Morphet, Julia; Hood, Kerry; Cant, Robyn; Baulch, Julie; Gilbee, Alana; Sandry, Kate
The establishment of interprofessional teamwork training in the preprofessional health care curriculum is a major challenge for teaching faculties. Interprofessional clinical placements offer an opportunity for teamwork education, as students in various professions can work and learn together. In this sequential, mixed-method study, focus group and survey techniques were used to evaluate students' educational experiences after 2-week ward-based interprofessional clinical placements. Forty-five senior nursing, medicine, and other health care students cared for patients in hospital wards under professional supervision, with nursing-medicine student "teams" leading care. Thirty-six students attended nine exit focus groups. Five central themes that emerged about training were student autonomy and workload, understanding of other professional roles, communication and shared knowledge, interprofessional teamwork/collaboration, and the "inner circle", or being part of the unit team. The learning environment was described as positive. In a postplacement satisfaction survey (n=38), students likewise rated the educational experience highly. In practicing teamwork and collaboration, students were able to rehearse their future professional role. We suggest that interprofessional clinical placements be regarded as an essential learning experience for senior preprofessional students. More work is needed to fully understand the effect of this interactive program on students' clinical learning and preparation for practice.
Full Text Available Julia Morphet,1 Kerry Hood,2 Robyn Cant,2 Julie Baulch,3 Alana Gilbee,3 Kate Sandry4 1School of Nursing and Midwifery, Monash University, Frankston, Victoria, Australia; 2School of Nursing and Midwifery, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia; 3Southern Clinical School, Monash University, Monash Health, Clayton, Victoria, Australia; 4Dandenong Emergency Department, Monash Health, David St, Dandenong, Victoria, Australia Abstract: The establishment of interprofessional teamwork training in the preprofessional health care curriculum is a major challenge for teaching faculties. Interprofessional clinical placements offer an opportunity for teamwork education, as students in various professions can work and learn together. In this sequential, mixed-method study, focus group and survey techniques were used to evaluate students' educational experiences after 2-week ward-based interprofessional clinical placements. Forty-five senior nursing, medicine, and other health care students cared for patients in hospital wards under professional supervision, with nursing-medicine student "teams" leading care. Thirty-six students attended nine exit focus groups. Five central themes that emerged about training were student autonomy and workload, understanding of other professional roles, communication and shared knowledge, interprofessional teamwork/collaboration, and the "inner circle", or being part of the unit team. The learning environment was described as positive. In a postplacement satisfaction survey (n=38, students likewise rated the educational experience highly. In practicing teamwork and collaboration, students were able to rehearse their future professional role. We suggest that interprofessional clinical placements be regarded as an essential learning experience for senior preprofessional students. More work is needed to fully understand the effect of this interactive program on students' clinical learning and preparation for practice
Marks, Stefan; Windsor, John A; Wünsche, Burkhard
Virtual environments (VE) are increasingly used for teamwork training purposes, e.g., for medical teams. One shortcoming is lack of support for nonverbal communication channels, essential for teamwork. We address this issue by using an inexpensive webcam to track the user's head and using that data for controlling avatar head movement, thereby conveying head gestures and adding a nonverbal communication channel. In addition, navigation and orientation within the virtual environment is simplified. We present the design and evaluation of a simulation framework based on a game engine and consumer-level hardware and the results of two user studies showing, among other results, an improvement in the usability of the VE and in the perceived quality of realism and communication within the VE by using head tracking avatar and view control.
Full Text Available Introduction: Poor teamwork leads to preventable medical errors, and thus negatively impacts medical care. One way to improve teamwork is training. A multimodality team training program was designed to impact the attitudes and behavior of first-year residents who will encounter medical situations in the trauma room. The training program included low-fidelity role plays, lectures, and high-fidelity simulation with feedback. Materials and Methods: The training program was a one-day workshop that was conducted twice, once for each of the two groups over two days at the beginning of the academic year in July. A total of 41 first-year interns (10 Emergency Medicine and 31 Surgery were recruited for participation. Participants completed a Situational judgment test (SJT on trauma teamwork before training. The training began with a low-fidelity simulation that served as an icebreaker to team concepts. Subsequently, a lecture with discussion provided key points regarding teamwork in the trauma room. A high-fidelity simulation then allowed participation in one of four trauma room scenarios with medical expert debriefing. The course concluded with a course summary and an assessment of participant attitudes regarding training along with a second administration of SJT. Results: Participant reactions to the training were positive overall. Results of SJT showed a positive effect for team training in three of the four possible comparisons. Conclusion: The program was well received by the residents. Results suggest that a comprehensive training approach using role play, lecture, and simulation can positively affect behavioral choices for teamwork in the trauma room.
Morphet, Julia; Hood, Kerry; Cant, Robyn; Baulch, Julie; Gilbee, Alana; Sandry, Kate
Julia Morphet,1 Kerry Hood,2 Robyn Cant,2 Julie Baulch,3 Alana Gilbee,3 Kate Sandry4 1School of Nursing and Midwifery, Monash University, Frankston, Victoria, Australia; 2School of Nursing and Midwifery, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia; 3Southern Clinical School, Monash University, Monash Health, Clayton, Victoria, Australia; 4Dandenong Emergency Department, Monash Health, David St, Dandenong, Victoria, Australia Abstract: The establishment of interprofessional teamwork train...
Rydenfält, Christofer; Odenrick, Per; Larsson, Per Anders
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore how organizational design could support teamwork and to identify organizational design principles that promote successful teamwork. Design/methodology/approach Since traditional team training sessions take resources away from production, the alternative approach pursued here explores the promotion of teamwork by means of organizational design. A wide and pragmatic definition of teamwork is applied: a team is considered to be a group of people that are set to work together on a task, and teamwork is then what they do in relation to their task. The input - process - output model of teamwork provides structure to the investigation. Findings Six teamwork enablers from the healthcare team literature - cohesion, collaboration, communication, conflict resolution, coordination, and leadership - are discussed, and the organizational design measures required to implement them are identified. Three organizational principles are argued to facilitate the teamwork enablers: team stability, occasions for communication, and a participative and adaptive approach to leadership. Research limitations/implications The findings could be used as a foundation for intervention studies to improve team performance or as a framework for evaluation of existing organizations. Practical implications By implementing these organizational principles, it is possible to achieve many of the organizational traits associated with good teamwork. Thus, thoughtful organization for teamwork can be used as an alternative or complement to the traditional team training approach. Originality/value With regards to the vast literature on team training, this paper offers an alternative perspective on how to improve team performance in healthcare.
Sorensen, Asta; Poehlman, Jon; Bollenbacher, John; Riggan, Scott; Davis, Stan; Miller, Kristi; Ivester, Thomas; Kahwati, Leila
In situ simulations allow healthcare teams to practice teamwork and communication as well as clinical management skills in a team's usual work setting with typically available resources and equipment. The purpose of this video is to demonstrate how to plan and conduct in situ simulation training sessions, with particular emphasis on how such training can be used to improve communication and teamwork. The video features an in situ simulation conducted at a labour and delivery unit in response to postpartum hemorrhage. PMID:26294962
Mahramus, Tara L; Penoyer, Daleen A; Waterval, Eugene M E; Sole, Mary L; Bowe, Eileen M
Teamwork during cardiopulmonary arrest events is important for resuscitation. Teamwork improvement programs are usually lengthy. This study assessed the effectiveness of a 2-hour teamwork training program. A prospective, pretest/posttest, quasi-experimental design assessed the teamwork training program targeted to resident physicians, nurses, and respiratory therapists. Participants took part in a simulated cardiac arrest. After the simulation, participants and trained observers assessed perceptions of teamwork using the Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM) tool (ratings of 0 [low] to 4 [high]). A debriefing and 45 minutes of teamwork education followed. Participants then took part in a second simulated cardiac arrest scenario. Afterward, participants and observers assessed teamwork. Seventy-three team members participated-resident physicians (25%), registered nurses (32%), and respiratory therapists (41%). The physicians had significantly less experience on code teams (P teamwork scores were 2.57 to 2.72. Participants' mean (SD) scores on the TEAM tool for the first and second simulations were 3.2 (0.5) and 3.7 (0.4), respectively (P teamwork educational intervention resulted in improved perceptions of teamwork behaviors. Participants reported interactions with other disciplines, teamwork behavior education, and debriefing sessions were beneficial for enhancing the program.
Smith-Jentsch, Kimberly A.; Sierra, Mary Jane
The success of future long-duration exploration missions (LDEMs) will be determined largely by the extent to which mission-critical personnel possess and effectively exercise essential teamwork competencies throughout the entire mission lifecycle (e.g., Galarza & Holland, 1999; Hysong, Galarza, & Holland, 2007; Noe, Dachner, Saxton, & Keeton, 2011). To ensure that such personnel develop and exercise these necessary teamwork competencies prior to and over the full course of future LDEMs, it is essential that a teamwork training curriculum be developed and put into place at NASA that is both 1) comprehensive, in that it targets all teamwork competencies critical for mission success and 2) structured around empirically-based best practices for enhancing teamwork training effectiveness. In response to this demand, the current teamwork-oriented training needs analysis (TNA) was initiated to 1) identify the teamwork training needs (i.e., essential teamwork-related competencies) of future LDEM crews, 2) identify critical gaps within NASA’s current and future teamwork training curriculum (i.e., gaps in the competencies targeted and in the training practices utilized) that threaten to impact the success of future LDEMs, and to 3) identify a broad set of practical nonprescriptive recommendations for enhancing the effectiveness of NASA’s teamwork training curriculum in order to increase the probability of future LDEM success.
Gibert, Anaïs; Tozer, Wade C; Westoby, Mark
We provide a list of soft skills that are important for collaboration and teamwork, based on our own experience and from an opinion survey of team leaders. Each skill can be learned to some extent. We also outline workable short courses for graduate schools to strengthen teamwork and collaboration skills among research students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Furukawa, Tetsuro; Matsuishi, Masakatu; Matsumoto, Shigeo; Takemata, Kazuya; Yamakawa, Taketo
At the subject that aims to develop the student's teamwork competencies which is one of the most important ability as an engineer, the appraisal method was investigated. Almost all the team activities were evaluated, and correlations with that result and the peer evaluation, the self-evaluation and the team peer evaluation were examined. It was found that the correlation between the quality of the team activities and the team peer evaluation which is evaluated by other team members is highest.
Nielsen, Karina; Randall, R; Christensen, KB
The introduction of team-working often has positive effects on team members but places significant new demands on managers. Unfortunately, little research has examined whether the impact of the intervention may be enhanced by providing managers with training during the change process. To test...... this possibility we carried out a longitudinal intervention study (with a ‘no training’ comparison group) in a part of the Danish elderly care sector that was implementing teamwork. Kirkpatrick’s (1998) training evaluation model was used to examine the effects of training team managers in issues such as teamwork......, transformational leadership and change management on the outcomes of team implementation. We used a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods to isolate the impact of manager training on the success of the teamwork intervention. The results identified some significant, but modest, incremental...
Barton, Glenn; Bruce, Anne; Schreiber, Rita
Widespread demands for high reliability healthcare teamwork have given rise to many educational initiatives aimed at building team competence. Most effort has focused on interprofessional team training however; Registered Nursing teams comprise the largest human resource delivering direct patient care in hospitals. Nurses also influence many other health team outcomes, yet little is known about the team training curricula they receive, and furthermore what specific factors help translate teamwork competency to nursing practice. The aim of this review is to critically analyse empirical published work reporting on teamwork education interventions in nursing, and identify key educational considerations enabling teamwork competency in this group. CINAHL, Web of Science, Academic Search Complete, and ERIC databases were searched and detailed inclusion-exclusion criteria applied. Studies (n = 19) were selected and evaluated using established qualitative-quantitative appraisal tools and a systematic constant comparative approach. Nursing teamwork knowledge is rooted in High Reliability Teams theory and Crew or Crisis Resource Management sources. Constructivist pedagogy is used to teach, practice, and refine teamwork competency. Nursing teamwork assessment is complex; involving integrated yet individualized determinations of knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Future initiatives need consider frontline leadership, supportive followership and skilled communication emphasis. Collective stakeholder support is required to translate teamwork competency into nursing practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sehgal, Niraj L; Fox, Michael; Vidyarthi, Arpana R; Sharpe, Bradley A; Gearhart, Susan; Bookwalter, Thomas; Barker, Jack; Alldredge, Brian K; Blegen, Mary A; Wachter, Robert M
Communication and teamwork failures are a common cause of adverse events. Residency programs, with a mandate to teach systems-based practice, are particularly challenged to address these important skills. To develop a multidisciplinary teamwork training program focused on teaching teamwork behaviors and communication skills. Internal medicine residents, hospitalists, nurses, pharmacists, and all other staff on a designated inpatient medical unit at an academic medical center. We developed a 4-h teamwork training program as part of the Triad for Optimal Patient Safety (TOPS) project. Teaching strategies combined didactic presentation, facilitated discussion using a safety trigger video, and small-group scenario-based exercises to practice effective communication skills and team behaviors. Development, planning, implementation, delivery, and evaluation of TOPS Training was conducted by a multidisciplinary team. We received 203 evaluations with a mean overall rating for the training of 4.49 +/- 0.79 on a 1-5 scale. Participants rated the multidisciplinary educational setting highly at 4.59 +/- 0.68. We developed a multidisciplinary teamwork training program that was highly rated by all participating disciplines. The key was creating a shared forum to learn about and discuss interdisciplinary communication and teamwork.
Hobgood, Cherri; Sherwood, Gwen; Frush, Karen; Hollar, David; Maynard, Laura; Foster, Beverly; Sawning, Susan; Woodyard, Donald; Durham, Carol; Wright, Melanie; Taekman, Jeffrey
The authors conducted a randomised controlled trial of four pedagogical methods commonly used to deliver teamwork training and measured the effects of each method on the acquisition of student teamwork knowledge, skills, and attitudes. The authors recruited 203 senior nursing students and 235 fourth-year medical students (total N = 438) from two major universities for a 1-day interdisciplinary teamwork training course. All participants received a didactic lecture and then were randomly assigned to one of four educational methods didactic (control), audience response didactic, role play and human patient simulation. Student performance was assessed for teamwork attitudes, knowledge and skills using: (a) a 36-item teamwork attitudes instrument (CHIRP), (b) a 12-item teamwork knowledge test, (c) a 10-item standardised patient (SP) evaluation of student teamwork skills performance and (d) a 20-item modification of items from the Mayo High Performance Teamwork Scale (MHPTS). All four cohorts demonstrated an improvement in attitudes (F(1,370) = 48.7, p = 0.001) and knowledge (F(1,353) = 87.3, p = 0.001) pre- to post-test. No educational modality appeared superior for attitude (F(3,370) = 0.325, p = 0.808) or knowledge (F(3,353) = 0.382, p = 0.766) acquisition. No modality demonstrated a significant change in teamwork skills (F(3,18) = 2.12, p = 0.134). Each of the four modalities demonstrated significantly improved teamwork knowledge and attitudes, but no modality was demonstrated to be superior. Institutions should feel free to utilise educational modalities, which are best supported by their resources to deliver interdisciplinary teamwork training.
Chakraborti, Chayan; Boonyasai, Romsai T; Wright, Scott M; Kern, David E
Teamwork is important for improving care across transitions between providers and for increasing patient safety. This review's objective was to assess the characteristics and efficacy of published curricula designed to teach teamwork to medical students and house staff. The authors searched MEDLINE, Education Resources Information Center, Excerpta Medica Database, PsychInfo, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Scopus for original data articles published in English between January 1980 and July 2006 that reported descriptions of teamwork training and evaluation results. Two reviewers independently abstracted information about curricular content (using Baker's framework of teamwork competencies), educational methods, evaluation design, outcomes measured, and results. Thirteen studies met inclusion criteria. All curricula employed active learning methods; the majority (77%) included multidisciplinary training. Ten curricula (77%) used an uncontrolled pre/post design and 3 (23%) used controlled pre/post designs. Only 3 curricula (23%) reported outcomes beyond end of program, and only 1 (8%) >6 weeks after program completion. One program evaluated a clinical outcome (patient satisfaction), which was unchanged after the intervention. The median effect size was 0.40 (interquartile range (IQR) 0.29, 0.61) for knowledge, 0.38 (IQR 0.32, 0.41) for attitudes, 0.41 (IQR 0.35, 0.49) for skills and behavior. The relationship between the number of teamwork principles taught and effect size achieved a Spearman's correlation of .74 (p = .01) for overall effect size and .64 (p = .03) for median skills/behaviors effect size. Reported curricula employ some sound educational principles and appear to be modestly effective in the short term. Curricula may be more effective when they address more teamwork principles.
Training to ensure compliance with the myriad of laws and regulations imposed by federal, state, and local governments is a trend that will continue well into the 1990s. The cost of this training increasingly takes away from the bottom line of many companies and adds additional costs to the products and services being developed and sold. This cost is passed on to the consumer. When the government or one of its contractors incurs additional costs, they are passed on to the taxpayer. As budgets shrink and requirements go up it makes sense to find a way to maintain high quality and cut costs. The Quality Training and Resource Center was established at Hanford by the US Department of Energy to do just that; cut costs and maintain quality. This paper will explore the methodology used to establish a model based on contractor cooperation, teamwork, and resource sharing to improve training while Towering costs
Tyler, Denise A; Parker, Victoria A
The purpose of this study was to describe the organizational factors associated with high and low amounts of teamwork among direct-care workers in long-term care (LTC) facilities. A systematic analysis of observation data collected at 20 LTC facilities was first used to categorize facilities as high-, moderate-, or low-teamwork facilities. Next, qualitative analysis of 59 interviews collected in 4 high-teamwork and 5 low-teamwork facilities was used to identify the organizational factors associated with high and low teamwork. Findings showed that high- and low-teamwork LTC facilities in this study differed in three organizational areas: management style, training, and feedback and recognition. As such, improved teamwork in LTC facilities may result from changes to basic management practices, such as training and employee feedback. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.
A review of the evolution of the control room team is necessary to understand team training needs. As control room responsibilities have increased and members have been added to the operating crews, teamwork and strong leadership has become crucial to the efficiency of these operating crews. In order to conduct effective team training in a simulated control room, it is essential that the fundamental principles of role definition and common team values are fully developed. The diagnostics model used to develop problem-solving skills must be adaptable to the dynamic environment of the control room. Once the fundamental principles of team building and a good diagnostics model are mastered, many training techniques using a simulator are available to perfect the development of team building and diagnostic skills
This guide provides assistance in the development, implementation, and improvement of training on teamwork and diagnostics. DOE and contractor representatives identified the need for teamwork and diagnostics training guidance. This need was based on the increasing emphasis of properly applying knowledge and skills to complete assigned tasks. Teamwork and diagnostic skills have become a focal point because of the impact they have on effective facility operation and safety.
Planas-Lladó, Anna; Feliu, Lidia; Castro, Francesc; Fraguell, Rosa Maria; Arbat, Gerard; Pujol, Joan; Suñol, Joan Josep; Daunis-i-Estadella, Pepus
This article analyses the use of peer evaluation as a tool for evaluating teamwork and students' perceptions of this type of evaluation. A study was conducted of six subjects included on five degree courses at the University of Girona. In all of these subjects, students carried out a team activity, evaluated the performance of the team and the…
Hull, L; Bicknell, C; Patel, K; Vyas, R; Van Herzeele, I; Sevdalis, N; Rudarakanchana, N
To modify, content validate, and evaluate a teamwork assessment tool for use in endovascular surgery. A multistage, multimethod study was conducted. Stage 1 included expert review and modification of the existing Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery (OTAS) tool. Stage 2 included identification of additional exemplar behaviours contributing to effective teamwork and enhanced patient safety in endovascular surgery (using real-time observation, focus groups, and semistructured interviews of multidisciplinary teams). Stage 3 included content validation of exemplar behaviours using expert consensus according to established psychometric recommendations and evaluation of structure, content, feasibility, and usability of the Endovascular Observational Teamwork Assessment Tool (Endo-OTAS) by an expert multidisciplinary panel. Stage 4 included final team expert review of exemplars. OTAS core team behaviours were maintained (communication, coordination, cooperation, leadership team monitoring). Of the 114 OTAS behavioural exemplars, 19 were modified, four removed, and 39 additional endovascular-specific behaviours identified. Content validation of these 153 exemplar behaviours showed that 113/153 (73.9%) reached the predetermined Item-Content Validity Index rating for teamwork and/or patient safety. After expert team review, 140/153 (91.5%) exemplars were deemed to warrant inclusion in the tool. More than 90% of the expert panel agreed that Endo-OTAS is an appropriate teamwork assessment tool with observable behaviours. Some concerns were noted about the time required to conduct observations and provide performance feedback. Endo-OTAS is a novel teamwork assessment tool, with evidence for content validity and relevance to endovascular teams. Endo-OTAS enables systematic objective assessment of the quality of team performance during endovascular procedures. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Misawa, Ryo; Sasou, Kunihide
To maintain and improve the efficiency and safety of operations in numerous industries, it is necessary to develop programs that enhance teamwork. This can be achieved through empirical investigations that identify influential factors contributing to teamwork. This study focused on technical skill proficiency and leadership as influential factors and examined the relationships among these factors and teamwork behaviors. A series of measurements was performed on 54 operations teams with the cooperation of the training center of thermal power plants. Teamwork behaviors in training under simulated abnormal conditions were evaluated through instructors' observation using a behavior checklist. Technical skill proficiency was measured by conducting a brief survey on instructors. Leadership was measured on the basis of followers' responses on questionnaire scales. Based on the scores of technical skill proficiency and leadership, hierarchical cluster analysis revealed three types of teams: (a) F-type - the technical skills of followers are superior to those of leaders; (b) LF-type - both leaders and followers are proficient in technical skills; and (c) L-type - the technical skills of leaders are superior to those of followers. ANOVAs were conducted to examine differences in teamwork behavior for the three types of teams. The main results revealed that LF-type teams actively engaged in information gathering and that leaders played a central role in these activities. In addition, the followers of F-type teams freely exchanged their ideas and opinions regarding problems and actively discussed how to solve them. These findings suggest that teamwork behaviors can vary depending on technical skill proficiency and leadership in teams. Future research is needed to identify additional factors affecting teamwork that are not measured in this study. (author)
Carney, Brian T; West, Priscilla; Neily, Julia B; Mills, Peter D; Bagian, James P
There are differences between nurse and physician perceptions of teamwork. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these differences would be reduced with medical team training (MTT). The Safety Attitudes Questionnaire was administered to nurses and physicians working in the operating rooms of 101 consecutive hospitals before and at the completion of an MTT program. Responses to the 6 teamwork climate items on the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire were analyzed using nonparametric testing. At baseline, physicians had more favorable perceptions on teamwork climate items than nurses. Physicians demonstrated improvement on all 6 teamwork climate items. Nurses demonstrated improvement in perceptions on all teamwork climate items except "Nurse input is well received." Physicians still had a more favorable perception than nurses on all 6 teamwork climate items at follow-up. Despite an improvement in perceptions by physicians and nurses, baseline nurse-physician differences persisted at completion of the Veterans Health Administration MTT Program.
Morgan, Pamela J; Pittini, Richard; Regehr, Glenn; Marrs, Carol; Haley, Michèle F
The National Confidential Enquiry into Maternal Deaths identified "lack of communication and teamwork" as a leading cause of substandard obstetric care. The authors used high-fidelity simulation to present obstetric scenarios for team assessment. Obstetric nurses, physicians, and resident physicians were repeatedly assigned to teams of five or six, each team managing one of four scenarios. Each person participated in two or three scenarios with differently constructed teams. Participants and nine external raters rated the teams' performances using a Human Factors Rating Scale (HFRS) and a Global Rating Scale (GRS). Interrater reliability was determined using intraclass correlations and the Cronbach alpha. Analyses of variance were used to determine the reliability of the two measures, and effects of both scenario and rater profession (R.N. vs. M.D.) on scores. Pearson product-moment correlations were used to compare external with self-generated assessments. The average of nine external rater scores showed good reliability for both HFRS and GRS; however, the intraclass correlation coefficients for a single rater was low. There was some effect of rater profession on self-generated HFRS but not on GRS. An analysis of profession-specific subscores on the HFRS revealed no interaction between profession of rater and profession being rated. There was low correlation between externally and self-generated team assessments. This study does not support the use of the HFRS for assessment of obstetric teams. The GRS shows promise as a summative but not a formative assessment tool. It is necessary to develop a domain specific behavioral marking system for obstetric teams.
Britton, Emily; Simper, Natalie; Leger, Andrew; Stephenson, Jenn
Effective teamwork skills are essential for success in an increasingly team-based workplace. However, research suggests that there is often confusion concerning how teamwork is measured and assessed, making it difficult to develop these skills in undergraduate curricula. The goal of the present study was to develop a sustainable tool for assessing…
Vertino, Kathleen A
Teamwork is a critical component of a patient safety culture, and highly functioning teams make fewer errors. The purpose of this study was to determine if a customized TeamSTEPPS(©) training initiative would result in improved attitudes toward teamwork among nursing staff on an inpatient hospital unit. Analysis revealed significant increases in total scores as well as statistical significance on all 5 components of teamwork including team structure, leadership, situation monitoring, mutual support, and communication. Data support that TeamSTEPPS training can be useful to promote improved attitudes toward teamwork.
training, assessment, screen-based simulation, communication, leadership, situation monitoring, mutual support, psychological safety 16. SECURITY...feedback. Teamwork training, assessment, screen-based simulation, communication, leadership, situation monitoring, mutual support, psychological safety...themes were gathered from the interviews including introduction styles from team members, roles/structure of teams, psychological safety to encourage
Slootweg, Irene A; Lombarts, Kiki M J M H; Boerebach, Benjamin C M; Heineman, Maas Jan; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van der Vleuten, Cees P M
Teamwork between clinical teachers is a challenge in postgraduate medical training. Although there are several instruments available for measuring teamwork in health care, none of them are appropriate for teaching teams. The aim of this study is to develop an instrument (TeamQ) for measuring teamwork, to investigate its psychometric properties and to explore how clinical teachers assess their teamwork. To select the items to be included in the TeamQ questionnaire, we conducted a content validation in 2011, using a Delphi procedure in which 40 experts were invited. Next, for pilot testing the preliminary tool, 1446 clinical teachers from 116 teaching teams were requested to complete the TeamQ questionnaire. For data analyses we used statistical strategies: principal component analysis, internal consistency reliability coefficient, and the number of evaluations needed to obtain reliable estimates. Lastly, the median TeamQ scores were calculated for teams to explore the levels of teamwork. In total, 31 experts participated in the Delphi study. In total, 114 teams participated in the TeamQ pilot. The median team response was 7 evaluations per team. The principal component analysis revealed 11 factors; 8 were included. The reliability coefficients of the TeamQ scales ranged from 0.75 to 0.93. The generalizability analysis revealed that 5 to 7 evaluations were needed to obtain internal reliability coefficients of 0.70. In terms of teamwork, the clinical teachers scored residents' empowerment as the highest TeamQ scale and feedback culture as the area that would most benefit from improvement. This study provides initial evidence of the validity of an instrument for measuring teamwork in teaching teams. The high response rates and the low number of evaluations needed for reliably measuring teamwork indicate that TeamQ is feasible for use by teaching teams. Future research could explore the effectiveness of feedback on teamwork in follow up measurements.
Slootweg, Irene A.; Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.; Boerebach, Benjamin C. M.; Heineman, Maas Jan; Scherpbier, Albert J. J. A.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.
Background Teamwork between clinical teachers is a challenge in postgraduate medical training. Although there are several instruments available for measuring teamwork in health care, none of them are appropriate for teaching teams. The aim of this study is to develop an instrument (TeamQ) for measuring teamwork, to investigate its psychometric properties and to explore how clinical teachers assess their teamwork. Method To select the items to be included in the TeamQ questionnaire, we conducted a content validation in 2011, using a Delphi procedure in which 40 experts were invited. Next, for pilot testing the preliminary tool, 1446 clinical teachers from 116 teaching teams were requested to complete the TeamQ questionnaire. For data analyses we used statistical strategies: principal component analysis, internal consistency reliability coefficient, and the number of evaluations needed to obtain reliable estimates. Lastly, the median TeamQ scores were calculated for teams to explore the levels of teamwork. Results In total, 31 experts participated in the Delphi study. In total, 114 teams participated in the TeamQ pilot. The median team response was 7 evaluations per team. The principal component analysis revealed 11 factors; 8 were included. The reliability coefficients of the TeamQ scales ranged from 0.75 to 0.93. The generalizability analysis revealed that 5 to 7 evaluations were needed to obtain internal reliability coefficients of 0.70. In terms of teamwork, the clinical teachers scored residents' empowerment as the highest TeamQ scale and feedback culture as the area that would most benefit from improvement. Conclusions This study provides initial evidence of the validity of an instrument for measuring teamwork in teaching teams. The high response rates and the low number of evaluations needed for reliably measuring teamwork indicate that TeamQ is feasible for use by teaching teams. Future research could explore the effectiveness of feedback on teamwork in
Vermeulen, B; Carron, P-N
The study of dynamics in relation to performing in small groups has increased pedagogic knowledge about teamwork. The successful management of patients with life-threatening pathologies depends highly from a succession of teams with a specific mission as: the call centre 144, Paramedics, the ED, the Operating Theatre and the Intensive care. To enable each team to operate successfully, it is essential to coordinate their qualifications and synergism. This can be efficiently attained by simulating real situations and by following protocols dedicated to teamwork. Emergency Medicine, which is on the brink of acquiring its proper curriculum, must adopt this concept to integrate knowledge and know-how, and the art of being and doing. At this stage, the Emergency Physician will have the competence which will enable him to be a real "team leader".
Del Barrio Linares, M; Reverte Sanchez, M
It has been demonstrated that teamwork has a direct positive effect on the quality and the efficiency of patient's care and consequently on hospital costs. 1.To assess attitudes toward the teamwork of nurses and physicians of 6 ICUs in two teaching hospitals. 2.To analyze if there are any relationships between attitudes toward teamwork and socio-demographic variables. 3.To study if there are differences in the attitudes toward teamwork among professionals of the different units. This prospective study evaluated the attitudes of teamwork of 136 professionals with the scale development by Heinemann et al. in 1999. This scale is made up of three subscales that measure the value of being in a team, the efficiency of the team and the function of collaboration of the physician within the team. The majority of professionals had a positive attitude towards teamwork. They obtained a mean score of 97.01 for a maximum of 120 points. In regards to sociodemographic variables, statistically significant differences were only found in gender and professional category, as women and female nurses had better attitudes toward teamwork. There were no differences in attitudes towards teamwork in the different units studied. Attitude toward teamwork by physicians and nurses of the 6 ICUs studied was good. No differences were found between attitudes toward teamwork among the professionals of the different units. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.
Harden, Stephen W
More than 20 years of teamwork, research, and experience in high-risk industries such as aviation, nuclear power, and military operations have clearly demonstrated that teamwork training and checklist usage can overcome the primary causes of adverse events. There is a growing body of evidence that checklist programs have the same error-reducing effect in operating rooms (OR) as in other industries. The benefits include documented improvements in patient safety and quality care; a better office, surgery center, or hospital in which to practice medicine; reduced exposure to malpractice risk; and increased efficiency in the OR.
Weingart, Saul N; Simchowitz, Brett; Eng, Terry Kahlert; Morway, Laurinda; Spencer, Justin; Zhu, Junya; Cleary, Christine; Korman-Parra, Janet; Horvath, Kathleen
Health care organizations have begun to adapt high-performance teamwork training techniques from aviation to clinical environments. Oncology care is often delivered in multispecialty teams and with the patient's and family's active involvement. To examine the potential value of a patient-oriented teamwork intervention, a teamwork training initiative for oncology patients and their families was developed at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. The content and format of the initiative evolved iteratively on the basis of several core team-training concepts derived from the research literature in health care and aviation. Initially a targeted intervention, the program evolved into a multifaceted campaign that included internal marketing, staff training, and one-on-one patient outreach by a group of volunteers. The You CAN campaign sought to convey a positive and empowering message that encouraged patients to (1) check for hazards in the environment, (2) ask questions of clinicians, and (3) notify staff of safety concerns. The You CAN campaignwas conducted from July through September 2007. To assess its progress, patients were surveyed at baseline and during the campaign. On the basis of the survey results, 32% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 25%-38%) of the ambulatory clinic population, or 1,145 patients, were exposed to the campaign. Although patients rated the quality of teamwork and communication favorably at both baseline and followup, there was no significant change in the self-reported use of teamwork techniques on a written survey. However, 39% (95% CI: 27%-51%) of those who were exposed to the campaign said that it changed their behavior. A training program for patients and their families is feasible in ambulatory oncology and may be applicable to other clinical settings.
Nguyen, Ngan; Watson, William D; Dominguez, Edward
Simulation is a technique recommended for teaching and measuring teamwork, but few published methodologies are available on how best to design simulation for teamwork training in surgery and health care in general. The purpose of this article is to describe a general methodology, called event-based approach to training (EBAT), to guide the design of simulation for teamwork training and discuss its application to surgery. The EBAT methodology draws on the science of training by systematically introducing training exercise events that are linked to training requirements (i.e., competencies being trained and learning objectives) and performance assessment. The EBAT process involves: Of the 4 teamwork competencies endorsed by the Agency for Healthcare Research Quality and Department of Defense, "communication" was chosen to be the focus of our training efforts. A total of 5 learning objectives were defined based on 5 validated teamwork and communication techniques. Diagnostic laparoscopy was chosen as the clinical context to frame the training scenario, and 29 KSAs were defined based on review of published literature on patient safety and input from subject matter experts. Critical events included those that correspond to a specific phase in the normal flow of a surgical procedure as well as clinical events that may occur when performing the operation. Similar to the targeted KSAs, targeted responses to the critical events were developed based on existing literature and gathering input from content experts. Finally, a 29-item EBAT-derived checklist was created to assess communication performance. Like any instructional tool, simulation is only effective if it is designed and implemented appropriately. It is recognized that the effectiveness of simulation depends on whether (1) it is built upon a theoretical framework, (2) it uses preplanned structured exercises or events to allow learners the opportunity to exhibit the targeted KSAs, (3) it assesses performance, and (4
Rodger, Sylvia; Mickan, Sharon; Marinac, Julie; Woodyatt, Gail
This report outlines the teamwork learning outcomes of an interprofessional workshop conducted with a cohort of 81 graduate-entry students of occupational therapy, physiotherapy, speech pathology, and audiology. This four-hour workshop was based around a case scenario of a child with developmental coordination disorder. This report describes and evaluates the development of knowledge and skills of teamwork that were facilitated through this workshop. Students completed questionnaires before and after the workshop about their knowledge of teamwork, requisites for working together, the utility of the workshop, and learning outcomes. The evaluation indicated that the workshop was successful from the students' perspectives in confirming the importance of teamwork and the processes of communication and collaborative goal setting. Students refined their own professional roles and developed an appreciation of the contribution of other professions and parents. This recognition of the comparative value of different professional contributions in providing holistic patient care is one of the starting points for education about interprofessional teamwork.
Reader, Tom W; Cuthbertson, Brian H
The aviation industry has made significant progress in identifying the skills and behaviors that result in effective teamwork. Its conceptualization of teamwork, development of training programs, and design of assessment tools are highly relevant to the intensive care unit (ICU). Team skills are important for maintaining safety in both domains, as multidisciplinary teams must work effectively under highly complex, stressful, and uncertain conditions. However, there are substantial differences in the nature of work and structure of teams in the ICU in comparison with those in aviation. While intensive care medicine may wish to use the advances made by the aviation industry for conceptualizing team skills and implementing team training programs, interventions must be tailored to the highly specific demands of the ICU.
Kalisch, Beatrice J; Xie, Boqin; Ronis, David L
Teamwork is essential for patient safety and results in less missed nursing care. The aim of this study was to test the impact of a train-the-trainer intervention on the level of satisfaction with nursing teamwork and the amount of missed nursing care. This study used a quasiexperimental design with repeated measures taken at pretest, posttest, and 2 months after completion of the intervention. The sample for this study was the nursing staff on three medical-surgical units in three separate acute care hospitals (one unit in each hospital). Three nurses from each unit underwent a training program and then taught the skills and knowledge they acquired to the staff members on their units in three-hour-long sessions. The training involved staff role-playing scenarios based on teamwork problems that occur regularly on inpatient units in acute care hospitals followed by debriefing, which focused on teamwork behaviors (e.g., leadership, team orientation, backup, performance monitoring) and missed nursing care. Four measures were used to test the efficacy of this intervention: The Nursing Teamwork Survey, the MISSCARE Survey, and questions about the knowledge of and satisfaction with teamwork. Return rates for the surveys ranged from 73% to 84%. Follow-up tests individually comparing pretest, posttest, and delayed posttest were conducted within the mixed model and used the Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Teamwork increased (F = 6.91, df = 259.01, p = .001) and missed care decreased (F = 3.59, df = 251.29, p = .03) over time. Nursing staff also reported a higher level of satisfaction with teamwork and an increase of teamwork knowledge after the intervention. The intervention tested in this study shows promise of being an effective and efficient approach to increase nursing teamwork and decrease missed nursing care.
Robertson, Eleanor; Morgan, Lauren; New, Steve; Pickering, Sharon; Hadi, Mohammed; Collins, Gary; Rivero Arias, Oliver; Griffin, Damian; McCulloch, Peter
Background To investigate the effectiveness of combining teamwork training and lean process improvement, two distinct approaches to improving surgical safety. We conducted a controlled interrupted time series study in a specialist UK Orthopaedic hospital incorporating a plastic surgery team (which received the intervention) and an Orthopaedic theatre team acting as a control. Study Design We used a 3 month intervention with 3 months data collection period before and after it. A combined teamwork training and lean process improvement intervention was delivered by an experienced specialist team. Before and after the intervention we evaluated team non-technical skills using NOTECHS II, technical performance using the glitch rate and WHO checklist compliance using a simple 3 point scale. We recorded complication rate, readmission rate and length of hospital stay data for 6 months before and after the intervention. Results In the active group, but not the control group, full compliance with WHO Time Out (T/O) increased from 14 to 71% (p = 0.032), Sign Out attempt rate (S/O) increased from 0% to 50% (pteamwork training and systems improvement enhanced both technical and non-technical operating team process measures, and were associated with a trend to better safety outcome measures in a controlled study comparison. We suggest that approaches which address both system and culture dimensions of safety may prove valuable in reducing risks to patients. PMID:26381643
Wallin, Carl-Johan; Kalman, Sigridur; Sandelin, Annika; Färnert, May-Lena; Dahlstrand, Ursula; Jylli, Leena
Positive safety and a teamwork climate in the training environment may be a precursor for successful teamwork training. This pilot project aimed to implement and test whether a new interdisciplinary and team-based approach would result in a positive training climate in the operating theatre. A 3-day educational module for training the complete surgical team of specialist nursing students and residents in safe teamwork skills in an authentic operative theatre, named Co-Op, was implemented in a university hospital. Participants' (n=22) perceptions of the 'safety climate' and the 'teamwork climate', together with their 'readiness for inter-professional learning', were measured to examine if the Co-Op module produced a positive training environment compared with the perceptions of a control group (n=11) attending the conventional curriculum. The participants' perceptions of 'safety climate' and 'teamwork climate' and their 'readiness for inter-professional learning' scores were significantly higher following the Co-Op module compared with their perceptions following the conventional curriculum, and compared with the control group's perceptions following the conventional curriculum. The Co-Op module improved 'safety climate' and 'teamwork climate' in the operating theatre, which suggests that a deliberate and designed educational intervention can shape a learning environment as a model for the establishment of a safety culture.
Corcoran, W.R.; Braun, J.C.; Kreps, D.A.; Grasso, D.J.
The authors have developed and are conducting a training program to promote teamwork between individuals and groups at Combustion Engineering. It consists of a series of courses taught as part of the in-house training and personnel development program. Material dealing with transactional analysis, negotiation and problem solving skills is presented in a seminar type format. The courses are generally taught after working hours. Individuals are not paid for the time that they attend, nor is a fee charged. Since its inception in 1978, over 500 people have attended the program
Shen, Yide; Li, Lei; Zheng, Guangzhi; Guo, Rong
Collaboration technologies play an increasingly important role in student teamwork in universities. With the proliferation of collaboration systems on the market and the wide range of features they offer, choosing an appropriate system can be an overwhelming task for college students. In this paper, the authors present an empirical study that…
Strom, Paris S.; Thompson, MaryEllen; Strom, Robert D.
Teamwork skills are considered essential in a work environment characterized by diversity and interdependence. Consequently, middle grade teachers arrange cooperative learning so students can acquire experience with solving problems in groups. Teachers also acknowledge that they are frustrated because appropriate instruments are lacking to track…
Earnest, Mark A; Williams, Jason; Aagaard, Eva M
Teamwork and collaboration are increasingly listed as core competencies for undergraduate health professions education. Despite the clear mandate for teamwork training, the optimal method for providing that training is much less certain. In this Perspective, the authors propose a three-level classification of pedagogical approaches to teamwork training based on the presence of two key learning factors: interdependent work and explicit training in teamwork. In this classification framework, level 1-minimal team learning-is where learners work in small groups but neither of the key learning factors is present. Level 2-implicit team learning-engages learners in interdependent learning activities but does not include an explicit focus on teamwork. Level 3-explicit team learning-creates environments where teams work interdependently toward common goals and are given explicit instruction and practice in teamwork. The authors provide examples that demonstrate each level. They then propose that the third level of team learning, explicit team learning, represents a best practice approach in teaching teamwork, highlighting their experience with an explicit team learning course at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus. Finally, they discuss several challenges to implementing explicit team-learning-based curricula: the lack of a common teamwork model on which to anchor such a curriculum; the question of whether the knowledge, skills, and attitudes acquired during training would be transferable to the authentic clinical environment; and effectively evaluating the impact of explicit team learning.
Perrier de Benedetti, Cristina; Beker, Ester; Cimadoro, Ana; Pausa, Cristina; Quintana, Irene
In this paper we describe the methodology of teaching learning process that permits integration of theory and practice for the transmission of the three fundamental pillars of Mental Health Programme: learning doctor patient relationship, situational diagnosis and team work. The number and diversity of students in each course is a challenge for the teacher, who sustains the idea that the doctor patient relationship is learned starting from the teacher student relationship. Like patients, each student is unique. We describe the method used: to divide students into groups, that throughout the year become working-teams with the intention of practicing Medicine with an interpersonal relationship concept (with the patient, his or her family, his social circle, with colleagues, nursery, assistants and institutions). Each unit is coordinated by a group teacher. They have periodic meetings with the students (in the Balint Junior groups' method). The students have to create the contents and participate in the dynamics of the classes. This methodology changes the traditional vision and the teacher has the function of an organizer and facilitator of learning. It includes: a. Group division, b. Preparation of a file, c. Workshop, d. Teaching and e. Evaluation Teaching learning is conducive to a facilitating atmosphere through different resources like story telling, diagrams, drawings, movies, literature, use of plastic, role playing, elaborating scenes, characters and the file, evidence of all the activities.
Morgan, Lauren; Pickering, Sharon P; Hadi, Mohammed; Robertson, Eleanor; New, Steve; Griffin, Damian; Collins, Gary; Rivero-Arias, Oliver; Catchpole, Ken; McCulloch, Peter
Teamwork training and system standardisation have both been proposed to reduce error and harm in surgery. Since the approaches differ markedly, there is potential for synergy between them. Controlled interrupted time series with a 3 month intervention and observation phases before and after. Operating theatres conducting elective orthopaedic surgery in a single hospital system (UK Hospital Trust). Teamwork training based on crew resource management plus training and follow-up support in developing standardised operating procedures. Focus of subsequent standardisation efforts decided by theatre staff. Paired observers watched whole procedures together. We assessed non-technical skills using NOTECHS II, technical performance using glitch rate and compliance with WHO checklist using a simple quality tool. We measured complication and readmission rates and hospital stay using hospital administrative records. Before/after change was compared in the active and control groups using two-way ANOVA and regression models. 1121 patients were operated on before and 1100 after intervention. 44 operations were observed before and 50 afterwards. Non-technical skills (p=0.002) and WHO compliance (pteamwork and system improvement causes marked improvements in team behaviour and WHO performance, but not technical performance or outcome. These findings are consistent with the synergistic hypothesis, but larger controlled studies with a strong implementation strategy are required to test potential outcome effects. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Siassakos, Dimitrios; Fox, Robert; Bristowe, Katherine; Angouri, Jo; Hambly, Helen; Robson, Lauren; Draycott, Timothy J
We describe lessons for safety from a synthesis of seven studies of teamwork, leadership and team training across a healthcare region. Two studies identified successes and challenges in a unit with embedded team training: a staff survey demonstrated a positive culture but a perceived need for greater senior presence; training improved actual emergency care, but wide variation in team performance remained. Analysis of multicenter simulation records showed that variation in patient safety and team efficiency correlated with their teamwork but not individual knowledge, skills or attitudes. Safe teams tended to declare the emergency earlier, hand over in a more structured way, and use closed-loop communication. Focused and directed communication was also associated with better patient-actor perception of care. Focus groups corroborated these findings, proposed that the capability and experience of the leader is more important than seniority, and identified teamwork and leadership issues that require further research. © 2013 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Chen, Chung-Yang; Hong, Ya-Chun; Chen, Pei-Chi
Software development relies heavily on teamwork; determining how to streamline this collaborative development is an essential training subject in computer and software engineering education. A team process known as the meetings-flow (MF) approach has recently been introduced in software capstone projects in engineering programs at various…
Khanna, Niharika; Shaya, Fadia T; Gaitonde, Priyanka; Abiamiri, Andrea; Steffen, Ben; Sharp, David
Each of the participating patient-centered medical home (PCMH) received coaching and participated in learning collaborative for improving teamwork. The objective of the study was to assess the impact of trainings on patient-centered teamwork. The Teamwork Perception Questionnaire (TPQ) was administered once in spring 2014 and then in fall 2015. The TPQ consists of 35 questions across 5 domains: mutual support, situation monitoring, communication, team structure, and leadership. Based on our objective we compared the frequencies of strongly agree/agree by domain. The difference was tested using chi-square test. We compared the scores on each domain (strongly agree/agree = 1; maximum score = 7) via Wilcoxon rank sum test. The response rate for this survey was n = 29 (80.6%) in spring 2014, and n = 31 (86.1%) in fall 2015. We found that the practice members significantly ( P teamwork specifically in communication and in leadership. This we believe will continue to result in enhanced patient access to care and safety.
Hobson, Charles J.; Strupeck, David; Griffin, Andrea; Szostek, Jana; Rominger, Anna S.
A comprehensive educational program for teaching behavioral teamwork and team leadership skills was rigorously evaluated with 148 MBA students enrolled at an urban regional campus of a Midwestern public university. Major program components included (1) videotaped student teams in leaderless group discussion (LGD) exercises at the course beginning…
Frykman, Mandus; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Muntlin Athlin, Åsa; Hasson, Henna; Mazzocato, Pamela
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to uncover the mechanisms influencing the sustainability of behavior changes following the implementation of teamwork. Design/methodology/approach Realistic evaluation was combined with a framework (DCOM®) based on applied behavior analysis to study the sustainability of behavior changes two and a half years after the initial implementation of teamwork at an emergency department. The DCOM® framework was used to categorize the mechanisms of behavior change interventions (BCIs) into the four categories of direction, competence, opportunity, and motivation. Non-participant observation and interview data were used. Findings The teamwork behaviors were not sustained. A substantial fallback in managerial activities in combination with a complex context contributed to reduced direction, opportunity, and motivation. Reduced direction made staff members unclear about how and why they should work in teams. Deterioration of opportunity was evident from the lack of problem-solving resources resulting in accumulated barriers to teamwork. Motivation in terms of management support and feedback was reduced. Practical implications The implementation of complex organizational changes in complex healthcare contexts requires continuous adaption and managerial activities well beyond the initial implementation period. Originality/value By integrating the DCOM® framework with realistic evaluation, this study responds to the call for theoretically based research on behavioral mechanisms that can explain how BCIs interact with context and how this interaction influences sustainability.
Slootweg, Irene A.; Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.; Boerebach, Benjamin C. M.; Heineman, Maas Jan; Scherpbier, Albert J. J. A.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.
Teamwork between clinical teachers is a challenge in postgraduate medical training. Although there are several instruments available for measuring teamwork in health care, none of them are appropriate for teaching teams. The aim of this study is to develop an instrument (TeamQ) for measuring
Ginsburg, Liane; Bain, Lorna
Communication failure is a leading cause of error and is often due to inhibition of individuals to speak up in interprofessional healthcare environments. The present study sought to evaluate the impact of a multifaceted intervention designed to promote speaking up on teamwork climate in one clinical department of a large community hospital based in Canada. The multifaceted intervention included a role-playing simulation workshop, teamwork climate data feedback and facilitated discussion with the interprofessional team (discussion briefings), and other department-led initiatives to promote trust, teamwork, and speaking up among interprofessional team members. A quasi-experiment (pretest-posttest control group design, using two posttests several months apart) was used to evaluate the impact of the complete intervention on individual teamwork climate perceptions. The intervention was implemented with an intact interprofessional team (the Emergency Department-ED) in 2014. The intensive care unit (ICU) was used as the control unit. Survey response rates were the highest at time 1 (83/102 = 81% for the ED and 29/31 = 94% for the ICU) and the lowest at time 3 (38/105 = 36% for the ED and 14/30 = 47% for the ICU). The results obtained from paired and unpaired analyses suggest that this type of multifaceted approach can improve staff perceptions of teamwork climate. The teamwork climate score in the ED was significantly higher at follow-up (Mt2 = 3.42, SD = 0.66) compared to baseline (Mt1 = 3.13, SD = 0.72), (F(1, 34) = 12.2, p = .001, eta 2 p = .263), while baseline and follow-up scores were not significantly different between baseline and follow-up for the ICU group (Mt1 = 4.12, SD = 0.60; Mt2 = 4.15, SD = 0.56; F(1, 34) = 0.06, p = .806, eta 2 p = .002). Sustaining high levels of participation in interprofessional initiatives and engaging physicians remain challenging when interventions are used in context. Improving team
McEwan, Desmond; Ruissen, Geralyn R; Eys, Mark A; Zumbo, Bruno D; Beauchamp, Mark R
The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of teamwork interventions that were carried out with the purpose of improving teamwork and team performance, using controlled experimental designs. A literature search returned 16,849 unique articles. The meta-analysis was ultimately conducted on 51 articles, comprising 72 (k) unique interventions, 194 effect sizes, and 8439 participants, using a random effects model. Positive and significant medium-sized effects were found for teamwork interventions on both teamwork and team performance. Moderator analyses were also conducted, which generally revealed positive and significant effects with respect to several sample, intervention, and measurement characteristics. Implications for effective teamwork interventions as well as considerations for future research are discussed.
Roper, Lucinda; Shulruf, Boaz; Jorm, Christine; Currie, Jane; Gordon, Christopher J
Poor teamwork has been implicated in medical error and teamwork training has been shown to improve patient care. Simulation is an effective educational method for teamwork training. Post-simulation reflection aims to promote learning and we have previously developed a self-assessment teamwork tool (SATT) for health students to measure teamwork performance. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of a revised self-assessment teamwork tool. The tool was tested in 257 medical and nursing students after their participation in one of several mass casualty simulations. Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, the revised self-assessment teamwork tool was shown to have strong construct validity, high reliability, and the construct demonstrated invariance across groups (Medicine & Nursing). The modified SATT was shown to be a reliable and valid student self-assessment tool. The SATT is a quick and practical method of guiding students' reflection on important teamwork skills.
Dolan, Brigid M; O'Brien, Celia Laird; Cameron, Kenzie A; Green, Marianne M
Construct: Students entering the health professions require competency in teamwork. Although many teamwork curricula and assessments exist, studies have not demonstrated robust longitudinal assessment of preclerkship students' teamwork skills and attitudes. Assessment portfolios may serve to fill this gap, but it is unknown how narrative comments within portfolios describe student teamwork behaviors. We performed a qualitative analysis of narrative data in 15 assessment portfolios. Student portfolios were randomly selected from 3 groups stratified by quantitative ratings of teamwork performance gathered from small-group and clinical preceptor assessment forms. Narrative data included peer and faculty feedback from these same forms. Data were coded for teamwork-related behaviors using a constant comparative approach combined with an identification of the valence of the coded statements as either "positive observation" or "suggestion for improvement." Eight codes related to teamwork emerged: attitude and demeanor, information facilitation, leadership, preparation and dependability, professionalism, team orientation, values team member contributions, and nonspecific teamwork comments. The frequency of codes and valence varied across the 3 performance groups, with students in the low-performing group receiving more suggestions for improvement across all teamwork codes. Narrative data from assessment portfolios included specific descriptions of teamwork behavior, with important contributions provided by both faculty and peers. A variety of teamwork domains were represented. Such feedback as collected in an assessment portfolio can be used for longitudinal assessment of preclerkship student teamwork skills and attitudes.
McEwan, Desmond; Ruissen, Geralyn R.; Eys, Mark A.; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Beauchamp, Mark R.
The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of teamwork interventions that were carried out with the purpose of improving teamwork and team performance, using controlled experimental designs. A literature search returned 16,849 unique articles. The meta-analysis was ultimately conducted on 51 articles, comprising 72 (k) unique interventions, 194 effect sizes, and 8439 participants, using a random effects model. Positive and significant medium-sized effects...
Gordon, Christopher J; Jorm, Christine; Shulruf, Boaz; Weller, Jennifer; Currie, Jane; Lim, Renee; Osomanski, Adam
Teamwork training is an essential component of health professional student education. A valid and reliable teamwork self-assessment tool could assist students to identify desirable teamwork behaviours with the potential to promote learning about effective teamwork. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a self-assessment teamwork tool for health professional students for use in the context of emergency response to a mass casualty. The authors modified a previously published teamwork instrument designed for experienced critical care teams for use with medical and nursing students involved in mass casualty simulations. The 17-item questionnaire was administered to students immediately following the simulations. These scores were used to explore the psychometric properties of the tool, using Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis. 202 (128 medical and 74 nursing) students completed the self-assessment teamwork tool for students. Exploratory factor analysis revealed 2 factors (5 items - Teamwork coordination and communication; 4 items - Information sharing and support) and these were justified with confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency was 0.823 for Teamwork coordination and communication, and 0.812 for Information sharing and support. These data provide evidence to support the validity and reliability of the self-assessment teamwork tool for students This self-assessment tool could be of value to health professional students following team training activities to help them identify the attributes of effective teamwork.
Weinstock, Peter; Halamek, Louis P
Effective resuscitation requires the integration of several cognitive, technical, and behavioral skills. Because resuscitation is performed by teams of health care professionals, these individuals must be able to work together in a coordinated and efficient manner, making teamwork a critical skill for care of patients in distress. Despite the importance of teamwork in health care, little consensus exists as to what it is, how it can most effectively be learned, and how it should be assessed. This article reviews current knowledge on the measurement, training, and importance of teamwork in pediatric resuscitation.
Rosen, Michael A; Weaver, Sallie J; Lazzara, Elizabeth H; Salas, Eduardo; Wu, Teresa; Silvestri, Salvatore; Schiebel, Nicola; Almeida, Sandra; King, Heidi B
Teamwork training constitutes one of the core approaches for moving healthcare systems toward increased levels of quality and safety, and simulation provides a powerful method of delivering this training, especially for face-paced and dynamic specialty areas such as Emergency Medicine. Team performance measurement and evaluation plays an integral role in ensuring that simulation-based training for teams (SBTT) is systematic and effective. However, this component of SBTT systems is overlooked frequently. This article addresses this gap by providing a review and practical introduction to the process of developing and implementing evaluation systems in SBTT. First, an overview of team performance evaluation is provided. Second, best practices for measuring team performance in simulation are reviewed. Third, some of the prominent measurement tools in the literature are summarized and discussed relative to the best practices. Subsequently, implications of the review are discussed for the practice of training teamwork in Emergency Medicine.
Lee, Soo-Hoon; Khanuja, Harpal S; Blanding, Renee J; Sedgwick, Jeanne; Pressimone, Kathleen; Ficke, James R; Jones, Lynne C
Teamwork training improves short-term teamwork behaviors. However, improvements are often not sustained. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which teamwork reinforcement activities for orthopedic surgery teams lead to sustained teamwork behaviors. Seven months after 104 staff from an orthopedic surgical unit were trained in Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety principles, 4 reinforcement activities were implemented regarding leadership and communication: lectures with videos on leadership skills for nursing staff; an online self-paced learning program on communication skills for nursing staff; a 1-page summary on leadership skills e-mailed to surgical staff; and a 1-hour perioperative grand rounds on Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety principles for anesthesia staff and new staff. Twenty-four orthopedic surgical teams were evaluated on teamwork behaviors during surgery by 2 observers before and after the reinforcement period using the Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery tool. After reinforcement, leadership (P = 0.022) and communication (P = 0.044) behaviors improved compared with prereinforcement levels. Specifically, nursing staff improved in leadership (P = 0.016) and communication (P = 0.028) behaviors, surgical staff improved in leadership behaviors (P = 0.009), but anesthesia staff did not improve in any teamwork behaviors. Sustained improvement in teamwork behaviors requires reinforcement. Level III, prospective pre-post cohort study.
Kjellin, A; Hedman, L; Escher, C; Felländer-Tsai, L
Crew resource management-based operating room team training will be an evident part of future surgical training. Hybrid simulation in the operating room enables the opportunity for trainees to perform higher fidelity training of technical and non-technical skills in a realistic context. We focus on situational motivation and self-efficacy, two important factors for optimal learning in light of a prototype course for teams of residents in surgery and anesthesiology and nurses. Authentic operating room teams consisting of residents in anesthesia (n = 2), anesthesia nurses (n = 3), residents in surgery (n = 2), and scrub nurses (n = 6) were, during a one-day course, exposed to four different scenarios. Their situational motivation was self-assessed (ranging from 1 = does not correspond at all to 7 = corresponds exactly) immediately after training, and their self-efficacy (graded from 1 to 7) before and after training. Training was performed in a mock-up operating theater equipped with a hybrid patient simulator (SimMan 3G; Laerdal) and a laparoscopic simulator (Lap Mentor Express; Simbionix). The functionality of the systematic hybrid procedure simulation scenario was evaluated by an exit questionnaire (graded from 1 = disagree entirely to 5 = agree completely). The trainees were mostly intrinsically motivated, engaged for their own sake, and had a rather great degree of self-determination toward the training situation. Self-efficacy among the team members improved significantly from 4 to 6 (median). Overall evaluation showed very good result with a median grading of 5. We conclude that hybrid simulation is feasible and has the possibility to train an authentic operating team in order to improve individual motivation and confidence. © The Finnish Surgical Society 2014.
Figueroa, Mayte I; Sepanski, Robert; Goldberg, Steven P; Shah, Samir
Findings show that simulation-based team training (SBTT) is effective at increasing teamwork skills. Postpediatric cardiac surgery cardiac arrest (PPCS-CA) is a high-risk clinical situation with high morbidity and mortality. Whereas adult guidelines managing cardiac arrest after cardiac surgery are available, little exists for pediatric cardiac surgery. The authors developed a post-PPCS-CA algorithm and used SBTT to improve identification and management of PPCS-CA in the pediatric cardiovascular intensive care unit. Their goal was to determine whether participation aids in improving teamwork, confidence, and communication during these events. The authors developed a simulation-based training course using common postcardiac surgical emergency scenarios with specific learning objectives. Simulated scenarios are followed by structured debriefings. Participants were evaluated based on critical performance criteria, key elements in the PPCS-CA algorithm, and Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (Team STEPPS) principles. Surveys performed before, immediately after, and 3 months after participation evaluated perception of skill, knowledge, and confidence. The study had 37 participants (23 nurses, 5 cardiology/critical care trainees, 5 respiratory therapists, and 4 noncategorized subjects). Confidence and skill in the roles of team leader, advanced airway management, and cardioversion/defibrillation were increased significantly (p Team STEPPS concepts immediately after training and 3 months later. This study showed SBTT to be effective in improving communication and increasing confidence among members of a multidisciplinary team during crisis scenarios. Thus, SBTT provides an excellent tool for teaching and implementing new processes.
Çelen, Özay; Teke, Abdulkadir; Cihangiroglu, Necmettin
In this study, our aim was to determine the effect of the socio-cultural characteristics of health workers on the effectiveness of teamwork. In this study, a questionnaire method was used for data collection. To this end, a scale was first developed to assess the effectiveness of teamwork. The study was conducted in 34 departments/divisions within the GMMF Training Hospital with 423 health workers. "Specialist opinion" was used to determine the content validity of the "Teamwork Effectiveness Scale" developed for this study, while "factor analysis" was used to test the scale's construct validity. Cronbach Alpha values were calculated to test the reliability of the scale. To determine the effect of socio-cultural characteristics on the effectiveness of teamwork, the "Kruskal-Wallis" test, the "Mann-Whitney U" test and "Logistic Regression Analysis" were used within the context of the study. Based on the study results, it was observed that "assignment, "age" and "status" did not have an effect on the effectiveness of teamwork (p > 0.05). On the other hand, a significant and negative relationship was observed between "the obligation to perform compulsory service" and the attitudes that considered teamwork to be effective (p = 0.029). Similarly, a difference was identified between the workers' attitudes towards the effectiveness of teamwork depending on the size of the place of assignment (p = 0,042). It was thus observed that the "effectiveness of teamwork" was affected by the presence or absence of the "obligation to perform compulsory service" and by the "size of the place of assignment.
Tremblay, Dominique; Touati, Nassera; Roberge, Danièle; Denis, Jean-Louis; Turcotte, Annie; Samson, Benoît
Interdisciplinary teamwork (ITW) is designed to promote the active participation of several disciplines in delivering comprehensive cancer care to patients. ITW provides mechanisms to support continuous communication among care providers, optimize professionals' participation in clinical decision-making within and across disciplines, and foster care coordination along the cancer trajectory. However, ITW mechanisms are not activated optimally by all teams, resulting in a gap between desired outcomes of ITW and actual outcomes observed. The aim of the present study is to identify the conditions underlying outcome production by ITW in local oncology teams. This retrospective multiple case study will draw upon realist evaluation principles to explore associations among context, mechanisms and outcomes (CMO). The cases are nine interdisciplinary cancer teams that participated in a previous study evaluating ITW outcomes. Qualitative data sources will be used to construct a picture of CMO associations in each case. For data collection, reflexive focus groups will be held to capture patients' and professionals' perspectives on ITW, using the guiding question, 'What works, for whom, and under what circumstances?' Intra-case analysis will be used to trace associations between context, ITW mechanisms, and patient outcomes. Inter-case analysis will be used to compare the different cases' CMO associations for a better understanding of the phenomenon under study. This multiple case study will use realist evaluation principles to draw lessons about how certain contexts are more or less likely to produce particular outcomes. The results will make it possible to target more specifically the actions required to optimize structures and to activate the best mechanisms to meet the needs of cancer patients. This project could also contribute significantly to the development of improved research methods for conducting realist evaluations of complex healthcare interventions. To our
NAESCO's Training Effectiveness Evaluation Model (TEEM) integrates existing evaluation procedures with new procedures. The new procedures are designed to measure training impact on organizational productivity. TEEM seeks to enhance organizational productivity through proactive training focused on operation results. These results can be identified and measured by establishing and tracking performance indicators. Relating training to organizational productivity is not easy. TEEM is a team process. It offers strategies to assess more effectively organizational costs and benefits of training. TEEM is one organization's attempt to refine, manage and extend its training evaluation program
Full Text Available This paper will evaluate the importance of learning leadership styles and the explanation of when and how each one is used in the workforce. In this paper many experts have been cited that are well-known in the field of leadership. Also this paper will concentrate on the importance of teamwork in the workforce and there are many examples of how teamwork is effective for creating the best possible outcomes for creativity and productivity. In the television industry creativity is an essential component of the job description and inspirational leadership that promotes teamwork is essential.
Sasou, Kunihide; Sugihara, Yoshikuni
This report discusses the range of application of the behavior observation-based teamwork evaluation sheet. Under the concept of this method, teamwork evaluation sheet is developed, which assumes a certain single failure (failure of feed water transmitter). The evaluation sheets are applied to evaluate team work of 26 thermal power plant operator teams in combined under abnormal operating conditions of failure of feed water transmitter, feed draft fan or steam flow governor. As a result of ANOVA, it finds that there are no differences between 3 kinds of single failure. In addition, the similar analysis is executed to 3 kinds of multiple failures (steam generator tube rapture, loss of coolant accident and loss of secondary coolant accident) under which 7 PWR nuclear power plant operator teams are evaluated. As a result, ANOVA shows no differences between 3 kinds of multiple failures. These results indicate that a behavior observation-based team work evaluation sheet, which is designed for a certain abnormal condition, is applicable to the abnormal conditions that have the same development of abnormal conditions. (author)
Guise, Jeanne-Marie; Segel, Sally
Whether seeing a patient in the ambulatory clinic environment, performing a delivery or managing a critically ill patient, obstetric care is a team activity. Failures in teamwork and communication are among the leading causes of adverse obstetric events, accounting for over 70% of sentinel events according to the Joint Commission. Effective, efficient and safe care requires good teamwork. Although nurses, doctors and healthcare staff who work in critical care environments are extremely well trained and competent medically, they have not traditionally been trained in how to work well as part of a team. Given the complexity and acuity of critical care medicine, which often relies on more than one medical team, teamwork skills are essential. This chapter discusses the history and importance of teamwork in high-reliability fields, reviews key concepts and skills in teamwork, and discusses approaches to training and working in teams.
Gary, Jodie C; Gosselin, Kevin; Bentley, Regina
The attitudes of faculty towards interprofessional education (IPE) and teamwork impact the education of health professions education (HPE) students. This paper reports on a study evaluating attitudes from health professions educators towards IPE and teamwork at one academic health science center (HSC) where modest IPE initiatives have commenced. Drawing from the results of a previous investigation, this study was conducted to examine current attitudes of the faculty responsible for the training of future healthcare professionals. Survey data were collected to evaluate attitudes from HSC faculty, dentistry, nursing, medicine, pharmacy and public health. In general, positive HSC faculty attitudes towards interprofessional learning, education, and teamwork were significantly predicted by those affiliated with the component of nursing. Faculty development aimed at changing attitudes and increasing understanding of IPE and teamwork are critical. Results of this study serve as an underpinning to leverage strengths and evaluate weakness in initiating IPE.
McLaughlin, Thomas; Hennecke, Peter; Garraway, Naisan Robert; Evans, David C; Hameed, Morad; Simons, Richard K; Doucet, Jay; Hansen, Daniel; Annand, Siobhan; Bell, Nathaniel; Brown, D Ross
The 10-day Intensive Trauma Team Training Course (ITTTC) was developed by the Canadian Forces (CFs) to teach teamwork and clinical trauma skills to military healthcare personnel before deploying to Afghanistan. This article attempts to validate the impact of the ITTTC by surveying participants postdeployment. A survey consisting of Likert-type multiple-choice questions was created and sent to all previous ITTTC participants. The survey asked respondents to rate their confidence in applying teamwork skills and clinical skills learned in the ITTTC. It explored the relevancy of objectives and participants' prior familiarity with the objectives. The impact of different training modalities was also surveyed. The survey showed that on average 84.29% of participants were "confident" or "very confident" in applying teamwork skills to their subsequent clinical experience and 52.10% were "confident" or "very confident" in applying clinical knowledge and skills. On average 43.74% of participants were "familiar" or "very familiar" with the clinical topics before the course, indicating the importance of training these skills. Participants found that clinical shadowing was significantly less valuable in training clinical skills than either animal laboratory experience or experience in human patient simulators; 68.57% respondents thought that ITTTC was "important" or "very important" in their training. The ITTTC created lasting self-reported confidence in CFs healthcare personnel surveyed upon return from Afghanistan. This validates the importance of the course for the training of CFs healthcare personnel and supports the value of team training in other areas of trauma and medicine.
Whittaker, George; Abboudi, Hamid; Khan, Muhammed Shamim; Dasgupta, Prokar; Ahmed, Kamran
Introduction. Deficiencies in teamwork skills have been shown to contribute to the occurrence of adverse events during surgery. Consequently, several teamwork assessment tools have been developed to evaluate trainee nontechnical performance. This paper aims to provide an overview of these instruments and review the validity of each tool. Furthermore, the present paper aims to review the deficiencies surrounding training and propose several recommendations to address these issues. Methods. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify teamwork assessment tools using MEDLINE (1946 to August 2015), EMBASE (1974 to August 2015), and PsycINFO (1806 to August 2015) databases. Results. Eight assessment tools which encompass aspects of teamwork were identified. The Nontechnical Skills for Surgeons (NOTSS) assessment was found to possess the highest level of validity from a variety of sources; reliability and acceptability have also been established for this tool. Conclusions. Deficits in current surgical training pathways have prompted several recommendations to meet the evolving requirements of surgeons. Recommendations from the current paper include integration of teamwork training and assessment into medical school curricula, standardised formal training of assessors to ensure accurate evaluation of nontechnical skill acquisition, and integration of concurrent technical and nontechnical skills training throughout training. PMID:26425732
Hawes, Jon M.; And Others
Sales training programs require continual evaluation. The authors present a conceptual model of the interrelationships of planning, training, evaluation, and modification (IPTEM) in corporate sales training programs. (CT)
O'Leary, Kevin J; Sehgal, Niraj L; Terrell, Grace; Williams, Mark V
Recognizing the importance of teamwork in hospitals, senior leadership from the American College of Physician Executives (ACPE), the American Hospital Association (AHA), the American Organization of Nurse Executives (AONE), and the Society of Hospital Medicine (SHM) established the High Performance Teams and the Hospital of the Future project. This collaborative learning effort aims to redesign care delivery to provide optimal value to hospitalized patients. With input from members of this initiative, we prepared this report which reviews the literature related to teamwork in hospitals. Teamwork is critically important to provide safe and effective hospital care. Hospitals with high teamwork ratings experience higher patient satisfaction, higher nurse retention, and lower hospital costs. Elements of effective teamwork have been defined and provide a framework for assessment and improvement efforts in hospitals. Measurement of teamwork is essential to understand baseline performance, and to demonstrate the utility of resources invested to enhance it and the subsequent impact on patient care. Interventions designed to improve teamwork in hospitals include localization of physicians, daily goals of care forms and checklists, teamwork training, and interdisciplinary rounds. Though additional research is needed to evaluate the impact on patient outcomes, these interventions consistently result in improved teamwork knowledge, ratings of teamwork climate, and better understanding of patients' plans of care. The optimal approach is implementation of a combination of interventions, with adaptations to fit unique clinical settings and local culture. Copyright © 2011 Society of Hospital Medicine.
Maynard, M Travis; Marshall, David; Dean, Matthew D
In an attempt to enhance patient safety, health care facilities are increasingly turning to crew resource management (CRM) and other teamwork training interventions. However, there is still quite a bit about such training interventions that remain unclear. Accordingly, our primary intent herein is to provide some clarity by providing a review of the literature, in hopes of highlighting the current state of the literature as well as identifying the areas that should be addressed by researchers in this field going forward. We searched various electronic databases and utilized numerous relevant search terms to maximize the likelihood of identifying all empirical research related to the use of CRM training within health care. Additionally, we conducted a manual search of the most relevant journals and also conducted a legacy search to identify even more articles. Furthermore, given that as a research team we have experience with CRM initiatives, we also integrate the lessons learned through this experience. Based on our review of the literature, CRM and teamwork training programs generally appear beneficial to individual employees, the groups and teams within such settings, and overall health care organizations. In addition to reviewing the literature that addressed CRM and teamwork training, we also highlight some of the more critical aspects of CRM training programs in order for such initiatives to be as successful as possible. Additionally, we detail various factors that appear essential to sustaining any benefits of CRM over the long haul.
Bank, Ilana; Snell, Linda; Bhanji, Farhan
Improved pediatric crisis resource management (CRM) training is needed in emergency medicine residencies because of the variable nature of exposure to critically ill pediatric patients during training. We created a short, needs-based pediatric CRM simulation workshop with postactivity follow-up to determine retention of CRM knowledge. Our aims were to provide a realistic learning experience for residents and to help the learners recognize common errors in teamwork and improve their perceived abilities to manage ill pediatric patients. Residents participated in a 4-hour objectives-based workshop derived from a formal needs assessment. To quantify their subjective abilities to manage pediatric cases, the residents completed a postworkshop survey (with a retrospective precomponent to assess perceived change). Ability to identify CRM errors was determined via a written assessment of scripted errors in a prerecorded video observed before and 1 month after completion of the workshop. Fifteen of the 16 eligible emergency medicine residents (postgraduate year 1-5) attended the workshop and completed the surveys. There were significant differences in 15 of 16 retrospective pre to post survey items using the Wilcoxon rank sum test for non-parametric data. These included ability to be an effective team leader in general (P CRM errors through the use of the video assessment from 3 of the 12 CRM errors to 7 of the 12 CRM errors (P CRM simulation-based workshop improved the residents' self-perceptions of their pediatric CRM abilities and improved their performance on a video assessment task.
Semler, Matthew W; Keriwala, Raj D; Clune, Jennifer K; Rice, Todd W; Pugh, Meredith E; Wheeler, Arthur P; Miller, Alison N; Banerjee, Arna; Terhune, Kyla; Bastarache, Julie A
Effective teamwork is fundamental to the management of medical emergencies, and yet the best method to teach teamwork skills to trainees remains unknown. In a cohort of incoming internal medicine interns, we tested the hypothesis that expert demonstration of teamwork principles and participation in high-fidelity simulation would each result in objectively assessed teamwork behavior superior to traditional didactics. This was a randomized, controlled, parallel-group trial comparing three teamwork teaching modalities for incoming internal medicine interns. Participants in a single-day orientation at the Vanderbilt University Center for Experiential Learning and Assessment were randomized 1:1:1 to didactic, demonstration-based, or simulation-based instruction and then evaluated in their management of a simulated crisis by five independent, blinded observers using the Teamwork Behavioral Rater score. Clinical performance was assessed using the American Heart Association Advanced Cardiac Life Support algorithm and a novel "Recognize, Respond, Reassess" score. Participants randomized to didactics (n = 18), demonstration (n = 17), and simulation (n = 17) were similar at baseline. The primary outcome of average overall Teamwork Behavioral Rater score for those who received demonstration-based training was similar to simulation participation (4.40 ± 1.15 vs. 4.10 ± 0.95, P = 0.917) and significantly higher than didactic instruction (4.40 ± 1.15 vs. 3.10 ± 0.51, P = 0.045). Clinical performance scores were similar between the three groups and correlated only weakly with teamwork behavior (coefficient of determination [Rs(2)] = 0.267, P teamwork training by expert demonstration resulted in similar teamwork behavior to participation in high-fidelity simulation and was more effective than traditional didactics. Clinical performance was largely independent of teamwork behavior and did not differ between training modalities.
Fetterman, Harry E.
A common model of the five phase Systematic Approach to Training (SAT) displays the fifth phase, evaluation, feeding back into the previous four phases: analysis, design, development, and implementation. Evaluating training effectiveness in PP and L's Nuclear Department is not simply the fifth phase of the SAT. PP and L has demonstrated a more effective methodology is realized when evaluation is built into each of the other four phases. At PP and L, evaluation is conducted formatively throughout the first four phases of the SAT process and summatively after implementation. (author)
Sandahl, Christer; Gustafsson, Helena; Wallin, Carl-Johan; Meurling, Lisbet; Øvretveit, John; Brommels, Mats; Hansson, Johan
This study aims to describe implementation of simulator-based medical team training and the effect of this programme on inter-professional working in an intensive care unit (ICU). Over a period of two years, 90 percent (n = 152) of the staff of the general ICU at Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden, received inter-professional team training in a fully equipped patient room in their own workplace. A case study method was used to describe and explain the planning, formation, and results of the training programme. In interviews, the participants reported that the training had increased their awareness of the importance of effective communication for patient safety. The intervention had even had an indirect impact by creating a need to talk, not only about how to communicate efficaciously, but also concerning difficult care situations in general. This, in turn, had led to regular reflection meetings for nurses held three times a week. Examples of better communication in acute situations were also reported. However, the findings indicate that the observed improvements will not last, unless organisational features such as staffing rotas and scheduling of rounds and meetings can be changed to enable use of the learned behaviours in everyday work. Other threats to sustainability include shortage of staff, overtime for staff, demands for hospital beds, budget cuts, and poor staff communication due to separate meetings for nurses and physicians. The present results broaden our understanding of how to create and sustain an organizational system that supports medical team training.
Chan, Bibiana C; Perkins, David; Wan, Qing; Zwar, Nick; Daniel, Chris; Crookes, Patrick; Harris, Mark F
Multidisciplinary care has been shown as the most effective option for chronic disease. The aim of the Team-link study was to assess the effectiveness of an intervention to improve teamwork among general practitioners (GPs), practice staff and allied health professionals (AHPs). This paper describes changes to teamwork using qualitative data collected in the study. Qualitative data about changes in internal and external professional collaboration were collected from facilitators' observations, GPs' reports and responses to a survey of AHPs assessing multidisciplinary teamwork. Multidisciplinary teams within general practices and external collaborations with AHPs including dietitians, diabetic educators, exercise physiologists, podiatrists, psychologists and physiotherapists. GPs, practice nurses, practice staff, AHPs. A 6-month intervention consisting of an educational workshop and structured facilitation using specially designed materials, backed up by informal telephone support, was delivered to 26 practices. Data were analysed thematically using an approach based on identifying actors and associated collaborative actions. New and enhanced communication pathways were observed between GPs, practice staff, patients and AHPs following the intervention. The enhanced information sharing expedited communication and improved interprofessional collaboration within general practices and with AHPs. There was evidence of increased patient participation and empowerment in the care process and improved collaboration by practice staff and allied health providers. The Team-link intervention improved professional collaboration among GPs, practice staff, AHPs and patients, increasing understanding and trust and enhancing multidisciplinary teamwork for chronic disease care in primary care settings.
Qin, Li; Hsu, Jeffrey; Stern, Mel
With the proliferation of cloud computing for both organizational and educational use, cloud-based collaboration services are transforming how people work in teams. The authors investigated the determinants of the usage of cloud-based collaboration services including teamwork quality, computer self-efficacy, and prior experience, as well as its…
Godin, Joy J.; Leader, Lars F.
The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that influence electronic collaboration technology acceptance and predicted usage for virtual team collaboration projects in higher education courses. The research combined the unified theory of acceptance and usage of technology (UTAUT) with a virtual team-training model. All 108 participants…
This paper will evaluate the importance of learning leadership styles and the explanation of when and how each one is used in the workforce. In this paper many experts have been cited that are well-known in the field of leadership. Also this paper will concentrate on the importance of teamwork in the workforce and there are many examples of how teamwork is effective for creating the best possible outcomes for creativity and productivity. In the television industry creativity is an essential c...
Williams, A L; Lasky, R E; Dannemiller, J L; Andrei, A M; Thomas, E J
To describe relationships between teamwork behaviours and errors during neonatal resuscitation. Trained observers viewed video recordings of neonatal resuscitations (n = 12) for the occurrence of teamwork behaviours and errors. Teamwork state behaviours (such as vigilance and workload management, which extend for some duration) were assessed as the percentage of each resuscitation that the behaviour was observed and correlated with the percentage of observed errors. Teamwork event behaviours (such as information sharing, inquiry and assertion, which occur at specific times) were counted in 20-s intervals before and after resuscitation steps, and a generalised linear mixed model was calculated to evaluate relationships between these behaviours and errors. Resuscitation teams who were more vigilant committed fewer errors (Spearman's rho for vigilance and errors = -0.62, 95% CI -0.07 to -0.87, p = 0.031). Assertions were more likely to occur before errors than correct steps (OR = 1.44, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.89, p = 0.008) and teaching/advising occurred less frequently after errors (OR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.94, p = 0.028). Though not statistically significant, there was less information sharing before errors (OR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.05, p = 0.172). Vigilance is an important behaviour for error management. Assertion may have caused errors, or perhaps was an indicator for some other factor that caused errors. Teams may have preferred to resolve errors directly, rather than using errors as opportunities to teach their teammates. These observations raise important questions about the appropriate use of some teamwork behaviours and how to include them in team training programmes.
Anneke N Van Dijk-de Vries
Full Text Available Introduction: Teamwork between healthcare providers is conditional for the delivery of integrated care. This study aimed to assess the usefulness of the conceptual framework Integrated Team Effectiveness Model for developing and testing of the Integrated Team Effectiveness Instrument. Theory and methods: Focus groups with healthcare providers in an integrated care setting for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD were conducted to examine the recognisability of the conceptual framework and to explore critical success factors for collaborative COPD practice out of this framework. The resulting items were transposed into a pilot instrument. This was reviewed by expert opinion and completed 153 times by healthcare providers. The underlying structure and internal consistency of the instrument were verified by factor analysis and Cronbach’s alpha. Results: The conceptual framework turned out to be comprehensible for discussing teamwork effectiveness. The pilot instrument measures 25 relevant aspects of teamwork in integrated COPD care. Factor analysis suggested three reliable components: teamwork effectiveness, team processes and team psychosocial traits (Cronbach’s alpha between 0.76 and 0.81. Conclusions and discussion: The conceptual framework Integrated Team Effectiveness Model is relevant in developing a practical full-spectrum instrument to facilitate discussing teamwork effectiveness. The Integrated Team Effectiveness Instrument provides a well-founded basis to self-evaluate teamwork effectiveness in integrated COPD care by healthcare providers. Recommendations are provided for the improvement of the instrument.
Van Dijk-de Vries, Anneke N; Duimel-Peeters, Inge G P; Muris, Jean W; Wesseling, Geertjan J; Beusmans, George H M I; Vrijhoef, Hubertus J M
Teamwork between healthcare providers is conditional for the delivery of integrated care. This study aimed to assess the usefulness of the conceptual framework Integrated Team Effectiveness Model for developing and testing of the Integrated Team Effectiveness Instrument. Focus groups with healthcare providers in an integrated care setting for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were conducted to examine the recognisability of the conceptual framework and to explore critical success factors for collaborative COPD practice out of this framework. The resulting items were transposed into a pilot instrument. This was reviewed by expert opinion and completed 153 times by healthcare providers. The underlying structure and internal consistency of the instrument were verified by factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha. The conceptual framework turned out to be comprehensible for discussing teamwork effectiveness. The pilot instrument measures 25 relevant aspects of teamwork in integrated COPD care. Factor analysis suggested three reliable components: teamwork effectiveness, team processes and team psychosocial traits (Cronbach's alpha between 0.76 and 0.81). The conceptual framework Integrated Team Effectiveness Model is relevant in developing a practical full-spectrum instrument to facilitate discussing teamwork effectiveness. The Integrated Team Effectiveness Instrument provides a well-founded basis to self-evaluate teamwork effectiveness in integrated COPD care by healthcare providers. Recommendations are provided for the improvement of the instrument.
Sadideen, Hazim; Wilson, David; Moiemen, Naiem; Kneebone, Roger
Educational theory highlights the importance of contextualized simulation for effective learning. The authors recently published the concept of "The Burns Suite" (TBS) as a novel tool to advance the delivery of burns education for residents/clinicians. Effectively, TBS represents a low-cost, high-fidelity, portable, immersive simulation environment. Recently, simulation-based team training (SBTT) has been advocated as a means to improve interprofessional practice. The authors aimed to explore the role of TBS in SBTT. A realistic pediatric burn resuscitation scenario was designed based on "advanced trauma and life support" and "emergency management of severe burns" principles, refined utilizing expert opinion through cognitive task analysis. The focus of this analysis was on nontechnical and interpersonal skills of clinicians and nurses within the scenario, mirroring what happens in real life. Five-point Likert-type questionnaires were developed for face and content validity. Cronbach's alpha was calculated for scale reliability. Semistructured interviews captured responses for qualitative thematic analysis allowing for data triangulation. Twenty-two participants completed TBS resuscitation scenario. Mean face and content validity ratings were high (4.4 and 4.7 respectively; range 4-5). The internal consistency of questions was high. Qualitative data analysis revealed two new themes. Participants reported that the experience felt particularly authentic because the simulation had high psychological and social fidelity, and there was a demand for such a facility to be made available to improve nontechnical skills and interprofessional relations. TBS provides a realistic, novel tool for SBTT, addressing both nontechnical and interprofessional team skills. Recreating clinical challenge is crucial to optimize SBTT. With a better understanding of the theories underpinning simulation and interprofessional education, future simulation scenarios can be designed to provide
Rutherford, J S
A narrative review was carried out to identify articles on monitoring of teamwork, with particular relevance to anaesthetists. The papers reviewed showed that team monitoring takes place both implicitly and explicitly in the anaesthetic environment. No single optimal model of teamwork monitoring for all situations was identified. Most of the studies identified were of a pre-intervention, post-intervention design, without randomisation or control group. Information shared during a formal briefing is more likely to be recalled, and provides a basis for a shared team mental model. A number of studies appeared to show that targeted teamwork training has a positive impact on both teamwork and patient safety. © 2017 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.
Fransen, Annemarie F; de Boer, Liza; Kienhorst, Dieneke; Truijens, Sophie E; van Runnard Heimel, Pieter J; Oei, S Guid
Teamwork performance is an essential component for the clinical efficiency of multi-professional teams in obstetric care. As patient safety is related to teamwork performance, it has become an important learning goal in simulation-based education. In order to improve teamwork performance, reliable assessment tools are required. These can be used to provide feedback during training courses, or to compare learning effects between different types of training courses. The aim of the current study is to (1) identify the available assessment tools to evaluate obstetric teamwork performance in a simulated environment, and (2) evaluate their psychometric properties in order to identify the most valuable tool(s) to use. We performed a systematic search in PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE to identify articles describing assessment tools for the evaluation of obstetric teamwork performance in a simulated environment. In order to evaluate the quality of the identified assessment tools the standards and grading rules have been applied as recommended by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Committee on Educational Outcomes. The included studies were also assessed according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine (OCEBM) levels of evidence. This search resulted in the inclusion of five articles describing the following six tools: Clinical Teamwork Scale, Human Factors Rating Scale, Global Rating Scale, Assessment of Obstetric Team Performance, Global Assessment of Obstetric Team Performance, and the Teamwork Measurement Tool. Based on the ACGME guidelines we assigned a Class 3, level C of evidence, to all tools. Regarding the OCEBM levels of evidence, a level 3b was assigned to two studies and a level 4 to four studies. The Clinical Teamwork Scale demonstrated the most comprehensive validation, and the Teamwork Measurement Tool demonstrated promising results, however it is recommended to further investigate its reliability. Copyright © 2017
Männistö, J. (Johanna); Tervo, N. (Nina)
Abstract Nowadays organizations rely more and more on distance working and virtual teams. The aim of this study is to identify the characteristics of effective virtual teamwork and to provide a wide view on what a team is, how it is defined, which are the enabling factors for successful distance teamwork and what are the benefits of virtual distance teamwork. ...
Mahramus, Tara; Frewin, Sarah; Penoyer, Daleen Aragon; Sole, Mary Lou
Cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) teams, known as code teams, provide coordinated and evidenced-based interventions by various disciplines during a CPA. Teamwork behaviors are essential during CPA resuscitation and may have an impact on patient outcomes. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of teamwork during CPA events among code team members and to determine if differences in perception existed between disciplines within the code team. A prospective, descriptive, comparative design using the Code Teamwork Perception Tool online survey was used to assess the perception of teamwork during CPA events by medical residents, critical care nurses, and respiratory therapists. Sixty-six code team members completed the Code Teamwork Perception Tool. Mean teamwork scores were 2.63 on a 5-point scale (0-4). No significant differences were found in mean scores among disciplines. Significant differences among scores were found on 7 items related to code leadership, roles and responsibilities between disciplines, and in those who had participated on a code team for less than 2 years and certified in Advanced Cardiac Life Support for less than 4 years. Teamwork perception among members of the code team was average. Teamwork training for resuscitation with all disciplines on the code team may promote more effective teamwork during actual CPA events. Clinical nurse specialists can aid in resuscitation efforts by actively participating on committees, identifying opportunities for improvement, being content experts, leading the development of team training programs, and conducting research in areas lacking evidence.
Weaver, Sallie J; Salas, Eduardo; King, Heidi B
Evaluation and measurement are the building blocks of effective skill development, transfer of training, maintenance and sustainment of effective team performance, and continuous improvement. Evaluation efforts have varied in their methods, time frame, measures, and design. On the basis of the existing body of work, 12 best practice principles were extrapolated from the science of evaluation and measurement into the practice of team training evaluation. Team training evaluation refers to efforts dedicated to enumerating the impact of training (1) across multiple dimensions, (2) across multiple settings, and (3) over time. Evaluations of efforts to optimize teamwork are often afterthoughts in an industry that is grounded in evidence-based practice. The best practices regarding team training evaluation are provided as practical reminders and guidance for continuing to build a balanced and robust body of evidence regarding the impact of team training in health care. THE 12 BEST PRACTICES: The best practices are organized around three phases of training: planning, implementation, and follow-up. Rooted in the science of team training evaluation and performance measurement, they range from Best Practice 1: Before designing training, start backwards: think about traditional frameworks for evaluation in reverse to Best Practice 7: Consider organizational, team, or other factors that may help (or hinder) the effects of training and then to Best Practice 12: Report evaluation results in a meaningful way, both internally and externally. Although the 12 best practices may be perceived as intuitive, they are intended to serve as reminders that the notion of evidence-based practice applies to quality improvement initiatives such as team training and team development as equally as it does to clinical intervention and improvement efforts.
Lerner, Susan; Magrane, Diane; Friedman, Erica
Teamwork has become a major focus in healthcare. In part, this is the result of the Institute of Medicine report entitled To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System, which details the high rate of preventable medical errors, many of which are the result of dysfunctional or nonexistent teamwork. It has been proposed that a healthcare system that supports effective teamwork can improve the quality of patient care and reduce workload issues that cause burnout among healthcare professionals. Few clear guidelines exist to help guide the implementation of all these recommendations in healthcare settings. In general, training programs designed to improve team skills are a new concept for medicine, particularly for physicians who are trained largely to be self-sufficient and individually responsible for their actions. Outside of healthcare, research has shown that teams working together in high-risk and high-intensity work environments make fewer mistakes than individuals. This evidence originates from commercial aviation, the military, firefighting, and rapid-response police activities. Commercial aviation, an industry in which mistakes can result in unacceptable loss, has been at the forefront of risk reduction through teamwork training. The importance of teamwork has been recognized by some in the healthcare industry who have begun to develop their own specialty-driven programs. The purpose of this review is to discuss the current literature on teaching about teamwork in undergraduate medical education. We describe the science of teams, analyze the work in team training that has been done in other fields, and assess what work has been done in other fields about the importance of team training (ie, aviation, nonmedical education, and business). Additionally, it is vital to assess what work has already been done in medicine to advance the skills required for effective teamwork. Much of this work has been done in fields in which medical professionals deal with crisis
Phitayakorn, Roy; Minehart, Rebecca; Pian-Smith, May C M; Hemingway, Maureen W; Milosh-Zinkus, Tanya; Oriol-Morway, Danika; Petrusa, Emil
High-quality teamwork among operating room (OR) professionals is a key to efficient and safe practice. Quantification of teamwork facilitates feedback, assessment, and improvement. Several valid and reliable instruments are available for assessing separate OR disciplines and teams. We sought to determine the most feasible approach for routine documentation of teamwork in in-situ OR simulations. We compared rater agreement, hypothetical training costs, and feasibility ratings from five clinicians and two nonclinicians with instruments for assessment of separate OR groups and teams. Five teams of anesthesia or surgery residents and OR nurses (RN) or surgical technicians were videotaped in simulations of an epigastric hernia repair where the patient develops malignant hyperthermia. Two anesthesiologists, one OR clinical RN specialist, one educational psychologist, one simulation specialist, and one general surgeon discussed and then independently completed Anesthesiologists' Non-Technical Skills, Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons, Scrub Practitioners' List of Intraoperative Non-Technical Skills, and Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery forms to rate nontechnical performance of anesthesiologists, surgeons, nurses, technicians, and the whole team. Intraclass correlations of agreement ranged from 0.17-0.85. Clinicians' agreements were not different from nonclinicians'. Published rater training was 4 h for Anesthesiologists' Non-Technical Skills and Scrub Practitioners' List of Intraoperative Non-Technical Skills, 2.5 h for Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons, and 15.5 h for Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery. Estimated costs to train one rater to use all instruments ranged from $442 for a simulation specialist to $6006 for a general surgeon. Additional training is needed to achieve higher levels of agreement; however, costs may be prohibitive. The most cost-effective model for real-time OR teamwork assessment may be to use a simulation technician
An increased concern about the training of nuclear reactor operators resulted from the incident at TMI-2 in 1979. Purpose of this guide is to provide a general framework for the systematic evaluation of training programs for DOE Category-A reactors. The primary goal of such evaluations is to promote continuing quality improvements in the selection, training and qualification programs
Team work is a process of working collaboratively and an important aspect of inter professional team success. This article is a reflective account, following eight midwifery students who participated in group dynamics training with a team of airport fire officers. It highlights howyou can borrow teamwork and communication strategies from other high profile industries and adapt it to midwifery practice. The experience demonstrated how a team approach brought together a cluster of skills, experience and understanding, something that cannot exist in one individual. It also demonstrated that when team work is successful the results are amazing.
Vîrgă, D.; Curseu, P.L.; Maricuţoiu, L.; Sava, S.A.; Macsinga, I.; Măgurean, S.
This study seeks to explore whether neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness moderate the influence of relationship conflict experienced in groups on changes in group members' evaluative cognitions related to teamwork quality (teamwork-related mental models). Data from 216 students, nested
Onwochei, Desire N; Halpern, Stephen; Balki, Mrinalini
Team-based training and simulation can improve patient safety, by improving communication, decision making, and performance of team members. Currently, there is no general consensus on whether or not a specific assessment tool is better adapted to evaluate teamwork in obstetric emergencies. The purpose of this qualitative systematic review was to find the tools available to assess team effectiveness in obstetric emergencies. We searched Embase, Medline, PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Google Scholar for prospective studies that evaluated nontechnical skills in multidisciplinary teams involving obstetric emergencies. The search included studies from 1944 until January 11, 2016. Data on reliability and validity measures were collected and used for interpretation. A descriptive analysis was performed on the data. Thirteen studies were included in the final qualitative synthesis. All the studies assessed teams in the context of obstetric simulation scenarios, but only six included anesthetists in the simulations. One study evaluated their teamwork tool using just validity measures, five using just reliability measures, and one used both. The most reliable tools identified were the Clinical Teamwork Scale, the Global Assessment of Obstetric Team Performance, and the Global Rating Scale of performance. However, they were still lacking in terms of quality and validity. More work needs to be conducted to establish the validity of teamwork tools for nontechnical skills, and the development of an ideal tool is warranted. Further studies are required to assess how outcomes, such as performance and patient safety, are influenced when using these tools.
Strom, Paris S.; Strom, Robert D.
Teamwork skills are required at work, but teacher efforts in many countries to track achievement within this context have been hindered by lack of assessment tools and input from students. The Teamwork Skills Inventory relies on peer and self-evaluation to establish accountability, identify competencies, and detect learning needs. Twenty-five…
Eddy, Kylie; Jordan, Zoe; Stephenson, Matthew
practice of teamwork skills. In order to strengthen the evidence base about teamwork education in acute hospital settings there needs to be quantitative and qualitative research into:How organizations that have successfully embedded a culture of collaboration and safety in health teams have planned, implemented and evaluated teamwork education programs in acute hospital settings?What are the characteristics of teams that have led to successful participation in teamwork education and positive outcomes for team performance?What are the experiences, training and support provided to education facilitators who successfully implement teamwork education programs in acute hospitals?
Yi, Y J
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of team-building on communication and teamwork (i.e. teamwork skills and team effectiveness) among nursing students. Team-building is effective for improving communication and teamwork among the nursing organization. However, the effects of team-building are not well known especially in Korea. This study used a quasi-experimental design. The sample was composed of 195 junior-year nursing students in Korea. The experimental group (100 subjects) participated in team-building activities over a 100-day period, whereas no intervention was applied to the control group (95 subjects). Pretest was conducted in both groups, and post-test was conducted after the 100-day intervention. The pre-post change in mean communication competence score did not differ between the two groups. However, the mean scores for teamwork skills and team effectiveness differed significantly between the two groups after team-building activity. This study was not a double-blind test, and randomized sampling was not implemented. Caution should thus be used when interpreting the findings. Team-building activities were effective for improving the teamwork skills and team effectiveness among Korean nursing students. It is recommended that team-building activities should be included regularly as an integral educational approach in nursing education. The findings suggest that suggests that team-building for improving communication and teamwork should be designated as one of the required criteria for nursing college programme accreditation in many countries, including Korea. However team-building requires further testing to verify this across cultures. Nurses need to receive formal team-building training for improving communication and teamwork, and formal education should be included in their job training schedule. It is recommended that communication competence and teamwork be used as one of job performance evaluations in their workplace. © 2015
Aase, Ingunn; Aase, Karina; Dieckmann, Peter
of interprofessional teamwork in all nursing and medical education in Norway. The study programs issued by the 32 educational institutions were subject to content analysis, distilling the ambitions and goals for teaching interprofessional teamwork. Study program coordinators were approached and asked to what degree...... interprofessional teamwork was actually introduced in lecturing and clinical training. Results indicate that the medical and nursing schools clearly aspire to teach interprofessional teamwork and that this has largely been achieved when it comes to theoretical teaching. Although three of the four medical programs...... have integrated interprofessional teamwork into their clinical training, there is a gap in the nursing programs where introduction of interprofessional teamwork in clinical training has been limited. Current challenges are related to organizational issues (e.g. lack of institutional collaboration...
Körner, Mirjam; Luzay, Leonie; Plewnia, Anne; Becker, Sonja; Rundel, Manfred; Zimmermann, Linda; Müller, Christian
Purpose Although the relevance of interprofessional teamwork in the delivery of patient-centered care is well known, there is a lack of interventions for improving team interaction in the context of rehabilitation in Germany. The aim of the present study is to evaluate whether a specially developed team coaching concept (TCC) could improve both teamwork and patient-centeredness. Method A multicenter, cluster-randomized controlled intervention study was conducted with both staff and patient questionnaires. Data was collected at ten German rehabilitation clinics (five clusters) of different indication fields before (t1) and after (t2) the intervention. Intervention clinics received the TCC, while control clinics did not receive any treatment. Staff questionnaires were used to measure internal participation and other aspects of teamwork, such as team organization, while patient questionnaires assessed patient-centeredness. A multivariate analysis of variance was applied for data analysis. Results In order to analyze the effect of TCC on internal participation and teamwork, 305 questionnaires were included for t1 and 213 for t2 in the staff survey. In the patient survey, 523 questionnaires were included for t1 and 545 for t2. The TCC improved team organization, willingness to accept responsibility and knowledge integration according to staff, with small effect sizes (univariate: η2=.010–.017), whereas other parameters including internal participation, team leadership and cohesion did not improve due to the intervention. The patient survey did not show any improvements on the assessed dimensions. Conclusion The TCC improved dimensions that were addressed directly by the approach and were linked to the clinics’ needs, such as restructured team meetings and better exchange of information. The TCC can be used to improve team organization, willingness to accept responsibility, and knowledge integration in rehabilitation practice, but some further evaluation is needed
Leasure, Emily L; Jones, Ronald R; Meade, Lauren B; Sanger, Marla I; Thomas, Kris G; Tilden, Virginia P; Bowen, Judith L; Warm, Eric J
Evidence suggests that teamwork is essential for safe, reliable practice. Creating health care teams able to function effectively in patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs), practices that organize care around the patient and demonstrate achievement of defined quality care standards, remains challenging. Preparing trainees for practice in interprofessional teams is particularly challenging in academic health centers where health professions curricula are largely siloed. Here, the authors review a well-delineated set of teamwork competencies that are important for high-functioning teams and suggest how these competencies might be useful for interprofessional team training and achievement of PCMH standards. The five competencies are (1) team leadership, the ability to coordinate team members' activities, ensure appropriate task distribution, evaluate effectiveness, and inspire high-level performance, (2) mutual performance monitoring, the ability to develop a shared understanding among team members regarding intentions, roles, and responsibilities so as to accurately monitor one another's performance for collective success, (3) backup behavior, the ability to anticipate the needs of other team members and shift responsibilities during times of variable workload, (4) adaptability, the capability of team members to adjust their strategy for completing tasks on the basis of feedback from the work environment, and (5) team orientation, the tendency to prioritize team goals over individual goals, encourage alternative perspectives, and show respect and regard for each team member. Relating each competency to a vignette from an academic primary care clinic, the authors describe potential strategies for improving teamwork learning and applying the teamwork competences to academic PCMH practices.
Full Text Available Marian Luctkar-Flude1, Cynthia Baker1, Cheryl Pulling1, Robert McGraw2, Damon Dagnone2, Jennifer Medves1, Carly Turner-Kelly11School of Nursing, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada; 2School of Medicine, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, CanadaPurpose: Interprofessional (IP collaboration during cardiac resuscitation is essential and contributes to patient wellbeing. The purpose of this study is to evaluate an innovative simulation-based IP educational module for undergraduate nursing and medical students on cardiac resuscitation skills.Methods: Nursing and medical trainees participated in a new cardiac resuscitation curriculum involving a 2-hour IP foundational cardiac resuscitation skills lab, followed by three 2-hour IP simulation sessions. Control group participants attended the existing two 2-hour IP simulation sessions. Study respondents (N = 71 completed a survey regarding their confidence performing cardiac resuscitation skills and their perceptions of IP collaboration.Results: Despite a consistent positive trend, only one out of 17 quantitative survey items were significantly improved for learners in the new curriculum. They were more likely to report feeling confident managing the airway during cardiac resuscitation (P = 0.001. Overall, quantitative results suggest that senior nursing and medical students were comfortable with IP communication and teamwork and confident with cardiac resuscitation skills. There were no significant differences between nursing students’ and medical students’ results. Through qualitative feedback, participants reported feeling comfortable learning with students from other professions and found value in the IP simulation sessions.Conclusion: Results from this study will inform ongoing restructuring of the IP cardiac resuscitation skills simulation module as defined by the action research process. Specific improvements that are suggested by these findings include strengthening the team
Lown, Beth A; Manning, Colleen F
To assess the impact of Schwartz Center Rounds, an interdisciplinary forum where attendees discuss psychosocial and emotional aspects of patient care. The authors investigated changes in attendees' self-reported behaviors and beliefs about patient care, sense of teamwork, stress, and personal support. In 2006-2007, researchers conducted retrospective surveys of attendees at six sites offering Schwartz Center Rounds ("the Rounds") for > or =3 years and prospective surveys of attendees at 10 new Rounds sites that have held > or =7 Rounds. Most of the retrospective survey respondents indicated that attending Rounds enhanced their likelihood of attending to psychosocial and emotional aspects of care and enhanced their beliefs about the importance of empathy. Respondents reported better teamwork, including heightened appreciation of the roles and contributions of colleagues. There were significant decreases in perceived stress (P teamwork (both: P teamwork, and provider support. The impact on measured outcomes increased with the number of Rounds attended. The Rounds represent an effective strategy for providing support to health care professionals and for enhancing relationships among them and with their patients.
Makary, Martin A; Sexton, J Bryan; Freischlag, Julie A; Holzmueller, Christine G; Millman, E Anne; Rowen, Lisa; Pronovost, Peter J
Teamwork is an important component of patient safety. In fact, communication errors are the most common cause of sentinel events and wrong-site operations in the US. Although efforts to improve patient safety through improving teamwork are growing, there is no validated tool to scientifically measure teamwork in the surgical setting. Operating room personnel in 60 hospitals were surveyed using the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire. Surgeons, anesthesiologists, certified registered nurse anesthetists, and operating room nurses rated their own peers and each other using a 5-point Likert scale (1 = very low, 5 = very high). Overall response rate was 77.1% (2,135 of 2,769). Ratings of teamwork differed substantially by operating room caregiver type, with the greatest differences in ratings shown by physicians: surgeons (F[4, 2058] = 41.73, p teamwork exist in the operating room, with physicians rating the teamwork of others as good, but at the same time, nurses perceive teamwork as mediocre. Given the importance of communication and collaboration in patient safety, health care organizations should measure teamwork using a scientifically valid method. The Safety Attitudes Questionnaire can be used to measure teamwork, identify disconnects between or within disciplines, and evaluate interventions aimed at improving patient safety.
Prati, Gabriele; Pietrantoni, Luca
Previous studies have shown that surgical team members' attitudes about safety and teamwork in the operating theatre may play a role in patient safety. The aim of this study was to assess attitudes about teamwork and safety among Italian surgeons and operating room nurses. Fifty-five surgeons and 48 operating room nurses working in operating theatres at one hospital in Italy completed the Operating Room Management Attitudes Questionnaire (ORMAQ). Results showed several discrepancies in attitudes about teamwork and safety between surgeons and operating room nurses. Surgeons had more positive views on the quality of surgical leadership, communication, teamwork, and organizational climate in the theatre than operating room nurses. Operating room nurses reported that safety rules and procedures were more frequently disregarded than the surgeons. The results are only partially aligned with previous ORMAQ surveys of surgical teams in other countries. The differences emphasize the influence of national culture, as well as the particular healthcare system. This study shows discrepancies on many aspects in attitudes to teamwork and safety between surgeons and operating room nurses. The findings support implementation and use of team interventions and human factor training. Finally, attitude surveys provide a method for assessing safety culture in surgery, for evaluating the effectiveness of training initiatives, and for collecting data for a hospital's quality assurance programme.
Polytechnique Montréal has integrated an approach of teamwork in its twelve engineering programs, in the bachelor's degree program since 2005. Students must take a compulsory 45 hours course on teamwork and are then accompanied with team coaching throughout the four years program, in all the engineering integration projects. These integration…
Qualitative evaluation of the implementation of the Interdisciplinary Management Tool: a reflective tool to enhance interdisciplinary teamwork using Structured, Facilitated Action Research for Implementation.
Nancarrow, Susan A; Smith, Tony; Ariss, Steven; Enderby, Pamela M
Reflective practice is used increasingly to enhance team functioning and service effectiveness; however, there is little evidence of its use in interdisciplinary teams. This paper presents the qualitative evaluation of the Interdisciplinary Management Tool (IMT), an evidence-based change tool designed to enhance interdisciplinary teamwork through structured team reflection. The IMT incorporates three components: an evidence-based resource guide; a reflective implementation framework based on Structured, Facilitated Action Research for Implementation methodology; and formative and summative evaluation components. The IMT was implemented with intermediate care teams supported by independent facilitators in England. Each intervention lasted 6 months and was evaluated over a 12-month period. Data sources include interviews, a focus group with facilitators, questionnaires completed by team members and documentary feedback from structured team reports. Data were analysed qualitatively using the Framework approach. The IMT was implemented with 10 teams, including 253 staff from more than 10 different disciplines. Team challenges included lack of clear vision; communication issues; limited career progression opportunities; inefficient resource use; need for role clarity and service development. The IMT successfully engaged staff in the change process, and resulted in teams developing creative strategies to address the issues identified. Participants valued dedicated time to focus on the processes of team functioning; however, some were uncomfortable with a focus on teamwork at the expense of delivering direct patient care. The IMT is a relatively low-cost, structured, reflective way to enhance team function. It empowers individuals to understand and value their own, and others' roles and responsibilities within the team; identify barriers to effective teamwork, and develop and implement appropriate solutions to these. To be successful, teams need protected time to take
Nagasaka, Akihiko; Shibue, Hisao
The purpose of this study is to systematize measures for improvement of emergency response capability focused on non-technical skills. As the results of investigation of some emergency training in nuclear power plant and referring to CRM training, following two issues were picked up. 1) Lack of practical training method for improvement of non-technical skills. 2) Lack of evaluation method of non-technical skills. Then, based on these 7 non-technical skills 'situational awareness' 'decision making' 'communication' 'teamworking' 'leadership' 'managing stress' 'coping with fatigue' are promotion factors to improve emergency response capability, we propose practical training method for each non-technical skill. Also we give example of behavioral markers as evaluation factor, and indicate approaches to introduce the evaluation method of non-technical skills. (author)
Purpose: The first purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which students in university capstone public relations classes who receive teamwork training demonstrate effective team behaviors, produce quality work, experience satisfaction in the teamwork process, and engender client satisfaction. The second purpose was to determine the…
Schwartz, Miriam E; Welsh, Deborah E; Paull, Douglas E; Knowles, Regina S; DeLeeuw, Lori D; Hemphill, Robin R; Essen, Keith E; Sculli, Gary L
Communication failure is a significant source of adverse events in health care and a leading root cause of sentinel events reported to the Joint Commission. The Veterans Health Administration National Center for Patient Safety established Clinical Team Training (CTT) as a comprehensive program to enhance patient safety and to improve communication and teamwork among health care professionals. CTT is based on techniques used in aviation's Crew Resource Management (CRM) training. The aviation industry has reached a significant safety record in large part related to the culture change generated by CRM and sustained by its recurrent implementation. This article focuses on the improvement of communication, teamwork, and patient safety by utilizing a standardized, CRM-based, interprofessional, immersive training in diverse clinical areas. The Teamwork and Safety Climate Questionnaire was used to evaluate safety climate before and after CTT. The scores for all of the 27 questions on the questionnaire showed an increase from baseline to 12 months, and 11 of those increases were statistically significant. A recurrent training is recommended to maintain the positive outcomes. CTT enhances patient safety and reduces risk of patient harm by improving teamwork and facilitating clear, concise, specific and timely communication among health care professionals. © 2017 American Society for Healthcare Risk Management of the American Hospital Association.
Outram, Sue; Harris, Gillian; Kelly, Brian; Cohen, Martin; Bylund, Carma L; Landa, Yulia; Levin, Tomer T; Sandhu, Harsimrat; Vamos, Marina; Loughland, Carmel
This research sought to gain insight into the processes used by clinicians to discuss a schizophrenia diagnosis with patients/families, with the aim of informing the development of a communications skills training program. A generic qualitative methodological approach was used. Sixteen mental health clinicians were recruited. Semi-structured individual interviews were used to explore their perceptions and experiences communicating a schizophrenia diagnosis. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and thematic analysis undertaken. There were five key themes relating to the process of communication about a diagnosis of schizophrenia: (1) orientation to patient care, (2) planning of communication, (3) the impact of team leadership and inter/intra-professional functioning on communication tasks, (4) the roles of different clinicians in communicating about diagnosis and treatment, and (5) time and resource deficiencies. Despite expressing care and concern for vulnerable patients and embracing the concept of multidisciplinary teams, communicating diagnostic information to patients and families was generally unplanned for, with little consistency regarding leadership approaches, or how the team communicated diagnostic information to the patient and family. This contributed to tensions between different team members. The findings demonstrated a number of issues compromising good communication around a schizophrenia diagnosis, both in terms of clinician skill and clinical context, and support the importance of education and training for all members of the multidisciplinary team about their role in the communication process.
Freytag, Julia; Stroben, Fabian; Hautz, Wolf E; Eisenmann, Dorothea; Kämmer, Juliane E
Medical errors have an incidence of 9% and may lead to worse patient outcome. Teamwork training has the capacity to significantly reduce medical errors and therefore improve patient outcome. One common framework for teamwork training is crisis resource management, adapted from aviation and usually trained in simulation settings. Debriefing after simulation is thought to be crucial to learning teamwork-related concepts and behaviours but it remains unclear how best to debrief these aspects. Furthermore, teamwork-training sessions and studies examining education effects on undergraduates are rare. The study aims to evaluate the effects of two teamwork-focused debriefings on team performance after an extensive medical student teamwork training. A prospective experimental study has been designed to compare a well-established three-phase debriefing method (gather-analyse-summarise; the GAS method ) to a newly developed and more structured debriefing approach that extends the GAS method with TeamTAG (teamwork techniques analysis grid). TeamTAG is a cognitive aid listing preselected teamwork principles and descriptions of behavioural anchors that serve as observable patterns of teamwork and is supposed to help structure teamwork-focused debriefing. Both debriefing methods will be tested during an emergency room teamwork-training simulation comprising six emergency medicine cases faced by 35 final-year medical students in teams of five. Teams will be randomised into the two debriefing conditions. Team performance during simulation and the number of principles discussed during debriefing will be evaluated. Learning opportunities, helpfulness and feasibility will be rated by participants and instructors. Analyses will include descriptive, inferential and explorative statistics. The study protocol was approved by the institutional office for data protection and the ethics committee of Charité Medical School Berlin and registered under EA2/172/16. All students will
Olupeliyawa, Asela M; O'Sullivan, Anthony J; Hughes, Chris; Balasooriya, Chinthaka D
Teamwork is an important and challenging area of learning during the transition from medical graduate to intern. This preliminary investigation examined the psychometric and logistic properties of the Teamwork Mini-Clinical Evaluation Exercise (T-MEX) for the workplace-based assessment of key competencies in working with health care teams. The authors designed the T-MEX for direct observation and assessment of six collaborative behaviors in seven clinical situations important for teamwork, feedback, and reflection. In 2010, they tested it on University of New South Wales senior medical students during their last six-week clinical term to investigate its overall utility, including validity and reliability. Assessors rated students in different situations on the extent to which they met expectations for interns for each collaborative behavior. Both assessors and students rated the tool's usefulness and feasibility. Assessment forms for 88 observed encounters were submitted by 25 students. The T-MEX was suited to a broad range of collaborative clinical practice situations, as evidenced by the encounter types and the behaviors assessed by health care team members. The internal structure of the behavior ratings indicated construct validity. A generalizability study found that eight encounters were adequate for high-stakes measurement purposes. The mean times for observation and feedback and the participants' perceptions suggested usefulness for feedback and feasibility in busy clinical settings. Findings suggest that the T-MEX has good utility for assessing trainee competence in working with health care teams. It fills a gap within the suite of existing tools for workplace-based assessment of professional attributes.
Peller, Jennifer; Schwartz, Brian; Kitto, Simon
To define and delineate the nontechnical core competencies required for disaster response, Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT) members were interviewed regarding their perspectives and experiences in disaster management. Also explored was the relationship between nontechnical competencies and interprofessional collaboration. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 Canadian DMAT members to explore how they viewed nontechnical core competencies and how their experiences influenced their perceptions toward interprofessonalism in disaster response. Data were examined using thematic analysis. Nontechnical core competencies were categorized under austere skills, interpersonal skills, and cognitive skills. Research participants defined interprofessionalism and discussed the importance of specific nontechnical core competencies to interprofessional collaboration. The findings of this study established a connection between nontechnical core competencies and interprofessional collaboration in DMAT activities. It also provided preliminary insights into the importance of context in developing an evidence base for competency training in disaster response and management. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2013;0:1-8).
Bainbridge, Lauren A.; Stavros, Candace; Ebrahimian, Mineh; Wang, Yuedong; Ingham, Roger J.
Purpose: Two stuttering measurement training programs currently used for training clinicians were evaluated for their efficacy in improving the accuracy of total stuttering event counting. Method: Four groups, each with 12 randomly allocated participants, completed a pretest-posttest design training study. They were evaluated by their counts of…
Healey, A N; Undre, S; Vincent, C A
Developments in surgical technology and procedure have accelerated and altered the work carried out in the operating theatre/room, but team modelling and training have not co‐evolved. Evidence suggests that team structure and role allocation are sometimes unclear and contentious, and coordination and communication are not fully effective. To improve teamwork, clinicians need models that specify team resources, structure, process and tasks. They also need measures to assess performance and methods to train teamwork strategically. An effective training strategy might be to incorporate teamwork with other technical skills training in simulation. However, the measures employed for enhancing teamwork in training and practice will need to vary in their object of analysis, level of technical specificity, and system scope. PMID:16885245
Ritzmann, Sandrina; Hagemann, Vera; Kluge, Annette
Training evaluation in research and organisational contexts is vital to ensure informed decisions regarding the value of training. The present study describes the development of a valid and reliable training evaluation inventory (TEI), as it does not exist so far. The objectives were a) to construct an instrument that is theoretically and…
McComb, Sara A; Lemaster, Matthew; Henneman, Elizabeth A; Hinchey, Kevin T
This study examines nurse-physician teamwork and collaboration, a critical component in the delivery of safe patient care, on general medical units. To that end, we assess shared mental models and mutual trust, 2 coordinating mechanisms that help facilitate teamwork, among nurses and physicians working on general medical units. Data were collected from 37 nurses and 42 physicians at an urban teaching medical center in the Northeastern United States. Shared mental model questionnaire items were iteratively developed with experts' input to ensure content validity. Mutual trust items were adapted from an existing scale; items were reliable. Data were analyzed using χ and independent 2-tailed t tests. Physicians and nurses reported significant differences in their perceptions of the professional responsible for a variety of roles (e.g., advocating for the patient [P = 0.0007], identifying a near miss/error [P = 0.003]). Medication reconciliation is only role for which nurses perceive less responsibility than physicians perceive nurses have. Regarding mutual trust, both groups reported significantly more trust within their own professions; both groups reported similar levels of trust in physicians, with physicians reporting significantly less trust in their nursing colleagues than nurses perceive (P work is needed. To that end, we propose increasing knowledge about their respective roles, providing opportunities for nurse and physician collaboration through rounding or committee work and enhancing the preparedness and professionalism of interactions.
Due to the long-duration and long distance nature of future exploration missions, coupled with significant communication delays from ground-based personnel, NASA astronauts will be living and working within confined, isolated environments for significant periods of time. This extreme environment poses concerns for the flight crews' ability to…
Purpose: The aim of the study is to evaluate the inﬂuence of team project experiences of students (presence and role of a leader; fairness in team projects; conditions supporting teamwork created by a university) on their attitudes towards teamwork, especially the perception of teamwork effectiveness and the preference of working in teams. Methodology: In the study the quantitative research was done among master degree Polish students of Management (105 questionnaires). The measures used f...
McCowan, Richard J.; McCowan, Sheila C.
This paper describes an evaluation model called embedded training evaluation (ETE) which can be used to evaluate different types of training ranging from basic skills through constructed learning. The model was developed for the New York State Child Welfare/Child Protection Services Common Core training program. ETE is particularly effective in…
Aoki, Hideyuki; Kamata, Motohiro; Yamagami, Norihisa
The purpose of my study was to develop of cooperative learning support on Educational Function as Teamwork in Project-based Learning with Regional Cooperation. Analysis of validation of the original method were made using correlation analysis of student satisfaction of relationships among teammate and educational function as teamwork, result of self-diagnose. As a result, we achieved analysis results with a collective creativity were involved in student‧s planning skill. It was shown that educational functions as teamwork plays an important part in the growth of students. Our study revealed that there was method using cooperative learning technique helps to promote improvement of educational function as teamwork.
Livingston, Stephen C; Dyer, Jean L; Swinson, Diadra
.... The overall ratings reflect the initial performance of the Soldiers to be trained on the tasks covered by the training technology, task and subtask characteristics, learning difficulty, residual...
Morisseau, D.S.; Roe, M.L.; Persensky, J.J.
The NRC Policy Statement on Training and Qualification endorses the INPO-managed Training Accreditation Program in that it encompasses the elements of effective performance-based training. Those elements are: analysis of the job, performance-based learning objectives, training design and implementation, trainee evaluation, and program evaluation. As part of the NRC independent evaluation of utilities implementation of training improvement programs, the staff developed training review criteria and procedures that address all five elements of effective performance-based training. The staff uses these criteria to perform reviews of utility training programs that have already received accreditation. Although no performance-based training program can be said to be complete unless all five elements are in place, the last two, trainee and program evaluation, are perhaps the most important because they determine how well the first three elements have been implemented and ensure the dynamic nature of training. This paper discusses the evaluation elements of the NRC training review criteria. The discussion will detail the elements of evaluation methods and techniques that the staff expects to find as integral parts of performance-based training programs at accredited utilities. Further, the review of the effectiveness of implementation of the evaluation methods is discussed. The paper also addresses some of the qualitative differences between what is minimally acceptable and what is most desirable with respect to trainee and program evaluation mechanisms and their implementation
Bovbjerg, Kirsten Marie; Søgaard Sørensen, Marianne
to what the authors call collegial co-operation, which comprises social and solidarity relations that in a variety of ways and to different degrees have always existed among colleagues. By examining the structure of teamwork and collegial co-operation, their social aspects and values as well as their view...... of knowledge, the authors attempt to discover what factors are actually at play when a school introduces teamwork among teachers. The two co-operation logics appear to make use, for example, of two different types of democratic approaches that in turn influence the democratic domain in which students learn....
Leggat Sandra G
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although effective teamwork has been consistently identified as a requirement for enhanced clinical outcomes in the provision of healthcare, there is limited knowledge of what makes health professionals effective team members, and even less information on how to develop skills for teamwork. This study identified critical teamwork competencies for health service managers. Methods Members of a state branch of the professional association of Australian health service managers participated in a teamwork survey. Results The 37% response rate enabled identification of a management teamwork competency set comprising leadership, knowledge of organizational goals and strategies and organizational commitment, respect for others, commitment to working collaboratively and to achieving a quality outcome. Conclusion Although not part of the research question the data suggested that the competencies for effective teamwork are perceived to be different for management and clinical teams, and there are differences in the perceptions of effective teamwork competencies between male and female health service managers. This study adds to the growing evidence that the focus on individual skill development and individual accountability and achievement that results from existing models of health professional training, and which is continually reinforced by human resource management practices within healthcare systems, is not consistent with the competencies required for effective teamwork.
The Department of Research and Evaluation (DRE) has completed an analysis of the performance of students who participated in the Teamwork USA Program, administered in FY2014 at three District schools. Teamwork USA hopes to improve student achievement at select Title I elementary schools via its Instrumental Music Program grant. This memorandum to…
Magney, John; Troutt-Ervin, Eileen
Two surveys of technical educators about the effectiveness of teaching technical students about teamwork found that most used group work but in limited ways and with little knowledge of cooperative and problem-based learning. Practical issues that should be addressed include team composition, roles, and leadership; communication; trust; decision…
Asadullah, Muhammad Ali; Peretti, Jean Marie; Ali, Arain Ghulam; Bourgain, Marina
Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to test the mediating role of training duration in relationship between firm characteristics and training evaluation practices. In this paper, the authors also investigated if this mediating effect differs with respect to the size of the firm. Design/methodology/approach: The authors collected data from 260…
Foyle, David C.; Shafto, Michael G.; Hart, Sandra G. (Technical Monitor)
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is well known for its roles in the space program and in aeronautics. Because teamwork is essential for most NASA missions, NASA has experience in both research on teamwork and implementation of team projects. The purpose of this chapter is not to summarize research results on teamwork. This chapter will summarize our insight into teamwork as it applies to the large institutions and organizations with which we have been associated: University academic systems, Navy research laboratories, and NASA. These organizations represent a variety of systems in which teamwork is commonplace.
Rosen, Michael A; Dietz, Aaron S; Yang, Ting; Priebe, Carey E; Pronovost, Peter J
There is a strong link between teamwork and patient safety. Emerging evidence supports the efficacy of teamwork improvement interventions. However, the availability of reliable, valid, and practical measurement tools and strategies is commonly cited as a barrier to long-term sustainment and spread of these teamwork interventions. This article describes the potential value of sensor-based technology as a methodology to measure and evaluate teamwork in healthcare. The article summarizes the tea...
Lori, Jody R; Munro, Michelle L; Moore, Jennifer E; Fladger, Jessica
Post-conflict Liberia has one of the fastest growing populations on the continent and one of the highest maternal mortality rates among the world. However, in the rural regions, less than half of all births are attended by a skilled birth attendant. There is a need to evaluate the relationship between trained traditional healthcare providers and skilled birth attendants to improve maternal health outcomes. This evaluation must also take into consideration the needs and desires of the patients. The purpose of this pilot study was to establish the validity and reliability of a survey tool to evaluate trust and teamwork in the working relationships between trained traditional midwives and certified midwives in a post-conflict country. A previously established scale, the Trust and Teambuilding Scale, was used with non- and low-literate trained traditional midwives (n=48) in rural Liberia to evaluate trust and teamwork with certified midwives in their communities. Initial results indicated that the scale and response keys were culturally inadequate for this population. A revised version of the scale, the Trust and Teamwork Scale - Liberia, was created and administered to an additional group of non- and low-literate, trained traditional midwives (n=42). Exploratory factor analysis using Mplus for dichotomous variables was used to determine the psychometric properties of the revised scale and was then confirmed with the full sample (n=90). Additional analyses included contrast validity, convergent validity, and Kuder-Richardson reliability. Exploratory factor analysis revealed two factors in the revised Trust and Teamwork Scale - Liberia. These two factors, labeled trust and teamwork, included eleven of the original eighteen items used in the Trust and Teamwork Scale and demonstrated contrast and convergent validity and adequate reliability. The revised scale is suitable for use with non- and low-literate, trained traditional midwives in rural Liberia. Continued cross
Background Post-conflict Liberia has one of the fastest growing populations on the continent and one of the highest maternal mortality rates among the world. However, in the rural regions, less than half of all births are attended by a skilled birth attendant. There is a need to evaluate the relationship between trained traditional healthcare providers and skilled birth attendants to improve maternal health outcomes. This evaluation must also take into consideration the needs and desires of the patients. The purpose of this pilot study was to establish the validity and reliability of a survey tool to evaluate trust and teamwork in the working relationships between trained traditional midwives and certified midwives in a post-conflict country. Methods A previously established scale, the Trust and Teambuilding Scale, was used with non- and low-literate trained traditional midwives (n=48) in rural Liberia to evaluate trust and teamwork with certified midwives in their communities. Initial results indicated that the scale and response keys were culturally inadequate for this population. A revised version of the scale, the Trust and Teamwork Scale – Liberia, was created and administered to an additional group of non- and low-literate, trained traditional midwives (n=42). Exploratory factor analysis using Mplus for dichotomous variables was used to determine the psychometric properties of the revised scale and was then confirmed with the full sample (n=90). Additional analyses included contrast validity, convergent validity, and Kuder-Richardson reliability. Results Exploratory factor analysis revealed two factors in the revised Trust and Teamwork Scale – Liberia. These two factors, labeled trust and teamwork, included eleven of the original eighteen items used in the Trust and Teamwork Scale and demonstrated contrast and convergent validity and adequate reliability. Conclusions The revised scale is suitable for use with non- and low-literate, trained traditional
Selber, Jesse C; Alrasheed, Taiba
Robotic surgery has expanded rapidly over the past two decades and is in widespread use among the surgical subspecialties. Clinical applications in plastic surgery have emerged gradually over the last few years. One of the promising applications is robotic-assisted microvascular anastomosis. Here the authors first describe a process by which an assessment instrument they developed called the Structured Assessment of Robotic Microsurgical Skills (SARMS) was validated. The instrument combines the previously validated Structured Assessment of Microsurgical Skills (SAMS) with other skill domains in robotic surgery. Interrater reliability for the SARMS instrument was excellent for all skill areas among four expert, blinded evaluators. They then present a process by which the learning curve for robotic-assisted microvascular anastomoses was measured and plotted. Ten study participants performed five robotic microanastomoses each that were recorded, deidentified and scored. Trends in SARMS scores were plotted. All skill areas and overall performance improved significantly for each participant over the five microanastomotic sessions, and operative time decreased for all participants. The results showed an initial steep ascent in technical skill acquisition followed by more gradual improvement, and a steady decrease in operative times for the cohort. Participants at all levels of training, ranging from minimal microsurgical experience to expert microsurgeons gained proficiency over the course of five robotic sessions.
The Canadian nuclear regulatory agency endorses the Systematic Approach to Training (SAT) as the most reliable method of providing effective, efficient training to Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) personnel. However the benefits of SAT cannot be realized unless all five phases of SAT are implemented. This is particularly true with respect to evaluation. Although each phase of SAT builds on the preceding one, the evaluation phase continuously feeds back into each of the others and also provides the means to verify the entire training programme building process. It is useful, therefore, to examine the issues relating to the what, why, who, when and how of training programme evaluation. ''What'' identifies the various aspects of the training programme to be evaluated, including the need for training, the training standard, the task list, trainer competence, test results, training results, program acceptance and numerous indicators that identify a need for evaluation. ''Why'' addresses legal and regulatory aspects, resource management, worker and public safety, worker and trainer competence and morale, and the cost/benefit of the training program. ''Who'' examines the need to involve trainers, trainees, plant subject matter experts (SMEs), and both plant and training centre supervisory and management staff. ''When'' addresses time-related concerns such as the importance of ensuring at the outset that the training program is actually needed, the necessity of responding promptly to local, national and world events, changes in legal and regulatory responsibilities, and the overriding importance of timely, routine training program evaluations. ''How'' describes the process of conducting a training program evaluation, and addresses the relationships of these five aspects of evaluation to each other. (author). 10 refs
Teamwork Management in a Creative Organization Problem of Thesis - lack of researches investigating teamwork resolution, management specificity and interferences in cultural organizations. Aim – to analyze features of teamwork management in cultural organization. Tasks: 1. To define the concept of teamwork; 2. To disclose features of teamwork forming process; 3. To analyze features of teamwork management. 4. To examine factors of teamwork management in cultural organization; 5. To investigate...
Bovbjerg, Kirsten Marie; Søgaard Sørensen, Marianne
Kapitlet beskæftiger sig med teamwork som en af de sociale teknologier, der i dag, også indenfor undervisningssektoren, er med til at forandre medarbejderes, og altså her læreres, forståelse af deres arbejdsliv. Ud fra empiriske studier på erhvervsskoleområdet kontrasteres team-samarbejde med det...... forsøger forfatterne at finde ud af, hvad der egentligt er på spil, når en skole indfører teamwork blandt lærerne. Blandt andet ser det ud til, at de to forskellige samarbejdslogikker benytter sig af to forskellige demokratiforståelser, der således får indflydelse på det demokratiske rum, eleverne dannes i....
Stephenson, S. N.
A participant evaluation of a Deep Space Network (DSN) is described. The Mark IVA project is an implementation to upgrade the tracking and data acquisition systems of the dSN. Approximately six hundred DSN operations and engineering maintenance personnel were surveyed. The survey obtained a convenience sample including trained people within the population in order to learn what training had taken place and to what effect. The survey questionnaire used modifications of standard rating scales to evaluate over one hundred items in four training dimensions. The scope of the evaluation included Mark IVA vendor training, a systems familiarization training seminar, engineering training classes, a on-the-job training. Measures of central tendency were made from participant rating responses. Chi square tests of statistical significance were performed on the data. The evaluation results indicated that the effects of different Mark INA training methods could be measured according to certain ratings of technical training effectiveness, and that the Mark IVA technical training has exhibited positive effects on the abilities of DSN personnel to operate and maintain new Mark IVA equipment systems.
Stephenson, S. N.
A participant evaluation of a Deep Space Network (DSN) is described. The Mark IVA project is an implementation to upgrade the tracking and data acquisition systems of the dSN. Approximately six hundred DSN operations and engineering maintenance personnel were surveyed. The survey obtained a convenience sample including trained people within the population in order to learn what training had taken place and to what effect. The survey questionnaire used modifications of standard rating scales to evaluate over one hundred items in four training dimensions. The scope of the evaluation included Mark IVA vendor training, a systems familiarization training seminar, engineering training classes, a on-the-job training. Measures of central tendency were made from participant rating responses. Chi square tests of statistical significance were performed on the data. The evaluation results indicated that the effects of different Mark INA training methods could be measured according to certain ratings of technical training effectiveness, and that the Mark IVA technical training has exhibited positive effects on the abilities of DSN personnel to operate and maintain new Mark IVA equipment systems.
Valentine, Melissa A; Nembhard, Ingrid M; Edmondson, Amy C
Teamwork in health care settings is widely recognized as an important factor in providing high-quality patient care. However, the behaviors that comprise effective teamwork, the organizational factors that support teamwork, and the relationship between teamwork and patient outcomes remain empirical questions in need of rigorous study. To identify and review survey instruments used to assess dimensions of teamwork so as to facilitate high-quality research on this topic. We conducted a systematic review of articles published before September 2012 to identify survey instruments used to measure teamwork and to assess their conceptual content, psychometric validity, and relationships to outcomes of interest. We searched the ISI Web of Knowledge database, and identified relevant articles using the search terms team, teamwork, or collaboration in combination with survey, scale, measure, or questionnaire. We found 39 surveys that measured teamwork. Surveys assessed different dimensions of teamwork. The most commonly assessed dimensions were communication, coordination, and respect. Of the 39 surveys, 10 met all of the criteria for psychometric validity, and 14 showed significant relationships to nonself-report outcomes. Evidence of psychometric validity is lacking for many teamwork survey instruments. However, several psychometrically valid instruments are available. Researchers aiming to advance research on teamwork in health care should consider using or adapting one of these instruments before creating a new one. Because instruments vary considerably in the behavioral processes and emergent states of teamwork that they capture, researchers must carefully evaluate the conceptual consistency between instrument, research question, and context.
Hall, J. Doug; Yoder, John A. Yoder
Training organizations must answer the question: Is the training program adding value in terms of workforce productivity and safety? To answer this question, one needs to know what circumstances led to the development of training to determine how to measure the result of Gaining. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (ENEEL), under contract with the United States Department Of Energy (U.S. DOE), has conducted extensive research hi the area of training effectiveness. A comprehensive Training Performance Indicator Model has been developed, which has become the basis for a DRAFT document entitled Guidance for Conducting Evaluations to Determine Training Effectiveness'. The indicator Model includes the performance indicators, strategies, and methods for measuring training effectiveness. A common nomenclature is used throughout the DRAFT document to aid in using and understanding training effectiveness evaluations. The model incorporates elements of Dr. Donald L. Kirkpatrick's evaluation model, other models from industry leaders, and the findings of a benchmarking study involving both nuclear and non-nuclear industry professionals. This presentation communicates recent Department of Energy efforts in evaluating effectiveness of training, including valuable lessons learned. (author)
Littlepage, Glenn E; Hein, Michael B; Moffett, Richard G; Craig, Paul A; Georgiou, Andrea M
This study evaluates the effectiveness of a training program designed to improve cross-functional coordination in airline operations. Teamwork across professional specializations is essential for safe and efficient airline operations, but aviation education primarily emphasizes positional knowledge and skill. Although crew resource management training is commonly used to provide some degree of teamwork training, it is generally focused on specific specializations, and little training is provided in coordination across specializations. The current study describes and evaluates a multifaceted training program designed to enhance teamwork and team performance of cross-functional teams within a simulated airline flight operations center. The training included a variety of components: orientation training, position-specific declarative knowledge training, position-specific procedural knowledge training, a series of high-fidelity team simulations, and a series of after-action reviews. Following training, participants demonstrated more effective teamwork, development of transactive memory, and more effective team performance. Multifaceted team training that incorporates positional training and team interaction in complex realistic situations and followed by after-action reviews can facilitate teamwork and team performance. Team training programs, such as the one described here, have potential to improve the training of aviation professionals. These techniques can be applied to other contexts where multidisciplinary teams and multiteam systems work to perform highly interdependent activities. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.
O'Connell, Mark T; Pascoe, John M
The health care delivery system is experiencing enormous flux. The knowledge and skills sets required of today's physicians include expertise in competency areas that have not been included in the traditional medical curricula. The Undergraduate Medical Education for the 21st Century (UME-21) project was designed to develop innovative curricula that addressed the training necessary for medical students to gain skills required to provide high-quality, accessible, and affordable care in the modern health care environment. One of the nine UME-21 content areas, leadership and teamwork, has historically received relatively little attention in medical education. Each school participating in the UME-21 project submitted a final report that provided information for this descriptive summary of curricular innovations for teaching the concepts of leadership and teamwork to medical students. A classification lexicon for the curricular content and experiences in this content area was derived from these UME-21 project reports. Each school evaluated its curricular innovations independently using a variety of methods, largely descriptive and qualitative in nature. Eight UME-21 schools developed curricula addressing the content area of leadership and teamwork. The majority of these curricula used the clinical care teams in the clinical rotations to demonstrate the principles and importance of leadership and teamwork. Three of the schools implemented didactic sessions and workshops to explicitly address leadership and teamwork. One school used the gross anatomy dissection teams as the "laboratory" for demonstrating this content material. The evaluations of these curricular efforts showed them to be positively regarded by the medical students. Outcomes of measurable changes in competency in this area of expertise were not evaluated. There is little past experience in teaching leadership and teamwork in medical school. The UME-21 project supported the design and implementation of
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the study is to evaluate the inﬂuence of team project experiences of students (presence and role of a leader; fairness in team projects; conditions supporting teamwork created by a university on their attitudes towards teamwork, especially the perception of teamwork effectiveness and the preference of working in teams. Methodology: In the study the quantitative research was done among master degree Polish students of Management (105 questionnaires. The measures used for the study were developed specifcally for the study referring to the previous research in the feld. Findings: Results indicate that leaders in team projects and conditions supporting teamwork are connected with the students’ perception of teamwork effectiveness, while the fairness in team projects is connected with students’ preference of working collectively. Research implications: We conclude that in order to develop a positive attitude towards teamwork, the teamwork projects should be better supported by the instructors (especially supporting the emergence of leader(s and minimising the problem of free riders and the university should create a climate that facilitates teamworking, otherwise team projects might negatively inﬂuence students’ attitude towards collective work. Value: On the labour market the teamwork skills are one of the most important skills of employees, as the team-based organizational designs are becoming the norm in work organization. The study is contributing to the understanding of the relations between student experiences and their attitudes as well as the role played by high education in the development of these attitudes. Some previous research in Anglo-Saxon culture countries indicate that team project assignments realised by students during studies might even hinder their attitudes to teamwork and their willingness to work in teams in the future.
Corporate aviation relies heavily on simulation to meet training and evaluation requirements. It appreciates the savings in fuel, money, noise, and time, and the added safety it provides. Also, simulation provides opportunities to experience many emergencies that cannot be safely practiced in the aircraft. There is a need to focus on the advantages of simulator training over aircraft training and to provide appropriate changes in the regulations to allow the community to make it possible for users to take full advantage of simulation.
Baker, David P; Amodeo, Andrea M; Krokos, Kelley J; Slonim, Anthony; Herrera, Heidi
The report, To Err is Human, indicated that a large number of deaths are caused by medical error. A central tenet of this report was that patient safety was not only a function of sophisticated healthcare technology and treatments, but also the degree to which healthcare professionals could perform effectively as teams. Research suggests that teamwork comprises four core skills: Leadership, Situation Monitoring, Mutual Support and Communication. In healthcare, team training programmes, such as TeamSTEPPS®, are designed to improve participant knowledge of, attitudes towards, and skills in these core areas. If such training programmes are effective, changes in knowledge, attitudes and skills should be observed. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the TeamSTEPPS Teamwork Attitudes Questionnaire (T-TAQ), a measure designed to assess attitudes towards the core components of teamwork in healthcare. A pilot test version of the survey was developed and administered to 495 respondents from various healthcare organisations. Classical item statistics were used to select the final T-TAQ items. Based on this analysis, 30 of the original 110 items were selected for inclusion in the final instrument. Scale reliabilities exceed 0.7, and scales were found to be moderately correlated. The T-TAQ provides a useful, reliable and valid tool for assessing individual attitudes related to the role of teamwork in the delivery of healthcare. Issues related to its use and interpretation are discussed.
Full Text Available Orientation: The evaluation of training programmes provides methodological and logistical challenges to evaluators and human resource (HR managers. The training of executive coaches is no exception in this regard. Research purpose: The study aimed to investigate one particular aspect of the results of an executive coach training programme, and the extent to which knowledge, skills and attitudes acquired during the programme were applied in practical settings. Motivation for the study: Too little is known in South Africa about the effectiveness of training programmes, including executive coach training programmes. There is a need to demonstrate methodological approaches that would provide valid and reliable data. Research design, approach and method: The success case method (SCM was used to guide the study, consisting first of a survey of 80 participants in the training programme, followed by eight interviews to compare successful with less successful cases of skills transfer. Main findings: All six successful coaches were applying the proximal outcomes from the training with good results, with several valuable consequences resulting from the training. Barriers to successful implementation included personal circumstances and unfulfilled expectations of the programme content. Practical/managerial implications: Aspects of the training programme that could be improved included: the buddy selection system, more individualised feedback about self-development, closer supervision, and more support from programme managers. Contribution/value-add: This evaluation contributes to the evaluation literature by providing a documented exploration of a systematic application of the SCM. It also contributes to the coach training literature by providing a systematic evaluation of a coach training intervention in South Africa.
Ballangrud, Randi; Huseb?, Sissel Eikeland; Aase, Karina; Aaberg, Oddveig Reiersdal; Vifladt, Anne; Berg, Geir Vegard; Hall-Lord, Marie Louise
Background: Effective teamwork and sufficient communication are critical components essential to patient safety in today’s specialized and complex healthcare services. Team training is important for an improved efficiency in inter-professional teamwork within hospitals, however the scientific rigor of studies must be strengthen and more research is required to compare studies across samples, settings and countries. The aims of the study are to translate and validate teamwork questionnaires an...
Training designed to support and strengthen higher-order mental abilities now often involves immersion in Virtual Reality (VR) where dangerous real world scenarios can be safely replicated. However, despite the growing popularity of VR to train cognitive skills such as decision-making and situation awareness, methods for evaluating their use rely…
Full Text Available The train timetable dominates the rail traffic organization. The timetabling quality should be evaluated to check the work skill of train timetable managers. The values of existing timetable evaluation indexes vary with infrastructure features and traffic flow; therefore, they are not comparable in fact. Furthermore, subjective inputs like expert scores are involved in evaluation; this will lead to unreliable results because the experts may have different opinions. To overcome these shortages, we propose a relative train path efficiency index by taking the train paths as production units. Each unit consumes some transport resources and produces some feedback outputs. A DEA model is applied to compute the train path efficiency. Two statistical functions of train path efficiency are used to evaluate the timetabling quality. We verify our method with real-world timetables. First, we use the Shibantan-to-Xinqiao line timetable to test the relative feature of the index proposed, and the results show that the train path efficiency value is relative and can reflect whether the stops are evenly distributed or not. Second, we evaluate the timetabling quality of another two timetables of the Qingdao-to-Jinan line with different traffic flows, and the results show that, compared with the 2012 timetable, the timetabling quality decreased in 2013.
Vilà Falgueras, Maite; Cruzate Muñoz, Carlota; Orfila Pernas, Francesc; Creixell Sureda, Joan; González López, María Pilar; Davins Miralles, Josep
To estimate the prevalence of burnout and the perception of teamwork in Primary Care teams from Barcelona. Multicenter cross-sectional. Primary Health Care Teams from Barcelona. Institut Català de la Salut. All permanent employees or temporary professionals of all categories from 51 teams (N=2398). A total of 879 responses (36.7%) were obtained. The Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaire, with 3 dimensions, was sent by emotional exhaustion (AE), depersonalization (DP), and personal accomplishment (RP). Burnout is considered present when two or more dimensions scored high marks. Perception of teamwork and evaluation of leaders was evaluated using an ad hoc questionnaire. The prevalence of burnout was17.2% (two or more dimensions affected), and 46.2% had at least one of the three dimensions with a high level. A high level of AE was found in 38.2%, of DP in 23.8%, and 7.7% had low RP. Almost half (49.2%) believe that teamwork is encouraged in their workplace. Social workers overall, have a higher average of dimensions affected at a high level, followed by administrative personnel, dentists, doctors and nurses (p<0.001). Permanent staff have a greater degree of emotional exhaustion (p<0.002). Those who rated their leaders worst and least rated teamwork had more emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and higher level of burnout in general (p<0.001). The level of burnout among professionals is considerable, with differences existing between occupational categories. Teamwork and appreciating their leaders protect from burnout. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ministry of Health and Medical Education in the Islamic Republic of Iran has undertaken a reform of its health system, in which-lower level managers are given new roles and responsibilities in a decentralized system. To support these efforts, a United Kingdom-based university was contracted by the World Health Organization to design a series of courses for health managers and trainers. This process was also intended to develop the capacity of the National Public Health Management Centre in Tabriz, Iran, to enable it to organize relevant short courses in health management on a continuing basis. A total of seven short training courses were implemented, three in the United Kingdom and four in Tabriz, with 35 participants. A detailed evaluation of the courses was undertaken to guide future development of the training programmes. Methods The Kirkpatrick framework for evaluation of training was used to measure participants' reactions, learning, application to the job, and to a lesser extent, organizational impact. Particular emphasis was put on application of learning to the participants' job. A structured questionnaire was administered to 23 participants, out of 35, between one and 13 months after they had attended the courses. Respondents, like the training course participants, were predominantly from provincial universities, with both health system and academic responsibilities. Interviews with key informants and ex-trainees provided supplemental information, especially on organizational impact. Results Participants' preferred interactive methods for learning about health planning and management. They found the course content to be relevant, but with an overemphasis on theory compared to practical, locally-specific information. In terms of application of learning to their jobs, participants found specific information and skills to be most useful, such as health systems research and group work/problem solving. The least
Martín-Pérez, Víctor; Martín-Cruz, Natalia; Pérez-Santana, Pilar; Hernangómez-Barahona, Juan; Martín-Sierra, Celia
The objective of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of strategic management simulations as a learning-by-doing tool, that is they can enhance their knowledge, skills and abilities for effective teamwork. We have carried out an analysis of the effect of business simulation on the teamwork KSA with a group of undergraduates of the Business School. The results show that the teamwork KSA can improve and that the initial knowledge of those teamwork KSA, at the individual level, is the only factor which conditions their learning. Initial knowledge of the teamwork KSA and the spread of this knowledge within the team, are not a determinant influence on the individual learning-by-doing. Neither are features such as intelligence, personality, attitude to teamwork and teamwork self-efficacy.
McCulloch, P; Rathbone, J; Catchpole, K
Concern over the frequency of unintended harm to patients has focused attention on the importance of teamwork and communication in avoiding errors. This has led to experiments with teamwork training programmes for clinical staff, mostly based on aviation models. These are widely assumed to be effective in improving patient safety, but the extent to which this assumption is justified by evidence remains unclear. A systematic literature review on the effects of teamwork training for clinical staff was performed. Information was sought on outcomes including staff attitudes, teamwork skills, technical performance, efficiency and clinical outcomes. Of 1036 relevant abstracts identified, 14 articles were analysed in detail: four randomized trials and ten non-randomized studies. Overall study quality was poor, with particular problems over blinding, subjective measures and Hawthorne effects. Few studies reported on every outcome category. Most reported improved staff attitudes, and six of eight reported significantly better teamwork after training. Five of eight studies reported improved technical performance, improved efficiency or reduced errors. Three studies reported evidence of clinical benefit, but this was modest or of borderline significance in each case. Studies with a stronger intervention were more likely to report benefits than those providing less training. None of the randomized trials found evidence of technical or clinical benefit. The evidence for technical or clinical benefit from teamwork training in medicine is weak. There is some evidence of benefit from studies with more intensive training programmes, but better quality research and cost-benefit analysis are needed. Copyright © 2011 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Rovamo, Liisa; Nurmi, Elisa; Mattila, Minna-Maria; Suominen, Pertti; Silvennoinen, Minna
Video analyses of real-life newborn resuscitations have shown that Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP) guidelines are followed in fewer than 50% of cases. Multidisciplinary simulation is used as a first-rate tool for the improvement of teamwork among health professionals. In the study we evaluated the impact of the crisis resource management (CRM) and anesthesia non-technical skills instruction on teamwork during simulated newborn emergencies. Ninety-nine participants of two delivery units (17 pediatricians, 16 anesthesiologists, 14 obstetricians, 31 midwives, and 21 neonatal nurses) were divided to an intervention group (I-group, 9 teams) and a control group (C-group, 6 teams). The I-group attended a CRM and ANTS instruction before the first scenario. After each scenario the I-group performed either self- or peer-assessment depending on whether they had acted or observed in the scenario. All the teams participated in two and observed another two scenarios. All the scenarios were video-recorded and scored by three experts with Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM). SPSS software and nlme package were used for the statistical analyses. The total TEAM scores of the first scenario between the I- and C-group did not differ from each other. Neither there was an increase in the TEAM scoring between the first and second scenario between the groups. The CRM instruction did not improve the I-group's teamwork performance. Unfortunately the teams were not comparable because the teams had been allowed to self-select their members in the study design. The total TEAM scores varied a lot between the teams. Mixed-model linear regression revealed that the background of the team leader had an impact on differences of the total teamwork scores (D = 6.50, p = 0.039). When an anesthesia consultant was the team leader the mean teamwork improved by 6.41 points in comparison to specialists of other disciplines (p = 0.043). The instruction of non-technical skills before simulation
Fan, Xiaocong; Yen, John
Among researchers in multi-agent systems there has been growing interest in using intelligent agents to model and simulate human teamwork behaviors. Teamwork modeling is important for training humans in gaining collaborative skills, for supporting humans in making critical decisions by proactively gathering, fusing, and sharing information, and for building coherent teams with both humans and agents working effectively on intelligence-intensive problems. Teamwork modeling is also challenging because the research has spanned diverse disciplines from business management to cognitive science, human discourse, and distributed artificial intelligence. This article presents an extensive, but not exhaustive, list of work in the field, where the taxonomy is organized along two main dimensions: team social structure and social behaviors. Along the dimension of social structure, we consider agent-only teams and mixed human-agent teams. Along the dimension of social behaviors, we consider collaborative behaviors, communicative behaviors, helping behaviors, and the underpinning of effective teamwork-shared mental models. The contribution of this article is that it presents an organizational framework for analyzing a variety of teamwork simulation systems and for further studying simulated teamwork behaviors.
Noland, Robert B; Weiner, Marc D; Klein, Nicholas J; Puniello, Orin D
We evaluated a training course called "Orientation to Transit Procurement", designed and conducted by the National Transit Institute. This course is designed to provide Federal Transit Administration (FTA) grantees an overview of regulations and best practices related to the procurement process. Our objective in conducting the evaluation was to understand how transit agency staff made changes in procurement practices in response to the course training. The evaluation was mixed mode: an Internet survey followed by in-depth interviews with a small group of respondents. Survey respondents were also provided with an open-ended question providing us with additional context for our evaluation. Results show that the training is substantially successful at meeting the goal of improving procurement practices at transit agencies; indeed, most respondents report making changes at their agencies as the proximate result of the training. This was at odds with our exploration of knowledge of procurement topics, as most respondents gave inaccurate answers on multiple-choice "knowledge questions". This may have been due to question structure or, more likely, the nature of online surveys. Suitable training on the procurement of information technology was also a main concern. The lack of training in this area is indicative of the broader challenge facing public transit agencies in how to incorporate new forms of technology into their existing practices and bureaucratic structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lavelle, Mary; Abthorpe, Jennifer; Simpson, Thomas; Reedy, Gabriel; Little, Fiona; Banerjee, Anita
The majority of maternal deaths in the UK are due to pre-existing or new-onset medical conditions, known as 'indirect deaths'. The MBRRACE report identified serious gaps in clinicians' human factors skills, including communication, leadership and teamwork, which contributed to maternal death. In response, we developed the first multi-disciplinary simulation-based training programme designed to address Medical Emergencies in Obstetrics (MEmO). Employing a mixed methods design, this study evaluated the educational impact of this training programme on the healthcare staff (n = 140), including the medical doctors (n = 91) and the midwives (n = 49). The training improved participants' clinical management of medical deterioration in pregnancy (p=.003) alongside improving their human factors skills (p=.004). Furthermore, participants reported the translation of these skills to their routine clinical practice. This flexible training is responsive to the changing national needs and contextualises the MBRRACE findings for healthcare staff. It is a promising avenue for reducing the rates of in-direct death in pregnancy. Impact statement What is already known on this subject? The majority of maternal deaths in the UK are due to pre-existing or new-onset medical conditions. The management of medical conditions in pregnancy relies on a multi-professional approach. However, serious gaps in clinicians' human factors skills, highlighted by the MBRRACE report, may contribute to maternal death. What do the results of this study add? This study evaluated the first multi-disciplinary, simulation-based training programme designed to address Medical Emergencies in Obstetrics (MEmO). Training significantly improved participants' management of medical deterioration in pregnancy and human factors skills, particularly in the areas of leadership, communication and teamwork. Moreover, the participants learning translated into their clinical practice. What are the implications of
Renschler, Lauren; Rhodes, Darson; Cox, Carol
This article reports on a study involving a range of health professions students who participated in similar one-semester (short) or two-semester (long) interprofessional clinical education programmes that focused on clinical assessment of senior citizens living independently in the community. Students' attitudes towards teamwork skills and perceptions of their own teamwork skills both before and after the programmes were assessed using two validated scales. Osteopathic medical student participants reported no significant changes in attitudes towards interprofessional healthcare teamwork skills or their perceptions of their own interprofessional teamwork skills after either the one- or two-semester programmes. For athletic training, speech-language pathology, exercise sciences, public health, and nursing students, though, attitudes towards teamwork skills significantly improved (p teamwork attitude change, but with a significant difference between medical as compared to nursing, allied health, and public health students.
Becker, Sonja; Körner, Mirjam; Müller, Christian; Lippenberger, Corinna; Rundel, Manfred; Zimmermann, Linda
Interprofessional teamwork is considered to be a key component of patient-centred treatment in healthcare, and especially in the rehabilitation sector. To date, however, no interventions exist for improving teamwork in rehabilitation clinics in Germany. A team training programme was therefore designed that is individualised in content but standardised regarding methods and process. It is clinic specific, task related, solution focused and context oriented. The aim of the study was to implement and evaluate this training for interprofessional teams in rehabilitation clinics in Germany. The measure consists of a training of a varying number of sessions with rehabilitation teams that consists of four distinct phases. Those are undergone chronologically, each with clinic-specific contents. It was implemented between 2013 and 2014 in five rehabilitation clinics in Germany and evaluated by the participants via questionnaire (n = 52). Staff in three clinics evaluated the programme as helpful, in particular rating moderation, discussions and communication during the training positively. Staff in the remaining two clinics rated it as not very or not helpful and mentioned long-term structural problems or a lack of need for team training as a reason for this. The team training is applicable and accepted by staff. It should, however, be tested in a greater sample and compared with a control group. Processes should be studied in more detail in order to determine what differentiates successful from non-successful interventions and the different requirements each of these might have.
Ballangrud, Randi; Hall-Lord, Marie Louise; Hedelin, Birgitta; Persenius, Mona
To implement a simulation-based team training programme and to investigate intensive care nurses' evaluations of simulation used for team training. Simulation-based training is recommended to make health care professionals aware of and understand the importance of teamwork related to patient safety. The study was based on a questionnaire evaluation design. A total of 63 registered nurses were recruited: 53 from seven intensive care units in four hospitals in one hospital trust and 10 from an intensive care postgraduate education programme. After conducting a simulation-based team training programme with two scenarios related to emergency situations in the intensive care, the participants evaluated each simulation activity with regard to: (i) outcome of satisfaction and self-confidence in learning, (ii) implementation of educational practice and (iii) simulation design/development. Intensive care nurses were highly satisfied with their simulation-based learning, and they were mostly in agreement with the statements about self-confidence in learning. They were generally positive in their evaluation of the implementation of the educational practice and the simulation design/development. Significant differences were found with regard to scenario roles, prior simulation experience and area of intensive care practice. The study indicates a positive reception of a simulation-based programme with regard to team training in emergency situations in an intensive care unit. The findings may motivate and facilitate the use of simulation for team training to promote patient safety in intensive care and provide educators with support to develop and improve simulation-based training programmes. © 2013 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.
Taggart, William R.
It is seen that if the maximum operational benefit of crew resource management (CRM) is to be achieved, the evaluator group is the principal key and specialized training that is ongoing is necessary for this group. The training must be customized to fit the needs of a particular organization, and the training must address key topical issues that influence organizational dynamics. Attention is given to the use of video and full length scripted NASA research LOFTS, behavioral markers and debriefing skills, the importance of policy and written CRM standards, and line oriented simulations debriefing performance indicators.
Kiesewetter, Jan; Fischer, Martin R
Simulation-based teamwork trainings are considered a powerful training method to advance teamwork, which becomes more relevant in medical education. The measurement of teamwork is of high importance and several instruments have been developed for various medical domains to meet this need. To our knowledge, no theoretically-based and easy-to-use measurement instrument has been published nor developed specifically for simulation-based teamwork trainings of medical students. Internist ward-rounds function as an important example of teamwork in medicine. The purpose of this study was to provide a validated, theoretically-based instrument that is easy-to-use. Furthermore, this study aimed to identify if and when rater scores relate to performance. Based on a theoretical framework for teamwork behaviour, items regarding four teamwork components (Team Coordination, Team Cooperation, Information Exchange, Team Adjustment Behaviours) were developed. In study one, three ward-round scenarios, simulated by 69 students, were videotaped and rated independently by four trained raters. The instrument was tested for the embedded psychometric properties and factorial structure. In study two, the instrument was tested for construct validity with an external criterion with a second set of 100 students and four raters. In study one, the factorial structure matched the theoretical components but was unable to separate Information Exchange and Team Cooperation. The preliminary version showed adequate psychometric properties (Cronbach's α=.75). In study two, the instrument showed physician rater scores were more reliable in measurement than those of student raters. Furthermore, a close correlation between the scale and clinical performance as an external criteria was shown (r=.64) and the sufficient psychometric properties were replicated (Cronbach's α=.78). The validation allows for use of the simulated teamwork assessment scale in undergraduate medical ward-round trainings to reliably
Full Text Available Background: Simulation-based teamwork trainings are considered a powerful training method to advance teamwork, which becomes more relevant in medical education. The measurement of teamwork is of high importance and several instruments have been developed for various medical domains to meet this need. To our knowledge, no theoretically-based and easy-to-use measurement instrument has been published nor developed specifically for simulation-based teamwork trainings of medical students. Internist ward-rounds function as an important example of teamwork in medicine.Purposes: The purpose of this study was to provide a validated, theoretically-based instrument that is easy-to-use. Furthermore, this study aimed to identify if and when rater scores relate to performance.Methods: Based on a theoretical framework for teamwork behaviour, items regarding four teamwork components ( were developed. In study one, three ward-round scenarios, simulated by 69 students, were videotaped and rated independently by four trained raters. The instrument was tested for the embedded psychometric properties and factorial structure. In study two, the instrument was tested for construct validity with an external criterion with a second set of 100 students and four raters. Results: In study one, the factorial structure matched the theoretical components but was unable to separate Information Exchange and Team Cooperation. The preliminary version showed adequate psychometric properties (Cronbach’s α=.75. In study two, the instrument showed physician rater scores were more reliable in measurement than those of student raters. Furthermore, a close correlation between the scale and clinical performance as an external criteria was shown (r=.64 and the sufficient psychometric properties were replicated (Cronbach’s α=.78.Conclusions: The validation allows for use of the simulated teamwork assessment scale in undergraduate medical ward-round trainings to reliably measure
Aase, Ingunn; Aase, Karina; Dieckmann, Peter
The notions of interprofessional education and interprofessional teamwork have attained widespread acceptance, partly because lack of teamwork has been tentatively linked to adverse incidents in healthcare. By analyzing data from 32 educational institutions, this study identifies the status of interprofessional teamwork in all nursing and medical education in Norway. The study programs issued by the 32 educational institutions were subject to content analysis, distilling the ambitions and goals for teaching interprofessional teamwork. Study program coordinators were approached and asked to what degree interprofessional teamwork was actually introduced in lecturing and clinical training. Results indicate that the medical and nursing schools clearly aspire to teach interprofessional teamwork and that this has largely been achieved when it comes to theoretical teaching. Although three of the four medical programs have integrated interprofessional teamwork into their clinical training, there is a gap in the nursing programs where introduction of interprofessional teamwork in clinical training has been limited. Current challenges are related to organizational issues (e.g. lack of institutional collaboration), practical difficulties (e.g. finding time to bring students of various professions together) and possibly managerial issues (e.g. lack of strategic perspective and change management).
Patients require access to various healthcare professionals to manage their healthcare needs. Most nurses work in a team established to provide optimum care for patients. This article explores the stages necessary to develop an effective healthcare team and identifies the attributes required for effective teamwork. These include: effective leadership, a shared mental approach (a common understanding of the roles and responsibilities of all members of the team), respect among team members and shared training. Scenarios involving a rheumatology team that includes the author are used to demonstrate how effective teams can be established in practice, and the benefits of effective healthcare teams to staff well-being and patient care.
Finds that both experienced scientists and college students found it difficult to carry out intellectual teamwork involving collaboratively authored documents without the interactivity and expressiveness permitted by face-to-face communication. (SR)
Purran, Ashutosh; Weller, Gordon; Kerr, Catherine
An integrated care organisation requires a flexible workforce with a variable skill mix in all care settings. Organisations should ensure that education and training are maintained to support safe, high quality care that provides value for money, promotes flexibility, and increases workforce participation in achieving organisation objectives and the expansion of services. Peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) care was identified as a challenging area for the nursing workforce in acute care and community services, following the integration and service enlargement of the Whittington Health NHS Trust. This article describes the evaluation of a new PICC care training programme that was developed and implemented to increase knowledge and awareness. The evaluation provides the clinical education team with information to help identify additional training needs to facilitate the integration of care.
This review examines current research on teamwork in highly dynamic domains of healthcare such as operating rooms, intensive care, emergency medicine, or trauma and resuscitation teams with a focus on aspects relevant to the quality and safety of patient care. Evidence from three main areas of research supports the relationship between teamwork and patient safety: (1) Studies investigating the factors contributing to critical incidents and adverse events have shown that teamwork plays an important role in the causation and prevention of adverse events. (2) Research focusing on healthcare providers' perceptions of teamwork demonstrated that (a) staff's perceptions of teamwork and attitudes toward safety-relevant team behavior were related to the quality and safety of patient care and (b) perceptions of teamwork and leadership style are associated with staff well-being, which may impact clinician' ability to provide safe patient care. (3) Observational studies on teamwork behaviors related to high clinical performance have identified patterns of communication, coordination, and leadership that support effective teamwork. In recent years, research using diverse methodological approaches has led to significant progress in team research in healthcare. The challenge for future research is to further develop and validate instruments for team performance assessment and to develop sound theoretical models of team performance in dynamic medical domains integrating evidence from all three areas of team research identified in this review. This will help to improve team training efforts and aid the design of clinical work systems supporting effective teamwork and safe patient care.
Meehan, Barry; Thomas, Ian
Numerous reports over recent years emphasise the importance of teamwork training in undergraduate programs in environment education at tertiary level. This paper describes a project undertaken by a team of final year undergraduate environment students from four faculties at RMIT University in Australia working on a multi-disciplinary environment…
O'Leary, Kevin J; Boudreau, Yvonne N; Creden, Amanda J; Slade, Maureen E; Williams, Mark V
Interdisciplinary rounds (IDR) provide a means to assemble hospital team members and improve collaboration. Little is known about teamwork during IDR. To evaluate and characterize teamwork during IDR. Cross-sectional observational study. Six medical units which had implemented structured interdisciplinary rounds (SIDR). We adapted the Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery (OTAS) tool, a behaviorally anchored rating scale shown to be reliable and valid in surgical settings. OTAS provides scores ranging from 0 to 6 (0 = problematic behavior; 6 = exemplary behavior) across 5 domains (communication, coordination, cooperation/backup behavior, leadership, and monitoring/situational awareness) and for prespecified subteams. Two researchers conducted direct observations using the adapted OTAS tool. We conducted 7-8 independent observations for each unit (total = 44) and 20 joint observations. Inter-rater reliability was excellent at the unit level (Spearman's rho = 0.75), and good across domains (rho = 0.53-0.68) and subteams (rho = 0.53-0.76) with the exception of the physician subteam, for which it was poor (rho = 0.35). Though teamwork scores were generally high, we found differences across units, with a median (interquartile range [IQR]) 4.5 (3.9-4.9) for the lowest and 5.4 (5.3-5.5) for the highest performing unit (P teamwork during SIDR across units, domains, and most subteams. Variation in performance suggests a need to improve consistency of teamwork and emphasizes the importance of leadership. Copyright © 2012 Society of Hospital Medicine.
Vîrgă, Delia; CurŞeu, Petru Lucian; Maricuţoiu, Laurenţiu; Sava, Florin A.; Macsinga, Irina; Măgurean, Silvia
This study seeks to explore whether neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness moderate the influence of relationship conflict experienced in groups on changes in group members' evaluative cognitions related to teamwork quality (teamwork-related mental models). Data from 216 students, nested in 48 groups were analyzed using a multilevel modeling approach. Our results show that the experience of relationship conflict leads to a negative shift from the pre-task to the post-task teamwork-related mental models. Moreover, the results indicate that conscientiousness buffered the negative association between relationship conflict and the change in teamwork-related mental models. Our results did not support the hypothesized moderating effect of agreeableness and show that the detrimental effect of relationship conflict on the shift in teamwork-related mental models is accentuated for group members scoring low rather than high on neuroticism. These findings open new research venues for exploring the association between personality, coping styles and change in teamwork-related mental models. PMID:25372143
Vîrgă, Delia; Curşeu, Petru Lucian; CurŞeu, Petru Lucian; Maricuţoiu, Laurenţiu; Sava, Florin A; Macsinga, Irina; Măgurean, Silvia
This study seeks to explore whether neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness moderate the influence of relationship conflict experienced in groups on changes in group members' evaluative cognitions related to teamwork quality (teamwork-related mental models). Data from 216 students, nested in 48 groups were analyzed using a multilevel modeling approach. Our results show that the experience of relationship conflict leads to a negative shift from the pre-task to the post-task teamwork-related mental models. Moreover, the results indicate that conscientiousness buffered the negative association between relationship conflict and the change in teamwork-related mental models. Our results did not support the hypothesized moderating effect of agreeableness and show that the detrimental effect of relationship conflict on the shift in teamwork-related mental models is accentuated for group members scoring low rather than high on neuroticism. These findings open new research venues for exploring the association between personality, coping styles and change in teamwork-related mental models.
Oude Groote Beverborg, Arnoud; Sleegers, P.J.C.; van Veen, Klaas
This study explores teacher learning in Vocational Education and Training colleges, combining organizational and psychological factors, such as transformational leadership, teamwork, and self-efficacy. 447 teachers participated in a survey study. Multilevel structural equation modeling was used to
Saks, Alan M.; Burke, Lisa A.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between training evaluation and the transfer of training in organizations. We hypothesized that training evaluation frequency will be related to higher rates of transfer because evaluation information can identify weaknesses that lead to improvements in training programs and create…
Svejda, B.; Kopecny, J.
Nuclear power plant personnel training is realised by the way of basic and periodical training forms within the framework of Czech power company CEZ1. What concerning of contractors, the similar forms of personnel training are used, too. Goals and scope of the training are defined unambiguously - all training process executes according to prepared training programmes. For each profession category exists a comprehensive complete of training programmes covering all forms of personnel training. Thus, evaluation of the training programmes is closely connected with information about effectiveness of training. On the basis of these facts is possible to improve all the training process continuously. The basic information about training centre, some results of the programme training evaluation using method of characteristic indicators and information about its present status in NPP Dukovany are provided in first part of this paper. In the Appendix is described used procedure of feedback to analysis phase to improve content of training process for job position 'turbine repair man'. (author)
Singer, Sara J; Molina, George; Li, Zhonghe; Jiang, Wei; Nurudeen, Suliat; Kite, Julia G; Edmondson, Lizabeth; Foster, Richard; Haynes, Alex B; Berry, William R
Studies show that using surgical safety checklists (SSCs) reduces complications. Many believe SSCs accomplish this by enhancing teamwork, but evidence is limited. Our study sought to relate teamwork to checklist performance, understand how they relate, and determine conditions that affect this relationship. Using 2 validated tools for observing and coaching operating room teams, we evaluated the association between checklist performance with surgeon buy-in and 4 domains of surgical teamwork: clinical leadership, communication, coordination, and respect. Hospital staff in 10 South Carolina hospitals observed 207 procedures between April 2011 and January 2013. We calculated levels of checklist performance, buy-in, and measures of teamwork, and evaluated their relationship, controlling for patient and case characteristics. Few teams completed most or all SSC items. Teams more often completed items considered procedural "checks" than conversation "prompts." Surgeon buy-in, clinical leadership, communication, a summary measure of teamwork overall, and observers' teamwork ratings positively related to overall checklist completion (multivariable model estimates from 0.04, p teamwork and surgeon buy-in related positively to completing more conversation prompts; none related significantly to procedural checks (estimates from 0.10, p teamwork characterized by shared clinical leadership, open communication, active coordination, and mutual respect were critical in prompting case-related conversations, but not in completing procedural checks. Findings highlight the importance of surgeon engagement and high-quality, consistent teamwork for promoting checklist use and ensuring a safe surgical environment. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brunault, Paul; Fouquereau, Evelyne; Colombat, Philippe; Gillet, Nicolas; El-Hage, Wissam; Camus, Vincent; Gaillard, Philippe
Improvement in nurses' quality of work life (QWL) has become a major issue in health care organizations. We hypothesized that the level of transactive memory (defined as the way groups collectively encode, store, and retrieve knowledge) and participative teamwork (an organizational model of care based on vocational training, a specific service's care project, and regular interdisciplinary staffing) positively affect nurses' QWL. This cross-sectional study enrolled 84 ward-based psychiatric nurses. We assessed transactive memory, participative teamwork, perceived organizational justice, perceived organizational support, and QWL using psychometrically reliable and valid scales. Participative teamwork and transactive memory were positively associated with nurses' QWL. Perceived organizational support and organizational justice fully mediated the relationship between participative teamwork and QWL, but not between transactive memory and QWL. Improved transactive memory could directly improve nurses' QWL. Improved participative teamwork could improve nurses' QWL through better perceived organizational support and perceived organizational justice.
Nancy J. Cooke
Full Text Available Cyber analysis is a complex task that requires the coordination of a large sociotechnical system of human analysts working together with technology. Adequate situation awareness of such a complex system requires more than aggregate situation awareness of individuals. Teamwork in the form of communication and information coordination is at the heart of team-level situation awareness. In this position paper, we report observations from previously conducted cognitive task analyses that suggest that teamwork is lacking in many cyber analysis organizations. Communication is ineffective, team roles are inconsistent across organizations, reward structures and selection may thwart collaboration, and the environment is conducive to individual work. Suggestions for improving teamwork in the cyber domain are offered.
Kucherov, Dmitry; Manokhina, Daria
Purpose: This study aims to examine the features of training evaluation process in Russian manufacturing companies. On the basis of three assumptions regarding the differences in group of employees involved in training, duration and costs of a training program, the authors tried to find out the peculiarities of training evaluation tools and levels…
Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael; Dabalen, Andrew
The importance of skill-shortage in Africa, combined with the extensive use of training, necessitates appropriate evaluation of training programs. By using firm data from Sub-Saharan Africa, we evaluate the effect of on-the-job training on log wages using matching estimators. We find that training...
Why teamwork in high-risk medical environments Capturing team processes in the wild Two models of teamwork Case study in paediatric cardiac surgery: Social Network Analysis Conclusions and recommendations
Andersson, H.; Baeck, P.; Wirstad, J.
The report describes a job analysis method which has been used for competency requirements and training evaluation purposes on three jobs in a Swedish nuclear power station. The jobs are the shift supervisor, the reactor operator and the turbine operator. The method is based on a system analytical approach. Through a topdown analysis of the power generation system a structure is derived which is used for an inventory of possible operator tasks. The primary source for actual task generation was interviews with operators and with other personnel who are cooperating with the operators. The method suggests alternative sources for the task generation when operator interviews are not feasible, e.g. in systems which are being developed or when operator experiences are lacking. The result of the job analysis is a set of typical tasks for each job. These tasks represent the contents of the job to be considered in the planning of job training and for recruitment requirements. The same job analysis method was used for training design and evaluation in a Finnish nuclear power station. The concluding remarks of this report are made in the light of this study also. This report is based on a research project B15/77 from the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. (author)
Siassakos, D; Draycott, T J; Crofts, J F; Hunt, L P; Winter, C; Fox, R
To assess whether team performance in simulated eclampsia is related to the knowledge, skills and attitudes of individual team members. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the Simulation and Fire Drill Evaluation randomised controlled trial. Six secondary and tertiary maternity units in south-west England. One hundred and fourteen maternity professionals in 19 teams of six members; one senior and one junior obstetrician; two senior and two junior midwives. We validated a team performance ranking scheme with respect to magnesium administration (Magnesium Administration Rank, MAR) by expert consensus (face validity) and correlation with clinical measures (construct validity). We tested for correlation between MAR and measures of knowledge, skills and attitudes. Correlation between team performance (MAR) and scores in validated multiple-choice questionnaires (MCQs) (knowledge), a measure of individual manual skill to manage an obstetric emergency (skill) and scores in a widely used teamwork/safety attitude questionnaire (attitude). There was no relationship between team performance and cumulative individual MCQs, skill or teamwork/safety attitude scores. The knowledge, manual skills and attitudes of the individuals comprising each team, measured by established methods, did not correlate in this study with the team's clinical efficiency in the management of simulated eclampsia. The inference is that unidentified characteristic(s) play a crucial part in the efficiency of teams managing emergencies. Any emphasis of training programmes to promote individual knowledge, skills and attitudes alone may have to be re-examined. This highlights a need to understand what makes a team efficient in dealing with clinical emergencies.
Today, great emphasis is being placed on the capability of control room crews to respond as a team when faced with abnormal and emergency situations. Some utilities are spending thousands of dollars on training programs aimed at improving the teamwork of their crews. While this is commendable, many of these companies may be disappointed in the long-term results of their efforts, particularly if they have a difficult time dealing with question No. 2. If teamwork is not a part of the pant or corporate culture, it is unlikely teamwork will be a part of the control room culture now or in the future. Plant teamwork is often a mirror of the teamwork at the top. The purpose of this paper is to address the role that culture and teamwork play in overall plant performance and to discuss what nuclear utilities can do to assess their present cultural strengths, which support plantwide teamwork, as well as their cultural weaknesses, which are barriers to teamwork
Weller, J; Shulruf, B; Torrie, J; Frengley, R; Boyd, M; Paul, A; Yee, B; Dzendrowskyj, P
Teamwork is an important contributor to patient safety and a validated teamwork measurement tool could help healthcare teams identify areas for improvement and measure progress. We explored the psychometric properties of a teamwork measurement tool when used for self-assessment. We hypothesized that the tool had a valid factor structure and that scores from participants and external assessors would correlate. Forty intensive care teams (one doctor, three nurses) participated in four simulated emergencies, and each independently rated their team's performance at the end of each case using the teamwork measurement tool, without prior training in the use of the tool. We used exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and compared factor structure between participants and external assessors (using previously reported data). Scores from participants and external assessors were compared using Pearson's correlation coefficient. EFA demonstrated items loaded onto three distinct factors which were supported by the CFA. We found significant correlations between external and participant scores for overall teamwork scores and the three factors. Participants agreed with external assessors on the ranking of overall team performance but scored themselves significantly higher than external assessors. The teamwork measurement tool has a valid structure when used for self-assessment. Participant and external assessor scores correlated significantly, suggesting that participants could discriminate between different levels of performance, although leniency in self-assessed scores indicated the need for calibration. This tool could help structure reflection on teamwork and potentially facilitate self-directed, workplace-based improvement in teamwork.
Tucker, Richard; Abbasi, Neda
Positive experiences of teamwork in design contexts significantly improve students' satisfaction with teaching and their attitudes towards future teamwork. Thus, an understanding of the factors leading to negative and positive team experiences can inform strategies to support effective teamwork. This paper examines design students' perceptions and…
Martinez-Fernandez, J. Reinaldo; Corcelles, Mariona; Cerrato-Lara, Maria
In this study, we present the conceptions about teamwork questionnaire designed to evaluate the conceptions that secondary students have about teamwork. Participants were 309 students aged 15-16 from eight secondary schools, seven from Barcelona and one from Girona (Spain). The original 27-item questionnaire was reduced according to expert…
Bearman, Margaret; O'Brien, Robert; Anthony, Adrian; Civil, Ian; Flanagan, Brendan; Jolly, Brian; Birks, David; Langcake, Mary; Molloy, Elizabeth; Nestel, Debra
In Australia and New Zealand, surgical trainees are expected to develop competencies across 9 domains. Although structured training is provided in several domains, there is little or no formal program for professionalism, communication, collaboration, and management and leadership. The Australian federal Department of Health and Aging funded a pilot course in simulation-based education to address these competencies for surgical trainees. This article describes the course and evaluation. Course development: Content and methods drew on best-evidence for teaching and learning these competencies from other disciplines. Course evaluation: Participants completed surveys using rating scales and free text comments to identify aspects of the course that worked well and those that needed improvement. Eleven of 12 participants completed evaluation forms immediately after the course. Participants reported largely meeting learning objectives and valuing the educational methods. High levels of realism in simulations contributed to the ease with which participants immersed themselves in scenarios. This study demonstrates that a course designed to teach competencies in communication, teamwork, leadership, and the encompassing professionalism to surgical trainees is feasible. Although participants valued the content and methods, they identified areas for development. Limitations of the evaluation are highlighted, and further areas for research are identified. Copyright Â© 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keijser, Wouter Alexander; Glaudemans, Andor; Medema, Jitze; Dierckx, Rudi; Ahaus, Kees
In this chapter, we describe the enhanced TeamSTEPPS® curriculum as fundament to creating a “culture of continuous improvement” in nuclear medicine. This evidence-based and modular teamwork system is deployed in concordance with a novel medical leadership development program. It provides a
According to a recent article in the "Chronicle of Higher Education" (April 2011), team assignments are increasingly prevalent in business schools. Not only are they ubiquitous, they are critically important, as our university's strategic plan states, "collaboration and teamwork are the keys to creating successful leaders."…
Rowe, Veronica T; Neville, Marsha
Principles of experience-dependent plasticity, motor learning theory, and the theory of Occupational Adaptation coalesce into a translational model for practice in neurorehabilitation. The objective of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a Task Oriented Training and Evaluation at Home (TOTE Home) program completed by people with subacute stroke, and whether effects persisted 1 month after this training. A single-subject design included a maximum of 30, 1hour sessions of training conducted in participants' homes. Repeated target measures of accelerometry and level of confidence were used to assess movement and confidence in weaker arm use through baseline, intervention, and follow-up phases of TOTE Home. Four participants completed TOTE Home and each demonstrated improvement in movement and confidence in function. The degree of improvement varied between participants, but a detectable change was evident in outcome measures. TOTE Home, using client-centered, salient tasks not only improved motor function but also facilitated an adaptive response demonstrated in continued improvement beyond the intervention.
Simin, Dragana; Milutinović, Dragana; Brestovacki, Branislava; Andrijević, Ilija; Cigić, Tomislav
Collaboration, within and between healthcare teams, facilitates effective healthcare. Internationally, the development of interprofessional education, as a means to facilitate more effective teamwork in health care, has been recognized for over forty years. The aim of this paper is to evaluate students' attitudes toward the influence of interprofessional education on improvement of collaboration and teamwork. The research was conducted by interviewing students at the Medical Faculty in Novi Sad in the form of cross-sectional study. The study sample included students from two undergraduate programmes: School of Nursing (n=52) and Integrated Studies of Medicine (n=53). Students admitted to the research had to be exposed to clinical experience. The instrument used in this study was the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS). As many as 93.3% of students indicated that basics of teamwork skills should be obtained prior to graduation, whereas 96.2% considered that interprofessional education would enable them to improve mutual trust and respect. The majority of interviewees indicated that patients would ultimately benefit if healthcare students worked together to solve patient problems. Multivariate procedures MANOVA p attitudes toward teamwork and collaboration showed significant differences between the students of medicine and nursing. The students of the Integrated Studies of Medicine and School of Nursing had a positive attitude toward the influence of interprofessional education on the improvement of collaboration and teamwork.
Full Text Available Introduction. Collaboration, within and between healthcare teams, facilitates effective healthcare. Internationally, the development of interprofessional education, as a means to facilitate more effective teamwork in health care, has been recognized for over forty years. Objective. The aim of this paper is to evaluate students' attitudes toward the influence of interprofessional education on improvement of collaboration and teamwork. Methods. The research was conducted by interviewing students at the Medical Faculty in Novi Sad in the form of cross-sectional study. The study sample included students from two undergraduate programmes: School of Nursing (n=52 and Integrated Studies of Medicine (n=53. Students admitted to the research had to be exposed to clinical experience. The instrument used in this study was the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS. Results. As many as 93.3% of students indicated that basics of teamwork skills should be obtained prior to graduation, whereas 96.2% considered that interprofessional education would enable them to improve mutual trust and respect. The majority of interviewees indicated that patients would ultimately benefit if healthcare students worked together to solve patient problems. Multivariate procedures MANOVA p<0.05 and discriminative analysis p<0.05 of students' attitudes toward teamwork and collaboration showed significant differences between the students of medicine and nursing. Conclusion. The students of the Integrated Studies of Medicine and School of Nursing had a positive attitude toward the influence of interprofessional education on the improvement of collaboration and teamwork.
Oxelmark, Lena; Nordahl Amorøe, Torben; Carlzon, Liisa; Rystedt, Hans
This study explores how interprofessional simulation-based education (IPSE) can contribute to a change in students' understanding of teamwork and professional roles. A series of 1-day training sessions was arranged involving undergraduate nursing and medical students. Scenarios were designed for practicing teamwork principles and interprofessional communication skills by endorsing active participation by all team members. Four focus groups occurred 2-4 weeks after the training. Thematic analysis of the transcribed focus groups was applied, guided by questions on what changes in students' understanding of teamwork and professional roles were identified and how such changes had been achieved. The first question, aiming to identify changes in students' understanding of teamwork, resulted in three categories: realizing and embracing teamwork fundamentals, reconsidering professional roles, and achieving increased confidence. The second question, regarding how participation in IPSE could support the transformation of students' understanding of teamwork and of professional roles, embraced another three categories: feeling confident in the learning environment, embodying experiences, and obtaining an outside perspective. This study showed the potential of IPSE to transform students' understanding of others' professional roles and responsibilities. Students displayed extensive knowledge on fundamental teamwork principles and what these meant in the midst of participating in the scenarios. A critical prerequisite for the development of these new insights was to feel confident in the learning environment. The significance of how the environment was set up calls for further research on the design of IPSE in influencing role understanding and communicative skills in significant ways.
Scaria, Minimol Kulakkottu
Cohesive interprofessional teamwork is essential to successful healthcare services. Interprofessional teamwork is the means by which different healthcare professionals - with diverse knowledge, skills and talents - collaborate to achieve a common goal. Several interventions are available to improve teamwork in the healthcare setting. This article explores the role of care pathways in improving interprofessional teamwork. Care pathways enhance teamwork by promoting coordination, collaboration, communication and decision making to achieve optimal healthcare outcomes. They result in improved staff knowledge, communication, documentation and interprofessional relations. Care pathways also contribute to patient-centred care and increase patient satisfaction.
Salas, Eduardo; DiazGranados, Deborah; Weaver, Sallie J; King, Heidi
Teamwork is integral to a working environment conducive to patient safety and care. Team training is one methodology designed to equip team members with the competencies necessary for optimizing teamwork. There is evidence of team training's effectiveness in highly complex and dynamic work environments, such as aviation and health care. However, most quantitative evaluations of training do not offer any insight into the actual reasons why, how, and when team training is effective. To address this gap in understanding, and to provide guidance for members of the health care community interested in implementing team training programs, this article presents both quantitative results and a specific qualitative review and content analysis of team training implemented in health care. Based on this review, we offer eight evidence-based principles for effective planning, implementation, and evaluation of team training programs specific to health care.
Davis, Patricia D; Marshall, David R
Teamwork and innovation require a merging of special skills sets to produce the best outcomes. Collaboration and innovation have become core competencies for effectiveness in every industry. The capacity to collaborate and innovate has never been more important, especially in health care, with the regulatory and quality mandates to evaluate every aspect of service to ensure that we add value for patients and families. The examination of teamwork and innovation, which are inextricably linked, are described and discussed. The art of building teams, steps for leading change, and an approach to innovation in health care are described. The University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston, Texas, shares one approach and experience called Innovation Forerunners-nurses from all levels and areas-to embed the tools and concepts of teamwork and innovation across patient care areas.
Van den Bulcke, Bo; Vyt, Andre; Vanheule, Stijn; Hoste, Eric; Decruyenaere, Johan; Benoit, Dominique
This article describes a study that evaluated the quality of teamwork in a surgical intensive care unit and assessed whether teamwork could be improved significantly through a tailor-made intervention. The quality of teamwork prior to and after the intervention was assessed using the Interprofessional Practice and Education Quality Scales (IPEQS) using the PROSE online diagnostics and documenting system, which assesses three domains of teamwork: organisational factors, care processes, and team members' attitudes and beliefs. Furthermore, team members evaluated strengths and weaknesses of the teamwork through open-ended questions. Information gathered by means of the open questions was used to design a tailor-made 12-week intervention consisting of (1) optimising the existing weekly interdisciplinary meetings with collaborative decision-making and clear communication of goal-oriented actions, including the psychosocial aspects of care; and (2) organising and supporting the effective exchange of information over time between all professions involved. It was found that the intervention had a significant impact on organisational factors and care processes related to interprofessional teamwork for the total group and within all subgroups, despite baseline differences between the subgroups in interprofessional teamwork. In conclusion, teamwork, and more particularly the organisational aspects of interprofessional collaboration and processes of care, can be improved by a tailor-made intervention that takes into account the professional needs of healthcare workers.
Ineffective communication among the health care team is a leading cause of errors in the patient care setting. Studies assessing training related to communication and teamwork in the clinical team are prevalent, however, teamwork training at the administrative level is lacking. This includes individuals in leadership positions such as health care risk managers. The purpose was to determine the impact of an educational intervention on the knowledge and attitudes related to communication and teamwork in the health care risk management population. The educational intervention was an adaptation of a national teamwork training program and incorporated didactic content as well as video vignettes and small group activities. Measurement of knowledge and attitudes were used to determine the impact of the education program. Knowledge and attitudes were assessed pre- and postcourse. Findings indicate that teamwork education tailored to the needs of the specific audience resulted in knowledge gained and improved attitudes toward the components of teamwork. The attitudes that most significantly improved were related to team structure and situation monitoring. There was no improvement in participants' attitudes toward leadership, mutual support, and communication. Team training has been shown to improve safety culture, patient satisfaction, and clinical outcomes. Including risk managers in training on teamwork, communication, and collaboration can serve to foster a common language among clinicians and management. In addition, a measurement related to implementation in the health care setting may yield insight into the impact of training. Qualitative measurement may allow the researcher to delve deeper into how these health care facilities are using team training interventions. © 2016 American Society for Healthcare Risk Management of the American Hospital Association.
Passauer-Baierl, S; Chiapponi, C; Bruns, C J; Weigl, M
The quality of surgical teamwork contributes to performance of the operating theatre team, service quality and patient safety in surgery. Observational tools are a feasible and reliable way to capture and evaluate teamwork in the operating theatre (OT). We introduce the German version of the Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery (OTAS-D) and present the first observational results from German OTs. Quality of surgical teamwork was assessed with observational teamwork assessment for surgery (OTAS-D). It evaluates five dimensions of OT teamwork: communication, coordination, cooperation/backup behaviour, leadership, and team monitoring/situation awareness. Each dimension is evaluated for each profession (surgical, nursing, and anaesthesia team) as well for each phase of the procedure (pre-, intra-, and post-operative). We observed n = 63 procedures, mainly in abdominal/general and orthopaedic surgery. Additionally, all OT team members scored their individual evaluation of the intra-operative teamwork (standardised 1-item questions). The OTAS-D evaluations showed meaningful results and differences for the OT professions as well as across the different phases of the procedures. Overall, a medium to good level of the OT teamwork was observed. There were no differences in regard to type of surgery (minimally invasive vs. open) or surgical specialties. With an increased coordination of the surgical team we observed a significantly increased cooperation of the nursing team (r = 0.36, p = 0.004). Concerning the OT staffs self-reports, the surgical and nursing teams reported higher scores for quality of surgical teamwork during the procedure than their anaesthesia team members. No significant relationships between observed quality of OT teamwork and self-reports were found. The German version of OTAS-D is a psychometrically robust method to capture the quality of teamwork in operating theatres. It enables the analyses of teamwork between the surgical
The Guidebook will prove especially useful for, and is addressed primarily to: nuclear power operating organizations establishing or upgrading their NPP personnel training systems; regulatory personnel responsible for setting requirements and/or evaluating NPP personnel training; and organizations (within or outside the operating organization) responsible for the development, implementation and evaluation of training programmes for NPP personnel. Figs, tabs
Falcomata, Terry S.; Wacker, David P.; Ringdahl, Joel E.; Vinquist, Kelly; Dutt, Anuradha
The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the generalization of mands during functional communication training (FCT) and sign language training across functional contexts (i.e., positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement). A secondary purpose was to evaluate a training procedure based on stimulus control to teach manual signs. During…
Pullon, Sue; McKinlay, Eileen; Dew, Kevin
Although teamwork is known to optimise good health care, organisational arrangements and funding models can foster, discourage, or preclude functional teamworking. Despite a new, enhanced population-based funding system for primary care in New Zealand, bringing new opportunities for more collaborative practice, fully implemented healthcare teamwork remains elusive. To explore perceptions of interprofessional relationships, teamwork, and collaborative patient care in New Zealand primary care practice. Qualitative. Eighteen nurses and doctors working in primary care, Wellington, New Zealand. Data were collected using in-depth interviews with individual nurses and doctors working in primary care settings. Perceptions of, and attitudes about, interprofessional relationships, teamwork, and collaborative patient care were explored, using an interactive process of content analysis and principles of naturalistic enquiry. Nurses and doctors working in New Zealand primary care perceive funding models that include fee-for-service, task-based components as strongly discouraging collaborative patient care. In contrast, teamwork was seen to be promoted when health services, not individual practitioners, were bulk-funded for capitated healthcare provision. In well-organised practices, where priority was placed on uninterrupted time for meetings, open communication, and interprofessional respect, good teamwork was more often observed. Salaried practices, where doctors and nurses alike were employees, were considered by some interviewees to be particularly supportive of good teamwork. Few interviewees had received, or knew of, any training to work in teams. Health system, funding, and organisational factors still act as significant barriers to the successful implementation of, and training for, effective teamwork in New Zealand primary care settings, despite new opportunities for more collaborative ways of working.
Keebler, Joseph R; Dietz, Aaron S; Lazzara, Elizabeth H; Benishek, Lauren E; Almeida, Sandra A; Toor, Phyllis A; King, Heidi B; Salas, Eduardo
TeamSTEPPS (Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety) is a team-training intervention which shows promise in aiding the mitigation of medical errors. This article examines the construct validity of the TeamSTEPPS Teamwork Perceptions Questionnaire (T-TPQ), a self-report survey that examines multiple dimensions of perceptions of teamwork within healthcare settings. Using survey-based methods, 1700 multidisciplinary healthcare professionals and support staff were measured on their perceptions of teamwork. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between the five TeamSTEPPS dimensions: Leadership, Mutual Support, Situation Monitoring, Communication, and Team Structure. The analysis indicated that the T-TPQ measure is more reliable than previously thought (Cronbach's α=0.978). Further, our final tested model showed a good fit with the data (x(2) (df) 3601.27 (546), pteamwork. This has beneficial implications for patient safety and future research that studies medical teamwork. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Mujumdar, Sandhya; Santos, Diana
Teamwork and communication failures are leading causes of patient safety incidents in health care. Though health care providers must work in teams, they are not well-trained in teamwork and communication skills. Health care faces the problems of differences in communication styles, communication failures and poor teamwork. There is enough evidence in the literature to show that communication failure is detrimental to patient safety. It is estimated that 80% of serious medical errors worldwide take place because of miscommunication between medical providers. NUH recognizes that effective communication and teamwork are essential in the delivery of high quality safe patient care, especially in a complex organization. NUH is a good example, where there is a rich mix of nationalities and races, in staff and in patients, and there is a rapidly expanding care environment. NUH had to overcome these challenges by adopting a multi-pronged approach. The trials and tribulations of NUH in this journey were worthwhile as the patient safety climate survey scores improved over the years.
Fernandez, Rosemarie; Kozlowski, Steve W J; Shapiro, Marc J; Salas, Eduardo
The patient safety literature from the past decade emphasizes the importance of teamwork skills and human factors in preventing medical errors. Simulation has been used within aviation, the military, and now health care domains to effectively teach and assess teamwork skills. However, attempts to expand and generalize research and training principles have been limited due to a lack of a well-defined, well-researched taxonomy. As part of the 2008 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference on "The Science of Simulation in Healthcare," a subset of the group expertise and group assessment breakout sections identified evidence-based recommendations for an emergency medicine (EM) team taxonomy and performance model. This material was disseminated within the morning session and was discussed both during breakout sessions and via online messaging. Below we present a well-defined, well-described taxonomy that will help guide design, implementation, and assessment of simulation-based team training programs.
Kasparian, Andres C; Martinez, A C; JoverClos, R J; Chércoles, R A
technical skills acquisition is considered to be of paramount importance in surgical training. Yet, formal assessment of technical skills is the weakest and less developed area. Currently available resources to evaluate technical skills are largely subjective, and lack of validity and reliability. Direct observation, one of the most frequently used methods, is largely biased by interpersonal subjectivity and personality traits. We propose the creation and use of a new procedure-specific tool for objective assessment of technical skills in surgery to evaluate validity and reliability. laparoscopic cholecystectomy and Lichstenstein's inguinal hernia repair were the chosen procedures. Three groups of comparison were defined according to surgical expertise: initial, intermediate, and experts. Surgeries were videorecorded in real time without identification of the patient or the surgeon. Tapes without any posterior edition were assigned to two expert surgeons in a blind and randomized sequence. A newly proposed procedure-specific rating scale was used for evaluation, as well as Reznick's OSATS global scale. Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test was used to assess validity. p 0.8 granted reliability. from April 2010 to December 2012 36 laparoscopic cholecystectomies and 31 inguinal hernia repairs were recorded. Significant difference was found among groups of comparison for every item (ptechnical skills in surgery is feasible and useful. The tool we proposed showed construct validity and reliability. Video recording of surgical procedures grants durability over time to an ephemeral phenomenon. The objectivity is based on the explicit statements and quantification of every step to be evaluated, and the blind randomization and anonymous treatment of the sample. Sharing the same quality criteria between evaluators is of paramount importance to reach satisfactory results. The process of evaluation always implies a shortened view of the reality.
Sonoda, Yukio; Onozuka, Daisuke; Hagihara, Akihito
To evaluate operating room nurses' perception of teamwork performance and their level of mental stress and to identify related factors. Little is known about the factors affecting teamwork and the mental stress of surgical nurses, although the performance of the surgical team is essential for patient safety. The questionnaire survey for operation room nurses consisted of simple questions about teamwork performance and mental stress. Multivariate analyses were used to identify factors causing a sense of teamwork performance or mental stress. A large number of surgical nurses had a sense of teamwork performance, but 30-40% of operation room nurses were mentally stressed during surgery. Neither the patient nor the operation factors were related to the sense of teamwork performance in both types of nurses. Among scrub nurses, endoscopic and abdominal surgery, body mass index, blood loss and the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status class were related to their mental stress. Conversely, circulating nurses were stressed about teamwork performance. The factors related to teamwork performance and mental stress during surgery differed between scrub and circulating nurses. Increased support for operation room nurses is necessary. The increased support leads to safer surgical procedures and better patient outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pukk Härenstam, Karin; Gaffney, Drew
Most safety-critical enterprises have programs for teaching and training non-technical skills to their employees. These skills must complement pure technical skills. Programs for teaching and introducing these skills (communication, leadership, teamwork, decision-making, handling of conflicts and feed-back) are developing also in health-care. It is important that non-technical skills in combination with technical skills are seen as the foundation when developing new and safer ways to do the daily work with patients.
Patterson, P Daniel; Weaver, Matthew D; Weaver, Sallie J; Rosen, Michael A; Todorova, Gergana; Weingart, Laurie R; Krackhardt, David; Lave, Judith R; Arnold, Robert M; Yealy, Donald M; Salas, Eduardo
We sought to develop a reliable and valid tool for measuring teamwork among emergency medical technician (EMT) partnerships. We adapted existing scales and developed new items to measure components of teamwork. After recruiting a convenience sample of 39 agencies, we tested a 122-item draft survey tool (EMT-TEAMWORK). We performed a series of exploratory factor analyses (EFAs) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test reliability and construct validity, describing variation in domain and global scores using descriptive statistics. We received 687 completed surveys. The EFAs identified a nine-factor solution. We labeled these factors 1) Team Orientation, 2) Team Structure & Leadership, 3) Partner Communication, Team Support, & Monitoring, 4) Partner Trust and Shared Mental Models, 5) Partner Adaptability & Back-Up Behavior, 6) Process Conflict, 7) Strong Task Conflict, 8) Mild Task Conflict, and 9) Interpersonal Conflict. We tested a short-form (30-item SF) and long-form (45-item LF) version. The CFAs determined that both the SF and the LF possess positive psychometric properties of reliability and construct validity. The EMT-TEAMWORK-SF has positive internal consistency properties, with a mean Cronbach's alpha coefficient ≥0.70 across all nine factors (mean = 0.84; minimum = 0.78, maximum = 0.94). The mean Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the EMT-TEAMWORK-LF was 0.87 (minimum = 0.79, maximum = 0.94). There was wide variation in weighted scores across all nine factors and the global score for the SF and LF. Mean scores were lowest for the Team Orientation factor (48.1, standard deviation [SD] 21.5, SF; 49.3, SD 19.8, LF) and highest (more positive) for the Interpersonal Conflict factor (87.7, SD 18.1, for both SF and LF). We developed a reliable and valid survey to evaluate teamwork between EMT partners.
Weaver, A Charlotta; Callaghan, Mary; Cooper, Abby L; Brandman, James; O'Leary, Kevin J
Teamwork is important to providing safe and effective care for hospitalized patients with cancer; however, few studies have evaluated teamwork in this setting. We surveyed all nurses, residents, hospitalists, and oncology physicians in oncology units at a large urban teaching hospital from September to November 2012. Respondents rated teamwork using a validated instrument (Safety Attitudes Questionnaire; scale, 0 to 100) and rated the quality of collaboration they had experienced with other professionals using a 5-point ordinal response scale (1, very low quality; 5, very high quality). Respondents also rated potential barriers to collaboration using a 4-point ordinal response scale (1, not at all a barrier; 4, major barrier). We compared ratings by professionals using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Overall, 129 (67%) of 193 eligible participants completed the survey. Teamwork scores differed across professional types, with nurses providing the lowest ratings (69.7) and residents providing the highest (81.9; ANOVA P = .01). Ratings of collaboration with nurses were high across all types of professionals. Ratings of collaboration with physicians varied significantly by professional type (P ≤ .02), with nurses giving lower ratings of collaboration with all physician types. Similarly, perceived barriers to collaboration differed by professional type, with nurses perceiving the biggest barrier to be negative attitudes regarding the importance of communication. Oncologists did not perceive any of the listed options as major barriers to collaboration. In inpatient oncology units, discrepancies exist between nurses' and physicians' ratings of teamwork and collaboration. Oncologists seem to be unaware that teamwork is suboptimal in this setting. Copyright © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Kolokythas, O; Patzwahl, R; Straka, M; Binkert, C
For resident doctors the acquisition of technical and professional competence is decisive for the successful practice of their activities. Competency and professional development of resident doctors benefit from regular self-reflection and assessment by peers. While often promoted and recommended by national educational authorities, the implementation of a robust evaluation process in the clinical routine is often counteracted by several factors. The aim of the study was to test a self-developed digital evaluation system for the assessment of radiology residents at our institute for practicality and impact with regard to the radiological training. The intranet-based evaluation system was implemented in January 2014, which allowed all Radiology consultants to submit a structured assessment of the Radiology residents according to standardized criteria. It included 7 areas of competency and 31 questions, as well as a self-assessment module, both of which were filled out electronically on a 3-month basis using a 10-point scale and the opportunity to make free text comments. The results of the mandatory self-evaluation by the residents were displayed beside the evaluation by the supervisor. Access to results was restricted and quarterly discussions with the residents were conducted confidentially and individually. The system was considered to be practical to use and stable in its functionality. The centrally conducted anonymous national survey of residents revealed a noticeable improvement of satisfaction with the institute assessment for the criterion "regular feedback"compared to the national average. Since its implementation the system has been further developed and extended and is now available for other institutions.
Malin, Jane T.
This slide presentation reviews the development of software agents to support of mission operations teamwork. The goals of the work was to make automation by agents easy to use, supervise and direct, manage information and communication to decrease distraction, interruptions, workload and errors, reduce mission impact of off-nominal situations and increase morale and decrease turnover. The accomplishments or the project are: 1. Collaborative agents - mixed initiative and creation of instructions for mediating agent 2. Methods for prototyping, evaluating and evolving socio-technical systems 3. Technology infusion: teamwork tools in mISSIons 4. Demonstrations in simulation testbed An example of the use of agent is given, the use of an agent to monitor a N2 tank leak. An incomplete instruction to the agent is handled with mediating assistants, or Intelligent Briefing and Response Assistant (IBRA). The IBRA Engine also watches data stream for triggers and executes Act-Whenever actions. There is also a Briefing and Response Instruction (BRI) which is easy for a discipline specialist to create through a BRI editor.
Grover, Elise; Porter, Joanne E; Morphet, Julia
Teamwork may assist with increased levels of efficiency and safety of patient care in the emergency department (ED), with emergency nurses playing an indispensable role in this process. A descriptive, exploratory approach was used, drawing on principles from phenomenology and symbolic interactionism. Convenience, purposive sampling was used in a major metropolitan ED. Semi structured interviews were conducted, audio recorded, and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Three major themes emerged from the data. The first theme 'when teamwork works' supported the notion that emergency nurses perceived teamwork as a positive and effective construct in four key areas; resuscitation, simulation training, patient outcomes and staff satisfaction. The second theme 'team support' revealed that back up behaviour and leadership were critical elements of team effectiveness within the study setting. The third theme 'no time for teamwork' centred around periods when teamwork practices failed due to various contributing factors including inadequate resources and skill mix. Outcomes of effective teamwork were valued by emergency nurses. Teamwork is about performance, and requires a certain skill set not necessarily naturally possessed among emergency nurses. Building a resilient team inclusive of strong leadership and communication skills is essential to being able to withstand the challenging demands of the ED. Copyright © 2017 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McLaughlin, Nancy; Carrau, Ricardo L; Kelly, Daniel F; Prevedello, Daniel M; Kassam, Amin B
During the past several decades, numerous centers have acquired significant expertise in the treatment of skull base pathologies. Favorable outcomes are not only due to meticulous surgical planning and execution, but they are also related to the collaborative efforts of multiple disciplines. We review the impact of teamwork on patient care, elaborate on the key processes for successful teamwork, and discuss its challenges. Pubmed and Medline databases were searched for publications from 1970 to 2012 using the following keywords: "teamwork", "multidisciplinary", "interdisciplinary", "surgery", "skull base", "neurosurgery", "tumor", and "outcome". Current literature testifies to the complexity of establishing and maintaining teamwork. To date, few reports on the impact of teamwork in the management of skull base pathologies have been published. This lack of literature is somewhat surprising given that most patients with skull base pathology receive care from multiple specialists. Common factors for success include a cohesive and well-integrated team structure with well-defined procedural organization. Although a multidisciplinary work force has clear advantages for improving today's quality of care and propelling research efforts for tomorrow's cure, teamwork is not intuitive and requires training, guidance, and executive support. Teamwork is recommended to improve quality over the full cycle of care and consequently patient outcomes. Increased recognition of the value of an integrated team approach for skull base pathologies will hopefully encourage centers, physicians, allied health caregivers, and scientists devoted to treating these patients and advancing the field of knowledge to invest the time, effort, and resources to optimize and organize their collective expertise.
Gilfoyle, Elaine; Koot, Deanna A; Annear, John C; Bhanji, Farhan; Cheng, Adam; Duff, Jonathan P; Grant, Vincent J; St George-Hyslop, Cecilia E; Delaloye, Nicole J; Kotsakis, Afrothite; McCoy, Carolyn D; Ramsay, Christa E; Weiss, Matthew J; Gottesman, Ronald D
To measure the effect of a 1-day team training course for pediatric interprofessional resuscitation team members on adherence to Pediatric Advanced Life Support guidelines, team efficiency, and teamwork in a simulated clinical environment. Multicenter prospective interventional study. Four tertiary-care children's hospitals in Canada from June 2011 to January 2015. Interprofessional pediatric resuscitation teams including resident physicians, ICU nurse practitioners, registered nurses, and registered respiratory therapists (n = 300; 51 teams). A 1-day simulation-based team training course was delivered, involving an interactive lecture, group discussions, and four simulated resuscitation scenarios, each followed by a debriefing. The first scenario of the day (PRE) was conducted prior to any team training. The final scenario of the day (POST) was the same scenario, with a slightly modified patient history. All scenarios included standardized distractors designed to elicit and challenge specific teamwork behaviors. Primary outcome measure was change (before and after training) in adherence to Pediatric Advanced Life Support guidelines, as measured by the Clinical Performance Tool. Secondary outcome measures were as follows: 1) change in times to initiation of chest compressions and defibrillation and 2) teamwork performance, as measured by the Clinical Teamwork Scale. Correlation between Clinical Performance Tool and Clinical Teamwork Scale scores was also analyzed. Teams significantly improved Clinical Performance Tool scores (67.3-79.6%; p Teamwork Scale scores (56.0-71.8%; p Teamwork Scale (R = 0.281; p teamwork during simulated pediatric resuscitation. A positive correlation between clinical and teamwork performance suggests that effective teamwork improves clinical performance of resuscitation teams.
Pehrson, C; Sørensen, Jette Led; Amer-Wåhlin, I
The interpretation and management of cardiotocography (CTG) tracings are often criticised in obstetric malpractice cases. As a consequence, regular CTG training has been recommended, even though little is known about the effect of CTG training....
The training programme was developed on the basis of the assessment of training needs. The programme was executed for 125 operators in seven batches during nine months. They completed schooling and a technical course. Effect of the training on participants' job performance and in the factory at large also is checked ...
Overschie, M.G.F.; Lukosch, H.K.; De Vries, P.
This paper presents a critical reflection of the evaluation of learning processes in organizations. Based on learning and evaluation theories and concepts we discuss qualitative and quantitative evaluation processes, and its relationship to short training sessions to foster sustainable development.
This study examined the effects of lifting range, hand-to-toe distance, and lifting direction on single-person lifting strengths and two-person teamwork lifting strengths. Six healthy males and seven healthy females participated in this study. Two-person teamwork lifting strengths were examined in both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. Our results showed that lifting strength significantly decreased with increasing lifting range or hand-to-toe distance. However, lifting strengths were not affected by lifting direction. Teamwork lifting strength did not conform to the law of additivity for both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. In general, teamwork lifting strength was dictated by the weaker of the two members, implying that weaker members might be exposed to a higher potential danger in teamwork exertions. To avoid such overexertion in teamwork, members with significantly different strength ability should not be assigned to the same team.
Full Text Available The training achievement was determined based on difference between the score of pre and post evaluation score. The training was found effective in terms of training achievement. The average pre training score was 71.60% and thus, the training was mainly arranged for unemployed youth that had lack of proper knowledge for self employment and development. During training, the participants faced many problems such as lack of modern laboratory, budget comes after training, lack of permanent library, food and accommodation condition of the hostel and poor training allowance (500 Taka per trainee/month. Besides lack of sufficient credit facilities after training is also one of the problems. The trainees were also suggested for probable solutions of the problems faced during their training. [Fundam Appl Agric 2018; 3(1.000: 347-354
Mayen, Patrick; Olry, Paul
One of the dimensions of work that is not well known in training is teamwork and the work of the team leader. The team leader is the personne who provides local supervision. Teachers and trainers, as well as business employers aknowledge the place and importance of teamwork and the role of the team leader. However, most consider themselves, insufficiently prepared to offer training in line with these elements. This paper thus aims to present the results of an analysis of group work in the field of landscaping conducted from the perspective of team work and team leader learning and training.
Godskesen, Mirjam Irene
The Belbin method has been applied at the education in Arctic Technology in Greenland as a way of improving the student’s teamwork abilities. The feedback from the students is that Belbin is a meaningful and relevant tool and they are very engaged during the teamwork exercises. They get a theoret...... a theoretical approach to teamwork and a language in which they can talk about their own and each others strengths and weaknesses. There are indications that it has positive effect on their subsequent teamwork....
Willoughby, Michael B
.... However, concern exists that only rewarding individual performance may adversely impact teamwork, collaboration, and information sharing, which could ultimately impact organizational performance...
Full Text Available Background : In countries with fully developed emergency medicine systems, emergency ultrasound (EUS plays an important role in the assessment and treatment of critically ill patients. Methods : The authors sought to introduce EUS to a group of doctors working in the emergency departments (EDs in India through an intensive 4-day adult and pediatric ultrasound course held at the Apex Trauma Center and EM division of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences in New Delhi. The workshop was evaluated with a survey questionnaire and a hands-on practical test. The questionnaire was designed to assess the current state of EUS in India′s EDs, and to identify potential barriers to the incorporation of EUS into current EM practice. The EUS course consisted of a general introductory didactic session followed by pediatric, abdominal and trauma, cardiothoracic, obstetrical and gynecologic, and vascular modules. Each module had a didactic session followed by hands-on applications with live models and/or simulators. A post-course survey questionnaire was given to the participants, and there was a practical test on the final day of the course. The ultrasound images taken by the participants were digitally recorded, and were subsequently graded for their accuracy by independent observers, residency, and/or fellowship trained in EUS. Results : There were a total of 42 participants who completed the workshop and took the practical examination; 32 participants filled in the course evaluation survey. Twenty-four (75% participants had no prior experience with EUS, 5 (16% had some experience, and 3 (9% had significant experience. During the practical examination, 38 of 42 participants (90% were able to identify Morison′s pouch on the focused abdominal sonography for trauma (FAST examination, and 32 (76% were able to obtain a parasternal long axis cardiac view and identify the left ventricle. The inferior vena cava was identified as it crosses the diaphragm into
Marshall, W. L.; And Others
Evaluated Life Skills training programs conducted within 3 Canadian penitentiaries in terms of how effectively they met goals of changing inmates' personal and social functioning. Comparison of 68 treated inmates with 22 untreated controls indicated clear benefits for trained subjects. Discusses findings in terms of value of training in Life…
schools to evaluate pre-service Inte- grated Management of ..... 9. 7. 5. 3. 26.5. 20.6. 14.7. 8.8. Future needs. More trained staff. More training materials. More training facilities. 31. 8. 4. 91.2. 23.5. 11.8. Ethiop J Health Sci. Vol. 20, No. 1. March 2010 ...
Jacobs, T. O.; Hardy, Richard A., Jr.
The effectiveness of a Training Extension Course (TEC) as a means of increasing the Military Occupational Specialty (MOS) proficiency of Army personnel was evaluated. TEC was implemented by the Combat Arms Training Board using sound/slide as the basic media for 56 lessons. Training material relevant to MOS 11B40, Light Weapons Infantryman, was…
Tatiane Angélica Phelipini Borges
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to carry out the cross-cultural adaptation of DocCom online module 38, which deals with teamwork communication into Portuguese for the Brazilian contexto. Method: the transcultural translation and adaptation were accomplished through initial translations, synthesis of the translations, evaluation and synthesis by a committee of experts, analysis by translators and back translation, pre-test with nurses and undergraduate students in Nursing, and analysis of the translators to obtain the final material. Results: in evaluation and synthesis of the translated version with the original version by the expert committee, the items obtained higher than 80% agreement. Few modifications were suggested according to the analysis by pretest participants. The final version was adequate to the proposed context and its purpose. Conclusion: it is believed that by making this new teaching-learning strategy of communication skills and competencies for teamwork available, it can be used systematically in undergraduate and postgraduate courses in the health area in Brazil in order to contribute to training professionals, and also towards making advances in this field.
Borges, Tatiane Angélica Phelipini; Vannuchi, Marli Terezinha Oliveira; Grosseman, Suely; González, Alberto Durán
ABSTRACT Objective: to carry out the cross-cultural adaptation of DocCom online module 38, which deals with teamwork communication into Portuguese for the Brazilian contexto. Method: the transcultural translation and adaptation were accomplished through initial translations, synthesis of the translations, evaluation and synthesis by a committee of experts, analysis by translators and back translation, pre-test with nurses and undergraduate students in Nursing, and analysis of the translators to obtain the final material. Results: in evaluation and synthesis of the translated version with the original version by the expert committee, the items obtained higher than 80% agreement. Few modifications were suggested according to the analysis by pretest participants. The final version was adequate to the proposed context and its purpose. Conclusion: it is believed that by making this new teaching-learning strategy of communication skills and competencies for teamwork available, it can be used systematically in undergraduate and postgraduate courses in the health area in Brazil in order to contribute to training professionals, and also towards making advances in this field.
Fox, Lanae; Onders, Robert; Hermansen-Kobulnicky, Carol J; Nguyen, Thanh-Nga; Myran, Leena; Linn, Becky; Hornecker, Jaime
An expanding body of literature is examining interprofessional teamwork and its effect in healthcare. To produce capable healthcare professionals prepared to participate in interprofessional roles, teamwork training must begin early in health professional students' training. The focus of this scoping review was to explore interprofessional education (IPE) studies designed to teach and/or assess interprofessional teamwork skills to students from two or more different health professions, to find and describe effective pedagogy and assessment strategies. Using a scoping review methodology, 1,106 abstracts were reviewed by three teams of investigators. Eligibility criteria were inclusion of students in interprofessional teams, an intervention to improve interprofessional teamwork skills and assessment of outcomes related to teamwork. Thirty-three studies met the criteria for inclusion. The literature was varied in terms of study design, teaching methods and assessment measures for interprofessional teamwork. The lack of rigorous, comparable studies in this area makes recommending one teaching method or assessment measure over another difficult. Regardless of teaching method, it appears that most learning activities where interprofessional teams interact result in positive changes in student perceptions and attitudes towards IPE and practice. As health education programs seek to incorporate more interprofessional activities into their respective programs, it is important to review methods and measures that would best fit their individual program. This review highlights the importance of standardising the reporting of methods and outcomes for those who wish to incorporate the studied methods into their curricula.
Arjona, O.; Venegas, M.; Rodriguez, L.; Lopez, M.
This paper describe the criteria considered to design the GESAT system, the elements considered to select the relational model, selection of the database language and the main features and possibilities of this system. GESAT allow the management of training programs based on the Systematic Approach to Training. Include the information related with all SAT phases, the results of the job analysis, training plans design, development of materials, training implementation, and the subsequent evaluation
behavioural outcome involves the willingness and the ability to work as a member of a multidisciplinary team.4 With the emphasis on teamwork and the question “should we train students of different disciplines together?” it is important to evaluate multidisciplinary sessions. The. Scottish Council for Research in Education ...
A longitudinal study of factors influencing success or failure of workplace innovations such as teamwork was carried out in two German firms. Success factors included having a team mentor; integrating training, supervision, and implementation of the innovation; and training trainers. (SK)
Lin, Yen-Ru; Wu, Mei-Hsuen; Yang, Cheng-I; Chen, Tsai-Hwei; Hsu, Chen-Chuan; Chang, Yue-Cune; Tzeng, Wen-Chii; Chou, Yuan-Hwa; Chou, Kuei-Ru
To investigate the effectiveness of assertiveness training programmes on psychiatric patients' assertiveness, self-esteem and social anxiety. Assertiveness training programmes are designed to improve an individual's assertive beliefs and behaviours, which can help the individual change how they view themselves and establish self-confidence and social anxiety. It is useful for patients with depression, depressive phase of bipolar disorder, anxiety disorder or adjustment disorder. Experimental. There were 68 subjects (28, experimental group; 40, diagnosis-matched comparison group). Subjects in experimental groups participated in experimenter-designed assertiveness training twice a week (two hours each) for four weeks. The comparison groups participated the usual activities. Data were collected in the two groups at the same time: before, after and one month after training programme. Efficacy was measured by assertiveness, self-esteem and social anxiety inventories. A generalised estimating equation was used for analysis. After training, subjects had a significant increase in assertiveness immediately after the assertiveness training programme and one-month follow-up. There was a significant decrease in social anxiety after training, but the improvement was not significant after one month. Self-esteem did not increase significantly after training. With our sample of patients with mixed diagnoses, assertiveness seemed to be improved after assertiveness training. Patients would benefit more from the assertiveness training programme for the change in how they view themselves, improve their assertiveness, properly express their individual moods and thoughts and further establish self-confidence. The assertiveness training protocol could be provided as a reference guide to clinical nurses.
Rice, Yvonne; DeLetter, Mary; Fryman, Lisa; Parrish, Evelyn; Velotta, Cathie; Talley, Cynthia
Care of the trauma patient requires a well-coordinated intensive effort during the golden hour to optimize survival. We hypothesized that this program would improve knowledge, satisfaction, self-confidence, and simulated team performance. A pre-, post-test design with N = 7 BSN nurses, 21 years of age, less than 2 years of intensive care unit and nursing experience. Trauma intensive care unit, single-center academic Level 1 trauma center. Improvement was shown in perception of team structure (paired t test 13.71-12.57; p = .0001) and communication (paired t test 14.85-12.14; p = .009). Improvement was shown in observed situation monitoring (paired t test 17.42-25.28; p = .000), mutual support (paired t test 12.57-18.57; p = .000), and communication (paired t test 15.42-25.00; p = .001). A decrease was shown in attitudes of mutual support (paired t test 25.85-19.71; p = .04) and communication (paired t test 26.14-23.00; p = .001). Mean satisfaction scores were 21.5 of a possible 25 points. Mean self-confidence scores were 38.83 out of a possible 40 points. Simulation-based team training improved teamwork attitudes, perceptions, and performance. Team communication demonstrated significant improvement in 2 of the 3 instruments. Most participants agreed or strongly agreed that they were satisfied with simulation and had gained self-confidence.
Kelly, Martina; Bennett, Deirdre; O'Flynn, Siun; Foley, Tony
Teamwork and patient centredness are frequently articulated concepts in medical education, but are not always explicit in the curriculum. In Ireland, recent government policy emphasises the importance of a primary care team approach to health care. We report on an appraisal of a newly introduced community-based student attachment, which focused on teamwork. To review students' experience of teamwork following a community clinical placement by examining student assignments: essays, poetry, music and art. Year-2 graduate-entry students (n = 45) spent 2 weeks with a primary care team. Attachments comprised placements with members of the primary care team, emphasising team dynamics, at the end of which students submitted a representative piece of work, which captured their learning. Essays (n = 22) were analysed using a thematic content analysis. Artwork consisted of painting, collage, photography, poetry and original music (n = 23). These were analysed using Gardner's entry points. Three core themes emerged in both written and visual work: patient centredness; communication; and an improved appreciation of the skills of other health care professionals. Students identified optimal team communication occurring when patient outcomes were prioritised. Metaphors relating to puzzles, hands and inter-connectedness feature strongly. The poems and artwork had a high impact when they were presented to tutors. Primary care team placements focus student attention on teamwork and patient centredness. Student artwork shows potential as a tool to evaluate student learning in medical education. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2013.
Charoensap-Kelly, Piyawan; Broussard, Lauren; Lindsly, Mallory; Troy, Megan
This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a soft skills employee training program. We examined willingness to learn and delivery methods (face-to-face vs. online) and their associations with the training outcomes in terms of learning and behavioral change. Results showed that neither participants' willingness to learn nor delivery…
Scott, David M.; And Others
This article describes a "system approach" training project which utilizes the formation and implementation of localized strategic (action) plans for targeting substance abuse prevention. Participants surveyed in the program reported positive attitudes about the program due to their training and their ability to resist substance abuse…
Teamwork is a central tenet of agile software development and various teamwork theories partially explain teamwork in that context. Big Five teamwork theory is one of the most influential teamwork theories, but prior research shows that the team leadership concept in this theory it is not applicable to agile software development. This paper applies an adapted form of Big Five teamwork theory to cases of agile software development. Three independent cases were drawn from a single organisation....
Woolford, B.; Chmielewski, C.; Pandya, A.; Adolf, J.; Whitmore, M.; Berman, A.; Maida, J.
Long duration space missions require a change in training methods and technologies. For Shuttle missions, crew members could train for all the planned procedures, and carry documentation of planned procedures for a variety of contingencies. As International Space Station (ISS) missions of three months or longer are carried out, many more tasks will need to be performed for which little or no training was received prior to launch. Eventually, exploration missions will last several years, and communications with Earth will have long time delays or be impossible at times. This series of three studies was performed to identify the advantages and disadvantages of three types of training for self-instruction: video-conferencing; multimedia; and virtual reality. These studies each compared two types of training methods, on two different types of tasks. In two of the studies, the subject's were in an isolated, confined environment analogous to space flight; the third study was performed in a laboratory.
Kim, Tae-Young; Park, Jun; Lim, Cheol-Su
In this paper, a motion evaluation technique for rehabilitation training is introduced. Motion recognition technologies have been developed for determining matching motions in the training set. However, we need to measure how well and how much of the motion has been followed for training motion evaluation. We employed a Finite State Machine as a framework of motion evaluation. For similarity analysis, we used weighted angular value differences although any template matching algorithm may be used. For robustness under illumination changes, IR LED's and cameras with IR-pass filter were used. Developed technique was successfully used for rehabilitation training of the disabled. Therapists appraised the system as practically useful.
Dietz, Aaron S; Pronovost, Peter J; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro Alejandro; Wyskiel, Rhonda; Marsteller, Jill A; Thompson, David A; Rosen, Michael A
Teamwork is essential for ensuring the quality and safety of health care delivery in the intensive care unit (ICU). This article addresses what we know about teamwork, team tasks, and team improvement strategies in the ICU to identify the strengths and limitations of the existing knowledge base to guide future research. A keyword search of the PubMed database was conducted in February 2013. Keyword combinations focused on 3 areas: (1) teamwork, (2) the ICU, and (3) training/quality improvement interventions. All studies that investigated teamwork, team tasks, or team interventions within the ICU (ie, intradepartment) were selected for inclusion. Teamwork has been investigated across an array of research contexts and task types. The terminology used to describe team factors varied considerably across studies. The most common team tasks involved strategy and goal formulation. Team training and structured protocols were the most widely implemented quality improvement strategies. Team research is burgeoning in the ICU, yet low-hanging fruit remains that can further advance the science of teams in the ICU if addressed. Constructs must be defined, and theoretical frameworks should be referenced. The functional characteristics of tasks should also be reported to help determine the extent to which study results might generalize to other contexts of work. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kramer, Jessica; Barth, Yishai; Curtis, Katie; Livingston, Kit; O'Neil, Madeline; Smith, Zach; Vallier, Samantha; Wolfe, Ashley
This paper describes a participatory research process in which six youth with disabilities (Youth Panel) participated in the development and evaluation of a manualized advocacy training, Project TEAM (Teens making Environment and Activity Modifications). Project TEAM teaches youth with disabilities how to identify environmental barriers, generate solutions, and request accommodations. The Youth Panel conducted their evaluation after the university researcher implemented Project TEAM with three groups of trainees. The Youth Panel designed and administered a survey and focus group to evaluate enjoyment and usefulness of Project TEAM with support from an advocate/researcher. Members of the Youth Panel analyzed survey response frequencies. The advocate/researcher conducted a content analysis of the open-ended responses. Sixteen of 21 Project TEAM trainees participated in the evaluation. The evaluation results suggest that the trainees found the interactive and individualized aspects of the Project TEAM most enjoyable and useful. Some instructional materials were difficult for trainees with cognitive disabilities to understand. The Youth Panel's involvement in the development of Project TEAM may explain the relatively positive experiences reported by trainees. Project TEAM should continue to provide trainees with the opportunity to apply concepts in real-life situations. Project TEAM requires revisions to ensure it is enjoyable and useful for youth with a variety of disabilities. • Group process strategies, picture-based data collection materials, peer teamwork, and mentorship from adults with disabilities can enable youth with disabilities to engage in research. • Collaborating with youth with disabilities in the development of new rehabilitation approaches may enhance the relevance of interventions for other youth with disabilities. • Youth with cognitive disabilities participating in advocacy and environment-focused interventions may prefer interactive and
...). This report describes an evaluation of the usability of IMPACT, including an exploration of methodological issues associated with evaluating the effectiveness of training programs to improve decision-making skills...
Fregonese, Chiara; Caputo, Andrea; Langher, Viviana
This work illustrates the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Questionnaire for Professional Training Evaluation, designed and validated by Grohmann and Kauffeld. This 12-item questionnaire provides for the evaluation of different training outcomes, is time-efficient, applicable to several professional contexts and shows sound…
Fitzgerald, Meghan M.; Theilheimer, Rachel
This qualitative study of three Head Start Centers analyzed surveys, interviews, and focus group data to determine how education coordinators, teachers, and teacher assistants believed professional development activities could support teamwork at their centers. The researchers sorted data related to teamwork into four categories: knowledge and…
Harrington, D.K.; Kello, J.E.
In recent years, the nuclear industry has increasingly recognized with the technical training given its control room operators. As yet, however, little has been done to determine the actual effectiveness of such nontechnical training. Thus, the questions of how team training should be carried out for maximum impact on the safety and efficiency of control room operation and just what the benefits of such training might be remain open. We are in the early stages of establishing a systematic evaluation process that will help nuclear utilities assess the effectiveness of their existing team skills training programs for control room operators. Research focuses on defining the specific behavioral and attitudinal objectives of team skills training. Simply put, what does good practice look like and sound like in the control room environment? What specific behaviors and attitudes should the training be directed toward? Obviously, the answers to the questions have clear implications for the design of nuclear team skills training programs
Hollingsworth, John M; Funk, Russell J; Garrison, Spencer A; Owen-Smith, Jason; Kaufman, Samuel A; Pagani, Francis D; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K
Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) must often see multiple providers dispersed across many care locations. To test whether teamwork (assessed with the bipartite clustering coefficient) among these physicians is a determinant of surgical outcomes, we examined national Medicare data from patients undergoing CABG. Among Medicare beneficiaries who underwent CABG between 2008 and 2011, we mapped relationships between all physicians who treated them during their surgical episodes, including both surgeons and nonsurgeons. After aggregating across CABG episodes in a year to construct the physician social networks serving each health system, we then assessed the level of physician teamwork in these networks with the bipartite clustering coefficient. Finally, we fit a series of multivariable regression models to evaluate associations between a health system's teamwork level and its 60-day surgical outcomes. We observed substantial variation in the level of teamwork between health systems performing CABG (SD for the bipartite clustering coefficient was 0.09). Although health systems with high and low teamwork levels treated beneficiaries with comparable comorbidity scores, these health systems differed over several sociocultural and healthcare capacity factors (eg, physician staff size and surgical caseload). After controlling for these differences, health systems with higher teamwork levels had significantly lower 60-day rates of emergency department visit, readmission, and mortality. Health systems with physicians who tend to work together in tightly-knit groups during CABG episodes realize better surgical outcomes. As such, delivery system reforms focused on building teamwork may have positive effects on surgical care. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
training, qualities, in-service training, strategic planning, management, production norms, necessity, courses, general lexicography, computerized lexicography, monitoring, lexicographic teamwork, performance management system, results, interest ...
Mazour, T.J.; Ball, F.M.
This report provides information to nuclear power plant training managers and their staffs concerning the job performance requirements of instructional personnel to implement prformance-based training programs (also referred to as the Systems Approach Training). The information presented in this report is a compilation of information and lessons learned in the nuclear power industry and in other industries using performance-based training programs. The job performance requirements in this report are presented as instructional skills objectives. The process used to develop the instructional skills objectives is described. Each objective includes an Instructional Skills Statement describing the behavior that is expected and an Instructional Skills Standard describing the skills/knowledge that the individual should possess in order to have achieved mastery. The instructional skills objectives are organized according to the essential elements of the Systems Approach to Training and are cross-referenced to three categories of instructional personnel: developers of instruction, instructors, and instructional managers/supervisors. Use of the instructional skills objectives is demonstrated for reviewing instructional staff training and qualification programs, developing criterion-tests, and reviewing the performance and work products of individual staff members. 22 refs
Klemm, R.W.; Feiza, A.S.
This research was conceived and dedicated to helping the CECo training organization become a more integrated part of the corporate business. The target population for this study was nuclear and fossil generating station employees who directly impacted the production of electricity. The target sample (n = 150) included: instrument, mechanical, and electrical maintenance personnel; control room operators; engineers, radiation chemists, and other technical specialists; and equipment operators and attendants. A total of four instruments were utilized by this study. Three instruments were administered to the generating station personnel. These included a demographic form, a learning style profile, and a motivational style profile. The focal instrument, a performance skills rating form, was administered to supervisory personnel. Data analysis consisted of three major parts. Part one established internal consistency through Cronbach alpha statistics. Part two provides summary statistics and breakdown tables for important variables. Part three provides inferential statistics responding to the research questions. All six Performance Skills variables discriminated significantly between the trained and non-trained groups (p .001). In all cases, the mean value for the trained group exceeded the mean value for the non-trained group. Implications for further research indicate that training does have a quantifiable effect on job performance
Patterson, P. Daniel; Weaver, Matthew D.; Weaver, Sallie J.; Rosen, Michael A.; Todorova, Gergana; Weingart, Laurie R.; Krackhardt, David; Lave, Judith R.; Arnold, Robert M.; Yealy, Donald M.; Salas, Eduardo
Objective We sought to develop a reliable and valid tool for measuring teamwork among Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) partnerships. Methods We adapted existing scales and developed new items to measure components of teamwork. After recruiting a convenience sample of 39 agencies, we tested a 122-item draft survey tool. We performed a series of Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to test reliability and construct validity, describing variation in domain and global scores using descriptive statistics. Results We received 687 completed surveys. The EFA analyses identified a 9-factor solution. We labeled these factors  Team Orientation,  Team Structure & Leadership,  Partner Communication, Team Support, & Monitoring,  Partner Trust and Shared Mental Models,  Partner Adaptability & Back-Up Behavior,  Process Conflict,  Strong Task Conflict,  Mild Task Conflict, and  Interpersonal Conflict. We tested a short form (30-item SF) and long form (45-item LF) version. The CFA analyses determined that both the SF and LF versions possess positive psychometric properties of reliability and construct validity. The EMT-TEAMWORK-SF has positive internal consistency properties with a mean Cronbach’s alpha coefficient ≥0.70 across all 9-factors (mean=0.84; min=0.78, max=0.94). The mean Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the EMT-TEAMWORK-LF version was 0.87 (min=0.79, max=0.94). There was wide variation in weighted scores across all 9 factors and the global score for the SF and LF versions. Mean scores were lowest for the Team Orientation factor (48.1, SD 21.5 SF; 49.3 SD 19.8 LF) and highest (more positive) for the Interpersonal Conflict factor (87.7 SD 18.1 for both SF and LF). Conclusions We developed a reliable and valid survey to evaluate teamwork between EMT partners. PMID:22128909
Ford, Kelsey; Menchine, Michael; Burner, Elizabeth; Arora, Sanjay; Inaba, Kenji; Demetriades, Demetrios; Yersin, Bertrand
Introduction Leadership skills are described by the American College of Surgeons’ Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) course as necessary to provide care for patients during resuscitations. However, leadership is a complex concept, and the tools used to assess the quality of leadership are poorly described, inadequately validated, and infrequently used. Despite its importance, dedicated leadership education is rarely part of physician training programs. The goals of this investigation were the following: 1. Describe how leadership and leadership style affect patient care; 2. Describe how effective leadership is measured; and 3. Describe how to train future physician leaders. Methods We searched the PubMed database using the keywords “leadership” and then either “trauma” or “resuscitation” as title search terms, and an expert in emergency medicine and trauma then identified prospective observational and randomized controlled studies measuring leadership and teamwork quality. Study results were categorized as follows: 1) how leadership affects patient care; 2) which tools are available to measure leadership; and 3) methods to train physicians to become better leaders. Results We included 16 relevant studies in this review. Overall, these studies showed that strong leadership improves processes of care in trauma resuscitation including speed and completion of the primary and secondary surveys. The optimal style and structure of leadership are influenced by patient characteristics and team composition. Directive leadership is most effective when Injury Severity Score (ISS) is high or teams are inexperienced, while empowering leadership is most effective when ISS is low or teams more experienced. Many scales were employed to measure leadership. The Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ) was the only scale used in more than one study. Seven studies described methods for training leaders. Leadership training programs included didactic teaching
Ford, Kelsey; Menchine, Michael; Burner, Elizabeth; Arora, Sanjay; Inaba, Kenji; Demetriades, Demetrios; Yersin, Bertrand
Leadership skills are described by the American College of Surgeons' Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) course as necessary to provide care for patients during resuscitations. However, leadership is a complex concept, and the tools used to assess the quality of leadership are poorly described, inadequately validated, and infrequently used. Despite its importance, dedicated leadership education is rarely part of physician training programs. The goals of this investigation were the following: 1. Describe how leadership and leadership style affect patient care; 2. Describe how effective leadership is measured; and 3. Describe how to train future physician leaders. We searched the PubMed database using the keywords "leadership" and then either "trauma" or "resuscitation" as title search terms, and an expert in emergency medicine and trauma then identified prospective observational and randomized controlled studies measuring leadership and teamwork quality. Study results were categorized as follows: 1) how leadership affects patient care; 2) which tools are available to measure leadership; and 3) methods to train physicians to become better leaders. We included 16 relevant studies in this review. Overall, these studies showed that strong leadership improves processes of care in trauma resuscitation including speed and completion of the primary and secondary surveys. The optimal style and structure of leadership are influenced by patient characteristics and team composition. Directive leadership is most effective when Injury Severity Score (ISS) is high or teams are inexperienced, while empowering leadership is most effective when ISS is low or teams more experienced. Many scales were employed to measure leadership. The Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ) was the only scale used in more than one study. Seven studies described methods for training leaders. Leadership training programs included didactic teaching followed by simulations. Although programs
Full Text Available Introduction: Leadership skills are described by the American College of Surgeons’ Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS course as necessary to provide care for patients during resuscitations. However, leadership is a complex concept, and the tools used to assess the quality of leadership are poorly described, inadequately validated, and infrequently used. Despite its importance, dedicated leadership education is rarely part of physician training programs. The goals of this investigation were the following: 1. Describe how leadership and leadership style affect patient care; 2. Describe how effective leadership is measured; and 3. Describe how to train future physician leaders. Methods: We searched the PubMed database using the keywords “leadership” and then either “trauma” or “resuscitation” as title search terms, and an expert in emergency medicine and trauma then identified prospective observational and randomized controlled studies measuring leadership and teamwork quality. Study results were categorized as follows: 1 how leadership affects patient care; 2 which tools are available to measure leadership; and 3 methods to train physicians to become better leaders. Results: We included 16 relevant studies in this review. Overall, these studies showed that strong leadership improves processes of care in trauma resuscitation including speed and completion of the primary and secondary surveys. The optimal style and structure of leadership are influenced by patient characteristics and team composition. Directive leadership is most effective when Injury Severity Score (ISS is high or teams are inexperienced, while empowering leadership is most effective when ISS is low or teams more experienced. Many scales were employed to measure leadership. The Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ was the only scale used in more than one study. Seven studies described methods for training leaders. Leadership training programs
Tomizawa, Ryoko; Yamano, Mayumi; Osako, Mitue; Misawa, Takeshi; Hirabayashi, Naotugu; Oshima, Nobuo; Sigeta, Masahiro; Reeves, Scott
Currently, no evaluative scale exists to assess the quality of interprofessional teamwork in mental health settings across the globe. As a result, little is known about the detailed process of team development within this setting. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a global interprofessional scale that assesses teamwork in mental health settings using an international comparative study based in Japan and the United States. This report provides a description of this study and reports progress made to date. Specifically, it outlines work on literature reviews to identify evaluative teamwork tools as well as identify relevant teamwork models and theories. It also outlines plans for empirical work that will be undertaken in both Japan and the United States.
Aase, Ingunn; Hansen, Britt Sæthre; Aase, Karina
Little is known about the ways in which nursing and medical students perceive and understand their roles in interprofessional teamwork. A 2010 report by the World Health Organization highlights the importance of students' understanding of teamwork in healthcare, and their ability to be effective team players. This study aims at describing nursing and medical students' perceptions of interprofessional teamwork, focusing on experiences and recommendations that can be used to guide future educational efforts. The study uses a qualitative research design. Data were collected from four focus group interviews: two homogenous groups (one with medical students, one with nursing students) and two mixed groups (medical and nursing students). The results show that traditional patterns of professional role perception still prevail and strongly influence students' professional attitudes about taking responsibility and sharing responsibility across disciplinary and professional boundaries. It was found that many students had experienced group cultures detrimental to team work. Focusing on clinical training, the study found a substantial variation in perception with regard to the different arenas for interprofessional teamwork, ranging from arenas with collaborative learning to arenas characterized by distrust, confrontation, disrespect and hierarchical structure. This study underlines the importance of a stronger focus on interprofessional teamwork in health care education, particularly in clinical training. The study results suggest that the daily rounds and pre-visit "huddles," or alternatively psychiatric wards, offer arenas suitable for interprofessional training, in keeping with the students' assessments and criteria proposed in previous studies.
Background Little is known about the ways in which nursing and medical students perceive and understand their roles in interprofessional teamwork. A 2010 report by the World Health Organization highlights the importance of students’ understanding of teamwork in healthcare, and their ability to be effective team players. This study aims at describing nursing and medical students’ perceptions of interprofessional teamwork, focusing on experiences and recommendations that can be used to guide future educational efforts. Methods The study uses a qualitative research design. Data were collected from four focus group interviews: two homogenous groups (one with medical students, one with nursing students) and two mixed groups (medical and nursing students). Results The results show that traditional patterns of professional role perception still prevail and strongly influence students’ professional attitudes about taking responsibility and sharing responsibility across disciplinary and professional boundaries. It was found that many students had experienced group cultures detrimental to team work. Focusing on clinical training, the study found a substantial variation in perception with regard to the different arenas for interprofessional teamwork, ranging from arenas with collaborative learning to arenas characterized by distrust, confrontation, disrespect and hierarchical structure. Conclusions This study underlines the importance of a stronger focus on interprofessional teamwork in health care education, particularly in clinical training. The study results suggest that the daily rounds and pre-visit “huddles,” or alternatively psychiatric wards, offer arenas suitable for interprofessional training, in keeping with the students’ assessments and criteria proposed in previous studies. PMID:25124090
Kristensen, Solvejg; Hammer, Antje; Bartels, Paul; Suñol, Rosa; Groene, Oliver; Thompson, Caroline A; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Kutaj-Wasikowska, Halina; Michel, Philippe; Wagner, Cordula
This study aimed to investigate the associations of quality management systems with teamwork and safety climate, and to describe and compare differences in perceptions of teamwork climate and safety climate among clinical leaders and frontline clinicians. We used a multi-method, cross-sectional approach to collect survey data of quality management systems and perceived teamwork and safety climate. Our data analyses included descriptive and multilevel regression methods. Data on implementation of quality management system from seven European countries were evaluated including patient safety culture surveys from 3622 clinical leaders and 4903 frontline clinicians. Perceived teamwork and safety climate. Teamwork climate was reported as positive by 67% of clinical leaders and 43% of frontline clinicians. Safety climate was perceived as positive by 54% of clinical leaders and 32% of frontline clinicians. We found positive associations between implementation of quality management systems and teamwork and safety climate. Our findings, which should be placed in a broader clinical quality improvement context, point to the importance of quality management systems as a supportive structural feature for promoting teamwork and safety climate. To gain a deeper understanding of this association, further qualitative and quantitative studies using longitudinally collected data are recommended. The study also confirms that more clinical leaders than frontline clinicians have a positive perception of teamwork and safety climate. Such differences should be accounted for in daily clinical practice and when tailoring initiatives to improve teamwork and safety climate. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.
Hastie, Carolyn; Fahy, Kathleen; Parratt, Jenny
Poor teamwork is cited as one of the major root causes of adverse events in healthcare. Bullying, resulting in illness for staff, is an expression of poor teamwork skills. Despite this knowledge, poor teamwork persists in healthcare and teamwork skills are rarely the focus of teaching and assessment in undergraduate health courses. To develop and implement an assessment tool for use in facilitating midwifery students' learning of teamwork skills. This paper describes how the TeamUP rubric tool was developed. A review of the literature found no research reports on how to teach and assess health students' teamwork skills in standing teams. The literature, however, gives guidance about how university educators should evaluate individual students using peer assessment. The developmental processes of the rubric were grounded in the theoretical literature and feminist collaborative conversations. The rubric incorporates five domains of teamwork skills: Fostering a Team Climate; Project Planning; Facilitating Teams; Managing Conflict and Quality Individual Contribution. The process and outcomes of student and academic content validation are described. The TeamUP rubric is useful for articulating, teaching and assessing teamwork skills for health professional students. The TeamUP rubric is a robust, theoretically grounded model that defines and details effective teamwork skills and related behaviours. If these skills are mastered, we predict that graduates will be more effective in teams. Our assumption is that graduates, empowered by having these skills, are more likely to manage conflict effectively and less likely to engage in bullying behaviours. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Szafran, Olga; Torti, Jacqueline M I; Kennett, Sandra L; Bell, Neil R
The aim of this study was to describe family physicians' perspectives of their role in the primary care team and factors that facilitate and hinder teamwork. A qualitative study was conducted employing individual interviews with 19 academic/community-based family physicians who were part of interprofessional primary care teams in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Professional responsibilities and roles of physicians within the team and the facilitators and barriers to teamwork were investigated. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and analysed for emerging themes. The study findings revealed that family physicians consistently perceived themselves as having the leadership role on in the primary care team. Facilitators of teamwork included: communication; trust and respect; defined roles/responsibilities of team members; co-location; task shifting to other health professionals; and appropriate payment mechanisms. Barriers to teamwork included: undefined roles/responsibilities; lack of space; frequent staff turnover; network boundaries; and a culture of power and control. The findings suggest that moving family physicians toward more integrative and interdependent functioning within the primary care team will require overcoming the culture of traditional professional roles, addressing facilitators and barriers to teamwork, and providing training in teamwork.
Weingart, Saul N; Yaghi, Omar; Wetherell, Matthew; Sweeney, Megan
To examine the composition and concordance of existing instruments used to assess medical teams' performance. A trained observer joined 20 internal medicine housestaff teams for morning work rounds at Tufts Medical Center, a 415-bed Boston teaching hospital, from October through December 2015. The observer rated each team's performance using 9 teamwork observation instruments that examined domains including team structure, leadership, situation monitoring, mutual support, and communication. Observations recorded on paper forms were stored electronically. Scores were normalized from 1 (low) to 5 (high) to account for different rating scales. Overall mean scores were calculated and graphed; weighted scores adjusted for the number of items in each teamwork domain. Teamwork scores were analyzed using t-tests, pair-wise correlations, and the Kruskal-Wallis statistic, and team performance was compared across instruments by domain. The 9 tools incorporated 5 major domains, with 5-35 items per instrument for a total of 161 items per observation session. In weighted and unweighted analyses, the overall teamwork performance score for a given team on a given day varied by instrument. While all of the tools identified the same low outlier, high performers on some instruments were low performers on others. Inconsistent scores for a given team across instruments persisted in domain-level analyses. There was substantial variation in the rating of individual teams assessed concurrently by a single observer using multiple instruments. Since existing teamwork observation tools do not yield concordant assessments, researchers should create better tools for measuring teamwork performance.
Sun, Rosa; Marshall, Dominic C; Sykes, Mark C; Maruthappu, Mahiben; Shalhoub, Joseph
The aviation industry pioneered formalised crew training in order to improve safety and reduce consequences of non-technical error. This formalised training has been successfully adapted and used to in the field of surgery to improve post-operative patient outcomes. The need to implement teamwork training as an integral part of a surgical programme is increasingly being recognised. We aim to systematically review the impact of surgical teamwork training on post-operative outcomes. Two independent researchers systematically searched MEDLINE and Embase in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Studies were screened and subjected to inclusion/exclusion criteria. Study characteristics and outcomes were reported and analysed. Our initial search identified 2720 articles. Following duplicate removal, title and abstract screening, 107 full text articles were analysed. Eight articles met our inclusion criteria. Overall, three articles supported a positive effect of good teamwork on post-operative patient outcomes. We identified key areas in study methodology that can be improved upon, including small cohort size, lack of unified training programme, and short training duration, should future studies be designed and implemented in this field. At present, there is insufficient evidence to support the hypothesis that teamwork training interventions improve patient outcomes. We believe that non-significant and conflicting results can be attributed to flaws in methodology and non-uniform training methods. With increasing amounts of evidence in this field, we predict a positive association between teamwork training and patient outcomes will come to light. Copyright © 2018 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available One of the research topics within the EU-project SKILLS1 was the training of Industrial Maintenance and Assembly (IMA tasks. The IMA demonstrator developed comprehends two different training platforms, one based on technologies of Virtual Reality (VR and the other one on Augmented Reality (AR. To qualify the efficiency of the developed training systems different studies have been conducted, followed by a final “Transfer of Skill” evaluation that has been performed by service technicians at the “SIDEL industrial training centre” in Parma. This evaluation included qualitative methods (feedback collection in questionnaires as well as quantitative methods (experiments with control groups. The results demonstrate that both platforms are useful and suitable training tools for IMA tasks, and that the AR training decreased the number of unsolved errors in the task.
Schraagen, Jan Maarten; Schouten, Ton; Smit, Meike; Haas, Felix; van der Beek, Dolf; van de Ven, Josine; Barach, Paul
Paediatric cardiac surgery has a low error tolerance and demands high levels of cognitive and technical performance. Growing evidence suggests that further improvements in patient outcomes depend on system factors, in particular, effective team skills. The hypotheses that small intraoperative non-routine events (NREs) can escalate to more serious situations and that effective teamwork can prevent the development of serious situations were examined to develop a method to assess these skills and to provide evidence for improvements in training and performance. This mixed-method design, using both quantitative and qualitative measures, relied on trained human factor observers who observed and coded NREs and teamwork elements from the time of patient arrival into the operating room to patient handover to the intensive care unit. Real-time teamwork observations were coupled with microsystem preparedness measures, operative duration, assessed difficulty of the operation and patient outcome measures. Behaviour was rated based on whether it hindered or enhanced teamwork. 40 paediatric cardiac surgery cases were observed. Surgeons displayed better teamwork during complicated procedures, particularly during the surgical bypass/repair epoch. More procedural NREs were associated with a more complicated postoperative course (M(uncomplicated)=9.08; M(minor complications)=11.11; M(major morbidity)=14.60, F(2,26)=3.46, pobservation of effective teamwork in the operating room can identify substantive deficiencies in the system and conduct of procedures, even in otherwise successful operations. High performing teams are more resilient displaying effective teamwork when operations become more difficult.
Kevin Larry Young
The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has a long history for providing technology evaluation and training for military and other federal level Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) response agencies. Currently there are many federal organizations and commercial companies developing technologies related to detecting, assessing, mitigating and protecting against hazards associated with a WMD event. Unfortunately, very few locations exist within the United States where WMD response technologies are realistically field tested and evaluated using real chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosive materials. This is particularly true with biological and radiological hazards. Related to this lack of adequate WMD, multi-hazard technology testing capability is the shortage of locations where WMD response teams can train using actual chemical, biological, and radiological material or highly realistic simulates. In response to these technology evaluation and training needs, the INL has assembled a consortium of subject matter experts from existing programs and identified dedicated resources for the purpose of establishing an all-hazards, WMD technology evaluation and training range. The author describes the challenges associated with creating the all-hazards WMD technology evaluation and training range and lists the technical, logistical and financial benefits of an all-hazards technology evaluation and training range. Current resources and capabilities for conducting all-hazard technology evaluation and training at the INL are identified. Existing technology evaluation and training programs at the INL related to radiological, biological and chemical hazards are highlighted, including successes and lessons learned. Finally, remaining gaps in WMD technology evaluation and training capabilities are identified along with recommendations for closing those gaps.
This article describes Participatory Training Evaluation Method (PATEM) of measuring participants' reaction to the training. PATEM provides rich information; allows to document evaluation findings; becomes organic part of the training that helps participants process their experience individually and as a group; makes sense to participants; is an…
Adams, Forrest H., Ed.; Mendenhall, Robert C., Ed.
Begun in June, 1971 and completed in October 1973, the study had the following specific goals: to define the cardiologist's role; to determine cardiology training program objectives; to determine manpower needs for cardiologists; and to determine the educational needs of cardiologists. The major information was sought from all active cardiologists…
Full Text Available The evolution of online teaching in higher education demands a change in the types of pedagogies used in those courses. An example of one of these important pedagogies includes online teamwork. Teamwork in this context is one in which the majority of the individual’s grade is dependent on the positive or negative group experiences. This study utilized the theoretical framework of social motivation and cohesion to identify the factors shaping students’ perceptions of teamwork in online college courses. In these courses, the pedagogical approach known as the Five Pillars of effective collaborative work was applied. An Online Teamwork Learning Survey was developed based on these principles and completed by 62 undergraduate students enrolled in semester-long online courses required in their early childhood education program of study. Using a comparison between pre–postsurveys and regression analysis, the results showed that although the students’ perceptions of teamwork did not significantly change, the factors influencing their responses during the posttest doubled in number. The results showed that through carefully designed virtual teamwork activities, students learned that essential team characteristics such as promotive interaction, individual accountability, and positive interdependence are an integral part of effective collaboration and strong predictors of teamwork perception.
Adrienne Lynne White
Full Text Available To evaluate a skilled birth attendant (SBA training program in a neglected population on the Thai-Myanmar border, we used multiple methods to show that refugee and migrant health workers can be given effective training in their own environment to become SBAs and teachers of SBAs. The loss of SBAs through resettlement to third countries necessitated urgent training of available workers to meet local needs.All results were obtained from student records of theory grades and clinical log books. Qualitative evaluation of both the SBA and teacher programs was obtained using semi-structured interviews with supervisors and teachers. We also reviewed perinatal indicators over an eight-year period, starting prior to the first training program until after the graduation of the fourth cohort of SBAs.Four SBA training programs scheduled between 2009 and 2015 resulted in 79/88 (90% of students successfully completing a training program of 250 theory hours and 625 supervised clinical hours. All 79 students were able to: achieve pass grades on theory examination (median 80%, range [70-89]; obtain the required clinical experience within twelve months; achieve clinical competence to provide safe care during childbirth. In 2010-2011, five experienced SBAs completed a train-the-trainer (TOT program and went on to facilitate further training programs. Perinatal indicators within Shoklo Malaria Research Unit (SMRU, such as place of birth, maternal and newborn outcomes, showed no significant differences before and after introduction of training or following graduate deployment in the local maternity units. Confidence, competence and teamwork emerged from qualitative evaluation by senior SBAs working with and supervising students in the clinics.We demonstrate that in resource-limited settings or in marginalized populations, it is possible to accelerate training of skilled birth attendants to provide safe maternity care. Education needs to be tailored to local needs to
Hernández, José Tiberio; Ramírez, María Catalina; Carvajal, Javier Alejandro
This paper presents an outline of the evaluation of the active learning taking place in an engineering course1 in the Universidad de los Andes in Colombia. The course intends to contribute to the development of the innovative attitude of Systems and Computing Engineering and Industrial Engineering students (average age is 20), through the development of competences such as: - Engineering teamwork - Effective communication in engineering processes - Engineering systems design - Man...
Lerman, Dorothea C.; Tetreault, Allison; Hovanetz, Alyson; Strobel, Margaret; Garro, Joanie
The purpose of this study was to further evaluate the outcomes of a model program that was designed to train current teachers of children with autism. Nine certified special education teachers participating in an intensive 5-day summer training program were taught a relatively large number of specific skills in two areas (preference assessment and…
The purpose of this study was to develop, implement and evaluate a mental skills training programme for male, high school rugby players. The hypotheses were that the mental skills training programme would improve an experimental groups' mental skills and sporting performance perceptions in comparison to a control ...
Delkamiller, Julie; Swain, Kristine D.; Ritzman, Mitzi J.; Leader-Janssen, Elizabeth M.
This study examined a two-year special education and inclusive practices in-service training programme with a university in Nicaragua. Participants included 14 teachers from nine schools in Nicaragua. Participants' knowledge of special education concepts were evaluated as part of assessing the training modules. In addition, programme evaluation…
evaluation of the training consisted of a prospective assessment of knowledge and attitude immediately prior to and after training. Significant improvement in knowledge and/or attitudes was observed in legal aspects, STI, HIV and environmental aspects, attitudes in terms of improved collaboration with biomedical health ...
Charles Msisuka a , Ikuma Nozaki b firstname.lastname@example.org@hsph.harvard.edu, Kazuhiro Kakimoto c , Motoko Seko d & Mercy M S Ulaya e
to evaluate the refresher training intervention for HIV lay counsellors in the rural district of Chongwe in Zambia. ..... Salaried employee. Homemaker. CDE in health facility. Other. Median educational level (Grade). Median experience as counsellor (years). Median number of ... The importance of refresher training courses.
Silverstein, Nina M.; Sherman, Robin
The purpose of the current study was to evaluate a training program for persons with early-stage Alzheimer's disease and their care partners. Care partners were mailed two surveys, one for themselves and one for the person with dementia. Domains covered in the training included an overview of cognitive disorders, treatment of symptoms including…
West, Michael A
Updated to reflect the latest research evidence, the third edition of Effective Teamwork provides business managers with the necessary guidance and tools to build and maintain effective teamwork strategies. A new edition of a bestselling book on teamwork from an acknowledged leader in the fieldOffers a unique integration of rigorous research with practical guidance to develop effective leadership teamsFeatures new chapters on virtual teams and top management teams, plus contemporary themes of ethics and valuesUtilizes research based on positive psychology techniques
Walsh, M; Walsh, A
In this report of a study using the Team Climate Inventory (TCI) tool, the researchers explain how the tool can be used in preparation for creating a practice development unit (PDU). The TCI provides a picture of the level and quality of teamwork in a unit using a series of Likert scales. The ward in this study was found to lack the necessary level of teamwork for successful PDU development and the researchers show how this information shaped trust plans. They recommend that units contemplating PDU accreditation should assess their level of teamwork prior to proceeding with bids.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between teamwork and organizational trust. In the implementation section the data from the survey of 250 workers is employed in call centers in Erzurum by using relevant statistical methods. Consequently, it is found that there is a positive and significant relationship between teamwork and organizational trust. Thus, the hypothesis of the study is supported as it was expected. Besides, it is found that there are positive and significant relationships between communication, openness to innovation, participation-trust in teamwork and organizational trust, trust in management, trust in co-workers, and trust in workplace.
Korndorffer, James R; Bellows, Charles F; Tekian, Ara; Harris, Ilene B; Downing, Steven M
Laparoscopic simulation training has proven to be effective in developing skills but requires expensive equipment, is a challenge to integrate into a work-hour restricted surgical residency, and may use nonoptimal practice schedules. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of laparoscopic skills training at home using inexpensive trainer boxes. Residents (n = 20, postgraduate years 1-5) enrolled in an institutional review board-approved laparoscopic skills training protocol. An instructional video was reviewed, and baseline testing was performed using the fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery (FLS) peg transfer and suturing tasks. Participants were randomized to home training with inexpensive, self-contained trainer boxes or to simulation center training using standard video trainers. Discretionary, goal-directed training of at least 1 hour per week was encouraged. A posttest and retention test were performed. Intragroup and intergroup comparisons as well as the relationship between the suture score and the total training sessions, the time in training, and attempts were studied. Intragroup comparisons showed significant improvement from baseline to the posttest and the retention test. No differences were shown between the groups. The home-trained group practiced more, and the number of sessions correlated with suture retention score (r(2) = .54, P < .039). Home training results in laparoscopic skill acquisition and retention. Training is performed in a more distributed manner and trends toward improved skill retention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wong, Ambrose Hon-Wai; Gang, Maureen; Szyld, Demian; Mahoney, Heather
Health care providers must effectively function in highly skilled teams in a collaborative manner, but there are few interprofessional training strategies in place. Interprofessional education (IPE) using simulation technology has gained popularity to address this need because of its inherent ability to impact learners' cognitive frames and promote peer-to-peer dialog. Provider attitudes toward teamwork have been directly linked to the quality of patient care. Investigators implemented a simulation-enhanced IPE intervention to improve staff attitudes toward teamwork and interprofessional communication in the emergency department setting. The 3-hour course consisted of a didactic session highlighting teamwork and communication strategies, 2 simulation scenarios on septic shock and cardiac arrest, and structured debriefing directed at impacting participant attitudes to teamwork and communication. This was a survey-based observational study. We used the TeamSTEPPS Teamwork Attitudes Questionnaire immediately before and after the session as a measurement of attitude change as well as the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture before the session and 1 year after the intervention for program impact at the behavior level. Seventy-two emergency department nurses and resident physicians participated in the course from July to September 2012. Of the 5 constructs in TeamSTEPPS Teamwork Attitudes Questionnaire, 4 had a significant improvement in scores-6.4%, 2.8%, 4.0%, and 4.0% for team structure, leadership, situation monitoring, and mutual support, respectively (P teamwork and communication showed a significant improvement-20.6%, 20.5%, and 23.9%, for frequency of event reporting, teamwork within hospital units, and hospital handoffs and transitions, respectively (P = 0.028, P = 0.035, and P = 0.024, respectively). A simulation-enhanced IPE curriculum was successful in improving participant attitudes toward teamwork and components of patient safety culture related to
In the form of a practical demonstration it is shown what happens to a training program which is allowed to remain unchanged and un-adaptive to the changing conditions on the job. It decays. What happens if feedback is used to constantly improve a training program? It grows. Some final points shown are as follows: There is no free lunch in the universe; You can't break even; It ain't over 'till its over; The truth resides in the trainee; Simple is better; Don't sweat the small stuff; Focus on constant improvement; Avoid 'Knee-Jerking'; know what you want to achieve; You are the driving force; Need to not only achieve, but also maintain; desire
Weller, Jennifer M; Cumin, David; Civil, Ian D; Torrie, Jane; Garden, Alexander; MacCormick, Andrew D; Gurusinghe, Nishanthi; Boyd, Matthew J; Frampton, Christopher; Cokorilo, Martina; Tranvik, Magnus; Carlsson, Lisa; Lee, Tracey; Ng, Wai Leap; Crossan, Michael; Merry, Alan F
We ran a Multidisciplinary Operating Room Simulation (MORSim) course for 20 complete general surgical teams from two large metropolitan hospitals. Our goal was to improve teamwork and communication in the operating room (OR). We hypothesised that scores for teamwork and communication in the OR would improve back in the workplace following MORSim. We used an extended Behavioural Marker Risk Index (BMRI) to measure teamwork and communication, because a relationship has previously been documented between BMRI scores and surgical patient outcomes. Trained observers scored general surgical teams in the OR at the two study hospitals before and after MORSim, using the BMRI. Analysis of BMRI scores for the 224 general surgical cases before and 213 cases after MORSim showed BMRI scores improved by more than 20% (0.41 v 0.32, pteamwork score would translate into a clinically important reduction in complications and mortality in surgical patients. We demonstrated an improvement in scores for teamwork and communication in general surgical ORs following our intervention. These results support the use of simulation-based multidisciplinary team training for OR staff to promote better teamwork and communication, and potentially improve outcomes for general surgical patients.
McGonagle, Alyssa K.; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Hamblin, Lydia; Luborsky, Mark; Upfal, Mark; Arnetz, Judith
Although many studies link teamwork in health care settings to patient safety, evidence linking teamwork to hospital worker safety is lacking. This study addresses this gap by providing evidence linking teamwork perceptions in hospital workers to worker injuries, and further, finds a linkage between manager commitment to safety and teamwork. Organizational records of worker injuries and survey responses regarding management commitment to safety and teamwork from 446 hospital workers within 42...
Chayati, Ichda; Purwanti, Sutriyati; Nugraheni, Mutiara
The objectives of the study were: 1) to identify the profile of the Hospitality Engineering Education students’ teamwork skills, 2) to identify the profile of the Hospitality Engineering Students’ teamwork skills, 3) to describe the general overview of the students’ teamwork skills, 4) to identify the group of Bachelor program with the highest and the lowest teamwork skills, 5) to identify the group of the Associate program with the highest and the lowest teamwork skills. This study was a des...
LeRiche, Tammy; Oppenheimer, Lawrence; Caughey, Sharon; Fell, Deshayne; Walker, Mark
To evaluate the quality and content of nurse and physician shoulder dystocia delivery documentation before and after MORE training in shoulder dystocia management skills and documentation. Approximately 384 charts at the Ottawa Hospital General Campus involving a diagnosis of shoulder dystocia between the years of 2000 and 2006 excluding the training year of 2003 were identified. The charts were evaluated for 14 key components derived from a validated instrument. The delivery notes were then scored based on these components by 2 separate investigators who were blinded to delivery note author, date, and patient identification to further quantify delivery record quality. Approximately 346 charts were reviewed for physician and nurse delivery documentation. The average score for physician notes was 6 (maximum possible score of 14) both before and after the training intervention. The nurses' average score was 5 before and after the training intervention. Negligible improvement was observed in the content and quality of shoulder dystocia documentation before and after nurse and physician training.
McCallin, Antoinette; Bamford, Anita
The purpose of this study is to discuss how emotional intelligence affects interdisciplinary team effectiveness. Some findings from a larger study on interdisciplinary teamworking are discussed. Teams are often evaluated for complementary skill mix and expertise that are integrated for specialist service delivery. Interactional skills and emotional intelligence also affect team behaviour and performance. An effective team needs both emotional intelligence and expertise, including technical, clinical, social and interactional skills, so that teamwork becomes greater or lesser than the whole, depending on how well individuals work together. Team diversity, individuality and personality differences, and interprofessional safety are analysed to raise awareness for nurse managers of the complexity of interdisciplinary working relationships. If nursing input into interdisciplinary work is to be maximized, nurse managers might consider the role of emotional intelligence in influencing team effectiveness, the quality of client care, staff retention and job satisfaction.
Arjona, O.; Venegas, M.; Rodriguez, L.; Lopez, M.
This paper present some coefficients of error obtained to evaluate the quality of the design development and implementation of SAT-based personnel training programs. With the attainment of these coefficients, with the use of the GESAT system, is facilitated the continuos evaluation of training programs and the main deficiencies in the design, development and implementation of training programs are obtained, through the comparison between the program features and their standards or wanted features and doing an statistics analysis of the data kept in the GESAT system
While developing a commercial training program to improve teamwork in control room crews, General Electric's Nuclear Training Services made an important discovery. Traditional training methods for developing teamwork and enhancing diagnostics capabilities are incomplete. Traditional methods generally help, but fail to fulfill the long-term needs of most teams. Teamwork has been treated as a short-term performance problem. Traditional diagnostic training suffers from a similar problem. Too often, it covers only the basic principles of decision-making, ignoring the development of expert diagnostic capabilities. In response to this discovery, they have developed comprehensive training in Team Building and Diagnostics
Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard
The emergence of virtual teamwork represents a dynamic response to globalization, the growth of communication technologies and dismantling of industrial based organizational hierarchies. These developments pose new challenges as the completion of the distributed tasks must be integrated across...... the barriers of cultural differences, and with fewer face-to-face clues, Virtual teamwork involves demands regarding communication, trust and knowledge. The implications for future work design are immense, and still open for clarification and discussion....
Irina Falls; Victor Bahhouth; Chiuchu Melody Chuang; Jocelyne Bahhouth
The evolution of online teaching in higher education demands a change in the types of pedagogies used in those courses. An example of one of these important pedagogies includes online teamwork. Teamwork in this context is one in which the majority of the individual’s grade is dependent on the positive or negative group experiences. This study utilized the theoretical framework of social motivation and cohesion to ident...
incorporate features to ensure teamwork is not impacted. Leaders need to understand this limitation of NSPS and ensure their actions foster rather than...Opponents say that incentive pay causes competition between employees, erodes trust and teamwork, and creates “dressed-up sweatshops .”16 4 The...process to resolve appeals of adverse management actions .”51 DoD is currently appealing the judge’s ruling and as a result of the lawsuit is currently
Olson, Debra K; Scheller, Amy; Wey, Andrew
The University of Minnesota: Simulations, Exercises and Effective Education: Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Center uses simulations, which allow trainees to participate in realistic scenarios, to develop and evaluate competency. In a previous study, participants in Disaster in Franklin County: A Public Health Simulation demonstrated that prior bioterrorism and emergency readiness training (BT/ER) is significantly associated with better performance in a simulated emergency. We conducted a second analysis with a larger data set, remapping simulation questions to the Public Health Preparedness and Response Core Competency Model, Version 1.0. We performed an outcome evaluation of the impact of public health preparedness training. In particular, we compared individuals with significant BT/ER training to individuals without training on the basis of performance in a simulated emergency. We grouped participants as group 1 (≥45 hours of BT/ER training) and group 2 (gaming simulation, which was measured as the proportion of questions answered correctly for each participant. The relationship of effectiveness with significant BT/ER training was estimated using either multiple linear or logistic regression. For overall effectiveness, group 1 had 2% more correct decisions, on average, than group 2 (P gaming technology. Effectiveness differed by competency, indicating that more training may be needed in certain competency areas. Next steps to enhancing the usefulness of simulations in training should go beyond questioning if the learner learned and included questions related to the organizational factors that contributed to simulation effectiveness, and attributes of the simulation that encouraged competency and capacity building.
Parratt, Jenny A; Fahy, Kathleen M; Hutchinson, Marie; Lohmann, Gui; Hastie, Carolyn R; Chaseling, Marilyn; O'Brien, Kylie
Teamwork is a 'soft skill' employability competence desired by employers. Poor teamwork skills in healthcare have an impact on adverse outcomes. Teamwork skills are rarely the focus of teaching and assessment in undergraduate courses. The TeamUP Rubric is a tool used to teach and evaluate undergraduate students' teamwork skills. Students also use the rubric to give anonymised peer feedback during team-based academic assignments. The rubric's five domains focus on planning, environment, facilitation, conflict management and individual contribution; each domain is grounded in relevant theory. Students earn marks for their teamwork skills; validity of the assessment rubric is critical. To what extent do experts agree that the TeamUP Rubric is a valid assessment of 'teamwork skills'? Modified Delphi technique incorporating Feminist Collaborative Conversations. A heterogeneous panel of 35 professionals with recognised expertise in communications and/or teamwork. Three Delphi rounds using a survey that included the rubric were conducted either face-to-face, by telephone or online. Quantitative analysis yielded item content validity indices (I-CVI); minimum consensus was pre-set at 70%. An average of the I-CVI also yielded sub-scale (domain) (D-CVI/Ave) and scale content validity indices (S-CVI/Ave). After each Delphi round, qualitative data were analysed and interpreted; Feminist Collaborative Conversations by the research team aimed to clarify and confirm consensus about the wording of items on the rubric. Consensus (at 70%) was obtained for all but one behavioural descriptor of the rubric. We modified that descriptor to address expert concerns. The TeamUP Rubric (Version 4) can be considered to be well validated at that level of consensus. The final rubric reflects underpinning theory, with no areas of conceptual overlap between rubric domains. The final TeamUP Rubric arising from this study validly measures individual student teamwork skills and can be used with
Andersen, P.O.; Jensen, Michael Kammer; Lippert, A.
2006 to November 2006. Interviews were focussed on barriers and recommendations for teamwork in the cardiac arrest team, optimal policy for improvement of resuscitation training and clinical practice, use of cognitive aids and adoption of European Resuscitation Council (ERC) Guidelines 2005. Interviews...
Banke-Thomas, Aduragbemi; Wilson-Jones, Megan; Madaj, Barbara; van den Broek, Nynke
Training healthcare providers in Emergency Obstetric Care (EmOC) has been shown to be effective in improving their capacity to provide this critical care package for mothers and babies. However, little is known about the costs and cost-effectiveness of such training. Understanding costs and cost-effectiveness is essential in guaranteeing value-for-money in healthcare spending. This study systematically reviewed the available literature on cost and cost-effectiveness of EmOC trainings. Peer-reviewed and grey literature was searched for relevant papers published after 1990. Studies were included if they described an economic evaluation of EmOC training and the training cost data were available. Two reviewers independently searched, screened, and selected studies that met the inclusion criteria, with disagreements resolved by a third reviewer. Quality of studies was assessed using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards statement. For comparability, all costs in local currency were converted to International dollar (I$) equivalents using purchasing power parity conversion factors. The cost per training per participant was calculated. Narrative synthesis was used to summarise the available evidence on cost effectiveness. Fourteen studies (five full and nine partial economic evaluations) met the inclusion criteria. All five and two of the nine partial economic evaluations were of high quality. The majority of studies (13/14) were from low- and middle-income countries. Training equipment, per diems and resource person allowance were the most expensive components. Cost of training per person per day ranged from I$33 to I$90 when accommodation was required and from I$5 to I$21 when training was facility-based. Cost-effectiveness of training was assessed in 5 studies with differing measures of effectiveness (knowledge, skills, procedure cost and lives saved) making comparison difficult. Economic evaluations of EmOC training are limited. There is a
Ballangrud, Randi; Husebø, Sissel Eikeland; Aase, Karina; Aaberg, Oddveig Reiersdal; Vifladt, Anne; Berg, Geir Vegard; Hall-Lord, Marie Louise
Effective teamwork and sufficient communication are critical components essential to patient safety in today's specialized and complex healthcare services. Team training is important for an improved efficiency in inter-professional teamwork within hospitals, however the scientific rigor of studies must be strengthen and more research is required to compare studies across samples, settings and countries. The aims of the study are to translate and validate teamwork questionnaires and investigate healthcare personnel's perception of teamwork in hospitals (Part 1). Further to explore the impact of an inter-professional teamwork intervention in a surgical ward on structure, process and outcome (Part 2). To address the aims, a descriptive, and explorative design (Part 1), and a quasi-experimental interventional design will be applied (Part 2). The study will be carried out in five different hospitals (A-E) in three hospital trusts in Norway. Frontline healthcare personnel in Hospitals A and B, from both acute and non-acute departments, will be invited to respond to three Norwegian translated teamwork questionnaires (Part 1). An inter-professional teamwork intervention in line with the TeamSTEPPS recommend Model of Change will be implemented in a surgical ward at Hospital C. All physicians, registered nurses and assistant nurses in the intervention ward and two control wards (Hospitals D and E) will be invited to to survey their perception of teamwork, team decision making, safety culture and attitude towards teamwork before intervention and after six and 12 months. Adult patients admitted to the intervention surgical unit will be invited to survey their perception of quality of care during their hospital stay before intervention and after six and 12 month. Moreover, anonymous patient registry data from local registers and data from patients' medical records will be collected (Part 2). This study will help to understand the impact of an inter-professional teamwork
Parke, Bonny K.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Rosekind, Mark (Technical Monitor)
Dynamic growth and technology advances in commercial aviation have turned the terminal area into a complex, multi-organization workplace which requires the smooth coordination of many operational teams. In addition to pilots, cabin crew, air traffic controllers, and dispatch (who nominally work together throughout a flight), surface operations additionally involve local, ground and ramp controllers, ramp agents, maintenance, dozens of service contractors, and any number of teams who are responsible for airport operations. Under abnormal or emergency conditions, even more teams become actively involved. In order to accommodate growth and to meet productivity and safety challenges, numerous changes are being made in surface operations. Unfortunately, it is often the case that changes in technologies, organizational roles, procedures, and training are developed and implemented in isolated and piecemeal fashion without regard to cross organizational impact. Thus, there is a need for evaluation methodologies which assure integrated system safety for all organizations. Such methodologies should aid the understanding of how organizations work together and how changes in one domain affects the next. In this study, we develop one approach toward addressing these organizational issues. Examples of surface operations in abnormal situations are examined in regard to their impact on personnel in the terminal area. Timelines are given for the responses to incidents, along with the necessary communication links, the specific roles that members of terminal teams have, and any overlapping responsibilities. Suggestions to improve cross-operational teamwork are given. Methods of graphic representation are explored, both in regards to human links and access to information. The outcome of such an approach should enhance the understanding which is critical for resolving organizational conflicts and maximizing system effectiveness.
Erestam, Sofia; Haglind, Eva; Bock, David; Andersson, Annette Erichsen; Angenete, Eva
Background Inter-professional teamwork in the operating room is important for patient safety. The World Health Organization (WHO) checklist was introduced to improve intraoperative teamwork. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety climate in a Swedish operating room setting before and after an intervention, using a revised version of the WHO checklist to improve teamwork. Methods This study is a single center prospective interventional study. Participants were personnel working in op...
Kuk, Francis; Keenan, Denise M; Lau, Chi; Crose, Bryan; Schumacher, Jennifer
To evaluate the effectiveness of a home-based and a laboratory-based localization training program. This study examined the effectiveness of a localization training program on improving the localization ability of 15 participants with a mild-to-moderately severe hearing loss. These participants had worn the study hearing aids in a previous study. The training consisted of laboratory-based training and home-based training. The participants were divided into three groups: a control group, a group that performed the laboratory training first followed by the home training, and a group that completed the home training first followed by the laboratory training. The participants were evaluated before any training (baseline), at 2 weeks, 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months after baseline testing. All training was completed by the second month. The participants only wore the study hearing aids between the second month and the third month. Localization testing and laboratory training were conducted in a sound-treated room with a 360 degree, 12 loudspeaker array. There were three stimuli each randomly presented three times from each loudspeaker (nine test items from each loudspeaker) for a total of 108 items on each test or training trial. The stimuli, including a continuous noise, a telephone ring, and a speech passage "Search for the sound from this speaker" were high-pass filtered above 2000 Hz. The test stimuli had a duration of 300 ms, whereas the training stimuli had five durations (3 s, 2 s, 1 s, 500 ms, and 300 ms) and four back attenuation (-8, -4, -2, and 0 dB re: front presentation) values. All stimuli were presented at 30 dB SL or the most comfortable listening level of the participants. Each participant completed 6 to 8, 2 hr laboratory-based training within a month. The home training required a two-loudspeaker computer system using 30 different sounds of various durations (5) by attenuation (4) combinations. The participants were required to use the home training
George, Katie L; Quatrara, Beth
The current state of health care encompasses highly acute, complex patients, managed with ever-changing technology. The ability to function proficiently in critical care relies on knowledge, technical skills, and interprofessional teamwork. Integration of these factors can improve patient outcomes. Simulation provides "hands-on" practice and allows for the integration of teamwork into knowledge/skill training. However, simulation can require a significant investment of time, effort, and financial resources. The Institute of Medicine recommendations from 2015 include "strengthening the evidence base for interprofessional education (IPE)" and "linking IPE with changes in collaborative behavior." In one surgical-trauma-burn intensive care unit (STBICU), no IPE existed. The highly acute and diverse nature of the patients served by the unit highlights the importance of appropriate training. This is heightened during critical event situations where patients deteriorate rapidly and the team intervenes swiftly. The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate knowledge retention and analyze changes in perceptions of teamwork among nurses and resident physicians in a STBICU setting after completion of an interprofessional critical event simulation and (2) provide insight for future interprofessional simulations (IPSs), including the ideal frequency of such training, associated cost, and potential effect on nursing turnover. A comparison-cohort pilot study was developed to evaluate knowledge retention and analyze changes in perceptions of teamwork. A 1-hour critical event IPS was held for nurses and resident physicians in a STBICU setting. A traumatic brain injury patient with elevated intracranial pressure, rapid deterioration, and cardiac arrest was utilized for the simulation scenario. The simulation required the team to use interventions to reduce elevated intracranial pressure and then perform cardiac resuscitation according to Advanced Cardiac Life Support guidelines. A
... Evaluation Form. OMB Approval Number: 2577-0271. Type of Request: Extension of currently approved collection... a standardized training assessment instrument to evaluate learners' reactions to training or...
Cornthwaite, Katie; Alvarez, Mary; Siassakos, Dimitrios
Effective and coordinated teamworking is key to achieving safe birth for mothers and babies. Confidential enquiries have repeatedly identified deficiencies in teamwork as factors contributing to poor maternal and neonatal outcomes. The ingredients of a successful multi-professional team are varied, but research has identified some fundamental teamwork behaviours, with good communication, proficient leadership and situational awareness at the heart. Simple, evidence-based methods in teamwork training can be seamlessly integrated into a core, mandatory obstetric emergency training. Training should be an enjoyable, inclusive and beneficial experience for members of staff. Training in teamwork can lead to improved clinical outcomes and better birth experience for women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
analyze how subjective assessments of satisfaction with training compare to objective measures based on differences in test scores before and after training. I find a complete lack of correspondence between the objective measure of learning and 11 subjective measures of satisfaction with aspects...... of the courses. This finding suggests that either learning has no weight in the employees. subjective evaluations or subjective evaluations cannot be trusted. At this stage, we cannot fully ascertain whether subjective valuations can be used as a substitute for econometric or experimental program evaluations...
French, Kimberly A.; Kottke, Janet L.
Multilevel modeling is used to examine the impact of teamwork interest and group extraversion on group satisfaction. Participants included 206 undergraduates in 65 groups who were surveyed at the beginning and end of a requisite term-length group project for an upper-division university course. We hypothesized that teamwork interest and both…
Burnett, Paul C.; Clarke, John A.
The course evaluation process used by an Australian provider of vocational education and training was evaluated using guidelines suggested by the literature and feedback obtained from multiple stakeholders. The modified model has six phases: initiation, compliance, data collection, integrating, reporting, and dissemination. (SK)
The goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of a HeartMath training apparatus on personal resilience and physiological coherence. A within group, pre-test and post-test, outcome evaluative design was employed to assess changes in dependent variables. A small convenience sample of 6 participants, 4 women and ...
Comparison of vocational training evaluation in the United States, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development states, and the European Union identified certain advantages to the U.S. model of microeconometric impact evaluation, including better policy and expenditure of public money. (Contains 49 references.) (SK)
Joralmon, DeForest Q; Dunham, Jeanette M; Price, Christina J
...) and its instructional modules for NVG ground training. The evaluation consisted of a training effectiveness assessment of the VTB, using feedback from qualified NVG Training Course terrain board instructors and students undergoing refresher training...
О. В. Іващенко
Full Text Available Research objective. To experimentally ground the technological approaches to evaluation of the training effects of primary school girls’ power loads. Materials and methods. To achieve the tasks outlined, the research relied on the following methods: analysis of scientific and methodological literature, pedagogical testing, modeling, pedagogical observations and experiment, methods of mathematical experiment planning (complete factorial experiment, 2k type, discriminant analysis. The participants in the study were 32 second-grade girls. Research results. The training pattern effects the dynamics in the test results for the second-grade girls. The test results can improve provided that the power load brings about significant changes after the training at each spot, after the lesson (immediate training effect, and twenty four hours after the power load (delayed training effect. The higher the dynamics is for the immediate and delayed training effects, the more significant are the improved results of the power tests observed after as few as three lessons. Conclusions. The discriminant function can be used to classify the training effects of the second-grade girls’ power loads. The first canonical function explains the results variation by 96,2%. This suggests that it is highly informative. The centroid coordinates for five groups allow to interpret the canonical functions according to their role in differentiating the grades by the training effects of the power loads of the primary school girls. The positive pole of the first function has the condition centroids at the beginning of the power loads, after three, six, nine and twelve lessons; the negative pole has the centroids of the training effects after the power loads, after the lesson, after 24 hours. Thus, the reaction to the power load has immediate, delayed and cumulative training effects. The biggest cumulative training effect is after twelve lessons (3.045.
Cooper, Lindsey; Guan, Hongyan; Ortiz-Hernández, Ana A; Llamosas Gallardo, Beatriz; Rivera, Genesis; Wathen, Joseph; Shulman, Benjamin; Berman, Stephen
The findings of this evaluation document partial success for the PEDS training program to achieve its 3 aims. It will take several years for the dissemination of this program to reach a critical mass of pediatricians and other physicians in many LMICs. Obtaining stronger support from MOHs and other governmental agencies is necessary to achieve this goal. Another additional approach would be to integrate the training into medical school and residency programs.
Lee, Chun-Chia; Chang, Jen-Wei
The need for teamwork has grown significantly in today's organizations. Especially for online game communities, teamwork is an important means of online game players' engagement. This study aims to investigate the impacts of trust on players' teamwork with affective commitment and normative commitment as mediators. Furthermore, this research includes team experience as a moderator to compare the difference between different player groups. A model was proposed and tested on 296 online game players' data using structural equation modeling. Findings revealed that team experience moderated the relationship between trust and teamwork. The results indicated that trust promotes more teamwork only for players with high experience through affective commitment than those who with low experience. Implications of the findings are discussed.
Bidani, Benu; Blunch, Niels-Hugo; Goh, Chor-Ching; O'Leary, Christopher
Recent years have seen a surge in work on the impacts of active labor market programs for numerous countries. However, little evidence has been presented on the effectiveness of such programs in China. Recent economic reforms, associated with massive lay-offs, and the accompanying public retraining programs make China fertile ground for rigorous impact evaluations. This study uses survey data from the two large industrial cities Shenyang and Wuhan, covering the period 1998 to 2000, to evaluat...
Force population (Chappelle et al, 2013) and is comparable with highly tasked intelligence and remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) operations units. In...contrast to those units, burnout in our Security Forces sample was driven largely by cynicism as opposed to emotional exhaustion or concerns about...validation. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy , 14(4), 288-301. Doerfler, L. A., Addis, M. E., & Moran, P. W. (2002). Evaluating mental health
Kilner, Emily; Sheppard, Lorraine A
The aim of this study was to develop a systematic review using international research to describe the role of teamwork and communication in the emergency department, and its relevance to physiotherapy practice in the emergency department. Searches were conducted of CINAHL, Academic Search Premier, Scopus, Cochrane, PEDro, Medline, Embase, Amed and PubMed. Selection criteria included full-text English language research papers related to teamwork and/or communication based directly in the emergency department, involvement of any profession in the emergency department, publication in peer-reviewed journals, and related to adult emergency services. Studies were appraised using a validated critical appraisal tool. Fourteen eligible studies, all of mid-range quality, were identified. They demonstrated high levels of staff satisfaction with teamwork training interventions and positive staff attitudes towards the importance of teamwork and communication. There is moderate evidence that the introduction of multidisciplinary teams to the ED may be successful in reducing access block, and physiotherapists may play a role in this. The need for teamwork and communication in the ED is paramount, and their roles are closely linked, with the common significant purposes of improving patient safety, reducing clinical errors, and reducing waiting times. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cooper, Simon; Cant, Robyn; Connell, Cliff; Sims, Lyndall; Porter, Joanne E; Symmons, Mark; Nestel, Debra; Liaw, Sok Ying
To test the resuscitation non-technical Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM) for feasibility, validity and reliability, in two Australian Emergency Departments (ED). Non-technical (teamwork) skills have been identified as inadequate and as such have a significant impact on patient safety. Valid and reliable teamwork assessment tools are an important element of performance assessment and debriefing processes. A quasi experimental design based on observational ratings of resuscitation non-technical skills in two metropolitan ED. Senior nursing staff rated 106 adult resuscitation team events over a ten month period where three or more resuscitation team members attended. Resuscitation events, team performance and validity and reliability data was collected for the TEAM. Most rated events were for full cardiac resuscitation (43%) with 3-15 team members present for an average of 45 min. The TEAM was found to be feasible and quickly completed with minimal or no training. Discriminant validity was good as was internal consistency with a Cronbach alpha of 0.94. Uni-dimensional and concurrent validity also reached acceptable standards, 0.94 and >0.63 (p=teamwork' construct was identified. Non-technical skills overall were good but leadership was rated notably lower than task and teamwork performance indicating a need for leadership training. The TEAM is a feasible, valid and reliable non-technical assessment measure in simulated and real clinical settings. Emergency teams need to develop leadership skills through training and reflective debriefing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Technological development and growing competition on the market asks for continuous improvement of knowledge and skills of employees, not only for securing their work places but also for increasing the companies’ competitiveness and economic development of the society. Company education is one of the main instruments, how the enterprises can improve their position in the market. The main criterion of success in business are in present especially employees’ skills. The main objective of this paper was to evaluate the most important topics, which are used for improving skills and working outcomes of employees in retail and wholesale branch. Their possibility for getting feedback was also commented and controllability was further checked. When we summarize all findings, the most important competencies of workers in retail and warehouse business are qualification (shopping skills and knowledge of products, behaviour (obliging attitude to customers, ability to compliment the customer of his/her choice, working reaction (ability to do daily tasks quickly, safety, precisely and punctually, neatness (well and clean dressed employees, different groups of workers are distinguishable from each other. Next step after the list of main competences in retail and warehouse business was creating questionnaire, which should serve for researching quality of company education and its possibility to improvement. This questionnaire can serve for all companies in this field, which want or need to evaluate their company education.
Popescu, Madalina Ecaterina; Roman, Monica
This study evaluates the direct effects of vocational training, which is a popular active labour market policy in a European developing country such as Romania. Since the available official statistical microdata were insufficient to conduct reliable impact evaluations, the main findings were obtained through a counterfactual impact evaluation using newly produced micro survey data. Moreover, the research provides a heterogeneity analysis of groups of trainees, in order to identify the categories for which the programme performs best. The main results reveal that the training measure has a positive, but modest impact upon employability in Romania: participation increases employment chances properly controlled by 15%. It is most successful for women and for people living in urban areas. Measures for increasing the impacts of the vocational training programme in Romania are identified in terms of better targeting and profiling the trainees and closer adjustment of the programme to the specific needs of the labour market. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Grieveson, B; Kirton, J A; Palmer, N O A; Balmer, M C
The aims of this survey were to evaluate the effectiveness of workplace based assessments (WPAs) in dental foundation training (formerly vocational training [VT]). Two online questionnaire surveys were sent to 53 foundation dental practitioners (FDPs) and their 51 trainers in the Mersey Deanery at month four and month nine of the one year of dental foundation training. The questionnaires investigated the effectiveness of and trainers' and trainees' satisfaction with the WPAs used in foundation training, namely dental evaluation of performance (D-EPs), case-based discussions (DcBD) and patients' assessment questionnaires (PAQs). The questionnaires also investigated the perceived impact of reflection and feedback associated with WPAs on clinical practise and improving patient care. A total of 41 (7.4%) FDPs and 44 (86.3%) trainers responded. Of the 41 FDPs, the majority found that feedback from WPAs had a positive effect on their training, giving them insight into their development needs. Overall 84.1% of the FDPs felt the WPAs helped them improve patient care and 82.5% of trainers agreed with that outcome. The findings from this study demonstrate the value of WPAs in dental foundation training by the use of feedback and reflection in directing the learning of foundation dental practitioners and that this can lead to improved clinical practise and patient care.
Skov, Mikael B.; Stage, Jan
is based on an empirical study where 36 teams with a total of 234 first-year university students on software development and design educations were trained in a simple approach for user-based website usability testing that was taught in a 40 hour course. This approach supported them in planning, conducting......Many improvements of the interplay between usability evaluation and software development rely either on better methods for conducting usability evaluations or on better formats for presenting evaluation results in ways that are useful for software designers and developers. Both approaches involve...... a complete division of work between developers and evaluators, which is an undesirable complexity for many software development projects. This paper takes a different approach by exploring to what extent software developers and designers can be trained to carry out their own usability evaluations. The paper...
Nygard, F.I.; Dedon, J.M.; Fuld, R.B.
The importance of teamwork and communications in the control room of a nuclear power plant has been the subject of significant attention during the 10 yr since the Three Mile Island accident. The ability to conduct effective problem solving, especially under unexpected conditions, requires that the control room crew be well trained in techniques that produce synergism and avoid ambiguous or conflicting interactions. This paper describes the foundations of a training program developed and conducted by Combustion Engineering to produce a winning team in the control room. The complete licensed operations staffs of three utilities, Florida Power ampersand Light, Louisiana Power ampersand Light, and Omaha Public Power District, have completed this program. Thus, the results of the experience of ∼150 licensed operators is reported
Forough L. Nowrouzian
Full Text Available Teamwork has become an integral part of most organisations today, and it is clearly important in Science and other disciplines. In Science, research teams increase in size while the number of single-authored papers and patents decline. Team-work in laboratory sciences permits projects that are too big or complex for one individual to be tackled. This development requires that students gain experience of team-work before they start their professional career. Students working in teams this may increase productivity, confidence, innovative capacity and improvement of interpersonal skills. Problem-based learning (PBL is an instructional approach focusing on real analytical problems as a means of training an analytical scientist. PBL may have a positive impact on team-work skills that are important for undergraduates and postgraduates to enable effective collaborative work. This survey of the current literature explores the development of the team-work skills in Biomedical Science students using PBL.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between teamwork and organizational trust. In the implementation section the data from the survey of 250 workers is employed in call centers in Erzurum by using relevant statistical methods. Consequently, it is found that there is a positive and significant relationship between teamwork and organizational trust. Thus, the hypothesis of the study is supported as it was expected. Besides, it is found that there are positive and significant relationships between communication, openness to innovation, participation-trust in teamwork and organizational trust, trust in management, trust in co-workers, and trust in workplace.
Logan, Todd R; Michael Malone, D
The purpose of this study was to explore the association between nurses' perceptions and attitudes of teamwork and workplace bullying. A total of 128 nurses in two hospitals in the northeast USA completed three surveys: Attitudes about teamwork survey, Team characteristics survey, and Negative intention questionnaire. A majority of nurses believed that teamwork was an important vehicle for providing quality patient care. Two thirds of the nurses reported the presence of important variables such as leadership, trust and communication on their teams. Despite these positive perceptions, a third of the nurses reported being bullied and half observed others being bullied. A number of effective team skills were associated with fewer occurrences of workplace bullying. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Laird, Richard H; Elmer, David J; Barberio, Matthew D; Salom, Lorena P; Lee, Khalil A; Pascoe, David D
Laird IV, RH, Elmer, DJ, Barberio, MD, Salom, LP, Lee, KA, and Pascoe, DD. Evaluation of performance improvements after either resistance training or sprint interval-based concurrent training. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3057-3065, 2016-The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of concurrent sprint interval and resistance training (CST) vs. resistance training (RT) on measures of strength, power, and aerobic fitness in recreationally active women. Twenty-eight women (20.3 ± 1.7 years; 63.0 ± 9.1; 51.1 ± 7.1 1 repetition maximum (1-RM) back squat (kg); V[Combining Dot Above]O2max: 35.4 ± 4.1 ml·kg·min) were recruited to complete an 11-week training program. Participants were matched-pair assigned to CST or RT cohorts after preliminary testing, which consisted of 1-RM back squats, maximal isometric squats, anaerobic power evaluations, and maximal oxygen consumption. All subjects trained 3 days per week with sprint-interval training occurring at least 4 hours after RT in the CST cohort. Both CST and RT resulted in significant improvements (p ≤ 0.05) in the 1-RM back squat (37.5 ± 7.8; 40.0 ± 9.6 kg), maximal isometric force (55.7 ± 51.3; 53.7 ± 36.7 kg), average peak anaerobic power testing (7.4 ± 6.2; 7.6 ± 6.4%), and zero-incline treadmill velocity, resulting in maximal oxygen consumption (1.8 ± 0.6; 0.8 ± 0.6 km·h). Only zero-incline treadmill velocity demonstrated a group-by-time interaction with a greater improvement after CST (p training might supplement programs already in place.
McGonagle, Alyssa K; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Hamblin, Lydia; Luborsky, Mark; Upfal, Mark; Arnetz, Judith
Although many studies link teamwork in health care settings to patient safety, evidence linking teamwork to hospital worker safety is lacking. This study addresses this gap by providing evidence linking teamwork perceptions in hospital workers to worker injuries, and further, finds a linkage between manager commitment to safety and teamwork. Organizational records of worker injuries and survey responses regarding management commitment to safety and teamwork from 446 hospital workers within 42 work units in a multi-site hospital system were examined. Results underscored the particular importance of teamwork on worker injuries as well as the importance of management commitment to safety as relating to teamwork. To improve worker safety, organizational leaders and unit managers should work to maintain environments wherein teamwork can thrive.
Jee-In Hwang, PhD
Conclusions: Teamwork was rated as moderate and was positively associated with nurses' error reporting performance. Hospital executives and nurse managers should make substantial efforts to enhance teamwork, which will contribute to encouraging the reporting of errors and improving patient safety.
McGonagle, Alyssa K.; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Hamblin, Lydia; Luborsky, Mark; Upfal, Mark; Arnetz, Judith
Although many studies link teamwork in health care settings to patient safety, evidence linking teamwork to hospital worker safety is lacking. This study addresses this gap by providing evidence linking teamwork perceptions in hospital workers to worker injuries, and further, finds a linkage between manager commitment to safety and teamwork. Organizational records of worker injuries and survey responses regarding management commitment to safety and teamwork from 446 hospital workers within 42 work units in a multi-site hospital system were examined. Results underscored the particular importance of teamwork on worker injuries as well as the importance of management commitment to safety as relating to teamwork. To improve worker safety, organizational leaders and unit managers should work to maintain environments wherein teamwork can thrive. PMID:27867448
The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between teamwork and organizational trust. In the implementation section the data from the survey of 250 workers is employed in call centers in Erzurum by using relevant statistical methods. Consequently, it is found that there is a positive and significant relationship between teamwork and organizational trust. Thus, the hypothesis of the study is supported as it was expected. Besides, it is found that there are positive and significa...
Teamwork requires co-operation, co-ordination and communication between members of a team to achieve desired outcomes. In industries with a high degree of risk, such as health care, effective teamwork has been shown to achieve team goals successfully and efficiently, with fewer errors. This article introduces behaviours that support communication, co-operation and co-ordination in teams. The central role of communication in enabling co-operation and co-ordination is explored. A human factors perspective is used to examine tools to improve communication and identify barriers to effective team communication in health care.
Murphy, H. R.; Wadham, C.; Hassler-Hurst, J.
Aims To evaluate the effectiveness of a family-centred group education programme, in adolescents with Type1 diabetes. Methods Three hundred and five adolescents with Type1 diabetes; age 13.1±1.9years, diabetes duration 5.6±3.3years, BMI 20.9±3.7kg/m 2, HbA 1c 78±6mmol/mol (9.3±1.9%) were randomly...... allocated to the Families and Adolescents Communication and Teamwork Study (FACTS) diabetes education programme; (six 90-min monthly sessions attended by parents and adolescents incorporating skills training and family teamwork) or conventional clinical care. Primary outcome was HbA 1c at 18months (12months...... post-intervention). Secondary outcomes were HbA 1c at 9months, psychosocial outcomes, adolescent quality of life, well-being, family responsibility and insulin dose adjustment behaviours at 12months (6months post-intervention) and episodes of severe hypoglycaemia and diabetic ketoacidois during the 12...
Hwang, Jee-In; Ahn, Jeonghoon
Purpose: To examine levels of teamwork and its relationships with clinical error reporting among Korean hospital nurses. Methods: The study employed a cross-sectional survey design. We distributed a questionnaire to 674 nurses in two teaching hospitals in Korea. The questionnaire included items on teamwork and the reporting of clinical errors. We measured teamwork using the Teamwork Perceptions Questionnaire, which has five subscales including team structure, leadership, situation monitori...
Bjørnsrud, Halvor; Engh, Knut Roar
This article has as its main focus the contextual factors connected with teachers' teamwork. Firstly, it deals with the question of how to create reflections among teachers on the topic of teamwork. Their written answers function as empirical data for researchers and also as contributions to the further professional development of teamwork. Secondly, the authors discuss the content of teamwork in the sense of how teachers as a community might support the individual teacher's work with both ad...
Ajeigbe, David Oladipo
Background: Teamwork gained momentum in the 1980s. Research studies in the military and aviation demonstrated that teamwork is essential to safety. There were limited studies dealing with the practice of teamwork between nurses and physicians in the Emergence Departments (EDs). Aims: Descriptive aim of the study was to examine differences between staff in the Interventional and Control Groups on perception of staff teamwork. The exploratory aim was to examine staff perception of job satisfac...
Ise, Elena; Schulte-Korne, Gerd
Orthographic spelling is a major difficulty in German-speaking children with dyslexia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an orthographic spelling training in spelling-disabled students (grade 5 and 6). In study 1, ten children (treatment group) received 15 individually administered weekly intervention sessions (60…
... will report periodically to the cognizant OCMI and the Company SIP Agent on the vessel's performance...) have been approved by the cognizant OCMI, the company may begin training and operating under the plans. This evaluation phase includes the following: (a) The company shall provide the designated SIP support...
Cantor, Jeffrey A.
A three-phase comprehensive process for commercial nuclear power training program evaluation is presented. The discrepancy-based methodology was developed after the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor accident. It facilitates analysis of program components to identify discrepancies among program specifications, actual outcomes, and industry…
American Foundation on Automation and Employment, Inc., New York, NY.
This 47-page evaluative guide to films on jobs, training, and the ghetto was prepared at the first International Job Film Fair. The Fair was held in New York City, May 21-22, 1969, and was sponsored by the American Foundation on Automation and Employment. Films were obtained through a variety of film, industrial, and educational media. The panel…
The aim of this small scale study was to evaluate changes in consciousness, with special reference to neurophysiology, mood, mindfulness, health and spirituality, related to an alpha theta training programme of five sessions. There were 6 participants, 4 men and 2 women with mean age of 43 years and age range of 26 to ...
Plioutsias, Anastasios; Karanikas, Nektarios
This paper presents how the application of the STPA method might support the evaluation of fighter pilots training programs and trigger procedural and technological changes. We applied the STPA method by considering the safety constraints documented in the Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) of a
Yeap, R; Beevi, Z; Lukman, H
This article describes the development of four assessment tools designed to evaluate the communication skills training (CST) programme at the International Medical University (IMU). The tools measure pre-clinical students' 1) perceived competency in basic interpersonal skills, 2) attitude towards patient-centred communication, 3) conceptual knowledge on doctor-patient communication, and 4) acceptance of the CST programme.
Cícera Maria Braz da Silva; Rejane Maria Paiva de Menezes; Rafaella Guilherme Gonçalves
Introduction: health education becomes a more complex process, since it aims to ensure the training of professionals with the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values necessary for their performance, requiring the adoption of strategies that allow the integral evaluation of these competences. Objective: analyze the scientific evidence about the evaluation of learning and competence in undergraduate nursing education. Method: integrative literature review with online search in LILACS...
Zahiri, Mohsen; Nelson, Carl A; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Siu, Ka-Chun
Providing computer-based laparoscopic surgical training has several advantages that enhance the training process. Self-evaluation and real-time performance feedback are 2 of these advantages, which avoid dependency of trainees on expert feedback. The goal of this study was to investigate the use of a visual time indicator as real-time feedback correlated with the laparoscopic surgical training. Twenty novices participated in this study working with (and without) different presentations of time indicators. They performed a standard peg transfer task, and their completion times and muscle activity were recorded and compared. Also of interest was whether the use of this type of feedback induced any side effect in terms of motivation or muscle fatigue. Of the 20 participants, 15 (75%) preferred using a time indicator in the training process rather than having no feedback. However, time to task completion showed no significant difference in performance with the time indicator; furthermore, no significant differences in muscle activity or muscle fatigue were detected with/without time feedback. The absence of significant difference between task performance with/without time feedback shows that using visual real-time feedback can be included in surgical training based on user preference. Trainees may benefit from this type of feedback in the form of increased motivation. The extent to which this can influence training frequency leading to performance improvement is a question for further study.
Kliegl, Julie A.; Weaver, Kari D.
Business educators recognize the importance of developing teamwork as an employability skill. However, current methods used to teach teamwork have been met with mixed results from both students and educators. This article integrates research on the importance of teamwork, team development processes, and coteaching through examining a case study…
Bjornsrud, Halvor; Engh, Roar
This article has as its main focus the contextual factors connected with teachers' teamwork. Firstly, it deals with the question of how to create reflections among teachers on the topic of teamwork. Their written answers function as empirical data for researchers and also as contributions to the further professional development of teamwork.…
Lower, Leeann M.; Newman, Tarkington J.; Anderson-Butcher, Dawn
Purpose: This study examines the psychometric properties of the Teamwork Scale for Youth, an assessment designed to measure youths' perceptions of their teamwork competency. Methods: The Teamwork Scale for Youth was administered to a sample of 460 youths. Confirmatory factor analyses examined the factor structure and measurement invariance of the…
Ryall, Emily S
This paper seeks to provide a response to Gaffney's analysis of teamwork by arguing that teamwork is morally neutral rather than a virtue in itself. This conclusion will be supported by examples which demonstrate how teamwork can develop and foster undesirable traits and practices such as resentment, contempt and the purely instrumental use of others in the achievement of desired ends.
Söderback, I; Normell, L A
Intellectual Function Training (IFT) is an occupational therapy method for remediating cognitive functions in patients with acquired brain damage and has been presented in a previous paper. It has been evaluated by comparing a group of trained patients (n = 13) using the IFT method with a control group (n = 13) which underwent conventional rehabilitation. The trained group received IFT for 40 min each day, 5 days a week for about three months. Age, education and neurological status did not differ between the groups. The measurement methods of evaluation were Intellectual Function Assessment (IFP) and three psychometric test batteries. At the beginning of the study there was no significant difference in any subtest between the two groups. After the training period there was a significant difference of at least p less than 0.05 between the trained and the control group in the IFP battery, except for the Long-term Memory subtest. The improvement for the trained group was evident six months later at the time of the follow-up measurement, clearly indicating a significant difference between the groups. In one psychometric subtest a significant difference of p less than 0.01 was found. Within the experimental group over the study time there was a slight increase in performance which was notable in seven of the psychometric subtests p less than 0.05-p less than 0.001. The positive effect of IFT is considered to be specific for the type of task in which the patients were trained, while evidence of the effect on general intellectual function is inconclusive.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Sweigart, Linda I; Umoren, Rachel A; Scott, Patrician J; Carlton, Kay Hodson; Jones, James A; Truman, Barbara; Gossett, Evalyn J
The majority of the estimated 400,000 or more patient deaths per year in the United States are from preventable medical errors due to poor communication. Team training programs have been established to teach teamwork skills to health professions students. However, it is often challenging to provide this training at a physical site. A brief intervention using a virtual learning environment with TeamSTEPPS(®)-based scenarios is described. Using a pretest-posttest design, the effects on teamwork attitudes in 109 health professional students from two institutions and multiple disciplines were measured using the TeamSTEPPS Teamwork Attitudes questionnaire. Participants showed significant attitude changes in the categories of leadership, situation monitoring, mutual support, and communication (p ⩽ .05), with significance in four of the six indicator attitudes in the communication section at the p ⩽ .001 level. These findings indicate the potential impact that virtual learning experiences may have on teamwork attitudes in learners across professions on multiple campuses. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Gardner, Aimee K; Kosemund, Matthew; Hogg, Deborah; Heymann, Abraham; Martinez, Joseph
The role of goal setting within post-simulation debriefing is not well known. This study sought to examine how inclusion of group-level goals, individual-level goals, or no goals in the debriefing process impacts teamwork. Students participated in two high-fidelity team training scenarios. Between scenarios, teams were assigned to one of three debriefing groups: jointly creating five teamwork goals for the group to achieve (group-level goals); independently creating five teamwork goals for each individual to attain (individual-level goals); or no goals. Paired-samples t tests and one-way ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey tests were used to examine performance improvements and differences between groups. 86 MS3s participated in the training program across 22 groups. Percentage of items achieved on the teamwork tool from first to second scenario were 61.7±20.4 to 60.2±8.8 (no goals; ns), 59.8±14.0 to 76.8±7.0 (individual goals; pteamwork. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Estágio integrado na Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo: preparo para o trabalho multiprofissional Interdisciplinary training at the S. Paulo University School of Public Health: a preparation for multiprofessional teamwork
Isabel Maria Teixeira Bicudo Pereira
Full Text Available O presente trabalho relata a experiência havida em 1975 na Faculdade de Saúde Pública da USP no Estágio Integrado dos alunos. A comissão incumbida do estágio resolveu introduzir algumas modificações na metodologia utilizada tendo em vista os precários resultados da chamada Carta Sanitária até agora em vigor. Procurou-se conduzir os alunos em seus trabalhos para um diagnóstico setorial de saúde através de parte das técnicas da CENDES/OPS e Programação Integrada de Saúde. Neste trabalho são apontadas dificuldades encontradas e alguns resultados auspiciosos conseguidos. Conclue-se pela continuação da experiência.The present paper gives a brief description of the experience undergone at the São Paulo University School of Public Health in 1975 regarding interdisciplinary teamwork among its pupils. The committee in charge of the practical work changed the methodology used in the school this year. The students were conducted in the general direction of a health sectorial diagnosis programme collecting data belonging to one of the São Paulo State's Administrative Regions, The Paraiba Valley (14,000 square kilometers and a population of 1,050,000 inhabitants. Parts of the CENDES/PAHO technique and the Programme Packaging technique were used as tools by the students. This paper points out difficulties that turned up as well as some of the good results. Conclusions indicate that the experiment ought to go on.
Kanki, Barbara G.
Mountaineering expeditions combine a number of factors which make them potentially good analogs to the planetary exploration facet of long-duration space missions. A study of mountain climbing teams was conducted in order to evaluate the usefulness of the environment as a space analog and to specifically identify the factors and issues surrounding teamwork and 'successful' team performance in two mountaineering environments. This paper focuses on social/organizational factors, including team size and structure, leadership styles and authority structure which were found in the sample of 22 climb teams (122 individuals). The second major issue discussed is the construction of a valid performance measure in this high-risk environment.
Knapik, Joseph J; Rieger, William; Palkoska, Frank; Van Camp, Steven; Darakjy, Salima
This paper reviews the rationale and evaluations of Physical Readiness Training (PRT), the new U.S. Army physical training doctrine designed to improve soldiers' physical capability for military operations. The purposes of PRT are to improve physical fitness, prevent injuries, progressively train soldiers, and develop soldiers' self-confidence and discipline. The PRT follows the principles of progressive overload, regularity, specificity, precision, variety, and balance. Specificity was achieved by examining the standard list of military (warrior) tasks and determining 1) the physical requirements, 2) the fitness components involved, and 3) the training activities that most likely could improve the military tasks. Injury-prevention features include reduced running mileage, exercise variety (cross-training), and gradual, progressive training. In 3 military field studies, the overall adjusted risk of injury was 1.5-1.8 times higher in groups of soldiers performing traditional military physical training programs when compared with groups using a PRT program. Scores on the Army Physical Fitness Test were similar or higher in groups using PRT programs. In an 8-week laboratory study comparing PRT with a weightlifting/running program, both programs resulted in major improvements in militarily relevant tasks (e.g., 3.2-km walk/run with 32-kg load, 400-m run with 18-kg load, 5- to 30-second rushes to and from prone position, 80-kg casualty drag, obstacle course). When compared with traditional military physical training programs, PRT consistently resulted in fewer injuries and in equal or greater improvements in fitness and military task performance.
Background A team approach in primary care has proven benefits in achieving better outcomes, reducing health care costs, satisfying patient needs, ensuring continuity of care, increasing job satisfaction among health providers and using human health care resources more efficiently. However, some research indicates constraints in collaboration within primary health care (PHC) teams in Lithuania. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of the phenomenon of teamwork in Lithuania by exploring the experiences of teamwork by general practitioners (GPs) and community nurses (CNs) involved in PHC. Methods Six focus groups were formed with 29 GPs and 27 CNs from the Kaunas Region of Lithuania. Discussions were recorded and transcribed verbatim. A thematic analysis of these data was then performed. Results The analysis of focus group data identified six thematic categories related to teamwork in PHC: the structure of a PHC team, synergy among PHC team members, descriptions of roles and responsibilities of team members, competencies of PHC team members, communications between PHC team members and the organisational background for teamwork. These findings provide the basis for a discussion of a thematic model of teamwork that embraces formal, individual and organisational factors. Conclusions The need for effective teamwork in PHC is an issue receiving broad consensus; however, the process of teambuilding is often taken for granted in the PHC sector in Lithuania. This study suggests that both formal and individual behavioural factors should be targeted when aiming to strengthen PHC teams. Furthermore, this study underscores the need to provide explicit formal descriptions of the roles and responsibilities of PHC team members in Lithuania, which would include establishing clear professional boundaries. The training of team members is an essential component of the teambuilding process, but not sufficient by itself. PMID:23945286
Ravicchio, Fabrizio; Trentin, Guglielmo
The aim of the article is to describe the assessment model adopted by the SCINTILLA Project, a project in Italy aimed at the online vocational training of young, seriously-disabled subjects and their subsequent work inclusion in smart-work mode. It will thus describe the model worked out for evaluation of the training program conceived for the…
...-0271. Type of Request: Extension without of a currently approved collection. Form Number: HUD-50945... training assessment instrument to evaluate learners' reactions to training or technical assistance programs...
Rybing, Jonas; Nilsson, Heléne; Jonson, Carl-Oscar; Bang, Magnus
Health care organizations employ simulation-based team training (SBTT) to improve skill, communication and coordination in a broad range of critical care contexts. Quantitative approaches, such as team performance measurements, are predominantly used to measure SBTTs effectiveness. However, a practical evaluation method that examines how this approach supports cognition and teamwork is missing. We have applied Distributed Cognition for Teamwork (DiCoT), a method for analysing cognition and collaboration aspects of work settings, with the purpose of assessing the methodology's usefulness for evaluating SBTTs. In a case study, we observed and analysed four Emergo Train System® simulation exercises where medical professionals trained emergency response routines. The study suggests that DiCoT is an applicable and learnable tool for determining key distributed cognition attributes of SBTTs that are of importance for the simulation validity of training environments. Moreover, we discuss and exemplify how DiCoT supports design of SBTTs with a focus on transfer and validity characteristics. Practitioner Summary: In this study, we have evaluated a method to assess simulation-based team training environments from a cognitive ergonomics perspective. Using a case study, we analysed Distributed Cognition for Teamwork (DiCoT) by applying it to the Emergo Train System®. We conclude that DiCoT is useful for SBTT evaluation and simulator (re)design.
Watland, Kathleen Hanold; Santori, David
Teamwork and the ability to work collaboratively on a team are important skills in almost every industry or profession. The use of student teams in college courses is increasing and most academic programs require teamwork as part of the students' academic learning experience. While teamwork and other experiential collaborative learning…
Manspeaker, Sarah A; Donoso Brown, Elena V; Wallace, Sarah E; DiBartola, Leesa; Morgan, Allison
Interprofessional education (IPE) is a vital component of healthcare education yet challenges to implementation persist. This study aimed to evaluate the perceived impact of an ethics-based IPE workshop designed for professional phase healthcare students enrolled in athletic training, health management systems, occupational therapy, physical therapy, physician assistant studies, and speech-language pathology programmes at one university. A pre/post-test cohort study was conducted to evaluate the impact of the workshop on interprofessional values and teamwork. Findings from the 61 students who completed both pre- and post-programme evaluation surveys suggest that the ethics-based workshop was successful in improving perceived confidence as related to the workshop objectives and strengthened positive perceptions of IPE as evaluated by the Student Perceptions of Interprofessional Clinical Education-Revised (SPICE-R). Analysis of responses to open-ended reflection questions after the workshop suggest that student participants perceived changes in understanding related to multiple areas of IPE. These results suggest that an ethics-based workshop using case-based collaborative pedagogy may be an effective mechanism for delivery of IPE-oriented information resulting in greater student confidence and understanding of IPE competencies.
Aarnio, Matti; Nieminen, Juha; Pyörälä, Eeva; Lindblom-Ylänne, Sari
This study examined teaching teamwork skills to first-year medical students. Teamwork skills focused on verbal communication in PBL-tutorial sessions and in healthcare teams. The aim was to find out how to teach teamwork skills to first-year medical students and how to motivate them to learn these skills. Three consecutive classes of first-year medical students (N = 342) participated in teamwork skills module in the years 2006, 2007 and 2008. After the first year, the introduction to the topic was revised in order to be more motivating to medical students. After each module data were collected with a feedback questionnaire containing numerical and open questions. By analyzing the students' numerical answers and the content of students' open answers regarding the module, we examined how the revised introduction affected students' perceptions of the usefulness of the module. Medical students' feedback in the years 1 (n = 81), 2 (n = 99) and 3 (n = 95) showed that the students found the module in the second and third years significantly more useful than in the first year. These results support earlier findings that clearly stated clinical relevance motivates medical students. When introducing multidisciplinary subjects to medical students, it is important to think through the clinical relevance of the topic and how it is introduced to medical students.
Migneault, Robert LaLiberte
Discussion of Humanistic Management by Teamwork (HMBT) rationalizes a preference for HMBT in academic library management. The University of New Mexico's Zia model of library organization is described as an example of HMBT, and several benefits of the Zia model are summarized. (MES)
This paper provides evidence of how team effectiveness affects the Mauritian Financial Management sector's performances. Principles, theoretical concepts and factors affecting teamwork effectiveness literatures, were reviewed. A census was conducted via a detailed survey with employees of one leading Financial ...
The impact of adventure learning (n=345) was measured on teamwork attitudes that are moderated by two attitudes, using the Singaporean concept of kiasu. Higher Kiasu-negative attitudes (preventing others from getting ahead of oneself) were associated with more improved team task participation and social support. (Contains 34 references.) (JOW)
Vasilijević Danijela N.
Full Text Available Research to date has shown that teacher teamwork results in higher motivation among students and higher quality knowledge, and also facilitates the sharing of professional experiences and stimulates teachers' creativity and their openness to change. Team forming and development depend on multiple factors, particularly on the individual and group traits of team members. This paper examines teachers' attitudes as an individual factor significant for their inclination for team teaching, and the aim of the study presented in the paper was to study teachers' attitudes to teamwork. The sample consisted of 240 teachers from fifteen elementary schools in Belgrade. Factor analysis has singled out three factors around which teachers' attitudes are grouped: a teaching; b team and individual development; and c professional challenge. The study has shown that overall, teachers have a positive attitude to teamwork because it is conducive to a stimulating environment for work and learning, and also provides an opportunity for teachers' personal and professional development. Significant differences in the perception of teamwork have been noted among lower-grade teachers depending on their years of service and the extent to which they have been engaged in team teaching.
Hughes, Richard L.; Jones, Steven K.
Some form of team-oriented work is employed in most, if not all, organizations today. It would seem, then, that an important role for higher education should involve developing critical teamwork skills among students so as to prepare them for success in life. This very point was highlighted in a 2009 poll conducted on behalf of the Association of…
Barker, Dean M.; Rossi, Anthony
Background: Teamwork sits comfortably within the vocabularies of most physical education teachers. It is used to both describe and prescribe student behaviour in a variety of physical and sport-related activities. Yet while supporters of sport and PE have readily employed the term, remarkably few pedagogues have taken the time to consider what…
Bessho, Y.; Kusama, T.
Many nurses in hospitals and clinics are concerned about the care of patients diagnosed or treated with radiation. Knowledge about radiation effects and radiological protection was in limited supply among nurses. Some nurses are anxious about the effects of occupational radiation, and they have not appropriately coped with their patients' questions about radiation effects of medical exposure. We investigated the level of knowledge about radiation among nurses and required knowledge for nurses in hospitals and clinics. Based on the results of the investigation, we designed an education and training program of lectures and practice for nurses in hospitals. After the education and training by our program was done, we evaluated the effects of the education and training with an interview and a questionnaire for each nurse. (author)
Chesluk, Benjamin J; Bernabeo, Elizabeth; Hess, Brian; Lynn, Lorna A; Reddy, Siddharta; Holmboe, Eric S
Teamwork is a vital skill for health care professionals, but the fragmented systems within which they work frequently do not recognize or support good teamwork. The American Board of Internal Medicine has developed and is testing the Teamwork Effectiveness Assessment Module (TEAM), a tool for physicians to evaluate how they perform as part of an interprofessional patient care team. The assessment provides hospitalist physicians with feedback data drawn from their own work of caring for patients, in a way that is intended to support immediate, concrete change efforts to improve the quality of patient care. Our approach demonstrates the value of looking at teamwork in the real world of health care-that is, as it occurs in the actual contexts in which providers work together to care for patients. The assessment of individual physicians' teamwork competencies may play a role in the larger effort to bring disparate health professions together in a system that supports and rewards a team approach in hope of improving patient care.
Rhee, Jinny; Parent, David; Basu, Anuradha
The ability to work effectively on a team is highly valued by employers, and collaboration among students can lead to intrinsic motivation, increased persistence, and greater transferability of skills. Moreover, innovation often arises from multidisciplinary teamwork. The influence of personality and ability on undergraduate teamwork and performance is not comprehensively understood. An investigation was undertaken to explore correlations between team outcomes, personality measures and ability in an undergraduate population. Team outcomes included various self-, peer- and instructor ratings of skills, performance, and experience. Personality measures and ability involved the Five-Factor Model personality traits and GPA. Personality, GPA, and teamwork survey data, as well as instructor evaluations were collected from upper division team project courses in engineering, business, political science, and industrial design at a large public university. Characteristics of a multidisciplinary student team project were briefly examined. Personality, in terms of extraversion scores, was positively correlated with instructors' assessment of team performance in terms of oral and written presentation scores, which is consistent with prior research. Other correlations to instructor-, students' self- and peer-ratings were revealed and merit further study. The findings in this study can be used to understand important influences on successful teamwork, teamwork instruction and intervention and to understand the design of effective curricula in this area moving forward. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/2193-1801-2-16) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Integrating team resource management program into staff training improves staff's perception and patient safety in organ procurement and transplantation: the experience in a university-affiliated medical center in Taiwan.
Hsu, Ya-Chi; Jerng, Jih-Shuin; Chang, Ching-Wen; Chen, Li-Chin; Hsieh, Ming-Yuan; Huang, Szu-Fen; Liu, Yueh-Ping; Hung, Kuan-Yu
The process involved in organ procurement and transplantation is very complex that requires multidisciplinary coordination and teamwork. To prevent error during the processes, teamwork education and training might play an important role. We wished to evaluate the efficacy of implementing a Team Resource Management (TRM) program on patient safety and the behaviors of the team members involving in the process. We implemented a TRM training program for the organ procurement and transplantation team members of the National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH), a teaching medical center in Taiwan. This 15-month intervention included TRM education and training courses for the healthcare workers, focused group skill training for the procurement and transplantation team members, video demonstration and training, and case reviews with feedbacks. Teamwork culture was evaluated and all procurement and transplantation cases were reviewed to evaluate the application of TRM skills during the actual processes. During the intervention period, a total of 34 staff members participated the program, and 67 cases of transplantations were performed. Teamwork framework concept was the most prominent dimension that showed improvement from the participants for training. The team members showed a variety of teamwork behaviors during the process of procurement and transplantation during the intervention period. Of note, there were two potential donors with a positive HIV result, for which the procurement processed was timely and successfully terminated by the team. None of the recipients was transplanted with an infected organ. No error in communication or patient identification was noted during review of the case records. Implementation of a Team Resource Management program improves the teamwork culture as well as patient safety in organ procurement and transplantation.
Bell, Jennifer L; Grushecky, Shawn T
Logger safety training programs are rarely, if ever, evaluated as to their effectiveness in reducing injuries. Workers' compensation claim rates were used to evaluate the effectiveness of a logger safety training program, the West Virginia Loggers' Safety Initiative (LSI). There was no claim rate decline detected in the majority (67%) of companies that participated in all 4 years of the LSI. Furthermore, their rate did not differ from the rest of the WV logging industry that did not participate in the LSI. Worker turnover was significantly related to claim rates; companies with higher turnover of employees had higher claim rates. Companies using feller bunchers to harvest trees at least part of the time had a significantly lower claim rate than companies not using them. Companies that had more inspections per year had lower claim rates. High injury rates persist even in companies that receive safety training; high employee turnover may affect the efficacy of training programs. The logging industry should be encouraged to facilitate the mechanization of logging tasks, to address barriers to employee retention, and to increase the number of in-the-field performance monitoring inspections. Impact on industry There are many states whose logger safety programs include only about 4-8 hours of safe work practices training. These states may look to West Virginia's expanded training program (the LSI) as a model for their own programs. However, the LSI training may not be reaching loggers due to the delay in administering training to new employees and high levels of employee turnover. Regardless of training status, loggers' claim rates decline significantly the longer they work for a company. It may be that high injury rates in the state of West Virginia would be best addressed by finding ways to encourage and facilitate companies to become more mechanized in their harvesting practices, and to increase employee tenure. Increasing the number of yearly performance inspections
Passauer-Baierl, Stefanie; Baschnegger, Heiko; Bruns, Christiane; Weigl, Matthias
Effective teamwork is one of the essentials in conducting successful and safe surgical procedures in the operating theatre (OT). The present paper aims to provide a selective review of various approaches describing effective interdisciplinary teamwork in the OT. Furthermore, it covers observational methods to assess OT teamwork with particular focus on Germany. Our definition of successful surgical teamwork is based on an already established classification system considering five criteria for effective and safe OT teams: coordination, communication, cooperation, leadership, and team monitoring. Well-defined and reliable measures are necessary to examine the quality of OT teamwork. Those methods should entail the special characteristics of the OT team. They should include all phases of the surgical procedure and incorporate all the professions involved (surgeons, surgical nurses, and anaesthetic staff). We conclude that research into methods for the assessment of OTs in Germany needs to be undertaken as a prerequisite to investigating the relationship between OT teamwork and its effects on patient safety and surgical quality. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.
Tawfik, Daniel S; Sexton, John Bryan; Adair, Kathryn C; Kaplan, Heather C; Profit, Jochen
Quality improvement in health care is an ongoing challenge. Consideration of the context of the health care system is of paramount importance. Staff resilience and teamwork climate are key aspects of context that drive quality. Teamwork climate is dynamic, with well-established tools available to improve teamwork for specific tasks or global applications. Similarly, burnout and resilience can be modified with interventions such as cultivating gratitude, positivity, and awe. A growing body of literature has shown that teamwork and burnout relate to quality of care, with improved teamwork and decreased burnout expected to produce improved patient quality and safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cícera Maria Braz da Silva
Full Text Available Introduction: health education becomes a more complex process, since it aims to ensure the training of professionals with the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values necessary for their performance, requiring the adoption of strategies that allow the integral evaluation of these competences. Objective: analyze the scientific evidence about the evaluation of learning and competence in undergraduate nursing education. Method: integrative literature review with online search in LILACS, MEDLINE, Web of Science, SCOPUS and CINAHL databases, using these descriptors: Competence Based Education, Nursing Education, Learning and Assessment. Results: the 18 articles analyzed, based on a synthesis and critical analysis, allowed the identification of the following thematic categories: concept of competence; essential competences to the training of nurses; learning strategies; and evaluation. It was evidenced that, despite the polysemy around the term competence, the concept presented more similarities than differences. The nursing competencies identified are similar to those recommended by the National Curriculum Guidelines, emphasizing learning strategies in simulated settings and doubts about methods and the construction of evaluation tools. Conclusions: the evaluation of learning and competence continues to be a challenge for nursing educators and it is recognized that there are difficulties in this process. In this sense, it seems necessary to develop reliable evaluation tools, based on criteria and indicators, that can verify the performance of the student in action and their earliest possible approximation to real learning scenarios. Keywords: Competency-Based Education. Education. Nursing. Learning. Evaluation.
Chan, Edie Y; Deziel, Daniel J; Orkin, Bruce A; Wool, Norman L
Systems-based practice (SBP) is a core competency of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) that must be integrated into residency training. We sought to develop a method to improve resident understanding using a teamwork competition model. The residents were given a pretest to assess their understanding of SBP followed by a didactic lecture. They were then divided into teams to solve a programmatic "problem" in the residency. Each team had to prove that their solution best fulfilled the expectations of SBP. Their solutions were then presented at a departmental conference followed by a post-test to evaluate knowledge. In the pretest, 33% of the residents understood what SBP meant and only 15% knew the components of SBP. In the post-test, this increased to 85% and 89%, respectively. SBP is a competency mandated by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education in residency training. Using a novel approach, we were able to improve the residents' understanding of SBP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Huang, Lyen C; Conley, Dante; Lipsitz, Stu; Wright, Christopher C; Diller, Thomas W; Edmondson, Lizabeth; Berry, William R; Singer, Sara J
To assess the inter-rater reliability (IRR) of two novel observation tools for measuring surgical safety checklist performance and teamwork. Data surgical safety checklists can promote adherence to standards of care and improve teamwork in the operating room. Their use has been associated with reductions in mortality and other postoperative complications. However, checklist effectiveness depends on how well they are performed. Authors from the Safe Surgery 2015 initiative developed a pair of novel observation tools through literature review, expert consultation and end-user testing. In one South Carolina hospital participating in the initiative, two observers jointly attended 50 surgical cases and independently rated surgical teams using both tools. We used descriptive statistics to measure checklist performance and teamwork at the hospital. We assessed IRR by measuring percent agreement, Cohen's κ, and weighted κ scores. The overall percent agreement and κ between the two observers was 93% and 0.74 (95% CI 0.66 to 0.79), respectively, for the Checklist Coaching Tool and 86% and 0.84 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.90) for the Surgical Teamwork Tool. Percent agreement for individual sections of both tools was 79% or higher. Additionally, κ scores for six of eight sections on the Checklist Coaching Tool and for two of five domains on the Surgical Teamwork Tool achieved the desired 0.7 threshold. However, teamwork scores were high and variation was limited. There were no significant changes in the percent agreement or κ scores between the first 10 and last 10 cases observed. Both tools demonstrated substantial IRR and required limited training to use. These instruments may be used to observe checklist performance and teamwork in the operating room. However, further refinement and calibration of observer expectations, particularly in rating teamwork, could improve the utility of the tools. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already
During centuries of geographic, economic, and cultural domination, the federal government held the responsibility for the management of environmental issues on tribal lands. Today, tribes are reasserting their sovereignty in many ways, including the development of their own environmental programs. Tribal agencies desperately search for tribal members who are qualified to make decisions for the benefit of the tribes from both Western scientific and traditional cultural viewpoints. To meet this need, the American Indian Air Quality Training Program (AIAQTP) offers technical and regulatory training courses that are both scientifically up-to-date and culturally responsive to this community. This study is an evaluation of these courses. To supplement data from existing program documents and databases, I also observed five courses, sent follow-up questionnaires, and interviewed lead instructors and course participants to develop an understanding of their perceptions of the training received. Computer analysis of this quantitative and qualitative data revealed patterns and themes; an external reviewer also independently analyzed the data set. The training courses offered by AIAQTP were judged to have merit and value by the course instructors, the participants, the external evaluator, and me. Designed to be both culturally responsive and technically rigorous, these courses provided relevant and useful information and skills to the tribal environmental professionals in attendance, meeting the demands of their jobs. Although not all training needs or expectations were met, the study participants indicated their intentions to continue their education and training in air quality and other environmental media. A significant benefit of attendance at AIAQTP training courses was the development of a network of tribal professionals across the nation that acts as a support system for the implementation and continuation of changes in the professional practice for the trainees and
Miltenberger, Raymond; Gross, Amy; Knudson, Peter; Bosch, Amanda; Jostad, Candice; Breitwieser, Carrie Brower
This study compared the effectiveness of behavioral skills training (BST) to BST plus simulated in situ training (SIT) for teaching safety skills to children to prevent gun play. The results were evaluated in a posttest only control group design. Following the first assessment, participants in both training groups and the control group who did not…
Haycock, A.; Burling, D.; Wylie, P.; Muckian, J.; Ilangovan, R.; Thomas-Gibson, S.
Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of a new intensive 'hands-on' course designed to train small teams of radiographers in computed tomography colonography (CTC) technique and initial interpretation for patient triage. Materials and methods: The course comprised small-group lectures, active participation in the daily CTC service with practical technique and image interpretation training by experienced radiologists and radiographers. Evaluation was by assessment of knowledge using randomized sets of multiple choice questions (MCQ; pre/post-course), practical technique using checklists and expert global scores, and interpretation performance outcomes using randomized pre/post-course test datasets (five validated CTC examinations each). Paired t-tests were used to investigate change in performance for MCQ score and interpretation accuracy. Results: Thirteen courses with 49 participants were evaluated over 2 years. Practical skills were high, with mean (SD) checklist scores of 14/15 (0.85) and global scores of 26/30 (2.3). MCQ scores increased significantly from a mean of 59% pre-course to 69% post-course, p 10 mm) detection rates also improved significantly from 49% to 60%, p = 0.002. Conclusion: Structured training in CTC can significantly improve knowledge and interpretation skills of radiographers, while assessing safe procedural performance. Implementation of similar programmes nationally may help reduce performance gaps between centres.
Braude, Philip; Reedy, Gabriel; Dasgupta, Deblina; Dimmock, Valerie; Jaye, Peter; Birns, Jonathan
geriatrics encompasses diverse medical, social and ethical challenges requiring a multidimensional, interdisciplinary approach. Recent reports have highlighted failings in the care of older people. It is therefore vital that trainees in geriatrics are afforded opportunities to develop skills in managing this complex population. Simulation has been adopted as a teaching tool in medicine; however, evidence for its use in geriatrics has been limited to small, single-site studies primarily involving role-play or discrete clinical skills training. a standardised, two centre, multimodal, interprofessional, geriatrics simulation training programme was developed using curriculum-mapped scenarios in which the patient perspective was central. Simulation techniques used included high-fidelity patient manikins, actors with integrated clinical skills using part-task trainers and role-play exercises. A mixed-methods evaluation was used to analyse data from participants before and after training. eighty-nine candidates attended 12 similar courses over 2 years. Thematic analysis of candidate feedback was supportive of simulation as a useful tool, with benefits for both technical and non-technical skills. Candidates commented that simulation was a valuable training modality addressing curriculum areas rarely taught formally including continence assessment, end-of-life decisions and multidisciplinary situations. Quantitative analysis of pre- and post-course questionnaires revealed a significant improvement of self-reported confidence in managing geriatric scenarios (mean improvement 11.5%; P geriatrics. Simulation training affords situational learning without compromising patient safety and is an exciting and novel method of delivering teaching for geriatrics that could be integrated into national training curricula. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Codruta Dana Duda Daianu
Full Text Available The team leader is the author of vision, mentor, guide, motivator, source of encouragement and supportive team. The leader helps team members to focus on the big picture of the project, to give the best of them, to follow the right path and stay united. Leader qualities must necessarily include its ability to work together, to be folded on the processes that describe functional and structural developments in embedded team. The issue of the leader development includes the necessity to concurrently form the skills of tem working. The working paper underlines that these two formative desiderate are compatible, correlative and complementary. So, in the study that we undertake we proposed to determine the degree of compatibility between the two demands of education, as follows: the training of leader capable to exercise also the specific activities of teamwork
Guzmán, Azucena; Wenborn, Jennifer; Ledgerd, Ritchard; Orrell, Martin
There is a recognised need to improve staff training in care homes. The aim of this study was to conduct a qualitative evaluation of the Ladder to the Moon Culture Change Studio Engagement Programme (CCSEP), a staff training programme aimed at enhancing staff-resident communication. Focus groups were conducted with residents able to provide consent; staff and relatives and managers were interviewed in two care homes. A theoretical framework was developed to interpret the impact of CCSEP using Framework Analysis. Residents noted that the programme appeared to result in staff interacting more with them, as well as enjoying working together as a team. Staff reported an improved sense of teamwork, developing more positive attitudes towards residents, as well as their concerns about using theatrical techniques in the care setting. Relatives identified care home organisational aspects as being barriers to implementation, and some regarded CCSEP simply as 'entertainment' rather than 'creative care'. This study provides an insight into the potential of this staff training programme to improve staff-resident interactions. However, participants' varying views of CCSEP highlight the need to brief staff, residents and relatives before implementation so as to enable full understanding of the aim. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lee, Sung Heum; Pershing, James A.
Discusses performance improvement interventions, including training, and the need for evaluation to measure training effectiveness. Reviews six evaluation perspectives of corporate training programs and recommends four areas for further study, including overall evaluation models and appropriate uses of the results of evaluations. (Contains 63…
Couto, Thomaz Bittencourt; Kerrey, Benjamin T; Taylor, Regina G; FitzGerald, Michael; Geis, Gary L
Pediatric emergencies require effective teamwork. These skills are developed and demonstrated in actual emergencies and in simulated environments, including simulation centers (in center) and the real care environment (in situ). Our aims were to compare teamwork performance across these settings and to identify perceived educational strengths and weaknesses between simulated settings. We hypothesized that teamwork performance in actual emergencies and in situ simulations would be higher than for in-center simulations. A retrospective, video-based assessment of teamwork was performed in an academic, pediatric level 1 trauma center, using the Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM) tool (range, 0-44) among emergency department providers (physicians, nurses, respiratory therapists, paramedics, patient care assistants, and pharmacists). A survey-based, cross-sectional assessment was conducted to determine provider perceptions regarding simulation training. One hundred thirty-two videos, 44 from each setting, were reviewed. Mean total TEAM scores were similar and high in all settings (31.2 actual, 31.1 in situ, and 32.3 in-center, P = 0.39). Of 236 providers, 154 (65%) responded to the survey. For teamwork training, in situ simulation was considered more realistic (59% vs. 10%) and more effective (45% vs. 15%) than in-center simulation. In a video-based study in an academic pediatric institution, ratings of teamwork were relatively high among actual resuscitations and 2 simulation settings, substantiating the influence of simulation-based training on instilling a culture of communication and teamwork. On the basis of survey results, providers favored the in situ setting for teamwork training and suggested an expansion of our existing in situ program.
Santarelli, Thomas; Stagl, Kevin C.
Cross-cultural competency, and the underlying communication and affective skills required to develop such expertise, is becoming increasingly important for a wide variety of domains. To address this need, we developed a blended learning platform which combines virtual role-play with tutorials, assessment and feedback. A Middle-Eastern Curriculum (MEC) exemplar for cross-cultural training U.S. military personnel was developed to guide the refinement of an existing game-based training platform. To complement this curriculum, we developed scenario authoring tools to enable end-users to define training objectives, link performance measures and feedback/remediation to these objectives, and deploy experiential scenarios within a game-based virtual environment (VE). Lessons learned from the design and development of this exemplar cross-cultural competency curriculum, as well as formative evaluation results, are discussed. Initial findings suggest that the underlying training technology promotes deep levels of semantic processing of the key information of relevant cultural and communication skills.
Traicoff, Denise A; Basarab, Dave; Ehrhardt, Derek T; Brown, Sandi; Celaya, Martin; Jarvis, Dennis; Howze, Elizabeth H
Predictive Evaluation (PE) uses a four-step process to predict results then designs and evaluates a training intervention accordingly. In 2012, the Sustainable Management Development Program (SMDP) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention used PE to train Stop Transmission of Polio (STOP) program volunteers. Stakeholders defined specific beliefs and practices that volunteers should demonstrate. These predictions and adult learning practices were used to design a curriculum to train four cohorts. At the end of each workshop, volunteers completed a beliefs survey and wrote goals for intended actions. The goals were analyzed for acceptability based on four PE criteria. The percentage of acceptable goals and the beliefs survey results were used to define the quality of the workshop. A postassignment adoption evaluation was conducted for two cohorts, using an online survey and telephone or in-person structured interviews. The results were compared with the end of workshop findings. The percentage of acceptable goals across the four cohorts ranged from 49% to 85%. In the adoption evaluation of two cohorts, 88% and 94% of respondents reported achieving or making significant progress toward their goal. A comparison of beliefs survey responses across the four cohorts indicated consistencies in beliefs that aligned with stakeholders' predictions. Goal statements that participants write at the end of a workshop provide data to evaluate training quality. Beliefs surveys surface attitudes that could help or hinder workplace performance. The PE approach provides an innovative framework for health worker training and evaluation that emphasizes performance.
Martín-Pérez, Víctor; Martín-Cruz, Natalia; Pérez-Santana, Pilar
The objective of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of strategic management simulations as a learning-by-doing tool so that university students can learn to work in a team, that is, they can enhance their knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSA) for effective teamwork. The authors have carried out an analysis of the effect of strategic…
The Internet has emerged as a mainstream communication medium, resulting in the development of new educational opportunities for teaching and learning. This article describes and evaluates a learning opportunity which used a Wiki technology to support an aligned assessment activity which was focused around teamwork and students construction of…
Heiner, Jeremy S.
Student registered nurse anesthetists are an important part of an operating room team, yet little research has investigated how they perceive teamwork or approach team related issues specific to the operating room. This mixed methods study evaluated junior and senior student registered nurse anesthetists' attitudes toward and perceptions of…
Saghafian, Marzieh; O'Neill, D. Kevin
Team-based projects are widely used in both traditional face-to-face and online programs in higher education. To date, the teamwork experiences of students in each modality have been documented primarily through evaluative research conducted over short spans of time and limited by a priori frameworks. The literature also reflects a lack of…
Andersen, P.O.; Jensen, Michael Kammer; Lippert, A.
2006 to November 2006. Interviews were focussed on barriers and recommendations for teamwork in the cardiac arrest team, optimal policy for improvement of resuscitation training and clinical practice, use of cognitive aids and adoption of European Resuscitation Council (ERC) Guidelines 2005. Interviews...... management. Important barriers that were identified were inexperienced team leaders, task overload and hierarchic structure in the teams' inability to maintain focus on chest compressions. Conclusion: Interview participants pointed out that NTSs of teams could improve the treatment of cardiac arrest...
McGettigan, Patricia; McKendree, Jean
Multiple care failings in hospitals have led to calls for increased interprofessional training in medical education to improve multi-disciplinary teamwork. Providing practical interprofessional training has many challenges and remains uncommon in medical schools in the UK. Unlike most previous research, this evaluation of an interprofessional training placement takes a multi-faceted approach focusing not only on the impact on students, but also on clinical staff delivering the training and on outcomes for patients. We used mixed methods to examine the impact of a two-week interprofessional training placement undertaken on a medical rehabilitation ward by three cohorts of final year medical, nursing and therapy students. We determined the effects on staff, ward functioning and participating students. Impact on staff was evaluated using the Questionnaire for Psychological and Social factors at work (QPSNordic) and focus groups. Ward functioning was inferred from standard measures of care including length of stay, complaints, and adverse events. Impact on students was evaluated using the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Survey (RIPLS) among all students plus a placement survey among medical students. Between 2007 and 2010, 362 medical students and 26 nursing and therapy students completed placements working alongside the ward staff to deliver patient care. Staff identified benefits including skills recognition and expertise sharing. Ward functioning was stable. Students showed significant improvements in the RIPLS measures of Teamwork, Professional Identity and Patient-Centred Care. Despite small numbers of students from other professions, medical students' rated the placement highly. Increasing student numbers and budgetary constraints led to the cessation of the placement after three years. Interprofessional training placements can be delivered in a clinical setting without detriment to care and with benefits for all participants. While financial support is
Anyone familiar with the nuclear industry realizes the importance of operators. Operators can achieve error-free plant operations, i.e., excellence on shift through teamwork. As a shift supervisor (senior reactor operator/shift technical advisor) the author went through the plant's first cycle of operations with no scrams and no equipment damaged by operator error, having since changed roles (and companies) to one of assessing plant operations. This change has provided the opportunity to see objectively the importance of operators working together and of the team building and teamwork that contribute to the shift's success. This paper uses examples to show the effectiveness of working together and outlines steps for building a group of operators into a team
Rosen, Michael A; Dietz, Aaron S; Yang, Ting; Priebe, Carey E; Pronovost, Peter J
There is a strong link between teamwork and patient safety. Emerging evidence supports the efficacy of teamwork improvement interventions. However, the availability of reliable, valid, and practical measurement tools and strategies is commonly cited as a barrier to long-term sustainment and spread of these teamwork interventions. This article describes the potential value of sensor-based technology as a methodology to measure and evaluate teamwork in healthcare. The article summarizes the teamwork literature within healthcare, including team improvement interventions and measurement. Current applications of sensor-based measurement of teamwork are reviewed to assess the feasibility of employing this approach in healthcare. The article concludes with a discussion highlighting current application needs and gaps and relevant analytical techniques to overcome the challenges to implementation. Compelling studies exist documenting the feasibility of capturing a broad array of team input, process, and output variables with sensor-based methods. Implications of this research are summarized in a framework for development of multi-method team performance measurement systems. Sensor-based measurement within healthcare can unobtrusively capture information related to social networks, conversational patterns, physical activity, and an array of other meaningful information without having to directly observe or periodically survey clinicians. However, trust and privacy concerns present challenges that need to be overcome through engagement of end users in healthcare. Initial evidence exists to support the feasibility of sensor-based measurement to drive feedback and learning across individual, team, unit, and organizational levels. Future research is needed to refine methods, technologies, theory, and analytical strategies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions
Hollingsworth, John M.; Funk, Russell J.; Garrison, Spencer A.; Owen-Smith, Jason; Kaufman, Samuel A.; Pagani, Francis D.; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K.
Background Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) must often see multiple providers dispersed across many care locations. To test whether “teamwork” (assessed with the bipartite clustering coefficient) among these physicians is a determinant of surgical outcomes, we examined national Medicare data from patients undergoing CABG. Methods and Results Among Medicare beneficiaries who underwent CABG between 2008 and 2011, we mapped relationships between all physicians who treated them during their surgical episodes, including both surgeons and nonsurgeons. After aggregating across CABG episodes in a year to construct the physician social networks serving each health system, we then assessed the level of physician teamwork in these networks with the bipartite clustering coefficient. Finally, we fit a series of multivariable regression models to evaluate associations between a health system’s teamwork level and its 60-day surgical outcomes. We observed substantial variation in the level of teamwork between health systems performing CABG (standard deviation for the bipartite clustering coefficient was 0.09). While health systems with high and low teamwork levels treated beneficiaries with comparable comorbidity scores, these health systems differed over several sociocultural and healthcare capacity factors (e.g., physician staff size, surgical caseload). After controlling for these differences, health systems with higher teamwork levels had significantly lower 60-day rates of emergency department visit, readmission, and mortality. Conclusions Health systems with physicians who tend to work together in tightly knit groups during CABG episodes realize better surgical outcomes. As such, delivery system reforms focused on building teamwork may have positive effects on surgical care. PMID:28263939
Gurram, Chaitanya; Bandi, Srinivas Goud
Context: Distributed software development has become a most desired way of software development. Application of agile development methodologies in distributed environments has taken a new trend in developing software due to its benefits of improved communication and collaboration. Teamwork is an important concept that agile methodologies facilitate and is one of the potential determinants of team performance which was not focused in distributed agile software development. Objectives: This res...
Paul F. Levy
One way that people learn teamwork, informal mentoring, and other workplace skills is through participating in sports. Yet, many women of my generation did not get a chance to develop these talents since they had fewer opportunities to participate in organized athletics when they were young. I came to understand the importance of sports from my own experience: My passion—all the rest is a hobby—is coaching girls’ soccer, something I have done for the last 15 years.
Vasilijević Danijela N.; Stepić Gordana M.; Ilić Marina Ž.
Research to date has shown that teacher teamwork results in higher motivation among students and higher quality knowledge, and also facilitates the sharing of professional experiences and stimulates teachers' creativity and their openness to change. Team forming and development depend on multiple factors, particularly on the individual and group traits of team members. This paper examines teachers' attitudes as an individual factor significant for their inclination for team teaching, and the ...
Berman, M.; Crespin, G.; Garcia, L.R.; Jansma, R.; Lovato, L.; Randall, G.; Sanchez, A.
As part of Sandia`s Corporate Diversity Program, a Diversity Action Team was assembled to study the impact of diversity on teamwork. We reviewed the available literature on successful teaming, both with homogeneous (more alike than different) and heterogeneous teams. Although many principles and guidelines for successful homogeneous teams also apply to diverse teams, we believe that a document concentrating on diverse teams will be useful both for Sandians and for the outside world.
Mirela-Mihaela Dogaru; Irina Donciu
t In terms of psychological and Physiological capability on job Requirements and There is two Types of Requirements, Capabilities and Requirements One of Increasing, and lowering Other Capabilities and Requirements. When the control decreases teamwork, Conflicts arise Between members; feel a lack of Employees When recognition, understanding and support from leaders who have Psychiatric Disorders Appear Particularly large Influence on the individual. Many activities at work and poor relationsh...
Begley, Cecily M
Teamwork and collaboration between all health professionals results in high quality clinical care, and increased job satisfaction for staff. Encouraging inter-professional learning (IPL) may be advantageous in developing more effective teams. There is little rigorous research in this area, but many small uncontrolled studies do demonstrate positive results. IPL involves structured learning opportunities that enhance problem-solving abilities and conflict resolution. It should be clearly differentiated from shared teaching (or multidisciplinary/multiprofessional learning), where common content is taught to many professions without any intention to develop interaction. To counteract the sometimes negative attitudes in both students and staff, educators need to commence IPL early in the programme, base it in both theoretical and clinical placements and ensure that it is valued and assessed. Difficulties with timetabling and accommodation need to be solved prior to commencement. A facilitator should be employed, and a team of committed lecturers developed, with an emphasis on teamwork and the discouragement of individualism. Opportunities for student interaction and ways of improving group dynamics within non-threatening learning environments should to be sought, and instances of conflict embraced and resolved. Future IPL programmes should be rigorously evaluated and may demonstrate enhanced inter-professional relationships and improved quality of patient/client care.
Wall, David; Goodyear, Helen; Singh, Baldev; Whitehouse, Andrew; Hughes, Elizabeth; Howes, Jonathan
Three reports in 2013 about healthcare and patient safety in the UK, namely Berwick, Francis and Keogh have highlighted the need for junior doctors' views about their training experience to be heard. In the UK, the General Medical Council (GMC) quality assures medical training programmes and requires postgraduate deaneries to undertake quality management and monitoring of all training posts in their area. The aim of this study was to develop a simple trainee questionnaire for evaluation of postgraduate training posts based on the GMC, UK standards and to look at the reliability and validity including comparison with a well-established and internationally validated tool, the Postgraduate Hospital Educational Environment Measure (PHEEM). The Job Evaluation Survey Tool (JEST), a fifteen item job evaluation questionnaire was drawn up in 2006, piloted with Foundation doctors (2007), field tested with specialist paediatric registrars (2008) and used over a three year period (2008-11) by Foundation Doctors. Statistical analyses including descriptives, reliability, correlation and factor analysis were undertaken and JEST compared with PHEEM. The JEST had a reliability of 0.91 in the pilot study of 76 Foundation doctors, 0.88 in field testing of 173 Paediatric specialist registrars and 0.91 in three years of general use in foundation training with 3367 doctors completing JEST. Correlation of JEST with PHEEM was 0.80 (p training posts.
... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FFP for nurse aide training and competency... Competency Evaluation, and Paid Feeding Assistants § 483.158 FFP for nurse aide training and competency evaluation. (a) State expenditures for nurse aide training and competency evaluation programs and competency...
O'Malley, Ann S; Gourevitch, Rebecca; Draper, Kevin; Bond, Amelia; Tirodkar, Manasi A
There is emerging consensus that enhanced inter-professional teamwork is necessary for the effective and efficient delivery of primary care, but there is less practical information specific to primary care available to guide practices on how to better work as teams. The purpose of this study was to describe how primary care practices have overcome challenges to providing team-based primary care and the implications for care delivery and policy. Practices for this qualitative study were selected from those recognized as patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs) via the most recent National Committee for Quality Assurance PCMH tool, which included a domain on practice teamwork. Sixty-three respondents, ranging from physicians to front-desk staff, were interviewed from May through December of 2013. Practice respondents came from 27 primary care practices ranging in size, type, geography, and population served. Practices emphasizing teamwork overcame common challenges through the incremental delegation of non-clinical tasks away from physicians. The roles of medical assistants and nurses are expanding to include template-guided information collection from patients prior to the physician office visit as well as many other tasks. The inclusion of staff input in care workflow redesign and the use of data to demonstrate how team care process changes improved patient care were helpful in gaining staff buy-in. Team "huddles" guided by pre-visit planning were reported to assist in role delegation, consistency of information collected from patients, and structured communication among team members. Nurse care managers were found to be important team members in working with patients and their physicians on care plan design and execution. Most practices had not participated in formal teamwork training, but respondents expressed a desire for training for key team members, particularly if they could access it on-site (e.g., via practice coaches or the Internet). Participants who
Kalisch, Beatrice J; Lee, Hyunhwa; Salas, Eduardo
There is a lack of an acceptable, reliable, and valid survey instruments to differentiate levels of nursing teamwork on inpatient units in acute care facilities. The aim of this study was to test the psychometric soundness of the Nursing Teamwork Survey (NTS). The survey was administered to 1,758 inpatient nursing staff members using the NTS (return rate = 56.9%), and measures of content, predictive (concurrent), and construct (factorial, contrast, and convergent) validity were completed. Content validity was established by a panel of experts. Concurrent validity showed a significant correlation between teamwork scores and an imbedded question related to overall satisfaction with teamwork (r = .633, p .90). Convergent validity of the teamwork tool was measured by correlating the Teamwork subscale of the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire with the NTS (r = .76, p research should include testing the tool in hospitals with varying characteristics and exploring the links to clinical and operational outcomes.
O'Leary, K J; Ritter, C D; Wheeler, H; Szekendi, M K; Brinton, T S; Williams, M V
Discrepant attitudes about teamwork among nurses and physicians exist in operating rooms and intensive care units. Little is known about teamwork attitudes on general medical services. To assess ratings of teamwork by providers on inpatient medical units and barriers to collaboration. Nurses, primary hospital physicians and medical subspeciality consultants on four general medical units were surveyed. Providers rated the quality of communication and collaboration experienced with their own and other disciplines. Providers also rated potential barriers to collaboration. Differences between providers in ratings of collaboration and barriers were tested using analysis of variance. Of 230 eligible providers, 159 (69%) completed the survey. Teamwork ratings of nurses were similarly high across provider types. Ratings of physicians differed considerably by provider type (pteamwork. Whereas physicians rated the quality of teamwork with nurses favourably, nurses perceived teamwork as suboptimal.
Moradi, Kamran; Najarkolai, Atena Rahmati; Keshmiri, Fatemeh
HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ISSUE Instructions: 1.3 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded after you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. In order to obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Interprofessional Teamwork Education: Moving Toward the Patient-Centered Approach," found on pages 449-460, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name, contact information, and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until September 30, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. OBJECTIVES Explain the recommended framework in teaching and implementing interprofessional competencies. Identify
The nuclear industry has recognized the importance of safe, quality, productive maintenance practices and has taken a number of initiatives that have generally improved maintenance programs. Because proficient maintenance practices are critical to plant safety and reliability, most plants have also recognized the need for reliable, valid testing techniques that demonstrate and assure the competence of their maintenance personnel. Until now, resource demands were too great to develop in-plant testing programs. In the past, maintenance supervisors have exempted personnel from training, using informal judgment of the employees' previous training and experience and informal observation of the employee on the job. While this procedure may have some degree of validity, it fails to provide the documentation for training equivalency that is required to satisfy the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations and Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) guidelines. To assess and demonstrate the proficiency levels of personnel, Calvert Cliffs needed to establish an objective, reliable, time-saving, and valid system to evaluate the competency levels of personnel. This was done in a joint effort with the Electric Power Research Institute
Problems in Compulsory Postgraduate Clinical Training : Evaluation for Niigata University Postgraduate Clinical Training Program by Postgraduate Clinical Training Doctors on This Program(Present State and Problems in the New Postgraduate Training Program)
長谷川, 隆志; 鈴木, 栄一; Hasegawa, Takashi; Suzuki, Eiichi
It was about one year and ten months after a program for compulsory postgraduate clinical training, Niigata University Postgraduate Clinical Training Program was carried out. In this program, questionnaire surveys by the postgraduate clinical training doctors for evaluation of this program were performed at each change of training course. To improve this program, the evaluation of this program by the training doctors was examined on the bases of these questionnaire surveys. An important probl...
Leggat Sandra G
Abstract Background Although effective teamwork has been consistently identified as a requirement for enhanced clinical outcomes in the provision of healthcare, there is limited knowledge of what makes health professionals effective team members, and even less information on how to develop skills for teamwork. This study identified critical teamwork competencies for health service managers. Methods Members of a state branch of the professional association of Australian health service managers...
Crocker, Jonny; Shields, Katherine F; Venkataramanan, Vidya; Saywell, Darren; Bartram, Jamie
Training and capacity building are long established critical components of global water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) policies, strategies, and programs. Expanding capacity building support for WaSH in developing countries is one of the targets of the Sustainable Development Goals. There are many training evaluation methods and tools available. However, training evaluations in WaSH have been infrequent, have often not utilized these methods and tools, and have lacked rigor. We developed a conceptual framework for evaluating training in WaSH by reviewing and adapting concepts from literature. Our framework includes three target outcomes: learning, individual performance, and improved programming; and two sets of influences: trainee and context factors. We applied the framework to evaluate a seven-month community-led total sanitation (CLTS) management training program delivered to 42 government officials in Kenya from September 2013 to May 2014. Trainees were given a pre-training questionnaire and were interviewed at two weeks and seven months after initial training. We qualitatively analyzed the data using our conceptual framework. The training program resulted in trainees learning the CLTS process and new skills, and improving their individual performance through application of advocacy, partnership, and supervision soft skills. The link from trainees' performance to improved programming was constrained by resource limitations and pre-existing rigidity of trainees' organizations. Training-over-time enhanced outcomes and enabled trainees to overcome constraints in their work. Training in soft skills is relevant to managing public health programs beyond WaSH. We make recommendations on how training programs can be targeted and adapted to improve outcomes. Our conceptual framework can be used as a tool both for planning and evaluating training programs in WaSH. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
High quality, safe care for patients depends on effective teamwork, and where multi-professional teams work together there is higher patient satisfaction, increased staff innovation, less stress and more communication ( West 2013 ). Conversely, lapses in teamwork and poor communication can result in adverse events ranging from retained foreign objects to perinatal events and medication errors ( Peter and Pronovost 2013 ), and even the death of patients ( Resuscitation Council UK 2011 ). Teamwork requires a set of skills and behaviours that, once learned by clinicians, can save lives ( Peter and Pronovost 2013 ). This article refers to a case study to explore the topic of teamwork in a tertiary care emergency setting.
Dunin-Keplicz, Barbara Maria
What makes teamwork tick?. Cooperation matters, in daily life and in complex applications. After all, many tasks need more than a single agent to be effectively performed. Therefore, teamwork rules!. Teams are social groups of agents dedicated to the fulfilment of particular persistent tasks. In modern multiagent environments, heterogeneous teams often consist of autonomous software agents, various types of robots and human beings. Teamwork in Multi-agent Systems: A Formal Approach explains teamwork rules in terms of agents' attitudes and their complex interplay. It provides the first comprehe
Shim, Woohyun; Masacci, Fabio; De Gramatica, Martina; Tedeschi, Alessandra; Pollini, Alessandro
While many governments and airport operators have emphasized the importance of security training and committed a large amount of budget to security training programs, the implementation of security training programs was not proactive but reactive. Moreover, most of the security training programs were employed as a demand or a trendchasing activity from the government. In order to identify issues in airport security training and to develop desirable security training procedures in ...
Estryn-Béhar, Madeleine; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I J M; Ogińska, Halszka; Camerino, Donatella; Le Nézet, Olivier; Conway, Paul Maurice; Fry, Clementine; Hasselhorn, Hans-Martin
Europe's nursing shortage calls for more effective ways to recruit and retain nurses. This contribution aims to clarify whether and how social work environment, teamwork characteristics, burnout, and personal factors are associated with nurses' intent to leave (ITL). Our sample comprises 28,561 hospital-based nurses from 10 European countries. Different occupational levels have been taken into account: qualified registered nurses (n = 18,594), specialized nurses (n = 3957), head nurses (n = 3256), and nursing aides and ancillary staff (n = 2754). Our outcomes indicate that ITL is quite prevalent across Europe, although we have found some differences across the countries depending on working conditions and economic situation. Quality of teamwork, interpersonal relationships, career development possibilities, uncertainty regarding treatment, and influence at work are associated with nurses' decision to leave the profession across Europe, notwithstanding some country-specific outcomes. A serious lack of quality of teamwork seems to be associated with a 5-fold risk of ITL in 7 countries. As far as personal factors are concerned, our data support the hypothesized importance of work-family conflicts, satisfaction with pay, and burnout. A high burnout score seems to be associated with 3 times the risk of ITL in 5 countries. To prevent premature leaving, it is important to expand nurses' expertise, to improve working processes through collaboration and multidisciplinary teamwork, and to develop team training approaches and ward design facilitating teamwork.
Evaluation of training is a complex concept that involves many interrelated activities. Successful evaluation studies require a basic understanding of this complexity. Evaluation of training and training effects is therefore a part of the basic instructor-training program at KSU, The Swedish nuclear training and safety centre. Complex evaluation studies require, however, preconditions that far from always can be met. It is therefore also important to learn from successful evaluation studies and try to extrapolate the conclusions to other similar situations. A short overview of one such study at a Swedish nuclear power plant is presented. (author)
Kurban, Nevin Kuzu; Savaş, Halide; Cetinkaya, Bengü; Turan, Türkan; Kartal, Asiye
There is no co-ordinated focus on liabilities arising from nurses' medical interventions in terms of occupational, administrative, civil legal and criminal activities. However, the Turkish Criminal Code, the Turkish Medical Ethics Code of Practice, and guidelines for patients' rights offer some framework for the relevant ethical principles and responsibilities of nurses. The aim of this study was to investigate the evaluation of nursing students' training in their legal liabilities. The sample consisted of 309 students who were taking a course entitled 'Nurses' legal liabilities under Turkish criminal and civil law arising from medical interventions'. Data were obtained by means of self-administered questionnaires and McNemar's test was used to evaluate the answers. In conclusion, after their training, a great majority of the students demonstrated an improvement in terms of their percentage of correct answers relating to malpractice. This does not, however, mean that they will not face malpractice charges after graduating, but their increased awareness of the issue may encourage them to make more effort to reduce the risk of mistakes. It is recommended that nursing faculty carry out studies into medical malpractice, that they focus more on this subject in nursing education, and that all nursing schools review their curricula from the point of view of malpractice.
Full Text Available Quality of the diesel-electric train (KRDE modified from the electric train (A and B types which were used in three operating regions in the Indonesian Railway Company has been evaluated by analyzing the cause of the KRDE damages in terms of some aspects including: design, components quality, maintenance (method, finance, human resources, environment and way of operation. Based on the evaluation, it was found that the modification of the both types of KRDE provided a very low reliability and availability due to design and technical problems, as well as unoptimal maintenance. In KRDE type A, damage occurs in the cabling system, compressor, radiator fan system, and the braking system. While in type B, damage occurs in the traction motors, static inverter, and radiator fan. It is predicted that their life span can not reach the design life of 25 years, and even they are expected to be grounded. Many improvement is required to lengten their service life including: repair, modification, human resource competence, facilities, spare parts, maintenance and management.
Roscoe, Eileen M.; Fisher, Wayne W.
We used a brief training procedure that incorporated feedback and role-play practice to train staff members to conduct stimulus preference assessments, and we used group-comparison methods to evaluate the effects of training. Staff members were trained to implement the multiple-stimulus-without-replacement assessment in a single session and the…
The Ada training experiences of the Gamma Ray Observatory Ada development team are related, and recommendations are made concerning future Ada training for software developers. Training methods are evaluated, deficiencies in the training program are noted, and a recommended approach, including course outline, time allocation, and reference materials, is offered
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature on teamwork by focusing on the influence support systems, like industrial relations, have on teamwork. Teamwork is conceptualized through three dimensions; technical, governmental and normative. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a case study approach in a single company with available data over a long period of time. Findings – Industrial relations conceptualized as local representation a...
Tscholl, David W; Weiss, Mona; Kolbe, Michaela; Staender, Sven; Seifert, Burkhardt; Landert, Daniel; Grande, Bastian; Spahn, Donat R; Noethiger, Christoph B
An anesthesia preinduction checklist (APIC) to be performed before anesthesia induction was introduced and evaluated with respect to 5 team-level outcomes, each being a surrogate end point for patient safety: information exchange (the percentage of checklist items exchanged by a team, out of 12 total items); knowledge of critical information (the percentage of critical information items out of 5 total items such as allergies, reported as known by the members of a team); team members' perceptions of safety (the median scores given by the members of a team on a continuous rating scale); their perception of teamwork (the median scores given by the members of a team on a continuous rating scale); and clinical performance (the percentage of completed items out of 14 required tasks, e.g., suction device checked). A prospective interventional study comparing anesthesia teams using the APIC with a control group not using the APIC was performed using a multimethod design. Trained observers rated information exchange and clinical performance during on-site observations of anesthesia inductions. After the observations, each team member indicated the critical information items they knew and their perceptions of safety and teamwork. One hundred five teams using the APIC were compared with 100 teams not doing so. The medians of the team-level outcome scores in the APIC group versus the control group were as follows: information exchange: 100% vs 33% (P safety: 91% vs 84% (P improves information exchange, knowledge of critical information, and perception of safety in anesthesia teams-all parameters contributing to patient safety. There was a trend indicating improved perception of teamwork.
Marloes Amantia van Bokhoven; Jerôme Jean Jacques van Dongen; Anneke van Dijk-de Vries
The significance of effective interprofessional teamwork to improve the quality of care has been widely recognised. Effective interprofessional teamwork calls on good collaboration between professionals and patients, coordination between professionals, and the development of teamwork over time.
Wang, Yong; Zhi, Xiefei
This paper studies the current evaluation system for the online training program in meteorology and hydrology. CIPP model that includes context evaluation, input evaluation, process evaluation and product evaluation differs from Kirkpatrick model including reactions evaluation, learning evaluation, transfer evaluation and results evaluation in…
Haas, Martine; Mortensen, Mark
Over the years, as teams have grown more diverse, dispersed, digital, and dynamic, collaboration has become more complex. But though teams face new challenges, their success still depends on a core set of fundamentals. As J. Richard Hackman, who began researching teams in the 1970s, discovered, what matters most isn't the personalities or behavior of the team members; it's whether a team has a compelling direction, a strong structure, and a supportive context. In their own research, Haas and Mortensen have found that teams need those three "enabling conditions" now more than ever. But their work also revealed that today's teams are especially prone to two corrosive problems: "us versus them" thinking and incomplete information. Overcoming those pitfalls requires a new enabling condition: a shared mindset. This article details what team leaders should do to establish the four foundations for success. For instance, to promote a shared mindset, leaders should foster a common identity and common understanding among team members, with techniques such as "structured unstructured time." The authors also describe how to evaluate a team's effectiveness, providing an assessment leaders can take to see what's working and where there's room for improvement.
Tseng, Hung Wei; Yeh, Hsin-Te
Teamwork factors can facilitate team members, committing themselves to the purposes of maximizing their own and others' contributions and successes. It is important for online instructors to comprehend students' expectations on learning collaboratively. The aims of this study were to investigate online collaborative learning experiences and to…
theoretical courses with robotics projects. Teamwork is also very important skill today for engineering students; they need to be trained to tackle engineering projects by teamwork. Problem oriented education and teamwork increases the motivation of our engineering students to learn the theoretical parts...... recognized in engineering education and in particular using contests seems to be an effective training exercise and measure of teamwork skills. Some cases of robot projects’ influence on students’ learning and achievements are presented. Students’ own conclusions what impact the robotic projects have had...
Weigl, Matthias; Weber, Jeannette; Hallett, Elyse; Pfandler, Michael; Schlenker, Boris; Becker, Armin; Catchpole, Ken
To identify type and severity of surgical flow disruptions and to determine their impact on the perception of intraoperative teamwork. 40 radical prostatectomy cases were studied in an academic department for urology. A standardized observational tool for identification of type and severity of flow disruptions was applied during real-time prostatectomy procedures. Additionally, all OR team members evaluated intra-operative teamwork immediately after the procedure. Procedures were divided into four phases: pre-robot, docking, console time, and post-robot. A total of 2012 flow disruptions were observed with an average rate of 16.27 events per hour. The highest rate was during the robot docking phase. Although the frequency of disruption types varied across phases, the most severe disruptions were related to communication and coordination during the pre-robot and docking phase. Equipment- and communication-related disruptions were mostly severe during the time the surgeons were on the console. Among the surgeons, we identified a significant relationship between disruptions and intraoperative teamwork such that during procedures with frequent severe disruptions, surgeons experienced inferior teamwork (β = -.40, p=.01). This was not the case for nurses and anesthetists. Emphasis on improving OR team communication and coordination would help to establish efficient and smooth surgical workflow. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Head, Barbara A; Furman, Christian Davis; Lally, Andrew M; Leake, Kimberly; Pfeifer, Mark
Interprofessional Education (IPE) is an important component of medical education. Rotations with palliative care interdisciplinary teams (IDTs) provide an optimal environment for IPE and teaching teamwork skills. Our objective was to assess the learning of senior medical students during a palliative care rotation. A constant comparison method based on grounded theory was used in this qualitative study. Senior medical students completed a semi-structured reflective writing exercise after a required one-week palliative care clerkship. Sixty randomly selected reflective writings were analyzed. The reflective writings were analyzed to evaluate the student's experiences. Dominant themes identified were related to teams and teamwork. Eight specific themes were identified: value of IDT for team members; value of IDT for patient/family; importance of each team member; reliance on other team members; roles of team members; how teams work; team communication; and interdisciplinary assessment and care planning. Students described exposure to novel experiences and planned to incorporate newly learned behaviors in their future practice. By participating in palliative care IDTs, medical students consistently learned about teamwork within healthcare. Additionally, they learned the importance of such teamwork to patients and the team itself. Rotations with palliative care IDTs have a significant role to play in IPE and preparing medical students to practice on teams.
Tomizawa, Ryoko; Yamano, Mayumi; Osako, Mitue; Hirabayashi, Naotugu; Oshima, Nobuo; Sigeta, Masahiro; Reeves, Scott
Few scales currently exist to assess the quality of interprofessional teamwork through team members' perceptions of working together in mental health settings. The purpose of this study was to revise and validate an interprofessional scale to assess the quality of teamwork in inpatient psychiatric units and to use it multi-nationally. A literature review was undertaken to identify evaluative teamwork tools and develop an additional 12 items to ensure a broad global focus. Focus group discussions considered adaptation to different care systems using subjective judgements from 11 participants in a pre-test of items. Data quality, construct validity, reproducibility, and internal consistency were investigated in the survey using an international comparative design. Exploratory factor analysis yielded five factors with 21 items: 'patient/community centred care', 'collaborative communication', 'interprofessional conflict', 'role clarification', and 'environment'. High overall internal consistency, reproducibility, adequate face validity, and reasonable construct validity were shown in the USA and Japan. The revised Collaborative Practice Assessment Tool (CPAT) is a valid measure to assess the quality of interprofessional teamwork in psychiatry and identifies the best strategies to improve team performance. Furthermore, the revised scale will generate more rigorous evidence for collaborative practice in psychiatry internationally.
Carson, O M; Laird, E A; Reid, B B; Deeny, P G; McGarvey, H E
A cohort of year two students (n = 181) was exposed to a transformational and experiential learning intervention in the form of team-led poster development workshops to enhance competence and interpersonal skills for working in teams. The aims of this study were to test the suitability of an amended TeamSTEPPS teamwork perceptions questionnaire (T-TPQ) for measuring the impact of the intervention on students' perceptions of team working, and to ascertain students' views about the experience. This was a two phase pilot study. Phase 1 was a repeated measures design to test the T-TPQ for evaluating the impact of the experiential intervention, and Phase 2 was a survey of students' views and opinions. Descriptive and statistical analysis of the data were performed. Our findings suggest that age and part-time employment mediate towards more positive teamwork perceptions. Teamwork perceptions increased from week 3 to week 9 of the experiential intervention, and students viewed the experience positively. This was the first time that the T-TPQ was tested for suitability for measuring the impact of an experiential learning intervention among nursing students. Despite limitations, our study indicates that the amended T-TPQ is sensitive to changes in teamwork perceptions in repeated measures design studies among nursing students. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Goodlad, Egan Guba, and Dan Stufflebeam , and directors of educational research across the country. it is a practi- tioner’s guide to the evaluation of...its appLication to training, especially military teat training. Reeves, J.M. 6, Michael, W.B. Application of the Stufflebeam educational decision-makig
The Guidebook will prove especially useful for, and is addressed primarily to: nuclear power operating organizations establishing or upgrading their NPP personnel training systems; regulatory personnel responsible for setting requirements and/or evaluating NPP personnel training; and organizations (within or outside the operating organization) responsible for the development, implementation and evaluation of training programmes for NPP personnel. Figs
Bell, Herbert H; Waag, Wayne L
.... Unfortunately, this conclusion is based primarily on opinion data from experienced aviators. There are very few transfer of training experiments, and those experiments have examined only a limited set of combat tasks. We also describe the typical paradigms used to conduct training evaluations and outline a multistep evaluation program for determining training effectiveness.
Nickelsen, Niels Christian
in spring 2007. Three interesting observations were done: 1) Teamwork in the hospice collides with the emotional character of the work 2) In spite of a very loose team organisation the team members find pivotal support in the teams 3) Materials such as the rota has far-reaching implications for the way......This paper discusses the performance of palliative support teams based in an empirical study in a hospice in Denmark. The analytic strategy is based in science and technology studies (STS). The study was carried out as a number of meetings among the researcher and five non-consolidated teams...
Wheelock, Ana; Suliman, Amna; Wharton, Rupert; Babu, E D; Hull, Louise; Vincent, Charles; Sevdalis, Nick; Arora, Sonal
To investigate whether distractions in the operating room (OR) are associated with higher mental workload and stress, and poorer teamwork among OR personnel. Engaging in multiple tasks can affect performance. There is little research on the effect of distractions on surgical team members' behavior and cognitive processes. Ninety general surgery cases were observed in real time. Cases were assessed by a surgeon and a behavioral scientist using 4 validated tools: OR Distractions Assessment Form, the Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery tool, NASA-Task Load Index, and short form of the State Trait Anxiety Inventory. Analysis of variance was performed to evaluate significant differences between teamwork, workload, and stress level among team members. Correlations (Pearson r) were computed to evaluate associations between variables. The most prevalent distractions were those initiated by external staff, followed by case-irrelevant conversations. Case-irrelevant conversations were associated with poorer team performance. Irrelevant conversations initiated by surgeons were associated with lower teamwork in surgeons (across team skills: r = -0.44 to -0.58, P < 0.05 to 0.01) and anesthesiologists (r = -0.38 and r = -0.40, for coordination and leadership; P < 0.05). Equipment-related distractions correlated with higher stress (r = 0.48, P < 0.05) and lower teamwork (across team skills: r = -0.42 to -0.50, P < 0.05) in nurses. Acoustic distractions correlated with higher stress in surgeons (r = 0.32, P < 0.05) and higher workload in anesthesiologists (r = 0.30, P < 0.05). Although some distractions may be inevitable in the OR, they can also be detrimental to the team. A deeper understanding of the effect of distractions on teams and their outcomes can lead to targeted quality improvement.
Nikolaidis, Stefanos; Shah, Julie A.
We design and evaluate human-robot cross-training, a strategy widely used and validated for effective human team training. Cross-training is an interactive planning method in which a human and a robot iteratively switch roles to learn a shared plan for a collaborative task. We first present a computational formulation of the robot's interrole knowledge and show that it is quantitatively comparable to the human mental model. Based on this encoding, we formulate human-robot cross-training and e...
Salas, Eduardo; Cooke, Nancy J; Rosen, Michael A
We highlight some of the key discoveries and developments in the area of team performance over the past 50 years, especially as reflected in the pages of Human Factors. Teams increasingly have become a way of life in many organizations, and research has kept up with the pace. We have characterized progress in the field in terms of eight discoveries and five challenges. Discoveries pertain to the importance of shared cognition, the measurement of shared cognition, advances in team training, the use of synthetic task environments for research, factors influencing team effectiveness, models of team effectiveness, a multidisciplinary perspective, and training and technological interventions designed to improve team effectiveness. Challenges that are faced in the coming decades include an increased emphasis on team cognition; reconfigurable, adaptive teams; multicultural influences; and the need for naturalistic study and better measurement. Work in human factors has contributed significantly to the science and practice of teams, teamwork, and team performance. Future work must keep pace with the increasing use of teams in organizations. The science of teams contributes to team effectiveness in the same way that the science of individual performance contributes to individual effectiveness.
Aksenova Ol'ga Aleksandrovna
Full Text Available Training of employees - an important component of personnel management and human resource development. How to estimate the value of training? In many cases the financial impact of training events is very difficult to measure, or it cannot be measured at all. But it is necessary to show the business impact of training. This article describes the conditions under which it is possible to evaluate the training, using the financial indicators and also introduces the multidimensional integrated approach.
Aksenova Ol'ga Aleksandrovna
Full Text Available Training of employees - an important component of personnel management and human resource development. How to estimate the value of training? In many cases the financial impact of training events is very difficult to measure, or it cannot be measured at all. But it is necessary to show the business impact of training. This article describes the conditions under which it is possible to evaluate the training, using the financial indicators and also introduces the multidimensional integrated approach.
A demonstration of the Toronto Harbour Commissioners' (THC) Soil Recycle Treatment Train was performed under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program at a pilot plant facility in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The Soil Recycle Treatment Train, which consists of s...
Perera, Jennifer; Perera, Joachim; Abdullah, Juriah; Lee, Nagarajah
Most medical schools use simulated patients (SPs) for teaching. In this context the authenticity of role play and quality of feedback provided by SPs is of paramount importance. The available literature on SP training mostly addresses instructor led training where the SPs are given direction on their roles. This study focuses on the use of peer and self evaluation as a tool to train SPs. SPs at the medical school participated in a staff development and training programme which included a) self-assessment of their performance while observing video-tapes of their role play using a structured guide and b) peer group assessment of their performance under tutor guidance. The pre and post training performance in relation to authenticity of role play and quality of feedback was blindly assessed by students and tutors using a validated instrument and the scores were compared. A focus group discussion and a questionnaire assessed acceptability of the training programme by the SPs. The post-training performance assessment scores were significantly higher (p training scores. The degree of improvement in the quality of feedback provided to students was more when compared to the improvement of role play. The acceptability of the training by the SPs was very satisfactory scoring an average of 7.6 out of 10. The majority of the SPs requested the new method of training to be included in their current training programme as a regular feature. Use of structured self-reflective and peer-interactive, practice based methods of SP training is recommended to improve SP performance. More studies on these methods of training may further refine SP training and lead to improvement of SP performance which in turn may positively impact medical education.
Throughout the western world a leading example of the educational reforms that have been implemented in the late twentieth and twenty-first century is School-Based Management (SBM), a system designed to improve educational outcome through staff teamwork and self-governance. This research set out to examine the efficacy of teamwork in ten…
Harbers, M.; Jonker, C.M.; Van Riemsdijk, M.B.
Teamwork between humans and intelligent systems gains importance with the maturing of agent and robot technology. In the social sciences, sharedness of mental models is used to explain and understand teamwork. To use this concept for developing teams that include agents, we propose contextsensitive
Carver, Tracey L.; Stickley, Amanda
There is an abundance of literature on the importance of teamwork in undergraduate degrees; how to teach it, how to assess it and how to manage it. However, there is also much recorded about students' dislike of teamwork, especially where an early experience is unsatisfactory and builds resistance against such assessment. Accordingly, despite the…
A conference presentation entitled "A Case Study of Teamwork in a Maltese Geriatric Hospital". This study aims to explore the nature of and implementation of interdisciplinary teamwork in a local geriatric rehabilitative hospital. Additionally, it aims to raise the consciousness and conscientiousness towards interdisciplinary team working in hospitals.
Ruiz-Esparza Barajas, Elizabeth; Medrano Vela, Cecilia Araceli; Zepeda Huerta, Jesús Helbert Karim
This study reports on the first stage of a larger joint research project undertaken by five universities in Mexico to explore university teachers' thinking about out-of-class teamwork. Data from interviews were analyzed using open and axial coding. Although results suggest a positive perception towards teamwork, the study unveiled important…
Cater, Melissa; Jones, Kimberly Y.
The literature regarding teamwork has supported the idea that the key to improving team performance is to understand team processes. Early work within the realm of teamwork focused on quantifiable measures of team performance, like number of products developed. The measure of a successful team hinged on whether or not the team accomplished the end…
Greeff, J. de; Hindriks, K.; Neerincx, M.A.; Kruijff-Korbayova, I.
The TRADR project aims at developing methods and models for human-robot teamwork, enabling robots to operate in search and rescue environments alongside humans as teammates, rather than as tools. Through a user-centered cognitive engineering method, human-robot teamwork is analyzed, modeled,
However, the transition, from traditional to inclusive education, brings the problem of general education teachers' professional identity (p = 0.043) and the meaning of interrelations with special education teachers, the significance of teamwork in broader social sense, and the benefits of teamwork outside the institution (p ...
Meira, Maria Dyrce Dias; Kurcgant, Paulina
to support the assessment and the necessary changes in the curriculum of an undergraduate degree in Nursing. it is a descriptive study developed in two stages as an action research. In the first stage, the speeches of 19 graduates and 15 employers were interviewed and analyzed; in the second stage, five teachers participated in the focus group. For processing the data, the content analysis was adopted. based on the assessment of the actors, an action plan was created with suggestions regarding the curriculum flexibility, content resizing, continuing education, practice enhancement, active methodologies and autonomy of the student. the participation of actors participants of the training process and performance of professional nurses in the evaluation of a curriculum pointed aspects to realignment and provided concrete benefits to improving the quality of undergraduate course curriculum, scenario of this study.
Full Text Available The program evaluation reported in this article covers three batches of participants, from 1996 through 1997, sponsored by the Directorate General of Higher Education projects to prepare faculty members of teacher training institutions for overseas studies. The result outcomes could be achieved when the initial English competence requirred for participating in the program was at least at the Pre-Advanced level. The criterion validity of the TOEFL-Equivalent test developed by the program was assured, and the test could, therefore, be used as a good predictor of the International TOEFL. Other recommendations are also given for the improvement of the planning and implementation of the program in the future
Ceraso, Marion; Gruebling, Kirsten; Layde, Peter; Remington, Patrick; Hill, Barbara; Morzinski, Jeffrey; Ore, Peggy
Addressing the nation's increasingly complex public health challenges will require more effective multisector collaboration and stronger public health leadership. In 2005, the Healthy Wisconsin Leadership Institute launched an annual, year-long intensive "community teams" program. The goal of this program is to develop collaborative leadership and public health skills among Wisconsin-based multisectoral teams mobilizing their communities to improve public health. To measure the scope of participation and program impacts on individual learning and practice, including application of new knowledge and collective achievements of teams on coalition and short-term community outcomes. End-of-year participant program evaluations and follow-up telephone interviews with participants 20 months after program completion. Community-based public health leadership training program. Sixty-eight participants in the Community Teams Program during the years 2006 to 2007 and 2007 to 2008. Professional diversity of program participants; individual learning and practice, including application of new knowledge; and collective achievements of teams, including coalition and short-term community outcomes. Participants in the Community Teams Program represent a diversity of sectors, including nonprofit, governmental, academic, business, and local public health. Participation increased knowledge across all public health and leadership competency areas covered in the program. Participating teams reported outcomes, including increased engagement of community leadership, expansion of preventive services, increased media coverage, strengthened community coalitions, and increased grant funding. Evaluation of this community-based approach to public health leadership training has shown it to be a promising model for building collaborative and public health leadership skills and initiating sustained community change for health improvement.
Markova, Veronika; Sørensen, Jette Led; Holm, Charlotte
To evaluate the effect of multi-professional obstetric skills training on the incidence of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) indicated by red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and time delay in surgical interventions before, during, and after implementation of the training.......To evaluate the effect of multi-professional obstetric skills training on the incidence of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) indicated by red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and time delay in surgical interventions before, during, and after implementation of the training....
Full Text Available This paper investigates the dynamic response of a train-bridge system subjected to earthquakes, and the running safety indices of the train on the bridge under earthquake are studied. Taking a long span cable-stayed bridge across the Huangpu River as an example, a full three-dimensional finite element model of the train-bridge system was established, in which the soil-bridge and rail-train interactions were considered. Parallel computing based on contact balance was utilized to deal with this large-scale numerical simulation problem. The dynamic nonlinear analysis was performed on a Hummingbird supercomputer using the finite element code LS-DYNA 971. The results show that the acceleration responses of the train subjected to an earthquake are much greater than the ones without earthquake input, and the running safety of a moving train is affected by both the earthquake intensity and the running speed of the train. The running safety of the moving train can be evaluated by the threshold curve between earthquake intensity and train speed. The proposed modeling strategies and the simulated results can give a reference prediction of the dynamic behaviour of the train-bridge subjected to an earthquake.
Marsella, Stacy C.; Plaunt, Christian (Technical Monitor)
NASA is rapidly moving towards the use of spatially distributed multiple satellites operating in near Earth orbit and Deep Space. Effective operation of such multi-satellite constellations raises many key research issues. In particular, the satellites will be required to cooperate with each other as a team that must achieve common objectives with a high degree of autonomy from ground based operations. The multi-agent research community has made considerable progress in investigating the challenges of realizing such teamwork. In this report, we discuss some of the teamwork issues that will be faced by multi-satellite operations. The basis of the discussion is a particular proposed mission, the Magnetospheric MultiScale mission to explore Earth's magnetosphere. We describe this mission and then consider how multi-agent technologies might be applied in the design and operation of these missions. We consider the potential benefits of these technologies as well as the research challenges that will be raised in applying them to NASA multi-satellite missions. We conclude with some recommendations for future work.
McDonnell, John C.
As the second volume in a three part study evaluating vocational training provided in occupational institutions, this document is concerned with the administrative and legislative development of vocational training in correctional institutions, and with the characteristics of the 25 projects covered by this study. The basic aspects considered for…
Ala, Maureen [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gruidl, Jeremiah [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Buddemeier, Brooke [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
This document describes the development of the ROSS SKAs, the cross-mapping of the SKAs to the available training, identifies gaps in the SKA and training, and provides recommendations to address those gaps.
Full Text Available The objectives of the study were: 1 to identify the profile of the Hospitality Engineering Education students’ teamwork skills, 2 to identify the profile of the Hospitality Engineering Students’ teamwork skills, 3 to describe the general overview of the students’ teamwork skills, 4 to identify the group of Bachelor program with the highest and the lowest teamwork skills, 5 to identify the group of the Associate program with the highest and the lowest teamwork skills. This study was a descriptive study. The results showed: 1 the Hospitality Engineering Education students who were at the stages of forming, storming, norming, and performing teamwork skills were 1.02%; 0.52%; 53.39%; and 45.07% respectively, 2 The Hospitality Engineering students who were at the stage of forming, storming, norming, and performing teamwork skills were 2.3%; 2.43%; 54.85%; and 40.42% respectively, 3 All of students in Bachelor and Associate programs generally have good team work skills, 4 in the Bachelor level, the groups with the highest teamwork skills were the regular Bachelor program of 2011 and the non-regular Bachelor program of 2010, while the groups with the lowest teamwork skills were the regular Bachelor program of 2009 and the non-regular Bachelor program of 2009, 5 at the Associate level, the group with the highest teamwork skills was the regular Associate program of 2011, while the group with the lowest team work skills was the regular Associate program of 2010.
Kalisch, Beatrice J; Lee, Hyunhwa
This study aimed to explore whether and how staff characteristics, staffing, and scheduling variables are associated with the level of teamwork in nursing staff on acute care hospital patient units. This was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 1,758 nursing staff members from two different hospitals on 38 patient care units who completed the Nursing Teamwork Survey in 2008. This study focused on nursing teams who are stationed on a particular patient care unit (as opposed to visitors to the units). The return rate was 56.9%. The sample was made up of 77.4% nurses (registered nurses and licensed practical nurses), 11.9% assistive personnel, and 7.9% unit secretaries. Teamwork varied by unit and service type, with the highest scores occurring in pediatrics and maternity and the lowest scores on the medical-surgical and emergency units. Staff with less than 6 months of experience, those working 8- or 10-hour shifts (as opposed to 12 hours or a combination of 8 and 12 hours), part-time staff (as opposed to full time), and those working on night shift had higher teamwork scores. The higher teamwork scores were also associated with no or little overtime. The higher perception of the adequacy of staffing and the fewer patients cared for on a previous shift, the higher the teamwork scores. There is a relationship between selected staff characteristics, aspects of work schedules, staffing, and teamwork. Nursing staff want to work where teamwork is high, and perceptions of good staffing lead to higher teamwork. Higher teamwork scores correlated with those who worked less overtime.
Brandon, Jeffrey E.
Comparison was made between the effectiveness of three relaxation training procedures: (1) Behavioral Relaxation Training, which consisted of training in relaxing specific parts of the body and controlling breathing; (2) Meditation (based on Benson's procedure for eliciting the relaxation response); and (3) Seashore Sounds "Attention Focusing,"…
didactic classroom training followed by 3 months of clinical training. Completion of training at IDC School provides corpsmen with the Navy Enlisted...number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD MM YY) 21 05 15 2. REPORT TYPE Technical Report 3. DATES
05-01-2017 2. REPORT TYPE Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) JUN 2016 - JAN 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Resilience Training for...DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Master Resilience ...Training (MRT) Medical Program includes a 2-hour Resilience Training for Healthcare Staff (RTHS) aimed to bolster resilience by preventing
Bowles, William, Jr.
The goal of this study was to determine whether the Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation (RNLE) CD-ROM training program, when used without an instructor, could adequately train RNLE users to properly understand and correctly apply the RNLE. If so, then it can be used to fill a current gap in delivering training to both health and safety professionals,…
Erestam, Sofia; Haglind, Eva; Bock, David; Andersson, Annette Erichsen; Angenete, Eva
Inter-professional teamwork in the operating room is important for patient safety. The World Health Organization (WHO) checklist was introduced to improve intraoperative teamwork. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety climate in a Swedish operating room setting before and after an intervention, using a revised version of the WHO checklist to improve teamwork. This study is a single center prospective interventional study. Participants were personnel working in operating room teams including surgeons, anesthesiologists, scrub nurses, nurse anaesthetists and nurse assistants. The study started with pre-interventional observations of the WHO checklist use followed by education on safety climate, the WHO checklist, and non-technical skills in the operating room. Thereafter a revised version of the WHO checklist was introduced. Post-interventional observations regarding the performance of the WHO checklist were carried out. The Safety Attitude Questionnaire was used to assess safety climate at baseline and post-intervention. At baseline we discovered a need for improved teamwork and communication. The participants considered teamwork to be important for patient safety, but had different perceptions of good teamwork between professions. The intervention, a revised version of the WHO checklist, did not affect teamwork climate. Adherence to the revision of the checklist was insufficient, dominated by a lack of structure. There was no significant change in teamwork climate by use of the revised WHO checklist, which may be due to insufficient implementation, as a lack of adherence to the WHO checklist was detected. We found deficiencies in teamwork and communication. Further studies exploring how to improve safety climate are needed. NCT02329691.
Fraser, C; Grundy, A; Meade, O; Callaghan, P; Lovell, K
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: UK NHS policy highlights the importance of user and carer involvement in health professional training. We know little about service user and carer motivations and experiences of accessing training courses for delivering training to health professionals and how well such courses prepare them for delivering training to healthcare professionals. 'Involvement' in training has often been tokenistic and too narrowly focused on preregistration courses. There is limited data on how best to prepare and support potential service user and carer trainers. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This study adds to the international literature by highlighting service user and carer motivations for accessing a training course for delivering training to health professionals. Service users and carers wanted to gain new skills and confidence in presentation/facilitation as well as to make a difference to healthcare practice. We also learned that service users desired different levels of involvement in training facilitation - some wanted to take a more active role than others. A one-size-fits-all approach is not always appropriate. Encountering resistance from staff in training was a previously unidentified challenge to service user and carers' experience of delivering training in practice and is a key challenge for trainers to address in future. Professional training involvement can be enhanced via specialist training such as the EQUIP training the trainers programme evaluated here. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: When training service users and carers to deliver training to mental health professionals, it is important that service users are equipped to deal with resistance from staff. It is important that service user and carer roles are negotiated and agreed prior to delivering training to healthcare professionals to accommodate individual preferences and allay anxieties. Training for service users and carers must be offered
Persensky, J.J.; Blumer, A.H.
The activity of the past two years has provided an opportunity for the NRC to examine and realign the way in which it views the training process. In the process, it has provided the industry with an incentive to emphasize training as an opportunity for enlightened self-regulation. As a result, the NRC and industry perspectives on training have, for all intents and purposes, merged into a single performance orientation. This cooperation should provide the needed momentum towards improvements in training effectiveness. It is the NRC's goal to monitor this momentum and to encourage progress toward the ideal of systematic, performance-based training for all essential personnel in the nuclear industry
Li, Qi; Zhou, Rong-hua; Liu, Jin; Lin, Jing; Ma, Er-Li; Liang, Peng; Shi, Ting-wei; Fang, Li-qun; Xiao, Hong
Pre-training evaluation and feedback have been shown to improve medical students' skills acquisition of basic life support (BLS) immediately following training. The impact of such training on BLS skills retention is unknown. This study was conducted to investigate effects of pre-training evaluation and feedback on BLS skills retention in medical students. Three hundred and thirty 3rd year medical students were randomized to two groups, the control group (C group) and pre-training evaluation and feedback group (EF group). Each group was subdivided into four subgroups according to the time of retention-test (at 1-, 3-, 6-, 12-month following the initial training). After a 45-min BLS lecture, BLS skills were assessed (pre-training evaluation) in both groups before training. Following this, the C group received 45 min training. 15 min of group feedback corresponding to students' performance in pre-training evaluation was given only in the EF group that was followed by 30 min of BLS training. BLS skills were assessed immediately after training (post-test) and at follow up (retention-test). No skills difference was observed between the two groups in pre-training evaluation. Better skills acquisition was observed in the EF group (85.3 ± 7.3 vs. 68.1 ± 12.2 in C group) at post-test (p<0.001). In all retention-test, better skills retention was observed in each EF subgroup, compared with its paired C subgroup. Pre-training evaluation and feedback improved skills retention in the EF group for 12 months after the initial training, compared with the control group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hung, Hsin-Ling; Altschuld, James W.; Lee, Yi-Fang
Training is critical for the growth of the evaluation profession as more qualified and competent individuals will be required to meet the increased demand for evaluation. This paper deals with the training needs of professionals and is based on a part of a study on the status and challenges of educational program evaluation in the Asia-Pacific…
Marquardt, Nicki; Robelski, Swantje; Hoeger, Rainer
This article presents the development, implementation, and evaluation of a crew resource management (CRM) training program specifically designed for employees within the automotive industry. The central objective of this training program was to improve communication, teamwork, and stress management skills as well to increase the workers' situational awareness of potential errors that can occur during the production process. Participants in the training program of this study were 80 employees, all of whom were working in a production unit for gearbox manufacturing. Effectiveness of the CRM training course was evaluated two times (1 month and 6 months after the training program). The results showed a significant improvement in a wide range of CRM-relevant categories, especially in teamwork-related attitudes, in addition to an increase in the workers' situational awareness after the training program. On the basis of the results, it can be stated that CRM training, which was originally developed for the aviation industry, can be transferred to the automotive industry. However, because of the lack of behavioral observations, these effects are limited to CRM attitudes and knowledge changes. Several recommendations for future research and training development in the field of human factors training are made.
Lin, Frances; Chaboyer, Wendy; Wallis, Marianne
It is everyday news that we need more intensive care unit (ICU) beds, thus effective use of existing resources is imperative. The aim of this literature review was to critically analyse current literature on how organizational factors, individual factors and teamwork factors influence the ICU discharge process. A better understanding of discharge practices has the potential to ultimately influence ICU resource availability. Databases including CINAHL, MEDLINE, PROQUEST, SCIENCE DIRECT were searched using key terms such as ICU discharge, discharge process, ICU guidelines and policies, discharge decision-making, ICU organisational factors, ICU and human factors, and ICU patient transfer. Articles' reference lists were also used to locate relevant literature. A total of 21 articles were included in the review. Only a small number of ICUs used written patient discharge guidelines. Consensus, rather than empirical evidence, dictates the importance of guidelines and policies. Premature discharge, discharge after hours and discharge by triage still exist due to resources constraints, even though the literature suggests these are associated with increased mortality. Teamwork and team training appear to be effective in improving efficiency and communication between professions or between clinical areas. However, this aspect has rarely been researched in relation to ICU patient discharge. Intensive care patient discharge is influenced by organisational factors, individual factors and teamwork factors. Organisational interventions are effective in reducing ICU discharge delay and shortening patient hospital stay. More rigorous research is needed to discover how these factors influence the ICU discharge process.
Tibbs, Sheila Marie; Moss, Jacqueline
This quality improvement project was a 300-day descriptive preintervention and postintervention comparison consisting of a convenience sample of 18 gynecology surgical team members. We administered the Team Strategies & Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (TeamSTEPPS®) Teamwork Perception Questionnaire to measure the perception of teamwork. In addition, we collected data regarding rates of compliance (ie, huddle, time out) and measurable surgical procedure times. Results showed a statistically significant increase in the number of team members present for each procedure, 2.34 μ before compared with 2.61 μ after (P = .038), and in the final time-out (FTO) compliance as a result of a clarification of the definition of FTO, 1.05 μ before compared with 1.18 μ after (P = .004). Additionally, there was improvement in staff members' perception of teamwork. The implementation of team training, protocols, and algorithms can enhance surgical optimization, communication, and work relationships. Copyright © 2014 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Körner, Mirjam; Bütof, Sarah; Müller, Christian; Zimmermann, Linda; Becker, Sonja; Bengel, Jürgen
To identify key features of teamwork and interventions for enhancing interprofessional teamwork (IPT) in chronic care and to develop a framework for further research, we conducted a systematic literature review of IPT in chronic care for the years 2002-2014. Database searches yielded 3217 abstracts, 21 of which fulfilled inclusion criteria. We identified two more studies on the topic by scanning the reference lists of included articles, which resulted in a final total of 23 included studies. The key features identified in the articles (e.g., team member characteristics, common task, communication, cooperation, coordination, responsibility, participation, staff satisfaction, patient satisfaction, and efficiency) were structured in line with the input-process-output model, and evaluated interventions, such as tools, workshops, and changes in team structure, were added to the model. The most frequently evaluated team interventions were complex intervention programs. All but one of the 14 evaluation studies resulted in enhancement of teamwork and/or staff-related, patient-related, and organization-related outcome criteria. To date, there is no consensus about the main features of IPT and the most effective team interventions in chronic care. However, the findings may be used to standardize the implementation and evaluation of IPT and team interventions in practice and for further research.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to investigate a virtual teamwork training suite incorporating serious games that target specific team-oriented skills and behaviors. We will define...
Lo Fo Wong, S.H.; Wester, F.P.J.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.
Objective The aim of this study was to discover the ways in which a training program on intimate partner abuse affected a doctor's daily practice. Methods Eighteen family doctors who participated in a training program on partner abuse were interviewed. Results The interviewees evaluated the training
Pope, Natalie D.; Slovak, Karen L.; Giger, Jarod T.
The purpose of this article is to report on the implementation and initial evaluation of a 1-day training intervention targeting direct care providers in the Ohio aging services network. A primary objective is to describe the training intervention that consisted of two parts: (a) a gatekeeper training for assessing suicide risk among older adults,…
Purpose: Training is a key strategy for human resources development and in achieving organisational objectives. Organisations and public authorities invest large amounts of resources in training, but rarely have the data to show the results of that investment. Only a few organisations evaluate training in depth due to the difficulty involved and…
This study investigates noise pollution levels in two elementary schools. Also, "noise level awareness and sensitivity training" was given for reducing noise pollution, and the effects and results of this training were evaluated. "Sensitivity" training was given to 611 students and 48 teachers in a private and a public school.…
Herfst, Selma L.; van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Timmerman, Marieke E.
The purpose of the present study is the evaluation of material for a new intercultural training instrument. More specifically, we examine the validity of 21 critical incidents used in the training. The training programme is targeted at natives in Western immigrant countries dealing - mostly
Batorowicz, Beata; Shepherd, Tracy A
This study examines Prescription Review (PR), a model of teamwork practiced in Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) centres in Ontario, Canada. PR is a process in which teams make decisions about AAC system recommendations. For this study, 92 out of 141 professionals working on AAC teams completed questionnaires measuring the benefits of PR. Findings suggest that PR is beneficial in the areas of learning, providing quality services, team support, and decision making. Participants reported satisfaction with the quality of treatment plan, the PR results, and process. Perceptions of PR were related to size of the teams, participants' years of experience, and the range of experience on teams. This study supports PR and highlights the importance of healthy working relationships.
In a year when, with the inception of the new Clinical Commissioning Groups, the way that healthcare is procured and delivered will see radical changes, this month's HefmA 2013 National Conference & Exhibition will have as its theme, 'Many Players, One Goal: The Patient'. As HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie reports, among the wide-ranging estates and facilities topics set for discussion will be 'Getting the patient environment right'; 'Dementia Building for the Future'; 'Waterborne Infections; Lessons Learned'; 'Incorporating lean thinking into design', and the key challenges faced by the estates and facilities sector. The keynote address, touching on a wide range of issues common to all large organisations, will be given by one of the best known 'women in football', and will also reflect particularly on the importance of teamwork.
Wrammert, Johan; Sapkota, Sabitri; Baral, Kedar; Kc, Ashish; Målqvist, Mats; Larsson, Margareta
The ability of health care providers to work together is essential for favourable outcomes in neonatal resuscitation, but perceptions of such teamwork have rarely been studied in low-income settings. Neonatal resuscitation is a proven intervention for reducing neonatal mortality globally, but the long-term effects of clinical training for this skill need further attention. Having an understanding of barriers to teamwork among nurse midwives can contribute to the sustainability of improved clinical practice. To explore nurse midwives' perceptions of teamwork when caring for newborns in need of resuscitation. Nurse midwives from a tertiary-level government hospital in Nepal participated in five focus groups of between 4 and 11 participants each. Qualitative Content Analysis was used for analysis. One overarching theme emerged: looking for comprehensive guidelines and shared responsibilities in neonatal resuscitation to avoid personal blame and learn from mistakes. Participants discussed the need for protocols relating to neonatal resuscitation and the importance of shared medical responsibility, and the importance of the presence of a strong and transparent leadership. The call for clear and comprehensive protocols relating to neonatal resuscitation corresponded with previous research from different contexts. Nurse midwives working at a maternity health care facility in Nepal discussed the benefits and challenges of teamwork in neonatal resuscitation. The findings suggest potential benefits can be made from clarifying guidelines and responsibilities in neonatal resuscitation. Furthermore, a structured process to deal with clinical incidents must be considered. Management must be involved in all processes. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dynes, Michelle M; Stephenson, Rob; Hadley, Craig; Sibley, Lynn M
Worldwide, a shortage of skilled health workers has prompted a shift toward community-based health workers taking on greater responsibility in the provision of select maternal and newborn health services. Research in mid- and high-income settings suggests that coworker collaboration increases productivity and performance. A major gap in this research, however, is the exploration of factors that influence teamwork among diverse community health worker cadres in rural, low-resource settings. The purpose of this study is to examine how sociodemographic and structural factors shape teamwork among community-based maternal and newborn health workers in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with health extension workers, community health development agents, and traditional birth attendants in 3 districts of the West Gojam Zone in the Amhara region of Ethiopia. Communities were randomly selected from Maternal and Newborn Health in Ethiopia Partnership (MaNHEP) sites; health worker participants were recruited using a snowball sampling strategy. Fractional logit modeling and average marginal effects analyses were carried out to identify the influential factors for frequency of work interactions with each cadre. One hundred and ninety-four health workers participated in the study. A core set of factors-trust in coworkers, gender, and cadre-were influential for teamwork across groups. Greater geographic distance and perception of self-interested motivations were barriers to interactions with health extension workers, while greater food insecurity (a proxy for wealth) was associated with increased interactions with traditional birth attendants. Interventions that promote trust and gender sensitivity and improve perceptions of health worker motivations may help bridge the gap in health services delivery between low- and high-resource settings. Inter-cadre training may be one mechanism to increase trust and respect among diverse health workers, thereby increasing
Henry, Beverly W; McCarthy, Danielle M; Nannicelli, Anna P; Seivert, Nicholas P; Vozenilek, John A
Research into efforts to engage patients in the assessment of health-care teams is limited. To explore, through qualitative methods, patient awareness of teamwork-related behaviours observed during an emergency department (ED) visit. Researchers used semi-structured question guides for audio-recorded interviews and analysed their verbatim transcripts. Researchers conducted individual phone interviews with 6 teamwork subject matter experts (SMEs) and held 5 face-to-face group interviews with patients and caregivers (n = 25) about 2 weeks after discharge from the emergency department (ED). SMEs suggested that a range of factors influence patient perspectives of teams. Many patients perceived the health-care team within the context of their expectations of an ED visit and their treatment plan. Four themes emerged: (i) patient-centred views highlight gaps in coordination and communication; (ii) team processes do concern patients; (iii) patients are critical observers of ways that team members present their team roles; (iv) patients' observations of team members relate to patients' views of team effectiveness. Analysis also indicated that patients viewed health-care team members' interactions with each other as proxy for how team members actually felt about patients. Results from both sets of interviews (SME and patient) indicated that patient observations of teamwork could add to assessment of team processes/frameworks. Patients' understanding about teamwork organization seemed helpful and witnessed interteam communication appeared to influence patient confidence in the team. Patients perspectives are an important part of assessment in health care and suggest potential areas for improvement through team training. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hwang, Jee-In; Ahn, Jeonghoon
To examine levels of teamwork and its relationships with clinical error reporting among Korean hospital nurses. The study employed a cross-sectional survey design. We distributed a questionnaire to 674 nurses in two teaching hospitals in Korea. The questionnaire included items on teamwork and the reporting of clinical errors. We measured teamwork using the Teamwork Perceptions Questionnaire, which has five subscales including team structure, leadership, situation monitoring, mutual support, and communication. Using logistic regression analysis, we determined the relationships between teamwork and error reporting. The response rate was 85.5%. The mean score of teamwork was 3.5 out of 5. At the subscale level, mutual support was rated highest, while leadership was rated lowest. Of the participating nurses, 522 responded that they had experienced at least one clinical error in the last 6 months. Among those, only 53.0% responded that they always or usually reported clinical errors to their managers and/or the patient safety department. Teamwork was significantly associated with better error reporting. Specifically, nurses with a higher team communication score were more likely to report clinical errors to their managers and the patient safety department (odds ratio = 1.82, 95% confidence intervals [1.05, 3.14]). Teamwork was rated as moderate and was positively associated with nurses' error reporting performance. Hospital executives and nurse managers should make substantial efforts to enhance teamwork, which will contribute to encouraging the reporting of errors and improving patient safety. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
A radiation safety course was evaluated using the Kirkpatrick criteria of training evaluation as a guide. Thirty-nine employees were given the two-day training course and were compared with 15 employees in a control group who did not receive the training. Cognitive results show an immediate gain in knowledge, and substantial retention at 6 months. Implications of the results are discussed in terms of applications to current radiation safety training was well as follow-on training research and development requirements
A radiation safety course was evaluated using the Kirkpatrick criteria of training evaluation as a guide. Thirty-nine employees were given the two-day training course and were compared with 15 employees in a control group who did not receive the training. Cognitive results show an immediate gain in knowledge, and substantial retention at 6 months. Implications of the results are discussed in terms of applications to current radiation safety training was well as follow-on training research and development requirements.
Long, Theodore; Dann, Sarah; Wolff, Marissa Lynn; Brienza, Rebecca S
As the United States faces an impending shortage in the primary care workforce, interprofessional teamwork training to improve clinic efficiency and health outcomes is becoming increasingly important. Currently there is limited integration of interprofessional training in educational models for health professionals. The implementation of Patient Aligned Care Teams at the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has provided an opportunity for interprofessional collaboration among trainee and faculty providers within the VA system. However, integration of interprofessional education is also necessary to train future providers in order to provide effective team-based care. We describe a transportable educational model for health professional collaboration from our experience as a VA Center of Excellence in Primary Care Education, including a complementary novel one-year post-Master's adult nurse practitioner interprofessional clinical fellowship. With growing recognition that interprofessional care can improve efficiency and outcomes, there is an increasing need for programs that train future providers in collaboration and team-based care.
Kemery, Edward R.; Stickney, Lisa T.
We describe a multifaceted, multilevel approach to teamwork learning and assessment. It includes teamwork knowledge, peer and self-appraisal of teamwork behavior, and individual and team performance on objective tests for teaching and assessing teamwork in an undergraduate business program. At the beginning of this semester-long process, students…
Diagnostic radiology does not have objective benchmarks for acceptable levels of missed diagnoses . Until now, data collection of radiological discrepancies has been very time consuming. The culture within the specialty did not encourage it. However, public concern about patient safety is increasing. There have been recent innovations in compiling radiological interpretive discrepancy rates which may facilitate radiological standard setting. However standard setting alone will not optimise radiologists' performance or patient safety. We must use these new techniques in radiological discrepancy detection to stimulate greater knowledge sharing, targeted instruction and teamworking among radiologists. Not all radiological discrepancies are errors. Radiological discrepancy programmes must not be abused as an instrument for discrediting individual radiologists. Discrepancy rates must not be distorted as a weapon in turf battles. Radiological errors may be due to many causes and are often multifactorial. A systems approach to radiological error is required. Meaningful analysis of radiological discrepancies and errors is challenging. Valid standard setting will take time. Meanwhile, we need to develop top-up training, mentoring and rehabilitation programmes. (orig.)
Cone, Stephen W; Rafiq, Azhar; Merrell, Ronald C
Resuscitation science is a dynamic part of healthcare training, with an expanding role for simulation. Historically, performance measurement and documentation relied upon the presence of an instructor, an expensive and potentially inaccurate assessment tradition that tied performance testing to a fixed facility. We hypothesize that an automated system might be developed and validated to document performance in airway management for self assessment in the absence of a human trainer. The system would also store and transmit data to a central registry to document skill acquisition and maintenance. Multiple video and pressure inputs captured and documented resuscitation task performance on a readily available standard practice manikin. Bag-valve-mask ventilation (BVM), endotracheal intubation, and ventilation via endotracheal tube (ETT) were studied for accuracy, adequacy, and time. The 12 participants performed each task for 5 repetitions, resulting in 60 total attempts for each skill. Twelve untrained participants performed 3 critical tasks in airway management. Review with the system informed the participant of his/her performance and desired outcome. The system also documented skill performance objectively relative to a standard, recording both successes and failures. Compressed and abstracted performance records populated an average 14-megabyte file size (excluding full motion video). This system was successfully used to document student performance of BVM, orotracheal intubation, and ventilation via ETT. The system easily integrates documentation, including text reports, airway pressure readings, still images and videos of task performance. Such digital documentation could guide skill acquisition and quantitatively certify performance with minimal reliance upon an instructor and evaluator.
Smith, R.M.; Whelan, G.
All 20 U.S. Army Yakima Training Center (YTC) sites evaluated were given a `low` relative risk. At Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) 22, a `minimum` soils contaminant hazard factor was assigned even though 6,700 mg/kg TPH-diesel was found in surface soil. SWMU 22 is physically located on top of and with the fence surrounding Area of Concern (AOC) 4. Because the diesel is most likely associated with AOC 4, and plans are to clean up AOC 4, any further actions regarding these contaminated soils should be addressed as part of the planned actions for AOC 4. Contaminant hazard factors of `moderate` were assigned to the soil pathway for SWMUs 4 and 7 because dieldrin and arsenic, respectively, were found in surface soil samples at concentrations exceeding standards. A `moderate` contaminant hazard factor was also assigned to the sediment pathway for AOC 1 because arsenic detected in sediments in `Larry`s Swimming Pool` exceeded the standard. All other contaminant hazard factors were rated as minimal. The receptor factor for all sites and pathways was rated `limited,` except for SWMU 54 in which the groundwater receptor factor was rated `potential.` A `potential` rating was assigned to the groundwater pathway at this site to be conservative. The site is located on the south side of the syncline axis where the unconfined aquifer may be present and there are no monitoring wells at the site to confirm or deny the presence of groundwater contamination.
Kaji, Amy H; Langford, Vinette; Lewis, Roger J
There is currently no validated method for assessing hospital disaster preparedness. We determine the degree of correlation between the results of 3 methods for assessing hospital disaster preparedness: administration of an on-site survey, drill observation using a structured evaluation tool, and video analysis of team performance in the hospital incident command center. This was a prospective, observational study conducted during a regional disaster drill, comparing the results from an on-site survey, a structured disaster drill evaluation tool, and a video analysis of teamwork, performed at 6 911-receiving hospitals in Los Angeles County, CA. The on-site survey was conducted separately from the drill and assessed hospital disaster plan structure, vendor agreements, modes of communication, medical and surgical supplies, involvement of law enforcement, mutual aid agreements with other facilities, drills and training, surge capacity, decontamination capability, and pharmaceutical stockpiles. The drill evaluation tool, developed by Johns Hopkins University under contract from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, was used to assess various aspects of drill performance, such as the availability of the hospital disaster plan, the geographic configuration of the incident command center, whether drill participants were identifiable, whether the noise level interfered with effective communication, and how often key information (eg, number of available staffed floor, intensive care, and isolation beds; number of arriving victims; expected triage level of victims; number of potential discharges) was received by the incident command center. Teamwork behaviors in the incident command center were quantitatively assessed, using the MedTeams analysis of the video recordings obtained during the disaster drill. Spearman rank correlations of the results between pair-wise groupings of the 3 assessment methods were calculated. The 3 evaluation methods demonstrated
Morganti, Kristy Gonzalez; Lovejoy, Susan; Beckjord, Ellen Burke; Haviland, Amelia M; Haas, Ann C; Farley, Donna O
This study evaluated how the Perfecting Patient Care (PPC) University, a quality improvement (QI) training program for health care leaders and clinicians, affected the ability of organizations to improve the health care they provide. This training program teaches improvement methods based on Lean concepts and principles of the Toyota Production System and is offered in several formats. A retrospective evaluation was performed that gathered data on training, other process factors, and outcomes after staff completed the PPC training. A majority of respondents reported gaining QI competencies and cultural achievements from the training. Organizations had high average scores for the success measures of "outcomes improved" and "sustainable monitoring" but lower scores for diffusion of QI efforts. Total training dosage was significantly associated with the measures of QI success. This evaluation provides evidence that organizations gained the PPC competencies and cultural achievements and that training dosage is a driver of QI success.