WorldWideScience

Sample records for tebulan west area

  1. Report on the FY 1993 basic survey for industrialization related to the survey of overseas geological structure (Tebulan East area, Malaysia); 1993 nendo kaigai chishitsu kozo nado chosa ni kakawaru kigyoka kiso chosa (Malaysia Tebulan higashi chiku) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The survey was conducted based on 'Scope of work for detailed coal exploration in the Tebulan East block of the Merit Pila coal field, Sarawak, Malaysia' concluded on June 19, 1993 between NEDO and Global Mineral which owns the mining right. The field survey was for the geological survey, survey of conditions of open pit mining, and infrastructure survey. The confirmed/estimated coal amount totaled 22,65 million tons in 4 coal seams. The all sulfur content is low, approximately 0.12%. The heating value is 5,820 kcal/kg. As to the infrastructure, various conditions are good for transportation, shipping facilities, etc. from mine site to truck transport/barge transport/external route shipping. The drilling was planned to be made by open pit mining by the truck and shovel system, and the scale of the planned production was 0.3 million tons. The ash is low in amount, and there was no coal preparation. Clean coal is produced by crushing, sieving and washing. Attached were the borehole log (JN9940782), route map, and trench sketch (JN9940783). (NEDO)

  2. Upgrading of the West Area

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The rejigged main hall (EHW1) in the West Area: on background, below the crane, is the brown yoke of the Omega magnet which had been resited. The upgrading was completed by the time in July when 400 GeV protons arrived. See Annual Report 1983 p. 107.

  3. West Coast Rockfish Conservation Areas, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data delineate Rockfish Conservation Areas (RCA) off the West Coast of the United States for 2015. There are three types of areas closures depicted in this...

  4. 33 CFR 110.189a - Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.189a Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area. (a) The anchorage ground. A circular area with its...

  5. CHEAT MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, WEST VIRGINIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, K.J.; Behum, P.T.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey determined that coal is the most important mineral resource in the Cheat Mountain Roadless Area, West Virginia. It is tentatively ranked as high-volatile A to medium-volatile bituminous similar to coal in nearby mining areas, and is primarily of coking quality. Demonstrated coal resources are estimated to total about 11. 6 million short tons in beds more than 28 in. thick in areas of substantiated resource potential and an additional 32. 7 million short tons in beds between 14 and 28 in. thick have been identified. Limestone, shale, clay, and sandstone occur in the area but these commodities are readily available outside the roadless area. Available information suggests little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or other energy resources in the area.

  6. CRANBERRY WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, WEST VIRGINIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Charles R.; Mory, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Cranberry Wilderness Study Area, West Virginia contains a large demonstrated resource of bituminous coal of coking quality. Demonstrated coal resources in beds more than 14 in. thick are about 110 million short tons of which 56. 5 million tons are in beds more than 28 in. thick in areas of substantiated coal resource potential. Other mineral resources in the study area include peat, shale and clay suitable for building brick and lightweight aggregate, sandstone suitable for low-quality glass sand, and sandstone suitable for construction material. These commodities are found in abundance in other areas throughout the State. Study of the drill-hole data did not reveal indications of a potential for oil and gas resources in the study area. Evidence of metallic mineral potential was not found during this investigation.

  7. Tourist events in the area of West Morava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjeljac Željko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current tourist offer, tourism of events presents a kind of tourism that could contribute to extending the tourist demand, especially towards natural and anthropogenic values of a tourist site or region. West Morava's area is the southernmost Panonian-subregion in Serbia, and is related to the valley of the West Morava River. This region is also one of the most visited tourist destinations in Serbia. The aim of this paper is to establish the correlation between the formal events and spa resorts, rural, cultural, and gastronomic tourism in the area which also presents a significant transitive tourist destination.

  8. Catch tanks inhibitor addition 200-East and 200-West Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palit, A.N.

    1996-01-01

    Reported is the study of 11 catch tanks in the 200-East Area and the 7 catch tanks in the 200-West Area listed as active. The location, capacity, material of construction, annual total accumulation, annual rain intrusion, waste transfer rate, and access for chemical injection in these tanks are documented. The present and future utilization and isolation plans for the catch tanks are established

  9. P-West High Intensity Secondary Beam Area Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, A.; Currier, R.; Eartly, D.; Guthke, A.; Johnson, G.; Lee, D.; Dram, R.; Villegas, E.; Rest, J.; Tilles, E.; Vander Arend, P.

    1977-03-01

    This report gives the initial design parameters of a 1000 GeV High Intensity Superconducting Secondary Beam Laboratory to be situated in the Proton Area downstream of the existing Proton West experimental station. The area will provide Fermilab with a major capability for experimentation with pion and antiproton beams of intensities and of energies available at no other laboratory and with an electron beam with excellent spot size, intensity, and purity at energies far above that available at electron machines. Detailed beam design, area layouts, and cost estimates are presented, along with the design considerations.

  10. 200 West Groundwater Aggregate Area management study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the 200 West Groundwater Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Facility Investigations (Rlq) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past practice investigations

  11. The alignment of the CERN west area neutrino facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casagrande, L.; Palladino, V.; Catanesi, M.G.; Falaleev, V.; Guglielmi, A.; Peraire, S.; Quesnel, J.P.; Rijk, G. de; Tsesmelis, E.; Plothow-Besch, H.; Tovey, S.; Melbourne Univ., Parkville; Winton, L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the alignment (completed in the spring of 1995) of the rebuilt CERN West Area neutrino beam line which is directed to the two neutrino experiments CHORUS and NOMAD. The neutrino target (T9)and the magnetic horn were aligned with respect to the proton beam using the intensity of the secondary particles produced and the intensity and profile of the muons detected in the pits in the beam line shielding. The improved geometry provides a better-centred neutrino beam (within 5 cm of the nominal centre) and a significant increase in the neutrino flux of 8% at the experiments. (orig.)

  12. Strategic environmental impact assessment of hydrocarbon activities in the Disko West area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosbech, A.; Boertmann, D.; Jespersen, Martin

    2007-05-01

    This publication is a strategic environmental impact assessment of activities related to exploration, development and exploitation of hydrocarbons in the sea of West Greenland between 67 deg. and 71 deg. N (the Disko West Area). (au)

  13. Strategic environmental impact assessment of hydrocarbon activities in the Disko West area[Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosbech, A.; Boertmann, D.; Jespersen, Martin

    2007-05-15

    This publication is a strategic environmental impact assessment of activities related to exploration, development and exploitation of hydrocarbons in the sea of West Greenland between 67 deg. and 71 deg. N (= the Disko West Area). (au)

  14. 33 CFR 334.610 - Key West Harbor, at U.S. Naval Base, Key West, Fla.; naval restricted areas and danger zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Key West Harbor, at U.S. Naval Base, Key West, Fla.; naval restricted areas and danger zone. 334.610 Section 334.610 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.610 Key West Harbor, at U.S. Naval Base, Key West, Fla.; naval restricted...

  15. 76 FR 60358 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Indiana, Maine, Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    .... APHIS-2010-0075] Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Indiana, Maine, Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wisconsin AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Affirmation of... amended the regulations to add areas in Indiana, Maine, Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wisconsin to...

  16. Hydrogeology and water quality of the Leetown area, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Mark D.; McCoy, Kurt J.; Weary, David J.; Field, Malcolm S.; Pierce, Herbert A.; Schill, William Bane; Young, John A.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s Leetown Science Center and the co-located U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture both depend on large volumes of cold clean ground water to support research operations at their facilities. Currently, ground-water demands are provided by three springs and two standby production wells used to augment supplies during periods of low spring flow. Future expansion of research operations at the Leetown Science Center is dependent on assessing the availability and quality of water to the facilities and in locating prospective sites for additional wells to augment existing water supplies. The hydrogeology of the Leetown area, West Virginia, is a structurally complex karst aquifer. Although the aquifer is a karst system, it is not typical of most highly cavernous karst systems, but is dominated by broad areas of fractured rock drained by a relatively small number of solution conduits. Characterization of the aquifer by use of fluorometric tracer tests, a common approach in most karst terranes, therefore only partly defines the hydrogeologic setting of the area. In order to fully assess the hydrogeology and water quality in the vicinity of Leetown, a multi-disciplinary approach that included both fractured rock and karst research components was needed. The U.S. Geological Survey developed this multi-disciplinary research effort to include geologic, hydrologic, geophysical, geographic, water-quality, and microbiological investigations in order to fully characterize the hydrogeology and water quality of the Leetown area, West Virginia. Detailed geologic and karst mapping provided the framework on which hydrologic investigations were based. Fracture trace and lineament analysis helped locate potential water-bearing fractures and guided installation of monitoring wells. Monitoring wells were drilled for borehole geophysical surveys, water-quality sampling, water-level measurements, and aquifer tests to

  17. Environmental assessment for the salvage/demolition of 200 West Area, 200 East Area, and 300 Area steam plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This environmental assessment has been prepared to assess potential environmental impacts associated with the US Department of Energy's proposed action: the salvage/demolition of the 200 West Area, 200 East Area, and 300 Area Steam Plants and steam distribution piping. Impact information will be used by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office Manager, to determine if the proposed action is a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. If the proposed action is determined to be major and significant, an environmental impact statement will be prepared. If the proposed action is determined not to be major and significant, a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) will be issued and the action can proceed. The proposed action involves the salvage and demolition of the 200 West Area, 200 East Are, and 300 Area steam plants and their associated steam distribution piping, equipment, and ancillary facilities. Activities include the salvaging and recycling of all materials, wastes, and equipment where feasible, with waste minimization efforts utilized

  18. Soil gas radon–thoron monitoring in Dharamsala area of north-west ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    thoron concentrations performed at Dharamsala region of north-west (NW) Himalayas, India. The study area is tectonically and environ- mentally significant and shows the features of ductile shear zone due to the presence of distinct thrust planes.

  19. Views of West Valley area residents concerning the Nuclear Fuel Services facility at West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamieniecki, S.; Milbrath, L.W.

    1978-06-01

    A number of major findings have emerged from this analysis. Although most people have heard or read about the Nuclear Fuel Services plant at West Valley, few exhibit a high level of knowledge about the issue area. A clear majority of residents living in the region are concerned about the presence of the facility. Many are particularly concerned about the health dangers that can result from radioactive contamination of the environment. People want to see something done about the facility, but do not know exactly what. When forced to choose one out of three possible alternatives, twice as many people preferred to ''completely remove the plant and restore the area'' than either of the two remaining alternatives. People who are concerned about the facility tend to favor removal of the plant and restoration of the area. Nearly three-fourths of West Valley area residents who believe that the plant did not employ enough people to significantly help the economy of the region favor removal of the facility and restoration of the area. The results of this study may help policymakers choose the most acceptable course of action

  20. Relative tectonic activity classification in Kermanshah area, west Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arian, M.; Aram, Z.

    2014-07-01

    The High Zagros region because of closing to subduction zone and the collision of the Arabian and Eurasian plates is imposed under the most tectonic variations. In this research, Gharasu river basin that it has located in Kermanshah area was selected as the study area and 6 geomorphic indices were calculated and the results of each ones were divided in 3 classes. Then, using the indices, relative tectonic activity was calculated and the values were classified and analyzed in 4 groups. Regions were identified as very high, high, moderate and low. In analyzing the results and combining them with field observation and regional geology the results are often associated and justified with field evidences. The highest value is located on Dokeral anticline in crush zone in Zagros Most of the areas with high and moderate values of lat are located on crush zone in Zagros too. Crushing of this zone is because of main faults mechanism of Zagros region. The result of this paper confirms previous researches in this region. At the end of the eastern part of the study area, the value of Iat is high that could be the result of Sarab and Koh-e Sefid faults mechanism.

  1. Burden of fetal alcohol syndrome in a rural West Coast area of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rural area in the West Coast region of the Western Cape invited our research team to assess levels of FAS/PFAS, as well as substance use, in pregnancy. The study therefore aimed to document the prevalence and risk factors for FAS/PFAS in this isolated rural community, and to provide information to assist the community ...

  2. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 216-S-26 Crib, 200 West Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, J.W.; Evelo, S.D.; Alexander, D.J.

    1993-11-01

    This report assesses the impact of wastewater discharged to the 216-S-26 Crib on groundwater quality. The 216-S-26 Crib, located in the southern 200 West Area, has been in use since 1984 to dispose of liquid effluents from the 222-S Laboratory Complex. The 222-S Laboratory Complex effluent stream includes wastewater from four sources: the 222-S Laboratory, the 219-S Waste Storage Facility, the 222-SA Chemical Standards Laboratory, and the 291-S Exhaust Fan Control House and Stack. Based on assessment of groundwater chemistry and flow data, contaminant transport predictions, and groundwater chemistry data, the 216-S-26 Crib has minimal influence on groundwater contamination in the southern 200 West Area

  3. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 216-S-26 Crib, 200 West Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, J.W.; Evelo, S.D.; Alexander, D.J.

    1993-11-01

    This report assesses the impact of wastewater discharged to the 216-S-26 Crib on groundwater quality. The 216-S-26 Crib, located in the southern 200 West Area, has been in use since 1984 to dispose of liquid effluents from the 222-S Laboratory Complex. The 222-S Laboratory Complex effluent stream includes wastewater from four sources: the 222-S Laboratory, the 219-S Waste Storage Facility, the 222-SA Chemical Standards Laboratory, and the 291-S Exhaust Fan Control House and Stack. Based on assessment of groundwater chemistry and flow data, contaminant transport predictions, and groundwater chemistry data, the 216-S-26 Crib has minimal influence on groundwater contamination in the southern 200 West Area.

  4. Geochemical characterisation of granitoids of Wahkut area, West Khasi Hills district, Meghalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.V.; Panigrahi, B.; Pramod Kumar; Hanumanthappa, D.; Chopra, J.R.; Joshi, G.B.

    2013-01-01

    Palaeo-Meso Proterozoic Shillong Group of rocks, Neoproterozoic granitoids and Late Jurassic Sylhet trap from the basement for Upper Cretaceous to Tertiary Mahadek sediments in the southern fringes of Meghalaya plateau. The Mahadek sediments are exposed over 180 km long and < 5 - 20 km wide zone in Jaintia on the east, East Khasi, West Khasi and Garo Hills districts on the west. It comprises about 2400 m thick succession overlying the basement. The lower part of the sedimentary column is divisible into Jadukata (∼235m) and Mahadek Formations (∼200m) of Upper Cretaceous age, which are overlain by Tertiary sequences. Wahkut area is located in the central part of the basin where granitoids comprising pink, grey and gneissic varieties form the basement for Mahadek sediments which host the second largest sandstone type uranium deposit of the country. Further north of the area, pink and grey granites have intrusive relationship with granite gneisses, pink phase being the youngest

  5. 1997-1998 Annual Review of the 200 West and 200 East area performance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WOOD, M.I.

    1999-01-01

    An annual review of the 200 West and 200 East Area Performance Assessment (PA) analyses for fiscal year 1998 was completed. Burial ground disposal operations were found to be compliant with performance objectives in DOE Order 5820.2A. Other newly generated information and analyses relevant to PA assumptions and results were summarized. This report was initially submitted to the Department of Energy-Richland Office (DOE-RL) as a letter report in October, 1998

  6. PROPERTIES AND MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS OF SOILS FORMED FROM VOLCANIC MATERIALS IN LEMBANG AREA, WEST JAVA

    OpenAIRE

    Edi Yatno; Siti Zauyah

    2016-01-01

    Soils formed from volcanic materials have a high potential for agricultural development, especially for horticultural crops, tea, and pine trees. Data on the characteristics of these soils are important for the management planning. Six representative soil profiles developed on andesitic volcanic ash and tuff in Lembang area, West Java were studied to determine the soil physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties, to study the relationship between the soil properties, and to classify the ...

  7. Properties and Management Implications of Soils Formed From Volcanic Materials in Lembang Area, West Java

    OpenAIRE

    Yatno, Edi; Zauyah, Siti

    2008-01-01

    Soils formed from volcanic materials have a high potential for agricultural development, especially for horticultural crops, tea, and pine trees. Data on the characteristics of these soils are important for the management planning. Six representative soil profiles developed on andesitic volcanic ash and tuff in Lembang area, West Java were studied to determine the soil physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties, to study the relationship between the soil properties, and to classify the ...

  8. Landslides in West Coast metropolitan areas: The role of extreme weather events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Biasutti

    2016-12-01

    That a news-based catalog of landslides is accurate enough to allow the identification of different landslide/rainfall relationships in the major urban areas along the US West Coast suggests that this technology can potentially be used for other English-language cities and could become an even more powerful tool if expanded to other languages and non-traditional news sources, such as social media.

  9. Costs of reducing sapling basal area in thinned cherry-maple stands in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary W. Miller

    1984-01-01

    Unmanaged 60-year-old cherry-maple stands in West Virginia were thinned to three levels of stocking according to the Allegheny hardwoods stocking guide. After the merchantable timber was removed, the basal area in saplings was reduced to less than 10 ft² per acre (2.3 m²/ha), as the guide recommends for stands with dense understories. A detailed time...

  10. Geology and potency of Uranium mineralization occurrences in Harau area, West Sumatera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngadenin

    2013-01-01

    The Background of this study is due to the geological setting of Harau area and its surrounding, West Sumatera, that is identified as a favourable area for uranium accumulation which is indicated by the presence of anomalous radioactivity in the Tertiary sedimentary rocks deposited on the terrestrial environment and the presence of anomalous uranium contents in Pre-Tertiary granites in several places in West Sumatera, and the presence of radioactivity anomalous in the Pre Tertiary metamorphic rocks. The purpose of this study is to determine the potential formation of uranium mineralization in the Harau area, to be used as a basis to conduct more detailed research in order to inventory the potential of uranium resources in Indonesia. The scope of the discussion in this review includes a discussion of geology, geochemistry and radioactivity of the outcrops. The composition of regional stratigraphic from old to young is quartzite unit, phyllite unit, conglomerate unit, sandstone unit, tuff unit and alluvium river. The main fault that developed in the study area are normal faults trending southwest – northeast. The study area is splitted into two sections where the southeastern part relatives fall down of the northwest. Based on geological setting, radioactivity and uranium data then is assumed that Harau is a potential area for the formation of uranium mineralization in sandstone and its vein type. Sandstone type is expected occur in sandstone conglomerate unit of The Brani Formation and vein type is expected occur in the quartzite unit of The Kuantan Formation. (author)

  11. Analysis of the factors affecting the poverty in rural areas around gold mine areas in West Sumbawa Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available West Sumbawa Regencyis one of the regencies that are rich of natural resources managed by PT. Newmont Nusa Tenggara. However, local communities around the gold mine areas have generally to date been poor. This study was aimed to (1 examine the effect of material poverty, physical weakness, isolation, vulnerability, and powerlessness on poverty, and (2 describe the distribution of rural povertybased on land slope mapsin gold mine areas in West Sumbawa Regency.This study applied a survey technique, observation, and structured interviews to collect data. The processing and analysis of data was carried out by a quantitative method using a multiple regression analysis. The results of the study showed that the factors significantly affecting the poverty among rural communities around gold mine areas were material poverty, physical weakness, isolation, vulnerability and powerlessness (R2 = 0.715. However, the mostly dominant factor affecting the poverty was powerlessness (t = 19.715. Meanwhile, the distribution of poverty based on topographic sites showed that the poverty occurred in villages with plain topography (Goa Village, terrain topography (Maluk Village, wave topography (Belo Village, and hilly topography (Sekongkang Bawah Village. The poverties occurred in all the villages were mostly affected by powerlessness with t values of 3.489, 13.921, 11.828, and 6.504, respectively. This condition was due to minimum access and communication by local communities to local government and the gold mining company of PT. Newmont Nusa Tenggara

  12. Selection of area and specific site for drilling a horizontal well in Calhoun County, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, T.K.; Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses the data collection and analysis procedures used to establish criteria for geologic and engineering studies conducted by BDM to select a general area for more detailed study and a specific site for the drilling of a cooperative well with an industry partner, the Consolidated Natural Gas Development Company (CNGD). The results of detailed geologic studies are presented for two areas in Calhoun County, West Virginia, and one area along the Logan-Boone County line in West Virginia. The effects of Appalachian Basin tectonics and the Rome Trough Rift system were identified on seismic lines made available by (CNGD). These helped to identify and define the trapping mechanisms which had been effective in each area. Engineering analyses of past production histories provided data to support selection of target areas and then to select a specific site that met the project requirements for production, reservoir pressure, and risk. A final site was selected in Lee District at the southwestern margin of the Sand Ridge gas field based on the combination of a geologic trapping mechanism and reservoir pressures which were projected as 580 psi with a stress ratio of 0.53.

  13. Area West of the 700 fathom Depth Contour for Pacific Fishery Management Council's June 2005 Preferred Alternative, Groundfish EFH Final EIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — These data depict area within the West Coast Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) that is west of the 700 fathom isobath. This area was designated by the Pacific Fishery...

  14. Dynamics of land - use change in urban area in West Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangaribowo, R. L.

    2018-01-01

    This aim to research is to know how land use change in West Jakarta period 2000 - 2010. The research method used is descriptive method with a quantitative approach. Data analysis was done by using the result of research instrument to find out the driving of land change and to know the change of was analyzed using GIS (Geographic Information System) in Arc View GIS 3.3 program and Quantitative Analysis Model Location Quotient (LQ) and Shift-Share Analysis (SSA) In this study. The research instrument used in the analysis was observation and documentation. Based on the analysis conducted, the results of research on land use change in West Jakarta in the period of 10 years from 2000 until 2010 is caused by several aspects that are related to each other, namely political, economic, demographic, and cultural aspects. The land use change occurred in the area which decreased by minus 367,79 hectares (2.87%), the open space area decreased by minus 103.36 hectares (0.8%), the built up area increased by 201.13 hectares (1.57%), and the settlement area was 27.14 hectares (0.21%).

  15. Historical tank content estimate for the southwest quadrant of the Hanford 200 west area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.; Stroup, J.L.; Funk, J.W., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-06

    The Historical Tank Content Estimate for the Quadrant provides historical information on a tank-by-tank basis of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the underground single-shell tanks for the Hanford 200 West Area. This report summarized historical information such as waste history, level history, temperature history, riser configuration, tank integrity, and inventory estimates on a tank- by-tank basis. Tank farm aerial photographs and interior tank montages are also provided for each tank. A description of the development of data for the document of the inventory estimates provided by Los Alamos National Laboratory are also given in this report.

  16. Mortality of vertebrates in irrigation canals in an area of west-central Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Garcia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mortality patterns of vertebrates in irrigation canals have been poorly studied despite their potential impact on wildlife. Concrete irrigation canals in a cropland area in west-central Spain were monitored over 13 months to assess their impact on small fauna. A total of 134 vertebrates were found dead. Most were amphibians (86.46% or mammals (20.90%, though fishes, reptiles and a bird were also recorded. Mortality peaked in autumn months. Corrective measurements are needed to reduce this cause of non-natural mortality.

  17. Identification of Suitable Areas for West Nile Virus Circulation in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hassine, T; Conte, A; Calistri, P; Candeloro, L; Ippoliti, C; De Massis, F; Danzetta, M L; Bejaoui, M; Hammami, S

    2017-04-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of the Flaviviridae family. It is transmitted primarily by the bite of infected mosquitoes, particularly Culex spp. and Aedes/Ochlerotatus spp., which acquire the virus by feeding on viraemic birds. Humans, horses and other mammals are regarded as incidental or dead-end hosts. In the last decades, an increasing number of cases of WNV infection in horses and humans have been notified in the Mediterranean basin. In Tunisia, human cases of WNV-related meningoencephalitis were detected in 1997, 2003, 2007, 2010, 2011 and 2012. Based on the analysis of climatic and environmental conditions found in the locations where human cases have been reported in 2012, the aim of this study was to identify similar areas in Tunisia potentially at risk of disease occurrence. Data related to 85 neuroinvasive West Nile fever (WNF) human cases were georeferenced and a set of environmental and climatic variables (wetlands and humid areas, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), temperatures and elevation, migratory bird settlements) were used in the analysis. Areas, ecologically similar to those where human cases were detected, were identified using the Mahalanobis distance statistic. A leave-one-out cross-validation was performed to validate the sensitivity of the model, and 78 of 85 points were correctly classified. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Ordovician and Silurian acritarch assemblages from the west Leinster and Slievenamon areas of southeast Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziane-Serraj, N; Brück, P M.; Higgs, K T.; Vanguestaine, M

    2000-12-01

    The Lower Palaeozoic sequences west of the Leinster Granite and in the Slievenamon Inlier of southeast Ireland have been palynologically re-investigated. Most of the productive samples yielded sufficient identifiable acritarchs for positive stratigraphical age determinations for several of the formations. The samples also include rare cryptospores, scolecodonts and tubular structures. Previous work in the area west of the Leinster Granite proposed an unbroken succession from Early Ordovician Ribband Group turbidites and volcanics passing up conformably to Early Ordovician to Late Silurian Kilcullen Group. The new palynological data clearly show that the Kilcullen Group in this area is entirely Silurian (Llandovery-early Wenlock) in age, also results obtained from the same group at Slievenamon confirm the previously reported Silurian age. Ordovician acritarchs found in the Kilcullen Group of both study areas are reworked and range in age from late Tremadoc to Llanvirn. The new data reveal a major stratigraphic break between the Ribband Group dated as Early and Middle Ordovician and the Silurian Kilcullen Group. This major break extends some hundreds of kms southwest to the Dingle Peninsula and possibly equates with a similar discontinuity in the Isle of Man to the northeast. This break would thus appear to be a major feature within the northwestern Avalonian margin sequence.

  19. Expedited response action proposal (EE/CA ampersand EA) for 200 West Area carbon tetrachloride plume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The report contains the proposal for an expedited response action (ERA) for the remediation of carbon tetrachloride contamination in the unsaturated soils beneath the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. It provides the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) with information regarding the need for the ERA and an evaluation of alternatives to reduce the mobility, toxicity, and/or volume of the carbon tetrachloride in the unsaturated soils. This report is intended to aid the EPA and Ecology in selecting a preferred alternative for implementing the ERA. This proposal does not address remediation of carbon tetrachloride in the ground water underlying the 200 West Area; nor is the radioactive waste mixed with the carbon tetrachloride in the disposal site the subject of this ERA. This report has also been prepared to address the requirements for an environmental assessment (EA). The purpose of this ERA is to prevent, or at least minimize, further migration of carbon tetrachloride contamination from the unsaturated soils to uncontaminated areas. This action is needed to ensure that the environment and public health are adequately protected and to reduce the threat of further groundwater contamination. Information on the origin, nature, and extent of carbon tetrachloride (and co-contaminants), and other site characteristics used as a basis for evaluating remedial alternatives is presented

  20. Prognosis: The Plan of Integrated Tourism Area of Kapuk Naga Beach, Tangerang, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuswaji Dwi Priyono

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper  tries to analyze of prognosis of the Integrated Tourism Area Planning of Kapuknnaga Beach (KWTPK Tangerang Regency West Java. The two method applied to compose the prognosis are extrapolation and indication. The extrapolation is based on the local area infomation data of contemporary knowledge in the past and presence, while the indication method utilizes the whole interrelation activities programmed with the possible consequences. Land function transformation effects of KWTPK will cause environmental destroy as annual flsh flood, salt water intrusion and polution of urban’s industry sewage. As further effect there is a raising of turbidity and nitrition degree of sedimentation which make coral-ridge degradation toward annihilation. The coral-ridge annihilation will cause the sea waves power collide with the seashore area directly which threatens KWTPK.

  1. Assessing environmental risk of the retired filter bed area, Battelle West Jefferson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; Glennon, M.A.

    1997-04-01

    Initial investigations conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy, Chicago Operations Office, and by Argonne National Laboratory used seismic refraction profiling, electrical resistivity depth sounding, conductivity profiling, magnetic gradiometry, and ground-penetrating radar to study environmental geophysics in the area of the Battelle West Jefferson site's radiologically contaminated retired filter beds. The investigators used a combination of nonintrusive technologies and innovative drilling techniques to assess environmental risk at the filter beds and to improve understanding of the geology of the Big Darby Creek floodplain. The geophysical investigation, which showed that the preferred groundwater pathway is associated with a laterally extensive deposit of silty sand to sand that is less than 12 ft deep in the floodplain area, also guided the location of cone penetrometer test sites and piezometer installation. Cone penetrometer testing was useful for comparing continuous logging data with surface geophysical data in establishing correlations among unconsolidated materials

  2. Hydrogeology of the Hanford Site Central Plateau – A Status Report for the 200 West Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, George V.; Thorne, Paul D.; Horner, Jacob A.; Parker, Kyle R.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Mackley, Rob D.; Lanigan, David C.; Williams, Bruce A.

    2009-08-27

    The Remediation Decisions Support (RDS) function of the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project (managed by CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company [CHPRC]) is responsible for facilitating the development of consistent data, parameters, and conceptual models to resolve technical issues and support efforts to estimate contaminant migration and impacts (i.e., the assessment process). In particular, the RDS function is working to update electronic data sources and conceptual models of the geologic framework and associated hydraulic and geochemical parameters to facilitate traceability, transparency, defensibility, and consistency in support of environmental assessments. This report summarizes the efforts conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) scientists in fiscal year 2008 (FY08) that focused primarily on the 200 West Area, as well as a secondary effort initiated on the 200 East Area.

  3. Assessing environmental risk of the retired filter bed area, Battelle West Jefferson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; Glennon, M.A. [and others

    1997-04-01

    Initial investigations conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy, Chicago Operations Office, and by Argonne National Laboratory used seismic refraction profiling, electrical resistivity depth sounding, conductivity profiling, magnetic gradiometry, and ground-penetrating radar to study environmental geophysics in the area of the Battelle West Jefferson site`s radiologically contaminated retired filter beds. The investigators used a combination of nonintrusive technologies and innovative drilling techniques to assess environmental risk at the filter beds and to improve understanding of the geology of the Big Darby Creek floodplain. The geophysical investigation, which showed that the preferred groundwater pathway is associated with a laterally extensive deposit of silty sand to sand that is less than 12 ft deep in the floodplain area, also guided the location of cone penetrometer test sites and piezometer installation. Cone penetrometer testing was useful for comparing continuous logging data with surface geophysical data in establishing correlations among unconsolidated materials.

  4. Hydrology of area 8, eastern Coal Province, West Virginia and Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, E.A.; Ehlke, T.A.; Hobba, W.A.; Ward, S.M.; Schultz, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The hydrology of Area 8 in the Ohio River basin in northwestern West Virginia and southeastern Ohio, is influenced by geology and geologic structure. Rocks underlying the area consist of alternating beds of sandstone, siltstone, shale, limestone, and mudstone. Minable coal is contained within the Pennsylvania and Permian rocks. Coal production in 1980 totaled 6.7 million tons from underground mines and one million tons from surface mines. There is a wide range of soil types (29 soil associations) in five land-resource areas. Precipitation averages about 41 inches annually and is greatest at higher altitudes along the eastern boundary of the area. Average annual runoff ranges from 13 to 29 inches per year. The principal land uses are forest and agriculture. Estimated water use during 1980 was 1,170 million gallons per day. Surface-water quality ranges from excellent to poor. The highest iron, manganese and sulfate concentrations were present in mined areas. Well yields range from less than 1 to 350 gallons per minute. Groundwater from the Mississippian rocks contain lesser amounts of dissolved solids than water from the Lower Pennsylvanian rocks. Water high in chloride content is present in some valley areas. (USGS)

  5. Landslides in West Coast Metropolitan Areas: The Role of Extreme Weather Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasutti, Michela; Seager, Richard; Kirschbaum, Dalia B.

    2016-01-01

    Rainfall-induced landslides represent a pervasive issue in areas where extreme rainfall intersects complex terrain. A farsighted management of landslide risk requires assessing how landslide hazard will change in coming decades and thus requires, inter alia, that we understand what rainfall events are most likely to trigger landslides and how global warming will affect the frequency of such weather events. We take advantage of 9 years of landslide occurrence data compiled by collating Google news reports and of a high-resolution satellite-based daily rainfall data to investigate what weather triggers landslide along the West Coast US. We show that, while this landslide compilation cannot provide consistent and widespread monitoring everywhere, it captures enough of the events in the major urban areas that it can be used to identify the relevant relationships between landslides and rainfall events in Puget Sound, the Bay Area, and greater Los Angeles. In all these regions, days that recorded landslides have rainfall distributions that are skewed away from dry and low-rainfall accumulations and towards heavy intensities. However, large daily accumulation is the main driver of enhanced hazard of landslides only in Puget Sound. There, landslide are often clustered in space and time and major events are primarily driven by synoptic scale variability, namely "atmospheric rivers" of high humidity air hitting anywhere along the West Coast, and the interaction of frontal system with the coastal orography. The relationship between landslide occurrences and daily rainfall is less robust in California, where antecedent precipitation (in the case of the Bay area) and the peak intensity of localized downpours at sub-daily time scales (in the case of Los Angeles) are key factors not captured by the same-day accumulations. Accordingly, we suggest that the assessment of future changes in landslide hazard for the entire the West Coast requires consideration of future changes in the

  6. Dirrofilariasis in Shepherd Dogs of High Altitudes Areas in West Azerbaijan-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Hadian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the biology and ecology of the arthropod vectors are different, some factors, such as global warming, the increasing abundance of mosquitoes, the movement of domestic hosts, and the abundance of wild reservoirs, can act as favourable factors for the distribution of infections. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection in shepherd dogs living in the high altitude of mountainous area (i.e.1200 meters above the sea level. The study group was comprised of 160 shepherd dogs living in 4 mountainous regions (Targavar, Margavar, Kolshin and Hovarchin of west Azerbaijan where continuous movement of sheep and goat flocks resulted to have a little information about shepherd dogs in these regions. Additionally, arduous pathways have made impossible any access by car to some territories of these areas. The dogs were mostly mixed raced with different ages (from 1 to 10 years and sexes (male = 136, female = 24. Blood samples were collected from cephalic vein. Direct thin and thick blood smears and modified knott’s technique were used for detecting D.immitis microfilariae and other blood parasites. The results indicated that 40 (25 % of dogs were infected with D. immitis microfilariae. In examination of the dogs, no severe life threatening feature of the disease was diagnosed. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05 of Dirrofilaria infection among gender, age groups and geographical areas. High prevalence of asymptomatic Dirrofilariasis in shepherd dogs in this area highlights the need of controlling and preventive programs.

  7. Geophysical investigation of trench 4, Burial Ground 218-W-4C, 200 west area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiesler, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    This report contains the results of a geophysical investigation conducted to characterize Trench 4, located in Burial Ground 218-W-4C, 200 West Area. Trench 4 is where transuranic (TRU) waste is stored. The primary objective of these geophysical investigations was to determine the outer edges of the trench/modules and select locations for plate-bearing tests. The test locations are to be 5 to 8 ft. beyond the edges of the trench. Secondary objectives include differentiating between the different types of waste containers within a given trench, determining the amount of soil cover over the waste containers, and to locate the module boundaries. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and electromagnetic induction (EMI) were the methods selected for this investigation

  8. Inventorization of some ayurvedic plants and their ethnomedicinal use in Kakrajhore forest area of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Soumyajit; Shaw, Rupa; Bala, Sanjay; Mazumdar, Asis

    2017-02-02

    Medicinal Plant resources of forest origin are extensively used in India for various systems of medicine like Ayurveda, Unani, Homeopathy, Allopathy, Siddha and Ethnic etc. The tribal communities around the Kakrajhore forest in West Medinipur district of West Bengal have their own traditional knowledge based system of curing many diseases using the forest based plant resources similar to ayurveda. The forest comprises of one of the unique treasure and rich source of diversified ethno-botanical wealth and therefore extensive studies is required for proper documentation including ethnomedicinal knowledge of local tribes. The present study was initiated with an aim to inventorize the ayurvedic medicinal plant recourses and explore the traditional knowledge of tribal people of Kakrajhore forest to treat several diseases along with the sustainable management and conservation of medicinal plants. The information on the medicinal plant resources were gathered through floristic inventorization with proper sampling method in the study area (N22°42'57.05″, E86°34'58.02″) during the year 2015. For floristic inventorization the study area of 312 ha was delineated by using GPS Receiver. Then total mapped area was divided by virtual grid of 100m apart in both East-West and North-South direction to allocate 60 sample plots by random sampling. In addition to inventorization, the use value (UV) of the species was determined and the informant consensus factor (ICF) was calculated for the medicinal plants found in the study area based on personal interview. Further exploration was carried out to establish linkage with Ayurveda. The present survey has identified 57 numbers of ethno-medicinal plants belonging to 39 families, used for preparing medicinal remedies. The habit of the plants includes 35% trees, 28% shrubs, 23% herbs and 14% climbers. The most frequently utilized plant parts were the Roots & Tuber roots (26%), Stem which includes Bark, Tubers, Bulb, Rhizome, Gum, Wood

  9. Soil-gas radon analyses in the Mt. Rose and Lovelock areas, west-central Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramelli, A.R.; Rigby, J.G.; LaPointe, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Soil-gas radon has been sampled and analyzed in two area of differing surficial geology in west-central Nevada. Elevated levels of indoor radon have been found in both area. The Mt. Rose alluvial fan complex, located just southwest of Reno, is an alluvial fan/pediment formed by flow from major drainages in the Carson Range. The surface of the Mt. Rose fan is dominated by glacial outwash deposits believed to be of Donner Lake and Tahoe age. These two units have somewhat differing lithologies and degrees of soil development. The Donner Lake outwash is dominated by volcanic clasts and typically has a thick argillic B-horizon and a moderately to strongly developed duripan. The Tahoe outwash has a mixture of volcanic and granitic clasts and typically has a thinner argillic B-horizon and no duripan. Soil-gas radon levels are generally higher in the Tahoe outwash, probably reflecting either greater emanation from granitic clasts or differences in soil gas permeability. Radon levels along Holocene faults cutting these outwash deposits are fairly typical for the study area and minor differences may be due to the faults' effects on soil gas permeability. Lovelock, about 90 miles northeast of Reno, is located within the Humboldt Sink, one of the lowest parts of the pluvial Lake Lahontan basin. Surficial geology in this area is dominated by fine-grained lacustrine deposits and overbank alluvium from the Humboldt River. During interpluvial periods, this is commonly a marshy area resulting from Humboldt River flow into the basin. Elevated radon levels are likely due to uranium accumulation in black, organic-rich clay layers

  10. On Seaweed Culture Based Coastal Area Development in West Sumbawa Regency

    OpenAIRE

    Nuryadin, Rusmin; Soewardi, Kadarwan; Yonvitner,

    2015-01-01

    Seaweed cultivation is one of current coastal development activities in the west Sumbawa regency. Coastal region in the west Sumbawa regency that be used for seaweed cultivation was about 1,550 ha, however, its utilization was still limited of about 536 ha (34.58%). Seaweed farming activities were only carried out in some locations of the subdistrict of Taliwang and Pototano, west Sumbawa. Sustainability analysis of seaweed cultivation was done by Multidimensional scaling method using Rapid A...

  11. Geochemical Study of Ampallas Geothermal Area, Mamuju District, West Sulawesi Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauziyyah, F.; Prabowo, T. R.; Shalihin, M. G. J.; Setiawan, D. I.; Yushantarti, A.

    2016-09-01

    Ampallas is one of the areas with geothermal potential which located in Mamuju district, near from the capital city of West Sulawesi. This research was carried out to understand the characteristic of this geothermal field based on chemistry of the surface manifestation, including fluid characteristic and soil anomaly. Geothermal research in Ampallas area focused on 4 hot springs; Ampallas, Batupane, Karema, and Gantungan. With average temperature around 34 - 67°C. Ampallas 1,2,3,4,7,8 hot springs water type is chloride - bicarbonate, which means it came from the reservoir while Batupane, Gantungan, Karema and Ampallas 5 are all bicarbonate type. Ampallas 1,2,3,4,7,8, Karema and Gantungan hot springs fluid plotted in partial equilibrium zone while Batupane and Ampallas 5 plotted in immature water zone. It means the Ampallas hot springs (except Ampallas-5) mixed with meteoric water right after reached the equilibrium state. It is also concluded that Ampallas 5 hot springs came from the same reservoir with Batupane, but not Gantungan and Karema hot springs. The speculative resource potential of Ampallas geothermal system is estimated around 30 MWe. But if detailed geophysical method was applied the result could be more accurate.

  12. Prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs in children in coastal areas of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dulal; Misra, Jiban; Mitra, Malay; Bhattacharya, Bhashwar; Bagchi, Anandamoy

    2013-10-01

    This study was carried out to measure the caries prevalence and treatment needs in school children of 6-14 year old residing in coastal areas of West Bengal. A total of 1764 children of 6-14 years age group, studying in different primary and high schools of the coastal areas were examined using World Health Organization criteria (1997) to record the prevalence of dental caries. The treatment needs were also calculated according to that given criteria. The results were subjected to statistical analysis using the Chi-square test and unpaired 't' test. Dental caries were founded low in the studied population. The overall all caries prevalence in the permanent dentition was 28.06%, in boys it was 25.39% and in girls it was 30.86%. Therefore caries prevalence in female was higher and which was statistically highly significant (P < 0.05). The most frequently required treatment was one surface filling followed by other treatments irrespective of sex and age group. The presence of sea foods containing high fluoride and least availability of refined carbohydrate in the diet may be the reason of lower prevalence. child oral health is always a matter of concern for a developing country so further research is required to explore actual causes.

  13. Internal wave deposits in Jurassic Kermanshah pelagic carbonates and radiolarites (Kermanshah area, West Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Asad; Gharaie, Mohamad Hosein Mahmudy; Bádenas, Beatriz

    2014-12-01

    We report eventites generated by turbulence events triggered by breaking internal waves in Jurassic pelagic muds deposited in a graben area located between the Arabian and Bisotoun carbonate platforms, at the Kermanshah basin (West Iran). The 43 m-thick studied Pliensbachian-Aalenian succession at Kermanshah includes sponge spicule-radiolarian limestones and cherts with cm- to dm-thick intercalations of pyroclastic beds and coarse-grained deposits formed by neritic-derived grains and reworked pelagic material. Breaking of internal waves in localized areas reworked the available sediment on sea floor, including the erosion of cohesive pelagic muds and the resuspension of neritic-derived grains, which were resedimented from the Bisotoun platform most probably by storms or turbidity currents. The generated internal wave deposits include: flat- and round pebble limestone conglomerates, formed by deposition of pelagic clasts and neritic-derived grains near the breaker zone; laminated packstone-grainstones deposited by high-energy, upslope (swash) and downslope (backswash) flows; cm-thick packstone-grainstones with asymmetrical starved ripples and hummocy crossstratification, generated downdip by waning of backwash flows and internal wave oscillatory flows. These internal wave deposits predominate in the Pliensbachian-early Toarcian, and were related to internal waves developed along a thermocline linked to climate warming and excited by submarine volcanic eruptions, storms or tectonic shaking.

  14. Food security and coping mechanisms in marginal areas : the case of West Pokot, Kenya, 1920-1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nangulu, A.K.

    2009-01-01

    The major focus of the book is on food security and coping mechanisms in an arid environment; a case of West Pokot in Northwest Kenya. The area suffers from livestock and crop diseases; human and cattle raids between the Pokot and their neighbors; has no major industries or developed roads; and

  15. Classification of forest-based ecotourism areas in Pocahontas County of West Virginia using GIS and pairwise comparison method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishwar Dhami; Jinyang. Deng

    2012-01-01

    Many previous studies have examined ecotourism primarily from the perspective of tourists while largely ignoring ecotourism destinations. This study used geographical information system (GIS) and pairwise comparison to identify forest-based ecotourism areas in Pocahontas County, West Virginia. The study adopted the criteria and scores developed by Boyd and Butler (1994...

  16. New summer areas and mixing of two greater sandhill crane populations in the Intermountain West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Daniel P.; Grisham, Blake A.; Conring, Courtenay M.; Knetter, Jeffrey M.; Conway, Warren C.; Carleton, Scott A.; Boggie, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    Population delineation throughout the annual life cycle for migratory birds is needed to formulate regional and national management and conservation strategies. Despite being well studied continentally, connectivity of sandhill crane Grus canadensis populations throughout the western portion of their North American range remains poorly described. Our objectives were to 1) use global positioning system satellite transmitter terminals to identify summer distributions for the Lower Colorado River Valley Population of greater sandhill cranes Grus canadensis tabida and 2) determine whether intermingling occurs among any of the western greater sandhill crane populations: Rocky Mountain Population, Lower Colorado River Valley Population, and Central Valley Population. Capture and marking occurred during winter and summer on private lands in California and Idaho as well as on two National Wildlife Refuges: Cibola and Sonny Bono Salton Sea National Wildlife Refuges. A majority of marked greater sandhill cranes summered in what is established Lower Colorado River Valley Population breeding areas in northeastern Nevada and southwestern Idaho. A handful of greater sandhill cranes summered outside of traditional breeding areas in west-central Idaho around Cascade Reservoir near Donnelly and Cascade, Idaho. For example, a greater sandhill crane colt captured near Donnelly in July 2014 survived to winter migration and moved south to areas associated with the Rocky Mountain Population. The integration of the greater sandhill crane colt captured near Donnelly provides the first evidence of potential intermingling between the Lower Colorado River Population and Rocky Mountain Population. We suggest continued marking and banding efforts of all three western populations of greater sandhill cranes will accurately delineate population boundaries and connectivity and inform management decisions for the three populations.

  17. West Valley Demonstration Project, Waste Management Area #3 -- Closure Alternative I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marschke, Stephen F. [Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML), New York, NY (United States)

    2000-06-30

    The Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the completion of the West Valley Demonstration Project and closure and/or long-term management of facilities at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center divided the site into Waste Management Areas (WMAs), and for each WMA, presented the impacts associated with five potential closure alternatives. This report focuses on WMA 3 (the High-Level Waste (HLW) Storage Area (Tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2), the Vitrification Facility and other facilities) and closure Alternative I (the complete removal of all structures, systems and components and the release of the area for unrestricted use), and reestimates the impacts associated with the complete removal of the HLW tanks, and surrounding facilities. A 32-step approach was developed for the complete removal of Tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2, the Supernatant Treatment System Support Building, and the Transfer Trench. First, a shielded Confinement Structure would be constructed to reduce the shine dose rate and to control radioactivity releases. Similarly, the tank heels would be stabilized to reduce potential radiation exposures. Next, the tank removal methodology would include: 1) excavation of the vault cover soil, 2) removal of the vault roof, 3) cutting off the tank’s top, 4) removal of the stabilized heel remaining inside the tank, 5) cutting up the tank’s walls and floor, 6) removal of the vault’s walls, the perlite blocks, and vault floor, and 7) radiation surveying and backfilling the resulting hole. After the tanks are removed, the Confinement Structure would be decontaminated and dismantled, and the site backfilled and landscaped. The impacts (including waste disposal quantities, emissions, work-effort, radiation exposures, injuries and fatalities, consumable materials used, and costs) were estimated based on this 32 step removal methodology, and added to the previously estimated impacts for closure of the other facilities within WMA 3 to obtain the total impacts from

  18. Information on the confinement capability of the facility disposal area at West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, T.J.; Hurt, R.D.

    1985-12-01

    This report summarizes the previous NRC research studies, NRC licensee source term data and recent DOE site investigations that deal with assessment of the radioactive waste inventory and confinement capability of the Facility Disposal Area (FDA) at West Valley, New York. The radioactive waste inventory for the FDA has a total radioactivity of about 135,000 curies (Ci) and is comprised of H-3 (9,500 Ci), Co-60 (64,000 Ci), SR-90/Y-90 (24,300 Ci), Cs-137/Ba-137m (24,400 Ci), and Pu-241 (13,300 Ci). These wastes are buried in the Lavery Till, a glacial till unit comprised of a clayey silt with very low hydraulic conductivity properties. Recent studies of a tributylphosphate-kerosene plume moving through the shallow ground-water flow system in the FDA indicate a need to better assess the fracture flow components of this system particularly the weathered and fractured Lavery Till unit. The analysis of the deeper ground-water flow system studied by the USGS and NYSGS staffs indicated relatively long pathways and travel times to the accessible environment. Mass wasting, endemic to the glacial-filled valley, contributed to the active slumping in the ravines surrounding the FDA and also need attention. 31 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs

  19. 200 West Area Ash Pit Demolition Site closure plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruck, F.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Ash Pit Demolition Site had two known demolition events, the first occurred in November of 1984, and the second occurred in June of 1986. These demolition events were a form of thermal treatment for discarded explosive chemical products. Because the Ash Pit Demolition Site will no longer be used for this thermal activity, the site will be closed. Closure will be conducted pursuant to the requirements of the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) ''Dangerous Waste Regulations'', Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 and 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 270.1. The 200 West Area Ash Pit Demolition Site Closure Plan consists of a Part A, Form 3, Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Revision 4) and a closure plan. An explanation of the Part A, Form 3, submitted with this closure plan is provided at the beginning of the Part A Section. The closure plan consists of nine chapters and five appendices. This closure plan presents a description of the Ash,Pit Demolition Site, the history of the waste treated, and the approach that will be followed to close the Ash Pit Demolition Site. Because there were no radioactively contaminated chemicals involved in the demolitions, the information on radionuclides is provided for ''information only''. Remediation of any radioactive contamination is not within the scope of this closure plan. Only dangerous constituents derived from Ash Pit Demolition Site operations will be addressed in this closure plan in accordance with WAC 173-303-610(2)(b)(i)

  20. Solar Energy Block-Based Residential Construction for Rural Areas in the West of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jizhong Shao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Great Western Development Strategy and the requirement for sustainable development in the west of China, rural affordable housing, energy conservation, and environmental protection are becoming development standards in the construction field. This paper mainly explores an innovative, sustainable, residential construction method for rural areas in western China, particularly the integration of solar energy technology with modern prefabricated building techniques, formally named solar energy block-based construction. The conscious approach of using volumetric blocks provides superior adaptability and expansibility in integration with a steel structure, thereby reducing the construction time and cost. Allowing a wide variety of configurations and styles in the building layout, this approach can be customized to the end-user’s precise location and climate, making rural residential buildings much more flexible and modern. To take advantage of adequate solar energy resource in western China, the blocks are associated with active and passive solar energy technologies, thereby reducing pollution, mitigating global warming, and enhancing sustainability. Therefore, we concluded that solar energy block-based construction could bring significant benefits to the environment, economy, and society. It could also promote sustainable development in the rural regions of western China.

  1. Population dynamics of soil bacteria in some areas of Midnapore coastal belt, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Syed Afrin; Chatterjee, Soumendranath

    2016-06-01

    In this present study the population dynamics of the soil bacteria of some coastal villages, namely Padima, Jatimati, Chanpabani, Palsandapur, Bhagibaharampur, Duttapur, Gangadharpur, Gobindabasan, Somaibasan of Digha, West Bengal, India, was determined. In these villages the aerobic heterotrophic, Gram-negative, spore-forming, starch-hydrolyzing, Pseudomonas, nitrate-reducing, denitrifying, asymbiotic N 2 fixing, nitrifying, phosphate-solubilizing bacterial populations ranged from 1.22 to 2.67 × 10 6 , 0.09-1.63 × 10 5 , 1.53-3.68 × 10 5 , 2.22-4.06 × 10 5 , 0.02-0.04 × 10 5 , 0.35-1.33 × 10 5 , 0.07-0.82 × 10 5 , 0.58-2.50 × 10 5 , 0.13-2.35 × 10 5 , 0.05-1.9 × 10 5 cfu/g dry soil, respectively. The organic carbon content of the soil samples ranged from 0.61 to 0.93 %. The available nitrogen and phosphate in the soils of the study area varied from 11.2 to 29.5 and 230.8-503.09 mg/kg, respectively. The one-way ANOVA revealed significant variations (p < 0.05) in the microbial diversity with respect to different locations of the study site. Shannon-Wiener and Simpson Index of the study areas ranged from 1.56 to 1.88 and 3.85-5.73, respectively. Jatimati showed comparatively higher diversity index among the villages of the study area. From principal component analysis, three components were extracted having the Eigen values of 3.541, 1.603 and 1.391, respectively. Agglometric hierarchial cluster analysis in respect of the number of different bacterial groups in different places of the study area showed that the denitrifying, nitrate reducing, asymbiotic nitrogen-fixing and spore-forming bacteria formed a cluster while Pseudomonas differed from them forming another cluster and nitrifying, Gram negative, phosphate-solubilising and starch-hydrolyzing bacteria formed another different cluster. This variation of the soil bacteria might be dependent on the microhabitat present in different locations of the study area.

  2. Factors controlling groundwater hydrogeochemistry in the area west of Tahta, Sohag, Upper Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwan, Mostafa; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed A.

    2016-06-01

    Groundwater quality suffers from various degradation mechanisms such as extensive urbanization, agricultural and industrial activities in many developing countries. This study was carried out to identify the factors responsible for the change in the hydrogeochemistry of groundwater in the area west of Tahta, Sohag, Upper Egypt. The Piper diagrams show the predominance of Na-Cl (75%) with minor Ca-Na-HCO3 and Ca-Cl water-types. The equiline diagrams and ionic ratios show the dominance of Ca2+ + Mg2+ over Na+ + K+ and HCO3- + SO42- over Cl- suggesting silicate minerals dissolution and reverse ion exchange reactions Results of Gibb's diagram revealed that the chemical budget of the groundwater in this area is mainly derived from water-rock interaction and evaporation-crystallization dominances. The R-mode factor analysis applied to quantify the chemical characteristics of groundwater and the anthropogenic impacts that affect groundwater quality, revealed that the Pliocene clays are the major sources of Cl- and Na+ in the groundwater due to silicate minerals dissolution and ion exchange reactions and, Ca2+ and Mg2+ are mainly from dissolution of carbonates and silicate minerals abundant in the Pleistocene Qena Formation lithologies. Higher concentration of SO42- at the newly reclaimed lands may be due to the effect of rainfall, addition of potassium sulfates fertilizers to the agricultural soils and gypsum-anhydrite dissolution. The results of this study suggest that the R-mode factor analysis combined with the geological-hydrogeological analyses of the aquifer is useful in recognizing the geochemical trends and identifying the anthropogenic sources affecting the groundwater quality.

  3. STRATIGRAPHIC CONTROL ON CCL4 AND CHCL3 CONCENTRATIONS IN THE 200 WEST AREA, HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winsor, K.; Last, G.V.

    2008-01-01

    An extensive subsurface contaminant plume of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is the focus of a remedial effort in the 200 West Area of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site in eastern Washington. Remediation requires a high-resolution understanding of the region’s spatially variable lithofacies and of the effect these lithofacies have on CCl4 migration through the unconfi ned aquifer. To increase the level of detail of our current understanding, a transect was chosen along the primary groundwater fl ow path in the most heavily contaminated area. Borehole logs of wells along this 3.7 km-long transect were standardized and used to create a cross section displaying the depth and continuity of lithofacies. Natural and spectral gamma geophysical logs were examined to pinpoint the depths of geologic units. Depth discrete concentrations of CCl4 and its reductive dechlorination product, chloroform (CHCl3), were overlain on this cross section. Comparison of stratigraphy to contaminant levels shows that peaks in CCl4 concentration occur in thin, fine-grained layers and that other fine-grained layers frequently form lower boundaries to regions of high concentration. Peaks in CCl4 concentrations are frequently located at different depths from those of CHCl3, suggesting that these concentrations are affected by dechlorination of CCl4. Transformation of CCl4 to CHCl3 appears to be more prevalent within reduced, iron-containing sediments. The infl uence of thin, fine-grained layers within the larger aquifer unit indicates that characterization of contamination in this locality should consider subsurface geology with at least as much resolution as provided in this study.

  4. Multibeam Mapping of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico, Twin Ridges Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format high-resolution bathymetry data generated from the 2002 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico.

  5. Multibeam Mapping of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico, Madison Swanson Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format high-resolution bathymetry data generated from the 2002 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico.

  6. Access road from State Route 240 to the 200 West Area, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct an access road on the Hanford Site, from State Route (SR) 240 to Beloit Avenue in the 200 West Area. Traffic volume during shift changes creates an extremely serious congestion and safety problem on Route 4S from the Wye barricade to the 200 Areas. A Risk Evaluation (Trost 1992) indicated that there is a probability of 1.53 fatal accidents on Route 4S within 2 years. To help alleviate this danger, a new 3.5-kilometer (2.2-mile)-long access road would be constructed from Beloit Avenue in the 200 West Area to SR 240. In addition, administrative controls such as redirecting traffic onto alternate routes would be used to further reduce traffic volume. The proposed access road would provide an alternative travel-to-work route for many outer area personnel, particularly those with destinations in the 200 West Area. This proposal is the most reasonable alternative to reduce the problem. While traffic safety would be greatly improved, a small portion of the shrub-steppe habitat would be disturbed. The DOE would offset any habitat damage by re-vegetation or other appropriate habitat enhancement activities elsewhere on the Hanford Site. This Environmental Assessment (EA) provides information about the environmental impacts of the proposed action, so a decision can be made to either prepare an Environmental Impact Statement or issue a Finding of No Significant Impact.

  7. Atmospheric particulate matter size distribution and concentration in West Virginia coal mining and non-mining areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Laura M; McCawley, Michael; Hendryx, Michael; Lusk, Stephanie

    2014-07-01

    People who live in Appalachian areas where coal mining is prominent have increased health problems compared with people in non-mining areas of Appalachia. Coal mines and related mining activities result in the production of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) that is associated with human health effects. There is a gap in research regarding particle size concentration and distribution to determine respiratory dose around coal mining and non-mining areas. Mass- and number-based size distributions were determined with an Aerodynamic Particle Size and Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer to calculate lung deposition around mining and non-mining areas of West Virginia. Particle number concentrations and deposited lung dose were significantly greater around mining areas compared with non-mining areas, demonstrating elevated risks to humans. The greater dose was correlated with elevated disease rates in the West Virginia mining areas. Number concentrations in the mining areas were comparable to a previously documented urban area where number concentration was associated with respiratory and cardiovascular disease.

  8. Monitoring of carbon-dioxide production in the seismoactive area of West Bohemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Tomáš; Vlček, Josef; Woith, Heiko; Heinicke, Jens

    2017-04-01

    Geodynamically active area of West Bohemia is interesting not only due to its earthquake swarms occurrence but also due to the massive degassing of CO2 of magmatic origin occurring in dry mofettes and mineral springs. A continuous monitoring of CO2 amount has started in 2009 and a well pronounced increase of gas flow was observed in relation to the 2014 seismic sequence, which has been attributed to the fault-valve behavior. At present six monitoring stations with online data transfer are in operation, which combine various methods of gas flow monitoring in order to assure robust and reliable data series. In this paper we show the decreasing trend of gas flow since the 2014 aftershock sequences observed at different stations and compare various approached for quantification of gas flow. The reliability of chamber-type and venturi-type gas flow meters depends on ambient temperature conditions, namely during freezing periods, which makes the measurement unstable in time. Accordingly we designed alternative methods to measure CO2 amount by quantifying the fraction of gas bubbles in water column in stable temperature conditions of borehole or mofette. This is carried our by two different approaches - the first is based on measuring the density of two-phase fluid (water with bubbles) in the well by differential pressure gauge. The second measures electric conductivity of the two-phase fluid. We analyse the obtained time series in terms of their dependence on ambient conditions (namely the air pressure and temperature), mutual relations of the gas-related quantities (flow, wellhead pressure, bubble fraction in water) relations and interpret the present trend of gas production and its possible relation to seismic activity.

  9. Water use and availability in the West Narragansett Bay area, coastal Rhode Island, 1995-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimiroski, Mark T.; Wild, Emily C.

    2006-01-01

    During the 1999 drought in Rhode Island, belowaverage precipitation caused a drop in ground-water levels and streamflow was below long-term averages. The low water levels prompted the U. S. Geological Survey and the Rhode Island Water Resources Board to conduct a series of cooperative water-use studies. The purpose of these studies is to collect and analyze water-use and water-availability data in each drainage area in the State of Rhode Island. The West Narragansett Bay study area, which covers 118 square miles in part or all of 14 towns in coastal Rhode Island, is one of nine areas investigated as part of this effort. The study area includes the western part of Narragansett Bay and Conanicut Island, which is the town of Jamestown. The area was divided into six subbasins for the assessment of water-use data. In the calculation of hydrologic budget and water availability, the Hunt, Annaquatucket, and Pettaquamscutt River Basins were combined into one subbasin because they are hydraulically connected. Eleven major water suppliers served customers in the study area, and they supplied an average of 19.301 million gallons per day during 1995–99. The withdrawals from the only minor supplier, which was in the town of East Greenwich in the Hunt River Basin, averaged 0.002 million gallons per day. The remaining withdrawals were estimated as 1.186 million gallons per day from self-supplied domestic, commercial, industrial, and agricultural users. Return flows from self-disposed water (individual sewage-disposal systems) and permitted discharges accounted for 5.623 million gallons per day. Most publicly disposed water (13.711 million gallons per day) was collected by the Rhode Island Economic Development Corporation, and by the East Greenwich, Fields Point, Jamestown, Narragansett, and Scarborough wastewater-treatment facilities. This wastewater was disposed in Narragansett Bay outside of the study area. The PART program, a computerized hydrograph-separation application

  10. The Application Study in Solar Energy Technology for Highway Service Area: A Case Study of West Lushan Highway Low-Carbon Service Area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A lot of research works have been made concerning highway service area or solar technology and acquired great achievements. However, unfortunately, few works have been made combining the two topics together of highway service areas and solar energy saving to make a systemic research on solar technology application for highway service area. In this paper, taking West Lushan highway low-carbon service area in Jiangxi Province of China as the case study, the advantages, technical principles, and application methods of solar energy technology for highway service area including solar photoelectric technology and solar water heating technology were discussed based on the analysis of characteristics of highway low-carbon service area; the system types, operation mode, and installing tilt angle of the two kinds of solar systems suitable for highway service areas were confirmed. It was proved that the reduction of the cost by electricity savings of solar system was huge. Taking the investment of the solar systems into account, the payback period of solar photoelectric systems and solar water heating systems was calculated. The economic effect of the solar systems in West Lushan highway service area during the effective operation periods was also calculated and proved very considerable.

  11. PROPERTIES AND MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS OF SOILS FORMED FROM VOLCANIC MATERIALS IN LEMBANG AREA, WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Yatno

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Soils formed from volcanic materials have a high potential for agricultural development, especially for horticultural crops, tea, and pine trees. Data on the characteristics of these soils are important for the management planning. Six representative soil profiles developed on andesitic volcanic ash and tuff in Lembang area, West Java were studied to determine the soil physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties, to study the relationship between the soil properties, and to classify the soils according to the Soil Taxonomy. The results indicated that all the soils had very deep (>150 cm solum. In general, the volcanic ash soils were darker colored, more granular, more friable, less sticky and less plastic than the volcanic tuff soils. Physically, the ash soils had lower bulk density (0.44-0.73 mg m-3 and higher available water content (13-33% than the tuff soils. Bulk density decreased with increasing allophane. Chemically, the ash soils had higher pHNaF (mostly > 10, higher organic carbon (4.3-6.8% in upper horizons, higher CEC (20- 44 cmolc kg-1, and higher P retention (> 85% than the tuff soils. P retention logarithmically increased with increasing oxalate extractable Al and allophane. The sand fractions of the ash soils were dominated by hornblende, while the tuff soils were predominantly composed of opaque minerals. In the clay fractions, the ash soils were dominated by allophane, whereas the tuff soils showed high contents of gibbsite and metahalloysite. Soils developed on volcanic ash were classified as Thaptic Hapludands and Typic Melanudands, while soils formed from volcanic tuff were classified as Andic Dystrudepts. The low bulk density and friable consistency of the soils contributed to favorable soil tilth. However, high P retention and Al saturation in most soils are limiting factors for plant growth. Application of P fertilizers and liming coupled with efficient placement can be recommended to enhance P availability and

  12. Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 West Area Burial Grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.I.; Khaleel, R.; Rittmann, P.D.; Lu, A.H.; Finfrock, S.H.; DeLorenzo, T.H.; Serne, R.J.; Cantrell, K.J.

    1995-06-01

    This document reports the findings of a performance assessment (PA) analysis for the disposal of solid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the 200 West Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in the northwest corner of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This PA analysis is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A (DOE 1988a) to demonstrate that a given disposal practice is in compliance with a set of performance objectives quantified in the order. These performance objectives are applicable to the disposal of DOE-generated LLW at any DOE-operated site after the finalization of the order in September 1988. At the Hanford Site, DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) has issued a site-specific supplement to DOE Order 5820.2A, DOE-RL 5820.2A (DOE 1993), which provides additiona I ce objectives that must be satisfied

  13. Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 West Area Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M.I.; Khaleel, R.; Rittmann, P.D.; Lu, A.H.; Finfrock, S.H.; DeLorenzo, T.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Serne, R.J.; Cantrell, K.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This document reports the findings of a performance assessment (PA) analysis for the disposal of solid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the 200 West Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in the northwest corner of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This PA analysis is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A (DOE 1988a) to demonstrate that a given disposal practice is in compliance with a set of performance objectives quantified in the order. These performance objectives are applicable to the disposal of DOE-generated LLW at any DOE-operated site after the finalization of the order in September 1988. At the Hanford Site, DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) has issued a site-specific supplement to DOE Order 5820.2A, DOE-RL 5820.2A (DOE 1993), which provides additiona I ce objectives that must be satisfied.

  14. Evaluation of granular activated carbon reactivation and regeneration alternatives for the 200 West Area carbon tetrachloride Expedited Response Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, J.W.; Tranbarger, R.K.

    1996-07-01

    This document presents the results of an engineering study to evaluate alternative technologies for the reactivation or regeneration of granular activated carbon (GAC) resulting from remediation operations in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of the study was to determine whether there is a more cost-effective (onsite or offsite) method of regenerating/reactivating GAC than the present method of shipping the GAC offsite to a commercial reactivation facility in Pennsylvania

  15. Performance of a liquid argon time projection chamber exposed to the CERN West Area Neutrino Facility neutrino beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arneodo, F.; Cavanna, F.; Mitri, I. De; Mortari, G. Piano; Benetti, P.; Borio di Tigliole, A.; Calligarich, E.; Cesana, E.; Dolfini, R.; Mauri, F.; Montanari, C.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G. L.; Rubbia, C.; Terrani, M.; Vignoli, C.; Bonesini, M.; Boschetti, B.; Cavalli, D.; Curioni, A.

    2006-01-01

    We present the results of the first exposure of a Liquid Argon TPC to a multi-GeV neutrino beam. The data have been collected with a 50 liters ICARUS-like chamber located between the CHORUS and NOMAD experiments at the CERN West Area Neutrino Facility (WANF). We discuss both the instrumental performance of the detector and its capability to identify and reconstruct low-multiplicity neutrino interactions

  16. Meltwater flux and runoff modeling in the abalation area of jakobshavn Isbrae, West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mernild, Sebastian Haugard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chylek, Petr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Liston, Glen [COLORADO STATE UNIV.; Steffen, Konrad [UNIV OF COLORADO

    2009-01-01

    The temporal variability in surface snow and glacier melt flux and runoff were investigated for the ablation area of lakobshavn Isbrae, West Greenland. High-resolution meteorological observations both on and outside the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) were used as model input. Realistic descriptions of snow accumulation, snow and glacier-ice melt, and runoff are essential to understand trends in ice sheet surface properties and processes. SnowModel, a physically based, spatially distributed meteorological and snow-evolution modeling system was used to simulate the temporal variability of lakobshavn Isbrre accumulation and ablation processes for 2000/01-2006/07. Winter snow-depth observations and MODIS satellite-derived summer melt observations were used for model validation of accumulation and ablation. Simulations agreed well with observed values. Simulated annual surface melt varied from as low as 3.83 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2001/02) to as high as 8.64 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2004/05). Modeled surface melt occurred at elevations reaching 1,870 m a.s.l. for 2004/05, while the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) fluctuated from 990 to 1,210 m a.s.l. during the simulation period. The SnowModel meltwater retention and refreezing routines considerably reduce the amount of meltwater available as ice sheet runoff; without these routines the lakobshavn surface runoff would be overestimated by an average of 80%. From September/October through May/June no runoff events were simulated. The modeled interannual runoff variability varied from 1.81 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2001/02) to 5.21 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2004/05), yielding a cumulative runoff at the Jakobshavn glacier terminus of {approx}2.25 m w.eq. to {approx}4.5 m w.eq., respectively. The average modeled lakobshavn runoff of {approx}3.4 km{sup 3} y{sup -1} was merged with previous estimates of Jakobshavn ice discharge to quantify the freshwater flux to Illulissat Icefiord. For both runoff and ice discharge the average trends are

  17. the relationships of the avifauna of the south west arid area of africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    came from the north; zoological facts suggest that African birds must have evolved within the continent, with .... discovered one in central Tanganyika, appears to have evolved in the South West Arid but to have left these ... seems to me that leucotis is more similar, in size and plumage pattern, to verticalis than to australis.

  18. the relationships of the avifauna of the south west arid area of africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some years ago, I discussed (Winterbottom 1959) the limits of the zoogeographical district well named by Chapin (1923) the South West Arid and extended it eastward to include the highveld grasslands of the Transvaal and Orange Free State which Chapin had excluded. Later, I (Winter- bottom 1966) considered its ...

  19. Oil and gas resources of the Cheat Mountain Further Planning Area (RARE II), Randolph County, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed, E.G.

    1981-01-01

    The Wilderness Act (Public Law 88-577, September 3, 1964) and related acts require the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines to survey certain areas on Federal lands to determine their mineral resource potential. Results must be made available to the public and be submitted to the President and the Congress. This map presents an analysis of the oil and gas resources of the Cheat Mountain Further Planning Area in the Monongahela National Forest, Randolph County, West Virginia. The area was classified as a further planning area during the Second Roadless Area Review and Evaluation (RARE II) by the U.S. Forest Service, January 1979.

  20. Maps showing mines, quarries, prospects, and exposures in the Cheat Mountain Roadless Area, Randolph County, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behum, Paul T.; Hammack, Richard W.

    1981-01-01

    The Wilderness Act (Public Law 88-577, September 3, 1964) and related acts require the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines to survey certain areas on Federal lands to determine their mineral resource potential. Results must be made available to the public and be submitted to the President and the Congress. This report presents the results of a mineral survey of the Cheat Mountain Roadless Area in the Monongahela National Forest, Randolph County, West Virginia. The area was designated as a further planning area during the Second Roadless Area Review and Evaluation (RARE II) by the U.S. Forest Service, January 1979.

  1. Seasonal prevalence and blood meal analysis of filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus in coastal areas of Digha, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Syed Afrin; Das, Surajit; Chatterjee, Soumendranath

    2015-09-01

    Filariasis is one of the major vector-borne diseases causing serious health problem in the tropics and subtropics. The coastal areas of Digha are known to be a filariasis prone region of West Bengal, India. The filarial parasite Wuchereria bancrofti is transmitted by Culex quinquefasciatus, the established filarial vector in West Bengal, India. The present work was aimed to determine the abundance of different mosquito species; and the frequency, distribution and blood meal analysis of Cx. quinquefasciatus in coastal areas of Digha. During the present study, a total of 11,537 mosquitoes [Cx. quinquefasciatus, Armigeres subalbatus, Anopheles barbirostris, An. annularis, An. subpictus, An. sundaicus, Aedes albopictus, and Cx. vishnui (group)] were collected by hand collection method from human habitations and cattlesheds of 10 villages of Digha, West Bengal, India. The seasonal prevalence of Cx. quinquefasciatus was studied. In each season, blood meals of 300 Cx. quinquefasciatus collected from human habitations were analysed during the study period. Cx. quinquefasciatus was found to be the dominant species (88.44% of the total collection) in the study area. It was most frequently found in and around human habitations than cattlesheds. Total man hour density calculation revealed that this species was most prevalent during the rainy season. Two-way ANOVA revealed that the abundance of Cx. quinquefasciatus varied with different seasons. Blood meal analysis showed that the filarial vector preferred human blood than that of other animals. This study suggested Cx. quinquefasciatus as the dominant mosquito species in the study area; and the anthropophilic nature of Cx. quinquefasciatus might be the reason of increase in the intensity of filarial transmission in coastal areas of Digha.

  2. Spatio-Temporal Identification of Areas Suitable for West Nile Disease in the Mediterranean Basin and Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Annamaria; Candeloro, Luca; Ippoliti, Carla; Monaco, Federica; De Massis, Fabrizio; Bruno, Rossana; Di Sabatino, Daria; Danzetta, Maria Luisa; Benjelloun, Abdennasser; Belkadi, Bouchra; El Harrak, Mehdi; Declich, Silvia; Rizzo, Caterina; Hammami, Salah; Ben Hassine, Thameur; Calistri, Paolo; Savini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of the Flaviviridae family. Its spread in the Mediterranean basin and the Balkans poses a significant risk to human health and forces public health officials to constantly monitor the virus transmission to ensure prompt application of preventive measures. In this context, predictive tools indicating the areas and periods at major risk of WNV transmission are of paramount importance. Spatial analysis approaches, which use environmental and climatic variables to find suitable habitats for WNV spread, can enhance predictive techniques. Using the Mahalanobis Distance statistic, areas ecologically most suitable for sustaining WNV transmission were identified in the Mediterranean basin and Central Europe. About 270 human and equine clinical cases notified in Italy, Greece, Portugal, Morocco, and Tunisia, between 2008 and 2012, have been considered. The environmental variables included in the model were altitude, slope, night time Land Surface Temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Enhanced Vegetation Index, and daily temperature range. Seasonality of mosquito population has been modelled and included in the analyses to produce monthly maps of suitable areas for West Nile Disease. Between May and July, the most suitable areas are located in Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and North Cyprus. Summer/Autumn months, particularly between August and October, characterize the suitability in Italy, France, Spain, the Balkan countries, Morocco, North Tunisia, the Mediterranean coast of Africa, and the Middle East. The persistence of suitable conditions in December is confined to the coastal areas of Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and Israel.

  3. Structural characteristics of the Semanggol formation on the east-west highway route 67 Baling Area, Kedah, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuniarti Ulfa; Mohd Hafiz Hafizzy NS; Muhammad Farhan MF

    2012-01-01

    The amounts of structural data available from the East-West Highway Route 67 of Baling Area have been used to unravel the structural characteristics of the Semanggol Formation, which comprises black mudstone, sandstone, tuffaceous sandstone, tuff, paraconglomerate, siliceous shale and chert. The area was cut by two sets of faults trending NW-SE and NE-SW. The main fault in this area is known as Bok Bak fault that is trending NW-SE and have moderately to steeply dips (40°- 88°) as compared to the conjugate faults. Two sets of folds trending NE-SW and NW-SE were also identified in this area, where most of them are symmetrical fold with gentle to open fold varies from non-plunging to nearly moderately plunging folds. Most of the faults have parallel orientation to the fold axis, indicated this pattern probably originated at the same period of deformation due to warping and uplifting. (author)

  4. Using PS-InSAR to detect surface deformation in geothermal areas of West Java in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoudi, Yasser; van der Meer, Freek; Hecker, Christoph; Perissin, Daniele; Saepuloh, Asep

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the Persistent Scatterer InSAR (PS-InSAR) technique is applied in order to investigate the ground deformation in and around two geothermal areas in West Java, Indonesia. Two time-series of ALOS PALSAR and Sentinel-1A acquisitions, covering the period from 2007 to 2009 and 2015-2016, are analysed. The first case study examines the Wayang Windu geothermal zone where the PS-InSAR analysis provides an overview of the surface deformation around a geothermal reservoir. Uplift is observed around the injection wells in the area. The second example involves the use of the PS-InSAR technique over a more recent geothermal system in Patuha field. Again, a pattern of uplift was observed around the only available injection well in the area. Due to the dense vegetation coverage of the geothermal areas in West Java, the longer wavelength ALOS PALSAR data is provides better results by identifying a larger number of PS points. Additionally, experiments have been carried out to compare the resulting deformation with another example of the fluid migration process i.e. water extraction in Bandung basin. The potential of sentinel-1A and ALOS PALSR data are compared in all the experiments.

  5. Multi-Spatial Criteria Modelling of Fire Risk and Hazard in the West Gonja Area of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    I. Yakubu; D. Mireku-Gyimah; A. A. Duker

    2013-01-01

    About 30% of the West Gonja Area (WGA) of Ghana is occupied by three major forest reserves, which have rich array of plants and animals. The ecosystem in the WGA has been experiencing changes as a result of activities such as lumbering, farming, poaching and ritual bush burning as well as wildfire. Of particular concern is wildfire which has devastating effect on the ecological system and the rural livelihood in the WGA. Therefore, prevention and control of wildfire in the WGA is important to...

  6. Spatio-Temporal Identification of Areas Suitable for West Nile Disease in the Mediterranean Basin and Central Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Conte

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of the Flaviviridae family. Its spread in the Mediterranean basin and the Balkans poses a significant risk to human health and forces public health officials to constantly monitor the virus transmission to ensure prompt application of preventive measures. In this context, predictive tools indicating the areas and periods at major risk of WNV transmission are of paramount importance. Spatial analysis approaches, which use environmental and climatic variables to find suitable habitats for WNV spread, can enhance predictive techniques. Using the Mahalanobis Distance statistic, areas ecologically most suitable for sustaining WNV transmission were identified in the Mediterranean basin and Central Europe. About 270 human and equine clinical cases notified in Italy, Greece, Portugal, Morocco, and Tunisia, between 2008 and 2012, have been considered. The environmental variables included in the model were altitude, slope, night time Land Surface Temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Enhanced Vegetation Index, and daily temperature range. Seasonality of mosquito population has been modelled and included in the analyses to produce monthly maps of suitable areas for West Nile Disease. Between May and July, the most suitable areas are located in Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and North Cyprus. Summer/Autumn months, particularly between August and October, characterize the suitability in Italy, France, Spain, the Balkan countries, Morocco, North Tunisia, the Mediterranean coast of Africa, and the Middle East. The persistence of suitable conditions in December is confined to the coastal areas of Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and Israel.

  7. Implication of the displacement of the T1 primary target in the west area at the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Gatignon, L

    1999-01-01

    As soon as the transfer line T12 for proton injection into the LHC must be installed, the T1 primary target has to be at least partly dismantled, as its shielding would block the passage of the beam. Even though the installation of T12 is only foreseen for later, in view of sharing of workload related to the SLI project, it is preferred to move the primary production target T1 for the West Area to its new position already in the shutdown 1999/2000. The new position of the target requires major modifications of support structures in TCC6, of the transfer line towards T1 and of a more than 500 metres long section of the H3 secondary beam in the West Area, all to be completed in the 1999/2000 shutdown. To allow the work to be finished in time, part of it (including some civil engineering in TT4) is already done in the 1998/99 shutdown. In this memo the necessary modifications are described, cost estimates are given and a planning is provided.

  8. Sedimentary Facies of the West Crocker Formation North Kota Kinabalu-Tuaran Area, Sabah, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Azfar; Hadi Abd Rahman, Abdul; Suhaili Ismail, Mohd

    2016-02-01

    Newly outcrops exposed in the West Crocker Formation have led to the detail sedimentolgical analysis of the formation. Eight sedimentary facies have been recognised in which it was divided into three main groups: (1) sand-dominated facies (F1-F2), (2) poorly- sorted unit mixed sand and mud-dominated facies (F3), and (3) mud-dominated facies (F4-F5). These are: F1- graded sandstone (massive to planar laminated), F2-ripple-cross laminated, wavy and convolute lamination sandstone, F3-chaotic beds of mixed sandstone and mudstone blocks and clasts, F4-lenticular bedded of sandstone, and F5-shale. The studies of the formation has come out that it was deposited in a sand-rich submarine fan with specific location located at (1) inner fan channel-levee complex; (2) mid-fan channelised lobes, and (3) outer fan.

  9. Malaria Transmission Pattern in an Area Selected for Clinical Trials in the Sudanian Area of Senegal (West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Hadji Amadou Niang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria transmission pattern was studied in 3 villages (Toubanding, Daga Ndoup, and Keur Samba Guèye situated within an area selected for clinical trials. The study was conducted in the rainy season from July to December 2011. The main objective of this work was to gather baseline data on malaria transmission intensity and other entomological parameters before the advent of clinical trials. Mosquitoes were collected by Human-Landing Collections (HLCs and by pyrethrum spray catches (PSCs. Five anopheline species were collected, namely, An. arabiensis, An. gambiae, An. funestus, An. pharoensis, and An. rufipes, giving a heterogeneous distribution within the study area. The populations dynamics of the vectors varied temporarily in each village depending on the pattern of the rainy season. Transmission intensity estimated by the entomological inoculation rate (EIR was measured in each of the three villages with the variations linked to the microecological differences between the villages. Measurements were calculated for August, September, and October and were found to vary between 4 and 30 infected bites per person over the study period with a peak intensity observed in September. These results indicate that epidemiological field trials on malaria could be conducted in this area on the basis of the differences observed with transmission intensity, micro-ecological variations, and the objectives of the trials.

  10. 1 Water Scarcity in Wetland Area within Kandi Block of West Bengal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    Abstract. Water logging areas are basically designated by water affluences in permanent or seasonal basis. But due to accelerated rate of human intervention and human induced modification of natural processes, natural wetland landscapes also have today under acute seasonal water scarcity. Wetland areas have.

  11. Water Scarcity in Wetland Area within Kandi Block of West Bengal: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water logging areas are basically designated by water affluences in permanent or seasonal basis. But due to accelerated rate of human intervention and human induced modification of natural processes, natural wetland landscapes also have today under acute seasonal water scarcity. Wetland areas have been gradually ...

  12. Investigation Of Radioactivities In Air Environment Of the West Lake area, Hanoi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang Huu Duc; Dau Xuan Hoai; Dinh Tien Hung; Vu Thi Kim Duyen; Le Hong Khiem; Pham Duc Khue; Phan Viet Cuong

    2011-01-01

    In Vietnam as in many other countries in the world, together with the economy development, the environmental pollution problems are also growth up. In order to help the relevant departments in management of the environment in general and radiation environment in particular, especially the radioactivities in the atmosphere in Hanoi, a radiation poisoning chemical observing station for Northern region located at 282 Lac Long Quan street, Tay Ho district, Hanoi has been constructed and operated since 1994. In this report, the results of the observation for radioactivities in the atmosphere in Hanoi from 2000 up to now will be presented. The air samples are collected at the West lake region by using filter FPP-15 with the volume of 100,000 m 3 - 150.000 m 3 . The samples are burned to ashes. In order to detect the low level radioactivity, a low background gamma spectrometer with high purity germanium detector (HPGe) of Canberra has been used. The statistical data demonstrates that the fluctuation of the radiation activities in the atmosphere in Hanoi is insignificant and activity of the radioisotopes is at low level. (author)

  13. Early pictures of global climate change impact to the coastal area (North West of Demak Central Java Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Heri; Pradipta, Dhota; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.; Sarsito, Dina A.

    2017-07-01

    In the last several decades we have been realized for the Global Climate Change situation. Some indicators are worldwide increasing temperature, decreasing volume of ice in Antarctica, and the sea level rise. Relating to the decreased of ice volume and the sea level rise, this situation has been predicted to endanger the living at the coastal area in the future. Prediction models have shown some coastal cities area would suffer flood by tidal inundation and even permanent flooding. Coincidently, today in the North West of Demak District Central Java Indonesia we literally can see the early picture of Global Climate Change impact to the coastal areas as mention. The occurrence of tidal inundation in this area was recognized at least in the early 2000 and even earlier, and in the recent years the tidal inundation comes not only at a high tide but even at the regular tide, and in fact some of this area are obviously sinking to the sea through times. This early picture is truly showing a disaster. Adaptation has been made in facing the disaster such as increasing the house and infrastructures, and built dyke. We have been done some investigations to this area by field observations (mapping the flooded area, interviewing people and seeing the adaptations, conduct GPS measurement to see deformation, etc.), gather information from digital media and also using remotely time series of high resolution satellite image data to mapping the tidal inundation in this area. We noted people increased their house and the local goverment elevated the road and the bridge, etc. regulary over less decade periode. Our conclusions said that the adaptation only made temporaly since the sea level keep rising worsening by the land subsidence significantly.

  14. Petrology of offshore basalts of Bombay harbour area, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karisiddaiah, S.M.

    glass are conspicuous. The chemical data indicate that the basalts are tholeiitic. Secondary minerals encountered support the view that the basalts are spilitised. Basalts of this area show affinities to both continental and oceanic types especially...

  15. Annual Status Report (FY2015) Performance Assessment for the Disposal of Low-Level Waste in the 200 West Area Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaleel, R. [INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Mehta, S. [CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Nichols, W. E. [CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This annual review provides the projected dose estimates of radionuclide inventories disposed in the active 200 West Area Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) since September 26, 1988. These estimates area calculated using the original does methodology developed in the performance assessment (PA) analysis (WHC-EP-0645).

  16. Job Satisfaction and Work Performance of Public Secondary School Teachers In Akoko North West Local Government Area Of Ondo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroge Stephen Talabi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the relationship between job satisfaction and work performance of secondary school teachers in Akoko North West Local Government Area of Ondo-State, Nigeria. The study population consisted of all secondary school teachers, while two hundred of them were randomly selected for the study. Regular payment of salary, opportunities for promotion, rapport with school authority, in-service training, job security, career prospect and retirement benefits were the variables considered. The questionnaire titled “Workers Opinion Survey Inventory (WOSI” and the Productivity Rating Scale (PRS which was in line with Annual Performance Evaluation Report (APPER was used to obtain information for the study. The data was analyzed using Pearson Product Correlation Moment.  One of the recommendations made include the onward review of policies, remuneration and work conditions of teachers in the public secondary schools in Nigeria for optimum productivity.

  17. Effectiveness of training on infant feeding practices among community influencers in a rural area of west Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, A; Ray, S; Biswas, R; Biswas, B; Mukherjee, D

    2001-01-01

    Total 34 Influencers were trained in a subcentre area of South 24-parganas district of West Bengal. Knowledge was imparted to community influencers on infant feeding practices through lecture, group discussion, question-answer session and hand-on-training by trained health workers. Pre-assessment was done before initiation of training. Repeat training was conducted at frequent intervals within a period of 3 months. Mean score of knowledge of influencers during pre-training assessment was 13.3 and improved thereafter-following training to 20.8 (1st assessment), 20.6 (2nd assessment), 23.7 (3rd assessment) and 25.2 (final-assessment). Repeat training had also desired impact.

  18. Water Resources And Geomorphologic Characteristics Of Tushka Area, West Of Lake Nasser, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elewa, H.H.

    2003-01-01

    The main geomorphologic and drainage characteristics of the Tushka area were delineated through the interpretation of Landsat TM image. The study area displays physiographic features indicative of previous wet climatic conditions. The Nubia aquifer system in the region has a wide extension in the study area and rests un conformably on the Precambrian rocks. The River Nile has its own bearing on the hydrogeological regime of the Tushka and neighbouring areas of Lake Nasser. Comparison of the available data concerning the water levels of Lake Nasser above its submerged bottom (which involves elevations ranging from 50 to 90 m. (a. s. 1.) according to the recorded data between 1964 and 1996), with the static water levels of the groundwater wells reaching the deeper horizons of the Nubia Sandstone aquifer system in the Tushka basin area, suggests that the River Nile acts mostly as an influent stream. However, in some cases, when the static water levels of some deep water-bearing horizons reaches levels above those of the bottom of the lake, water flows from the groundwater reservoirs towards the river which acts as an effluent stream. Other wells have low static water levels compared to those of the bottom of the lake, and the waters of the River Nile most probably recharge the groundwater of these deeper water-bearing horizons of the Nubian aquifer. The prepared equi potentiometric contour map confirms this conclusion as it indicates that the maximum potentiometric level is attained in the north western part of Lake Nasser (at contour 80, near Well No. 12) whereas the minimum potentiometric level is encountered in a small area around Well No. 6 (at contour 50). Hence, the groundwater flow is generally towards Lake Nasser. However, in some instances, it is also moving in an adverse direction. The hydrogeological condition of the study area was conducted based on the variation in lithology, areal extent, recharge and productivity. The study revealed that the Nubia

  19. Changing surface-atmosphere energy exchange and refreezing capacity of the lower accumulation area, West Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charalampidis, C.; van As, D.; Box, J. E.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Colgan, W. T.; Doyle, S. H.; Hubbard, A. L.; MacFerrin, M.; Machguth, H.; Smeets, C. J. P. P.

    2015-01-01

    We present 5 years (2009–2013) of automatic weather station measurements from the lower accumulation area (1840 m a.s.l. – above sea level) of the Greenland ice sheet in the Kangerlussuaq region. Here, the summers of 2010 and 2012 were both exceptionally warm, but only 2012 resulted in a strongly

  20. Regional relationships between climate and wildfire-burned area in the interior West, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon M. Collins; Philip N. Omi; Phillip L. Chapman

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have linked the Atlantic Multtidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) with drought occurrence in the interior United States. This study evaluates the influence of AM0 and PDO phases on interannual relationships between climate and wildfire-burned area during the 20th century. Palmer's Drought Severity Index (PDSI) is...

  1. Practical Application of GIS for the Identification and Selection of Control Areas in West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickx, Guy

    2001-01-01

    This paper builds further on the Geneva and Rome-Vienna workshops where past applications of GIS for priority setting were presented and some principles underlying the present paper were adopted. Trypanosomosis control aims at sustained suppression of the disease and / or the vector. Therefore decision-making will be mainly anthropocentric, i.e. daily farmers inputs and participation are the key stone of success for any operation (socio-economics of trypanosomosis control). Decision-making towards selecting priority areas can be carried out at a national or sub-national level where restricted priority areas are selected according to potential costs and benefits. The relative location in the fly belt of selected areas is of lesser importance. Vector eradication on the other hand is a political decision which aims at permanently removing a major constraint, in this case tsetse as a vector of African Animal Trypanosomosis and Human Sleeping Sickness. Independently of peoples' will to participate, areas have to be selected on a data driven basis. The key stone here is technical feasibility. Since the success of the actual eradication campaign will highly depend on the technology used, chosen technologies will have to be carried out by professional teams to guarantee quality and speed. Therefore community participation can focus on disease management (basic animal health and production sensu largo) and land-use topics. Here decision-making is highly dependant on concerted action between countries involved. Large scale areas have to be selected according to the feasibility of tsetse eradication, starting from the easiest parts at the distribution limits of the fly and systematically working towards more complex types of habitat.

  2. An integrated village maternity service to improve referral patterns in a rural area in West-Java.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisjahbana, A; Williams, C; Dharmayanti, R; Hermawan, D; Kwast, B E; Koblinsky, M

    1995-06-01

    The Regionalization of Perinatal Care, an intervention study carried out in Tanjungsari, a subdistrict in rural West Java, aimed to develop a comprehensive maternal health program to improve maternal and perinatal health outcomes. The main inputs included training at all levels of the health care system (informal and formal) and the establishment of birthing homes in villages to make services more accessible. Special attention was given to referral, transportation, communication and appropriate case management, A social marketing program was conducted to inform people of the accessible birthing homes for clean delivery, located near the women, and with better transportation and communications to referral facilities should complications arise. The study design was longitudinal, following all pregnant women from early pregnancy until 42 days postpartum in an intervention and a comparison area. The population was +/- 90,000 in the intervention area and 40,000 in the comparison area. Inclusion criteria were all mother and infant units delivered between June 1st, 1992 and May 31st, 1993. Analysis showed the following results: Most women sought antenatal care (> 95%). In Tanjungsari, nearly 90% sought such care from professional providers as versus 75% in the control area of Cisalak. Most women with bleeding or bleeding and edema during pregnancy sought professional assistance in both the study and control areas. However, fever for more than 3 days received more attention in the study area versus control area (93 vs. 69%). Greater than 85% of deliveries in both areas were conducted by TBAs. However, in the study area, nearly one-third of those with intrapartum complications (17%) delivered in a health facility compared to one-tenth in the control area. This meant a hospital delivery, primarily with assistance of a doctor or doctor/midwife combination. Overall referral rates by TBAs were low -13% of women with complications in Tanjungsari and 6% in Cisalak. More women

  3. Farmers’ perceptions towards agroforestry systems in Babanosa Area, West Kordofan State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Eldin Mohammed Fadl

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in Eltemada, Boli and Umghoghai villages at Babanosa area in El-salam locality, South Kordofan State during 2012 and 2013. The objectives were to (1 identify and assess the most important agroforestry systems, (2 to investigate the main factors that affecting the sustainability of the systems, (3 to determine the important field crops that cultivated with trees and (4 to evaluate the effect of the agroforestry systems on the yield of the traditional field crops. For accomplishment of these study 80 questioners was designed and distributed in the selected villages. After the data collection data was analyzed by using descriptive statistic. The results showed that the most important agroforestry systems in the study area are parkland cropping system (58%, boundary planting (26%, wind-breaks (13% and alley cropping (3%.The most important forest trees in the study area are Acacia senegal (32%, Ziziphus spina- christia (28%, Balanites aegeyptiaca (26%, Sclerocary birrea and Guera senegalensis (3%. The main field crops in the study area are groundnut (44%, sorghum (35% and roselle (21%. The results showed that yield of groundnut and sorghum is higher under agroforestry systems compared with the mono-cropping system. The results showed that the majority of respondents (70% prefer to cultivate field crops in agroforestry system, while (30% prefer to cultivate the field crops in a mono-cropping system. The cultivation methods used in the study area include shifting cultivation (52%, mono-cropping (36% and intercropping (12%.The majority of respondents (94% showed that trees improve soil fertility in their farm land. The benefits from trees in farm land include improvement of soil properties (36%, protecting the farm land from wind erosion (28%, improvement of micro-climate (24% and source of income which was indicated by (12% of the respondents. The study recommended that modern agroforestry system such as improved fallow system

  4. Geochemistry of Archean Mafic Amphibolites from the Amsaga Area, West African Craton, Mauritania: Occurrence of Archean oceanic plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Atrassi, Fatima; Debaille, Vinciane; Mattielli, Nadine; Berger, Julien

    2015-04-01

    While Archean terrains are mainly composed of a TTG (Tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite) suite, more mafic lithologies such as amphibolites are also a typical component of those ancient terrains. Although mafic rocks represent only ~10% of the Archean cratons, they may provide key evidence of the role and nature of basaltic magmatism in the formation of the Archean crust as well as the evolution of the Archean mantle. This study focuses on the Archean crust from the West African craton in Mauritania (Amsaga area). The Amsaga Archean crust mainly consists of TTG and thrust-imbricated slices of mafic volcanic rocks, which have been affected by polymetamorphic events from the amphibolite to granulite facies. We report the results of a combined petrologic, Sm-Nd isotopic, major element and rare earth element (REE) study of the Archean amphibolites in the West African craton. This study was conducted in order to characterize these rocks, to constrain the time of their formation and to evaluate their tectonic setting and their possible mantle source. Our petrological observations show that these amphibolites have fine to medium granoblastic and nematoblastic textures. They are dominated by amphibolite-facies mineral assemblages (mainly amphibole and plagioclase), but garnet and clinopyroxene occur in a few samples. These amphibolites have tholeiitic basalt composition. On a primitive mantle-normalized diagram, they display fairly flat patterns without negative anomalies for either Eu or Nb-Ta. We have shown using Sm-Nd whole rock isotopic data that these amphibolites formed at 3.3 ±0.075 Ga. They have positive ɛNdi values (+5.2 ± 1.6). These samples show isotopically juvenile features, which rule out the possibility of significant contamination of the protolith magmas by ancient continental crust. Based on these geochemical data we propose that the tholeiitic basalts were formed in an oceanic plateau tectonic setting from a mantle plume source and that they have a

  5. Chldren's rights and corporal punishment in Assendabo town and the surrounding area, South West Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admassu, Fisseha; Nida, Hailu; Belachew, Tefera; Haileamlak, Abraham

    2006-01-01

    Corporal punishment of children has been used as a disciplinary measure to modify undesirable behavior of children worldwide. This study was conducted with the aim of determining the knowledge, attitudes and the extent that corporal punishment is practiced in the study area. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the residents of Assendabo town and its surroundings area form January 8-12, 2003. A total of 368 residents with at least one child living with them were selected and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS for windows version 11.0. The study revealed 310 (87.6%) of the parents employed child corporal punishment as a method of disciplining out of which nearly half of them claimed their action was for the ultimate benefit of their children. Only 12 (3.5%) of the parents reported infliction of trauma while punishing their children. There was no significant parental difference both in attitude and practice of child corporal punishment. Family income is found to affect both attitude and practice of corporal punishment. From this study it is concluded that the knowledge about the existence of a legal framework which protects a child from any form of abuse is low. The attitude towards avoidance of child corporal punishment is unfavorable and there is a high prevalence of child corporal punishment practiced.

  6. Seismic modifications to the hot suspect repair area Argonne National Laboratory, West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, L.E.; Harris, B.G.

    1993-01-01

    The ANL-W WIPP Waste Facility Enhancement Project required substantial remodeling and upgrades to the Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) building, including the Hot and Suspect Repair Area (HSRA). The HSRA is an enclosed single-stoned area inside the HFEF. It is separated into several compartments, some of which are used for handling radioactive materials. The HSRA roof consists of 18 GA steel Robertson Q decking with 1.5 in. concrete topping, and is utilized for storage. Braced steel frames support the HSRA roof, except at the north side, where the steel beams arc connected to the HFEF columns. The HSRA has hollow block masonry perimeter and interior walls. Seismic evaluations concluded that the HSRA did not have a competent seismic force resisting system. The structure was upgraded by decoupling it from the HFEF framing for N/S motions, modifying two existing braced frames, adding a now braced frame that can be removed temporarily during maintenance and strengthening the roof diaphragm by a unique modification consisting of special epoxy grout and steel plates installed over the existing concrete roof

  7. Documentation of the Range 8C rehabilitation demonstration project at Hohenfels Training Area, West Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D.; Hinchman, R.R.; Carter, R.P.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Lacey, R.M.; Brent, J.J.

    1987-03-01

    Continued and intensive tactical training for the last 35 years at the Hohenfels Training Area (HTA), Federal Republic of Germany, has resulted in extensive environmental damage and reduced training realism. The US Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratory is developing an Integrated Training Area Management (ITAM) Program for the Seventh Army Training Command for use at HTA. Argonne National Laboratory was asked to assist in one element of the ITAM program, a training range rehabilitation demonstration project. The rehabilitation project was begun in 1986 on a 62-ha watershed that included about 16 ha of meadow with training damage typical of HTA. On the basis of amount of plant ground cover, type and degree of erosion, and soil properties, 10 rehabilitation prescriptions were developed to reestablish plant cover, control erosion, and improve training realism. Prescriptions were installed by a local contractor in September 1986. A monitoring program is under way to determine the effectiveness of this effort. Results and experience gained from this project will be used in the ITAM program and for rehabilitation training courses conducted at HTA.

  8. Assessment of quality of rheumatology care in a rural area of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouranga Santra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with rheumatic symptoms are frequently misdiagnosed and mismanaged in rural areas. The present study was conducted to assess the level of accuracy in management of musculoskeletal (MSK symptoms in rural patients. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted over 1-year period involving the patients with rheumatologic symptoms such as MSK pain, swelling and stiffness of joints, and managed outside previously before attending to us for these symptoms. Patients were interviewed regarding their past investigations, diagnosis offered, and management schedules. Level of misdiagnosis and mistreatment was evaluated. Results: One hundred and twenty-five patients (50% were treated by quacks. Large number of patients also went to homeopathic (12% and ayurvedic (4% practitioners. Medical graduates treated 24% cases. Few patients went to postgraduate physicians (4% or rheumatologists (0.8%. Misdiagnosis and mistreatment were common mainly with quacks and alternative medicine practitioners. Overall only 28.8% cases were diagnosed correctly. Investigations were suggested inappropriately such as antistreptolysin O titer, rheumatoid factor, and uric acid when these were not required. Medicines such as benzathine penicillin, steroid, etc., were prescribed inappropriately. Physiotherapy and rehabilitation were neglected. Conclusion: Gap in quality of rheumatology care is prevalent at rural areas. Awareness program and basic rheumatology training to rural health professionals are of high priority.

  9. Prescribing practice for malaria following introduction of artemether-lumefantrine in an urban area with declining endemicity in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conway David J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The decline in malaria coinciding with the introduction of newer, costly anti-malarials has prompted studies into the overtreatment for malaria mostly in East Africa. The study presented here describes prescribing practices for malaria at health facilities in a West African country. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in two urban Gambian primary health facilities (PHFs during and outside the malaria transmission season. Facilities were comparable in terms of the staffing compliment and capability to perform slide microscopy. Patients treated for malaria were enrolled after consultations and blood smears collected and read at a reference laboratory. Slide reading results from the PHFs were compared to the reference readings and the proportion of cases treated but with a negative test result at the reference laboratory was determined. Results Slide requests were made for 33.2% (173 of those enrolled, being more frequent in children (0-15 yrs than adults during the wet season (p = 0.003. In the same period, requests were commoner in under-fives compared to older children (p = 0.022; however, a positive test result was 4.4 times more likely in the latter group (p = 0.010. Parasitaemia was confirmed for only 4.7% (10/215 and 12.5% (37/297 of patients in the dry and wet seasons, respectively. The negative predictive value of a PHF slide remained above 97% in both seasons. Conclusions The study provides evidence for considerable overtreatment for malaria in a West African setting comparable to reports from areas with similar low malaria transmission in East Africa. The data suggest that laboratory facilities may be under-used, and that adherence to negative PHF slide results could significantly reduce the degree of overtreatment. The "peak prevalence" in 5-15 year olds may reflect successful implementation of malaria control interventions in under-fives, but point out the need to extend such interventions to older

  10. Distribution of Recent Volcanism and Morphology of Volcanic Features in the GLIMPSE Study Area west of the East Pacific Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheirer, D.; Forsyth, D.; Harmon, N.; Duncan, R.

    2003-12-01

    The existence of seamounts and volcanic ridges west of the East Pacific Rise (EPR), perhaps associated with cross-grain gravity lineations, was initially revealed by detailed satellite altimetry. Multibeam bathymetry and sidescan reflectivity measurements made on board the R/V Melville in 2001 and 2002 as part of the GLIMPSE Experiment, plus additional data gathered on other cruises including those of the MELT Experiment, have allowed us to map the distribution of recent, off-axis volcanic activity west of the EPR and south of the Garrett Fracture Zone and to more precisely define the form of the volcanic features. The Southern Cross Seamount, Sojourn Ridge and Brown Ridge combine to form a linear feature nearly 500 km long, oriented perpendicular to the EPR about 80 km south of the Garrett FZ. Both the Sojourn and Brown ridges comprise several en echelon segments, each about 30 km long, linked together to form continuous topographic highs standing 2000 m or more above the surrounding seafloor. Side-scan data reveal reflective patches along the Brown Ridge at the eastern end of this feature that appear to be recent lava flows. Dredging of fresh basalts dated by Ar/Ar methods at about 0.3 Ma confirm this interpretation. The Southern Cross Seamount, at the western end of the chain, is the largest individual feature, standing more than 3.5 km above the surrounding seafloor and shoaling to depths less than 200 m below sealevel. The Hotu-Matua volcanic complex also extends for several hundred km, but is much more varied in its morphology. The western end has some very small, very linear ridges, flanked on the south by an extensive region of resurfaced, hummocky seafloor. This area is more reflective and presumably younger than the surrounding seafloor, but less reflective than the areas interpreted as recent flows. Roughly midway along this complex are the Hotu and Matua seamounts. Surrounding Matua is an extensive region of highly reflective, recent lava flows, some of

  11. Environmental Radiation Studies in Mn-Mines at Wadi Naseib Area, South West Sinai, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, A.F.; El-Galy, M.M.; El-Feky, M.G.; Mohamed, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    The activity concentrations of radon and thoron decay products beside the gamma dose rate of the naturally occurring radionuclides were measured and calculated in two underground manganese mines, M1 and M2 at Wadi Naseib area in Sinai. Radon daughters and thoron daughters working levels were calculated using Rolle method after measuring the alpha activity. The measurements were taken at different stations inside the two mines. The radiation levels were calculated at seven stations inside the first mine and at ten stations inside the second mine. It was found that, the radon daughter products have major effect while the thoron daughter products and -dose have the minor effect in U/G mines. These measurements will be considered in perspective with the ventilation required to lower the radon decay products inside the mine in order to establish adequate working level that conform with proper radiation safety requirements for workers inside these mines

  12. A New Insight into Shale-Gas Accumulation Conditions and Favorable Areas of the Xinkailing Formation in the Wuning Area, North-West Jiangxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangru Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In north-west Jiangxi, China, most shale-gas exploration has been focused on the Lower Cambrian Hetang and Guanyintang formations, whereas the Upper Ordovician Xinkailing formation shale has been ignored for years due to heavy weathering. This study systematically analyzed gas source conditions, reservoir conditions and gas-bearing ability in order to reveal the shale-gas accumulation conditions of the Xinkailing formation. The results show that the Xinkailing formation is characterized by thick deposition of black shale (10–80 m, high organic content (with total organic carbon between 1.18% and 3.11%, on average greater than 2%, relatively moderate thermal evolution (with vitrinite reflectance between 2.83% and 3.21%, high brittle-mineral content (greater than 40%, abundant nanopores and micro-fractures, very good adsorption ability (adsorption content between 2.12 m3/t and 3.47 m3/t, on average about 2.50 m3/t, and strong sealing ability in the underlying and overlying layers, all of which favor the generation and accumulation of shale gas. The Wuning-Lixi and Jinkou-Zhelin areas of the Xinkailing formation were selected as the most realistic and favorable targets for shale-gas exploration and exploitation. In conclusion, the Wuning area has great potential and can provide a breakthrough in shale gas with further investigation.

  13. Impacts of terrain attributes and human activities on soil texture class variations in hilly areas, south-west China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ai-Di; Guo, Peng-Tao; Wu, Wei; Liu, Hong-Bin

    2017-06-01

    Knowledge of soil texture variations is critical for agricultural and engineering applications because texture influences many other soil properties. This study used random forest method to evaluate the effects of human activities and topographic parameters on the spatial variability of soil texture in hilly areas where soil parent material was uniform. The study site covers 252 km 2 and is located in the Upper Yangtze River Basin of south-west China. A total of 3636 samples were collected from the cultivated soils at a depth of 20 cm of dryland (sloping field and terraced land) landscape. The soil texture class for each sample was estimated by experienced soil scientists in the field. Two soil texture classes (loam and clay) were observed in the watershed. Eleven terrain parameters were derived from a digital elevation model with a resolution of 30 m. Compared with loamy soils, clayey soils were mostly observed in the areas with lower elevation and gentle slopes. The outcome of random forest indicated that human activities and elevation had strong effects on soil texture class variations across the study site. Further results showed that the relative importance of terrain parameters to soil texture class variations varied with dryland landscape. Topographic wetness index and elevation were the most important variables for sloping field and terraced land landscapes, respectively.

  14. Report on joint ecogeochemical mapping and monitoring in the West Murmansk Region and the contiguous areas of Finland and Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekushin, V.A.; Bogatyrev, I.V.; Finne, T.E.

    1993-12-01

    A series of meetings between the Central Kola Survey Expedition, Geological Survey of Finland and Geological Survey of Norway in 1991-1992 led to the implementation of a pilot project of a joint ecogeochemical study of the impacts of industrial activities on the terrestrial systems of West Kola Peninsula and adjacent areas in Finland and Norway. The main aims of this pilot project were to harmonize methods of sampling, preparation, analysis, data treatment and interpretation, focusing on heavy metals and radionuclides. A small area in the three-country field, including Nikel, Zapoljarny and Kirkenes was chosen as test territory. Experiences of the pilot project should form a base for planning a major project to cover some 170000 km 2 in the three countries. Snow cover, terrestrial moss, A 0 -horizon, A 0+2 -horizon, C-horizon, stream water, stream sediments and overbank sediments were used as sampling medias, with 15 sites in each country. A data quality assessment was carried out, and maps of pollutant elements clearly delineate patterns similar to those found by other workers. There is no indication that C-horizon is affected, but results of overbank sediments indicate that there are abnormal conditions with regards to the sediment transport and chemistry in the ''industrial desert''. Results of 134,137 Cs determinations in the uppermost 5 cm of the soil profile show no alarming levels. An attempt at modelling the flux of contaminants has also been made. 29 refs., 54 figs., 9 tabs

  15. Palynofloral changes in the Upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic of the Deocha-Pachami area, Birbhum Coalfield, West Bengal, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijaya, B. [Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleobotany, Lucknow (India)

    2009-12-15

    The study of Upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic palynomorphs in three boreholes from the Deocha-Pachami area, Birbhum Coalfield, West Bengal, India, has allowed dating of the Talchir, Barakar, Dubrajpur, and Rajmahal formations, and revealed many hiatuses. The lowermost unit, the Talchir Formation, yielded earliest Permian palynomorphs. The Barakar Formation, which includes coal-bearing strata, was previously dated as Early Permian. However, data presented herein indicate an Early Permian to earliest Triassic age for this unit-containing actually the Karharbari, Barakar s.s., Kulti, and Ranigang formations as well as the basal part of the Panchet Formation. The overlying Dubrajpur Formation is Jurassic (Callovian to Tithonian), with an unconformity at its base. The uppermost Dubrajpur Formation is Tithonian-Berriasian. The palynomorphs from the intertrappeans within the Rajmahal Formation suggest an Early Cretaceous age. The revised ages of the Barakar and Dubrajpur formations are of major regional significance. The distribution patterns of spore-pollen may provide a broad spectrum of paleoclimate during Permian, Late Jurassic, and Early Cretaceous times, as there is no record of marine signatures in the study area.

  16. PIXE and XRF analysis of atmospheric aerosols from a site in the West area of Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, R. V.; López-Monroy, J.; Miranda, J.; Espinosa, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Due to geographical factors, most of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City features, on average, similar heights above the sea level, climate, wind speed and direction, with very uniform pollution degrees in most of the frequently studied sites. A site with different characteristics, Cuajimalpa de Morelos, was studied. It is located to the West of the urban area at 2760 m above sea level, in contrast to other sites (2240 m). Here, the wind is mostly directed towards the center of the city. Then, the site should not be affected by pollutants from the Northern/Northeastern industrial zones, so lower aerosol concentrations are expected. In this work, the elemental composition of coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5) fractions of atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Cuajimalpa is studied. The sampling period covered the cold-dry season in 2004-2005 (December 1st, 2004 to March 31, 2005), exposing polycarbonate filters with a Stacked Filter Unit of the Gent design along 24 h, every two days. The samples were analyzed with Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), to obtain elemental concentrations. The EPA code UNMIX was used to determine the number of possible influencing polluting sources, which were then identified through back-trajectory simulations with the HYSPLIT modeling software. Four sources (mostly related to soil) were found in the coarse fraction, while the fine fraction presented three main sources (fuel oil, industry and biomass burning).

  17. STRATIGRAPHIC FEATURES OF NEOGENE DEPOSITS OF DİLEKÇİ (WEST OF KONYA AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Müjdat ÖZKAN

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The basement of the investigated area is Silurian-Cretaceous aged basement rocks. The basement rocks consists of phillite, schist, quartzite, limestone, dolomite, spilite, diorite, gabbro, diabase and serpentinite. This basement is overlined unconformably by Upper Miocene-Lower Pliocene aged Sille formation, Yalıtepe formation, Ulumuhsine formation, Küçükmuhsine formation, Lower Pliocene aged Yürükler formation and Upper Pliocene-Quaternary aged Topraklı formation. Sille formation consists of red conglomerate, sandstone and mudstone, deposited in alluvial fan and braided stream environments. Yalıtepe formation contains cream, brown stromatolitic limestone formed in a shallow lake environment. Ulumuhsine formation is made by cream, limestone, clayey limestone, clayey limestone-mudstone alternation, mudstone, marl, dolomite, nodules and bands of chert-bearing, fossils-bearing limestone deposited in a shallow and open lake environment. Küçükmuhsine formation formed in a shallow and open lake environment consists of tuffite. Yürükler formation overlies conformably and unconformably in local Ulumuhsine and Küçükmuhsine formations, and contains conglomerate, and caliche nodulled mudstone deposited in alluvial fan and braided Stream environments. All these lithologies is overlined unconformably by Upper Pliocene-Quaternary aged Topraklı formation. Topraklı formation consists of conglomerate deposited in alluvial fan and braided stream environments. Neogene basin in the region have characteristics of an intra-mountain basin, time to time controlled by tectonics.

  18. Difference flow measurements under permafrost conditions in the Kangerlussuaq area, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, A. M.; Rouhiainen, P.; Pöllänen, J.; Heikkinen, P.; Ruskeeniemi, T.; Claesson Liljedahl, L.

    2012-12-01

    To advance the understanding of the impact of glacial processes on the long-term performance of a deep geologic repository, the Greenland Analogue Project (GAP), a four-year field and modeling study of the Greenland ice sheet (2009-2012), was established collaboratively by the Swedish, Finnish and Canadian nuclear waste management organizations (SKB, POSIVA and NWMO, respectively). In order to study how groundwater flow and water chemistry is influenced by an existing ice sheet and continuous permafrost, a 645 m deep drillhole (DH-GAP04) was drilled, hydraulically tested using the Posiva Difference Flowmeter (PFL DIFF) method and instrumented at the ice margin in the Kangerlussuaq area in July 2011. PFL DIFF allows the quick and reliable characterization of flow-yielding fractures in bedrock. PFL DIFF measures the flow rate into or out of defined drillhole sections. The advantage that follows from measuring the flow rate in isolated sections is improved detection of incremental changes of flow along the drillhole. PFL DIFF can measure flows in the range 30 - 300 000 mLh-1. In addition, the PFL DIFF probe can be used to measure the electrical conductivity of both the drillhole water and fracture-specific water, the single point resistance (SPR) of the bedrock, the water pressure profile in a drillhole and the temperature of the drillhole water. Normally, PFL DIFF measurements in a new drillhole are conducted a week after the end of drilling in order to let the groundwater state recover in the drillhole. The PFL DIFF measurements were done in DH-GAP04 already three days after the drilling was completed. This measurement was the first PFL DIFF measurement ever conducted in an area of continuous permafrost and therefore, the measurement program was carefully designed. The length of the section in the flow logging measurements was 10 m and the interval spacing was two meters. Flow into the drillhole or from the drillhole into the bedrock was measured within the section

  19. Formation of the chemical composition of water in channel head in postglacial areas (West Pomerania, Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Małgorzata; Kruszyk, Robert; Szpikowska, Grażyna

    2016-04-01

    The channel head is a zone of hydrological changes determining the hydrochemical features of water in the final stage of groundwater flow and the start of the surface cycle. The chemistry of water flowing out of a channel head reflects not only the characteristics of groundwater feeding the zone, but also changes it undergoes in this area during the organisation of channel flow. Groundwater interacts with surface water in the hyporheic zone where water from different environments is mixed and exchanged due to high hydraulic and chemical gradients. The goal of this study was to assess spatial differences in the concentrations of nutrients and compounds produced by chemical weathering in a channel head and to establish the role of the hyporheic zone in the transformation of the chemical composition of groundwater supplying a 1st-order stream. The research area was the channel head Żarnowo, located on the southern slope of the upper Parsęta valley. Three hydrochemical mappings were conducted in the headwater alcove consisting of three parts developed in a glaciofluvial plain and an erosional-accumulative alluvial terrace. Water was sampled in places of groundwater outflow in the footslope zone (9 sites), the hyporheic zone (14 sites), and outflows in the individual alcove parts and the rivulet they formed (5 sites). Water temperature, pH, and electrical conductivity were measured in the field. Concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, HCO3, Cl, NO3, PO4, SO4 and SiO2 were determined in the laboratory. The chemical composition of ground- and surface water shows the concentration of geogenic components like K, Ca, Mg, Na, HCO3, and SiO2 to be an effect of chemical weathering and the leaching of its products taking place in a zero-discharge catchment. Those ions display little spatial variability and a stability of concentration in individual measurement periods, while the greatest disproportions in their concentrations among the alcove parts were recorded for Cl, NO3

  20. Multi-function Waste Tank Facility path forward engineering analysis -- Technical Task 3.6, Estimate of operational risk in 200 West Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, G.A.

    1995-04-28

    Project W-0236A has been proposed to provide additional waste tank storage in the 200 East and 200 West Areas. This project would construct two new waste tanks in the 200 West Area and four new tanks in the 200 East Area, and a related project (Project W-058) would construct a new cross-site line. These projects are intended to ensure sufficient space and flexibility for continued tank farm operations, including tank waste remediation and management of unforeseen contingencies. The objective of this operational risk assessment is to support determination of the adequacy of the free-volume capacity provided by Projects W-036A and W-058 and to determine related impacts. The scope of the assessment is the 200 West Area only and covers the time period from the present to the year 2005. Two different time periods were analyzed because the new cross-site tie line will not be available until 1999. The following are key insights: success of 200 West Area tank farm operations is highly correlated to the success of the cross-site transfer line and the ability of the 200 East Area to receive waste from 200 West; there is a high likelihood of a leak on a complexed single-shell tank in the next 4 years (sampling pending); there is a strong likelihood, in the next 4 years, that some combination of tank leaks, facility upsets, and cross-site line failure will require more free tank space than is currently available in Tank 241-SY-102; in the next 4 to 10 years, there is a strong likelihood that a combination of a cross-site line failure and the need to accommodate some unscheduled waste volume will require more free tank space than is presently available in Tank 241-SY-102; the inherent uncertainty in volume projections is in the range of 3 million gallons; new million-gallon tanks increase the ability to manage contingencies and unplanned events.

  1. Classification and evaluation for forest sites on the Natchez Trace State Forest, State Resort Park, and Wildlife Management Area in West Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendon W. Smalley

    1991-01-01

    Presents comprehensive forest site classification system for the 45,084-acre Natchez Trace State Forest, State Resort park, and WIldlife Management Area in the highly dissected and predominantly hilly Upper Coastal Plain of west Tennessee. Twenty-five landtypes are identified. Each landtype is defined in terms of nine elements and evaluated on the baiss of...

  2. A Determination of Instructional Commonalities in Agricultural Occupations in the Fargo, West Fargo, North Dakota, Metropolitan Area. Report of the Research Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Michael A.; Owen, Shubel D.

    Conducted in the Fargo and West Fargo metropolitan area, this study had as its objectives to determine: (1) opportunities for using local businesses as centers for student-learner employment, (2) the willingness of employers to take part in other types of teaching involvement, and (3) the relevance of 44 selected agricultural competency clusters…

  3. Traditions and Customs in Community Development: The Case of Nkanu West and Nkanu East Local Government Areas of Enugu State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekola, G.; Egbo, Nwoye Charles

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of traditions and customs on community development in Nkanu West and Nkanu East Local Government Areas of Enugu State. The study was carried out with three objectives and three null hypotheses. The research adopted descriptive survey design with a population of 2,125 members of community Based Organizations in the…

  4. The Parental Attitude towards Adolescent Sexual Behaviour in Akoko-Edo and Estako-West Local Government Areas, Edo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olubayo-Fatiregun, Martina A.

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the Parental Attitude towards Adolescent Sexual Behaviour in Akoko Edo and Estako--West Local Government Areas, Edo State, Nigeria. A descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The sample size of 600 parents--350 (58.39%) fathers and 250 (41.7%) mothers--was purposively selected from the two local government…

  5. LAND SUITABILITY AND DYNAMIC SYSTEM MODELLING TO DEFINE PRIORITY AREAS OF SOYBEAN PLANTATION IN PADDY FIELDS IN KARAWANG, WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widiatmaka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the agricultural public commodities in Indonesia which still cannot fulfill its domestic consumption needs is soybean. The objectives of the research, which was conducted in Karawang Regency, West Java, Indonesia, were to: (i identify the suitable area for soybean plantations in paddy fields, (ii assess the development of soybeans in land use and socio-economic context, and (iii plan the spatially soybean plantation. A soil survey and land evaluation for soybean was completed. IKONOS imagery was applied to delineate paddy fields while a dynamic system modelling was developed using Powersim 8.0 software. The results of the research showed that the suitability class for soybean plantation in the paddy fields of Karawang Regency ranges from unsuitable (N to suitable (S2, with limiting factors being temperature, fertility, nutrients retention, slope, erosion, rooting media and toxicity. Very limited arable land has been used so far for soybeans plantations due to low economic returns. The model predicts that, should the development of soybean continues in its business as usual path, a deficit of soybean will occur in 2030. The model provides alternative scenarios to reduce the deficit. Prioritization was done spatially using the suitable land gradually, corresponding to the government budget availability.

  6. Exposure of birds to radionuclides and other contaminants in Special Protection Areas (SPAs) in North-West England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, K.; Watson, S.; McDonald, P.; Copplestone, D.; Watts, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    There has been a decline in the population of some bird species at Morecambe Bay and the Solway Firth Special Protected Areas in North-West England during the last fifty years. It was suggested that the declines were caused, in part, by contaminants in the food and environment, primarily from the radioactive effluent discharge from the Sellafield Ltd nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Cumbria. This study analysed bird feathers and tissues, vegetation and sediment for radionuclides, metals and persistent organic compounds. The non-radionuclide results were all low compared to relevant action limits. The ERICA model was used with field data to estimate the radiological dose to birds from exposure to 137 Cs and 241 Am with results between 1.26 to 3.83 μGy h -1 , below the ERICA screening level of 10 μGy h -1 and within the IAEA 40 μGy h -1 guideline value below which potential adverse impacts on biota are unlikely. The study showed no link between bird population decline and anthropogenic discharges to the SPAs.

  7. Postwildfire debris-flow hazard assessment of the area burned by the 2013 West Fork Fire Complex, southwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdin, Kristine L.; Dupree, Jean A.; Stevens, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary emergency assessment of the debris-flow hazards from drainage basins burned by the 2013 West Fork Fire Complex near South Fork in southwestern Colorado. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence, potential volume of debris flows, and the combined debris-flow hazard ranking along the drainage network within and just downstream from the burned area, and to estimate the same for 54 drainage basins of interest within the perimeter of the burned area. Input data for the debris-flow models included topographic variables, soil characteristics, burn severity, and rainfall totals and intensities for a (1) 2-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 2-year storm; (2) 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 10-year storm; and (3) 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 25-year storm. Estimated debris-flow probabilities at the pour points of the 54 drainage basins of interest ranged from less than 1 to 65 percent in response to the 2-year storm; from 1 to 77 percent in response to the 10-year storm; and from 1 to 83 percent in response to the 25-year storm. Twelve of the 54 drainage basins of interest have a 30-percent probability or greater of producing a debris flow in response to the 25-year storm. Estimated debris-flow volumes for all rainfalls modeled range from a low of 2,400 cubic meters to a high of greater than 100,000 cubic meters. Estimated debris-flow volumes increase with basin size and distance along the drainage network, but some smaller drainages also were predicted to produce substantial debris flows. One of the 54 drainage basins of interest had the highest combined hazard ranking, while 9 other basins had the second highest combined hazard ranking. Of these 10 basins with the 2 highest

  8. Hydrogeology, groundwater flow, and groundwater quality of an abandoned underground coal-mine aquifer, Elkhorn Area, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Mark D.; McCoy, Kurt J.; Britton, James Q.; Blake, B.M.

    2017-01-01

    The Pocahontas No. 3 coal seam in southern West Virginia has been extensively mined by underground methods since the 1880’s. An extensive network of abandoned mine entries in the Pocahontas No. 3 has since filled with good-quality water, which is pumped from wells or springs discharging from mine portals (adits), and used as a source of water for public supplies. This report presents results of a three-year investigation of the geology, hydrology, geochemistry, and groundwater flow processes within abandoned underground coal mines used as a source of water for public supply in the Elkhorn area, McDowell County, West Virginia. This study focused on large (> 500 gallon per minute) discharges from the abandoned mines used as public supplies near Elkhorn, West Virginia. Median recharge calculated from base-flow recession of streamflow at Johns Knob Branch and 12 other streamflow gaging stations in McDowell County was 9.1 inches per year. Using drainage area versus mean streamflow relationships from mined and unmined watersheds in McDowell County, the subsurface area along dip of the Pocahontas No. 3 coal-mine aquifer contributing flow to the Turkey Gap mine discharge was determined to be 7.62 square miles (mi2), almost 10 times larger than the 0.81 mi2 surface watershed. Results of this investigation indicate that groundwater flows down dip beneath surface drainage divides from areas up to six miles east in the adjacent Bluestone River watershed. A conceptual model was developed that consisted of a stacked sequence of perched aquifers, controlled by stress-relief and subsidence fractures, overlying a highly permeable abandoned underground coal-mine aquifer, capable of substantial interbasin transfer of water. Groundwater-flow directions are controlled by the dip of the Pocahontas No. 3 coal seam, the geometry of abandoned mine workings, and location of unmined barriers within that seam, rather than surface topography. Seven boreholes were drilled to intersect

  9. Somerset West area

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAJCN. 2007, Vol. 20, No. 3. lARTICLE. Division of Human Nutrition, Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Academic Hospital, ... and chronic disease.6 Factors such as nutritional intake, socio—economic status, functional ...... 564-571. Vollset SE, Uelend PM. B Vitamins and cognitive function: do we need more and larger.

  10. Report of the workshop on strategic planning of area-wide tsetse and trypanosomiasis control in West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Tsetse-transmitted trypanosomiasis is a disease unique to Africa affecting both humans and animals. This disease occurs in about 10 million km 2 in 37 sub-Saharan countries corresponding approximately to one-third of Africa's total land area, and threatens an estimated 50 million people, 48 million cattle and a countless population of other domestic animal species. Trypanosomiasis has a severe impact on African agriculture; estimated annual losses in cattle production alone are in the range of 1.0-1.2 billion dollars. To this, we have to add the indirect negative effects engendered by trypanosomiasis on total crop production. The disease influences where people decide to live, how they manage their livestock and the intensity of crop agriculture. The combined effects result in changes in land use, environment and affect human welfare and increase the vulnerability of agricultural activity. FAO has identified the reinforcement of agriculture as a key element in the fight against poverty and the improvement of food security in developing countries. The need to reduce poverty is particularly felt in tsetse infested areas of sub-Saharan Africa. In this region half of the population suffers from food insecurity. Approximately 85% of the poor are located in rural areas and more than 80% of the population depends on agricultural production for their livelihood. In order to respond to the need in the fight against tsetse and trypanosomiasis (T and T) in people as well as livestock, the Programme Against African Trypanosomiasis (PAAT) was endorsed in November 1997 by the FAO Conference. The Programme seeks to combine the forces of FAO, IAEA, OAU/IBAR and WHO in order to: promote and co-ordinate international alliances and efforts assisting in harmonised interventions against T and T; effectively combat the disease in Africa; and delineate the polity framework, strategies and guiding pest management principles. This workshop was primarily concerned with the development of

  11. Characteristics of peak streamflows and extent of inundation in areas of West Virginia and southwestern Virginia affected by flooding, June 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Samuel H.; Watson, Kara M.; Lotspeich, R. Russell; Cauller, Stephen J.; White , Jeremy S.; Wicklein, Shaun M.

    2017-11-17

    Heavy rainfall occurred across central and southern West Virginia in June 2016 as a result of repeated rounds of torrential thunderstorms. The storms caused major flooding and flash flooding in central and southern West Virginia with Kanawha, Fayette, Nicholas, and Greenbrier Counties among the hardest hit. Over the duration of the storms, from 8 to 9.37 inches of rain was reported in areas in Greenbrier County. Peak streamflows were the highest on record at 7 locations, and streamflows at 18 locations ranked in the top five for the period of record at U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations used in this study. Following the storms, U.S. Geological Survey hydrographers identified and documented 422 high-water marks in West Virginia, noting location and height of the water above land surface. Many of these high-water marks were used to create flood-inundation maps for selected communities of West Virginia that experienced flooding in June 2016. Digital datasets of the inundation areas, mapping boundaries, and water depth rasters are available online.

  12. Stable isotope and fluid inclusion evidence for the origin of the Brandberg West area Sn-W vein deposits, NW Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macey, Paul; Harris, Chris

    2006-10-01

    The Brandberg West region of NW Namibia is dominated by poly-deformed turbidites and carbonate rocks of the Neoproterozoic Damara Supergoup, which have been regionally metamorphosed to greenschist facies and thermally metamorphosed up to mid-amphibolite facies by Neoproterozoic granite plutons. The meta-sedimentary rocks host Damaran-age hydrothermal quartz vein-hosted Sn-W mineralization at Brandberg West and numerous nearby smaller deposits. Fluid inclusion microthermometric studies of the vein quartz suggests that the ore-forming fluids at the Brandberg West mine were CO2-bearing aqueous fluids represented by the NaCl-CaCl2-H2O-CO2 system with moderate salinity (mean=8.6 wt% NaClequivalent).Temperatures determined using oxygen isotope thermometry are 415-521°C (quartz-muscovite), 392-447°C (quartz-cassiterite), and 444-490°C (quartz-hematite). At Brandberg West, the oxygen isotope ratios of quartz veins and siliciclastic host rocks in the mineralized area are lower than those in the rocks and veins of the surrounding areas suggesting that pervasive fluid-rock interaction occurred during mineralization. The O- and H-isotope data of quartz-muscovite veins and fluid inclusions indicate that the ore fluids were dominantly of magmatic origin, implying that mineralization occurred above a shallow granite pluton. Simple mass balance calculations suggest water/rock ratios of 1.88 (closed system) and 1.01 (open system). The CO2 component of the fluid inclusions had similar δ 13C to the carbonate rocks intercalated with the turbidites. It is most likely that mineralization at Brandberg West was caused by a combination of an impermeable marble barrier and interaction of the fluids with the marble. The minor deposits in the area have quartz veins with higher δ 18O values, which is consistent with these deposits being similar geological environments exposed at higher erosion levels.

  13. Mineralogy, geochemistry and low grade metamorphism of green tuffs of Karaj formation in Hesarbon area (south west Firoozkooh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Bahrami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Green tuffs of middle Eocene age in Hesarbon area, south west of Firoozkuh (East of Central Alborz consist of a thick sequence of lithic-, crystal-,vitric-and calcareous-tuffs. Microscopic and x-ray diffraction studies show plagioclase (albite and oligoclase, alkali feldspar (sanidine, quartz, cristobalite, biotite and hornblende are the major minerals in the rocks studied. Secondary minerals such as analcime, chlorite, prehnite and clay minerals are mainly present in the groundmass of the rocks. Extensive tectonic activities have created a variety of structural features including numerous folds and faults and therefore, have caused the green tuffs to be crushed and converted to breccia tuffs in many parts. Veins and cavities are filled by considerable amounts of zeolitic minerals including heulandite group, clinoptilolite and natrolite along with calcite and secondary quartz. Based on geochemical data, they lie on the dacite and rhyodacite field showing a calc-alkaline nature in the corresponding diagrams. According to the chondrite and primitive mantle normalized diagrams of trace elements, negative anomalies of Eu, Nb, Ti, P and depletion of HFSE together with their position in the petrogenesis discrimination diagrams, it is most likely that these rocks are formed in the active continental margin of a subduction zone. The existence of analcime and prehnite in the groundmass demonstrate that these rocks have undergone some degrees of low-grade metamorphism due to the overburden of the layers in the temperature range 200-300 °C. The present study shows that zeolite minerals filling the fractures and cavities of tuffs are precipitated by hydrothermal fluids with a neutral pH to acidic

  14. Geochemistry of Archean Mafic Amphibolites from the Amsaga Area, West African Craton, Mauritania: What Is the Message?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Atrassi, F.; Debaille, V.; Mattielli, N. D. C.; Berger, J.

    2014-12-01

    While Archean terrains are mainly composed of a TTG (Tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite) suite, more mafic lithologies such as amphibolites are also a typical component of those ancient terrains. Although mafic rocks represent only ~10% of the Archean cratons, they may provide key evidence of the role and nature of basaltic magmatism in the formation of the Archean crust as well as the evolution of the Archean mantle. This study focuses on the Archean crust from the West African Craton in Mauritania (Amsaga area). The Amsaga Archean Crust mainly consists of TTG and thrust-imbricated slices of mafic volcanic rocks, which have been affected by polymetamorphic events from the amphibolite to granulite facies. Our main objectives aim to the identification of the mafic lithology origin and a better understanding of their role in the continental crust emplacement. Our petrological observations show that these amphibolites have fine to medium granoblastic and nematoblastic textures. The amphibolites are dominated by amphibolite-facies mineral assemblages (mainly amphibole and plagioclase), but garnet and clinopyroxene occur in a few samples. Two groups are distinct in their geochemical characteristics (major and trace elements), although both have tholeiitic basalt composition. The first group show LREE-enriched patterns and negative Nb-Ta anomalies. The second group is characterized by near-flat LREE patterns and flat HREE patterns. This second group clearly shows no Nb-Ta anomalies. The first group could be related to arc-like basalts, as it is many similarities with some Archean amphibolites probably formed in a supra-subduction zone, for instance the volcanic rocks from the southern edge of the Isua Supracrustal Belt. On the contrary, the second group has a MORB-like signature which is more unusual during the Archean. Different scenarios will be discussed regards to the Archean geodynamics.

  15. Arsenic and other heavy metal accumulation in plants and algae growing naturally in contaminated area of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N K; Raghubanshi, A S; Upadhyay, A K; Rai, U N

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify the arsenic (As) and other heavy metal concentrations in the plants and algae growing naturally in As contaminated blocks of North-24-Pargana and Nandia district, West Bengal, India to assess their bioaccumulation potential. The plant species included five macrophytes and five algae were collected from the nine selected sites for estimation of As and other heavy metals accumulated therein by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS). Results revealed that maximum As concentration (117mgkg(-1)) was recorded in the agricultural soil at the Barasat followed by Beliaghat (111mgkg(-1)) sites of North-24-Pargana. Similarly, concentration of selenium (Si, 249mgkg(-1)), lead (Pb, 79.4mgkg(-1)), chromium (Cr, 138mgkg(-1)) was also found maximum in the soil at Barasat and cadmium (Cd, 163mgkg(-1)) nickel (Ni, 36.5mgkg(-1)) at Vijaynagar site. Among the macrophytes, Eichhornia crassipes found more dominating species in As contaminated area and accumulate As (597mgkg(-1)) in the shoot at kanchrapara site. The Lemna minor found to accumulate maximum As (735mgkg(-1)) in the leaves at Sonadanga and Pistia stratiotes accumulated minimum As (24.5mgkg(-1)) in the fronds from Ranaghat site. In case of diatoms, maximum As (760mgkg(-1)) was accumulated at Kanchrapara site followed by Hydrodictiyon reticulatum (403mgkg(-1)) at the Ranaghat site. High concentration of As and other heavy metal in soil indicates long term effects of irrigation with contaminated ground water, however, high concentration of heavy metals in naturally growing plants and algae revealed their mobilization through leaching and possible food chain contamination. Therefore, efficient heavy metal accumulator macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza may be exploited in removing metals from contaminated water by developing a plant based treatment system. However, As accumulator algal species may be used as a bioresource for

  16. Relationship between Quaternary climate change and Podocarpaceae record: marine pollen record in west pacific area since the last interglacial period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Tropical vegetation is the most outstanding and obvious feature of South-East Asia. The Podocarpaceae is the most successful gymnosperm family in angiosperm-dominated tropical forests. Tropical podocarps are most abundant in mid to high-elevation forests, suggesting that the habitat requirements of temperate ancestors have been retained as podocarps radiated into the tropics. Then, podocarp pollen was relatively common in lake sediments during the last glacial period but decreased to trace amounts during the Holocene, presumably as a result of climate warming. But, from some marine core in the west pacific area, the genera variation of tropical mid-upper montane pollen record is also distinct during the glacial cycle. A high representation of pollen from tropical upper montane rainforest (mainly Podocarpus) during the last glacial period indicates that this forest type extended to lower attitudes. And the genera variations of the tropical mid-upper montane rainforest exist between the Phyllocladus and Podocarpus with the environment and climate changing. The pollen content of Phyllocladus is much high in marine isotope stage (MIS) 5, but Podocarpus is much higher in the glacial period. During the onset of MIS 5a and 5c, the percentage of Phyllocladus pollen declines dramatically. In Asia, podocarp taxa have apparently dispersed through both lowland and montane habitats. Dacrydium and Podocarpus also occur occasionally in lowland tropical rainforest. On the other hand, Dacrycarpus and Phyllocladus appear to have jumped between islands of montane/alpine habitat. For example, vegetation investigation in Mindanao, shows that Podocarpus exists in altitude ranging from 1,200-1,700 m, and Phyllocladus appear in altitude range from 1700-2100 m, but is more abundant above the 2,400 m. Thus, Phyllocladus might be more sensitive to the temperature change. Then, the pollen content of Phyllocladus is much high during the interglacial period, especially MIS 5, might be caused by

  17. Au-Sn-W-Cu-Mineralization in the Astaneh-Sarband Area, West Central Iran : including a comparison of the ores with ancient bronze artifacts from Western Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Nezafati, Nima

    2006-01-01

    The present study deals with two primary aims; (1) geological, mineralogical, and geochemical investigations of the Deh Hosein, Astaneh, and Nezam Abad mineralizations in the Astaneh-Sarband area, west central Iran, with the aim to understand the characteristics of the occurrences and their conditions of formation, and (2) geochemical investigations on ancient bronze artifacts from Iran and Western Asia in order to compare their characteristics with the high-tin copper ore of Deh Hosein and e...

  18. Serum Levels of Dioxin and Dioxin-Like Compounds in Women Living in a Highly Industrialized Area of West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historical releases of dioxin and dioxin-like constituents with subsequent impacts to environmental media in the Kanawha River Valley (KV) of West Virginia have been well documented. This study evaluated the impact of potentially high background dioxin exposure to body burdens i...

  19. 76 FR 33341 - Notice of Intent to prepare a Resource Management Plan for the West Eugene Wetlands Planning Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... approach to develop the plan in order to consider the variety of resource issues and concerns identified... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLORE00000 L63500000.DO0000.LXSS021H0000.HAG11-0203] Notice of Intent to prepare a Resource Management Plan for the West Eugene Wetlands Planning...

  20. Heavy burden of intestinal parasite infections in Kalena Rongo village, a rural area in South West Sumba, eastern part of Indonesia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungkar, Saleha; Pohan, Anggi P N; Ramadani, Antari; Albar, Nafisah; Azizah, Fitri; Nugraha, Antonius R A; Wiria, Aprilianto E

    2015-12-24

    Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are one of the major public health problems, especially in the rural area of developing countries with low socio-economic status and poor sanitation. The study was aimed to determine the prevalence of IPIs among the inhabitants of a rural area in South West Sumba, eastern part of Indonesia. A cross-sectional study was done in Kalena Rongo village, South West Sumba in April 2014. Stool samples were collected and examined for IPIs using direct smear method. Faecal samples were collected from 424 of 473 inhabitants of the village, age 2 months to 80 years. About 95.5 % (405/424) of the participants had any IPIs. The most prevalent parasites found were Ascaris lumbricoides 65.8 % (279/424), Trichuris trichiura 60.4 % (256/424), hookworms 53.5 % (227/424), Blastocystis hominis 34.4 % (146/424), Entamoeba histolytica 17.9 % (76/424), and Giardia lamblia 4.5 % (19/424). The villagers used no latrine and defecated in their backyard. Clean water sources were scarce and far from the village. In Kalena Rongo village, the rural area in eastern part of Indonesia, the finding of IPIs was conspicuous and therefore expressed the poor hygiene and absence of proper sanitation in the area. Integrated efforts, such as improving infrastructure to provide clean water source and educating the inhabitants for appropriate hygienic lifestyle are needed.

  1. The Type and Abundance of Clown Fish (Amphiprion SP.) in Conservation Areas of Kasiak Island of Pariaman City of West Sumatera

    OpenAIRE

    Mustakim, Ryan; ', Thamrin; ', Zulkifli

    2014-01-01

    This study was done in June 2014 in the concervation area of Kasiak Island, Pariaman City, West Sumatera. The aim of study was to observe the species composition and its abundance of clown fish ( Amphiprion sp. ). The method used was quadrant transect. The data was analysed by t-test for among stations.The study resulted that 2 species of clown fish,i.e. Amphiprion akallopisos and A. ocellaris, were recorded. The abundance for each station categorized as low, withe the value ranged from 0.03 ...

  2. Ice-margin and meltwater dynamics during the mid-Holocene in the Kangerlussuaq area of west Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Yde, Jacob; Russell, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Land-terminating parts of the west Greenland ice sheet have exhibited highly dynamic meltwater regimes over the last few decades including episodes of extremely intense runoff driven by ice surface ablation, ponding of meltwater in an increasing number and size of lakes, and sudden outburst floods...... analysis of the landforms reveals a mid-Holocene land-terminating ice margin that was predominantly cold-based. This ice margin underwent sustained active retreat but with multiple minor advances. Over c.1000years meltwater runoff became impounded within numerous and extensive proglacial lakes...... perched fans and deltas and perched braidplain terraces. Overall, meltwater sourcing, routing and the proglacial runoff regime during the mid-Holocene in this land-terminating part of the ice sheet was spatiotemporally variable, but in a manner very similar to that of the present day....

  3. Relations between red beds times and uranic mineralization at the area of north-west China, Shaanxi and Inner Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Qiaosheng; Quan Zhigao

    1989-04-01

    Rad beds played an important role in the uranic mineralization. After analyzing the geological evolution in North-West China, Saanxi and Inner Mongolia the red beds is divided into six periods. The evolution rules at each period are studied. The authors found that the time of uranic mineralication and formation of red beds (basin) is simultaneously, the uranic deposits and red beds are accompanying minerals in all places existing deposits. Uranic mineralization is bound up with the continental red beds which was formed under dry and hot climate, but has no relations with the marine red beds. The place where the deposits exist, the red beds must exist, conversely it is not true. In the section, a big uranic deposit is generated only under or above the red beds. The relations between red beds and rich deposit are also explored. The mineralization theory and the model of uranic mineralization in red beds times are presented

  4. Stream water quality in coal mined areas of the lower Cheat River Basin, West Virginia and Pennsylvania, during low-flow conditions, July 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Donald R.; Clark, Mary E.; Brown, Juliane B.

    1999-01-01

    IntroductionThe Cheat River Basin is in the Allegheny Plateau and Allegheny Mountain Sections of the Appalachian Plateau Physiographic Province (Fenneman, 1946) and is almost entirely within the state of West Virginia. The Cheat River drains an area of 1,422 square miles in Randolph, Tucker, Preston, and Monongalia Counties in West Virginia and Fayette County in Pennsylvania. From its headwaters in Randolph County, W.Va., the Cheat River flows 157 miles north to the Pennsylvania state line, where it enters the Monongahela River. The Cheat River drainage comprises approximately 19 percent of the total Monongahela River Basin. The Cheat River and streams within the Cheat River Basin are characterized by steep gradients, rock channels, and high flow velocities that have created a thriving white-water rafting industry for the area. The headwaters of the Cheat River contain some of the most pristine and aesthetic streams in West Virginia. The attraction to the area, particularly the lower part of the Cheat River Basin (the lower 412 square miles of the basin), has been suppressed because of poor water quality. The economy of the Lower Cheat River Basin has been dominated by coal mining over many decades. As a result, many abandoned deep and surface mines discharge untreated acid mine drainage (AMD), which degrades water quality, into the Cheat River and many of its tributary streams. Approximately 60 regulated mine-related discharges (West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection, 1996) and 185 abandoned mine sites (U.S. Office of Surface Mining, 1998) discharge treated and untreated AMD into the Cheat River and its tributaries.The West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection (WVDEP) Office of Abandoned Mine Lands and Reclamation (AML&R) has recently completed several AMD reclamation projects throughout the Cheat River Basin that have collectively improved the mainstem water quality. The AML&R office is currently involved in acquiring grant funds and

  5. Redefining the border between public and private in ambiguous modernist areas : The case of Amsterdam Nieuw West

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hausleitner, B.

    2012-01-01

    Modernist areas represent the ambivalent idea to live in a green city, which can provide light and air of open landscapes, and on the same time host facilities of an urban environment. Modernist areas as the Western Garden Cities in Amsterdam are also ambiguous spaces, their form shaped mainly by

  6. Inferring the subsurface basement depth and the structural trends as deduced from aeromagnetic data at West Beni Suef area, Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Ahmed; Abdel Hafeez, Tharwat H.; Saleh, Hassan S.; Mohamed, Waheed H.

    2016-12-01

    The present work aimed to delineate the subsurface structures and to estimate the magnetic source depth at the selected area lying in West Beni Suef area, Western Desert, Egypt, following different geomagnetic techniques. The analysis of aeromagnetic data demonstrates five significant tectonic faults trending to NW-SE, ENE-WSW, NE-SW, E-W and NNW-SSE directions constructed using Euler deconvolution techniques. The execution of this study is initiated by transformation of the total intensity aeromagnetic data to the reduced to pole (RTP) magnetic intensity. This is followed by applying several transformation techniques and various filtering processes through qualitative and quantitative analyses on magnetic data. The reduced to the northern magnetic pole (RTP) data are separated spectrally into regional and residual magnetic components using the computed power spectrum of the magnetic data. The estimated mean depths of both regional and residual sources are found to be 5.27 km and 2.78 km respectively. Also, depth estimations have been conducted by application of the Euler deconvolution and 2-D modeling techniques. The results indicate that the eastern and northern parts of the study area discriminate deeper basement relief and the depth of basement surface reaches to 5095 m. While the southern and western parts of the study area discriminate shallower basement relief and the depth of basement surface reaches to 227 m. This study has given a clear picture of the geologic structures beneath the study area.

  7. A Two-stage Empirical Analysis of Market Participation in Yam-growing Areas of West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mignouna, DB.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The transition from semi-subsistence to commercialized agriculture has been subject of global debates in Africa for more than a half century. This is the reminiscence of the necessity to formulate policies and programs to increase the yields and stimulate the investments in agriculture. Participation in agricultural markets could be a viable channel to transform subsistence agriculture thereby lifting millions of poor farmers out of hunger and poverty traps. Unfortunately, most of the potential beneficiaries are hindered by several factors in their quest to participate in yam market. This study investigated the underpinning drivers of market participation among small-scale farmers in the yam belt of West Africa. Using a multistage random sample of 1,400 households form Nigeria and Ghana, the study tested the hypothesis that factors affecting the farmers' decision to participate are not necessarily the same as those affecting the level of participation. Non-price constraints played a significant role in decision-making concerning market participation. Creation of an enabling environment and strengthening the social institutions should be considered in order to generate adequate marketable surplus to make market participation possible and valuable. Policies that reduce transaction costs and encourage farmers to commercialise their production could be alternatives to price-based policies. Moreover, improving the productivity of farmers will not only increase the likelihood of market participation but also the volumes offered for sale.

  8. Comparative assessment of geo dynamics processes of oil and gas production areas at the west and east boards of the south-Caspian depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhardecki, A.V; Zhukov, V.S; Poloudin, G.A

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Alpine geosynclinals s belt including fold mountains up Carpathian and Crimea Mountainous to Copetdag and Pamirs divided to two unequal parts by the South-Caspian depression.Ashgabadian depression at the east side and Kyrian depression extends and get deeper at the east direction and transforms to South-Caspian depression. Large in number of oil and gas deposits and fields are situated at the areas of this depressions on the west and east boards of the South Caspian. They have a many common characteristics. They are:1.Anticline highs are form tectonic structure like a line. Lines was branching, anticline highs are shingling.2.Red color reservoir of the depression at the east board and production reservoir at the west board of the depression are the main oil and gas containing reservoirs and are stratigraphic analogy of the middle Pliocene age.3.Both side of the depression are areas of the diapiric folding and mud volcanic activity. 4.The intensive seismic activity.5 Marine gryphons, island and sandbank sometime appear and disappear at the littoral area. 6.The Caspian Sea level has quick changes at the geological history and present time.Thus, it is possible to mark two main factors of activation of the geo dynamic processes. First deformation terrestrial surface, and second -induced seismic activity. Comparing above mentioned data on western and east it is visible to boards of the South-Caspian hollow, that for want of availability of the large number identical tectonic of features there are essential distinctions in a character of induced geo dynamic activity. In the long term, in accordance with me development of oil deposits, it is possible to expect manifestation of both factors of activation of geo dynamic processes on both boards of the South-Caspian hollow

  9. Use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Van der Merwe

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA methods were employed to document the use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa. The study indicated that Setswana-speaking people in the North West Province have a rich heritage of ethnoveterinary knowledge, which includes all aspects of ethnoveterinary medicinal plant use. Information was gathered from informants through individual interviews, group interviews, guided field walks and observations. Ethnoveterinary uses in cattle of 45 plant species representing 24 families were recorded. Plants were used in 84 % of the total number of recorded ethnoveterinary remedies. These plants were used alone (64 % or in mixtures (36 % for 29 indications. The most important indications were retained placenta, diarrhoea, gallsickness, fractures, eye inflammation, general ailments, fertility enhancement, general gastrointestinal problems, heartwater, internal parasites, coughing, redwater and reduction of tick burden. Plant materials were prepared in various ways including infusion, decoction, ground fresh material, sap expressed from fresh material, charred and dried. The most common dosage formwas a liquid for oral dosing. Other dosage forms included drops, licks, ointments, lotions and powders. Liquid remedies for oral dosing were always administered using a bottle. Medicinal plant material was preferably stored in a dried form in a cool place out of direct sunlight and wind. Lack of transfer of ethnoveterinary knowledge to younger generations puts this knowledge at risk. RRA was found to be a successful method of investigation for the study of ethnoveterinary medicine.

  10. RESILIENCY OF SMALL-SCALE COMMON CARP (Cyprinus carpio FARMERS IN WEST PAGADEN RURAL AREA OF SUBANG - WEST JAVA (Daya Lenting Pembudidaya Ikan Mas (Cyprinus carpio Skala Kecil di Perdesaan Kecamatan Pagaden Barat Subang – Jawa Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Carolina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Since early 1980s, freshwater fish farming was introduced as an economic activity to the rural community in Subang, West Java Province. Until presently, 5% of the population participate on it, specifically as common carp (Cyprinus carpio cultivators in freshwater ponds ecosystem. The economic gain from the carp farming triggers vast development indicated by significant landscape conversion from rice fields to fish ponds. Environmental limitation does not seem to become their major concern, because good yields which means good income is their main driving factor to extend and intensify common carp aquaculture. Recognizing the important role of small scale fish farms in West Java common carp production system, we explore their resiliency in confronting challenges encountered in managing the freshwater ecosystem. Utilizing participatory observation and interview, we explore their socio-ecological resilience from the perception of human and nature interaction. The study area is Pagaden Sub District in Subang - West Java. Descriptive analysis is used to articulate the phenomenon enfolded in a socio-ecological framework of thinking. It can be concluded that high dependency to the aquaculture activity, has reached a situation in which ecologically sound technology should be introduced. Included in a scheme of technical assistance which specifically designed to meet the need and in harmony with the socio-cultural characters of small-scale fish farmers, the technology introduction should be carried out to spur the sustainable aquaculture in Subang West Java. This should be a proposed agenda for the local government in support to aquaculture sustainable development. ABSTRAK Sejak awal tahun 1980, budidaya ikan air tawar diperkenalkan sebagai kegiatan ekonomi masyarakat desa di wilayah Subang, Propinsi Jawa Barat. Dewasa ini, sekitar 5% populasi terlibat di kegiatan tersebut, terutama sebagai pembudidaya ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio di ekosistem

  11. 76 FR 56482 - Notice and Request For Comments: LSC Elimination of the West Virginia Migrant Service Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ...'s (LSC) mission is to promote equal access to justice and to provide for high- quality civil legal... poverty population. In some regions, LSC designates migrant service areas for grants that are designed to...

  12. 2016 Cartographic Boundary File, 2010 Urban Areas (UA) within 2010 County and Equivalent for West Virginia, 1:500,000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2016 cartographic boundary KMLs are simplified representations of selected geographic areas from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically...

  13. An etnographic study of elementary education in the rural area of Dompu county, the province of West Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurrahmah Nurrahmah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to describe: (1 public service for elementary education in rural areas; (2 the meaning of education and the implementation of elementary education in the people of rural areas; and (3 the life and meaning of poverty for people of rural areas. The study was etnographic research. The subjects were the providers and users of educational service. The research concludes that: (1 educational service in rural areas has not been coordinated and integrated both vertically and horizontally, so that the service elements have not been maximum in providing educational service; (2 the implementation of education is influenced by the surrounding environments (policy, community, and nature so that its condition or the problems emerging in the lower level is a reflection of that in the upper level. People in rural areas regard education as a symbol of profession and self-actualization within the children’s selves in order that the children would show respect to their parents, would not destroy the nature, have noble characteristics and be smart persons for their own sake in the future; (3 physically people in rural areas might be described as a community that lacks facilities including transportation, highway systems, water, electricity, and market for trading the harvest. On the other hand, mentally, people in rural areas might be described as a community that is fond of having aids, enjoys the final products, is lazy and dependent on the nature. People in rural areas regard their poverty based on physical indicators (the possession of luxurious goods, rice fields, livestock, income, and housings and non-physical indicators (the dependency on the nature and absence of education.

  14. Magnitude, types and sex differentials of aggressive behaviour among school children in a rural area of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashis Dutt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aggression affects academic learning and emotional development, can damage school climate and if not controlled early and may precipitate extreme violence in the future. Objective s : (1 To determine the magnitude and types of aggressive behavior in school children. (2 To identify the influence of age and sex on aggressive behavior. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Anandanagar High School, Singur village, West Bengal. Participants were 161 boys and 177 girls of classes VII to IX. The students were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire indicating the types of aggressive behavior by them in the previous month and to assess themselves with reference to statements indicating verbal/physical aggression. Results: Overall, 66.5% of the children were physically aggressive in the previous month: Boys 75.8%, girls 58.2% ( P = 0.001; 56.8% were verbally aggressive: Boys 55.2%, girls 61% ( P = 0.97. Verbal indirect passive aggression was more common among girls (55.3% than among boys (22.3% ( P = 0.000 [1.17E-09 ]. Boys were more liable to physical aggression, viz. 60.2% of the boys would hit on provocation compared with only 9% of the girls ( P = 0.000 [6.6E -23 ]. Regarding attributes indicating verbal aggression, girls were more argumentative (63.8% than boys (55.2% ( P = 0.134 and disagreeing (41.8% compared with boys (33.5% ( P = 0.145. With increasing age/class, physical direct active aggression decreased while physical indirect passive and verbal indirect passive aggression increased. No classes had been taken on anger control/management by school the authorities. Conclusions: Aggressive behavior was common both among boys and girls. Life skills education/counseling/classroom management strategies are recommended.

  15. Prevalence of hypertension in three rural communities of Ife North Local Government Area of Osun State, South West Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Rasaaq A; Balogun, Michael O; Adedoyin, Rufus A; Obashoro-John, Oluwayemisi A; Bisiriyu, Luqman A; Abiodun, Olugbenga O

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension is increasing rapidly in sub-Saharan Africa, but data are limited on hypertension prevalence. In addition, few population-based studies have been conducted recently in Nigeria on the prevalence and correlates of hypertension in both urban and rural communities. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of hypertension in adults in the three rural communities of Ipetumodu, Edunabon, and Moro, in South West Nigeria. One thousand adults between 15 and 90 years of age were recruited into this cross-sectional study, over a 6-month period, using a multistage proportional stratified random sampling technique. Sociodemographic data and anthropometric variables were obtained, and resting blood pressure (BP) was measured using an electronic sphygmomanometer. Diagnosis of hypertension was based on the JNC VII guidelines, the WHO/ISH 1999 guidelines, and the BP threshold of 160/95 mmHg. Four hundred and eighty-six men (48.6%) men and 514 women (51.4%) participated in the study. Their mean age, weight, height, and body mass index were 32.3±14.7 years, 62±13 kg, 1.5±0.1 m, and 23.02 kg/m(2), respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 140/90 mmHg definition, was 26.4% (Male: 27.3%; Female: 25.4%). The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 160/95 mmHg definition, was 11.8% (Male: 13.5%; Female: 10.1%). There were significant positive correlations between BP and some anthropometric indicators of obesity. The prevalence of hypertension in the three rural communities was 26.4%, indicating a trend towards increasing prevalence of hypertension. There was also a significant positive correlation between anthropometric indicators of obesity and BP in this population.

  16. A study on domestic violence against adult and adolescent females in a rural area of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Madhutandra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, domestic violence against females is common across culture, religion, class and ethnicity. There are various reasons for domestic violence and it might have serious health outcomes. Objectives: The study was undertaken to determine the prevalence, characteristics, reasons and the socio-demographic correlates of domestic violence, if any, and to find out the perceptions of the females to cope with the act of violence and to overcome the situation. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was undertaken by interviewing 141 adult and adolescent females residing in a village of West Bengal, with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. Data were analyzed statistically by simple proportions and tests of significance (Chi-square test. Results: Out of 141 respondents, 33 (23.4% adult and adolescent females in this village were exposed to domestic violence in the past year. Among the demographic characteristics, statistically significant maximum prevalence was observed among 30-39 years age group, illiterate and unmarried females. For most of the females who were exposed to domestic violence, their husbands acted as the perpetrators (72.73% and they reported slapping as the specific act of physical assault (72.73%. Majority of the respondents reported that opportunity of education (31.9%, being economically productive (31.9% and better family income (23.4% would help them to overcome the situation. Conclusion: This study emphasizes the need for justified female empowerment and this calls for multidisciplinary approach to develop public health measures, which would most effectively address the problem of domestic violence.

  17. Multiple chromosome aberrations among newborns from high level natural radiation area and normal level natural radiation area of south west coast of Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soren, D.C.; Ramachandran, E.N.; Karuppasamy, C.V.; Cheriyan, V.D.; Anil Kumar, V.; Koya, P.K.M.; Seshadri, M.

    2010-01-01

    Cord blood samples were collected in heparin vials and microculture techniques employed to obtain good metaphase chromosome spreads. In cytogenetic studies on newborns cells with multiple aberrations were recorded in 57 from a total of 27285 newborns (1266972 cells). Of these 17294 newborns (964140 cells) were from High Level Natural Radiation Area (HLNRA) and 9991 newborns (302832 cells) from Normal Level Natural Radiation Area (NLNRA). Cells with multiple aberrations were observed in 38 and 19 newborns from High and Normal Level Natural Radiation Area respectively. On an average one cell with multiple aberrations was observed among 479 newborns. Cells with multiple aberrations were observed in newborns from HLNRA as well as NLNRA in both males and females. Gender difference of newborns, maternal age group and background radiation levels did not seem to have any influence in the occurrence of Multiple chromosome aberrations

  18. Improving the steady-state loading margin to voltage collapse in the North-West Control Area of the Mexican Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon-Guizar, J.G.; Inda-Ruiz, G.A.; Tovar, G.E. [Gerencia de Analisis de Redes, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico). Inst. de Investigaciones Eleectricas

    2003-10-01

    This paper reports the application of a static approach for assessing the steady-state loading margin to voltage collapse of the North-West Control Area (NWCA) of the Mexican Power System. The approach uses both optimal load flow (OLF) and conventional load flow (LF) solutions, and singular value decomposition of the load flow Jacobian matrix (J). Additionally, the approach allows to determine suitable locations for corrective actions such as, the addition of new equipment or load shedding. The results shows that the combination of OLF and LF resulted in a steady-state loading margin to voltage collapse of the NWCA 7.2% higher than the case when only conventional load flow solutions were considered. (author)

  19. Differentiated long term projections of the hourly electricity consumption in local areas. The case of Denmark West

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Andersen, Frits; Larsen, Helge V.; Juul, Nina

    2014-01-01

    consumption by categories of customers and data for the hourly consumption at each transformer station for the years 2009–2011. Applying the model for load forecasts, a major conclusion is that different transformer stations will experience different changes both in the level - and in the hourly profile......Assessing grid developments the spatial distribution of the electricity consumption is important. In Denmark the electricity grid consists of transmission – and local distribution grids with different voltages that are connected via transformer stations each covering a local area with between 10.......000 and 100.000 customers. Data for the hourly electricity consumption at transformer stations shows that the profile of consumption differs considerably between local areas, and this is partly due to a different weight of categories of customers in the different areas. Categories of customers have quite...

  20. Deep structures and their possible impact on sediment deposition and natural gas production, Medicine River area, west-central Alberta : stratigraphic framework review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D.; Parks, K.; Langenberg, W.; Berhane, M.; Stewart, S. [Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Alberta Geological Survey, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-10-15

    The abundant oil, gas, coal and mineral resources of the Medicine River area in west-central Alberta, which includes the Red Deer-Buck Lake area, have drawn the attention of the petroleum industry, academia and governments for half a century. In recent years, the focus of exploration in the area has shifted from conventional oil and gas toward drilling for shallow unconventional gas such as coalbed methane (CBM). Approximately 9400 oil and gas wells have been drilled and several oilfields have been found in the study area, in addition to large amounts of groundwater and CBM resources. Previous studies have shown that deep structures in the area vary greatly, act differently and have a significant impact on sedimentation. However, the detailed structural and isopach maps are lacking. For that reason, this study reviewed the structural framework and natural gas distribution in the area of the Medicine and Blindman rivers. The study generated 12,600 new, internally consistent stratigraphic picks, 15 structural cross-sections, and more than 80 structural and isopach contour maps. Distinct geological relations such as variations in thickness were highlighted as they related to the boundaries of individual structural blocks. The purpose of the study was to identify deep structures and the interaction between the deep structures and existing reservoirs. Possible controls on the distribution of unconventional gas in the Medicine River area were also examined. A stratigraphic framework was established through a detailed well-log correlation and geological mapping. Geophysical logs were also used extensively during the study. Cross-sectional analysis of the maps helped define the basement blocks and lineaments. Major structural features that may have impacted on depositional process and hydrocarbon accumulation were also documented. Gas production from the Devonian, Mississippian, Jurassic and Cretaceous was shown to have a certain relationship with the deep structures. To

  1. Prevalence of hypertension in three rural communities of Ife North Local Government Area of Osun State, South West Nigeria

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    Adebayo RA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rasaaq A Adebayo,1 Michael O Balogun,1 Rufus A Adedoyin,2 Oluwayemisi A Obashoro-John,3 Luqman A Bisiriyu,4 Olugbenga O Abiodun11Department of Medicine, 2Department of Medical Rehabilitation, Obafemi Awolowo University, 3Department of Adult Education, University of Lagos, 4Department of Demography and Social Statistics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, NigeriaBackground: The prevalence of hypertension is increasing rapidly in sub-Saharan Africa, but data are limited on hypertension prevalence. In addition, few population-based studies have been conducted recently in Nigeria on the prevalence and correlates of hypertension in both urban and rural communities. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of hypertension in adults in the three rural communities of Ipetumodu, Edunabon, and Moro, in South West Nigeria.Materials and methods: One thousand adults between 15 and 90 years of age were recruited into this cross-sectional study, over a 6-month period, using a multistage proportional stratified random sampling technique. Sociodemographic data and anthropometric variables were obtained, and resting blood pressure (BP was measured using an electronic sphygmomanometer. Diagnosis of hypertension was based on the JNC VII guidelines, the WHO/ISH 1999 guidelines, and the BP threshold of 160/95 mmHg.Results: Four hundred and eighty-six men (48.6% men and 514 women (51.4% participated in the study. Their mean age, weight, height, and body mass index were 32.3±14.7 years, 62±13 kg, 1.5±0.1 m, and 23.02 kg/m2, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 140/90 mmHg definition, was 26.4% (Male: 27.3%; Female: 25.4%. The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 160/95 mmHg definition, was 11.8% (Male: 13.5%; Female: 10.1%. There were significant positive correlations between BP and some anthropometric indicators of obesity.Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension in the three rural communities was 26.4%, indicating a trend

  2. Medication dosing errors and associated factors in hospitalized pediatric patients from the South Area of the West Bank - Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ramahi, Rowa'; Hmedat, Bayan; Alnjajrah, Eman; Manasrah, Israa; Radwan, Iqbal; Alkhatib, Maram

    2017-09-01

    Medication dosing errors are a significant global concern and can cause serious medical consequences for patients. Pediatric patients are at increased risk of dosing errors due to differences in medication pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. The aims of this study were to find the rate of medication dosing errors in hospitalized pediatric patients and possible associated factors. The study was an observational cohort study including pediatric inpatients less than 16 years from three governmental hospitals from the West Bank/Palestine during one month in 2014, and sample size was 400 pediatric inpatients from these three hospitals. Pediatric patients' medical records were reviewed. Patients' weight, age, medical conditions, all prescribed medications, their doses and frequency were documented. Then the doses of medications were evaluated. Among 400 patients, the medications prescribed were 949 medications, 213 of them (22.4%) were out of the recommended range, and 160 patients (40.0%) were prescribed one or more potentially inappropriate doses. The most common cause of hospital admission was sepsis which presented 14.3% of cases, followed by fever (13.5%) and meningitis (10.0%). The most commonly used medications were ampicillin in 194 cases (20.4%), ceftriaxone in 182 cases (19.2%), and cefotaxime in 144 cases (12.0%). No significant association was found between potentially inappropriate doses and gender or hospital (chi-square test p -value > 0.05).The results showed that patients with lower body weight, who had a higher number of medications and stayed in hospital for a longer time, were more likely to have inappropriate doses. Potential medication dosing errors were high among pediatric hospitalized patients in Palestine. Younger patients, patients with lower body weight, who were prescribed higher number of medications and stayed in hospital for a longer time were more likely to have inappropriate doses, so these populations require special care. Many

  3. Environmental exposure to cadmium and renal function of elderly women living in cadmium-polluted areas of West-Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewers, U.; Brockhaus, A.; Dolgner, R.; Freier, I.; Jermann, E.; Hahn, R.; Schlipkoeter, H.W.; Bernard, A.

    1985-12-01

    An epidemiological study was carried out to assess whether or not environmental pollution by cadmium as found in cadmium-polluted areas of the Federal Republic auf Germany is associated with an increased prevalence of biological signs of kidney dysfunction in population groups non-occupationally exposed to heavy metals. The study was run in two industrial areas known to be highly polluted by cadmium and other toxic heavy metals, viz. Stolberg and Duisburg. Duesseldorf was selected as a reference area. As a study population we selected 65- and 66-year-old women who had spent the major part of their lives in one of these areas. The average levels of cadmium in blood and urine showed significant differences in exposure to cadmium in the order Stolberg > Duisburg > Duesseldorf. Serum creatinine levels were, on average, significantly higher in the Stolberg group than in the Duisburg and Duesseldorf groups. With respect to other biological findings (total proteinuria, tubular proteinuria, albuminuria, aminoaciduria, phosphaturia, serum complement) no significant differences between the study populations were noted. It cannot be excluded, however, that in the Stolberg group there is a synergism of ageing and cadmium with respect to the age related decline of the glomerular filtration rate.

  4. 78 FR 41901 - Determination of Attainment for the West Central Pinal Nonattainment Area for the 2006 Fine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... available only at the hard copy location (e.g., copyrighted material), and some may not be publicly available at either location (e.g., CBI). To inspect the hard copy materials, please schedule an appointment... and Local Air Monitoring Stations (SLAMS) in a nonattainment area and entered into the AQS database...

  5. Utilization of Remote Sensing Image and GIS to Mapping Vulnerable Areas of DHF: A Case Study of Pangandaran, West Java

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    Andri Ruliansyah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF are acute febrile diseases, found in tropical and sub tropical regions, caused by dengue virus of the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae. Sub district Pangandaran is an area that is quite a sharp increase in his case. Ranging from no cases in the period 1998-2002 increased 1 case in 2003, 4 cases in 2004, 22 cases in 2005, 35 cases in 2006, 10 cases in 2007, 12 cases in 2008, 14 cases in 2009 and 13 cases in 2010. The purpose of th is study was to determine the ability of remote sensing imagery and G1S in the determination of physical environmental factors for the mapping of areas prone to den­gue fever, dengue fever spreads are based on the distribution of cas es, places, and times from 2005 through to 2010 and determine the level of vulnerability to dengue based on envi­ronmental variables and incidence of DHF. This study is an observational research with cross sectional analysis approach. The results showed that the integration of remote sensing imagery and G1S to analyze the physical environmental risk factors associated with the spread of dengue include: land use, altitude, ra infa ll, area mosquito and fly larvae density area. Distribution pattern of dengue in the district during the last 6 years Pangandaran con­centrated in the southern region of Pangandaran sub-district, the Pangandaran village, Pananjung and Babakan. Distribution of cases based on patient characteristics dominated in the groups of children and adolescents, while based on gender, women are more exposed cases compared to male. 1ncidence of dengue fever occur each after a decline in rainfall from the previous month and decreased at the back there was an increase of ra infa ll. Zoning level of vulnerability to dengue were in the southern district of Pangandaran, the village of Pangandaran, Babakan, Pananjung, Wonoharjo and Most Sukahurip. Broad zone of high vulnerability areas in the Pangandaran sub-district DHF is 22.76 km2 (30.07%, wide

  6. Preliminary Study of Ground Movement in Prone Landslide Area by Means of MAI InSAR A Case Study: Ciloto, West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayati, Noorlaila; Riedel, Björn; Niemeier, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Ciloto is one of the most prone landslide hazard areas in Indonesia. Several landslides in 2012 and 2013 had been recorded in Ciloto and damaged infrastructure around the area. Investigating the history of ground movement along slope area before the landslide happened could support the hazard mitigation in the future. Considering to an efficient surveying method, space-borne SAR processing is the one appropriate way to monitor the phenomenon in past years. The purpose of this study is detecting ground movement using multi-temporal synthetic aperture radar images. We use 13 ALOS PALSAR images from 2007 to 2009 with combination Fine Beam Single (FBS) and Fine Beam Double (FBD) polarization to investigate the slow movement on slope topography. MAI (Multiple Aperture Interferometry) InSAR method is used to analyze the ground movement from both line-of-sight and along-track direction. We split the synthetic aperture into two-looking aperture so that along-track displacement could be created by the difference of forward-backward looking interferograms. With integration of both methods, we could more precisely detect the movement in prone landslide area and achieve two measurements produced by the same interferogram. However, InSAR requires smaller baseline and good temporal baseline between master and slave images to avoid decorellation. There are only several pairs that meet the condition of proper length and temporal baseline indeed the location is also on the agriculture area where is mostly covered by vegetation. The result for two years observation shows that there is insignificant slow movement along slope surface in Ciloto with -2 - -7 cm in range looks or line of sight and 9-40 cm in along track direction. Based on geometry SAR , the most visible detecting of displacement is on the north-west area due to utilization of ascending SAR images.

  7. Classification and description of the vegetation in the Spitskop area in the proposed Highveld National Park, North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahlomola E. Daemane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the proposed Highveld National Park (HNP is to conserve a considerable area of the poorly conserved Rocky Highveld Grassland and Dry Sandy Highveld Grassveld of the western Grassland Biome in South Africa. The park has not yet been proclaimed, but is currently under the management of the North West Parks and Tourism Board. The main aim of this study was to classify and describe the vegetation in the Spitskop area in the HNP. The areas affected by soil degradation were on the midslopes, footslopes, valley bottomland and the floodplains around the Spitskop hill. The concentrated grazing around the Spitskop area was also influenced by the existing dam in the floodplains. Floristic and soil degradation data were collected and used to classify and describe the plant communities of the Spitskop area. Vegetation sampling was performed by means of the Braun-Blanquet method and a total of twenty plots were sampled. A numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN was applied to the floristic data to derive a first approximation of the main plant communities. Further refinement was achieved by Braun-Blanquet procedures. The final results of the classification procedure were presented in the form of a phytosociological table, with three major communities and three subcommunities being described. Canonical correspondence analysis was used to determine the direct correlation between plant communities and soil degradation types. Soil compaction and sheet erosion were found to be the most significant variables determining plant community composition. Rill and gully erosion were shown to be of lesser significance in explaining the variation in plant communities. Conservation implications: Grasslands are amongst the most threatened biomes in South Africa, yet less than 1.3% are currently being conserved. The HNP has significant value for biodiversity conservation and the protection of this area will contribute to the preservation of the highly

  8. Preliminary Data on the Plant and Vertebrate Animal Diversity in the Area of Dedovo Village (West Rhodopes Mts.

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    Krasimir Todorov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dedovo Village (Rodopi Municipality, Plovdiv District is located at 25 km from Plovdiv City in the Western Rhodopes Mts., at an altitude of 1000 to 1060 meters. Its proximity to the city and relatively preserved natural environment make it a more attractive place during the last years for relaxation, especially in the summer. However, the increased tourist presence in the area leads to an increase of anthropogenic pressure on the natural ecosystems. Aim of this study is to assess the plant and vertebrate animal diversity in the area of Dedovo Village and to identify the potential threats and risks to its conservation. More than 70 plant species were described, including one rare species and 5 Balkan endemics and 30 species, listed in the Bulgarian Medicinal plants Act. From the vertebrate animals 39 species were described, including 15 mammals (3 species with conservation status, 15 birds (4 species with conservation status, 6 reptiles and 2 amphibians.

  9. Unravelling of Waste in a Touristic Area of Pangandaran from Neglecting Towards Embracing Informal Waste Management Practices, West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastiaan Schippers

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Increased attention for sustainable waste management practices has in Indonesia resulted in legislation that seeks participation and self-regulation amongst people in urban and rural areas. However districts are trying to meet the expectations of the national government, implementing Westernized-recycling systems. We demonstrate that these top-down waste management practices as well as the current approach towardsscavenging systemsas being problematic and undesirable, will not lead to effective waste management. Using a holistic approach we explore the subjectivity of waste and alternating perceptions of these objects in both formal and informal waste management practices.Moreover this article considers the functioning of informal waste management systems to be dynamic and profitable. Within the context of a touristic area that can’t keep up with the increasing amount of solid waste, this article advocates a highly potential informal waste management practices that are systematically overlooked.

  10. Benthic habitat map of the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force Watershed Partnership Initiative Kā'anapali priority study area and the State of Hawai'i Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area, west-central Maui, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Susan A.; Gibbs, Ann E.; White, Darla J.

    2014-01-01

    Nearshore areas off of west-central Maui, Hawai‘i, once dominated by abundant coral coverage, now are characterized by an increased abundance of turf algae and macroalgae. In an effort to improve the health and resilience of the coral reef system, the Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area was established by the State of Hawai‘i, and the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force selected the Kā‘anapali region as a priority study area. To support these efforts, the U.S. Geological survey mapped nearly 5 km2 of sea floor from the shoreline to water depths of about 30 m. Unconsolidated sediment (predominantly sand) constitutes 65 percent of the sea floor in the mapped area. Reef and other hardbottom potentially available for coral recruitments constitutes 35 percent of the mapped area. Of this potentially available hardbottom, only 51 percent is covered with a minimum of 10 percent coral, and most is found between 5 and 10 m water depth.

  11. Spatial and Temporal Mapping of the Evolution of the Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochelo, Mark

    Urbanization is a fundamental reality in the developed and developing countries around the world creating large concentrations of the population centering on cities and urban centers. Cities can offer many opportunities for those residing there, including infrastructure, health services, rescue services and more. The living space density of cities allows for the opportunity of more effective and environmentally friendly housing, transportation and resources. Cities play a vital role in generating economic production as entities by themselves and as a part of larger urban complex. The benefits can provide for extraordinary amount of people, but only if proper planning and consideration is undertaken. Global urbanization is a progressive evolution, unique in spatial location while consistent to an overall growth pattern and trend. Remotely sensing these patterns from the last forty years of space borne satellites to understand how urbanization has developed is important to understanding past growth as well as planning for the future. Imagery from the Landsat sensor program provides the temporal component, it was the first satellite launched in 1972, providing appropriate spatial resolution needed to cover a large metropolitan statistical area to monitor urban growth and change on a large scale. This research maps the urban spatial and population growth over the Miami - Fort Lauderdale - West Palm Beach Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) covering Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach counties in Southeast Florida from 1974 to 2010 using Landsat imagery. Supervised Maximum Likelihood classification was performed with a combination of spectral and textural training fields employed in ERDAS Image 2014 to classify the images into urban and non-urban areas. Dasymetric mapping of the classification results were combined with census tract data then created a coherent depiction of the Miami - Fort Lauderdale - West Palm Beach MSA. Static maps and animated files were created

  12. Hydrogeologic Factors Affecting Base-Flow Yields in the Jefferson County Area, West Virginia, October-November 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaldi, Ronald D.; Paybins, Katherine S.; Kozar, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    Base-flow yields at approximately the annual 75-percent-duration flow were determined for watersheds in the Jefferson County area, WV, from stream-discharge measurements made during October 31 to November 2, 2007. Five discharge measurements of Opequon Creek defined increased flow from 29,000,000 gallons per day (gal/d) at Carters Ford to 51,400,000 gal/d near Vanville. No flow was observed at 45 of 110 additional stream sites inspected, and discharge at the 65 flowing stream sites ranged from 1,940 to 17,100,000 gallons per day (gal/d). Discharge at 28 springs ranged from no flow to 2,430,000 gal/d. Base-flow yields were computed as the change in stream-channel discharge between measurement sites divided by the change in drainage area between the sites. Yields were negative for losing (influent) channel reaches and positive for gaining (effluent) reaches. Channels in 14 watersheds were determined to have lost flow ranging from -9.6 to -1,770 gallons per day per acre (gal/d/acre). Channels in 51 watersheds were determined to have gained flow ranging from 3.4 to 235,000 gal/d/acre. Water temperature at the stream sites ranged from 5.0 to 16.3 deg C (quarry pumpage), and specific conductance ranged from 51 to 881 microsiemens per centimeter (uS/cm). Water temperature at the springs ranged from 11.5 to 15.0 deg C, and specific conductance ranged from 22 to 958 uS/cm. Large springs in some watersheds in western Jefferson County are adjacent to other watersheds with little or no surface-water discharge; this is probably the result of interbasin transfer of groundwater along faults that dissect the area. Most watersheds located adjacent to the Potomac River in northeastern Jefferson County were not flowing during this study; this is most likely because the Potomac River is deeply incised, and groundwater flows directly to it rather than to the local stream systems in these areas. Except for one watershed with a yield of 651 gal/d/acre, no watersheds in northeastern

  13. Bio-physical model provides insight into dispersal of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa L.) from putative spawning grounds to nursery areas on the west coast of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zölck, Melanie; Brophy, Deirdre; Mohn, Christian; Minto, Cóilín; McGrath, David

    2015-05-01

    In this study we use an individual-based coupled physical biological model (ICPBM) to reconstruct the dispersal pathways of 0-group juveniles (young of the year) collected from nursery grounds in Galway Bay and to identify probable spawning ground locations for plaice on the west coast of Ireland. The relative importance of passive transport, behaviour and individual growth rates on successful larval delivery, from three putative spawning grounds to suitable nursery areas, was also investigated. Using a hydrodynamic Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS), combined with a particle tracking model, three model scenarios were tested: a passive tracer scenario (PTS), a linear growth scenario (LGS) and a temperature-dependent growth scenario (TDS). Hydrodynamic conditions were modelled and biological information (pelagic larval durations and size at settlement) incorporated. The LGS and TDS included vertical migration and tidally synchronised behaviour. Generalized Linear Model (GLM) comparisons showed that incorporation of behaviour and temperature-dependent growth, resulted in approximately two to three times more particles being delivered to sites of suitable depth for settlement (≤ 10 m), compared to passive transport alone (p histories between particles that were delivered to shallow inshore areas and those that failed to reach depths suitable for settlement indicated that dispersal to coastal nursery areas is facilitated by entrainment into a cool coastal current system. This study identifies a probable plaice spawning area in western Ireland and reconfirms the importance of including behaviour and growth in dispersal simulations. The model results suggest that differences in growth can influence larval delivery to potentially suitable nursery areas.

  14. Hydrochemical assessments of surface Nile water and ground water in an industry area – South West Cairo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona El-Sayed

    2015-09-01

    The data obtained were used for mathematical calculations of some parameters such as sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, sodium percentage (Na%, and the suitability of water samples for drinking, domestic, and irrigation purposes was evaluated. The results indicate that most studied surface Nile water samples show excellent to good categories and are suitable for drinking and irrigation. Most studied ground water samples are not suitable for drinking and need treatment for irrigation; few samples are not suitable for any purpose because of pollution from different sources in this area.

  15. Characterization of soils in terms of pedological variability under different physiography of Damodar command area (part, West Bengal, India

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    Ranjan Bera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Five representative soil profiles occurring on four different physiography under subtropical environment of Damodar command area, India, were studied for soil pedological variability. Two way approaches were taken to evaluate the extent of profile development. Firstly different extractants were used to determine various forms of Fe and Al and their different ratios. Average contents of Fe and Al, extracted by different extracting reagents were found to be in descending order, as follows: Aldith > Aloxa > Alpyr and Fedith > Feoxa > Fepyr. Analysis of pyrophosphate (pyr, oxalate (oxa, and dithionate (dith extractable Fe and Al fractions indicated that with increasing soil age, the content of crystalline Fe and Al oxides increased at the expense of the poorly crystalline forms. The mean content of amorphous Fe and Al, crystalline Fe and Al, and their ratios estimated the degree of soil development. In the second part, elemental analysis was done, silica to sesquioxide ratio as well as ratio of alkali cations was measured and weathering index of each horizon was determined. The ratios and weathering indices indicated that except Madhpur soil series, all other soils were young and pedological development was still in progress in Damodar command area.

  16. Behavioural diversity among the wild chimpanzee populations of Bossou and neighbouring areas, Guinea and Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa. A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humle, T; Matsuzawa, T

    2001-01-01

    We present a preliminary report on the differences and similarities in material culture among four neighbouring chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) communities. One of these communities includes Bossou, a long-term field site of wild chimpanzees, in Guinea, West Africa. We also conducted surveys of three new sites. Two of those surveyed areas, Seringbara in Guinea and Yealé in Côte d'Ivoire, are located less than 12 km away from Bossou in the Nimba Mountains region, which forms a natural boundary between Guinea and Côte d'Ivoire. The third, Diécké, is situated further south-west, closer to the border with Liberia. During the surveys, we gathered behavioural information about these neighbouring populations of chimpanzees. The differences, as well as similarities, in material culture were tabulated based on our findings. The three behavioural variants found so far involve differences in nut cracking behaviour with regard to the species of nut cracked. Some variation in materials used for nut cracking has also been recorded. However, we still need to establish whether these local variations can be explained by the demands of the physical and biotic environments in which the populations of chimpanzees live. If these alternative hypotheses can be excluded with continuing research at the study sites, these differences are likely to be cultural behaviours that are influenced by the social context and mode, i.e. horizontal, vertical or oblique, of transmission, by the social structure and organisation of each community and/or perhaps by some form of social norms prevalent within these communities. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Spatial landuse planning using land evaluation and dynamic system to define sustainable area of paddy field: Case study in Karawang Regency, West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiatmaka, Widiatmaka; Ambarwulan, Wiwin; Firmansyah, Irman; Munibah, Khursatul; Santoso, Paulus B. K.

    2015-04-01

    Indonesia is the country with the 4th largest population in the worlds; the population reached more than 237 million people. With rice as the staple food for more than 95 percent of the population, there is an important role of paddy field in Indonesian food security. Actually, paddy field in Java has produced 52,6% of the total rice production in Indonesia, showing the very high dependence of Indonesia on food production from paddy fields in Java island. Karawang Regency is one of the regions in West Java Province that contribute to the national food supply, due to its high soil fertility and its high extent of paddy field. Dynamics of land use change in this region are high because of its proximity to urban area; this dynamics has led to paddy field conversion to industry and residential landuse, which in turn change the regional rice production capacity. Decreasing paddy field landuse in this region could be serve as an example case of the general phenomena which occurred in Javanese rice production region. The objective of this study were: (i) to identify the suitable area for paddy field, (ii) to modelize the decreasing of paddy field in socio-economic context of the region, and (iii) to plan the spatial priority area of paddy field protection according to model prediction. A land evaluation for paddy was completed after a soil survey, while IKONOS imagery was analyzed to delineate paddy fields. Dynamic system model of paddy field land use is built, and then based on the model built, the land area of paddy field untill 2040 in some scenarios was developped. The research results showed that the land suitability class for paddy fields in Karawang Regency ranged from very suitable (S1) to marginally suitable (S3), with various land characteristics as limiting factors. The model predicts that if the situation of paddy field land use change continues in its business as usual path, paddy field area that would exist in the region in 2040 will stay half of the recent

  18. Surficial geologic map of the Heath-Northfield-Southwick-Hampden 24-quadrangle area in the Connecticut Valley region, west-central Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Janet R.; DiGiacomo-Cohen, Mary L.

    2010-01-01

    The surficial geologic map layer shows the distribution of nonlithified earth materials at land surface in an area of 24 7.5-minute quadrangles (1,238 mi2 total) in west-central Massachusetts. Across Massachusetts, these materials range from a few feet to more than 500 ft in thickness. They overlie bedrock, which crops out in upland hills and as resistant ledges in valley areas. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics (such as grain size and sedimentary structures), constructional geomorphic features, stratigraphic relationships, and age. Surficial materials also are known in engineering classifications as unconsolidated soils, which include coarse-grained soils, fine-grained soils, and organic fine-grained soils. Surficial materials underlie and are the parent materials of modern pedogenic soils, which have developed in them at the land surface. Surficial earth materials significantly affect human use of the land, and an accurate description of their distribution is particularly important for assessing water resources, construction aggregate resources, and earth-surface hazards, and for making land-use decisions. This work is part of a comprehensive study to produce a statewide digital map of the surficial geology at a 1:24,000-scale level of accuracy. This report includes explanatory text, quadrangle maps at 1:24,000 scale (PDF files), GIS data layers (ArcGIS shapefiles), metadata for the GIS layers, scanned topographic base maps (TIF), and a readme.txt file.

  19. Sexual abstinence: What is the understanding and views of secondary school learners in a semi-rural area of North West Province, South Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebogile Mokwena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among strategies to prevent HIV, other sexually transmitted infections (STIs and unwanted pregnancies, are programs that promote sexual abstinence among adolescents. However, literature suggests that there may be differences in the understanding of abstinence across adolescents, and this study sought to explore the understanding of sexual abstinence among both male and female learners in a secondary school in a semi-rural area of North West Province, South Africa. Focus group discussions were used to collect data from learners who were in grades 8–10 at the time of the study. The findings are that the learners in this area understand sexual abstinence as the decision not to have sex, and this was associated with prevention of HIV, STIs and unwanted pregnancies, which ensures a better future. Barriers to sexual abstinence include peer pressure, myths and wrong perceptions about sex, influence of drugs and alcohol and the influence of television. Based on how it is delivered, school-based sex education was viewed as both an enabler and barrier to sexual abstinence. It is recommended that programs to promote sexual abstinence be strengthened and such programs be community-based.

  20. Detection of adenoviruses and rotaviruses in drinking water sources used in rural areas of Benin, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheyen, Jens; Timmen-Wego, Monika; Laudien, Rainer; Boussaad, Ibrahim; Sen, Sibel; Koc, Aynur; Uesbeck, Alexandra; Mazou, Farouk; Pfister, Herbert

    2009-05-01

    Diseases associated with viruses also found in environmental samples cause major health problems in developing countries. Little is known about the frequency and pattern of viral contamination of drinking water sources in these resource-poor settings. We established a method to analyze 10 liters of water from drinking water sources in a rural area of Benin for the presence of adenoviruses and rotaviruses. Overall, 541 samples from 287 drinking water sources were tested. A total of 12.9% of the sources were positive for adenoviruses and 2.1% of the sources were positive for rotaviruses at least once. Due to the temporary nature of viral contamination in drinking water sources, the probability of virus detection increased with the number of samples taken at one test site over time. No seasonal pattern for viral contaminations was found after samples obtained during the dry and wet seasons were compared. Overall, 3 of 15 surface water samples (20%) and 35 of 247 wells (14.2%) but also 2 of 25 pumps (8%) tested positive for adenoviruses or rotaviruses. The presence of latrines within a radius of 50 m in the vicinity of pumps or wells was identified as being a risk factor for virus detection. In summary, viral contamination was correlated with the presence of latrines in the vicinity of drinking water sources, indicating the importance of appropriate decision support systems in these socioeconomic prospering regions.

  1. Guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis) eradication: a pilot study conducted at the Ohaukwu Local Government Areas, Ebonyi State, Nigeria, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogamdi, S O; Onwe, F

    2001-01-01

    The incidence and the prevalence of Guinea worm disease, a major cause of disability and a frequent cause of serious permanent deformity, were both drastically reduced in Ohaukwu Local Government Communities, with the provision (through bore holes) of a safer form of drinking water. Since 1986, the Carter Center program has been working to eradicate Guinea worm. The bore holes were dug through the Wasatan Project, a Japanese-funded grant awarded to the Enugu State Ministry of Health to help provide safer drinking water in the local communities. Bore holes were dug in several communities in Ohaukwu Local Government Areas between January 1991 and June 1991. The number of Guinea worm cases in the selected communities was ascertained and recorded by health workers. There was more than a 90% reduction in the number of Guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis) cases after one year. Data collection began in June 1991, shortly after the completion of bore holes in the selected communities. By December 1998, when one of the villages was spot checked for Guinea worm infection, no active case was found. There is a need for post evaluation of all the villages studied to determine the current prevalence of Guinea worm disease.

  2. Phytosociological description of norite koppies in the Rustenburg area, North-West Province and refinement of the distribution of the Norite Koppies Bushveld on the national vegetation classification map of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. H. Lamprecht

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Norite Koppies Bushveld vegetation type boasts a distinctive and contrasting topography and species composition easily distinguished from that of surrounding areas. A phytosociological study was done on the leased mining area of the Impala Platinum Mining Company north of Rustenburg in the North-West Province. Similar norite koppies, situated west of the Norite Koppies Bushveld vegetation, and not yet mapped by Mucina & Rutherford (2006, were identified in the study area and phytosociologically described. Six plant communities and two subcommunities were identified. Multivariate statistical analyses (correspondence analyses confirmed that the species composition of these areas corresponds with and does therefore form part of the Norite Koppies Bushveld vegetation type as described by Mucina & Rutherford (2006. Some of these communities contain Boscia albitrunca, a protected plant species, and should therefore be considered as areas with conservation value.

  3. West African monsoon 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Cornforth, Rosalind J.

    2013-01-01

    Living up to its reputation as a highly variable climate system, the West African Monsoon (WAM) 2012 contrasted strikingly with the previous year. In 2011, the West African rainy season was delayed, patchy, and irregular. In 2012, whilst it was anomalously wet in many area, the Guinea coastal countries and some crucial agricultural regions remained very dry, persisting from the previous year. As a result, 2012 generated the third big food crisis to hit the region in the last seven years. The ...

  4. Arsenic and mercury levels in human hairs and nails from gold mining areas in Wassa West District of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serfor-Armah, Y.; Samlafo, B.V.; Yeboah, P.O.

    2009-01-01

    Hair and nail samples obtained from inhabitants of Wassa District, a major gold mining area in Ghana, were analysed for arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The samples were irradiated at a thermal neutron flux of 5 x 10 11 n cm -2 s -1 using the Ghana Research Reactor. Concentration of Hg in the hairs ranged from 1.65 to 20.46 μg/g, which were below World Health Organization (WHO) recommended level of 50.00 μg/g for human hair. Mercury concentration in human nail samples ranged from 0.97 to 31.94 μg/g. Arsenic concentrations in human hairs ranged from 0.07 to 0.95 μg/g, while the levels in nail samples ranged from 0.08 to 3.90 μg/g. Generally, levels of As in the hair were less than WHO recommended value of 1.00 μg/g, however, the levels of As in 5 nail samples (FN 11 , FN 20 , FN 28 , TN 9 and TN 16 ) were above the maximum WHO value of 1.80μg/g. The measurement precision specified by the relative standard deviation was within ± 3 %. The accuracy of determination evaluated by analysing certified standard human reference material GBW 09101 was within ± 4 % of the certified value. The levels of As in hair and nail samples of the experimental group were generally higher as compared to the control subject. Similarly, Hg levels in the hair and nail samples in experimental group were also higher compared to the control subject. However, the levels of the toxic elements determined were all below WHO recommended values. (au)

  5. Recent oxygen depletion and benthic faunal change in shallow areas of Sannäs Fjord, Swedish west coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordberg, Kjell; Polovodova Asteman, Irina; Gallagher, Timothy M.; Robijn, Ardo

    2017-09-01

    Sannäs Fjord is a shallow fjord (impact on the fjord represents combination of sewage from the local village of Sannäs and land run-off from agricultural areas. Sewage impact has been reduced since 1991 and today the fjord is included into several nature conservation programs administrated by the European Union. Yet, observations during the summers of 2008-2011 show that the shallow inner fjord inlet experiences severe oxygen depletion at 5-12 m water depth. To explore if the oxygen depletion is only a recent phenomenon and to evaluate the potential of fjord sediments to archive such environmental changes, in 2008 and 2009 seven sediment cores were taken along a transect oriented lengthwise in the fjord. The cores were analysed for organic carbon, C/N, benthic foraminifera and lead pollution records (as relative age marker). Carbon content increases in most of the cores since the 1970-80s, while C/N ratio decreases from the core base upward since 1995. Foraminiferal assemblages in most core stratigraphies are dominated by agglutinated species. Calcareous species (mainly elphidiids) have become dominant in the upper part of the records since the late 1990s or 2000 (the inner fjord and the deepest basin) and since the 1950-70s (the outer fjord). In the inner Sannäs Fjord, an increase of agglutinated foraminiferal species (e.g. Eggerelloides scaber) and organic inner linings occurred since the 1970s, suggesting an intensification of taphonomic processes affecting postmortem calcareous shell preservation. A study of living vs. dead foraminiferal assemblages undertaken during June-August 2013 demonstrates that in the shallow inner fjord, strong carbonate dissolution occurs within 1-3 months following the foraminiferal growth. The dissolution is linked to corrosive conditions present within the sediment - bottom water interface, and is likely caused by the organic matter decay, resulting in severe hypoxia to anoxia. Oxygen depletion at mechanisms driving formation of

  6. Eo-Oligocene Oil Shales of the Talawi, Lubuktaruk, and Kiliranjao Areas, West Sumatra: Are they potential source rocks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Iqbal

    2014-12-01

    agreeing with Tmax rates, are also consistent with the PI (production index values and SEM result. By evaluating all the results of geochemical and organic petrological analyses conducted on shale lithologies (shale and mudstone, it can be concluded that the oil shales in those areas have a favourable potential for generation of shale oil or gas to be included as alternative energy resources in the future.

  7. COHORT OF WOMEN LIVING IN OR NEAR A HIGHLY INDUSTRIALIZED AREA OF KANAWHA RIVER VALLEY IN WEST VIRGINIA: ENDOMETRIOSIS AND BLOOD LEVELS OF DIOXIN AND DIOXIN-LIKE CHEMICALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction Historical releases of dioxin and dioxin-like chemicals with subsequent impacts to environmental media in the Kanawha River Valley (KRV) of West Virginia have been well documented.' The bulk of dioxin found in this area appears to be derived from the production of 2,...

  8. One-year delayed effect of fog on malaria transmission: a time-series analysis in the rain forest area of Mengla County, south-west China

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    Goggins William B

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a major public health burden in the tropics with the potential to significantly increase in response to climate change. Analyses of data from the recent past can elucidate how short-term variations in weather factors affect malaria transmission. This study explored the impact of climate variability on the transmission of malaria in the tropical rain forest area of Mengla County, south-west China. Methods Ecological time-series analysis was performed on data collected between 1971 and 1999. Auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA models were used to evaluate the relationship between weather factors and malaria incidence. Results At the time scale of months, the predictors for malaria incidence included: minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and fog day frequency. The effect of minimum temperature on malaria incidence was greater in the cool months than in the hot months. The fog day frequency in October had a positive effect on malaria incidence in May of the following year. At the time scale of years, the annual fog day frequency was the only weather predictor of the annual incidence of malaria. Conclusion Fog day frequency was for the first time found to be a predictor of malaria incidence in a rain forest area. The one-year delayed effect of fog on malaria transmission may involve providing water input and maintaining aquatic breeding sites for mosquitoes in vulnerable times when there is little rainfall in the 6-month dry seasons. These findings should be considered in the prediction of future patterns of malaria for similar tropical rain forest areas worldwide.

  9. Report on the geothermal development promotion survey. No.38. Mt. Aso West area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No. 38 Asozan seibu chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the geothermal development promotion survey 'Mt. Aso West area' which was carried out at Choyo village and Kugino village, Aso county, and at Otsu town, Kikuchi county, Kumamoto prefecture, from FY 1991 to FY 1994. In the survey, the following were conducted for the comprehensive analysis: surface survey such as geology/alteration zone survey, geochemical survey and high precision MT method survey, and temperature log, electrical log, water injection test, core test and hydrothermal survey by drilling 7 structural boreholes. In the numerical analysis of thermal structure models, the present geothermal manifestation was obtained, assuming that the past magma reservoir in a state of agglomeration/semi-agglomeration exists in the depths of caldera and that the depth is set at 4km. It is assumed that the deep hydrothermal reservoir around Yunoya/Tarutama exists around the depth of 500-600m below sea level and that the temperature is 230-300 degrees C. The meteoric water permeating into the depths forms high-temperature reservoirs around Yunoya/Tarutama. The reservoir rises up to about 400m below sea level to become a vapor-dominated phase. It forms an acidic SO{sub 4} type reservoir phase around the earth surface. (NEDO)

  10. Inferring the fluoride hydrogeochemistry and effect of consuming fluoride-contaminated drinking water on human health in some endemic areas of Birbhum district, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, D; Dutta, G; Gupta, S

    2016-04-01

    This research work is carried out to evaluate fluoride (F) hydrogeochemistry and its effect on the population of two endemic villages of Birbhum district, West Bengal. Fluoride concentration in drinking water varies from 0.33 to 18.08 mg/L. Hydrogeochemical evolution suggests that ion-exchange mechanism is the major controlling factor for releasing F in the groundwater. Most of the groundwater samples are undersaturated with respect to calcite and fluorite. Health survey shows that out of 235 people, 142 people suffer from dental fluorosis. According to fluoride impact severity, almost 80 and 94 % people in an age group of 11-20 and 41-50 suffer from dental and skeletal fluorosis, respectively. Statistically drinking water F has a positive correlation with dental and skeletal fluorosis. Bone mineral density test reveals that 33 and 45 % of the studied population suffer from osteopenic and osteoporosis disease. IQ test also signifies that F has a bearing on the intelligence development of the study area school children. The existence of significant linear relationship (R (2) = 0.77) between drinking water F and urinary F suggests that consumption of F-contaminated drinking water has a major control over urinary F (0.39-20.1 mg/L) excretion.

  11. Decontamination of the product handling area at the West Valley Demonstration Project: Final topical report for period July 1985 to February 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, E.C.

    1986-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) preparations of an existing facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), the Product Handling Area (PHA), to be part of a Liquid Waste Treatment System (LWTS) in conjunction with the Cement Solidification System (CSS). Two interconnected facilities, the Uranium Product Cell (UPC) and the Uranium Loadout Area (ULO), form the PHA. Both of these facilities contain large tanks. Both of the tanks in the UPC are suitable for use as components of the LWTS. In addition, the UPC is the only existing means of access to the bottom of the Product Purification Cell (PPC) in which some of the equipment for the LWTS will be installed. Consequently, this report describes the decontamination of the PHA from a radioactively contaminated environment to one which may be entered in street clothes. Of the two facilities of the PHA, the UPC was the more highly contaminated prior to decontamination. Decontamination of the UPC has been completed leaving most of the surfaces in the facility smearably clean. Decontamination of the UPC consisted of washing all surfaces, draining the floor sump, removing unneeded piping, installing a back flow filter system, painting all surfaces, installing rubber matting on the floor and placing new stainless steel covering on the UPC ledge. Decontamination operations in the ULO have been completed and were similar to those in the UPC consisting of decontaminating by hand wipedown, removing contamination fixed in paint, and applying new paint. In addition, two pumps and a concrete pump niche were removed. Prior to decontamination, surface contamination was present in the ULO. After decontamination, most of the surfaces in the ULO were clean of smearable contamination. D and D Operations were initiated in the PHA in July 1985 and completed in February 1986. 13 figs., 9 tabs

  12. Seasonal and diurnal pattern of CH4 and CO2 fluxes from the reed area of a fen in South-West Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Merit; Lamers, Marc; Streck, Thilo

    2014-05-01

    About 45 million tons of CO2 equivalents are emitted yearly from peat soils in Germany, making it the second largest source of greenhouse gases after the energy sector. A large part of the emission consists of CH4. Nevertheless, carbon budgets of peatlands are not well represented in the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory of Germany, required by the Kyoto Protocol. To fill this gap, we measure CO2 and CH4 fluxes in the reed area of the minerotrophic peatland 'Federseemoor' (3500 ha) in South-West Germany, by means of the Eddy Covariance method. It is expected that this reed area will release high emissions of CH4, due to the anoxic conditions in general and the capacity of reed vegetation to transport gas actively between soil and atmosphere in particular. The results of 2013 show that both CO2 and CH4 fluxes exhibit a distinct seasonal pattern. A clear diurnal pattern is visible for both CO2 and CH4 fluxes during the vegetation period. Overall, this fen system appears to be a sink for carbon dioxide (-4.7 tCO2 ha-1 yr-1), and a source for CH4 (0.3 tCH4 ha-1 yr-1). Although the site is a carbon sink, the GWP100 is slightly positive (1.9 tCO2eq ha-1 yr-1), considering CH4 as a 25 times stronger greenhouse gas than CO2. In our presentation, we will (i) introduce the experimental set up, (ii) summarize the key measurement results from 2013 and (iii) evaluate the main environmental variables affecting the temporal pattern of CH4 and CO2 fluxes.

  13. 40 CFR 81.349 - West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false West Virginia. 81.349 Section 81.349... Virginia. West Virginia—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary... district in Berkeley County X Remainder of State X West Virginia—SO2 Designated area Does not meet primary...

  14. Neutrino beam in West Area

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    Window closing the access to the decay tunnel at the end of the neutrino cave. Beyond the window one sees the first part of the decay tunnel, eventually arriving in front of BEBC. On the right Manfred Mast

  15. Evidence that agricultural use of pesticides selects pyrethroid resistance within Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from cotton growing areas in Burkina Faso, West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristide Sawdetuo Hien

    Full Text Available Many studies have shown the role of agriculture in the selection and spread of resistance of Anopheles gambiae s.l. to insecticides. However, no study has directly demonstrated the presence of insecticides in breeding sources as a source of selection for this resistance. It is in this context that we investigated the presence of pesticide residues in breeding habitats and their formal involvement in vector resistance to insecticides in areas of West Africa with intensive farming. This study was carried out from June to November 2013 in Dano, southwest Burkina Faso in areas of conventional (CC and biological cotton (BC growing. Water and sediment samples collected from breeding sites located near BC and CC fields were submitted for chromatographic analysis to research and titrate the residual insecticide content found there. Larvae were also collected in these breeding sites and used in toxicity tests to compare their mortality to those of the susceptible strain, Anopheles gambiae Kisumu. All tested mosquitoes (living and dead were analyzed by PCR for species identification and characterization of resistance genes. The toxicity analysis of water from breeding sites showed significantly lower mortality rates in breeding site water from biological cotton (WBC growing sites compared to that from conventional cotton (WCC sites respective to both An. gambiae Kisumu (WBC: 80.75% vs WCC: 92.75% and a wild-type strain (49.75% vs 66.5%. The allele frequencies L1014F, L1014S kdr, and G116S ace -1R mutations conferring resistance, respectively, to pyrethroids and carbamates / organophosphates were 0.95, 0.4 and 0.12. Deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin were identified in the water samples taken in October/November from mosquitoes breeding in the CC growing area. The concentrations obtained were respectively 0.0147ug/L and 1.49 ug/L to deltamethrin and lambdacyhalothrin. Our results provided evidence by direct analysis (biological and chromatographic tests

  16. Evidence that agricultural use of pesticides selects pyrethroid resistance within Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from cotton growing areas in Burkina Faso, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hien, Aristide Sawdetuo; Soma, Dieudonné Diloma; Hema, Omer; Bayili, Bazoma; Namountougou, Moussa; Gnankiné, Olivier; Baldet, Thierry; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Dabiré, Kounbobr Roch

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have shown the role of agriculture in the selection and spread of resistance of Anopheles gambiae s.l. to insecticides. However, no study has directly demonstrated the presence of insecticides in breeding sources as a source of selection for this resistance. It is in this context that we investigated the presence of pesticide residues in breeding habitats and their formal involvement in vector resistance to insecticides in areas of West Africa with intensive farming. This study was carried out from June to November 2013 in Dano, southwest Burkina Faso in areas of conventional (CC) and biological cotton (BC) growing. Water and sediment samples collected from breeding sites located near BC and CC fields were submitted for chromatographic analysis to research and titrate the residual insecticide content found there. Larvae were also collected in these breeding sites and used in toxicity tests to compare their mortality to those of the susceptible strain, Anopheles gambiae Kisumu. All tested mosquitoes (living and dead) were analyzed by PCR for species identification and characterization of resistance genes. The toxicity analysis of water from breeding sites showed significantly lower mortality rates in breeding site water from biological cotton (WBC) growing sites compared to that from conventional cotton (WCC) sites respective to both An. gambiae Kisumu (WBC: 80.75% vs WCC: 92.75%) and a wild-type strain (49.75% vs 66.5%). The allele frequencies L1014F, L1014S kdr, and G116S ace -1R mutations conferring resistance, respectively, to pyrethroids and carbamates / organophosphates were 0.95, 0.4 and 0.12. Deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin were identified in the water samples taken in October/November from mosquitoes breeding in the CC growing area. The concentrations obtained were respectively 0.0147ug/L and 1.49 ug/L to deltamethrin and lambdacyhalothrin. Our results provided evidence by direct analysis (biological and chromatographic tests) of the role

  17. Continental Collision Structures and Post-Orogenic Geological History of the Kangerlussuaq Area in the Southern Part of the Nagssugtoqidian Orogen, Central West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Engström

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Deep-seated continental collision sutures, formed at a depth of more than 20 km, are exposed near Kangerlussuaq, close to the Greenland ice cap, on the southern margin of the Nagssugtoqidian orogen in Central West Greenland, thus offering a rare opportunity to study the tectonic deformation style of such an orogen. This paper adds new information on the tectonic history of the southern flank of the Nagssugtoqidian orogen. It focuses on (1 the results of a detailed structural investigation of lineament zones revealed from remote sensing of geophysical and topographic data and aerial photo interpretation, (2 detailed geological mapping at key locations and (3 a tectonic structural model describing the geological development of the area. The area has undergone several episodes of deformation, which have been compiled into an event succession that recognizes eight tectonic events overprinting each other: Two stages of folding (F1 and F2 have been identified along with one major episode of intrusion of the Kangâmiut mafic dyke swarm (2.05 Ga into the Archaean continent. These dyke intrusions are very important, since by examining the style of deformation for these intrusions it is possible to define the transition from the North Atlantic Craton in the south to the mobile belts in the Nagssugtoqidian orogen in the north. Five different types of pronounced lineaments and one less pronounced lineament post-dating the Kangâmiut dykes extending from ductile deformation shearing events to brittle deformation with extensive faulting. These lineaments cover both the collisional and post-collisional tectonic history of the area. The study focused on two types of lineaments: one semi-ductile type trending E–W with a dextral sense of shear and a second, a pronounced lineament outlining the Kangerlussuaq–Russell thrust fault. These two features are interpreted to be related to the Nagssugtoqidian orogeny, while the latter lineaments have a more brittle

  18. Prevalence of psychological distress and mental disorders, and use of mental health services in the epidemiological catchment area of Montreal South-West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caron Jean

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This report presents the initial results of the first Epidemiological Catchment Area Study in mental health in Canada. Five neighbourhoods in the South-West sector of Montreal, with a population of 258,000, were under study. The objectives of the research program were: 1 to assess the prevalence and incidence of psychological distress, mental disorders, substance abuse, parasuicide, risky behaviour and quality of life; 2 to examine the links and interactions between individual determinants, neighbourhood ecology and mental health in each neighbourhood; 3 to identify the conditions facilitating the integration of individuals with mental health problems; 4 to analyse the impact of the social, economic and physical aspects of the neighbourhoods using a geographic information system. 5 to verify the adequacy of mental health services. Method A longitudinal study in the form of a community survey was used, complemented by focused qualitative sub-studies. The longitudinal study included a randomly selected sample of 2,433 individuals between the ages of 15 and 65 in the first wave of data collection, and three other waves are projected. An overview of the methods is presented. Results The prevalence of psychological distress, mental disorders and use of mental health services and their correlates are described for the first wave of data collection. Conclusion Several vulnerable groups and risk factors related to socio-demographic variables have been identified such as: gender, age, marital status, income, immigration and language. These results can be used to improve treatment services, prevention of mental disorders, and mental health promotion.

  19. Body fat levels in children in younger school age from rural areas living in Copper Mining Region in south-west Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Posłuszny

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity as a civilization disease has been called the "epidemic" in the late twentieth century. It is a risk factor for many diseases, including cardiovascular disease, which is the last time a major cause of death. In Europe and the United States, the number of overweight people exceeds now 50% of the population. The incidence of overweight and obesity continue to rise and this phenomenon is also observed in our country even in case of an early childhood. In Poland, percentage of very young school children (boys and girls who are overweight or obese amounts to about 15%. Obesity is particularly common among children from industrial environments living in highly developed countries. The aim of his study was to assess the level of fat in boys and girls from rural areas aged 7 to 10 from industrial environment. Material and methods. The study was carried out at six rural schools located in the copper mining region in south-west Poland in 2001. For the needs of the study use was made of existing results covering altogether 488 children of early school age – 261 girls and 227 boys. Measurements were taken of height, body mass, waist and hip circumferences. Body fat, body water and lean body mass were measured with Futrex. Respectively the BMI and WHR were calculated from measurements taken earlier. Results and conclusions. The BMI level is within the values of acceptable standard in majority of children. The percentage of children above the standard fluctuates within the limits of typical peers from other regions of the country and is about 15%. In boys obesity increases with age, in girls the values increase also, but they are of lower importance. Most of the examined children present an average level of total body fatness. A very small percentage of them exceeds the level considered as obese.

  20. Multi-trace elements level in drinking water and the prevalence of multi-chronic arsenical poisoning in residents in the west area of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barati, A.H.; Maleki, A.; Alasvand, M.

    2010-01-01

    First, we determined the levels of 8 trace elements (As, Se, Hg, Cd, Ag, Mn, Cr and Pb) in 530 village drinking water sources by graphite furnace or flame atomic absorption spectroscopy method, in Kurdistan Province in the west of Iran. The results showed that the level of As, Cd and Se in 28 village drinking water sources exceeded WHO or National Standard limits. The levels of concentration of arsenic in drinking water ranged from 42 to 1500 μg/L. Then in a cross-sectional survey, 587 people from 211 households were chosen for clinical examinations of multi-chronic arsenical poisoning including pigment disorders, keratosis of palms and soles, Mee's line in fingers and nails and the gangrene as a systemic manifestation. Of 587 participants, 180 (30.7%) participants were affected by representing the type of chronic arsenical poisoning. The prevalence of Mee's line, keratosis, and pigment disorders were 86.1%, 77.2% and 67.8% respectively. Therefore, the prevalence of Mee's line between inhabitants was higher than the other disorders. The results show a strong linear relationship between arsenic exposure and occurrence of multi-chronic arsenical poisoning (R 2 = 0.76). The association between age for more than 40 years and gender for more than 60 years with chronic arsenical poisoning is significant (p < 0.05). Also, there is a relationship between subjects who were affected with disorders and duration of living in the village. Except for gangrene disorder, the odds ratio of prevalence of other disorders with arsenic exposure level in drinking water show a highly significant relationship between arsenic content and the risk of chronic disorders (p < 0.01). These results confirm the need to further study trace elements in drinking waters, food products and other samples in this area and the relationship to other chronic diseases arising out of arsenicosis.

  1. Multi-trace elements level in drinking water and the prevalence of multi-chronic arsenical poisoning in residents in the west area of Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barati, A.H., E-mail: ah_barati@yahoo.com [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, P.O.Box-66135-756, Pasdaran Street, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Maleki, A. [Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alasvand, M. [Department of Medical Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-03-01

    First, we determined the levels of 8 trace elements (As, Se, Hg, Cd, Ag, Mn, Cr and Pb) in 530 village drinking water sources by graphite furnace or flame atomic absorption spectroscopy method, in Kurdistan Province in the west of Iran. The results showed that the level of As, Cd and Se in 28 village drinking water sources exceeded WHO or National Standard limits. The levels of concentration of arsenic in drinking water ranged from 42 to 1500 {mu}g/L. Then in a cross-sectional survey, 587 people from 211 households were chosen for clinical examinations of multi-chronic arsenical poisoning including pigment disorders, keratosis of palms and soles, Mee's line in fingers and nails and the gangrene as a systemic manifestation. Of 587 participants, 180 (30.7%) participants were affected by representing the type of chronic arsenical poisoning. The prevalence of Mee's line, keratosis, and pigment disorders were 86.1%, 77.2% and 67.8% respectively. Therefore, the prevalence of Mee's line between inhabitants was higher than the other disorders. The results show a strong linear relationship between arsenic exposure and occurrence of multi-chronic arsenical poisoning (R{sup 2} = 0.76). The association between age for more than 40 years and gender for more than 60 years with chronic arsenical poisoning is significant (p < 0.05). Also, there is a relationship between subjects who were affected with disorders and duration of living in the village. Except for gangrene disorder, the odds ratio of prevalence of other disorders with arsenic exposure level in drinking water show a highly significant relationship between arsenic content and the risk of chronic disorders (p < 0.01). These results confirm the need to further study trace elements in drinking waters, food products and other samples in this area and the relationship to other chronic diseases arising out of arsenicosis.

  2. Determination of the microbiological quality and proximate composition of fermented cassava food products sold in Ilorin-west local government area, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.O. Adetunji

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the microbiological safety and the proximate analyses of five urban markets within Ilorin-West Local Government Area, Kwara State, Nigeria were carried out using standard protocols. The bacterial load of fermented staple products from cassava ranged from 0.1 to 10.9×105 CFU/g while the fungi and yeast content ranged from 1.1 to 8.2×105 CFU/g. The isolates of bacteria from all the markets include the following; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermis, Streptococus faecalis, Lactobacillus species, Acetobacter spp.., Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus species while the isolated fungi include Fusarium oxysporium, Aspergillus niger, A.flavus, A. fumigatus, Saccharomyces cerevisae, Candida albicans, Penicillum spp., Rhizopus stolonifera, Mucor spp..The results of the proximate composition showed that moisture content of fermented staple products of cassava ranged from 6.21% (garri Ijebu from market A and lebu from market C to 72.25% (fufu from market C while dry matter content ranged between 27.75% (Fufu from market C to 93.79% (garri Ijebu market A and lebu from market C. Ash content ranged from 0.23% (Tapioca from market A to 1.96% (lebu from market A, crude fibre content ranged between 1.13% (Fufu from market C and 5.28% (Abacha from market D, and the carbohydrate content of the fermented staple products from cassava ranged from 18.61% (Fufu from market C to 81.44% (Tapioca from market A. Even though some potential pathogenic bacteria like E.coli and Bacillus were isolated from cassava fermented products, the minimum microbial load obtained could not impose any health risk.

  3. Relationship between Body Mass Index, Blood Pressure, and Visual Acuity in Residents of Esan West Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Ernest-Nwoke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the relationship between body mass index (BMI and blood pressure (BP on visual acuity among apparently healthy residents of Ekpoma, Esan West Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria. Methodology. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study among 225 subjects (ages of 18–35 years from whom BP, body weight, and height were collected. Visual acuity was measured using the Snellen chart following standard procedures of number of letters seen at 6-metre distance. The data were then analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results. The sampled population consists of 112 male and 113 female (mean age 31.72±14.2 years. Majority (180 of the respondents had normal visual acuity. However, compared with the respondents with normal BMI (R19.61±1.5; L19.67±1.70, visual acuity of underweight (R18.53±2.30; L18.53±2.70 and obese (R15.68±4.79; L17.73±1.70 were more deviated. Similarly, compared with respondent with normal BP (120–125/80–85 mmHg; R18.00±2.53; L18.07±3.11, hypotensive (R15.5±7.35; L15.00±10.20, and hypertensive (R15.01±21.25; L15.00±11.91 respondents had deviated visual acuity. Conclusion. Abnormal body weight (underweight and obese and BP (hypotension and hypertension have potential negative impacts on visual acuity. Based on the observed relationship between weights, BP, and visual acuity, eye examinations can be included as regular screening exercise for abnormal BMI and BP conditions.

  4. Environmental and occupational exposures to mercury among indigenous people in Dunkwa-On-Offin, a small scale gold mining area in the South-West of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwaansa-Ansah, E E; Basu, N; Nriagu, J O

    2010-11-01

    Total mercury concentrations in human hair and urine samples were determined to ascertain the extent of environmental and occupational mercury exposure in Dunkwa-On-Offin, a small scale gold mining area of the central-west region of Ghana. In all ninety-four (94) hair and urine samples comprising of forty (40) small scale miners and fifty-four (54) farmers were collected and analyzed for their total mercury levels using the cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry. The hair total mercury concentrations ranged from 0.63 to 7.19 ug/g with a mean of 2.35 ± 1.58 ug/g for the farmers and 0.57-6.07 ug/g with a mean of 2.14 ± 1.53 ug/g for the small scale gold miners. There was no significant correlation between the total mercury concentration and the average weekly fish diet. The total mercury concentrations in urine of the miners were higher than those of the farmers and ranged from 0.32 to 3.62 ug/L with a mean of 1.23 ± 0.86 ug/L. The urine concentrations of farmers ranged from 0.075 to 2.31 ug/L with a mean of 0.69 ± 0.39 ug/L. Although the results indicate elevated internal dose of mercury the current levels of exposures do not appear to pose a significant health threat to the people.

  5. Spatial and seasonal variations of pesticide contamination in agricultural soils and crops sample from an intensive horticulture area of Hohhot, North-West China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fujin; He, Jiang; Yao, Yiping; Hou, Dekun; Jiang, Cai; Zhang, Xinxin; Di, Caixia; Otgonbayar, Khureldavaa

    2013-08-01

    The spatial variability and temporal trend in concentrations of the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), in soils and agricultural corps were investigated on an intensive horticulture area in Hohhot, North-West China, from 2008 to 2011. The most frequently found and abundant pesticides were the metabolites of DDT (p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDD). Total DDT concentrations ranged from ND (not detectable) to 507.41 ng/g and were higher than the concentration of total HCHs measured for the range of 4.84-281.44 ng/g. There were significantly positive correlations between the ∑DDT and ∑HCH concentrations (r (2)>0.74) in soils, but no significant correlation was found between the concentrations of OCPs in soils and clay content while a relatively strong correlation was found between total OCP concentrations and total organic carbon (TOC). β-HCH was the main isomer of HCHs, and was detected in all samples; the maximum proportion of β-HCH compared to ∑HCHs (mean value 54%) was found, suggesting its persistence. The α/γ-HCH ratio was between 0.89 and 5.39, which signified the combined influence of technical HCHs and lindane. Low p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT in N1, N3 and N9 were found, reflecting the fresh input of DDTs, while the relatively high o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT ratios indicated the agricultural application of dicofol. Ratios of DDT/(DDE+DDD) in soils do not indicate recent inputs of DDT into Hohhot farmland soil environment. Seasonal variations of OCPs featured higher concentrations in autumn and lower concentrations in spring. This was likely associated with their temperature-driven re-volatilization and application of dicofol in late spring.

  6. Determination of organically bound tritium background level in biological samples from a wide area in the south-west of France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pointurier, F.; Baglan, N.; Alanic, G.; Chiappini, R.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the authors describe a sensitive method for low-level non-exchangeable OBT determination. This methodology combines suitable sample treatment, a combustion apparatus for large-sized samples and low-background liquid scintillation spectrometry, along with precautions that substantially reduce the risks of sample contamination. Great care must be taken in the measurement of non-exchangeable OBT at environmental levels. Many authors have discussed the opportunities for cross-contamination between samples and contamination by exchange with the laboratory atmosphere. The authors also describe an application of the methodology to a large-scale sampling and measurement campaign, aimed at the determination of the environmental non-exchangeable OBT background level in tree leaves and ferns collected on the site and in the vicinity of a research centre located in the south-west of France, not far from Bordeaux. This study constitutes a 'zero level' for the non-exchangeable OBT activity, as, to our knowledge, there is no tritium source within or in the surroundings of the sampled area capable of producing non-exchangeable OBT activities above the natural levels. Our analyses showed that non-exchangeable OBT activities in the collected samples were very low, ranging from below the detection limit (ca 0.7 Bq kg -1 of dry material) to ca 2 Bq kg -1 of dry material. These values are similar to the natural tritium background measured in water samples. No discrepancies can be shown between fern samples and oak tree leaf samples or between samples collected inside and outside the research site

  7. Evaluation of the use of common sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius) organ histology as bioindicator for element exposure in the fjord of the mining area Maarmorilik, West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonne, Christian, E-mail: csh@dmu.dk [Aarhus University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Bioscience, Arctic Research Centre (ARC), Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Bach, Lis; Søndergaard, Jens; Rigét, Frank F.; Dietz, Rune; Mosbech, Anders [Aarhus University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Bioscience, Arctic Research Centre (ARC), Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Leifsson, Pall S. [University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Bülowsvej 17, DK-1870 Frederiksberg (Denmark); Gustavson, Kim [Aarhus University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Bioscience, Arctic Research Centre (ARC), Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2014-08-15

    The former Black Angel lead–zinc mine in Maarmorilik, West Greenland, is a historic example of how mining activity may result in a significant impact on the surrounding fjord system in terms of elevated concentrations of especially lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in seawater, sediments and surrounding biota. In order to shed light on the present contamination and possible effects in the fjord we initiated a range of studies including a pilot study on gill and liver morphology of common sculpins (Myoxocephalus scorpius) around Maarmorilik. Sculpins were caught and sampled at five different stations known to represent a gradient of Pb concentrations. Fish livers from all specimens were analyzed for relevant elements in the area: Fe, Zn, As, Cu, Se, Cd, Pb, Ag, Hg, Co and Ni. Lead, As and Hg showed significant differences among the five stations. For 20% of the sculpins, Hg concentrations were in the range of lowest observed effect dose (LOED) of 0.1–0.5 μg/g ww for toxic threshold on reproduction and subclinical endpoints. Likewise LOEDs for tissue lesions, LOEDs for biochemistry, growth, survival and reproduction were exceeded for Cd (0.42–1.8 μg/g ww) and for As (11.6 μg/g ww) in 28% and 85% of the sculpins, respectively. Similar to this, the no observed effect dose (NOED) for biochemistry was exceeded for Pb (0.32 μg/g ww) and for growth, mortality and reproduction for Zn (60–68 μg/g ww) in 33% and 24% of the sculpins, respectively. For all sculpins, females were significantly larger than males and for five of the elements (Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Se) females had higher concentrations. The chronic lesions observed in liver (mononuclear cell infiltrates, necrosis, vacuolar hepatocytes, portal fibrosis, bile duct hyperplasia, active melanomacrophage centers) and gills (fusion and edema of secondary lamellae, laminar telangiectasis, mononuclear cell infiltrates, blebs) were similar to those in the literature studies for both wild and laboratory exposed sculpins and

  8. Aeromagnetic and gravity investigations of the Coastal Area and Continental Shelf of Liberia, West Africa, and their relation to continental drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, John C.; Wotorson, Cletus S.

    1970-01-01

    An aeromagnetic survey has shown the existence of several basins in which magnetic basement depths are greater than 5 km on the continental shelf off Liberia. Magnetic diabase of 176 to 192 m.y. (Jurassic) in age intruding the Paleozoic (?) rocks and overlain by younger rocks onshore requires the distinction between “magnetic basement” and “basement.” Several lines of evidence suggest that the Paleozoic(?) rocks are less than 1 km thick; this implies that the diabase does not introduce a large error in depth-to-basement estimates. The dikes or their extrusive equivalents are traceable, on the basis of the magnetic data, beneath the younger sedimentary rock in the basins to the edge of the continental slope. The magnetic data also delineate a second zone of diabase dikes 90 km inland, parallel to the coast, which cross the entire country. The intrusion of the younger dikes probably coincides with rifting at the beginning of the separation of Africa and South America, and the associated magnetic anomaly zones appear to be parallel with and continuous into the anomaly bands in the Atlantic. A major northeast-trending break in the magnetic fabric intersects the coast near 9° W. and is associated with Eburnean age rocks (about 2000 m.y.) to the southeast as contrasted with Liberian-age rocks (about 2700 m.y.) to the northwest. Change in magnetic fabric direction inland from northeast to northwest in the coastal area allows recognition of a boundary between the Liberian-age rocks inland and Pan-African-age (about 550 m.y.) rocks in the coastal area northwest of about 9° 20'W. Sets of north-northwest-and west-northwest—trending faults of 1 to 2 km vertical displacement cut the Cretaceous sedimentary rocks onshore and can be traced into the offshore basins. Vertical displacements of several kilometers in the magnetic basement underlying the continental shelf suggest a pattern of block faulting all along the coast and continental shelf. Negative Bouguer

  9. West Virginia's Forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard H. Widmann; Gregory W. Cook; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Douglas M. Griffith; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Randall S. Morin; W. Keith Moser; Charles H. Perry; Ronald J. Piva; Rachel Riemann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2012-01-01

    The first full annual inventory of West Virginia's forests reports 12.0 million acres of forest land or 78 percent of the State's land area. The area of forest land has changed little since 2000. Of this land, 7.2 million acres (60 percent) are held by family forest owners. The current growing-stock inventory is 25 billion cubic feet--12 percent more than in...

  10. Population Structure of West Greenland Narwhals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riget, F.; Dietz, R.; Møller, P.

    The hypothesis that different populations of narwhals in the West Greenland area exist has been tested by different biomarkers (metal and organochlorine concentrations, stable isotopes and DNA). Samples of muscle, liver, kidney, blubber and skin tissues of narwhals from West Greenland have been...... isotopes could not support the population structure with two West Greenland populations suggested by the genetic study....

  11. Anthropogenic plumes from metropolitan areas and biomass burning emissions in West Africa during DACCIWA - airborne measurements on board the DLR Falcon 20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratmann, Greta; Schlager, Hans; Sauer, Daniel; Brocchi, Vanessa; Catoire, Valery; Baumann, Robert

    2017-04-01

    The DACCIWA (Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions over West Africa) airborne field campaign was conducted in Southern West Africa in June/July 2016. Three European research aircraft (DLR - Falcon 20, SAFIRE - ATR 42 and BAS - Twin Otter) were deployed from Lomé/Togo and conducted research flights across Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo and Benin. On board the DLR Falcon O3, SO2, CO, NO2 and aerosol fine mode particle number concentration and size distribution were measured during a total of 12 scientific flights. Until now only few airborne trace gas measurements were conducted in Southern West Africa. Therefore, this field experiment contributes to the knowledge of the chemical composition of the lower troposphere between 0 - 4 km. During several flights pollution plumes from major population centers - Lomé/Togo, Accra/Ghana, Kumasi/Ghana, and Abidjan/Ivory Coast - were probed below, inside and above clouds. Here, enhanced trace gas and particle concentrations were observed. In addition, plumes from biomass burning emissions were detected which were transported to West Africa. The composition of the pollution plumes are presented as well as transport pathways using HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectories) trajectory calculations. Ozone enhancements in the biomass burning pollution plumes of up to 70 ppb were observed compared to background concentrations of 30-40 ppb. Furthermore, HYSPLIT atmospheric dispersion simulations are used to estimate anthropogenic SO2 city emissions.

  12. West Nile virus lineage 2 isolated from Culex modestus mosquitoes in the Czech Republic, 2013: expansion of the European WNV endemic area to the North?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudolf, Ivo; Bakonyi, T.; Šebesta, Oldřich; Mendel, Jan; Peško, Juraj; Betášová, Lenka; Blažejová, Hana; Venclíková, Kristýna; Straková, Petra; Nowotny, N.; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 31 (2014), pii=20867 ISSN 1560-7917 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : West Nile virus * mosquitoes * Czech Republic Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 5.722, year: 2014 http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=20867

  13. West Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ing to the timing of a future adoption of a single currency by the West African states. In doing so, ... tures and almost all these countries depend on donor funds to finance their budgets, the risk that ... national currencies co-exist with a common currency, and a full monetary union where a common central bank exists to for-.

  14. Evaluation of the use of common sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius) organ histology as bioindicator for element exposure in the fjord of the mining area Maarmorilik, West Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, Christian; Bach, Lis; Søndergaard, Jens; Rigét, Frank F; Dietz, Rune; Mosbech, Anders; Leifsson, Pall S; Gustavson, Kim

    2014-08-01

    The former Black Angel lead-zinc mine in Maarmorilik, West Greenland, is a historic example of how mining activity may result in a significant impact on the surrounding fjord system in terms of elevated concentrations of especially lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in seawater, sediments and surrounding biota. In order to shed light on the present contamination and possible effects in the fjord we initiated a range of studies including a pilot study on gill and liver morphology of common sculpins (Myoxocephalus scorpius) around Maarmorilik. Sculpins were caught and sampled at five different stations known to represent a gradient of Pb concentrations. Fish livers from all specimens were analyzed for relevant elements in the area: Fe, Zn, As, Cu, Se, Cd, Pb, Ag, Hg, Co and Ni. Lead, As and Hg showed significant differences among the five stations. For 20% of the sculpins, Hg concentrations were in the range of lowest observed effect dose (LOED) of 0.1-0.5 μg/g ww for toxic threshold on reproduction and subclinical endpoints. Likewise LOEDs for tissue lesions, LOEDs for biochemistry, growth, survival and reproduction were exceeded for Cd (0.42-1.8 μg/g ww) and for As (11.6 μg/g ww) in 28% and 85% of the sculpins, respectively. Similar to this, the no observed effect dose (NOED) for biochemistry was exceeded for Pb (0.32 μg/g ww) and for growth, mortality and reproduction for Zn (60-68 μg/g ww) in 33% and 24% of the sculpins, respectively. For all sculpins, females were significantly larger than males and for five of the elements (Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Se) females had higher concentrations. The chronic lesions observed in liver (mononuclear cell infiltrates, necrosis, vacuolar hepatocytes, portal fibrosis, bile duct hyperplasia, active melanomacrophage centers) and gills (fusion and edema of secondary lamellae, laminar telangiectasis, mononuclear cell infiltrates, blebs) were similar to those in the literature studies for both wild and laboratory exposed sculpins and other fish

  15. Pattern Analysis of El Nino and La Nina Phenomenon Based on Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and Rainfall Intensity using Oceanic Nino Index (ONI) in West Java Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, Yudo; Nabilah, Farras

    2017-12-01

    Climate change occurs in 1998-2016 brings significant alteration in the earth surface. It is affects an extremely anomaly temperature such as El Nino and La Nina or mostly known as ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation). West Java is one of the regions in Indonesia that encounters the impact of this phenomenon. Climate change due to ENSO also affects food production and other commodities. In this research, processing data method is conducted using programming language to process SST data and rainfall data from 1998 to 2016. The data are sea surface temperature from NOAA satellite, SST Reynolds (Sea Surface Temperature) and daily rainfall temperature from TRMM satellite. Data examination is done using analysis of rainfall spatial pattern and sea surface temperature (SST) where is affected by El Nino and La Nina phenomenon. This research results distribution map of SST and rainfall for each season to find out the impacts of El Nino and La Nina around West Java. El Nino and La Nina in Java Sea are occurring every August to February. During El Nino, sea surface temperature is between 27°C - 28°C with average temperature on 27.71°C. Rainfall intensity is 1.0 mm/day – 2.0 mm/day and the average are 1.63 mm/day. During La Nina, sea surface temperature is between 29°C - 30°C with average temperature on 29.06°C. Rainfall intensity is 9.0 mm/day - 10 mm/day, and the average is 9.74 mm/day. The correlation between rainfall and SST is 0,413 which is expresses a fairly strong correlation between parameters. The conclusion is, during La Nina SST and rainfall increase. While during El Nino SST and rainfall decrease. Hopefully this research could be a guideline to plan disaster mitigation in West Java region that is related extreme climate change.

  16. Research of possible connection of oncological sickness rate with environment pollution by physical and chemical carcinogens on the population both West-Kazakhstan area and Kokshetau oblast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimov, M.A.; Doskeeva, R.A.; Bityukov, A.I.; Bajmukhamedova, M.Kh.

    2003-01-01

    It was researched a number of the oncological diseases cases (lung and hemic-blastosis) of population within 10 years (1984-1993) for revealing a possible correlation of sickness rate on oncological diseases with oncological inauspicious part of West Kazakhstan region (Atyrau, Oral, Kyzylorda) and Kokshetau. The first three regions have oil-mining and oil refining industries and nuclear tests experience. In Kokshetau gold-mining industry takes place. We can connect to some degree a number of cases of lung cancer and hemic-blastosis with effect of ionizing radiation. It is possibly influence of oil products and gas condensate on malignancy. (author)

  17. Historical and Architectural Study of Buildings and Artifacts Associated with the Bulltown Historic Area, Burnsville Lake Project, Braxton County, West Virginia,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    loosen the hair. The third basic step was the soaking of the hides in vats or pits of pulverized bark ; any bark con- taining natural tannin could be... bark house for storage of tanning bark plus a tanyard (Braxton County, West Virginia, Deed Book 2:317). The plot was along Millstone Run and was...described as beginning two poles (32 feet) east of the bark house and extending S 57 0 E 23 0 to a poplar tree, then S 33o W 700 to a stake, then N 570 W

  18. Integrated mined-area reclamation and land use planning. Volume 3F. A case study of surface mining and reclamation planning: Cannelton Mine No. 9-S, Cannelton, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogner, J E; Perry, A O

    1977-02-01

    A mountain-top removal coal mining operation in south-central West Virginia is examined in this case study. A 2010 acre tract that is partly owned and partly leased by Cannelton Industries, Inc., has been about half stripped of the 5 Block and 6 Block Coals. The surrounding land area is characterized by steep-sided hills and generally lacks extensive tracts of level land suitable for agricultural or residential/commercial development. The Cannelton operation, which has already leveled several ridges, is creating areas which may be considered to have a higher land use potential than before mining. Although this site is generally isolated from urbanized areas and thus from structured regional planning efforts, it merits study as an excellent example of an innovating mining technique and integrated site-specific mining and reclamation planning.

  19. Coral Reef Ecosystem Data from the 2010-2011 Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area, West Maui, Herbivore Enhancement as a Tool for Reef Restoration Project (NODC Accession 0082869)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This research targets the Hawaii Coral Reef Initiative (HCRI) Priority Area A: Kahekili, Maui: Herbivore Fisheries Management Area (KHFMA). The project goal was to...

  20. In 1972, the OMEGA spectrometer was commissioned in the West Area and more than a million collisions were recorded that very first year.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1972-01-01

    OMEGA was equipped with spark chambers - replaced at the end of the 1970s by electronic detectors - and a 15 000-tonne superconducting magnet. On this photo we can see the magnet's lower coil and, in the foreground, the support plate for the upper coil. No fewer than 48 experiments made use of this device, exploiting beams of various particles at various energies - from the PS at the beginning, and then from the highest energy beams of the SPS. OMEGA thus played a key role in many physics results and activities, notably the production of the J/psi particle, the study of particles carrying charm or beauty quarks, the study of «gluonia», and the CERN heavy ion programme. The OMEGA experiments ceased in 1996 when the facilities in the West Hall were shut down in preparation for the construction of the LHC.

  1. Assembling Aarhus West

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Mads

    2017-01-01

    -geographical marginalization into the Danish popular music and cultural mainstream. In this article, I present Aarhus West as a case study to discuss (sub)generic developments within hip hop as a global phenomenon. While considering current developments in popular music genre theory, I argue that predominant notions......Aarhus West rap music constitutes a dominant trend within Danish hip-hop. Throughout the 2000s, a number of rappers with a common background in a specific area in the western part of Aarhus rose to national fame, setting sales records while bringing issues of ethnic and socio...... of “glocalized” rap as ‘resistance vernaculars’ or ‘global noise’ (cf. Hawkins et al. 2004, Mitchell 2001) risk maintaining overly homogenous understandings of genre. In particular, I appeal to the Deleuzian concept of assemblage to highlight heterogeneity – and more specifically continuous de- and re...

  2. Continuous bottom temperature measurements in strategic areas of the Florida Reef Tract at Key West Channel, 1991 - 2005 (NODC Accession 0012739)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to document bottom seawater temperature in strategic areas of the Florida Reef Tract on a continuing basis and make that information...

  3. Continuous bottom temperature measurements in strategic areas of the Florida Reef Tract at Key West Channel, 2007 - 2010 and 2011 - 2012 (NODC Accession 0093028)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to document bottom seawater temperature in strategic areas of the Florida Reef Tract on a continuing basis and make that information...

  4. Hydrogeophysical and structural investigation using VES and TDEM data: A case study at El-Nubariya–Wadi El-Natrun area, west Nile Delta, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael M. Ibraheem

    2016-06-01

    The area under consideration is affected by a group of normal faults that divided the investigated area into five main divisions, northern, eastern, western, southern and central divisions. The inferred faults from the geoelectric sections are traced and collected to construct a structure map. It is worth to mention that Wadi El Natrun and its lakes are structurally controlled by faulting systems trending NW direction.

  5. Epidemiology of non-syndromic cleft lip/palate in the high level natural background radiation areas (HLNRA) of the South west coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaikrishan, G.; Sudheer, K.R.; Andrews, V.J.; Koya, P.K.M.; Cheriyan, V.D.; Seshadri, M.

    2010-01-01

    All consecutive births in selected government hospitals in and around the high level natural background radiation areas (HLNRA) of Kerala were monitored for congenital malformations observable at birth since 1995. The HLNR area, with natural deposits of monazite sand containing thorium (8-10%) and Uranium (0.3%), is a coastal strip of land about 55 km in length and 0.5 km in breadth from Purakkad in the north in Alleppey district to Sakthikulangara in the south of Quilon district and is one among the most prominent background radiation areas of the world. Patchy and non-uniform distribution of Monazite sand causes wide variation in dose ranging from <1 to 45 mGy/year. High population density, limited migration, ethnic diversity, good literacy, health awareness, institutionalized births and acceptance of small family norm are some of the key features of the population. Areas with a mean radiation dose of more than 1.5 mGy/year were treated as HLNR areas and areas with a dose level of 1.5 mGy/year or less were treated as normal level radiation areas (NLNRA). A total of 134,178 newborns were monitored and non-syndromic cleft lip/palate (NSCLP) was detected in 143 newborns (1.07%). Cleft lip with cleft palate (59.4%) was more common than cleft lip (18.2%) or Cleft palate (22.4%) alone and 11.9% had other malformation(s) together with NSCLP. There was no evidence to suggest that NSFC was significantly associated with prevailing dose level of area of mother's residence, maternal age birth, gravida, ethnicity or consanguinity

  6. Assessment of epigeal arthropods along an urbanization gradient in the municipal area of Potchefstroom, North-West Province, South Africa / Ryan Emslie Jonas

    OpenAIRE

    Jonas, Ryan Emslie

    2007-01-01

    Human activities have dramatically altered the functioning of ecosystems through the ages. Urbanization illustrates the effect of anthropogenic activity by the transformation of natural areas to ecologically disturbed regions (development of towns, cities and settlements). The growing need for urban employment in South Africa has led to an increase in the number of informal settlements on the periphery of urban areas. These settlements result in fragmentation and sprawling of cities, which in...

  7. Nitrate and nitrite contamination of sub-surface water in some areas of North West Frontier Province (N.W.F.P.) Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.; Khawaja, M.A.; Imdadullah

    1998-01-01

    Over the past few years, nitrate and nitrite contamination of sub-surface water samples from Peshawar, Charsada, Mardan and Nowshera districts of NWFP has been studied. In all the areas under study, nitrate concentration of sub-surface water was found to be below WHO approved limit of 45 mg/l. Whereas city area after 1987 showed a decreasing level of nitrate contamination of sub-surface water, it appeared to be on the increase in water samples from the outskirts of Peshawar-Charsada road. No uniform increasing or decreasing patterns of nitrate contamination were observed for water samples from cantonment, University and Hayatabad, areas of Mardan, Charsada and Nowshera under study. The nitrate contamination of sub-surface water appeared to be due to both the agricultural activities as well as human and animal wastes. A few sub-surface water samples from Peshawar city, Mardan and Nowshera areas indicated high concentration of nitrite, which is alarming in view of the earlier reports showing absence of nitrite in water samples from these areas. However, since 1993, nitrite presence has not been detected in sub-surface water samples from all the areas under present investigation. (author)

  8. Health impact of supplying safe drinking water containing fluoride below permissible level on flourosis patients in a fluoride-endemic rural area of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Kunal Kanti

    2011-01-01

    The problem of high fluoride concentration in groundwater resources has become one of the most important toxicological and geo-environmental issues in India. Excessive fluoride in drinking water causes dental and skeletal fluorosis, which is encountered in endemic proportions in several parts of the world. World Health Organization (WHO) guideline value and the permissible limit of fluoride as per Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS) is 1.5 mg/L. About 20 states of India, including 43 blocks of seven districts of West Bengal, were identified as endemic for fluorosis and about 66 million people in these regions are at risk of fluoride contamination. Studies showed that withdrawal of sources identified for fluoride often leads reduction of fluoride in the body fluids (re-testing urine and serum after a week or 10 days) and results in the disappearance of non-skeletal fluorosis within a short duration of 10-15 days. To determine the prevalence of signs and symptoms of suspected dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal fluorosis, along with food habits, addictions, and use of fluoride containing toothpaste among participants taking water with fluoride concentration above the permissible limit, and to assess the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants after they started consuming safe drinking water. A longitudinal intervention study was conducted in three villages in Rampurhat Block I of Birbhum district of West Bengal to assess the occurrence of various dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal manifestations of fluorosis, along with food habits, addictions, and use of fluoride containing toothpaste among the study population and the impact of taking safe water from the supplied domestic and community filters on these clinical manifestations. The impact was studied by follow-up examination of the participants for 5 months to determine the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants after they started consuming safe drinking water from supplied

  9. Using native epiphytic ferns to estimate the atmospheric mercury levels in a small-scale gold mining area of West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Yuriko; Rahajoe, Joeni S; Hidayati, Nuril; Kodamatani, Hitoshi; Tomiyasu, Takashi

    2012-09-01

    Mercury pollution is caused by artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) operations along the Cikaniki River (West Java, Indonesia). The atmosphere is one of the primary media through which mercury can disperse. In this study, atmospheric mercury levels are estimated using the native epiphytic fern Asplenium nidus complex (A. nidus) as a biomonitor; these estimates shed light on the atmospheric dispersion of mercury released during mining. Samples were collected from 8 sites along the Cikaniki Basin during September-November, 2008 and September-November, 2009. The A. nidus fronds that were attached to tree trunks 1-3m above the ground were collected and measured for total mercury concentration using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS) after acid-digestion. The atmospheric mercury was collected using porous gold collectors, and the concentrations were determined using double-amalgam CVAAS. The highest atmospheric mercury concentration, 1.8 × 10(3) ± 1.6 × 10(3) ngm(-3), was observed at the mining hot spot, and the lowest concentration of mercury, 5.6 ± 2.0 ngm(-3), was observed at the remote site from the Cikaniki River in 2009. The mercury concentrations in A. nidus were higher at the mining village (5.4 × 10(3) ± 1.6 × 10(3) ngg(-1)) than at the remote site (70 ± 30 ngg(-1)). The distribution of mercury in A. nidus was similar to that in the atmosphere; a significant correlation was observed between the mercury concentrations in the air and in A. nidus (r=0.895, P<0.001, n=14). The mercury levels in the atmosphere can be estimated from the mercury concentration in A. nidus using a regression equation: log (Hg(A.nidu)/ngg(-1))=0.740 log (Hg(Air)/ngm (-3)) - 1.324. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Community Based Study On The Prevalence Of Risk Factors OF Cancer Cervix In Married Women Of A Rural Area Of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasgupta Aparajita

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the prevalence of the established risk factors associated with cancer cervix? Objective: To assess the presence of some determinants of cancer cervix among married, rural women of reproductive age group. Study design: Community based, cross â€" sectional, observational study. Setting: Rural: Village East Gobindopur is Singur block in Hooghly district of West Bengal. Study population : All the married women of reproductive age group (103 of the village were included in the study. Results: More than two â€" third (72.8% of the study population belonged to the vulnerable age group (25-45 years for this disease while 59.3% were married before they attained 18 years of age. Again 50% (approx of the married women gave birth to their first child before they were 18 years of age. One â€" third of the study population had parity higher than three. Two â€" third of the women studied were using one or more methods of family planning and one â€" third of the same population were permanently sterilized, 20% were using oral contraceptive pills and only 7.7% were using barrier methods of contraception. Only 31% of the women had satisfactory genital hygiene practice and 36.9% had symptoms of reproductive tract infection. Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of some important risk factors associated with cancer cervix like age, age of marriage, age of first child birth, parity ,family planning practices, genital hygiene and reproductive tract infections in the study population. Therefore screening and early detection efforts can be directed specifically to the group at risk.

  11. Detailed study of selenium in soil, water, bottom sediment, and biota in the Sun River Irrigation Project, Freezout Lake Wildlife Management Area, and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, west-central Montana, 1990-92

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimick, D.A.; Lambing, J.H.; Palawski, D.U.; Malloy, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Selenium and other constituents are adversely affecting water quality and creating a potential hazard to wildlife in several areas of the Sun River Irrigation Project, Freezout Lake Wildlife Management Area, and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge in west-central Montana. Selenium derived from Cretaceous shale and Tertiary and Quaternary deposits containing shale detritus is transported in the oxic shallow ground-water systems. At Freezout Lake Wildlife Management Area, drainage from irrigated glacial deposits is the primary source of selenium; drainage from non-irrigated farmland is a significant source locally. Benton Lake generally receives more selenium from natural runoff from its non-irrigated basin than from the trans-basin diversion of irrigation return flow. Selenium has accumulated in aquatic plants and invertebrates, fish, and water birds, particularly in wetlands that receive the largest selenium loads. Although selenium residues in biological tissue from some wetland units exceeded biological risk levels, water-bird reproduction generally has not been impaired. The highest selenium residues in biota commonly occurred in samples from Priest Butte Lakes, which also had the highest selenium concentration in wetland water. Selenium concentrations in all invertebrate samples from Priest Butte Lakes and the south end of Freezeout Lake exceeded the critical dietary threshold for water birds. Selenium delivered to wetlands accumulates in bottom sediment, predominantly in near-shore areas. Potential impacts to water quality, and presumably biota, may be greatest near the mouths of inflows. Most selenium delivered to wetlands will continue to accumulate in bottom sediment and biota.

  12. The Lower Danube River-Danube Delta-North West Black Sea: A pivotal area of major interest for the past, present and future of its fish fauna--A short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bănăduc, Doru; Rey, Sonia; Trichkova, Teodora; Lenhardt, Mirjana; Curtean-Bănăduc, Angela

    2016-03-01

    The complex Danube-Black Sea geoecosystem, created by a unique combination of integrated biotopes and biocoenoses related forces and counter-forces in time and space, forms a rich "ichthyosystem". The equilibrium among the fish species captured in the Danube Delta reveals its structural and functional roles in the connectivity of the Danube and Black Sea. The key role of the delta is evidenced by the fact that 57.26% of the Lower Danube-Danube Delta-North West Black Sea fish species use two or three of the subsystems in terms of habitats. Therefore, this convergence area can be considered to be a dynamic and rich "ichthyosystem", with three subsystems. All three evolved interdependently, which permits their flexibility and adaptation in an interdependent way. The habitat heterogeneity, native economic and conservation priority fish species of the Lower Danube-Danube Delta-North Western Black Sea have decreased significantly, and there are no indications that this trend will be halted soon. The Danube "sub-ichtyosystem" seems to be more directly affected than the others. The Lower Danube-Danube Delta-North Western Black Sea "ichthyosystem" exhibits a significant level of flexibility, resilience and adaptation over geological time, but has become much more sensitive to environmental perturbations due to the last century of human impact. This "ichthyosystem" is affected by non-native fish species. The study area represents an interdependent ecological net, without which the specific "ichthyosystem" formed over geological time will disappear. The studied ecological net fish fauna is an accurate indicator of various human pressures. The Lower Danube-Danube Delta-North West Black Sea geoecosystem, in which the Danube Delta provides the pivotal habitat element, is the matrix for a unique "ichthyosystem." However, human impacts decrease its resilience and can induce its extinction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 40 CFR 81.435 - West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false West Virginia. 81.435 Section 81.435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.435 West Virginia. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  14. Variation in wood anatomy of species with a distribution covering both rain forest and savanna areas of the Ivory Coast, West-Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Outer, den R.W.; Veenendaal, van W.L.H.

    1976-01-01

    The variation in wood anatomy within 30 hardwood species, each with a distribution covering both rain forest and savanna areas of the Ivory Coast, Africa, has been studied. Compared to specimens from the rain forest, material from the savanna tends to have more wood ray tissue (rays are higher,

  15. Groundwater-level change and evaluation of simulated water levels for irrigated areas in Lahontan Valley, Churchill County, west-central Nevada, 1992 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David W.; Buto, Susan G.; Welborn, Toby L.

    2016-09-14

    The acquisition and transfer of water rights to wetland areas of Lahontan Valley, Nevada, has caused concern over the potential effects on shallow aquifer water levels. In 1992, water levels in Lahontan Valley were measured to construct a water-table map of the shallow aquifer prior to the effects of water-right transfers mandated by the Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Tribal Settlement Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-618, 104 Stat. 3289). From 1992 to 2012, approximately 11,810 water-righted acres, or 34,356 acre-feet of water, were acquired and transferred to wetland areas of Lahontan Valley. This report documents changes in water levels measured during the period of water-right transfers and presents an evaluation of five groundwater-flow model scenarios that simulated water-level changes in Lahontan Valley in response to water-right transfers and a reduction in irrigation season length by 50 percent.Water levels measured in 98 wells from 2012 to 2013 were used to construct a water-table map. Water levels in 73 of the 98 wells were compared with water levels measured in 1992 and used to construct a water-level change map. Water-level changes in the 73 wells ranged from -16.2 to 4.1 feet over the 20-year period. Rises in water levels in Lahontan Valley may correspond to annual changes in available irrigation water, increased canal flows after the exceptionally dry and shortened irrigation season of 1992, and the increased conveyance of water rights transferred to Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge. Water-level declines generally occurred near the boundary of irrigated areas and may be associated with groundwater pumping, water-right transfers, and inactive surface-water storage reservoirs. The largest water-level declines were in the area near Carson Lake.Groundwater-level response to water-right transfers was evaluated by comparing simulated and observed water-level changes for periods representing water-right transfers and a shortened irrigation season in areas near Fallon

  16. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Goitre in the West African sub-region is caused by iodine deficiency and goitrogens in the diet. Supplementary iodine nutrition on a mass scale was started in Ghana in 1996. In areas where iodine deficiency have been corrected the histological pattern of goitre changes and this influences surgical decision.

  17. Apatite fission track analysis for revealing tectonic events of the Bayinguole area in the west section of Eastern Kunlun Mountains, northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoning; Yuan Wanming; Hao Nana; Duan Hongwei; Feng Yunlei; Zhang Aikui

    2014-01-01

    Background: Qimantage is an important tectonic metallogenic belt in western part of East Kunlun Mountain. It has experienced complex geological evolution, and significant mineralization. However, because of the plateau climate and inaccessibility, fewer research works have been done on this area, especially after Indo-sinian epoch. Purpose: Our work is to research tectonic activity, thermal history and uplifting around Bayinguole river in Qimantage belt. Methods: The apatite fission-track method was applied to research the tectonic setting, simulate the thermal history and calculate the uplift size and uplift speed. Results: A series of apatite fission track ages from granitoid samples in Bayinguole area of Eastern Kunlun Mountain were obtained, ranging from 120 Ma to 47 Ma that might be divided into three groups': 120-100 Ma, 67 Ma and 54-47 Ma. These ages reflected tectonic events in this area very well. Conclusions: The 120-100 Ma and 67 Ma ages present collision-convergences of Gangdese terrane and Himalayan terrane with their north-side terranes in Early Cretaceous and Late Cretaceous respectively. The ages of 54-47 Ma reflect post-orogenic stretching events in Eocene. Three stages of thermal evolution history are revealed by apatite fission track modeling in this area. Stage one 180-140 Ma is in the bottom temperature of apatite fission track anneal zone. Stage two 140-13 Ma records slow cooling. The last stage after 13 Ma records rapid cooling with temperature dropped 50℃. The uplifting ranges for these three stages are 1.0 km, 0.6 km and 1.4 km, respectively. The cumulative amount of uplift is about 3.0 km. The formula calculations for the 3 samples have their rock uplifts of 3623 m, 3317 m and 3769 m, respectively, averaging 3570 m, in accordance with the results based on the 3 stage thermal history. (authors)

  18. Final Environmental Assessment for Proposed Airspace Changes for Paradise East and Paradise West Military Operations Areas (MOAs) at Mountain Home Air Force Base (MHAFB) Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    river otter (Lutra canadensis), beaver (Castor canadensis), muskrat (Ondatra zibethica), bobcat (Lynx rufus), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), raccoon...and the expansion area in Oregon. Beaver, river otter , muskrat, and mink are associated with river environments and have the potential to occur in the...range. The blaze sent walls of flames 80 to 100 feet high racing toward senior citizen communities; where elderly residents grabbed their pets and

  19. Impact of oil and gas field in sugar cane condition using landsat 8 in Indramayu area and its surrounding, West Java province, Republic of Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muji Susantoro, Tri; Wikantika, Ketut; Saskia Puspitasari, Alia; Saepuloh, Asep

    2017-01-01

    This study tried to monitor sugar cane condition surrounding of oil and gas field area. The spectral approaches were conducted for mapping sugar cane stress. As an initial stage Landsat-8 was corrected radiometrically and geometrically. Radiometric correction is an important stages for spectral approaching. Then all pixel values were transformed to the surface reflectance. Several vegetation indices were calculated to monitor vegetation stress surrounding of oil and gas field. NDVI, EVI, DVI, GVI, GRVI, GDVI and GNDVI were applied for generating tentative sugar cane stress images. The results indicated that sugar cane surrounding of oil and gas field has been influenced by oil and gas field.

  20. The Relationship between Maternal Diseases during Pregnancy and Low Birth Weight: a Nested Case-Control Study in Rural Areas of Kurdistan Province (West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghobad Moradi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight (LBW is considered as one of the important health indicators in evaluating prenatal care as well as determining scale of infants' health in the society. The study aimed to investigate maternal diseases during pregnancy and its impact on LBW in rural areas of Kurdistan province, Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in nested case-control study method in rural areas of Kurdistan province- Iran in 2015-2016. In this study, 182 infants less than 2,500gr as case and 364 infants weighing 2,500 g and more as control were entered the study. Information about case and control groups was extracted by investigating records of pregnant women care. Data was analyzed using software Stata-12 with point and interval estimation of odds ratio (OR using conditional logistic regression. Results: The results of single-variable analysis of conditional logistic regression showed that there is a statistical relationship between blood pressure during pregnancy, iron deficiency anemia, mother's thyroid problems, oral and dental problems, and history of bleeding during pregnancy in case and control groups (P

  1. A summary of the active fault investigation in the extension sea area of Kikugawa fault and the Nishiyama fault , N-S direction fault in south west Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, S.

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we carried out two sets of active fault investigation by the request from Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in the sea area of the extension of Kikugawa fault and the Nishiyama fault. We want to clarify the five following matters about both active faults based on those results. (1)Fault continuity of the land and the sea. (2) The length of the active fault. (3) The division of the segment. (4) Activity characteristics. In this investigation, we carried out a digital single channel seismic reflection survey in the whole area of both active faults. In addition, a high-resolution multichannel seismic reflection survey was carried out to recognize the detailed structure of a shallow stratum. Furthermore, the sampling with the vibrocoring to get information of the sedimentation age was carried out. The reflection profile of both active faults was extremely clear. The characteristics of the lateral fault such as flower structure, the dispersion of the active fault were recognized. In addition, from analysis of the age of the stratum, it was recognized that the thickness of the sediment was extremely thin in Holocene epoch on the continental shelf in this sea area. It was confirmed that the Kikugawa fault extended to the offing than the existing results of research by a result of this investigation. In addition, the width of the active fault seems to become wide toward the offing while dispersing. At present, we think that we can divide Kikugawa fault into some segments based on the distribution form of the segment. About the Nishiyama fault, reflection profiles to show the existence of the active fault was acquired in the sea between Ooshima and Kyushu. From this result and topographical existing results of research in Ooshima, it is thought that Nishiyama fault and the Ooshima offing active fault are a series of structure. As for Ooshima offing active fault, the upheaval side changes, and a direction changes too. Therefore, we

  2. 2012 OLC Lidar DEM: West Metro, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — WSI has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Oregon West Metro Study Area for the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI)....

  3. 2012 OLC Lidar: West Metro, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — WSI has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Oregon West Metro Study Area for the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI)....

  4. Sex ratio at birth: scenario from normal- and high-level natural radiation areas of Kerala coast in south-west India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koya, P.K.M.; Jaikrishan, G.; Sudheer, K.R.; Madhusoodhanan, M.; Jagadeesan, C.K.; Das, Birajalaxmi; Andrews, V.J.

    2015-01-01

    Newborns were monitored for congenital malformations in four government hospitals located in high-level (ambient dose >1.5 mGy/year) and normal-level (≤1.5 mGy/year) natural radiation areas of Kerala, India, from August 1995 to December 2012. Sex ratio at birth (SRB) among live singleton newborns and among previous children, if any, of their mothers without history of any abortion, stillbirth or twins is reported here. In the absence of environmental stress or selective abortion of females, global average of SRB is about 1050 males to 1000 females. A total of 151,478 singleton, 1031 twins, 12 triplets and 1 quadruplet deliveries were monitored during the study period. Sex ratio among live singleton newborns was 1046 males (95 % CI 1036-1057) for 1000 females (77,153 males:73,730 females) and was comparable to the global average. It was similar in high-level and normal-level radiation areas of Kerala with SRB of 1050 and 1041, respectively. It was consistently more than 1000 and had no association with background radiation levels, maternal and paternal age at birth, parental age difference, gravida status, ethnicity, consanguinity or year of birth. Analysis of SRB of the children of 139,556 women whose reproductive histories were available suggested that couples having male child were likely to opt for more children and this, together with enhanced rate of males at all birth order, was skewing the overall SRB in favour of male children. Though preference for male child was apparent, extreme steps of sex-selective abortion or infanticide were not prevalent. (orig.)

  5. Sex ratio at birth: scenario from normal- and high-level natural radiation areas of Kerala coast in south-west India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koya, P.K.M.; Jaikrishan, G.; Sudheer, K.R. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Low Level Radiation Research Laboratory, Low Level Radiation Research Section, Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bio-Science Group, Kollam (India); Madhusoodhanan, M. [Victoria Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Kollam (India); Jagadeesan, C.K. [Directorate of Health Services, Thiruvananthapuram (India); Das, Birajalaxmi [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Low Level Radiation Research Section, Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bio-Science Group, Mumbai (India); Andrews, V.J.

    2015-11-15

    Newborns were monitored for congenital malformations in four government hospitals located in high-level (ambient dose >1.5 mGy/year) and normal-level (≤1.5 mGy/year) natural radiation areas of Kerala, India, from August 1995 to December 2012. Sex ratio at birth (SRB) among live singleton newborns and among previous children, if any, of their mothers without history of any abortion, stillbirth or twins is reported here. In the absence of environmental stress or selective abortion of females, global average of SRB is about 1050 males to 1000 females. A total of 151,478 singleton, 1031 twins, 12 triplets and 1 quadruplet deliveries were monitored during the study period. Sex ratio among live singleton newborns was 1046 males (95 % CI 1036-1057) for 1000 females (77,153 males:73,730 females) and was comparable to the global average. It was similar in high-level and normal-level radiation areas of Kerala with SRB of 1050 and 1041, respectively. It was consistently more than 1000 and had no association with background radiation levels, maternal and paternal age at birth, parental age difference, gravida status, ethnicity, consanguinity or year of birth. Analysis of SRB of the children of 139,556 women whose reproductive histories were available suggested that couples having male child were likely to opt for more children and this, together with enhanced rate of males at all birth order, was skewing the overall SRB in favour of male children. Though preference for male child was apparent, extreme steps of sex-selective abortion or infanticide were not prevalent. (orig.)

  6. SEEDBANK AND SEEDLING EMERGENCE CHARACTERISTICS OF WEEDS IN RICEFIELD SOILS OF THE MUDA GRANARY AREA IN NORTH-WEST PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Tlie experiment was conducted in the glasshouse of UPM from March 2003 to June 2004 to determine the soil seedbank in the ricefields ot'Muda rice granary area in Peninsular Malaysia. Six soil cores of 5 cm in diameter and 10 cm depth were sampled from each of 24 fields. All samples from each individual field were bulked and placed in plastic trays of 38 x 25 x 10 cm. Soil was moistened as required and emergence of weed seedlings were recorded over period of one year. After one year, remaining seeds were separated, removed and identified. The total seed bank was estimated at 1136.48 million/ha of whic h 62.35% (708.60 million seedlings ha"1 germinated within 12 months and 37.65% (427.88 million seeds ha"1 remained ungerminated. Total of 20 taxa were recognized. Based on importance value (I.V. the five most dominant species in terms of emerged seedling were Fimbristylis miliacea, Leplochloa chinensis, LitJwigia hyssopifolia, Cyperus difformii and C. iria. Of the remaining seeds the five dominant species with decreasing trend in ranking were F. miliacea, Scirpus lateriflonis, Monochoria vagina/is, L. hyssopifolia and L. chinensis. Ranking of total seed reserves (seedlings+ remaining seeds were similar to emerged seedling indi cating that emerged seedlings reflect the actual weed flora in the Muda area. Among the dominant species F. miliacea accounted for 58.07% of emerged seedlings, 79.31% of remaining seeds and 66.07% of total seed bank. Total seedling emergence of all species was higher in the first observation in April 2003 and cumulative seedling emergence showed no clear peaks.

  7. Geochemistry and mineralogy of listwaenite hosting mercury mineralization and its comparison with the barren types in Tavreh area, west of Khoy city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Imamalipour

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Alteration of ophiolitic ultramafic rocks, formation of listwaenite and associated mineralization are interesting phenomena of metallogeny of Khoy ophiolite. It seems that the hydrothermal circulations responsible for mercury mineralization were derived from geothermal systems caused by intermediate to acidic magmatism in Neogene-Pleistocene time. Reactivation of brecciated serpentinite with hydrothermal solutions led to the silica-carbonate hydrothermal alteration and formation of listwaenite. The importance of these alteration types is due to associated Hg-Au mineralization. Based on the microscopic mineralogical studies, XRD analysis, geochemical characteristics and field relationships, three types of listwaenite including silica, silica-carbonate and carbonate have been recognized. Tavreh mercury occurrence has formed in relation with silica type listwaenite which also named as birbirite. Alteration zones have structural controls and are restricted to shale (marl/serpentinite fault type contacts. Mineralogically, silica type listwaenite mainly consists of quartz, chalcedony, opal and secondary iron hydroxides. Magnesite, dolomite, calcite and clay minerals are the minor phases. Toward silica-carbonate and carbonate listwaenites, silica minerals decrease while carbonate minerals increase. Geological field relations and existence of residual chrome spinel in the listwaenite of Tavreh area confirmed the ultrabasic host rock. Based on geochemical studies, average values of SiO2, Fe2O3, MgO and L.O.I as the main components of silica listwaenite are 82.6, 6.99, 1.02 and 3.74 wt %, respectively. Among rare elements, average values of Hg, Pb, As and S have been obtained as 646.2 ppm, 517.7 ppm, 329.1 ppm and 281 ppm, respectively. Mass changes (gains and losses of major and minor elements during the alteration process in the Tavreh area have considered, using Gresens’ equation in this study. Cinabar-bearing silica listwaenite is enriched in SiO2

  8. Prevalence and correlates of hypertension-outcome of a free medical screening in Oke-Ogun area of Oyo state, Nigeria, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shittu, Rasaki O; Odeigah, Louis O; Fakorede, Kasali O; Sikiru, Biliaminu A; Sule, Abdullateef G; Musah, Yusuf; Adeyemi, Folorunsho M

    2018-02-01

    Literature abounds on prevalence of hypertension in Nigeria and urban areas of Oyo state but none in Oke-Ogun geopolitical zone, which constitutes 10 local governments of the 33 in Oyo state, despite the fact that they have high genetic and environmental predisposition to developing high blood pressure. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of high blood pressure and associated risk factors among indigenes of Oke-ogun, Oyo state. A total of 10,000 respondents were recruited using proportionate sampling techniques. Hypertension was defined according to Joint National Committee-8 criteria. The fasting plasma glucose of the respondents were classified as normal (≤6 mmol/L), prediabetes (6.1-6.9 mmol/L), and diabetes (≥7 mmol/L). Body mass index was calculated as weight (kg)/height (m 2 ) and classified as malnutrition/underweight (state. Their low socioeconomic status, low educational background, malnutrition, and genetic predisposition were identified risk factors. Copyright © 2018 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. CAUSATIVE FACTORS OF SOCIAL INEQUALITY AND ITS IMPACT ON COMMUNITY HEALTH: A NEIGHBOURHOOD LEVEL STUDY IN MIDNAPORE MUNICIPAL AREA, WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Roy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Health is socio-demographic construct of population. In an urban area social, economic and political systems simultaneously operate within a geographically defined space in which the urban dwellers accommodate and act as key player. As such the physical and social factors virtually affect the community health as a consequence of disparity in accessing health. Health disparities in smaller towns of the developing world have drawn serious attention as they are poorly suffering from the problems of ‘urban penalty’. This paper deals with statistical clustering of neighbourhoods on the basis of quality of life, social deprivation and multiple suffering quantified as the variables derived from measurable parameters. Neighbourhoods inequality has been mapped as per the score received by each neighbourhood in respect to the above three variables. Principal Component Analysis (PCA has also been employed for grouping the neighbourhoods in social terms. Then it has been tried to examine relationship between health attainment and social status of the neighbourhoods. The study shows that status of health does not merely depend on socio-demographic and political factors but availability of healthcare facilities, health related behaviour, health perception and awareness have played significant roles. The findings of the study may be helpful for setting planning strategies most important of which would be inclusion of local people in catering health services.

  10. Causative Factors of Social Inequality and its Impact on Community Health: a Neighbourhood Level Study in Midnapore Municipal Area, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, U.

    2016-10-01

    Health is socio-demographic construct of population. In an urban area social, economic and political systems simultaneously operate within a geographically defined space in which the urban dwellers accommodate and act as key player. As such the physical and social factors virtually affect the community health as a consequence of disparity in accessing health. Health disparities in smaller towns of the developing world have drawn serious attention as they are poorly suffering from the problems of `urban penalty'. This paper deals with statistical clustering of neighbourhoods on the basis of quality of life, social deprivation and multiple suffering quantified as the variables derived from measurable parameters. Neighbourhoods inequality has been mapped as per the score received by each neighbourhood in respect to the above three variables. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has also been employed for grouping the neighbourhoods in social terms. Then it has been tried to examine relationship between health attainment and social status of the neighbourhoods. The study shows that status of health does not merely depend on socio-demographic and political factors but availability of healthcare facilities, health related behaviour, health perception and awareness have played significant roles. The findings of the study may be helpful for setting planning strategies most important of which would be inclusion of local people in catering health services.

  11. Distribution, classification, petrological and related gochemical (SRA) characteristics of a tropical lowland peat dome in the Kota Samarahan-Asajaya area, West Sarawak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifley, Mohamad Tarmizi Mohamad; Fatt, Ng Tham; Abdullah, Wan Hasiah; Raj, John Kuna; Paramanathan Param, S.; Hashim, Roslan; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2013-06-01

    Petrographic studies indicate that lateral variations in the decomposition levels of peat are associated with the predominantly occurring peat macerals. Source Rock Analyzer (SRA) results indicate lateral variation in peat organic matter types from type II to III and back again to type II, occurring laterally within the top 0-m to 0.5-m layer at the basin margin to the midsection and further towards the near-center areas of the peat dome. This variation is most likely caused by a combination of factors: (a) Horizontal zonation and lateral variation of the dominant species of plant assemblages (b) Fibric (marginal) peats and hemic to sapric peats associated with type II organic matter (kerogen). Sample organic matter (coal-equivalent kerogen) typing indicates that the relative abundance of phytoclasts and palynomorphs generally supports the organic matter classification obtained by the SRA method. Lateral variations in the peat organic matter types may support the lateral vegetation variation concept. The classification of peat organic matter types (interpreted from visual analyses of palynological slides) occurring from the basin periphery to the mid-section and further towards the basin center yields organic matter of type II to type III and mixed types II to III (coal kerogen-equivalent), respectively.

  12. Polychaete Community of a Marine Protected Area along the West Coast of India—Prior and Post the Tropical Cyclone, Phyan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubal, Priti; Mulik, Jyoti; Rokade, M. A.; Salvi, Shailesh; Thomas, Jubin; Naidu, V. S.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical cyclones are extreme random meteorological events that can have profound implications to coastal biodiversities. Given that the frequency, intensity and duration of these events are poised to increase due to the global climate change, understanding the ecological impacts of such erratic occurrences becomes imperative to devise better management strategies. The eventful passage of the tropical cyclone, Phyan, along the northwestern coast of India in November 2009, coupled with the availability of historical data presented a rare opportunity to elucidate the consequences on the polychaete assemblages of the Malvan Marine Sanctuary and their subsequent recovery. This was achieved by comparison of the pre- and post-Phyan seasonal data from four different sites in and around the Sanctuary. MDS analyses and polychaete community parameters suggested conspicuous cyclone related effects on the polychaete community characteristics in the three outer stations off Malvan, whereas the relatively protected bay station remained more or less unscathed. Impacts, attributable to the cyclone apart from seasonal variations, included changes in polychaete composition, reductions in total polychaete density, species diversity, evenness and functional groups. Dominance of the opportunistic polychaete, Paraprionospiopatiens was all pervasive just after Phyan, resulting in poor diversity and evenness values. In the outer stations, diverse feeding modes present prior to the cyclone were replaced by microphagous feeders post the disturbance. However, the study also observed complete recovery as substantiated by the improvement inpolychaete density, diversity indices and re-instatement of multiple feeding guilds in affected areas. This resilience of the coastal waters off Malvan is attributed to its marine protected status, implying that reduced human interference aided rapid revival of damaged ecosystems. PMID:27556895

  13. Polychaete Community of a Marine Protected Area along the West Coast of India-Prior and Post the Tropical Cyclone, Phyan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Soniya; Vijapure, Tejal; Kubal, Priti; Mulik, Jyoti; Rokade, M A; Salvi, Shailesh; Thomas, Jubin; Naidu, V S

    2016-01-01

    Tropical cyclones are extreme random meteorological events that can have profound implications to coastal biodiversities. Given that the frequency, intensity and duration of these events are poised to increase due to the global climate change, understanding the ecological impacts of such erratic occurrences becomes imperative to devise better management strategies. The eventful passage of the tropical cyclone, Phyan, along the northwestern coast of India in November 2009, coupled with the availability of historical data presented a rare opportunity to elucidate the consequences on the polychaete assemblages of the Malvan Marine Sanctuary and their subsequent recovery. This was achieved by comparison of the pre- and post-Phyan seasonal data from four different sites in and around the Sanctuary. MDS analyses and polychaete community parameters suggested conspicuous cyclone related effects on the polychaete community characteristics in the three outer stations off Malvan, whereas the relatively protected bay station remained more or less unscathed. Impacts, attributable to the cyclone apart from seasonal variations, included changes in polychaete composition, reductions in total polychaete density, species diversity, evenness and functional groups. Dominance of the opportunistic polychaete, Paraprionospiopatiens was all pervasive just after Phyan, resulting in poor diversity and evenness values. In the outer stations, diverse feeding modes present prior to the cyclone were replaced by microphagous feeders post the disturbance. However, the study also observed complete recovery as substantiated by the improvement inpolychaete density, diversity indices and re-instatement of multiple feeding guilds in affected areas. This resilience of the coastal waters off Malvan is attributed to its marine protected status, implying that reduced human interference aided rapid revival of damaged ecosystems.

  14. Polychaete Community of a Marine Protected Area along the West Coast of India-Prior and Post the Tropical Cyclone, Phyan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soniya Sukumaran

    Full Text Available Tropical cyclones are extreme random meteorological events that can have profound implications to coastal biodiversities. Given that the frequency, intensity and duration of these events are poised to increase due to the global climate change, understanding the ecological impacts of such erratic occurrences becomes imperative to devise better management strategies. The eventful passage of the tropical cyclone, Phyan, along the northwestern coast of India in November 2009, coupled with the availability of historical data presented a rare opportunity to elucidate the consequences on the polychaete assemblages of the Malvan Marine Sanctuary and their subsequent recovery. This was achieved by comparison of the pre- and post-Phyan seasonal data from four different sites in and around the Sanctuary. MDS analyses and polychaete community parameters suggested conspicuous cyclone related effects on the polychaete community characteristics in the three outer stations off Malvan, whereas the relatively protected bay station remained more or less unscathed. Impacts, attributable to the cyclone apart from seasonal variations, included changes in polychaete composition, reductions in total polychaete density, species diversity, evenness and functional groups. Dominance of the opportunistic polychaete, Paraprionospiopatiens was all pervasive just after Phyan, resulting in poor diversity and evenness values. In the outer stations, diverse feeding modes present prior to the cyclone were replaced by microphagous feeders post the disturbance. However, the study also observed complete recovery as substantiated by the improvement inpolychaete density, diversity indices and re-instatement of multiple feeding guilds in affected areas. This resilience of the coastal waters off Malvan is attributed to its marine protected status, implying that reduced human interference aided rapid revival of damaged ecosystems.

  15. Domestic Resources Cost Analysis of Small-Scale Beef Cattle Farming at Upstream Area of Benain-Noelmina Watershed, West Timor, East Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalle Agus Arnold

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to evaluate the Domestic Resources Cost (DRC of beef cattle raised either on grazing, or a tethering system of small-scale beef cattle farming. The study was done using a survey method. A total of 120 respondents were selected purposively to consist of 60 farmers applying the grazing system and another 60 farmers applying the tethering system. The parameters measured were socio-economic characteristic, Domestic Resources Cost Ratio (DRCR and Private Cost Ratio (PCR. Data were analyzed by applying a method of Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM. The result of the study indicated that 87% of those farmers involved in the grazing system and 85% of those involved in tethered beef cattle production, were within the productive age range. In the grazing system, the cattle farmers upstream of Benain-Noelmina watershed area gain the private and social profit levels which is IDR 406,284,-/AU/year and IDR 688,388,-/AU/year, respectively. Further, in the tethering system, the average of private and social profit gain is IDR 855,222,-/AU/year and IDR 1,385,712,-/AU/year, respectively. The small-scale beef cattle farming upstream of Benain-Noelmina watershed has competitive and comparative advantages, indicated by the value of PCR and DRCR which are less than 1. The PCR value was 0.41 in the grazing system and 0.71 on the tethering system; hence, the DRCR of the grazing system was 0.29 and 0.60 of the tethering system.

  16. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics in Land Use and Habitat Fragmentation within a Protected Area Dedicated to Tourism in a Sudanian Savanna of West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimobe Kangbéni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nazinga Game Ranch (NGR is a reserve in Burkina Faso involving local communities for securing biodiversity through sustainable management. Yet, its ecosystems are threatened by increasing number of elephants and illegal human activities. Renowned as a model of wildlife participatory management, NGR has mainly been studied for its animal wildlife only. The aim of this study was to uncover ecological effects of recent land management on savanna habitats including tourism, and to conclude on more sustainable options, land use/land cover (LULC changes and vegetation dynamics in NGR were analyzed. This was accomplished with multi-temporal change detection using Landsat images of 1984, 2002 and 2013 to map seven representative LULC classification categories, and quantitative indices of landscape metrics. The results showed that the LULC dynamics in NGR from 1984 to 2013 was mainly characterized by an expansion of gallery forest, tree savanna and agricultural area and a reduction of shrub savanna, woodland and bare soils. From 2002 to 2013, fragmentation in all land cover types increased at the landscape level, whereas at the class level, it decreased for woodland. Our findings provided evidence of habitat degradation in NGR, due to extensive agriculture, tourism and growing of elephants’ population. According to the original management goals and the purposes of the reserve, both fauna and tourism are to be maintained and sustained in a sustainable way. Adaptation of land use and targeted wildlife management are the main requirements for avoiding further degradation of vegetation and thus of the existence basis of local inhabitants, animals and tourism.

  17. West and East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rappaport

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The topic “West-East” has a clear cultural and historical meaning. Orthodox temples face East. The way from West to East and from East to West is tens of thousands of kilometers long and has a special meaning. It differs from the way from North to South: the horizontal axes connect regions, while the vertical axis (Earth-Sky connects the worlds. The expansion of Eurasian tribes occurred along the East-West axis – the world horizontal way. Today the cultural memory of people in the East and West finds itself in the theatre of new dramas of existence and new forces. With the advances in electronic technologies, the world movements seem to have sunk in the depth of the chthonian past to come up anew to the surface of fantastic speeds and momentary connections. A new type of planetary landscape-space relation appears, giving no place for West and East.

  18. West European magnetic confinement fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, B.L.; McGrain, M.; Hogan, J.T.; Porkolab, M.; Thomassen, K.I.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a technical assessment and review of the West European program in magnetic confinement fusion by a panel of US scientists and engineers active in fusion research. Findings are based on the scientific and technical literature, on laboratory reports and preprints, and on the personal experiences and collaborations of the panel members. Concerned primarily with developments during the past 10 years, from 1979 to 1989, the report assesses West European fusion research in seven technical areas: tokamak experiments; magnetic confinement technology and engineering; fusion nuclear technology; alternate concepts; theory; fusion computations; and program organization. The main conclusion emerging from the analysis is that West European fusion research has attained a position of leadership in the international fusion program. This distinction reflects in large measure the remarkable achievements of the Joint European Torus (JET). However, West European fusion prominence extends beyond tokamak experimental physics: the program has demonstrated a breadth of skill in fusion science and technology that is not excelled in the international effort. It is expected that the West European primacy in central areas of confinement physics will be maintained or even increased during the early 1990s. The program's maturity and commitment kindle expectations of dramatic West European advances toward the fusion energy goal. For example, achievement of fusion breakeven is expected first in JET, before 1995

  19. Access to and use of long-lasting insecticidal nets and factors associated with non-use among communities in malaria-endemic areas of Al Hudaydah governorate in the Tihama region, west of Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eryani, Samira M A; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M; Abdul-Ghani, Rashad

    2017-06-09

    Universal coverage of the targeted malaria-endemic areas with long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) is implemented as one of the key interventions for malaria control and elimination in Yemen. In 2013, through a mass campaign, LLINs were distributed to the targeted communities in Al Hudaydah governorate. This study aimed to assess the ownership of, access to, and use of LLINs. It also aimed to identify factors associated with not using LLINs in malaria-endemic areas of Al Hudaydah in the Tihama region, west of Yemen. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in four districts (Ad Durayhimi, Al Marawi'ah, Al Mansuriyah and Bayt Al Faqiah) in Al Hudaydah during February 2016. A total of 701 households were included in this study. Data on socio-demographic characteristics and availability of LLINs were collected by interview and observation. Four indicators for malaria prevention using LLINs; proportion of households with at least one LLIN, proportion of households with at least one LLIN for every two people, proportion of population with access to LLINs in the surveyed households and proportion of population who slept under LLINs the previous night of the survey were calculated as indicated by Roll Back Malaria Monitoring and Evaluation Reference Group. Use to access ratio was assessed. Factors associated with not using LLINs among people with access were also investigated. Of 701 households with 4900 de facto population, ownership of at least one LLIN was 90.6%, while 24.1% owned at least one for every two people during the survey in 2016. The overall proportion of people with access to LLINs was 51.5% (95% CI 50.1-52.9). Only 19.0% (95% CI 17.9-20.1) slept under LLINs the night before the survey and the overall use to access ratio was 0.37. The proportions of children under 5 years of age with access to and use of LLINs were 13.7 and 42.5%, respectively. On the other hand, the proportions of pregnant women with access to and use of LLINs were 16.4 and 20

  20. CPUE DAN TINGKAT PEMANFAATAN PERIKANAN CAKALANG (Katsuwonus pelamis DI SEKITAR TELUK PALABUHANRATU, KABUPATEN SUKABUMI, JAWA BARAT (CPUE AND UTILIZATION RATE OF SKIPJACK (KATSUWONUS PELAMIS AT SURROUNDED PALABUHANRATU BAY AREA, SUKABUMI REGENCY, WEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Budiasih

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKIkan Cakalang (Katsuwonus pelamis merupakan salah satu hasil tangkapan yang banyak menyumbang produksi perikanan laut di Kabupaten Sukabumi. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menghitung  nilai CPUE (Catch per Unit Effort ikan cakalang di Perairan Palabuhanratu Kabupaten Sukabumi dan menganalisis tingkat pemanfaatan ikan cakalang di sekitar Perairan Teluk Palabuhanratu Kabupaten Sukabumi. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan pada bulan Januari-Februari 2014 di Pelabuhan Perikanan Nusantara Palabuhanratu, Jawa Barat. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode deskriptif. Metode analisis data yang digunakan adalah standarisasi alat tangkap, analisis hasil tangkapan per upaya penangkapan (CPUE dan analisis Tingkat Pemanfaatan ikan cakalang. Alat tangkap yang digunakan untuk menangkap ikan cakalang adalah payang, pancing tonda dan longline. Alat tangkap yang dijadikan standar adalah pancing tonda. Hasil analisis CPUE diperoleh nilai CPUEstd rata-rata tahun 2008-2013 sebesar 247,226 kg/trip. Nilai CPUE Ikan Cakalang yang didaratkan di Palabuhanratu cenderung menurun, yang artinya mengindikasikan terjadinya fully exploited pada perairan tersebut.  Rata-rata tingkat pemanfaatan sumberdaya ikan cakalang (Katsuwonus pelamis di perairan Palabuhanratu sebesar 105,82%. ABSTRACTSkipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis is one of leading commodity that contributed to the production of marine fisheries in Sukabumi.  The purposes of this research were to calculate CPUE (catch per unit effort of skipjack at surrounded area of Palabuhanratu bay Sukabumi and analyze skipjack utilization rate in Palabuhanratu bay of Sukabumi. This research conducted in January-February 2014 at Palabuhanratu fishing port, West Java. Methods used in this research were descriptive. Method of analysis of data used standardization of fishing gears, calculated catch per efforts (CPUE and utilization rate of skipjack. The fishing gear that used to capture skipjack were payang

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF A GEOCHEMICAL MODEL FOR URANIUM TRANSPORT IN THE UNSATURATED AND SATURATED SEDIMENTS AT THE 200 WEST AREA OF THE US DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE WASHINGTON (SEPTEMBER 2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMS SC; PETERSEN SW

    2010-03-24

    Final Deliverable under GWP-HQ-LMT-02 contract for Hanford Sci. & Tech. Gp. to BHI. The scope of work covered laboratory analyses and gephysical logging for 299-W19-43 near the 200 West U Plant. Other isotopic analyses were conducted for holes around 216-U-1&2, including U-236.

  2. West Greenlandic Eskimo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann; Fortescue, Michael David

    the principal economic activity. Research projects and language initiatives currently in progress within Greenland will be touched upon, as will the possibilities of communication with North American Inuit. West Greenlandic is unique among the native languages of the North American Arctic and Sub......West Greenlandic Eskimo. The current situation of the West Greenlandic language as principal means of communication among the majority Greenlandic population will be presented with special emphasis on the northwest hunting district of Upernavik, where traditional marine mammal hunting is still...

  3. West Nile virus: North American experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus, a mosquito-vectored flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis serogroup, was first detected in North America following an epizootic in the New York City area in 1999. In the intervening 11 years since the arrival of the virus in North America, it has crossed the contiguous USA, entered the Canadian provinces bordering the USA, and has been reported in the Caribbean islands, Mexico, Central America and, more recently, South America. West Nile virus has been reported in over 300 species of birds in the USA and has caused the deaths of thousands of birds, local population declines of some avian species, the clinical illness and deaths of thousands of domestic horses, and the clinical disease in over 30 000 Americans and the deaths of over 1000. Prior to the emergence of West Nile virus in North America, St. Louis encephalitis virus and Dengue virus were the only other known mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses in North America capable of causing human disease. This review will discuss the North American experience with mosquito-borne flavivirus prior to the arrival of West Nile virus, the entry and spread of West Nile virus in North America, effects on wild bird populations, genetic changes in the virus, and the current state of West Nile virus transmission.

  4. WEST Physics Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdelle, C.; Artaud, J. F.; Basiuk, V.; Bécoulet, M.; Brémond, S.; Bucalossi, J.; Bufferand, H.; Ciraolo, G.; Colas, L.; Corre, Y.; Courtois, X.; Decker, J.; Delpech, L.; Devynck, P.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Doerner, R. P.; Douai, D.; Dumont, R.; Ekedahl, A.; Fedorczak, N.; Fenzi, C.; Firdaouss, M.; Garcia, J.; Ghendrih, P.; Gil, C.; Giruzzi, G.; Goniche, M.; Grisolia, C.; Grosman, A.; Guilhem, D.; Guirlet, R.; Gunn, J.; Hennequin, P.; Hillairet, J.; Hoang, T.; Imbeaux, F.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Joffrin, E.; Kallenbach, A.; Linke, J.; Loarer, T.; Lotte, P.; Maget, P.; Marandet, Y.; Mayoral, M. L.; Meyer, O.; Missirlian, M.; Mollard, P.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Moreau, P.; Nardon, E.; Pégourié, B.; Peysson, Y.; Sabot, R.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Schneider, M.; Travère, J. M.; Tsitrone, E.; Vartanian, S.; Vermare, L.; Yoshida, M.; Zagorski, R.; Contributors, JET

    2015-06-01

    With WEST (Tungsten Environment in Steady State Tokamak) (Bucalossi et al 2014 Fusion Eng. Des. 89 907-12), the Tore Supra facility and team expertise (Dumont et al 2014 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 56 075020) is used to pave the way towards ITER divertor procurement and operation. It consists in implementing a divertor configuration and installing ITER-like actively cooled tungsten monoblocks in the Tore Supra tokamak, taking full benefit of its unique long-pulse capability. WEST is a user facility platform, open to all ITER partners. This paper describes the physics basis of WEST: the estimated heat flux on the divertor target, the planned heating schemes, the expected behaviour of the L-H threshold and of the pedestal and the potential W sources. A series of operating scenarios has been modelled, showing that ITER-relevant heat fluxes on the divertor can be achieved in WEST long pulse H-mode plasmas.

  5. US west coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys are conducted along the US west coast to determine distribution and abundance of endangered leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), loggerhead...

  6. West Europe Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-24

    East Attiki and West Attiki, as well as the Market Inspection Directorate, Traffic Directorate, Immediate Action Directorate, Police Operations...subdirectorates are established in the West Attiki Police Directorate. Seven market inspection branches come under the Market Inspection Directorate...Banca (18) I Organizac . >nes empresari .’flos (19) ’SIMS Seguridad (yn\\ ii £•’*> \\ ■Hfl sodai K UJ r^;-; 26IS1I11 Par,idos (21

  7. West African Journal of Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The West African Journal of Medicine is owned by the West African College of Physicians and the West African College of Surgeons. Aims: The aims of the Journal are: To provide a medium for international dissemination of information about medical science in West Africa and elsewhere. To furnish a means whereby ...

  8. Students' Perception of West African Agricultural Productivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E M IGBOKWE

    structured questionnaires from 90 respondents using multi-stage procedure. Data were subjected to both ... should focus more attention on educating students in areas that are more technologically inclined such as in ... Keywords: West African Agricultural Productivity Programme, Adopted schools project, student farmers.

  9. Meet EPA Scientist Jordan West, Ph.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan West, Ph.D. is an aquatic ecologist at EPA. Her areas of expertise include freshwater & marine ecology, climate change impacts and adaptation, resilience and threshold theory, environmental risk assessment, expert elicitation & stakeholder processes

  10. Islam and the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Kamal Hassan

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific and technological developments during the 18th and' the 19th centuries ensured material progress of the West, as well as emergence of the West as the dominating power which colonized the rest of the world. During the post-colonial phase, Islam emerged as a revitalized sociopolitical force. This has been mistaken as a threat by the West, and Islam has been portrayed as the "new enemy after the demise of communism. This is partly an effort to establish a Western identity, which is disintegrating due to lack of a challenge; and partly a reflection of the failure of Muslims to realize the social and ethical ideals of Islam.

  11. FY 1991 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Attached data. Electromagnetic exploration (High accuracy MT method) (No.38 - West area of Mt. Aso); Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa chijo chosa hokokusho futai shiryo. 1991 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa - Denji tansa (Koseido MT ho) hokokusho (No.38 Asosan seibu chiiki - Tenpu shiryo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-01

    As a part of the survey of geothermal development promotion in FY 1991, electromagnetic exploration by the high accuracy MT method was conducted to acquire the information on the geothermal structure in the west area of Mt. Aso, Kumamoto Prefecture. The detailed data were arranged as the data attached to the report on the electromagnetic exploration. As the attached data, included were the results of the 1D analysis (measuring/analysis {rho}a-F chart, analytic structure drawing), results of the 1D analysis (numerical list of the apparent resistivity analytic value and inverse analytic value) and numerical list of the apparent resistivity measured value. (NEDO)

  12. The great West Road

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    From right to centre the 'Nationale 84' relying Meyrin to Saint-Genis. The fence limits Lab I on that side. From bottom the road leading to the double inclined tunnel linking Lab I and Lab II. On the foreground the ISR building (left) and the West Hall (centre).

  13. West Indian Gallery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsaran, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Reviews the poetry of Derek Walcott, a native of the West Indies, whose new volume 'Another Life' more resembles the poet-artists commentary on a gallery of scenes and portraits in Melvin Tolson's 'The Harlem Gallery' than anything else that has come from the English speaking Caribbean in the post-war period. (Author/JM)

  14. West African Antislavery Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi; Pelckmans, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    In the context of liberalization of West African political regimes, the upsurge of audacious political entrepreneurs who want to end chattel slavery in their nation-state, resulted in the legal criminalisation of slavery in both Mauritania (2007) and Niger (2003) and in a proposal to revise...

  15. Human Rights in the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgen S. Nielsen

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the areas of conflict between Islam and the West in today’s world is the concern for human rights. This has sometimes been criticized in the Muslim world as a form of neo-imperialism. It is therefore necessary to understand the various dimensions of human rights, and the various phases through which this concern has grown. In the earliest form, it was an assertion of the rights of the landed aristocracy against those of the monarch. The French revolution, with its emphasis on "liberty, equality and fraternity," for all individuals, provided another dimension. There were many occasions on which individual and organized religion came into conflict during the Middle Ages. The experience of World War II, particularly the atrocities of the Nazis, led to the internationalization of individual rights.

  16. The West Heslerton Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Powlesland

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The excavation of the Early Anglo-Saxon or Anglian Settlement at West Heslerton, North Yorkshire, between 1986 and 1995, represents one of the largest excavations conducted in Britain in the last two decades. The project, funded by English Heritage, combined the fundamental needs of rescue and research archaeology. The excavation has produced a wealth of new evidence which is forcing us to re-evaluate much that has been said about the formative period of the English nation.

  17. JPRS Report West Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-22

    INFORMATIONSERVICE SPRINGFIELD, VA 22161 Dnc QUALETS rasesQESffl I to Scfi West Europe JPRS- WER-88-045 CONTENTS 22 A UGUST1988 POLITICAL... Europe (without arms or with restrictions on arms). "This latter line, which omits the claim for a nuclear-free zone, expresses a realistic and...notorious person allegedly involved in much-discussed corrupt practices related to the procurement of military equipment. According to certain

  18. West Europe Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-26

    ASIA yellow NEAR EAST Q SOUTH ASIA ...blue LATIN AMERICA P*nk WEST EUROPE lvory AFRICA (SUB-SAHARA) tan SCIENCE P, TECHNOLOGY gray WORLUWIDES...in industry and the payment of benefits in a very lucid manner. But there is a much greater problem, a much more sensitive problem, for the CDA as...it a mere desire to gain power that had escaped him? Without question, Gomez had long dreamed of imposing his authority in this sector of weapons

  19. West Virginia Forests 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall S. Morin; Gregory W. Cook; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Tonya W. Lister; William G. Luppold; William H. McWilliams; Patrick D. Miles; Mark D. Nelson; Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Ronald J. Piva; James E. Smith; Jim Westfall; Richard H. Widmann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2016-01-01

    The annual inventory of West Virginia's forests, completed in 2013, covers nearly 12.2 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 2,300 cubic feet per acre. This report is based data collected from 2,808 plots located across the State. Forest land is dominated by the oak/hickory forest-type group, which occupies 74 percent of total forest...

  20. JPRS Report, West Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-31

    064 31 JULY 1987 WEST EUROPE CONTENTS POLITICAL BELGIUM Brugge’s Mayor Van Acker’s Views, Position Examined (Jos Grobben; KNACK, 20 May 87...87) 83 NORWAY Europe Report: Country Must Adapt to EC Internal Market (AFTENPOSTEN, various dates) 88 - c - Country Must Increase Ties...split the party if the executive committee insisted that he be overturned. "He only needs to find a weakling in the group and to bribe him with a

  1. JPRS Report, West Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-16

    Even in the cities of Prato, Carpi, Faenza, Reggio Emilia , and Pesaro, which have a high percentage of artisans and particularly older popu- lations...party cards that vary between 2.5 and 2 percent: Alberto Ciampaglia (Naples), Angelo Tansini ( Emilia West), Bruno Corti (Brescia), Antonio Cariglia...Under 2 percent are Anselmo Martoni ( Emilia East), Paolo Correale (Salerno), Luigi Preti (Ferrara), Alessandro Ghinami (Cagliari), Gianni Moroni (Rieti

  2. Copenhagens's West End a 'Paradise Lost'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz Larsen, Troels

    2014-01-01

    Why have many of the prestige developments in Copenhagen’s West End built during the golden days of the welfare state morphed into neglected and stigmatized territories? This paper seeks to answer this question by deploying a field-analytical approach inspired by Bourdieu and Wacquant. The emerge......Why have many of the prestige developments in Copenhagen’s West End built during the golden days of the welfare state morphed into neglected and stigmatized territories? This paper seeks to answer this question by deploying a field-analytical approach inspired by Bourdieu and Wacquant....... The emergence of advanced marginality and the diffusion of spatial defamation in Copenhagen are products of the historical struggles over space occurring in the field of housing and the bureaucratic field. To grasp social transformations at ground level in neglected urban areas, we need to exit those areas...

  3. Surveillance of maternal antibodies against West Nile virus in chicken eggs in South-West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börstler, Jessica; Engel, Dimitri; Petersen, Mathis; Poggensee, Claudia; Jansen, Stephanie; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Lühken, Renke

    2016-05-01

    The emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) in several European countries increases the risk of its introduction to Germany. This study evaluated a new method for WNV surveillance by testing for maternal antibodies in chicken eggs. A total of 1,990 eggs were collected in 35 sampling sites in the south-west of Germany and tested for WNV-specific antibodies. The results did not indicate evidence for WNV circulation in the study area. This work serves as a proof-of-concept that such a method is useful and a potential alternative to use of sentinel chicken for regular WNV surveillance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Biogas digestate and its economic impact on farms and biogas plants according to the upper limit for nitrogen spreading—the case of nutrient-burdened areas in north-west Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Auburger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available At the end of 2012, an expert group presented its evaluation of the forthcoming amendment of the German Fertilizer Ordinance (DüV. The new proposal intends to include manure of plant origin in the calculation of the upper limit for nitrogen spreading, determined to be 170 kg per hectare. This would particularly affect regions of north-west Germany that are characterized by intensive animal husbandry and biogas production. This would lead to increased costs of the disposal of manure and the use of agricultural land, especially for pig farms and biogas producers. A spatial model of nutrient distribution demonstrates the regional impacts of the amendment, and example calculations at an enterprise level show that many farmers would no longer be able to suitably pay for the factors used. Monte Carlo analysis shows a relatively high probability that only successful pig farmers and biogas producers would be able to compensate for the rising costs of transport and land use in a sustainable manner. Successful piglet producers would improve their relative competitiveness compared to biogas producers and especially to pig-fattening enterprises. The adoption of new strategies should factor in both the water protection requirements and the ability of the affected farms to evolve and grow on a sustainable basis.

  5. Gas-charged sediments in shallow waters off Redi along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subbaraju, L.V.; Wagle, B.G.

    This study reports the occurrence of gas-charged sediments in the nearshore areas of the west coast of India. High resolution shallow seismic reflection profiles on the nearshore area along central west coast of India, at water depths of 11-18 m...

  6. 76 FR 38680 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the West Chocolate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... solar, wind and geothermal testing and development in a renewable energy evaluation area located near... Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the West Chocolate Mountains Renewable Energy...) for the West Chocolate Mountains Renewable Energy Evaluation Area. By this notice, the BLM is...

  7. Hydrogeology of the West Siberian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.; Bradley, D.J.; Cole, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in extensive radioactive contaminant releases to the environment in western Siberia. We are developing three-dimensional numerical models of the hydrogeology and potential contaminant migration in the West Siberian Basin. We have assumed that ground-water flow in the West Siberian Basin is topographically driven, with recharge to the basin occurring in the highlands on the west, east, and south, and internal discharge localized in numerous river valleys and lakes that ultimately discharge north to the ocean. We are modeling the regional hydrogeology as three-dimensional, steady-state, saturated flow that is recharged from above. We acquired topographic, geologic, hydrostratigraphic, hydrogeologic, and water-balance data for the West Siberian Basin and constructed a regional water table. We correlated and combined 70 different rock types derived from published descriptions of West Siberian Basin rocks into 17 rock types appropriate for assignment of hydrogeologic properties on the basis of spatial heterogeneity and constituent (i.e., sand, silt, and clay) diversity. Examination of resulting three-dimensional assemblages of rock types showed that they were consistent with published and inferred paleogeography and depositional processes. Calibrating the basin's moisture balance (i.e., recharge and discharge) to the derived water table determined plausible input parameter values for unknowns such as hydraulic conductivities. The general directions of calculated ground-water flow suggest that major rivers act as discharge areas, with upwelling below the rivers extending down into the basement rocks, and that ground-water divides that penetrate the entire thickness of the model are evident between major rivers

  8. 75 FR 6698 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed West Chocolate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed West Chocolate Mountains Renewable... whether lands within the West Chocolate Mountains area should be made available for geothermal, solar, or... planning criteria related to the West Chocolate Mountains Renewable Energy Evaluation by any of the...

  9. Los Alamos National Laboratory Omega West Reactor restart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report is a critical evaluation of the effort for the restart of the Omega West reactor. It is divided into the following areas: progress made; difficulties in restart effort; current needs; and suggested detailed steps for improvement. A brief discussion is given for each area of study

  10. Rising costs of both sewage treatment and the production of potable water associated with increasing levels of pollution in a portion of the crocodile-west Marico water management area

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, SP

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available -extension of the capacity of waste water control infrastructure inevitably leads to the discharge of poor quality effluent, impacting negatively on the environment and downstream water users. The current management approach is geared at extensive and expensive upgrades... technologies to render the available water fit for downstream use. Currently, most industries in urban areas use water of potable quality, obtained from the distribution system of a water services provider (municipality or water utility) and discharge...

  11. Forests of West Virginia, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard H. Widmann

    2014-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of the forest resources in West Virginia based upon inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. Information about the FIA program is available online at http://fia.fs.fed.us. Since 2004, FIA has implemented an annual inventory in West Virginia. For...

  12. City of West Liberty, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the City of West Liberty, Iowa, a municipality with a mailing address of 409 North Calhoun Street, West Liberty, IA 52776, for alleged violations of the Clean Water Act.

  13. West African Journal of Radiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The West African Journal of Radiology is an annual publication and the official organ of the Association of Radiologists of West Africa. The Journal accepts for publication, original work in the Science and Technology of Radiology, clinical case reports, discoveries and engineering design/fabrication reports related to any ...

  14. A 4 year follow-up analysis of genotoxic damage in birds of the Doñana area (south west Spain) in the wake of the 1998 mining waste spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Nuria; Baos, Raquel; López-Lázaro, Miguel; Jovani, Roger; Tella, José L; Hajji, Nabil; Hiraldo, Fernando; Cortés, Felipe

    2004-01-01

    A total of 330 white storks (Ciconia ciconia) and 138 black kites (Milvus migrans) were blood sampled during four consecutive years in an area heavily contaminated as a consequence of a massive spillage of toxic acid mining waste rich in heavy metals that impacted on the Doñana National Park (south western Spain), in April 1998. The alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay was performed as a genotoxicity test, in order to assess whether the high level of DNA damage first detected by us 1 year after the disaster was still present in birds in each of the successive 3 years. Our results clearly show that, when compared with control individuals from non-polluted areas, white storks and black kites born in the contaminated area for a period of up to 4 years after the toxic accident have suffered an increase of at least 2- to 10-fold in the level of their genetic damage through the study period. Taken as a whole, these observations seem to indicate that the toxic spill still appears to be affecting the wildlife 4 years after the mining disaster and that attempts at cleaning up the waste have proved ineffective based on DNA damage detection.

  15. Markets, Climate Change and Food Security in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Hintermann, Beat; Higgins, Nathaniel

    2009-01-01

    West Africa is one of the most food insecure regions of the world. Sharply increased food and energy prices in 2008 brought the role of markets in food access and availability around the world into the spotlight, particularly in urban areas. The period of high prices had the immediate consequence of sharply increasing the number of hungry people in the region without boosting farmer incomes significantly. In this article, the interaction between markets, food prices, agricultural technology and development is explored in the context of West Africa. To improve food security in West Africa, sustained commitment to investment in the agriculture sector will be needed to provide some protection against global swings in both production and world markets. Climate change mitigation programs are likely to force global energy and commodity price increases in the coming decades, putting pressure on regions like West Africa to produce more food locally to ensure stability in food security for the most vulnerable.

  16. Geothermal investigations in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendry, R.; Hilfiker, K.; Hodge, D.; Morgan, P.; Swanberg, C.; Shannon, S.S. Jr.

    1982-11-01

    Deep sedimentary basins and warm-spring systems in West Virginia are potential geothermal resources. A temperature gradient map based on 800 bottom-hole temperatures for West Virginia shows that variations of temperature gradient trend northeasterly, parallel to regional structure. Highest temperature gradient values of about 28/sup 0/C/km occur in east-central West Virginia, and the lowest gradients (18/sup 0/C/km) are found over the Rome Trough. Results from ground-water geochemistry indicate that the warm waters circulate in very shallow aquifers and are subject to seasonal temperature fluctuations. Silica heat-flow data in West Virginia vary from about 0.89 to 1.4 HFU and generally increase towards the west. Bouguer, magnetic, and temperature gradient profiles suggest that an ancient rift transects the state and is the site of several deep sedimentary basins.

  17. Collision physics going west

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The centroid of proton-antiproton physics is moving west across the Atlantic concluded Luigi Di Leila of CERN in his summary talk at the Topical Workshop on Proton-Antiproton Collider Physics, held at Fermilab in June. Previous meetings in this series had been dominated by results from CERN's big proton-antiproton collider, dating back to 1981. However last year saw the first physics run at Fermilab's collider, and although the number of collisions in the big CDF detector was only about one thirtieth of the score so far at CERN, the increased collision energy at Fermilab of 1.8 TeV (1800 GeV, compared to the routine 630 GeV at CERN) is already paying dividends

  18. 78 FR 54676 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the West Chocolate Mountains Renewable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLCAD070000, L91310000, E10000] Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the West Chocolate Mountains Renewable Energy Evaluation Area and... Conservation Area (CDCA) Plan for the West Chocolate Mountains Renewable Energy Evaluation Area (REEA) located...

  19. Establishment of a lithostratigraphic column in the Béli area (Northeastern Burkina Faso, West Africa) based on the occurrence of a glacial triad and a molassic sequences in Neoproterozoic sedimentary formations. Implications for the Pan-African orogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miningou, Mariette Y. W.; Affaton, Pascal; Meunier, Jean-Dominique; Blot, Alain; Nebie, Alain Georges

    2017-07-01

    Studies conducted since the 1960s on the sedimentary formations of the Béli region have not permitted the establishment of a lithostratigraphic log for the area. Based on fieldwork involving drafting of cross-sections and lithologic, petrographic and structural studies, a triad and a molasse formation have been described for the first time in this portion of the basin. Therefore, as in the sedimentary formations of the Taoudeni and Volta Basins, the formations in the Béli area, located on the southern edge of the Gourma Basin (northeastern Burkina Faso), include an association of ;Tillite-limestone-chert; that is correlated with the ;triad; of the Taoudeni Basin. The lithostratigraphic section of the Béli area comprises eight formations. The triad overlays quartzitic sandstones and is covered by shales and dolomite. Above the triad is the metamorphic allochthonous unit composed of phyllites, which are covered by the molassic formation. As in the carbonate formations, some rocks of the cherty complex contain stromatolites as well as micro-organisms. The Pan-African deformation is characterized by folding, schistosity and a fault network. Compressive phases D1, D3 and D4 of the Pan-African orogeny are identified, and we suspect a reactivation of Pan-African fractures during the Cenozoic. The characteristics of the tectonic episodes are utilized to distinguish two structural units: the allochthonous unit of North Béli, characterized by a ductile deformation and an anchi-metamorphism thrust on the para-autochthonous unit of South Béli. The latter is marked by a dominant brittle deformation; it underwent non-metamorphism and is thrust on the Eburnean basement. The cherty formation of the triad contains a polymetalliferous mineralization that was probably enriched during the different tectonic events.

  20. Balance of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    For several decades, measurements of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet showed it to be retreating rapidly. But new data derived from satellite-borne radar sensors show the ice sheet to be growing. Changing Antarctic ice sheets remains an area of high scientific interest, particularly in light of recent global warming concerns. These new findings are significant because scientists estimate that sea level would rise 5-6 meters (16-20 feet) if the ice sheet collapsed into the sea. Do these new measurements signal the end of the ice sheet's 10,000-year retreat? Or, are these new satellite data simply much more accurate than the sparse ice core and surface measurements that produced the previous estimates? Another possibility is that the ice accumulation may simply indicate that the ice sheet naturally expands and retreats in regular cycles. Cryologists will grapple with these questions, and many others, as they examine the new data. The image above depicts the region of West Antarctica where scientists measured ice speed. The fast-moving central ice streams are shown in red. Slower tributaries feeding the ice streams are shown in blue. Green areas depict slow-moving, stable areas. Thick black lines depict the areas that collect snowfall to feed their respective ice streams. Reference: Ian Joughin and Slawek Tulaczyk Science Jan 18 2002: 476-480. Image courtesy RADARSAT Antarctic Mapping Project

  1. Research needs for lion conservation in West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Hans; De Iongh, Hans H; Princée, Frank P; Ngantou, Daniel

    2003-08-01

    The lion has historically probably been widespread at low densities in West and Central Africa, nowadays they are largely restricted to small isolated populations inside protected areas. The total number is probably between 1200 and 2700, the best possible guesstimate would be 1700. Mankind is the main cause for the suspected decline of lion populations, both inside and outside protected areas. Very little research has been done on West and Central African lions a few examples are summarized here. The international community is slowly becoming aware of threats to lions in the region and some initiatives for lion conservation have started.

  2. Lineament studies of rocks in Omifunfun area, southwestern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Omifunfun area is situated in the southern part of Ife-Ilesa Schist Belt of the basement complex of southwestern Nigeria. The study area is traversed by the Ifewara Fault Zone which divides the area into east-west with contrasting lithologies that have been variously mylonitized. To the east, is quartzite and to the west ...

  3. lineament studies of rocks in omifunfun area, southwestern nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    Omifunfun area is situated in the southern part of Ife-Ilesa Schist Belt of the basement complex of southwestern. Nigeria. The study area is traversed by the Ifewara Fault Zone which divides the area into east-west with contrasting lithologies that have been variously mylonitized. To the east, is quartzite and to the west ...

  4. Changes in the number of nesting pairs and breeding success of theWhite Stork Ciconia ciconia in a large city and a neighbouring rural area in South-West Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopij Grzegorz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available During the years 1994–2009, the number of White Stork pairs breeding in the city of Wrocław (293 km2 fluctuated between 5 pairs in 1999 and 19 pairs 2004. Most nests were clumped in two sites in the Odra river valley. Two nests were located only cca. 1 km from the city hall. The fluctuations in numbers can be linked to the availability of feeding grounds and weather. In years when grass was mowed in the Odra valley, the number of White Storks was higher than in years when the grass was left unattended. Overall, the mean number of fledglings per successful pair during the years 1995–2009 was slightly higher in the rural than in the urban area. Contrary to expectation, the mean number of fledglings per successful pair was the highest in the year of highest population density. In two rural counties adjacent to Wrocław, the number of breeding pairs was similar to that in the city in 1994/95 (15 vs. 13 pairs. However, in 2004 the number of breeding pairs in the city almost doubled compared to that in the neighboring counties (10 vs. 19 pairs. After a sharp decline between 2004 and 2008, populations in both areas were similar in 2009 (5 vs. 4 pairs, but much lower than in 1994–1995. Wrocław is probably the only large city (>100,000 people in Poland, where the White Stork has developed a sizeable, although fluctuating, breeding population. One of the most powerful role the city-nesting White Storks may play is their ability to engage directly citizens with nature and facilitate in that way environmental education and awareness.

  5. Alien smuggling: East to West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J H

    1987-01-01

    This year untold millions of illegal aliens will enter Western Europe, Canada, and the US; in 1986, the US alone made 1.7 million apprehensions. Because of the numbers involved and the hard currency exchanged, alien smuggling has become big business--a lucrative track in desparate human beings. West Germany's open door asylum policy has been a boon to the smugglers, and West Berlin is currently a favored port of entry. The government provides social benefits--apartments, food, a stipend, and clothing--for asylum seekers. Smuggling operations appear to fit 3 categories: 1) state-sponsored alien smugglers, with a sub-category of terrorists; 2) ethnic smugglers with a history of terrorist spinoffs; and 3) independent smugglers, who are profit oriented, and willing to handle ethnic aliens and terrorists. In West Germany, immigration investigations begin at the border. West German officials often know that as they cause the Eastern border to be tightened, the flow will gravitate south toward Austria. Redirecting the trasit of Third Worlders from East Berlin away from West Germany, Sweden, and Denmark will be a stop-gap measure at best. Part of West Germany's immigration problem can be traced to the Basic Law that provides asylum for those who claim persecution (political, racial, ethnic, or religious). Yet, any attempt to change asylum would result in an admission of defeat in the quest for a unified Germany. Should Austria move to tighten its immigration laws, agreements similar to those between East and West Germany will likely follow.

  6. Trade networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    To date, most of the literature on trade networks in West Africa has considered networks in a metaphorical way. The aim of this paper is to go one step further by showing how social network analysis may be applied to the study of regional trade in West Africa. After a brief review of the literature......, this exploratory paper investigates two main issues related to regional trade. We start by discussing how recent developments in regional trade in West Africa have contributed to challenging the social structure of traders. We then discuss the changes that have affected the spatiality of regional trade by looking...

  7. Prevalence of Schistosoma Intercalatum and S. Haematobium Infection Among Primary Schoolchildren in Capital Areas of Democratic Republic Of São Tomé and Príncipe, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter WS Chang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: A parasitological survey of Schistosoma haematobium and S. intercalatum infection among primary schoolchildren in capital area of Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe (DRSTP was undertaken.Methods: Subjects with positive infection were confirmed by the detection of S. haematobium ova in the urine or S. intercalatum ova in the stool by using centrifugation concentration or merthiolate-iodine-forma­lin concentration method. Totally, 252 urine and stool samples, respectively, were obtained from apparently healthy schoolchildren, of which 121 from boys (9.8 ± 1.4 yr and 131 from girls (9.7 ± 1.3 yr.Results: None of participating schoolchildren were found having S. haematobium ova in the urinary speci­men. While, among 4 primary schools studied, only schoolchildren from Saint Marçal were detected with S. intercalatum ova in the fecal specimen, making the overall prevalence of S. intercalatum infection among schoolchildren was 2.4% (6/252 and girls had insignificantly higher prevalence (3.1%, 4/131 than that (1.7%, 2/121 in boys (χ2 = 0.5, P = 0.5.Conclusion: Water control and sanitation as well as snails eliminated by molluscicides are urgently needed to reduce S. intercalatum infection in DRSTP inhabitants.

  8. Spirit's Surroundings on 'West Spur,' Sol 305

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama shows the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 305th martian day, or sol, (Nov. 11, 2004). At that point, Spirit was climbing the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover had just finished inspecting a rock called 'Lutefisk' and was heading uphill toward an area called 'Machu Picchu.' Spirit used its navigational camera to take the images combined into this mosaic. The rover's location when the images were taken is catalogued as the mission's site 89, position 205. The view is presented here as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  9. DMD and West syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardas, Ruxandra; Iliescu, Catrinel; Butoianu, Nina; Seferian, Andreea; Gataullina, Svetlana; Gargaun, Elena; Nectoux, Juliette; Bienvenu, Thierry; Craiu, Dana; Gidaro, Teresa; Servais, Laurent

    2017-10-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is the most frequent muscular dystrophy in childhood, with a worldwide incidence of one in 5000 live male births. It is due to mutations in the dystrophin gene leading to absence of full-length dystrophin protein. Central nervous system involvement is well-known in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. The multiple dystrophin isoforms expressed in brain have important roles in cerebral development and functioning. The association of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy with seizures has been reported, and there is a higher prevalence of epilepsy in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy patients (between 6.3% and 12.3%) than in the general pediatric population (0.5-1%). Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy patients may present with focal seizures, generalized tonic-clonic seizures or absences. We report on two boys in whom Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is associated with epileptic spasms and hypsarrhythmia that fulfil the criteria for West syndrome, thus extending the spectrum of seizure types described in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urgence, Services d'Ambulances,. Traumatisme, Lagos, Nigeria. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. ABSTRACT. BACKGROUND: Emergency medical care is designed to overcome the factors most commonly implicated ...

  11. West Virginia 511 feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Procedure for requesting a copy of the full report : Please submit your request, in writing, directly to the contact provided below. : Director of the Traffic Engineering Division : West Virginia Department of Transportation, Division of Highways : B...

  12. [Hormonal treatment in West syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousova, E D; Shulyakova, I V; Ohapkina, T G

    2016-01-01

    West syndrome is one of the most well-known epileptic encephalopathies, a catastrophic epilepsy syndrome with onset in the first year of life. Prognosis of this condition depends on the etiology and adequate treatment. The authors review the hormonal treatment of West syndrome. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) is used in USA and its synthetic analogue tetracosactide is used in Europe. Both of the drugs are not registered in the Russian Federation. The data on the efficacy of corticosteroids, including prednisolone, are contradictory. Recent results have demonstrated the high efficacy of prednisolone in the treatment of West syndrome. The authors discuss different aspects of hormonal treatment of West syndrome: possible mechanisms, choice of medication, hormone doses, its duration, efficacy ant tolerability.

  13. 78 FR 6258 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Palm Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Palm Beach, FL...: This action proposes to amend Class E Airspace in the West ] Palm Beach, FL area, as new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) have been developed at Palm Beach County Park Airport. Airspace...

  14. 78 FR 10064 - Safety Zone; Vigor Industrial Roll-Out, West Duwamish Waterway, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Vigor Industrial Roll-Out, West Duwamish Waterway, Seattle, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety... Industrial Vessel Roll-Out, West Duwamish Waterway, Seattle, WA. (a) Location. The following area is a safety...

  15. 78 FR 25383 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Palm Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ...-0922; Airspace Docket No. 12-ASO-38] Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Palm Beach, FL AGENCY: Federal... West Palm Beach, FL area, as new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) have been developed at Palm Beach County Park Airport. Airspace reconfiguration is necessary for the continued safety and...

  16. Implementation of Location Base Service on Tourism Places in West Nusa Tenggara by using Smartphone

    OpenAIRE

    Karya Gunawan; Bambang Eka Purnama

    2015-01-01

    The study is aimed to create an application that can assist users in finding information about tourism places in West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. West Nusa Tenggara is one of the provinces in Indonesia and one of the second tourists’ destinations after Bali. It is a small Sunda Island which consists of two large islands located in the west of Lombok and Sumbawa that located in the east to the capital of Mataram on the island of Lombok. The area of West Nusa Tenggara province is 19,708.79 km2. T...

  17. 21 CFR 808.98 - West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false West Virginia. 808.98 Section 808.98 Food and... and Local Exemptions § 808.98 West Virginia. (a) The following West Virginia medical device... has exempted them from preemption: West Virginia Code, sections 30-26-14 (b) and (c) and section 30-26...

  18. West syndrome: response to valproate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Surabhi; Bhave, Anupama; Bhargava, Roli; Kumar, Chandrakanta; Kumar, Rashmi

    2012-01-01

    Management of West syndrome is unsatisfactory. In our clinic we observed that a significant proportion of patients respond to usual dose of valproate. To prospectively assess the efficacy of valproate in controlling infantile spasms in West syndrome. Consecutive patients presenting with West syndrome to the Pediatric Neurology Clinic or general outpatient department (OPD) were enrolled for study. Those who were not on any treatment were given valproate in a dose of 30 mg/kg/day while awaiting investigations. Patients were followed up every 2 weeks. Predefined criteria for definition of West syndrome and response were used. Those showing partial/poor response or relapse on valproate were given hormonal therapy. One hundred children with West syndrome were enrolled. Ninety one children were started on valproate. Of these 36 (39.5%) showed a good response, but seven later relapsed while on same dose of valproate and three were lost to follow up. Later age at onset and typical hypsarrhythmia on EEG were associated with good sustained response to valproate while a history of delayed cry at birth was associated with partial or poor response. Sixty two patients who responded poorly to or relapsed on valproate were put on hormonal treatment in addition. Of these 36 (58.1%) had a good response but 11 later relapsed after stopping treatment and two were lost to follow up. Valproate may have a role in treatment of West syndrome in a selected group of patients.

  19. West Syndrome: Response to valproate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surabhi eChandra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Management of West syndrome is unsatisfactory. In our clinic we observed that a significant proportion of patients respond to usual dose of valproate. Objective: To prospectively assess the efficacy of valproate in controlling infantile spasms in West syndromeMethods: Consecutive patients presenting with West syndrome to the Pediatric Neurology Clinic or general OPD were enrolled for study. Those who were not on any treatment were given valproate in a dose of 30 mg/kg/day while awaiting investigations. Patients were followed up every 2 weeks. Predefined criteria for definition of West syndrome and response were used. Those showing partial/poor response or relapse on valproate were given hormonal therapy.Results: One hundred children with West syndrome were enrolled. Ninety one children were started on valproate. Of these 36 (39.5% showed a good response, but 7 later relapsed while on same dose of valproate and 3 were lost to follow up. Later age at onset and typical hypsarrythmia on EEG were associated with good sustained response to valproate while a history of delayed cry at birth was associated with partial or poor response. Sixty two patients who responded poorly to or relapsed on valproate were put on hormonal treatment in addition. Of these 36 (58.1% had a good response but 11 later relapsed after stopping treatment and 2 were lost to follow up. Conclusions: Valproate may have a role in treatment of West syndrome in a selected group of patients.

  20. The lion in West Africa is critically endangered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henschel, Philipp; Coad, Lauren; Burton, Cole; Chataigner, Beatrice; Dunn, Andrew; MacDonald, David; Saidu, Yohanna; Hunter, Luke T B

    2014-01-01

    The African lion has declined to lions from other extant African populations. Interventions to save West African lions are urgently required. However formulating effective conservation strategies has been hampered by a lack of data on the species' current distribution, status, and potential management deficiencies of protected areas (PAs) harboring lions. Our study synthesized available expert opinion and field data to close this knowledge gap, and formulate recommendations for the conservation of West African lions. We undertook lion surveys in 13 large (>500 km²) PAs and compiled evidence of lion presence/absence for a further eight PAs. All PAs were situated within Lion Conservation Units, geographical units designated as priority lion areas by wildlife experts at a regional lion conservation workshop in 2005. Lions were confirmed in only 4 PAs, and our results suggest that only 406 (273-605) lions remain in West Africa, representing lion range is estimated at 49,000 km², or 1.1% of historical range in West Africa. PAs retaining lions were larger than PAs without lions and had significantly higher management budgets. We encourage revision of lion taxonomy, to recognize the genetic distinctiveness of West African lions and highlight their potentially unique conservation value. Further, we call for listing of the lion as critically endangered in West Africa, under criterion C2a(ii) for populations with lion range states in West Africa, we call for urgent mobilization of investment from the international community to assist range states to increase management effectiveness of PAs retaining lions.

  1. The Lion in West Africa Is Critically Endangered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henschel, Philipp; Coad, Lauren; Burton, Cole; Chataigner, Beatrice; Dunn, Andrew; MacDonald, David; Saidu, Yohanna; Hunter, Luke T. B.

    2014-01-01

    The African lion has declined to lions from other extant African populations. Interventions to save West African lions are urgently required. However formulating effective conservation strategies has been hampered by a lack of data on the species' current distribution, status, and potential management deficiencies of protected areas (PAs) harboring lions. Our study synthesized available expert opinion and field data to close this knowledge gap, and formulate recommendations for the conservation of West African lions. We undertook lion surveys in 13 large (>500 km2) PAs and compiled evidence of lion presence/absence for a further eight PAs. All PAs were situated within Lion Conservation Units, geographical units designated as priority lion areas by wildlife experts at a regional lion conservation workshop in 2005. Lions were confirmed in only 4 PAs, and our results suggest that only 406 (273–605) lions remain in West Africa, representing lion range is estimated at 49,000 km2, or 1.1% of historical range in West Africa. PAs retaining lions were larger than PAs without lions and had significantly higher management budgets. We encourage revision of lion taxonomy, to recognize the genetic distinctiveness of West African lions and highlight their potentially unique conservation value. Further, we call for listing of the lion as critically endangered in West Africa, under criterion C2a(ii) for populations with lion range states in West Africa, we call for urgent mobilization of investment from the international community to assist range states to increase management effectiveness of PAs retaining lions. PMID:24421889

  2. Why the West?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Ferguson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La cuestión de cómo "Occidente" llegó a dominar el mundo durante la era moderna se ha debatido recientemente entre los historiadores. El debate se ha polarizado entre quienes ven en la "modernidad" como resultado de un 'milagro', el proceso cultural único generado en el seno del mismo Occidente, y aquellos que cuestionan este "milagro" como paradigma eurocéntrico, y buscan otros factores para entender y explicar el dominio occidental del mundo económico y político. La literatura tradicional, representada por David Landes en su reciente “La riqueza y la pobreza de las naciones”, atribuye el éxito europeo a sus valores culturales únicos, a sus instituciones sociales y sus prácticas políticas. Este éxito fue completamente "impulsado desde dentro” por estas características. Recientemente, varios historiadores han cuestionado este "paradigma del milagro" como eurocéntrica, y miran a otros factores para comprender y explicar el dominio occidental del mundo económico y político. Después de examinar los recientes trabajos de los historiadores frente a este problema, este artículo trata de colocar la expansión europea en un contexto global, y la comprensión de la Revolución Industrial como una transformación global. Esta perspectiva nos permite entender los cambios tecnológicos y económicos Europeos en el contexto más amplio de patrones de interacción económica y cultural de todo el mundo._____________ABSTRACT:The question of how 'the West' came to dominate the globe during the modern era has been debated recently among historians. The debate has been polarized between those who view 'modernity' as the result of a 'European miracle', the culturally unique and internally generated project of the West, and those who question this 'European miracle' paradigm as Eurocentric, and look to other factors to understand and explain Western economic and political world dominance. The traditional narrative, represented by David

  3. Geographic signatures of North American West Coast estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, Robert; Llansó, Roberto; Newton, Jan; Thom, Ron; Hornberger, Michelle; Morgan, Cheryl; Levings, Colin; Copping, Andrea; Fishman, Paul

    2000-01-01

    West Coast estuaries are geologically young and composed of a variety of geomorphological types. These estuaries range from large fjords to shallow lagoons; from large to low freshwater flows. Natural hazards include E1 Niños, strong Pacific storms, and active tectonic activity. West Coast estuaries support a wide range of living resources: five salmon species, harvestable shellfish, waterfowl and marine birds, marine mammals, and a variety of algae and plants. Although populations of many of these living resources have declined (salmonids), others have increased (marine mammals). West Coast estuaries are also centers of commerce and increasingly large shipping traffic. The West Coast human population is rising faster than most other areas of the U.S. and Canada, and is distributed heavily in southern California, the San Francisco Bay area, around Puget Sound, and the Fraser River estuary. While water pollution is a problem in many of the urbanized estuaries, most estuaries do not suffer from poor water quality. Primary estuarine problems include habitat alterations, degradation, and loss; diverted freshwater flows; marine sediment contamination; and exotic species introductions. The growing West Coast economy and population are in part related to the quality of life, which is dependent on the use and enjoyment of abundant coastal natural resources.

  4. 76 FR 68314 - Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL AGENCY: Coast... regulations on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean located southwest of Key West, Florida during the Key West... unless authorized by the Captain of the Port Key West or a designated representative. DATES: This rule is...

  5. Morphological studies on rumen development in West African Dwarf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied the gross and light microscopic structures of rumen in fetal, neonatal and adult West African Dwarf (WAD) goats obtained from Nsukka and Igboeze South Local Government Areas (L.G.A) of Enugu State. After euthanasia the rumen was ligated, dissected out and the volume determined by flotation and ...

  6. Tourism package preferences of West Virginia state park visitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Gravley; John Dengler; Roy Ramthun; Chad Pierskalla

    2009-01-01

    This study was a preliminary examination of the activity and spending behavior of visitors to Pipestem State Park in West Virginia. This state park is being used as a case study area to determine whether a new fish stocking program accompanied by appropriate marketing activities can increase park visitation by anglers and other sports-oriented people. The research was...

  7. DIOXINS AND ENDOMETRIOSIS: COHORT STUDY OF WOMEN IN WEST VIRGINIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanawha Valley of West Virginia has a history of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin contamination (dioxin, TCDD). The bulk of the dioxin found in this area appears to be derived from the production of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) and the disposal of associated wa...

  8. Contribution of "Women's Gold" to West African livelihoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouliot, Mariéve

    2012-01-01

    Contribution of ``Women's Gold'' to West African Livelihoods: The Case of Shea ( Vitellaria paradoxa ) in Burkina Faso. This paper (i) quantifies the contribution that Vitellaria paradoxa makes to the total income of rural households belonging to different economic groups in two areas of Burkina...

  9. Petrography and mineralgy of gachsaran formation in west of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gachsaran Formation is the most important cap rock of hydrocarbon reservoir in Iran and has important deposits of salt, sulfur and gypsum. A section of Gachsaran formation (Early to Middle Miocene) in south- east of zagros area, west of Bandar- e- Abbas province, was studied from sedimentary geology view. Gachsaran ...

  10. Incidence of udder abnormalities in West African Dwarf and Kalahari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 646 goats comprising 580 West African Dwarf (WAD) sampled across Abeokuta South, Abeokuta North and Odeda Local Government Areas of Ogun State and 66 Kalahari Red (KR) goats from the Institute of Food Security, Environmental Resources and Agricultural Research (IFSERAR), Federal University of ...

  11. American Indians, Place Meanings and the Old/New West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo McAvoy

    2002-01-01

    The American West includes millions of acres of national parks, forests and other protected lands. These landscapes are often associated with sense of place and place meanings for those who live there and for people who go there for recreation and tourism. American Indian place meanings regarding national parks and protected areas are often very different from those of...

  12. The isolated red spruce communities of Virginia and West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold S. Adams; Steven Stephenson; Adam W. Rollins; Mary Beth. Adams

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative data on the composition and structure of coniferous forests containing red spruce in the mountains of central and southwestern Virginia and eastern central West Virginia, based on sampling carried out in 67 stands during the 1982 to 1984 field seasons, are provided. The average importance value ([relative basal area + relative density/2]) of red spruce was...

  13. Youth Employment and Migration in West Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to help West African nations develop policies based on a better understanding of why youth leave rural areas, and what economic activities they pursue in cities. ... Having new policy options may also feed into development of small-scale urban activities with better potential than those that currently exist.

  14. Observations during the first K West fuel shipping campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makenas, B.J.

    1995-11-01

    Three fuel elements were shipped to the 300 Area hotcells during the first characterization shipping campaign from K West Basin. This document summarizes observations made during this campaign including the gas, liquid, and sludge content of the observed canisters. Included in an appendix is a detailed evaluation of fuel element condition for each canister opened

  15. Walruses in West Greenland: Where do they belong?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Born, E. W.; Andersen, L. W.; Dietz, R.

    ) transmitted for more than 3 months during which time she moved from CWG west to SE Baffin Island (SE BI). Hence, the studies supported a suspected connection between walruses in CWG and the HS-SE BI area. Future studies include a genetic comparison of biopsies from SE BI and CWG, and deployment of satellite...

  16. West Europe Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-13

    customs duties, it fulfills many community and government tasks in the areas of civilian supervision and control, rescue service , and certain duties...supervision Rescue Service Sea and air rescue Transportation of the sick Environmental protection at sea against - oil slippages - chemical...as Finance (the head), Defense ( rescue service ), Agriculture (hunting, fishing, environment). Foreign Office (international law). The prerequisite

  17. West African Waterworlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog; Rasmussen, Laura Vang

    2015-01-01

    In the 2000s northern Ghana and northern Burkina Faso experienced extreme flooding as a result of unusually heavy rains attributed to climate change. As a consequence evidence of destruction from flooding was dramatically present during our fieldwork in the area in 2009-10. Nevertheless, we kept ...

  18. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1997 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  19. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report calendar year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1998 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  20. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None Available

    2000-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1999 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  1. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report calendar year 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1998 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP

  2. Sedimentary environments of east and west Flower Garden Banks area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Kathryn M.; Ackerman, S.D.; Rozycki, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    A summary of the sediment analyses, indicating weight percentages of gravel, sand, silt, and clay size particles and CaCO3 content, is given in Table 1. The complete analytical data are available as downloadable Excel files and in an ArcView project on a CD-ROM (Scanlon et al., 2003) or can be downloaded without charge from a USGS publications web site (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2003/of03-002). The complete analytical data consist of 70 fields, including weight percentages of size classes for phi units from 0 to 11, means, modes, skewness, kurtosis, and other statistical data. 

  3. a case study of esan west local government area

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-01-31

    Jan 31, 2013 ... Development Report (2004) and the report by. Okubanjo (1990), states that about 70% of the. Nigerians are engaged in agriculture, of which more than 70% of this population are subsistence farmers. Moreover, the fact that rural dwellers in Nigeria constitutes 70% of the entire Nigerian population.

  4. Geochemistry of semipelitic schist of Isanlu area, south west Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This enrichment – depletion signature is probably a consequence of the movement of metamorphic remobilised fluids along these shear zones during the Pan-African or earlier events. A further geochemical characterisation of the rock indicates that its protolith was an immature sub-greywacke to greywacke-type sediment ...

  5. A Cross-Sectional Study of Intestinal Parasitic Infections in a Rural District of West China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Tang

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parasitic infections are widespread in rural areas of West China. The remote and humid environment, traditional ways of life, contaminated potable water and limited health services all contribute to the transmission and persistence of fecal parasites.

  6. West Hawaii Aquarium Project 1999-2004, Fish and Substrate Data (NODC Accession 0002288)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In response to declines in reef fishes, the Hawaii state legislature created the West Hawaii Regional Fishery Management Area in 1998 to improve fishery resources...

  7. West Hawaii Aquarium Project (WHAP): fish and substrate data, 1999-2003 (NODC Accession 0001467)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In response to declines in reef fishes, the Hawaii state legislature created the West Hawaii Regional Fishery Management Area in 1998 to improve fishery resources...

  8. West Hawaii Aquarium Project (WHAP): fish and substrate data, 1999-2002 (NODC Accession 0000938)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In response to declines in reef fishes, the Hawaii state legislature created the West Hawaii Regional Fishery Management Area in 1998 to improve fishery resources...

  9. West Hawaii Aquarium Project 1999-2002 Fish and Substrate Data (NODC Accession 0000938)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In response to declines in reef fishes, the Hawaii state legislature created the West Hawaii Regional Fishery Management Area in 1998 to improve fishery resources...

  10. Bridge or Barrier? Turkey and the West After the Cold War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lesser, Ian

    1992-01-01

    .... As Turkey develops its post-Cold War foreign and security policy and contemplates new risks and areas of opportunity, the traditional notion of Turkey as a bridge between East and West will be strongly tested...

  11. Earthquake fragility assessment of curved and skewed bridges in Mountain West region : research brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    the ISSUE : the RESEARCH : Earthquake Fragility : Assessment of Curved : and Skewed Bridges in : Mountain West Region : Reinforced concrete bridges with both skew and curvature are common in areas with complex terrains. : These bridges are irregular ...

  12. JPRS Report, West Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-13

    TEORIA JA POLITIIKKA. But it is not just the SKP’s (unity) representatives who are talking about this phenomenon. Esko Seppanen wrote last Saturday...ND internal crisis) and in the same area (Athens region ), were the same as those of MRB. Therefore, here we shall cite only those highlights where...DISRUPTS SDPP Istanbul TERCUMAN in Turkish 22 Apr 87 p 8 [Text] Ankara — SDPP CEAC member Turgut Atalay’s suggestion at Siirt regional meeting that

  13. Politeness: West and East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Джеффри Лич

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper was planned for this issue of our journal, which Geoffrey Leech and I intended to devote to Politeness phenomena across cultures. It is based on his article titled “Politeness: Is there an East-West Divide?” (2005 which he suggested as a theoretical framework and includes results of our discussions held during our personal meetings and our epistolary exchange. Unfortunately the final version of the paper was never read by Geoffrey Leech for the reasons we all sadly know. Nevertheless I decided to publish it as a tribute to him in the knowledge that the result was not going to have the degree of excellence it would have had if he were still with us today. I therefore apologise for any mistakes or misinterpretations of his thoughts that might be found in the paper. The aim of this article is to sum up the main ideas of Politeness Theory presented earlier in Leech 1983, 2003, 2005, and other publications and discuss how that theory applies (or fails to apply to other languages, with the main emphasis on the Russian language and culture. The term ‘maxim’ used in Principles of Pragmatics (Leech 1983 is avoided here as much as possible, as it implies some kind of moral imperative, rather than a pragmatic constraint. Instead, a single constraint, which comprehends all the maxims (the Maxims of Tact, Generosity, Approbation, Modesty, Agreement, Sympathy, and is called the Grand Strategy of Politeness (GSP, is used. The GSP says: In order to be polite, S expresses or implies meanings which place a high value on what pertains to O- his/her wants, qualities, obligation, opinion, feelings (O = other person[s], [mainly the addressee, i.e. H = hearer] or place a low value on what pertains to S (S = self, speaker. The essential point is that these are not separate, independent constraints or maxims: they are instances of the operation of the GSP as ‘super-maxim’ which is an overarching framework for studying linguistic politeness

  14. The lion in West Africa is critically endangered.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Henschel

    Full Text Available The African lion has declined to 500 km² PAs and compiled evidence of lion presence/absence for a further eight PAs. All PAs were situated within Lion Conservation Units, geographical units designated as priority lion areas by wildlife experts at a regional lion conservation workshop in 2005. Lions were confirmed in only 4 PAs, and our results suggest that only 406 (273-605 lions remain in West Africa, representing <250 mature individuals. Confirmed lion range is estimated at 49,000 km², or 1.1% of historical range in West Africa. PAs retaining lions were larger than PAs without lions and had significantly higher management budgets. We encourage revision of lion taxonomy, to recognize the genetic distinctiveness of West African lions and highlight their potentially unique conservation value. Further, we call for listing of the lion as critically endangered in West Africa, under criterion C2a(ii for populations with <250 mature individuals. Finally, considering the relative poverty of lion range states in West Africa, we call for urgent mobilization of investment from the international community to assist range states to increase management effectiveness of PAs retaining lions.

  15. West Europe Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-12

    Clochemerle [ fictional French town in the Beaujolais area]. However, I only know you through your written or televised statements to the press. I regret... short run Palle Simonsen is Schlüter’s obvious successor. If Schlüter holds out for another 5 or 6 years—and apparently that is what he wants—a...a well-known pro-government satirical weekly. Those who are aware of the situation are uselessly attempting to bring him up-to-date on "PASOK

  16. Modernized Irrigation Technologies in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Büyükcangaz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Crop production in West Africa is mostly dependent upon rainfed agriculture. Irrigation is a vital need due to uneven distribution of rainfall and seasonality of water resources. However, management and sustainability of irrigation are under risk due to notably weak database, excessive cost, unappropriate soil or land use, environmental problems and extreme pessimism in some quarters since rainfed agriculture is seen as potentially able to support the present population. This paper focuses on modernized irrigation technologies and systems that utilize less water. Information about irrigation systems in Ghana and Liberia were gathered through: 1 Irrigation development authorities in both countries, by reviewing past literatures, online publications, reports and files about irrigation in West Africa, specifically Ghana and Liberia; 2 International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI; 3 Collation of information, reports and data from Ghana Irrigation Development Authority (GIDA and 4 International Water Management Institute (IWMI. The result shows that both countries have higher irrigation potential. However, the areas developed for irrigation is still a small portion as compare to the total land available for irrigation. On the other hand, as seen in the result, Liberia as compare to Ghana has even low level of irrigation development.

  17. West African Journal of Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the use of manual vacuum aspiration for uterine evacuation9. Uterine evacuation is one of the most commonly performed procedures in our center and procured abortion With its numerous complications. West African Journal of Medicine Vol. 26, N o. 4. Treatment Outcome of Asherman's Syndrome is a particular problem in ...

  18. West African Journal of Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    _ WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE. CLINI CAL PRA CTI CE. Pain Management inAdult Acute Sickle Cell Pain Crisis: A Viewpoint. Chagriner la direction dans la crise de douleur de cellule de faucille adulte: un point de Vue . E. Udezue*, E. HerreraT. ABSTRACT. BACKGROUND: The acute pain crisis of sickle cell ...

  19. West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological features of West Nile Virus (WNV disease among children (<18 years of age reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1999 through 2007 were analyzed and compared with those of adult WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND, in a study at CDC&P, Fort Collins, CO.

  20. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Duvie SOA, Endeley EML, Danniya. MH. Urolithiasis in Maiduguri: The. Nigerian Savannah belt Experience. West. Afri Med. 1988; 7: 148–61. 10. Hassan I, Mohammed I. Urethral calculi: a review. East Afr Med J. 1993;. 70: 523–5. 11. Ahmed A, Saeed NM. Experience with the management of urethral stones presenting with ...

  1. Verbal aspects in West Greenlandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

    2017-01-01

    In this article, lexical aspectual types in West Greenlandic are investigated in the five aspectual types, states, achievements, semelfactives, activities and accomplishments. It is shown that derivational verbalizing affixes include aspectual type congruent with the lexical aspect and how the as...

  2. The West in Early Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, Nanna

    2006-01-01

    Verhoeff investigates the emergence of the western genre, made in the first two decades of cinema (1895-1915). By analyzing many unknown and forgotten films from international archives she traces the relationships between films about the American West, their surrounding films, and other popular

  3. Primary Schooling in West Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Amartya

    2010-01-01

    With his Nobel Prize award money, Amartya Sen set up the Pratichi Trust which carries out research, advocacy and experimental projects in basic education, primary health care, and women's development in West Bengal and Bangladesh. Professor Sen himself took active interest in this work--helping set the agenda, looking at the evidence from…

  4. The myth of the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onelio Olivera Blanco

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The next job leads to some reflections on one of the oldest myths of humanity: the myth of the cultural superiority of what bourgeois historiography called the West as opposed to the alleged low level of development than the same conception calls East. Illustrative examples the fallacy of this view is shown.

  5. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    Kaushik B, Samiran B. Prevalence of underweight and stunting among school children in West Bengal. Indian J. Pediatr. 2008; 75: 1272. 16. Jafar TH, Qadri Z, Islam M, Hatcher J,. Bhutta ZA, Chaturvedi N. Rise in childhood obesity with persistently high rates of undernutrition among urban school-aged Indo-Asian children.

  6. Librarianship in Francophone West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguolu, C. C.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the current level of library development and librarianship in francophone West Africa, taking Senegal as a case in point. The topics addressed include the impact of colonialism on library development, the structure of library services, the role of UNESCO seminars in library development, and the education of library personnel. (JL)

  7. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    West African Journal of Medicine Vol. 30, No. 2 March–April, 2011. INTRODUCTION. Alternating hemiplegia of childhood. (AHC) is a rare neurological disorder that goes undiagnosed in many cases. It has a prevalence of about one case per million.1 It was first described by Vernot and Steele in 1971.2 Within this diagnosis.

  8. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    West African Journal of Medicine Vol. 30, No. 2 March–April, 2011. A. E. Fawibe and Associates. Unilateral Tuberculous Lung Destruction. INTRODUCTION. Unilateral lung destruction is a .... occasional low grade fever associated with weight loss despite good .... right ventricular diastolic dysfunction and moderate tricuspid ...

  9. The future of transit in West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The Future of Transit in West Virginia is a study of the current system of public transportation in West Virginia and : an examination of issues, priorities and projections of the public transportation network in the coming years. The : purpose...

  10. West Indian Prose Fiction in the Sixties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brathwaite, Edward

    1971-01-01

    A Review and critical discussion of the West Indian prose fiction in the sixties by one of the best-known poets of the Carribean and a member of the faculty of the University of West Indies, Jamaica. (JM)

  11. Team West Virginia/Rome Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korakakis, Dimitris [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2017-04-10

    Overall, the team, West Virginia University (WVU) and University of Rome Tor Vergata (UTV), has a goal of building an attractive, low-cost, energy-efficient solar-powered home that represents both the West Virginian and Italian cultures.

  12. 75 FR 17463 - Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver Notice is hereby given that, pursuant to the authority contained in... Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation as sole Receiver for Key West Bank, Key West, Florida, (OTS No...

  13. West African Journal of Radiology: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The West African Journal of Radiology is the official publication of Association of Radiologists of West Africa. The Association was formed in the year 1963 while the Journal of West African Radiology was officially lunched in 1982. Membership consists of diagnostic, therapy radiologists, interventional ...

  14. The lithospheric mantle below southern West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Karina Krarup; Waight, Tod Earle; Pearson, D. Graham

    2009-01-01

    Geothermobarometry of primarily garnet lherzolitic xenoliths from several localities in southern West Greenland is applied to address the diamond potential, pressure and temperature distribution and the stratigraphy of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle ~600 Ma ago. The samples are from...... kimberlitic and ultramafic lamprophyre (senso lato) dikes and sills emplaced into three tectonically distinct crustal areas in the North Atlantic Craton. Several geothermobarometry formulations have been applied and a thorough assessment of which P-T combinations are most applicable to this sample suite has...... and the Kirkland Lake locality within the Superior craton. In supporting previous studies we find that the continental lithospheric mantle is layered and increases in fertility with depth. Twenty-five of 32 investigated samples are estimated to be derived from the diamond stability field that extends...

  15. November 2016 West Hackberry Subsidence Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, Dylan Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lord, Anna C. Snider [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Subsidence monitoring is a critical component to understanding the cavern integrity of salt storage caverns. This report looks at historical and recent data from two of the three West Hackberry dome cavern operators. DOE SPR and LA Storage are coordinating subsidence surveys to create a comprehensive understanding of ground movement above the dome. Data from annual level and rod surveys, GPS, and tiltmeter data show the sites are experiencing typical ground movement. The highest subsidence rate is seen in the middle of the DOE SPR site at just under one inch per year with less ground movement around the edge of the site. A GPS and tiltmeter instrument in the northeast areas of the DOE SPR site has not seen any trend change since the devices were installed in 2013. Comparison between recent ground movement data and historical trends suggest that there is no reason to believe that any DOE SPR or LA Storage caverns have been structurally compromised.

  16. Tributyltin accumulation and effects in marine molluscs from West Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, J.; Asmund, G.

    2003-01-01

    Tributyltin is accumulated in marine molluscs living in Greenland, with the highest levels found in harbour areas. - The levels of the antifouling agent tributyltin (TBT) and its breakdown products in bivalves were investigated in 1999-2000 at six areas along the west coast of Greenland with focus on locations inside and outside harbours. In addition female gastropods were examined for the development of TBT-induced masculine characteristics in form of imposex or intersex. The highest TBT concentration, 254 ng g -1 ww, was found in the bivalve Mytilus edulis sampled inside Nuuk harbour, but significant TBT concentrations were also present in bivalves from the other harbour areas. Only low levels of TBT were detected in bivalves sampled outside the harbours and in several of the samples the TBT level was below the detection limit. The examination of neogastropods like Buccinum revealed that imposex development occurred in all the harbours. In contrast, imposex was not found in any neogastropods sampled outside the harbour areas. However, the value of marine neogastropods as indicators of TBT contamination in West Greenland seems limited, because of large species diversity and the difficulties in sampling enough specimens at least with the current sampling strategy. No effects, which could be related to TBT contamination, were found in the most abundant tidal gastropod in West Greenland, Littorina saxatilis

  17. Spatial pattern of agricultural land conversion in West Java Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryati, S.; Humaira, A. N. S.; Pratiwi, F.

    2018-03-01

    Population growth has an implication on increasing demand for land. The demand for built-up area is filled by land conversion, mostly from agricultural land. On the other hand, population growth requires an increase in food production as well as land for agriculture. Conversion of agricultural land can threaten the availability and food security. The purpose of this study is to identify the spatial pattern of changes in agricultural land in West Java Province as input to improve food security condition in this province. Descriptive statistics and spatial analysis were used to analyse the area of agricultural land, conversion of agricultural land, and spatial pattern of changes in agricultural land in West Java Province. The data used is time series data in the period of 2005-2014. The result of analysis shows that there are still areas with a high percentage of agricultural land in West Java Province. The rate of conversion of agricultural land varies widely. Cities or regions with very high land conversion rate tend to concentrate in metropolitan areas.

  18. Estimativa da radiação de onda longa atmosférica em áreas de floresta e de pastagem no sudoeste da Amazônia Estimate of the atmospheric long wave radiation in forest and pasture area in south west amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo José Gonçalves Aguiar

    2011-06-01

    for clear-sky days in forest (Reserva Biológica do Jaru, 10º4'48''S; 61º55'48''W and pasture (Fazenda Nossa Senhora, 10º45'S, 62º21'W areas in South West Amazonia. Measurements of atmospheric long wave radiation in the period from June 2005 to May 2006 were compared with estimates. The tested equations performed satisfactorily only during the dry season. High cloud conditions that dominate during the wet season significantly limited the amount of data available to evaluate the equations. Equations that use information about air temperature and vapor pressure for the Lin estimate performed better than those that use only air temperature. The equations of Brutsaert (1975, Idso (1981 and Prata (1996 performed best, had the highest rates of agreement and are therefore the most appropriate equations for estimating atmospheric long wave radiation in South West Amazonia.

  19. Geology and radiometry of West Macedonia (Greece)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minatidis, Demetrios G.

    1984-10-01

    Car borne scintillometry survey in W. Macedonia (Greece) showed that the granitic rocks of the area, the zone centered on the Tertiary volcanic rocks of Almopia zone and a large part of adjacent sediments constitute the most promising geological formations for further uranium exploration. Some Tertiary volcanic rocks in the general area centered on the Aegean plate are associated with uranium mineralization and high radioactivity. An attempt has been made to evaluate young Alpine volcanic rocks from uranium exploration point of view on a regional scale by using arithmetic mean radioactivity data from the car borne survey coverage of W. Macedonia, as well as other geological and geochemical data from numerous similar volcanic rocks of the area and other neighbouring areas. In connection with this further exploration of the Tertiary volcanic rocks of W. Macedonia is expected to reveal new uranium deposits in the area. Horizontal or gently dipping sedimentary rocks adjacent to the above mentioned volcanics have a statistical radioactivity higher than that in normal sediments, a fact that may give evidence of the existence or uranium mineralization in deeper horizons in these sediments. To make a comparison with this the existence of 134 ppm of leachable U in sediments of W. Crete Island, 20 to 30 meters below the surface, is reported where the overlying sediments exhibit also a radioactivity higher than in normal sediments. Some structural contacts, in particular the contact between the granite of Florina and the limestones of Krystallopigi (west of Florina), have locally a very high radioactivity. Also an open fault in the Achlada-Papadia area (Florina) exhibits locally a high radioactivity and a high U content. All the above mentioned geological formations are, therefore, proposed for further U exploration. (author)

  20. Potential seaways across West Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughan, David G.; Barnes, David K. A.; Fretwell, Peter T.; Bingham, Robert G.

    2011-01-01

    The West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) has long been considered vulnerable to rapid retreat and today parts are rapidly losing ice. Projection of future change in WAIS is, however, hampered by our poor understanding of past changes, especially during interglacial periods that could be analogs for the future, but which undoubtedly provide an opportunity for testing predictive models. We consider how ice-loss would open seaways across WAIS; these would likely alter Southern Ocean circulation and c...

  1. Monsoon rains over West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Schupelius, Gert-Dietrich

    2011-01-01

    Potential mechanisms producing high or low seasonal rainfall in tropical West Africa are investigated for the period 1963–74 using monthly data of precipitation, surface pressure in the South Atlantic and rawinsondes, mainly in Africa. Contrary to widespread opinion, the South Atlantic pressures yielded no correlation; the best connection was between rainfall and upper-level African observations.DOI: 10.1111/j.2153-3490.1976.tb00700.x

  2. [Differential diagnoses of West syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejerman, Natalio

    2013-09-06

    This study describes the clinical and electroencephalographic characteristics of epileptic spasms, and more especially those that occur during the first two years of life (infantile spasms). West syndrome has been clearly defined as the association between infantile spasms with an electroencephalographic pattern of hypsarrhythmia. Although intellectual deficit appears in almost all cases in which infantile spasms are not controlled with medication, this is a developmental aspect of the condition and not a manifestation that must necessarily be present in order to define the syndrome. The analysis of the interictal and ictal electroencephalogram readings, together with the clinical characteristics of the spasms and the neurological examination of patients, provides some orientation as regards the causations. Despite the spectrum that the title of this work focuses on, the study does not cover the treatment of early infants with West syndrome. Emphasis is placed on the differential diagnoses of West syndrome with other epileptic syndromes that manifest in the first two years of life, and more especially with a series of abnormal non-epileptic motor phenomena that occur in early infants. All these last non-epileptic disorders are displayed in a table, but benign myoclonus of early infancy or Fejerman syndrome is given as a paradigmatic example for the differential diagnosis. The primordial aim is to prevent neurologically healthy early infants from receiving antiepileptic drugs and even adrenocorticotropic hormone or corticoids due to a mistaken diagnosis.

  3. Report on a Magnetotelluric Study in Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kother, Livia Kathleen; Junge, A.; Löwer, A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite a well-mapped, interesting surface geology, deep sounding geophysical studies like seismics or magnetotellurics have been used very rarely in Greenland. The aim of this article is to present the preliminary results of a magnetotelluric study performed in the area of Kangerlussuaq, West Gr...... Greenland. The estimated transfer functions will be used in the future for 2-D and 3-D modelling of subsurface resistivity structures, the inuence of the electrically conductive ocean, as well as the source geometry in the auroral oval.......Despite a well-mapped, interesting surface geology, deep sounding geophysical studies like seismics or magnetotellurics have been used very rarely in Greenland. The aim of this article is to present the preliminary results of a magnetotelluric study performed in the area of Kangerlussuaq, West...

  4. 40 CFR 81.64 - Huntington (West Virginia)-Ashland (Kentucky)-Portsmouth-Ironton (Ohio) Interstate Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Huntington (West Virginia)-Ashland... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.64 Huntington... Huntington (West Virginia)-Ashland (Kentucky)-Portsmouth-Ironton (Ohio) Interstate Air Quality Control Region...

  5. 75 FR 71666 - Bend/Ft. Rock Ranger District; Deschutes National Forest; Deschutes County, OR; West Bend...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ...; Deschutes County, OR; West Bend Vegetation Management Project EIS AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION... INFORMATION: Background. Forested vegetation within the West Bend project area is outside of the Historic... they have the potential to remove important habitat structure, particularly large trees that are...

  6. The Development of Multicultural Education Model in West Kalimantan

    OpenAIRE

    Kristianus Kristianus

    2017-01-01

    This study background is from the history of West Kalimantan as an area that has the potential for violent conflict in the name of ethnicity. This potential is supported by the shift of the demographic map, from homogeneous to heterogeneous society. Segregation population continues to occur when the autonomous regions were accompanied by a local election. At the beginning of this year, for example, we were struck increased intolerance. The potential of violent conflict continues to arise in e...

  7. Understanding the Stability of Forest Reserve Boundaries in the West Mengo Region of Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan D. Vogt

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite heavy pressure and disturbance, state property regimes have stemmed deforestation within protected areas of the West Mengo region of Uganda for over 50 yr. In this manuscript, we reconstruct the process of creation and maintenance of forest reserve boundaries in the West Mengo region of Uganda to identify why these boundaries have largely remained stable over the long term under conditions in which they may be predicted to fail. The dramatic boundary stability in West Mengo we attribute to key aspects of institutional design and enforcement of boundaries.

  8. West African immigrant families from Mauritania and Senegal in Cincinnati: a cultural primer on children's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Lisa M; Holloway, Miranda

    2010-02-01

    Similar to many cities in the US, the Greater Cincinnati area has recently had an increase in immigrants from other countries. In particular, there is a small but growing population of West African immigrants especially from Senegal and Mauritania. In order to better understand children's health of West African families in the Cincinnati area, in-depth, in-home narrative interviews were conducted with ten West African immigrant parents from Senegal and Mauritania. Four salient themes about cultural information related to children's health were derived from the qualitative analysis: (1) health care practice and expectations including barriers; (2) cultural values and identity; (3) health beliefs and traditions/customs; and (4) quality of life. It is essential that health care providers understand the nuances of working with West African immigrants including cultural differences, strengths, challenges and perceptions in order to provide these individuals with the most effective health care services.

  9. Energy in the Mountain West: Colonialism and Independence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Piet; Lloyd Brown; Robert Cherry; Craig Cooper; Harold Heydt; Richard Holman; Travis McLing

    2007-08-01

    In many ways, the mountain west (Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, Wyoming) is an energy colony for the rest of the United States: it is rich in energy resources that are extracted to fuel economic growth in the wealthier and more populous coastal regions. Federal agencies and global corporations often behave as if the mountain west is a place to be exploited or managed for the benefit of customers and consumers elsewhere. Yet, the area. is not vast empty space with a limitless supply of natural resources, but rather a fast-growing region with a diverse economic base dependent on a limited supply of water. New decision processes and collaborations are slowly changing this situation, but in a piecemeal fashion that places local communities at odds with powerful external interests. Proper planning of major development is needed to insure that the west has a strong economic and cultural future after the fossil energy resources decline, even if that might be a century from now. To encourage the necessary public discussions, this paper identifies key differences between the mountain west and the rest of the United States and suggests some holistic approaches that could improve our future. This paper is designed to provoke thought and discussion; it does not report new analyses on energy resources or usage. It is a summary of a large group effort.

  10. Purpura fulminans associated with acute West Nile virus encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sheevam; Fite, Laura Paul; Lane, Natalie; Parekh, Palak

    2016-02-01

    Purpura fulminans is a progressive thrombotic disorder that presents with widespread purpura due to deficiency or dysfunction of protein C or protein S. Lesions present as well-demarcated erythematous macules that progress to irregular areas of hemorrhagic necrosis.West Nile virus is a member of the Flaviviridae family transmitted to humans through the bite of various mosquito species. It manifests as West Nile fever in 25% of those infected and less commonly as neuroinvasive disease. An African American man in his fortiespresented with altered mental status and was noted to have evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation according to his lab data. He then developed dusky skin discoloration and systemic flaccid bullae with desquamation. Biopsy was consistent with purpura fulminans and the patient eventually developed symmetric peripheral gangrene, requiring amputations of all four extremities. Infectious work up revealed positive testing for IgM and IgG antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid leading to the diagnosis of acute West Nile Virus encephalitis. We present this case to describe the rarely reported association of purpura fulminans with West Nile Virus infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. 76 FR 77696 - Establishment of the Naches Heights Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... petition and USGS maps. The USGS topographical maps of Naches, Selah, Yakima West, and Wiley City are used... aerial photo submitted with the petition. Elevations gradually rise heading west and northwest of the... edge of the proposed viticultural area. From this point, the cliffs rise to 1,400 feet, according to...

  12. The Dynamics of Malay Culture in West Kalimantan in the 20th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Ahyat, Ita Syamtasiyah

    2014-01-01

    There are various Malay communities in West Kalimantan, which can be divided into two broad categories: (1) Malay migrants from outside Kalimantan (West Kalimantan) or contemporary Malays and (2) local Malays or native Malays who are considered as indigenous Malays. Contemporary Malays are Malay people who came from various areas in Sumatra, Riau Islands, Malay peninsula, East Malaysia (Serawak and Sabah States), and Brunei Darussalam. This paper aims to reconstruct the dynamics of Malay cult...

  13. BRYOPHYTES OF MOUNT PATUHA, WEST JAVA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBBERT GRADSTEIN

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available GRADSTEIN, R.    et al. 2010. Bryophytes of Mount Patuha, West  Java,  Indonesia.  Reinwardtia  13(2:  107–123. This  paper  presents  the  results  of  a  two–day  survey  of  the  bryophyte  flora of Mt.  Patuha  and  its  surroundings  near Bandung, West Java, carried out in the framework of the 5th regional training course on bryophyte and lichen diversity and conservation organized by SEAMEO BIOTROP, Bogor, in July 2009. A total of 159 bryophyte species were identi-fied,  including 98 mosses, 60  liverworts, and 1 hornwort, representing almost 1/6 of the  total bryophyte flora of Java. Three moss species, Bryohumbertia subcomosa (Dix. J.–P. Frahm, Fissidens gymnogynus Besch. and F. polypodioidesHedw., and one liverwort, Lejeunea pectinella Mizut., are new additions to the Javanese flora. The bryophyte diversity of Mt. Patuha is well representative of the Malesian flora and is rich in uncommon species. However, the relatively poor representation of shade epiphytes and commonness of sun epiphytes and generalists reflect disturbance of the forest by anthropogenic activities. Careful attention should be given  to conservation of  the  remaining natural  forest  in order  to prevent further losses of the rich bryophyte diversity of the area.

  14. Inventory analysis of West African cattle breeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belemsaga, D.M.A.; Lombo, Y.; Sylla, S.; Thevenon, S.

    2005-01-01

    The improvement of livestock productivity and the preservation of their genetic diversity to allow breeders to select animals adapted to environmental changes, diseases and social needs, require a detailed inventory and genetic characterization of domesticated animal breeds. Indeed, in developing countries, the notion of breed is not clearly defined, as visual traits are often used and characterization procedures are often subjective. So it is necessary to upgrade the phenotypic approach using genetic information. At CIRDES, a regional centre for subhumid livestock research and development, such studies have been conducted. This paper focuses on cattle breed inventory in seven countries of West Africa as a tool for genetic research on cattle improvement. Data collection was done using a bibliographical study, complemented by in situ investigations. According to phenotypic description and concepts used by indigenous livestock keepers, 13 local cattle breeds were recognized: N'dama, Kouri, the Baoule-Somba group, the Lagoon cattle group, zebu Azawak, zebu Maure, zebu Touareg, zebu Goudali, zebu Bororo, zebu White Fulani, zebu Djelli, zebu Peuhl soudanien and zebu Gobra (Toronke). Nine exotic breeds, (American Brahman, Gir, Girolando, Droughtmaster, Santa Gertrudis, Holstein, Montbeliarde, Jersey and Brown Swiss) and five typical cross-breeds (Holstein x Goudali; Montbeliarde x Goudali; Holstein x Azawak; Brown Swiss x Azawak; and Brown Swiss x zebu peuhl soudanien) were also found. From this initial investigation, the areas of heavy concentration of herds and the most important breeds were described. The review has also indicated the necessity for a balance between improving livestock productivity and the conservation of trypanotolerant breeds at risk of extinction in West Africa. (author)

  15. 78 FR 67338 - Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Marine Protected Areas... the Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee (Committee). The web conference calls are open..., MPA FAC, National Marine Protected Areas Center, 1305 East West Highway, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910...

  16. Sedimentological constraints on the initial uplift of the West Bogda Mountains in Mid-Permian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Cao, Ying-Chang; Wang, Xin-Tong; Liu, Ke-Yu; Wang, Zhu-Kun; Xu, Qi-Song

    2018-01-23

    The Late Paleozoic is considered to be an important stage in the evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The Bogda Mountains, a northeastern branch of the Tianshan Mountains, record the complete Paleozoic history of the Tianshan orogenic belt. The tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the west Bogda area and the timing of initial uplift of the West Bogda Mountains were investigated based on detailed sedimentological study of outcrops, including lithology, sedimentary structures, rock and isotopic compositions and paleocurrent directions. At the end of the Early Permian, the West Bogda Trough was closed and an island arc was formed. The sedimentary and subsidence center of the Middle Permian inherited that of the Early Permian. The west Bogda area became an inherited catchment area, and developed a widespread shallow, deep and then shallow lacustrine succession during the Mid-Permian. At the end of the Mid-Permian, strong intracontinental collision caused the initial uplift of the West Bogda Mountains. Sedimentological evidence further confirmed that the West Bogda Mountains was a rift basin in the Carboniferous-Early Permian, and subsequently entered the Late Paleozoic large-scale intracontinental orogeny in the region.

  17. Alternating current for the West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of the reactor EPR construction in the Manche, the authors wonder on the pertinence of this energy choice for the economy and the environment of the West France. They show that there is an alternative to this choice. In a first part a state of the situation concerning the electricity supply and demand in the region is detailed. Then from the local potential of renewable electric power production and the electricity conservation, they propose many concrete actions. (A.L.B.)

  18. Permafrost degradation in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels Nielsen; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Important aspects of civil engineering in West Greenland relate to the presence of permafrost and mapping of the annual and future changes in the active layer due to the ongoing climatically changes in the Arctic. The Arctic Technology Centre (ARTEK) has worked more than 10 years on this topic...... parameters. It is planned as decision and planning tool for town planners and engineers in local municipality governments and to consulting engineers and contractors in Greenland, which also may be used in other arctic regions. Risk is classified in four categories: Low, Limited, Medium and High based...

  19. Archaeological significance of trace element analysis of South West African potsherds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boule, G.J.; Peisach, M.; Jacobson, L.

    1979-01-01

    The archaeological study of early population movements in South West Africa/Namibia has been aided by trace element analysis of potsherds. The results suggest that the central areas of the country were populated by mobile groups of pastoralists and hunter-gatherers, while the northern areas were settled by sedentary peoples [af

  20. K West Basin canister survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitner, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    A survey was conducted of the K West Basin to determine the distribution of canister types that contain the irradiated N Reactor fuel. An underwater camera was used to conduct the survey during June 1998, and the results were recorded on videotape. A full row-by-row survey of the entire basin was performed, with the distinction between aluminum and stainless steel Mark 1 canisters made by the presence or absence of steel rings on the canister trunions (aluminum canisters have the steel rings). The results of the survey are presented in tables and figures. Grid maps of the three bays show the canister lid ID number and the canister type in each location that contained fuel. The following abbreviations are used in the grid maps for canister type designation: IA = Mark 1 aluminum, IS = Mark 1 stainless steel, and 2 = Mark 2 stainless steel. An overall summary of the canister distribution survey is presented in Table 1. The total number of canisters found to contain fuel was 3842, with 20% being Mark 1 Al, 25% being Mark 1 SS, and 55% being Mark 2 SS. The aluminum canisters were predominantly located in the East and West bays of the basin

  1. Fish and substrate data collected in support of the West Hawaii Aquarium Project, 1999 - 2004 (NCEI Accession 0002288)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In response to declines in reef fishes, the Hawaii state legislature created the West Hawaii Regional Fishery Management Area in 1998 to improve fishery resources...

  2. Study of aerosol optical thickness using MODIS satellite data and sun photometer in a part of West coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, R.K.; Suresh, T.; Govindaraju; Urs, J.R.; SureshKumar, B.V.

    of west coastline of India which are economically commercial areas. Due to anthropogenic activities the aerosols optical thickness (AOT) are more fluctuating. AOT values are plotted from MODIS and multispectral Sun-photometer with four spectral channels...

  3. 78 FR 22193 - Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway; West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway; West Palm Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary Final Rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a special local regulation on the Intracoastal Waterway, in West Palm Beach, Florida, during the...

  4. 78 FR 2916 - Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway, West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway, West Palm Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast... Palm Beach, Florida, during the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, on Saturday, June 1, 2013...

  5. The Holocene vegetation history of northern West Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Bent Vad

    1994-01-01

    Holocene sediments of three closed Danish lake basins (Solso, Skånso, Kragso) were used for the inference of post-glacial vegetational dynamics in former heathland areas in northern West Jutland, Denmark. The sites were selected to represent the major geomorphological units of West Jutland......, rates of palynological change suggest that the interval between 8OOO and 7500 BC (calendar years) was the period of most rapid vegetational change during the Holocene. both in terrestrial as well as lacustrine ecosystems. While climatic forcing of the rapid events around 8000 BC is hypothesised......, the synchronous timing of relatively rapid inferred change in lake and terrestrial vegetation around AD 600 may reflect changes in climate as well as in land-use. Redundancy analysis was used to develop a model between fire intensity (inferred from microscopical charred particles) and vegetational response...

  6. Holocene glacial history of the west Greenland Ice Sheet inferred from cosmogenic exposure ages and threshold lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nicolaj Krog; Kjaer, K. H.; Colding, Sune Oluf

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we use a combination of 10Be exposure ages and threshold lakes to constrain the ice sheet history in Godthåbs- and Buksefjorden, west Greenland (63-64°N) during the Holocene. The 10Be cosmogenic exposure ages have been used to quantify both the ice retreat and thinning of the west......) and this suggest that the ice sheet in this area may have been more retracted and probably more sensitive to climate change than other areas in south and west Greenland....

  7. Will Elephants Soon Disappear from West African Savannahs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouché, Philippe; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Wittemyer, George; Nianogo, Aimé J.; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Lejeune, Philippe; Vermeulen, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    Precipitous declines in Africa's native fauna and flora are recognized, but few comprehensive records of these changes have been compiled. Here, we present population trends for African elephants in the 6,213,000 km2 Sudano-Sahelian range of West and Central Africa assessed through the analysis of aerial and ground surveys conducted over the past 4 decades. These surveys are focused on the best protected areas in the region, and therefore represent the best case scenario for the northern savanna elephants. A minimum of 7,745 elephants currently inhabit the entire region, representing a minimum decline of 50% from estimates four decades ago for these protected areas. Most of the historic range is now devoid of elephants and, therefore, was not surveyed. Of the 23 surveyed elephant populations, half are estimated to number less than 200 individuals. Historically, most populations numbering less than 200 individuals in the region were extirpated within a few decades. Declines differed by region, with Central African populations experiencing much higher declines (−76%) than those in West Africa (−33%). As a result, elephants in West Africa now account for 86% of the total surveyed. Range wide, two refuge zones retain elephants, one in West and the other in Central Africa. These zones are separated by a large distance (∼900 km) of high density human land use, suggesting connectivity between the regions is permanently cut. Within each zone, however, sporadic contacts between populations remain. Retaining such connectivity should be a high priority for conservation of elephants in this region. Specific corridors designed to reduce the isolation of the surveyed populations are proposed. The strong commitment of governments, effective law enforcement to control the illegal ivory trade and the involvement of local communities and private partners are all critical to securing the future of elephants inhabiting Africa's northern savannas. PMID:21731620

  8. MRI examination of West syndrome complicated by periventricular leukomalacia (PVL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Kuniaki; Yamashita, Akiko; Endo, Shoichi [National Kagawa Children' s Hospital, Zentuji (Japan); Gouda, Tomoko

    2001-10-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of 19 low-birth-weight infants with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) and cerebral palsy, 6 with West syndrome as a complication (group III) and 13 without it (group II), were compared with those of normal 13 low-birth-weight infants without PVL or cerebral palsy (group I) to investigate the pathogenetic mechanism of West syndrome. All of the subjects were born between 1989 and 1997, and there were no significant differences between the three groups in birth weight or age at the time of the examination. Although the gestation period was significantly longer in the group III (infants with West syndrome) than in group I (control infants), there was no significant difference was seen between group I and group II (infants with PVL and cerebral palsy). PVL was diagnosed by MRI, and the diagnostic standards included periventricular high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, decreased cerebral white matter, and deformity or enlargement of the lateral ventricles. The area of periventricular high signal intensity was significantly larger in group II and group III than in group I, and the occipital lobe white matter was significantly thinner in the former than the latter. The lateral ventricles were significantly larger in group II than in the other two groups. The area of the corpus callosum and the thickness of the splenium and trunk of the corpus callosum were significantly smaller in group II and group III than in group I, but the corpus callosum was significantly shorter in group III than in the other two groups. Findings in the brain stem showed a significantly smaller pons and medulla oblongata in group III than in group I, but there were no significant differences between group II and group I. The results of this study indicate that lower brainstem lesions as well as cerebral lesions are associated with the development of West syndrome. (K.H.)

  9. Briefing : West Africa and its oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.

    2003-01-01

    The US war on terrorism and preparations for war against Iraq have enormously increased the strategic value of West African oil reserves. This comes at a time when there have been massive new discoveries in offshore waters. This article focuses on the increased US interests in West African oil. It

  10. Archives: West African Journal of Applied Ecology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 30 of 30 ... Archives: West African Journal of Applied Ecology. Journal Home > Archives: West African Journal of Applied Ecology. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue ...

  11. West African Journal of Applied Ecology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of the West African Journal of Applied Ecologyis on ecology, agriculture and water pollution. It aims to serve as an avenue for lecturers and researchers in West Africa to publish their work. Other websites related to this journal are http://apps.ug.edu.gh/wajae/.

  12. Archives: West African Journal of Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 40 of 40 ... Archives: West African Journal of Medicine. Journal Home > Archives: West African Journal of Medicine. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 40 of ...

  13. West African Journal of Radiology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. The West African Journal of Radiology (WAJR) is a publication and the official organ of the Association of Radiologists of West Africa. It is enlisted on AJOL (African Journals on-line). The Journal accepts for publication, original work in the science and technology of radiology, radiotherapy allied subjects, ...

  14. West Africanisms in Limonese Creole English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Elizabeth Grace; Obeng, Samuel Gyasi

    2000-01-01

    Discusses West Africanisms in Limonese Creole (LC), an English based creole language spoken in Costa Rica that shows substrate influence from the Kwa languages of West Africa, in particular from Akan (spoken in Ghana). Substrate influence is demonstrated through a comparison of LC and Akan morphophonology, morphosyntax, and lexicon. (Author/VWL)

  15. Westing in New Poems and three Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Doğu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Turkısh literature completes a long period effected by İslamic culture and cıvılızatıon in 19th century when it has tendency to west. Like empire, poets and writers also focus on west. They benefits from west in terms of literature and culture. In this way, they realize innovations in the field of literature and culture as beuracracy realizes in military, financial, administrative and maarif fields. This group of people who interest in the private journal sector in cultural field, French literature styles in literature and some sozcial topics evaluate “west issue” in the perspective of current political and social developments. In this context, Tevfik Fikret is in the favour of extention of borders related to westernism. He thinks of adopting west not only in terms of science, art and techniques but also in all social institutions. With the awakening of nation and nationalism, in the perod of National Literature emerging after II. Mesrutiyet besides the rejection of westernism (alafranga, westernism called civilization (muasırlaşma is also emphized. In this article west is evaluated from the point of view of Ziya Gökalp. According to Ziya Gökalp, west is a civilization circle which should be included in. Turkısh people should take their place in this circle by protecting national culture. Mehmet Akif, living in the same period and follwing Islamic style in his works, emphasizes that there should be limitations on the ınnovations taken from west. According to M. Akif, west can only be a model only in terms of science, art and technique. After 1912, M. Akif criticises west more severely

  16. Violências contra mulheres por parceiro íntimo em área urbana economicamente vulnerável, Brasília, DF Violencias contra mujeres por pareja íntima en área urbana económicamente vulnerable, Brasilia, Brasil Intimate partner violence against women in an economically vulnerable urban area, Central-West Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leides Barroso Azevedo Moura

    2009-12-01

    con 58 preguntas desarrollado por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Fueron analizadas las prevalencias de violencia física, psicológica y sexual. Las variables independientes consideradas fueron características sociodemográficas de la mujer, de contexto familiar y comunitario así como las sociodemográficas de la pareja, de comportamiento (frecuencia de uso de bebidas o drogas ilícitas y relación extraconyugal. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de violencia psicológica fue la más alta: 80,2% (n=223 de las mujeres entrevistadas relataron por lo menos un acto en el decorrer de la vida y 50% (n=139 en los últimos 12 meses. La prevalencia de violencia física a lo largo de la vida fue (58,6% y en los últimos 12 meses (32%, mientras que la prevalencia de mujeres que sufrieron violencia sexual fue de 28,8% y 15,5%, respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: Las altas prevalencias de las violencias muestran la magnitud de la vulnerabilidad y de las agresiones practicadas contra mujeres en las relaciones con parejas íntimas.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of gender-based controlling behavior and types of violence committed by intimate partners against women living in an economically vulnerable area. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed with 278 women aged between 15 and 49 years, who had had at least one male intimate partner in their lives and lived in a metropolitan area of the city of Brasília, Central-West Brazil, in 2007. Systematic random sampling process was used. The research instrument consisted of a questionnaire with 58 questions, developed by the World Health Organization. Prevalences of physical, psychological and sexual violence were analyzed. Independent variables considered were women's sociodemographic, family and community context characteristics, in addition to their partners' sociodemographic and behavior characteristics (frequency of alcohol or illicit drug use and extra-marital relationship. RESULTS: The highest prevalence was that of

  17. Hydrography, Surface Geology and Geomorphology of the Deep Water Sedimentary Basins to the West of Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeulen, N. J.

    1997-01-01

    This desk study involved the assembly, review and analysis of public domain and available data from an extensive deep water area offshore to the west of Ireland. All major bathymetric and sedimentary basins, in addition to associated shallow plateau and bank areas, were considered. Particular emphasis was placed on the Porcupine Seabight and Rockall Trough as these were considered to be the main areas of interest for the proposed 1996 AIRS (Atlantic Irish Regional Survey) project. Only relati...

  18. West German Jewry: Guilt, Power and Pluralism

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony d. Kauders

    2010-01-01

    The essay will address the history of West German Jewry using the concept of guilt as its guiding theme. Jews in West Germany had a bad conscience on account of living in the “land of the murderers.” This bad conscience not only distinguished them from other Jewish communities, it also explains much of what characterized West German Jewry from 1945 to 1989: its particular economic structure; its especially close ties to Israel; its preoccupation with democratization; its power arrangements; a...

  19. Anchorage Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An anchorage area is a place where boats and ships can safely drop anchor. These areas are created in navigable waterways when ships and vessels require them for...

  20. Spirit's Surroundings on 'West Spur,' Sol 305 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama shows the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 305th martian day, or sol, (Nov. 11, 2004). At that point, Spirit was climbing the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover had just finished inspecting a rock called 'Lutefisk' and was heading uphill toward an area called 'Machu Picchu.' Spirit used its navigational camera to take the images combined into this mosaic. The rover's location when the images were taken is catalogued as the mission's site 89, position 205. The view is presented here as a vetical projection with geometric seam correction.

  1. Spirit's Surroundings on 'West Spur,' Sol 305 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama shows the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 305th martian day, or sol, (Nov. 11, 2004). At that point, Spirit was climbing the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover had just finished inspecting a rock called 'Lutefisk' and was heading uphill toward an area called 'Machu Picchu.' Spirit used its navigational camera to take the images combined into this mosaic. The rover's location when the images were taken is catalogued as the mission's site 89, position 205. The view is presented here as a polar projection with geometric seam correction.

  2. Climate variability in West Greenland during the past 1500 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    dos Santos Ribeiro, Sofia Isabel; Moros, Matthias; Ellegaard, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    -surface temperatures in Disko Bay are out-of-phase with Greenland ice-core reconstructed temperatures and marine proxy data from South and East Greenland. This is probably governed by an NAO-type pattern, which results in warmer sea-surface conditions with less extensive sea ice in the area for the later part....... Sea ice cover and primary productivity were identified as the two main factors driving dinoflagellate cyst community changes through time. Our data provide evidence for an opposite climate trend in West Greenland relative to the NE Atlantic region from c. AD 500 to 1050. For the same period, sea...

  3. West Valley demonstration project: Implementation of the kerosene mitigation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blickwedehl, R.R.; Goodman, J.; Valenti, P.J.

    1987-05-01

    An aggressive program was implemented to mitigate the migration of radioactive kerosene believed to have originated from the West Valley NRC-Licensed Disposal Area (NDA) disposal trenches designated as SH-10 and SH-11 (Special Holes 10 and 11). This report provides a historical background of the events leading to the migration problem, the results of a detailed investigation to determine the location and source of the kerosene migration, the remediation plan to mitigate the migration, and the actions taken to successfully stabilize the kerosene. 7 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  4. Unusual features caused by lightning impact in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel, P.; Abrahamsen, N.; Rasmussen, T.

    2006-01-01

       Two lightning impacts are described from an area near the Inland Ice in West Greenland. The first lightning blasted an outcrop of metacherts. It subsequently split into two branches, which traversed rock outcrops and boulders, leaving behind two white almost straight lines, 30 m and 14 m long...... that a strong electric current indeed traversed the boulder. A few years later a second lightning impacted on a mountaintop close to the first impact. The second lightning left a trail on the rock surface covered by a thin layer of glass. The glass displays spectacular colours ranging from metallic blue, to red...

  5. The Complex Epidemiological Scenario of West Nile Virusin Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzon, Luisa; Pacenti, Monia; Franchin, Elisa; Squarzon, Laura; Lavezzo, Enrico; Cattai, Margherita; Cusinato, Riccardo; Palù, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Entomological, veterinary, and human surveillance systems for West Nile virus (WNV) infection have been implemented in Italy since the first detection of the virus in 1998. These surveillance activities documented a progressive increase of WNV activity and spread in different regions and the emergence of new WNV lineages and strains. Italy is a paradigmatic example of the complex epidemiology of WNV in Europe, where sporadic cases of WNV infection, clusters, and small outbreaks have been reported in several regions. In addition, different strains of both WNV lineage 1 and lineage 2 have been identified, even co-circulating in the same area. PMID:24084676

  6. IAU South West Asian ROAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, Areg; Azatyan, Naira; Farmanyan, Sona; Mikayelyan, Gor

    2016-10-01

    Armenia is hosting the IAU South West Asian (SWA) Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (ROAD). It is a county of ancient astronomy and is also rich in modern astronomical facilities and infrastructures, hence may successfully serve as a regional center for various activities. Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) has 2.6m and 1m Schmidt, as well as a number of smaller telescopes that are an observational basis for joint projects and collaborations. Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO) is hosting astronomical databases, such as the Digitized First Byurakan Survey (DFBS) and may also serve as a basis for development of VO structures in this region. Recently we have conducted a number of new activities; a meeting on ``Relation of Astronomy to other Sciences, Culture and Society" (RASCS) was organized by BAO and Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) in Oct 2014 in Byurakan. Activities related to Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture (AAC) were initiated as well. Discussions on future Armenian-Iranian collaboration in astronomy were carried out, including an Armenian-Iranian Astronomical Workshop held in Oct 2015 in Byurakan. Similar workshops have been carried out between BAO and Abastumani Astronomical Observatory (AbAO, Georgia) since 1974.

  7. West Nile Virus Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Pheng Lim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV in 1999 in the USA, and its continued spread throughout the Americas, parts of Europe, the Middle East and Africa, underscored the need for WNV antiviral development. Here, we review the current status of WNV drug discovery. A number of approaches have been used to search for inhibitors of WNV, including viral infection-based screening, enzyme-based screening, structure-based virtual screening, structure-based rationale design, and antibody-based therapy. These efforts have yielded inhibitors of viral or cellular factors that are critical for viral replication. For small molecule inhibitors, no promising preclinical candidate has been developed; most of the inhibitors could not even be advanced to the stage of hit-to-lead optimization due to their poor drug-like properties. However, several inhibitors developed for related members of the family Flaviviridae, such as dengue virus and hepatitis C virus, exhibited cross-inhibition of WNV, suggesting the possibility to re-purpose these antivirals for WNV treatment. Most promisingly, therapeutic antibodies have shown excellent efficacy in mouse model; one of such antibodies has been advanced into clinical trial. The knowledge accumulated during the past fifteen years has provided better rationale for the ongoing WNV and other flavivirus antiviral development.

  8. Marine water quality assessment at Mumbai West Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhage, S S; Chandorkar, A A; Kumar, Rakesh; Srivastava, A; Gupta, I

    2006-02-01

    In recent past, Mumbai Municipal corporation was not able to keep pace with required infrastructural facilities due to unprecedented population growth. Sewage disposal is one of the major issues, which needed immediate attention because huge quantity of sewage with only preliminary treatment is disposed into the nearby coastal areas and has deteriorated the water quality of the near coastal region. World Bank assisted Bombay Sewage Disposal Project (BSDP) undertaken by the Municipal Corporation of Bruhan Mumbai (MCBM) envisaged sewage discharges through marine outfalls at Worli and Bandra and treatment by aerated lagoons for other areas before disposal in creeks. During BSDP programme, studies were undertaken on water quality assessment along the west coast of Mumbai before and after commissioning of the Worli outfall. A pre- and post-commissioning water quality database for selected parameters was generated for near shore as well as west coast region up to 5 km seaward distance to assess the efficacy of the Worli outfall and delineate the areas affected around diffuser location of the outfall due to sewage disposal. This paper presents observations of the coastal studies at Mumbai and the impact zone of Worli outfall.

  9. 75 FR 16749 - Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee (Committee) in Charleston, South Carolina. DATES: The meeting..., National Marine Protected Areas Center, 1305 East West Highway, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910. (Phone: 301... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Marine Protected...

  10. 76 FR 66912 - Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee (Committee) in New Orleans, Louisiana. DATES: The meeting will be... Yeager, Designated Federal Officer, MPA FAC, National Marine Protected Areas Center, 1305 East West... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Marine Protected...

  11. Preliminary analysis of West Valley Waste Removal System equipment development and mock demonstration facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janicek, G.P.

    1981-06-01

    This report defines seven areas requiring further investigation to develop and demonstrate a safe and viable West Valley Waste Removal System. These areas of endeavor are discussed in terms of their minimum facility requirements. It is concluded that utilizing separated specific facilities at different points in time is of a greater advantage than an exact duplication of the West Valley tanks. Savannah River Plant's full-scale, full-circle and half-circle tanks, and their twelfth scale model tank would all be useful to varying degrees but would require modifications. Hanford's proposed full-size mock tank would be useful, but is not seriously considered because its construction may not coincide with West Valley needs. Costs of modifying existing facilities and/or constructing new facilities are assessed in terms of their benefit to the equipment development and mock demonstration. Six facilities were identified for further analysis which would benefit development of waste removal equipment

  12. Legume Diversity Patterns in West Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estrella, de la M.; Mateo, M.A.; Wieringa, J.J.; Mackinder, B.; Munoz, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives - Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are used to produce predictions of potential Leguminosae diversity in West Central Africa. Those predictions are evaluated subsequently using expert opinion. The established methodology of combining all SDMs is refined to assess species diversity

  13. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year),...

  14. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile to Zika

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile to Zika - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year), and...

  15. West Bank Gaza Geo-MIS System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Geo-MIS System is USAID/West Bank and Gaza's primary system for capturing and managing projectrelated information. Its purpose is to assist USAID and its...

  16. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected† notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  17. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile to Zika

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile to Zika - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year), and...

  18. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year),...

  19. Eighteenth annual West Coast theoretical chemistry conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    Abstracts are presented from the eighteenth annual west coast theoretical chemistry conference. Topics include molecular simulations; quasiclassical simulations of reactions; photodissociation reactions; molecular dynamics;interface studies; electronic structure; and semiclassical methods of reactive systems.

  20. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  1. Future markers of the West Greenlandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

    2010-01-01

    Abstract West Greenlandic, a polysynthetic language, belongs to Inuit languages. In Inuktitut (Canada) and West Greenlandic (Inuit languages) tense is marked by optional tense suffixes and in both languages the temporal systems are based on a future/ non-future opposition. In Inuktitut the tense...... suffixes have developed a complicated remoteness system. In West Greenlandic the future tense suffixes have a distinction between vague and inevitable future, and the past time suffixes have developed different perfect meanings. In Iñupiaq (Alaska), the temporal system is based on an opposition between...... past, present and future, where tense is marked in the flectional morpheme, but only in the indicative mood. There are only a few tense suffixes. The meanings of these tense suffixes are the same as those of the West Greenlandic tense suffixes. My current work is a typological investigation about...

  2. Characterizing forest reduction in Ketapang district, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASEP SUNJAYA ADHIKERANA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Adhikerana AS, Sugardjito J (2010 Characterizing forest reduction in Ketapang district, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 11: 46-54. We have characterized deforestation in the Ketapang district forests when we implemented the Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii Conservation in Trans-boundary Landscape between Central and West Kalimantan provinces. For the purpose of evaluating the changes in land use and land cover in the study areas, a series of Landsat imageries have been analyzed. Each of the Landsat imagery data set for all study areas was initially classified using unsupervised classification into 13 different land-cover types. Ground truth checks were undertaken for Ketapang district forests and Sungai Puteri peat swamp forest, from which the results were used for the supervised land use classification of these two study areas. Between 1992 and 2000 there was only small conversion of primary forest into secondary forests. During this period barren land remained extensive about 30.17% of the total area of Ketapang district. Both agriculture and plantation areas substantially increased 56% and 55% respectively during 2003, while at the same time the extent of both primary and peat swamp forests were considerably reduced up to 15% and 28% respectively. The most striking conversion was from secondary forest to agricultural land and from peat swamp forest to swamp areas. A fraction of lowland forest was also converted into oil-palm plantation which was extended with considerable size into agricultural land. The patterns of land use changes detected in this study indicated a number of possible causes that trigger deforestation in this district include, the local government policy and market demand.

  3. 33 CFR 334.670 - Gulf of Mexico south and west of Apalachicola, San Blas, and St. Joseph bays; air-to-air firing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico south and west of Apalachicola, San Blas, and St. Joseph bays; air-to-air firing practice range, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.670 Gulf of Mexico south and west of...

  4. Microbial keratitis in West and East Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Vanitha Ratnalingam; Thiageswari Umapathy; Kala Sumugam; Hanida Hanafi; Shamala Retnasabapathy

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the epidemiological and etiological factors of microbial keratitis seen in tertiary hospitals in West and East Malaysia.METHODS: A total of 207 patients were enrolled. Patients referred for microbial keratitis to Sungai Buloh Hospital and Kuala Lumpur Hospital in West Malaysia and Queen Elizabeth Hospital and Kuching General Hospital in East Malaysia were recruited. Risk factors were documented. Corneal scrapings for microscopy and culture were performed.RESULTS: The most com...

  5. Wildlife resources of the West African savanna

    OpenAIRE

    Bie, de, S.

    1991-01-01

    The wild fauna in Africa is a renewable resource and its overexploitation has led to the depletion of animal populations. This thesis focusses on the ecological characterization of the ungulate community of the West African savanna, with special reference to the Biosphere Reserve 'Boucle du Baoulé' in Mali, and makes a contribution to the ecological knowledge required for the conservation and management of West African savanna ecosystems.

    Part I contains background informatio...

  6. Environment, safety and health, management and organization compliance assessment, West Valley Demonstration Program, West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    An Environment, Safety and Health ''Tiger Team'' Assessment was conducted at the West Valley Demonstration Project. The Tiger Team was chartered to conduct an onsite, independent assessment of WVDP's environment, safety and health (ES ampersand H) programs to assure compliance with applicable Federal and State laws, regulations, and standards, and Department of Energy Orders. The objective is to provide to the Secretary of Energy the following information: current ES ampersand H compliance status of each facility; specific noncompliance items; ''root causes'' for noncompliance items; evaluation of the adequacy of ES ampersand H organization and resources (DOE and contractor) and needed modifications; and where warranted, recommendations for addressing identified problem areas

  7. West African pholcid spiders: an overview, with descriptions of five new species (Araneae, Pholcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard A. Huber

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes current knowledge about West African pholcids. West Africa is here defined as the area south of 17°N and west of 5°E, including mainly the Upper Guinean subregion of the Guineo-Congolian center of endemism. This includes all of Senegal, The Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo and Benin. An annotated list of the 14 genera and 38 species recorded from this area is given, together with distribution maps and an identification key to genera. Five species are newly described: Anansus atewa sp. nov., Artema bunkpurugu sp. nov., Leptopholcus kintampo sp. nov., Spermophora akwamu sp. nov., and S. ziama sp. nov. The female of Quamtana kitahurira is newly described. Additional new records are given for 16 previously described species, including 33 new country records. Distribution patterns of West African pholcids are discussed, as well as possible explanations for relatively low West African pholcid species diversity as compared to Central and East Africa.

  8. Groundwater quality in West Virginia, 1993-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Douglas B.; Kozar, Mark D.; White , Jeremy S.; Paybins, Katherine S.

    2012-01-01

    ), non-enforceable proposed MCL, or non-enforceable advisory health-based screening level (HBSL), were used as benchmarks against which to compare analytical results. Constituent concentrations were less than the MCLs in most samples. However, some samples exceeded non-enforceable SMCLs, proposed MCLs, or advisory HBSLs. Radon-222 concentrations exceeded the proposed MCL of 300 pCi/L in 45 percent of samples, and iron concentrations exceeded the SMCL of 300 µg/L in 57 percent of samples. Manganese concentrations were greater than the SMCL (50 µg/L) in 62 percent of samples and greater than the HBSL (300 µg/L) in 25 percent of the samples. Other sampled constituents, including organic compounds and trace elements, exceeded drinking-water criteria at much lower frequencies. The radon-222 median concentrations in samples from Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Permian, and Quaternary aquifers exceeded the proposed 300 pCi/L MCL. Although median radon concentrations for wells in Devonian, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian aquifers were less than the proposed MCL, radon concentrations greater than the proposed MCL were measured in samples from aquifers of all geologic ages. The median iron concentrations for samples from Devonian and Pennsylvanian aquifers were greater than the 300 µg/L SMCL. Iron concentrations exceeded the SMCL in aquifers of all geologic ages, except Cambrian. Median concentrations of manganese exceeded the SMCL in samples from Devonian, Pennsylvanian, and Quaternary aquifers. As with iron, manganese concentrations were found to exceed the SMCL in at least one sample from aquifers of all geologic ages, except Cambrian. Pesticides were detected most frequently and in higher concentrations in limestone-dominated areas. Most of West Virginia’s agriculture is concentrated in those areas. This study, the most comprehensive assessment of West Virginia groundwater quality to date, indicates the water quality of West Virginia’s groundwater is generally good

  9. B-WEST Regional Workforce Training Center. Building Workers Entering Skilled Trades. Employer Training Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portland Community Coll., OR.

    This guide, which was developed during the B-WEST (Building Workers Entering Skilled Trades) project, includes materials for use in training and providing on-site consultations to contractors, managers, supervisors, office/technical staff, and others in two areas: diversity in the workplace and sexual harassment in the workplace. Part 1, which…

  10. Land application of hydrofracturing fluids damages a deciduous forest stand in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Beth. Adams

    2011-01-01

    In June 2008, 303,000 L of hydrofracturing fluid from a natural gas well were applied to a 0.20-ha area of mixed hardwood forest on the Fernow Experimental Forest, West Virginia. During application, severe damage and mortality of ground vegetation was observed, followed about 10 d later by premature leaf drop by the overstory trees. Two years after fluid application,...

  11. The nature and forms of socio-political administration of West Niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper shows that the absence of the large and expansive state system in the West Niger Igbo area does not mean that the communities did not evolve any organizational forms suitable to their needs. It also shows that the communities in fact developed methods of organising their social and political administration.

  12. On medieval manuscript production in the Latin West, explorations with a global database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buringh, E.

    2009-01-01

    This study is the first to present detailed information on the production and uses of manuscripts in eleven geographical areas, together comprising the Latin West. We estimated the absolute production (in numbers of manuscripts copied per century) in Europe between 500 and 1500. In total some eleven

  13. Intestinal helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes in north-west Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magi M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 180 foxes (Vulpes vulpes from an area scarcely investigated of north-west Italy, were examined for intestinal helminths using sedimentation and counting technique (SCT. Faecal samples were submitted to centrifugation with 50 % zinc sulphate used as flotation solution.

  14. Grammar of Kove: An Austronesian Language of the West New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is a descriptive grammar of Kove, an Austronesian language spoken in the West New Britain Province of Papua New Guinea. Kove is primarily spoken in 18 villages, including some on the small islands north of New Britain. There are about 9,000 people living in the area, but many are not fluent speakers of Kove. The dissertation…

  15. Assessment of nutritional status of school children in Oyo West Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the nutritional status of primary school children in Oyo West Local Government Area of Oyo State. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was among 499 primary school children. The study instrument was a pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire.

  16. Natural Reforestation Reclaims a Watershed: A Case History from West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.P. Lima; J.H. Patric; N. Holowaychuk

    1978-01-01

    Thirteen years of hydrologic data from two contiguous small watersheds in West Virginia were analyzed to determine the effects on streamflow of natural reforestation on abandoned farmlands. During the study period (1958-1970), streamflow on the watersheds was unchanged. The history of land use on the study area helps explain the apparent lack of hydrologic effects of...

  17. It's not all about acid mine drainage (AMD) on the West Rand - there is dust too

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oosthuizen, R

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The West Rand is part of the Gauteng Province and is surrounded by mining activities. There have been several media and scientific reports about acid mine drainage (AMD) in this area. However, AMD is not the only environmental problem faced...

  18. Regional vegetation water effects on satellite soil moisture estimations for West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friesen, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Soil moisture information is a vital parameter for water resources planning and food production. In particular for West Africa, where income largely depends on rainfed agriculture, reliable information on available soil water is required for modeling and prediction. Over large areas and,

  19. The Rise and Fall of Nugormesese in a West African Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, I intend to conceptualize nugormesese as a basis of social capital in a West African farming community on the Ghana side of the Ghana-Togo border area. I will show that, by functioning as an environment of trust, nugormesese served as indigenous social capital that particularly facilitated binary relationships ...

  20. Using maximum entropy modeling to identify and prioritize red spruce forest habitat in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan R. Beane; James S. Rentch; Thomas M. Schuler

    2013-01-01

    Red spruce forests in West Virginia are found in island-like distributions at high elevations and provide essential habitat for the endangered Cheat Mountain salamander and the recently delisted Virginia northern flying squirrel. Therefore, it is important to identify restoration priorities of red spruce forests. Maximum entropy modeling was used to identify areas of...

  1. Characteristics of Zircon in Placer Deposits along the West Coast of South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philander, C.; Rozendaal, A.; de Meijer, R.J.

    Mining along the west coast of South Africa is dominated by the exploitation of onshore and offshore diamond deposits. The relatively recent discovery of vast resources of heavy minerals in the area has resulted in the establishment of a major related industry. Today, Namakwa Sands is a

  2. Biogeographical and anthropogenic determinants of landscape-scale patterns of raptors in West African savannas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buij, Ralph; Croes, Barbara M.; Komdeur, Jan

    Strong raptor population declines have recently been reported in sub-Saharan West Africa, where the pressure on wildlife and their supporting habitats is particularly high. This makes it imperative to understand the role of land-use on landscape-scale patterns of raptors and to define priority areas

  3. Information Needs of Farmers: A Case Study of Esan West Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assesses the information needs of farmers in Edo State using Esan West Local Government Area as a case study. 150 farmers were originally sampled for this study using the simple random sampling technique, but 132 farmers correctly responded to the questionnaires which were then analyzed using the simple ...

  4. Timber resource statistics for non-Federal forest land in west-central Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Gedney; Patricia M. Bassett; Mary A. Mei

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1985-86 timber resource inventory of the non-Federal forest land in the four counties (Benton, Lane, Lincoln, and Linn) in west-central Oregon. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  5. Malaria in Wanokaka and Loli sub-districts, West Sumba District, East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syafruddin, D.; Asih, P.B.; Coutrier, F.N.; Trianty, L.; Noviyanti, R.; Luase, Y.; Sumarto, W.; Caley, M.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Sauerwein, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    Malaria has long been known as one of the major public health problems in West Sumba District, East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. To obtain baseline data for establishment of a suitable malaria control program in the area, malariometric surveys were conducted in two sub-districts, Wanokaka and

  6. Fog-water harvesting along the West Coast of South Africa: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many parts of the West Coast of South Africa experience severe water shortages throughout the year. Despite the meager rainfall, however, the region is subject to a high incidence of fog which might provide water for water-poor communities. This paper investigates the fog water potential of the area. Since fog water ...

  7. Predicting events in the development of a coal surface mine in the west

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn M. Ferrante; Edward C. Thor

    1980-01-01

    Sudden changes in the level of coal mining activity in an area can cause immediate and profound changes in every facet of life in a rural community. Local officials and administrators of Federal and State governments often bear the brunt of responding to the disruptions that result from these changes. The nature of coal mining in the West is such that the community in...

  8. Adoptability of sustainable intensification technologies in dryland smallholder farming systems of West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woittiez, L.S.; Descheemaeker, K.K.E.; Giller, K.E.

    2015-01-01

    Within the framework of CGIAR Research Program (CRP) 1.1: Dryland Systems, the compilation of a review of options, constraints and potential for agricultural intensification at a number of specific sites in West African dryland areas has been requested, using an integrated systems approach. CRP 1.1

  9. Seismicity and Tectonics of the West Kaibab Fault Zone, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilgus, J. T.; Brumbaugh, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    The West Kaibab Fault Zone (WKFZ) is the westernmost bounding structure of the Kaibab Plateau of northern Arizona. The WKFZ is a branching complex of high angle, normal faults downthrown to the west. There are three main faults within the WKFZ, the Big Springs fault with a maximum of 165 m offset, the Muav fault with 350 m of displacement, and the North Road fault having a maximum throw of approximately 90 m. Mapping of geologically recent surface deposits at or crossing the fault contacts indicates that the faults are likely Quaternary with the most recent offsets occurring one of the most seismically active areas in Arizona and lies within the Northern Arizona Seismic Belt (NASB), which stretches across northern Arizona trending NW-SE. The data set for this study includes 156 well documented events with the largest being a M5.75 in 1959 and including a swarm of seven earthquakes in 2012. The seismic data set (1934-2014) reveals that seismic activity clusters in two regions within the study area, the Fredonia cluster located in the NW corner of the study area and the Kaibab cluster located in the south central portion of the study area. The fault plane solutions to date indicate NE-SW to EW extension is occurring in the study area. Source relationships between earthquakes and faults within the WKFZ have not previously been studied in detail. The goal of this study is to use the seismic data set, the available data on faults, and the regional physiography to search for source relationships for the seismicity. Analysis includes source parameters of the earthquake data (location, depth, and fault plane solutions), and comparison of this output to the known faults and areal physiographic framework to indicate any active faults of the WKFZ, or suggested active unmapped faults. This research contributes to a better understanding of the present nature of the WKFZ and the NASB as well.

  10. Water problems at the West Valley burial site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelleher, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    A history of the water problems encountered at the West Valley, New York, burial site is presented with recommendations concerning operation at this site to prevent migration of radioactivity off site. When a permit to bury wastes was first issued in 1963, the possibility of water ponding in trenches because of relatively impermeable soil was recognized. Water rose persistently in 3 completed trenches in the north burial area, so the permit was revised in 1968 to be more explicit on how the trenches should be constructed to minimize the entrance of water into completed trenches. Water has not risen in the 7 trenches in the south burial area, which were completed in accordance with the revised permit. Water continued to rise in the 4 trenches in the north burial area and in early 1975 water from 2 of these trenches began to seep out through the cover. Three of the trenches were pumped to halt this seepage. Monitoring of surface streams has indicated no large-scale migration of radioisotopes away from the burial site. However, extraneous sources of radioactivity made it impossible to detect small amounts of seepage. Soil samples taken in 1973 near the trenches confirmed that there was no large-scale underground migration. The borings did indicate the existence of perched groundwater near the problem trenches in the north burial area that could result in the horizontal migration of water in or out of trenches. The USGS is now making a detailed hydrogeological study of the burial area. Erosion control and prevention of water from entering completed trenches are the main environmental problems at the West Valley burial site

  11. 'Fishing' for alternatives to mountaintop mining in southern West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, Daniel J; Johnston, John M

    2013-04-01

    Mountaintop removal mining (MTR) is a major industry in southern West Virginia with many detrimental effects for small to mid-sized streams, and interest in alternative, sustainable industries is on the rise. As a first step in a larger effort to assess the value of sport fisheries in southern West Virginia, we estimate the potential abundances of two popular sport fishes-smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)-in the Coal River Basin (CRB). A self-thinning model that incorporates net primary production and terrestrial insect subsidies is first used to predict potential densities of adult (age 1+) smallmouth bass and brook trout. Predicted densities (fish ha(-1)) are then multiplied by the surface area of the CRB stream network (ha) to estimate regional abundance. Median predicted abundances of bass and trout are 38 806 and 118 094 fish (total abundances with the CRB), respectively. However, when streams that intersect permitted MTR areas in the CRB are removed from the dataset, predicted abundances of bass and trout decrease by ~12-14 %. We conclude that significant potential exists in the CRB to capitalize on sport fisheries, but MTR may be undermining this potential.

  12. The pre-diabetic epidemiological study in Depok, West Java.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunir, Em; Waspadji, Sarwono; Rahajeng, Ekowati

    2009-10-01

    To recognize the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose level (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in general population of Depok Area, West Java. the study was conducted in a population with age > or = 25 years, in Depok Area, West Java, which was selected by using two stage random sampling. Data were collected by using the Step Wise Approach of WHO. Subjects without previous diabetes history were categorized as diabetes if their fasting blood glucose level > or = 126 mg/dL, and or the 2-hour-after 75 gram glucose load > or = 200 mg/dL. While pre-diabetes was defined as IFG when the fasting blood glucose > or = 100 mg/dL to or = 200 mg/dL (ADA 2003). of 1200 participants, there were 975 participants who fulfilled the invitation and there were 969 eligible participants to be evaluated. Among the participants aged > or = 25 years, there were 40 (4.13%) subjects with isolated IFG and 234 (24.25%) subjects with isolated IGT, 55 subjects (5.68%) with mixed IFG/IGT. the prevalence of isolated impaired fasting blood glucose in population with age > or = 25 years is 4.13%; while the prevalence of isolated impaired glucose tolerance is 24.25%. Mixed IFG/IGT is 5.68%. The total prevalence of pre-diabetic patients is 33.96%.

  13. Risk mapping of West Nile virus circulation in Spain, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gómez, Amaya; Amela, Carmen; Fernández-Carrión, Eduardo; Martínez-Avilés, Marta; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel; Sierra-Moros, María José

    2017-05-01

    West Nile fever is an emergent disease in Europe. The objective of this study was to conduct a predictive risk mapping of West Nile Virus (WNV) circulation in Spain based on historical data of WNV circulation. Areas of Spain with evidence of WNV circulation were mapped based on data from notifications to the surveillance systems and a literature review. A logistic regression-based spatial model was used to assess the probability of WNV circulation. Data were analyzed at municipality level. Mean temperatures of the period from June to October, presence of wetlands and presence of Special Protection Areas for birds were considered as potential predictors. Two predictors of WNV circulation were identified: higher temperature [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.07, 95% CI 1.82-2.35, pSpain. The importance of a comprehensive surveillance for WNF, including human, animal and potential vectors is highlighted, which could additionally result in model refinements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 78 FR 70509 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ...: Modification of fishing seasons; request for comments. SUMMARY: NOAA Fisheries announces 23 inseason actions in... allowing fishers access to the available fish at the time the fish were available while ensuring that.... 130108020-3409-01] RIN 0648-XC964 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast...

  15. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and their caregivers were further interviewed to determine their concepts of the ... traditional religion. Rudiments of health education have been originally organized in two health centers and two maternity homes in the area. Nnamdi Azikiwe. University Teaching ..... epidemiological, sociocultural, and treatment aspects” ...

  16. Application of time domain electromagnetic method to study Lembang fault, West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo, Rasyid, Faeruz Maulana

    2017-07-01

    Lembang Fault is an active fault structure lied beneath a populous area of West Java. It is located at about 9 km from the city centre of Bandung. We have conducted an electromagnetic survey in the area suggested as the zone of Lembang Fault, the Karyawangi Village, West Bandung. Time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) measurements were carried out using two profiles, with a total number of 34 soundings. The TDEM data gives detail information of the shallow conductivity structure down to a depth of 100 m. The 1-D models consist of three layers in the research area. The first layer at the depth between 0 to 3 meters is dominated by low resistivity (resistivity (> 100 Ωm). The third layer with a resistivity of 10 - 100 Ωm corresponds to sandstone. The model indicates a local fault structure in the study area.

  17. Production Systems and Potential Development of Corn in West Pasaman Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulmar Jastra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L. is the second national food crop after rice and its role is increasing in line increase of population, livestock operations, and development of raw material corn processing industry. This research is a descriptive qualitative and quantitative as well as done in stages, namely: pre -study in order neighbor information gathering and general condition of farmers in the districts of West Pasaman, intensive desk study on the extent of data and the development of hybrid corn and all information obtained from pre -study activities; observation, field survey. This study aims to: identify systems of maize production in West Pasaman, identify potential areas of development and analysis of maize farming, Prepare Corn Development Action Programme in West Pasaman. Age maize farmers in West Pasaman between 40-60 years old, with old school for 9 years and the number of family members of farmers 5. The highest maize production in West Pasaman district occurred in 2009 amounted to 364 287 tonnes with 44 793 ha of harvested area and productivity of 6.99 tonnes/ha, in 2010, a decline in production to 220 761 tonnes with a productivity of 6.3 tons /ha due to a decline in harvested area into 33 757 ha. And in 2011 the production of corn production back to normal by 286 078 tons / year with 44 360 ha of harvested area and productivity of 6.50 tonnes/ha. Potential land that can be used to achieve the 142 850 ha of maize farming dominated peat and mineral soil of each area of 7,550 ha and 16,550 ha. Of corn farming can provide a gain of Rp 8,860,000,-/ha . When the period of 4 months of the corn crop corn farmer income per month is Rp 2.215.000,-

  18. Revitalization Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Revitalization areas are HUD-designated neighborhoods in need of economic and community development and where there is already a strong commitment by the local...

  19. 700 Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 700 Area of the Hanford Site is located in downtown Richland.Called the Federal Office Building, the Richland Operations Site Manager and the Richland Operations...

  20. Sequestration Options for the West Coast States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myer, Larry

    2006-04-30

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) is one of seven partnerships that have been established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and British Columbia. Led by the California Energy Commission, WESTCARB is a consortium of about 70 organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national laboratories and universities; private companies working on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. Both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options were evaluated in the Region during the 18-month Phase I project. A centralized Geographic Information System (GIS) database of stationary source, geologic and terrestrial sink data was developed. The GIS layer of source locations was attributed with CO{sub 2} emissions and other data and a spreadsheet was developed to estimate capture costs for the sources in the region. Phase I characterization of regional geological sinks shows that geologic storage opportunities exist in the WESTCARB region in each of the major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery. The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, the potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, and the cumulative production from gas reservoirs suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. A GIS-based method for source

  1. The Potential of Cacao Agribusiness for Poverty Alleviation in West Sumatra

    OpenAIRE

    Hasnah; Fleming, Euan M.; Villano, Renato A.; Patrick, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The cacao industry has played an important role in terms of export earnings and employment opportunities in Indonesia since 1980s. It is the main source of income for more than one million smallholder farmers in Indonesia, who are considered poor. Most planted areas of cacao are in Eastern Indonesia; however, cacao production has developed in Western Indonesia recently, with West Sumatra designated as the area of central production. Due to the importance of cacao industry in the Indonesian ec...

  2. Addressing diarrhea prevalence in the West African Middle Belt: social and geographic dimensions in a case study for Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pande, S.; Keyzer, M.A.; Arouna, A.; Sonneveld, B.G.J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: In West Africa, the Northern Sahelian zone and the coastal areas are densely populated but the Middle Belt in between is in general sparsely settled. Predictions of climate change foresee more frequent drought in the north and more frequent flooding in the coastal areas, while conditions

  3. An Exploration of the Associations among Hearing Loss, Physical Health, and Visual Memory in Adults from West Central Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay-McCutcheon, Marcia J.; Hyams, Adriana; Yang, Xin; Parton, Jason; Panasiuk, Brianna; Ondocsin, Sarah; James, Mary Margaret; Scogin, Forrest

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this preliminary study was to explore the associations among hearing loss, physical health, and visual memory in adults living in rural areas, urban clusters, and an urban city in west Central Alabama. Method: Two hundred ninety-seven adults (182 women, 115 men) from rural areas, urban clusters, and an urban city of west…

  4. Crustal and lithospheric structure of the west Antarctic Rift System from geophysical investigations: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, John C.

    1999-01-01

    The active West Antarctic Rift System, which extends from the continental shelf of the Ross Sea, beneath the Ross Ice Shelf and the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, is comparable in size to the Basin and Range in North America, or the East African rift systems. Geophysical surveys (primarily marine seismic and aeromagnetic combined with radar ice sounding) have extended the information provided by sparse geologic exposures and a few drill holes over the ice and sea covered area. Rift basins developed in the early Cretaceous accompanied by the major extension of the region. Tectonic activity has continued episodically in the Cenozoic to the present, including major uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains. The West Antarctic ice sheet, and the late Cenozoic volcanic activity in the West Antarctic Rift System, through which it flows, have been coeval since at least Miocene time. The rift is characterized by sparse exposures of late Cenozoic alkaline volcanic rocks extending from northern Victoria Land throughout Marie Byrd Land. The aeromagnetic interpretations indicate the presence of > 5 x 105 km2 (> 106 km3) of probable late Cenozoic volcanic rocks (and associated subvolcanic intrusions) in the West Antarctic rift. This great volume with such limited exposures is explained by glacial removal of the associated late Cenozoic volcanic edifices (probably hyaloclastite debris) concomitantly with their subglacial eruption. Large offset seismic investigations in the Ross Sea and on the Ross Ice Shelf indicate a ~ 17-24-km-thick, extended continental crust. Gravity data suggest that this extended crust of similar thickness probably underlies the Ross Ice Shelf and Byrd Subglacial Basin. Various authors have estimated maximum late Cretaceous-present crustal extension in the West Antarctic rift area from 255-350 km based on balancing crustal thickness. Plate reconstruction allowed < 50 km of Tertiary extension. However, paleomagnetic measurements suggested about 1000 km of post

  5. Lithologic and Ground-Water-Quality Data Collected Using Hoverprobe Drilling Techniques at the West Branch Canal Creek Wetland, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, April-May 2000

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pheloan, Daniel J; Senus, Michael P; Olsen, Lisa D

    2000-01-01

    This report presents lithologic and groundwater-quality data collected during April and May 2000 in the remote areas of the tidal wetland of West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland...

  6. Delta-15 Nitrogen values from all shores of Maui and benthic, algae, and urchin data from Kahekili, West Maui, 2007-2009 (NODC Accession 0068665)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hawaii Division of Aquatic Resources (DAR) established an Herbivore Fisheries Management Area (HFMA) in front of Kahekili Beach Park in West Maui that was...

  7. Delta-15 Nitrogen from All Shores of Maui and Benthic, Algae, and Urchin Data from Kahekili, West Maui, 2007-2009 (NODC Accession 0068665)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hawaii Division of Aquatic Resources (DAR) established an Herbivore Fisheries Management Area (HFMA) in front of Kahekili Beach Park in West Maui that was...

  8. West Europe Report No. 2040.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-05

    Development of Electronics tronics industry president in the Southwest), CCI of Mr Font, deputy Bourdeaux, 12 place de la Bourse Phone (56) 90-91-28...CCI of Bordeaux, 12, place Miscellaneous efforts Mr Font de la Bourse in support of the Mr Guilloumy enterprises Aquitaine Microelectronics Work...buy 100 percent of the four ITT subsidiaries in the area of telecommunications: the CGCT, which manufactures public and private telephone exchanges, La

  9. West Europe Report No. 2155

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-07

    foundries in the Piedmont. A 1981 study in the Reggio Emilia province shows that more than 300 foreign workers were employed in metalworking...areas of Sicily, the Arab immigrants have set up small casbahs with their little markets and a system of lodgings. 28 Emilia -Romagna. The most...factory for months. "The work is too repetitive, too boring," they told him. So he hired Egyptians and Tunisians. Throughout Emilia -Romagna

  10. West German Jewry: Guilt, Power and Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony d. Kauders

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The essay will address the history of West German Jewry using the concept of guilt as its guiding theme. Jews in West Germany had a bad conscience on account of living in the “land of the murderers.” This bad conscience not only distinguished them from other Jewish communities, it also explains much of what characterized West German Jewry from 1945 to 1989: its particular economic structure; its especially close ties to Israel; its preoccupation with democratization; its power arrangements; and its communal life. The essay will address these issues, and trace a development that led from a close-knit, ideologically homogeneous group to one that became ever more pluralistic in the 1970s and 1980s.

  11. West African spatial patterns of economic activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Howard, Allen; Retaillé, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, two different bodies of literature developed by both US historians and francophone geographers have moved toward similar conclusions regarding West African economic spatial patterns. Despite their different backgrounds, both the ‘spatial factor’ approach promoted by histor......Over the last 30 years, two different bodies of literature developed by both US historians and francophone geographers have moved toward similar conclusions regarding West African economic spatial patterns. Despite their different backgrounds, both the ‘spatial factor’ approach promoted...... traders, and where their differences lie. Finally, we show how a combined approach can make a significant contribution to the scholarly study of space in West Africa. We argue that continuing dialogue among fields can contribute to a reassessment of development policies....

  12. Familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR ala 60) in north west Ireland: a clinical, genetic, and epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, M M; Staunton, H; Harding, A E

    1995-01-01

    A cluster of cases of familial amyloid polyneuropathy has been described in Donegal, north west Ireland. Two patients from this region have been shown to have the ala 60 mutation in the transthyretin gene. Three kindreds with this mutation have also been described in the United States. Genealogical and haplotype studies indicate that all known patients with this mutation are related and are descended from a founder in north west Ireland. There is evidence for reduced penetrance of this disorder. A population based study showed that 1.1% of the population in this area in north west Ireland carry the mutation. This has implications in terms of diagnosis, genetic counselling, and treatment in the future. PMID:7608709

  13. The Dynamics of Malay Culture in West Kalimantan in the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ita Syamtasiyah Ahyat

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There are various Malay communities in West Kalimantan, which can be divided into two broad categories: (1 Malay migrants from outside Kalimantan (West Kalimantan or contemporary Malays and (2 local Malays or native Malays who are considered as indigenous Malays. Contemporary Malays are Malay people who came from various areas in Sumatra, Riau Islands, Malay peninsula, East Malaysia (Serawak and Sabah States, and Brunei Darussalam. This paper aims to reconstruct the dynamics of Malay culture in West Kalimantan. This historiographical project is undertaken by applying historical method which consists of several main steps: searching for relevant sources, selecting the sources, interpreting the sources, and reconstructing events as relevant to the main topic. Bibliography consists of local sources, documents, and works of foreign scholars which are relevant to the topic.

  14. Enabling Data Access for Environmental Monitoring: SERVIR West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetman, G.; de Sherbinin, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    SERVIR is a join effort between NASA and the U.S. Agency for International Development to form regional partnerships and bring satellite-based earth monitoring and geographic information technologies to bear on environmental issues. The recently established SERVIR node for West Africa aims to "connect space to villages" and enable response to environmental change at the national and local level through partnering with a network of organizations in the region. Comprehensive services—data streams, analysis methods and algorithms, and information products for decision making—to support environmental monitoring of five critical issues identified by West African network members are being designed and developed: ephemeral water, charcoal production, locusts, groundwater, and land use/land cover change. Additionally, climate change information is critical for planning and context in each of these issues. The selection of data and methods is a collaborative effort, with experts in the region working with experts at NASA and the scientific community to best meet information monitoring requirements. Design and delivery of these services requires capacity development in a number of areas, including best practices in data management, analysis methods for combining multiple data streams, and information technology infrastructure. Two research centers at Columbia University are implementing partners for SERVIR West Africa, acting to support capacity development in network members through a combination of workshops, training, and implementation of technologies in the region. The presentation will focus on efforts by these centers to assess current capabilities and improve capacity through gathering requirements, system design, technology selection, technology deployment, training, and workshops.

  15. The statistical distribution of aerosol properties in sourthern West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslett, Sophie; Taylor, Jonathan; Flynn, Michael; Bower, Keith; Dorsey, James; Crawford, Ian; Brito, Joel; Denjean, Cyrielle; Bourrianne, Thierry; Burnet, Frederic; Batenburg, Anneke; Schulz, Christiane; Schneider, Johannes; Borrmann, Stephan; Sauer, Daniel; Duplissy, Jonathan; Lee, James; Vaughan, Adam; Coe, Hugh

    2017-04-01

    The population and economy in southern West Africa have been growing at an exceptional rate in recent years and this trend is expected to continue, with the population projected to more than double to 800 million by 2050. This will result in a dramatic increase in anthropogenic pollutants, already estimated to have tripled between 1950 and 2000 (Lamarque et al., 2010). It is known that aerosols can modify the radiative properties of clouds. As such, the entrainment of anthropogenic aerosol into the large banks of clouds forming during the onset of the West African Monsoon could have a substantial impact on the region's response to climate change. Such projections, however, are greatly limited by the scarcity of observations in this part of the world. As part of the Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) project, three research aircraft were deployed, each carrying equipment capable of measuring aerosol properties in-situ. Instrumentation included Aerosol Mass Spectrometers (AMS), Single Particle Soot Photometers (SP2), Condensation Particle Counters (CPC) and Scanning Mobility Particle Sizers (SMPS). Throughout the intensive aircraft campaign, 155 hours of scientific flights covered an area including large parts of Benin, Togo, Ghana and parts of Côte D'Ivoire. Approximately 70 hours were dedicated to the measurement of cloud-aerosol interactions, with many other flights producing data contributing towards this objective. Using datasets collected during this campaign period, it is possible to build a robust statistical understanding of aerosol properties in this region for the first time, including size distributions and optical and chemical properties. Here, we describe preliminary results from aerosol measurements on board the three aircraft. These have been used to describe aerosol properties throughout the region and time period encompassed by the DACCIWA aircraft campaign. Such statistics will be invaluable for improving future

  16. Salt budget for West Pond, Utah, April 1987 to June 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wold, S.R.; Waddell, K.M.

    1994-01-01

    During operation of the West Desert pumping project, April 10. 1987, to June 30, 1989, data were collected as part of a monitoring program to evaluate the effects of pumping brine from Great Salt Lake into West Pond in northern Utah. The removal of brine from Great Sail was part of an effort to lower the level of Great Salt Lake when the water level was at a high in 1986. These data were used to prepare a salt budget that indicates about 695 million tons of salt or about 14.2 percent of salt contained in Great Salt Lake was pumped into West Pond. Of the 695 million tons of salt pumped into West Pond, 315 million tons (45 percent) were dissolved in West Pond, 71 million tons (10.2 percent) formed a salt crust at the bottom of the pond, 10 million tons (1.4 percent) infiltrated the subsurface areas inundated by storage in the pond, 88 million tons (12.7 percent) were withdrawn by American Magnesium Corporation, and 123 million tons (17.7 percent) discharged from the pond through the Newfoundland weir. About 88 million tons (13 percent) of the salt pumped from the lake could not be accounted for in the salt budget. About 94 million tons of salt (1.9 percent of the total salt in Great Salt Lake) flowed back to Great Salt Lake.

  17. Geographic distribution of phlebotomine sandfly species (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Central-West Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Paulo Silva; de Andrade, Andrey José; Sciamarelli, Alan; Raizer, Josué; Menegatti, Jaqueline Aparecida; Hermes, Sandra Cristina Negreli Moreira; de Carvalho, Maria do Socorro Laurentino; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    This study updates the geographic distributions of phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil and analyses the climatic factors associated with their occurrence. The data were obtained from the entomology services of the state departments of health in Central-West Brazil, scientific collections and a literature review of articles from 1962-2014. Ecological niche models were produced for sandfly species with more than 20 occurrences using the Maxent algorithm and eight climate variables. In all, 2,803 phlebotomine records for 127 species were analysed. Nyssomyia whitmani, Evandromyia lenti and Lutzomyia longipalpis were the species with the greatest number of records and were present in all the biomes in Central-West Brazil. The models, which were produced for 34 species, indicated that the Cerrado areas in the central and western regions of Central-West Brazil were climatically more suitable to sandflies. The variables with the greatest influence on the models were the temperature in the coldest months and the temperature seasonality. The results show that phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil have different geographical distribution patterns and that climate conditions in essentially the entire region favour the occurrence of at least one Leishmania vector species, highlighting the need to maintain or intensify vector control and surveillance strategies. PMID:26018450

  18. Response of arid ecosystems to the Holocene climate variability along west and central Mediterranean gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaouadi, Sahbi; Combourieu Nebout, Nathalie; Azuara, Julien; Lebreton, Vincent

    2017-04-01

    Decadal to millennial climate variability is a common feature recorded by environmental series. However interconnections between climate forcing (i.e. insolation, thermohaline circulation) and large atmospheric circulation patterns (i.e. North Atlantic Oscillation, Mediterranean Oscillation, Monsoon) still remain poorly understood considering their respective impacts on the global climate mechanisms. In the Mediterranean area, joint climatic influences from high temperate and low subtropical latitudes result in a high sensitivity of ecosystems to climate changes and especially to extreme events. Several vegetation records illustrate millennial changes in Mediterranean. Nevertheless notable discrepancies in the environmental response arise between Mediterranean edges (east vs west, north vs south). The new paleoenvironmental record from Sebkha Boujmel (33°N, southern Tunisia) covers the last 8kyr and exhibits eight humid/arid fluctuations with cyclic expansion of the desert, related to Middle and Late Holocene rapid climate changes (RCC) occurring at a centennial scale. Sebkha Boujmel record is replaced in the wider context of west Mediterranean and northern hemisphere. Asynchronies and disparity of the Mediterranean RCC occurrence documents north-south and west-east climate gradients in the west Mediterranean and pinpoint Sebkha Boujmel as the single vegetation record tracing as many climate events during the last 8kyr. Indeed the high sensitivity of arid environments triggers the prompt reaction of the southern Tunisian vegetation to Holocene RCC however tenuous. Pattern of RCC geographical occurrence in west and central Mediterranean is interpreted in the light of climate forcings involved for the Holocene centennial variability.

  19. A genetic comparison of West Greenland and Baffin Island (Canada walruses: Management implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liselotte Wesley Andersen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Until recently Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus have been subject to relatively intense exploitation in West Greenland. Animals in this stock have also been hunted in Nunavut/Canada. However, the demographic identity of these animals and their connection with walruses in neighbouring areas is poorly resolved, hampering the determination of sustainable harvest levels. It has been suggested that walruses in West Greenland are genetically linked with walruses at SE Baffin Island (Canada where they are also hunted for subsistence purposes. To determine the relationship(s between walruses in these areas we conducted a genetic analysis including recent samples from West Greenland, Southeast Baffin Island in western Davis Strait, Hudson Strait in Canada and Northwest Greenland in northern Baffin Bay. Seventeen microsatellite markers were applied to all samples. Walruses in West Greenland and at Southeast Baffin Island did not differ from each other and therefore may be regarded as belonging to the same stock. However, walruses in these two areas differed genetically from both Northwest Greenland and Hudson Strait walruses. These findings support (1 that there are subunits within the range of walruses in the Hudson Strait-Davis Strait-Baffin Bay region and (2 that walruses along E Baffin Island and W Greenland constitute a common population that receive some influx from Hudson Strait. Thus, sustainable catch levels in Southeast Baffin Island (Nunavut and in West Greenland must be set in light of the finding that they belong to the same stock, which is exploited in these two areas. This requires Canadian-Greenlandic co-management of the W Greenland-SE Baffin Island walrus stock.

  20. Feeding ecology of Greenland halibut and sandeel larvae off West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenberg, Claus; Munk, Peter; Folkvord, A.

    2006-01-01

    Feeding ecology of Greenland halibut (Gr. halibut) (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) and sandeel (Ammodytes sp.) larvae on the West Greenland shelf was studied during the main part of the productive season (May, June and July). Copepods were the main prey item for larval Gr. halibut and sandeel...... Strait. In June and July, the prey-rich areas for both species were mainly located at the slopes of the banks and at the shelf break area. Gut fullness was higher in these areas than in neighbouring areas, suggesting that the larval food resource could be scarce. The feeding ecology of Gr. halibut...