlation for 128x128 ROI in 512x512 target image within 0.005 s) and subpixel spatial accuracy (as high as 0.2 pixel). By treating the observed translations as movements of points on the surfaces of a hypothetical cube, we were able to estimate accurately the actual translations and rotations of the test phantoms used in our experiments to less than 1 mm and 0.2 deg. with a standard deviation of 0.3 mm and 0.5 deg. respectively. For human volunteer cases, we estimated the translations and rotations to have an accuracy of 2 mm and 1.2 deg. Conclusion: A personal computer-based video system is suitable for routine patient setup of fractionated conformal radiotherapy. It is expected to achieve high-precision repositioning of the skin surface with high efficiency

  16. Expert systems in clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaud-Salis, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The first expert systems prototypes intended for advising physicians on diagnosis or therapy selection have been designed more than ten years ago. However, a few of them are already in use in clinical practice after years of research and development efforts. The capabilities of these systems to reason symbolically and to mimic the hypothetico-deductive processes used by physicians distinguishes them from conventional computer programs. Their power comes from their knowledge-base which embeds a large quantity of high-level, specialized knowledge captured from medical experts. Common methods for knowledge representation include production rules and frames. These methods also provide a mean for organizing and structuring the knowledge according to hierarchical or causal links. The best expert-systems perform at the level of the experts. They are easy to learn and use, and can communicate with the user in pseudo-natural language. Moreover they are able to explain their line of reasoning. These capabilities make them potentially useful, usable and acceptable by physicians. However if the problems related to difficulties and costs in building expert-systems are on the way to be solved within the next few years, forensic and ethical issues should have to be addressed before one can envisage their routine use in clinical practice [fr

  17. Expert system technology for the military

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, J.E.; Carmody, C.L.; Buteau, B.L.; Keller, K.; Levitt, T.S.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the applications of expert systems to complex military problems. A brief description of needs for expert systems in the military arena is given. A short tutorial on some of the elements of an expert system is found in Appendix I. An important aspect of expert systems concerns using uncertain information and ill-defined procedures. Many of the general techniques of dealing with uncertainty are described in Appendix II. These techniques include Bayesian certainty factors, Dempster-Shafer theory of uncertainty, and Zadeh's fuzzy set theory. The major portion of the paper addresses specific expert system examples such as resource allocation, identification of radar images, maintenance and troubleshooting of electronic equipment, and the interpretation and understanding of radar images. Extensions of expert systems to incorporate learning are examined in the context of military intelligence to determine the disposition, location, and intention of the adversary. The final application involves the use of distributed communicating cooperating expert systems for battle management. Finally, the future of expert systems and their evolving capabilities are discussed

  18. Expert systems as decision tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, C.K.

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of using expert systems as an aid in regulatory compliance functions has been investigated. A literature review was carried out to identify applications of expert systems to regulatory affairs. A bibliography of the small literature on such applications was prepared. A prototype system, ARIES, was developed to demonstrate the use of an expert system as an aid to a Project Officer in assuring compliance with licence requirements. The system runs on a personal computer with a graphical interface. Extensive use is made of hypertext to link interrelated rules and requirements as well as to provide an explanation facility. Based on the performance of ARIES the development of a field version is recommended

  19. Huffman-based code compression techniques for embedded processors

    KAUST Repository

    Bonny, Mohamed Talal; Henkel, Jö rg

    2010-01-01

    % for ARM and MIPS, respectively. In our compression technique, we have conducted evaluations using a representative set of applications and we have applied each technique to two major embedded processor architectures, namely ARM and MIPS. © 2010 ACM.

  20. Skull base tumours part I: Imaging technique, anatomy and anterior skull base tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Advances in cross-sectional imaging, surgical technique and adjuvant treatment have largely contributed to ameliorate the prognosis, lessen the morbidity and mortality of patients with skull base tumours and to the growing medical investment in the management of these patients. Because clinical assessment of the skull base is limited, cross-sectional imaging became indispensable in the diagnosis, treatment planning and follow-up of patients with suspected skull base pathology and the radiologist is increasingly responsible for the fate of these patients. This review will focus on the advances in imaging technique; contribution to patient's management and on the imaging features of the most common tumours affecting the anterior skull base. Emphasis is given to a systematic approach to skull base pathology based upon an anatomic division taking into account the major tissue constituents in each skull base compartment. The most relevant information that should be conveyed to surgeons and radiation oncologists involved in patient's management will be discussed

  1. SOME “EXOTIC” INFORMATION SOURCES THAT HAVE BEEN DISCOVERED DURING THE SELECTION OF SERIAL PUBLICATIONS TO SUPPORT RESEARCH IN ENERGY SECURITY, ENERGY CONSERVATION AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGIES AND TECHNIQUES: ADVANTAGEOUS ADDITION FOR “PROFESSIONAL READING” OF A POWER ENGINEERING EXPERT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Lazarev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is a fragment of ongoing research aimed at creating a comfortable information environment that provides access to the publications of international scientific journals and other periodicals and continuing publications that are necessary to support qualitative performance of research in Priority Directions of the Research and Technical Activities in the Republic of Belarus for 2016–2020. During the citation analysis-based selection of the world scientific serial publications apposite for a qualitative performance of research in energy security, energy conservation and energy efficient technologies and techniques with the use of the data of Journal Citation Reports® (which basic results are available at: https://figshare.com/articles/energy_sec_xlsx/5606053/2 a noticeable amount of non-serial items was also found out in addition to serial publications, as well as some publications that, though being serial, did not look typical to be used in the research activities. Individual consideration of each such “exotic” information source confirmed, however, that their noticeable citedness by the world experts in power engineering looked quite natural. Moreover, it becomes clear that these (apparently wrongly reflected in Journal Citation Reports® information sources are, however, not an “information noise”, but a useful addition to the “professional reading” of power engineering experts. Since these sources are publicly available via the Internet, it was decided just to recommend them for inclusion in the “professional reading” of the CIS power engineering experts, providing the latter with URLs and brief recommendations for the use. All the mentioned data is given in the present article. As for the species structure of the information sources included in our reference list, there are: a database with online access; web-sites of news agencies; web-site of the International Energy Agency; statistical yearbooks and the

  2. Trendwatch combining expert opinion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrix, E.M.T.; Kornelis, M.; Pegge, S.M.; Galen, van M.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, focus is on a systematic way to detect future changes in trends that may effect the dynamics in the agro-food sector, and on the combination of opinions of experts. For the combination of expert opinions, the usefulness of multilevel models is investigated. Bayesian data analysis is

  3. Comparative assessment of PIV-based pressure evaluation techniques applied to a transonic base flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blinde, P; Michaelis, D; van Oudheusden, B.W.; Weiss, P.E.; de Kat, R.; Laskari, A.; Jeon, Y.J.; David, L; Schanz, D; Huhn, F.; Gesemann, S; Novara, M.; McPhaden, C.; Neeteson, N.; Rival, D.; Schneiders, J.F.G.; Schrijer, F.F.J.

    2016-01-01

    A test case for PIV-based pressure evaluation techniques has been developed by constructing a simulated experiment from a ZDES simulation for an axisymmetric base flow at Mach 0.7. The test case comprises sequences of four subsequent particle images (representing multi-pulse data) as well as

  4. NNAlign: A Web-Based Prediction Method Allowing Non-Expert End-User Discovery of Sequence Motifs in Quantitative Peptide Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreatta, Massimo; Schafer-Nielsen, Claus; Lund, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in high-throughput technologies have made it possible to generate both gene and protein sequence data at an unprecedented rate and scale thereby enabling entirely new "omics"-based approaches towards the analysis of complex biological processes. However, the amount and complexity...... to interpret large data sets. We have recently developed a method, NNAlign, which is generally applicable to any biological problem where quantitative peptide data is available. This method efficiently identifies underlying sequence patterns by simultaneously aligning peptide sequences and identifying motifs...... associated with quantitative readouts. Here, we provide a web-based implementation of NNAlign allowing non-expert end-users to submit their data (optionally adjusting method parameters), and in return receive a trained method (including a visual representation of the identified motif) that subsequently can...

  5. Models, methods and software for distributed knowledge acquisition for the automated construction of integrated expert systems knowledge bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejneko, A.O.

    2011-01-01

    Based on an analysis of existing models, methods and means of acquiring knowledge, a base method of automated knowledge acquisition has been chosen. On the base of this method, a new approach to integrate information acquired from knowledge sources of different typologies has been proposed, and the concept of a distributed knowledge acquisition with the aim of computerized formation of the most complete and consistent models of problem areas has been introduced. An original algorithm for distributed knowledge acquisition from databases, based on the construction of binary decision trees has been developed [ru

  6. A novel technique for active vibration control, based on optimal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the last few decades, researchers have proposed many control techniques to suppress unwanted vibrations in a structure. In this work, a novel and simple technique is proposed for the active vibration control. In this technique, an optimal tracking control is employed to suppress vibrations in a structure by simultaneously ...

  7. Hierarchical Model of Assessing and Selecting Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernysheva, T. Y.; Korchuganova, M. A.; Borisov, V. V.; Min'kov, S. L.

    2016-04-01

    Revealing experts’ competences is a multi-objective issue. Authors of the paper deal with competence assessing methods of experts seen as objects, and criteria of qualities. An analytic hierarchy process of assessing and ranking experts is offered, which is based on paired comparison matrices and scores, quality parameters are taken into account as well. Calculation and assessment of experts is given as an example.

  8. Acellular dermal matrix based nipple reconstruction: A modified technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavan Vidya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nipple areolar reconstruction (NAR has evolved with the advancement in breast reconstruction and can improve self-esteem and, consequently, patient satisfaction. Although a variety of reconstruction techniques have been described in the literature varying from nipple sharing, local flaps to alloplastic and allograft augmentation, over time, loss of nipple projection remains a major problem. Acellular dermal matrices (ADM have revolutionised breast reconstruction more recently. We discuss the use of ADM to act as a base plate and strut to give support to the base and offer nipple bulk and projection in a primary procedure of NAR with a local clover shaped dermal flap in 5 breasts (4 patients. We used 5-point Likert scales (1 = highly unsatisfied, 5 = highly satisfied to assess patient satisfaction. Median age was 46 years (range: 38–55 years. Nipple projection of 8 mm, 7 mm, and 7 mms were achieved in the unilateral cases and 6 mm in the bilateral case over a median 18 month period. All patients reported at least a 4 on the Likert scale. We had no post-operative complications. It seems that nipple areolar reconstruction [NAR] using ADM can achieve nipple projection which is considered aesthetically pleasing for patients.

  9. Crack identification based on synthetic artificial intelligent technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Mun Bo; Suh, Myung Won

    2001-01-01

    It has been established that a crack has an important effect on the dynamic behavior of a structure. This effect depends mainly on the location and depth of the crack. To identify the location and depth of a crack in a structure, a method is presented in this paper which uses synthetic artificial intelligent technique, that is, Adaptive-Network-based Fuzzy Inference System(ANFIS) solved via hybrid learning algorithm(the back-propagation gradient descent and the least-squares method) are used to learn the input(the location and depth of a crack)-output(the structural eigenfrequencies) relation of the structural system. With this ANFIS and a Continuous Evolutionary Algorithm(CEA), it is possible to formulate the inverse problem. CEAs based on genetic algorithms work efficiently for continuous search space optimization problems like a parameter identification problem. With this ANFIS, CEAs are used to identify the crack location and depth minimizing the difference from the measured frequencies. We have tried this new idea on a simple beam structure and the results are promising

  10. Structural design systems using knowledge-based techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orsborn, K.

    1993-01-01

    Engineering information management and the corresponding information systems are of a strategic importance for industrial enterprises. This thesis treats the interdisciplinary field of designing computing systems for structural design and analysis using knowledge-based techniques. Specific conceptual models have been designed for representing the structure and the process of objects and activities in a structural design and analysis domain. In this thesis, it is shown how domain knowledge can be structured along several classification principles in order to reduce complexity and increase flexibility. By increasing the conceptual level of the problem description and representation of the domain knowledge in a declarative form, it is possible to enhance the development, maintenance and use of software for mechanical engineering. This will result in a corresponding increase of the efficiency of the mechanical engineering design process. These ideas together with the rule-based control point out the leverage of declarative knowledge representation within this domain. Used appropriately, a declarative knowledge representation preserves information better, is more problem-oriented and change-tolerant than procedural representations. 74 refs

  11. Positron emission tomography, physical bases and comparaison with other techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guermazi, Fadhel; Hamza, F; Amouri, W.; Charfeddine, S.; Kallel, S.; Jardak, I.

    2013-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a medical imaging technique that measures the three-dimensional distribution of molecules marked by a positron-emitting particle. PET has grown significantly in clinical fields, particularly in oncology for diagnosis and therapeutic follow purposes. The technical evolutions of this technique are fast. Among the technical improvements, is the coupling of the PET scan with computed tomography (CT). PET is obtained by intravenous injection of a radioactive tracer. The marker is usually fluorine ( 18 F) embedded in a glucose molecule forming the 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-18). This tracer, similar to glucose, binds to tissues that consume large quantities of the sugar such cancerous tissue, cardiac muscle or brain. Detection using scintillation crystals (BGO, LSO, LYSO) suitable for high energy (511keV) recognizes the lines of the gamma photons originating from the annihilation of a positron with an electron. The electronics of detection or coincidence circuit is based on two criteria: a time window, of about 6 to 15 ns, and an energy window. This system measures the true coincidences that correspond to the detection of two photons of 511 kV from the same annihilation. Most PET devices are constituted by a series of elementary detectors distributed annularly around the patient. Each detector comprises a scintillation crystal matrix coupled to a finite number (4 or 6) of photomultipliers. The electronic circuit, or the coincidence circuit, determines the projection point of annihilation by means of two elementary detectors. The processing of such information must be extremely fast, considering the count rates encountered in practice. The information measured by the coincidence circuit is then positioned in a matrix or sinogram, which contains a set of elements of a projection section of the object. Images are obtained by tomographic reconstruction by powerful computer stations equipped with a software tools allowing the analysis and

  12. Expert consensus statement to guide the evidence-based classification of Paralympic athletes with vision impairment: a Delphi study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravensbergen, H.J.C.; Mann, D.L.; Kamper, S.J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Paralympic sports are required to develop evidence-based systems that allocate athletes into 'classes' on the basis of the impact of their impairment on sport performance. However, sports for athletes with vision impairment (VI) classify athletes solely based on the WHO criteria for low

  13. Validation techniques of agent based modelling for geospatial simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Darvishi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most interesting aspects of modelling and simulation study is to describe the real world phenomena that have specific properties; especially those that are in large scales and have dynamic and complex behaviours. Studying these phenomena in the laboratory is costly and in most cases it is impossible. Therefore, Miniaturization of world phenomena in the framework of a model in order to simulate the real phenomena is a reasonable and scientific approach to understand the world. Agent-based modelling and simulation (ABMS is a new modelling method comprising of multiple interacting agent. They have been used in the different areas; for instance, geographic information system (GIS, biology, economics, social science and computer science. The emergence of ABM toolkits in GIS software libraries (e.g. ESRI’s ArcGIS, OpenMap, GeoTools, etc for geospatial modelling is an indication of the growing interest of users to use of special capabilities of ABMS. Since ABMS is inherently similar to human cognition, therefore it could be built easily and applicable to wide range applications than a traditional simulation. But a key challenge about ABMS is difficulty in their validation and verification. Because of frequent emergence patterns, strong dynamics in the system and the complex nature of ABMS, it is hard to validate and verify ABMS by conventional validation methods. Therefore, attempt to find appropriate validation techniques for ABM seems to be necessary. In this paper, after reviewing on Principles and Concepts of ABM for and its applications, the validation techniques and challenges of ABM validation are discussed.

  14. Validation techniques of agent based modelling for geospatial simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvishi, M.; Ahmadi, G.

    2014-10-01

    One of the most interesting aspects of modelling and simulation study is to describe the real world phenomena that have specific properties; especially those that are in large scales and have dynamic and complex behaviours. Studying these phenomena in the laboratory is costly and in most cases it is impossible. Therefore, Miniaturization of world phenomena in the framework of a model in order to simulate the real phenomena is a reasonable and scientific approach to understand the world. Agent-based modelling and simulation (ABMS) is a new modelling method comprising of multiple interacting agent. They have been used in the different areas; for instance, geographic information system (GIS), biology, economics, social science and computer science. The emergence of ABM toolkits in GIS software libraries (e.g. ESRI's ArcGIS, OpenMap, GeoTools, etc) for geospatial modelling is an indication of the growing interest of users to use of special capabilities of ABMS. Since ABMS is inherently similar to human cognition, therefore it could be built easily and applicable to wide range applications than a traditional simulation. But a key challenge about ABMS is difficulty in their validation and verification. Because of frequent emergence patterns, strong dynamics in the system and the complex nature of ABMS, it is hard to validate and verify ABMS by conventional validation methods. Therefore, attempt to find appropriate validation techniques for ABM seems to be necessary. In this paper, after reviewing on Principles and Concepts of ABM for and its applications, the validation techniques and challenges of ABM validation are discussed.

  15. Ground-based intercomparison of two isoprene measurement techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Leibrock

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An informal intercomparison of two isoprene (C5H8 measurement techniques was carried out during Fall of 1998 at a field site located approximately 3 km west of Boulder, Colorado, USA. A new chemical ionization mass spectrometric technique (CIMS was compared to a well-established gas chromatographic technique (GC. The CIMS technique utilized benzene cation chemistry to ionize isoprene. The isoprene levels measured by the CIMS were often larger than those obtained with the GC. The results indicate that the CIMS technique suffered from an anthropogenic interference associated with air masses from the Denver, CO metropolitan area as well as an additional interference occurring in clean conditions. However, the CIMS technique is also demonstrated to be sensitive and fast. Especially after introduction of a tandem mass spectrometric technique, it is therefore a candidate for isoprene measurements in remote environments near isoprene sources.

  16. A linac-based stereotactic irradiation technique of uveal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieckmann, Karin; Bogner, Joachim; Georg, Dietmar; Zehetmayer, Martin; Kren, Gerhard; Poetter, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To describe a stereotactic irradiation technique for uveal melanomas performed at a linac, based on a non-invasive eye fixation and eye monitoring system. Methods: For eye immobilization a light source system is integrated in a standard stereotactic mask system in front of the healthy eye: During treatment preparation (computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging) as well as for treatment delivery, patients are instructed to gaze at the fixation light source. A mini-video camera monitors the pupil center position of the diseased eye. For treatment planning and beam delivery standard stereotactic radiotherapy equipment is used. If the pupil center deviation from a predefined 'zero-position' exceeds 1 mm (for more than 2 s), treatment delivery is interrupted. Between 1996 and 1999 60 patients with uveal melanomas, where (i) tumor height exceeded 7 mm, or (ii) tumor height was more than 3 mm, and the central tumor distance to the optic disc and/or the macula was less than 3 mm, have been treated. A total dose of 60 or 70 Gy has been given in 5 fractions within 10 days. Results: The repositioning accuracy in the mask system is 0.47±0.36 mm in rostral-occipital direction, 0.75±0.52 mm laterally, and 1.12±0.96 mm in vertical direction. An eye movement analysis performed for 23 patients shows a pupil center deviation from the 'zero' position<1 mm in 91% of all cases investigated. In a theoretical analysis, pupil center deviations are correlated with GTV 'movements'. For a pupil center deviation of 1 mm (rotation of the globe of 5 degree sign ) the GTV is still encompassed by the 80% isodose in 94%. Conclusion: For treatments of uveal melanomas, linac-based stereotactic radiotherapy combined with a non-invasive eye immobilization and monitoring system represents a feasible, accurate and reproducible method. Besides considerable technical requirements, the complexity of the treatment technique demands an interdisciplinary team continuously dedicated to this

  17. Expert system verification and validation for nuclear power industry applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naser, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    The potential for the use of expert systems in the nuclear power industry is widely recognized. The benefits of such systems include consistency of reasoning during off-normal situations when humans are under great stress, the reduction of times required to perform certain functions, the prevention of equipment failures through predictive diagnostics, and the retention of human expertise in performing specialized functions. The increased use of expert systems brings with it concerns about their reliability. Difficulties arising from software problems can affect plant safety, reliability, and availability. A joint project between EPRI and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is being initiated to develop a methodology for verification and validation of expert systems for nuclear power applications. This methodology will be tested on existing and developing expert systems. This effort will explore the applicability of conventional verification and validation methodologies to expert systems. The major area of concern will be certification of the knowledge base. This is expected to require new types of verification and validation techniques. A methodology for developing validation scenarios will also be studied

  18. Expert database system for quality control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anne J.; Li, Zhi-Cheng

    1993-09-01

    There are more competitors today. Markets are not homogeneous they are fragmented into increasingly focused niches requiring greater flexibility in the product mix shorter manufacturing production runs and above allhigher quality. In this paper the author identified a real-time expert system as a way to improve plantwide quality management. The quality control expert database system (QCEDS) by integrating knowledge of experts in operations quality management and computer systems use all information relevant to quality managementfacts as well as rulesto determine if a product meets quality standards. Keywords: expert system quality control data base

  19. Liquid low level waste management expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrada, J.J.; Abraham, T.J.; Jackson, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    An expert system has been developed as part of a new initiative for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) systems analysis program. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem, as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. 4 refs., 9 figs

  20. MAESTRO - a model and expert system tuning resource for operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lager, D.L.; Brand, H.R.; Maurer, W.J.; Coffield, F.; Chambers, F.

    1990-01-01

    We have developed MAESTRO, a model and expert system tuning resource for operators. It provides a unified software environment for optimizing the performance of large, complex machines, in particular the Advanced Test Accelerator and Experimental Test Accelerator at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The system incorporates three approaches to tuning: a mouse-based manual interface to select and control magnets and to view displays of machine performance; an automation based on 'cloning the operator' by implementing the strategies and reasoning used by the operator; and an automation based on a simulator model which, when accurately matched to the machine, allows downloading of optimal sets of parameters and permits diagnosing errors in the beam line. The latter two approaches are based on the artificial-intelligence technique known as Expert Systems. (orig.)