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Sample records for tea infusions consumed

  1. Residues and contaminants in tea and tea infusions: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Aty, A M; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Kim, Sung-Woo; Tosun, Alev; Shim, Jae-Han

    2014-01-01

    Consumers are very aware of contaminants that could pose potential health hazards. Most people drink tea as an infusion (adding hot water); however, in some countries, including India, China and Egypt, tea is drunk as a decoction (tea and water are boiled together). An infusion usually brings the soluble ingredients into solution, whereas a decoction brings all soluble and non-soluble constituents together. Therefore, a cup of tea may contain various kinds of contaminants. This review focuses on green and black tea because they are most commonly consumed. The target was to examine the transfer rate of contaminants - pesticides, environmental pollutants, mycotoxins, microorganisms, toxic heavy metals, radioactive isotopes (radionuclides) and plant growth regulators - from tea to infusion/brewing, factors contributing to the transfer potential and contaminants degradation, and residues in or on the spent leaves. It is concluded that most contaminants leaching into tea infusion are not detected or are detected at a level lower than the regulatory limits. However, the traditional practice of over-boiling tea leaves should be discouraged as there may be a chance for more transfer of contaminants from the tea to the brew.

  2. Swelling and infusion of tea in tea bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Geeta U; Joshi, Bhushan S; Patwardhan, Ashwin W; Singh, Gurmeet

    2017-07-01

    The present study deals with swelling and infusion kinetics of tea granules in tea bags. The swelling and infusion kinetics of tea bags differing in tea loading and tea bag shapes were compared with loose tea. Increment in temperature and dipping frequency of tea bag in hot water increased the infusion kinetics of tea bags. Reduction in particle size enhanced the swelling and infusion kinetics of tea in a tea bag. The effects of tea particle size, tea bag dipping rate, loading of tea granules in tea bag and tea bag shapes on infusion kinetics were investigated. Increase in tea loading in tea bags resulted in reduced infusion kinetics. Double chambered tea bag showed the highest swelling (30%) and infusion kinetics (8.30% Gallic acid equivalence) while single chambered tea bags showed the lowest kinetics, amongst the various bags studied. The swelling and infusion kinetics of loose tea was always faster and higher than that of tea bags. It was found that overall effect of percentage filling of tea granules and height of tea bed in a tea bag affects tea infusion kinetics the most. Weibull model was found to be in good agreement with the swelling data.

  3. Caffeine in teas: levels, transference to infusion and estimated intake

    OpenAIRE

    TFOUNI, Silvia Amelia Verdiani; CAMARA, Maíra Marcuci; KAMIKATA, Kamille; GOMES, Fernanda Moralez Leme; FURLANI, Regina Prado Zanes

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Caffeine is naturally present in several foods, being one of the most consumed dietary ingredients in the world; however, excessive intake may cause health concerns. This study evaluated caffeine levels in teas and their infusions, the transference rate during brewing, and estimated caffeine intake from tea infusion. Brands and batches of 4 types of teas were analyzed for caffeine content by high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector. Mate tea was the one that...

  4. Caffeine in teas: levels, transference to infusion and estimated intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Amelia Verdiani TFOUNI

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Caffeine is naturally present in several foods, being one of the most consumed dietary ingredients in the world; however, excessive intake may cause health concerns. This study evaluated caffeine levels in teas and their infusions, the transference rate during brewing, and estimated caffeine intake from tea infusion. Brands and batches of 4 types of teas were analyzed for caffeine content by high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector. Mate tea was the one that presented lowest levels (6.1 to 13.2 mg/g while Camellia sinensis teas were from 14.3 to 34.8 mg/g. There were statistical differences between different types, brands and batches. Caffeine levels in infusions followed the same pattern of the leaves, with mate tea presenting lowest levels. Caffeine percentage of transference from leaves to infusion varied from 51.5 to 85.2%. Caffeine intake was estimated to be up to 191.4 mg/day. Tea may be considered an important source of caffeine intake for heavy tea drinkers.

  5. Transfer of ochratoxin A from raw black tea to tea infusions prepared according to the Turkish tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toman, Jakub; Malir, Frantisek; Ostry, Vladimir; Kilic, Mehmet Akif; Roubal, Tomas; Grosse, Yann; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie

    2018-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a natural contaminant of food including tea with multiple toxic effects, which poses a threat to human health. In terms of lifestyle, the Turkish population is a frequent visitor of tearooms, and the traditional Turkish tea preparation is one of the most popular ways of preparing tea infusion. The aim of this study was to investigate OTA transfer from raw black tea to the tea infusion prepared according to the Turkish tradition. A high-performance liquid chromatography method with a limit of quantification of 0.35 ng g -1 was used for OTA determination. The OTA amount in raw black teas from Turkey ranged from ≤0.35 ng g -1 up to 56.7 ng g -1 . An homogenised sample of black tea naturally contaminated with 55.0 ng g -1 was used to prepare infusions. The OTA transfer from the black tea to the infusion was found to be 41.5% ± 7%. These data are important for the realisation of a 'Total Diet study' (TDS). The TDS can be a complementary tool to estimate the population dietary exposure to OTA across the entire diet by analysing main foods prepared 'as consumed' (tea infusions) and not 'as purchased' (raw tea). © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Estimated assessment of cumulative dietary exposure to organophosphorus residues from tea infusion in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Pei; Yang, Dajin; Zhu, Jianghui; Liu, Zhaoping; Jiang, Dingguo; Xu, Haibin

    2018-02-14

    China has the world's largest tea plantation area in the world. To sustain high yields of the tea, multiple pesticides are used on tea crops to control pests. Organophosphorus (OP) pesticides are among the most widely used types of agricultural pesticides in China. As tea is a significant potential source of exposure to pesticide residues, the public concern has increased in relation to pesticide residues found in tea in China. The aim of the study was to estimate cumulative dietary exposure to OP residues from tea infusion for Chinese tea consumers to determine whether exposure to OP residues from tea infusion is a cause of health concern for tea consumers in China. OP residue data were obtained from the China National Monitoring Program on Food Safety (2013-2014), encompassing 1687 tea samples from 12 provinces. Tea consumption data were obtained from the China National Nutrient and Health Survey (2002), comprising 506 tea consumers aged 15-82 years. The transfer rates of residues from tea leaves into tea infusions were obtained from the literature. The relative potency factor (RPF) approach was used to estimate acute cumulative exposure to 20 OP residues from tea infusion using methamidophos as the index compound. Dietary exposure was calculated in a probabilistic way. For tea consumers, the mean and the 99.9th percentile (P99.9) of cumulative dietary exposure to OP residues from tea infusion equalled 0.08 and 1.08 μg/kg bw/d. When compared with the acute reference dose (ARfD), 10 μg/kg bw/d for methamidophos, this accounts for 0.8 and 10.8% of the ARfD. Even when considering OP residues from vegetables, fruits and other foods, there are no health concerns based on acute dietary exposure to OP residues from tea infusion. However, it is necessary to strengthen the management of the OP pesticides used on tea in China to reduce the risk of chronic dietary exposure to OPs from tea infusion.

  7. Comparison of the mineral composition of leaves and infusions of traditional and herbal teas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac T. Rampedi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most research on teas has focused on organic composition and less attention has been given to the mineral composition. The aim of this study was to examine and compare the mineral compositions (Na, Mg, K, Ca, P, S, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Al of eight commonly consumed teas. The teas included three traditional black or green teas (from Africa, China and Sri Lanka and five herbal teas – two from South America (maté and coca and three from South Africa (rooibos, honeybush and Athrixia phylicoides. Analyses were conducted on five samples of dry tea leaves of each of the teas and their infusions (steeping time: 6 min using identical techniques in inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. It was found that each tea has a unique mineral profile. Dry tea leaves and their respective infusions also exhibited different mineral profiles. The tea infusions that contained relatively higher concentrations of beneficial minerals were maté, coca and Athrixia. High levels of aluminium were found in the traditional black and green teas whilst rooibos was high in sodium. Although teas are not rich sources of nutrients, the consumption of maté could contribute significantly to dietary manganese requirements.

  8. Study of nutritional value of dried tea leaves and infusions of black, green and white teas from Chinese plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czernicka, Maria; Zaguła, Grzegorz; Bajcar, Marcin; Saletnik, Bogdan; Puchalski, Czesław

    The processing of tea leaves determines the contents of bioactive ingredients, hence it should be expected that each variety of tea, black, red or green, will represent a different package of compounds of physiological importance. Taste and aroma, as well as price and brand are the main factors impacting consumers’ preferences with regard to tea of their choice; on the other hand consumers less frequently pay attention to the chemical composition and nutritional value of tea. The purpose of the study was assessment of the nutritional value of black, green and white high-quality tea leaf from Chinese plantations based on the chemical composition of the dried leaves as well as minerals and caffeine content in tea infusions. The research material included 18 high-quality loose-leaf teas produced at Chinese plantations, imported to Poland, and purchased in an online store. The analyses included examination of the dried tea leaves for their chemical composition (contents of water, protein, volatile substances and ash) and assessment of selected minerals and caffeine contents in the tea infusions. High-quality Chinese green teas were found with the most valuable composition of minerals, i.e. the highest contents of Zn, Mn, Mg, K, Ca and Al and the highest contents of protein in comparison to the other products. Chinese black teas had the highest contents of total ash and caffeine and white teas were characterized with high content of volatile substances, similar to the black teas, and the highest content of water and the lowest content of total ash. The three types of tea brews examined in the present study, in particular green tea beverages, significantly enhance the organism’s mineral balance by providing valuable elements

  9. Evaluation of free radical scavenging activity of tea infusion of commercial tea products available in uae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nessa, F.; Khan, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, twenty four commercial tea samples were assayed to determine their free radical scavenging activity and polyphenolic contents based on the brewing/infusing period. Tea samples were infused/brewed in 200 mL boiled water at 120 degree C for 1, 2 and 5 min, respectively. The radical scavenging activities of tea infusion/brewing were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay method. The results were ranged from 67.81-90.51% for black tea bags, 90.37-94.51% for green tea bags, 24.66-92.25% for black tea powder, 16.08-93.06% for green tea powder and 32.90- 45.54% for Camomile herbal infusion. The results showed that 1 or 2 min black tea bags infusion exhibited highest radical scavenging activity than 5 min infusion. Antioxidant activities of tea powders were variable with the amount of tea powder. It was observed that antioxidant activity increased with increasing boiling time for smaller amount of sample. In contrary, shorter boiling time was better for larger amount of sample. The polyphenol contents of tea infusion were determined and the results were expressed as milligram quercetin equivalent/200 mL of tea infusion. The polyphenol content was increased with increased brewing period. In contrary, brewing for longer time rendered extract less antiradical activity. This study suggests that infusing tea bag for 1 or 2 min is sufficient for getting infusion with maximum radical scavenging activity and in case of tea powder, shorter boiling time is better for larger amount of powder or small amount of powder should be boiled for minimum 5 min for rendering extract with maximum radical scavenging activity. (author)

  10. Fluoride in black and green tea ( Camellia sinensis ) infusions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fluoride contents in the infusions of 21 commercially available Ethiopian and imported black and green tea brands; in leaf and bag forms was determined by a fluoride ion-selective electrode method. Of the samples analyzed twelve were products from Ethiopia and the remaining nine were imported tea brands.

  11. Using UV-Vis spectroscopy for simultaneous geographical and varietal classification of tea infusions simulating a home-made tea cup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Paulo Henrique Gonçalves Dias; Barbosa, Mayara Ferreira; de Melo Milanez, Karla Danielle Tavares; Pistonesi, Marcelo Fabián; de Araújo, Mário César Ugulino

    2016-02-01

    In this work we proposed a method to verify the differentiating characteristics of simple tea infusions prepared in boiling water alone (simulating a home-made tea cup), which represents the final product as ingested by the consumers. For this purpose we used UV-Vis spectroscopy and variable selection through the Successive Projections Algorithm associated with Linear Discriminant Analysis (SPA-LDA) for simultaneous classification of the teas according to their variety and geographic origin. For comparison, KNN, CART, SIMCA, PLS-DA and PCA-LDA were also used. SPA-LDA and PCA-LDA provided significantly better results for tea classification of the five studied classes (Argentinean green tea; Brazilian green tea; Argentinean black tea; Brazilian black tea; and Sri Lankan black tea). The proposed methodology provides a simpler, faster and more affordable classification of simple tea infusions, and can be used as an alternative approach to traditional tea quality evaluation as made by skilful tasters, which is evidently partial and cannot assess geographic origins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Estimation of fluoride concentration in tea infusions, prepared from different forms of tea, commercially available in Mathura city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, P; Sandesh, N

    2012-07-01

    Tea is a rich source of fluoride (F(-)) and its consumption has become a cultural habit. F(-) available from tea might play important role in increasing total F(-) intake leading to dental fluorosis. To estimate F(-) concentration in different varieties of commercially available tea, in Mathura city, and to determine the change in concentration of F(-) in different forms of tea infusion, prepared by different methods. Mathura city and Clinical study. 16 brands of tea were collected from the local market, out of which 3 were dip tea, 2 were leafy tea, and 11 were tea granules. Tea infusions were prepared from three forms of tea by three different methods, i.e., without boiling with water; after boiling with water; and after addition of milk and sugar to boiling water. F(-) concentration of those tea infusions was measured using a F(-) ion selective electrode method. One-way ANOVA was used to compare mean F(-) concentration in tea infusions prepared by three different methods, irrespective of the form of tea and mean F(-) concentration between tea infusions prepared from three different forms of tea, by three different methods. The mean F(-) concentration in tea infusions prepared by three different methods irrespective of the form of tea were 1.437, 3.375, and 3.437, respectively, and tea infusion prepared from tea granules irrespective of method of preparation showed a statistical significance. F(-) in tea can be an additional dietary source of F(-) which can be beneficial in preventing dental caries or deleterious for occurrence of fluorosis.

  13. Addition of milk to tea infusions: Helpful or harmful? Evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies on antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidinejad, Ali; Birch, E John; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Everett, David W

    2017-10-13

    Tea consumption is practised as a tradition, and has shown potential to improve human health. Maximal uptake of tea antioxidants and milk proteins without a negative impact on tea flavor is highly desired by consumers. There is a conflicting evidence of the effect of milk addition to tea on antioxidant activity. Differences in the type of tea, the composition, type and amount of milk, preparation method of tea-milk infusions, the assays used to measure antioxidant activity, and sampling size likely account for different findings. Interactions between tea polyphenols and milk proteins, especially between catechins and caseins, could account for a decrease in antioxidant activity, although other mechanisms are also possible, given the similar effects between soy and bovine milk. The role of milk fat globules and the milk fat globule membrane surface is also important when considering interactions and loss of polyphenolic antioxidant activity, which has not been addressed in the literature.

  14. Improving the sweet aftertaste of green tea infusion with tannase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Na; Yin, Jun-Feng; Chen, Jian-Xin; Wang, Fang; Du, Qi-Zhen; Jiang, Yong-Wen; Xu, Yong-Quan

    2016-02-01

    The present study aims to improve the sweet aftertaste and overall acceptability of green tea infusion by hydrolyzing (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) with tannase. The results showed that the intensity of the sweet aftertaste and the score of overall acceptability of the green tea infusion significantly increased with the extension of the hydrolyzing treatment. (-)-Epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)-epicatechin (EC) were found to be the main contributors for the sweet aftertaste, based on a trial compatibility with EGCG, ECG, EGC, and EC monomers, and a synergistic action between EGC and EC to sweet aftertaste was observed. A 2.5:1 (EGC/EC) ratio with a total concentration of 3.5 mmol/L gave the most satisfying sweet aftertaste, and the astringency significantly inhibited the development of the sweet aftertaste. These results can help us to produce a tea beverage with excellent sweet aftertaste by hydrolyzing the green tea infusion with tannase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Tea and herbal infusions: Their antioxidant activity and phenolic profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atoui, A.; Mansouri, A.; Panagiotis Kefalas; Boskou, G.

    2005-01-01

    Tea and herbal infusions have been studied for their polyphenolic content, antioxidant activity and phenolic profile. The total phenolics recovered by ethyl acetate from the water extract, were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and ranged from 88.1 ± 0.42 (Greek mountain tea) to 1216 ± 32.0 mg (Chinese green tea) GAE (Gallic acid equivalents)/cup. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by two methods, DPPH and chemiluminescence assays, using Trolox and quercetin as standards. The EC50 of herbal extracts ranged from 0.151 ± 0.002 mg extract/mg DPPH (0.38 quercetin equivalents and 0.57 Trolox equivalents), for Chinese green tea, to 0.77 ± 0.012 mg extract/mg DPPH (0.08 quercetin equivalents and 0.13 Trolox equivalents), for Greek mountain tea. Chemiluminescence assay results showed that the IC50 ranged from 0.17 ± 3.4 x 103 lg extract/ml of the final solution in the measuring cell (1.89 quercetin and 5.89 Trolox equivalents) for Chinese green tea, to 1.10 ± 1.86 x 102 g extract/ml of the final solution in the measuring cell (0.29 quercetin and 0.90 Trolox equivalents) for Greek mountain tea. The phenolic profile in the herbal infusions was investigated by LC-DAD-MS in the positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode. About 60 different flavo- noids, phenolic acids and their derivatives have been identified. (author)

  16. Assessment of Fluoride Levels in Different Brands of Black and Green Tea Consumed in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mojarad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Tea is one of the most commonly consumed drinks in the world. Tea is recognized as a source of fluoride whose intake may increase the risk of developing dental fluorosis, particularly if other sources of fluoride augment the intake. Since the amount of fluoride in different types of tea consumed in our country is unknown, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the fluoride level of 22 commercial brands of tea popular in Iran. Materials & Methods: This descriptive study was conducted to assess the fluoride content of black tea (10 brands, bagged black tea (9 brands, and green tea (3 brands. 2 g from three samples of each tea brand taken out randomly were added to 200 ml deionized water and boiled for 10 minutes. After the infusion temperature coming down to the room temperature, the infusion was filtered and its volume made up to 200 ml by adding deionized water. The fluoride levels were measured using ion-selective electrode, and reported as mg/lit. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test. Results: The Fluoride content was found 1.51 mg/lit in black tea bag, 1.038 mg/lit in green tea and 0.869±0.360 mg/lit in black tea sticks. (P<0.05, However, there was no statistically sig-nificant difference of fluoride concentration between green tea and black tea sticks(P= 0.52. Conclusion: This study showed that fluoride content of some tea brands were so high that drinking a few cups daily may increase the risk of developing dental fluorosis. Therefore, their consumption must be limited particularly in children, and in all inhabitants of regions with high fluoride levels in water supply.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 19 (4:36-42

  17. Effects of herbal infusions, tea and carbonated beverages on alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sha; Gan, Li-Qin; Li, Shu-Ke; Zheng, Jie-Cong; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Various alcoholic beverages containing different concentrations of ethanol are widely consumed, and excessive alcohol consumption may result in serious health problems. The consumption of alcoholic beverages is often accompanied by non-alcoholic beverages, such as herbal infusions, tea and carbonated beverages to relieve drunk symptoms. The aim of this study was to supply new information on the effects of these beverages on alcohol metabolism for nutritionists and the general public, in order to reduce problems associated with excessive alcohol consumption. The effects of 57 kinds of herbal infusions, tea and carbonated beverages on alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity were evaluated. Generally, the effects of these beverages on alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity are very different. The results suggested that some beverages should not be drank after excessive alcohol consumption, and several beverages may be potential dietary supplements for the prevention and treatment of problems related to excessive alcohol consumption.

  18. Determination of 210Po in tea, mat and their infusions and its annual intake by Syrians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Nashawati, A.; Amin, Y.; Al-Akel, B.

    2004-01-01

    Polonium-210 was determined in 34 kinds of imported tea and 9 kinds of mat collected from the Syrian local market. The 210 Po concentration was found to vary from 5.5 to 39 Bq x kg -1 and 47 to 82 Bq x kg -1 in tea and mat samples, respectively. In addition 210 Po was also determined in tea and mat infusions where different infusion conditions have been examined: amount, temperature and infusion time. The results have shown that the amount of 210 Po transferred from tea and mat leaves to the aqueous extract ranged from 9 to 21% and 3 to 15%, respectively. The annual intake of 210 Po by Syrians due to tea consumption and mat infusions was calculated and found to be 9 Bq and 151 Bq for tea and mat respectively: washing of mat with warm water is recommended before preparation the infusions to decrease the annual intake of 210 Po. (author)

  19. Use of a Tea Infuser to Submerge Low-Density Dry Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fictorie, Carl P.; Vitz, Ed

    2004-01-01

    A simple tea infuser is obtained and been used as a container for the dry ice to simulate the effect from high-density dry ice. The tea infuser is a simple, low cost device to allow instructors with access to dry ice makers to effectively use the interesting demonstration.

  20. Spontaneously Assembled Nano-aggregates in Clear Green Tea Infusions from Camellia ptilophylla and Camellia sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaorong; Gao, Xiong; Chen, Zhongzheng; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Luo, Wei; Li, Xiaofei; Li, Bin

    2017-05-10

    Tea nano-aggregates spontaneously assembled in clear tea infusions are considered as the precursors of tea cream, although their molecular basis remains obscure. Here, we characterized nano-aggregates in green tea infusions from Camellia ptilophylla, a peculiar tea variety with 6.0% of theobromine, and Camellia sinensis as the control for comparative purpose. Numerous negatively charged spherical colloidal particles of 50-100 nm in diameter were primarily found in both green tea infusions. Catechins, proteins, and carbohydrates were confirmed as the dominant components in green tea nano-aggregates. In addition, iron, copper, nickel, proteins, and gallated catechins exhibited higher aggregating affinity than other components, whereas methylxanthines and calcium contributed to the transformation of nano-aggregates into tea cream. Green tea nano-aggregates were partly destroyed by simulated gastrointestinal digestion, and removing theses peculiar particles dramatically attenuated the bioaccessibility of methylxanthines, theanine, and some catechin monomers in green tea infusions. This study enhanced our knowledge of molecular interactions in the formation of green tea cream and provided insight into physicochemical profiles, phytochemical nature, and functional effects of green tea nano-aggregates.

  1. The impact of grape skin bioactive functionality information on the acceptability of tea infusions made from wine by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Vern Jou; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Sedcole, Richard; Hamid, Nazimah

    2010-05-01

    The effect of information on the health benefits of bio-active compounds on the acceptability of 5 tea infusions made from grape skins generated from wine processing waste (from Vitis vinifera var. Pinot Noir and Pinot Gris) was investigated. Samples of tea infusions with natural additives (PNHGT25 and PGGT50) and without additives (control PN, control PG, and PNPG50) were evaluated by 45 in-home consumer panels (30 female, 15 male) before and after information on the health benefits of grape skins were provided. Information significantly increased the overall acceptability, overall aroma, flavor, and aftertaste of the infusions. The results obtained showed a clear tendency toward increased purchase intention (by 29%) when information on the health benefits of the tea infusion samples was provided to consumers. Interactions existed between gender/infusion samples and stage of information on the purchase intention. Females recorded a significant increase (by 53%) in purchase intention, whereas no change in the males' purchase intention was found after information was provided.

  2. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides- Contaminated Tea Infusion Blocks Lipids Reduction and Induces Kidney Damage in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jin; Sun, Kang; Ma, Qingping; Chen, Jin; Wang, Le; Yang, Dingjun; Chen, Xuan; Li, Xinghui

    2017-01-01

    When the homogenate of fresh tea tree leaves was fermented to produce black tea beverage, the Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (main pathogen or endophyte of Camellia sinensis) may be mixed into the fermentation liquor. However, it was unclear whether C. gloeosporioides-contaminated tea beverage would damage human health. Therefore, we investigated the changes of functional components and the influences on mice. C. gloeosporioides was added to the green tea infusion. After cultivation of 48 h, ...

  3. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides- Contaminated Tea Infusion Blocks Lipids Reduction and Induces Kidney Damage in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available When the homogenate of fresh tea tree leaves was fermented to produce black tea beverage, the Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (main pathogen or endophyte of Camellia sinensis may be mixed into the fermentation liquor. However, it was unclear whether C. gloeosporioides-contaminated tea beverage would damage human health. Therefore, we investigated the changes of functional components and the influences on mice. C. gloeosporioides was added to the green tea infusion. After cultivation of 48 h, tea polyphenols, caffeine, and L-theanine decreased by 31.0, 26.2, and 8.3%, respectively. The contaminated tea infusion showed brown stain, and produced a group of toxic materials named phthalic acid esters. The animal study showed that green tea without contamination significantly decreased levels of alanine aminotransferase, triglycerides, free fatty acids, low-density lipoprotein, and increased insulin level compared with obese mice. On the contrary, contaminated tea lost the effects on these indicators. Furthermore, the urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels significantly increased in the contaminated tea-drinking mice. Altogether, our results indicate that C. gloeosporioides contamination can reduce the amount of functional components of green tea. Therefore, it inhibits some health-care function of lipid-lowering. In addition, the toxic components in contaminated tea infusion might induce renal damage.

  4. Determination of lead, cadmium and arsenic in infusion tea cultivated in north of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekoohiyan Sakine

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tea is one of the most common drinks in all over the world. Rapid urbanization and industrialization in recent decades has increased heavy metals in tea and other foods. In this research, heavy metal contents such as lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd and arsenic (As were determined in 105 black tea samples cultivated in Guilan and Mazandaran Provinces in north of Iran and their tea infusions. The amount of heavy metals in black tea infusions were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP - AES. The mean ± SD level of Pb in 5, 15 and 60 min in infusion tea samples were 0.802 ± 0.633, 0.993 ± 0.667 and 1.367 ± 1.06 mg/kg of tea dry weight, respectively. The mean level of Cd in 5, 15 and 60 min in infusion tea samples were 0.135 ± 0.274, 0.244 ± 0.46 and 0.343 ± 0.473 mg/kg of tea dry weight, respectively. The mean level of As in 5, 15 and 60 min in infusion tea samples were 0.277 ± 0.272, 0.426 ± 0.402 and 0.563 ± 0.454 mg/kg of tea dry weight, respectively. Also, the results showed that the locations and the infusion times influenced upon the amount of these metals (P 

  5. Influence of brewing conditions on taste components in Fuding white tea infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haihua; Li, Yulin; Lv, Yangjun; Jiang, Yulan; Pan, Junxian; Duan, Yuwei; Zhu, Yuejin; Zhang, Shikang

    2017-07-01

    White tea has received increasing attention of late as a result of its sweet taste and health benefits. During the brewing of white tea, many factors may affect the nutritional and sensory quality of the resulting infusions. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of various infusion conditions on the taste components of Fuding white tea, including infusion time, ratio of tea and water, number of brewing steps, and temperature. Brewing conditions had a strong effect on the taste compound profile and sensory characteristics. The catechin, caffeine, theanine and free amino acid contents generally increased with increasing infusion time and temperature. Conditions comprising an infusion time of 7 min, a brewing temperature of 100 °C, a tea and water ratio of 1:30 or 1:40, and a second brewing step, respectively, were shown to obtain the highest contents of most compounds. Regarding tea sensory evaluation, conditions comprising an infusion time of 3 min, a brewing temperature of 100 °C, a tea and water ratio of 1:50, and a first brewing step, resulted in the highest sensory score for comprehensive behavior of color, aroma and taste. The results of the present study reveal differences in the contents of various taste compounds, including catechins, caffeine, theanine and free amino acids, with respect to different brewing conditions, and sensory scores also varied with brewing conditions. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Dissipation kinetics of beta-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid in tea and their transfer from processed tea to infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramasivam, M; Deepa, M; Selvi, C; Chandrasekaran, S

    2017-10-01

    Dissipation kinetics of mixed formulation consisting beta-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid in tea crop under an open field ecosystem was investigated. The mixed formulation was applied on tea plant at recommended (27 + 63) and double the recommended (54 + 126g a.i./ha) dose and residues were determined using gas chromatography-electron capture detector and high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector for beta-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid, respectively. The limit of quantification of analytical method was 0.05µg/g and the average recoveries were ranged from 88.36% to 103.49% with relative standard deviations of less than 6% at three spiked levels. The experimental results showed that in the green tea leaves imidacloprid dissipated faster than beta-cyfluthrin with the half-life ranging between 1.20-1.39 and 2.89-3.15days, respectively. The beta-cyfluthrin residues present in the processed tea not transferred into the tea infusion during the infusion process and imidacloprid transferred in the range 43.12-49.7%. On the basis of the transfer of residues from processed tea to infusion, a waiting period of 17 days for tea plucking after pesticide application at recommended dose may be suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of teapot materials on the chemical composition of oolong tea infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zih-Hui; Chen, Ying-Jie; Tzen, Jason Tze-Cheng; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Lee, Maw-Rong; Mai, Fu-Der; Rairat, Tirawat; Chou, Chi-Chung

    2018-01-01

    The flavor and quality of tea are widely believed to be associated with the pot in which the tea is made. However, this claim is mostly by experiences and lacks solid support from scientific evidence. The current study investigated and compared the chemical compositions of oolong tea made with six different teapot materials, namely Zisha, Zhuni, stainless steel, ceramic, glass and plastic. For each tea sample, polyphenols and caffeine were examined by HPLC-UV, volatile compounds by GC/MS, amino acids by LC/MS and minerals by ICP-MS. The results suggested that tea infusions from Zisha and Zhuni pots contain higher levels of EGC, EGCG and total catechins and less caffeine than those from ceramic, glass and plastic pots and tend to have the lowest total mineral contents, potassium and volatile compounds in tea soup. The statistical differences were not all significant among Zisha, Zhuni and stainless steel pots. Based on the overall chemical composition of the tea infusion, Yixing clay pots (Zisha and Zhuni) produce tea infusions that are presumably less bitter and more fragrant and tend to contain more healthful compounds than tea infusions from other pots. The results could partially explain why Yixing clay pots are among the most popular teapots. The beneficial effects of long-term repeated use of these teapots warrants further study. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Micronutrients (B, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, and Zn) content in made tea (Camellia sinensis L.) and tea infusion with health prospect: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karak, Tanmoy; Kutu, Funso Raphael; Nath, Jyoti Rani; Sonar, Indira; Paul, Ranjit Kumar; Boruah, Romesh Kumar; Sanyal, Sandip; Sabhapondit, Santanu; Dutta, Amrit Kumar

    2017-09-22

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is a perennial acidophilic crop, and known to be a nonalcoholic stimulating beverage that is most widely consumed after water. The aim of this review paper is to provide a detailed documentation of selected micronutrient contents, viz. boron (B), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), and zinc (Zn) in made tea and tea infusion. Available data from the literature were used to calculate human health aspect associated with the consumption of tea infusion. A wide range of micronutrients reported in both made tea and tea infusion could be the major sources of micronutrients for human. The content of B, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, and Zn in made tea are ranged from 3.04 to 58.44 μg g -1 , below detectable limit (BDL) to 122.4 μg g -1 , BDL to 602 μg g -1 , 0.275 to 13,040 μg g -1 , 0.004 to 15,866 μg g -1 , 0.04 to 570.80 μg g -1 and 0.01 to 1120 μg g -1 , respectively. Only 3.2 μg L -1 to 7.25 mg L -1 , 0.01 μg L -1 to 7 mg L -1 , 3.80 μg L -1 to 6.13 mg L -1 , 135.59 μg L -1 -11.05 mg L -1 , 0.05 μg L -1 to 1980.34 mg L -1 , 0.012 to 3.78 μg L -1 , and 1.12 μg L -1 to 2.32 μg L -1 of B, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, and Zn, respectively, are found in tea infusion which are lower than the prescribed limit of micronutrients in drinking water by World Health Organization. Furthermore, micronutrient contents in tea infusion depend on infusion procedure as well as on the instrument used for analysis. The proportion of micronutrients found in different tea types are 1.0-88.9% for B, 10-60% for Co, 2.0-97.8% for Cu, 67.8-89.9% for Fe, 71.0-87.4% for Mn, 13.3-34% for Mo, and 34.9-83% for Zn. From the results, it can also be concluded that consumption of three cups of tea infusion per day does not have any adverse effect on human health with respect to the referred micronutrients rather got beneficial effects to human.

  9. Transfer of difenoconazole and azoxystrobin residues from chrysanthemum flower tea to its infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jiaying; Li, Huichen; Liu, Fengmao; Xue, Jian; Chen, Xiaochu; Zhan, Jing

    2014-04-01

    Investigations of the transfer of pesticide residues from tea to its infusion can be important in the assessment of the possible health benefits of tea consumption. In this work the transfer of difenoconazole and azoxystrobin residues from chrysanthemum tea to its infusion was investigated at different water temperatures, infusion intervals and times. The transfer percentages were in the range of 18.7-51.6% for difenoconazole and of 38.1-71.2% for azoxystrobin, and increased considerably with longer infusion intervals. The results indicated that azoxystrobin with a lower octanol-water partition coefficient of 2.5, showed a higher transfer than that of difenoconazole with a relatively high octanol-water partition coefficient of 4.4. Water temperature had no significant effect on the transfer of the two residues, and no obvious loss of difenoconazole and azoxystrobin occurred during the infusion process. The concentrations in the infusions decreased gradually from 0.67 to 0.30 μg kg(-1) for difenoconazole and from 2.3 to 0.46 μg kg(-1) for azoxystrobin after five infusions. To assess the potential health risk, the values of estimate expose risk were calculated to be 0.016 for difenoconazole and 0.0022 for azoxystrobin, meaning the daily residue intake of the two analytes from chrysanthemum tea was safe. This research may help assure food safety and identify the potential exposure risks from pesticides in chrysanthemum that may be health concerns.

  10. Antioxidant Activity of Aqueous Tea Infusions Prepared from Oregano, Thyme and Wild Thyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea Kulišić

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a multiple-method approach, antioxidant activity of aqueous tea infusions prepared from oregano (Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum, thyme (Thymus vulgaris L. and wild thyme (Thymus serpyllum L. were tested in relation to their chemical composition. Total phenolic, flavonoid, catechin and anthocyanin content was determined by spectrophotometric methods. Oregano aqueous tea infusion had the highest amount of total phenols (12 500 mg/L gallic acid equivalent, GAE and flavonoids (9000 mg/L GAE. Identification of polyphenolic compounds in aqueous tea infusions by HPLC-PDA analysis showed a dominant presence of rosmarinic acid (in mg/g: 123.11 in oregano, 17.45 in thyme and 93.13 in wild thyme. Antioxidant activity of aqueous tea infusions was evaluated using four antioxidative methods (the b-carotene bleaching method (BCB, the 2,2’-diphenyl-1- -picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging method, the thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS assay and the induction period of lard oxidation (Rancimat assay. The results were compared with natural (ascorbic acid and a-tocopherol and synthetic antioxidants, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA. Oregano aqueous tea infusion showed the strongest antioxidant activity using three methods (the b-carotene bleaching method, DPPH radical scavening method and Rancimat assay, while thyme and wild thyme showed weaker and relatively similar antioxidant activity.

  11. Teor de fluoretos em infusões de chá verde (Camellia sinensis Fluoride content in green tea infusions (Camellia sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Reto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the influence of green tea consumption on fluoride ingestion. The extraction conditions of fluorides from green tea infusions were defined and nine brands of green tea available in Portugal were analyzed. The quantification of fluorides in the green tea was preceded by the implementation and validation of the potentiometric method (commercial fluoride selective electrode. The concentration of fluorides in the samples ranged from 0. 8 to 2. 0 mg L-1.

  12. Levels of metals in commercially available Ethiopian black teas and their infusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagwan Singh Chandravanshi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, Co, Cd and Pb contents of commercially available Ethiopian black tea (Wushwush, Gumero, and Black Lion and their infusions were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS. In black tea leaves the order of metal content was found to be: K (11503–13780 mg/kg > Ca (3821–4419 mg/kg > Mg (3219–3538 mg/kg > Mn (1242–1421 mg/kg > Fe (319–467 mg/kg > Zn (20.2–21.6 mg/kg > Cu (9.1–11.5 mg/kg. Co, Cd and Pb were too low to be detected by the method (FAAS. In tea infusion, prepared in a laboratory condition following Ethiopian tea making procedures, the range of metal contents was found as follows: K (110–124 mg/L > Mg (14.5–16.3 mg/L > Ca (10.0–10.7 mg/L > Mn (8.5–13.4 mg/L > Fe (0.98–1.56 mg/L > Zn (0.098–0.100 mg/L > Cu (0.038–0.063 mg/L. The metal contents of the black tea leaves were higher than those of tea infusions. The extraction was highest for K (47.1% and lowest for Ca (12.5%.

  13. Tea-induced calmness: Sugar-sweetened tea calms consumers exposed to acute stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samant, Shilpa S; Wilkes, Katherine; Odek, Zephania; Seo, Han-Seok

    2016-11-16

    The food and beverage industry has been increasingly replacing sugar with non-nutritive sweeteners in their sweetened products to control or reduce total calories. Research comparing the effect of nutritive and non-nutritive sweeteners on emotional state of participants exposed to acute stressors is still limited. This study aimed to determine the effect of drinking tea sweetened with either a nutritive sweetener (sugar) or a non-nutritive sweetener (sucralose or stevia) on emotional state, in terms of calmness and pleasantness, of participants exposed to an acute stressor. Effects of acute stress on sweetness intensity and overall liking of tea beverages were also determined. Results showed that the possibility of tea-induced calmness, calculated as the difference between calmness ratings after and before drinking a tea sample, was established on stress session in the sugar-sweetened tea. Overall liking, but not the sweetness intensity, of the sugar-sweetened tea was affected by acute stress. In conclusion, this study provides empirical evidence that the consumption of tea sweetened with nutritive sweetener, but not with non-nutritive sweetener, has calming effect on consumers with acute stress, suggesting that this effect may not be due to the sweet taste of sugar, but due to the caloric nature of the sweetener.

  14. Enantioselective Dissipation of Acephate and Its Metabolite, Methamidophos, during Tea Cultivation, Manufacturing, and Infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Rong; Chen, Hongping; Wang, Chen; Wang, Qinghua; Jiang, Ying; Liu, Xin

    2015-02-04

    The enantioselective dissipation of acephate and its metabolite, methamidophos, was investigated during tea cultivation, manufacturing, and infusion, using QuEChERS sample preparation technique and gas chromatography coupled with a BGB-176 chiral column. Results showed that (+)-acephate and (-)-acephate dissipated following first-order kinetics in fresh tea leaves with half-lives of 1.8 and 1.9 days, respectively. Acephate was degraded into a more toxic metabolite, methamidophos. Preferential dissipation and translocation of (+)-acephate may exist in tea shoots, and (-)-methamidophos was degraded more rapidly than (+)-methamidophos. During tea manufacturing, drying and spreading (or withering) played important roles in the dissipation of acephate enantiomers. The enantiometic fractions of acephate changed from 0.495-0.496 to 0.479-0.486 (P ≤ 0.0081), whereas those of methamidophos changed from 0.576-0.630 to 0.568-0.645 (P ≤ 0.0366 except for green tea manufacturing on day 1), from fresh tea leaves to made tea. In addition, high transfer rates (>80%) and significant enantioselectivity (P ≤ 0.0042) of both acephate and its metabolite occurred during tea brewing.

  15. Polyphenolic Profile and Antioxidant Activities of Oolong Tea Infusion under Various Steeping Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Chen

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The phenolic profile and antioxidant activities of oolong tea extract wereinvestigated after tea was steeped in 90 or 100 oC water for 3 or 10 min. The extractionyield increased with increasing temperature and extended steeping time. However, highertemperature and longer time (100 oC water for 10 min led to loss of phenolics. Theaqueous extract of oolong tea (AEOT at 100 oC for 3 min exhibited the strongestantioxidant activity. The major polyphenolic components of the AEOT were identified as(--epigallocatechin (EGC, (--epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG and (--epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG. The two major catechins (EGC and EGCG in the tea infusion contributedsignificantly to the investigated antioxidant activities [i.e., the 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH radical scavenging and superoxide radical scavengingactivities] with high correlation values in r = 0.9486 and 0.9327 for the EGC and r =0.9592 and 0.8718 for the EGCG, respectively.

  16. Typology of consumer in the tea market, as a brand characteristic

    OpenAIRE

    Kůtová, Karolina

    2014-01-01

    The Bachelor Thesis entitled " Typology of consumer in the tea market, as a brand characteristic" characterizes tea consumers of various brands and their consumer behavior. The thesis is divided into theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part presents the importance of market segmentation, consumer behavior, consumer typology and methodology of marketing research. The practical part focuses on the tea market conditions, including the questionnaire survey with the purpose to describe...

  17. Evaluation of soluble oxalates content in infusions of different kinds of tea and coffee available on the Polish market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusinek, Elzbieta

    2012-01-01

    Tea and coffee are the potentially rich source of oxalic acid, which can act as a antinutrient. The aim of this study was to determine and evaluate the content of soluble oxalates in teas and coffees available on the Polish market. The green, red and black teas, and black natural ground and instant coffees were used for preparing the infusions. The manganometric method was used for the determination of the oxalates in the infusions. The mean oxalates content in the infusions from 3 g of black teas was 115.68 mg/100 cm3 and was higher as compared to red teas (101.91 mg/100 cm3) and green teas (87.64 mg/100 cm3). Disregarding the variety of analyzed teas, the largest oxalates content was in infusions of pure one-component tea--"Sir Roger" (164.82-174.22 mg/100 cm3), while the lowest oxalates content was noted in the tea containing the components from other plants ("Bio-Active" with grapefruit juice--reaching as low level as 39.00 mg/100 cm3). Instant coffees contained larger amount of oxalates than natural ground coffees. Irrespective of the kind of the tested coffees, the lowest oxalates content was found in the infusions from the following coffees: Tchibo Exclusive--19.62 mg/100 cm3, Gala ulubiona--37.32 mg/100 cm3, and Maxwell House--38.40 mg/100 cm3, while the highest oxalates content in instant coffee--Nescafe Espiro 51.80 mg/100 cm3. The results revealed a significant relation between phytochemical composition of analyzed teas and coffees and the level of soluble oxalates in infusions prepared from the tested products.

  18. Red tea leaves infusion as a reducing and stabilizing agent in silver nanoparticles synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluta, K.; Tryba, A. M.; Malina, D.; Sobczak-Kupiec, A.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the unique properties of silver nanoparticles there is growing interest in their applications. Current trends in nanotechnology are focused on developing a new technique to synthesize nanoparticles using biological methods associated with the use of plant extracts, fungi, bacteria or essential oils. These methods are a promising alternative to conventional approaches which can minimize the use of hazardous substances. The silver nanoparticles synthesis using red tea infusion as a reducing and stabilizing agent and their characteristics have been described. Total antioxidant capacity using DPPH radical and total content of phenolic compounds by Folin-Ciocalteau method were measured in tea infusion. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles was carried out using chemical reduction at various temperatures. Furthermore, the effect of tea infusion volume added to reaction mixture on nanoparticles’ properties was investigated. Finally, nanosilver suspensions were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometer, dynamic light scattering (DLS) scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Moreover, phytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles was determined using Phytotestkit microbiotest.

  19. Consumption of Black Tea Infusion to Maintain the Functions of the Liver in Rats Exposed to γ-Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, S.S.

    2015-01-01

    Black tea, a phyto-compound of the fully oxidized form of Camellia sinensis has been attributed with a plethora of health-promoting actions. The role of aqueous black tea infusion (BTI) in the liver cytoprotective properties was studied using liver biochemical lesions produced by γ-rays in rat model prior oral administration of black tea infusion at 3 % (w/v) as the sole source of drinking for 10 days. Liver antioxidant properties were evaluated as, total antioxidant status (TAS), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). In addition, Thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione (GSH), triacylglycerols (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels were estimated. The marker enzymes of liver damage (aspartate and alanine transaminases; ALT and AST) in serum were also evaluated. Moreover, the level of plasma F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs); bioactive products of lipid peroxidation was determined. Exposure of rats to γ-rays was found to cause a decrease in the liver's antioxidant abilities and provoke an increase in the level of TBARS, TG and TC. It also significantly exasperated enzymes of liver damage (ALT and AST) and the plasma F2-isoprostanes level. Supplementation of BTI prevents the changes in the liver's antioxidant abilities and in TBARS and GSH. In addition, prevents increase of oxidative stress visible as plasma F2-IsoP and decreased leak of ALT and AST into the blood. Conclusion: These results indicate that regular intake of BTI may protect γ-rays-induced oxidative damage and the consequent degenerative liver changes. The BTI consumed throughout the world is believed to be not only a popular beverage but also an anti oxidative agent available in everyday life

  20. Quantification of catechins and caffeine from green tea (Camellia sinensis infusions, extract, and ready-to-drink beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Macedo Mendes De Oliveira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to quantify the levels of catechins and caffeine in various forms of presentation of green tea: infusion tea bags, extract, and ready-to-drink beverage and, based on their content, identify the most suitable for consumption. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC analytical method was used for the quantification of catechins and caffeine. The tea bags had the highest concentration of total catechins with 5 to 9.5% followed by the extract with 3.64 to 4.88%, and ready-to-drink green tea beverage showed low levels of catechins, from 0.14 to 0.26%. As for caffeine content, green tea extract had higher concentration (1.96 to 3.54% compared to the tea bags (1.39 to 1.57%. Tea bags were found the most suitable for consumption because it contains higher amounts of catechins and smaller amounts of caffeine.

  1. Antioxidant and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibiting Activity of Several Aqueous Tea Infusions in vitro

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    Višnja Katalinić

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of antioxidant activity and acetylcholineste ase (AChE inhibitory activity of aqueous tea infusions prepared from walnut (Juglans regia L., peppermint (Mentha×piperita L., strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa L., lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L., sage (Salvia officinalis L., and immortelle (Helichrysum arenarium (L. Moench. is presented here. Chemical composition of selected aqueous tea infusions was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode-array method (HPLC-PDA, and the following phenolic compounds were identified as dominant: rosmarinic acid, gallic acid (not identified in walnut and sage, caffeic acid (in sage and peppermint, neochlorogenic acid, 3-p-coumaroylquinic acid and quercetin 3-galactoside (in walnut and luteolin 7-O-glucoside (in sage. Antioxidant activity of the selected aqueous tea infusions was measured using low-density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation method, 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging test, β-carotene bleaching method, and Rancimat method (induction period of lard oxidation. Strawberry and lemon balm aqueous infusions completely inhibited LDL oxidation at the concentration of 0.005 g/L in the reacting system. Very long prolongation of the lag phase was achieved with peppermint and sage aqueous infusions. All tested infusions in the concentration range of 0.05–2.85 g/L showed very pronounced effect of DPPH scavenging activity (90–100 % as well as the inhibition of β-carotene bleaching (89–100 %. In pure lipid medium, used in Rancimat method, sage and immortelle at the concentration of 0.16 % (by mass had the highest ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation process. Screening of the AChE inhibitory activity by Ellman´s method showed that the strongest inhibition was obtained with walnut and strawberry aqueous infusions at the concentration of 1.36 g/L in the reacting system. The presented results suggest that natural antioxidants could be useful and merit further

  2. The Benefits and Risks of Consuming Brewed Tea: Beware of Toxic Element Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalfenberg, Gerry; Genuis, Stephen J.; Rodushkin, Ilia

    2013-01-01

    Background. Increasing concern is evident about contamination of foodstuffs and natural health products. Methods. Common off-the-shelf varieties of black, green, white, and oolong teas sold in tea bags were used for analysis in this study. Toxic element testing was performed on 30 different teas by analyzing (i) tea leaves, (ii) tea steeped for 3-4 minutes, and (iii) tea steeped for 15–17 minutes. Results were compared to existing preferred endpoints. Results. All brewed teas contained lead with 73% of teas brewed for 3 minutes and 83% brewed for 15 minutes having lead levels considered unsafe for consumption during pregnancy and lactation. Aluminum levels were above recommended guidelines in 20% of brewed teas. No mercury was found at detectable levels in any brewed tea samples. Teas contained several beneficial elements such as magnesium, calcium, potassium, and phosphorus. Of trace minerals, only manganese levels were found to be excessive in some black teas. Conclusions. Toxic contamination by heavy metals was found in most of the teas sampled. Some tea samples are considered unsafe. There are no existing guidelines for routine testing or reporting of toxicant levels in “naturally” occurring products. Public health warnings or industry regulation might be indicated to protect consumer safety. PMID:24260033

  3. The Benefits and Risks of Consuming Brewed Tea: Beware of Toxic Element Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry Schwalfenberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Increasing concern is evident about contamination of foodstuffs and natural health products. Methods. Common off-the-shelf varieties of black, green, white, and oolong teas sold in tea bags were used for analysis in this study. Toxic element testing was performed on 30 different teas by analyzing (i tea leaves, (ii tea steeped for 3-4 minutes, and (iii tea steeped for 15–17 minutes. Results were compared to existing preferred endpoints. Results. All brewed teas contained lead with 73% of teas brewed for 3 minutes and 83% brewed for 15 minutes having lead levels considered unsafe for consumption during pregnancy and lactation. Aluminum levels were above recommended guidelines in 20% of brewed teas. No mercury was found at detectable levels in any brewed tea samples. Teas contained several beneficial elements such as magnesium, calcium, potassium, and phosphorus. Of trace minerals, only manganese levels were found to be excessive in some black teas. Conclusions. Toxic contamination by heavy metals was found in most of the teas sampled. Some tea samples are considered unsafe. There are no existing guidelines for routine testing or reporting of toxicant levels in “naturally” occurring products. Public health warnings or industry regulation might be indicated to protect consumer safety.

  4. Descriptive analysis and U.S. consumer acceptability of 6 green tea samples from China, Japan, and Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeehyun; Chambers, Delores H

    2010-03-01

    In the past, green tea has been one of the least popular nonalcoholic beverages for U.S. consumers. However, green tea has been receiving attention because of its potential health benefits. Knowing which green tea flavor attributes contribute to consumer liking will help the fast growing green tea business including green tea importers, tea shops, and beverage companies to understand which characteristics are most accepted by U.S. consumers. The objectives of this study were (1) to examine differences in acceptability of commonly available loose leaf and bagged green teas available from the major exporters to the U.S. (Japan, Korea, and China) and (2) to determine which green tea flavor characteristics are related to consumers' liking. In the study, consumers from the U.S. evaluated 6 green tea samples from China, Japan, and Korea for acceptability. A highly trained panel also evaluated the green tea samples to provide descriptive sensory attributes that might be related to acceptability. We found that U.S. consumers liked green tea samples with lower flavor intensity and lower bitterness intensity. Consumers' acceptability of green tea was negatively correlated with spinach and animalic flavor and bitterness and astringency of green teas evaluated using descriptive sensory analysis, but the correlation was only moderate. To learn what green tea flavor characteristics influence consumers' liking, future studies using more green tea samples with different flavor profiles are needed.

  5. Transition rates of selected metals determined in various types of teas (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze) and herbal/fruit infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulzki, Grit; Nüßlein, Birgit; Sievers, Hartwig

    2017-01-15

    Teas and raw materials used as ingredients of herbal and fruit infusions (HFI) were analysed by means of ICP-MS for their content of aluminium, arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead and mercury in the dry product and in the infusion. Samples of tea (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze) were selected to include different origins, types (black, green), leaf grades (whole leaf, broken, fannings, dust) and manufacturing techniques (orthodox, "crush, tear, curl"). The selected HFI raw materials (chamomile, elderberries, fennel, hibiscus, mate, peppermint, rooibos and rose hip) cover the most important matrices (flower, fruit, seed, herb, leaf) and reflect the economic significance of these HFI materials in trade. Infusions were prepared under standardised conditions representing typical household brewing. Transition rates for the investigated metals vary significantly but are mostly well below 100%. We propose default transition rates for metals to avoid overestimation of exposure levels from tea/HFI consumption. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Fluoride content of soft drinks, nectars, juices, juice drinks, concentrates, teas and infusions marketed in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojo, C; Figueira, M E; Almeida, C M M

    2013-01-01

    A potentiometric method using a fluoride combination ion-selective electrode was validated and used to analyse 183 samples, including soft drinks, juices, nectars, juice drinks, concentrates, teas and infusions marketed in Portugal. The fluoride levels were higher in extract-based soft drinks, juice drinks and juice, with fluoride values of 0.86 ± 0.35, 0.40 ± 0.24 and 0.37 ± 0.11 mg l⁻¹, respectively. The lowest fluoride concentration was found in infusion samples (0.12 ± 0.01 mg l⁻¹), followed by teas and carbonated soft drinks with fluoride concentrations of 0.16 ± 0.12 and 0.18 ± 0.07 mg l⁻¹, respectively. Nectars, concentrates and juice-based drinks had similar fluoride concentrations of 0.33 ± 0.16, 0.29 ± 0.12 and 0.25 ± 0.14 mg l⁻¹, respectively. The fluoride concentrations in all these samples would only contribute intakes below the acceptable daily intake (ADI = 0.05 mg kg⁻¹ body weight day⁻¹), indicating that, individually, these beverages cannot induce fluoride toxicity in the population group of children.

  7. Potent Odorants of Characteristic Floral/Sweet Odor in Chinese Chrysanthemum Flower Tea Infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Shu; Chen, Jingxiu; Wu, Jieming; Suzuki, Yuto; Ma, Lin; Kumazawa, Kenji

    2017-11-22

    An investigation using the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) technique applied to the aroma concentrates prepared from the tea infusions of two different types of Chinese chrysanthemum flowers (flower buds, blooming flowers) revealed that 29 aroma peaks were detected in the aroma concentrates, and 17 compounds were newly identified or tentatively identified in the chrysanthemum flower tea. AEDA also revealed that the aroma peaks having high flavor dilution factors mainly consisted of a floral/sweet note in addition to metallic and phenol-like/spicy notes. Among them, four aroma peaks having a floral/sweet were identified as verbenone, ethyl 3-phenylpropanoate, propyl 3-phenylpropanoate, and ethyl cinnamate, and a semiquantitative analysis revealed that the flower buds were rich in these compounds. Furthermore, a chiral analysis revealed that (-)-verbenone existed in both flowers at a 3 times higher concentration than (+)-verbenone. Additionally, because the detection threshold of (-)-verbenone was lower than that of the (+)-verbenone, it is concluded that the (-)-isomer was a main contributor of the aroma peak of verbenone in the chrysanthemum flower tea.

  8. Study of the specific concentrations of {sup 40}K and other radionuclides in the most consumed teas in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Roberto C. da; Garcêz, Ricardo W.D.; Lopes, José M.; Silva, Ademir X. da, E-mail: robertofisica2012@hotmail.com [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    Tea is widely consumed worldwide and it is a drink prepared by infusing with parts of plants such as leaves, flowers and roots, usually prepared with hot water, and each variety acquires a defined flavor according to the processing used. This work presents an investigation about the specific concentration of {sup 40}K in 16 tea samples utilized by Brazilian population and the effective dose associated. The tea samples were dried for six hours in an oven at 60°C and placed in 200 ml volume polyethylene pots of low radioactive background, weighed with a scale model Gehaka BG 4000 and sealed to achieve the secular radioactive equilibrium condition. The teas samples were measured using gamma spectroscopy technique with a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector, a non-destructive nuclear method and with the LabSOCS software for the calculation of the efficiency curve. The counting time used for sample spectrum acquisition was 30000 seconds. The specific concentration values of potassium 40 ranged from 184 ± 56 Bq/kg Lemon Grass (Cymbopogon citrates) to 1087 ± 40 Bq/kg Burdock (Arctium lappa), Effective doses ranged from 1.1408 μSv/y by 6.7394 μSv/y. The values presented in this study were below the annual average for effective dose for ingestion for adults. (author)

  9. Study of the specific concentrations of 40K and other radionuclides in the most consumed teas in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Roberto C. da; Garcêz, Ricardo W.D.; Lopes, José M.; Silva, Ademir X. da

    2017-01-01

    Tea is widely consumed worldwide and it is a drink prepared by infusing with parts of plants such as leaves, flowers and roots, usually prepared with hot water, and each variety acquires a defined flavor according to the processing used. This work presents an investigation about the specific concentration of 40 K in 16 tea samples utilized by Brazilian population and the effective dose associated. The tea samples were dried for six hours in an oven at 60°C and placed in 200 ml volume polyethylene pots of low radioactive background, weighed with a scale model Gehaka BG 4000 and sealed to achieve the secular radioactive equilibrium condition. The teas samples were measured using gamma spectroscopy technique with a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector, a non-destructive nuclear method and with the LabSOCS software for the calculation of the efficiency curve. The counting time used for sample spectrum acquisition was 30000 seconds. The specific concentration values of potassium 40 ranged from 184 ± 56 Bq/kg Lemon Grass (Cymbopogon citrates) to 1087 ± 40 Bq/kg Burdock (Arctium lappa), Effective doses ranged from 1.1408 μSv/y by 6.7394 μSv/y. The values presented in this study were below the annual average for effective dose for ingestion for adults. (author)

  10. The contents of fifteen essential trace and toxic elements in some green tea samples and in their infusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahito, S.R.; Kazi, T.G.; Kazi, G.H.; Jakharani, M.A.; Shar, Q.G.; Shaikh, S.

    2005-01-01

    The content of fifteen elements i.e. Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Mn, Zn, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pd, Cd, Ba and Al were determined for 30 sample from three types of green tea samples using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The samples were purchased from authentic tea dealer in Peshawar imported from India, China and Kenya. However, some samples were taken which were locally produced in Pakistan with branded packing and without package. The NBS tea leaves. The wet digestion and infusion procedure reference material was also analyzed simultaneously with tea samples. The wet digestion and infusion procedures were employed for determination of total elements and aqueous extracted elements respectively. It was found that, considerable amount of essential and trace elements are present in total in tea infusion. The levels of toxic metals are low but level of aluminum is high in both forms. The results obtained from this analysis have shown good accuracy and reproducibility. The relative error and relative standard deviation were less than 10% for most of the elements analyzed. (author)

  11. Assessment of dietary exposure to flavouring substances via consumption of flavoured teas. Part II: transfer rates of linalool and linalyl esters into Earl Grey tea infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Anne-Marie; Poplacean, Iulia; Fastowski, Oxana; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of dietary exposure via the consumption of flavoured foods is a key element of the safety evaluation of flavouring substances. Linalyl acetate and linalool are the major flavouring substances in Earl Grey teas; the objective of this study was to determine their transfer rates from the tea leaves into the tea beverage upon preparation of a hot water infusion. Spiking experiments revealed a transfer rate of 66% for linalool. In contrast, the transfer rate for linalyl acetate was only 1.9%; in turn, the hydrolysis product linalool (17.0%) and a spectrum (19.9%) of degradation and rearrangement products (monoterpene alcohols, esters and hydrocarbons) were present in the tea beverage. The transfer rates were shown to be proportional to the length of the infusion. The impact of the hot water treatment on the enantiomeric compositions of linalyl acetate and linalool was determined, and structure-dependent experiments were performed by variation of the acyl and the alcohol moiety of the monoterpene ester. Comparative dietary exposure assessments demonstrated the need to take correction factors based on the experimentally determined transfer rates into account. Based on tea consumption data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2000/2001), the exposure to linalyl acetate ranges from 0.2 mg day(-1) (average) to 1.8 mg day(-1) (high). The corresponding values for linalool are 4.2 mg day(-1) (average) and 46.6 mg day(-1) (high). The exposure of linalool via consumption of the tea beverage is approximately 26 times higher than that of linalyl acetate, although in the flavoured tea leaves the median content of linalyl acetate is approximately 1.8 times higher than that of linalool.

  12. Statement: Risks for human health related to the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in honey, tea, herbal infusions and food supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knutsen, Helle Katrine; Alexander, Jan; Barregård, Lars; Bignami, Margherita; Brüschweiler, Beat; Ceccatelli, Sandra; Cottrill, Bruce; Dinovi, Michael; Edler, Lutz; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina; Hogstrand, Christer; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano; Oswald, Isabelle P.; Petersen, Annette; Rose, Martin; Roudot, Alain-Claude; Schwerdtle, Tanja; Vleminckx, Christiane; Vollmer, Günter; Wallace, Heather; Ruiz Gomes, José Angel; Binaglia, Marco

    2017-01-01

    EFSA was asked by the European Commission to deliver a scientific opinion on the risks for human health related to the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in honey, tea, herbal infusions and food supplements and to identify the PAs of relevance in the aforementioned food commodities and in

  13. Assessment of flavonoids and volatile compounds in tea infusions of water lily flowers and their antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Dan-Dan; Yuan, Ru-Yu; Wu, Qian; Li, Shan-Shan; Shao, Shuai; Xu, Yan-Jun; Hao, Xiang-Hong; Wang, Liang-Sheng

    2015-11-15

    Water lily, a member of the Nymphaeaceae family, can be made into tea on the basis of outstanding fragrance characteristics and health care functions. In this study, 16 flavonoids were identified and quantified in tea infusions prepared from the petals of 33 water lily cultivars using HPLC-DAD and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The infusions were analyzed with HS-SPME coupled with GC-MS; 29 volatile compounds were detected, of which nine were found to be scent components. The cultivars were clustered into three clusters characterized according to scent components. The 'Conqueror' and 'Virginia' cultivars had the highest antioxidant activities. The concentrations of polyphenols and flavonoids showed significant positive correlations with antioxidant activity as measured by DPPH, ABTS(+), and FRAP assays. This study is valuable for a fuller understanding of this important tea and can also be used for the development of water lily. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effects of whole green tea infusion on mouse urinary bladder chemical carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Andreia; Arantes-Rodrigues, Regina; I Faustino-Rocha, Ana; I Teixeira-Guedes, Catarina; Pinho-Oliveira, Jacinta; Talhada, Daniela; H Teixeira, José; Andrade, Andreia; Colaço, Bruno; N Paiva-Cardoso, Maria; J Pires, Maria; Mvd Ferreira, Ana; M Nunes, Fernando; A Oliveira, Paula

    2014-02-01

    Green tea (GT) is one of the most popular beverages worldwide whose beneficial effects on health have been demonstrated. Recent studies suggest that GT may contribute to reduction of cancer risk and progression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of whole GT on urinary bladder chemical carcinogenesis in male and female ICR mice. The GT characterization was performed using spectrophotometric methods. Urinary bladder lesions were induced using N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN) by gavage during 10 weeks and whole GT (0.5%) was provided ad libitum during 20 weeks. Animals from groups BBN+GT and BBN only developed preneoplastic lesions. We did not observe any effects by GT infusion administration on urinary bladder cancer development.

  15. Rapid determination of trace level copper in tea infusion samples by solid contact ion selective electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysenur Birinci

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A new solid contact copper selective electrode with a poly (vinyl chloride (PVC membrane consisting of o-xylylenebis(N,N-diisobutyldithiocarbamate as ionophore has been prepared. The main novelties of constructed ion selective electrode concept are the enhanced robustness, cheapness, and fastness due to the use of solid contacts. The electrode exhibits a rapid (< 10 seconds and near-Nernstian response to Cu2+ activity from 10−1 to 10−6 mol/L at the pH range of 4.0–6.0. No serious interference from common ions was found. The electrode characterizes by high potential stability, reproducibility, and full repeatability. The electrode was used as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of Cu(II ions with EDTA and for the direct assay of tea infusion samples by means of the calibration graph technique. The results compared favorably with those obtained by the atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS.

  16. Larvicidal activity and in vitro effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis L. water infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žabar, A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study green tea water infusion was tested on Drosophila melanogaster wild-type larvae in vivo, also an in vitro antihemolytic and hemolytic tests were performed. Three different concentrations were used 7.5 mg/ml, 37.5 mg/ml and 75 mg/ml, the lowest dose representing the recommended dose followed by five times and ten times higher doses. Effect of these three concentrations was monitored and tested in vivo on Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen, 1830 wt (wild type larval development and surviving. All three concentrations showed toxic effect for larvae, with toxicity being increased in dose – depended manner. The time needed for larvae to fully develop was delayed. This decrease of developmental time was in dose – dependent manner, too. Amount of hemolysis caused by the lowest concentration was very small when compared with the percent of spontaneous hemolysis. Other two higher concentrations, 37.5 mg/ml and 75 mg/ml, showed higher hemolytic effect. During the four hour incubation period percent of hemolysis grew in time – dependent manner. The highest hemolytic effect was recorded for the concentration of 37.5 mg/ml. Antihemolytic test showed that the lowest concentration had the highest inhibitory effect to H2O2 induced hemolysis. The 37.5 mg/ml and 75 mg/ml concentrations had lower inhibitory effect when compared with the dose of 7.5 mg/ml. According to our study it can be concluded that the high concentrations of green tea water infusion exhibit larvicidal activity against D. melanogaster larvae, don't have protective effect to RBC membrane and cause greater hemolysis.

  17. Estimated assessment of cumulative dietary exposure to organophosphorus residues from tea infusion in China

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Pei; Yang, Dajin; Zhu, Jianghui; Liu, Zhaoping; Jiang, Dingguo; Xu, Haibin

    2018-01-01

    Background China has the world’s largest tea plantation area in the world. To sustain high yields of the tea, multiple pesticides are used on tea crops to control pests. Organophosphorus (OP) pesticides are among the most widely used types of agricultural pesticides in China. As tea is a significant potential source of exposure to pesticide residues, the public concern has increased in relation to pesticide residues found in tea in China. The aim of the study was to estimate cumulative dietar...

  18. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of Kombucha Beverages Prepared using Banana Peel, Common Nettles and Black Tea Infusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ebrahimi Pure

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds and Objective: Kombucha is a several thousand years old traditional fermented beverage originated from East. While black tea infusion is the common substrate for preparing kombucha, other herbal infusions can be applied for this reason too. Common medicinal herbs or even waste herbal materials, like banana peel, could be suitable substrates for preparing kombucha analogues. In this study, kombuchas were fermented using nettles leaf and banana peel infusions. Materials and Methods: Herbal infusions were fermented by kombucha fungi. Folin-Ciocalteu assay was performed to evaluate total phenolic contents; Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. Disk diffusion method was performed to measure inhibitory activity against testing bacteria. All data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA test at significant level of p≤0.05. Results and Conclusion: Black tea contained highest amount of phenolics (530.5 ppm gallic acid equivalent and fermentation decomposed approximately 50% of phenolic contents to 265.5 ppm while phenolic content of nettles infusion and fermented beverage were 173 gAE and 188 gAE respectively and for banana peel, 136.5 gAE and 155 gAE; it indicated increase of phenolic contents due to fermentation that may be cause of protein contents of nettles and banana peel gone under fermentation by lactic acid bacteria. Fermented beverage of three herbs had higher antioxidant potent than infusions. Kombucha from banana peel showed the highest antioxidant activity by inhibiting 94.62% of DPPH. While antioxidant activity of fermented beverages of black tea and nettles leaf were more related to their acetic acid content, it was found that a considerable part of antioxidant activity of banana peel kombucha was due to other acids and phenolics. No antibacterial activity was observed from either of samples. Banana peel, as a waste herbal material, and nettles leaf are good ingredients for being

  19. Antioxidant Capacity and Polyphenolic Composition as Quality Indicators for Aqueous Infusions of Salvia officinalis L. (sage tea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Stephan G; Tinzoh, Laura Ngaba; Zimmermann, Benno F; Stühlinger, Wolf; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2011-01-01

    Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) is used as an herbal medicinal product, with the most typical form of application as infusion with boiling water (sage tea). The well-established traditional uses include symptomatic treatment of mild dyspeptic complaints, the treatment of inflammations in the mouth and the throat, and relief of excessive sweating and relief of minor skin inflammations. In this study, sage teas prepared from commercially available products were chemically analyzed for polyphenolic content using liquid chromatography, for antioxidant potential using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity method, and for the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) index. The sage teas showed a high variation for all parameters studied (up to 20-fold differences for rosmarinic acid). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the antioxidant potential, which varied between 0.4 and 1.8 mmol trolox equivalents/100 mL, was highly dependent on rosmarinic acid and its derivatives. The FC index also showed a high correlation to these polyphenols, and could therefore be used as a screening parameter for sage tea quality. The considerable differences in polyphenolic composition and antioxidant capacity between the brands lead to a demand for quality standardization, especially if these sage teas are to be used for therapeutic purposes. Further research also appears to be necessary to characterize the dose-benefit relationship, as sage may also contain a constituent (thujone) with potentially adverse effects.

  20. Antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic composition as quality indicators for aqueous infusions of Salvia officinalis L. (sage tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan G Walch

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sage (Salvia officinalis L. is used as an herbal medicinal product, with the most typical form of application as infusion with boiling water (sage tea. The well-established traditional uses include symptomatic treatment of mild dyspeptic complaints, the treatment of inflammations in the mouth and the throat, and relief of excessive sweating and relief of minor skin inflammations. In this study, sage teas prepared from commercially available products were chemically analysed for polyphenolic content using liquid chromatography, for antioxidant potential using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC method, and for the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC index. The sage teas showed a high variation for all parameters studied (up to 20-fold differences for rosmarinic acid. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the antioxidant potential, which varied between 0.4 and 1.8 mmol trolox equivalents/100 mL, was highly dependent on rosmarinic acid and its derivatives. The FC index also showed a high correlation to these polyphenols, and could therefore be used as a screening parameter for sage tea quality. The considerable differences in polyphenolic composition and antioxidant capacity between the brands lead to a demand for quality standardisation, especially if these sage teas are to be used for therapeutic purposes. Further research also appears to be necessary to characterise the dose-benefit relationship, as sage may also contain a constituent (thujone with potentially adverse effects.

  1. Green tea infusion protects against alcoholic liver injury by attenuating inflammation and regulating the PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongxu; Gao, Qiang; Wang, Taotao; Zhao, Guangshan; Qian, Frank; Huang, Jinbao; Wang, Haisong; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Yijun

    2017-09-20

    Alcohol intake is a major risk factor for the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver diseases. Accumulating evidence suggests that green tea protects against alcoholic liver injury; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The present study investigated the role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the protective effects of green tea against alcohol-induced liver injury and inflammation. Ethanol was intragastrically administered to male C57BL/6 mice once a day, and the mice were allowed free access to green tea infusion or water for two weeks. We assessed the plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, hepatic contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, malondialdehyde and triglyceride and hepatic mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6). Our results showed that compared with water alone, green tea infusion markedly reduced liver damage, hepatic oxidative stress, hepatic lipid accumulation and inflammatory response. Green tea infusion also significantly reduced hepatic nuclear factor-κB expression and its downstream inflammatory mediators (inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2) mRNA levels in ethanol-treated mice. Additionally, green tea infusion significantly activated hepatic phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and phosphorylated protein kinase B (Akt), which are associated with the upregulation of phosphorylated eNOS expression and the increase of plasma nitric oxide levels in ethanol-treated mice. Furthermore, the protective effects of green tea infusion were considerably inhibited by the eNOS inhibitor N G -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester in ethanol-treated mice. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that the protective effects of green tea infusion on alcohol-induced liver injury and inflammation involve the modulation of the PI3K/AKT/eNOS pathway.

  2. Tea-induced calmness: Sugar-sweetened tea calms consumers exposed to acute stressor

    OpenAIRE

    Shilpa. S. Samant; Katherine Wilkes; Zephania Odek; Han-Seok Seo

    2016-01-01

    The food and beverage industry has been increasingly replacing sugar with non-nutritive sweeteners in their sweetened products to control or reduce total calories. Research comparing the effect of nutritive and non-nutritive sweeteners on emotional state of participants exposed to acute stressors is still limited. This study aimed to determine the effect of drinking tea sweetened with either a nutritive sweetener (sugar) or a non-nutritive sweetener (sucralose or stevia) on emotional state, i...

  3. A Strategy To Infuse a Global Perspective into Consumer Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Sue L. T.; Bourbonniere, Katherine

    2002-01-01

    A four-phase plan for delivering consumer education from a global perspective involves teachers in gaining familiarity with (1) the conventional approach to consumer education; (2) the cultures of globalization, capitalism, and consumerism; (3) the global perspective; and (4) integration of the three to create a global curriculum. (Contains 50…

  4. Theanine and Caffeine Content of Infusions Prepared from Commercial Tea Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Boros, Kl?ra; Jedlinszki, Nikoletta; Csupor, Dezs?

    2016-01-01

    Background: Caffeine and L-theanine are pharmacologically important constituents of tea, especially due to their effects on the central nervous system. The effects of these two compounds are opposite: While caffeine is a well-known stimulant, theanine has a relaxing effect. Tea processing may influence the caffeine and theanine content of tea leaves. Objective: The aim of our work was to quantify these constituents from a set of commercial products to reveal the possible correlations of caffe...

  5. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence applied to the chemical elements analysis of the mate tea infusion (Ilex-paraguariensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Fabio; Appoloni, Carlos R.; Cunha, Richard M. da Silva e; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do

    2002-01-01

    The purpose was to evaluate simultaneously the chemical element concentrations from K to Sr (19≤Z≤38) range in six samples of mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) infusion, commercially available in Paraguay and South of Brazil. The chemical analysis of this beverage has a great nutritional importance for the native people of these areas, due to their large daily consumption. For the determination of these elements the dry-ashing and total reflection X-rays fluorescence (TXRF) were used. The methodology showed limits of detection among 81 ng.mL-1 for K to 10 ng.mL -1 for Zn. Six infusion samples were prepared in triplicate, and the concentration was 3,8 to 10,2 μg.mL -1 for K, Ca and Mn, 0,21 to 1,07 μg. mL -1 for Fe and Zn and 0.03 to 0,17 μg.mL -1 for Ni, Cu, Br, Rb and Sr. The Mn and Ni concentrations are above the maximum permissible values for drinking water established by World Health Organization and Brazilian legislation (these organisms do not regulate the maximum permissible values for chemical elements in mate tea infusion). (author)

  6. Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties and Phenolic Composition of Fruit Tea Infusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliha Şahin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of fruit tea is increasing in the world because of its antioxidant properties and attractive taste. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the antioxidant property and phenolic composition of 16 different fruit teas. The antioxidant property and total phenol content of fruit teas depending on the extraction condition (water temperature were examined using the ABTS (2,2-azinobis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid] method and the Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. The contents of total flavonoid and total anthocyanin of fruit teas was determined by using the UV/Vis spectrophotometric method. The phenolic composition was determined and quantified by using high performance liquid chromatography and photodiode array detection (HPLC-PDA. The highest total phenol content and antioxidant capacity were determined in pomegranate (I. The highest contents of total flavonoid and total anthocyanin were determined in peach (III and blackberry (I, respectively. Chlorogenic acid, quercetin, myricetin, rutin, rosmarinic acid and ferulic acid were determined in fruit teas. A water temperature of 100 °C was the most effective to extract the highest contents of total phenols, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins and the highest antioxidant capacity in 16 different fruit teas. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of water temperature on the extraction and quantify the various phenolic compounds in fruit teas by HPLC method for industrial application in producing the extracts.

  7. Theanine and Caffeine Content of Infusions Prepared from Commercial Tea Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boros, Klára; Jedlinszki, Nikoletta; Csupor, Dezső

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine and L-theanine are pharmacologically important constituents of tea, especially due to their effects on the central nervous system. The effects of these two compounds are opposite: While caffeine is a well-known stimulant, theanine has a relaxing effect. Tea processing may influence the caffeine and theanine content of tea leaves. The aim of our work was to quantify these constituents from a set of commercial products to reveal the possible correlations of caffeine and theanine content and processing methods. Theanine and caffeine contents of 37 commercial white, green, oolong, black, and pu-erh tea samples were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector. The mean L-theanine content of white, green, oolong, and black teas were 6.26, 6.56, 6.09, and 5.13 mg/g, respectively. The same values for caffeine content were 16.79, 16.28, 19.31, and 17.73 mg/g. Though the effect of processing on theanine content was evident, quantification for these analytes does not seem to be a good criterion to discriminate the different types of tea. Caffeine content provided no information on the effect of processing, and the theanine content of the samples was rather variable, independently from the type of the tea. The quantitative analysis of caffeine and theanine is essential to assess the stimulating effect of the tea, however, for chemical profiling further secondary metabolites have to be determined. Thirty-seven commercial white, green, oolong, black, and pu-erh tea samples were analyzed for caffeine and theanine contentWhile the caffeine content was similar, the theanine contents of black teas were slightly lower and practically zero in pu-erhThe great variability of these two compound within the tea categories allows no discrimination of tea types based solely on theanine and caffeine quantificationContrary to the previous data, the way of processing has no determining effect on theanine content. FigureAbbreviations used: CZE: Capillary

  8. Effect of Additional Information on Consumer Acceptance: An Example with Pomegranate Juice and Green Tea Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Higa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pomegranate Juice (PJ and Green Tea (GT products have increased in popularity because of their beneficial health properties. Consumers look for healthier beverages, and rely on labels, claims, and product packaging when choosing a product. The objectives of this study were to determine (1 the sensory profiles and acceptance of PJ and GT blends; (2 whether additional information would have an effect on consumer acceptance; and (3 the total phenolic content (TPC of the samples. Six PJ and GT blends were evaluated by a descriptive panel in order to explore sensory differences in flavor characteristics. A consumer panel (n = 100 evaluated the samples before and after beneficial health information about the samples was provided to them. The blends that were higher in tea concentration were higher in Green and GT-like flavors, and lower in berry, beet, floral, sweetness, and cherry flavors. The overall liking scores of all of the samples increased after the information was provided to the consumers. The sample highest in PJ and lowest in GT blend was liked the most. In addition, as the samples increased in PJ, the TPC content increased. These results may be of interest to the beverage industry, providing information of consumer liking of beverage blends, and how information on health related claims affects consumer acceptance.

  9. Concentrations and solubility of selected trace metals in leaf and bagged black teas commercialized in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Polechońska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals in bagged and leaf black teas of the same brand and evaluate the percentage transfer of metals to tea infusion to assess the consumer exposure. Ten leaf black teas and 10 bagged black teas of the same brand available in Poland were analyzed for Zn, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Co, Cr, Al, and Fe concentrations both in dry material and their infusion. The bagged teas contained higher amounts of Pb, Mn, Fe, Ni, Al, and Cr compared with leaf teas of the same brand, whereas the infusions of bagged tea contained higher levels of Mn, Ni, Al, and Cr compared with leaf tea infusions. Generally, the most abundant trace metals in both types of tea were Al and Mn. There was a wide variation in percentage transfer of elements from the dry tea materials to the infusions. The solubility of Ni and Mn was the highest, whereas Fe was insoluble and only a small portion of this metal content may leach into infusion. With respect to the acceptable daily intake of metals, the infusions of both bagged and leaf teas analyzed were found to be safe for human consumption.

  10. Statement on the risks for human health related to the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in honey, tea, herbal infusions and food supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    EFSA was asked by the European Commission to deliver a scientific opinion on the risks for human health related to the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in honey, tea, herbal infusions and food supplements and to identify the PAs of relevance in the aforementioned food commodities...

  11. Monitoring of Some Pesticides Residue in Consumed tea in Tehran Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Amirahmadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea is an agricultural product of the leaves, leaf buds, and internodes of various cultivars and sub-varieties of the Camellia sinensis plant, processed and vulcanized using various methods. Tea is a main beverage in Iranian food basket so should be free from toxic elements such as pesticides residue. There is no data bank on the residue of pesticides in the consumed black tea in Iran. The present study is the first attempt for monitoring of 25 pesticide residues from different chemical groups in tea samples obtained from local markets in Tehran, I.R. Iran during the period 2011. A reliable and accurate method based on spiked calibration curve and QuEChERS sample preparation was developed for determination of pesticide residues in tea by gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The using of spiked calibration standards for constructing the calibration curve substantially reduced adverse matrix-related effects and negative recovery affected by GCB on pesticides. The recovery of pesticides at 3 concentration levels (n = 3 was in range of 81.4 - 99.4%. The method was proved to be repeatable with RSDr lower than 20%. The limits of quantification for all pesticides were <=20 ng/g. 53 samples from 17 imported and manufactured brand were analyzed. Detectable pesticides residues were found in 28.3% (15 samples of the samples. All of the positive samples were contaminated with unregulated pesticides (Endosulfan Sulfate or Bifenthrin which are established by ISIRI. None of the samples had contamination higher than maximum residue limit set by EU and India.

  12. Monitoring of some pesticides residue in consumed tea in Tehran market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamedani Morteza Pirali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tea is an agricultural product of the leaves, leaf buds, and internodes of various cultivars and sub-varieties of the Camellia sinensis plant, processed and vulcanized using various methods. Tea is a main beverage in Iranian food basket so should be free from toxic elements such as pesticides residue. There is no data bank on the residue of pesticides in the consumed black tea in Iran. The present study is the first attempt for monitoring of 25 pesticide residues from different chemical groups in tea samples obtained from local markets in Tehran, I.R. Iran during the period 2011. A reliable and accurate method based on spiked calibration curve and QuEChERS sample preparation was developed for determination of pesticide residues in tea by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The using of spiked calibration standards for constructing the calibration curve substantially reduced adverse matrix-related effects and negative recovery affected by GCB on pesticides. The recovery of pesticides at 3 concentration levels (n = 3 was in range of 81.4 - 99.4%. The method was proved to be repeatable with RSDr lower than 20%. The limits of quantification for all pesticides were ≤20 ng/g. 53 samples from 17 imported and manufactured brand were analyzed. Detectable pesticides residues were found in 28.3% (15 samples of the samples. All of the positive samples were contaminated with unregulated pesticides (Endosulfan Sulfate or Bifenthrin which are established by ISIRI. None of the samples had contamination higher than maximum residue limit set by EU and India.

  13. Effect of Consuming Tea with Stevia on Salivary pH - An In Vivo Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallepati, Akhil; Yavagal, Puja; Veeresh, D J

    To assess the effect of consuming tea with stevia on salivary pH. This randomised controlled trial employed a Latin square design. Twenty-four male students aged 20-23 years were randomly allocated to 4 different groups, 3 experimental with tea sweetened by sucrose, jaggery or stevia, and one unsweetened control. Salivary pH assessments were performed at baseline and 1 min, 20 and 60 min after consumption of the respective tea. One-way ANOVA and repeated measures ANOVA followed by Tukey's post-hoc tests were employed to analyse the data. One minute after tea consumption, the salivary pH of the sucrose group significantly decreased compared to the stevia group (p = 0.01). There was a significant difference between baseline mean salivary pH and post-interventional mean salivary pH values at all time intervals in the tea + sucrose, tea + jaggery, and plain tea groups (p stevia and plain tea groups, but it remained lower in the sucrose and jaggery groups. The results of the present study, in which the salivary pH values returned to baseline pH 1 h after drinking stevia-sweetened tea, suggest stevia's potential as a non-cariogenic sweetener.

  14. Antimicrobial activities of widely consumed herbal teas, alone or in combination with antibiotics: an in vitro study

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    Mayram Hacioglu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Because of increasing antibiotic resistance, herbal teas are the most popular natural alternatives for the treatment of infectious diseases, and are currently gaining more importance. We examined the antimicrobial activities of 31 herbal teas both alone and in combination with antibiotics or antifungals against some standard and clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, methicillin susceptible/resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Methods The antimicrobial activities of the teas were determined by using the disk diffusion and microbroth dilution methods, and the combination studies were examined by using the microbroth checkerboard and the time killing curve methods. Results Rosehip, rosehip bag, pomegranate blossom, thyme, wormwood, mint, echinacea bag, cinnamon, black, and green teas were active against most of the studied microorganisms. In the combination studies, we characterized all the expected effects (synergistic, additive, and antagonistic between the teas and the antimicrobials. While synergy was observed more frequently between ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, or nystatine, and the various tea combinations, most of the effects between the ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, cefuroxime, or amikacin and various tea combinations, particularly rosehip, rosehip bag, and pomegranate blossom teas, were antagonistic. The results of the time kill curve analyses showed that none of the herbal teas were bactericidal in their usage concentrations; however, in combination with antibiotics they showed some bactericidal effect. Discussion Some herbal teas, particularly rosehip and pomegranate blossom should be avoided because of their antagonistic interactions with some antibiotics during the course of antibiotic treatment or they should be consumed alone for their antimicrobial activities.

  15. Use of different buffers for detection and separation in determination of physio-active components in oolong tea infusion by CZE with amperometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Li, Zicheng; Zhu, Jinkun; Wang, Qingjiang; He, Pingang; Fang, Yuzhi

    2010-05-01

    With a view of simultaneous determination of physio-active ingredients in oolong tea infusion: sugars, amino acids, epigallocatechin gallate and ascorbic acid, a novel CZE with amperometric detection method was studied. Operated in a wall-jet configuration, 100 mmol/L NaOH was used in detecting cell to lead the electrocatalysis oxidation behaviors of the analytes on a 300 mum diameter copper-disc electrode (working electrode), while in separating capillary, a mild alkaline running buffer consisting in a mixture of 30 mmol/L borate and 40 mmol/L phosphates charged and carried analytes to detecting end. The methodology research was performed for system stability and suitability. Under the optimal CE conditions, analytes could be separated within moderate time period. Good linearity between peak area and concentration existed over three orders of magnitude; lower RSD and LOD were achieved. The oolong tea infusion was assayed and result was satisfactory.

  16. Safety assessment of green tea based beverages and dried green tea extracts as nutritional supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekant, Wolfgang; Fujii, Kenkichi; Shibata, Eiichiro; Morita, Osamu; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2017-08-05

    The safety of green tea infusions and green tea extract (GTE)-based products is reviewed regarding catechins. Epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), the major catechin present in green tea, is suspected of being responsible for liver toxicity reported in humans consuming food supplements. Intake of EGCG with green tea infusions and GTE-based beverages is up to about 450mg EGCG/person/day in Europe and higher in Asia. Consumption of green tea is not associated with liver damage in humans, and green tea infusion and GTE-based beverages are considered safe in the range of historical uses. In animal studies, EGCG's potency for liver effects is highly dependent on conditions of administration. Use of NOAELs from bolus administration to derive a tolerable upper intake level applying the margin of safety concept results in acceptable EGCG-doses lower than those from one cup of green tea. NOAELs from toxicity studies applying EGCG with diet/split of the daily dose are a better point of departure for risk characterization. In clinical intervention studies, liver effects were not observed after intakes below 600mg EGCG/person/day. Thus, a tolerable upper intake level of 300mg EGCG/person/day is proposed for food supplements; this gives a twofold safety margin to clinical studies that did not report liver effects and a margin of safety of 100 to the NOAELs in animal studies with dietary administration of green tea catechins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Consumer exposure to certain ingredients of cosmetic products: The case for tea tree oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Bernhard O

    2017-10-01

    Reliable exposure data are essential to evaluate the safety of ingredients in cosmetics. The study reported here was carried out on behalf of the Australian Tea Tree Industry Association in order to support safety assessment of TTO in consumer cosmetic products. Data regarding the use of TTO-containing cosmetic products were collected through a web-survey among 2535 qualified users of validated TTO-containing cosmetics in 5 European countries. Data regarding the percentage of TTO present in the individual products (TTO-inclusion) were collected from the suppliers of those products. Beyond TTO exposure-measures there were several significant findings: One is a special "TTO-effect" for several categories of TTO-containing cosmetic products showing a positive correlation between consumers' strength of TTO-orientation and frequency of product use, combined with a negative correlation between frequency of product use and amount of product used per application. Another is significant differences regarding the intensity of product use between TTO-containing cosmetics and respective types of products in general. Thus it seems not to be appropriate to evaluate the toxicological safety of certain ingredients of cosmetic products from exposure data on "generic" types of cosmetic products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Enrichment of Biscuits with Matcha Green Tea Powder: Its Impact on Consumer Acceptability and Acute Metabolic Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjapor Phongnarisorn

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Matcha green tea powder (MGTP is made with finely ground green tea leaves that are rich in phytochemicals, most particularly catechins. Shortbread biscuits were enriched with MGTP and evaluated for consumer acceptability and potential functional health properties. Baking decreased the content of total catechins by 19% compared to dough, although epimerization increased the amount of (+-gallocatechin gallate at the expense of other catechins such as (−-epigallocatechin gallate. Consumer acceptability tests using a 9-point hedonic scale showed that consumers preferred enriched biscuits with low content of MGTP (2 g of MGTP 100 g−1 of flour, and an increase of sugar content did not significantly improve the acceptability of MGTP-enriched biscuits. Overall, enrichment of biscuits with MGTP did not significantly affect the postprandial glucose or triglyceride response (area under curve compared to non-enriched biscuits consumed with water or MGTP drink. Enriching biscuits with Matcha green tea is acceptable to consumers, but may not bring significant postprandial effects.

  19. Use of headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to liquid chromatography for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tea infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viñas, Pilar; Campillo, Natalia; Aguinaga, Nerea; Pérez-Cánovas, Eva; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

    2007-09-14

    A sensitive and solvent-free procedure for the determination of 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tea infusions using headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection is described. A medium polarity polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene 60 microm fiber was found to be suitable for extraction at 90 degrees C and with an extraction time of 60 min under continuous stirring. Desorption was carried out using the static mode for 5 min. Under the optimized conditions, when 1.75 g of tea sample were extracted with boiling water, the precision ranged from 4 to 16% (RSD) and detection limits were between 4 and 145 ngL(-1), depending on the compound. The reliability of the procedure was corroborated by means of GC-MS. The results obtained for a standard reference material were within the range indicated by the supplier.

  20. The effects of essential oils and aqueous tea infusions of oregano (Origanum vulgare L. spp. hirtum), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and wild thyme (Thymus serpyllum L.) on the copper-induced oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulisić, Tea; Krisko, Anita; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica; Milos, Mladen; Pifat, Greta

    2007-03-01

    In this study, the antioxidative capacity effect of essential oils and aqueous tea infusions obtained from oregano, thyme and wild thyme on the oxidation susceptibility of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) has been studied. The results indicate a dose-dependent protective effect of the tested essential oils and aqueous tea infusions on the copper-induced LDL oxidation. The protective effect of essential oils is assigned to the presence of phenolic monoterpenes, thymol and carvacrol, which are identified as the dominant compounds in these essential oils. The strong protective effect of aqueous tea infusions is proposed to be the consequence of large amounts of polyphenols, namely rosmarinic acid and flavonoids (quercetin, eriocitrin, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin, apigenin), with the most pronounced effect in the case of oregano. These findings may have implications for the effect of these compounds on LDL in vivo.

  1. A Balanced Risk-Benefit Analysis to Determine Human Risks Associated with Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids (PA)-The Case of Tea and Herbal Infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habs, Michael; Binder, Karin; Krauss, Stefan; Müller, Karolina; Ernst, Brigitte; Valentini, Luzia; Koller, Michael

    2017-07-07

    Humans are exposed to pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) through different sources, mainly from contaminated foodstuff. Teas and herbal infusions (T&HI) can be contaminated by PA producing weed. PA can possess toxic, mutagenic, genotoxic, and carcinogenic properties. Thus, possible health risks for the general population are under debate. There is a strong safety record for T&HI and additionally epidemiological evidence for the preventive effects of regular tea consumption on cardiovascular events and certain types of cancer. There is no epidemiological evidence, however, for human risks of regular low dose PA exposure. Recommended regulatory PA-threshold values are based on experimental data only, accepting big uncertainties. If a general risk exists through PA contaminated T&HI, it must be small compared to other frequently accepted risks of daily living and the proven health effects of T&HI. Decision making should be based on a balanced riskbenefit analysis. Based on analyses of the scientific data currently available, it is concluded that the benefits of drinking T&HI clearly outweigh the negligible health risk of possible PA contamination. At the same time, manufacturers must continue their efforts to secure good product quality and to be transparent on their measures of quality control and risk communication.

  2. A Balanced Risk–Benefit Analysis to Determine Human Risks Associated with Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids (PA)—The Case of Tea and Herbal Infusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habs, Michael; Binder, Karin; Krauss, Stefan; Müller, Karolina; Ernst, Brigitte; Valentini, Luzia; Koller, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Humans are exposed to pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) through different sources, mainly from contaminated foodstuff. Teas and herbal infusions (T&HI) can be contaminated by PA producing weed. PA can possess toxic, mutagenic, genotoxic, and carcinogenic properties. Thus, possible health risks for the general population are under debate. There is a strong safety record for T&HI and additionally epidemiological evidence for the preventive effects of regular tea consumption on cardiovascular events and certain types of cancer. There is no epidemiological evidence, however, for human risks of regular low dose PA exposure. Recommended regulatory PA-threshold values are based on experimental data only, accepting big uncertainties. If a general risk exists through PA contaminated T&HI, it must be small compared to other frequently accepted risks of daily living and the proven health effects of T&HI. Decision making should be based on a balanced riskbenefit analysis. Based on analyses of the scientific data currently available, it is concluded that the benefits of drinking T&HI clearly outweigh the negligible health risk of possible PA contamination. At the same time, manufacturers must continue their efforts to secure good product quality and to be transparent on their measures of quality control and risk communication. PMID:28686224

  3. A Balanced Risk–Benefit Analysis to Determine Human Risks Associated with Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids (PA—The Case of Tea and Herbal Infusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Habs

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Humans are exposed to pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA through different sources, mainly from contaminated foodstuff. Teas and herbal infusions (T&HI can be contaminated by PA producing weed. PA can possess toxic, mutagenic, genotoxic, and carcinogenic properties. Thus, possible health risks for the general population are under debate. There is a strong safety record for T&HI and additionally epidemiological evidence for the preventive effects of regular tea consumption on cardiovascular events and certain types of cancer. There is no epidemiological evidence, however, for human risks of regular low dose PA exposure. Recommended regulatory PA-threshold values are based on experimental data only, accepting big uncertainties. If a general risk exists through PA contaminated T&HI, it must be small compared to other frequently accepted risks of daily living and the proven health effects of T&HI. Decision making should be based on a balanced riskbenefit analysis. Based on analyses of the scientific data currently available, it is concluded that the benefits of drinking T&HI clearly outweigh the negligible health risk of possible PA contamination. At the same time, manufacturers must continue their efforts to secure good product quality and to be transparent on their measures of quality control and risk communication.

  4. Time-dependent extraction kinetics of infused components of different Indian black tea types using UV spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asir Gani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Time-dependent aqueous extraction of six tea types was carried out with leaf–water–ratio of 0.5 g/100 ml, temperature of extraction 90°C and time of extraction ranging from 1 to 10 min. UV–vis spectroscopic analysis in the range varying from 220 to 900 nm of the aqueous tea extracts showed a prominent peak at 273 nm in the ultraviolet region which can be associated with n → π* electronic transition of caffeine molecules. Parabolic diffusion, Power law, hyperbolic, Weibull’s and Elovich’s models were fitted to represent the aqueous soluble component extraction behaviour for time-dependent extraction of aqueous extractables. Parabolic diffusion model, Power law and Elovich’s model were a close fit to the experimental data for all the selected tea types with correlation coefficients (R2 ranging 0.8029–0.9953, whereas hyperbolic and Weibull’s models showed poor fitness to represent the extraction behaviour of fanning and AO leaf, LD, fanning and dust, respectively, with R2 < 0.8, for time-dependent aqueous soluble component extraction.

  5. Rapid analysis of fungicides in tea infusions using ionic liquid immobilized fabric phase sorptive extraction with the assistance of surfactant fungicides analysis using IL-FPSE assisted with surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Miyi; Gu, Yihan; Wu, Xiaoling; Xi, Xuefei; Yang, Xiaoling; Zhou, Wenfeng; Zeng, Haozhe; Zhang, Sanbing; Lu, Runhua; Gao, Haixiang; Li, Jing

    2018-01-15

    A green, simple, inexpensive, and sensitive ionic liquid immobilized fabric phase sorptive extraction method coupled with high performance liquid chromatography was developed for rapid screening and simultaneous determination of four fungicides (azoxystrobin, chlorothalonil, cyprodinil and trifloxystrobin) residues in tea infusions. This IL modified extraction fiber is capable of extracting target analytes directly from complicated tea water matrices with the addition of surfactant. A series of extraction conditions were investigated by one-factor-at-a-time approach and orthogonal test. After a series experiments, the optimum conditions were found to be 10% [HIMIM]NTf 2 as coating solution, 2min vortex time, 500μL acetonitrile as dispersive solvent and 2min desorption time. Under the above conditions, the proposed technique was applied to detect fungicides from real tea water samples with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Tea Infusions Samples by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Fluorimetric Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Girelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the contamination of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency, in 10 tea brands distributed in Italy. Analyses were carried out with a procedure based on saponification, liquid-liquid extraction, and PAHs determination by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector. A comparison with ultrasonic extraction in bath water was also reported. Contamination is expressed as the sum of analyzed PAHs and ranged between 347 and 4120 ng/L with a mean value of 1675 ng/L. PAHs with 3-4 rings were dominant with a contribution of 92%, while 7% and 1% were found for PAHs with 5 and 6 rings, respectively. Moreover, data revealed that three samples exceeded the EU 2008 criteria established for drinking water in which the sum of benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene is considered (<100 ng/L and two samples exceeded the 10 ng/L level allowed for benzo[a]pyrene.

  7. Polyphenol Bioaccessibility and Sugar Reducing Capacity of Black, Green, and White Teas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Coe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis is a widely consumed beverage and recognised for its potential enhancing effect on human health due to its rich polyphenol content. While a number of studies have investigated the quantity and type of polyphenols present in different tea samples, no study has reported the potential effect of digestive enzymes on the availability of tea polyphenols for human absorption or the subsequent impact on glycaemic response. The objectives of the present study were to assess the total polyphenol content of different teas, to assess the bioaccessibility of polyphenols in whole and bagged teas, and to determine the effect of black, white, and green tea infusions on sugar release. All of the teas were a significant source of polyphenols (10–116 mg Gallic acid equivalents/g. There was an overall increase in the release of polyphenols from both the bagged and the whole teas following in vitro digestion. Bagged green tea significantly ( reduced rapidly digestible starch from white bread samples compared to control and black and white bagged teas. The present study confirms that tea is a rich source of polyphenols and highlights the potential benefits it may have on modulating glycaemic response in humans.

  8. Effect of methylxanthines (coffee/tea consumers) on oral precancer and oral cancer patients with smoking and smokeless tobacco habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubairy, Yasmeen F; Patil, Vinayak W; Benjamin, Tabita; Jangam, Daya; Bijle, Mohammed Nadeem Ahmed; Patil, Shankargouda

    2012-11-01

    To study, whether the consumption of regular tea/coffee (methylxanthines) increases the risk of oral cancer in patients with smoking and smokeless tobacco habits. This study was conducted on a total of 90 oral cancer and precancerous patients, from western Maharashtra (India) males in the age group of 20 to 45 years who were with smoking and smokeless tobacco habits; also regular tea/coffee consumers were subjected to biochemical parameters such as aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) from saliva and serum of patients with oral precancer (submucous fibrosis, leukoplakia) and oral cancer patients and compared with 90-age and sex-matched controls. Individuals consent was taken to measure their biochemical parameters, by using Hafkenscheid method in whole saliva and serum. Statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey's correction for multiple group comparisons was performed using Student t-test. Results show, that a statistically significant increase in value (p < 0.05) in ALT, AST in both saliva and serum was observed in precancerous and oral cancer patients among the study group as compared to the control group. In the present study, there was increase in the levels of ALT, AST enzymes in both saliva and serum levels in the study group as compared to the control group which was statistically significant (p < 0.05) suggesting that long-term exposure of methylxanthines results in impairment of salivary gland antioxidant system which may affect the anticarcinogenic action of saliva. Oral fluids may be utilized effectively to study the variations in the biochemical constituents of saliva of leukoplakia, submucous fibrosis and oral cancer patients.

  9. Kinetic evaluation of black tea color index and determination of factors, which influence its by UV/Vis spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikpour, A. R.; Bahmaei, H.; Samimei, H.; Sohrabi, M. R.

    2002-01-01

    The tea is the most important product that is widely consumed in the world. Its color is one of the basic parameter. It is known that the best color of an infusion of black tea is a bright orange-red color. [1] Rates of color extraction and amount of its extract are also important in tea quality. Various methods have been reported for this purpose which are mainly time consumable. In this research, absorbance at 480 nm is used (instate of total spectrum) as a fast and convent color index. The experiments have shown that this proposed method have good results. Effects of various factors on the color of an infusion of black tea was investigated; including: leaf size, temperature, ph, total dissolved solid and water hardness. Finally, its kinetic diagrams were determined which give

  10. Detection of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in German licensed herbal medicinal teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, M; Meins, J; Diemert, S; Zagermann-Muncke, P; Goebel, R; Schrenk, D; Schubert-Zsilavecz, M; Abdel-Tawab, M

    2015-06-01

    Because of the hepatotoxic, mutagenic, and cancerogenic effects of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) recommends not to exceed a daily PA intake of 0.007 µg/kg body weight (0.42 µg/60 kg adult). In a recent study conducted by the BfR, up to 5647 µg PA/kg dried herbal material were detected in tea products marketed as food. The present study aimed at elucidating whether medicinal teas licensed or registered as medicinal products contain PAs as well. One hundred sixty-nine different commercially available medicinal teas, i.e. 19 nettle (Urtica dioica L.), 12 fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), 14 chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), 11 melissa (Melissa officinalis L.) and 4 peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) teas as well as 109 tea mixtures were analyzed for the presence of 23 commercially available PAs. LC/MS was used for the determination of the PAs In general, the total PA contents ranging 0-5668 µg/kg. Thirty percent of the tested single-ingredient tea products and 56.9% of the tested medicinal tea mixtures were found to contain PA concentrations above the limit of quantification (LOQ) of 10 µg/kg. In 11 medicinal teas PA contents >300 µg/kg dry herb were determined thus exceeding the recommended limit for PA intake by BfR. In addition three products of the investigated tea mixtures revealed extremely high PA contents of 4227, 5137, and 5668 µg/kg. Generally, single-ingredient tea products contained much less or even no detectable amounts of PAs when compared to the tea mixtures. PAs in the range between 13 and 1080 µg/kg were also detected in five analyzed aqueous herbal infusions of the medicinal tea mixture products with the highest PA content. Two out of the five investigated herbal infusions exceeded the recommended BfR limit for PA intake. This study demonstrates clearly that also medicinal teas licensed as medicinal products may partly contain high amounts of PAs exceeding current recommendations. For

  11. Development of a partial least squares-artificial neural network (PLS-ANN) hybrid model for the prediction of consumer liking scores of ready-to-drink green tea beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peigen; Low, Mei Yin; Zhou, Weibiao

    2018-01-01

    In order to develop products that would be preferred by consumers, the effects of the chemical compositions of ready-to-drink green tea beverages on consumer liking were studied through regression analyses. Green tea model systems were prepared by dosing solutions of 0.1% green tea extract with differing concentrations of eight flavour keys deemed to be important for green tea aroma and taste, based on a D-optimal experimental design, before undergoing commercial sterilisation. Sensory evaluation of the green tea model system was carried out using an untrained consumer panel to obtain hedonic liking scores of the samples. Regression models were subsequently trained to objectively predict the consumer liking scores of the green tea model systems. A linear partial least squares (PLS) regression model was developed to describe the effects of the eight flavour keys on consumer liking, with a coefficient of determination (R 2 ) of 0.733, and a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 3.53%. The PLS model was further augmented with an artificial neural network (ANN) to establish a PLS-ANN hybrid model. The established hybrid model was found to give a better prediction of consumer liking scores, based on its R 2 (0.875) and RMSE (2.41%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity of Aidia borneensis leaf infusion, an endemic plant in Brunei Darussalam

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    Metussin, N.,

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the total antioxidant capacity of Aidia borneensis leaf infusion, a Bornean endemic plant, which is traditionally consumed as a home-remedy beverage in Brunei Darussalam. The antioxidant capacity of the infusion of A. borneensis leaves was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging ability. We found that the infusion shows a relatively high antioxidant capacity, and it was attributed to its high phenolic, flavonoid, and flavanol contents which were evaluated by Folin–Ciocalteu reagent, colorimetric assay, and aluminum chloride colorimetric method, respectively. By comparing its total antioxidant capacity, we estimated that the infusion of A. borneensis leaves is in the middle rank among twelve different commercially available Camellia sinensis teas. Our findings would have significant implications on A. borneensis products from Brunei Darussalam and on the feasibility of establishing this new beverage among the commercially available conventional C. sinensis and herbal teas.

  13. Small intestinal digestion of raw cornstarch in cattle consuming a soybean hull-based diet is improved by duodenal casein infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brake, D W; Titgemeyer, E C; Bailey, E A; Anderson, D E

    2014-09-01

    Six duodenally and ileally cannulated steers were used in 3 sequential studies to measure 1) basal nutrient flows from a soybean hull-based diet, 2) small intestinal digestibility of raw cornstarch continuously infused into the duodenum, and 3) responses of small intestinal starch digestion to duodenal infusion of 200 or 400 g/d casein. Our objective was to evaluate responses in small intestinal starch digestion in cattle over time and to measure responses in small intestinal starch digestion to increasing amounts of MP. On average, cattle consumed 3.7 kg/d DM, 68 g/d dietary N, and 70 g/d dietary starch. Starch flow to the duodenum was small (38 g/d), and N flow was 91 g/d. Small intestinal digestibility of duodenal N was 57%, and small intestinal digestion of duodenal starch flow was extensive (92%). Small intestinal starch digestibility was 34% when 1.5 kg/d raw cornstarch was continuously infused into the duodenum. Subsequently, cattle were placed in 1 of 2 replicated Latin squares that were balanced for carryover effects to determine response to casein infusions and time required for adaptation. Duodenal infusion of casein linearly increased (P ≤ 0.05) small intestinal starch digestibility, and small intestinal starch digestion adapted to infusion of casein in 6 d. Ethanol-soluble starch and unpolymerized glucose flowing to the ileum increased linearly (P ≤ 0.05) with increasing infusion of casein. Plasma cholecystokinin was not affected by casein infusion, but circulating levels of glucose were increased by casein supplementation (P ≤ 0.05). Responses in small intestinal starch digestion in cattle adapted to casein within 6 d, and increases in duodenal supply of casein up to 400 g/d increased small intestinal starch digestion in cattle.

  14. Production, Composition, and Health Effects of Oolong Tea

    OpenAIRE

    İlkay Koca; Şeyda Bostancı

    2014-01-01

    Tea, one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world, is produced from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis L.. Tea has important physiological properties and potential health benefits due to the presence of compounds such as polyphenols, amino acids, vitamins, carbohydrates, caffeine, and purine alkaloids. Tea is produced in three types as green tea (unfermented), oolong tea (partially fermented), and black tea (fully fermented). Black tea is consumed worldwide, whereas green and...

  15. Antioxidants and sensory properties of the infusions of wild passiflora from Brazilian savannah: potential as functional beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineli, Lívia de L de O; Rodrigues, Juliana da S Q; Costa, Ana M; de Lima, Herbert C; Chiarello, Marileusa D; Melo, Lauro

    2015-05-01

    The study of biodiversity for species recovery and sustainable use has encouraged research with plants from Brazilian savannah. We aimed to characterize chemical and sensory properties of infusions of passifloras, due to their potential as functional beverages. Infusions and hydroalcoholic extracts of four species of wild passifloras, three varieties of Passiflora edulis and a commercial passiflora tea were evaluated for total phenolics (TPs), total flavonoids (TFs), condensed tannins (CTs), and antioxidant activity (DPPH and FRAP). Free-choice Profile and acceptance, compared with green tea, were performed for sensory characterization. In general, infusions had higher levels of TPs and CTs than hydroalcoholic extracts, which in turn had higher levels of TFs. Infusion of P. nitida showed higher amounts of TPs and antioxidant activity. Acceptance of passiflora infusions was similar or higher than that of green tea, except for P. alata. P. setacea presented a sensory profile similar to other commercial teas and higher acceptance by a group of consumers. Passiflora infusions showed different degrees of suitability as acceptable functional beverage. Identification of phenolics and other bitter compounds is needed to understand the intense bitterness of P. alata, as it did not present the highest contents of TPs, CTs and TFs. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Effect of increasing levels of zinc fortificant on the iron absorption of bread co-fortified with iron and zinc consumed with a black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Manuel; Castro, Carla; Pizarro, Fernando; de Romaña, Daniel López

    2013-09-01

    Iron (Fe) and zinc's (Zn) interaction at the absorptive level can have an effect on the success of co-fortification of wheat flour with both minerals on iron deficiency prevention. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of increasing levels of zinc fortificant on the iron absorption of bread co-fortified with iron and zinc consumed with a black tea. Twelve women aged 33-42 years participated in the study. They received on four different days 200 mL of black tea and 100 g of bread made with wheat flour (70% extraction) fortified with either 30 mg Fe/kg alone, as ferrous sulfate (A), or with the same Fe-fortified flour, but with graded levels of Zn, as zinc sulfate: 30 mg/kg (B), 60 mg/kg (C), or 90 mg/kg (D). Fe radioisotopes ((59)Fe and (55)Fe) of high specific activity were used as tracers, and Fe absorption iron was measured by the incorporation of radioactive Fe into erythrocytes. The geometric mean and range of ±1 SD of Fe absorption were as follows: A = 6.5% (2.2-19.3%), B = 4.6% (1.0-21.0%), C = 2.1% (0.9-4.9%), and D = 2.2% (0.7-6.6%), respectively; ANOVA for repeated measures F = 10.9, p flour fortified with 30 mg/kg of Fe, as ferrous sulfate, and co-fortified with zinc, as zinc sulfate consumed with black tea is significantly decreased at a zinc fortification level of ≥60 mg/kg flour.

  17. Quantum-Dot-Based Lateral Flow Immunoassay for Detection of Neonicotinoid Residues in Tea Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuangjie; Liu, Ying; Jiao, Shasha; Zhao, Ying; Guo, Yirong; Wang, Mengcen; Zhu, Guonian

    2017-11-22

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are commonly used for pest control on tea plantations as a result of their broad-spectrum activity. However, neonicotinoid residues released from tea leaves into tea infusions pose a dietary risk to consumers. Therefore, a rapid, sensitive, and reliable on-site detection method for neonicotinoids is needed. We developed a quantum-dot-based fluorescent lateral flow immunochromatographic strip (LFICS) combined with a broad-specific antibody for detection of typical neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, imidaclothiz, and clothianidin), with sensitivities [50% inhibitory concentration (IC 50 )] of 0.104-0.33 ng/mL and visual detection limits of 0.5-1 ng/mL. The strip assay could be completed in less than 30 min. Using the LFICS to analyze spiked tea samples (green tea, black tea, and oolong tea), the average recovery of the three neonicotinoids ranged between 71 and 111%, with the coefficient of variation below 12%. The results from the LFICS tests for field samples were consistent with results from ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The newly developed strip is a useful tool for the on-site detection of neonicotinoid residues in tea.

  18. Chemical profiling of infusions and decoctions of Helichrysum italicum subsp. picardii by UHPLC-PDA-MS and in vitro biological activities comparatively with green tea (Camellia sinensis) and rooibos tisane (Aspalathus linearis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Catarina Guerreiro; Barreira, Luísa; Bijttebier, Sebastiaan; Pieters, Luc; Neves, Vanessa; Rodrigues, Maria João; Rivas, Ricardo; Varela, João; Custódio, Luísa

    2017-10-25

    Several medicinal plants are currently used by the food industry as functional additives, for example botanical extracts in herbal drinks. Moreover, the scientific community has recently begun focusing on halophytes as sources of functional beverages. Helichrysum italicum subsp. picardii (everlasting) is an aromatic halophyte common in southern Europe frequently used as spice and in traditional medicine. In this context, this work explored for the first time H. italicum subsp. picardii as a potential source of innovative herbal beverages with potential health promoting properties. For that purpose, infusions and decoctions were prepared from roots, vegetative aerial-organs (stems and leaves) and flowers and evaluated for in vitro antioxidant and anti-diabetic activities. Samples were also assessed for toxicity in different mammalian cell lines and chemically characterized by spectrophotometric methods and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-mass-spectrometry (UHPLC-PDA-MS). Results were expressed relating to 'a cup-of-tea' and compared with those obtained with green tea (Camellia sinensis) and rooibos tisane (Aspalathus linearis). Tisanes from the everlasting's above-ground organs, particularly flowers, have high polyphenolic content and several phenolics were identified; the main compounds were chlorogenic and quinic acids, dicaffeoylquinic-acid isomers and gnaphaliin-A. The antioxidant activity of beverages from the everlasting's above-ground organs matched or surpassed that of green tea and rooibos. Its anti-diabetic activity was moderate and toxicity low. Overall, our results suggest that the everlasting is a potential source of innovative and functional herbal beverages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Fluorine content of Fukien teas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T.H.; Lin, C.S.; Wu, C.; Liao, C.E.; Lin, H.Y.

    1949-01-01

    A study was made on the fluorine contents of Fukien teas and analytical results indicated the amount ranged from 5.7 to 35.5 mg. per 100 grams of dry tea. The high content of fluorine was found not to be due to contamination nor to the high fluorine content of the soil in which the tea plant was cultivated. Differences in the methods of manufacture had no effect on the fluorine content of the final products. Different varieties of tea plants have different powers to absorb fluorine from the soil. Of the two varieties of tea plants studied, Shui-Sen leaves possessed the lower fluorine content. Age of the tea leaves exerted an important influence on the fluorine content, the older leaves containing considerably more fluorine than the younger. The amount of fluorine that may be extracted in a two per cent infusion varies from 29.1 per cent for fresh leaves to 50.5 per cent for black tea. The process of roasting and rolling rendered the fluorine more soluble, hence the amount extracted increased in green tea. Fermentation further increased the extractability of the fluorine; thus the amount extracted was the highest in black tea, which was fermented, less in the semi-fermented oolong tea, and least in the unfermented green tea. The extractability of fluorine was also increased with age of the leaves.

  20. Habitual coffee and tea drinkers experienced increases in blood pressure after consuming low to moderate doses of caffeine; these increases were larger upright than in the supine posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Michael K; Whitehouse, Julie M; Shine, Gillian; Towell, Anthony

    2011-04-01

    Caffeine users have been encouraged to consume caffeine regularly to maintain their caffeine tolerance and so avoid caffeine's acute pressor effects. In controlled conditions complete caffeine tolerance to intervention doses of 250 mg develops rapidly following several days of caffeine ingestion, nevertheless, complete tolerance is not evident for lower intervention doses. Similarly complete caffeine tolerance to 250 mg intervention doses has been demonstrated in habitual coffee and tea drinkers' but for lower intervention doses complete tolerance is not evident. This study investigated a group of habitual caffeine users following their self-determined consumption pattern involving two to six servings daily. Cardiovascular responses following the ingestion of low to moderate amounts caffeine (67, 133 and 200 mg) were compared with placebo in a double-blind, randomised design without caffeine abstinence. Pre-intervention and post-intervention (30 and 60 min) 90 s continuous cardiovascular recordings were obtained with the Finometer in both the supine and upright postures. Participants were 12 healthy habitual coffee and tea drinkers (10 female, mean age 36). Doses of 67 and 133 mg increased systolic pressure in both postures while in the upright posture diastolic pressure and aortic impedance increased while arterial compliance decreased. These vascular changes were larger upright than supine for 133 mg caffeine. Additionally 67 mg caffeine increased dp/dt and indexed peripheral resistance in the upright posture. For 200 mg caffeine there was complete caffeine tolerance. Cardiovascular responses to caffeine appear to be associated with the size of the intervention dose. Habitual tea and coffee drinking does not generate complete tolerance to caffeine as has been previously suggested. Both the type and the extent of caffeine induced cardiovascular changes were influenced by posture.

  1. Microwave-assisted water extraction of green tea polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkhili, Ezzohra; Tomao, Valerie; El Hajji, Hakima; El Boustani, Es-Seddik; Chemat, Farid; Dangles, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Green tea, a popular drink with beneficial health properties, is a rich source of specific flavanols (polyphenols). There is a special interest in the water extraction of green tea polyphenols since the composition of the corresponding extracts is expected to reflect the one of green tea infusions consumed worldwide. To develop a microwave-assisted water extraction (MWE) of green tea polyphenols. MWE of green tea polyphenols has been investigated as an alternative to water extraction under conventional heating (CWE). The experimental conditions were selected after consideration of both temperature and extraction time. The efficiency and selectivity of the process were determined in terms of extraction time, total phenolic content, chemical composition (HPLC-MS analysis) and antioxidant activity of the extracts. By MWE (80 degrees C, 30 min), the flavanol content of the extract reached 97.46 (+/- 0.08) mg of catechin equivalent/g of green tea extract, vs. only 83.06 (+/- 0.08) by CWE (80 degrees C, 45 min). In particular, the concentration of the most bioactive flavanol EGCG was 77.14 (+/- 0.26) mg of catechin equivalent/g of green tea extract obtained by MWE, vs 64.18 (+/- 0.26) mg/g by CWE. MWE appears more efficient than CWE at both 80 and 100 degrees C, particularly for the extraction of flavanols and hydroxycinnamic acids. Although MWE at 100 degrees C typically affords higher yields in total phenols, MWE at 80 degrees C appears more convenient for the extraction of the green tea-specific and chemically sensitive flavanols.

  2. Tea and human health: biomedical functions of tea active components and current issues*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Originating in China, tea and tea planting have spread throughout the world since the middle of the Tang dynasty. Now people from 160 countries in the world are accustomed to tea drinking. A brief history of tea’s medicinal role in China and its spread to the world are introduced. The effectiveness of tea active components and tea drinking on major human diseases, including cancer, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases, is discussed. Also presented are some related issues, such as the bioavailability of tea active components, the new formulations of tea polyphenols, and the safety for consumers of dietary supplements containing tea polyphenols. PMID:25644464

  3. Production, Composition, and Health Effects of Oolong Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlkay Koca

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tea, one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world, is produced from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis L.. Tea has important physiological properties and potential health benefits due to the presence of compounds such as polyphenols, amino acids, vitamins, carbohydrates, caffeine, and purine alkaloids. Tea is produced in three types as green tea (unfermented, oolong tea (partially fermented, and black tea (fully fermented. Black tea is consumed worldwide, whereas green and oolong teas are consumed mainly in Asia and North Africa. The total tea production in the world consists of about 78% black tea, 20% green tea and <2% oolong tea. In the production of green tea, the fresh leaves are steamed or roasted to avoid enzymatic oxidation. Black tea is fully oxidized during fermentation. Oolong tea is partially fermented to permit a moderate level of enzymatic oxidation during processing. The degree of fermentation of oolong tea leaves ranges from 20 to 60%, depending upon consumer demand. Oolong tea has a taste and color somewhere between green and black tea. Green tea contains 30-42% catechins in dry mass, while black tea contains 3-10% and oolong 8-20%. Oolong tea has a higher antioxidant activity and lipoxygenase inhibitory activity as compared to black tea. Oolong tea exhibits a stronger antimutagenic activity than green or black tea. Oolong tea is reported to have anticancer, antiobesity, antidiabetes, antiallergic effects, and prevent atherosclerosis and heart disease. In this review, the production, composition and health effects of oolong tea have been discussed.

  4. Black Tea Source, Production, and Consumption: Assessment of Health Risks of Fluoride Intake in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Declan T. Waugh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In countries with fluoridation of public water, it is imperative to determine other dietary sources of fluoride intake to reduce the public health risk of chronic exposure. New Zealand has one of the highest per capita consumption rates of black tea internationally and is one of the few countries to artificially fluoridate public water; yet no information is available to consumers on the fluoride levels in tea products. In this study, we determined the contribution of black tea as a source of dietary fluoride intake by measuring the fluoride content in 18 brands of commercially available products in New Zealand. Fluoride concentrations were measured by potentiometric method with a fluoride ion-selective electrode and the contribution of black tea to Adequate Intake (AI and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL was calculated for a range of consumption scenarios. We examined factors that influence the fluoride content in manufactured tea and tea infusions, as well as temporal changes in fluoride exposure from black tea. We review the international evidence regarding chronic fluoride intake and its association with chronic pain, arthritic disease, and musculoskeletal disorders and provide insights into possible association between fluoride intake and the high prevalence of these disorders in New Zealand.

  5. Black Tea Source, Production, and Consumption: Assessment of Health Risks of Fluoride Intake in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Michael; Limeback, Hardy

    2017-01-01

    In countries with fluoridation of public water, it is imperative to determine other dietary sources of fluoride intake to reduce the public health risk of chronic exposure. New Zealand has one of the highest per capita consumption rates of black tea internationally and is one of the few countries to artificially fluoridate public water; yet no information is available to consumers on the fluoride levels in tea products. In this study, we determined the contribution of black tea as a source of dietary fluoride intake by measuring the fluoride content in 18 brands of commercially available products in New Zealand. Fluoride concentrations were measured by potentiometric method with a fluoride ion-selective electrode and the contribution of black tea to Adequate Intake (AI) and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) was calculated for a range of consumption scenarios. We examined factors that influence the fluoride content in manufactured tea and tea infusions, as well as temporal changes in fluoride exposure from black tea. We review the international evidence regarding chronic fluoride intake and its association with chronic pain, arthritic disease, and musculoskeletal disorders and provide insights into possible association between fluoride intake and the high prevalence of these disorders in New Zealand. PMID:28713433

  6. Optimization of the Preparation Conditions of Yerba Mate tea Beverage to Maximize Chlorogenic Acids Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, Tayse Ferreira Ferreira; Meinhart, Adriana Dillenburg; de Souza, Thaís Cristina Lima; Cunha, Elenice Carla Emídio; de Moraes, Maria Rosa; Filho, José Teixeira; Godoy, Helena Teixeira

    2017-06-01

    The beverage obtained from the yerba mate tea, besides being the most consumed in Brazil, has high concentrations of chlorogenic acids. In this study, a central composite design was employed to establish the best infusion time, temperature and water volume to maximize the extraction of chlorogenic acids 5-caffeoylquinic (5CQ), 3.4-dicaffeoylquinic (3.4 DQ), 3.5-dicaffeoylquinic (3.5 DQ) and 4.5-dicaffeoylquinic (4.5 DQ), from the leaves and stems of yerba mate tea (beverage ready for consumption). Analyses were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography and the optimum conditions were obtained through the use of the desirability function of Derringer and Suich. The maximum chlorogenic acids content in the beverage was obtained when the infusion was prepared with 2 g of mate tea, in 300 mL of water at 95 °C, under infusion for 16 min. The optimal conditions were applied for the preparation of beverages from 15 commercial samples of yerba mate tea, and it was observed that the sum of the concentration of the four compounds showed variation of up to 79 times between the average of the samples, which can be attributed to climatic conditions of cultivation of the plant and/or of processing.

  7. Residue pattern of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during green tea manufacturing and their transfer rates during tea brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guanwei; Chen, Hongping; Liu, Pingxiang; Hao, Zhenxia; Ma, Guicen; Chai, Yunfeng; Wang, Chen; Lu, Chengyin

    2017-06-01

    Residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in green tea and tea infusion were determined using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to study their dissipation pattern during green tea processing and infusion. Concentration and evaporation of PAHs during tea processing were the key factors affecting PAH residue content in product intermediates and in green tea. PAH residues in tea leaves increased by 2.4-3.1 times during the manufacture of green tea using the electric heating model. After correction to dry weight, PAH residue concentrations decreased by 33.5-48.4% during green tea processing because of PAH evaporation. Moreover, spreading and drying reduced PAH concentrations. The transfer rates of PAH residues from green tea to infusion varied from 4.6% to 7.2%, and PAH leaching was higher in the first infusion than in the second infusion. These results are useful for assessing exposure to PAHs from green tea and in formulating controls for the maximum residue level of PAHs in green tea.

  8. Dietary risk evaluation for 28 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tea preparations made of teas available on the Polish retail market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszko, Marek; Kamińska, Marta; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2018-01-02

    The aim of this work was to assess dietary risk resulting from consumption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with tea infusions. To this end, levels of 28 PAHs in black, green, red and white teas available on the Polish retail market have been assessed. Profiles and correlation between concentrations of individual PAHs have been identified. A model study on transfer of PAHs from tea leaves into tea preparations has been conducted. Relatively high concentrations of 28 evaluated PAHs have been found in 58 tested samples of black, green, red and white teas sampled on the Polish retail market. Total concentration ∑28PAH ranged from 57 to 696 µg kg -1 with mean 258 µg kg -1 (dry tea leaves). The most mature tea leaves fermented to a small degree contained relatively the highest PAH levels among all four tested tea types. Relatively low PAH transfer rates into tea infusions and limited volumes of the consumed tea keep the risks associated with PAH dietary intake at a safely low level. The worst-case scenario dietary intake values were 7.62/0.82/0.097 ng kg -1 b.w. day -1 (estimated on the basis of the maximum found concentrations 696/113/23 µg kg -1 and maximum observed transfer rates 24/16/9%) for ∑28PAH/∑PAH4/B[a]P, respectively. MOE values calculated using the above worst case estimates exceeded 700,000 and 400,000 (BMDL 10 0.07 and 0.34 mg kg -1 b.w. day -1 ) for B[a]P and PAH4, respectively. Both B[a]P and PAH4 concentrations may be used as indicators of total PAH concentration in tea leaves; PAH4 slightly better fits low molecular weight PAHs. Several correlations between various PAHs/groups of PAHs have been identified, the strongest one (R 2 = 0.92) between PAH4 and EU PAH 15+1.

  9. Antidiabetic Effects of Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-Yue Fu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic endocrine disease resulted from insulin secretory defect or insulin resistance and it is a leading cause of death around the world. The care of DM patients consumes a huge budget due to the high frequency of consultations and long hospitalizations, making DM a serious threat to both human health and global economies. Tea contains abundant polyphenols and caffeine which showed antidiabetic activity, so the development of antidiabetic medications from tea and its extracts is increasingly receiving attention. However, the results claiming an association between tea consumption and reduced DM risk are inconsistent. The advances in the epidemiologic evidence and the underlying antidiabetic mechanisms of tea are reviewed in this paper. The inconsistent results and the possible causes behind them are also discussed.

  10. Antidiabetic Effects of Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiu-Yue; Li, Qing-Sheng; Lin, Xiao-Ming; Qiao, Ru-Ying; Yang, Rui; Li, Xu-Min; Dong, Zhan-Bo; Xiang, Li-Ping; Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Lu, Jian-Liang; Yuan, Cong-Bo; Ye, Jian-Hui; Liang, Yue-Rong

    2017-05-20

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic endocrine disease resulted from insulin secretory defect or insulin resistance and it is a leading cause of death around the world. The care of DM patients consumes a huge budget due to the high frequency of consultations and long hospitalizations, making DM a serious threat to both human health and global economies. Tea contains abundant polyphenols and caffeine which showed antidiabetic activity, so the development of antidiabetic medications from tea and its extracts is increasingly receiving attention. However, the results claiming an association between tea consumption and reduced DM risk are inconsistent. The advances in the epidemiologic evidence and the underlying antidiabetic mechanisms of tea are reviewed in this paper. The inconsistent results and the possible causes behind them are also discussed.

  11. Brewing and volatiles analysis of three tea beers indicate a potential interaction between tea components and lager yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Lei; Peng, Li-Juan; Ho, Chi-Tang; Yan, Shou-He; Meurens, Marc; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Li, Da-Xiang; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Bao, Guan-Hu; Gao, Xue-Ling; Ling, Tie-Jun

    2016-04-15

    Green tea, oolong tea and black tea were separately introduced to brew three kinds of tea beers. A model was designed to investigate the tea beer flavour character. Comparison of the volatiles between the sample of tea beer plus water mixture (TBW) and the sample of combination of tea infusion and normal beer (CTB) was accomplished by triangular sensory test and HS-SPME GC-MS analysis. The PCA of GC-MS data not only showed a significant difference between volatile features of each TBW and CTB group, but also suggested some key compounds to distinguish TBW from CTB. The results of GC-MS showed that the relative concentrations of many typical tea volatiles were significantly changed after the brewing process. More interestingly, the behaviour of yeast fermentation was influenced by tea components. A potential interaction between tea components and lager yeast could be suggested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Historical consideration of tea trees and tea flowers, especially regarding the use of tea flowers as food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harima, Shoichi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Tokuoka, Kiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Not only tea leaves, but also many kinds of plants have been used as tea, even those plants not belonging to Camellia sinensis, and they should be called "tea out of tea" in the Lucidophyllous forest zone. Generally, the tea leaf is drank after being decocted (almost boiled). The growth distribution of tea ranges in a belt-like zone of 30-40 degrees north latitude. Therefore, tea might have grown wild as "YAMACHA (mountain tea)" from ancient times in Japan as well as China. The first recored of tea drinking in Japan is the ceremony of "GYOUCHA" at the Imperial Court of the Emperor SHOUMU in 729. On the other hand, the oldest book about tea in China (CHAKYOU) was written in 770. Therefore, it seems that tea drinking started at nearly the same time in both countries. Tea was dispensed as medical supplies by Chinese medicinal prescription (SENKYUCHACHOUSAN) in Japan, but in China, tea was used as powdered medicine for drinking (SEICHA). However, the leaf of a certain plant used as "tea out of tea," was applied as a galenical preparation for traditional Chinese medicinal constitution. However, it is not possible to judge whether or not there was adaptability in Chinese medicine theory. In Japan, when tea was first consumed as a food, other than a few exceptions tea leaves were used as a coarse tea (BANCHA) until the latter half of the Meiji period. Mixing in air by stirring a tea solution, and at the same time, letting tea match with hot water. It was wisdom to improve the taste. As a result, in order to make bubble well, both of the condition and technique were devised. One of the approaches was to add the dried plant of Leguminosae (saponin) or tea flower (saponin), when "BANCHA" was decorted. And also tools such as a bamboo tea whisk (CHASEN) as well as bowl (GOROHACHI-CHAWAN), were conceived. "FURICHA" was served as a medicine by KUUYASHOUNIN in Japan in 951. Afterwards, the prayer ceremonies at shrines and temples used CHARAZU," showing the custom to serve tea in

  13. Labour unfreedoms in the tea supply chains : WUR Studium Generals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThe bulk of tea consumed in the Netherlands comes from South Asia, with Sri Lanka and India being among the largest tea exporters world-wide. Tea is the second most popular beverage after water and it is often considered a 'cheap drink'. This session highlights, however, that tea

  14. consumers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: It was found that the haemoglobin, packed sell volume, red blood cell count and the white blood cell count were within the reference ... alcohol}. One bottle of beer and one medium calabash of. BURUKUTU contain about 2 units of alcohols. Like the palm wine of Southem Nigeria, BURUKUTU is consumed by the.

  15. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence applied to the chemical elements analysis of the mate tea infusion (Ilex-paraguariensis); Fluorescencia de raios-X por reflexao total aplicada a analise de elementos quimicos em cha de erva-mate (Ilex-paraguariensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Fabio; Appoloni, Carlos R. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Lab. de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada; Cunha, Richard M. da Silva e; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear

    2002-07-01

    The purpose was to evaluate simultaneously the chemical element concentrations from K to Sr (19{<=}Z{<=}38) range in six samples of mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) infusion, commercially available in Paraguay and South of Brazil. The chemical analysis of this beverage has a great nutritional importance for the native people of these areas, due to their large daily consumption. For the determination of these elements the dry-ashing and total reflection X-rays fluorescence (TXRF) were used. The methodology showed limits of detection among 81 ng.mL-1 for K to 10 ng.mL{sup -1} for Zn. Six infusion samples were prepared in triplicate, and the concentration was 3,8 to 10,2 {mu}g.mL{sup -1} for K, Ca and Mn, 0,21 to 1,07 {mu}g. mL{sup -1} for Fe and Zn and 0.03 to 0,17 {mu}g.mL{sup -1} for Ni, Cu, Br, Rb and Sr. The Mn and Ni concentrations are above the maximum permissible values for drinking water established by World Health Organization and Brazilian legislation (these organisms do not regulate the maximum permissible values for chemical elements in mate tea infusion). (author)

  16. A new cineol derivative, polyphenols and norterpenoids from Saharan myrtle tea (Myrtus nivellei): Isolation, structure determination, quantitative determination and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Amira; Celano, Rita; Mencherini, Teresa; Picerno, Patrizia; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Foudil-Cherif, Yazid; Csupor, Dezső; Rahili, Ghania; Yahi, Nassima; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Aquino, Rita Patrizia; Rastrelli, Luca

    2017-06-01

    The phytochemical profile of decoction and infusion, obtained from the dried leaves of M. nivellei, consumed as tea in Saharan region, was characterized by UHPLC-PDA-HRMS. Fourteen compounds were characterized and, to confirm the proposed structures a preparative procedure followed by NMR spectroscopy was applied. Compound 3 (2-hydroxy-1,8-cineole disaccharide) was a never reported whereas a bicyclic monoterpenoid glucoside (2), two ionol glucosides (1 and 12), a tri-galloylquinic acid (4), two flavonol glycosides (5 and 9), and a tetra-galloylglucose (7), were reported in Myrtus spp. for the first time. Five flavonol O-glycosides (6, 8, 10-11, and 14) togheter a flavonol (13) were also identified. Quantitative determination of phenolic constituents from decoction and infusion has been performed by HPLC-UV-PDA. The phenolic content was found to be 150.5 and 102.6mg/g in decoction and infusion corresponding to 73.8 and 23.6mg/100mL of a single tea cup, respectively. Myricetin 3-O-β-d-(6″-galloyl)glucopyranoside (5), isomyricitrin (6) and myricitrin (8) were the compounds present in the highest concentration. The free-radical scavenging activities of teas and isolated compounds was measured by the DPPH assay and compared with the values of other commonly used herbal teas (green and black teas). Decoction displayed higher potency in scavenging free-radicals than the infusion and green and black teas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Chá verde brasileiro (Camellia sinensis var assamica: efeitos do tempo de infusão, acondicionamento da erva e forma de preparo sobre a eficiência de extração dos bioativos e sobre a estabilidade da bebida Brazilian green tea (Camellia sinensis var assamica: effect of infusion time, mode of packaging and preparation on the extraction efficiency of bioactive compounds and on the stability of the beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Fernandes Nishiyama

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos do chá verde brasileiro (Camellia sinensis var assamica ainda são escassos quando comparados aos realizados com chás verdes produzidos em outros países. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar os efeitos do tempo de infusão, forma de acondicionamento da erva (a granel ou em sachês e forma de preparo da bebida na extração dos biativos do chá verde brasileiro e na estabilidade da bebida obtida. Foram avaliados os parâmetros sólidos solúveis e compostos fenólicos extraídos, bem como as propriedades antioxidantes da bebida pelo método DPPH (radicais 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil. Os dados obtidos evidenciam que o uso da erva a granel sob agitação e tempo de infusão de 5 minutos foi a condição mais propícia para a extração dos bioativos do chá verde. Aumentando-se o volume de preparação da bebida sem alteração da razão erva:água, aumentou-se a eficiência da extração dos bioativos, devido ao fato de que o resfriamento de volumes maiores é mais demorado que o resfriamento de volumes menores. As bebidas obtidas foram estáveis por 24 horas em temperatura ambiente e em geladeira, visto não terem sido detectadas redução das propriedades antioxidantes e variações significativas dos seus principais bioativos epigalocatequina galato, epicatequina, catequina e cafeína.Studies on the Brazilian green tea (Camellia sinensis var assamica are still scarce when compared with the great number of investigations conducted on the green tea produced in other countries. The purposes of the present study were to evaluate the effects of infusion time, mode of packaging (tea in bulk or in tea bags and preparation on the extraction of bioactive compounds from the Brazilian green tea and on the stability of the beverage. The evaluated parameters were: the amounts of soluble solutes and phenolic compounds that were extracted as well as the antioxidant properties of the beverage using the DPPH method (2,2-diphenyl-1

  18. ICP-OES and Micronucleus Test to Evaluate Heavy Metal Contamination in Commercially Available Brazilian Herbal Teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunk, Priscila Francisca Tschaen; Kalil, Ieda Carneiro; Pimentel-Schmitt, Elisangela Flavia; Lenz, Dominik; de Andrade, Tadeu Uggere; Ribeiro, Juliano Souza; Endringer, Denise Coutinho

    2016-07-01

    Increased tea consumption in combination with intensive pesticide use is generating heavy metal contaminations amongst Brazilian tea consumers, causing health concerns. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was applied to quantify minerals and heavy metals such as aluminum, barium, cadmium, lead, cobalt, copper, chromium, tin, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, thallium, vanadium and zinc in Brazilian chamomile, lemongrass, fennel and yerba mate teas. Teas, purchased in local supermarkets, were prepared using infusion and acid digestion. Higher concentrations of Al were present in all samples. In the digested samples, the Al mean concentration was 2.41 μg g(-1) (sd = 0.72) for fennel and 33.42 μg g(-1) (sd = 17.18) for chamomile, whilst the sample C for chamomile tea presented the highest concentration with 51.62 μg g(-1) (sd = 9.17). The safety relation in decreasing order is fennel, lemongrass, chamomile and yerba mate. Chemometric analyses demonstrated a strong correlation between the elements Cd and Pb in the samples. Yerba mate had the highest amount of metal (100 mg kg(-1)), being the subject of a micronucleus test assay for cytotoxicity. The metals found in Yerba mate did not present cytotoxicity/mutagenicity using the micronucleus test. The inorganic contaminants in teas should have their impact carefully monitored.

  19. Infusion cisternography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnaes, B.; Rootwelt, K.; Sjaastad, O.

    1976-01-01

    A source of error in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) infusion tests is leakage at the dural puncture site. The addition of a bolus of radionuclide to the infusion fluid was helpful in detecting the existence of leakage as shown by increased infusion pressure in six of eight patients studied with and without scintigraphic evidence of leakage. Comparison of CSF dynamics in 26 patients studied by infusion cisternography and conventional cisternography showed similar patterns, suggesting no alteration of CSF dynamics by the artificial CSF infusion. Combining the two tests, therefore, resulted in simple identification of the leakage and saved the patient time and discomfort

  20. Evaluation of the antioxidant properties of fruit and flavoured black teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pękal, Anna; Dróżdż, Paulina; Biesaga, Magdalena; Pyrzynska, Krystyna

    2011-12-01

    Antioxidant properties of the water extracts of the commercial bagged fruit and flavoured black teas were evaluated and compared with typical black teas of C. sinensis. Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) assay, cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) and DPPH radical method were used for these purposes. The content of selected flavonoids and phenolic acids was also determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in the negative electrospray ionization mode. Flavoured black teas contain significantly higher level of catechins, quercetin, and rutin, while the content of chlorogenic and caffeic acids as well as naringin and hesperidin was higher in fruit teas. Supplementation with these flavonoids could reduce blood glucose. In FC and DPPH assays, the antioxidant properties of studied tea infusion increases in the order: fruit tea premium black tea, while in CUPRAC method, some aromatized teas exhibit the highest antioxidant properties. Tea infusions with nice smell of fruits would also support the human diet with some source of antioxidants.

  1. Black Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leaves of the same plant, has some different properties. Black tea is used for improving mental alertness ... that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen ( ...

  2. The aromatic and polyphenolic composition of Roman camomile tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnat, A; Carnat, A P; Fraisse, D; Ricoux, L; Lamaison, J L

    2004-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative composition of the main aromatic and polyphenolic constituents of infusion from Chamaemelum nobile flowers was examined. The camomile tea contained a large amount of polyphenolic compounds (340 mg/l), the most important being chamaemeloside (155 mg/l). Only traces of essential oil were recovered in tea (7 mg/l).

  3. proximate, caffeine and tannin analyses in some brands of tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    (Kumar et al., 2005). Sahito et al. (2005) reported the contents of fifteen essential trace and toxic elements in some green tea samples and in their infusion. Karimi et al. (2008) worked on the concentrations and health risk of metals in tea samples marketed in Iran. Effects of tannase treatment and protein tannin aggregation.

  4. Identification of the varietal origin of loose leaf tea based on analysis of a single leaf by SNP nanofluidic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O Kuntze] is an economically important crop cultivated in more than 50 countries. Production and marketing of premium specialty tea products provides opportunities for tea growers, the tea industry and consumers. Rapid market segmentation in the tea industry has resulted ...

  5. Bactericidal activity of green tea extracts: the importance of catechin containing nano particles

    OpenAIRE

    Gopal, Judy; Muthu, Manikandan; Paul, Diby; Kim, Doo-Hwan; Chun, Sechul

    2016-01-01

    When we drink green tea infusion, we believe we are drinking the extract of the green tea leaves. While practically each tea bag infused in 300?mL water contains about 50?mg of suspended green tea leaf particles. What is the role of these particles in the green tea effect is the objective of this study. These particles (three different size ranges) were isolated via varying speed centrifugation and their respective inputs evaluated. Live oral bacterial samples from human volunteers have been ...

  6. Formulation and Sensory Evaluation of Herb Tea from Moringa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sensory appeal of tea, like all food products, is an important consideration in new product de-velopment. Tea in general and herb tea in particular are gaining increasing consumer attention due to a growing awareness of health benefits derived from their consumption. Even though sev-eral underutilized plants exist with ...

  7. Health Benefits of Tea Consumption | Sharma | Tropical Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tea is the most common beverage after water. It is extracted from the leaves of Camellia sinensis (family: Theaceae). It is consumed in different forms, namely, oolong, green, black and Ilex tea depending on post-harvest treatment and chemical components. Being rich in natural antioxidants, tea is reported to be used in the ...

  8. Transfer of Ochratoxin A into Tea and Coffee Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malir, Frantisek; Ostry, Vladimir; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie; Toman, Jakub; Bazin, Ingrid; Roubal, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, immunotoxic, neurotoxic, reprotoxic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic (group 2B), being characterized by species and sex differences in sensitivity. Despite the fact that OTA is in some aspects a controversial topic, OTA is the most powerful renal carcinogen. The aim of this study was to make a small survey concerning OTA content in black tea, fruit tea, and ground roasted coffee, and to assess OTA transfer into beverages. OTA content was measured using a validated and accredited HPLC-FLD method with a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.35 ng/g. The OTA amount ranged from LOQ up to 250 ng/g in black tea and up to 104 ng/g in fruit tea. Black tea and fruit tea, naturally contaminated, were used to prepare tea infusions. The transfer from black tea to the infusion was 34.8% ± 1.3% and from fruit tea 4.1% ± 0.2%. Ground roasted coffee naturally contaminated at 0.92 ng/g was used to prepare seven kinds of coffee beverages. Depending on the type of process used, OTA transfer into coffee ranged from 22.3% to 66.1%. OTA intakes from fruit and black tea or coffee represent a non-negligible human source. PMID:25525684

  9. Analysis of the major chemical compositions in Fuzhuan brick-tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fuzhuan brick-tea, a fungal-fermented tea, is commonly consumed in northwest China; in places such as Sinkiang and Tibet and is thought to be helpful in digestion. To better understand Fuzhuan brick-tea and its function on digestion, the Fuzhuan brick-tea's chemical compounds were surveyed at pivotal process phases, ...

  10. Plants used for making recreational tea in Europe: a review based on specific research sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sõukand, Renata; Quave, Cassandra L; Pieroni, Andrea; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel; Tardío, Javier; Kalle, Raivo; Łuczaj, Łukasz; Svanberg, Ingvar; Kolosova, Valeria; Aceituno-Mata, Laura; Menendez-Baceta, Gorka; Kołodziejska-Degórska, Iwona; Pirożnikow, Ewa; Petkevičius, Rolandas; Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet

    2013-08-13

    This paper is a review of local plants used in water infusions as aromatic and refreshing hot beverages (recreational tea) consumed in food-related settings in Europe, and not for specific medicinal purposes. The reviewed 29 areas are located across Europe, covering the post-Soviet countries, eastern and Mediterranean Europe. Altogether, 142 taxa belonging to 99 genera and 40 families were reported. The most important families for making herbal tea in all research areas were Lamiaceae and Asteraceae, while Rosaceae was popular only in eastern and central Europe. With regards to botanical genera, the dominant taxa included Mentha, Tilia, Thymus, Origanum, Rubus and Matricaria. The clear favorite was Origanum vulgare L., mentioned in 61% of the regions. Regionally, other important taxa included Rubus idaeus L. in eastern Europe, Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All. in southern Europe and Rosa canina L. in central Europe. Future research on the pharmacological, nutritional and chemical properties of the plants most frequently used in the tea-making process is essential to ensure their safety and appropriateness for daily consumption. Moreover, regional studies dedicated to the study of local plants used for making recreational tea are important to improve our understanding of their selection criteria, cultural importance and perceived properties in Europe and abroad.

  11. Tea and Health: Studies in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naghma; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Tea, next to water is the cheapest beverage humans consume. Drinking the beverage tea has been considered a health-promoting habit since ancient times. The modern medicinal research is providing a scientific basis for this belief. The evidence supporting the health benefits of tea drinking grows stronger with each new study that is published in the scientific literature. Tea plant Camellia sinensis has been cultivated for thousands of years and its leaves have been used for medicinal purposes. Tea is used as a popular beverage worldwide and its ingredients are now finding medicinal benefits. Encouraging data showing cancer-preventive effects of green tea from cell-culture, animal and human studies have emerged. Evidence is accumulating that black tea may have similar beneficial effects. Tea consumption has also been shown to be useful for prevention of many debilitating human diseases that include maintenance of cardiovascular and metabolic health. Various studies suggest that polyphenolic compounds present in green and black tea are associated with beneficial effects in prevention of cardiovascular diseases, particularly of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. In addition, anti-aging, antidiabetic and many other health beneficial effects associated with tea consumption are described. Evidence is accumulating that catechins and theaflavins, which are the main polyphenolic compounds of green and black tea, respectively, are responsible for most of the physiological effects of tea. This article describes the evidences from clinical and epidemiological studies in the prevention of chronic diseases like cancer and cardiovascular diseases and general health promotion associated with tea consumption. PMID:23448443

  12. Stability of Green Tea Catechins in Commercial Tea Leaves during Storage for 6 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help meet the needs of consumers, producers of dietary tea products, and researchers for information on health-promoting tea ingredients, we determined by HPLC seven catechins [(–)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (–)-catechin (C), (+)-epicatechin (EC), (–)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), (–)-gallocate...

  13. Analysis of lipophilic compounds of tea coated on the surface of clay teapots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tse-Yu Chung

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The surface of a clay teapot tends to be coated with a waterproof film after constant use for tea preparation. The waterproof films of two kinds of teapots (zisha and zhuni used for preparing oolong tea and old oolong tea were extracted and subjected to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis. The results showed that comparable constituents were detected in these films; they were primarily fatty acids and linear hydrocarbons that were particularly rich in palmitic acid and stearic acid. To explore the source of these two abundant fatty acids, the fatty acid compositions of fresh tea leaves, granules, infusion, and vapor of infusion were analyzed by gas chromatography. Fresh tea leaves were rich in palmitic acid (C-16:0, unsaturated linolenic acid (C-18:3, linoleic acid (C-18:2, and oleic acid (C-18:1, which were presumably from the phospholipid membrane. During the process of manufacturing oolong tea, the three unsaturated fatty acids may be substantially degraded or oxidized to stearic acid (C-18:0, which was enriched with palmitic acid in the tea granules and in the infusion. The vapor of the tea infusion is primarily composed of palmitic acid and stearic acid. Thus, the coated films of teapots mostly originated from the lipophilic compounds of the tea infusions.

  14. Analysis of lipophilic compounds of tea coated on the surface of clay teapots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tse-Yu; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Liao, Zih-Hui; Shih, Yu-En; Yang, Mei-Lin; Cheng, Mei-Ling; Wu, Chia-Chang; Tzen, Jason T C

    2015-03-01

    The surface of a clay teapot tends to be coated with a waterproof film after constant use for tea preparation. The waterproof films of two kinds of teapots (zisha and zhuni) used for preparing oolong tea and old oolong tea were extracted and subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The results showed that comparable constituents were detected in these films; they were primarily fatty acids and linear hydrocarbons that were particularly rich in palmitic acid and stearic acid. To explore the source of these two abundant fatty acids, the fatty acid compositions of fresh tea leaves, granules, infusion, and vapor of infusion were analyzed by gas chromatography. Fresh tea leaves were rich in palmitic acid (C-16:0), unsaturated linolenic acid (C-18:3), linoleic acid (C-18:2), and oleic acid (C-18:1), which were presumably from the phospholipid membrane. During the process of manufacturing oolong tea, the three unsaturated fatty acids may be substantially degraded or oxidized to stearic acid (C-18:0), which was enriched with palmitic acid in the tea granules and in the infusion. The vapor of the tea infusion is primarily composed of palmitic acid and stearic acid. Thus, the coated films of teapots mostly originated from the lipophilic compounds of the tea infusions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Bactericidal activity of green tea extracts: the importance of catechin containing nano particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Judy; Muthu, Manikandan; Paul, Diby; Kim, Doo-Hwan; Chun, Sechul

    2016-01-28

    When we drink green tea infusion, we believe we are drinking the extract of the green tea leaves. While practically each tea bag infused in 300 mL water contains about 50 mg of suspended green tea leaf particles. What is the role of these particles in the green tea effect is the objective of this study. These particles (three different size ranges) were isolated via varying speed centrifugation and their respective inputs evaluated. Live oral bacterial samples from human volunteers have been screened against green tea extracts and macro, micro and nano sized green tea particles. The results showed that the presence/absence of the macro and mico sized tea particles in the green tea extract did not contribute much. However, the nano sized particles were characterized to be nature's nano stores of the bioactive catechins. Eradication of these nano tea particles resulted in decrease in the bactericidal property of the green tea extracts. This is a curtain raiser investigation, busting the nano as well as green tea leaf particle contribution in green tea extracts.

  16. Comparative Evaluation of Biofunctional Compounds Content from Different Herbal Infusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca C. Fărcaş

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tea is the most important non-alcoholic beverage in the world being appreciated for its stimulant properties and health benefits. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the content in caffeine, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, as well as the antioxidant activity of five different herbal infusion samples in oder to compare the amount of these bioactive compounds from traditional Romanian medicinal plants and Chinese tea plants. Green tea, black tea, linden (lime tea, mint, and St. John's wort were chosen as materials for the preparation of infusion and laboratory analyses. The caffeine was extracted with dichloromethane and then was quantified by measuring the absorbance of the extract at 260 nm. The quantification of total phenolic compounds was achieved by Folin-Ciocalteu method, while the flavonoid content was determined using a chromogenic system of NaNO2-(Al(NO33-NaOH based on spectrophotometric method. The antioxidant capacity of each tea sample was assessed by evaluating their radical scavenging  activity on DPPH radical. The largest content in antioxidant compounds was found in green, but also in the mint infusion sample, while black tea has registered the highest caffeine content. Following the results obtained it can be stated that all the analysed samples contain remarkable amounts of biologically active compounds essential for the human body healt.

  17. Safety and efficacy of herbal tea for patients with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Syarihan Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: GC Tea has benefits in reducing risk of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity. GC Tea also has antioxidant properties that help reduce risk of cancer. Only mild adverse effects were reported when consuming these herbs in recommended dose.

  18. Cholera returns to southern Vietnam in an outbreak associated with consuming unsafe water through iced tea: A matched case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuong V Nguyen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available After more than a decade of steadily declining notifications, the number of reported cholera cases has recently increased in Vietnam. We conducted a matched case-control study to investigate transmission of cholera during an outbreak in Ben Tre, southern Vietnam, and to explore the associated risk factors.Sixty of 71 diarrheal patients confirmed to be infected with cholera by culture and diagnosed between May 9 and August 3, 2010 in Ben Tre were consecutively recruited as case-patients. Case-patients were matched 1:4 to controls by commune, sex, and 5-year age group. Risk factors for cholera were examined by multivariable conditional logistic regression. In addition, environmental samples from villages containing case-patients were taken to identify contamination of food and water sources. The regression indicated that drinking iced tea (adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 8.40, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.84-39.25, not always boiling drinking water (aOR = 2.62, 95% CI: 1.03-6.67, having the main source of water for use being close to a toilet (aOR = 4.36, 95% CI: 1.37-13.88, living with people who had acute diarrhea (aOR = 13.72, 95% CI: 2.77-67.97, and little or no education (aOR = 4.89, 95% CI: 1.18-20.19 were significantly associated with increased risk of cholera. In contrast, drinking stored rainwater (aOR = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.04-0.63, eating cooked seafood (aOR = 0.27, 95% CI: 0.10-0.73, and eating steamed vegetables (aOR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.07-0.70 were protective against cholera. Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa carrying ctxA was found in two of twenty-five river water samples and one of six wastewater samples.The magnitude of the cholera outbreak in Ben Tre was lower than in other similar settings. This investigation identified several risk factors and underscored the importance of continued responses targeting cholera prevention in southern Vietnam. The association between drinking iced tea and cholera and the spread of V. cholerae O1, altered El Tor

  19. Cholera returns to southern Vietnam in an outbreak associated with consuming unsafe water through iced tea: A matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuong V; Pham, Quang D; Do, Quoc K; Diep, Tai T; Phan, Hung C; Ho, Thang V; Do, Hong T; Phan, Lan T; Tran, Huu N

    2017-04-01

    After more than a decade of steadily declining notifications, the number of reported cholera cases has recently increased in Vietnam. We conducted a matched case-control study to investigate transmission of cholera during an outbreak in Ben Tre, southern Vietnam, and to explore the associated risk factors. Sixty of 71 diarrheal patients confirmed to be infected with cholera by culture and diagnosed between May 9 and August 3, 2010 in Ben Tre were consecutively recruited as case-patients. Case-patients were matched 1:4 to controls by commune, sex, and 5-year age group. Risk factors for cholera were examined by multivariable conditional logistic regression. In addition, environmental samples from villages containing case-patients were taken to identify contamination of food and water sources. The regression indicated that drinking iced tea (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 8.40, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.84-39.25), not always boiling drinking water (aOR = 2.62, 95% CI: 1.03-6.67), having the main source of water for use being close to a toilet (aOR = 4.36, 95% CI: 1.37-13.88), living with people who had acute diarrhea (aOR = 13.72, 95% CI: 2.77-67.97), and little or no education (aOR = 4.89, 95% CI: 1.18-20.19) were significantly associated with increased risk of cholera. In contrast, drinking stored rainwater (aOR = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.04-0.63), eating cooked seafood (aOR = 0.27, 95% CI: 0.10-0.73), and eating steamed vegetables (aOR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.07-0.70) were protective against cholera. Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa carrying ctxA was found in two of twenty-five river water samples and one of six wastewater samples. The magnitude of the cholera outbreak in Ben Tre was lower than in other similar settings. This investigation identified several risk factors and underscored the importance of continued responses targeting cholera prevention in southern Vietnam. The association between drinking iced tea and cholera and the spread of V. cholerae O1, altered El Tor strains

  20. Green tea and type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hyung Park

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Green tea and coffee consumption have been widely popular worldwide. These beverages contain caffeine to activate the central nervous system by adenosine receptor blockade, and due to the caffeine, addiction or tolerance may occur. In addition to this caffeine effect, green tea and coffee consumption have always been at the center of discussions about human health, disease, and longevity. In particular, green tea catechins are involved in many biological activities such as antioxidation and modulation of various cellular lipid and proteins. Thus, they are beneficial against degenerative diseases, including obesity, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and various inflammatory diseases. Some reports also suggest that daily consumption of tea catechins may help in controlling type 2 diabetes. However, other studies have reported that chronic consumption of green tea may result in hepatic failure, neuronal damage, and exacerbation of diabetes, suggesting that interindividual variations in the green tea effect are large. This review will focus on the effect of green tea catechins extracted from the Camellia sinensis plant on type 2 diabetes and obesity, and the possible mechanistic explanation for the experimental results mainly from our laboratory. It is hoped that green tea can be consumed in a suitable manner as a supplement to prevent the development of type 2 diabetes and obesity.

  1. Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis): Chemistry and Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad S; Zohaib, Sana; Najeeb, Shariq; Naseem, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Green tea is a widely consumed beverage worldwide. Numerous studies have suggested about the beneficial effects of green tea on oral conditions such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and halitosis. However, to date there have not been many review articles published that focus on beneficial effects of green tea on oral disease. The aim of this publication is to summarize the research conducted on the effects of green tea on oral cavity. Green tea might help reduce the bacterial activity in the oral cavity that in turn, can reduce the aforementioned oral afflictions. Furthermore, the antioxidant effect of the tea may reduce the chances of oral cancer. However, more clinical data is required to ascertain the possible benefits of green tea consumption on oral health.

  2. Global Expansion Strategy of Chinese Herbal Tea Beverage

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Liu; Dazheng Wang; Suzhen Zhang; Hongming Zhao

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide insights into the potential future of Chinese herbal tea beverage industry, we analyze serious challenge on how the herbal tea beverage will develop global expansion strategy in china, as well as a series of recommendations as to how the sector might collaborate and respond. This study discusses the key challenges and opportunities factors that Chinese traditional tea industry face, from across the global value chain, representing both producer and consumer countries and i...

  3. Multielement determination and speciation of major-to-trace elements in black tea leaves by ICP-AES and ICP-MS with the aid of size exclusion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Hirotaka; Hokura, Akiko; Katsuki, Fumie; Itoh, Akihide; Haraguchi, Hiroki

    2001-01-01

    A multielement determination of major-to-trace elements in black tea leaves and their tea infusions was carried out by ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry) and ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry). Tea infusions were prepared as usual tea beverage by brewing black tea leaves in boiling water for 5 min. About 40 elements in tea leaves and tea infusions could be determined over the wide concentration range in 8 orders of magnitude. The extraction efficiency of each element was estimated as the ratio of its concentration in tea infusions to that in tea leaves. From the experimental results for the extraction efficiencies, the elements in black tea leaves were classified into three characteristic groups: (i) highly-extractable elements (>55%): Na, K, Co, Ni, Rb, Cs and Tl, (ii) moderately-extractable elements (20-55%): Mg, Al, P, Mn and Zn, and (iii) poorly-extractable elements (<20%): Ca, Fe, Cu, Sr, Y, Zr, Mo, Sn, Ba and lanthanoid elements. Furthermore, speciation of major-to-trace elements in tea infusions was performed by using a combined system of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and ICP-MS (or ICP-AES). As a result, many diverse elements were found to be present as complexes associated with large organic molecules in tea infusions. (author)

  4. Effect of various teas on color stability of resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinç Ata, Gül; Gokay, Osman; Müjdeci, Arzu; Kivrak, Tugba Congara; Mokhtari Tavana, Armin

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the effect of various teas on color stability of resin composites. Two methacrylate-based (Arabesk Top, Grandio) and a silorane-based (Filtek Silorane) resin composites were used. 110 cylindrical samples of each resin composite were prepared (2 mm thickness and 8 mm diameter), polished and stored in distilled water (37°C for 24 hours). They were randomly divided into 11 groups (n= 10) and color measurements were taken. Then the samples were immersed in tap water (control), a black tea, a green tea or one of the eight herbal-fruit teas (37°C for 1 week) and subsequently subjected to the final color measurements. The color change of samples (ΔE*) was calculated, data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD tests. Teas, resin composites and their interactions were significant (P= 0.000). All the teas and control caused color changes in all three resin composites. Rosehip tea caused the most color changes, while tap water showed the least in all resin composites. Arabesk Top had the most staining potential in all the teas and control, whereas Filtek Silorane was the most stain resistant except Grandio immersed in sage tea. Color stability of all resin composites used were affected from both structure of resin materials and constituents of teas used. All resin composites were susceptible to staining by all teas especially rosehip tea. Arabesk Top composite showed the greatest color susceptibility in all teas and Filtek Silorane the least with one exception. Color of resin composites can be negatively affected from teas consumed. Clinicians should advise patients that drinking different kind of teas could intensify surface staining of resin based restorations.

  5. Comparison of the Level of Boron Concentrations in Black Teas with Fruit Teas Available on the Polish Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Frankowski, Marcin; Novotny, Karel; Kanicky, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    The determination of boron by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry has been carried in water-soluble and acid soluble (total content) fractions of 36 samples of traditional black tea and fruit brew. The estimation of the impact of the type of tea on the concentration of boron in water-soluble and acid extracts and potential human health risk from the daily intake of boron was carried out in this study. The levels of boron differed significantly in black and fruit tea types. The mean total content of boron ranged from 8.31 to 18.40 mg/kg in black teas, from 12.85 to 15.13 mg/kg in black tea with fruit flavor, and from 12.09 to 22.77 mg/kg in fruit brews. The degree of extraction of boron in black tea ranged from 8% to 27% and for fruit tea from 17% to 69%. In addition, the values below 25% were of black teas with fruit flavors. The daily intake of B from tea infusions (three cups/day) is still within the average daily intake except for some of the fruit brews which exceed acceptable regulations of the daily intake of total boron by humans. Hence, it may not produce any health risks for human consumption, if other sources of metal contaminated food are not taken at the same time. PMID:25379551

  6. Comparison of the Level of Boron Concentrations in Black Teas with Fruit Teas Available on the Polish Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anetta Zioła-Frankowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of boron by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry has been carried in water-soluble and acid soluble (total content fractions of 36 samples of traditional black tea and fruit brew. The estimation of the impact of the type of tea on the concentration of boron in water-soluble and acid extracts and potential human health risk from the daily intake of boron was carried out in this study. The levels of boron differed significantly in black and fruit tea types. The mean total content of boron ranged from 8.31 to 18.40 mg/kg in black teas, from 12.85 to 15.13 mg/kg in black tea with fruit flavor, and from 12.09 to 22.77 mg/kg in fruit brews. The degree of extraction of boron in black tea ranged from 8% to 27% and for fruit tea from 17% to 69%. In addition, the values below 25% were of black teas with fruit flavors. The daily intake of B from tea infusions (three cups/day is still within the average daily intake except for some of the fruit brews which exceed acceptable regulations of the daily intake of total boron by humans. Hence, it may not produce any health risks for human consumption, if other sources of metal contaminated food are not taken at the same time.

  7. Tea aroma formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Tang Ho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides water, tea is one of the most popular beverages around the world. The chemical ingredients and biological activities of tea have been summarized recently. The current review summarizes tea aroma compounds and their formation in green, black, and oolong tea. The flavor of tea can be divided into two categories: taste (non-volatile compounds and aroma (volatile compounds. All of these aroma molecules are generated from carotenoids, lipids, glycosides, etc. precursors, and also from Maillard reaction. In the current review, we focus on the formation mechanism of main aromas during the tea manufacturing process.

  8. Consumption of green tea, but not black tea or coffee, is associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeko Noguchi-Shinohara

    Full Text Available Our objective was to determine whether the consumption of green tea, coffee, or black tea influences the incidence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI in older people. We conducted a population-based prospective study with Japanese residents aged >60 years from Nakajima, Japan (the Nakajima Project. Participants received an evaluation of cognitive function and blood tests. The consumption of green tea, coffee, and black tea was also evaluated at baseline. Of 723 participants with normal cognitive function at a baseline survey (2007-2008, 490 completed the follow up survey in 2011-2013. The incidence of dementia during the follow-up period (mean ± SD: 4.9 ± 0.9 years was 5.3%, and that of MCI was 13.1%. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of overall cognitive decline (dementia or MCI was 0.32 (95% CI: 0.16-0.64 among individuals who consumed green tea every day and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.25-0.86 among those who consumed green tea 1-6 days per week compared with individuals who did not consume green tea at all. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of dementia was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.06-1.06 among individuals who consumed green tea every day compared with those who did not consume green tea at all. No association was found between coffee or black tea consumption and the incidence of dementia or MCI. Our results indicate that green tea consumption is significantly associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline, even after adjustment for possible confounding factors.

  9. Consumption of green tea, but not black tea or coffee, is associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi-Shinohara, Moeko; Yuki, Sohshi; Dohmoto, Chiaki; Ikeda, Yoshihisa; Samuraki, Miharu; Iwasa, Kazuo; Yokogawa, Masami; Asai, Kimiko; Komai, Kiyonobu; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Masahito

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether the consumption of green tea, coffee, or black tea influences the incidence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in older people. We conducted a population-based prospective study with Japanese residents aged >60 years from Nakajima, Japan (the Nakajima Project). Participants received an evaluation of cognitive function and blood tests. The consumption of green tea, coffee, and black tea was also evaluated at baseline. Of 723 participants with normal cognitive function at a baseline survey (2007-2008), 490 completed the follow up survey in 2011-2013. The incidence of dementia during the follow-up period (mean ± SD: 4.9 ± 0.9 years) was 5.3%, and that of MCI was 13.1%. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of overall cognitive decline (dementia or MCI) was 0.32 (95% CI: 0.16-0.64) among individuals who consumed green tea every day and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.25-0.86) among those who consumed green tea 1-6 days per week compared with individuals who did not consume green tea at all. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of dementia was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.06-1.06) among individuals who consumed green tea every day compared with those who did not consume green tea at all. No association was found between coffee or black tea consumption and the incidence of dementia or MCI. Our results indicate that green tea consumption is significantly associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline, even after adjustment for possible confounding factors.

  10. Metaphysics of the tea ceremony: a randomized trial investigating the roles of intention and belief on mood while drinking tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiah, Yung-Jong; Radin, Dean

    2013-01-01

    This study explored whether drinking tea "treated" with good intentions would enhance mood more than drinking ordinary tea, under double-blind, randomized conditions. Each evening, for seven days in a row, volunteers recorded their mood using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire. On days three, four, and five of the test, each participant drank 600 mL of oolong tea in the morning and again in the afternoon. One randomly assigned group blindly received tea that had been intentionally treated by three Buddhist monks; the other group blindly received untreated tea from the same source. On the last day of the test, each person indicated what type of tea he/she believed he/she had been drinking. Stratified, random sampling was used to assign 189 adults into two groups matched by age, gender, the psychological trait of neuroticism, and the amount of tea consumed on average per day. All participants were Taiwanese and lived in Kaohsiung, Taiwan, and the test was conducted over the course of one week to reduce mood fluctuations due to changes in local weather and other common influences. Those who drank treated tea showed a greater increase in mood than those who drank untreated tea (Cohen's d = 0.65, P = .02, two-tailed). Change in mood in those who believed that they were drinking treated tea was much better than those who did not believe (Cohen's d = 1.45, P = .00002, two-tailed). Tea treated with good intentions improved mood more than ordinary tea derived from the same source. Belief that one was drinking treated tea produced a large improvement in mood, but only if one was actually drinking the treated tea, indicating that belief and intentional enhancement interact. This also suggests that the esthetic and intentional qualities associated with the traditional tea ceremony may have subtle influences that extend beyond the ritual itself. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Indigenous Tea Production From Calyces Of Hibiscus Sabdariffa L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were carried out on the possibility of producing an acceptable indigenous tea from a commonly available indigenous raw material, Hibiscus sabdariffa L. The said tea was blended with ground dried leaves of Cymbopogon citratus and ground dried peels of Citrus limon. The commonly consumed commercial green ...

  12. Monitoring of essential and toxic metals in imported herbal teas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    concentrated and in turn enter the food chain and ultimately pose serious human health risk to consumers (Ansari et al., 2007; Weldegebriel et al.,. 2012; Rezaee et al., 2014). However, the evaluation of essential and toxic metals in teas is of great importance considering the potential health risk to habitual tea drinkers if ...

  13. Copper bioavailability from breakfasts containing tea : influence of the addition of milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaquero, M.P.; Veldhuizen, M.; Dokkum, W. van; Hamer, C.J.A. van den; Schaafsma, G.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of drinking tea on copper bioavailability is unclear, particularly when tea is consumed with food. A breakfast meal containing white bread, margarine, strawberry jam, cheese and tea, with or without milk, was digested in; vitro and the dialysis of copper investigated. Reference

  14. Multielement determination and speciation of major-to-ultratrace elements in green tea leaves by ICP-AES and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Hirotaka; Hokura, Akiko; Haraguchi, Hiroki

    2000-01-01

    In order to investigate the multi-elemental composition of green tea leaves as well as chemical species in tea infusions, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used for elemental analysis and elemental speciation with the aid of size exclusion chromatography (SEC). As a result, the multielement determination of major-to-ultratrace elements in green tea leaves and green tea infusions was carried out by ICP-AES and ICP-MS. About 40 elements in these tea samples could be determined in a wide concentration range of over 8 orders of magnitude. The extraction efficiency of each element was estimated as the ratio of its concentration in tea infusion to that in tea leaves. It was found from the experimental results that the elements in tea leaves could be classified into three characteristic groups, depending on their extraction efficiencies. Furthermore, tea infusions were analyzed by a combined system of SEC, UV absorption detector, and ICP-AES (or ICP-MS) for the speciation of major-to-ultratrace elements. Most of the elements in tea infusions were found to be present as associated complexes with large organic molecules. (author)

  15. [The Tuaregs addiction to tea, to smokeless tobacco and to milk: ethnological and clinical approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hureiki, J; Laqueille, X

    2003-01-01

    Some rituals about a regular consumption of tea, smokeless tobacco (chewing) and milk are described by one of the authors at the time of his anthropological investigation among the Tuaregs of Timbuktu's region (Mali). He carries out some ethnographical and clinical materials which highlight the dependence to these substances and the role of their psychostimulant and anorexigene effects in a society much ritualised. The subject of this article appears original in the literature which approaches more the dependence to coffee than tea, to cigarettes than to chewing tobacco. The observation of daily life of a tuareg encampment shows a ritual consumption of tea at four time a day. The motivations of the Tuaregs are the increase of vigilance and performance with that psychostimulant substance. They describe an intoxication syndrome related to caffeineism, observed among European tourists. The Tuaregs are aware of their addiction to tea and distinguish psychological dependence from physical dependence. The psychological dependence corresponds to a powerful desire to drink tea at ritual moments, while the physical dependence appears at waking-up and when the time of preparing this beverage is too late. The Tuaregs describe also a phenomenon of loss tolerance after an abstinence period. In spite of the maraboutic prohibition to drink tea, which diverts Tuaregs of their religious practice, they defy this ban from the waking-up to take that infusion before the matinal prayer. That addiction appears also in the identity of the Tuaregs who are called "the sons of tea". The consumption of chewing tobacco, mixed with ash, rhythms the daily life. The mean number of chewing is about fifteen by day; every chewing last 30 minutes. The first chewing of the day occurs 15 minutes after waking-up. The Tuaregs use tobacco in order to get relaxation and vigilance. They suggest intoxication symptoms and especially a withdrawal syndrome which appears at the waking-up or after an important

  16. Heavy Metal Concentration in Black Tea in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Yousefi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Tea is one of the most important beverages that consumes in several parts of the world including Iran. Tea plant can be contaminated during manufacturing processes and growth period by pollutants such as heavy metals. In this study, the concentration of some heavy metals in different brands of both Iranian and imported black tea to Iran was investigated to survey the human exposure to such pollutants. Materials & Methods: The study was carried out on different brands of black tea that most widely consume in Iran. The samples were collected from available supermarkets in Tehran city and concentrations of Mn, Cd and Cu were determined in black tea, using ICP-OES. Finally obtained results, by one way ANOVA analysis, compared to maximum contaminant concentration which is determined by WHO. Results: Results showed that concentrations of measured heavy metals in sampled black tea were different according to the brand of tea. The mean of Mn, Cu and Cd elements in all tea samples were 664.78, 26.15 and 0.194 µg/g, respectively. Generally, Cu content in studied samples was not significantly above WHO but Cd content, in some cases, was significantly higher than WHO. The guideline value is not given by WHO for Mn content of tea. Conclusions: According to the obtained results, Cd content is exceeding than WHO standards, therefore, control of Cd, as a toxic element that can accumulate in living systems, is necessary.

  17. Catechin content and the degree of its galloylation in oolong tea are inversely correlated with cultivation altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Heng Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The taste quality of oolong tea generated from leaves of Camellia sinensis L. cultivated in the same mountain area is positively correlated to the cultivation altitude, partly due to the inverse correlation with the astringency of the tea infusion. The astringency of oolong tea mostly results from the presence of polyphenolic compounds, mainly catechins and their derivatives. Four catechins, (--epicatechin (EC and (--epigallocatechin (EGC together with their gallate derivatives (with relatively high astringency, (--EC gallate (ECG and (--EGC gallate (EGCG, were detected as major compounds in oolong tea. The degrees of catechin galloylation, designated as ECG/(EC + ECG and EGCG/(EGC + EGCG, in both oolong tea infusions and their fresh tea leaves, were found to be inversely correlated to the cultivation altitude at 200 m, 800 m, and 1300 m. A similar inverse correlation was observed when seven more oolong tea infusions and seven more fresh leaves harvested at altitude ranging from 170 m to 1600 m were recruited for the analyses. Moreover, catechin contents in oolong tea infusions were also found to be inversely correlated to the cultivation altitude. It is proposed that catechin content and the degree of its galloylation account for, at least partly, the inverse correlation between the astringency of oolong tea and the cultivation altitude.

  18. Determination of fluoride in black, green and herbal teas by ionselective electrode using a standard-addition method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochammad Yuwono

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Tea leaves are very rich in fluoride, since tea plants take up fluoride from the soil and accumulate in its leaves. Some of this fluoride is released into the infusion, which is drunk as tea. Fluoride in tea could be beneficial for the prevention of dental caries, but it may result in excessive intake and lead to enamel fluorosis. The purpose of this work was to determine the fluoride levels in 12 different brands and types of tea by means of a computer-controlled ion-selective electrode potentiometry using a standard-addition method. It is a rapid method which showed good accuracy and precision. Fluoride contents of tea infusions after 5 min ranged from 0.95 to 4.73 mg/l for black teas; from 0.70 to 1.00 mg/l for green teas, and from 0.26 to 0.27 mg/l for herbal teas. It was concluded that black teas and green teas examined may be important contributors to the total daily fluoride intake. However, the ingestion of some black teas that were found to have high fluoride content by children at the age of risk to dental fluorosis should be avoided.

  19. Chernobyl radioactivity in Turkish tea and its possible health consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goekmen, I.G.; Birguel, O.; Kence, A.

    1995-01-01

    The dose estimates from the tea consumption was done following a different approach than previous studies. Instead of using the radioactivity data obtained by measuring only limited number of contaminated tea samples in our laboratories, the data reported by the Turkish Atomic Energy Agency Authority covering all the tea product of 1986 were used for dose estimates. In addition the collective effective dose equivalent in Turkey was estimated. Although in this study contamination only in one product, namely tea, was discussed, it turned out to be important as it was consumed by large populations in Turkey so contributed to the doses significantly. Precautions to be taken were summarized, one simple precaution 'rinsing of tea before brewing' was sufficient to remove half of the contamination from tea without any drawbacks. (author). 19 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  20. Prevalence of Brick Tea-Type Fluorosis in the Tibet Autonomous Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhipeng; Gao, Yanhui; Wang, Wei; Gong, Hongqiang; Guo, Min; Zhao, Shengcheng; Liu, Xuehui; Yu, Bing; Sun, Dianjun

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis is high in Tibet because of the habit of drinking brick tea in this region. Brick tea-type fluorosis has become an urgent public health problem in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis in all districts of Tibet using a stratified cluster sampling method. Dental fluorosis in children aged 8–12 years and clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were diagnosed according to the national criteria. A total of 423 children and 1320 adults participated in the study. Samples of drinking water, brick tea, brick tea infusion (or buttered tea), and urine were collected and measured for fluoride concentrations by the fluoride ion selective electrode method. Results The fluoride level in all but one of the brick tea samples was above the national standard. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea in all seven districts in Tibet was much higher than the national standard. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33.57%, and the prevalence of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 46.06%. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea (r = 0.292, P children (r = 0.134, P fluorosis. Herdsmen had the highest fluoride exposure and the most severe skeletal fluorosis. Conclusions Brick tea-type fluorosis in Tibet is more serious than in other parts of China. The altitude and occupational factors are important risk factors for brick tea-type fluorosis. PMID:26499132

  1. Occurrence of Functional Molecules in the Flowers of Tea (Camellia sinensis) Plants: Evidence for a Second Resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiyong; Zhou, Ying; Zeng, Lanting; Dong, Fang; Tu, Youying; Yang, Ziyin

    2018-03-29

    Tea ( Camellia sinensis ) is an important crop, and its leaves are used to make the most widely consumed beverage, aside from water. People have been using leaves from tea plants to make teas for a long time. However, less attention has been paid to the flowers of tea plants, which is a waste of an abundant resource. In the past 15 years, researchers have attempted to discover, identify, and evaluate functional molecules from tea flowers, and have made insightful and useful discoveries. Here, we summarize the recent investigations into these functional molecules in tea flowers, including functional molecules similar to those in tea leaves, as well as the preponderant functional molecules in tea flowers. Tea flowers contain representative metabolites similar to those of tea leaves, such as catechins, flavonols, caffeine, and amino acids. The preponderant functional molecules in tea flowers include saponins, polysaccharides, aromatic compounds, spermidine derivatives, and functional proteins. We also review the safety and biological functions of tea flowers. Tea flower extracts are proposed to be of no toxicological concern based on evidence from the evaluation of mutagenicity, and acute and subchronic toxicity in rats. The presence of many functional metabolites in tea flowers indicates that tea flowers possess diverse biological functions, which are mostly related to catechins, polysaccharides, and saponins. Finally, we discuss the potential for, and challenges facing, future applications of tea flowers as a second resource from tea plants.

  2. Hot and cold water infusion aroma profiles of Hibiscus sabdariffa: fresh compared with dried.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Rodrigues, M M; Balaban, M O; Marshall, M R; Rouseff, R L

    2011-03-01

    Calyxes from the Roselle plant (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) were used to prepare cold (22 °C for 4 h) and hot (98 °C for 16 min) infusions/teas from both fresh and dried forms. Aroma volatiles were extracted using static headspace SPME and analyzed using GC-MS and GC-O with 2 different columns (DB-5 and DB-Wax). Totals of 28, 25, 17, and 16 volatiles were identified using GC-MS in the dried hot extract (DHE), dried cold extract (DCE), fresh hot extract (FHE), and fresh cold extract (FCE) samples, respectively. In terms of total GC-MS peak areas DHE ≫ DCE > FHE ≫ FCE. Nonanal, decanal, octanal, and 1-octen-3-ol were among the major volatiles in all 4 beverage types. Thirteen volatiles were common to all 4 teas. Furfural and 5-methyl furfural were detected only in dried hibiscus beverages whereas linalool and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol were detected only in beverages from fresh hibiscus. In terms of aroma active volatiles, 17, 16, 13, and 10 aroma active volatiles were detected for DHE, DCE, FHE, and FCE samples, respectively. The most intense aroma volatiles were 1-octen-3-one and nonanal with a group of 4 aldehydes and 3 ketones common to all samples. Dried samples contained dramatically higher levels of lipid oxidation products such as hexanal, nonanal, and decanal. In fresh hibiscus extracts, linalool (floral, citrus) and octanal (lemon, citrus) were among the highest intensity aroma compounds but linalool was not detected in any of the dried hibiscus extracts. Hibiscus teas/infusions are one of the highest volume specialty botanical products in international commerce. The beverage is consumed for both sensory pleasure and health attributes and is prepared a number of ways throughout the world. Although color and taste attributes have been examined, little information is known about its aroma volatiles and no other study has compared extractions from both fresh and dried as well as extraction temperature differences. This is also, apparently, the first study to identify

  3. Improvement effect of green tea on hepatic dysfunction, lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... effects against cancers. The present study was designed to assess the pro- tective effect of green tea infusion by evaluating the free radicals scavenging capacity using the DPPH and NBT / riboflavin in vitro. In vivo, the liver dysfunction paramet- ers rate, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzymes acti-.

  4. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in tea (Japanese tea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in tea (Japanese tea) were determined. Five hundred grams of manufactured green tea was collected from six sampling locations in Japan. The results are shown in a table. (Namekawa, K.)

  5. Prevalence of Brick Tea-Type Fluorosis in the Tibet Autonomous Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhipeng; Gao, Yanhui; Wang, Wei; Gong, Hongqiang; Guo, Min; Zhao, Shengcheng; Liu, Xuehui; Yu, Bing; Sun, Dianjun

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis is high in Tibet because of the habit of drinking brick tea in this region. Brick tea-type fluorosis has become an urgent public health problem in China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis in all districts of Tibet using a stratified cluster sampling method. Dental fluorosis in children aged 8-12 years and clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were diagnosed according to the national criteria. A total of 423 children and 1320 adults participated in the study. Samples of drinking water, brick tea, brick tea infusion (or buttered tea), and urine were collected and measured for fluoride concentrations by the fluoride ion selective electrode method. The fluoride level in all but one of the brick tea samples was above the national standard. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea in all seven districts in Tibet was much higher than the national standard. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33.57%, and the prevalence of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 46.06%. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea (r = 0.292, P Tibet is more serious than in other parts of China. The altitude and occupational factors are important risk factors for brick tea-type fluorosis.

  6. Coffee, tea, colas, and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yoon Ju; Kristal, Alan R; Wicklund, Kristine G; Cushing-Haugen, Kara L; Rossing, Mary Anne

    2008-03-01

    Associations of coffee, tea, and other caffeinated beverages with ovarian cancer risk remain uncertain. In a population-based study in Washington State, 781 women with epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosed in 2002 to 2005 and 1,263 controls completed self-administered questionnaires detailing consumption of caffeinated and noncaffeinated coffee, teas, and colas and in-person interviews regarding reproductive and hormonal exposures. We assessed risk associated with coffee, tea, and cola drinking and with total caffeine consumption using logistic regression to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Neither caffeinated nor decaffeinated coffees were associated with ovarian cancer risk; also, we observed no association of total caffeine with risk using a combined index that summed intake from coffee, tea, and carbonated soft drinks. Among teas, neither herbal/decaffeinated nor black teas were associated with risk; however, women who reported drinking >or=1 cup/d of green tea had a 54% reduction in risk (P trend = 0.01). Associations of green tea with risk were similar when invasive and borderline cases were considered separately and when Asian women were excluded from analysis. Green tea, which is commonly consumed in countries with low ovarian cancer incidence, should be further investigated for its cancer prevention properties.

  7. The Czech Tea Profession and the Phenomenon of Tea Rooms

    OpenAIRE

    Schröderová, Karolína

    2015-01-01

    In this bachelor thesis I have focused on the Czech tea culture and tea profession across tea rooms. I have dealt with influences that led to the present tea rooms' appearances. Furthermore I am dealing with ways of tea culture spreading, and what conduces to the tea room establishing. I am using the term of subculture in the connection with the tea culture, its meaning and position in the Czech culture. The main data source were semi- structured interviews with the tea rooms owners, all comp...

  8. Understanding Kombucha Tea Fermentation: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal-Soto, Silvia Alejandra; Beaufort, Sandra; Bouajila, Jalloul; Souchard, Jean-Pierre; Taillandier, Patricia

    2018-03-01

    Kombucha is a beverage of probable Manchurian origins obtained from fermented tea by a microbial consortium composed of several bacteria and yeasts. This mixed consortium forms a powerful symbiosis capable of inhibiting the growth of potentially contaminating bacteria. The fermentation process also leads to the formation of a polymeric cellulose pellicle due to the activity of certain strains of Acetobacter sp. The tea fermentation process by the microbial consortium was able to show an increase in certain biological activities which have been already studied; however, little information is available on the characterization of its active components and their evolution during fermentation. Studies have also reported that the use of infusions from other plants may be a promising alternative. Kombucha is a traditional fermented tea whose consumption has increased in the recent years due to its multiple functional properties such as anti-inflammatory potential and antioxidant activity. The microbiological composition of this beverage is quite complex and still more research is needed in order to fully understand its behavior. This study comprises the chemical and microbiological composition of the tea and the main factors that may affect its production. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. Antioxidative and Antimelanoma Effects of Various Tea Extracts via a Green Extraction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihui Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis contains high level of antioxidant elements and is a well-known beverage consumed worldwide. The purpose of this study is to compare different concentrations of green tea, black tea, oolong tea 861, oolong tea 732, and jasmine green tea. These five types of tea extracts were known to have antioxidative properties, reducing power, and metal ion chelating activity. The current study compared these five extracts in terms of their inhibiting effects on human malignant melanoma: A2058 and A375. To determine the cell viability between normal cell and malignant melanoma cells, an MTT assay was applied to evaluate the cytotoxic potential on human melanoma cells, with all tea extracts showing decreased cell viability with increasing tea extract concentrations. Cytotoxicity on HaCat (normal skin cells showed no effect on the cell viabilities at lower concentrations of the tea extracts. These results suggest the antioxidative effect of five tea extracts that protect against oxidation and melanoma production, with green tea and jasmine green tea showing the lowest cell viability when tested against malignant melanoma cells.

  10. Varietal identification of tea (Camellia sinensis [L.] Kuntze) using nanofluidic array of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apart from water, tea is the world’s most widely consumed beverage. Tea is produced in more than 50 countries with an annual production of approximately 4.7 million tons. The market segment for specialty tea has been expanding rapidly owing to increased demand, resulting in higher revenues and profi...

  11. An interesting case of opium tea toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyani, Chitsa; Green, Peregrine; Daniel, Lisa; Pegden, Amanda

    2017-04-28

    We present an unusual cause of respiratory arrest resulting from sole ingestion of home-brewed opium tea. A 64-year-old woman was found unresponsive and in respiratory arrest by a first responder. There were no obvious signs of regular recreational drug use. On presentation to the local district general hospital, the patient was in extremis, with severe physiological and biochemical derangements. A naloxone infusion was commenced and she later made a good recovery. It was subsequently discovered that she had brewed opium tea from opium buds she had picked from a nearby commercial poppy farm, a practice she had learnt while in Afghanistan. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Correlation between fluorine content in tea and bone assessed using neutron activation analysis in a Canadian urban population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeill, F.E.; Chettle, D.R.

    2016-01-01

    Brewed tea from Canadian brands was analyzed for fluorine content using neutron activation analysis. Black tea contained (mean ± SEM) 5.4 ± 0.2 μg F/ml, while green tea contained less, 3.7 ± 0.5 μg F/ml. Using the numbers from black tea, and our unique data from non-invasive measurements of fluoride in bone, we estimate that tea drinkers in Hamilton are consuming, on average, 25 μg F/kg bw per day, the equivalent of approximately 1.5 cups of tea per day. (author)

  13. Study of the effect of common infusions on glass ionomers using the PIXE and RBS techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verón, María Gisela; Pérez, Pablo Daniel; Suárez, Sergio Gabriel; Prado, Miguel Oscar

    2017-12-01

    The effect of four commonly consumed beverages as mineral water, coffee, tea and mate tea on the elemental composition of a commercial glass ionomer was studied using Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) techniques. We found that after immersion in acidic media, some elements as Al, Si and Na are lost from the glass-ionomer whereas others heavier, as K, Ca and La, increase their concentration at the surface. Although the concentration profiles of Al and Si are different in different media, in all of them the Al:Si ratio was close to unity and remained constant for different periods of immersion in all media. The incorporation of K, Mg and Fe to the surface is found for common infusions while for mineral water the glass-ionomer mainly loses F and Na.The RBS technique showed that immersion in different media produced a modification of the density of the glass ionomer surface layer due to the increment of the concentration of heavier elements at the surface. The thickness of the modified surface layer extends up to 3 μm when the immersion time is seven days and more than 6 μm after 33 days of immersion.

  14. Advanced phytochemical analysis of herbal tea in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J; Deng, J W; Chen, Y W; Li, S P

    2013-10-25

    Herbal tea is a commonly consumed beverage brewed from the leaves, flowers, seeds, fruits, stems and roots of plants species rather than Camellia sinensis L., which has been widely used for health care and diseases prevention for centuries. With the increasing consumption of herbal tea, a number of public health issues e.g., efficacy, safety and quality assurance have attracted concern. However, to date, there is no a review focus on herbal tea. Phytochemical analysis, as a key step to investigate the chemical composition of herbal tea and ensure the quality, is very important. In this review, we summarized and discussed the recent development (2005-2012) in phytochemical analysis of herbal tea commonly used in China. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Fusion of Potentiometric & Voltammetric Electronic Tongue for Classification of Black Tea Taste based on Theaflavins (TF) Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Legin, Andrey; Papieva, Irina; Sarkar, Subrata; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Kartsova, Anna; Ghosh, Arunangshu; Bandyopadhyay, Rajib

    2011-09-01

    Black tea is an extensively consumed beverage worldwide with an expanding market. The final quality of black tea depends upon number of chemical compounds present in the tea. Out of these compounds, theaflavins (TF), which is responsible for astringency in black tea, plays an important role in determining the final taste of the finished black tea. The present paper reports our effort to correlate the theaflavins contents with the voltammetric and potentiometric electronic tongue (e-tongue) data. Noble metal-based electrode array has been used for collecting data though voltammetric electronic tongue where as liquid filled membrane based electrodes have been used for potentiometric electronic tongue. Black tea samples with tea taster score and biochemical results have been collected from Tea Research Association, Tocklai, India for the analysis purpose. In this paper, voltammetric and potentiometric e-tongue responses are combined to demonstrate improvement of cluster formation among tea samples with different ranges of TF values.

  16. [Factors which modify the nutritional state of iron: tannin content of herbal teas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, F; Olivares, M; Hertrampf, E; Walter, T

    1994-12-01

    Tannins are natural compounds that abound in herbs, wood and fruits. Their numerous hydroxyl radicals confer them a strong avidity for metals such as Fe, Zn and Cu. This property makes them strong inhibitors for the gastrointestinal absorption of these metals. Our purpose was to determine the tannin content of herbal infusions commonly consumed in Chile and other Latino American countries. The determination was performed from dessicated herbs with the Folin-Denis technique. Yerba mate, tea and oregano had the highest tannin content (117, 100 and 84 mg of tannic acid/g dry herb respectively). An intermediate level (between 20 and 40 of tannic acid/g) was for coca, matico, boldo, palto, laurel, orange and binojo. The lowest level of tannin for paico, cedrón, apio and manzanilla (< 10 mg/g). We conclude that the consumption of herbal teas at or around meals may inhibit the absorption of metals such as Fe, Zn, or Cu by decreasing their bioavailability.

  17. BRAND DEVELOPMENT IN CHINESE TEA MARKET : Case Company: Lipton

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Yuqi

    2014-01-01

    China once acted as the world’s largest consumer and exporter of tea, but at the same time, it has always been nagged by the lack of brands. Faced with the changing marketing environment and consumer demand, building a strong brand has become the paramount task for Chinese tea companies to stand out in the fierce competitions. Marketing communication is always a significant tool in terms of building the brand awareness and favorable brand image among consumers. Lipton, which is the world’s le...

  18. Varietal identification of tea (Camellia sinensis) using nanofluidic array of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wan-Ping; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Tan, Hua-Wei; Zhou, Lin; Mischke, Sue; Zhang, Dapeng

    2014-01-01

    Apart from water, tea is the world's most widely consumed beverage. Tea is produced in more than 50 countries with an annual production of approximately 4.7 million tons. The market segment for specialty tea has been expanding rapidly owing to increased demand, resulting in higher revenues and profits for tea growers and the industry. Accurate varietal identification is critically important to ensure traceability and authentication of premium tea products, which in turn contribute to on-farm conservation of tea genetic diversity. Using a set of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers developed from the expressed sequence tag (EST) database of Camilla senensis, we genotyped deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) samples extracted from a diverse group of tea varieties, including both fresh and processed commercial loose-leaf teas. The validation led to the designation of 60 SNPs that unambiguously identified all 40 tested tea varieties with high statistical rigor (pauthenticity and genetic relationships among the analyzed cultivars were further characterized by ordination and Bayesian clustering analysis. These SNP markers, in combination with a high-throughput genotyping protocol, effectively established and verified specific DNA fingerprints for all tested tea varieties. This method provides a powerful tool for variety authentication and quality control for the tea industry. It is also highly useful for the management of tea genetic resources and breeding, where accurate and efficient genotype identification is essential.

  19. A Case of Hepatotoxicity Related to Kombucha Tea Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedela, Maheedhar; Potu, Kalyan Chakravarthy; Gali, Vasantha L; Alyamany, Kimberlee; Jha, Lokesh K

    2016-01-01

    The use of herbal and dietary supplements (HDSs) is widespread and growing due to the popular notion that these products are of natural origins and safe. Kombucha (or "mushroom") tea is one HDS that is consumed by people for various perceived health benefits. Kombucha tea is a well-known health beverage made by fermenting sweet black tea with a round, flat, gray fungus for a week or longer. There is concern, however, from the evidence of a few case reports currently available, that it may pose life-threatening and/or adverse effects for users.

  20. Dissipation kinetics and safety evaluation of tebuconazole and trifloxystrobin in tea under tropical field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramasivam, Mariappan; Deepa, Manthirachalam; Selvi, Chellamuthu; Chandrasekaran, Subramanian

    2017-12-01

    Dissipation kinetics of tebuconazole, trifloxystrobin and its acid metabolite residues were studied in tea under tropical field conditions using GC-MS (SIM). The average recoveries ranged from 80.7% to 105.8%, with a RSD of tea were 2.7-3.6 days for trifloxystrobin and 3.0-3.1 days for tebuconazole. The trifloxystrobin residues were not transferred into the tea infusion during the infusion process; tebuconazole did transfer, in the range of 14.3-18.9%. As the theoretical maximum residue contributions on tea from initial deposits were found to be less than the maximum permissible intake values, at the recommended application dose a withdrawal period of 23 days before consumption should be applied to reduce risk.

  1. Kombucha, the fermented tea: microbiology, composition, and claimed health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwalt, C J; Steinkraus, K H; Ledford, R A

    2000-07-01

    Kombucha is a slightly sweet, slightly acidic tea beverage consumed worldwide, but historically in China, Russia, and Germany. Kombucha is prepared by fermenting sweetened black tea preparations with a symbiotic culture of yeasts and bacteria. Potential health effects have created an increased interest in Kombucha. Yet, only a few research studies have shown that Kombucha has in vitro antimicrobial activity and enhances sleep and pain thresholds in rats. Furthermore, Kombucha consumption has proven to be harmful in several documented instances.

  2. Effect of gamma radiation on antioxidant capacity of green tea, yerba mate, and chamomile tea as evaluated by different methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerolis, Luanai Grazieli Luquini; Lameiras, Fernando Soares; Krambrock, Klaus; Neves, Maria Jose.

    2017-01-01

    Tea is a traditional plant extract with important cultural ties. It is the most widely consumed beverage in the world. Tea consumption has some health benefits including antioxidant stimulus. Gamma radiation is currently used to control of postharvest pathogens on tea herb. However, free radicals can be generated, which consumes antioxidant molecules. A positive relation was found between radiation doses used and free radicals generation in green tea (Camellia sinensis), yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis), and chamomile tea (Matricaria recutita). Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of aqueous and methanol extracts of these herbs was determined by various methods to compare the effect of irradiation of herb on antioxidant capacity of the extracts. TAC was evaluated by measuring: total phenols (decreased with irradiation in mate and green teas), total flavonoids (stable in aqueous extracts and decreased with irradiation in methanol extract of mate and chamomile), Trolox equivalent or ABTS (unchanged under irradiation), DPPH* scavenging capacity (stable on aqueous extract but diminished in methanol extract after irradiation), β carotene/acid linoleic ability (stable with the exception of chamomile tea that increased after irradiation) and, capacity to chelate ferrous ions (unchanged with irradiation). In conclusion, gamma irradiation reduced the capacity of some antioxidants but preserved the capacity of others. This study showed that one isolated test does not suffice to perform this evaluation reliably, which is a reflection of the diversity and complexity of the effects of irradiation on antioxidant molecules present in different samples.

  3. Fluorine in food with special reference to tea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, P.W.; Hitchcock, A.E.; Gwirtsman, J.

    A review of the literature showed that in 1932 commercial tea, Camellia sinensis Kuntze (Thea sinensis L., Camellia thea Link.), was known to contain fluorine (F). Since ornamental camellias (C. japonica L.) and tea are members of the Theaceae family, comparisons were made of the F in leaves of the two species. The dry leaves of various domestic brands of tea, composed mostly of young leaves, contained 72 to 115 parts per million (p.p.m.) F and Chinese tea 131 to 178 p.p.m. F on a dry weight basis. One sample of fresh leaves of greenhouse grown tea plants contained 1530 p.p.m. F on a dry weight basis and the older leaves of ornamental camellias up to 3062 p.p.m. F. One sample of young leaves of C. japonica contained 67 p.p.m. F. Thus both species of Camellia have the capacity to accumulate relatively large amounts of F, especially in the older leaves. The infusion (beverage) from one tea bag in 4.5 fluid oz. of water contained 0.8 to 1.7 p.p.m. F after 3 minutes steeping and 1.0 to 2.0 p.p.m. F after 3 minutes boiling.

  4. Drinking of Salvia officinalis tea increases CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Cristóvão F.; Ferreira, Manuel Fernandes; Wilson, Cristina Pereira

    2007-01-01

    In a previous study, the drinking of a Salvia officinalis tea (prepared as an infusion) for 14 days improved liver antioxidant status in mice and rats where, among other factors, an enhancement of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity was observed. Taking in consideration these effects, in the present study the potential protective effects of sage tea drinking against a situation of hepatotoxicity due to free radical formation, such as that caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), were evalu...

  5. Potentiating effects of honey on antioxidant properties of lemon flavoured black tea

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; Vilas-Boas, Miguel; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2013-01-01

    Health benefits including antioxidant potential of black tea (Camellia sinensis), lemon (Citrus limon) and honey bees (Apis mellifera) have been extensively reported. Nevertheless, nothing is reported about the effects of their concomitant use. Herein, those effects were evaluated in infusions of lemon-flavoured black tea with three different kinds of honey (light amber, amber and dark amber) from Lavandula stoechas, Erica sp. pl. and other indigenous floral species from north-east Portugal, ...

  6. Study unique artistic lopburi province for design brass tea set of bantahkrayang community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliansiri, V.; Seviset, S.

    2017-07-01

    The objectives of this study were as follows: 1) to study the production process of handcrafted Brass Tea Set; and 2) to design and develop the handcrafted of Brass Tea Set. The process of design was started by mutual analytical processes and conceptual framework for product design, Quality Function Deployment, Theory of Inventive Problem Solving, Principles of Craft Design, and Principle of Reverse Engineering. The experts in field of both Industrial Product Design and Brass Handicraft Product, have evaluated the Brass Tea Set design and created prototype of Brass tea set by the sample of consumers who have ever bought the Brass Tea Set of Bantahkrayang Community on this research. The statistics methods used were percentage, mean ({{{\\overline X}} = }) and standard deviation (S.D.) 3. To assess consumer satisfaction toward of handcrafted Brass tea set was at the high level.

  7. Fluoride in black and green tea ( Camellia sinensis ) infusions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 24, No 3 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Prevalence of Brick Tea-Type Fluorosis in the Tibet Autonomous Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Fan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis is high in Tibet because of the habit of drinking brick tea in this region. Brick tea-type fluorosis has become an urgent public health problem in China. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis in all districts of Tibet using a stratified cluster sampling method. Dental fluorosis in children aged 8–12 years and clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were diagnosed according to the national criteria. A total of 423 children and 1320 adults participated in the study. Samples of drinking water, brick tea, brick tea infusion (or buttered tea, and urine were collected and measured for fluoride concentrations by the fluoride ion selective electrode method. Results: The fluoride level in all but one of the brick tea samples was above the national standard. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea in all seven districts in Tibet was much higher than the national standard. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33.57%, and the prevalence of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 46.06%. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea (r = 0.292, P < 0.05, urine fluoride concentrations in children (r = 0.134, P < 0.05, urine fluoride concentrations in adults (r = 0.162, P < 0.05, and altitude (r = 0.276, P < 0.05 were positively correlated with the prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis. Herdsmen had the highest fluoride exposure and the most severe skeletal fluorosis. Conclusions: Brick tea-type fluorosis in Tibet is more serious than in other parts of China. The altitude and occupational factors are important risk factors for brick tea-type fluorosis.

  9. OPTIMIZATION OF A UV-VIS SPECTROMETRIC METHOD FOR CAFFEINE ANALYSIS IN TEA, COFFEE AND OTHER BEVERAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. DOBRINAS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A method has been developed and validated for the determination of caffeine in tea, coffee and other beverages by UV-VIS spectrometry. A linear calibration curve was generated with caffeine concentration ranging from 3 mg∙L-1 to 18 mg∙L-1. The procedure developed provides a 0.85 mg∙L-1 detection limit of caffeine, respectively 1.52 mg∙L-1 quantification limit and the relative standard deviation (RSD was less than 0.05 % for independent measurement. The developed method was sensitive/specific and robust. Caffeine in tea infusions was found to be dependent on infusion time, the longer of the infusion time and the higher of the caffeine concentrations in tea infusions.

  10. Maintenance of raw and cooked ready-to-eat product quality of infused poultry meats with selected plant extracts during electron beam irradiation and after storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rababah, Taha

    The purpose of this study included: preparing plant extracts and evaluating these extracts for total phenolics and antioxidant activities (AA); infusing extract/combination that demonstrates superior AA into chicken breast and irradiating at 3.0 kGy; evaluating the physicochemical properties of irradiated and non-irradiated raw and cooked chicken breast at 5°C for 12 days and -20°C for 9 months; and selecting the extracts that demonstrated desirable AA, infusing these extracts into chicken breast and evaluating head-space volatiles, and conducting sensory evaluation. The total phenolic content and AA of the plant extracts ranged from 24.8 to 92.5 mg/g dry material (conjugated diene of methyl linoleate) and 3.4 to 86.3%, respectively. The AA of plant extracts using oxidative stability instrument were 4.6 to 10.2 h (Induction time). Green tea and grape seed extracts had the highest AA within several plant extracts, and were selected to retard lipid oxidation in further studies. Fresh boneless and skinless chicken breast meats were vacuum infused with varying concentrations of antioxidants: Green tea and grape seed extracts alone/in combination and tert-butylhydroquinone. The results showed that irradiation had no significant effect on pH, water holding capacity, but increased the redness and carbonyls in raw meats (p extracts into meats increased lightness and decreased redness as well as hardness and shear force. Irradiation increased TBARS, hexanal, and pentanal values in raw and cooked meats. Addition of plant extracts decreased the amount of TBARS, hexanal, pentanal, and carbonyl values. Similar results were observed when the samples were stored at -20°C for 9 months. Descriptive sensory flavor results showed that irradiation did not affect the flavor attributes. Consumer, descriptive, and instrumental results showed that irradiation increased toughness, green tea improved the meat color, and the panel indicated that irradiation decreased the tenderness of the

  11. Persistence of thiacloprid and deltamethrin residues in tea grown at different locations of North-East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nitesh; Banerjee, Hemanta; Pal, Srikumar; Sharma, K K

    2018-07-01

    In order to examine the residues of thiacloprid (90 and 180 g a.i./ha) and deltamethrin (10 and 20 g a.i./ha) in fresh tea leaves, made tea and tea infusion, field experiments were conducted at three different locations viz. Kamalpur tea estate, Darjeeling; West Bengal, Teok tea Estate and AAU, Jorhat; Assam in India. Regardless of location and doses, residues of both the insecticides dissipated following first order kinetics. The half-life of Thiacloprid (4.93-5.38 days) was longer than that of deltamethrin (1.78-1.94 days). Processing of green tea leaves reduced the residue level of thiacloprid and deltamethrin in made tea. No residues of both these insecticides could be detected in tea infusion. With respect to the phenolic distribution in tea, a marked increase in total catechin monomers with thiacloprid and greater accumulation of EGCG and ECG (indices of phenol quality) with deltamethrin were observed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Tea and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Apranta; Vita, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for a protective effect of tea consumption against cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes the available epidemiological data providing evidence for and against such an effect. We also review observational and intervention studies that investigated an effect of tea and tea extracts on cardiovascular risk factors, including blood pressure, serum lipids, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. Finally, we review potential mechanisms of benefit, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-proliferative effects, as well as favorable effects on endothelial function. Overall, the observational data suggest a benefit, but results are mixed and likely confounded by lifestyle and background dietary factors. The weight of evidence indicates favorable effects on risk factors and a number of plausible mechanisms have been elucidated in experimental and translational human studies. Despite the growing body evidence, it remains uncertain whether tea consumption should be recommended to the general population or to patients as a strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID:21477653

  13. Tea Tree Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Grants and Contracts General Award Mechanisms Small Business Research Grant Program (SBIR) Funding for: Natural Product ... cuts and wounds by the aboriginal people of Australia. Today, tea tree oil is often used externally ...

  14. Development and Application of UPLC-QTof/MS Method for the Differentiation between Tea Varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandrić, Zora

    2016-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is one of the most popularly consumed beverages worldwide. It has been used as a natural medicine for thousands of years, containing many compounds beneficial to health. The two most popular varieties are green (favoured in Asia) and black tea (favoured in the western countries). The different growing season, geographical regions, processing and fermentation methods create many varieties of tea, some of which have premium value compared to the others. The expansion of the consumer market, which has increased demand for “manufactured” food as well as transported “pure” food such as tea, has encouraged adulteration simply because of the prospects for increased profit. The adulteration of tea has become a common problem. Mixing exhausted tealeaves with leaves of some other plants (e.g. elder, hawthorn, sloe), addition of the dust of the tea leaves and sand, chemical enhancement of green tea (with Prussian blue and sulphate of lime or gypsum) and simply redried and resold tea-leaves, are some of the main examples of tea adulteration. To help address these issues, the Food and Environmental Protection Laboratory (FEPL) applied an untargeted metabolomics approach previously developed for some other commodities (e.g. honey, fruit juices) to investigate the possibility of distinguishing teas from different origins, and detecting varieties that had been adulterated.

  15. The Effect of Green Tea versus Sour Tea on Insulin Resistance, Lipids Profiles and Oxidative Stress in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Mozaffari-Khosravi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: By decreasing oxidative stress and whereby decreasing insulin resistance, it may be possible to decrease complications of Diabetes Mellitus (DM. Green tea and sour tea contain phytochemicals which have anti-oxidative function. The aim of this study is to compare the effect of sour and green tea consumption on insulin resistance and oxidative stress in DM. Methods: This study is a randomized clinical trial in which 100 type 2 diabetes patients were randomly assigned into sour tea group (ST and green tea group (GT. The patients were instructed to drink 150ml sour tea and green tea infusion, respectively, three times a day for 4 weeks. Fasting blood sugar (FBS, fructosamine, lipid profiles, fasting blood insulin (FBI, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; beta cell function (b%, insulin sensitivity (S% and malondialdehyde (MDA were monitored. Results: HDL-c significantly increased in both groups. The median of FBI in GT showed significant decrease (8.5 to 6.6 μIU/mL unlike the ST which showed significant increase (8.2 to 16.3 μIU/mL. The median of HOMA-IR after the intervention in GT showed lower levels than the ST (1.1 vs. 1.6, P=0.004. The median of b% only in ST showed significant increase from 38.2% at the baseline to 47.7% after the intervention. The mean of S% only in ST showed significant decrease after the intervention. Conclusion: This study shows that the use of 150 ml infusion of green tea or sour tea, three times a day for four weeks, has positive effect on insulin resistance and certain lipoproteins in type 2 DM. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201107317161N1

  16. Fluoride and aluminum in teas and tea-based beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayacibara Mitsue Fujimaki

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate fluoride and aluminum concentration in herbal, black, ready-to-drink, and imported teas available in Brazil considering the risks fluoride and aluminum pose to oral and general health, respectively. METHODS: One-hundred and seventy-seven samples of herbal and black tea, 11 types of imported tea and 21 samples of ready-to-drink tea were divided into four groups: I-herbal tea; II-Brazilian black tea (Camellia sinensis; III-imported tea (Camellia sinensis; IV-ready-to-drink tea-based beverages. Fluoride and aluminum were analyzed using ion-selective electrode and atomic absorption, respectively. RESULTS: Fluoride and aluminum levels in herbal teas were very low, but high amounts were found in black and ready-to-drink teas. Aluminum found in all samples analyzed can be considered safe to general health. However, considering 0.07 mg F/kg/day as the upper limit of fluoride intake with regard to undesirable dental fluorosis, some teas exceed the daily intake limit for children. CONCLUSIONS: Brazilian and imported teas made from Camellia sinensis as well as some tea-based beverages are sources of significant amounts of fluoride, and their intake may increase the risk of developing dental fluorosis.

  17. In vitro assay to estimate tea astringency via observing flotation of artificial oil bodies sheltered by caleosin fused with histatin 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yu-En; Lin, Yu-Chih; Chung, Tse-Yu; Liu, Mei-Chun; Chen, Guan-Heng; Wu, Chia-Chang; Tzen, Jason T C

    2017-10-01

    Astringency, a sensory characteristic of food and beverages rich in polyphenols, mainly results from the formation of complexes between polyphenols and salivary proteins, causing a reduction of the lubricating properties of saliva. To develop an in vitro assay to estimate the astringency of oolong tea infusion, artificial oil bodies were constituted with sesame oil sheltered by a modified caleosin fused with histatin 3, one of the human salivary small peptides. Aggregation of artificial oil bodies was induced when they were mixed with oolong tea infusion or its major polyphenolic compound, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) of 100μM as observed in light microscopy. The aggregated artificial oil bodies gradually floated on top of the solution and formed a visible milky layer whose thickness was in proportion to the concentrations of tea infusion. This assay system was applied to test four different oolong tea infusions with sensory astringency corresponding to their EGCG contents. The result showed that relative astringency of the four tea infusions was correlated to the thickness of floated artificial oil bodies, and could be estimated according to the standard curve generated by simultaneously observing a serial dilution of the tea infusion with the highest astringency. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. In vitro assay to estimate tea astringency via observing flotation of artificial oil bodies sheltered by caleosin fused with histatin 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-En Shih

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Astringency, a sensory characteristic of food and beverages rich in polyphenols, mainly results from the formation of complexes between polyphenols and salivary proteins, causing a reduction of the lubricating properties of saliva. To develop an in vitro assay to estimate the astringency of oolong tea infusion, artificial oil bodies were constituted with sesame oil sheltered by a modified caleosin fused with histatin 3, one of the human salivary small peptides. Aggregation of artificial oil bodies was induced when they were mixed with oolong tea infusion or its major polyphenolic compound, (−-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG of 100μM as observed in light microscopy. The aggregated artificial oil bodies gradually floated on top of the solution and formed a visible milky layer whose thickness was in proportion to the concentrations of tea infusion. This assay system was applied to test four different oolong tea infusions with sensory astringency corresponding to their EGCG contents. The result showed that relative astringency of the four tea infusions was correlated to the thickness of floated artificial oil bodies, and could be estimated according to the standard curve generated by simultaneously observing a serial dilution of the tea infusion with the highest astringency.

  19. Black tea: Phytochemicals, cancer chemoprevention, and clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Brahma N; Rawat, A K S; Bhagat, R M; Singh, B R

    2017-05-03

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is the most popular, flavored, functional, and therapeutic non-alcoholic drink consumed by two-thirds of the world's population. Black tea leaves are reported to contain thousands of bioactive constituents such as polyphenols, amino acids, volatile compounds, and alkaloids that exhibit a range of promising pharmacological properties. Due to strong antioxidant property, black tea inhibits the development of various cancers by regulating oxidative damage of biomolecules, endogenous antioxidants, and pathways of mutagen and transcription of antioxidant gene pool. Regular drinking of phytochemicals-rich black tea is linked to regulate several molecular targets, including COX-2, 5-LOX, AP-1, JNK, STAT, EGFR, AKT, Bcl2, NF-κB, Bcl-xL, caspases, p53, FOXO1, TNFα, PARP, and MAPK, which may be the basis of how dose of black tea prevents and cures cancer. In vitro and preclinical studies support the anti-cancer activity of black tea; however, its effect in human trails is uncertain, although more clinical experiments are needed at molecular levels to understand its anti-cancer property. This review discusses the current knowledge on phytochemistry, chemopreventive activity, and clinical applications of black tea to reveal its anti-cancer effect.

  20. Green tea and anticancer perspectives: updates from last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Masood Sadiq; Ahmad, Rabia Shabir; Sultan, M Tauseef; Qayyum, Mir M Nasir; Naz, Ambreen

    2015-01-01

    Green tea is the most widely consumed beverage besides water and has attained significant attention owing to health benefits against array of maladies, e.g., obesity, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disorders, and cancer insurgence. The major bioactive molecules are epigallocatechin-3-gallate, epicatechin, epicatechin-3-gallate, epigallocatechin, etc. The anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic activities of green tea were highlighted some years ago. Several cohort studies and controlled randomized trials suggested the inverse association of green tea consumption and cancer prevalence. Cell culture and animal studies depicted the mechanisms of green tea to control cancer insurgence, i.e., induction of apoptosis to control cell growth arrest, altered expression of cell-cycle regulatory proteins, activation of killer caspases, and suppression of nuclear factor kappa-B activation. It acts as carcinoma blocker by modulating the signal transduction pathways involved in cell proliferation, transformation, inflammation, and metastasis. However, results generated from some research interventions conducted in different groups like smokers and nonsmokers, etc. contradicted with aforementioned anticancer perspectives. In this review paper, anticancer perspectives of green tea and its components have been described. Recent findings and literature have been surfed and arguments are presented to clarify the ambiguities regarding anticancer perspectives of green tea and its component especially against colon, skin, lung, prostate, and breast cancer. The heading of discussion and future trends is limelight of the manuscript. The compiled manuscript provides new avenues for researchers to be explored in relation to green tea and its bioactive components.

  1. Consumption of black tea and cancer risk : a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldbohm, R.A.; Hertog, M.G.L.; Brants, H.A.M.; Poppel, G. van; Brandt, P.A. van den

    1996-01-01

    Background: Tea is one of the most frequently consumed beverages in the world. Antioxidant polyphenol compounds (such as catechins and flavonols) are abundantly present in both green and black teas and have been observed to have anticarcinogenic properties in cell and animal model studies. In black

  2. Green tea EGCG suppresses T cell proliferation through impairment of IL-2/IL-2 receptor signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies have suggested a benefit of consuming green tea in promoting general health and reducing the risk of certain diseases. However, little is known about the effect of green tea on immune function. In this study we determined the effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major active comp...

  3. Insect pests of tea and their management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Lakshmi K; Bhuyan, Mantu; Hazarika, Budhindra N

    2009-01-01

    Globally, 1031 species of arthropods are associated with the intensively managed tea Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze monoculture. All parts of the plant, leaf, stem, root, flower, and seed, are fed upon by at least one pest species, resulting in an 11%-55% loss in yield if left unchecked. There has been heavy use of organosynthetic pesticides since the 1950s to defend the plant against these pests, leading to rapid conversion of innocuous species into pests, development of resistance, and undesirable pesticide residues in made tea. As a result of importer and consumer concerns, pesticide residues have become a major problem for the tea industry. Integrated pest management (IPM) may help to overcome the overuse of pesticides and subsequent residues. We review the advances made in our understanding of the biology and ecology of major insect and mite pests of tea, host plant resistance, cultural practices, biocontrol measures, and need-based application of botanicals and safer pesticides to understand the present status of IPM and to identify future challenges to improvement.

  4. In Vitro Digestibility of Aluminum from Hibiscus sabdariffa Hot Watery Infusion and Its Concentration in Urine of Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankova, Adela; Malik, Jan; Drabek, Ondrej; Szakova, Jirina; Sperlingova, Ilona; Kloucek, Pavel; Novy, Pavel; Tejnecky, Vaclav; Landa, Premysl; Leuner, Ogla; Kokoska, Ladislav

    2016-12-01

    Increased ingestion of aluminum (Al) can lead to its accumulation in the human body, especially in people with kidney problems. Al is also associated with several nervous diseases and its negative influence on embryo development during pregnancy has been proven in animal models. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. petals are widely used alone or in fruit tea formulas, which are recommended for drinking during pregnancy instead of tea. Its petals can contain similar and even higher amounts of Al as tea, which is a known Al accumulator. Our research investigated whether the regular intake of H. sabdariffa infusion leads to increased burden of Al. Sixteen days of ingestion of H. sabdariffa infusion (c Al  = 0.5 mg.L -1 ) led to increased but unbalanced levels (15-86 μg L -1 ) of Al in urine compared to a period when the infusion was not ingested. The highest amounts of Al excreted were observed every third day during the ingestion. Mild health problems, such as nausea and dizziness (which could be related to plant properties) were reported by more sensitive volunteers.Our results suggest that the tea infusion from H. sabdariffa petals increases body burden of Al and, therefore, sensitive individuals as pregnant women and people with kidney problems should be cautious with excessive consumption of hibiscus infusion or fruit teas containing this plant. However, further study including more individuals is needed to fully confirm our preliminary results.

  5. Minimum Tea Hectarage Hypothesis: The Case of Smallholder Tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tea is planted in the high potential and prime lands in the humid and per-humid agro-ecological zones. The population pressure in the tea growing districts is relatively higher than that of the neighbouring districts without the enterprise. The average area under tea in the smallholder sub-sector is approximately 0.27 ha.

  6. Tea Consumption and Cognitive Impairment: A Cross-Sectional Study among Chinese Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Xiao, Yuanyuan; Ying, Xuhua; Li, Songtao; Zhai, Yujia; Shang, Xiaopeng; Li, Fudong; Wang, Xiyi; He, Fan; Lin, Junfen

    2015-01-01

    Background Laboratorial and epidemiological researches suggested that tea exhibited potential neuroprotective effect which may prevent cognitive impairment, but there were few data among the elderly aged 60 years and above in China. Objective The objective was to explore the relationship between characteristics of tea consumption and cognitive impairment. Design We analyzed the baseline data from Zhejiang Major Public Health Surveillance Program (ZPHS) which was conducted in 2014. Totally 9,375 residents aged 60 years and above were recruited in this study. Face-to-face interview based on a self-developed questionnaire was performed for each participant. Detailed tea consumption habits were included in the questionnaire. Cognitive impairment screening was performed by using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Education-specific cut-off points for Chinese were applied to determine the status of cognitive impairment. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) of cognitive impairment associated with tea consumption. Results The means (SD) of MMSE scores for the subjects who did not consume tea and consumed tea consumption (of all types) and prevalence of cognitive impairment. Volume of tea consumption was significantly associated with cognitive impairment: compared with non-consumption participants, those who consumed tea presented a positive correlation with cognitive function after controlling for potential confounders (OR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.28, 0.95), while green tea showed no significant difference (OR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.72, 1.51). Participants who consumed weak tea, moderate tea or strong tea more often were observed a better cognitive status when compared with those who did not have tea, with an OR of 0.51 (95% CI: 0.28, 0.92), 0.32 (95% CI: 0.19, 0.56) and 0.42 (95% CI: 0.22, 0.78) after adjusting for the potential confounders. But there was no statistically significant difference between any two of these ORs. Conclusion Black tea

  7. effect of drinking tea on some chemical and biochemical parameters in biological fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-sayed, N.A.S.

    2002-01-01

    Egyptians are known to consume large quantities of black tea . The present study revealed that, urea, creatinine, ALT,AST,ALP, total T 4 , serum levels of Mn, Al and Cr, were significantly (p 7 tea cups/day) compared to control group ( 1-2 tea cups /day). however, significant change was observed in total T 3 and T 4 /T 3 ratio between the two groups. body weight was decreased significantly (p 3 , t 4 and Cr and positively with creatinine serum level of Mn was significantly (P<0.05) negative correlated with serum level of Al in heavy drinking tea group

  8. Green tea and bone health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in the elderly, particularly women. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of age-related bone loss in elderly women and men. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mit...

  9. Chá: aspectos relacionados à qualidade e perspectivas Tea: aspects related to the quality and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Domingues Lima

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available O chá preto é uma das bebidas mais consumidas no mundo. Essa bebida é feita a partir da infusão de folhas processadas de Camellia sinensis, que é cultivada em mais de 30 países, tendo grande importância socioeconômica. Estudos sugerem que o chá tem efeito protetor contra diversos tipos de câncer e doenças cardiovasculares devido à presença de polifenóis denominados catequinas, que são oxidadas enzimaticamente durante o processamento das folhas, gerando uma mistura constituída principalmente de teaflavinas, teasinensinas e tearubiginas. A produção mundial de chá tem aumentado mais do que o consumo, provocando redução do preço que, juntamente com o aumento no custo de produção, implica a necessidade de alta produtividade e qualidade. Apesar disso, ainda não foram estabelecidos critérios precisos e eficientes para predizer a qualidade do chá a partir das folhas, bem como quais práticas agronômicas contribuem para o aumento da qualidade. No Brasil, a cultura do chá se concentra no Vale do Ribeira, em São Paulo (SP, sendo quase toda produção exportada. Apesar de o produto brasileiro não ser de alta qualidade, tem conseguido bons preços no mercado internacional. A produção brasileira, a área de produção e o número de indústrias de chá vêm diminuindo ao longo dos últimos anos, o que demonstra a necessidade de investimentos.Black tea is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and it is prepared by the infusion of water with processed leaves of Camellia sinensis, which is cultivated in more than 30 countries, assuming a great socioeconomic importance. Several studies suggest that tea has protective effects against cancer and cardiovascular disease, due to the presence of polyphenols called catechins, which are oxidized enzymatically during the processing of the black tea, generating a mixture consisting mainly of theaflavins, theasinensins and thearubigins. The world production of tea has

  10. Tea consumption and risk of ischaemic heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Yu, Canqing; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Si, Jiahui; Yang, Ling; Chen, Yiping; Ren, Xiaolan; Jiang, Ge; Chen, Junshi; Chen, Zhengming; Lv, Jun; Li, Liming

    2017-01-01

    Objective To prospectively examine the association between tea consumption and the risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). Methods Prospective study using the China Kadoorie Biobank; participants from 10 areas across China were enrolled during 2004–2008 and followed up until 31 December 2013. After excluding participants with cancer, heart disease and stroke at baseline, the present study included 199 293 men and 288 082 women aged 30–79 years at baseline. Information on IHD incidence was collected through disease registries and the new national health insurance databases. Results During a median follow-up of 7.2 years, we documented 24 665 (7.19 cases/1000 person-years) incident IHD cases and 3959 (1.13 cases/1000 person-years) major coronary events (MCEs). Tea consumption was associated with reduced risk of IHD and MCE. In the whole cohort, compared with participants who never consumed tea during the past 12 months, the multivariable-adjusted HRs and 95% CIs for less than daily and daily tea consumers were 0.97 (0.94 to 1.00) and 0.92 (0.88 to 0.95) for IHD, 0.92 (0.85 to 1.00) and 0.90 (0.82 to 0.99) for MCE. No linear trends in the HRs across the amount of tea were observed in daily consumers for IHD and MCE (PLinear >0.05). The inverse association between tea consumption and IHD was stronger in rural (PInteraction 0.006 for IHD, tea consumption was associated with a reduced risk of IHD. PMID:28077466

  11. Continuous-infusion adriamycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, R.S.; Chawla, S.P.; Ewer, M.S.; Hortobagyi, G.N.

    1986-01-01

    This chapter discusses the diminished cardiotoxicity as well as diminished nausea and vomiting with continuous infusions of adriamycin to patients undergoing radiation therapy, particularly with infusions of 48 hours or longer, and best with 96-hour infusions, the longest duration that has been studied systematically. In breast cancer, data show that more adriamycin is better, but only for a selected subgroup of patients: those with complete remission. The diminished cardiotoxicity makes the use of adriamycin more attractive in the adjuvant situation, where increased safety will decrease the chances of long-term complications and make retreatment easy for cured patients who develop second malignancies

  12. Green Tea Consumption Affects Cognitive Dysfunction in the Elderly: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Ide

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Green tea is known to have various health benefits for humans. However, the effect of green tea consumption on cognitive dysfunction remains to be clinically verified. We conducted a clinical study to investigate the effects of green tea consumption on cognitive dysfunction. Twelve elderly nursing home residents with cognitive dysfunction (Mini-Mental State Examination Japanese version (MMSE-J score: <28 participated in the study (2 men, 10 women; mean age, 88 years. The participants consumed green tea powder 2 g/day for 3 months. After three months of green tea consumption, the participants’ MMSE-J scores were significantly improved (before, 15.3 ± 7.7; after, 17.0 ± 8.2; p = 0.03. This result suggests that green tea consumption may be effective in improving cognitive function or reducing the progression of cognitive dysfunction; however, long-term large-scale controlled studies are needed to further clarify the effect.

  13. An EPR study on tea: Identification of paramagnetic species, effect of heat and sweeteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bıyık, Recep; Tapramaz, Recep

    2009-10-01

    Tea ( Camellia Sinensis) is the most widely consumed beverage in the world, and is known to be having therapeutic, antioxidant and nutritional effects. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectral studies made on the tea cultivated along the shore of Black Sea, Turkey, show Mn 2+ and Fe 3+ centers in green tea leaves and in black tea extract. Dry black tea flakes and dry extract show additional sharp line attributed to semiquinone radical. The origins of the paramagnetic species in black tea are defined and discussed. Effect of humidity and heat are investigated. It is observed that dry extract of black tea melts at 100 °C and the semiquinone radical lives up to 140 °C while Mn 2+ sextet disappears just above 100 °C in tea extract. Natural and synthetics sweeteners have different effects on the paramagnetic centers. White sugar (sucrose) quenches the Mn 2+ and semiquinone lines in black tea EPR spectrum, and glucose, fructose, lactose and maltose quench Fe 3+ line while synthetic sweeteners acesulfam potassium, aspartame and sodium saccharine do not have any effect on paramagnetic species in tea.

  14. Effects of gamma radiation on sensorial properties in black tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, Ana Paula M.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Silva, Priscila V.; Santillo, Amanda G.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.

    2009-01-01

    The black tea (Camellia sinensis) is the most consumed beverage in the world and its consumption has increased, manly in occidental countries, due to the fact that this drink has large antioxidants quantities. In this type of tea, the taste determines the product qualities and its final value. Several studies reported that food irradiation is an excellent process to disinfect food, reducing storage losses and extended its shelf life. This treatment can inhibit cellular division, promoting a molecular and DNA structural modification. Depending on the dose applied, the irradiation can modify sensorial properties, influencing the marked cost. The sensorial analysis is one of the main tests to detect any better or worse changes, by consumers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation on sensorial properties in black tea. Samples will be irradiated with a 60 Co source, at doses of 0, 5, and 10 kGy. (author)

  15. Effects of gamma radiation on sensorial properties in black tea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Ana Paula M.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Silva, Priscila V.; Santillo, Amanda G.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H., E-mail: ana.paula.silveira@usp.b, E-mail: villavic@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The black tea (Camellia sinensis) is the most consumed beverage in the world and its consumption has increased, manly in occidental countries, due to the fact that this drink has large antioxidants quantities. In this type of tea, the taste determines the product qualities and its final value. Several studies reported that food irradiation is an excellent process to disinfect food, reducing storage losses and extended its shelf life. This treatment can inhibit cellular division, promoting a molecular and DNA structural modification. Depending on the dose applied, the irradiation can modify sensorial properties, influencing the marked cost. The sensorial analysis is one of the main tests to detect any better or worse changes, by consumers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation on sensorial properties in black tea. Samples will be irradiated with a {sup 60}Co source, at doses of 0, 5, and 10 kGy. (author)

  16. Comparative oesophageal cancer risk assessment of hot beverage consumption (coffee, mate and tea): the margin of exposure of PAH vs very hot temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaru, Alex O; Rullmann, Anke; Farah, Adriana; Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira; Stern, Mariana C; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2018-03-01

    Consumption of very hot (> 65 °C) beverages is probably associated with increased risk of oesophageal cancer. First associations were reported for yerba mate and it was initially believed that high content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) might explain the risk. Later research on other beverage groups such as tea and coffee, which are also consumed very hot, found associations with increased risk of oesophageal cancer as well. The risk may therefore not be inherent in any compound contained in mate, but due to temperature. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the risk of PAH in comparison with the risk of the temperature effect using the margin of exposure (MOE) methodology. The human dietary benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and PAH4 (sum of benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, and benzo[b]fluoranthene) exposure through consumption of coffee, mate, and tea was estimated. The oesophageal cancer risk assessment for both PAH and temperature was conducted using the MOE approach. Considering differences in the transfer of the PAH from the leaves of mate and tea or from the ground coffee to the infusion, and considering the different preparation methods, exposures may vary considerably. The average individual exposure in μg/kg bw/day arising from consumption of 1 cup (0.2 L) of infusion was highest for mate (2.85E-04 BaP and 7.22E-04 PAH4). The average per capita exposure in μg/kg bw/day was as follows: coffee (4.21E-04 BaP, 4.15E-03 PAH4), mate (4.26E-03 BaP, 2.45E-02 PAH4), and tea (8.03E-04 BaP, 4.98E-03 PAH4). For all individual and population-based exposure scenarios, the average MOE for BaP and PAH4 was > 100,000 independent of beverage type. MOE values in this magnitude are considered as a very low risk. On the contrary, the MOE for the temperature effect was estimated as < 1 for very hot drinking temperatures, corroborating epidemiological observations about a probable oesophageal cancer risk caused by this behaviour. The

  17. Fast gradient HPLC/MS separation of phenolics in green tea to monitor their degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šilarová, Petra; Česlová, Lenka; Meloun, Milan

    2017-12-15

    The degradation of catechins and other phenolics in green tea infusions were monitored using fast HPLC/MS separation. The final separation was performed within 2.5min using Ascentis Express C18 column (50mm×2.1mm i.d.) packed with 2μm porous shell particles. Degradation was studied in relation to the temperature of water (70, 80, 90°C) and the standing time of the infusion (up to 6h). Along with chromatographic separation, the antioxidant properties of the infusions were monitored using two spectrophotometric methods. During staying of green tea infusion, the degradation of some catechins probably to gallic acid was observed. Finally, the influence of tea bag storage on antioxidant properties of green tea was evaluated. Rapid degradation of antioxidants after 3weeks was observed. The principal component analysis, factor analysis and discriminant analysis were used for the statistical evaluation of obtained experimental data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Chernobyl radioactivity in Turkish tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molzahn, D.; Tufail, M.; Patzelt, P.

    1990-01-01

    Radioactivity measurement of Turkish tea of 1986 crops is reported. The total cesium activity ranged from about 5500 Bq kg -1 up to 43600 Bq kg -1 . Some other fission products from Chernobyl could be detected in the tea samples, e.g., 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 106 Ru, 110m Ag and 125 Sb. In addition, some activity values found in tea from USSR are given. The transfer rate of cesium from tea leaves to tea water was found to be about 74%. (author) 6 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs

  19. Recent Advances in Volatiles of Teas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Qiang Zheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds are important components of tea aroma, a key attribute of sensory quality. The present review examines the formation of aromatic volatiles of various kinds of teas and factors influencing the formation of tea volatiles, including tea cultivar, growing environment and agronomic practices, processing method and storage of tea. The determination of tea volatiles and the relationship of active-aroma volatiles with the sensory qualities of tea are also discussed in the present paper.

  20. A comparative study of the effect of green tea and sour tea on blood pressure and lipid profile in healthy adult men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafeshani, Marzieh; Entezari, Mohammad Hasan; Karimian, Jahangir; Pourmasoumi, Makan; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Amini, Mohammad Reza; Hadi, Amir

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a set of metabolic disorders affecting heart and blood vessels. Green tea and sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) have attracted significant attention recently due to their high popularity, nutrient profile and therapeutic effects. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of green tea and sour tea supplementation on blood pressure and lipid profile in healthy adult men. METHODS This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial included 54 healthy adult men. The participants were randomly assigned to two intervention groups receiving 450 mg green tea or sour tea and one placebo group which consumed 450 mg placebo (maltodextrin) for 6 weeks. Blood pressure, lipid profile, dietary intake and physical activity were measured pre- and post-intervention and compared. RESULTS After 6 weeks of intervention, sour tea supplementation led to a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) compared with the placebo group. However, we faild to find any significant difference in SBP between green tea and control groups. Also, no significant changes were observed in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and lipid profile between the three groups. In comparison with baseline, there was a significant increase in the mean level of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in green tea and sour tea groups. Also, the interventions resulted in significant decrease in the mean levels of serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and DBP in the sour tea group compared with the pre-intervention value. CONCLUSION On the basis of our findings, sour tea supplementation led to decreased SBP in healthy men compared with the placebo, but there was no significant difference between their effects on DBP and lipid profile. PMID:29147120

  1. Mentha spicata L. infusions as sources of antioxidant phenolic compounds: emerging reserve lots with special harvest requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rita, Ingride; Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-10-12

    Mentha spicata L., commonly known as spearmint, is widely used in both fresh and dry forms, for infusion preparation or in European and Indian cuisines. Recently, with the evolution of the tea market, several novel products with added value are emerging, and the standard lots have evolved to reserve lots, with special harvest requirements that confer them with enhanced organoleptic and sensorial characteristics. The apical leaves of these batches are collected in specific conditions having, then, a different chemical profile. In the present study, standard and reserve lots of M. spicata were assessed in terms of the antioxidants present in infusions prepared from the different lots. The reserve lots presented the highest concentration in all the compounds identified in relation to the standard lots, with 326 and 188 μg mL -1 of total phenolic compounds, respectively. Both types of samples presented rosmarinic acid as the most abundant phenolic compound, at concentrations of 169 and 101 μg mL -1 for reserve and standard lots, respectively. The antioxidant activity was higher in the reserve lots which had the highest total phenolic compounds content, with EC 50 values ranging from 152 to 336 μg mL -1 . The obtained results provide scientific information that may allow the consumer to make a conscientious choice.

  2. Tea Bowl: Imperfect Harmony

    OpenAIRE

    Mehring, Gretchen A; Greater Lafayette Museum of Art,

    1998-01-01

    These tea bowls, with their intimate scale and individual personalities, simultaneeously offer an apprectiation of the past and the contemporary. The subtle beauty of traditional-style bowls contrasts with the more exuberant contemporary idiom, raising an awareness of the role that art has, and can play, in everyday life.

  3. Tea Varrak / Ruth Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Ruth, 1960-2018

    2007-01-01

    Rahandusministeeriumi kantsler Tea Varrak iseloomustab ennast juhina, alluvate motiveerimine, ülevaade tavalisest tööpäevast, plaanid lähitulevikuks. Eluloolised andmed, haridus, täienduskoolitus, töökogemus. Kommenteerivad justiitsministeeriumi kantsler Jüri Pihl ja rahandusministeeriumi arendusjuht Alar Kolk

  4. Monitoring of essential and toxic metals in imported herbal teas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty eight samples of commonly consumed herbal tea bags were purchased from major supermarkets in Port-Harcourt, Yenagoa and Owerri in Southern Nigeria. They were digested, ashed and analysed using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Heavy metal concentration varied among the different brands of herbal ...

  5. Determination of trace elements in tea by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Chunhui; Zeng Guoqiang; Ge Liangquan; Li Jun; Wen Ziqiang

    2013-01-01

    critical value λ was 15, the tea samples were divided into two categories. Y1 to Y5 were Yunnan tea samples and F1 to F4 were Fujian tea samples. Four kinds of black tea, any three kinds of green tea and a kind of jasmine tea are taken in Yunnan, measured three times with the established working curves. And tree diagram of cluster analysis can also be obtained. Cluster analysis showed that, black tea and green tea can be classified significantly based on the contents of mineral elements in tea. Conclusions: Compared with AAS and ICP-OES, WDXRF is a small-costing, short-consuming and simple-process method. (authors)

  6. Healthy properties of green and white teas: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastoriza, S; Mesías, M; Cabrera, C; Rufián-Henares, J A

    2017-08-01

    Green tea has been consumed for centuries in Japan, China and Morocco. White tea, which is considered a variety of green tea, is mostly consumed in China and is very appreciated for its flavor. Currently the consumption of both types of tea has been extended to the western countries even as a functional ingredient. A group of polyphenols called catechins stands out among their bioactive components, the most abundant being the (-) epigallocatechin gallate, with high antioxidant power. Teas also contain other phenolic compounds such as gallic, caffeic, chlorogenic or cinnamic acids, quercetin and proanthocyanidols, caffeine, theophylline, l-theanine and minerals such as fluorine, manganese or chromium. Investigations have mainly been focused on their antioxidant potential and their implication in the prevention and treatment of degenerative diseases. Several studies have evaluated their role in cardiovascular diseases, body weight control, bone mass increase, protection against neurodegenerative diseases and improvement of type 2 diabetes, among other pathologies. The main points of controversy are the design and interpretation of epidemiological and human intervention studies and the lack of information on catechins availability, metabolism and biotransformation. This review compiles and analyzes the latest peer-reviewed papers published from 2002 up to February 2017, including systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

  7. Coffee, tea, and melanoma risk among postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haotian; Reeves, Katherine W; Qian, Jing; Sturgeon, Susan R

    2015-07-01

    Laboratory research suggests that components in coffee and tea may have anticarcinogenic effects. Some epidemiologic studies have reported that women who consume coffee and tea have a lower risk for melanoma. We assessed coffee, tea, and melanoma risk prospectively in the Women's Health Initiative - Observational Study cohort of 66,484 postmenopausal women, followed for an average of 7.7 years. Coffee and tea intakes were measured through self-administered questionnaires at baseline and at year 3 of follow-up. Self-reported incident melanomas were adjudicated using medical records. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate risk, adjusting for covariates, with person-time accumulation until melanoma diagnosis (n=398), death, loss to follow-up, or through 2005. Daily coffee [hazard ratio (HR)=0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-1.12] and tea (HR=1.03, 95% CI 0.81-1.31) intakes were not significantly associated with melanoma risk compared with nondaily intake of each beverage. No significant trends were observed between melanoma risk and increasing intakes of coffee (P for trend=0.38) or tea (P for trend=0.22). Women who reported daily coffee intake at both baseline and year 3 had a significantly decreased risk compared with women who reported nondaily intake at both time points (HR=0.68, 95% CI 0.48-0.97). Consistent daily tea intake was not associated with decreased melanoma risk. Overall, there is no strong evidence that increasing coffee or tea consumption can lead to a lower melanoma risk. We observed a decrease in melanoma risk among long-term coffee drinkers, but the lack of consistency in the results by dose and type cautioned against overinterpretation of the results.

  8. Prospect of indegenous plant extracts in tea pest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S.A. Mamun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tea is a popular beverage made from the leaves of evergreen shrub or tree Camellia sinensis, under the family Theaceae. Tea plant is subjected to the attack of insects, mites, nematodes and some plant pathogenic diseases. Tea production is greatly hindered due to thesemaladies. About 10-15% crop loss occurred by these pests per annum. In severe cases, it would be 100%. To combat these problems different groups of pesticides have been used in the tea fields since 1960. As tea is a consumable commodity, the effect of residue of pesticides in made tea is harmful to human health. In this context, biopesticides are being considered as environmentally safe, selective, biodegradable, economical and renewable alternatives for use in IPM programmes. Biopesticides are natural plant products and may be grown by the planters with minimum cost and extracted by indigenous methods.Biopesticides are secondary metabolites, which include alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, and minor secondary chemicals. It is estimated that as many as 2121 plant species have been reported to posses’ pest control properties. Botanicals like neem, ghora-neem, mahogoni,karanja, adathoda, sweet flag, tobacco, derris, annona, smart weed, bar weed, datura, calotropis, bidens, lantana, chrysanthemum, artemisia, marigold, clerodendrum, wild sunflower and many others may be grown by planters with minimum expense and extracted by indigenous methods. These botanical materials can be used as an alternative to chemical pesticides. These botanical extracts will help in controlling major pests of tea such as Helopeltis, red spider mite, aphids, thrips, jassid, flushworm, termites, nematodes etc. Thepresent note reviews the information of most widely available indigenous plants that may be used for the control of insect pests of tea as a component of IPM.

  9. Multi-element analysis, bioavailability and fractionation of herbal tea products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymczycha-Madeja, Anna; Welna, Maja; Zyrnicki, Wieslaw

    2013-01-01

    Herbal teas (Mentha piperitae foliumand mixture Marticaria chamomilla flos with Lavandula officinalis flos) were compared considering the total contents of micro (Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, V) and macro (C, H, N, S, Ca, Mg, P) elements, bioavailability and fractionation. Different methods (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and CHNS elemental analysis) were applied. The microwave-assisted digestion procedure was found to be more effective than the hot-plate heating for the wet acid digestion of tea. The application of the modified BCR (Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction procedure exhibited differences in the concentrations of metal bound to reducible and oxidizable fractions. The accuracy of method was verified by analysis of certified reference material INCT-TL -1 Tea Leaves. The daily intake of all elements from the analyzed herbal tea infusion did not exceed the maximum permissible levels and does not constitute health risk. (author)

  10. Multi-element analysis, bioavailability and fractionation of herbal tea products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymczycha-Madeja, Anna; Welna, Maja; Zyrnicki, Wieslaw, E-mail: anna.szymczycha@pwr.wroc.pl [Wroclaw University of Technology, Chemistry Department, Analytical Chemistry Division, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2013-05-15

    Herbal teas (Mentha piperitae foliumand mixture Marticaria chamomilla flos with Lavandula officinalis flos) were compared considering the total contents of micro (Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, V) and macro (C, H, N, S, Ca, Mg, P) elements, bioavailability and fractionation. Different methods (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and CHNS elemental analysis) were applied. The microwave-assisted digestion procedure was found to be more effective than the hot-plate heating for the wet acid digestion of tea. The application of the modified BCR (Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction procedure exhibited differences in the concentrations of metal bound to reducible and oxidizable fractions. The accuracy of method was verified by analysis of certified reference material INCT-TL{sup -1} Tea Leaves. The daily intake of all elements from the analyzed herbal tea infusion did not exceed the maximum permissible levels and does not constitute health risk. (author)

  11. Dissipation Pattern, Processing Factors, and Safety Evaluation for Dimethoate and Its Metabolite (Omethoate in Tea (Camellia Sinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Pan

    Full Text Available Residue levels of dimethoate and its oxon metabolite (omethoate during tea planting, manufacturing, and brewing were investigated using a modified QuEChERS sample preparation and gas chromatography. Dissipation of dimethoate and its metabolite in tea plantation followed the first-order kinetic with a half-life of 1.08-1.27 d. Tea manufacturing has positive effects on dimethoate dissipation. Processing factors of dimethoate are in the range of 2.11-2.41 and 1.41-1.70 during green tea and black tea manufacturing, respectively. Omethoate underwent generation as well as dissipation during tea manufacturing. Sum of dimethoate and omethoate led to a large portion of 80.5-84.9% transferring into tea infusion. Results of safety evaluation indicated that omethoate could bring higher human health risk than dimethoate due to its higher hazard quotient by drinking tea. These results would provide information for the establishment of maximum residue limit and instruction for the application of dimethoate formulation on tea crop.

  12. Dissipation Pattern, Processing Factors, and Safety Evaluation for Dimethoate and Its Metabolite (Omethoate) in Tea (Camellia Sinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Rong; Chen, Hong-Ping; Zhang, Ming-Lu; Wang, Qing-Hua; Jiang, Ying; Liu, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Residue levels of dimethoate and its oxon metabolite (omethoate) during tea planting, manufacturing, and brewing were investigated using a modified QuEChERS sample preparation and gas chromatography. Dissipation of dimethoate and its metabolite in tea plantation followed the first-order kinetic with a half-life of 1.08–1.27 d. Tea manufacturing has positive effects on dimethoate dissipation. Processing factors of dimethoate are in the range of 2.11–2.41 and 1.41–1.70 during green tea and black tea manufacturing, respectively. Omethoate underwent generation as well as dissipation during tea manufacturing. Sum of dimethoate and omethoate led to a large portion of 80.5–84.9% transferring into tea infusion. Results of safety evaluation indicated that omethoate could bring higher human health risk than dimethoate due to its higher hazard quotient by drinking tea. These results would provide information for the establishment of maximum residue limit and instruction for the application of dimethoate formulation on tea crop. PMID:26406463

  13. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in tea (Japanese tea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Sr-90 and Cs-137 in Japanese tea were determined using radiochemical analysis. Five hundred grams of manufactured green tea was collected from six sampling locations in June 1983, carbonized and ashed in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish. The maximum values of Sr-90 and Cs-137 were 250 +- 6.0 pCi/kg and 88.0 +- 3.2 pCi/kg, respectively, in tea collected from Tagata-gun, Shizuoka. (Namekawa, K.)

  14. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in tea (Japanese tea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Sr-90 and Cs-137 in Japanese tea were determined using radiochemical analysis. Five hundred grams of manufactured green tea was collected from six sampling locations in June 1984, carbonized and ashed in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish. The maximum value of Sr-90 was 88+-3.7 pCi/kg in tea collected from Kyoto; the maximum value of Cs-137 was 99.0+-3.60 pCi/kg collected from Kagoshima. (Namekawa, K.)

  15. Interfering Effect of Black Tea Consumption on Diagnosis of Pancreatic Cancer by CA 19-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Janabi, Ali Abdul Hussein S; Tawfeeq, Ekhlas F

    2017-06-01

    The study aims to determine the possible effects of black tea consumption on the level of CA 19-9 antigen in the human body. The level of CA 19-9 was measured in 270 healthy individuals who consumed heavy amounts of black tea. About 43.3 % of involved individuals were revealed to have elevated levels of CA 19-9. Males with high values of CA 19-9 represented the greatest number of involved individuals. The cutoff value of high levels of CA 19-9 in all individuals was ranged 69-105 U/ml. Consuming heavy amounts of black tea could be considered an important interfering factor that affects the levels of CA 19-9. The cutoff or predictive value of CA 19-9 in heavy-consuming people of black tea was determined.

  16. Continuous radioisotope infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederborg, B.; Asaba, H.; Gunnarsson, B.; Jekell, K.; Kiibus, A.; Sandqvist, S.

    1978-01-01

    Continuous infusion of a radioactive marker was used instead of a conventional bolus injection to improve haemodynamic studies. Tc-99m was infused into the blood circulation at a constant rate for 100-300 seconds and the activity in the target structure was measured by a gamma camera with a computer system or by a single detector. The concentration of the marker increased linearly at the same rate throughout the circulating system. Due to variations in transport time from infusion site to different parts of the system the rise of activity occurred at different times. A theory for the calculations was presented and consequently confirmed in a model study. Blood flow patterns in artificial kidneys and alterations in renal blood flow induced by angiotensin were studied. The results are presented as time-function curves or as computer images. This technique can be used to evaluate distributions and alterations of flow in separate parts of a complex circulating system. (author)

  17. Does green tea affect postprandial glucose, insulin and satiety in healthy subjects: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindstedt Sandra

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results of epidemiological studies have suggested that consumption of green tea could lower the risk of type 2 diabetes. Intervention studies show that green tea may decrease blood glucose levels, and also increase satiety. This study was conducted to examine the postprandial effects of green tea on glucose levels, glycemic index, insulin levels and satiety in healthy individuals after the consumption of a meal including green tea. Methods The study was conducted on 14 healthy volunteers, with a crossover design. Participants were randomized to either 300 ml of green tea or water. This was consumed together with a breakfast consisting of white bread and sliced turkey. Blood samples were drawn at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. Participants completed several different satiety score scales at the same times. Results Plasma glucose levels were higher 120 min after ingestion of the meal with green tea than after the ingestion of the meal with water. No significant differences were found in serum insulin levels, or the area under the curve for glucose or insulin. Subjects reported significantly higher satiety, having a less strong desire to eat their favorite food and finding it less pleasant to eat another mouthful of the same food after drinking green tea compared to water. Conclusions Green tea showed no glucose or insulin-lowering effect. However, increased satiety and fullness were reported by the participants after the consumption of green tea. Trial registration number NCT01086189

  18. Does green tea affect postprandial glucose, insulin and satiety in healthy subjects: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josic, Julija; Olsson, Anna Tholén; Wickeberg, Jennie; Lindstedt, Sandra; Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2010-11-30

    Results of epidemiological studies have suggested that consumption of green tea could lower the risk of type 2 diabetes. Intervention studies show that green tea may decrease blood glucose levels, and also increase satiety. This study was conducted to examine the postprandial effects of green tea on glucose levels, glycemic index, insulin levels and satiety in healthy individuals after the consumption of a meal including green tea. The study was conducted on 14 healthy volunteers, with a crossover design. Participants were randomized to either 300 ml of green tea or water. This was consumed together with a breakfast consisting of white bread and sliced turkey. Blood samples were drawn at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. Participants completed several different satiety score scales at the same times. Plasma glucose levels were higher 120 min after ingestion of the meal with green tea than after the ingestion of the meal with water. No significant differences were found in serum insulin levels, or the area under the curve for glucose or insulin. Subjects reported significantly higher satiety, having a less strong desire to eat their favorite food and finding it less pleasant to eat another mouthful of the same food after drinking green tea compared to water. Green tea showed no glucose or insulin-lowering effect. However, increased satiety and fullness were reported by the participants after the consumption of green tea. NCT01086189.

  19. Detecting aroma changes of local flavored green tea (Camellia sinensis) using electronic nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralisnawati, D.; Sukartiko, A. C.; Suryandono, A.; Triyana, K.

    2018-03-01

    Indonesia is currently the sixth largest tea producer in the world. However, consumption of the product in the country was considered low. Besides tea, the country also has various local flavor ingredients that are potential to be developed. The addition of local flavored ingredients such as ginger, lemon grass, and lime leaves on green tea products is gaining acceptance from consumers and producers. The aroma of local flavored green tea was suspected to changes during storage, while its sensory testing has some limitations. Therefore, the study aimed to detect aroma changes of local flavors added in green tea using electronic nose (e-nose), an instrument developed to mimic the function of the human nose. The test was performed on a four-gram sample. The data was collected with 120 seconds of sensing time and 60 seconds of blowing time. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to find out the aroma changes of local flavored green tea during storage. We observed that electronic nose could detect aroma changes of ginger flavored green tea from day 0 to day 6 with variance percentage 99.6%. Variance proportion of aroma changes of lemon grass flavored green tea from day 0 to day 6 was 99.3%. Variance proportion of aroma changes of lime leaves flavored green tea from day 0 to day 6 was 99.4%.

  20. Mechanisms of Body Weight Reduction and Metabolic Syndrome Alleviation by Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chung S.; Zhang, Jinsong; Zhang, Le; Huang, Jinbao; Wang, Yijun

    2016-01-01

    Tea, a popular beverage made from leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis, has been shown to reduce body weight, alleviate metabolic syndrome, and prevent diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in animal models and humans. Such beneficial effects have generally been observed in most human studies when the level of tea consumption was 3 to 4 cups (600–900 mg tea catechins) or more per day. Green tea is more effective than black tea. In spite of numerous studies, the fundamental mechanisms for these actions still remain unclear. From a review of the literature, we propose that the two major mechanisms are: 1) decreasing absorption of lipids and proteins by tea constituents in the intestine, thus reducing calorie intake; and 2) activating AMPK by tea polyphenols that are bioavailable in the liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissues. The relative importance of these two mechanisms depends on the types of tea and diet consumed by individuals. The activated AMPK would decrease gluconeogenesis and fatty acid synthesis and increase catabolism, leading to body weight reduction and MetS alleviation. Other mechanisms and the health relevance of these beneficial effects of tea consumption remain to be further investigated. PMID:26577614

  1. Recent advances on tea polyphenols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwar, Jyoti; Taskeen, Mujtaba; Mohammad, Imthiyaz; Huo, Congde; Chan, Tak Hang; Dou, Qing Ping

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade many scientific and medical studies have focused on green tea for its long-purported health benefits. There is convincing evidence that tea is a cup of life. It has multiple preventive and therapeutic effects. This review thus focuses on the recent advances of tea polyphenols and their applications in the prevention and treatment of human cancers. Of the various polyphenols in tea, (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant, and active compound studied in tea research. EGCG inhibits several molecular targets to inhibit cancer initiation and modulates several essential survival pathways to block cancer progression. Herein, we describe the various mechanisms of action of EGCG and also discuss previous and current ongoing clinical trials of EGCG and green tea polyphenols in different cancer types. PMID:22201858

  2. Drinking of Salvia officinalis tea increases CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Cristovao F; Fernandes-Ferreira, Manuel; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina

    2007-03-01

    In a previous study, the drinking of a Salvia officinalis tea (prepared as an infusion) for 14 days improved liver antioxidant status in mice and rats where, among other factors, an enhancement of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity was observed. Taking in consideration these effects, in the present study the potential protective effects of sage tea drinking against a situation of hepatotoxicity due to free radical formation, such as that caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)), were evaluated in mice of both genders. Contrary to what was expected, sage tea drinking significantly increased the CCl(4)-induced liver injury, as seen by increased plasma transaminase levels and histology liver damage. In accordance with the previous study, sage tea drinking enhanced significantly GST activity. Additionally, glutathione peroxidase was also significantly increased by sage tea drinking. Since CCl(4) toxicity results from its bioactivation mainly by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1, the expression level of this protein was measured by Western Blot. An increase in CYP 2E1 protein was observed which may explain, at least in part, the potentiation of CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity conferred by sage tea drinking. The CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity was higher in females than males. In conclusion, our results indicate that, although sage tea did not have toxic effects of its own, herb-drug interactions are possible and may affect the efficacy and safety of concurrent medical therapy with drugs that are metabolized by phase I enzymes.

  3. Polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity of white, green, black, and herbal teas: a kinetic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon, E.,

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Camellia sinensis teas, and tisanes derived from herbs or fruit, are rich in polyphenolic, antioxidant compounds. This study compared the total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, DPPH radical scavenging capacity, and caffeine content of teas (black, green, white, chamomile, and mixed berry/hibiscus over a range of infusion times (0.5–10 mins at 90°C. Green, followed by black tea, respectively, had the greatest TPC (557.58 and 499.19μg GAE/g, TFC (367.84 and 325.18μg QE/g, FRAP (887.38 and 209.38μg TE/g, and DPPH radical scavenging capacity (1233.03 and 866.39μg AAE/g. Caffeine content per cup (200mL in black, green, and white tea was 63, 51, and 49mg respectively. Changes in the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of teas were modelled using zero, first, and fractional-conversion-first-order (FCFO kinetic models. Results fitted a FCFO kinetic model, providing useful data for maximum phytochemical preservation in the optimisation of industrial and domestic processing. As a dietary comparison, green, black, and white tea were found to have a greater phenolic content and antioxidant capacity than fresh orange and apple juice. It can be concluded that green and black teas are significant sources of dietary phenolic antioxidants.

  4. Pesticide usage pattern in tea ecosystem, their retrospects and alternative measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusubramanian, G; Rahman, A; Sarmah, M; Ray, Somnath; Bora, S

    2008-11-01

    Tea is a perennial plantation crop grown under monoculture providing favorable conditions for a variety of pests. The concept of pest control has undergone a considerable change over the past few decades. In recent years there has been a greater dependence on the use of pesticides (7.35-16.75 kgha(-1)) with little importance laid on other safe control methods for the management of tea pests. Due to this practice, the tea pests showed a higher tolerance/ resistance status due to formation of greater amount of esterases, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase. Thus, over reliance on pesticides end up with pesticide residue in made tea (DDT - 10.4-47.1%; endosulfan - 41.1-98.0%; dicofol- 0.0-82.4%; ethion - 0.0-36.2%; cypermethrin - 6.0- 45.1%). The growing concern about the pesticide residue in made tea, its toxicity hazards to consumers, the spiraling cost of pesticides and their application have necessitated a suitable planning which will ensure a safe, economic as well as effective pest management in tea. At present it is a global concern to minimize chemical residue in tea and European union and German law imposed stringent measures for the application of chemicals in tea and fixed MRL values at market at global level, central insecticide board and prevention of food adulteration regulation committee have reviewed the MRL position for tea and has recommended 10 insecticides, 5 acaricides, 9 herbicides and 5 fungicides for use in tea and issued the tea distribution and export control order 2005 which will help the country to limit the presence of undesirable substances in tea. This review attempts to provide the readers with a comprehensive account of pesticide use in North East in tea, surveillance report of the European community regarding the residue level in Assam and Darjeeling tea, recent amendments by international and national regulatory bodies, revised MRL values of pesticides in tea, an update about the current strategies for the management

  5. Green tea for the prevention of cancer: evidence of field epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tea is derived from the leaf of Camellia sinensis, a natural beverage widely consumed around the world. Geological and botanical evidence suggests that the tea plant originated from China. Varying methods of processing tea leaves lead to green tea, black tea, or Oolong tea, which differ in their concentrations of polyphenols. Green tea polyphenols appear to have anti-tumorigenic properties, and form 30-40% of the dry weight of green tea compared with only 3-10% of black tea. Numerous studies in multiple animal models and different cancer cell lines have demonstrated the anti-tumorigenesis by green tea polyphenols. Despite the consistency of laboratory results, evidence of this effect occuring in humans has been inconclusive to date.Objective: To investigate if green tea consumption was associated with longer survival rates in ovarian cancer patients, and a lower risk of ovarian, breast, and colorectal cancer, in addition toadult leukemiaMethods: We have conducted one prospective cohort study in ovarian cancer patients, and fivecase-control studies in ovarian, breast, and colorectal cancers, and leukemia over the past decade. Tea consumption was measured using a structured questionnaire by face-to-face interviews. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire was assessed in a preliminary study, and then evaluated by a test–retest. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to obtain hazard ratios(HRs, 95% confidence intervals(95% CIs, and were adjusted for age at diagnosis, locality, body mass index(BMI, parity, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics(IFGO stage, histologic grade of differentiation, cytology of ascites, residual tumour, and chemotherapeutic status. Odds ratios(ORs and 95% CIs were obtained using logistic regression analyses, which accounted for demographic, lifestyle, hormonal and family cancer factors, and potential confounders.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2

  6. Effect of Green Tea Phytochemicals on Mood and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Christina; Dekker, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    Green tea is traditionally known to induce mental clarity, cognitive function, physical activation and relaxation. Recently, a special green tea, matcha tea, is rapidly gaining popularity throughout the world and is frequently referred to as a mood- and brain food. Matcha tea consumption leads to much higher intake of green tea phytochemicals compared to regular green tea. Previous research on tea constituents caffeine, L-theanine, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) repeatedly demonstrated benefits on mood and cognitive performance. These effects were observed when these phytochemicals were consumed separately and in combination. A review was conducted on 49 human intervention studies to summarize the research on acute psychoactive effects of caffeine, L-theanine, and EGCG on different dimensions of mood and cognitive performance. Caffeine was found to mainly improve performance on demanding long-duration cognitive tasks and self-reported alertness, arousal, and vigor. Significant effects already occurred at low doses of 40 mg. L-theanine alone improved self-reported relaxation, tension, and calmness starting at 200 mg. L-theanine and caffeine combined were found to particularly improve performance in attention-switching tasks and alertness, but to a lesser extent than caffeine alone. No conclusive evidence relating to effects induced by EGCG could be given since the amount of intervention studies was limited. These studies provided reliable evidence showing that L-theanine and caffeine have clear beneficial effects on sustained attention, memory, and suppression of distraction. Moreover, L-theanine was found to lead to relaxation by reducing caffeine induced arousal. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Effects of {gamma}-radiation on white tea volatiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Silveira, Ana Paula M.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: gbfanaro@ipen.br; Purgatto, Eduardo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Alimentos e Nutricao Experimental

    2009-07-01

    Tea is the second most widely consumed beverages in the world and is processed from two and a bud of Camellia sinensis (L.). Depending on the processing may give rise to four mainly teas (green, black, oolong and white tea). The white tea is the one that has recently awakened interest in scientific community due the fact that this tea has more antioxidant property and activity than green tea. A further industrialization and commercialization of these plants become a problem of public health. The presence of potentially toxigenic fungi can be found in these products, indicating a great potential for the presence of mycotoxins that can cause acute and chronic effects in different organs and systems of the human body. Ionizing radiation is one of the most effective means disinfecting dry food ingredients. This treatment can inhibit cellular life division, like microorganisms, promoting a molecular structural modification. The aim of this study was evaluate the effects of radiation on volatile formation in white tea. Samples were irradiated in room temperature at {sup 60}Co source Gammacell 220 (A.E.C. Ltda) at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20-kGy. The volatiles organic compound was extracted by hydrodistillation and the extract was separated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The results show that the quantities of volatiles formations are directly proportional to the increase of radiation dose. About 37.86% of the compounds were stable at all radiation doses and 47.53% of new compounds were identified after irradiation. (author)

  8. Effects of γ-radiation on white tea volatiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Silveira, Ana Paula M.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H.; Purgatto, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Tea is the second most widely consumed beverages in the world and is processed from two and a bud of Camellia sinensis (L.). Depending on the processing may give rise to four mainly teas (green, black, oolong and white tea). The white tea is the one that has recently awakened interest in scientific community due the fact that this tea has more antioxidant property and activity than green tea. A further industrialization and commercialization of these plants become a problem of public health. The presence of potentially toxigenic fungi can be found in these products, indicating a great potential for the presence of mycotoxins that can cause acute and chronic effects in different organs and systems of the human body. Ionizing radiation is one of the most effective means disinfecting dry food ingredients. This treatment can inhibit cellular life division, like microorganisms, promoting a molecular structural modification. The aim of this study was evaluate the effects of radiation on volatile formation in white tea. Samples were irradiated in room temperature at 60 Co source Gammacell 220 (A.E.C. Ltda) at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20-kGy. The volatiles organic compound was extracted by hydrodistillation and the extract was separated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The results show that the quantities of volatiles formations are directly proportional to the increase of radiation dose. About 37.86% of the compounds were stable at all radiation doses and 47.53% of new compounds were identified after irradiation. (author)

  9. Age and gender differences in the influence of extrinsic product information on acceptability for RTD green tea beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Ye-Won; Lee, Soh Min; Kim, Kwang-Ok

    2016-03-15

    The introduction of ready-to-drink (RTD) green tea beverage has allowed diverse consumers to consume green teas and related products. Green tea that has been traditionally consumed for its delicate flavor characteristics is also widely consumed for its recognition as a healthy product. Because it is reported that age difference exists in consideration of health-related information, the objective of the study was to investigate how sensory and non-sensory factors, in particular health-related information, price and packaging, would affect the flavor acceptability of green tea beverages, depending on consumers' age and gender. Regardless of the product information, old consumers preferred products that provided an indication of health beneficial effect. On the other hand, young consumers tended to be influenced by extrinsic product information such as packaging, brand/manufacturer and/or price, though these consumers were not so much influenced by health beneficial information as were the old consumers. The findings of the study implied that the influence of non-sensory information such as health beneficial information in flavor liking differed depending mostly on consumers' age, and little on gender, for RTD green tea beverages. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Reduced Stress and Improved Sleep Quality Caused by Green Tea Are Associated with a Reduced Caffeine Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, Keiko; Noda, Shigenori; Kawasaki, Yohei; Yamada, Hiroshi; Morita, Akio; Iguchi, Kazuaki; Nakamura, Yoriyuki

    2017-07-19

    Caffeine, one of the main components in green tea, can interfere with sleep and block the effect of theanine. Since theanine, the main amino acid in tea leaves, has significant anti-stress effects in animals and humans, we examined the effects of green tea with lowered caffeine content, i.e., low-caffeine green tea (LCGT), on stress and quality of sleep of middle-aged individuals ( n = 20, mean age 51.3 ± 6.7 years) in a double-blind crossover design. Standard green tea (SGT) was used as the control. These teas (≥300 mL/day), which were eluted with room temperature water, were consumed over a period of seven days after a single washout term. The level of salivary α-amylase activity (sAA), a stress marker, was significantly lower in participants that consumed LCGT (64.7 U/mL) than in those that consumed SGT (73.9 U/mL). Sleep quality was higher in participants that consumed a larger quantity of LCGT. In addition, a self-diagnostic check for accumulated fatigue was significantly lower in those participants that consumed LCGT than SGT. These results indicate that LCGT intake can reduce stress in middle-aged individuals and improve their quality of sleep. The reduction in caffeine is suggested to be a valid reason for enhancing the anti-stress effect of green tea.

  11. Reduced Stress and Improved Sleep Quality Caused by Green Tea Are Associated with a Reduced Caffeine Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Unno

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine, one of the main components in green tea, can interfere with sleep and block the effect of theanine. Since theanine, the main amino acid in tea leaves, has significant anti-stress effects in animals and humans, we examined the effects of green tea with lowered caffeine content, i.e., low-caffeine green tea (LCGT, on stress and quality of sleep of middle–aged individuals (n = 20, mean age 51.3 ± 6.7 years in a double-blind crossover design. Standard green tea (SGT was used as the control. These teas (≥300 mL/day, which were eluted with room temperature water, were consumed over a period of seven days after a single washout term. The level of salivary α-amylase activity (sAA, a stress marker, was significantly lower in participants that consumed LCGT (64.7 U/mL than in those that consumed SGT (73.9 U/mL. Sleep quality was higher in participants that consumed a larger quantity of LCGT. In addition, a self-diagnostic check for accumulated fatigue was significantly lower in those participants that consumed LCGT than SGT. These results indicate that LCGT intake can reduce stress in middle-aged individuals and improve their quality of sleep. The reduction in caffeine is suggested to be a valid reason for enhancing the anti-stress effect of green tea.

  12. Green Tea and Bone Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in elderly men and women. Epidemiological evidence has shown association between tea consumption and age-related bone loss in elderly men and women. The aim of this review is to provide a systemic review of green tea and bone health to cover the following topi...

  13. Coffee and tea consumption and the risk of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Gang; Bidel, Siamak; Jousilahti, Pekka; Antikainen, Riitta; Tuomilehto, Jaakko

    2007-11-15

    Several prospective studies have assessed the association between coffee consumption and Parkinson's disease (PD) risk, but the results are inconsistent. We examined the association of coffee and tea consumption with the risk of incident PD among 29,335 Finnish subjects aged 25 to 74 years without a history of PD at baseline. During a mean follow-up of 12.9 years, 102 men and 98 women developed an incident PD. The multivariate-adjusted (age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, education, leisure-time physical activity, smoking, alcohol and tea consumption, and history of diabetes) hazard ratios (HRs) of PD associated with the amount of coffee consumed daily (0, 1-4, and > or = 5 cups) were 1.00, 0.55, and 0.41 (P for trend = 0.063) in men, 1.00, 0.50, and 0.39 (P for trend = 0.073) in women, and 1.00, 0.53, and 0.40 (P for trend = 0.005) in men and women combined (adjusted also for sex), respectively. In both sexes combined, the multivariate-adjusted HRs of PD for subjects drinking > or = 3 cups of tea daily compared with tea nondrinkers was 0.41 (95% CI 0.20-0.83). These results suggest that coffee drinking is associated with a lower risk of PD. More tea drinking is associated with a lower risk of PD. (c) 2007 Movement Disorder Society.

  14. Determination of Cu, Fe, Zn Elements in Soil, Root Tea Plants, Tea Leaves, and Tea Beverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supriyanto; Zainul-Kamal

    2006-01-01

    One of the causes of land quality damage was due to the pollution of Cu, Fe, and Zn so that it could directly and also indirectly cause the occurrence of pollution of plants which is growing on it for example tea plant that has been used by society for making of tea beverage. The sampling of soil, root tea plants, tea leaves and tea beverage samples were done in June, 2005 at sub district of Keparakan, Temanggung, Central Java. The purpose of research was to determine the content of Cu, Fe and Zn in soil, root tea plants, tea leaves and tea beverage. The research was done by digesting the sample with nitric acid until the clear solution was obtained, then it was added by aquabidest until 10.0 ml. Determination of Cu, Fe and Zn content used AAS instrument. The average concentration of Cu Fe and Zn obtained in deep soil samples area 0.155 ± 0.005 ppm, 127.16 ± 2.65 ppm, and 0.68 ± 0.02 ppm respectively, in surface soil samples are 0.355 ± 0.025 ppm, 360.59 ± 13.17 ppm and 0.78 ± 0.01 ppm respectively, in root of tea plants samples area 0.241 ± 0.098 ppm, 13.16 ± 1.34 ppm and 2.64 ± 0.06 ppm respectively, in tea leaves are 0.211 ± 0.013 ppm, 3.35 ± 0.886 ppm, and 0.795 ± 0.016 ppm respectively and in tea beverage 0.142 ± 0.086 ppm, 6.11 ± 0.35 ppm and 0.66 ± 0.02 ppm respectively. (author)

  15. Effect of Copper on Fatty Acid Profiles in Non- and Semifermented Teas Analyzed by LC-MS-Based Nontargeted Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignitter, Marc; Stolze, Klaus; Jirsa, Franz; Gille, Lars; Goodman, Bernard A; Somoza, Veronika

    2015-09-30

    Unsaturated fatty acids are well-known precursors of aroma compounds, which are considered important for green tea quality. Due to the known copper-induced oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids and the broad variability of the amount of copper present in tea infusions, this paper investigates the influence of copper, added at a nontoxic concentration (300 μM) to non- and semifermented teas, on the degradation of fatty acids and fatty acid hydroperoxides thereof. The abundance of fatty acids in green and oolong tea was determined by means of a nontargeted approach applying high-resolution MS/MS. As a result, most of the fatty acids in green and oolong tea were already oxidized prior to copper addition. Addition of 300 μM CuSO4 to the oolong tea sample resulted in a decrease of 13-hydroperoxy-9Z,11E-octadecadienoic acid, an important flavor precursor, from 0.12 ± 0.02 to 0.05 ± 0.01 μM (p = 0.035), and other oxidized fatty acids decreased as well. However, copper-induced degradation of oxidized fatty acids was less pronounced in green tea compared to oolong tea, most likely due to the formation of copper complexes with low-molecular-weight compounds as evidenced by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  16. Phenolic profiling of the South American "Baylahuen" tea (Haplopappus spp., Asteraceae) by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; González, Benita

    2015-01-08

    The aerial parts of several Haplopappus species (Asteraceae), known under the common name "baylahuen", are used as herbal teas in Chile and Argentina. In Chile, "baylahuen" comprises H. multifolius, H. taeda, H. baylahuen and H. rigidus. Little is known about the chemical identity of the infusion constituents in spite of widespread consumption. The aim of the present work was the characterization of phenolics occurring in the infusions and methanol extracts of "baylahuen" by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. A simple HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS method was developed for the fast identification and differentiation of Haplopappus spp. used as a tea source, based on the phenolics from the tea and methanol extracts. Some 27 phenolics were tentatively identified in the infusions and methanol extract, including 10 caffeoyl quinic and feruloyl quinic acid derivatives and 17 flavonoids. The HPLC patterns of the Haplopappus tea and methanol extract allow a clear differentiation at the species level. The occurrence of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids can explain the reputed nutraceutical and health beneficial properties of this herbal tea.

  17. Phenolic Profiling of the South American “Baylahuen” Tea (Haplopappus spp., Asteraceae by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aerial parts of several Haplopappus species (Asteraceae, known under the common name “baylahuen”, are used as herbal teas in Chile and Argentina. In Chile, “baylahuen” comprises H. multifolius, H. taeda, H. baylahuen and H. rigidus. Little is known about the chemical identity of the infusion constituents in spite of widespread consumption. The aim of the present work was the characterization of phenolics occurring in the infusions and methanol extracts of “baylahuen” by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. A simple HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS method was developed for the fast identification and differentiation of Haplopappus spp. used as a tea source, based on the phenolics from the tea and methanol extracts. Some 27 phenolics were tentatively identified in the infusions and methanol extract, including 10 caffeoyl quinic and feruloyl quinic acid derivatives and 17 flavonoids. The HPLC patterns of the Haplopappus tea and methanol extract allow a clear differentiation at the species level. The occurrence of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids can explain the reputed nutraceutical and health beneficial properties of this herbal tea.

  18. Research on the effect of culture time on the kombucha tea beverage's antiradical capacity and sensory value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramza-Michałowska, Anna; Kulczyński, Bartosz; Xindi, Yuan; Gumienna, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Recent consumption trends shows high consumer acceptability and growing medicinal interest in the biological value of kombucha tea. This tea is a sweetened tea leaf brew fermented with a layer containing mainly acetic acid bacteria, yeast and lactic acid bacteria. The main antioxidants in tea leaves are polyphenols, the consumption of which is proven to be beneficial for human health, e.g. protecting from reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of the present research was to evaluate antiradical activity, total polyphenol content (TPC) and sensory value of kombucha tea brews. In the present study, Kombucha tea beverages were analyzed for TPC content, DPPH radical scavenging method and sensory value. The highest TPC content and DPPH radical scavenging capacity values were evaluated in yellow tea samples, both unfermented and kombucha, which did not differ within the storage time. The results of sensory evaluations of kombucha tea brews depend on the tea leaf variety used for preparing the drink. Research indicates that the fermentation process of tea brews with kombucha microbiota does not affect significantly its polyphenol content and antiradical capacity, and retains its components' biological activity.

  19. In Vitro Digestibility of Aluminum from Hibiscus sabdariffa Hot Watery Infusion and Its Concentration in Urine of Healthy Individuals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frankova, A.; Malik, J.; Drabek, O.; Szakova, J.; Sperlingova, I.; Kloucek, P.; Novy, P.; Tejnecky, V.; Landa, Přemysl; Leuner, O.; Kokoska, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 174, č. 2 (2016), s. 267-273 ISSN 0163-4984 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : dialysis dementia * tea * bioavailability * speciation * toxicity * Aluminum * In vitro digestion * Hot watery infusion * Urine * Hibiscus sabdariffa L Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.399, year: 2016

  20. Intravenous lidocaine infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, G; Naranjo González, M; Calero, F

    2018-02-26

    Systemic lidocaine used in continuous infusion during the peri-operative period has analgesic, anti-hyperalgesic, as well as anti-inflammatory properties. This makes it capable of reducing the use of opioids and inhalational anaesthetics, and the early return of bowel function, and patient hospital stay. The aim of this narrative review was to highlight the pharmacology and indications for clinical application, along with new and interesting research areas. The clinical applications of peri-operative lidocaine infusion have been reviewed in several recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses in patients undergoing open and laparoscopic abdominal procedures, ambulatory procedures, and other types of surgery. Peri-operative lidocaine infusion may be a useful analgesic adjunct in enhanced recovery protocols. Potential benefits of intravenous lidocaine in chronic post-surgical pain, post-operative cognitive dysfunction, and cancer recurrence are under investigation. Due to its immunomodulation properties over surgical stress, current evidence suggests that intravenous lidocaine could be used in the context of multimodal analgesia. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Determination of trace elements in drinking tea by various analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chufang; Ke Chenghsiung; Yang Jenqyann

    1993-01-01

    Tea has been one of the most popular simulating beverages which is both heavily produced and consumed in Taiwan. The determination of minor or trace elements in drinking tea and tea leaves is therefore important for estimating the daily intake of Taiwanese considered as a safety indicator. In order to accurately and precisely determine the concentrations of trace elements in samples, several analytical methods such as AAS, NAA and ICP-AES are suggested. This paper attempts to utilize all three methods to determine the concentrations of minor or trace elements in different types of tea leaves and the extracts percolated from them. The influence of fermentation processes on the concentration levels of minor or trace elements in tea samples is investigated. Because only free metal ions are bioavailable for the human body, it is necessary to determine their concentrations in drinking tea. The dissolution of trace elements in drinking tea is therefore studied by simulating the common Chinese style of tea percolation. Concentrations of thirteen elements including Zn, Mn, Ca, Cu, Ni, Al, K, Mg, Cd, Pb, Na, Co and Sc are determined. (author) 14 refs.; 1 fig.; 6 tabs

  2. Can Tea Consumption be a Safe and Effective Therapy Against Diabetes Mellitus-Induced Neurodegeneration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Ana R; Alves, Marco G; Moreira, Paula I; Oliveira, Pedro F; Silva, Branca M

    2014-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease that is rapidly increasing and has become a major public health problem. Type 2 DM (T2DM) is the most common type, accounting for up to 90-95% of the new diagnosed DM cases. The brain is very susceptible to glucose fluctuations and hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress (OS). It is well known that DM and the risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases are associated. Tea, Camellia sinensis L., is one of the most consumed beverages. It contains several phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, methylxanthines (mainly caffeine) and L-theanine that are often reported to be responsible for tea's health benefits, including in brain. Tea phytochemicals have been reported to be responsible for tea's significant antidiabetic and neuroprotective properties and antioxidant potential. Epidemiological studies have shown that regular consumption of tea has positive effects on DM-caused complications and protects the brain against oxidative damage, contributing to an improvement of the cognitive function. Among the several reported benefits of tea consumption, those related with neurodegenerative diseases are of great interest. Herein, we discuss the potential beneficial effects of tea consumption and tea phytochemicals on DM and how their action can counteract the severe brain damage induced by this disease.

  3. Green Tea Consumption and the Risk of Liver Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Chen-Xu; Gong, Hong; Liu, Ying; Qi, Yang; Jiang, Chun-Lei; Zhang, Jun-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Green tea is a commonly consumed beverage in Asia and has been suggested to have anticarcinogenic properties. To date, epidemiological evidence of the effect of green tea consumption on liver cancer risk remains ambiguous. The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the association between green tea consumption and the risk of liver cancer. The summary relative risk for the highest consumption (≥5 cups/day) of green tea on liver cancer incidence compared with nondrinkers was 0.62 (95% confidence interval: 0.49-0.79). We also found a trend that the incidence of liver cancer was reduced with the increasing years of green tea intake (significance at >20 yr). A significant dose-response association was found between green tea drinking and liver cancer risk. The downward trend was most obvious when the consumption of green tea increased up to about 4 cups/day. The results showed that the increasing green tea intake may have a preventive effect against liver cancer.

  4. Caffeine in tea Camellia sinensis--content, absorption, benefits and risks of consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramza-Michałowska, A

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic properties of tea Camellia sinensis are of particular interest since it has been consumed for ages and was always regarded as safe beverage. Tea is most popular beverage in the world because of its attractive aroma, exceptional taste, health promoting and pharmaceutical potential. Current results showed that antioxidative, antibacterial and other health effects are attributed to its caffeine content and caffeine - polyphenols interactions. An overview is given on caffeine content in different tea leaves beverage. Special attention is drawn to caffeine physiological effect on human organism. Controversies concerning the possible caffeine influence on human physical and psychological health are briefly summarized and presented.

  5. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of the Beverage Obtained by Fermentation of Sweetened Lemon Balm (Melissa offi cinalis L. Tea with Symbiotic Consortium of Bacteria and Yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoljub D. Cvetković

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha is a fermented tea beverage which is traditionally prepared by fermenting sweetened black or green tea (Camellia sinensis L. with symbiotic consortium of bacteria and yeasts (SCOBY. In this study, lemon balm (Melissa offi cinalis L. was used as the only nitrogen source for kombucha fermentation. During the seven-day fermentation process, pH value, titratable acidity (TA, total phenolic content, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity against hydroxyl (˙OH and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH radicals were measured to detect the connection between the fermentation time and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of lemon balm kombucha. Antibacterial activity of fi nished beverages with optimum acidity (TA=4–4.5 g/L, the value which is confi rmed by long-time kombucha consumers, and enhanced acidity (TA=8.12 g/L was tested against eleven wild bacterial strains. The results showed that lemon balm could be successfully used as an alternative to C. sinensis L. for kombucha fermentation. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity against DPPH radicals of lemon balm fermentation broth were higher than those of traditional kombucha. Rosmarinic acid is the main phenolic compound of the lemon balm-based kombucha that probably provides biological activity of the beverage. Judging from the EC50 values, kombucha beverages exhibited higher antioxidant activities compared with C. sinensis L. and M. offi cinalis L. infusions, which can probably be ascribed to SCOBY metabolites. Lemon balm kombucha with both optimum and enhanced acidity showed antibacterial activity, which can be primarily ascribed to acetic acid, but also to some other tea components and SCOBY metabolites.

  6. Assessment of dietary exposure to flavouring substances via consumption of flavoured teas. Part 1: occurrence and contents of monoterpenes in Earl Grey teas marketed in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Anne-Marie; Yu, Lu; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2013-01-01

    Estimations of dietary exposure via the consumption of flavoured foods play a central role in the safety evaluation of flavouring substances. To assess uncertainties, actual data regarding the occurrence and concentration levels of flavouring substances were determined in commercially available flavoured foods, using Earl Grey tea as an example. The contents of the consistently occurring monoterpenes linalyl acetate, linalool, limonene, β-pinene and γ-terpinene were determined in 90 tea samples purchased in 10 European Union member states. Rather narrow frequency distributions were observed for the major compounds linalyl acetate and linalool. The factors (1) country of purchase, (2) source of the products (national/international brands versus private label brands versus speciality tea shops), and (3) enantiomeric purities of the flavouring substances had no significant impact on the contents of the flavouring substances. Only in teas sold as loose leaves were the median contents of linalyl acetate and linalool (66% and 39%, respectively) higher than in teas offered in tea bags. Significant losses of flavouring substances were observed on storage of teas, indicating an impact of the type of packaging and the flavouring technology on the contents of flavouring substances in the product finally consumed.

  7. Monitoring of essential and heavy metals in green tea from different geographical origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezicha-Cirocka, Justyna; Grembecka, Małgorzata; Szefer, Piotr

    2016-03-01

    The present study measured the concentrations of toxic metals (Cd, Pb) and other elements (Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, Co, Cr, Ni) in tea leaves and their infusions. The total metal contents were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Phosphorus concentration was determined using an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. Assessment of the mineral composition enabled determination of the leaching percentage and the risk of exceeding provisional tolerable weekly intake for Cd through daily tea consumption. The concentrations of bioelements were analyzed based on the recommended daily intake values for each. According to recently established standards, green tea was found to be a rich source of Mn. The average Pb and Cd levels in a 200-mL beverage were 0.002 and 0.003 mg, respectively. Indian teas had the highest percentage of Cd leaching (43.8%) and Chinese tea had the lowest (9.41%). Multivariate analysis techniques such as factor analysis and cluster analysis were used to differentiate samples according to geographical origin (China, India, or Japan). Potassium, P, Mn, Fe, Cu, Co, and Cd were effective descriptors for the identification of tea samples from China, India, and Japan.

  8. Does oolong tea (Camellia sinensis) made from a combination of leaf and stem smell more aromatic than leaf-only tea? Contribution of the stem to oolong tea aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lanting; Zhou, Ying; Fu, Xiumin; Mei, Xin; Cheng, Sihua; Gui, Jiadong; Dong, Fang; Tang, Jinchi; Ma, Shengzhou; Yang, Ziyin

    2017-12-15

    The raw materials used to make oolong tea (Camellia sinensis) are a combination of leaf and stem. Oolong tea made from leaf and stem is thought to have a more aromatic smell than leaf-only tea. However, there is no available evidence to support the viewpoint. In this study, sensory evaluation and detailed characterization of emitted and internal volatiles (not readily emitted, but stored in samples) of dry oolong teas and infusions indicated that the presence of stem did not significantly improve the total aroma characteristics. During the enzyme-active processes, volatile monoterpenes and theanine were accumulated more abundantly in stem than in leaf, while jasmine lactone, indole, and trans-nerolidol were lower in stem than in leaf. Tissue-specific aroma-related gene expression and availability of precursors of aroma compounds resulted in different aroma distributions in leaf and stem. This study presents the first determination of the contribution of stem to oolong tea aroma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. PAH in tea and coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Navarantem, Marin; Adamska, Joanna

    For food regulation in the European Union maximum limits on other foods than tea and coffee includes benzo[a]pyrene and the sum of PAH4 (sum of benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene and benzo[b]fluoranthene). This study includes analysis of the above mentioned PAH in both, tea leaves, coffee...... beans and ready-to-drink preparations. Compared to other food matrices (e.g. fish), the analytical methods were challenged by the hot water extracts. Preparation of tea includes roasting and drying of the tea leaves using combustion gases from burning wood, oil, or coal. These are responsible...... for accumulation of PAH in tea leaves. Different varieties of tea leaves were analyzed and highest concentrations were found in leaves from mate and black tea with maximum concentrations of 32 μg/kg for benzo[a]pyrene and 115 μg/kg for the sum of PAH4. Also, coffee beans are roasted during processing. However...

  10. Antioxidant effects of green tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    FORESTER, SARAH C.; LAMBERT, JOSHUA D.

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of green tea (Camellia sinensis) may provide protection against chronic diseases, including cancer. Green tea polyphenols are believed to be responsible for this cancer preventive effect, and the antioxidant activity of the green tea polyphenols has been implicated as a potential mechanism. This hypothesis has been difficult to study in vivo due to metabolism of these compounds and poor understanding of the redox environment in vivo. Green tea polyphenols can be direct antioxidants by scavenging reactive oxygen species or chelating transition metals as has been demonstrated in vitro. Alternatively, they may act indirectly by up-regulating phase II antioxidant enzymes. Evidence of this latter effect has been observed in vivo, yet more work is required to determine under which conditions these mechanisms occur. Green tea polyphenols can also be potent pro-oxidants, both in vitro and in vivo, leading to the formation of hydrogen peroxide, the hydroxyl radical, and superoxide anion. The potential role of these pro-oxidant effects in the cancer preventive activity of green tea is not well understood. The evidence for not only the antioxidant, but also pro-oxidant, properties of green tea are discussed in the present review. PMID:21538850

  11. Tea Polysaccharides and Their Bioactivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Ling Du

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis is a beverage beneficial to health and is also a source for extracting bioactive components such as theanine, tea polyphenols (TPP and tea polysaccharides (TPS. TPS is a group of heteropolysaccharides bound with proteins. There is evidence showing that TPS not only improves immunity but also has various bioactivities, such as antioxidant, antitumor, antihyperglycemia, and anti-inflammation. However, inconsistent results concerning chemical composition and bioactivity of TPS have been published in recent years. The advances in chemical composition and bioactivities of TPS are reviewed in the present paper. The inconsistent and controversial results regarding composition and bioactivities of TPS are also discussed.

  12. Environmental and nutritional requirements for tea cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajiboland Roghieh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis is an important beverage crop cultivated in the tropics and subtropics under acid soil conditions. Increased awareness of the health-promoting properties of the tea beverage has led to an increase in its level of consumption over the last decades. Tea production contributes significantly to the economy of several tea-cultivating countries in Asia and Africa. Environmental constrains, particularly water deficiency due to inadequate and/or poorly distributed rainfall, seriously limit tea production in the majority of tea-producing countries. It is also predicted that global climate change will have a considerable adverse impact on tea production in the near future. Application of fertilizers for higher production and increased quality and quantity of tea is a common agricultural practice, but due to its environmental consequences, such as groundwater pollution, the rate of fertilizer application needs to be reconsidered. Cultivation of tea under humid conditions renders it highly susceptible to pathogens and pest attacks. Application of pesticides and fungicides adversely affects the quality of tea and increases health risks of the tea beverage. Organic cultivation as an agricultural practice without using synthetic fertilizers and other chemical additives such as pesticides and fungicides is a sustainable and eco-friendly approach to producing healthy tea. A growing number of tea-producing countries are joining organic tea cultivation programmes in order to improve the quality and to maintain the health benefits of the tea produced.

  13. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of fermented Centella asiatica herbal teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariffin, Fazilah; Heong Chew, Shio; Bhupinder, Kaur; Karim, Alias A; Huda, Nurul

    2011-12-01

    C. asiatica was exposed to various fermentations: no fermentation (0 min), partial fermentation (120 min) and full fermentation (24 h). Total phenolic content (TPC) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of C. asiatica infusions were studied as a function of water temperature (60, 80 or 100 °C), the brewing stage (one, two or three) and the brewing time (1, 3, 5, 10, 15 or 20 min). The optimum brewing procedure was adopted to study the antioxidant properties and phenolic compounds in C. asiatica infusions. The optimum extraction efficiency of C. asiatica infusions was achieved at 100 °C after a 10 min brewing time, and decreased substantially after applying multiple brewing steeps. However, no significant different was found between the second and third infusions. The non-fermented C. asiatica (CANF) infusion had the highest antioxidant activity. Gallic acid, naringin, chlorogenic acid, catechin, rutin, rosmarinic acid and quercetin were identified to present. Luteolin and kaempferol were only found in 80% methanol extraction method. C. asiatica herbal teas should be prepared at 100 °C for 10 min to obtain the optimum antioxidant capacity. Multiple brewing steps in C. asiatica herbal tea are encouraged due to the certain amount of antioxidant obtained. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF LEAF TEAS BLACKBERRY (MORUS NIGRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zanco

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has a long tradition in the use of plants, and is the same used in different ways, such as in the form of infusions and decoctions, for therapeutic purposes. Morus nigra species is a plant that has been used in different parts of the world as phytotherapy. This plant is known as mulberry, black, blackberry black or blackberry and various parts of the plant, such as leaves, fruit, bark and roots are used by the population, demonstrating anti-inflammatory activity, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, among others. Because of the interest in research on the bioactivity of plant products and use of blackberry tea in the population, present study evaluated the antibacterial activity of teas M. nigra leaves obtained by infusion and decoction against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium, as well as the antioxidant potential of preparations by DPPH technique. Results revealed that the infusions and decoctions prepared with Morus nigra leaves showed no ability to inhibit the growth of bacteria tested. However, all preparations (decoctions and infusions obtained from the leaves showed antioxidant potential, demonstrated ability to reduce DPPH radical. Despite infusions and decoctions evaluated in this study do not show antimicrobial activity, both had significant antioxidant property. Considering the use of different plants, including mulberry tree, by the people, it is considered always important proof of their biological activities.

  15. Consumer Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Melissa Marie

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to prove that despite consumers' impression that they are alone in deciding their consumption decision they are wrong. Consumers are manipulated on various levels by marketers. It is the marketer who decides what consumer identities should be created. Consumers are persuaded by marketers on different levels beginning with consumers' needs. Marketers begin by appealing to consumer drives, motivations and emotions to persuade their consumers to purchase their brand...

  16. Salt tea consumption and esophageal cancer: a possible role of alkaline beverages in esophageal carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Nazir Ahmad; Bhat, Gulzar Ahmad; Shah, Idrees Ayoub; Iqbal, Beenish; Rafiq, Rumaisa; Nabi, Sumaiya; Lone, Mohd Maqbool; Islami, Farhad; Boffetta, Paolo

    2015-03-15

    Salt tea is the most commonly used beverage in Kashmir, India, where esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the most common cancer. Salt tea is brewed in a unique way in Kashmir, usually with addition of sodium bicarbonate, which makes salt tea alkaline. As little information about the association between salt tea drinking and ESCC was available, we conducted a large-scale case-control study to investigate this association in Kashmir. We recruited 703 histologically confirmed cases of ESCC and 1664 controls individually matched to cases for age, sex, and district of residence. Conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Participants who consumed >1,250 ml day(-1) showed an increased risk of ESCC (OR = 2.60, 95% CIs = 1.68-4.02). Samovar (a special vessel for the beverage preparation) users (OR = 1.77, 95% CIs 1.25-2.50) and those who ate cereal paste with salt tea (OR = 2.14, 95% CIs = 1.55-2.94) or added bicarbonate sodium to salt tea (OR = 2.12, 95% CIs = 1.33-3.39) were at higher risk of ESCC than others. When analysis was limited to alkaline tea drinkers only, those who both consumed cereal paste with salt tea and used samovar vessel were at the highest risk (OR = 4.58, 95% CIs = 2.04-10.28). This study shows significant associations of salt tea drinking and some related habits with ESCC risk. © 2014 UICC.

  17. The Tea Culture and Its Forms Across the Czech Tea Rooms

    OpenAIRE

    Schröderová, Karolína

    2015-01-01

    In this bachelor thesis I have focused on the Czech tea culture across tea rooms. I have described the specifics of the tea rooms and of the tea culture. Furthermore I am dealing with ways of tea culture spreading, and what is the process of the tea room establishing. I am using the term of subculture in the connection with the tea culture, its meaning and position in the Czech culture. The main data source were semi-structured interviews with the tea rooms owners, all complemented by a parti...

  18. The effects of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa) on hypertension in patients with type II diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari-Khosravi, H; Jalali-Khanabadi, B-A; Afkhami-Ardekani, M; Fatehi, F; Noori-Shadkam, M

    2009-01-01

    To compare the antihypertensive effectiveness of sour tea (ST; Hibiscus sabdariffa) with black tea (BT) infusion in diabetic patients, this double-blind randomized controlled trial was carried out. Sixty diabetic patients with mild hypertension, without taking antihypertensive or antihyperlipidaemic medicines, were recruited in the study. The patients were randomly allocated to the ST and BT groups and instructed to drink ST and BT infusions two times a day for 1 month. Their blood pressure (BP) was measured on days 0, 15 and 30 of the study. The mean of systolic BP (SBP) in the ST group decreased from 134.4+/-11.8 mm Hg at the beginning of the study to 112.7+/-5.7 mm Hg after 1 month (P-value hypertension. This study supports the results of similar studies in which antihypertensive effects have been shown for ST.

  19. Associations of green tea and rock tea consumption with risk of impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance in Chinese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huibin; Guo, Qiuxuan; Qiu, Changsheng; Huang, Baoying; Fu, Xianguo; Yao, Jin; Liang, Jixing; Li, Liantao; Chen, Ling; Tang, Kaka; Lin, Lixiang; Lu, Jieli; Bi, Yufang; Ning, Guang; Wen, Junping; Lin, Caijing; Chen, Gang

    2013-01-01

    To explore the associations of green tea and rock tea consumption with risk of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A multistage, stratified, cluster, random-sampling method was used to select a representative sample from Fujian Province in China. In total, 4808 subjects without cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cancer, or pancreatic, liver, kidney, or gastrointestinal diseases were enrolled in the study. A standard questionnaire was used to gather data on tea (green, rock, and black) consumption and other relevant factors. The assessment of impaired glucose regulation (IGR) was using 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), the diagnostic criteria of normal glucose tolerance was according to American Diabetes Association. Green tea consumption was associated with a lower risk of IFG, while rock tea consumption was associated with a lower risk of IGT. The adjusted odds ratios for IFG for green tea consumption of 30 cups per week were 1.0 (reference), 0.42 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.27-0.65), 0.23 (95% CI, 0.12-0.46), and 0.41 (95% CI, 0.17-0.93), respectively. The adjusted odds ratios for IGT for rock tea consumption of 30 cups per week were 1.0 (reference), 0.69 (95% CI, 0.48-0.98), 0.59 (95% CI, 0.39-0.90), and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.43-0.97), respectively. A U-shaped association was observed, subjects who consumed 16-30 cups of green or rock tea per week having the lowest odds ratios for IFG or IGT. Consumption of green or rock tea may protect against the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese men and women, particularly in those who drink 16-30 cups per week.

  20. Associations of green tea and rock tea consumption with risk of impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance in Chinese men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huibin Huang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore the associations of green tea and rock tea consumption with risk of impaired fasting glucose (IFG and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT. METHODS: A multistage, stratified, cluster, random-sampling method was used to select a representative sample from Fujian Province in China. In total, 4808 subjects without cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cancer, or pancreatic, liver, kidney, or gastrointestinal diseases were enrolled in the study. A standard questionnaire was used to gather data on tea (green, rock, and black consumption and other relevant factors. The assessment of impaired glucose regulation (IGR was using 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, the diagnostic criteria of normal glucose tolerance was according to American Diabetes Association. RESULTS: Green tea consumption was associated with a lower risk of IFG, while rock tea consumption was associated with a lower risk of IGT. The adjusted odds ratios for IFG for green tea consumption of 30 cups per week were 1.0 (reference, 0.42 (95% confidence intervals (CI 0.27-0.65, 0.23 (95% CI, 0.12-0.46, and 0.41 (95% CI, 0.17-0.93, respectively. The adjusted odds ratios for IGT for rock tea consumption of 30 cups per week were 1.0 (reference, 0.69 (95% CI, 0.48-0.98, 0.59 (95% CI, 0.39-0.90, and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.43-0.97, respectively. A U-shaped association was observed, subjects who consumed 16-30 cups of green or rock tea per week having the lowest odds ratios for IFG or IGT. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of green or rock tea may protect against the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese men and women, particularly in those who drink 16-30 cups per week.

  1. TEA, Trastorno del Espectro Autista :

    OpenAIRE

    Vegas Martín, Irene

    2015-01-01

    La autora expone los aspectos fundamentales sobre el concepto del TEA para posteriormente mostrarnos un caso práctico y su tratamiento durante unos meses con la finalidad que sea un trabajo de consulta práctico

  2. Green Tea and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anna H; Butler, Lesley M

    2014-01-01

    The identification of modifiable lifestyle factors that could reduce the risk of breast cancer is a research priority. Despite the enormous chemo preventive potential of green tea and compelling evidence from animal studies, its role in breast cancer development in humans is still unclear. Part of the uncertainty is related to the relatively small number of epidemiological studies on green tea and breast cancer and that the overall results from case-control studies and prospective cohort studies are discordant. In addition, the mechanisms by which green tea intake may influence risk of breast cancer in humans remains not well studied. We review the human studies that have evaluated the relationship between green tea intake and four biomarkers (sex steroid hormones, mammographic density, insulin-like growth factor, adiponectin) that are believed to be important in breast cancer development. Results from these biomarker studies are also inconclusive. Limitations of human studies and areas of further investigations are discussed. PMID:21538855

  3. Acute effects of tea on fasting and postprandial vascular function and blood pressure in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Jonathan M; Burke, Valerie; Puddey, Ian B

    2005-01-01

    Effects of regular exposure to polyphenolic compounds found in tea, leading to improved endothelial function and blood pressure, may reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Controlled trials in humans have found that ingestion of tea can improve endothelial function, but also cause a rapid onset acute increase in blood pressure. To examine the acute effects of tea consumption on fasting and postprandial vascular function and blood pressure. Endothelium-dependent dilatation of the brachial artery, assessed using ultrasound and blood pressure were measured in 20 participants with a history of coronary artery disease. Measurements were performed at baseline and at 3.5 h (blood pressure) and 4 h (endothelial function) after drinking three cups of black tea or hot water (consumed at time = 0, 1.5 and 3 h) with and without a high-fat (50 g) meal: a total of four treatments administered in random order. The high-fat meal did not impair endothelial function. In comparison to water alone, endothelium-dependent dilatation was increased by the meal with tea (1.7 (0.4, 3.0)%, P = 0.02), but was not significantly altered by the tea alone (0.7 (-0.6, 2.0)%, P = 0.32). Systolic blood pressure was significantly increased by tea alone in comparison to each of the other three groups: water alone (9.3 (4.5, 14.1) mmHg, P = 0.0003), meal with water (9.8 (5.0, 14.6) mmHg, P = 0.0001) and meal with tea (7.2 (2.4,12.0) mmHg, P = 0.004). Consumption of a meal negated the acute increase in systolic blood pressure found with tea in the fasting state. Consumption of food may alter the acute effects of tea on vascular function and blood pressure.

  4. Long-Term Green Tea Supplementation Does Not Change the Human Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Pilou L H R; Penders, John; Hursel, Rick; Budding, Andries E; Savelkoul, Paul H M; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2016-01-01

    Green tea catechins may play a role in body weight regulation through interactions with the gut microbiota. We examined whether green tea supplementation for 12 weeks induces changes in composition of the human gut microbiota. 58 Caucasian men and women were included in a randomized, placebo-controlled design. For 12 weeks, subjects consumed either green tea (>0.56 g/d epigallocatechin-gallate + 0.28 ∼ 0.45 g/d caffeine) or placebo capsules. Fecal samples were collected twice (baseline, vs. week 12) for analyses of total bacterial profiles by means of IS-profiling, a 16S-23S interspacer region-based profiling method. No significant changes between baseline and week 12 in subjects receiving green tea or placebo capsules, and no significant interactions between treatment (green tea or placebo) and time (baseline and week 12) were observed for body composition. Analysis of the fecal samples in subjects receiving green tea and placebo showed similar bacterial diversity and community structures, indicating there were no significant changes in bacterial diversity between baseline and week 12 in subjects receiving green tea capsules or in subjects receiving placebo capsules. No significant interactions were observed between treatment (green tea or placebo) and time (baseline and week 12) for the gut microbial diversity. Although, there were no significant differences between normal weight and overweight subjects in response to green tea, we did observe a reduced bacterial alpha diversity in overweight as compared to normal weight subjects (p = 0.002). Green tea supplementation for 12 weeks did not have a significant effect on composition of the gut microbiota. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01556321.

  5. Potentiating effects of honey on antioxidant properties of lemon-flavoured black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; Vilas-Boas, Miguel; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2013-03-01

    Health benefits including antioxidant potential of black tea (Camellia sinensis), lemon (Citrus limon) and honey bees (Apis mellifera) have been extensively reported. Nevertheless, nothing is reported about the effects of their concomitant use. Herein, those effects were evaluated in infusions of lemon-flavoured black tea with three different kinds of honey (light amber, amber and dark amber) from Lavandula stoechas, Erica sp. pl. and other indigenous floral species from north-east Portugal, a region with high amounts of this food product. Data obtained showed that the use of honey (dark amber>amber>light amber) potentiates the antioxidant activity of lemon-flavoured black tea, increasing the reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition properties, as also the antioxidant contents such as phenolics, flavonoids and organic acids including ascorbic acid.

  6. Tea consumption and its interactions with tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking on oral cancer in southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F; He, B-C; Yan, L-J; Liu, F-P; Huang, J-F; Hu, Z-J; Lin, Z; Zheng, X-Y; Lin, L-S; Zhang, Z-F; Cai, L

    2017-04-01

    Epidemiological results on the association between tea consumption and oral cancer remain controversial. We aimed to evaluate the exact relationship between tea consumption and oral cancer in Chinese population. A large-scale case-control study was conducted on 586 oral cancer patients and 1024 controls frequency-matched by age and gender. Epidemiological data were collected through face-to-face interviews with a structure questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression model was used to assess the effect of tea consumption on oral cancer stratified by smoking, alcohol drinking and demographics. Quantity of tea consumed (ml/day) was categorized into five subgroups based on quartiles and then its interactions was evaluated with tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking at each subgroup. Tea consumption showed an inverse association with oral cancer for non-smokers or non-alcohol drinkers (the odds ratios (ORs) were 0.610 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.425-0.876) and 0.686 (95% CI: 0.503-0.934), respectively). For smokers or alcohol drinkers, decreased risk was only observed in those who consumed >800 ml/day. Furthermore, oolong tea consumption was associated with decreased risk of oral cancer in smokers or alcohol drinkers but not in non-smokers or non-alcohol drinkers. Tea consumption combined with smoking or/and alcohol drinking had a greater risk than tea consumption alone, but the risk was roughly reduced from zero to Q4 (>800 ml/day). Additionally, when stratified by demographics, the protective effect of tea was especially evident in females, urban residents, normal body mass index population (18.5-23.9), farmers, office workers and those aged <60 years. Tea consumption protects against oral cancer in non-smokers or non-alcohol drinkers, but this effect may be obscured in smokers or alcohol drinkers. Additionally, demographics may modify the association between tea consumption and oral cancer.

  7. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie BUDICA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marketing outcome; how consumer motivation and decision strategies differ between products that differ in their level of importance or interest that they entail for the consumer; and how marketers can adapt and improve their marketing campaigns and marketing strategies to more effectively reach the consumer.

  8. Effectiveness of Green Tea in a Randomized Human Cohort: Relevance to Diabetes and Its Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naushad Ali Toolsee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have argued that green tea could mitigate diabetes and its complications. This study investigated the phytophenolic profile of Mauritian green tea and its antioxidant propensity. The effect of green tea on the risk factors: waist-hip ratio, glucose level, arterial pressure, antioxidant status, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT in prediabetics was assessed. The experimental group consumed 3 cups of green tea daily for 14 weeks followed by a 2-week washout period. The control group followed a water regimen. Green tea contained high level of phenolics related to its antioxidant power. Green tea suppressed waist-hip ratio of women from a significant increase and suppressed mean arterial pressure of men and women from a significant decrease after week 14. It reduced ALT level in women by 13.0% (P<0.1 while increasing the antioxidant potential of men and women sera by 2.7% (P<0.1 and 5.1% (P<0.1. The study timescale may have been too short to enable demonstration of effects on fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c outcomes. Green tea regimen could form part of a healthy lifestyle that might ameliorate features of metabolic syndrome and subsequent risks for diabetes and its complications. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01248143.

  9. Photostabilization of sunscreens by incorporation of tea as the external phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Pereira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of isolated ultraviolet (UV filters in photoprotective formulations creates products with limited protection against radiation, emphasising the need to develop formulations containing UVA and UVB filter combinations. However, most of the formulations developed to include both filters are unstable as a result of this combination, as well as by exposure to UV radiation. It is, therefore, crucial to include additives that enable photostabilization. Tea is the second most widely consumed beverage in the world and represents a good source of bioactive compounds, particularly polyphenols, which provide antioxidant activity. In the present work formulations containing green tea or black tea, as well as the sunscreens avobenzone (UVA sunscreen and octilmetoxinamato (UVB sunscreen, were developed and evaluated in order to develop new and effective photostable formulations providing broad spectrum photoprotection. These formulations have been developed with complete replacement of the external phase of the oil in water (O/W emulsion by these teas. The results showed that both teas presented photostabilizing capacity, particularly for green tea in the storage conditions at room temperature and at 5 °C, and black tea for the samples stored at 40 °C.

  10. The influence of beverage composition on delivery of phenolic compounds from coffee and tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferruzzi, Mario G

    2010-04-26

    Epidemiological data suggest that consumption of coffee and tea is associated with a reduced risk of several chronic and degenerative diseases including cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, obesity and neurodegenerative disorders. Both coffee and tea are a rich source of phenolic compounds including chlorogenic acids in coffee; and flavan-3-ols as well as complex theaflavins and thearubigens in tea. Coffee and tea are two of the most commonly consumed beverages in the world and thus represent a significant opportunity to positively affect disease risk and outcomes globally. Central to this opportunity is a need to better understand factors that may affect the bioavailability of specific phenolic components from coffee and tea based beverages. An overview of the phenolic composition of coffee and tea is discussed in the context of how processing and composition might influence phenolic profiles and bioavailability of individual phenolic components. Specifically, the impact of beverage formulation, the extent and type of processing and the influence of digestion on stability, bioavailability and metabolism of bioactive phenolics from tea and coffee are discussed. The impact of co-formulation with ascorbic acid and other phytochemicals are discussed as strategies to improve absorption of these health promoting phytochemicals. A better understanding of how the beverage composition impacts phenolic profiles and their bioavailability is critical to development of beverage products designed to deliver specific health benefits. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Trace elemental characterisation of different Indian tea samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagad, Rupali A.; Alamelu, D.; Aggarwal, S.K.; Acharya, R.

    2010-01-01

    Determination of elemental content of different food materials is of importance since excess or deficiency of some of the elements have direct consequence to health of human beings. Tea is a common beverage consumed widely in India. India is one of the major country where good quality tea is produced. The tea plants are grown over a wide region of the country. It was of interest to study the elemental composition in tea samples from different geographical locations and to develop a suitable methodology to identify the geographical origin from the trace element profiles. With this objective, about 40 tea samples (both from plantations as well as from market) from the different locations in India viz. Assam, Munnar, Himachal Pradesh and Darjeeling were analyzed by INAA. About 150 mg of each of the sample packed in aluminium foil was irradiated in the self serve position of CIRUS reactor, BARC, for 3 to 5 hours at a neutron flux of ∼10 13 cm -2 s -1 . Along with the samples, Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) GBS-7(Tea leaves, as reference standard) and SRM-1515 (Apple leaves as control sample) were irradiated. Radioactive assay of the irradiated samples were carried out using a 40% relative efficiency HPGe detector coupled to 8K MCA and gamma-ray spectra were recorded for sufficient time for obtaining good counting statistics. Peak areas were determined using a peak-fit software PHAST. Concentrations of the different elements in tea samples were determined using relative method of INAA

  12. Mast cell stabilizing and anti-anaphylactic activity of aqueous extract of green tea (Camellia sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Balaji

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Green tea (Camellia sinensis is one of the most popular and widely consumed beverages in the world. In the current study, aqueous extract of green tea (C. sinensis was evaluated for mast cell stabilizing and anti-anaphylactic activities. Green tea extract (11, 13, 15 mg/ml significantly (P < 0.05 inhibited compound 48/80-induced rat mesentric mast cell degranulation in a dose dependent manner. Anti-anaphylactic activity of green tea extract was performed in female mice. At a dose of 400, 500, 600 mg/kg BW, green tea extract showed significant reduction in the mortality of mice subjected to anaphylactic shock by compound C48/80. Ketotifen was used for comparison. In addition, IR and UV–Visible spectroscopy analysis of green tea extract revealed the presence of functional groups of bioactive compounds. These results suggest that green tea could be useful in the treatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis.

  13. Estimation of Theaflavins (TF) and Thearubigins (TR) Ratio in Black Tea Liquor Using Electronic Vision System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuli, Amitava; Pal, Abhra; Ghosh, Arunangshu; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Bandhopadhyya, Rajib; Tamuly, Pradip; Gogoi, Nagen

    2011-09-01

    Quality of black tea is generally assessed using organoleptic tests by professional tea tasters. They determine the quality of black tea based on its appearance (in dry condition and during liquor formation), aroma and taste. Variation in the above parameters is actually contributed by a number of chemical compounds like, Theaflavins (TF), Thearubigins (TR), Caffeine, Linalool, Geraniol etc. Among the above, TF and TR are the most important chemical compounds, which actually contribute to the formation of taste, colour and brightness in tea liquor. Estimation of TF and TR in black tea is generally done using a spectrophotometer instrument. But, the analysis technique undergoes a rigorous and time consuming effort for sample preparation; also the operation of costly spectrophotometer requires expert manpower. To overcome above problems an Electronic Vision System based on digital image processing technique has been developed. The system is faster, low cost, repeatable and can estimate the amount of TF and TR ratio for black tea liquor with accuracy. The data analysis is done using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Multiple Discriminate Analysis (MDA). A correlation has been established between colour of tea liquor images and TF, TR ratio. This paper describes the newly developed E-Vision system, experimental methods, data analysis algorithms and finally, the performance of the E-Vision System as compared to the results of traditional spectrophotometer.

  14. An intervention study on the effect of matcha tea, in drink and snack bar formats, on mood and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Christina; Dekker, Matthijs; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina

    2017-09-01

    Matcha tea is gaining popularity throughout the world in recent years and is frequently referred to as a mood-and-brain food. Previous research has demonstrated that three constituents present in matcha tea, l-theanine, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and caffeine, affect mood and cognitive performance. However, to date there are no studies assessing the effect of matcha tea itself. The present study investigates these effects by means of a human intervention study administering matcha tea and a matcha containing product. Using a randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blind study, 23 consumers participated in four test sessions. In each session, participants consumed one of the four test products: matcha tea, matcha tea bar (each containing 4g matcha tea powder), placebo tea, or placebo bar. The assessment was performed at baseline and 60min post-treatment. The participants performed a set of cognitive tests assessing attention, information processing, working memory, and episodic memory. The mood state was measured by means of a Profile of Mood States (POMS). After consuming the matcha products compared to placebo versions, there were mainly significant improvements in tasks measuring basic attention abilities and psychomotor speed in response to stimuli over a defined period of time. In contrast to expectations, the effect was barely present in the other cognitive tasks. The POMS results revealed no significant changes in mood. The influence of the food matrix was demonstrated by the fact that on most cognitive performance measures the drink format outperformed the bar format, particularly in tasks measuring speed of spatial working memory and delayed picture recognition. This study suggests that matcha tea consumed in a realistic dose can induce slight effects on speed of attention and episodic secondary memory to a low degree. Further studies are required to elucidate the influences of the food matrix. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantitative analysis of the effect of specific tea compounds on germination and outgrowth of Bacillus subtilis spores at single cell resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandey, R.; ter Beek, A.; Vischer, N.O.E.; Smelt, J.P.P.M.; Kemperman, R.; Manders, E.M.M.; Brul, S.

    2015-01-01

    Tea is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and known for its antimicrobial activity against many microorganisms. Preliminary studies have shown that tea polyphenols can inhibit the growth of a wide range of Gram-positive bacteria. However, the effect of these compounds on

  16. Tea production characteristics of tea growers (plantations and smallholdings and livelihood dimensions of tea workers in Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloise M. Biggs

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article provides summary data regarding tea production in Assam, India. Questionnaires were completed by tea producers and focus group discussions undertaken with tea workers. These data are presented for the four main tea growing regions of the state (Cachar, North Bank, South Bank and Upper Assam. Tables detail tea production characteristics of the tea plantations for both large- (> 10 ha and small- (< 10 ha holders. Figures provide supplementary information for research by Biggs et al. [1] regarding fertilizer application, landscape management strategies, healthcare provisioning and educational facilities within plantations, as well as detailing the livelihood dimensions of tea workers. The questions posed to producers are also included. For further context underpinning the research for which these data were collated, see ‘The tea landscape of Assam: multi-stakeholder insights into sustainable livelihoods under a changing climate’ by Biggs et al. [1].

  17. Infusion's greenfield subsidiary in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, C.; van Eerde, W.; The, D.

    2012-01-01

    The president of Infusion Development Corporation was reviewing the progress of the new subsidiary the company had set up 15 months earlier in Krakow, Poland. The purpose of the subsidiary was to work with other Infusion offices around the world to provide innovative software development services to

  18. Control of the Kanzawa Spider Mite, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida and Pink Tea Rust Mite, Acaphylla theavagrans Kadono and the Residual Effect of Spraying Petroleum Oil Emulsifiable Concentrate just before the Sprouting of the First Crop of Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Tetsuya; Sakaida, Teruki; Nakazono, Kentaro; Nitabaru, Yuichi

    Petroleum oil emulsifiable concentrate (POEC) is a commercial acaricide used for the control of Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida in the autumn/winter season. Further, the damage of bacterial shoot blight increases if POEC is sprayed at this time of the year. It is thought that the occurrence of bacterial shoot blight doesn't increase if POEC is sprayed just before the sprouting of the first crop of tea. However, it is suspected that spraying of POEC at this time results in the formation of an oily film that floats on the surface of tea infusion. In this study, we examined the efficiency of spraying POEC at this time of the year in controlling the growth of T. kanzawai and Acaphylla theavagrans Kadono and the residual effect. We obtained the following results: (1) spraying POEC before sprouting of the first crop of tea resulted in effective control of the density of T. kanzawai and A. theavagrans for 1 month or longer, and (2) the oily film was not observed on the surface of the tea infusion. These results indicate that POEC can serve as one of the important control agents of mites when sprayed just before the sprouting of the first crop of tea.

  19. Studies on prevention of obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer by tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Shu Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea, a popular beverage made from leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis, has been studied extensively in recent decades for its beneficial health effects in the prevention of obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, cancer, and other diseases. Whereas these beneficial effects have been convincingly demonstrated in most laboratory studies, results from human studies have not been consistent. Some studies demonstrated that weight reduction, alleviation of metabolic syndrome and risk reduction in diabetes were only observed in individuals who consume 3–4 cups of tea (600–900 mg tea catechins or more daily. This chapter reviews some of these studies, the possible mechanisms of actions of tea constituents, and the challenges in extrapolating laboratory studies to human situations.

  20. Combined effects of added beta glucan and black tea in breads on starch functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Abbe Maleyki M; Edwards, Christine A; Combet, Emilie; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Garcia, Ada L

    2015-03-01

    Bread and tea are usually consumed separately, but there may be different food-matrix interactions and changes in starch characteristics when they are combined in bread. This study developed breads (white bread, WF; black tea, BT; beta glucan, βG; beta glucan plus black tea, βGBT) and determined their starch functionalities. Breads were developed using a standard baking recipe and determined their starch characteristics. There was no significant difference in starch hydrolysis between BT and WF but βGBT reduced early (10 min) starch hydrolysis compared with βG. The starch granules in βG and βGBT were elliptical and closely packed together. These results suggest that the addition of beta glucan and black tea to bread preserved the elliptical starch granules and lowered short-term starch hydrolysis.

  1. Ethnobotanical survey of herbal tea plants from the traditional markets in Chaoshan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-Lin; Zheng, Xi-Long; Duan, Lei; Deng, Shuang-Wen; Ye, Wen; Wang, Ai-Hua; Xing, Fu-Wu

    2017-06-09

    Herbal tea, which refers to "cooling tea", "cool beverage", or "liáng chá" in China, includes a range of drinks with heat-clearing and detoxification qualities. Herbal tea plants are great contributive to the health and prosperity of Chaoshan people. The aim of the study was to document herbal tea plant species used and commercialized as "liáng chá" in Chaoshan area, to facilitate the use and development of herbal tea enterprises, and to promote the further development of national herbal tea. Information and data were obtained from all 83 stall holders in 12 traditional markets, semi-structured informant interviews were carried out individually with the stall holders, 10 questions were asked. In this study, 186 species of herbal tea plants belonging to 65 families and 156 genera were indicated by 83 stall holders, with Asteraceae being the most prevalent family with 22 species. Herbs are main sources of herbal tea plants in Chaoshan area, with whole plants (97 species) being the most used parts. Herbal drinks are mostly consumed for heat-clearing and detoxification, and a large number of plant species were reported to treat coughs, colds, dysentery, dampness and sore throats. The most cited species were Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam. (47 times mentioned), Hedyotis diffusa Willd. (46), Plantago asiatica L. (43), Houttuynia cordata Thunb (42), Centella asiatica (L.) Urban (36), Desmodium styracifolium (Osbeck) Merr. (35) and Morus alba L. (31), and 5 protected species were recorded in the list of the nationally protected species of China: Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo, Dendrobium nobile Lindl., Anoectochilus formosanus Hayata, Bulbophyllum odoratissimum (J. E. Smith) Lindl. and Pholidota chinensis Lindl. The selling price of most fresh herbal tea plants in the market varied from¥10-16/kg, with the profit margin of sales ranging from 12.5% to 20%. The consumption of herbal tea for one family costs about ¥3-5/day. Chaoshan herbal teas, prepared by diverse

  2. The cytogenetic effects of black tea and green tea on cultured human lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Erhan Eroğlu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the cytogenetic effects of black tea and green tea were determined in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes. Results showed that black tea and green tea induced the mitotic and replication indexes and decreased micronuclei. But these data were not statistically significant for green tea. The effects of black tea on the micronucleus formation and mitotic index were statistically significant. The decrease in micronucleus counts indicated that black tea and green tea had considerable anticlastogenic and antigenotoxic effects as observed in vitro in human lymphocytes. Thus, it could be concluded that tea polyphenols protected the normal cells from genotoxic or carcinogenic agents, which indicated the therapeutic and antioxidative role of catechins, flavonoids or other tea compounds.

  3. Influence of green tea consumption on cigarette smoking-induced biochemical changes in plasma and blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthadu Shakeela Begum

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking causes numerous adverse biochemical changes in plasma and blood leading to ill health effects for which therapeutic approaches are sought. The present study investigates the effect of green tea consumption on confirmed cigarette smokers. Blood samples were collected from 120 selected human male volunteers categorized in to four groups viz., controls, smokers, control volunteers consuming green tea with no habit of smoking and smokers consuming green tea were analysed. Results showed that altered plasma glucose, HbA1c, hemoglobin, hematocrit, total cholesterol, lipoprotein patterns (HDL, LDL, VLDL and lipid peroxidation along with vitamins (vitamin-D, vitamin-B12, vitamin-C and minerals (iron, total iron binding capacity, calcium, sodium, potassium, phosphorous, chloride followed by the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, gamma glutamyl transferase (γGT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP. Furthermore, phytochemical analysis of green tea confirmed the presence of phenols, flavonoids and tannins. Antioxidants and free radical scavenging effects of green tea were assessed using 2, 2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS+ and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH+. Results of this study clearly demonstrated that the adverse changes observed in the above biochemical parameters in smokers were reversed upon green tea supplementation which can be attributed to the phytoconstituents present in green tea. In conclusion, both in vivo and in vitro studies revealed that phytocompounds present in green tea are able to scavenge free radicals and by there offers protection against smoking induced biochemical alterations.

  4. Additional benefit of higher dose green tea in lowering postprandial blood glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Lahirin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Green tea contains catechins that have inhibitory effects on amylase, sucrase, and sodium-dependent glucose transporter (SGLT which result in lowering of postprandial blood glucose (PBG. This beneficial effect has been widely demonstrated using the usual dose (UD of green tea preparation. Our study was aimed to explore futher lowering of PBG using high dose (HD of green tea in healthy adolescents.Methods: 24 subjects received 100 mL infusion of either 0.67 or 3.33 grams of green tea with test meal. Fasting, PBG at 30, 60, 120 minutes were measured. Subjects were cross-overed after wash out. PBG and its incremental area under the curve (IAUC difference between groups were analyzed with paired T-test. Cathecin contents of tea were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC.Results: The PBG of HD group was lower compared to UD (at 60 minutes =113.70 ± 13.20 vs 124.16 ± 8.17 mg/dL, p = 0.005; at 120 minutes = 88.95 ± 6.13 vs 105.25 ± 13.85 mg/dL, p < 0.001. The IAUC of HD was also found to be lower compared to UD (2055.0 vs 3411.9 min.mg/dL, p < 0.001.Conclusion: Additional benefit of lowering PBG can be achieved by using higher dose of green tea. This study recommends preparing higher dose of green tea drinks for better control of PBG.

  5. Pharmacovigilance: Tiens Slimming Tea Causes Increased Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... possible link between the constituents of the slimming tea and increased blood pressure and also provide evidence of other possible harmful effects that may occur with the use of the slimming tea. Keywords: Pharmacovigilance, hypertension, slimming tea. West African Journal of Pharmacology and Drug Research Vol.

  6. Chocolate as a source of tea flavonoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, I.C.W.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Kromhout, D.

    1999-01-01

    The antioxidant catechin content of chocolate is four times that of tea. Chocolate contributed 20% of the catechin intake in a representative sample of the Dutch population, and tea contributes 55%. Epidemiological assessments of health effects of tea should include other foods that are sources of

  7. The yeast spectrum of the 'tea fungus Kombucha'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayser, P; Fromme, S; Leitzmann, C; Gründer, K

    1995-01-01

    The tea fungus 'Kombucha' is a symbiosis of Acetobacter, including Acetobacter xylinum as a characteristic species, and various yeasts. A characteristic yeast species or genus has not yet been identified. Kombucha is mainly cultivated in sugared black tea to produce a slightly acidulous effervescent beverage that is said to have several curative effects. In addition to sugar, the beverage contains small amounts of alcohol and various acids, including acetic acid, gluconic acid and lactic acid, as well as some antibiotic substances. To characterize the yeast spectrum with special consideration given to facultatively pathogenic yeasts, two commercially available specimens of tea fungus and 32 from private households in Germany were analysed by micromorphological and biochemical methods. Yeasts of the genera Brettanomyces, Zygosaccharomyces and Saccharomyces were identified in 56%, 29% and 26% respectively. The species Saccharomycodes ludwigii and Candida kefyr were only demonstrated in isolated cases. Furthermore, the tests revealed pellicle-forming yeasts such as Candida krusei or Issatchenkia orientalis/occidentalis as well as species of the apiculatus yeasts (Kloeckera, Hanseniaspora). Thus, the genus Brettanomyces may be a typical group of yeasts that are especially adapted to the environment of the tea fungus. However, to investigate further the beneficial effects of tea fungus, a spectrum of the other typical genera must be defined. Only three specimens showed definite contaminations. In one case, no yeasts could be isolated because of massive contamination with Penicillium spp. In the remaining two samples (from one household), Candida albicans was demonstrated. The low rate of contamination might be explained by protective mechanisms, such as formation of organic acids and antibiotic substances. Thus, subjects with a healthy metabolism do not need to be advised against cultivating Kombucha. However, those suffering from immunosuppression should preferably

  8. Bewitched - The Tea Party Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashbee, Edward

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the development of the Tea Party movement, the character of its thinking and the nature of the interests and constituencies to which it is tied. The article suggests that despite the importance of ideas and interests, and the process of interaction between them, the movement....... The political friction that this creates has contributed to the anger that has characterised the movement. While the Tea Party movement may, as such, have only an ephemeral existence, independent conservatives are likely to remain a significant and potent constituency and will, within the institutional...

  9. Evaluation of genetic diversity of cultivated tea clones (Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze in the eastern black sea coast by inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beris Fatih S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea is the most globally consumed drink after spring water and an important breeding plant with high economical value in Turkey. In half a century, various kinds of tea cultivars have been bred in Turkey to improve the quality and yield of tea plants. Since tea reproduces sexually, tea fields vary in quality. Thus, determining the genetic diversity and relationship of the plants to support breeding and cultivation is important. In this study we aimed to determine the genetic diversity of tea cultivars breeding in the Eastern Black Sea coast of Turkey and the genetic relationship between them, to verify whether the qualitative morphological designations of the clones are genetically true by the ISSR markers. Herein, the genetic diversity and relationships of 18 Turkish tea cultivars were determined using 15 ISSR markers with sizes ranging from 250 to 3000 base pairs. The similarity indices among these cultivars were between 0.456 and 0.743. Based on cluster analysis using UPGMA, some of tea cultivars originating from the same geographical position were found to be clustered closely. Our data provide valuable information and a useful basis to assist selection and cloning experiments of tea cultivars and also help farmers to find elite parental clones for tea breeding in the Eastern Black Sea coast of Turkey.

  10. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in herbal teas for infants, pregnant or lactating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mädge, Inga; Cramer, Luise; Rahaus, Ines; Jerz, Gerold; Winterhalter, Peter; Beuerle, Till

    2015-11-15

    A general contamination of tea with pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) has just become known. Here, we report the application and modification of a new HPLC-ESI-MS/MS sum parameter method to quantitate PA content of herbal teas intended for infants, pregnant and lactating women. Using p-toluenesulfonyl isocyanate for derivatization and a stable isotope labeled internal standard, the total retronecine-/heliotridine-type PA content of the samples is expressed in form of a single sum parameter (retronecine equivalents: RE). The new methods were applied to analyze 44 tea samples for such consumer groups. Thirty eight products (86%) were tested PA positive showing PA concentrations ranging from 0 to 391 μg RE/kg (average: 50 μg RE/kg). The dataset is discussed in the view of the current discussion on PA in the food chain with special focus on those particular vulnerable consumer groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Tea Polyphenol Compounds on Anticancer Drugs in Terms of Anti-Tumor Activity, Toxicology, and Pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jianhua; Han, Jie; Xiao, Hao; Qiao, Jinping; Han, Mei

    2016-12-14

    Multidrug resistance and various adverse side effects have long been major problems in cancer chemotherapy. Recently, chemotherapy has gradually transitioned from mono-substance therapy to multidrug therapy. As a result, the drug cocktail strategy has gained more recognition and wider use. It is believed that properly-formulated drug combinations have greater therapeutic efficacy than single drugs. Tea is a popular beverage consumed by cancer patients and the general public for its perceived health benefits. The major bioactive molecules in green tea are catechins, a class of flavanols. The combination of green tea extract or green tea catechins and anticancer compounds has been paid more attention in cancer treatment. Previous studies demonstrated that the combination of chemotherapeutic drugs and green tea extract or tea polyphenols could synergistically enhance treatment efficacy and reduce the adverse side effects of anticancer drugs in cancer patients. In this review, we summarize the experimental evidence regarding the effects of green tea-derived polyphenols in conjunction with chemotherapeutic drugs on anti-tumor activity, toxicology, and pharmacokinetics. We believe that the combination of multidrug cancer treatment with green tea catechins may improve treatment efficacy and diminish negative side effects.

  12. Black Tea Lowers Blood Pressure and Wave Reflections in Fasted and Postprandial Conditions in Hypertensive Patients: A Randomised Study

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    Davide Grassi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension and arterial stiffening are independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality. Flavonoids may exert some vascular protection. We investigated the effects of black tea on blood pressure (BP and wave reflections before and after fat load in hypertensives. According to a randomized, double-blind, controlled, cross-over design, 19 patients were assigned to consume black tea (129 mg flavonoids or placebo twice a day for eight days (13 day wash-out period. Digital volume pulse and BP were measured before and 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after tea consumption. Measurements were performed in a fasted state and after a fat load. Compared to placebo, reflection index and stiffness index decreased after tea consumption (p < 0.0001. Fat challenge increased wave reflection, which was counteracted by tea consumption (p < 0.0001. Black tea decreased systolic and diastolic BP (−3.2 mmHg, p < 0.005 and −2.6 mmHg, p < 0.0001; respectively and prevented BP increase after a fat load (p < 0.0001. Black tea consumption lowers wave reflections and BP in the fasting state, and during the challenging haemodynamic conditions after a fat load in hypertensives. Considering lipemia-induced impairment of arterial function may occur frequently during the day, our findings suggest regular consumption of black tea may be relevant for cardiovascular protection.

  13. Effect of Tea Polyphenol Compounds on Anticancer Drugs in Terms of Anti-Tumor Activity, Toxicology, and Pharmacokinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Cao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance and various adverse side effects have long been major problems in cancer chemotherapy. Recently, chemotherapy has gradually transitioned from mono-substance therapy to multidrug therapy. As a result, the drug cocktail strategy has gained more recognition and wider use. It is believed that properly-formulated drug combinations have greater therapeutic efficacy than single drugs. Tea is a popular beverage consumed by cancer patients and the general public for its perceived health benefits. The major bioactive molecules in green tea are catechins, a class of flavanols. The combination of green tea extract or green tea catechins and anticancer compounds has been paid more attention in cancer treatment. Previous studies demonstrated that the combination of chemotherapeutic drugs and green tea extract or tea polyphenols could synergistically enhance treatment efficacy and reduce the adverse side effects of anticancer drugs in cancer patients. In this review, we summarize the experimental evidence regarding the effects of green tea-derived polyphenols in conjunction with chemotherapeutic drugs on anti-tumor activity, toxicology, and pharmacokinetics. We believe that the combination of multidrug cancer treatment with green tea catechins may improve treatment efficacy and diminish negative side effects.

  14. Probable Gastrointestinal Toxicity of Kombucha Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Radhika; Smolinske, Susan; Greenbaum, David

    1997-01-01

    Kombucha tea is a health beverage made by incubating the Kombucha “mushroom” in tea and sugar. Although therapeutic benefits have been attributed to the drink, neither its beneficial effects nor adverse side effects have been reported widely in the scientific literature. Side effects probably related to consumption of Kombucha tea are reported in four patients. Two presented with symptoms of allergic reaction, the third with jaundice, and the fourth with nausea, vomiting, and head and neck pain. In all four, use of Kombucha tea in proximity to onset of symptoms and symptom resolution on cessation of tea drinking suggest a probable etiologic association. PMID:9346462

  15. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of the Beverage Obtained by Fermentation of Sweetened Lemon Balm
(Melissa officinalisL.) Tea with Symbiotic Consortium 
of Bacteria and Yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velićanski, Aleksandra S; Cvetković, Dragoljub D; Markov, Siniša L; Šaponjac, Vesna T Tumbas; Vulić, Jelena J

    2014-12-01

    Kombucha is a fermented tea beverage which is traditionally prepared by fermenting sweetened black or green tea ( Camellia sinensis L.) with symbiotic consortium of bacteria and yeasts (SCOBY). In this study, lemon balm ( Melissa officinalis L.) was used as the only nitrogen source for kombucha fermentation. During the seven-day fermentation process, pH value, titratable acidity (TA), total phenolic content, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity against hydroxyl ( ˙ OH) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radicals were measured to detect the connection between the fermentation time and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of lemon balm kombucha. Antibacterial activity of finished beverages with optimum acidity (TA=4-4.5 g/L), the value which is confirmed by long-time kombucha consumers, and enhanced acidity (TA=8.12 g/L) was tested against eleven wild bacterial strains. The results showed that lemon balm could be successfully used as an alternative to C. sinensis L. for kombucha fermentation. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity against DPPH radicals of lemon balm fermentation broth were higher than those of traditional kombucha. Rosmarinic acid is the main phenolic compound of the lemon balm-based kombucha that probably provides biological activity of the beverage. Judging from the EC 50 values, kombucha beverages exhibited higher antioxidant activities compared with C. sinensis L. and M. officinalis L. infusions, which can probably be ascribed to SCOBY metabolites. Lemon balm kombucha with both optimum and enhanced acidity showed antibacterial activity, which can be primarily ascribed to acetic acid, but also to some other tea components and SCOBY metabolites.

  16. Consumer entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dentoni, Domenico; Poldner, Kim; Pascucci, Stefano; Gartner, William B.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to understand innovative processes of resource redeployment taking place during consumption. We label this as consumer entrepreneurship. We define consumer entrepreneurship as the process of sharing and recombining resources innovatively to seek opportunities for

  17. Demonstrating the importance of phytochemical profile of different teas on antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Min Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:Indigenous or traditional aqueous plant extractsare commonly used by nearly80% of the world’s population for primary health needs.Accordingly,teas such as Camellia sinensisand herbal teaswere characterized fortheirphytochemical content and potential to offerspecific bioactivities that could benefit human health by mitigating oxidative stress andinflammation.Methods:In the present study, we comparedthe phytochemical profiles, antioxidant,and anti-inflammatory activities of four Camellia sinensisteas,including white, green, oolong, black, andtwo herbal teassuch as Rooibos and Yerba mate,which are producedand consumed by different populationsworldwide. We alsostudied the impact oftheRooibos tea on the production of inflammatory mediators, including nitric oxide(NO, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2,and different cytokinesin Raw 264.7 cells, bothwith or without interferon γ (IFN-γand lipopolysaccharide (LPSstimulation.Results:White tea hadthe highest total phenolic content(TPCand antioxidantactivity among the six teasthat wereexamined. In contrast, Rooibos tea hadthe lowest TPC,antioxidant,and anti-inflammatory activities. Yerba mate tea exhibitedthe greatest potential to inhibit NO production in IFN-γ and LPS-induced Raw 264.7 cells.The anti-inflammatory activity of teas was discoveredto be correlated withantioxidant activity and phytochemical composition.Among thesix teasexamined, only Rooibos tea was found to induce NO in unstimulated Raw 264.7 cells. Under basal conditions, Rooibos tea inducedinterleukin-1α (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF,tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α,iNOS,and COX-2 production. However, Rooibos tea alsodemonstrateda dose-dependent inhibition of IL-6, IL-10, iNOS,and COX-2 expression in stimulated Raw 264.7 cells. Although a high concentration of Rooibos tea was effective in

  18. Hypoglycaemia secondary to labetalol infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immanni, Sudhir; Khan, Ehtesham Izhar; Staunton, Michael

    2011-05-01

    A 42-year-old multigravida with severe pre-eclampsia had an emergency caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia. Peri-operatively, her arterial pressure was controlled with oral methyldopa and an intravenous infusion of labetalol. Postoperatively, in the Intensive Care Unit, she had recurrent episodes of hypoglycaemia which required treatment with intravenous glucose. These episodes resolved when the labetalol infusion was stopped. Clinicians should be aware of the potential of labetalol to cause hypoglycaemia.

  19. A case of Kombucha tea toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SungHee Kole, Alison; Jones, Heather D; Christensen, Russell; Gladstein, Jay

    2009-01-01

    Kombucha "mushroom'' tea is touted to have medicinal properties. Here, we present a case of hyperthermia, lactic acidosis, and acute renal failure within 15 hours of Kombucha tea ingestion. A 22 year old male, newly diagnosed with HIV, became short of breath and febrile to 103.0F, within twelve hours of Kombucha tea ingestion. He subsequently became combative and confused, requiring sedation and intubation for airway control. Laboratories revealed a lactate of 12.9 mmol/L, and serum creatinine of 2.1 mg/dL. Kombucha tea is black tea fermented in a yeast-bacteria medium. Several case reports exist of serious, and sometimes fatal, hepatic dysfunction and lactic acidosis within close proximity to ingestion. While Kombucha tea is considered a healthy elixir, the limited evidence currently available raises considerable concern that it may pose serious health risks. Consumption of this tea should be discouraged, as it may be associated with life-threatening lactic acidosis.

  20. Consumer Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornacchia, Harold J.

    Consumer health refers to the potential or actual impact upon the consumer, individually or collectively, of any substances, devices, services, or systems that are offered for the supposed purpose of protecting, preserving, or restoring physical or mental health. This book is an effort to help the consumer to choose intelligently in spending for…

  1. Green Tea and Other Tea Polyphenols: Effects on Sebum Production and Acne Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Saric

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are antioxidant molecules found in many foods including nuts, fruits, vegetables, chocolate, wine, and tea. Polyphenols have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic properties. Recent studies suggest that tea polyphenols may be used for reducing sebum production in the skin and for treatment of acne vulgaris. This review examines the evidence for use of topically and orally ingested tea polyphenols against sebum production and for acne treatment and prevention. The PubMed database was searched for studies on tea polyphenols, sebum secretion, and acne vulgaris. Of the 59 studies found, eight met the inclusion criteria. Two studies evaluated tea polyphenol effects on sebum production; six studies examined tea polyphenol effects on acne vulgaris. Seven studies evaluated topical tea polyphenols; one study examined systemic tea polyphenols. None of the studies evaluated both topical and systemic tea polyphenols. Tea polyphenol sources included green tea (six studies and tea, type not specified (two studies. Overall, there is some evidence that tea polyphenols in topical formulation may be beneficial in reducing sebum secretion and in treatment of acne. Research studies of high quality and with large sample sizes are needed to assess the efficacy of tea polyphenols in topical and oral prevention of acne vulgaris and lipid synthesis by the sebaceous glands.

  2. Determination of multi element levels in leaves and herbal teas from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Sr and Zn) contained in 18 herbal tea samples that had been bought from local markets where different parts of plants (leaves or flowers) are consumed especially for medical purposes in Turkey by ICP-OES. The validity of the analytical ...

  3. Green tea EGCG, T cells, and T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the proposed health benefits of consuming green tea is its protective effect on autoimmune diseases. Research on the immunopathogenesis of autoimmune diseases has made significant progression in the past few years and several key concepts have been revised. T cells, particularly CD4+ T helper...

  4. From Coffee to Tea: Shifting Patterns of Consumption in Qajar Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthee, Rudi

    1996-01-01

    Traces the changes in consumer habits for tea and coffee in Iran from the early 15th century (introduction of the beverages) to the late 19th century. Consumption often was tied to regional differentiation and social stratification. Shifting trade routes, especially those involving Russia and England also produced changes. (MJP)

  5. Methylxanthines and catechines in different teas (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze – influence on antioxidant properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Július Árvay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, there are four basic types of tea: green (not fermented, black (fermented, oolong and white tea (partially fermented. The differences among these types are in the processing technology, which is largely reflected in their chemical composition. The most influential factor that significantly affects the quality and quantity of substances (biologically active is the processing temperature, which causes changes in the composition (isomerization and/or transformation. The present paper focuses on monitoring content of three methylxanthines - alkaloids (caffeine, theophylline and theobromine, and seven flavan-3-ols - catechins ((+-catechin (C, (--catechin-3-gallate (C-3-G, (--epicatechin (EC, (--epicatechin-3-gallate (EC-3-G, (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGC-3-G, (--gallocatechin (GC and (--gallocatechin-3-gallate (GC 3-G, which are characteristic for tea. Attention was also given to the assessment of selected antioxidant parameters using spectrophotometric procedures (ABTS - radical cation decolorization assay and Phosphomolybdenum reducing antioxidant power assay in relation to the determined substances using RP-HPLC/DAD analysis. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that a type of tea clearly affects the quality and quantity of the substances that have a positive impact on the consumer's health, significantly reflected in the levels of antioxidant active substances determined by the spectrophotometric procedures. The highest content of methylxanthin, catechins, polyphenols and antioxidant substances was recorded in the green tea sample GT3. The highest content of flavonoids and phenolic acids was recorded in the Pu-erh tea sample PT 5.

  6. Microbial diversity and component variation in Xiaguan Tuo Tea during pile fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haizhou; Li, Min; Yang, Xinrui; Gui, Xin; Chen, Guofeng; Chu, Jiuyun; He, Xingwang; Wang, Weitao; Han, Feng; Li, Ping

    2018-01-01

    Xiaguan Tuo Tea is largely consumed by the Chinese, but there is little research into the microbial diversity and component changes during the fermentation of this tea. In this study, we first used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), next-generation sequencing (NGS) and chemical analysis methods to determine the microbial abundance and diversity and the chemical composition during fermentation. The FISH results showed that the total number of microorganisms ranges from 2.3×102 to 4.0×108 cells per gram of sample during fermentation and is mainly dominated by fungi. In the early fermentation stages, molds are dominant (0.6×102~2.8×106 cells/g, 0~35 d). However, in the late stages of fermentation, yeasts are dominant (3.6×104~9.6×106 cells/g, 35~56 d). The bacteria have little effect during the fermentation of tea (102~103 cells/g, tea was observed at day 35 of fermentation (Shannon-Weaver index: 1.195857), and lower diversity was observed on days 6 and 56 of fermentation (Shannon-Weaver index 0.860589 and 1.119106, respectively). During the microbial fermentation, compared to the unfermented tea, the tea polyphenol content decreased by 54%, and the caffeine content increased by 59%. Theanine and free amino acid contents were reduced during fermentation by 81.1 and 92.85%, respectively.

  7. Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.)): a putative anticancer agent in bladder carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Vanessa R; Alves, Marco G; Oliveira, Pedro F; Silva, Branca M

    2015-01-01

    The leaves of Camellia sinensis (L.) are the source of tea, the second most consumed beverage worldwide. Tea contains several chemical compounds such as polyphenols (mainly catechins), caffeine, theophylline, L-theanine, among many others. Polyphenolic compounds are mainly responsible for its significant antioxidant properties and anticarcinogenic potential. Bladder cancer is one of the most common types of cancer, and its progression and onset are thought to be controlled by dietary and lifestyle factors. Epidemiological studies showed that the regular consumption of tea can be a preventive factor for this type of cancer, and several in vivo and in vitro studies reported that tea and its components may interfere in the cancer cells' signaling, preventing the bladder tumor progression. The mechanisms responsible for this protection include deregulation of cell cycle, induction of apoptosis while protecting the surrounding healthy bladder cells, inhibition of metastization processes, among others. Herein, we discuss the potential beneficial effects of tea and tea components in bladder cancer prevention and/or treatment, and how they can be helpful in finding new therapeutic strategies to treat this type of cancer.

  8. Tea and coffee consumption and risk of laryngeal cancer: a systematic review meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangbo Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tea and coffee are the most commonly consumed beverages in the worldwide. The relationship between tea and coffee consumption on the risk of laryngeal cancer was still unclear. METHODS: Relevant studies were identified by searching electronic database (Medline and EMBASE and reviewing the reference lists of relevant articles until Oct. 2013. Observational studies that reported RRs and 95% CIs for the link of tea and coffee consumption on the risk of laryngeal cancer were eligible. A meta-analysis was obtained to combine study-specific RRs with a random-effects model. RESULTS: A total of 2,803 cases and 503,234 controls in 10 independent studies were identified. The overall analysis of all 10 studies, including the case-control and cohort studies, found that tea drinking was not associated with laryngeal carcinoma (RR = 1.03; 95% CI: 0.66-1.61. However, coffee consumption was significantly associated with the laryngeal carcinoma (RR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.03-2.11. A dose-response relationship between coffee intake and laryngeal carcinoma was detected; however, no evidence of dose-response link between tea consumption and laryngeal carcinoma risk was detected. CONCLUSIONS: The results from this meta-analysis of observational studies demonstrate that coffee consumption would increase the laryngeal cancer risk, while tea intake was not associated with risk of laryngeal carcinoma.

  9. Use of Temperature and Humidity Sensors to Determine Moisture Content of Oolong Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Chen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of tea moisture content is important for processing and storing tea. The moisture content of tea affects the quality and durability of the product. Some electrical devices have been proposed to measure the moisture content of tea leaves but are not practical. Their performance is influenced by material density and packing. The official oven method is time-consuming. In this study, the moisture content of Oolong tea was measured by the equilibrium relative humidity technique. The equilibrium relative humidity, and temperature, of tea materials were measured by using temperature and relative humidity sensors. Sensors were calibrated, and calibration equations were established to improve accuracy. The moisture content was calculated by using an equilibrium moisture content model. The error of the moisture content determined with this method was within 0.5% w.b. at moisture <15% w.b. Uncertainty analysis revealed that the performance of the humidity sensor had a significant effect on the accuracy of moisture determination.

  10. Protective effects of rooibos ( Aspalathus linearis ), green tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compares the modulation of oxidative stress by an indigenous herbal tea, rooibos, Chinese green tea and commercial rooibos and green tea supplements in rat testicular tissue. Male Wistar rats (n = 60) were fed with either fermented rooibos, “green” rooibos, Chinese green tea, commercial rooibos or green tea ...

  11. Green tea and coffee consumption is inversely associated with depressive symptoms in a Japanese working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ngoc Minh; Nanri, Akiko; Kurotani, Kayo; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Kume, Ayami; Sato, Masao; Hayabuchi, Hitomi; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2014-03-01

    To examine the association between the consumption of green tea, coffee and caffeine and depressive symptoms. Cross-sectional study. Consumption of green tea and coffee was ascertained with a validated dietary questionnaire and the amount of caffeine intake was estimated from these beverages. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to compute odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for depressive symptoms with adjustments for potential confounders. Two workplaces in north-eastern Kyushu, Japan, in 2009. A total of 537 men and women aged 20-68 years. Higher green tea consumption was associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms. Compared with participants consuming ≤1 cup/d, those consuming ≥4 cups green tea/d had a 51% significantly lower prevalence odds of having depressive symptoms after adjustment for potential confounders, with significant trend association (P for trend = 0·01). Further adjustment for serum folate slightly attenuated the association. Coffee consumption was also inversely associated with depressive symptoms (≥2 cups/d v. green tea, coffee and caffeine may confer protection against depression.

  12. Analysis of low molecular weight metabolites in tea using mass spectrometry-based analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Karl; Harrison, Scott J; Lane, Geoff A; Otter, Don E; Hemar, Yacine; Quek, Siew-Young; Rasmussen, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Tea is the second most consumed beverage in the world after water and there are numerous reported health benefits as a result of consuming tea, such as reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease and many types of cancer. Thus, there is much interest in the chemical composition of teas, for example; defining components responsible for contributing to reported health benefits; defining quality characteristics such as product flavor; and monitoring for pesticide residues to comply with food safety import/export requirements. Covered in this review are some of the latest developments in mass spectrometry-based analytical techniques for measuring and characterizing low molecular weight components of tea, in particular primary and secondary metabolites. The methodology; more specifically the chromatography and detection mechanisms used in both targeted and non-targeted studies, and their main advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Finally, we comment on the latest techniques that are likely to have significant benefit to analysts in the future, not merely in the area of tea research, but in the analytical chemistry of low molecular weight compounds in general.

  13. Tea and coffee consumption in relation to vitamin D and calcium levels in Saudi adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Othman Abdulaziz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coffee and tea consumption was hypothesized to interact with variants of vitamin D-receptor polymorphisms, but limited evidence exists. Here we determine for the first time whether increased coffee and tea consumption affects circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a cohort of Saudi adolescents. Methods A total of 330 randomly selected Saudi adolescents were included. Anthropometrics were recorded and fasting blood samples were analyzed for routine analysis of fasting glucose, lipid levels, calcium, albumin and phosphorous. Frequency of coffee and tea intake was noted. 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results Improved lipid profiles were observed in both boys and girls, as demonstrated by increased levels of HDL-cholesterol, even after controlling for age and BMI, among those consuming 9–12 cups of coffee/week. Vitamin D levels were significantly highest among those consuming 9–12 cups of tea/week in all subjects (p-value 0.009 independent of age, gender, BMI, physical activity and sun exposure. Conclusion This study suggests a link between tea consumption and vitamin D levels in a cohort of Saudi adolescents, independent of age, BMI, gender, physical activity and sun exposure. These findings should be confirmed prospectively.

  14. Phenolic Profiling of the South American “Baylahuen” Tea (Haplopappus spp., Asteraceae) by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; González, Benita

    2015-01-01

    The aerial parts of several Haplopappus species (Asteraceae), known under the common name “baylahuen”, are used as herbal teas in Chile and Argentina. In Chile, “baylahuen” comprises H. multifolius, H. taeda, H. baylahuen and H. rigidus. Little is known about the chemical identity of the infusion constituents in spite of widespread consumption. The aim of the present work was the characterization of phenolics occurring in the infusions and methanol extracts of “baylahuen” by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. ...

  15. Phenolic compounds of green tea: Health benefits and technological application in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Lorenzo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Green tea has been an important beverage for humans since ancient times, widely consumed and considered to have health benefits by traditional medicine in Asian countries. Green tea phenolic compounds are predominately composed of catechin derivatives, although other compounds such as flavonols and phenolic acids are also present in lower proportion. The bioactivity exerted by these compounds has been associated with reduced risk of severe illnesses such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Particularly, epigallocatechin gallate has been implicated in alteration mechanisms with protective effect in these diseases as indicated by several studies about the effect of green tea consumption and mechanistic explanation through in vitro and in vivo experiments. The biological activity of green tea phenolic compounds also promotes a protective effect by antioxidant mechanisms in biological and food systems, preventing the oxidative damage by acting over either precursors or reactive species. Extraction of phenolic compounds influences the antioxidant activity and promotes adequate separation from green tea leaves to enhance the yield and/or antioxidant activity. Application of green tea phenolic compounds is of great interest because the antioxidant status of the products is enhanced and provides the product with additional antioxidant activity or reduces the undesirable changes of oxidative reactions while processing or storing food. In this scenario, meat and meat products are greatly influenced by oxidative deterioration and microbial spoilage, leading to reduced shelf life. Green tea extracts rich in phenolic compounds have been applied to increase shelf life with comparable effect to synthetic compounds, commonly used by food industry. Green tea has great importance in general health in technological application, however more studies are necessary to elucidate the impact in pathways related to other diseases and food

  16. Green tea effects on cognition, mood and human brain function: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Edele; Beglinger, Christoph; Drewe, Jürgen; Zanchi, Davide; Lang, Undine E; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2017-10-15

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis) is a beverage consumed for thousands of years. Numerous claims about the benefits of its consumption were stated and investigated. As green tea is experiencing a surge in popularity in Western culture and as millions of people all over the world drink it every day, it is relevant to understand its effects on the human brain. To assess the current state of knowledge in the literature regarding the effects of green tea or green tea extracts, l-theanine and epigallocatechin gallate both components of green tea-on general neuropsychology, on the sub-category cognition and on brain functions in humans. We systematically searched on PubMed database and selected studies by predefined eligibility criteria. We then assessed their quality and extracted data. We structured our effort according to the PRISMA statement. We reviewed and assessed 21 studies, 4 of which were randomised controlled trials, 12 cross-over studies (both assessed with an adapted version of the DELPHI-list), 4 were cross-sectional studies and one was a cohort study (both assessed with an adapted version of the Newcastle-Ottawa assessment scale). The average study quality as appraised by means of the DELPHI-list was good (8.06/9); the studies evaluated with the Newcastle-Ottawa-scale were also good (6.7/9). The reviewed studies presented evidence that green tea influences psychopathological symptoms (e.g. reduction of anxiety), cognition (e.g. benefits in memory and attention) and brain function (e.g. activation of working memory seen in functional MRI). The effects of green tea cannot be attributed to a single constituent of the beverage. This is exemplified in the finding that beneficial green tea effects on cognition are observed under the combined influence of both caffeine and l-theanine, whereas separate administration of either substance was found to have a lesser impact. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  17. Integration of geoinformatics and wireless sensors for smart agriculture in tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Niladri; Gupta, Prangya P.; Pramanik, Prabhat; Saikia, Angkur; Sengupta, Lahari; Bhagat, Rajib M.; Bhattacharya, Nabarun

    2014-08-01

    To develop an efficient system for tea production management, the first and foremost requirement is quick availability of accurate data. Manual decision making takes unusually long time even with the most sophisticated analytical techniques. Moreover, as geographical spread of tea gardens are huge and sometimes exceeds few hundred hectares, getting information about the entire garden through conventional methods would be time consuming. Quick decision making based on quality data at section (a garden unit varying in area) level in a tea garden can enhance tea production. Geoinformatics and spatial analysis algorithms provide a great opportunity to gather information of unknown locations in a tea plantation based on some known locations. The present work demonstrates the application of an integrated Wireless Sensors Network (WSN) system associated with GPS and GIS to achieve the goal of Smart Agriculture. In this study a portable WSN system has been developed for instant data generation on soil physico-chemical properties and provide decision support for tea plantation management. Soil pH, soil moisture and soil temperature were collected in selected locations in a tea garden and plotted on digital garden maps based on their GPS locations. Suitable interpolation algorithms were applied on the collected soil data to generate information about the soil properties in entire plantation. An empirical equation is being developed for each soil parameter to compensate the errors in their predicted values based on values in the sample locations. The present system is an attempt towards achieving the goal of implementation of precision agriculture in tea plantation management.

  18. Green tea consumption and risk of cardiovascular and ischemic related diseases: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Jun; Zhang, Zheng; Zheng, Tong-zhang; Bassig, Bryan A; Mao, Chen; Liu, Xingbin; Zhu, Yong; Shi, Kunchong; Ge, Junbo; Yang, Yue-jin; Dejia-Huang; Bai, Ming; Peng, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The effects of green tea intake on risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have not been well-defined. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the association between green tea consumption, CVD, and ischemic related diseases. All observational studies and randomized trials that were published through October 2014 and that examined the association between green tea consumption and risk of cardiovascular and ischemic related diseases as the primary outcome were included in this meta-analysis. The quality of the included studies was evaluated according to the Cochrane Handbook 5.0.2 quality evaluation criteria. A total of 9 studies including 259,267 individuals were included in the meta-analysis. The results showed that those who didn't consume green tea had higher risks of CVD (OR=1.19, 95% CI: 1.09-1.29), intracerebral hemorrhage (OR=1.24, 95% CI: 1.03-1.49), and cerebral infarction (OR=1.15, 95% CI: 1.01-1.30) compared to green tea per day. Those who drank 1-3 cups of green tea per day had a reduced risk of myocardial infarction (OR=0.81, 95% CI: 0.67-0.98) and stroke (OR=0.64, 95% CI: 0.47-0.86) compared to those who drank green tea were also shown to have lower LDL compared to the green tea is associated with favorable outcomes with respect to risk of cardiovascular and ischemic related diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Preservation of kombucha tea-effect of temperature on tea components and free radical scavenging properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabalan, Rasu; Marimuthu, Subbaiya; Thangaraj, Periyasamy; Sathishkumar, Muthuswamy; Binupriya, Arthur Raj; Swaminathan, Krishnaswami; Yun, Sei Eok

    2008-10-08

    Kombucha tea is sugared black tea fermented with a consortium of acetic acid bacteria and yeasts (tea fungus) for 14 days. The tea tastes slightly sweet and acidic. The formation of tea fungal biofilms during storage is a big problem when kombucha tea is being stored and commercialized. Various thermal treatments have been tried for long-term storage of kombucha tea. The present study revealed the influence of heat on the biochemical constituents and the free radical scavenging properties of kombucha tea. Heat treatment at 60, 65, and 68 degrees C for 1 min controlled biofilm formation in kombucha tea without changing its clarity, taste, and flavor. However, tea polyphenols and black tea quality parameters showed varying stability during the storage period. A decrease in free radical scavenging properties was also found during the storage period. Because the biological activities of kombucha tea depended on the biochemical constituents, it was concluded that heat treatment was not a suitable method for kombucha tea preservation.

  20. Mate tea reduced acute lung inflammation in mice exposed to cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzetti, Manuella; Bezerra, Frank Silva; Romana-Souza, Bruna; Brando-Lima, Aline Cristina; Koatz, Vera Lúcia Gonçalves; Porto, Luís Cristóvão; Valenca, Samuel Santos

    2008-04-01

    Short-term cigarette smoke exposure has been associated with acute lung inflammation (ALI) and oxidative damage. We studied mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis infusion) as a possible nutritional resource for ALI. C57BL/6 mice (n = 30) were administered with mate tea orally (150 mg/kg, CSMO), mate tea intraperitonially (150 mg/kg, CSMIP), or the vehicle (CS) and then exposed to cigarette smoke for 5 d (six cigarettes per day). The control group was sham-smoked (n = 30). One day after the final exposure, mice were sacrificed. Bronchoalveolar lavages were performed and lungs removed for biochemical (lung homogenates) and histologic analyses. Mate tea reduced the increase of alveolar macrophages and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavages (cells x 10(3)/mL) of the CSMO (214.3 +/- 21.4 and 12.2 +/- 4.9) and CSMIP (248.3 +/- 11.1 and 12.1 +/- 2.3) groups compared with the CS group (425.9 +/- 28.1 and 140.5 +/- 20.1). Mate tea reduced lipid peroxidation (the control group was considered 100%) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (picograms per milliliter) in the CSMO group (61.3 +/- 11.3 and 185.3 +/- 21.8) compared with the CS group (150.0 +/- 18.1 and 242.3 +/- 13.2). Matrix metalloprotease-9 activity was higher in the CS group and lower in the CSMO group. Oxidative and inflammatory markers in the CSMO group were not different from those in the control group. These data imply a potential antioxidant role for mate tea on ALI. Further studies are needed to determine such mechanisms and to explore its potential as an anti-inflammatory and nutritional resource in lung damaged by cigarette smoke exposure.

  1. Consumption of coffee, green tea, oolong tea, black tea, chocolate snacks and the caffeine content in relation to risk of diabetes in Japanese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Shino; Nagata, Chisato; Nakamura, Kozue; Fujii, Kaori; Kawachi, Toshiaki; Takatsuka, Naoyoshi; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2010-02-01

    Although the inverse association between coffee consumption and risk of diabetes has been reported numerous times, the role of caffeine intake in this association has remained unclear. We evaluated the consumption of coffee and other beverages and food containing caffeine in relation to the incidence of diabetes. The study participants were 5897 men and 7643 women in a community-based cohort in Takayama, Japan. Consumption of coffee, green tea, oolong tea, black tea and chocolate snacks were measured with a semi-quantitative FFQ in 1992. At the follow-up survey in 2002, the development of diabetes and the time of diagnosis were reported. To assess the association, age, smoking status, BMI, physical activity, education in years, alcohol consumption, total energy intake, fat intake and women's menopausal status were adjusted. Among men who consumed one cup per month to six cups per week and among those who consumed one cup per d or more, the associated hazard ratios were 0.69 (95 % CI 0.50, 0.97) and 0.69 (95 % CI 0.49, 0.98) compared with those who drank little to no coffee, with a P value for trend of 0.32. The hazard ratios for women with the same coffee consumption patterns were 1.08 (95 % CI 0.74, 1.60) and 0.70 (95 % CI 0.44, 1.12), with a P value for trend of 0.03. The association between estimated total caffeine intake and risk of diabetes was insignificant both among men and among women. The results imply that coffee consumption decreased the risk of developing diabetes. The protective effect may exist aside from the influence of caffeine intake.

  2. Consumer Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Tufano

    2009-01-01

    Although consumer finance is a substantial element of the economy, it has had a smaller footprint within financial economics. In this review, I suggest a functional definition of the subfield of consumer finance, focusing on four key functions: payments, risk management, moving funds from today to tomorrow (saving/investing), and from tomorrow to today (borrowing). I provide data showing the economic importance of consumer finance in the American economy. I propose a historical explanation fo...

  3. Differential Effects of Tea Extracts on Growth and Cytokine Production by Normal and Leukemic Human Leukocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bayer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tea is one of the world’s most highly consumed beverages, second only to water. It is affordable and abundant and thus has great potential for improving health of those in both developed and developing areas. Green, oolong, and black teas differ in the extent of fermentation and types of bioactive polyphenols produced. Green tea and its major polyphenol decrease growth of some cancer cells and effect production of immune system cytokines. This study compares the effects of different types of tea extracts on viability and cytokine production by normal and leukemic human T lymphocytes. Generation of the toxic reactive oxygen species H2O2 by extracts was also examined.Methods: The Jurkat T lymphoblastic leukemia cells and mitogen-stimulated normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were used in this study. Cell viability was determined by (3-4,5-dimethylthiamizol-2-yl-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and production of interleukin-2 by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay. Levels of H2O2 generated by tea extracts were determined using the xylenol-orange method.Results: We found that green, oolong, and black tea extracts differentially effect the growth and viability of T lymphoblastic leukemia cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells, substantially decreasing both growth and viability of leukemic T lymphocytes and having much lesser effects on their normal counterparts. Tea extracts also had differential effects on the production of the T lymphocyte growth factor interleukin-2, significantly decreasing production by leukemic cells while having only minor effects on normal cells. All three extracts induced H2O2 generation, with green and oolong tea extracts having the greatest effect. Leukemic cells were much more susceptible to growth inhibition and killing by H2O2 than normal lymphocytes.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(4:72-85 Conclusions: The three tea extracts studied altered leukemic T lymphocyte

  4. Green tea catechins for well-being and therapy: prospects and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyoshi N

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Noriyuki Miyoshi,1 Monira Pervin,1 Takuji Suzuki,2 Keiko Unno,3 Mamoru Isemura,1 Yoriyuki Nakamura1 1School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Yada, Shizuoka, Japan; 2Faculty of Education, Art and Science, Yamagata University, Yamagata, Japan; 3School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Yada, Shizuoka, Japan Abstract: Tea is derived from the leaves and buds of Camellia sinensis (Theaceae plant, and is consumed worldwide. Green tea was discovered in the People's Republic of China approximately 3,000 BC. Lu Yu (733–803 published a book that describes the history of tea, the techniques, and utensils used for manufacturing, the method of preparation, and drinking of tea in the People's Republic of China. Green tea contains various components with specific health-promoting effects and is believed to exert protective effects against diseases such as cancer, obesity, diabetes, hepatitis, and neurodegenerative diseases. Of the various tea components, the polyphenol catechins have been the subject of extensive investigation. Among the catechins, (--epigallocatechin gallate has the strongest bioactivity in most cases. Caffeine induces alertness, decreases the sensation of fatigue, and has a diuretic effect. Theanine and -aminobutyric acid can lower the blood pressure and regulate brain function. Vitamin C exhibits antiscorbutic activity, prevents cataracts, and may boost the immune system. Majority of the scientific evidence based on cellular and animal experiments as well as a number of human epidemiological and intervention studies indicate that green tea and (--epigallocatechin gallate have beneficial health effects against various diseases. However, conflicting results have also been reported. Since confounding factors could affect the results, future studies should be designed to eliminate such factors for better understanding of the benefits of green tea on human health. Genetic and environmental factors

  5. Subacute (90 days) oral toxicity studies of Kombucha tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, R; Singh, M; Rao, P V; Bhattacharya, R; Kumar, P; Sugendran, K; Kumar, O; Pant, S C; Singh, R

    2000-12-01

    Kombucha tea (KT) is a popular health beverage and is used as an alternative therapy. KT is prepared by placing the kombucha culture in solution of tea and sugar and allowing to ferment. The inoculum is a fungus consisting of symbiotic colony of yeast and bacteria. KT is consumed in several countries and is believed to have prophylactic and therapeutic benefits in a wide variety of ailments, viz., intestinal disorders, arthritis, ageing and stimulation of immunological system. Though KT is used in several parts of the world its beneficial effects and adverse effects have not been scientifically evaluated. Since there are no animal toxicological data on KT, subacute oral toxicity study was carried out. Five groups of rats were maintained: (a) control group given tap water orally, (b) KT given 2 ml/kg orally, (c) plain tea (PT) given 2 ml/kg orally, (d) KT given in drinking water, 1% (v/v) and (e) PT given in drinking water, 1% (v/v). The rats were given this treatment daily for a period of 90 days. Weekly records of weight, feed intake, water intake and general behaviour were monitored. There was no significant difference in the growth of the animals as evidenced by the progressive body weight change. The organ to body weight ratio and histological evaluation did not show any toxic signs. The haematological and biochemical variables were within the clinical limits. The study indicates that rats fed KT for 90 days showed no toxic effects.

  6. Total Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Tea Bags: Comparison of Black, Green, Red Rooibos, Chamomile and Peppermint over Different Steep Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riley Cleverdon

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Globally, traditional and herbal teas are a prominent dietary source of polyphenols, and represent a class of bioactive molecules that are closely associated with a variety of health benefits. Most consumers prepare tea using tea bags, although there is little information about whether this production step alters the content of the final product. The study purpose was to investigate the effect of steep time and tea type on the polyphenol content and predicted antioxidant capacity of commercially available tea bag products, including Green, Orange Pekoe, Red Roiboos, Peppermint, and Chamomile. Total polyphenol content (TPC, antioxidant capacity (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl inhibition, and total predicted antioxidant capacity were measured in aliquots sampled every minute for 10 min. Polyphenols were extracted into solution in a nonlinear fashion, with ~80–90% of the TPC appearing within 5 min of tea bag immersion. Moreover, a significant range in TPC values was observed between products, with true teas containing at least two-fold greater polyphenol content than the herbal varieties. Our results are consistent with previous work using loose-leaf tea products and demonstrates that tea bag products are an effective source of polyphenols that may offer health benefits relating to their constituent antioxidant activity.

  7. Improvement of tea leaves fermentation through pectinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Jagriti; Gupta, Reena

    2012-09-01

    The pectinase enzymes isolated from Aspergillus niger, Byssochlamys fulva and Mucor circinelloides were used for fermentation of tea leaves from Camellia sinensis plant. The use of partially purified enzymes from Aspergillus niger and Mucor circinelloides resulted in significant (p < 0.001) increase in the phenolic compounds, hence, improvement in tea quality. Maximum increase in phenolic compounds was found in tea leaves treated with partially purified polygalacturonase (PGase) from Mucor circinelloides. Hence, purified polygalacturonase from Mucor circinelloides was used to study its effect on the improvement of tea leaves fermentation. The partially purified polygalacturonase from Mucor circinelloides was found to be most effective in tea fermentation, whereas pectin lyase from Byssochlamys fulva had little role in improvement of tea quality.

  8. The Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling W

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Walter Ling,1 David Farabee,1 Dagmar Liepa,2 Li-Tzy Wu3 1Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 2Valley Care Medical Center, Panorama City, CA, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA We have been surprised and gratified by the readers’ responses to our article, The Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA: an efficient, patient-centered instrument for evaluating progress in recovery from addiction, which was published in December 2012.1 In the six months since that time, we have received numerous questions and observations about the article, and about the TEA instrument. Respondents were clinicians: physicians, counselors, therapists, nurses; as well as administrators and policy makers.  View original paper by Ling W, Farabee D, Liepa D, Wu LT. 

  9. Feasibility analysis of organic Tea authentication using 15N natural abundance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Haiqiang; Pan Zhiqiang; Yu Cuiping; Wang Xiaochang

    2011-01-01

    Organic agricultural products were always adulterated by pollutant-free agricultural products in market because of lacking of available authentication technique. Organic tea was one of the largest organic agricultural products in China which are facing the same problem and can not be accepted by consumers. In this paper, based on the newest information of δ 15 N from soil-plant-fertilizer system, a new method was suggested to identify whether N fertilizer was applied to organic tea in producing processing. Meanwhile, the principle of this new method and its feasibility were discussed. (authors)

  10. Interaction between Ester-Type Tea Catechins and Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin: Inhibitory Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Li, Xiao; Hua, Fang; Chen, Wei; Wang, Wei; Chu, Gang-Xiu; Bao, Guan-Hu

    2018-02-07

    Tea is thought to alleviate neurotoxicity due to the antioxidative effect of ester-type tea catechins (ETC). Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) can sensitize β-amyloid (Aβ) induced neurotoxicity, and inhibitors of NGAL may relieve associated symptoms. As such, the interactions of ETC with NGAL were investigated by fluorescence spectrometry and molecular simulation. NGAL fluorescence is quenched regularly when being added with six processing types of tea infusion (SPTT) and ETC. Thermodynamic analyses suggest that ETC with more catechol moieties has a stronger binding capacity with NGAL especially in the presence of Fe 3+ . (-)-Epicatechin 3-O-caffeoate (ECC), a natural product isolated from Zijuan green tea, shows the strongest binding ability with NGAL (K d = 15.21 ± 8.68 nM in the presence of Fe 3+ ). All ETC are effective in protecting nerve cells against H 2 O 2 or Aβ 1-42 induced injury. The inhibitory mechanism of ETC against NGAL supports its potential use in attenuation of neurotoxicity.

  11. Nondestructive detection of lead chrome green in tea by Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Li; Sun, Chan-Jun; Luo, Liu-Bin; He, Yong

    2015-10-28

    Raman spectroscopy was first adopted for rapid detecting a hazardous substance of lead chrome green in tea, which was illegally added to tea to disguise as high-quality. 160 samples of tea infusion with different concentrations of lead chrome green were prepared for Raman spectra acquirement in the range of 2804 cm(-1)-230 cm(-1) and the spectral intensities were calibrated with relative intensity standards. Then wavelet transformation (WT) was adopted to extract information in different time and frequency domains from Raman spectra, and the low-frequency approximation signal (ca4) was proved as the most important information for establishment of lead chrome green measurement model, and the corresponding partial least squares (PLS) regression model obtained good performance in prediction with Rp and RMSEP of 0.936 and 0.803, respectively. To further explore the important wavenumbers closely related to lead chrome green, successive projections algorithm (SPA) was proposed. Finally, 8 characteristic wavenumbers closely related to lead chrome green were obtained and a more convenient and fast model was also developed. These results proved the feasibility of Raman spectroscopy for nondestructive detection of lead chrome green in tea quality control.

  12. of-Kibena -'Tea. Estates~- Njombe, Tanzania" , "

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was undertaken to assess Zn,- Cu;- Mn, and Fe status of the soils and tea plants at Kibena Teat ... 88 to 60.28 mg Fekg'J and 7.65 to 31.18 mg Mnkg'J soil. ... market. The highest recorded yield of ma~e tea at. Kibena Tea Estates ranged from 2,500 to 3,000 kg ha'I. "fhe situation is different in neighboring countries ...

  13. Xerophilic mycopopulations of teas in bulk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škrinjar Marija M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available d.o.o., Novi Sad AU Krunić Vesna J. AF EKOLd.o.o., Novi Sad KW teas % mould contamination % thermal treatment KR nema Other the water, tea is the most popular beverage in the world today. They are used for ages, in the beginning as refreshing drinks, and later more for their healing properties. Teas have been demonstrated to show antioxidative, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-microbial properties. Considering that the teas, during the production, are not treated with any temperature, there is high risk for contamination with different type of microorganisms, especially with moulds. Moulds are ubiquitously distributed in nature and their spores can be found in the atmosphere even at high altitudes and under favorable conditions of temperature and humidity, moulds grow on many commodities including cereals, oil seeds, nuts, herbs and spices. Most of them are potential producers of mycotoxins which present a real hazard to human health. The aim of this work was to investigate total mould count and to identify moulds isolated from teas in bulk, than from teas treated with hot, sterile, distilled water and from the tea filtrates. Tested teas were peppermint, sage, yarrow, black tea, bearberry, lemon balm, mixture of teas from Zlatibor. In teas in balk was observed high contamination with different kinds of moulds (1.84-4.55 cfu/g, such as Aspergillus awamori, A. lovaniensis, A niger, A. phoenicus, A. repens, A. restrictus, A. sydowii, A. versicolor, Eurotium amstelodami, E. chevalieri, E. herbariorum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. The most frequent were species from Aspergillus and Eurotium genera. Thermal treatment with hot, sterile, distilled water reduced the number of fungal colonies. Aspergillus awamori was the most resistant and appeared in six samples of filtrates of tea, Aspergillus niger in one sample and Penicillium chrysogenum in one sample.

  14. Metal ion adsorption characteristics of tea leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Takao, Hiromitsu; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    [Abstract] For effective use of tea leaves, this study experimentally evaluated metal ion adsorption by tea leaves. The experiment described herein was conducted by measuring the ionic solution at a constant density using a fluorescence X-ray device. The metallic ion concentration in the solution and the fluorescence X-ray output intensity showed good correlation. Tea leaves were put into solution adjusted with density of an already-known metallic ion. Then the decrease of the metal ion was m...

  15. Cytomorphological characterization of tea cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, H.; Khalil, I.H.; Shah, S.M.A.; Khanzada, T.Z.; Abbasi, F.M; Ahmad, H.; Shah, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Cytomorphological characterization was performed on tea cultivars, three each of Camellia sinensis and Camellia assamica species. For plant morphological study, one and a half year old healthy shoots were obtained from the selected mother bushes of the six tea cultivars. The field experiment conducted in randomized complete block design having four replications was aimed at evaluating plant height, number of leaves plant-l, number of branches plant-l, number of flowers plant-1, fresh and dry leaf weight plant-I. The data indicated significant difference between the two species with narrow leaved cultivars having increased plant height, number of leaves and branches plant-I than the broad leaved cultivars, but less number of flowers plant-l, fresh and dry leaf weight. Karyotype analysis indicated that both the groups are diploid with 2n = 30. On the basis of chromosome morphology, C. assamica had larger chromosomes (3-10.5 mu m) as compared to C. sinensis (3.9-8 mu m). C. assamica has relatively advanced features as compared to C. sinensis. However, both the groups possessed mostly median to sub-median centromeres with no secondary constrictions which possibly indicates that little or no evolutionary changes have taken place in tea and that the karyotype is still at a primitive stage, with C. sinensis being more primitive than C. assamica. Our results suggest that both the groups are different from each other in morphological as well as cytological attributes and could therefore generate more germplasm if the two species could be involved in tea breeding programs. (author)

  16. Transfer of 226Ra and 137Cs from tea leaves to drinking tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathivand, A. A.; Amidi, J.; Heravi, G. H.

    2006-01-01

    Two of the important radionuclides which are entered to environment and human diet are radium-226 ( 226 Ra) and cesium-137( 137 Cs). It is clear that the methods for preparation of foods such as peeling, washing, cooking or frying can affect the dose which is received by human due the to consumption of foodstuffs. An experiment has been performed at the environmental monitoring section of National Radiation Protection Department, aiming to measure the transfer of 226 Ra and 137 Cs from the tea leaves to drinking part of tea. Materials and Methods:Tea samples were pulverized to obtain a homogenous matrix which was weighed and placed In 1000 cm 3 Marinelli beaker. After making tea, the liquid tea and tea-discard were analyzed separately. Measurement of 226 Ra and 137 Cs was performed by gamma spectrometry system using a high purity germanium detector with 40% relative efficiency. The detector was shielded by 10 cm lead all sides with cadmium -copper as liners. Results: It was found that the activity concentration transferred from tea leaves to drinking tea for 137 Cs and 226 Ra are less than 2% and 17% respectively. Conclusion: On the basis of these measurements it seems that no significant levels of radioactivity of 226 Ra and 137 Cs can be found in drinking part of tea. The low concentration of the mentioned radionuclides in drinking tea is mostly due to tea dust and can be removed by its washing before preparing tea

  17. Bembya Fedorov, Three Legends About Kalmyk Tea

    OpenAIRE

    Okonova, Altana; Churyumov, Anton

    2017-01-01

    Legend One. Kalmyk tea is a present from gods to the Kalmyk people. In the past, the Kalmyks drank kumis, cow milk and spring water only. One day god in the form of an old man descended on earth. When he entered a Kalmyk yurt, he saw a young bride cooking lunch. The old man offered to make Kalmyk tea. Every one in the family liked the new drink. Since then the Kalmyks make this tea and offer the first cup of fresh tea to gods. Legend Two. Upon his arrival in China from Tibet, Bodhidharma spe...

  18. Green tea phytocompounds as anticancer: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeeb Ullah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Green tea is universally considered significant and its benefits have been experimentally explored by researchers and scientists. Anticancer potential of green tea has been completely recognized now. Green tea contains anti-cancerous constituents and nutrients that have powerful remedial effects. By using electronic data base (1998–2015, different compounds in green tea possessing anticancer activity including epigallocatechin-3-gallate, paclitaxel and docetaxel combinations, ascorbic acid, catechins, lysine, synergistic arginine, green tea extract, proline, and green tea polyphenols has been reported. Green tea extracts exhibited remedial potential against cancer of lung, colon, liver, stomach, leukemic cells, prostate, breast, human cervical cells, head, and neck. For centuries, green tea has been utilized as medicine for therapeutic purposes. It originated in China and extensively used in Asian countries for blood pressure depression and as anticancer medicine. Green tea has therapeutic potential against many diseases such as lowering of blood pressure, Parkinson’s disease, weight loss, esophageal disease, skin-care, cholesterol, Alzheimer’s disease and diabetes.

  19. Daily consumption of white tea (Camellia sinensis (L.)) improves the cerebral cortex metabolic and oxidative profile in prediabetic Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Ana R; Alves, Marco G; Tomás, Gonçalo D; Conde, Vanessa R; Cristóvão, Ana C; Moreira, Paula I; Oliveira, Pedro F; Silva, Branca M

    2015-03-14

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major public health problem and its incidence is rising dramatically. The brain, particularly the cerebral cortex, is very susceptible to glucose fluctuations and hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress. Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.)) is widely consumed; however, the antidiabetic properties of white tea remain largely unexplored. In the present study, we investigated the effects of daily consumption of white tea on the cerebral cortex of prediabetic rats. The cerebral cortex metabolic profile was evaluated, and the expression levels of GLUT, phosphofructokinase-1, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and monocarboxylate transporter 4 were assessed. LDH activity was also determined. The cerebral cortex oxidative profile was determined by evaluating its antioxidant power, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation levels. Catalase, glutathione, glutamate, N-acetylaspartate, aspartate, choline, γ-aminobutyric acid, taurine and valine contents were determined. Daily consumption of white tea ameliorated glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Moreover, white tea altered the cortex glycolytic profile, modulating GLUT expression and lactate and alanine contents. Finally, white tea consumption restored protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation levels and catalase expression, and improved antioxidant capacity. In conclusion, daily consumption of white tea improved the cerebral cortex metabolic and oxidative profile in prediabetic rats, suggesting it as a good, safe and inexpensive strategy to prevent DM-related effects in the cerebral cortex.

  20. Tea, but not coffee consumption, is associated with components of arterial pressure. The Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors study in Luxembourg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkerwi, Ala'a; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F

    2015-07-01

    There is uncertainty regarding the impact of tea and coffee consumption on arterial blood pressure. The present study aimed to examine the association between blood pressure (BP) components, namely, systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure, and pulse pressure (PP), and tea or coffee consumption, taking into account simultaneous consumption. The study population was derived from a national cross-sectional stratified sample of 1352 individuals aged 18 to 69 years, recruited between November 2007 and January 2009 to participate in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study. We hypothesized that greater tea consumption would be independently associated with lower BP. Tea and coffee consumptions in deciliters per day were obtained from a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Participants were classified into 3 groups: nonconsumers, ≤3-dL/d consumers, and >3-dL/d consumers of each beverage separately. After exclusion of subjects taking antihypertensive medications, several general linear models were performed to investigate the independent relationship between tea/coffee consumption and BP components. Tea consumers (36.3%) were more likely to be younger women, nonsmokers, with better cardiometabolic profiles, and less frequent chronic pathologies, whereas the reverse was true for coffee consumers (88%). Greater tea consumption was associated with lower SBP and PP values, after adjustment for age, sex, education, lifestyle, and dietary confounding factors, including coffee drinking. No association between BP components and coffee consumption was observed. Daily consumption of 1 dL of tea was associated with a significant reduction of SBP by 0.6 mm Hg and PP by 0.5 mm Hg. Given the widespread consumption of tea and coffee throughout the world, together with the major cardiovascular disease risk, our findings have important implications for human health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effect of Isomaltulose Together with Green Tea on Glycemic Response and Antioxidant Capacity: A Single-Blind, Crossover Study in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraphad, Passakorn; Suklaew, Phim On; Ngamukote, Sathaporn; Adisakwattana, Sirichai; Mäkynen, Kittana

    2017-05-06

    Isomaltulose, a naturally-occurring isomer of sucrose, is commonly used as an alternative sweetener in foods and beverages. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of isomaltulose together with green tea on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentration, as well as antioxidant capacity in healthy subjects. In a randomized, single-blind, crossover study, 15 healthy subjects (eight women and seven men; ages 23.5 ± 0.7 years; with body mass index of 22.6 ± 0.4 kg/m²) consumed five beverages: (1) 50 g sucrose in 400 mL water; (2) 50 g isomaltulose in 400 mL of water; (3) 400 mL of green tea; (4) 50 g sucrose in 400 mL of green tea; and (5) 50 g isomaltulose in 400 mL of green tea. Incremental area under postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration were determined during 120 min of administration. Following the consumption of isomaltulose, the incremental 2-h area under the curve (AUC 0-2 h ) indicated a higher reduction of postprandial glucose (43.4%) and insulin concentration (42.0%) than the consumption of sucrose. The addition of green tea to isomaltulose produced a greater suppression of postprandial plasma glucose (20.9%) and insulin concentration (37.7%). In accordance with antioxidant capacity, consumption of sucrose (40.0%) and isomaltulose (28.7%) caused the reduction of green tea-induced postprandial increases in FRAP. A reduction in postprandial MDA after drinking green tea was attenuated when consumed with sucrose (34.7%) and isomaltulose (17.2%). In conclusion, green tea could enhance the reduction of postprandial glucose and insulin concentration when consumed with isomaltulose. In comparison with sucrose, isomaltulose demonstrated less alteration of plasma antioxidant capacity after being consumed with green tea.

  2. Composition of antioxidants and amino acids in Stevia leaf infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periche, Angela; Koutsidis, Georgios; Escriche, Isabel

    2014-03-01

    Stevia, a non-caloric natural sweetener with beneficial properties and considerable antioxidants and amino acids, is increasingly consumed as an infusion. This work evaluates the influence of the conditions (temperature: 50, 70 or 90 °C and time: 1, 5, 20 or 40 min) applied to obtain Stevia infusions, on antioxidants (total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity) and amino acids. The total concentration of the eleven amino acids found was 11.70 mg/g in dried leaves and from 6.84 to 9.11 mg/g per gram of Stevia in infusions. However, infusions showed higher levels of certain amino acids (alanine, asparagine, leucine and proline), and greater values of the three antioxidant parameters in comparison with dry leaves. Temperature had more influence (minimum values at 50 °C and maximum at 90 °C) than time in the case of antioxidants. At 90 °C there were no important increases in the extraction of antioxidant compounds after 5 min; each gram of Stevia had 117 mg trolox (total antioxidant activity), 90 mg gallic acid (total phenols) and 56 mg catechin equivalents (flavonoids). Varying the temperature and time conditions no notable differences were observed in the concentrations of the majority of amino acids. However, the infusion treatment at 90 °C for 5 min was the best, as it gave the highest yield of 8 of the 11 amino acids. Therefore, with respect to the compounds analyzed in this study, the best way to obtain Stevia leaf infusions is the same as the domestic process, almost boiling water for a short time.

  3. Infusion of radionuclides throughout pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountford-Lister, P.G.; Lambert, B.E.; Milner, A.C.; Kang, X.Z.

    1992-01-01

    This work is part of a long-term study to examine the cancer incidence in the offspring of mice exposed to 239 Pu or 147 Pm throughout pregnancy. The need to model the human intake scenario and the possibility of a critical period during uterine development necessitates constant availability of radionuclides throughout pregnancy. Various methods (multiple daily injections, infusion by external cannula and infusion by indwelling osmotic pump) have been examined and osmotic infusion pumps chosen. These pumps result in a near-constant blood concentration for up to 21 days. Part of the study is the estimation of dose to the critical haemopoietic tissues of the pup from a knowledge of the radionuclide distribution and kinetics. At present the distribution has been followed from birth to 180 days. Activity in the suckling pups at 7 days old is around 1 percent of the infused activity, though most of this is accounted for by the contents of the stomach and gastrointestinal tract. The liver and femur account for around 0.025 percent and 0.012 percent respectively per pup. Activity increases in both liver and femur during lactation after which both concentration and activity fall with time. Long-term studies with the pups of dams exposed to a range of 239 Pu concentrations between 0-70 kBq/kg are underway. Correlation of average organ dose with tumour incidence will be determined at completion of the life-span study. (Author) 39 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  4. Tea seed upgrading facilities and economic assessment of biodiesel production from tea seed oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, Ayhan [Sirnak University, Engineering Faculty, Sirnak (Turkey); Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    Green tea seed (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze) oil was used in this work. The tea seed oil contains more than 84% unsaturated fatty acid, such as oleic acid (62.5% by weight), linoleic acid (18.1% by weight) and linolenic acid. The biodiesel from tea seed oil in itself is not significantly different from biodiesel produced from vegetable oils. However, tea seed oil has lower pour point and lower viscosity as different common vegetable oils. Crude tea seed oil is one of the cheapest vegetable oil feedstocks with average price, 514 (US$/ton). (author)

  5. Tea seed upgrading facilities and economic assessment of biodiesel production from tea seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2010-01-01

    Green tea seed (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze) oil was used in this work. The tea seed oil contains more than 84% unsaturated fatty acid, such as oleic acid (62.5% by weight), linoleic acid (18.1% by weight) and linolenic acid. The biodiesel from tea seed oil in itself is not significantly different from biodiesel produced from vegetable oils. However, tea seed oil has lower pour point and lower viscosity as different common vegetable oils. Crude tea seed oil is one of the cheapest vegetable oil feedstocks with average price, 514 (US$/ton). (author)

  6. Green tea or rosemary extract added to foods reduces nonheme- iron absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samman, S.; Sandstrøm, B.; Toft, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    the effect of phenolic-rich extracts obtained from green tea or rosemary on nonheme-iron absorption. Design: Young women aged 19-39 y consumed test meals on 4 separate occasions. The meals were identical except for the absence (meal A) or presence (meal B) of a phenolic-rich extract from green tea (study 1......-body retention of 59Fe and the ratio of Fe-55 to 59Fe activity in blood samples. Results: The presence of the phenolic-rich extracts resulted in decreased nonheme-iron absorption. Mean (+/-SD) iron absorption decreased from 12.1 +/- 4.5% to 8.9 +/- 5.2% (P tea extract and from 7...

  7. Anti-cancer properties epigallocatechin-gallate contained in green tea 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Donejko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous in vivo and in vitro studies point to the possibility of using green tea’s catechins in chemoprevention of cancer. Recent studies show the inhibitory effects of epigallocatechin gallate on the growth of existing tumors including breast cancer, skin cancer and gastrointestinal tract cancers. Another mode of action of biologically active compounds in green tea involves inhibiting the neoplastic process.All these mechanisms may be useful in prevention and inhibition of the cancer processes (initiation, promotion and progress by the consumption of green tea. However, clinical studies show contradictory results. Several independent factors, such as the temperature of the beverage, the duration of consumption, the amount of consumed tea and the diet used by the analyzed group, have a decisive effect on the final effect of plant polyphenols on the process of carcinogenesis. 

  8. Aspergillus acidus from Puerh tea and black tea does not produce ochratoxin A and fumonisin B-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Varga, J.; Thrane, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    Puerh tea is a unique Chinese fermented tea. Unlike other teas it is stored for a long period of time. Aspergillus niger is claimed to be the dominant microorganism in the Puerh tea manufacturing process and also to be common on tea in general. A. niger sensu stricto is known to produce...... the mycotoxins ochratoxin A, fumonisins B-2 and B-4. With this in mind, we performed a preliminary study to determine if production of these mycotoxins by black Aspergilli isolated from Puerh and black tea can occur. An examination of 47 isolates from Puerh tea and black tea showed that none of these was A...

  9. Effect of Brewing Duration on the Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Abilities of Tea Phenolic and Alkaloid Compounds in a t-BHP Oxidative Stress-Induced Rat Hepatocyte Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Braud

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tea is an interesting source of antioxidants capable of counteracting the oxidative stress implicated in liver diseases. We investigated the impact of antioxidant molecules provided by a mixture of teas’ leaves (green, oolong, pu-erh after different infusion durations in the prevention of oxidative stress in isolated rat hepatocytes, by comparison with pure epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, the main representative of tea catechins. Dried aqueous tea extracts (ATE obtained after 5, 15 and 30 min infusion time were characterized for total polyphenols (gallic acid equivalent, catechins, gallic acid and caffeine (HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS contents, and for scavenging ability against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical. Hepatoprotection was evaluated through hepatocyte viability tests using tert-butyl hydroperoxide as a stress inducer, (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, neutral red uptake, real-time cellular impedance and mitochondrial function tests. We showed that a 5-min incubation time is sufficient for an optimal bioaccessibility of tea compounds with the highest antioxidative ability, which decreases for longer durations. A 4-h pretreatment of cells with ATE significantly prevented cell death by regulating reactive oxygen species production and maintaining mitochondrial integrity. Pure EGCG, at doses similar in ATE (5–12 µM, was inefficient, suggesting a plausible synergy of several water-soluble tea compounds to explain the ATE beneficial effects.

  10. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115 on ham steak by tea bioactive compounds incorporated into chitosan-coated plastic films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodnar Dan C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The consumer demands for better quality and safety of food products have given rise to the development and implementation of edible films. The use of antimicrobial films can be a promising tool for controlling L. monocytogenes on ready to eat products. The aim of this study was to develop effective antimicrobial films incorporating bioactive compounds from green and black teas into chitosan, for controlling L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115 on vacuum-packaged ham steak. The effectiveness of these antimicrobial films was evaluated at room temperature (20°C for 10 days and at refrigerated temperature (4°C for 8 weeks. Results The HPLC results clearly show that relative concentrations of catechins and caffeine in green tea ranked EGCG>EGC>CAF>ECG>EC>C while in black tea extracts ranked CAF>EGCG>ECG>EGC>EC>C. The chitosan-coated plastic films incorporating green tea and black tea extracts shows specific markers identified by FTIR. Incorporating natural extracts into chitosan showed that the growth of L monocytogenes ATCC 19115 was inhibited. The efficacy of antimicrobial effect of tea extracts incorporated into chitosan-coated plastic film was dose dependent. However, chitosan-coated films without addition of tea extracts did not inhibit the growth of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115. Chitosan-coated plastic films incorporating 4% Green tea extract was the most effective antimicrobial, reducing the initial counts from 3.2 to 2.65 log CFU/cm2 during room temperature storage and from 3.2 to 1–1.5 log CFU/cm2 during refrigerated storage. Conclusions Incorporation of tea extracts into the chitosan-coated films considerably enhanced their effectiveness against L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115. 4% Green tea incorporated into chitosan-coated plastic film had a better antilisterial effect than 2% green tea or 2% and 4% black tea. Data from this study would provide new formulation options for developing antimicrobial packaging films using tea

  11. Tea as a functional food in preventive medicine from traditional Persian medicine point of view (a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: In recent years, phytomedicine has a main role to support immune system and in preventive medicine to decrease cancer incidence. Traditional medicine has a basic role to introduce herbal drugs to investigate in preventive medicine. Camellia Sinensis has two popular preparations, green (unfermented and black (fully fermented tea that among societies is beside water to drink. Methods: In this narrative review study, tea preparation as herbal infusions from traditional Persian available and reliable references beside classic herbal drugs references were studied to show benefits and risks of tea consumption in health. Results: Tea consumption is famous as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticarcinogenic, antihypertensive, neuroprotective. In traditional Persian medicine point of view its temperament is hot and dry so it can protect brain and stomach. It is sudatory and diuretic and can also increase mood. It is better to drink sweet or with milk to reduce its dryness. Conclusion: Tea preparations have a main role as a protective functional food in the human’s lives.

  12. Estimation of Potential Availability of Essential Oil in Some Brands of Herbal Teas and Herbal Dietary Supplements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Kowalski

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate potential availability of essential oil in some brands of herbal products.A comparison was performed on the basis of the essential oil yield in the unprocessed raw materials such as leaves of peppermint and lemon balm and inflorescence of chamomile as well as herbal tea bags and in dietary supplements. The yield of essential oil was determined by distillation. Essential oil was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS.It was found that the average potential availability of essential oils in the products such as dietary supplements for the doses recommended by the producers is lower than in the corresponding tea infusions: for peppermint formulations approximately 6-fold lower, for the formulations with lemon balm about 4-fold lower, and for the chamomile preparations about 3-fold lower. It was found that essential oils extracted from herbal teas have a similar chemical profile with characteristic deviations in the amount of individual components, which arise from the origin of the raw material.In contrast to homogenous pharmaceutical herbal mixtures consistent with, the Pharmacopoeia requirements, herbal teas (available in grocery stores and dietary supplements are often out of control in terms of the yield and composition of the essential oil, which is primarily responsible for the health benefits and aromatic qualities of these products. Analysis of the composition of the dietary supplements showed that they contain on average significantly lower amounts of plant material compared to the herbal teas.

  13. Consumer Neoteny

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    Mathieu Alemany Oliver

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research explores childlike consumer behavior from an evolutionary perspective. More specifically, it uses the concept of neoteny to show that the retention of ancestors’ juvenile characteristics is related to specific behaviors. The results of factor analyses conducted on a UK sample (n = 499 and a French sample (n = 292 7 years later indicate four dimensions of childlike consumer behavior, namely, stimulus seeking, reality conflict, escapism, and control of aggression.

  14. Effect of Eight Weeks of Aerobic Training and Green Tea Supplementation on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Inactive Overweight Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fathei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Physical activities, as well as diet, are known as the truest scientific methods to reduce the signs of the cardio-vascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 8–week aerobic trainings and green tea supplementation on some of the cardio-vascular risk factors in the obese inactive women. Materials & Methods: In the semi-experimental study, 40 obese inactive women, who were residents of Mashhad Township, were studied in 2015. The subjects, selected via purposeful available sampling method, were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10 per group. The groups were green tea, aerobic training, aerobic training and green tea supplementation, and control groups. 8-week training program consisted of three 45- to 60-minute sessions per week. Green tea was consumed by green tea group three times a day after each meal. The composed group underwent both interventions, while control group underwent no intervention. Data was analyzed by SPSS 15 software using correlated T test and one-way ANOVA. Findings: Mean total cholesterol level was significantly changed in green tea, aerobic training, and composed groups in the posttest stage compared to the pretest stage (p<0.05. Mean triglyceride level was significantly changed in green tea and aerobic training groups in the posttest stage compared to the pretest stage (p<0.05. Mean low density lipoprotein was significantly changed in green tea and composed groups in the posttest stage compared to the pretest stage (p<0.05. Mean high-density lipoprotein was significantly changed only in aerobic group in posttest stage compared to the pretest stage (p<0.05. In addition, mean concentration of C-reactive protein was significantly reduced in aerobic training (p=0.01 and composed (p=0.04 groups. Conclusion: 8 weeks aerobic training, green tea consumption, and their composition reduce the cardiovascular risk factors in inactive obese women in a relatively similar manner.

  15. Green tea polyphenols provide photoprotection, increase microcirculation, and modulate skin properties of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Ulrike; Moore, Carolyn E; De Spirt, Silke; Tronnier, Hagen; Stahl, Wilhelm

    2011-06-01

    Dietary constituents including polyphenols and carotenoids contribute to endogenous photoprotection and modulate skin characteristics related to structure and function of the tissue. Animal and in-vitro studies indicate that green tea polyphenols affect skin properties. In a 12-wk, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 60 female volunteers were randomized to an intervention or control group. Participants consumed either a beverage with green tea polyphenols providing 1402 mg total catechins/d or a control beverage. Skin photoprotection, structure, and function were measured at baseline (wk 0), wk 6, and wk 12. Following exposure of the skin areas to 1.25 minimal erythemal dose of radiation from a solar simulator, UV-induced erythema decreased significantly in the intervention group by 16 and 25% after 6 and 12 wk, respectively. Skin structural characteristics that were positively affected included elasticity, roughness, scaling, density, and water homeostasis. Intake of the green tea polyphenol beverage for 12 wk increased blood flow and oxygen delivery to the skin. Likewise, in a separate, randomized, double-blind, single-dose (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g) study of green tea polyphenols, blood flow was maximized at 30 min after ingestion. In summary, green tea polyphenols delivered in a beverage were shown to protect skin against harmful UV radiation and helped to improve overall skin quality of women.

  16. Differentiation of tea varieties using UV-Vis spectra and pattern recognition techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Morillo, Ana; Alcázar, Ángela.; de Pablos, Fernando; Jurado, José Marcos

    2013-02-01

    Tea, one of the most consumed beverages all over the world, is of great importance in the economies of a number of countries. Several methods have been developed to classify tea varieties or origins based in pattern recognition techniques applied to chemical data, such as metal profile, amino acids, catechins and volatile compounds. Some of these analytical methods become tedious and expensive to be applied in routine works. The use of UV-Vis spectral data as discriminant variables, highly influenced by the chemical composition, can be an alternative to these methods. UV-Vis spectra of methanol-water extracts of tea have been obtained in the interval 250-800 nm. Absorbances have been used as input variables. Principal component analysis was used to reduce the number of variables and several pattern recognition methods, such as linear discriminant analysis, support vector machines and artificial neural networks, have been applied in order to differentiate the most common tea varieties. A successful classification model was built by combining principal component analysis and multilayer perceptron artificial neural networks, allowing the differentiation between tea varieties. This rapid and simple methodology can be applied to solve classification problems in food industry saving economic resources.

  17. TBC2health: a database of experimentally validated health-beneficial effects of tea bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shihua; Xuan, Hongdong; Zhang, Liang; Fu, Sicong; Wang, Yijun; Yang, Hua; Tai, Yuling; Song, Youhong; Zhang, Jinsong; Ho, Chi-Tang; Li, Shaowen; Wan, Xiaochun

    2017-09-01

    Tea is one of the most consumed beverages in the world. Considerable studies show the exceptional health benefits (e.g. antioxidation, cancer prevention) of tea owing to its various bioactive components. However, data from these extensively published papers had not been made available in a central database. To lay a foundation in improving the understanding of healthy tea functions, we established a TBC2health database that currently documents 1338 relationships between 497 tea bioactive compounds and 206 diseases (or phenotypes) manually culled from over 300 published articles. Each entry in TBC2health contains comprehensive information about a bioactive relationship that can be accessed in three aspects: (i) compound information, (ii) disease (or phenotype) information and (iii) evidence and reference. Using the curated bioactive relationships, a bipartite network was reconstructed and the corresponding network (or sub-network) visualization and topological analyses are provided for users. This database has a user-friendly interface for entry browse, search and download. In addition, TBC2health provides a submission page and several useful tools (e.g. BLAST, molecular docking) to facilitate use of the database. Consequently, TBC2health can serve as a valuable bioinformatics platform for the exploration of beneficial effects of tea on human health. TBC2health is freely available at http://camellia.ahau.edu.cn/TBC2health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Molecular mechanisms of green tea polyphenols with protective effects against skin photoaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Eunmiri; Kim, Jong-Eun; Kwon, Jung Yeon; Park, Jun Seong; Bode, Ann M; Dong, Zigang; Lee, Ki Won

    2017-05-24

    Whereas green tea has historically been consumed in high quantities in Northeast Asia, its popularity is also increasing in many Western countries. Green tea is an abundant source of plant polyphenols exhibiting numerous effects that are potentially beneficial for human health. Accumulating evidence suggests that green tea polyphenols confer protective effects on the skin against ultraviolet (UV) irradiation-induced acceleration of skin aging, involving antimelanogenic, antiwrinkle, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects as well as prevention of immunosuppression. Melanin pigmentation in the skin is a major defense mechanism against UV irradiation, but pigmentation abnormalities such as melasma, freckles, senile lentigines, and other forms of melanin hyperpigmentation can also cause serious health and aesthetic issues. Furthermore, UV irradiation initiates the degradation of fibrillar collagen and elastic fibers, promoting the process of skin aging through deep wrinkle formation and loss of tissue elasticity. UV irradiation-induced formation of free radicals also contributes to accelerated photoaging. Additionally, immunosuppression caused by UV irradiation plays an important role in photoaging and skin carcinogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current literature regarding the antimelanogenic, antiwrinkle, antioxidant, and immunosuppression preventive mechanisms of green tea polyphenols that have been demonstrated to protect against UV irradiation-stimulated skin photoaging, and gauge the quality of evidence supporting the need for clinical studies using green tea polyphenols as anti-photoaging agents in novel cosmeceuticals.

  19. Green tea extract-induced lethal toxicity in fasted but not in nonfasted dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kuei-Meng; Yao, Jiaqin; Boring, Daniel

    2011-02-01

    Recent chronic toxicity studies performed on green tea extracts in fasted dogs have revealed some unique dose-limiting lethal liver, gastrointestinal, and renal toxicities. Key findings included necrosis of hepatic cells, gastrointestinal epithelia and renal tubules, atrophy of reproductive organs, atrophy and necrosis of hematopoietic tissues, and associated hematological changes. The polyphenol cachetins (a mixture of primarily epigallocatechin gallate [≥55%]; plus up to 10% each of epigallocatechin, epicatechin, and epigallocatechin gallate) appeared to be the causative agents for the observed toxicities because they are the active ingredients of green tea extract studied. Conduct of the study in nonfasted dogs under the same testing conditions and dose levels showed unremarkable results. Assuming both studies were valid, at the identified no observed adverse effect levels (NOAEL) of each study, systemic exposures (based on area under the curve [AUC]) were actually lower in fasted than nonfasted dogs, suggesting that fasting may have rendered the target organ systems potentially more vulnerable to the effects of green tea extract. The toxicity mechanisms that produced lethality are not known, but the results are scientifically intriguing. Because tea drinking has become more popular in the United States and abroad, the mode of action and site of action of green tea extract-induced lethal toxicities during fasting and the role of other phytochemical components of Folia Camellia sinensis (including nonpolyphenol fractions, which are often consumed when whole-leaf products are presented) warrant further investigation.

  20. Evaluation and application of prebiotic and probiotic ingredients for development of ready to drink tea beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Shweta; Dubey, Kriti Kumari; Singhal, Rekha S

    2018-04-01

    Ready-to-drink (RTD) ice tea is a ready prepared tea, produced from green and black tea originating from same plant Camellia sinensis . The objective of this study was to determine the effect of prebiotics [galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS), fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS), and inulin] or synbiotic ingredients (GOS, FOS, inulin, and Lactobacillus acidophilus ) on the sensory properties and consumer acceptability of RTD. The quality of green tea extract (GTE) and black tea extract (BTE) was improved with pretreatment of cellulase and pectinase enzymes. The combined enzymatic extraction amplified total extractives up to 76% in GTE and 72% in BTE. Total polyphenol was found to be enhanced to 24% in GTE and 19% in BTE. GTE was further selected for development of RTD in two different formats; synbiotic RTD and prebiotic RTD premix and analyzed for sensory attributes (colour, aroma, taste, and acceptability). Synbiotic RTD was also evaluated for stability over a period of 28 days at 4 °C. Synbiotic RTD developed an unpleasant flavor and aroma during the shelf life. Premix format of RTD developed using spray drying was reconstituted and found to be functionally and sensorially acceptable.

  1. 21 CFR 880.5725 - Infusion pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infusion pump. 880.5725 Section 880.5725 Food and... Infusion pump. (a) Identification. An infusion pump is a device used in a health care facility to pump fluids into a patient in a controlled manner. The device may use a piston pump, a roller pump, or a...

  2. Evaluation of gamma irradiation of teas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerolis, Luanai G.L.; Lameiras, Fernando S.; Menezes, Maria A.B.C.; Leal, Alexandre S., E-mail: luanaigraz@yahoo.com.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Krambrock, Klaus, E-mail: klaus@fisica.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica. Lab. de Ressonancia Paramagnetica Eletronica

    2013-07-01

    There is a growing interest in the determination of non-essential traces elements in agroindustrial products. The continuous ingestion and accumulation in the organism of such elements, that may be toxic, can cause hazards to the human health in the long term. Reliable analytical techniques are necessary to monitor such products, including teas. In this work, the neutron activation technique is being employed to determine the trace elements in teas, due to its high sensibility and the possibility to perform a multi-elementary analysis. The gamma irradiation of teas is also being studied, because the shelf life can be extended and no chemical product is added to the teas. There is a concern related to the formation of free radicals in the teas, which is being accessed with electronic paramagnetic resonance. The results of the gamma irradiation up to 20 kGy of Camelia sinensis, Ilex paraguariensis, and Matricaria recutita are presented. (author)

  3. Evaluation of gamma irradiation of teas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerolis, Luanai G.L.; Lameiras, Fernando S.; Menezes, Maria A.B.C.; Leal, Alexandre S.; Krambrock, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the determination of non-essential traces elements in agroindustrial products. The continuous ingestion and accumulation in the organism of such elements, that may be toxic, can cause hazards to the human health in the long term. Reliable analytical techniques are necessary to monitor such products, including teas. In this work, the neutron activation technique is being employed to determine the trace elements in teas, due to its high sensibility and the possibility to perform a multi-elementary analysis. The gamma irradiation of teas is also being studied, because the shelf life can be extended and no chemical product is added to the teas. There is a concern related to the formation of free radicals in the teas, which is being accessed with electronic paramagnetic resonance. The results of the gamma irradiation up to 20 kGy of Camelia sinensis, Ilex paraguariensis, and Matricaria recutita are presented. (author)

  4. Effects of extreme climate events on tea (Camellia sinensis) functional quality validate indigenous farmer knowledge and sensory preferences in tropical China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Selena; Stepp, John Richard; Orians, Colin; Griffin, Timothy; Matyas, Corene; Robbat, Albert; Cash, Sean; Xue, Dayuan; Long, Chunlin; Unachukwu, Uchenna; Buckley, Sarabeth; Small, David; Kennelly, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is impacting agro-ecosystems, crops, and farmer livelihoods in communities worldwide. While it is well understood that more frequent and intense climate events in many areas are resulting in a decline in crop yields, the impact on crop quality is less acknowledged, yet it is critical for food systems that benefit both farmers and consumers through high-quality products. This study examines tea (Camellia sinensis; Theaceae), the world's most widely consumed beverage after water, as a study system to measure effects of seasonal precipitation variability on crop functional quality and associated farmer knowledge, preferences, and livelihoods. Sampling was conducted in a major tea producing area of China during an extreme drought through the onset of the East Asian Monsoon in order to capture effects of extreme climate events that are likely to become more frequent with climate change. Compared to the spring drought, tea growth during the monsoon period was up to 50% higher. Concurrently, concentrations of catechin and methylxanthine secondary metabolites, major compounds that determine tea functional quality, were up to 50% lower during the monsoon while total phenolic concentrations and antioxidant activity increased. The inverse relationship between tea growth and concentrations of individual secondary metabolites suggests a dilution effect of precipitation on tea quality. The decrease in concentrations of tea secondary metabolites was accompanied by reduced farmer preference on the basis of sensory characteristics as well as a decline of up to 50% in household income from tea sales. Farmer surveys indicate a high degree of agreement regarding climate patterns and the effects of precipitation on tea yields and quality. Extrapolating findings from this seasonal study to long-term climate scenario projections suggests that farmers and consumers face variable implications with forecasted precipitation scenarios and calls for research on management

  5. Effects of extreme climate events on tea (Camellia sinensis functional quality validate indigenous farmer knowledge and sensory preferences in tropical China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selena Ahmed

    Full Text Available Climate change is impacting agro-ecosystems, crops, and farmer livelihoods in communities worldwide. While it is well understood that more frequent and intense climate events in many areas are resulting in a decline in crop yields, the impact on crop quality is less acknowledged, yet it is critical for food systems that benefit both farmers and consumers through high-quality products. This study examines tea (Camellia sinensis; Theaceae, the world's most widely consumed beverage after water, as a study system to measure effects of seasonal precipitation variability on crop functional quality and associated farmer knowledge, preferences, and livelihoods. Sampling was conducted in a major tea producing area of China during an extreme drought through the onset of the East Asian Monsoon in order to capture effects of extreme climate events that are likely to become more frequent with climate change. Compared to the spring drought, tea growth during the monsoon period was up to 50% higher. Concurrently, concentrations of catechin and methylxanthine secondary metabolites, major compounds that determine tea functional quality, were up to 50% lower during the monsoon while total phenolic concentrations and antioxidant activity increased. The inverse relationship between tea growth and concentrations of individual secondary metabolites suggests a dilution effect of precipitation on tea quality. The decrease in concentrations of tea secondary metabolites was accompanied by reduced farmer preference on the basis of sensory characteristics as well as a decline of up to 50% in household income from tea sales. Farmer surveys indicate a high degree of agreement regarding climate patterns and the effects of precipitation on tea yields and quality. Extrapolating findings from this seasonal study to long-term climate scenario projections suggests that farmers and consumers face variable implications with forecasted precipitation scenarios and calls for research

  6. Consumer Brand Choice: Individual and Group Analyses of Demand Elasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M; Foxall, Gordon R; Schrezenmaier, Teresa C

    2006-01-01

    Following the behavior-analytic tradition of analyzing individual behavior, the present research investigated demand elasticity of individual consumers purchasing supermarket products, and compared individual and group analyses of elasticity. Panel data from 80 UK consumers purchasing 9 product categories (i.e., baked beans, biscuits, breakfast cereals, butter, cheese, fruit juice, instant coffee, margarine and tea) during a 16-week period were used. Elasticity coefficients were calculated fo...

  7. Anti-inflammatory Action of Green Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohishi, Tomokazu; Goto, Shingo; Monira, Pervin; Isemura, Mamoru; Nakamura, Yoriyuki

    2016-01-01

    Green tea has been shown to have beneficial effects against a variety of diseases such as cancer, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases. Through cellular, animal, and human experiments, green tea and its major component, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) have been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory effects. Our previous findings have indicated that green tea and EGCG suppress the gene and/or protein expression of inflammatory cytokines and inflammation-related enzymes. Using bibliographic databases, particularly PubMed (provided by the http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed, US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, United States), we examined the potential usefulness of green tea/EGCG for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases in human clinical and epidemiological studies. We also reviewed results from cellular and animal experiments and proposed action mechanisms. Most of the results from the human studies indicated the beneficial effects of green tea and tea catechins against inflammatory diseases. The cellular and animal studies also provided evidence for the favorable effects of green tea/EGCG. These results are compatible with our previous findings and can be largely explained by a mechanism wherein green tea/EGCG acts as an antioxidant to scavenge reactive oxygen species, leading to attenuation of nuclear factor-κB activity. Since green tea and EGCG have multiple targets and act in a pleiotropic manner, we may consider their usage to improve the quality of life in patients with inflammatory disease. Green tea and EGCG have beneficial health effects and no severe adverse effects; however, care should be taken to avoid overdosage, which may induce deleterious effects including hepatic injury. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Consumer Fetish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnould, Eric; Cayla, Julien

    2015-01-01

    What is the sovereign consumer that occupies such a central role in organizational discourse whose satisfaction has become an organizational imperative? Our research draws from extended fieldwork in the world of commercial ethnography. Our analysis shows how ethnography is implicated in the organ......What is the sovereign consumer that occupies such a central role in organizational discourse whose satisfaction has become an organizational imperative? Our research draws from extended fieldwork in the world of commercial ethnography. Our analysis shows how ethnography is implicated...... in the organizational fetishization of consumers, that is, how in the process of understanding and managing markets, a quasimagical fascination with amalgams of consumer voices, images, and artefacts comes about. We offer several contributions. First, we demonstrate the pertinence of (primarily anthropological......) theories of the fetish to organizational sensemaking. Second, we describe a distinctive process of organizational market sensemaking that is sensuous, magical, and analogical. Third, we offer a subtle critique of commercial ethnography, a popular research practice that aims to bring ‘real’ consumers...

  9. A New Flavonol from Athrixia phylicoides (Bush Tea) | Mashimbye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Athrixia phylicoides (bush tea), belonging to the Asteraceae family, is a popular beverage used as a herbal tea and for medicinal purposes. The processed leaves of bush tea contain 5-hydroxy-6,7,8,3',4',5'-hexamethoxyflavon-3-ol as major flavonoid. KEYWORDS: Athrixia philicoides, bush tea, flavonoids, health beverage, ...

  10. Effect of green tea phytochemicals on mood and cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, Christina; Dekker, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    Background: Green tea is traditionally known to induce mental clarity, cognitive function, physical activation and relaxation. Recently, a special green tea, matcha tea, is rapidly gaining popularity throughout the world and is frequently referred to as a mood- and brain food. Matcha tea

  11. Oligomerization and hydroxylation of green tea catechins by oxidative enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Black teas are known for their characteristic brown colour, bitter taste and astringent mouth feel. These sensory characteristics are mainly influenced by the phenolic oxidation products present in black tea. The oxidation of phenolics from green tea leaves during black tea manufacturing is an

  12. Oligomerization and hydroxylation of green tea catechins by oxidative enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Black teas are known for their characteristic brown colour, bitter taste and astringent mouth feel. These sensory characteristics are mainly influenced by the phenolic oxidation products present in black tea. The oxidation of phenolics from green tea leaves during black tea manufacturing is an

  13. DNA landmarks for genetic diversity assessment in tea genotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bilal

    2011-11-07

    Nov 7, 2011 ... Tea (Camellia sinensis) is one of the most important non-alcoholic beverages of the world. Natural ... present study was conducted to estimate genetic diversity in tea genotypes cultivated in Pakistan using. 20 randomly ..... genetic diversity in Oolong tea germplasms by AFLP fingerprinting. J. Tea Sci.

  14. L-theanine, unique amino acid of tea, and its metabolism, health effects, and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türközü, Duygu; Şanlier, Nevin

    2017-05-24

    Tea has been a very popular beverage around the world for centuries. The reason that it is delicious, enabling hydration, showing warming and relaxing effect can be mentioned why it is consumed so much in addition to its prominent health effects. Although the catechins and caffeine are the primary bioactive components that are related with the health effects of the tea, the health effects of theanine amino acid, which is a nonproteinic amino acid special to tea, has become prominent in recent years. It has been known that the theanine amino acid in tea has positive effects especially on relaxing, cognitive performance, emotional status, sleep quality, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and common cold. The results of acute and chronic toxicity tests conducted on the safety of theanine express that L-theanine is reliable in general even if it is consumed too much with diet. However, it has not revealed a clear evidence-based result yet regarding theanine metabolism, health effects, and its safety. Within this frame, chemical structure of theanine, its biosynthesis, dietary sources, metabolism, health effects, and safety are discussed in present study.

  15. Consumer perceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngapo, T. M.; Dransfield, E.; Martin, J. F.

    2004-01-01

    that there was no link between the negative images of production methods and their purchase behaviour. The groups were clearly confused and mistrusted the limited information available at the point of purchase. Careful consideration should be given to meat labelling, in particular taking account of the evident consumer......Consumer focus groups in France, England, Sweden and Denmark were used to obtain insights into the decision-making involved in the choice of fresh pork and attitudes towards today's pig production systems. Many positive perceptions of pork meat were evoked. Negative images of the production systems...... in use today were expressed, but rationalised in terms of consumer demands, market competition and by comparisons to previous systems of production. Knowledge of production systems appeared of little consequence in terms of any meat market potential as several groups freely remarked...

  16. TEA: A CODE CALCULATING THERMOCHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM ABUNDANCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver, E-mail: jasmina@physics.ucf.edu [Planetary Sciences Group, Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2385 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature–pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows and Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows and Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA.

  17. TEA: A CODE CALCULATING THERMOCHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM ABUNDANCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver

    2016-01-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature–pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows and Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows and Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA.

  18. Consumer Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyer, W.D.; MacInnis, D.J.; Pieters, R.

    2013-01-01

    CONSUMER BEHAVIOR combines a foundation in key concepts from marketing, psychology, sociology, and anthropology with a highly practical focus on real-world applications for today's business environment. The new edition of this popular, pioneering text incorporates the latest cutting-edge research

  19. Comprehensive Lipidome-Wide Profiling Reveals Dynamic Changes of Tea Lipids during Manufacturing Process of Black Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Hua, Jinjie; Zhou, Qinghua; Dong, Chunwang; Wang, Jinjin; Deng, Yuliang; Yuan, Haibo; Jiang, Yongwen

    2017-11-22

    As important biomolecules in Camellia sinensis L., lipids undergo substantial changes during black tea manufacture, which is considered to contribute to tea sensory quality. However, limited by analytical capacity, detailed lipid composition and its dynamic changes during black tea manufacture remain unclear. Herein, we performed tea lipidome profiling using high resolution liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS), which allows simultaneous and robust analysis of 192 individual lipid species in black tea, covering 17 (sub)classes. Furthermore, dynamic changes of tea lipids during black tea manufacture were investigated. Significant alterations of lipid pattern were revealed, involved with chlorophyll degradation, metabolic pathways of glycoglycerolipids, and other extraplastidial membrane lipids. To our knowledge, this report presented most comprehensive coverage of lipid species in black tea. This study provides a global and in-depth metabolic map of tea lipidome during black tea manufacture.

  20. Influence of exogenously applied abscisic acid on carotenoid content and water uptake in flowers of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldermann, Susanne; Yang, Ziyin; Sakai, Miwa; Fleischmann, Peter; Morita, Akio; Todoroki, Yasushi; Watanabe, Naoharu

    2013-05-01

    Carotenoids are a major class of plant pigments and fulfill many functions in different organisms that either produce or consume them. Although the color of the stamina of tea (Camellia sinensis) flowers is clearly due to the presence of carotenoids, the carotenoid profile and content remain to be discovered. We investigated the carotenoid profile of tea flowers and determined changes in concentrations over the floral development. The flowers contained oxygenated xanthophylls such as neoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin, as well as the hydrocarbons β-carotene and α-carotene. Flowers of the tea plant contain to vegetables comparable amounts of carotenoids. The content of 9'-cis-epoxycarotenoids, which serve as abscisic acid precursors, as well as changes in concentration of abscisic acid were studied. The concentrations of carotenoids decreased whereas the abscisic acid content increased over the floral development. Exogenously applied S-abscisic acid affected water uptake, flower opening and carotenoid accumulation. In summary, this paper reports, for the first time, the carotenoid profile and content of tea flowers. The study revealed that carotenoids in tea flowers are an interesting target in respect of possible applications of tea flower extracts as well as biological functions of abscisic acid during floral development. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Green Tea and Other Tea Polyphenols: Effects on Sebum Production and Acne Vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Saric, Suzana; Notay, Manisha; Sivamani, Raja K.

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols are antioxidant molecules found in many foods including nuts, fruits, vegetables, chocolate, wine, and tea. Polyphenols have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic properties. Recent studies suggest that tea polyphenols may be used for reducing sebum production in the skin and for treatment of acne vulgaris. This review examines the evidence for use of topically and orally ingested tea polyphenols against sebum production and for acne treatment and prevention. The Pu...

  2. Determination of pesticide residue transfer rates (percent) from dried tea leaves to brewed tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Cheung, Wendy; Leung, Daniel

    2014-01-29

    This paper presents a study on pesticide residue transfer rates (%) from dried tea leaves to brewed tea. In the study, a brewing procedure simulated the preparation of a hot tea drink as in routine. After brewing, pesticide residues were extracted from brewed tea using a method known as QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe). An UHPLC/ESI-MS/MS method was developed and validated to identify and quantify up to 172 pesticides in both tea leaves and brewed tea samples. Quantification was achieved using matrix-matched standard calibration curves with isotopically labeled standards or a chemical analogue as internal standards, and the calibration curves consisted of six points (0.4, 2.0, 8.0, 16.0, 24.0, and 40.0 μg/L equivalent in sample). The method was validated at four concentration levels (4.0, 12, 20.0, and 32.0 μg/L equivalent in sample) using five different brewed tea matrices on two separate days per matrix. Method performance parameters included overall recovery, intermediate precision, and measurement uncertainty, which were evaluated according to a nested experimental design. Approximately, 95% of the pesticides studied had recoveries between 81 and 110%, intermediate precision ≤20%, and measurement uncertainty ≤40%. From a pilot study of 44 incurred tea samples, pesticide residues were examined for their ability to transfer from dried tea leaves to brewed tea. Each sample, both tea leaves and brewed tea, was analyzed in duplicate. Pesticides were found to have different transfer rates (%). For example, imidacloprid, methomyl, and carbendazim had transfer rates of 84.9, 83.4, and 92.4%, respectively.

  3. Content of selected biologically active compounds in tea infusions of widely used European medicinal plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dadáková, E.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2010), s. 27-34 ISSN 1803-4403 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA525/05/2546 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : medicinal plant * Filipendula ulmaria * phenolic comupounds * rutin * quercetin Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing http://joa.zf.jcu.cz; http://versita.com/science/agriculture/joa

  4. The genetics of tea and coffee drinking and preference for source of caffeine in a large community sample of Australian twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Michelle; Kirk, Katherine M; Heath, Andrew C; Martin, Nicholas G

    2005-10-01

    To investigate the genetic and environmental influences on tea consumption and their commonalities with coffee consumption; and to further examine the genetic and environmental aetiology of preference for tea/coffee. A classical twin design was used in which the similarity of identical and non-identical twins is compared, enabling estimates of genetic, common environmental and unique environmental influence on the trait. An Australian population-based sample of 1796 identical (i.e. monozygotic) and 2013 non-identical (i.e. dizygotic) twin pairs aged 16-87 years was studied, roughly three-fifths of whom were female. The sample represented approximately 70% of those approached for study participation. As part of a Health and Lifestyle Questionnaire, respondents were asked how many cups of each tea and coffee they consumed per day. Additional measures of 'total tea and coffee consumption' and 'preference for coffee' were calculated. Age was positively associated with tea consumption but negatively associated with coffee preference; women consumed more beverages than men, but showed a lower preference for coffee. An inverse relation between tea and coffee consumption--larger in females (-0.41) than males (-0.34)--was supported. This association was mediated entirely by the unique environment in males, and by both the unique environment (68.3%) and genes (31.7%) in females. Tea and coffee drinking were shown to have similar heritabilities (0.46) in males, but tea consumption was influenced by common environmental factors whereas coffee consumption was not. Coffee preference was shown to be influenced by genes (0.42) and the unique environment (0.58). As the patterns of genetic and environmental variation were shown to differ for tea and coffee consumption it may be more informative to retain them as separate measures of caffeine intake in future studies of stimulant use and taste perception.

  5. Hypoglycemic and antilipidemic properties of kombucha tea in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloulou Ahmed

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes has become a serious health problem and a major risk factor associated with troublesome health complications, such as metabolism disorders and liver-kidney dysfunctions. The inadequacies associated with conventional medicines have led to a determined search for alternative natural therapeutic agents. The present study aimed to investigate and compare the hypoglycemic and antilipidemic effects of kombucha and black tea, two natural drinks commonly consumed around the world, in surviving diabetic rats. Methods Alloxan diabetic rats were orally supplied with kombucha and black tea at a dose of 5 mL/kg body weight per day for 30 days, fasted overnight, and sacrificed on the 31st day of the experiment. Their bloods were collected and submitted to various biochemical measurements, including blood glucose, cholesterol, triglcerides, urea, creatinine, transaminases, transpeptidase, lipase, and amylase activities. Their pancreases were isolated and processed to measure lipase and α-amylase activities and to perform histological analysis. Results The findings revealed that, compared to black tea, kombucha tea was a better inhibitor of α-amylase and lipase activities in the plasma and pancreas and a better suppressor of increased blood glucose levels. Interestingly, kombucha was noted to induce a marked delay in the absorption of LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides and a significant increase in HDL-cholesterol. Histological analyses also showed that it exerted an ameliorative action on the pancreases and efficiently protected the liver-kidney functions of diabetic rats, evidenced by significant decreases in aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and gamma-glytamyl transpeptidase activities in the plasma, as well as in the creatinine and urea contents. Conclusions The findings revealed that kombucha tea administration induced attractive curative effects on diabetic rats, particularly in terms of liver-kidney functions

  6. Hypoglycemic and antilipidemic properties of kombucha tea in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloulou, Ahmed; Hamden, Khaled; Elloumi, Dhouha; Ali, Madiha Bou; Hargafi, Khaoula; Jaouadi, Bassem; Ayadi, Fatma; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Ammar, Emna

    2012-05-16

    Diabetes has become a serious health problem and a major risk factor associated with troublesome health complications, such as metabolism disorders and liver-kidney dysfunctions. The inadequacies associated with conventional medicines have led to a determined search for alternative natural therapeutic agents. The present study aimed to investigate and compare the hypoglycemic and antilipidemic effects of kombucha and black tea, two natural drinks commonly consumed around the world, in surviving diabetic rats. Alloxan diabetic rats were orally supplied with kombucha and black tea at a dose of 5 mL/kg body weight per day for 30 days, fasted overnight, and sacrificed on the 31st day of the experiment. Their bloods were collected and submitted to various biochemical measurements, including blood glucose, cholesterol, triglcerides, urea, creatinine, transaminases, transpeptidase, lipase, and amylase activities. Their pancreases were isolated and processed to measure lipase and α-amylase activities and to perform histological analysis. The findings revealed that, compared to black tea, kombucha tea was a better inhibitor of α-amylase and lipase activities in the plasma and pancreas and a better suppressor of increased blood glucose levels. Interestingly, kombucha was noted to induce a marked delay in the absorption of LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides and a significant increase in HDL-cholesterol. Histological analyses also showed that it exerted an ameliorative action on the pancreases and efficiently protected the liver-kidney functions of diabetic rats, evidenced by significant decreases in aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and gamma-glytamyl transpeptidase activities in the plasma, as well as in the creatinine and urea contents. The findings revealed that kombucha tea administration induced attractive curative effects on diabetic rats, particularly in terms of liver-kidney functions. Kombucha tea can, therefore, be considered as a potential strong

  7. Coffee and green tea consumption is associated with upper aerodigestive tract cancer in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oze, Isao; Matsuo, Keitaro; Kawakita, Daisuke; Hosono, Satoyo; Ito, Hidemi; Watanabe, Miki; Hatooka, Shunzo; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa; Shinoda, Masayuki; Tajima, Kazuo; Tanaka, Hideo

    2014-07-15

    The impact of coffee and green tea consumption on upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer risk has not been established. Evaluation of the possible anticarcinogenic properties of their ingredients is confounded by the potential increase in risk owing to the high temperatures at which these beverages are generally consumed. We conducted a case-control study to evaluate the association between coffee and tea consumption and the risk of UADT cancer. The study enrolled 961 patients with UADT cancer and 2,883 noncancer outpatients who visited Aichi Cancer Center between 2001 and 2005. Information on coffee and green tea consumption and other lifestyle factors was collected via a self-administered questionnaire. Consumption of three or more cups of coffee per day had a significant inverse association with UADT cancer [odds ratio (OR) 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55-0.96]. In contrast, consumption of three or more cups of green tea per day had a significant positive association with UADT cancer (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.13-1.70). These associations were evident for head and neck cancer but not for esophageal cancer. The association of coffee consumption with head and neck cancer was observed only among never smokers and alcohol drinkers. Similarly, the association of green tea consumption was observed among never smokers and never alcohol drinkers. No change in these associations was seen on stratification by each confounding factors. These findings suggest that consumption of coffee might be associated with a decreased risk of UADT cancer, whereas that of green tea might be associated with an increased risk. © 2013 UICC.

  8. TBC2target: A Resource of Predicted Target Genes of Tea Bioactive Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shihua; Zhang, Liang; Wang, Yijun; Yang, Jian; Liao, Mingzhi; Bi, Shoudong; Xie, Zhongwen; Ho, Chi-Tang; Wan, Xiaochun

    2018-01-01

    Tea is one of the most popular non-alcoholic beverages consumed worldwide. Numerous bioactive constituents of tea were confirmed to possess healthy benefits via the mechanisms of regulating gene expressions or protein activities. However, a complete interacting profile between tea bioactive compounds (TBCs) and their target genes is lacking, which put an obstacle in the study of healthy function of tea. To fill this gap, we developed a database of target genes of TBCs (TBC2target, http://camellia.ahau.edu.cn/TBC2target) based on a pharmacophore mapping approach. In TBC2target, 6,226 interactions between 240 TBCs and 673 target genes were documented. TBC2target contains detailed information about each interacting entry, such as TBC, CAS number, PubChem CID, source of compound (e.g., green, black), compound type, target gene(s) of TBC, gene symbol, gene ID, ENSEMBL ID, PDB ID, TBC bioactivity and the reference. Using the TBC-target associations, we constructed a bipartite network and provided users the global network and local sub-network visualization and topological analyses. The entire database is free for online browsing, searching and downloading. In addition, TBC2target provides a BLAST search function to facilitate use of the database. The particular strengths of TBC2target are the inclusion of the comprehensive TBC-target interactions, and the capacity to visualize and analyze the interacting networks, which may help uncovering the beneficial effects of tea on human health as a central resource in tea health community.

  9. Coffee and green tea consumption is associated with insulin resistance in Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ngoc Minh; Nanri, Akiko; Kochi, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Tsuruoka, Hiroko; Kurotani, Kayo; Akter, Shamima; Kabe, Isamu; Sato, Masao; Hayabuchi, Hitomi; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2014-03-01

    Higher coffee and green tea consumption has been suggested to decrease risk of type 2 diabetes, but their roles in insulin resistance (IR) and insulin secretion remain unclear. This study examined the association between habitual consumption of these beverages and markers of glucose metabolism in a Japanese working population. Participants were 1440 Japanese employees (1151 men and 289 women) aged 18-69years. Consumption of coffee and green tea was ascertained via a validated brief diet history questionnaire. Multilevel linear regression was used to estimate means (95% confidence intervals) of fasting insulin, fasting plasma glucose, homeostatic model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR), homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) with adjustment for potential confounding variables. Coffee consumption was significantly, inversely associated with HOMA-IR (P for trend=0.03), and the association appeared to be confined to overweight subjects (BMI≥25kg/m(2)) (P for trend=0.01, P for interaction=0.08). Unexpectedly, green tea consumption was positively associated with HOMA-IR (P for trend=0.02), though there was no dose-response relationship among daily consumers of green tea. Neither coffee nor green tea consumption was associated with HOMA-β and HbA1c. Our findings indicate that coffee consumption may be associated with decreased IR, but not with insulin secretion. The positive association between green tea consumption and IR warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Green tea catechins and their metabolites in human skin before and after exposure to ultraviolet radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Kayleigh A; Dew, Tristan P; Watson, Rachel E B; Farrar, Mark D; Osman, Joanne E; Nicolaou, Anna; Rhodes, Lesley E; Williamson, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Dietary flavonoids may protect against sunburn inflammation in skin. Preliminary reports using less complete analysis suggest that certain catechins and their metabolites are found in skin biopsies and blister fluid after consumption of green tea; however, it is not known if they are affected by solar-simulated ultraviolet radiation (UVR) or whether conjugated forms, with consequently altered bioactivity, are present. The present study tested the hypothesis that UVR affects the catechin levels in the skin of healthy volunteers after consumption of green tea and how catechins in the plasma are related to their presence in skin tissue samples. In an open oral intervention study, 11 subjects consumed green tea and vitamin C supplements daily for 3months. Presupplementation and postsupplementation plasma samples, suction blister fluid and skin biopsies were collected; the latter two samples were collected both before and after UVR. A sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric assay was used to measure the intact catechin metabolites, conjugates and free forms. Seven green tea catechins and their corresponding metabolites were identified postsupplementation in skin biopsies, 20 in blister fluid and 26 in plasma, with 15 green tea catechin metabolites present in both blister fluid and plasma. The valerolactone, O-methyl-M4-O-sulfate, a gut microbiota metabolite of catechins, was significantly increased 1.6-fold by UVR in blister fluid samples. In conclusion, there were some common catechin metabolites in the plasma and blister fluid, and the concentration was always higher in plasma. The results suggest that green tea catechins and metabolites are bioavailable in skin and provide a novel link between catechin metabolites derived from the skin and gut microbiota. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Coffee and Tea Consumption Are Inversely Associated with Mortality in a Multiethnic Urban Population123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardener, Hannah; Rundek, Tatjana; Wright, Clinton B.; Elkind, Mitchell S. V.; Sacco, Ralph L.

    2013-01-01

    Coffee and tea are commonly consumed beverages. Inverse associations with mortality have been suggested for coffee and tea, but the relationships with cause-specific mortality are not well understood. We examined regular and decaffeinated coffee and tea in relation to mortality due to all causes, vascular, nonvascular, and cancer in the multi-ethnic, prospective, population-based Northern Manhattan Study. The study population included 2461 participants with diet data who were free of stroke, myocardial infarction, and cancer at baseline (mean age 68.30 ± 10.23 y, 36% men, 19% white, 23% black, 56% Hispanic). During a mean follow-up of 11 y, we examined the associations between coffee and tea consumption, assessed by food frequency questionnaire, and 863 deaths (342 vascular related and 444 nonvascular including 160 cancer deaths) using multivariable-adjusted Cox models. Coffee consumption was inversely associated with all-cause mortality [for each additional cup/d, HR = 0.93 (95% CI: 0.88, 0.99); P = 0.02]. Caffeinated coffee was inversely associated with all-cause mortality, driven by a strong protection among those who drank ≥4 cups/d. An inverse dose-response relationship between tea and all-cause mortality was suggested [for each additional cup/d, HR = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.84, 0.99); P = 0.01]. Coffee consumption ≥4/d was protective against nonvascular death [vs. coffee and vascular-related mortality among Hispanics only. Further study is needed, including investigation into the mechanisms and compounds in coffee and tea responsible for the inverse associations with mortality. The differential relationship between coffee and vascular death across race/ethnicity underscores the need for research in similar multi-ethnic cohorts including Hispanics. PMID:23784068

  12. TBC2target: A Resource of Predicted Target Genes of Tea Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihua Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Tea is one of the most popular non-alcoholic beverages consumed worldwide. Numerous bioactive constituents of tea were confirmed to possess healthy benefits via the mechanisms of regulating gene expressions or protein activities. However, a complete interacting profile between tea bioactive compounds (TBCs and their target genes is lacking, which put an obstacle in the study of healthy function of tea. To fill this gap, we developed a database of target genes of TBCs (TBC2target, http://camellia.ahau.edu.cn/TBC2target based on a pharmacophore mapping approach. In TBC2target, 6,226 interactions between 240 TBCs and 673 target genes were documented. TBC2target contains detailed information about each interacting entry, such as TBC, CAS number, PubChem CID, source of compound (e.g., green, black, compound type, target gene(s of TBC, gene symbol, gene ID, ENSEMBL ID, PDB ID, TBC bioactivity and the reference. Using the TBC-target associations, we constructed a bipartite network and provided users the global network and local sub-network visualization and topological analyses. The entire database is free for online browsing, searching and downloading. In addition, TBC2target provides a BLAST search function to facilitate use of the database. The particular strengths of TBC2target are the inclusion of the comprehensive TBC-target interactions, and the capacity to visualize and analyze the interacting networks, which may help uncovering the beneficial effects of tea on human health as a central resource in tea health community.

  13. Risk assessment of mineral and heavy metal content of selected tea products from the Ghanaian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkansah, Marian Asantewah; Opoku, Francis; Ackumey, Abiathar Abraham

    2016-06-01

    Food consumption is the most likely route of human exposure to metals. Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is among the most widely consumed non-alcoholic beverages. Concentrations of heavy metals and minerals in tea from 15 different brands in Kumasi, Ghana were measured to assess the health risk associated with their consumption. The mineral and metal contents (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Cd) were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Z-8100 polarized Zeeman). The results revealed that the mean concentrations were in the order: Ca > Fe > As > Cd > Zn > Pb. The average contents of Ca, Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd, and As in the samples were 94.08, 6.15, 0.20, 0.16, 0.36, and 1.66 mg/kg, respectively. All the minerals and heavy metals were below the maximum permissible limits stipulated by the World Health Organization (WHO) and US Pharmacopeia (USP). Metal-to-metal correlation indicated strong correlations between As/Zn, Cd/Zn, Cd/As, and Pb/As pairs. Factor analysis demonstrated a clear separation between minerals, grouped on one side, and heavy metals, clustered on another side. Both the target hazard quotient (THQ) and hazard index (HI) levels in green tea were far below 1, suggesting that consumption of green tea should pose no potential risk to human health. However, carcinogenic risk levels for arsenic were high; R > 10(-6). The results showed that residents in Kumasi consume tea could be at risk from exposure to these heavy metals and minerals.

  14. RED ROSELLA TEA AND AVOCADO AS SIMVASTATIN THERAPY SUPPORT REDUCE TOTAL CHOLESTEROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Artini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypercholesterolemia is a condition characterized by high levels of total cholesterol in the blood. Many studies have proven that steeping tea rosella and flesh of an avocado can reduce total cholesterol levels. This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of therapy companion rosella tea and  avocado in lowering total cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemia clients. Method: This type of research is a quasi-experimental study with pre-post test control group design. The population study was a client with hypercholesterolemia in the working area of menganti health centers. First sample group consisted of nine respondents received the drug Simvastatin 10 mg and rosella tea consumed as much as 2 g 1x / day. The second group consisted of nine respondents received the drug Simvastatin 10 mg and avocado meat weighing 330 grams were consumed 1x / day. The control group consisted of 11 respondents have a drug Simvastatin 10 mg oral 1x daily at night before bed. All groups examined total cholesterol levels before treatment and after treatment on day 15. Result: The results of one-way ANOVA test showed a significant difference between before and after treatment in the first group (p=0,001 and second group (p= 0,005, and there is no significant difference before and after treatment in the control group (p= 0,248. The difference between the three groups showed p= 0.025. Conclusion: The conclusion of this study is giving rosella tea and avocado has the same effectiveness in lowering total cholesterol levels so that health workers can suggest the use of rosella tea and avocado as a companion therapy to reduce total cholesterol level.

  15. Profiling elements in Puerh tea from Yunnan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianyang; Ma, Guicen; Chen, Liyan; Liu, Ting; Liu, Xin; Lu, Chengyin

    2017-09-01

    Puerh tea, as the most representative Chinese dark tea, has attracted global interest in recent years. Profiling the levels of metal elements in Puerh tea is very important since its presence is related to human health. In this study, 41 elements in 98 Puerh tea samples from Yunnan province, China including Puerh raw tea and Puerh ripe tea were evaluated by microwave digestion combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry . The content of toxic elements, essential elements and rare earth elements of Puerh tea from different regions was discussed in detail. The concentrations of Ba, Cr, As, Pb, Bi, Fe, Zn, V, Mn, Be, Ag and Tl showed significant differences (p tea from different regions. This study provided a comprehensive database for Puerh tea quality control and intake risk assessment.

  16. Modeling and optimization of tissue 10B concentration and dosimetry for arbitrary BPA-F infusion schedules in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiger, W.S. III; Newton, T.H.; Palmer, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    Separate compartmental models have been derived for the concentration of 10 B resulting from BPA-F infusion in the central vascular space (i.e., blood or, more appropriately, plasma) and in glioblastoma multiforme and normal brain. By coupling the model for the temporal variation of 10 B concentration in the central vascular space with that for tissue, the dynamic behavior of the 10 B concentration and the resulting dosimetry in the relevant tissues and blood may be predicted for arbitrary infusion schedules. This coupled model may be used as a tool for identifying the optimal time for BNCT irradiation and optimal BPA-F infusion schedule (i.e., temporal targeting) in humans without the need for expensive and time-consuming pharmacokinetic studies for every infusion schedule considered. This model was used to analyze the concentration profiles resulting from a wide range of infusion schedules and their implications for dosimetry. (author)

  17. Simplified recovery of enzymes and nutrients in sweet potato wastewater and preparing health black tea and theaflavins with scrap tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-Rong; Luo, Jia-Ling; Zhou, Zhong-Hua; Wang, Guang-Ying; Chen, Rui; Cheng, Shi; Wu, Min; Li, Hui; Ni, He; Li, Hai-Hang

    2018-04-15

    The industry discards generous organic wastewater in sweet potato starch factory and scrap tea in tea production. A simplified procedure to recover all biochemicals from the wastewater of sweet potato starch factory and use them to make health black tea and theaflavins from scrap green tea was developed. The sweet potato wastewater was sequentially treated by isoelectric precipitation, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration to recover polyphenol oxidase (PPO), β-amylase, and small molecular fractions, respectively. The PPO fraction can effectively transform green tea extracts into black tea with high content of theaflavins through the optimized fed-batch feeding fermentation. The PPO transformed black tea with sporamins can be used to make health black tea, or make theaflavins by fractionation with ethyl acetate. This work provides a resource- and environment-friendly approach for economically utilizing the sweet potato wastewater and the scrap tea, and making biochemical, nutrient and health products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Chemical characterization of heteropolysaccharides from green and black teas (Camellia sinensis) and their anti-ulcer effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoparo, Camila T; Souza, Lauro M; Dartora, Nessana; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Santana-Filho, Arquimedes P; Werner, Maria Fernanda P; Borato, Débora G; Baggio, Cristiane H; Iacomini, Marcello

    2016-05-01

    In order to obtain polysaccharides from green and black teas (Camellia sinensis), commercial leaves were submitted to infusion and then to alkaline extraction. The extracts were fractionated by freeze-thawing process, giving insoluble and soluble fractions. Complex arabinogalactan protein from the soluble fractions of both teas (GTPS and BTPS) were determined by methylation analysis and (1)H/(13)C-HSQC spectroscopy, showing a main chain of (1→3)-β-Galp, substituted at O-6 by (1→6)-linked β-Galp with side chains of α-Araf and terminal units of α-Araf, α-Fucp and α-Rhap. A highly branched heteroxylan from the insoluble fractions (GTPI and BTPI) showed in methylation analysis and (1)H/(13)C-HSQC spectroscopy the main chain of (1→4)-β-Xylp, substituted in O-3 by α-Araf, β-Galp and α-Glcp units. Evaluating their gastroprotective activity, the fractions containing the soluble heteropolysaccharides from green (GTPS) and black teas (BTPS) reduced the gastric lesions induced by ethanol. Furthermore, the fraction of insoluble heteropolysaccharides of green (GTPI) and black (BTPI) teas also protected the gastric mucosa. In addition, the maintenance of gastric mucus and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels was involved in the polysaccharides gastroprotection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of the in vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of green tea polyphenols and different tea types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoping; Kong, Fanbin

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether green tea, black tea and oolong tea have inhibitory potential against α-glucosidase which may be used to control postprandial hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Green tea polyphenols (TPs) strongly inhibited α-glucosidase activity by non-competitive inhibition with an IC50 value of 2.33 µg mL(-1) and the inhibitory effect was dependent on TP concentration and incubation order. Green tea, black tea and oolong tea also had dose-dependent inhibitory potential with IC50 values of 2.82, 2.25 and 1.38 µg mL(-1) (µg polyphenol mL(-1)), respectively. The study also showed that the content of unprecipitated TPs changed during enzymatic hydrolysis, leading to the change of the antioxidant activity. The change of the antioxidant activity of tea extracts revealed a similar trend to that of green TPs during enzymatic hydrolysis. Green TPs, green tea, black tea and oolong tea are excellent α-glucosidase inhibitors and their inhibitory potency is mainly attributed to TPs. These findings suggest that green tea, black tea and oolong tea can potentially be used to control postprandial hyperglycemia. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Behavior of cesium-134 in the tea tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yinliang; Chen Kaixuan; Chen Chuangqun

    1996-01-01

    The radioactivity changes of 134 Cs in the aged and the young leaves followed an exponential regression function after spraying 134 Cs in the tea trees. Contamination by spraying 134 Cs greatly harmed tea tree and by irrigating or mixing 134 Cs with soil resulted in a potential endangerment. The concentrating ability of tea leaves for 134 CS was very low and K value was 0.02. After the fresh tea leaves were processed to dry tea, the content of 134 Cs decreased by about 13.3%. When the tea leaves were soaked in hot water, the extraction ratio was around 83.6%

  1. Suppressive Effects of Tea Catechins on Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Li-Ping; Wang, Ao; Ye, Jian-Hui; Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Polito, Curt Anthony; Lu, Jian-Liang; Li, Qing-Sheng; Liang, Yue-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Tea leaf (Camellia sinensis) is rich in catechins, which endow tea with various health benefits. There are more than ten catechin compounds in tea, among which epigallocatechingallate (EGCG) is the most abundant. Epidemiological studies on the association between tea consumption and the risk of breast cancer were summarized, and the inhibitory effects of tea catechins on breast cancer, with EGCG as a representative compound, were reviewed in the present paper. The controversial results regarding the role of tea in breast cancer and areas for further study were discussed. PMID:27483305

  2. Protective effects of Mengshan green tea and hawk tea against UV-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoming; Ren Zhenglong; Zhang Huaiyu; Tang Zongxiang; Luo Peigao

    2005-01-01

    A group of cultured normal human skin-derived fibroblasts was used as the cell model to investigate protective and repair effects of aqueous extracts of Mengshan green tea and Hawk tea against 320-400 nm UV-ray irradiation, with the methods of MTT colorimetry and LDH release. It was found that the aqueous extracts had strong protective effect on fibroblasts against the UV-rays with dose dependence. There were no significant differences between the two kinds of tea aqueous extracts in a higher concentration of 5 mg/mL, whereas at lower concentrations of 2.5 and 1.25 mg/mL the, green tea aqueous extract was less effective than the hawk-tea aqueous extract in protecting fibroblasts from the UV-ray damage. Meanwhile, it was discovered that the green tea and hawk-tea aqueous extract could repair damages induced by the UV irradiation with dose dependence. But there were no statistically significant differences between the two kinds of aqueous extract. The effects may be related to antioxidant effect of tea polyphenol. (authors)

  3. Investigation of inorganic constituents of commercial tea brands and fresh tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, H.; Hussain, I.

    2009-01-01

    The inorganic constituents including total hardness, total alkalinity, chlorides (Cr/sup -1/), sulphates (SO/sub 4/sup -2/), nitrates (NO/sub 3/sup -1/, nitrites (NO/sub 2/sup -1/ and phosphates (PO/sub 4/sup -3/) along with pH were monitored in various tea brands and fresh tea leaves available in Pakistan. The commercial 14 tea samples were collected from the local markets in Peshawar while fresh tea leaves was obtained directly from tea plants at the National Tea Research Center, Mansehra, Pakistan and analyzed for the above parameters. The results were compared with World Health Organization (WHO) standards for drinking water quality which showed that some parameters were higher than the WHO permissible levels indicating the environmental pollution threat in areas where the tea plants were grown Efforts have been made to draw any correlations with the reported constituents of the tea samples for the beneficial health effects or otherwise and their daily intake. The adverse effects of the tested parameters on human health have also been discussed. (author)

  4. Ionizing radiation effect on teas of Camellia sinensis plant irradiated with different water activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanaro, Gustavo Bernardes

    2013-01-01

    Tea is the most consumed beverage in the world. Teas from Camellia sinensis plant have high levels of antioxidants, which mean that they may have several beneficial effects on health preservation. For centuries, mankind looks for ways to conserve better and for a longer time the food that they eat. The food irradiation process is a largely technique used worldwide, and is recommended by many health agencies and authorities of several countries. The radiation interacts with the material causing two kinds of effects, the direct and the indirect effect. In the direct effect the radiation interacts with the DNA molecule, breaking it, and then inactivates the cell. In the indirect effect, which represents 70% of the interaction, the radiation breaks the water molecule in a process denominated radiolysis, creating a number of free radicals that will interact with the cellular components, leading to the cell death. Therefore, the aim of this work is to study the effects of gamma radiation on two kinds of tea from Camellia sinensis plant irradiated with different water activities. The green tea and black tea samples had their Aw adjusted to three values (high Aw, medium Aw, and low Aw). The samples were irradiated in 60 Co source at doses of 0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 kGy. The analyses used were: microbiology by plate count, total phenolic compounds quantification, antioxidant activity by ORAC assay, and identification and quantification of main antioxidants in these beverages. It was noted that the greater the quantity of free water present in the medium, the lower was the dose to achieve microbiological control. The green tea showed to be a little more susceptible to irradiation by high Aw once there was more variation in the amount of flavonoids and phenolics than the black tea, decreasing the amount of these compounds in some doses, but increasing the amount in other ones. However in both teas, these changes can be considered insignificant, since there

  5. Fluoride and aluminum in teas and tea-based beverages Flúor e alumínio em chás e bebidas à base de chás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsue Fujimaki Hayacibara

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate fluoride and aluminum concentration in herbal, black, ready-to-drink, and imported teas available in Brazil considering the risks fluoride and aluminum pose to oral and general health, respectively. METHODS: One-hundred and seventy-seven samples of herbal and black tea, 11 types of imported tea and 21 samples of ready-to-drink tea were divided into four groups: I-herbal tea; II-Brazilian black tea (Camellia sinensis; III-imported tea (Camellia sinensis; IV-ready-to-drink tea-based beverages. Fluoride and aluminum were analyzed using ion-selective electrode and atomic absorption, respectively. RESULTS: Fluoride and aluminum levels in herbal teas were very low, but high amounts were found in black and ready-to-drink teas. Aluminum found in all samples analyzed can be considered safe to general health. However, considering 0.07 mg F/kg/day as the upper limit of fluoride intake with regard to undesirable dental fluorosis, some teas exceed the daily intake limit for children. CONCLUSIONS: Brazilian and imported teas made from Camellia sinensis as well as some tea-based beverages are sources of significant amounts of fluoride, and their intake may increase the risk of developing dental fluorosis.OBJETIVO: Avaliar as concentrações de flúor e alumínio em chás brasileiros de ervas, preto e bebidas a base de chá, como em chás preto importados considerando seus riscos para, respectivamente, a saúde oral e geral. MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas 177 amostras de chá de ervas e chá preto, 11 tipos de chá preto importados e 21 amostras de bebidas à base de chá. Flúor e alumínio foram determinados após infusão dos chás de ervas e pretos. As determinações de flúor e alumínio foram feitas por eletrodo específico e absorção atômica, respectivamente. RESULTADOS: A quantidade de flúor e alumínio encontrada nos chás de erva foi muito baixa, mas foi alta nos chás preto e nas bebidas à base de chá. A quantidade de alum

  6. Determination of trace elements in Turkish tea leaves by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demiralp, R.

    1986-01-01

    The human body continuously assimilates a variety of inorganic elements from food and the environment. Some of these elements are closely related to human health and disorder. Tea is one of the most popular stimulating beverages which is consumed by low and high income family groups in many countries. Instrumental neutron activation analysis is one of the preferred methods because information on a large number of elements can be obtained simultaneously. Five packets each of the seven commonly used brands of tea were obtained from the market. In order to determine the transfer of trace elements into the drinkable portion about 2-3g. of the tea leaves were boiled in hot water for 2 min. After filtration the used tea leaves were dried at 65 deg. C in an oven and a portion, about 200mg was used for analysis. Samples and standards were irradiated 10 min. and 2 hrs. at pneumatic system and central thimble in the TRIGA MARK-II research reactor. After irradiation, the activities of samples and standards were measured with a aoaxial Ge detector coupled to a spectroscopic amplifier. A Canbera 90 model multi- channel analyzer with an 8K memory was used for pulse height analysis. The system has a resolution of 2.0 KeV. for the 1332.5 KeV gamma ray of 60 Co. The activity of the sample and standard was compared and the element contst of the sample was calculated. (author)

  7. Protective effects of tea, red wine and cocoa in diabetes. Evidences from human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Maria Angeles; Goya, Luis; Ramos, Sonia

    2017-11-01

    Prevention of diabetes through the diet has recently received an increasing interest, and polyphenolic compounds, such as flavanols, have become important potential chemopreventive natural agents due to their proved benefits on health, with low toxicity and cost. Tea, red wine and cocoa are good sources of flavanols and these highly consumed foods might contribute to prevent diabetes. In this regard, there is increasing evidence for a protective effect of tea, red wine and cocoa consumption against this disorder. This review summarizes the available epidemiological and interventional human studies providing evidence for and against this effect. Overall observational data suggest a benefit, but results are still equivocal and likely confounded by lifestyle and background dietary factors. The weight of data indicate favourable effects on diabetes risk factors for tea, red wine and cocoa intake, and a number of plausible mechanisms have been elucidated in human studies. However, despite the growing evidence it remains uncertain whether tea, red wine and cocoa consumption should be recommended to the general population or to patients as a strategy to reduce the risk of diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chamomile tea improves glycemic indices and antioxidants status in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemestani, Maryam; Rafraf, Maryam; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a major factor in the pathogenesis of diabetes complications. The objectives were to investigate the effects of chamomile tea consumption on glycemic control and antioxidant status in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2 DM). This single-blind randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 64 subjects with T2 DM (males and females) ages 30 to 60 y. The intervention group (n = 32) consumed chamomile tea (3 g/150 mL hot water) 3 times per day immediately after meals for 8 wk. The control group (n = 32) followed a water regimen for same intervention period. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric measurements, and 3-d, 24-h dietary recalls were collected at the baseline and at the end of the trial. Data were analyzed by independent t test, paired t test, and analysis of covariance. Chamomile tea significantly decreased concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin, serum insulin levels, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance, and serum malondialdehyde, compared with control group (all P chamomile group compared with these variables in control group at the end of the intervention (all P chamomile tea has beneficial effects on glycemic control and antioxidant status in patients with T2 DM. A larger sample population and a longer intervention period may be required to show significant clinical improvements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Excessive Consumption of Green Tea as a Risk Factor for Periodontal Disease among Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungdo Han

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to assess the relationship between the amount of green tea that is consumed and periodontitis. It is based on data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted between 2008 and 2010. A community periodontal index equal to code 3 was defined as moderate periodontitis, and code 4 was defined as severe periodontitis (n = 16,726. Consumption of green tea less than one cup per day was associated with a decreased prevalence of periodontal disease among Korean adults. The association between the consumption of green tea and periodontal disease was independent of various potential confounding factors, such as age, sex, body mass index, smoking, drinking, exercise, metabolic syndrome, frequency of tooth brushing per day, use of secondary oral products, the number of dental examination per year, diabetes, hypertension, and white blood cell count. Adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval of no consumption was 1.360 (1.156, 1.601 when participants with consumption of two times per week ≤ x < 7 times per week was considered as a reference. However, consumption of one or more cups per day increased the prevalence of moderate and severe periodontitis. In conclusion, excessive consumption of green tea may be considered as a risk factor for periodontal disease among Korean adults.

  10. Antioxidant and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Litsea glaucescens Infusions Fermented with Kombucha Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia I. Gamboa-Gómez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical properties, consumer acceptance, antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activities of infusions and fermented beverages of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Litsea glaucescens were compared. Among physicochemical parameters, only the pH of fermented beverages decreased compared with the unfermented infusions. No relevant changes were reported in consumer preference between infusions and fermented beverages. Phenolic profi le measured by UPLC MS/MS analysis demonstrated significant concentration changes of these compounds in plant infusions and fermented beverages. Fermentation induced a decrease in the concentration required to stabilize 50 % of DPPH radical (i.e. lower IC50. Additionally, it enhanced the antioxidant activity measured by the nitric oxide scavenging assay (14 % of E. camaldulensis and 49 % of L. glaucescens; whereas relevant improvements in the fermented beverage were not observed in the lipid oxidation assay compared with unfermented infusions. The same behaviour was observed in the inhibitory activity of ACE; however, both infusions and fermented beverages had lower IC50 than positive control (captopril. The present study demonstrated that fermentation has an influence on the concentration of phenolics and their potential bioactivity. E. camaldulensis and L. glaucescens can be considered as natural sources of biocompounds with antihypertensive potential used either as infusions or fermented beverages.

  11. General-purpose infusion pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    General-purpose infusion pumps deliver liquid medications to patients through intravenous or epidural routes at specified flows. They are most often used in hospitals and alternative care settings (e.g., physician' offices, patients' homes) when liquid medications need to be administered with greater accuracy or at higher flows than can be provided through a manually adjusted gravity administration set. In this Update of our February 1997 Evaluation of infusion pumps (Health Devices 26[2]), we tested 3 additional pumps from 3 suppliers. We also rated and ranked them in comparison with the 16 units from the February 1997 study that are still being produced. With a few exceptions, we tested the new pumps against the same criteria and using the same test methods as those in the previous Evaluation. However, for this Update, the focus of our findings has broadened: although we continue to place strong emphasis on the pumps' protection against gravity free-flow, we also give significant weight to their overall safety, performance, and human factors design. As a result, our ratings and rankings scheme has changed, affecting the rankings of some of the previously evaluated units. Of the 19 currently available units that have been evaluated to date, we rated 13 units Acceptable, with 5 of those units ranked above the other 8. A further 5 units were rated Conditionally Acceptable; we consider them Acceptable if they are used with the available free-flow protection. And 1 unit had performance problems that caused us to rate it Unacceptable (this unit has been recalled by its supplier; see the inset on page 162). As always, we caution readers not to base selection and purchasing decisions on our conclusions alone, but on a thorough understanding of the issues behind those conclusions, which can be gained by reading this Evaluation in its entirety and carefully reviewing the February 1997 issue.

  12. Tea consumption modulates hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliakal, P P; Coville, P F; Wanwimolruk, S

    2001-04-01

    The antioxidant, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activities of green tea and its polyphenols have been reported. As bioactivation of the precarcinogens and detoxification of ultimate carcinogens are mainly carried out by hepatic metabolizing enzymes, we have investigated the modulation of these enzyme activities subsequent to tea consumption in rats. Female Wistar rats were divided into eight groups (n = 5). Six groups were given aqueous solutions (2%, w/v) of six different teas (New Zealand green tea, Australian green tea, Java green tea, Dragon green tea, Gunpowder green tea or English Breakfast black tea) as the sole source of fluid. One group was given a standard green tea extract (0.5%, w/v) while the control group had free access to water. At the end of four-weeks treatment, different cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoform and phase II enzyme activities were determined by incubation of the liver microsomes or cytosols with appropriate substrates. CYP 1A2 activity was markedly increased in all the tea treatment groups (P Java green tea-treatment groups. Cytosolic glutathione-S-transferase activity was significantly increased (PJava green tea-treatment groups. The microsomal UDP-glucuronosyl transferase activity remained unchanged or was moderately increased in most of the groups. The balance between the phase I carcinogen-activating enzymes and the phase II detoxifying enzymes could be important in determining the risk of developing chemically-induced cancer.

  13. Monitoring Chlorfenapyr in Green Tea during the Manufacturing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Atsushi; Kishi, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Hideyuki; Nakajima, Kenta

    In order to clarify the change in the leaves of agricultural chemicals during the green tea manufacturing process, we analyzed chlorfenapyr in tea leaves obtained at each processing stage by using an immunoassay. Chlorfenapyr is a novel broad-spectrum insecticide-miticide registered in many countries for the control of various insects and mite pests. Chlorfenapyr is stable and persistent in the environment. Furthermore, it is widely applied for tea cultivation in Japan. Therefore, we selected chlorfenapyr for analysis in this study. In the unrefined tea (Aracha) manufacturing process, the highest level of chlorfenapyr was 16.5 ppm, which was obtained in tea powder separated from leaves at the secondary drying stage. However, the level at the other processing stages in tea leaves was approximately 9 ppm, and no significant difference in the chlorfenapyr level was detected between the processing stages. After Aracha processing, tea leaves are classified on the basis of their size, shape and color; this is the refined tea (Shiagecha) manufacturing process. After this process, although a high level of chlorfenapyr was detected in bud tea (8.1 ppm) and honcha (on-grade tea; 6.2 ppm), the level in the other classified teas was approximately 4.0 ppm. Thus, this paper shows the difference in the chlorfenapyr level in tea leaves obtained at each processing stage. This indicated that there are significant differences in the agricultural chemical levels between the green tea processing stages.

  14. The History of Target-Controlled Infusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struys, Michel M. R. F.; De Smet, Tom; Glen, John (Iain) B.; Vereecke, Hugo E. M.; Absalom, Anthony R.; Schnider, Thomas W.

    Target-controlled infusion (TCI) is a technique of infusing IV drugs to achieve a user-defined predicted (target) drug concentration in a specific body compartment or tissue of interest. In this review, we describe the pharmacokinetic principles of TCI, the development of TCI systems, and technical

  15. The Infusion Approach to Teacher Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Ellen M.

    1995-01-01

    The underlying premise of infusion is that information about individuals with disabilities must be more systematically integrated throughout an entire curriculum. This article describes the infusion approach to teacher development, explaining three central premises, providing sample program applications for each premise, and discussing brain…

  16. Influences of Product Temperature on Emotional Responses to, and Sensory Attributes of, Coffee and Green Tea Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragita C. Pramudya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Coffee and green tea are popular beverages consumed at both hot and cold temperatures. When people consume hot beverages concurrently with other activities, they may experience at different temperatures over the period of consumption. However, there has been limited research investigating the effects of product temperatures on emotional responses and sensory attributes of beverages. This study aimed to determine whether emotional responses to, and sensory attributes of, brewed coffee and green tea vary as a function of sample temperature. Using a check-all-that-apply (CATA method, 157 participants (79 for coffee and 78 for green tea were asked to evaluate either coffee or green tea samples served at cold (5°C, ambient (25°C, and hot (65°C temperatures with respect to emotional responses and sensory attributes. The results showed that sample temperature could have significant influences on emotional responses to, and sensory attributes of, coffee and green tea samples. More specifically, 6 and 18 sensory attributes of coffee and green tea samples, respectively, significantly differed with sample temperature. Beverage samples evaluated at 65°C were characterized, regardless of activation/arousal level, by positive emotional responses terms and favorable sensory attributes. While beverages evaluated at 25°C were associated more with negative emotional responses with low activation/arousal, those evaluated at 5°C were more frequently characterized as having negative emotional responses with high activation/arousal. Sensory and emotional drivers of liking for both coffee and green tea differed both with sample temperature and gender. While both emotional responses and sensory attributes were identified as drivers of liking among females, only emotional responses were identified as drivers of liking among males. In conclusion, this study provides empirical evidence that both emotional responses to, and sensory attributes of, coffee and green tea

  17. Influences of Product Temperature on Emotional Responses to, and Sensory Attributes of, Coffee and Green Tea Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramudya, Ragita C; Seo, Han-Seok

    2017-01-01

    Coffee and green tea are popular beverages consumed at both hot and cold temperatures. When people consume hot beverages concurrently with other activities, they may experience at different temperatures over the period of consumption. However, there has been limited research investigating the effects of product temperatures on emotional responses and sensory attributes of beverages. This study aimed to determine whether emotional responses to, and sensory attributes of, brewed coffee and green tea vary as a function of sample temperature. Using a check-all-that-apply (CATA) method, 157 participants (79 for coffee and 78 for green tea) were asked to evaluate either coffee or green tea samples served at cold (5°C), ambient (25°C), and hot (65°C) temperatures with respect to emotional responses and sensory attributes. The results showed that sample temperature could have significant influences on emotional responses to, and sensory attributes of, coffee and green tea samples. More specifically, 6 and 18 sensory attributes of coffee and green tea samples, respectively, significantly differed with sample temperature. Beverage samples evaluated at 65°C were characterized, regardless of activation/arousal level, by positive emotional responses terms and favorable sensory attributes. While beverages evaluated at 25°C were associated more with negative emotional responses with low activation/arousal, those evaluated at 5°C were more frequently characterized as having negative emotional responses with high activation/arousal. Sensory and emotional drivers of liking for both coffee and green tea differed both with sample temperature and gender. While both emotional responses and sensory attributes were identified as drivers of liking among females, only emotional responses were identified as drivers of liking among males. In conclusion, this study provides empirical evidence that both emotional responses to, and sensory attributes of, coffee and green tea beverages can

  18. Influences of Product Temperature on Emotional Responses to, and Sensory Attributes of, Coffee and Green Tea Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramudya, Ragita C.; Seo, Han-Seok

    2018-01-01

    Coffee and green tea are popular beverages consumed at both hot and cold temperatures. When people consume hot beverages concurrently with other activities, they may experience at different temperatures over the period of consumption. However, there has been limited research investigating the effects of product temperatures on emotional responses and sensory attributes of beverages. This study aimed to determine whether emotional responses to, and sensory attributes of, brewed coffee and green tea vary as a function of sample temperature. Using a check-all-that-apply (CATA) method, 157 participants (79 for coffee and 78 for green tea) were asked to evaluate either coffee or green tea samples served at cold (5°C), ambient (25°C), and hot (65°C) temperatures with respect to emotional responses and sensory attributes. The results showed that sample temperature could have significant influences on emotional responses to, and sensory attributes of, coffee and green tea samples. More specifically, 6 and 18 sensory attributes of coffee and green tea samples, respectively, significantly differed with sample temperature. Beverage samples evaluated at 65°C were characterized, regardless of activation/arousal level, by positive emotional responses terms and favorable sensory attributes. While beverages evaluated at 25°C were associated more with negative emotional responses with low activation/arousal, those evaluated at 5°C were more frequently characterized as having negative emotional responses with high activation/arousal. Sensory and emotional drivers of liking for both coffee and green tea differed both with sample temperature and gender. While both emotional responses and sensory attributes were identified as drivers of liking among females, only emotional responses were identified as drivers of liking among males. In conclusion, this study provides empirical evidence that both emotional responses to, and sensory attributes of, coffee and green tea beverages can

  19. Intravenous drugs infusion safety through smart pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gómez-Baraza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the role of smart infusion pumps in reducing errors related with the administration of intravenous medications. Method: Retrospective, observational study analyzing the implementation of a system with smart intravenous infusion pumps (Hospira MedNetTM and the role of the safety system for the detection of errors during the administration of drugs, sera, and blood. We included infusions administered at the day-care hospitals of hematology, oncology, rheumatology, and oncopediatrics. We analyzed adherence to the safety system, the number of programming errors detected, the commonly implicated drugs in these errors, and improvement actions. Results: During the study period, 120 smart pumps were implemented and data on 70,028 infusions were gathered. The rate of adherence to the safety program was 62.30% in hematology (6,887 infusions, 60,30% in oncology (28,127 infusions, 46,50% in rheumatology (1,950 infusions and 1.8% in oncopediatrics (139 infusions. 3,481 out of the established limits programming alerts were generated by the pumps: 2,716 of relative limit and 765 of absolute limit. En 807 infusions (2.17%, errors that could have had consequences for the patients could be prevented. These findings allowed implementing a series of strategies aimed at minimizing these errors in the future. Conclusions: The Hospira MedNetTM system detects deviations from the established protocols of intravenous infusion, preventing in this way potential adverse events for the patients. It also allows establishing correction measures and implementing the improvement strategies.

  20. Microbial fermented tea - a potential source of natural food preservatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mo, H.Z.; Yang Zhu, Yang; Chen, Z.M.

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial activities of microbial fermented tea are much less known than its health beneficial properties. These antimicrobial activities are generated in natural microbial fermentation process with tea leaves as substrates. The antimicrobial components produced during the fermentation process

  1. Tea and Cancer Prevention: Strengths and Limits of the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from dried leaves and buds (either in tea bags or loose), prepared from dry instant tea mixes, ... presentation of catechin and caffeine information, and some values reported on product labels were inconsistent with analyzed ...

  2. Differentiation of market coffee and its infusions in view of their mineral composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grembecka, Malgorzata; Malinowska, Ewa; Szefer, Piotr.

    2007-01-01

    The concentrations of 14 elements (Ca, Mg, K, Na, P, Co, Mn, Fe, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb) were determined in market coffee samples after dry mineralisation of both dry samples and infusions evaporated to dryness. The total metal contents were analysed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (F-AAS) using deuterium-background correction. Phosphorus was determined in the form of phosphomolybdate by spectrophotometric method. Reliability of the procedure was checked by the analysis of the certified reference materials Tea (NCS DC 73351), Cabbage (IAEA-359) and Spinach leaves (NIST-1570). It was concluded, based on RDA calculated for essential metals, that coffee infusions are not an important source of bioelements in human diet. In the case of toxic elements Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) was estimated and there is no health hazard associated with exposure to Cd and Pb via coffee consumption. Significant correlation coefficients (p < 0.001, p < 0.01 and p < 0.05) were found between concentrations of some metals in coffee. Factor analysis and canonical analysis were applied to the data processing in order to characterise the market coffee samples. The 12 metals determined were considered as chemical descriptors of each sample. Based on the mineral composition, it was possible to differentiate chemometrically particular types of coffee distinguishing arabica from robusta, ground from instant coffee, and their infusions

  3. Risk Assessment of Fluoride Intake from Tea in the Republic of Ireland and its Implications for Public Health and Water Fluoridation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Declan T.; Potter, William; Limeback, Hardy; Godfrey, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Republic of Ireland (RoI) is the only European Country with a mandatory national legislation requiring artificial fluoridation of drinking water and has the highest per capita consumption of black tea in the world. Tea is a hyperaccumulator of fluoride and chronic fluoride intake is associated with multiple negative health outcomes. In this study, fifty four brands of the commercially available black tea bag products were purchased and the fluoride level in tea infusions tested by an ion-selective electrode method. The fluoride content in all brands tested ranged from 1.6 to 6.1 mg/L, with a mean value of 3.3 mg/L. According to our risk assessment it is evident that the general population in the RoI is at a high risk of chronic fluoride exposure and associated adverse health effects based on established reference values. We conclude that the culture of habitual tea drinking in the RoI indicates that the total cumulative dietary fluoride intake in the general population could readily exceed the levels known to cause chronic fluoride intoxication. Evidence suggests that excessive fluoride intake may be contributing to a wide range of adverse health effects. Therefore from a public health perspective, it would seem prudent and sensible that risk reduction measures be implemented to reduce the total body burden of fluoride in the population. PMID:26927146

  4. Risk Assessment of Fluoride Intake from Tea in the Republic of Ireland and its Implications for Public Health and Water Fluoridation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Declan T; Potter, William; Limeback, Hardy; Godfrey, Michael

    2016-02-26

    The Republic of Ireland (RoI) is the only European Country with a mandatory national legislation requiring artificial fluoridation of drinking water and has the highest per capita consumption of black tea in the world. Tea is a hyperaccumulator of fluoride and chronic fluoride intake is associated with multiple negative health outcomes. In this study, fifty four brands of the commercially available black tea bag products were purchased and the fluoride level in tea infusions tested by an ion-selective electrode method. The fluoride content in all brands tested ranged from 1.6 to 6.1 mg/L, with a mean value of 3.3 mg/L. According to our risk assessment it is evident that the general population in the RoI is at a high risk of chronic fluoride exposure and associated adverse health effects based on established reference values. We conclude that the culture of habitual tea drinking in the RoI indicates that the total cumulative dietary fluoride intake in the general population could readily exceed the levels known to cause chronic fluoride intoxication. Evidence suggests that excessive fluoride intake may be contributing to a wide range of adverse health effects. Therefore from a public health perspective, it would seem prudent and sensible that risk reduction measures be implemented to reduce the total body burden of fluoride in the population.

  5. Meadowsweet Teas as New Functional Beverages: Comparative Analysis of Nutrients, Phytochemicals and Biological Effects of Four Filipendula Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniil N. Olennikov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the increased popularity of functional beverages such as herbal teas and decoctions has led to the search for new sources of raw materials that provide appropriate taste and functionality to consumers. The objective of this study was to investigate the nutritional, phytochemical profiles and bioactivities of possible functional beverages produced from F. ulmaria and its alternative substitutes (F. camtschatica, F. denudata, F. stepposa. The investigated decoctions were analyzed regarding their macronutrient, carbohydrate, organic acid, amino acid and mineral composition. Quantification of the main phenolic compounds in the decoctions of meadowsweet floral teas was performed by a microcolumn RP-HPLC-UV procedure; the highest content was revealed in F. stepposa tea. The investigation of the essential oil of four meadowsweet teas revealed the presence of 28 compounds, including simple phenols, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and aliphatic components. The dominance of methyl salicylate and salicylaldehyde was noted in all samples. Studies on the water soluble polysaccharides of Filipendula flowers allowed us to establish their general affiliation to galactans and/or arabinogalactans with an admixture of glucans of the starch type and galacturonans as minor components. The bioactivity data demonstrated a good ability of meadowsweet teas to inhibit amylase, α-glucosidase and AGE formation. Tea samples showed antioxidant properties by the DPPH•, ABTS•+ and Br• free radicals scavenging assays and the carotene bleaching assay, caused by the presence of highly active ellagitannins. The anti-complement activity of the water-soluble polysaccharide fraction of meadowsweet teas indicated their possible immune-modulating properties. Filipendula beverage formulations can be expected to deliver beneficial effects due to their unique nutritional and phytochemical profiles. Potential applications as health-promoting functional products may be

  6. Aroma changes of black tea prepared from methyl jasmonate treated tea plants*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiang; Wang, Li; Ma, Cheng-ying; Lv, Hai-peng; Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was widely applied in promoting food quality. Aroma is one of the key indicators in judging the quality of tea. This study examined the effect of exogenous MeJA treatment on tea aroma. The aroma components in black tea prepared from MeJA-treated fresh tea leaves were extracted using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-olfactometry (GC-O). Forty-five volatile compounds were identified. The results revealed that the MeJA-treated black tea had higher levels of terpene alcohols and hexenyl esters than the untreated tea. Moreover, several newly components, including copaene, cubenol, and indole, were induced by the MeJA treatment. The activities of polyphenol oxidase and β-glucosidase in fresh tea leaves changed after the MeJA treatment. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the gene expression levels of polyphenol oxidase and β-primeverosidase were upregulated by two and three folds, respectively, by the MeJA treatment (Ptea was clearly improved. PMID:24711352

  7. The effect of coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption on serum uric acid and the risk of hyperuricemia in Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jisuk; Park, Pil Sook; Chun, Byung-Yeol; Choi, Bo Youl; Kim, Mi Kyung; Shin, Min-Ho; Lee, Young-Hoon; Shin, Dong Hoon; Kim, Seong-Kyu

    2015-02-01

    Caffeine, a commonly consumed food constituent, is known to exert beneficial physiological effects in humans. There is a lack of comprehensive population data for the effects of caffeine intake on urate metabolism. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether coffee, tea, and caffeine intake influences serum uric acid and the risk of hyperuricemia in the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort. We enrolled 9,400 participants in this study. An assessment of various dietary intake amounts of substances such as coffee and tea was performed using a food frequency questionnaire. The content of caffeine was calculated from coffee (74 mg/cup) and tea (15 mg/cup) intake information from the past year. Multivariate logistic regression models, multiple linear regression models, and analysis of covariance were applied to identify any association of dietary intake with serum uric acid levels or the risk of hyperuricemia. No trends for coffee, tea, or caffeine intake were found according to each quintile with serum uric acid in males, although there were weak, marginally significant trends between the content of coffee and caffeine intake and serum uric acid level in females (p = 0.07 for both). Tea intake in males and caffeine intake in females were significantly different between non-hyperuricemia and hyperuricemia (p = 0.04 and p = 0.04, respectively). In addition, a significant association of serum uric acid level with tea intake in males (β = 0.0006, p = 0.02) and with tea intake and caffeine intake in females (β = 0.0003, p = 0.04 and β = 0.0006, p = 0.02, respectively) was observed. There was no effect of coffee, tea, or caffeine intake on the risk of hyperuricemia in either males or females. This study suggests that caffeine consumption might have an effect on serum uric acid in females. However, coffee, tea, and caffeine intake amounts were not associated with the risk of hyperuricemia.

  8. Gender Analysis of Economic Efficiency in Smallholder Tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If the productivity of tea among the smallholders can only increase to about 2500 kg/ha/yr, the national projection of 300 thousand metric tones would be realized without the need to allocate more land to tea enterprise. The tea industry emphasizes efficient management of strategic inputs particularly fertilizers to enhance ...

  9. Physico-Chemical, Microbiological Profiles of Blends of Tea and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sample of tea obtained from Mambilla, Nigeria highland was blended with mistletoe - a known medicinal parasitic plant of cocoa. The ratios of the blends were Tea(T)/Mistletoe (M) 90:10 10:90, 75:25, 25:75, and 50:50 while ordinary tea and mistletoes served as control samples. Chemical analyses of blends were done ...

  10. Productivity and resource use in ageing tea plantations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamau, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Kenya, Camellia sinensis L., clones, seedlings, tea industry, management, N-P-K, biomass, made tea yields.

    The tea industry in Kenya is rural-based and provides livelihood to over three million people along the value chain. The industry which started in the first quarter of the

  11. Optimal extraction parameters of Theabrownin from Sichuan Dark Tea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sichuan Dark Tea is a popular beverage with hypolipidemic and lifting greasy properties in the minority neighborhoods of Sichuan and Tibet regions. The theabrownin, an important pigment of dark tea, has been proven for the role of the hypolipidemic property in Sichuan Dark Tea. The objective of the study ...

  12. Antiviral effects of green tea ( Camellia sinensis ) against pathogenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tea is the second most addictive worldwide after formulations containing caffeine in carbonated beverage. Green tea is made from leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant. In the repertoire of traditional Chinese medicine, green tea beverages have played a fundamental role associated with their culture.

  13. DNA landmarks for genetic diversity assessment in tea genotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) is one of the most important non-alcoholic beverages of the world. Natural genetic diversity in tea has been reduced due to continue selection in favor of desirable traits. The present study was conducted to estimate genetic diversity in tea genotypes cultivated in Pakistan using 20 randomly amplified ...

  14. Nutritive value of tea (Camellia sinensis, Linn) waste for cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananthasubramaniam, C.R.; Menachery, M.

    1977-01-01

    Tea waste, the residue of instant tea manufacturing, was subjected to feeding trails in cattle in order to find out its nutritive value. The material possesses a digestable crude protein of 9.7% and a total digestible N of 43.0%. The total tanins represented only 1.9%. Results indicated that tea waste is a potential feed source for livestock.

  15. Cancer prevention by green tea: evidence from epidemiologic studies1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to the consistent results of an inhibitory effect of green tea extracts and tea polyphenols on the development and growth of carcinogen-induced tumors in experimental animal models, results from human studies are mixed. Both observational and intervention studies have provided evidence in support of a protective role of green tea intake in the development of oral–digestive tract cancer or an inhibitory role of oral supplementation of green tea extract on a precancerous lesion of oral cavity. Evidence in support of green tea intake against the development of liver cancer risk is limited and inconsistent. An inverse association between green tea intake and lung cancer risk has been observed among never smokers but not among smokers. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake against the development of prostate cancer, several phase 2 clinical trials have shown an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate premalignant lesions to malignant tumors. Prospective epidemiologic studies so far have not provided evidence for a protective effect of green tea consumption on breast cancer development. Current data neither confirm nor refute a definitive cancer-preventive role of green tea intake. Large randomized intervention trials on the efficacy of green tea polyphenols or extracts are required before a recommendation for green tea consumption for cancer prevention should be made. PMID:24172305

  16. A New Flavonol from Athrixia phylicoides (Bush Tea)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    2006-01-14

    Jan 14, 2006 ... Athrixia phylicoides DC. (bush tea) belongs to the Asteraceae family.1 It has small, dark green pointed leaves with white woolly backs and small pink or mauve-pink daisy flowers with a bright yellow centre.2 Bush tea is a popular beverage used as a herbal tea and as a medicinal plant for cleansing or ...

  17. Strontium-rubidium infusion pump with in-line dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, S.L.; Loberg, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    A strontium-rubidium infusion system is described which consists of: (a) means for generating rubidium 82 in a solution which can be infused into a patient; (b) means for infusing the solution into a patient; (c) means for measuring the radioactivity present in the solution as it is infused into the patient; and (d) means for controlling the means for infusing in response to the amount of radioactivity which has been infused into the patient

  18. Recycling coffee grounds and tea leaf wastes to improve the yield and mineral content of grains of paddy rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Claudio K; Saigusa, M

    2011-08-30

    Coffee grounds and tea leaf wastes exhibit strong affinity for metals such as Fe and Zn. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of top-dressing application of Fe- and Zn-enriched coffee grounds and tea leaf wastes at the panicle initiation stage on the mineral content of rice grains and the yield of paddy rice. The Fe and Zn contents of brown rice grains increased significantly on application of both coffee and tea waste materials. The concentration of Mn was increased by top-dressing application of coffee waste material only. For Cu, no significant (P coffee and tea waste materials led to a significant (P coffee grounds and tea wastes from coffee shops. Use of these novel materials would not only reduce the waste going to landfill but would also benefit the mineral nutrition of rice consumers at low cost by increasing Fe and Zn levels of rice grains as well as grain yield. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Habitual consumption of coffee and green tea in relation to serum adipokines: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ngoc Minh; Nanri, Akiko; Yasuda, Kazuki; Kurotani, Kayo; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Akter, Shamima; Sato, Masao; Hayabuchi, Hitomi; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2015-03-01

    Coffee and green tea consumption may be associated with circulating adipokines, but data are inconsistent, scarce or lacking. We examined the association of coffee and green tea consumption with serum adiponectin, leptin, visfatin, resistin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) among a Japanese working population. The authors analyzed data (n = 509) from a cross-sectional survey among Japanese workers aged 20-68 years. Serum adipokines were measured using a Luminex suspension bead-based multiplexed array. Coffee and green tea consumption was assessed using a validated diet history questionnaire, and caffeine consumption from these beverages was estimated. Multiple regression analysis was performed with adjustment for potential confounding variables. Coffee consumption was significantly, inversely associated with leptin and PAI-1 (P for trend = 0.007 and 0.02, respectively); compared with subjects consuming coffee consumption and adiponectin in men (P for trend = 0.046), but not in women (P for trend = 0.43, P for interaction = 0.11). Moreover, there was a positive association between coffee consumption and resistin in current male smokers (P for trend = 0.01), but not in male non-smokers (P for trend = 0.35, P for interaction = 0.11). Green tea consumption was not associated with any adipokine. Higher consumption of coffee and caffeine but not green tea was associated with lower serum levels of leptin and PAI-1 in Japanese adults.

  20. Effects of Maté Tea Intake on ex Vivo LDL Peroxidation Induced by Three Different Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Lobato T. Matsumoto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Yerba maté (Ilex paraguariensis is a native South America plant widely consumed as different beverages. Yerba maté leaves contains high concentrations of polyphenols that are responsible for its high in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity. The in vivo antioxidant properties vis a vis LDL particles has not yet been studied for maté tea, the roasted yerba maté product. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of maté tea ingestion ex vivo on human LDL. Fasting peripheral venous blood samples of healthy women were taken in three different times: before drinking the tea, one hour later and after one week (7 days of daily consumption of maté tea. The isolated LDL was oxidized by three different pathways [copper (CuSO4, lipoxygenase and peroxynitrite (SIN-1]. Conjugated dienes and structural modifications on LDL were evaluated. Ingestion of maté tea increased LDL resistance towards ex vivo copper oxidation, but did not alter the peroxidation pattern when SIN-1 or lipoxygenase were used as oxidants

  1. The effect of glucagon on infusion cholangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.F.; Whitehouse, G.H.

    1979-01-01

    An assessment has been made of the effects of glucagon on biliary tract opacification during intravenous cholangiography. Two series of infusion cholangiograms were obtained at two investigating centres designated A and B. In series A, 41 patients had ioglycamide infusions at a rate of 0.2833 g min -1 over 1 h. In series B, 31 patients had ioglycamide infusions at a rate of 0.3886 g min -1 over 30 min. Radiographs were taken in both series immediately at the end of the infusion, 10 min later and 30 min after the infusion. Two mg of intravenous glucagon was injected into alternate cases in both series A and B immediately after the first radiograph was taken at the completion of the ioglycamide infusion. Two observers in each series then assessed the radiographic opacification of the biliary system without prior knowledge of which patients had received the glucagon. Delineation of the biliary system was considered better in both series in those patients who received glucagon when compared with the controls. Gallbladder opacification was definitely increased in series A in those receiving glucagon, and a similar tendency was shown in series B. The amount of contrast in the upper intestine was increased in series A in the glucagon group, but not in series B. It is concluded that glucagon improves visualisation of the biliary tract, especially the gallbladder at infusion cholangiography. (author)

  2. Pharmacokinetics and toxicology of continuously infused nitroimidazoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eifel, P.J.; Brown, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics and toxicology of misonidazole (MISO) and SR-2508 given by continuous intraperitoneal infusion were studied in female C 3 H mice. The survival (time to death) of animals receiving continuous infusions of SR-2508 and MISO was compared and related to plasma concentration, rate of infusion and total amount of drug delivered. Brain and plasma concentrations were determined by HPLC. For SR-2508, plasma concentration was directly proportional to the infusion rate. However, as the infusion rate of MISO was doubled, the plasma concentration of MISO increased approximately 6-fold, reflecting a substantial increase in the apparent half-life. The brain/plasma concentration ratio in animals infused for up to 6 days with SR-2508 remained constant, at approximately 0.09. At plasma concentrations of 0.08-1.5 mM, animals receiving SR-2508 survived approximately 3 times as long as animals exposed to a comparable plasma concentration of MISO. Even at the lowest infusion rates employed in this study, the survival of mice receiving SR-2508 was much shorter than would have been predicted if the toxicity of these two drugs were solely related to the integral brain exposure. The low brain/plasma concentration ratio of SR-2508 was maintained throughout long continuous exposures

  3. Infliximab-Related Infusion Reactions: Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, Yulia; Kivity, Shmuel; Ben-Horin, Shomron; Israeli, Eran; Fraser, Gerald M.; Dotan, Iris; Chowers, Yehuda; Confino-Cohen, Ronit; Weiss, Batia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Administration of infliximab is associated with a well-recognised risk of infusion reactions. Lack of a mechanism-based rationale for their prevention, and absence of adequate and well-controlled studies, has led to the use of diverse empirical administration protocols. The aim of this study is to perform a systematic review of the evidence behind the strategies for preventing infusion reactions to infliximab, and for controlling the reactions once they occur. Methods: We conducted extensive search of electronic databases of MEDLINE [PubMed] for reports that communicate various aspects of infusion reactions to infliximab in IBD patients. Results: We examined full texts of 105 potentially eligible articles. No randomised controlled trials that pre-defined infusion reaction as a primary outcome were found. Three RCTs evaluated infusion reactions as a secondary outcome; another four RCTs included infusion reactions in the safety evaluation analysis; and 62 additional studies focused on various aspects of mechanism/s, risk, primary and secondary preventive measures, and management algorithms. Seven studies were added by a manual search of reference lists of the relevant articles. A total of 76 original studies were included in quantitative analysis of the existing strategies. Conclusions: There is still paucity of systematic and controlled data on the risk, prevention, and management of infusion reactions to infliximab. We present working algorithms based on systematic and extensive review of the available data. More randomised controlled trials are needed in order to investigate the efficacy of the proposed preventive and management algorithms. PMID:26092578

  4. Pyrrolizidine and tropane alkaloids in teas and the herbal teas peppermint, rooibos and chamomile in the Israeli market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimshoni, Jakob Avi; Duebecke, Arne; Mulder, Patrick P J; Cuneah, Olga; Barel, Shimon

    2015-01-01

    Dehydro pyrrolizidine alkaloids (dehydro PAs) are carcinogenic phytotoxins prevalent in the Boraginaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae families. Dehydro PAs enter the food and feed chain by co-harvesting of crops intended for human and animal consumption as well as by carry-over into animal-based products such as milk, eggs and honey. Recently the occurrence of dehydro PAs in teas and herbal teas has gained increasing attention from the EU, due to the high levels of dehydro PAs found in commercially available teas and herbal teas in Germany and Switzerland. Furthermore, several tropane alkaloids (TAs, e.g. scopolamine and hyoscyamine) intoxications due to the consumption of contaminated herbal teas were reported in the literature. The aim of the present study was to determine the dehydro PAs and TAs levels in 70 pre-packed teabags of herbal and non-herbal tea types sold in supermarkets in Israel. Chamomile, peppermint and rooibos teas contained high dehydro PAs levels in almost all samples analysed. Lower amounts were detected in black and green teas, while no dehydro PAs were found in fennel and melissa herbal teas. Total dehydro PAs concentrations in chamomile, peppermint and rooibos teas ranged from 20 to 1729 μg/kg. Except for black tea containing only mono-ester retrorsine-type dehydro PAs, all other teas and herbal teas showed mixed patterns of dehydro PA ester types, indicating a contamination by various weed species during harvesting and/or production. The TA levels per teabag were below the recommended acute reference dose; however, the positive findings of TAs in all peppermint tea samples warrant a more extensive survey. The partially high levels of dehydro PAs found in teas and herbal teas present an urgent warning letter to the regulatory authorities to perform routine quality control analysis and implement maximum residual levels for dehydro PAs.

  5. Effect of black tea on the transverse strength of heat-polymerized acrylic resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Rahmi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heat-polymerized acrylic resin is the most basic denture material used. One of the mechanical properties of an acrylic resin is its transverse strength. The transverse strength test provides an overview of the material's durability in accepting the load at mastication. Consumption of tea, especially black tea in the world placed the second most consumed. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of black tea on the transverse strength of heat-polymerized acrylic resin. Methods: This research was an experimental laboratory with 24 samples of heat-polymerized acrylic resin plate with the size of 65 x 10 x 2.5 mm. The sample was divided into 6 groups, each consisted of 4 samples. The first, second, and the third groups were immersed in aquadest for consecutively 1, 4, and 20 days. The fourth, fifth, and sixth groups were immersed in the black tea for consecutively 1, 4, and 20 days. The transverse strength was tested using the three-point bending method with the Universal Testing Machine. The results of the transverse strength measurement were then analyzed statistically by the One-way ANOVA test and Holm's sequential Bonferroni posthoc test as an advanced test. Results: The results of the statistical test showed that p < 0,05 (p = 0,000 which means that the six groups have a significant difference in the average value of the transverse strength. Conclusion: The conclusion of this research was the black tea immersion duration was affecting the transverse strength difference of the heat-polymerized acrylic resin.

  6. Sweetened beverages, coffee, and tea and depression risk among older US adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuguang Guo

    Full Text Available Sweetened beverages, coffee, and tea are the most consumed non-alcoholic beverages and may have important health consequences. We prospectively evaluated the consumption of various types of beverages assessed in 1995-1996 in relation to self-reported depression diagnosis after 2000 among 263,923 participants of the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were derived from multivariate logistic regressions. The OR (95% CI comparing ≥4 cans/cups per day with none were 1.30 (95%CI: 1.17-1.44 for soft drinks, 1.38 (1.15-1.65 for fruit drinks, and 0.91 (0.84-0.98 for coffee (all P for trend<0.0001. Null associations were observed for iced-tea and hot tea. In stratified analyses by drinkers of primarily diet versus regular beverages, the ORs were 1.31 (1.16-1.47 for diet versus 1.22 (1.03-1.45 for regular soft drinks, 1.51 (1.18-1.92 for diet versus 1.08 (0.79-1.46 for regular fruit drinks, and 1.25 (1.10-1.41 for diet versus 0.94 (0.83-1.08 for regular sweetened iced-tea. Finally, compared to nondrinkers, drinking coffee or tea without any sweetener was associated with a lower risk for depression, adding artificial sweeteners, but not sugar or honey, was associated with higher risks. Frequent consumption of sweetened beverages, especially diet drinks, may increase depression risk among older adults, whereas coffee consumption may lower the risk.

  7. Coffee, tea and melanoma risk: findings from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caini, Saverio; Masala, Giovanna; Saieva, Calogero; Kvaskoff, Marina; Savoye, Isabelle; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Hemmingsson, Oskar; Hammer Bech, Bodil; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Petersen, Kristina E N; Mancini, Francesca Romana; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Cervenka, Iris; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Floegel, Anna; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elisavet; Kritikou, Maria; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Peeters, Petra H; Veierød, Marit B; Ghiasvand, Reza; Lukic, Marko; Quirós, José Ramón; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Salamanca Fernández, Elena; Larrañaga, Nerea; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Maria Nilsson, Lena; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Jirström, Karin; Sonestedt, Emily; Key, Timothy J; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Gunter, Marc; Huybrechts, Inge; Murphy, Neil; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Palli, Domenico

    2017-05-15

    In vitro and animal studies suggest that bioactive constituents of coffee and tea may have anticarcinogenic effects against cutaneous melanoma; however, epidemiological evidence is limited to date. We examined the relationships between coffee (total, caffeinated or decaffeinated) and tea consumption and risk of melanoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). EPIC is a multicentre prospective study that enrolled over 500,000 participants aged 25-70 years from ten European countries in 1992-2000. Information on coffee and tea drinking was collected at baseline using validated country-specific dietary questionnaires. We used adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the associations between coffee and tea consumption and melanoma risk. Overall, 2,712 melanoma cases were identified during a median follow-up of 14.9 years among 476,160 study participants. Consumption of caffeinated coffee was inversely associated with melanoma risk among men (HR for highest quartile of consumption vs. non-consumers 0.31, 95% CI 0.14-0.69) but not among women (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.62-1.47). There were no statistically significant associations between consumption of decaffeinated coffee or tea and the risk of melanoma among both men and women. The consumption of caffeinated coffee was inversely associated with melanoma risk among men in this large cohort study. Further investigations are warranted to confirm our findings and clarify the possible role of caffeine and other coffee compounds in reducing the risk of melanoma. © 2017 UICC.

  8. Plasma appearance and correlation between coffee and green tea metabolites in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renouf, Mathieu; Guy, Philippe; Marmet, Cynthia; Longet, Karin; Fraering, Anne-Lise; Moulin, Julie; Barron, Denis; Dionisi, Fabiola; Cavin, Christophe; Steiling, Heike; Williamson, Gary

    2010-12-01

    Coffee and green tea are two of the most widely consumed hot beverages in the world. Their respective bioavailability has been studied separately, but absorption of their respective bioactive phenolics has not been compared. In a randomised cross-over design, nine healthy subjects drank instant coffee and green tea. Blood samples were collected over 12 h and at 24 h to assess return to baseline. After green tea consumption, (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) was the major catechin, appearing rapidly in the plasma; (-)-EGC gallate (EGCg) and (-)-epicatechin (EC) were also present, but (-)-EC gallate and C were not detected. Dihydroferulic acid and dihydrocaffeic acid were the major metabolites that appeared after coffee consumption with a long time needed to reach maximum plasma concentration, suggesting metabolism and absorption in the colon. Other phenolic acid equivalents (caffeic acid (CA), ferulic acid (FA) and isoferulic acid (iFA)) were detected earlier, and they peaked at lower concentrations. Summations of the plasma area under the curves (AUC) for the measured metabolites showed 1.7-fold more coffee-derived phenolic acids than green tea-derived catechins (P = 0.0014). Furthermore, we found a significant correlation between coffee metabolites based on AUC. Inter-individual differences were observed, but individuals with a high level of CA also showed a correspondingly high level of FA. However, no such correlation was observed between the tea catechins and coffee phenolic acids. Correlation between AUC and maximum plasma concentration was also significant for CA, FA and iFA and for EGCg. This implies that the mechanisms of absorption for these two classes of compounds are different, and that a high absorber of phenolic acids is not necessarily a high absorber of catechins.

  9. Thrombolytic treatment for acute ischemic cerebral stroke: intraarterial urokinase infusion vs. intravenous heparin and urokinase infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Gi Young; Suh, Dae Chul; Lee, Jae Hong; Kim, Jun Hyoung; Choi, Choong Gon; Lee, Ho Kyu; Lee, Myoung Chong

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and limitation of intra-arterial urokinase (IAUK) infusion for treatment of acute cerebral stroke. Twenty-seven acute cerebral stroke patients treated with IAUK infusion within six hours of stroke onset were reviewed. All patients showed normal initial brain findings on CT. In 21 patients, urokinase(5-15 x 10 5 IU) was administered through a microcatheter placed into or proximal to occluded segment. Mechanical disruption of thrombus by guidewire was performed in 17 patients. Angiographic and clinical responses and complications after IAUK infusion, were evaluated and the results were compared with those of intravenous heparin(N=19) and urokinase infusion(N=19). Complete or partial angiographic recanalization of occluded segment was found in 18 patients (67%), and neurologic improvement was followed in 14 patients(52%). The degree of improvement on the stroke scale score after IAUK infusion was statistically more significant(p<0.05) than that shown after intravenous heparin and urokinase infusion. Complications after IAUK infusion were large(15%) and small amount intracerebral hemorrhage(15%), contrast leakage into brain parenchyma(11%), and gastrointestinal bleeding(4%). Between the IAVK and the intravenous urokinase infusion group, differences in extent and types of complications were statistically insignificant, but were significantly higher in those two groups than in the intravenous heparin infusion group. IAUK infusion may be effective for the treatment of acute cerebral stroke

  10. Development of a Vermi Tea Brewing Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Donnalyn C. Cabaces; Maria Anna C. Medrano; Aileen P. Mauro; Joemel A. Landicho

    2015-01-01

    Vermicompost, a product of the composting system that utilizes earthworms for the decomposition of the biosolids and/or solid wastes is now considered in organic farming. But since it is applied in solid form, it is difficult for some plants to take up the nutrient contents. The liquid form is the vermi tea which facilitates the plants for fast absorption of the nutrients. The main objective of this study is to develop a vermi tea brewing machine taking into consideration system components an...

  11. Metabolic effects of spices, teas, and caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet; Diepvens, Kristel; Joosen, Annemiek M C P; Bérubé-Parent, Sonia; Tremblay, Angelo

    2006-08-30

    Consumption of spiced foods or herbal drinks leads to greater thermogenesis and in some cases to greater satiety. In this regard, capsaicin, black pepper, ginger, mixed spices, green tea, black tea and caffeine are relevant examples. These functional ingredients have the potential to produce significant effects on metabolic targets such as satiety, thermogenesis, and fat oxidation. A significant clinical outcome sometimes may appear straightforwardly but also depends too strongly on full compliance of subjects. Nevertheless, thermogenic ingredients may be considered as functional agents that could help in preventing a positive energy balance and obesity.

  12. Elemental PIXE analysis of oolong tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, M.; Ishii, K.; Matsuyama, S.

    2008-01-01

    The contamination of heavy metals in food becomes a serious problem. We analyzed oolong tea from different production areas by PIXE using very simple sample preparation and examined trace elements contained in these samples. From the results of this experiment, we could know oolong tea which analyzed in this experiment contains various minerals such as K, Ca, P, S, Cl, Fe, Mn, Cu and Cr but not toxic element of As which detection limit of PIXE was lower than the standard values given by the food hygiene law in Japan. (author)

  13. Tea fungus fermentation on a substrate with iron(ii-ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron is essential element for human metabolism and it is a constituent of both heme- containing and nonheme proteins. Its deficiency can cause serious diseases, i.e. iron-deficiency anemia, with some fatal consequences. Tea fungus beverage has high nutritional value and some pharmaceutical effects. It is widely consumed allover the world and its benefits were proved a number of times. The aim of this paper was to investigate tea fungus fermentation on a substrate containing iron(II-ions and the possibility of obtaining a beverage enriched with iron. We monitored pH, iron content and also the production of L-ascorbic acid, which is very important for iron absorption in humans.

  14. Preliminary criteria for the handling of radioactive tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezemre, A.Y.

    1993-01-01

    Two years after the Chernobyl accident, tea plantations in northeastern Turkey, at Rize and its surroundings especially, were affected by radioactive fallout. As a radiological countermeasure, the turkish Atomic energy commission (AEC) was called in before tea packing and set up a maximum permissible limit of 12,500 Bq/kg for dry tea in the market; 58,078 t of radioactive tea (≥ 25,000 Bq/kg) were set apart as radioactive waste. In its concern to determine the best solution about the handling of radioactive tea and considering the national conditions, the AEC developed four preliminary criteria that led to select the burial option. (author)

  15. TEA PRODUCTION, CONSUMPTION AND EXPORTS IN GLOBAL AND

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad SHAMSUDDOHA; Tasnuba NASIR

    2011-01-01

    Bangladesh Tea Industry established in 1840 when a pioneer tea garden was inaugurate on the slopes of thehills of Chittagong, where the Chittagong Club in Bangladesh now stands. The first commercial tea garden wasestablished in 1857 in Mulnichera, Sylhet. During the India-Pakistan partition in 1947, Bangladesh (then called EastPakistan) owned 103 tea estates, covering 26,734 hectares of tea plantation with annual production of 18.36 Million kgwith a yield of about 639 kgs per ha. Home consump...

  16. TEA PRODUCTION, CONSUMPTION AND EXPORTS IN GLOBAL AND BANGLADESHI PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Tasnuba NASIR; Mohammad SHAMSUDDOHA

    2011-01-01

    Bangladesh Tea Industry established in 1840 when a pioneer tea garden was inaugurate on the slopes of the hills of Chittagong, where the Chittagong Club in Bangladesh now stands. The first commercial tea garden was established in 1857 in Mulnichera, Sylhet. During the India-Pakistan partition in 1947, Bangladesh (then called East Pakistan) owned 103 tea estates, covering 26,734 hectares of tea plantation with annual production of 18.36 Million kg with a yield of about 639 kgs per ha. Home con...

  17. Gitelman's syndrome with persistent hypokalemia - don't forget licorice, alcohol, lemon juice, iced tea and salt depletion: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Christoph

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Chronic hypokalemia is the main finding in patients with Gitelman's syndrome. Exogenous factors can trigger deterioration of the patient's condition and provoke clinical symptoms. We discuss the pathophysiology of and therapy for Gitelman's syndrome, with a focus on dietary factors which may aggravate the disease. Case presentation We describe the case of a 31-year-old, previously apparently healthy Caucasian Swiss man who presented to our hospital with gait disturbance of subacute onset and a potassium level of 1.5 mmol/L. A detailed medical history revealed that he had been consuming large amounts of licorice (in the form of Fisherman's Friend menthol eucalyptus lozenges. Despite discontinuing the intake of glycyrrhizinic acid, his potassium level remained low. Biochemical investigations showed refractory hypokalemia and secondary hyperaldosteronism, suggestive of Gitelman's syndrome. Despite treatment with supplementation of potassium and magnesium in combination with an aldosterone antagonist, further clinically symptomatic episodes occurred. Triggers could be identified only by repeated detailed history taking. In response to the patient's dietary excesses (ingestion of relevant amounts of alcohol, lemon juice and iced tea, his hypokalemia was aggravated and provoked clinical symptoms. Finally, vomiting and failure to replace salt led to volume depletion and hypokalemic crisis, with a plasma potassium level of 1.0 mmol/L and paralysis with respiratory failure necessitating not only infusion of saline and potassium but also temporary mechanical ventilation. Conclusion Dietary preferences may have a much larger impact than any drug treatment on the symptoms of this chronic syndrome. Individual (mainly dietary preferences must be monitored closely, and patients should be given dietary advice to avoid recurrent aggravation of hypokalemia with muscular weakness.

  18. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in tea (Japanese tea); from May 1980 to Jun. 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Five hundred grams of manufactured green tea was collected, carbonized and ashed in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish. The results obtained from May 1980 to June 1980 were shown in a table. (J.P.N.)

  19. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of tea catechin mixture in rats and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Francis C P; Yao, Meicun; Bi, Hui-Chang; Lam, Stephen

    2017-06-01

    Although green tea ( Camellia sinensis) (GT) contains a large number of polyphenolic compounds with anti-oxidative and anti-proliferative activities, little is known of the pharmacokinetics and tissue dose of tea catechins (TCs) as a chemical mixture in humans. The objectives of this study were to develop and validate a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of tea catechin mixture (TCM) in rats and humans, and to predict an integrated or total concentration of TCM in the plasma of humans after consuming GT or Polyphenon E (PE). To this end, a PBPK model of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) consisting of 13 first-order, blood flow-limited tissue compartments was first developed in rats. The rat model was scaled up to humans by replacing its physiological parameters, pharmacokinetic parameters and tissue/blood partition coefficients (PCs) with human-specific values. Both rat and human EGCg models were then extrapolated to other TCs by substituting its physicochemical parameters, pharmacokinetic parameters, and PCs with catechin-specific values. Finally, a PBPK model of TCM was constructed by linking three rat (or human) tea catechin models together without including a description for pharmacokinetic interaction between the TCs. The mixture PBPK model accurately predicted the pharmacokinetic behaviors of three individual TCs in the plasma of rats and humans after GT or PE consumption. Model-predicted total TCM concentration in the plasma was linearly related to the dose consumed by humans. The mixture PBPK model is able to translate an external dose of TCM into internal target tissue doses for future safety assessment and dose-response analysis studies in humans. The modeling framework as described in this paper is also applicable to the bioactive chemical in other plant-based health products.

  20. Carbon Nanotube Infused Launch Vehicle Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For the past 5 years Orbital ATK has been investing in, prototyping, and testing carbon nanotube infused composite structures to evaluate their impact on launch...

  1. Recent patents on antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties of tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiannakopoulou, Eugenia Ch

    2012-04-01

    Teas have beneficial effects on human health including cardioprotective, anticarcinogenic, antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal activity. The precise antimicrobial spectrum of tea is difficult to be defined due to variation in the methods of testing that have been used. Antibacterial effects of tea have been demonstrated against a number of microorganisms including Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli, Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., Bacillus spp., Klebsiella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Teas and tea ingredients seem to have both bactericidal and bacteriostatic actions. In addition, tea catechins have been shown to modify the antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria and to alter the expression of factors that determine bacterial virulence. Antiviral effects of green tea have been demonstrated against the influenza virus, as well as against the Herpes simplex virus, tobacco mosaic virus, enterovirus, rotavirus, Epstein Barr virus, HIV virus. Yet, green tea catechins have been shown to have antiviral activities against HIV infection. Antifungal effects of tea have been reported against Candida albicans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum. The present paper describes recent patents on antimicrobial effect of teas and tea ingredients.

  2. Tea and cancer prevention: an evaluation of the epidemiologic literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmeier, L; Weterings, K G; Steck, S; Kok, F J

    1997-01-01

    Animal and in vitro studies provide evidence of an anticarcinogenic potential of active ingredients in teas. This review encompasses epidemiologic studies of stomach, colon, and lung cancer as well as the evidence of a relationship between tea drinking and cancer at large in humans. Cohort studies do not suggest a protective role for tea drinking in the total risk of cancer. Site-specific studies reveal a more complex picture. The epidemiologic studies on tea drinking and stomach cancer do not justify claims of a cancer-protective effect. A protective effect of green tea on the development of colon cancer is suggested. The evidence regarding black tea is less clear, with some indication of a risk of colon or rectal cancer associated with regular use of black tea. The studies on tea and lung cancer also suggest an increased risk with increased tea consumption. The range and crude categorization of tea consumption, choice of control groups, and inadequate control for confounding might have obscured possible relationships. From the limited studies that suggest a favorable effect from tea, it is likely that benefits are restricted to high intakes in high-risk populations.

  3. Assessment of Agricultural Water Productivity for Tea Production in Tea Fields of Guilan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kourosh majdsalimi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Water productivity index is one of the main factors in efficient use of water for agricultural products. In this study, the rate of water productivity (WP in six irrigated tea fields and three rainfed (no irrigation were assessed by farmer’s management for two years (2009-2010. Yield of each tea field in successive harvests, soil moisture monitoring by gravimetric soil and use of water balance equation was conducted during the growing seasons. Volume of water entered to irrigation system and amount of water reached to surface level were also measured. Tea mean yield in irrigated and rainfed field were 2843 and 1095 Kg. ha-1, respectively. Average of gross irrigation and effective rainfall (WP and irrigation water productivity (IWP in the irrigated fields were 4.39 and 4.55 kg (made tea ha-1 mm-1 and average of net WP (actual evaportanspiration and net IWP was 5.18 and 6.61 kg ha-1 mm-1, respectively. Average WP in rainfed tea fields was 3.4 kg ha-1 for each mm of effective rainfall. The most effective factors on WP reduction in tea fields were improper harvesting operations (un standard plucking and economic problems. Moreover, improper operation and maintenance and old irrigation systems and unprincipled irrigation scheduling in irrigated tea fields were also effective on WP reduction. Comparing the results of this study with other studies in past, showed that by implementing the proper methods in irrigation management and appropriate agricultural practices can improve water productivity in tea fields.

  4. Tea shoot production in relation to rainfall, solar radiation, and temperature in Pagilaran tea estate, Batang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yudono, P.

    2000-01-01

    Tea shoot production pattern in PT Pagilaran tea estate, Batang, is studied in relation to rainfall, solar radiation, and temperature. Pagilaran tea estate is located at 700-1,500 m above the sea level, with temperature of 15-30 deg. C and rainfall ranging from 4,500 mm to 7,000 mm per year. However, the area is also characterized by two up to three dry months for every three years. Monthly data of rainfall, solar radiation, and temperature were collected and were related to tea shoot production using correlation and regression analysis. The results indicated that there was no significant different pattern of tea shoot production form the three estate units (Kayulandak, Pagilaran, and Andongsili). Monthly shoots production increases during October up to December, and then goes down in January up to February. It fluctuated at a lesser degree in the upper units (Kayulandak and Andongsili) which might be attributed to better soil moisture available in the area. They are right below a forests area which understandably serves as rainfall catchment area and maintains soil moisture of the area below in a better condition. Weak to moderate correlation was obtained when monthly tea shoot production was correlated to amount of rainfall (r = -0.3771), days of rainfall (r = -0.3512), maximum temperature (r = -0.3502), minimum temperature (r = -0.2786), and solar radiation (r=0.6607) of the same month. On regressing monthly tea shoot production to those variables, rainfall and duration of solar radiation turned out to be the two significant factors through the following equation y = 759.5616-0.1802 xi-1 + 0.1057 xi-2 + 0.5239 zi-1 (R at the power of 2 = 0.3398), where y = tea shoots production, x=amount of monthly rainfall, z=duration of solar radiation, and i refer to month [in

  5. Assessment of Culturable Tea Rhizobacteria Isolated from Tea Estates of Assam, India for Growth Promotion in Commercial Tea Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Jintu; Handique, Pratap J.; Thakur, Debajit

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, 217 rhizobacterial isolates were obtained from six different tea estates of Assam, India and subjected to preliminary in vitro plant growth promotion (PGP) screening for indole acetic acid (IAA) production, phosphate solubilization, siderophore production and ammonia production. Fifty isolates showed all the PGP traits and five isolates did not exhibit any PGP traits. These 50 potential isolates were further analyzed for quantitative estimation of the PGP traits along with the aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, protease and cellulose production. After several rounds of screening, four rhizobacteria were selected based on their maximum ability to produce in vitro PGP traits and their partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that they belong to Enterobacter lignolyticus strain TG1, Burkholderia sp. stain TT6, Bacillus pseudomycoides strain SN29 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain KH45. To evaluate the efficacy of these four rhizobacteria as plant growth promoters, three different commercially important tea clones TV1, TV19, and TV20 plants were inoculated with these rhizobacteria in greenhouse condition and compared to the uninoculated control plants. Though, all the rhizobacterial treatments showed an increase in plant growth compared to control but the multivariate PCA analysis confirmed more growth promotion by TG1 and SN29 strains than the other treatments in all three clones. To validate this result, the fold change analysis was performed and it revealed that the tea clone TV19 plants inoculated with the E. lignolyticus strain TG1 showed maximum root biomass production with an increase in 4.3-fold, shoot biomass with increase in 3.1-fold, root length by 2.2-fold and shoot length by 1.6-fold. Moreover, two way ANOVA analysis also revealed that rhizobacterial treatment in different tea clones showed the significant increase (P biofertilizer for growth promotion of tea crops. PMID:26617590

  6. Inhibition of wheat starch retrogradation by tea derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haihua; Sun, Binghua; Zhang, Shikang; Zhu, Yuejin; Tian, Yaoqi

    2015-12-10

    The effect of four industrial tea derivatives (tea polyphenols [TPS], tea water-soluble extracts [TSE], tea polysaccharides [TSS], and green tea powder [GTP]), on the retrogradation of wheat starch was investigated using texture profile analysis (TPA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), rapid viscosity analysis (RVA), and the α-amylase-iodine method. The addition of the four tea derivatives resulted in decreased hardness and increased cohesiveness of the starch gel as shown by the TPA test. The DSC data demonstrated an increase in the enthalpy change of starch gelatinization and a decrease in the enthalpy change of starch recrystallite dissociation. The RVA results indicated that the peak viscosity, representing the intermolecular forces of wheat starch, was reduced after addition of TPS, TSE, and TSS, respectively, but was increased by GTP. Furthermore, the half crystallization time in the Avrami equation almost doubled after the separate addition of the tea derivatives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Needs of tea growers for participating in tea production insurance: a case study in Phu Tho Province, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Thi Hai Ninh; Nguyen Van, Song; Lebailly, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The research has evaluated the situation of tea production of tea growers in Phu Tho Province, Vietnam. Average tea plantation area among the largest group of households is 0.61 ha. In production, the types of risks that tea growers encounter include: unfavorable weather (33.4%), diseases (13.2%), insects and worms (2.3%), capital (0.3%) and price which is the most major risk (50.8%). The survey of 1,000 tea growers identified that 46.7% of the households are in need to part...

  8. Simultaneous Separation and Purification of Tea Bioactives from summer Green Tea by Column Chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.; Lei, S.C.; Sun, B.H.; ZENG, X.X.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, feasibility of producing high quality of tea polyphenols, the anine and caffeine from the extract of summer green tea by column chromatography was investigated. Crude extract of summer green tea obtained by hot water extraction was passed through columns of polyamide and NKA-II macroporous resin respectively, resulting in tea polyphenols-enriched fraction (96.27 +- 1.78%), the anine-enriched fraction (99.02 +- 0.43%) and caffeine-enriched fraction (99.25 +- 0.36%). The recovery rates for tea polyphenols, the anine and caffeine were 72.42 +- 1.41%, 66.12 +- 1.66% and 62.07 +- 2.17%, respectively. The separation procedure allowed the production of such products by decreasing impurities and avoiding the use of poisonous organic solvent. The results suggested that it was possible to produce high-quality products of rich-in tea polyphenols, the anine and caffeine by a simple way. From industrial point of view, this novel method has many merits such as high efficiency of separation, low consumption of energy and environment-friendly procedure. (author)

  9. Tea polyphenols dominate the short-term tea (Camellia sinensis) leaf litter decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dong-Mei; Fan, Kai; Yu, Cui-Ping; Lu, Ya-Ting; Wang, Xiao-Chang

    Polyphenols are one of the most important secondary metabolites, and affect the decomposition of litter and soil organic matter. This study aims to monitor the mass loss rate of tea leaf litter and nutrient release pattern, and investigate the role of tea polyphenols played in this process. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and classical litter bag method were used to simulate the decomposition process of tea leaf litter and track the changes occurring in major polyphenols over eight months. The release patterns of nitrogen, potassium, calcium, and magnesium were also determined. The decomposition pattern of tea leaf litter could be described by a two-phase decomposition model, and the polyphenol/N ratio effectively regulated the degradation process. Most of the catechins decreased dramatically within two months; gallic acid (GA), catechin gallate (CG), and gallocatechin (GC) were faintly detected, while others were outside the detection limits by the end of the experiment. These results demonstrated that tea polyphenols transformed quickly and catechins had an effect on the individual conversion rate. The nutrient release pattern was different from other plants which might be due to the existence of tea polyphenols.

  10. Tea polyphenols dominate the short-term tea (Camellia sinensis) leaf litter decomposition*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dong-mei; Fan, Kai; Yu, Cui-ping; Lu, Ya-ting; Wang, Xiao-chang

    2017-01-01

    Polyphenols are one of the most important secondary metabolites, and affect the decomposition of litter and soil organic matter. This study aims to monitor the mass loss rate of tea leaf litter and nutrient release pattern, and investigate the role of tea polyphenols played in this process. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and classical litter bag method were used to simulate the decomposition process of tea leaf litter and track the changes occurring in major polyphenols over eight months. The release patterns of nitrogen, potassium, calcium, and magnesium were also determined. The decomposition pattern of tea leaf litter could be described by a two-phase decomposition model, and the polyphenol/N ratio effectively regulated the degradation process. Most of the catechins decreased dramatically within two months; gallic acid (GA), catechin gallate (CG), and gallocatechin (GC) were faintly detected, while others were outside the detection limits by the end of the experiment. These results demonstrated that tea polyphenols transformed quickly and catechins had an effect on the individual conversion rate. The nutrient release pattern was different from other plants which might be due to the existence of tea polyphenols. PMID:28124839

  11. Infusion Antihypoxants in Children with Critical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Aleksandrovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia and mitochondrial damage are a key component of the pathogenesis and tanatogenesis of a critical condition, suggesting the need for its prevention and maximally rapid elimination. Objective: to analyze the efficacy and safety of infusion antihypoxants used in critically ill children from the results of researches. Materials and methods. Available investigations dealing with infusion therapy in children and papers on the use of infusion antihypoxants in adults in 2005 to 2013 were sought in the medical databases PubMed and Cochrane Library with their free availability and analyzed. Results. The analysis included 70 trials. The pathophysiology and pathobiochemistry of hypoxia in critically ill children are given; the current principles of its correction by infusion therapy are considered in detail. Particular emphasis is placed on trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of succinic acid solutions in children. Main indications for and contraindications to their use are demonstrated. Conclusion. The use of Krebs cycle substrate-based infusion antihypoxants (malate, succinate is an effective and promising procedure for the intensive therapy and correction of hypoxia in both adults and children with critical conditions. Considering the fact that papers on the use of infusion antihypoxants in children are scanty, there is a need for further investigations. 

  12. Caffeine Content of Tea and Coffee

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-03-13

    Mar 13, 1974 ... The xanthines (caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine) occur in plants widely distributed throughout the world. Best known for the preparation of beverages are coffee beans which contain caffeine, tea leaves which contain caffeine and theophylline, and cocoa seeds which contain caffeine and ...

  13. Can hibiscus tea lower blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibiscus sabdariffa is a common ingredient found in blended herbal teas, and beverages made from the dried calyces of this plant are popular worldwide. In vitro studies have shown that H. sabdariffa has antioxidant properties and, in animal models of hypertension, extracts of this plant lower blood ...

  14. Extraction of radioactive cesium from tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Yukiko; Kubo, M. Kenya; Higaki, Shogo; Hirota, Masahiro; Nomura, Kiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of foodstuffs attributed to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster has become a social problem. This study investigated the extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves to the tea. The green tea was brewed twice reusing the same leaves to study the difference in extraction of cesium between the first and second brew. Moreover, the extraction of cesium was studied in correlation to brewing time. The concentration of radioactive cesium was determined with gamma spectrometry, and the concentration of caffeine was determined with absorption spectrometry. About 40% of cesium was extracted from leaves in the first brew, and about 80% was extracted in the second brew. The extraction of cesium increased over time, and it reached about 80% after 10 minutes brew. The ratio of radioactive cesium to caffeine decreased linearly over time. This study revealed that the extraction of cesium was higher for the second brew, and a rapid increase in extraction was seen as the tea was brewed for 6 minutes and more. Therefore, the first brew of green tea, which was brewed within 5 minutes, contained the least extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves. (author)