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Sample records for tea guajava leaves

  1. Hojas de Psidium guajava L Psidium guajava L. leaves

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    Rafael Rodríguez Amado

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la especie Psidium guajava L., se utiliza tradicionalmente como antidiarreico. Los pacientes rechazan la tintura 20% en las diarreas por su sabor desagradable. Objetivo: evaluar el estado del arte en la utilidad de los extractos de las hojas de esta especie. Métodos: se realizó una extensa revisión en bases de datos internacionales. Se revisaron las bases HighWire, DOAJ, EBSCO, Scielo, Scopus, Chemical abstract, Medline, PudMed, Pharmaceutical Abstract entre los años 1753 y 2012. Resultados: se reporta la composición química y existen ensayos preclínicos y clínicos que confirman actividad antidiarreica. No se reportan efectos tóxicos. Existen pocas formas farmacéuticas para esta especie. Conclusiones: las hojas de guayaba son inocuas. Hay que realizar más estudios para garantizar la eficacia. Se deben preparar otras variantes terapéuticas para su uso como antidiarreico.Introduction: the s Psidium guajava L. species (guava, is used traditionally as antidiarrheal. The patients reject the 20 % tincture because of its unpleasant flavor. Objective: to evaluate the state of the art in the usefulness of the guava leaf extracts. Methods: an extensive review of the national and international databases such as HighWire, DOAJ, EBSCO, Scielo, Scopus, Chemical abstract, Medline, PudMed Pharmaceutical Abstract from 1753 to 2012. Results: the chemical composition of the guava leaves was reported. There are preclinical and clinical assays that confirm their antidiarrheal effect. No toxic effects were reported. The pharmaceutical forms of this species are limited. Conclusions: the leaves of this plant are innocuous. It is necessary to conduct more studies to guarantee the effectiveness of this species. Other therapeutic variants of this species should be prepared to use them as antidiarrheal agents.

  2. Fingerprint profiles of flavonoid compounds from different Psidium guajava leaves and their antioxidant activities.

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    Wang, Lu; Wu, Yanan; Bei, Qi; Shi, Kan; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2017-10-01

    Flavonoids are the main active components in Psidium guajava leaves and have many multi-physiological functions. In this study, the flavonoid compositions were identified in the Psidium guajava leaves samples using a high-performance liquid chromatography with time-of-flight electrospray ionization mass spectrometry method. A high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprint method, combined with chemometrics, was used to perform a quality assessment of the Psidium guajava leaves samples. The eight identified flavonoid compounds including rutin, isoquercitrin, quercetin-3-O-β-d-xylopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-α-l-arabinopyranoside, avicularin, quercitrin, quercetin, and kaempferol were used as the chemical markers. The antioxidant activity of 15 batches of samples was examined using three different methods, and the results revealed the Psidium guajava leaves samples that had higher contents of the flavonoid compounds, glycoside and aglycone, possessed the highest antioxidant capacities. Consequently, a combination of chromatographic fingerprints and chemometric analyses was used for a quality assessment of Psidium guajava leaf tea and its derived products, which can lay the foundation for the development of plant tea resources or other herbs. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Guajadial: an unusual meroterpenoid from guava leaves Psidium guajava.

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    Yang, Xiao-Long; Hsieh, Kun-Lung; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2007-11-22

    Guajadial (1), a novel caryophyllene-based meroterpenoid, was isolated from the Leaves of Psidium guajava (guava). The structure and relative stereochemistry of guajadial (1) were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. A possible biosynthetic pathway for 1 was proposed.

  4. Unique bioactive polyphenolic profile of guava (Psidium guajava) budding leaf tea is related to plant biochemistry of budding leaves in early dawn.

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    Chang, Chi-Huang; Hsieh, Chiu-Lan; Wang, Hui-Er; Peng, Chiung-Chi; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Peng, Robert Y

    2013-03-15

    Guava leaf tea (GLT), exhibiting a diversity of medicinal bioactivities, has become a popularly consumed daily beverage. To improve the product quality, a new process was recommended to the Ser-Tou Farmers' Association (SFA), who began field production in 2005. The new process comprised simplified steps: one bud-two leaves were plucked at 3:00-6:00 am, in the early dawn period, followed by withering at ambient temperature (25-28 °C), rolling at 50 °C for 50-70 min, with or without fermentation, then drying at 45-50 °C for 70-90 min, and finally sorted. The product manufactured by this new process (named herein GLTSF) exhibited higher contents (in mg g(-1), based on dry ethyl acetate fraction/methanolic extract) of polyphenolics (417.9 ± 12.3) and flavonoids (452.5 ± 32.3) containing a compositional profile much simpler than previously found: total quercetins (190.3 ± 9.1), total myricetin (3.3 ± 0.9), total catechins (36.4 ± 5.3), gallic acid (8.8 ± 0.6), ellagic acid (39.1 ± 6.4) and tannins (2.5 ± 9.1). We have successfully developed a new process for manufacturing GLTSF with a unique polyphenolic profile. Such characteristic compositional distribution can be ascribed to the right harvesting hour in the early dawn and appropriate treatment process at low temperature, avoiding direct sunlight. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Psidium guajava leaves decrease arthritic symptoms in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats

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    Hanif Nasiatul Baroroh

    2016-04-01

    Psidium guajava leaf extract is effective in decreasing the inflammatory response and arthritic symptoms in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis. Psidium guajava leaves can be developed into an alternative anti-arthritis treatment.

  6. Psidium guajava leaves elicit mild protection on the liver and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ciprofloxacin is a well-known antibiotic used for treating a broad spectrum of diseases of bacterial origin. Although it is well tolerated, results from some studies point to the fact that ciprofloxacin has the potential to be hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic. Psidium guajava is consumed all over the world. In Nigeria, its leaves are ...

  7. Cytotoxic and antioxidant constituents from the leaves of Psidium guajava.

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    Feng, Xiao-He; Wang, Zi-Hao; Meng, Da-Li; Li, Xian

    2015-01-01

    Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae) is an evergreen shrub growing extensively throughout the tropical and subtropical areas. Four new compounds, guavinoside C, D, E and F (1-3, 10) were isolated from the leaves of P. guajava, along with six known ones (4-9). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1, 4 and 10 showed significant cytotoxic activities on HeLa, SGC-7901 and A549 cell lines, respectively. Compounds 1 and 4-10 showed antioxidant activities in DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays, and five of them (1, 4-6, 10) exhibited stronger activities than that of vitamin C. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Chemical constituents of leaves of Psidium guajava].

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    Shao, Meng; Wang, Ying; Jian, Yu-Qing; Sun, Xue-Gang; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2014-03-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the 95% ethanol extract of Psidium guajava. Compounds were separated by using a combination of various chromatographic methods including silica gel, D101 macroporous resin, ODS, Sephadex LH-20 and preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated by physicochemical properties and spectral data Eighteen compounds were isolated and identified as (+) -globulol (1), clovane-2beta, 9alpha-diol (2), 2beta-acetoxyclovan-9alpha-ol (3), (+) -caryolane-1 ,9beta-diol (4), ent-T-muurolol (5), clov-2-ene-9alpha-ol (6), isophytol (7), tamarixetin (8), gossypetin (9), quercetin (10), kaempferol (11), guajaverin (12), avicularin (13), chrysin 6-C-glucoside (14), 3'-O-methyl-3, 4-methylenedioxyellagic acid 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (15), p-hydroxy-benzoic acid (16), guavinoside A (17) and guavinoside B (18). Compounds 2-9 and 14-16 were isolated from this plant for the first time. The ethanol extract showed 61.3% inhibition against the proliferation of colon cancer cell line SW480.

  9. Phytochemical investigation and antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava L. leaves

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    Metwally, A. M.; Omar, A. A.; Harraz, F. M.; El Sohafy, S. M.

    2010-01-01

    Psidium guajava L. leaves were subjected to extraction, fractionation and isolation of the flavonoidal compounds. Five flavonoidal compounds were isolated which are quercetin, quercetin-3-O-α-L-arabinofuranoside, quercetin-3-O-β-D-arabinopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside and quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactoside. Quercetin-3-O-β-D-arabinopyranoside was isolated for the first time from the leaves. Fractions together with the isolates were tested for their antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial studies showed good activities for the extracts and the isolated compounds. PMID:20931082

  10. Health Effects of Psidium guajava L. Leaves: An Overview of the Last Decade.

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    Díaz-de-Cerio, Elixabet; Verardo, Vito; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2017-04-24

    Today, there is increasing interest in discovering new bioactive compounds derived from ethnomedicine. Preparations of guava ( Psidium guajava L.) leaves have traditionally been used to manage several diseases. The pharmacological research in vitro as well as in vivo has been widely used to demonstrate the potential of the extracts from the leaves for the co-treatment of different ailments with high prevalence worldwide, upholding the traditional medicine in cases such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and parasitic infections. Moreover, the biological activity has been attributed to the bioactive composition of the leaves, to some specific phytochemical subclasses, or even to individual compounds. Phenolic compounds in guava leaves have been credited with regulating blood-glucose levels. Thus, the aim of the present review was to compile results from in vitro and in vivo studies carried out with guava leaves over the last decade, relating the effects to their clinical applications in order to focus further research for finding individual bioactive compounds. Some food applications (guava tea and supplementary feed for aquaculture) and some clinical, in vitro, and in vivo outcomes are also included.

  11. Health Effects of Psidium guajava L. Leaves: An Overview of the Last Decade

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    Elixabet Díaz-de-Cerio

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, there is increasing interest in discovering new bioactive compounds derived from ethnomedicine. Preparations of guava (Psidium guajava L. leaves have traditionally been used to manage several diseases. The pharmacological research in vitro as well as in vivo has been widely used to demonstrate the potential of the extracts from the leaves for the co-treatment of different ailments with high prevalence worldwide, upholding the traditional medicine in cases such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and parasitic infections. Moreover, the biological activity has been attributed to the bioactive composition of the leaves, to some specific phytochemical subclasses, or even to individual compounds. Phenolic compounds in guava leaves have been credited with regulating blood-glucose levels. Thus, the aim of the present review was to compile results from in vitro and in vivo studies carried out with guava leaves over the last decade, relating the effects to their clinical applications in order to focus further research for finding individual bioactive compounds. Some food applications (guava tea and supplementary feed for aquaculture and some clinical, in vitro, and in vivo outcomes are also included.

  12. A new antibacterial benzophenone glycoside from Psidium guajava (Linn.) leaves.

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    Ukwueze, Stanley E; Osadebe, Patience O; Okoye, Festus B C

    2015-01-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of methanol extract from the leaves of Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) yielded a new benzophenone glycoside, Guajaphenone A (2) together with two known compounds, Garcimangosone D (1) and Guaijaverin (3). Their structures were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data including 1D and 2D NMR and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The isolated compounds were screened against standard strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using broth dilution assay method, and the MIC values determined and compared with reference antibiotic ceftriaxone. They were found to have significant antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with all of them showing better activities against S. aureus, but displaying weaker activities, in comparison to ceftriaxone. However, despite reduced effect of these compounds against the organisms, this work opens the perspective to use these molecules as 'leads' for the design of novel and selective drug candidates for some tropical infectious diseases.

  13. Comparative evaluation of different extracts of leaves of Psidium guajava Linn. for hepatoprotective activity.

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    Roy, Chanchal K; Das, Amit Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of different extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous) of P. guajava in acute experimental liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride and paracetamol. The effects observed were compared with a known hepatoprotective agent, silymarin (100 mg/kg p.o.). In the acute liver damage induced by different hepatotoxins, P. guajava methanolic leaf extract (200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced the elevated serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin in carbon tetrachloride and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity. P. guajava ethyl acetate leaf extract (200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced the elevated serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and bilirubin in carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity whereas P. guajava aqueous leaf extract (200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced the elevated serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase and bilirubin in carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity. P. guajava ethyl acetate and aqueous leaf extracts (200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced the elevated serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase in paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity. Histological examination of the liver tissues supported the hepatoprotection. It is concluded that the methanolic extract of leaves of Psidium guajava plant possesses better hepatoprotective activity compared to other extracts.

  14. Extraction of radioactive cesium from tea leaves

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    Yano, Yukiko; Kubo, M. Kenya; Higaki, Shogo; Hirota, Masahiro; Nomura, Kiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of foodstuffs attributed to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster has become a social problem. This study investigated the extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves to the tea. The green tea was brewed twice reusing the same leaves to study the difference in extraction of cesium between the first and second brew. Moreover, the extraction of cesium was studied in correlation to brewing time. The concentration of radioactive cesium was determined with gamma spectrometry, and the concentration of caffeine was determined with absorption spectrometry. About 40% of cesium was extracted from leaves in the first brew, and about 80% was extracted in the second brew. The extraction of cesium increased over time, and it reached about 80% after 10 minutes brew. The ratio of radioactive cesium to caffeine decreased linearly over time. This study revealed that the extraction of cesium was higher for the second brew, and a rapid increase in extraction was seen as the tea was brewed for 6 minutes and more. Therefore, the first brew of green tea, which was brewed within 5 minutes, contained the least extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves. (author)

  15. Aqueous extract of Psidium guajava leaves: phenolic compounds and inhibitory potential on digestive enzymes

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    ANDERSON A. SIMÃO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Leaves of Psidium guajava L. (guava have been widely used in the popular way for prevention and treatment of various diseases. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory potential of leaves aqueous extract from three cultivars of P. guajava (Pedro Sato, Paluma and Século XXI on α-amylase, α-glycosidase, lipase, and trypsin enzymes, in the presence or not of simulated gastric fluid and to determine the content of phenolic compounds by high performance liquid chromatography. All cultivars presented the same composition in phenolic compounds, but in different proportions. The compounds identified are gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate, syringic acid, o-coumaric acid, resveratrol, quercetin, and catechin (which was the major compound in all the cultivars evaluated. In the absence of simulated gastric fluid, it was observed different inhibitions exercised by the leaves aqueous extracts from three cultivars of P. guajava on each enzyme. In presence of simulated gastric fluid, all cultivars showed increase in the inhibition of lipase and α-glycosidase, and decrease in inhibition of α-amylase and trypsin enzymes. These results indicate that P. guajava leaves aqueous extracts from all cultivars evaluated possess potential of use as an adjuvant in the treatment of obesity and other dyslipidemias.

  16. Aqueous extract of Psidium guajava leaves: phenolic compounds and inhibitory potential on digestive enzymes.

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    Simão, Anderson A; Marques, Tamara R; Marcussi, Silvana; Corrêa, Angelita D

    2017-01-01

    Leaves of Psidium guajava L. (guava) have been widely used in the popular way for prevention and treatment of various diseases. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory potential of leaves aqueous extract from three cultivars of P. guajava (Pedro Sato, Paluma and Século XXI) on α-amylase, α-glycosidase, lipase, and trypsin enzymes, in the presence or not of simulated gastric fluid and to determine the content of phenolic compounds by high performance liquid chromatography. All cultivars presented the same composition in phenolic compounds, but in different proportions. The compounds identified are gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate, syringic acid, o-coumaric acid, resveratrol, quercetin, and catechin (which was the major compound in all the cultivars evaluated). In the absence of simulated gastric fluid, it was observed different inhibitions exercised by the leaves aqueous extracts from three cultivars of P. guajava on each enzyme. In presence of simulated gastric fluid, all cultivars showed increase in the inhibition of lipase and α-glycosidase, and decrease in inhibition of α-amylase and trypsin enzymes. These results indicate that P. guajava leaves aqueous extracts from all cultivars evaluated possess potential of use as an adjuvant in the treatment of obesity and other dyslipidemias.

  17. Japanese tea leaves: a possible biological standard reference material

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    Fuwa, Keiichiro; Notsu, Kenji; Tsunoda, Kin-ichi; Kato, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Yuko.

    1978-01-01

    Japanese Tea Leaves, prepared by pulverizing with an agate ball mill and sieving with a Saran fiber sieve (50 mesh) were assessed as a possible biological standard reference material for elemental analysis. The metal content of the tea leaves was determined independently at two laboratories using atomic absorption and flame emission spectrometry. Neutron activation analysis was also performed to determine the content (21 elements) of Tea Leaves. For some elements the result from the various methods were compared. The characteristics of Tea Leaves are discussed and the elemental composition is compared to that of Orchard Leaves (NBS SRM, 1571). The most significant characteristic of Tea Leaves was the high manganese content. (auth.)

  18. Determination of Cu, Fe, Zn Elements in Soil, Root Tea Plants, Tea Leaves, and Tea Beverage

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    Supriyanto; Zainul-Kamal

    2006-01-01

    One of the causes of land quality damage was due to the pollution of Cu, Fe, and Zn so that it could directly and also indirectly cause the occurrence of pollution of plants which is growing on it for example tea plant that has been used by society for making of tea beverage. The sampling of soil, root tea plants, tea leaves and tea beverage samples were done in June, 2005 at sub district of Keparakan, Temanggung, Central Java. The purpose of research was to determine the content of Cu, Fe and Zn in soil, root tea plants, tea leaves and tea beverage. The research was done by digesting the sample with nitric acid until the clear solution was obtained, then it was added by aquabidest until 10.0 ml. Determination of Cu, Fe and Zn content used AAS instrument. The average concentration of Cu Fe and Zn obtained in deep soil samples area 0.155 ± 0.005 ppm, 127.16 ± 2.65 ppm, and 0.68 ± 0.02 ppm respectively, in surface soil samples are 0.355 ± 0.025 ppm, 360.59 ± 13.17 ppm and 0.78 ± 0.01 ppm respectively, in root of tea plants samples area 0.241 ± 0.098 ppm, 13.16 ± 1.34 ppm and 2.64 ± 0.06 ppm respectively, in tea leaves are 0.211 ± 0.013 ppm, 3.35 ± 0.886 ppm, and 0.795 ± 0.016 ppm respectively and in tea beverage 0.142 ± 0.086 ppm, 6.11 ± 0.35 ppm and 0.66 ± 0.02 ppm respectively. (author)

  19. Inotropic effects of extracts of Psidium guajava L. (guava leaves on the guinea pig atrium

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    Conde Garcia E.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Many pharmacological effects have been ascribed to extracts of Psidium guajava L. (guava leaves. However, in spite of its widespread use in Brazilian folk medicine and a reasonable number of scientific reports about it, we could not find any study dealing with its action on the mammalian myocardium. In the present study, by measuring isometric force, we observed that the crude extract of P. guajava (water-alcohol extract obtained by macerating dry leaves depresses the guinea pig atrial contractility in a concentration-dependent fashion (N = 8 hearts, 15 trials. The compound with cardiac activity was concentrated by extraction in a Soxhlet apparatus using 17 M glacial acetic acid after removing the less polar fractions (hexane, chloroform, acetone, ethanol and methanol, suggesting that this compound is a highly polar substance. In the isolated guinea pig left atrium the acetic acid fraction (10-800 mg/l of P. guajava 1 reversibly decreased myocardial force in a concentration-dependent fashion (EC50 = 0.07g/l, N = 5 hearts, 9 trials, P<0.05, 2 increased the atrial relaxation time measured at 20% of the force amplitude up to 35% (91 ± 15 to 123 ± 30 ms, N = 3 hearts, 6 trials, P<0.05, 3 abolished the positive staircase effect (Bowditch phenomenon in a concentration-dependent fashion suggesting a decrease of the cellular inward calcium current (N = 4 hearts, 8 trials, P<0.05, and 4 its inotropic effect was abolished by cholinergic receptor blockade with 1.5 mM atropine sulfate, indicating a cholinergic involvement in the mechanism of action of the extract (N = 7 hearts, 15 trials, P<0.05. The acetic acid extract was 20 times more potent than crude extract (EC50 = 1.4 g/l. The results showed that extracts from P. guajava leaves depress myocardial inotropism.

  20. Newer insights into the mechanism of action of Psidium guajava L. leaves in infectious diarrhoea.

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    Birdi, Tannaz; Daswani, Poonam; Brijesh, S; Tetali, Pundarikakshudu; Natu, Arvind; Antia, Noshir

    2010-06-28

    Psidium guajava L., Myrtaceae, is used widely in traditional medicine for the treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery, gastroenteritis, stomachaches, and indigestion. However, the effect of the leaf extract of P. guajava on the pathogenesis of infectious diarrhoea has not been studied. The present study evaluates the effect of a hot aqueous extract (decoction) of dried leaves of P. guajava on parameters associated with pathogenicity of infectious diarrhoea. The aim was to understand its possible mechanism(s) of action in controlling infectious diarrhoea and compare it with quercetin, one of the most reported active constituents of P. guajava with antidiarrhoeal activity. The crude decoction and quercetin were studied for their antibacterial activity and effect on virulence features of common diarrhoeal pathogens viz. colonization of epithelial cells and production and action of enterotoxins. Colonization as measured by adherence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and invasion of enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and Shigella flexneri was assessed using HEp-2 cell line. The production of E. coli heat labile toxin (LT) and cholera toxin (CT) and their binding to ganglioside monosialic acid (GM1) were studied by GM1-ELISA whereas the production and action of E. coli heat stable toxin (ST) was assessed by suckling mouse assay. The decoction of P. guajava showed antibacterial activity towards S. flexneri and Vibrio cholerae. It decreased production of both LT and CT and their binding to GM1. However, it had no effect on production and action of ST. The decoction also inhibited the adherence of EPEC and invasion by both EIEC and S. flexneri to HEp-2 cells. Quercetin, on the other hand, had no antibacterial activity at the concentrations used nor did it affect any of the enterotoxins. Although it did not affect adherence of EPEC, it inhibited the invasion of both EIEC and S. flexneri to HEp-2 cells. Collectively, the results indicate that the decoction of P. guajava leaves

  1. Newer insights into the mechanism of action of Psidium guajava L. leaves in infectious diarrhoea

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    Natu Arvind

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psidium guajava L., Myrtaceae, is used widely in traditional medicine for the treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery, gastroenteritis, stomachaches, and indigestion. However, the effect of the leaf extract of P. guajava on the pathogenesis of infectious diarrhoea has not been studied. The present study evaluates the effect of a hot aqueous extract (decoction of dried leaves of P. guajava on parameters associated with pathogenicity of infectious diarrhoea. The aim was to understand its possible mechanism(s of action in controlling infectious diarrhoea and compare it with quercetin, one of the most reported active constituents of P. guajava with antidiarrhoeal activity. Methods The crude decoction and quercetin were studied for their antibacterial activity and effect on virulence features of common diarrhoeal pathogens viz. colonization of epithelial cells and production and action of enterotoxins. Colonization as measured by adherence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC and invasion of enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC and Shigella flexneri was assessed using HEp-2 cell line. The production of E. coli heat labile toxin (LT and cholera toxin (CT and their binding to ganglioside monosialic acid (GM1 were studied by GM1-ELISA whereas the production and action of E. coli heat stable toxin (ST was assessed by suckling mouse assay. Results The decoction of P. guajava showed antibacterial activity towards S. flexneri and Vibrio cholerae. It decreased production of both LT and CT and their binding to GM1. However, it had no effect on production and action of ST. The decoction also inhibited the adherence of EPEC and invasion by both EIEC and S. flexneri to HEp-2 cells. Quercetin, on the other hand, had no antibacterial activity at the concentrations used nor did it affect any of the enterotoxins. Although it did not affect adherence of EPEC, it inhibited the invasion of both EIEC and S. flexneri to HEp-2 cells. Conclusion Collectively

  2. Inotropic effects of extracts of Psidium guajava L. (guava) leaves on the guinea pig atrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde Garcia, E A; Nascimento, V T; Santiago Santos, A B

    2003-05-01

    Many pharmacological effects have been ascribed to extracts of Psidium guajava L. (guava) leaves. However, in spite of its widespread use in Brazilian folk medicine and a reasonable number of scientific reports about it, we could not find any study dealing with its action on the mammalian myocardium. In the present study, by measuring isometric force, we observed that the crude extract of P. guajava (water-alcohol extract obtained by macerating dry leaves) depresses the guinea pig atrial contractility in a concentration-dependent fashion (N = 8 hearts, 15 trials). The compound with cardiac activity was concentrated by extraction in a Soxhlet apparatus using 17 M glacial acetic acid after removing the less polar fractions (hexane, chloroform, acetone, ethanol and methanol), suggesting that this compound is a highly polar substance. In the isolated guinea pig left atrium the acetic acid fraction (10-800 mg/l) of P. guajava 1) reversibly decreased myocardial force in a concentration-dependent fashion (EC50 = 0.07g/l, N = 5 hearts, 9 trials, Pleaves depress myocardial inotropism.

  3. One new diphenylmethane glycoside from the leaves of Psidium guajava L.

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    Shu, Ji-Cheng; Chou, Gui-Xin; Wang, Zheng-Tao

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents of Psidium guajava L, the EtOH/H(2)O extract of the fresh leaves was subjected to various chromatography. One diphenylmethane, one benzophenone, and eight flavonoids were isolated and elucidated as 2,6-dihydroxy-3-formaldehyde-5-methyl-4-O-(6″-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-diphenylmethane (1), 2,6-dihydroxy-3,5-dimethyl-4-O-(6″-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-benzophenone (2), kaempferol (3), quercetin (4), quercitrin (5), isoquercitrin (6), guaijaverin (7), avicularin (8), hyperoside (9), reynoutrin (10) by spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR and HR-ESI-MS spectrometry as well as by comparison with published data. Compounds 5 and 10 are obtained from P. guajava for the first time, and compound 1 is a new diphenylmethane compound.

  4. Brilliant Green Dye Elimination from Water Using Psidium guajava Leaves and Solanum tuberosum Peels as Adsorbents in Environmentally Benign Way

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    Rabia Rehman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to check the feasibility of Psidium guajava (Guava leaves and peels of Solanum tuberosum (Potato as biosorbents in removal of Brilliant Green (BG in batch mode. Surface analysis of biosorbents was done by FT-IR and quantitatively analyzed by Boehm titration. The removal of dye was confirmed by UV-VIS spectroscopy. Isothermal modeling was studied by using Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherms. Various isothermal parameters for adsorption of Brilliant Green such as qm=1.075 mg/g, 1.173 mg/g ΔG°=-3.397, and −2.397 KJ/mol were noted for Solanum tuberosum peels (PP and Psidium guajava leaves (GL, respectively. Similarly pH, moisture content, and various metals were quantitatively analyzed. Results showed that leaves of Psidium guajava were more effective for removal of Brilliant Green.

  5. Transfer of 226Ra and 137Cs from tea leaves to drinking tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathivand, A. A.; Amidi, J.; Heravi, G. H.

    2006-01-01

    Two of the important radionuclides which are entered to environment and human diet are radium-226 ( 226 Ra) and cesium-137( 137 Cs). It is clear that the methods for preparation of foods such as peeling, washing, cooking or frying can affect the dose which is received by human due the to consumption of foodstuffs. An experiment has been performed at the environmental monitoring section of National Radiation Protection Department, aiming to measure the transfer of 226 Ra and 137 Cs from the tea leaves to drinking part of tea. Materials and Methods:Tea samples were pulverized to obtain a homogenous matrix which was weighed and placed In 1000 cm 3 Marinelli beaker. After making tea, the liquid tea and tea-discard were analyzed separately. Measurement of 226 Ra and 137 Cs was performed by gamma spectrometry system using a high purity germanium detector with 40% relative efficiency. The detector was shielded by 10 cm lead all sides with cadmium -copper as liners. Results: It was found that the activity concentration transferred from tea leaves to drinking tea for 137 Cs and 226 Ra are less than 2% and 17% respectively. Conclusion: On the basis of these measurements it seems that no significant levels of radioactivity of 226 Ra and 137 Cs can be found in drinking part of tea. The low concentration of the mentioned radionuclides in drinking tea is mostly due to tea dust and can be removed by its washing before preparing tea

  6. Ethanol extract of the leaves of Psidium guajava Linn enhances sperm output in healthy Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinola, O B; Oladosu, O S; Dosumu, O O

    2007-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), among other factors, have been implicated in the aetiology of male infertility. Thus, the roles of antioxidants at improving sperm production and quality are being investigated. The present study was designed to assess the effect of the ethanol extract of fresh leaves of Psidium guajava Linn. on the sperm parameters of healthy male Wistar rats. A total of 18 rats, weighing between 108-124 g, were divided into 3 groups of 6 animals each. Animals in groups 1 and 2 were administered 250 mg/kg/d and 500 mg/kg/d of guava leaf extract (GLE) orally for 53 days respectively. Group 3 animals received normal saline. Sperm count increased from 56.2+/-0.3 (x10(6)) in the control to 57.1+/-0.2 (x10(6)) in group 1 animals, and from 56.2+/-0.3 (x10(6)) in the control to 72.3+/-0.4 (x10(6)) in group 2 animals. Similarly, dose-dependent increases in the percentages of motile spermatozoa were observed in GLE-treated animals compared to the control group. These findings suggest that the extracts of the leaves of Psidium guajava Linn. possess beneficial effects on sperm production and quality, and may thus improve the sperm parameters of infertile males with oligospermia and nonobstructive azoospermia.

  7. Protective effects of polysaccharides from Psidium guajava leaves against oxidative stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seo-Young; Kim, Eun-A; Kim, Young-Sun; Yu, Seok-Kyu; Choi, Changyong; Lee, Jung-Suk; Kim, Yong-Tae; Nah, Jae-Woon; Jeon, You-Jin

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze antioxidant properties of a polysaccharide isolated from Psidium guajava leaves (PS-PGL) in vitro including its radical scavenging activities and protective effects against damage to cells as well as in vivo in zebrafish. The water extract of P. guajava leaves (WE-PGL) and PS-PGL showed strong radical scavenging effects in terms of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl, and alkyl radical. Compared to WE-PGL, PS-PGL enhanced all scavenging activities and in particular strongly scavenged the hydroxyl radical (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], 0.02mg/mL). In addition, PS-PGL exerted a protective effect against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and against toxicity to Vero cells. Furthermore, in vivo experiments using zebrafish embryos indicated that treatment with hydrogen peroxide decreased the survival rate and heart-beating rate of zebrafish embryos, whereas these problems were reduced by PS-PGL treatment. Moreover, PS-PGL inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lipid peroxidation, and cell death. Taken together, these results suggest that PS-PGL may be useful as a beneficial antioxidant material in the food and cosmetic industries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Einstein's Tea Leaves and Pressure Systems in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Amit; Marshall, John

    2010-01-01

    Tea leaves gather in the center of the cup when the tea is stirred. In 1926 Einstein explained the phenomenon in terms of a secondary, rim-to-center circulation caused by the fluid rubbing against the bottom of the cup. This explanation can be connected to air movement in atmospheric pressure systems to explore, for example, why low-pressure…

  9. High performance thin layer chromatography fingerprint analysis of guava (Psidium guajava) leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, M.; Darusman, L. K.; Rafi, M.

    2017-05-01

    High-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint analysis is commonly used for quality control of medicinal plants in term of identification and authentication. In this study, we have been developed HPTLC fingerprint analysis for identification of guava (Psidium guajava) leaves raw material. A mixture of chloroform, acetone, and formic acid in the ratio 10:2:1 was used as the optimum mobile phase in HPTLC silica plate and with 13 bands were detected. As reference marker we chose gallic acid (Rf = 0.21) and catechin (Rf = 0.11). The two compound were detected as pale black bands at 366 nm after derivatization with sulfuric acid 10% v/v (in methanol) reagent. Validation of the method was met within validation criteria, so the developed method could be used for quality control of guava leaves.

  10. Determination of pesticide residue transfer rates (percent) from dried tea leaves to brewed tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Cheung, Wendy; Leung, Daniel

    2014-01-29

    This paper presents a study on pesticide residue transfer rates (%) from dried tea leaves to brewed tea. In the study, a brewing procedure simulated the preparation of a hot tea drink as in routine. After brewing, pesticide residues were extracted from brewed tea using a method known as QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe). An UHPLC/ESI-MS/MS method was developed and validated to identify and quantify up to 172 pesticides in both tea leaves and brewed tea samples. Quantification was achieved using matrix-matched standard calibration curves with isotopically labeled standards or a chemical analogue as internal standards, and the calibration curves consisted of six points (0.4, 2.0, 8.0, 16.0, 24.0, and 40.0 μg/L equivalent in sample). The method was validated at four concentration levels (4.0, 12, 20.0, and 32.0 μg/L equivalent in sample) using five different brewed tea matrices on two separate days per matrix. Method performance parameters included overall recovery, intermediate precision, and measurement uncertainty, which were evaluated according to a nested experimental design. Approximately, 95% of the pesticides studied had recoveries between 81 and 110%, intermediate precision ≤20%, and measurement uncertainty ≤40%. From a pilot study of 44 incurred tea samples, pesticide residues were examined for their ability to transfer from dried tea leaves to brewed tea. Each sample, both tea leaves and brewed tea, was analyzed in duplicate. Pesticides were found to have different transfer rates (%). For example, imidacloprid, methomyl, and carbendazim had transfer rates of 84.9, 83.4, and 92.4%, respectively.

  11. Effects of Water Solutions on Extracting Green Tea Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ying Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of water solutions on the antioxidant content of green tea leaf extracts. Green teas prepared with tap water and distilled water were compared with respect to four antioxidant assays: total phenol content, reducing power, DMPD assay, and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay. The results indicate that green tea prepared with distilled water exhibits higher antioxidant activity than that made with tap water. The high performance liquid chromatography showed that major constituents of green tea were found in higher concentrations in tea made with distilled water than in that made with tap water. This could be due to less calcium fixation in leaves and small water clusters. Water solutions composed of less mineralisation are more effective in promoting the quality of green tea leaf extracts.

  12. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of antioxidant compounds from Guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaves using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fansheng; Yu, Shujuan; Feng, Zeng; Wu, Xinlan

    2015-01-01

    To optimization of extraction of antioxidant compounds from guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaves and showed that the guava leaves are the potential source of antioxidant compounds. The bioactive polysaccharide compounds of guava leaves (P. guajava L.) were obtained using ultrasonic-assisted extraction. Extraction was carried out according to Box-Behnken central composite design, and independent variables were temperature (20-60°C), time (20-40 min) and power (200-350 W). The extraction process was optimized by using response surface methodology for the highest crude extraction yield of bioactive polysaccharide compounds. The optimal conditions were identified as 55°C, 30 min, and 240 W. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl and hydroxyl free radical scavenging were conducted. The results of quantification showed that the guava leaves are the potential source of antioxidant compounds.

  13. [Origin of sennosides in health teas including Malva leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, T; Kishi, M; Sekita, S; Satake, M

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify whether sennosides are contained in the leaf of Malva verticillata L., and then to clarify the source of sennosides in health teas including malva leaves. The identification and determination of sennosides were performed with thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The leaf of Malva verticillata L. did not contain sennosides A or B and could be easily distinguished from senna leaf. Our previous report showed that sennosides are contained in weight-reducing herbal teas including malva leaves, and that senna leaf is a herbal component in some teas. Furthermore, in 10 samples of health tea including malva leaves that were bought last year, the smallest amount of sennosides was 6.1 mg/bag, and all health teas including malva leaves contained the leaf and midrib of senna. We suggest that sennosides A and B are not contained in the leaf of Malva verticillata L., and that the sennosides in health teas including malva leaves are not derived from malva leaf but from senna leaf.

  14. [Study on antioxidant activity of flavonoids from leaves of Psidium guajava].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu-Jing; Li, Jian-Kuan; Zhang, Xin; Gao, Jian-Ping

    2018-02-01

    The present study is to study the chemical constituents from ethanol extract of Psidium guajava leaves. The constituents were separated and purified by silica gel column chromaiographios over, macroporous resin D-101, Sephadex LH-20, and ODS. Six flavonoids compounds were isolated and identified as quercetin(1), quercetin-3- O - α -D-arabinopyranoside(2), quercetin-3- O - α -D-ribopyranoside(3), quercetin-3- O - β -D-galactopyranoside(4), quercetin-3- O - α -D-glucopyranoside(5), and quercetin-3- O - α- D-xylpyranoside(6). The antioxidant effects of six flavonoids was evaluated by scavenging ability of DPPH, superoxide anion, ABTS·⁺, and reducing effect of Fe³⁺ as well as total antioxidant capacity(FRAP). Vitamin C was used as positive control. The results indicated that six flavonoids exhibited significant antioxidant effects. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  15. [n-Butyl Alcohol-soluble Chemical Constituents of Psidium guajava Leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Wan, Kai-hua; Fu, Hui-zheng; Yan, Qing-wei

    2015-03-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the leaves of Psidium guajava. The chemical constituents were isolated by column chromatography on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and MPLC. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of special analysis. Seven compounds were isolated from n-butyl alcohol fraction, whose structures were elucidated as morin-3-O-α-L-arabopyranoside (1), morin-3-O-α-L-iyxopyranoside (2), 2,6-dihydroxy-4-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-benzophenone (3), casuarictin (4),2,6-dihydroxy-3,5-dimethyl-4-O-(6"-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-benzophenone(5), globulusin A(6), and kaempferol-3-O-β-D-(6"-galloyl) galactopyranoside (7). Compounds 3 and 5 ~ 7 are isolated from this plant for the first time.

  16. [Chemical Constituents from Ethyl Acetate Extract of Psidium guajava Leaves (II)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wen; Zhu, Xiao-ai; He, Cui-xia; Chen, Xue-xiang; Ye, Shu-min; Peng, Shan; Cao, Yong

    2015-08-01

    To study the chemical constituents from ethyl acetate extract of Psidium guajava leaves. The constituents were separated and purified by silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and their structures were identified on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral data. Eleven compounds were isolated and identified as 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone (1), phytyl-acetate (2), cubenol (3), eucalyptin (4), n-docosanoic acid-p-hydroxy-phenethylol ester (5),8-methyl-5,7- dihydroxy-flavonone (6), 6-methyl-5,7-dihydroxy-flavonone (7), betulinic acid (8), carnosol (9), quercetin (10), and 2,4,6-tirhydroxy- 3,5-dimethyl-diphenylketone-4-O-(6'"-O-galloyl)-β-D-glucoside (11). Compounds 1-9 are isolated from this plant for the first time.

  17. Chemical Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of fresh leaves of psidium guajava cultivated in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, S.; Ali, S.N.; Tauseef, S.

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro antioxidant activities of the methanol extract of fresh leaves of Psidium guajava cultivated in Pakistan and its different fractions were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. The methanol extract, main ethyl acetate fraction and its polar sub fraction showed high free radical scavenging activity with EC50 11.72, 11.72 and 46.8 micro g/mL respectively. The first two values are comparable with that of reference compound ascorbic acid (EC50 9.4 ?g/mL). The known antioxidants gallic acid (1), methyl ferulate (2) and methyl p-E-coumarate (3) were isolated from the ethyl acetate insoluble fraction. Their structures were identified by mass, 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Compounds 2 and 3 are reported for the first time from the genus Psidium. (author)

  18. Antioxidant and mercury chelating activity of Psidium guajava var. pomifera L. leaves hydroalcoholic extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Antonio Ivanildo; Oliveira, Cláudia Sirlene; Lovato, Fabricio Luís; Waczuk, Emily Pansera; Piccoli, Bruna Candia; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Leite, Nadghia Figueredo; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Posser, Thais; Da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Franco, Jeferson Luis

    2017-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is widely distributed in the environment and is known to produce several adverse effects in organisms. The aim of the present study was to examine the in vitro antioxidant activity and Hg chelating ability of the hydroalcoholic extract of Psidium guajava leaves (HEPG). In addition, the potential protective effects of HEPG against Hg(II) were evaluated using a yeast model (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). HEPG was found to exert significant antioxidant activity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenger and inhibition of lipid peroxidation induced by Fe(II) assays in a concentration-dependent manner. The extract also exhibited significant Hg(II) chelating activity. In yeast, Hg(II) induced a significant decrease in cell viability. In contrast, HEPG partially prevented the fall in cell viability induced by Hg(II). In conclusion, HEPG exhibited protective effects against Hg(II)-mediated toxicity, which may be related to both antioxidant and Hg(II)-chelating activities.

  19. Investigation of inorganic constituents of commercial tea brands and fresh tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, H.; Hussain, I.

    2009-01-01

    The inorganic constituents including total hardness, total alkalinity, chlorides (Cr/sup -1/), sulphates (SO/sub 4/sup -2/), nitrates (NO/sub 3/sup -1/, nitrites (NO/sub 2/sup -1/ and phosphates (PO/sub 4/sup -3/) along with pH were monitored in various tea brands and fresh tea leaves available in Pakistan. The commercial 14 tea samples were collected from the local markets in Peshawar while fresh tea leaves was obtained directly from tea plants at the National Tea Research Center, Mansehra, Pakistan and analyzed for the above parameters. The results were compared with World Health Organization (WHO) standards for drinking water quality which showed that some parameters were higher than the WHO permissible levels indicating the environmental pollution threat in areas where the tea plants were grown Efforts have been made to draw any correlations with the reported constituents of the tea samples for the beneficial health effects or otherwise and their daily intake. The adverse effects of the tested parameters on human health have also been discussed. (author)

  20. The accumulation and elimination of 89Sr in tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongxi; Wang Shouxiang; Chen Chuanqun; Sun Zhiming; Hu Bingmin; Huang Dan

    1995-01-01

    The 89 Sr was added to the tea tree-soil system by different ways. The 89 Sr in the system through the over-ground part of tea tree, was much more than that through soil. The 89 Sr concentration in older leaves was higher than in shoot for a definite treatment. The accumulation elimination law of 89 Sr in leaves varied with the treatments. For the treatment through the over-ground part, the 89 Sr concentration in older leaves and shoot was monotonously decreased with time increasing. But for the treatment through soil the 89 Sr concentration in shoot was increased to reach a peak value, and then decreased slowly; while the 89 Sr concentration in older leaves increased quickly in a period, then increased slowly to attain a saturated value. In addition, the concentration factor of 89 Sr in older leaves and shoot were determined

  1. Guajavadimer A, a Dimeric Caryophyllene-Derived Meroterpenoid with a New Carbon Skeleton from the Leaves of Psidium guajava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuang-Jun; Ma, Jie; Sun, Hua; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Dong-Ming

    2016-01-15

    Guajavadimer A (1), a dimeric sesquiterpene-based meroterpenoid which possessed an unprecedented two caryophyllenes, a benzylphlorogulcinol, and a flavonone-fused complicated stereochemical skeleton, was isolated from the leaves of Psidium guajava L. Its structure and absolute configuration were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data and X-ray crystallography. Guajavadimer A (1) showed moderate hepatoprotective activity against N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP)-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells.

  2. Altering the phenolics profile of a green tea leaves extract using exogenous oxidases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, A.J.W.; Gruppen, H.; Bisschop, Robbin; Vincken, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    Transformation from green tea leaves into black tea involves oxidation of catechins into theaflavins and other complex phenolics by endogenous enzymes in tea leaves. By employing tyrosinase and laccase, both from Agaricus bisporus, on green tea catechins, the oxidation process was directed

  3. Sulfur volatiles in guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaves: possible defense mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouseff, Russell L; Onagbola, Ebenezer O; Smoot, John M; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2008-10-08

    Volatiles from crushed and intact guava leaves (Psidium guajava L.) were collected using static headspace SPME and determined using GC-PFPD, pulsed flame photometric detection, and GC-MS. Leaf volatiles from four common citrus culitvars were examined similarly to determine the potential component(s) responsible for guava's protective effect against the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama), which is the insect vector of Huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening disease. Seven sulfur volatiles were detected: hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide (DMS), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), methional, and dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS). Identifications were based on matching linear retention index values on ZB-5, DB-Wax, and PLOT columns and MS spectra in the case of DMDS and DMS. DMDS is an insect toxic, defensive volatile produced only by wounded guava but not citrus leaves and, thus, may be the component responsible for the protective effect of guava against the HLB vector. DMDS is formed immediately after crushing, becoming the major headspace volatile within 10 min. Forty-seven additional leaf volatiles were identified from LRI and MS data in the crushed guava leaf headspace.

  4. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Psidium Guajava Leaves on Liver Enzymes, Histological Integrity and Hematological Indices in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uboh, Friday E.; Okon, Iniobong E.; Ekong, Moses B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase(AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin and total protein levels, as well as the tissue histological assay are known to be useful in assessing the functional integrity of the liver. Also, assessment of red and white blood cells count, hematocrit and hemoglobin concentrations is useful in determining the effect of some chemical substances on hemotopoietic system. In recent times, reports from medicinal plants research indicate that extracts from some plants are both hepatotoxic and hematotoxic, while others on the other hand are reported to be hepatoprotective and hematopoietic in action. This study considers the effects of aqueous extract of Psidium guajava (P. guajava) leaves on the histology and biochemical indices of liver function as well as hematological indices in rats. Methods In this study, phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract of P. guajava leaves was carried out. Also, male and female rats were administered with 200 mg/kg body weight oral daily doses of aqueous extract of P. guajava leaves for a period of 30 days. At the end of the administration period, the rats were anaesthesized with chloroform vapors and dissected for the collection of blood and liver tissues which were used for the hematopoietic and liver functions investigations. Results Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the plant leaves showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, polyphenols, reducing compounds, saponins and tannins. Liver function tests revealed that the serum ALT, AST and ALP, as well as the concentrations of total protein and albumin in male and female rats were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by the oral administration of the extract. Histopathological study also did not show any adverse alteration in the morphological architecture of the liver tissues in both sexes of the animal model. However, red blood cell counts, hemotocrit and hemoglobin concentrations increased

  5. Stability of green tea catechins in commercial tea leaves during storage for 6 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel; Levin, C E; Lee, S-U; Kozukue, N

    2009-03-01

    To help meet the needs of consumers, producers of dietary tea products, and researchers for information on health-promoting tea ingredients, we determined by HPLC 7 catechins [(-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-catechin (C), (+)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), (-)-gallocatechin 3-gallate (GCG), (-)-epicatechin 3-gallate (ECG), and (-)-catechin 3-gallate (CG)] in samples of 8 commercial green tea leaves of unknown history sold as tea bags in the United States, Korea, and Japan. The samples were stored at 20 degrees C and sampled at 1 wk and 1, 2, 4, and 6 mo. The following ranges in the initial values (0 controls) were observed (in mg/g tea leaves): EGC and C, 0 to trace amounts; EC, 1.9 to 21.1; EGCG, 13.3 to 113.0; GCG, 0.2 to 1.6; ECG, 5.7 to 50.5; CG 0.5 to 3.7; total catechins 36.5 to 169.7. Statistical analysis of the results and plots of changes in individual and total catechin levels as a function of storage time indicate a progressive decrease in the content in the total levels, most of which is due to losses in the most abundant catechins, EGCG and ECG. Possible mechanisms of degradations of catechins during storage and the possible significance of the results to consumers of tea are discussed.

  6. Comparative study of the volatile oil content and antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava L. and Psidium cattleianum Sabine leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathy M. Soliman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the hydrodistilled oils of the leaves of Psidium guajava L. (guava leaf and Psidium cattleianum Sabine (strawberry guava was determined by GC/MS analysis to identify their chemotypes. Moreover, in vitro antimicrobial activity of these volatile oils against selected bacteria, yeast, and mycelia fungi was studied. The yield of the volatile oil hydrodistilled from the leaves of P. guajava L. and P. cattleianum Sabine was 1.6 and 2.69 g/kg on fresh weight basis, respectively. Limonene was the major identified hydrocarbon in P. guava leaves’ oil (54.70%, whereas, 1, 8-cineole was the major identified oxygenated monoterpenoid (32.14% in common guava leaves. The foliar oil of P. cattleianum was predominated by the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon; β-caryophyllene representing 28.83% of the total oil make-up. The antibacterial activity of guava leaf oil was more pronounced against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa than that of strawberry guava leaves, while P. cattleianum showed a higher activity against ess. The MIC of the volatile oil of the leaves of P. guajava against S. aureus was 6.75 μg/ml, while that of P. cattleianum exhibited MIC value of 13.01 μg/ml against Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Results demonstrated that the volatile oil of both Psidium species showed different chemotypes. Moreover, the volatile oils of guava and strawberry guava leaves might be good candidates as antimicrobial agents.

  7. Chemical profile of a polysaccharide from Psidium guajava leaves and it's in vivo antitussive activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawas, Sadhana; Sivová, Veronika; Anand, Namrata; Bera, Kaushik; Ray, Bimalendu; Nosáľová, Gabriela; Ray, Sayani

    2018-04-01

    Decoction of Psidium guajava leaves has been used as medication for chronic coughs and breathlessness for ages. Despite demonstration of antitussive activity, the specific molecule responsible for this remains unidentified. Herein, we report chemical profile and antitussive activity of its water extract (WE) and a polysaccharide (F1) present therein. This polysaccharide (F1), purified from WE by precipitation with ethanol and then through Cu(II)acetate, contains Ara, Gal, Rha, Glc and GalA residues, and has a molecular mass of 156 kDa. It comprises of terminal-, (1,5)- and (1,3,5)-linked Araf; (1,3)-, (1,6)- and (1,3,6)-linked Galp alongside (1,2)- and (1,2,4)-linked Rhap residues. Oligosaccharides indicating polysaccharide structure have been generated by Smith degradation and characterized. The WE fraction suppressed citric acid induced cough efforts in guinea pigs in the dose of 50 mg kg -1 . Assessment of antitussive activity of fractions prepared from WE namely F1 (polysaccharide) and F2 (ethanol soluble fraction) revealed that polysaccharide is the active component. Remarkably, tested samples do not alter the specific airway smooth muscle reactivity in animals significantly. The simple extraction method, prominent activity and favorable reactions profile suggest that this macromolecule could be an antitussive drug candidate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Formation and emission of linalool in tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves infested by tea green leafhopper (Empoasca (Matsumurasca) onukii Matsuda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xin; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Ying; Wang, Xiaoqin; Zeng, Lanting; Fu, Xiumin; Li, Jianlong; Tang, Jinchi; Dong, Fang; Yang, Ziyin

    2017-12-15

    Famous oolong tea (Oriental Beauty), which is manufactured by tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) infected with tea green leafhoppers, contains characteristic volatile monoterpenes derived from linalool. This study aimed to determine the formation mechanism of linalool in tea exposed to tea green leafhopper attack. The tea green leafhopper responsible for inducing the production of characteristic volatiles was identified as Empoasca (Matsumurasca) onukii Matsuda. E. (M.) onukii attack significantly induced the emission of linalool from tea leaves (ptea leaves exposed to E. (M.) onukii attack. This information should prove helpful for the future use of stress responses of plant secondary metabolism to improve quality components of agricultural products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of Antioxidant Activity of Spray Dried Extracts of Psidium guajava Leaves by DPPH and Chemiluminescence Inhibition in Human Neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. V. Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of spray dried extracts (SDE from Psidium guajava L. leaves. Different drying carriers, namely, maltodextrin, colloidal silicon dioxide, Arabic gum, and β-cyclodextrin at concentrations of 40 and 80% relative to solids content, were added to drying composition. SDE were characterized through determination of the total phenolic, tannins, and flavonoid content. Antioxidant potential of the SDE was assessed by two assays: cellular test that measures the luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (LumCL produced by neutrophils stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA and the DPPH radical scavenging (DPPH* method. In both assays the antioxidant activity of the SDE occurred in a concentration-dependent manner and showed no toxicity to the cells. Using the CLlum method, the IC50 ranged from 5.42 to 6.50 µg/mL. The IC50 of the SDE ranged from 7.96 to 8.11 µg/mL using the DPPH• method. Psidium guajava SDE presented significant antioxidant activity; thus they show high potential as an active phytopharmaceutical ingredient. Our findings in human neutrophils are pharmacologically relevant since they indicate that P. guajava SDE is a potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent in human cells.

  10. Assessment of antioxidant activity of spray dried extracts of Psidium guajava leaves by DPPH and chemiluminescence inhibition in human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, M R V; Azzolini, A E C S; Martinez, M L L; Souza, C R F; Lucisano-Valim, Y M; Oliveira, W P

    2014-01-01

    This work evaluated the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of spray dried extracts (SDE) from Psidium guajava L. leaves. Different drying carriers, namely, maltodextrin, colloidal silicon dioxide, Arabic gum, and β -cyclodextrin at concentrations of 40 and 80% relative to solids content, were added to drying composition. SDE were characterized through determination of the total phenolic, tannins, and flavonoid content. Antioxidant potential of the SDE was assessed by two assays: cellular test that measures the luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (LumCL) produced by neutrophils stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and the DPPH radical scavenging (DPPH∗ method). In both assays the antioxidant activity of the SDE occurred in a concentration-dependent manner and showed no toxicity to the cells. Using the CLlum method, the IC50 ranged from 5.42 to 6.50 µg/mL. The IC50 of the SDE ranged from 7.96 to 8.11 µg/mL using the DPPH(•) method. Psidium guajava SDE presented significant antioxidant activity; thus they show high potential as an active phytopharmaceutical ingredient. Our findings in human neutrophils are pharmacologically relevant since they indicate that P. guajava SDE is a potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent in human cells.

  11. Study of nutritional value of dried tea leaves and infusions of black, green and white teas from Chinese plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czernicka, Maria; Zaguła, Grzegorz; Bajcar, Marcin; Saletnik, Bogdan; Puchalski, Czesław

    The processing of tea leaves determines the contents of bioactive ingredients, hence it should be expected that each variety of tea, black, red or green, will represent a different package of compounds of physiological importance. Taste and aroma, as well as price and brand are the main factors impacting consumers’ preferences with regard to tea of their choice; on the other hand consumers less frequently pay attention to the chemical composition and nutritional value of tea. The purpose of the study was assessment of the nutritional value of black, green and white high-quality tea leaf from Chinese plantations based on the chemical composition of the dried leaves as well as minerals and caffeine content in tea infusions. The research material included 18 high-quality loose-leaf teas produced at Chinese plantations, imported to Poland, and purchased in an online store. The analyses included examination of the dried tea leaves for their chemical composition (contents of water, protein, volatile substances and ash) and assessment of selected minerals and caffeine contents in the tea infusions. High-quality Chinese green teas were found with the most valuable composition of minerals, i.e. the highest contents of Zn, Mn, Mg, K, Ca and Al and the highest contents of protein in comparison to the other products. Chinese black teas had the highest contents of total ash and caffeine and white teas were characterized with high content of volatile substances, similar to the black teas, and the highest content of water and the lowest content of total ash. The three types of tea brews examined in the present study, in particular green tea beverages, significantly enhance the organism’s mineral balance by providing valuable elements

  12. Extractability of radiocesium from processed green tea leaves with hot water. The first emergent tea leaves harvested after the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, K.; Uchida, S.; Ishii, N.

    2012-01-01

    In some tea tree planting areas within 300 km from the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP), it was found that newly emerged tea plant leaves for green tea contained two radiocesium species (cesium-134 and cesium-137). In this study, using processed green tea leaves for drinking, extraction ratios of radiocesium under several brew conditions were observed. When 90 deg C water was used, 50-70% of radiocesium was extracted into the water, while 54-60% of radiocesium was extracted with 60 deg C water. A part of radiocesium would be removed from leaves if the leaves were washed with 20 and 60 deg C water before brewing, and the efficiencies were 11 and 32%, respectively. Newly emerged camellia leaves were used to simulate the radiocesium removal ratio from raw tea leaves by washing and boiling; radioactivity concentration was decreased to 60% of the original concentration with washing and 10 min boiling. From these results, it was found that almost half of the radiocesium would not be removed from raw or processed tea leaves. The values obtained in the present study could be used for internal radiation dose estimation from tea leaves. (author)

  13. A possible glycosidic benzophenone with full substitution on B-ring from Psidium guajava leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, Alessandro; Ukwueze, Stanley E

    2017-04-01

    Bidimensional NMR analysis may be a useful tool to resolve the structure of chemical compounds also in mixture. This letter would demonstrate how these techniques could be applied e.g. to the reported case on identification of benzophenone glycoside from Psidium guajava. A tentative structure for the secondary component, not yet described, was possibly proposed on the basis of observation and critic review of available 1D and 2D NMR spectra.

  14. Metabolomics analysis reveals the metabolic and functional roles of flavonoids in light-sensitive tea leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qunfeng; Liu, Meiya; Ruan, Jianyun

    2017-03-20

    As the predominant secondary metabolic pathway in tea plants, flavonoid biosynthesis increases with increasing temperature and illumination. However, the concentration of most flavonoids decreases greatly in light-sensitive tea leaves when they are exposed to light, which further improves tea quality. To reveal the metabolism and potential functions of flavonoids in tea leaves, a natural light-sensitive tea mutant (Huangjinya) cultivated under different light conditions was subjected to metabolomics analysis. The results showed that chlorotic tea leaves accumulated large amounts of flavonoids with ortho-dihydroxylated B-rings (e.g., catechin gallate, quercetin and its glycosides etc.), whereas total flavonoids (e.g., myricetrin glycoside, epigallocatechin gallate etc.) were considerably reduced, suggesting that the flavonoid components generated from different metabolic branches played different roles in tea leaves. Furthermore, the intracellular localization of flavonoids and the expression pattern of genes involved in secondary metabolic pathways indicate a potential photoprotective function of dihydroxylated flavonoids in light-sensitive tea leaves. Our results suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and the antioxidation effects of flavonoids help chlorotic tea plants survive under high light stress, providing new evidence to clarify the functional roles of flavonoids, which accumulate to high levels in tea plants. Moreover, flavonoids with ortho-dihydroxylated B-rings played a greater role in photo-protection to improve the acclimatization of tea plants.

  15. Occurrence and Residue Pattern of Phthalate Esters in Fresh Tea Leaves and during Tea Manufacturing and Brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pingxiang; Chen, Hongping; Gao, Guanwei; Hao, Zhenxia; Wang, Chen; Ma, Guicen; Chai, Yunfeng; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Xin

    2016-11-23

    The residues of 16 phthalate esters (PAEs) in fresh tea leaves and made tea were determined via gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to study their distribution and degradation characteristics during tea planting and processing. Five PAEs were detected in all fresh tea leaves, and higher concentrations were detected in mature leaves. The distribution of PAEs in fresh tea leaves ranged from 69.7 to 2244.0 μg/kg. The degradative percentages of ∑ 5 PAEs during green tea manufacturing ranged from 61 to 63% and were significantly influenced by the drying process. The transfer rates of PAEs-D 4 ranged from 5.2 to 100.6%. PAEs with a high water solubility showed the highest transfer coefficient in the range of 91.8-100.6%, whereas PAEs with a high log K ow showed a low leaching efficiency below 11.9%. These results benefit the risk evaluation and establishment of a maximum residue limit for PAEs in tea.

  16. Fluorescent Staining of Tea Pathogenic Fungi in Tea Leaves Using Fluorescein-labeled Lectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kengo; Yoshida, Katsuyuki; Sonoda, Ryoichi

    Fluorochrome-labeled lectin, fluorescein conjugated wheat germ agglutinin (F-WGA) was applied to stain tea pathogenic fungi in tea leaf tissue. Infected leaves were fixed and decolorized with a mixture of ethanol and acetic acid, and cleared with 10% KOH for whole mount before staining with F-WGA. Hyphae of Pestalotiopsis longiseta, Pseudocercospora ocellata, Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum theae-sinensis fluoresced brightly in whole mount and sectioned samples of infected leaf tissue. In browned tissue, hyphae did not fluoresce frequently in whole mount sample. Autofluorescence of leaf tissue was strong in browned tissue of sections, it was removed by 10% KOH treatment before staining. Penetration hyphae of C. theae-sinensis in cell wall of trichome and hyphae in basal part of trichome did not fluoresced frequently. In whole mount samples of tea leaf infected with Exobasidium vexans and E. reticulatum, hymenia appeared on leaf surface fluoresced, but hyphae in leaf tissue did not fluoresce. In sectioned samples, hyphae fluoresced brightly when sections were treated with 10% KOH before staining.

  17. Psiguajadials A-K: Unusual Psidium Meroterpenoids as Phosphodiesterase-4 Inhibitors from the Leaves of Psidium guajava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Gui-Hua; Dong, Zhen; Guo, Yan-Qiong; Cheng, Zhong-Bin; Zhou, Chu-Jun; Yin, Sheng

    2017-04-21

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Psidium guajava led to the isolation of 11 new Psidium meroterpenoids, psiguajadials A-K (1-11), along with 17 known ones (12-28). Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and comparison of experimental and calculated ECD. Compounds 1 and 2 represent two unprecedented skeletons of 3,5-diformyl-benzyl phloroglucinol-coupled sesquiterpenoid, while 3 is the first example of Psidium meroterpenoids coupling via an oxepane ring. Putative biosynthetic pathways towards 1 and 2 are proposed. Compounds 1-13 and 16-26 exhibited moderate inhibitory activities against phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4), a drug target for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, with IC 50 values in the range of 1.34-7.26 μM.

  18. Molecular mechanisms of the antiglycative and cardioprotective activities of Psidium guajava leaves in the rat diabetic myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soman, Sowmya; Rajamanickam, Chellam; Rauf, Arun A; Madambath, Indira

    2016-12-01

    Antiglycative potential of Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) leaves has been established. However, the molecular basis of its antiglycative potential remains unknown. The ethyl acetate fraction of P. guajava leaves (PGEt) was evaluated to determine the cardioprotective effect and its mechanism of action compared to quercetin. After the induction of diabetes by streptozotocin (55 mg/kg body weight), PGEt and quercetin (50 mg/kg body weight) was administered for 60 days. Rats were grouped as follows: Group C: Control, Group D: Diabetic, Group D + E: Diabetic rats treated with PGEt, Group D + Q: Diabetic rats treated with quercetin. The antiglycative potential was evaluated by assaying glycosylated haemoglobin, serum fructosamine and advanced glycation end product levels. The differential receptor for advanced glycation end products and nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) protein levels was determined by western blot and the transcript level changes of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and TGF-β1 in heart tissue were assessed by RT-PCR analysis. Glycated haemoglobin and serum fructosamine levels were found to be enhanced in diabetic rats when compared with control. Administration of PGEt significantly reduced the glycated haemoglobin and fructosamine levels to a larger extent than quercetin treated diabetic rats. PGEt reduced the translocation of NFκB from cytosol to nucleus when compared with diabetic rats. Expression of TGF-β1, CTGF and BNP was downregulated in PGEt treated groups compared with diabetic controls. Administration of PGEt ameliorated diabetes associated changes in the myocardium to a greater extent than quercetin.

  19. Chemical Compositions, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils of Psidium guajava L. Leaves from Different Geographic Regions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Wu, Yanan; Huang, Tao; Shi, Kan; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2017-09-01

    Hydrodistilled essential oils (EO) of Psidium guajava L. leaves from different regions in China were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The samples from Guangdong Province displayed high EO yields (0.61 - 0.75%, v/w). A total of 50 components, representing over 98.00% of the EOs, were identified and semi-quantitatived. The major constituents of EOs included β-caryophyllene (17.17 - 31.38%), γ-gurjunene (9.17 - 15.22%), τ-cadinol (1.35 - 10.02%) and calamenene (2.13 - 7.80%). The terpenoids in all sample oils were dominated by sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons (70.18 - 84.35%), followed by oxygenated sesquiterpenes (9.89 - 22.19%). The similarities and differences among EOs from different samples were evaluated by hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis methods. The IC 50 values of EOs from different regions were between 18.52 - 33.72 mg/ml (DPPH) and 13.12 - 25.15 mg/ml (ABTS + ). The FRAP value of EO from Guangdong Province was 7.34 - 9.13 mmol Vc/g DM, while the FRAP value of EO from Taiwan Province was 2.29 - 2.36 mmol Vc/g DM. The antimicrobial tests revealed that EO had a higher antimicrobial activity against all Gram-positive bacteria and two fungi. Moreover, EO from P. guajava leaves of Guangdong Province showed the highest antimicrobial activity. These properties can be considered in the design of industrial products and for further application in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  20. Green Tea Leaves Extract: Microencapsulation, Physicochemical and Storage Stability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Zokti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Green tea polyphenols have been reported to possess many biological properties. Despite the many potential benefits of green tea extracts, their sensitivity to high temperature, pH and oxygen is a major disadvantage hindering their effective utilization in the food industry. Green tea leaves from the Cameron Highlands Malaysia were extracted using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE. To improve the stability, green tea extracts were encapsulated by spray-drying using different carrier materials including maltodextrin (MD, gum arabic (GA and chitosan (CTS and their combinations at different ratios. Encapsulation efficiency, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were determined and were found to be in the range of 71.41%–88.04%, 19.32–24.90 (g GAE/100 g, and 29.52%–38.05% respectively. Further analysis of moisture content, water activity, hygroscopicity, bulk density and mean particles size distribution of the microparticles were carried out and the results ranged from; 2.31%–5.11%, 0.28–0.36, 3.22%–4.71%, 0.22–0.28 g/cm3 and 40.43–225.64 µm respectively. The ability of the microparticles to swell in simulated gastric fluid (SGF and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF was determined as 142.00%–188.63% and 207.55%–231.77%, respectively. Release of catechin polyphenol from microparticles in SIF was higher comparable to that of SGF. Storage stability of encapsulated catechin extracts under different temperature conditions was remarkably improved compared to non-encapsulated extract powder. This study showed that total catechin, total phenolic content (TPC and antioxidant activity did not decrease significantly (p ≥ 0.05 under 4 °C storage conditions. The half-life study results were in the range of 35–60, 34–65 and 231–288 weeks at storage temperatures of 40 °C, 25 °C and 4 °C respectively, therefore, for improved shelf-life stability we recommend that microparticles should be stored at temperatures below 25 °C.

  1. Formation of (E)-nerolidol in tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves exposed to multiple stresses during tea manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Zeng, Lanting; Liu, Xiaoyu; Gui, Jiadong; Mei, Xin; Fu, Xiumin; Dong, Fang; Tang, Jingchi; Zhang, Lingyun; Yang, Ziyin

    2017-09-15

    (E)-Nerolidol is a volatile sesquiterpene that contributes to the floral aroma of teas (Camellia sinensis). The unique manufacturing process for oolong tea involves multiple stresses, resulting in a high content of (E)-nerolidol, which is not known to form in tea leaves. This study aimed to determine the formation mechanism of (E)-nerolidol in tea exposed to multiple stresses during tea manufacture. C. sinensis (E)-nerolidol synthase (CsNES) recombinant protein, found in the cytosol, was found to transform farnesyl diphosphate into (E)-nerolidol. CsNES was highly expressed during the oolong tea turn over process, resulting in (E)-nerolidol accumulation. Continuous mechanical damage, simulating the turn over process, significantly enhanced CsNES expression level and (E)-nerolidol content. The combination of low temperature stress and mechanical damage had a synergistic effect on (E)-nerolidol formation. This is the first evidence of (E)-nerolidol formation mechanism in tea leaves and a characteristic example of plant volatile formation in response to dual stresses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Tracking residual organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in green, herbal, and black tea leaves and infusions of commercially available tea products marketed in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witczak, Agata; Abdel-Gawad, Hassan; Zalesak, Michal; Pohoryło, Anna

    2018-03-01

    The content of residual organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was examined in green, herbal, and black tea leaves as well as in their infusions prepared from tea products marketed in the main supermarkets in Poland. It was found that the detected mean levels of organochlorine residues in tea leaves ranged from tea occurred in the highest concentrations. Among dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) metabolites the highest level of p,p'DDT (1.96 ng g -1 dw) was in green tea samples. The transfer of OCPs from tea leaves to brew was investigated. The present study revealed that during the infusion process, a significant percentage of the residues, particularly pesticides with high water solubility, were transferred to the infusions. The obtained results show that the percentage transfer of each pesticides from tea to the tea infusions ranged from 6.74% (heptachlor) to 86.6% (endrin). The detected residues were below current MRLs for these pesticides.

  3. Effect of Andrographis paniculata and Psidium guajava leaves on growth performance and carcass of broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanasit, S.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A six-week experiment was conducted to study the effects of Andrographis paniculata (AP and Psidium guajava (PG on the growth performance and carcass quality of broiler chickens. Six hundred one-day-old (mixed sex broiler chicks were used in ten dietary treatments, in a completely randomized design experiment. There were three replications in each treatment with 20 chicks per pen. The dietary treatments were 1 basal diet (control, 2 basal diet + antibiotic, 3 basal diet + 0.2% AP, 4 basal diet + 0.4% AP, 5 basal diet + 0.2% PG, 6 basal diet + 0.4% PG, 7 basal diet + 0.2% AP + 0.2% PG, 8 basal diet + 0.2% AP + 0.4% PG, 9 basal diet + 0.4% AP + 0.2% PG and 10 basal diet + 0.4% AP + 0.4% PG From 0-3, 3-6 and 0-6 weeks, feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and mortality rate were not significantly different (P>0.05 among treatments. There was no significant difference (P>0.05 in percentages of eviscerated carcass, breast and leg among chicken fed different diets However, percentage of abdominal fat of male chicken fed basal diet + 0.2% AP + 0.2% PG were lower (P<0.05 than other treatments while female chickens fed the same diet were not statistically different.

  4. Spectroscopic Study of Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) Leaves Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuki, A.; Suryanti, V.; Virgynia, A.

    2017-04-01

    This paper reports the analysis of UV-VIS-NIR absorption spectra of different concentrations of green tea (Camellia sinensis) leaf extract in two different solvent systems (chloroform and ethyl acetate). In those solvents, two different peaks characterizing green tea are observed at different wavelengths, namely 296 nm and 329 nm (extracted in chloroform) and 391 nm and 534 nm (extracted in ethyl acetate). We then investigated the absorption spectra change as function of green tea concentration in both solvents. We found that light absorption increases linearly with the increase of green tea concentration. Different wavelengths, however, respond this change differently. However, the way it changes is wavelength dependence.

  5. Dissolution behavior of 137Cs absorbed on the green tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oya, Yasuhisa; Uchimura, Hiromichi; Toda, Kensuke; Okuno, Kenji; Ikka, Takashi; Morita, Akio

    2013-01-01

    The green tea leaves was dipped in the 137 CsCl solution to elucidate the dissolution behavior of 137 Cs contaminated on the green tea leaves. It was found that the amount of 137 Cs dissolved into tea water was controlled by the temperature of water, and the activation energy of 137 Cs dissolution was estimated to be 0.045 eV, indicating that most of 137 Cs would exist as the adsorbed state. In addition, the dissolution behavior was controlled by the concentration of stable Cs dissolved in water, although no large correlation with pH was observed. (author)

  6. A study of the anti-inflammatory effect of the leaves of Psidium guajava Linn. on experimental animal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sarmistha; Das, Swarnamoni

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The aim is to study the anti-inflammatory effect of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Psidium guajava(PGE) on experimental animal models. Materials and Methods: Fresh leaves were collected, air-dried, powdered, and percolated in 95% ethanol. Acute toxicity test was done according to OECD guidelines. Four groups of animals of either sex, weighing 150–200g of the species Rattus norvegicus were taken for the study (n = 6). Group A was taken as control (3% gum acacia in 10 mL/kg body weight), Group B as test group (PGE 250 mg/kg body weight), Group C as test group (PGE 500 mg/kg body weight), and Group D as standard (Aspirin 100 mg/kg body weight). The animals were studied for acute inflammation by Carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, subacute inflammation by Granuloma pouch method, and chronic inflammation by Freund’s adjuvant-induced arthritis method. Statistical analysis was done by one-way analysis of variance followed by multiple comparison tests. Results: In acute inflammation, there was significant inhibition of paw edema in Groups B, C, and D in comparison with Group A (P < 0.05). In subacute inflammation, there was significant inhibition of exudate formation in Groups B, C, and D in comparison to Group A (P < 0.05). In chronic inflammation, there was significant inhibition of paw edema and inhibition of weight reduction in Groups B, C, and D compared with Group A. Downregulation of arthritis index was also significant in Groups B, C, and D in comparison with Group A (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of PGE has significant anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:21589759

  7. The Best Extraction Technique for Kaempferol and Quercetin Isolation from Guava Leaves (Psidium guajava)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batubara, I.; Suparto, I. H.; Wulandari, N. S.

    2017-03-01

    Guava leaves contain various compounds that have biological activity such as kaempferol and quercetin as anticancer. Twelve extraction techniques were performed to obtain the best extraction technique to isolate kaempferol and quercetin from the guava leaves. Toxicity of extracts was tested against Artemia salina larvae. All extracts were toxic (LC50 value less than 1000 ppm) except extract of direct soxhletation on guava leaves, and extract of sonication and soxhletation using n-hexane. The extract with high content of total phenols and total flavonoids, low content of tannins, intense color of spot on thin layer chromatogram was selected for high performance liquid chromatography analysis. Direct sonication of guava leaves was chosen as the best extraction technique with kampferol and quercetin content of 0.02% and 2.15%, respectively. In addition to high content of kaempferol and quercetin, direct sonication was chosen due to the shortest extraction time, lesser impurities and high toxicity.

  8. Guapsidial A and Guadials B and C: Three New Meroterpenoids with Unusual Skeletons from the Leaves of Psidium guajava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Yu-Qing; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Chen, Min-Feng; Zhao, Bing-Xin; Wang, Ying; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2015-06-15

    A novel sesquiterpene-based Psidium meroterpenoid, possessing an unusual coupling pattern, and two new monoterpene-based meroterpenoids with unprecedented skeletons were isolated from the leaves of Psidium guajava. Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic, X-ray diffraction, and computational methods. The plausible biosynthetic pathway of these meroterpenoids as well as their cytotoxicities toward HepG2 and HepG2/ADM cells were also discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Quantum-Dot-Based Lateral Flow Immunoassay for Detection of Neonicotinoid Residues in Tea Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuangjie; Liu, Ying; Jiao, Shasha; Zhao, Ying; Guo, Yirong; Wang, Mengcen; Zhu, Guonian

    2017-11-22

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are commonly used for pest control on tea plantations as a result of their broad-spectrum activity. However, neonicotinoid residues released from tea leaves into tea infusions pose a dietary risk to consumers. Therefore, a rapid, sensitive, and reliable on-site detection method for neonicotinoids is needed. We developed a quantum-dot-based fluorescent lateral flow immunochromatographic strip (LFICS) combined with a broad-specific antibody for detection of typical neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, imidaclothiz, and clothianidin), with sensitivities [50% inhibitory concentration (IC 50 )] of 0.104-0.33 ng/mL and visual detection limits of 0.5-1 ng/mL. The strip assay could be completed in less than 30 min. Using the LFICS to analyze spiked tea samples (green tea, black tea, and oolong tea), the average recovery of the three neonicotinoids ranged between 71 and 111%, with the coefficient of variation below 12%. The results from the LFICS tests for field samples were consistent with results from ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The newly developed strip is a useful tool for the on-site detection of neonicotinoid residues in tea.

  10. Irradiation application for color removal and purification of green tea leaves extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Cheorun; Son, J.H.; Lee, H.J.; Byun, M.W.

    2003-01-01

    Gamma irradiation was introduced to develop a new processing method for brighter-colored green tea leaves extract without changes of physiological activities. Dried green tea leaves were purchased and extracted by 70% ethanol solution and irradiated at 0, 5, 10, and 20 kGy with gamma rays. Hunter color L-value increased and a- and b-value decreased by irradiation, resulting in bright yellow from dark brown. There was no difference in radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibition effect by irradiation. The irradiation effect in the solution disappeared during storage for 3 weeks at room temperature but vitamin C addition was effective in reducing the color change. Results indicated that irradiation may be a good technology to remove undesirable color in green tea leaves extract

  11. Regulation of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Purple Leaves of Zijuan Tea (Camellia sinensis var. kitamura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingxia Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant anthocyanin biosynthesis is well understood, but the regulatory mechanism in purple foliage tea remains unclear. Using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ, 815 differential proteins were identified in the leaves of Zijuan tea, among which 20 were associated with the regulation of anthocyanin metabolism. We found that the abundances of anthocyanin synthesis-related enzymes such as chalcone synthase, chalcone isomerase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase and anthocyanin synthetase, as well as anthocyanin accumulation-related UDP-glucosyl transferase and ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters in the purple leaves were all significantly higher than those in the green leaves. The abundances of the transcription factors bHLH and HY5, regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis at transcriptional level were also obviously higher in purple leaves than those in green leaves. In addition, bifunctional 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase and chorismate mutase in purple leaves were distinctly higher in abundance compared to green leaves, which provided sufficient phenylalanine substrate for anthocyanin synthesis. Furthermore, lignin synthesis was found to be reduced due to the lower abundances of cinnamoyl-CoA reductase 1, peroxidase 15 and laccase-6, which resulted in increase of intermediates flow into anthocyanin synthesis pathway. The physiological data were consistent with proteomic results. These four aspects of biosynthetic regulation contribute to anthocyanin accumulation in purple leaves of Zijuan tea.

  12. Structural changes in Psidium guajava 'Paluma' leaves exposed to tropospheric ozone Alterações anatômicas em folhas de Psidium guajava 'Paluma' expostas ao ozônio troposférico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Tresmondi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Psidium guajava 'Paluma' has being tested as an ozone (O3 bioindicator and responds with pigmentation between the veins on the adaxial surface, due to the accumulation of phenolic compounds. These compounds act as non-enzymatic antioxidants that neutralize reactive oxygen species (ROS, formed from O3. This study aimed to evaluate the leaf structure of plants with and without visible symptoms and to establish these symptoms at the cellular level. Beside this we also aimed to detect structural changes that can minimize the effects of the O3 on the plant. The accumulation of phenolic substances, stomatal density and structural changes in P. guajava 'Paluma' leaf tissues exposed during the four seasons of the year were evaluated. The study was conducted at the Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga ( PEFI, which is a park in the city of São Paulo that has high levels of O3. Leaves with symptoms showed, on the adaxial surface, anthocyanin accumulation in the vacuoles of epidermal cells and hypodermis. When the symptoms were more intense this accumulation was observed even in the first three layers of palisade parenchyma. Comparing symptomatic and asymptomatic leaves, there was higher accumulation of phenolic compounds in the symptomatic leaves. Some parenchyma cells adjacent to substomatal chambers showed intrusive growth towards the stomatal pore, promoting its occlusion, which could reduce the entry of O3 in the leaf. The accumulation of anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds, in addition to the occlusion of the chamber, protect the plant against O3 effects. These features and the compact arrangement of the mesophyll contribute to why Psidium guajava 'Paluma' does not present cell death, a symptom usually observed in species sensitive to O3.Psidium guajava 'Paluma' vem sendo testada como bioindicadora de ozônio (O3 e responde com pigmentações, entre as nervuras, na superfície adaxial, decorrente do acúmulo de compostos fenólicos. Tais

  13. Characterization of NIES CRM No. 23 Tea Leaves II for the determination of multielements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Ikuko; Ukachi, Miyuki; Nagano, Kimiyo; Ito, Hiroyasu; Yoshinaga, Jun; Nishikawa, Masataka

    2010-05-01

    A candidate environmental certified reference material (CRM) for the determination of multielements in tea leaves and materials of similar matrix, NIES CRM No. 23 Tea Leaves II, has been developed and characterized by the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), Japan. The origin of the material was tea leaves, which were ground, sieved through a 106-microm mesh, homogenized, and then subdivided into amber glass bottles. The results of homogeneity and stability tests indicated that the material was sufficiently homogeneous and stable for use as a reference material. The property values of the material were statistically determined based on chemical analyses by a network of laboratories using a wide range of methods. Sixteen laboratories participated in the characterization, and nine certified values and five reference values were obtained. These property values of the candidate CRM, which are expressed as mass fractions, were close to the median and/or mean values of the mass fractions of elements in various tea products. The candidate CRM is appropriate for use in analytical quality control and in the evaluation of methods used in the analysis of tea and materials of similar matrix.

  14. Determination of trace element and heavy metal in black tea and tea leaves using x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, Mohamed Abualgasim Abdalhakam

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to provide information about the trace element and heavy metals concentrations in black tea and tea leaves. 23 different samples were collected from the Sudanese local market. The collected samples were characterized as the most common used items in Sudan. The concentration of trace and heavy elements were determined using x-ray fluorescence (X RF) technique. The standard reference materials (IAEA-V-10) and hay (powder) were used to evaluate the accuracy of the analytical result. The measured values were found in agreement with the certified values. The elements determined were K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Br, Rb, and Sr. The average concentration of the elements is black tea were 2277.43, 7245.71, 1.11, 1025.29, 334.29, 6.88, 11.24, 9.47, 1.02, 7.08, 97.4 and 63.21 respectively while the average concentration of the elements in leaves tea were 2644.44, 8805.56, 1.02, 571.81, 295.44, 6.19, 10.69, 9.26, 0.91, 13.42, 63.03 and 67.14 respectively. The results showed an increase in the concentration of some elements such as calcium, chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, bromine, rubidium and strontium (22500, 6.75, 48.9, 194, 4.37, 9,77, 24.9, 8.23, 7.79, 40,9) ppm respectively compared to certified values. Correlation between concentration of certain element and cluster analysis were preformed and the results compared with values of literature and the concentrations of some elements found to be similar.(Author)

  15. Determination of multi element levels in leaves and herbal teas from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Sr and Zn) contained in 18 herbal tea samples that had been bought from local markets where different parts of plants (leaves or flowers) are consumed especially for medical purposes in Turkey by ICP-OES. The validity of the analytical ...

  16. Determination of trace elements in tea leaves by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasrai, M.; Shoushtarian, M.J.; Bozorgzadeh, M.H.

    1977-01-01

    Instrumental neutron-activation analysis has been employed to determine 14 trace elements in two brands of Iranian and foreign tea. A popular local brand (Ghoncheh) and a foreign brand (Lipton tea bags) were randomly purchased. The samples were dried in an oven (100 deg C) and used without further treatment. In order to measure the concentration of elements in tea solution, weighed amounts of tea were mixed with double-distilled boiling water. After cooling the leaves were separated by centrifugation. Aliquots of clear solution were dried for analysis. Three sets of standards containing the following elements using the spec-pure materials were prepared: (a) Cl, Mn, Na, K; (b) Br, La, Au; (c) Cr, Fe, Rb, Sc, Cs, Zn, Co. In each irradiation, one set of standards, along with the sample, was neutron irradiated at a thermal flux of approximately 2x10 13 ncm -2 sec -1 in the Research Reactor of the Nuclear Research Centre. The period of irradiation ranged from 10 min to 4 hrs, depending on the radionuclides to be measured. The transference ratio of the elements into solution, when tea is leached by percolation, is also reported. It was found that some elements are totally transferred into solution and some are partially retained by the leaves. (T.G.)

  17. Study on tea leaves extract as green corrosion inhibitor of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, A. B.; Suryanto; Haider, F. I.

    2018-01-01

    Corrosion inhibitor from extraction of plant has been considered as the most preferable and most chosen technique to prevent corrosion of metal in acidic medium because of the environmental friendly factor. In this study, black tea leaves extraction was tested as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 0.1M of hydrochloric acid (HCl) with the absence and presence of corrosion inhibitor. The efficiency and effectiveness of black tea as corrosion inhibitor was tested by using corrosion weight loss measurement experiment was carried out with varies parameters which with different concentration of black tea extract solution. The extraction of black tea solution was done by using aqueous solvent method. The FT-IR result shows that black tea extract containing compounds such as catechin, caffeine and tannins that act as anti-corrosive reagents and responsible to enhance the effectiveness of black tea extract as corrosion inhibitor by forming the hydrophobic thin film through absorption process. As a result of weight loss measurement, it shows that loss in weight of mild steel reduces as the concentration of inhibitor increases. The surface analysis was done on the mild steel samples by using SEM.

  18. Comparative potential of black tea leaves waste to granular activated carbon in adsorption of endocrine disrupting compounds from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Ifelebuegu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption properties and mechanics of selected endocrine disrupting compounds; 17 β-estradiol, 17 α – ethinylestradiol and bisphenol A on locally available black tea leaves waste and granular activated carbon were investigated. The results obtained indicated that the kinetics of adsorption were pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and temperature dependent with equilibrium being reached at 20 to 40 minutes for tea leaves waste and 40 to 60 minutes for granular activated compound. Maximum adsorption capacities of 3.46, 2.44 and 18.35 mg/g were achieved for tea leaves waste compared to granular activated compound capacities of 4.01, 2.97 and 16.26 mg/g for 17 β- estradiol, 17 α-ethinylestradiol and bisphenol A respectively. Tea leaves waste adsorption followed pseudo-first order kinetics while granular activated compound fitted better to the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The experimental isotherm data for both tea leaves waste and granular activated compound showed a good fit to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models with the Langmuir model showing the best fit. The thermodynamic and kinetic data for the adsorption indicated that the adsorption process for tea leaves waste was predominantly by physical adsorption while the granular activated compound adsorption was more chemical in nature. The results have demonstrated the potential of waste tea leaves for the adsorptive removal of endocrine disrupting compounds from water.

  19. NMR Metabolic profiling of green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) leaves grown at Kemuning, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuni, D. S. C.; Kristanti, M. W.; Putri, R. K.; Rinanto, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) has been famous as a beverage and natural medicine. It contains a broad range of primary and secondary metabolites i.e. polyphenols. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has been widely used for metabolic profiling in medicinal plants. It provides a very fast and detailed analysis of the biomolecular composition of crude extracts. Moreover, an NMR spectrum is a physical characteristic of a compound and thus highly reproducible. Therefore, this study aims to profile metabolites of three different varieties of green tea C. Sinensis grown in Kemuning, Middle Java. Three varieties of green tea collected on Kemuning (TR1 2025, Gambung 4/5, and Chiaruan 143) were used in this study. 1H-NMR spectra were recorded at 230C on a 400 MHz Agilent WB (Widebore). The analysis was performed on dried green tea leaves and analyzed by 1H-NMR, 2D-J-resolved and 1H-1H correlated spectroscopy (COSY). MestRenova version 11.0.0 applied to identify metabolites in samples. A 1H-NMR spectrum of tea showed amino acids and organic acids signal at the area δ 0.8-4.0. These were theanine, alanine, threonine, succinic acid, aspartic acid, lactic acid. Anomeric protons of carbohydrate were shown by the region of β-glucose, α-glucose, fructose and sucrose. The phenolic region was depicted at area δ 5.5-8.5. Epigallocatechin derivates and caffeine were detected in the tea leaves. The detail compound identification was observed and discussed in the text.

  20. NMR Metabolic profiling of green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) leaves grown at Kemuning, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahyuni, D. S. C.; Kristanti, M. W.; Putri, R. K.; Rinanto, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) has been famous as a beverage and natural medicine. It contains a broad range of primary and secondary metabolites i.e. polyphenols. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has been widely used for metabolic profiling in medicinal plants. It provides a very fast and detailed analysis of the biomolecular composition of crude extracts. Moreover, an NMR spectrum is a physical characteristic of a compound and thus highly reproducible. Therefore, this study aims to profile metabolites of three different varieties of green tea C. Sinensis grown in Kemuning, Middle Java. Three varieties of green tea collected on Kemuning (TR1 2025, Gambung 4/5, and Chiaruan 143) were used in this study. 1H-NMR spectra were recorded at 230C on a 400 MHz Agilent WB (Widebore). The analysis was performed on dried green tea leaves and analyzed by 1H-NMR, 2D-J-resolved and 1H-1H correlated spectroscopy (COSY). MestRenova version 11.0.0 applied to identify metabolites in samples. A 1 H-NMR spectrum of tea showed amino acids and organic acids signal at the area δ 0.8–4.0. These were theanine, alanine, threonine, succinic acid, aspartic acid, lactic acid. Anomeric protons of carbohydrate were shown by the region of β-glucose, α-glucose, fructose and sucrose. The phenolic region was depicted at area δ 5.5-8.5. Epigallocatechin derivates and caffeine were detected in the tea leaves. The detail compound identification was observed and discussed in the text. (paper)

  1. Determination of trace elements in Turkish tea leaves by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demiralp, R.

    1986-01-01

    The human body continuously assimilates a variety of inorganic elements from food and the environment. Some of these elements are closely related to human health and disorder. Tea is one of the most popular stimulating beverages which is consumed by low and high income family groups in many countries. Instrumental neutron activation analysis is one of the preferred methods because information on a large number of elements can be obtained simultaneously. Five packets each of the seven commonly used brands of tea were obtained from the market. In order to determine the transfer of trace elements into the drinkable portion about 2-3g. of the tea leaves were boiled in hot water for 2 min. After filtration the used tea leaves were dried at 65 deg. C in an oven and a portion, about 200mg was used for analysis. Samples and standards were irradiated 10 min. and 2 hrs. at pneumatic system and central thimble in the TRIGA MARK-II research reactor. After irradiation, the activities of samples and standards were measured with a aoaxial Ge detector coupled to a spectroscopic amplifier. A Canbera 90 model multi- channel analyzer with an 8K memory was used for pulse height analysis. The system has a resolution of 2.0 KeV. for the 1332.5 KeV gamma ray of 60 Co. The activity of the sample and standard was compared and the element contst of the sample was calculated. (author)

  2. Anti-inflammatory effects of an ethanolic extract of guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaves in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Mi; Jeong, Seung-Weon; Cho, Somi K; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Lee, Jong Hyun; Yang, Deok Chun; Kim, Jong-Chan

    2014-06-01

    Plant extracts have been used as a source of medicines for a wide variety of human ailments. Among the numerous traditional medicinal herbs, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), commonly known as guava, has long been used in folk medicines as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of numerous diseases in East Asian and other countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of an ethanolic leaf extract of P. guajava (guava) in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrated that guava leaf extract (GLE) significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 in a dose-dependent manner. GLE suppressed the expression and activity of both inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in part through the downregulation of ERK1/2 activation in RAW264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, GLE exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in 2 different animal models-Freund's complete adjuvant-induced hyperalgesia in the rat and LPS-induced endotoxic shock in mice.

  3. Biochemical changes in the kidney and liver of rats following administration of ethanolic extract of Psidium guajava leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, O S; Akanji, M A

    2011-09-01

    Furtherance to a previous report on the anti-trypanosomal properties of Psidium guajava aqueous leaf extract in rats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei, we have evaluated the effects of the daily intraperitoneal administration of P. guajava leaf extract to rats on the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and acid phosphatase (ACP) in the kidney, liver and serum. The results obtained revealed that the administration of the extract produced significant increase in the serum activities of AST, ALT, ALP and ACP when compared with the control (p < 0.05). Also AST, ALT and ALP and ACP activities in the tissues of animals administered the extract revealed inconsistent changes (p < 0.05) relative to control. The increase in the serum activity of ALP may be an indicator that there was a likely compromise to the integrity of the plasma membrane as a result of the ethanolic extract administration. This could have caused leakages of the other enzymes investigated, which may explain the corresponding increases in the serum activities of AST, ALT and ACP observed.

  4. Color measurement of tea leaves at different drying periods using hyperspectral imaging technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chuanqi; Li, Xiaoli; Shao, Yongni; He, Yong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using hyperspectral imaging technique for nondestructive measurement of color components (ΔL*, Δa* and Δb*) and classify tea leaves during different drying periods. Hyperspectral images of tea leaves at five drying periods were acquired in the spectral region of 380-1030 nm. The three color features were measured by the colorimeter. Different preprocessing algorithms were applied to select the best one in accordance with the prediction results of partial least squares regression (PLSR) models. Competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were used to identify the effective wavelengths, respectively. Different models (least squares-support vector machine [LS-SVM], PLSR, principal components regression [PCR] and multiple linear regression [MLR]) were established to predict the three color components, respectively. SPA-LS-SVM model performed excellently with the correlation coefficient (rp) of 0.929 for ΔL*, 0.849 for Δa*and 0.917 for Δb*, respectively. LS-SVM model was built for the classification of different tea leaves. The correct classification rates (CCRs) ranged from 89.29% to 100% in the calibration set and from 71.43% to 100% in the prediction set, respectively. The total classification results were 96.43% in the calibration set and 85.71% in the prediction set. The result showed that hyperspectral imaging technique could be used as an objective and nondestructive method to determine color features and classify tea leaves at different drying periods.

  5. Color measurement of tea leaves at different drying periods using hyperspectral imaging technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanqi Xie

    Full Text Available This study investigated the feasibility of using hyperspectral imaging technique for nondestructive measurement of color components (ΔL*, Δa* and Δb* and classify tea leaves during different drying periods. Hyperspectral images of tea leaves at five drying periods were acquired in the spectral region of 380-1030 nm. The three color features were measured by the colorimeter. Different preprocessing algorithms were applied to select the best one in accordance with the prediction results of partial least squares regression (PLSR models. Competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS and successive projections algorithm (SPA were used to identify the effective wavelengths, respectively. Different models (least squares-support vector machine [LS-SVM], PLSR, principal components regression [PCR] and multiple linear regression [MLR] were established to predict the three color components, respectively. SPA-LS-SVM model performed excellently with the correlation coefficient (rp of 0.929 for ΔL*, 0.849 for Δa*and 0.917 for Δb*, respectively. LS-SVM model was built for the classification of different tea leaves. The correct classification rates (CCRs ranged from 89.29% to 100% in the calibration set and from 71.43% to 100% in the prediction set, respectively. The total classification results were 96.43% in the calibration set and 85.71% in the prediction set. The result showed that hyperspectral imaging technique could be used as an objective and nondestructive method to determine color features and classify tea leaves at different drying periods.

  6. Inhibition of leukocyte-type 12-lipoxygenase by guava tea leaves prevents development of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshitaka; Otsuki, Akemi; Mori, Yoshiko; Kawakami, Yuki; Ito, Hideyuki

    2015-11-01

    Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is one of the crucial steps for atherosclerosis development, and an essential role of leukocyte-type 12-lipoxygenase expressed in macrophages in this process has been demonstrated. The biochemical mechanism of the oxidation of circulating LDL by leukocyte-type 12-lipoxygenase in macrophages has been proposed. The major ingredients in guava tea leaves which inhibited the catalytic activity of leukocyte-type 12-lipoxygenase were quercetin and ethyl gallate. Administration of extracts from guava tea leaves to apoE-deficient mice significantly attenuated atherogenic lesions in the aorta and aortic sinus. We recently showed that Qing Shan Lu Shui inhibited the catalytic activity of leukocyte-type 12-lipoxygenase. The major components inhibiting the enzyme contained in Qing Shan Lu Shui were identified to be novel monoterpene glycosides. The anti-atherogenic effect of the tea leaves might be attributed to the inhibition of leukocyte-type 12-lipoxygenase by these components. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative potential of black tea leaves waste to granular activated carbon in adsorption of endocrine disrupting compounds from aqueous solution

    OpenAIRE

    A.O. Ifelebuegu; J. E. Ukpebor; C. C. Obidiegwu; B. C. Kwofi

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption properties and mechanics of selected endocrine disrupting compounds; 17 β-estradiol, 17 α – ethinylestradiol and bisphenol A on locally available black tea leaves waste and granular activated carbon were investigated. The results obtained indicated that the kinetics of adsorption were pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and temperature dependent with equilibrium being reached at 20 to 40 minutes for tea leaves waste and 40 to 60 minutes for granular activated compound. Maximum ads...

  8. Effect of Fermentation Conditions and Plucking Standards of Tea Leaves on the Chemical Components and Sensory Quality of Fermented Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Tang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of fermentation conditions (temperature, time, and pH and plucking standards (one leaf and a bud to four leaves and a bud on the chemical components and sensory quality of the fermented juices processed from crushed fresh tea leaves were investigated. The results showed that optimum fermentation conditions that resulted in fermented juices of the best sensory quality and the highest content of TFs were a temperature of 35°C, time duration of 75 min, and pH 5.1. The fermented juices processed from new shoots with three leaves and a bud or four leaves and a bud afforded high overall acceptability and TF concentration. These differences arise because tea leaves with different plucking standards have different catechin content and enzyme activities. Fermented tea juice possessed higher concentrations of chemical components such as soluble solids, amino acids, and TFs and exhibited better sensory quality as compared to black tea infusion. The TF concentrations decreased as the pH of the fermenting juice increased, and the fermented juice showed the best overall acceptability. These results provide essential information for the improvement of the processing of black tea beverage by suggesting fermentation of fresh tea leaves as a better alternative to their infusion.

  9. Antioxidant Activity, Colour and Mineral Content Of Herbal Tea Prepared From Cosmos Caudatus Leaves at Different Maturity Stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dian Nashiela Fatanah; Noriham Abdullah; Nooraain Hashim; Azizah Abd Hamid

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, increasing consumption of herbal tea is a worldwide trend because of their refreshing taste, positive potential health effect, convenience, abundant resources and also cheaper in price. However, different maturity stages of plants being used as raw material could affect the antioxidant activity, colour and mineral content in herbal tea. Thus, this present study was aimed at determining antioxidant activity, colour and mineral content of herbal tea prepared from Cosmos caudatus (C. caudatus) leaves at three different maturity stages namely young, mature and old. All prepared herbal tea were analysed for total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2-2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, colour and mineral content. The results demonstrated that herbal tea prepared from young leaves had strong (p<0.05) antioxidant activity compared to mature and old leaves for all assays tested. Pearsons correlation coefficient also revealed that TPC and TFC exhibited a strong positive correlation with reducing power but negatively correlated with DPPH scavenging activity indicating that these compounds are major contributors to the antioxidant activity. In fact, the darker (p<0.05) colour of C. caudatus herbal tea prepared from young leaves relates to their higher antioxidant activity as compared to mature and old leaves. However, C. caudatus herbal tea prepared from old leaves showed significantly higher in mineral content compared to mature and young leaves. Hence, it can be concluded that, as maturity increased, antioxidant activity and colour in C. caudatus herbal tea decreased and vice-versa for mineral content. (author)

  10. Extractability of Rutin in Herbal Tea Preparations of Moringa stenopetala Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Habtemariam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the comparative rutin contents and antioxidant potentials of the two closely related Moringa species: the Ethiopian (Moringa stenopetala and Indian Moringa (M. oleifera. It is demonstrated that M. stenopetala leaves extract was a far superior (more than five-fold better antioxidant than M. oleifera. Rutin was the principal constituent of M. stenopetala leaves while the compound was not detected in the leaves of M. oleifera. Quantitative HPLC-based analysis of M. stenopetala leaves revealed the rutin level at a respectable 2.34% ± 0.02% (on dry weight basis, which is equivalent to many commercial natural sources of this highly sought-after bioactive compound. Comparative analysis of rutin in some common herbal tea preparations of M. stenopetala leaves revealed that it is readily extractible with the highest amount obtained (98.8% ± 2.4% when the leaves (1 g were boiled in water (200 mL. For a large-scale exploitation of rutin, a fast and economically-viable isolation approach using solid phase extraction followed by crystallization or flash chromatography is outlined. Overall, the Ethiopian Moringa is distinctively different from the Indian Moringa and could be exploited as an industrial source of rutin for nutritional and/or medical uses.

  11. Effect of Tea (Camellia sinensis and Olive (Olea europaea L. Leaves Extracts on Male Mice Exposed to Diazinon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atef M. Al-Attar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of tea and olive leaves extracts and their combination in male mice intoxicated with a sublethal concentration of diazinon. Exposure of mice to 6.5 mg/kg body weight of diazinon for seven weeks resulted in statistical increases of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol, while the value of serum total protein was declined. Treating diazinon-intoxicated mice with tea and olive leaves extracts or their combination significantly attenuated the severe alterations in these hematobiochemical parameters. Moreover, the results indicated that the supplementation with combination of tea and olive leaves extracts led to more attenuation effect against diazinon toxicity. Additionally, these new findings suggest that the effect of tea and olive leaves extracts and their combination against toxicity of diazinon may be due to antioxidant properties of their chemical constituents. Finally, the present study indicated that the extracts of tea and olive leaves and their combination can be considered as promising therapeutic agents against hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and metabolic disorders induced by diazinon and maybe by other toxicants and pathogenic factors.

  12. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of methylxanthines from maté tea leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.D.A. Saldaña

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Methylxanthines are alkaloids found in natural products such as tea, coffee and guaraná. These alkaloids are commonly used in cola drinks and pharmaceutical products due principally to their stimulant and diuretic effects on the human organism. In this work, experimental data on the supercritical CO2 extraction of caffeine, theophylline and theobromine from herbal maté tea, a beverage traditionally consumed by the gauchos of southern Brazil, the Argentine, Paraguay and Uruguay, were obtained using high pressure extraction equipment that allows adequate control of temperature and pressure. The continuous extraction/fractionation of maté tea leaves, Ilex paraguariensis in natura using carbon dioxide was carried out at 313.2 and 343.2 K and pressures of 13.8 and 25.5 MPa. Extraction/fractionation curves revealed the large influence of temperature and pressure on extraction yield. CO2 was also found to show a higher selectivity for caffeine than for theophylline and theobromine.

  13. Composition of the essential oil from the leaves of tree domestic varieties and one wild variety of the guava plant (Psidium guajava L., Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Karin de Lima

    Full Text Available The compositions of the essential oils from the leaves of three domestic varieties of the guava tree Psidium guajava L. (Paluma, Século XXI and Pedro Sato and of one wild variety were compared. Essential oils were extracted by steam distillation, the components were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry GC-MS, and the apparent concentrations were determined by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. The results demonstrated that the three essential oils contained many common substances with a prevalence of 1,8-cineole, whereas the essential oil of the Paluma variety contained 1,8-cineole (42.68% as the major constituent, as well as α-terpineol (38.68%. The principal components of the essential oil of the Século XXI variety were 1,8-cineole (18.83%, trans-caryophyllene (12.08%, and selin-11-en-4-αol (20.98%, while those of the Pedro Sato variety and of the wild plant were 1,8-cineole (17.68% and (12.83%, caryophyllene oxide (9.34% and (9.09%, and selin-11-en-4-α-ol (21.46% and (22.19%, respectively.

  14. [Effects of triterpenoid from Psidium guajava leaves ursolic acid on proliferation, differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte and insulin resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Juan-Na; Kuang, Qiao-Ting; Ye, Kai-He; Ye, Chun-Ling; Huang, Yi; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the influences of triterpenoid from Psidium guajava Leaves (ursolic acid) on the proliferation, differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte, and its possible mechanism treat for insulin resistance. 3T3-L1 preadipocyte was cultured in vitro. After adding ursolic acid to the culture medium for 48h, the cell viability was tested by MTT assay. Induced for 6 days, the lipid accumulation of adipocyte was measured by Oil Red O staining. The insulin resistant cell model was established with Dexamethasone. Cellular glucose uptake was determined with GOD-POD assays and FFA concentration was determined at the time of 48h. Secreted adiponectin were measured by ELISA. The protein levels of PPARgamma and PTP1B in insulin resistant adipocyte were measured by Western Blotting. Compared with medium control group, 30, 100 micromol/L ursolic acid could increase its proliferation and differentiation significantly (P 0.05). Ursolic acid can improve the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte, enhance cellular glucose uptake, inhibit the production of FFA, promote the secretion of adiponectin insulin resistant adipocyte, its mechanism may be related to upregulating the expression of PPARgamma protein.

  15. Design of capacitance measurement module for determining critical cold temperature of tea leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzong Lu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Critical cold temperature is one of the most crucial control factors for crop frost protection. Tea leaf's capacitance has a significant response to cold injury and appears as a peak response to a typical low temperature which is the critical temperature. However, the testing system is complex and inconvenient. In view of these, a tea leaf's critical temperature detector based on capacitance measurement module was designed and developed to measure accurately and conveniently the capacitance. Software was also designed to measure parameters, record data, query data as well as data deletion module. The detector utilized the MSP430F149 MCU as the control core and ILI9320TFT as the display module, and its software was compiled by IAR5.3. Capacitance measurement module was the crucial part in the overall design which was based on the principle of oscillator. Based on hardware debugging and stability analysis of capacitance measurement module, it was found that the output voltage of the capacitance measurement circuit is stable with 0.36% average deviation. The relationship between capacitance and 1/Uc2 was found to be linear distribution with the determination coefficient above 0.99. The result indicated that the output voltage of capacitance measurement module well corresponded to the change in value of the capacitance. The measurement error of the circuit was also within the required range of 0 to 100 pF which meets the requirement of tea leaf's capacitance. Keywords: Tea leaves, Critical cold temperature, Capacitance peak response, Frost protection, Detector

  16. Proteomic analysis of young leaves at three developmental stages in an albino tea cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Juan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background White leaf No.1 is a typical albino tea cultivar grown in China and it has received increased attention in recent years due to the fact that white leaves containing a high level of amino acids, which are very important components affecting the quality of tea drink. According to the color of its leaves, the development of this tea cultivar is divided into three stages: the pre-albinistic stage, the albinistic stage and the regreening stage. To understand the intricate mechanism of periodic albinism, a comparative proteomic approach based on two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE and mass spectrometry was adopted first time to identify proteins that changed in abundance during the three developmental periods. Results The 2-DE results showed that the expression level of 61 protein spots varied markedly during the three developmental stages. To analyze the functions of the significantly differentially expressed protein spots, 30 spots were excised from gels and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-tandem mass spectrometry. Of these, 26 spots were successfully identified. All identified protein spots were involved in metabolism of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur, photosynthesis, protein processing, stress defense and RNA processing, indicating these physiological processes may play crucial roles in the periodic albinism. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis was used to assess the transcriptional level of differentially expressed proteins. In addition, the ultrastructural studies revealed that the etioplast-chloroplast transition in the leaf cell of White leaf No. 1 was inhibited and the grana in the chloroplast was destroyed at the albinistic stage. Conclusions In this work, the proteomic analysis revealed that some proteins may have important roles in the molecular events involved in periodic albinism of White leaf No. 1 and identificated many attractive candidates for further investigation. In

  17. The effect of preparation processes on polonium 210 transfer from tea and mate leaves to aqueous extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Nashawati, A.; Amin, Y.; Al-Akel, B.

    2002-08-01

    Polonium 210 was determined in 34 kinds of tea samples and 8 kinds of mate samples collected from the local market. The results have shown that the activities of 210 Po in tea and meta samples were relatively high and varied between 5.5 and 39 Bq.Kg -1 , and 47 to 82 Bq.Kg -1 in tea and mate samples respectively. In order to estimate the annual intake of 210 Po by drinking of the aqueous extract of these materials, preparation processes of the leaves were performed at different conditions (temperature, duration of soaking). The results have shown that the amount of 210 Po transferred to the aqueous extract varied between 9 and 21% and 3 and 15% for tea leaves and mate respectively. There was a clear variations in the soluble amount according to the applied different conditions of soaking. The annual intake of 210 Po due to drinking tea and meta extracts was calculated and found to be 9 Bq.year -1 and 151 Bq.year -1 for tea and mate respectively. (author)

  18. Influence of agronomic variables on the macronutrient and micronutrient contents and thermal behavior of mate tea leaves (Ilex paraguariensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Rosângela A; Arruda, Eduardo J; de Oliveira, Lincoln C S; de Oliveira, Ana P; Dariva, Cláudio; de Oliveira, J Vladimir; Caramão, Elina B

    2007-09-05

    The influence of agronomic variables (light intensity, age of leaves, and fertilization type) on the content of macronutrients and micronutrients (potassium, calcium, sodium, magnesium, manganese, iron, zinc, and copper) of tea leaves was assessed by acid digestion, followed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The thermal behavior of mate tea leaves (Ilex paraguariensis) was also studied in this work. Samples of mate (Ilex paraguariensis) were collected in an experiment conducted under agronomic control at Erva-Mate Barão Commerce and Industry LTD (Brazil). The results showed that the mineral content in mate is affected by the agronomic variables investigated. In general, the content of mineral compounds analyzed is higher for younger leaves and for plants cultivated in shadow. Thermal analysis of samples indicated a similar behavior, with three typical steps of decomposition: loss of water, degradation of low-molecular weight compounds, and degradation of residual materials.

  19. Multielement determination and speciation of major-to-ultratrace elements in green tea leaves by ICP-AES and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Hirotaka; Hokura, Akiko; Haraguchi, Hiroki

    2000-01-01

    In order to investigate the multi-elemental composition of green tea leaves as well as chemical species in tea infusions, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used for elemental analysis and elemental speciation with the aid of size exclusion chromatography (SEC). As a result, the multielement determination of major-to-ultratrace elements in green tea leaves and green tea infusions was carried out by ICP-AES and ICP-MS. About 40 elements in these tea samples could be determined in a wide concentration range of over 8 orders of magnitude. The extraction efficiency of each element was estimated as the ratio of its concentration in tea infusion to that in tea leaves. It was found from the experimental results that the elements in tea leaves could be classified into three characteristic groups, depending on their extraction efficiencies. Furthermore, tea infusions were analyzed by a combined system of SEC, UV absorption detector, and ICP-AES (or ICP-MS) for the speciation of major-to-ultratrace elements. Most of the elements in tea infusions were found to be present as associated complexes with large organic molecules. (author)

  20. Degradation of Dye Wastewater by Pulsed High-Voltage Discharge Combined with Spent Tea Leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yan; Yang Li; Yang Gang; Zhang Yanzong; Zhang Xiaohong; Deng Shihuai

    2014-01-01

    Degradation of methylene blue (MB) was performed using the pulsed discharge process (PDP) combined with spent tea leaves (STLs). The effects of STL dosage, concentration of initial solution, and pH were analyzed in the combined treatment. Results showed that the combined treatment was effective for dye wastewater degradation; when the dosage of STLs was 3.2 g/L, the degradation efficiency reached 90% after 15 min treatment, and STLs showed a good repeatability. The degradation rate decreased with increasing initial MB concentration but not related to the solution pH in the combined treatment. Fourier-transform infrared spectra and N 2 adsorption suggested that the number of acidic and basic groups in the STL surface increased after the treatment, but the surface area and pore volume remained unchanged. (plasma technology)

  1. Study to find the best extraction solvent for use with guava leaves (Psidium guajava L.) for high antioxidant efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jongkwon; Lee, Soojung; Elam, Marcus L; Johnson, Sarah A; Kang, Jonghoon; Arjmandi, Bahram H

    2014-03-01

    The effects of guava leaves extracted using solvents of water, ethanol, methanol, and different concentrations of hydroethanolic solvents on phenolic compounds and flavonoids, and antioxidant properties have been investigated. The antioxidant capability was assessed based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical-scavenging abilities, reducing power, and nitric oxide-and nitrate-scavenging activities. The results demonstrated that the antioxidant ability of guava leaf extracts has a strong relationship with phenolic compound content rather than flavonoid content. Phenolic compound content of water extracted guava leaves was higher compared to pure ethanol and methanol extracts. However, phenolic compound content extracted using hydroethanolic solvent was higher than water, whereas 50% hydroethanolic was observed to be the most effective solvent showing high antioxidant ability.

  2. Extraction Efficiency of Different Solvents and LC-UV Determination of Biogenic Amines in Tea Leaves and Infusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Gianfranco Spizzirri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines (BAs, that is, spermine, spermidine, putrescine, histamine, tyramine, β-phenylethylamine, cadaverine, and serotonin, have been determined in several samples of tea leaves, tea infusions, and tea drinks by LC-UV method after derivatization with dansyl chloride. Different extraction solvents have been tested and TCA 5% showed better analytical performances in terms of linearity, recovery percentages, LOD, LOQ, and repeatability than HCl 0.1 M and HClO4 0.1 M and was finally exploited for the quantitative determination of BAs in all samples. In tea leaves total BAs concentration ranged from 2.23 μg g−1 to 11.24 μg g−1 and PUT (1.05–2.25 μg g−1 and SPD (1.01–1.95 μg g−1 were always present, while SER (nd–1.56 μg g−1, HIS (nd–2.44 μg g−1, and SPM (nd–1.64 μg g−1 were detected more rarely. CAD and PHE were determined in few samples at much lower concentrations while none of the samples contained TYR. Tea infusions showed the same trend with total BAs concentrations never exceeding 80.7 μg L−1. Black teas showed higher amounts of BAs than green teas and organic and decaffeinated samples always contained much lower BAs levels than their conventional counterparts.

  3. Chemical composition of mate tea leaves (Ilex paraguariensis): a study of extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis Jacques, Rosângela; dos Santos Freitas, Lisiane; Flores Peres, Valéria; Dariva, Cláudio; de Oliveira, José Vladimir; Bastos Caramão, Elina

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the extraction of Ilex paraguariensis leaves by means of three extraction techniques: pressurized liquid extraction (PLE, also called accelerated solvent extraction--ASE), maceration, and sonication. Samples of mate tea leaves were collected from an experiment conducted under agronomic control at Indfistria e Comércio de Erva-Mate Barão LTDA, Brazil. Six solvents with increasing polarities (n-hexane, toluene, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol) were used in this investigation. Chemical analysis of the extracts was performed by GC coupled with a mass spectrometer detector. The identification and quantification were accomplished by coinjections of certified standards. The results showed that no significant differences in the qualities of the extracts were noticed regarding the extraction methods. On the other hand, the PLE technique was found to be more effective for the extractions of caffeine, phytol, palmitic, and stearic acid. The use of PLE led to a significant decrease in the total extraction time, amount of solvent consumption, and manipulation of samples compared to maceration and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods.

  4. Uranium trace analysis of a chewable betel-leaf preparation and tea-leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakarvarti, S.K.; Nagpaul, K.K.

    1981-01-01

    Common ingredients of a chewable betel-leaf preparation and commercially available tea leaves were investigated for the presence of uranium traces using the fission track technique. Most of the results ranging from 0.012 to 0.046 ppm uranium correspond to α-activity in the range of 0.008-0.031 pCi/g. The single higher result for lime (used in the betel-leaf preparation) of 0.53 ppm, indicates an α-activity of 0.35 pCi/g. This range of uranium concentrations is similar to that found for other biological materials, foods and tobacco. Although it is lower than concentrations of some other α-emitters, e.g. 226 Ra and 232 Th in cereal grains and nuts, the notably high U concentration (50-100 times that of cigarette tobacco) and the high concentration of other trace elements in betel leaves may be potentially hazardous when used frequently in large amounts. (author)

  5. Psidium guajava Linn confers gastro protective effects on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston Raja, N R; Sundar, K

    2012-02-01

    The best alternatives to synthetic medicines, available, for the treatment of gastric ulcer disorders, are the natural products found in plants. They are known to exhibit a variety of activities. The present study is aimed at the screening of Psidium (P.) guajava Linn for its gastro protective effect. The methanol extracts of the leaves of P. guajava were tested in three different ulcer models viz. aspirin (ASP), pyloric ligation (PL) and ethanol (EtoH) induced ulcer models in rats. The treatment of P. guajava at varying doses (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg) significantly (p guajava may be responsible for the anti-ulcer property exhibited. The results further suggest that P. guajava possess gastro protective as well as ulcer healing properties which might also be due to its anti-secretory properties.

  6. New Green Tea Cultivar 'Yumewakaba' which Quality is High on Aroma and Taste by Slight Half Fermentation of Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Hiroshi; Honda, Yusuke; Nakajima, Kenta; Sasaki, Koji; Kobayashi, Akira; Tanaka, Eri; Kume, Nobuo; Sakai, Takashi; Shimazaki, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Iwao; Okano, Nobuo; Kyougoku, Hideo; Funakoshi, Shouji; Kitada, Kaichi; Fuchinoue, Yasumoto; Tanaka, Mankichi

    New green tea cultivar‘Yumewakaba’has been bred at the Green Tea and Local Products Laboratory of Saitama Prefectural Agriculture and Forestry Research Center. The clone was crossed between‘Yabukita’and Saitama No.9’in 1968. Local adaptability, tolerance to bark split frost injury, and Blister blight were tested at 17 prefectural tea experiment stations from 1994 to 2002. It was registered as ‘Norin No.53’and named ‘Yumewakaba’in 20The characteristics of the cultivar are as follows The shape of the cultivar is erect type, and spread of tea bush is the same as‘Yabukita’.The size of mature leaves are smaller than those of ‘Yabukita’. Immature leaves are lustrougreen and soft. The rooting ability of nursery plants are high and taking roots after planting is good. The plucking time of the first crop of this cultivar in Saitama is 1 or 2 days later than that of ‘Yabukita’.‘Yumewakaba’is middle budding cultivar. The yield of 1st or 2nd crop is the same that of‘Yabukita. ‘Yumewakaba’is resistance to cold drought and bark split frost injury. Thlevel of resistance to freezing injur y is stronger than that of ‘Yabukita’ The damage Anthracnose is less than that of ‘Yabukita. The appearance is better than that of ‘Yabukita’, and the quality of liquor is the same as ‘Yabukita’. The quality of processed goods from slightly half fermented leaves of this cultivar is high on the aroma and the taste. ‘Yumewakaba’is suitable for northern tea producing areas, and cool semi-mountainousareas.

  7. Adsorption kinetics of Rhodamine-B on used black tea leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Mohammad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rhodamine B (Rh-B is one of the most common pollutants in the effluents of textile industries effluents in developing countries. This study was carried out to evaluate the applicability of used black tea leaves (UBTL for the adsorptive removal of Rh-B from aqueous system by investigating the adsorption kinetics in batch process. The effects of concentration and temperature on adsorption kinetics were examined. First-, second- and pseudo-second order kinetic equations were used to investigate the adsorption mechanism. The adsorption of Rh-B on UBTL followed pseudo-second order kinetics. The equilibrium amount adsorbed and the equilibrium concentration were calculated from pseudo-second-order kinetic plots for different initial concentrations of Rh-B to construct the adsorption isotherm. The adsorption isotherm was well expressed by Langmuir equation. The maximum adsorption capacity of UBTL to Rh-B was found to be 53.2 mg/g at pH = 2.0. The equilibrium amount adsorbed, calculated from pseudo-second-order kinetic plots, increased with temperature increase. The positive value of enthalpy of adsorption, ΔHads = 31.22 kJ/mol, suggested that the adsorption of Rh-B on UBTL at pH = 2.0 is an endothermic process.

  8. Application of Box-Behnken design for the removal of two organophosphorus pesticides by used Tea leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanis, Triantafyllos; Valileios, Sakkas; Islam, Azharul M.

    2016-04-01

    Removal of two organophosphorus pesticides bromophos methyl [BM: O, O- dimethyl - O - (2, 5-dichloro -4 bromophenyl) phosphorothioate] and quinalphos [QP: O, O-diethyl O-2-quinoxalinyl phosphorothioate] on used tea leaves were studied by batch equilibration method. Adsorption isotherms were conformed well to Langmuir for quinalphos and Freundlich equation for bromophos methyl. The kinetic data fitted well by the pseudo second order model for both pesticides. Box-Behnken design was successfully employed for experimental design and analysis of results. The interactions of pH, initial concentration and adsorbent dose on two pesticides adsorption by used tea leaves were investigated by this model. The optimum pH, initial concentration and adsorbent dose with their corresponding removal efficiency were found to be 7.88, 11.94 mg L-1, 0.37g and 100% for bromophos methyl respectively, for quinalphos 8.72, 6.44 mg L-1, 0.39g and 93.98% respectively. Keywords: Box-Behnken; quinalphos; bromophos methyl; Kinetics; used tea leaves

  9. Psidium guajava L. leaves as source of proanthocyanidins: Optimization of the extraction method by RSM and study of the degree of polymerization by NP-HPLC-FLD-ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-de-Cerio, Elixabet; Pasini, Federica; Verardo, Vito; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2017-01-30

    Due to the importance of the proanthocyanidins (PAs) bioactivity and its relationship with the PAs degree of polymerization (DP), an experimental design was carried out to establish the best extraction conditions in order to evaluate the proanthocyanidins content and their degree of polymerization in Psidium guajava leaves at different oxidation state. Optimal conditions achieved by response surface methodology were 50% acetone/water (v/v), 48°C, 30min, and 0% acetic acid (v/v). The highest DP has been found in the low oxidized state (DP 13 plus the polymers). Medium and high oxidized state leaves reported a DP 11 plus the polymers. The total amounts of proanthocyanidins (sum of PAs by HPLC-FLD-ESI-MS) decreased when oxidation state of leaves increased (15.8±0.4, 12.6±0.4, and 10.5±0.3mg/g leaf dry weight (d.w.) in low, medium and high oxidized state leaves, respectively). Guava leaves present an interesting source of low DP-PAs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Multielement determination and speciation of major-to-trace elements in black tea leaves by ICP-AES and ICP-MS with the aid of size exclusion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Hirotaka; Hokura, Akiko; Katsuki, Fumie; Itoh, Akihide; Haraguchi, Hiroki

    2001-01-01

    A multielement determination of major-to-trace elements in black tea leaves and their tea infusions was carried out by ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry) and ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry). Tea infusions were prepared as usual tea beverage by brewing black tea leaves in boiling water for 5 min. About 40 elements in tea leaves and tea infusions could be determined over the wide concentration range in 8 orders of magnitude. The extraction efficiency of each element was estimated as the ratio of its concentration in tea infusions to that in tea leaves. From the experimental results for the extraction efficiencies, the elements in black tea leaves were classified into three characteristic groups: (i) highly-extractable elements (>55%): Na, K, Co, Ni, Rb, Cs and Tl, (ii) moderately-extractable elements (20-55%): Mg, Al, P, Mn and Zn, and (iii) poorly-extractable elements (<20%): Ca, Fe, Cu, Sr, Y, Zr, Mo, Sn, Ba and lanthanoid elements. Furthermore, speciation of major-to-trace elements in tea infusions was performed by using a combined system of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and ICP-MS (or ICP-AES). As a result, many diverse elements were found to be present as complexes associated with large organic molecules in tea infusions. (author)

  11. Assessment of two medicinal plants, Psidium guajava L. and Achillea millefolium L., in in vitro and in vivo assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Rosangela de Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of medicinal plants by the general population is an old and still widespread practice, which makes studies of their genotoxicity essential. Psidium guajava L. and Achillea millefolium L. are examples of plants commonly used in popular medicine. P. guajava L. is indicated for diarrhea and also as an antiseptic, while A. millefolium L. is indicated as an analgesic, antispasmodic, digestive, diuretic, antiseptic, astringent, emollient, wound healer and hemorrhoid medication. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the infusions of these two plant species on chromosomes and the cell cycle. Leaves from the plants were used to prepare infusions, in the same manner as teas, but at two different concentrations. Allium cepa L. root-tip cells (P. guajava L. - 2.62 and 26.2 mg/mL, and A. millefolium L. - 3.5 and 35.0 mg/mL and Wistar rat bone marrow cells (P. guajava L. - 2.62 and 26.2 mg/100g body weight, and A. millefolium L. - 3.5 and 35.0 mg/100g body weight were used as in vivo plant and animal test systems, respectively. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes (P. guajava L. - 0.262 and 2.62 mg/mL culture medium, and A. millefolium L. - 0.35 and 3.5 mg/mL culture medium were used as in vitro test system. The P. guajava L. infusion at the higher concentration caused a statistically significant inhibition of cellular division in the onion root-tip cells, not observed in onion root-tip cells treated with A. millefolium L. No statistically significant alterations were found, as compared to untreated controls, in either the cell cycle or the number of chromosome alterations, after treatments with either plant, in rat cells or in cultured human lymphocytes. These results regarding the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of these plants provide valuable information about the safety of using them as therapeutic agents.

  12. Development of a certified reference material (NMIJ CRM 7505-a) for the determination of trace elements in tea leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanbei; Narukawa, Tomohiro; Inagaki, Kazumi; Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Chiba, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    A certified reference material (CRM) for trace elements in tea leaves has been developed in National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ). The CRM was provided as a dry powder (<90 µm) after frozen pulverization of washed and dried fresh tea leaves from a tea plant farm in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. Characterization of the property value for each element was carried out exclusively by NMIJ with at least two independent analytical methods, including inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), high-resolution (HR-) ICP-MS, isotope-dilution (ID-) ICP-MS, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) and flame atomic-absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Property values were provided for 19 elements (Ca, K, Mg, P, Al, B, Ba, Cd, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Zn and Co) and informative values for 18 elements (Ti, V, Cr, Y, and all of the lanthanides, except for Pm whose isotopes are exclusively radioactive). The concentration ranges of property values and informative values were from 1.59% (mass) of K to 0.0139 mg kg(-1) of Cd and from 0.6 mg kg(-1) of Ti to 0.0014 mg kg(-1) of Lu, respectively. Combined relatively standard uncertainties of the property values were estimated by considering the uncertainties of the homogeneity, analytical methods, characterization, calibration standard, and dry-mass correction factor. The range of the relative combined standard uncertainties was from 1.5% of Mg and K to 4.1% of Cd.

  13. Influence of the addition and storage time of crude extract of tea leaves (camellia sinensis l.) toward value of free fatty acid in crude palm oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin; Wahifiyah, E.; Hairani, R.; Panggabean, A. S.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the crude extract of tea leaves (Camellia sinensis L.) and storage time on the content of free fatty acid in palm oil. The dried tea leaves were macerated and concentrated by rotary evaporator. The extract obtained was added to crude palm oil with various added mass of the extract and various storage times. Phytochemical tests indicated the presence of secondary metabolites including alkaloids, triterpenoids, steroids, phenolics and flavonoids. The ANOVA test showed a decrease in free fatty acid content in crude palm oil with the addition of tea leaves extract. The LSD (Least Significant Difference) test showed the best influence on ALB of palm oil is on the total extract mass of 2 grams and the storage time of 20 days.

  14. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using green tea leaves: Experimental study on the morphological, rheological and antibacterial behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhjavani, Maryam; Nikkhah, V.; Sarafraz, M. M.; Shoja, Saeed; Sarafraz, Marzieh

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, silver nanoparticles are produced via green synthesis method using green tea leaves. The introduced method is cost-effective and available, which provides condition to manipulate and control the average nanoparticle size. The produced particles were characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopic images, UV visualization, digital light scattering, zeta potential measurement and thermal conductivity measurement. Results demonstrated that the produced samples of silver nanoparticles are pure in structure (based on the x-ray diffraction test), almost identical in terms of morphology (spherical and to some extent cubic) and show longer stability when dispersed in deionized water. The UV-visualization showed a peak in 450 nm, which is in accordance with the previous studies reported in the literature. Results also showed that small particles have higher thermal and antimicrobial performance. As green tea leaves are used for extracting the silver nanoparticles, the method is eco-friendly. The thermal behaviour of silver nanoparticle was also analysed by dispersing the nanoparticles inside the deionized water. Results showed that thermal conductivity of the silver nano-fluid is higher than that of obtained for the deionized water. Activity of Ag nanoparticles against some bacteria was also examined to find the suitable antibacterial application for the produced particles.

  15. A comparative study of volatile components in Dianhong teas from fresh leaves of four tea cultivars by using chromatography-mass spectrometry, multivariate data analysis, and descriptive sensory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Chenxia; Kong, Yawen; Peng, Xiaopei; Li, Changwen; Liu, Shunhang; Du, Liping; Xiao, Dongguang; Xu, Yongquan

    2017-10-01

    Dianhong teas produced from fresh leaves of different tea cultivars (YK is Yunkang No. 10, XY is Xueya 100, CY is Changyebaihao, SS is Shishengmiao), were compared in terms of volatile compounds and descriptive sensory analysis. A total of 73 volatile compounds in 16 tea samples were tentatively identified. YK, XY, CY, and SS contained 55, 53, 49, and 51 volatile compounds, respectively. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were used to classify the samples, and 40 key components were selected based on variable importance in the projection. Moreover, 11 flavor attributes, namely, floral, fruity, grass/green, woody, sweet, roasty, caramel, mellow and thick, bitter, astringent, and sweet aftertaste were identified through descriptive sensory analysis (DSA). In generally, innate differences among the tea varieties significantly affected the intensities of most of the key sensory attributes of Dianhong teas possibly because of the different amounts of aroma-active and taste components in Dianhong teas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Red tea leaves infusion as a reducing and stabilizing agent in silver nanoparticles synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluta, K.; Tryba, A. M.; Malina, D.; Sobczak-Kupiec, A.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the unique properties of silver nanoparticles there is growing interest in their applications. Current trends in nanotechnology are focused on developing a new technique to synthesize nanoparticles using biological methods associated with the use of plant extracts, fungi, bacteria or essential oils. These methods are a promising alternative to conventional approaches which can minimize the use of hazardous substances. The silver nanoparticles synthesis using red tea infusion as a reducing and stabilizing agent and their characteristics have been described. Total antioxidant capacity using DPPH radical and total content of phenolic compounds by Folin-Ciocalteau method were measured in tea infusion. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles was carried out using chemical reduction at various temperatures. Furthermore, the effect of tea infusion volume added to reaction mixture on nanoparticles’ properties was investigated. Finally, nanosilver suspensions were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometer, dynamic light scattering (DLS) scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Moreover, phytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles was determined using Phytotestkit microbiotest.

  17. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Tea Leaves and Potential Health Risk Assessment: A Case Study from Puan County, Guizhou Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruidong; Chen, Rong; Peng, Yishu; Wen, Xuefeng; Gao, Lei

    2018-01-01

    This study features a survey of the concentrations of aluminum (Al) and heavy metals (Mn, Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Ni, Cu, and Zn) in tea leaves and the corresponding cultivation soils (0–30 cm), carried out in Puan County (Guizhou Province, China). The average concentrations of Al, Mn, Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Ni, Cu, and Zn in the soil were 106 × 103, 214, 20.9, 0.09, 0.12, 17.5, 121, 27.8, 131.2, and 64 mg·kg−1, respectively. The heavy metals’ pollution indexes in the soil can be ranked as follows: Cu > Cr > Hg > As > Ni > Zn > Pb > Mn > Cd. The soil was moderately polluted by Cu because of the high geochemical background value of Cu in the area. The potential environment risk index (RI) showed that 7.69% out of the total sample sites were within the moderate level. Moreover, the ranges of Al, Mn, Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Ni, Cu, and Zn concentrations in young tea leaves were 250–660, 194–1130, 0.107–0.400, 0.012–0.092, 0.014–0.085, 0.073–0.456, 0.33–1.26, 6.33–14.90, 14.90–26.10, and 35.8–50.3 mg·kg−1, respectively. While in mature tea leaves, they were 4300–10,400, 536–4610, 0.560–1.265, 0.040–0.087, 0.043–0.089, 0.189–0.453, 0.69–2.91, 3.43–14.20, 6.17–16.25, and 9.1–20.0 mg·kg−1, respectively. Furthermore, the concentrations of Pb, Cu, As, Hg, Cd, and Cr in young tea leaves and mature tea leaves were all lower than the standard limit values (5.0, 30, 2.0, 0.3, 1.0, and 5.0 mg·kg−1 for Pb, Cu, As, Hg, Cd, and Cr, respectively) in China. Besides, the accumulation ability of tea leaves to Mn was the strongest, and the average bioconcentration factor (BCF) of Mn in mature tea leaves was 12.5. In addition, the average target hazard quotients (THQ) were all less than one for the young tea leaves and the average aggregate risk hazard index (HI) to adults was 0.272, indicating that there was not a potential health risk for adults through the consumption of the infusions brewed by young tea leaves. However, for mature tea

  18. Trace elements in Turkish tea leaves determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demiralp, R.

    1985-01-01

    The concentrations of the elements As, Sb, Zn, Co, which are closely related to human health and disorder, was determined by means of INAA in seven of the most commonly used brands of tea. Samples and standards were irradiated 10 min and 2 hrs at pneumatic system and central thimble in the TRIGA MARK-11 research reactor. After irradiation the activities were measured with a coaxial Ge detector coupled to a spectroscopic amplifier. A Cambera 90 model multichannel analyser with an 8K memory was used for pulse hight analysis. The system has a resolution of 2,0 KeV for 1332,5 KeV gamma ray of 60 Co with peak to Compton ratio of 43:1 and efficiency of 18 relative to the 3'' x 3'' NaI(Tl) crystal. Results of the study were presented

  19. Metabolic profiling and predicting the free radical scavenging activity of guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaves according to harvest time by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Hyun; Cho, Somi K; Hyun, Sun-Hee; Park, Hae-Eun; Kim, Young-Suk; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon

    2011-01-01

    Guava leaves were classified and the free radical scavenging activity (FRSA) evaluated according to different harvest times by using the (1)H-NMR-based metabolomic technique. A principal component analysis (PCA) of (1)H-NMR data from the guava leaves provided clear clusters according to the harvesting time. A partial least squares (PLS) analysis indicated a correlation between the metabolic profile and FRSA. FRSA levels of the guava leaves harvested during May and August were high, and those leaves contained higher amounts of 3-hydroxybutyric acid, acetic acid, glutamic acid, asparagine, citric acid, malonic acid, trans-aconitic acid, ascorbic acid, maleic acid, cis-aconitic acid, epicatechin, protocatechuic acid, and xanthine than the leaves harvested during October and December. Epicatechin and protocatechuic acid among those compounds seem to have enhanced FRSA of the guava leaf samples harvested in May and August. A PLS regression model was established to predict guava leaf FRSA at different harvesting times by using a (1)H-NMR data set. The predictability of the PLS model was then tested by internal and external validation. The results of this study indicate that (1)H-NMR-based metabolomic data could usefully characterize guava leaves according to their time of harvesting.

  20. Functional Teas from the Leaves of Arbutus unedo: Phenolic Content, Antioxidant Activity, and Detection of Efficient Radical Scavengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkekoglou, Ioannis; Nenadis, Nikolaos; Samara, Efrosini; Mantzouridou, Fani Th

    2017-06-01

    The phenolic content/composition and antioxidant activity of hot/cold infusion and decoction from the leaves of Arbutus unedo were studied for the first time. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH ● ), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation (ABTS ●+ ), crocin-bleaching, copper-reducing, and liposome accelerated oxidation assays were used for the evaluation of the activity in vitro. In vivo, the extracts were examined for their ability to protect S. cerevisiae cells from H 2 O 2 induced oxidative stress. An on-line high-performance liquid chromatography-DPPH ● assay was applied to identify potent radical scavengers and comment on their contribution to the total activity. The addition of leaves to boiling water (decoction) was the most appropriate practice to apply since the highest phenol intake (220.2 mg gallic acid/cup served) was obtained. Additionally, its antioxidant activity was equal or superior to that of the other extracts. Flavonols (~51-61 mg/g dry extract) were the main phenols in all the extracts, with quercitrin accounting for ~20% of the total phenol amount. The on-line DPPH ● method verified the high potency of the decoction and indicated as the most active radical scavengers, two galloylquinic acid derivatives and myricitrin, accounting for ~28-45% and ~11-13% of the total scavenging, respectively. Present data may contribute to the future exploitation of A. unedo leaves by the food industry for health-promoting herbal tea preparations and dietary supplements.

  1. Comparison of the Effectiveness of Water-Based Extraction of Substances from Dry Tea Leaves with the Use of Magnetic Field Assisted Extraction Techniques

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    Grzegorz Zaguła

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the findings of a study investigating the feasibility of using a magnetic field assisted technique for the water-based extraction of mineral components, polyphenols, and caffeine from dry black and green tea leaves. The authors present a concept of applying constant and variable magnetic fields in the process of producing water-based infusions from selected types of tea. Analyses investigating the effectiveness of the proposed technique in comparison with conventional infusion methods assessed the contents of selected mineral components—i.e., Al, Ca, Cu, K, Mg, P, S, and Zn—which were examined with the use of ICP-OES. The contents of caffeine and polyphenolic compounds were assessed using the HPLC. A changing magnetic field permitted an increased effectiveness of extraction of the mineral components, caffeine, and polyphenols. The findings support the conclusion that a changing magnetic field assisted extraction method is useful for obtaining biologically valuable components from tea infusions.

  2. Effects of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed oil press-cake and decaffeinated green tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) on functional characteristics of gluten-free crackers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radočaj, Olga; Dimić, Etelka; Tsao, Rong

    2014-03-01

    A mixture, simplex centroid, 2 components experimental design was used to evaluate the addition of hemp seed oil press-cake and decaffeinated green tea leaves, as functional ingredients to assess nutritional characteristics and antioxidant properties of gluten-free crackers. All samples with added hemp flour had much better nutritional qualities than the brown rice flour crackers in terms of higher protein, crude fibers, minerals, and essential fatty acids content. Likewise, all samples with added decaffeinated green tea leaves had much better antioxidant properties than crackers with no added green tea leaves. All crackers with added hemp flour had a significantly increased fiber content (39% to 249%) and decreased carbohydrate content (8.4% to 42.3%), compared to the brown rice flour crackers. All samples had antioxidant properties, even without the addition of green tea leaves. Optimization of the responses was conducted based on the maximized values for protein, fibers, omega-3 fatty acids content, as well as for the antioxidant activity and overall score. The suggested values for the addition of the hemp oil press-cake was 20% (total flour weight) with 4 g of decaffeinated green tea leaves that would provide protein content of 14.1 g/100 g; fibers content of 8.4 g/100 g; omega-3 fatty acids content of 3.2 g/100 g; antioxidant activity measured via 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl value of 30.3 μmol TE/g d.w.; and an overall score of 8.9. This formulation has demonstrated potential application in the baking industry and marketing of these gluten-free crackers as a value-added functional product. Hemp seed oil press-cake as a by-product of cold-pressed oil processing and brown rice flour were used to design a functional gluten-free snack-type product-savory crackers. All crackers were high in minerals, fibers, and omega-3 fatty acids with a desirable omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids ratio. Green tea leaves were added to improve antioxidant activity, which greatly

  3. Antioxidant Effects of Herbal Tea Leaves from Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) on Multiple Free Radical and Reducing Power Assays, Especially on Different Superoxide Anion Radical Generation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugahara, Shintaro; Ueda, Yuto; Fukuhara, Kumiko; Kamamuta, Yuki; Matsuda, Yasushi; Murata, Tatsuro; Kuroda, Yasuhiro; Kabata, Kiyotaka; Ono, Masateru; Igoshi, Keiji; Yasuda, Shin

    2015-11-01

    Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius), a native Andean plant, has been cultivated as a crop and locally used as a traditional folk medicine for the people suffering from diabetes and digestive/renal disorders. However, the medicinal properties of this plant and its processed foods have not been completely established. This study investigates the potent antioxidative effects of herbal tea leaves from yacon in different free radical models and a ferric reducing model. A hot-water extract exhibited the highest yield of total polyphenol and scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical among four extracts prepared with hot water, methanol, ethanol, and ethylacetate. In addition, a higher reducing power of the hot-water extract was similarly demonstrated among these extracts. Varying concentrations of the hot-water extract resulted in different scavenging activities in four synthetic free radical models: DPPH radical (EC50 28.1 μg/mL), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) cation radical (EC50 23.7 μg/mL), galvinoxyl radical (EC50 3.06 μg/mL), and chlorpromazine cation radical (EC50 475 μg/mL). The yacon tea-leaf extract further demonstrated superoxide anion (O2(-)) radical scavenging effects in the phenazine methosulfate-NADH-nitroblue tetrazolium (EC50 64.5 μg/mL) and xanthine oxidase assay systems (EC50 20.7 μg/mL). Subsequently, incubating human neutrophilic cells in the presence of the tea-leaf extract could suppress the cellular O2(-) radical generation (IC50 65.7 μg/mL) in a phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-activated cell model. These results support yacon tea leaves may be a good source of natural antioxidants for preventing O2(-) radical-mediated disorders. Yacon has been considered to be a potent alternative food source for patients who require a dietary cure in regional area, while the leaf part has been provided and consumed as an herbal tea in local markets. We demonstrated here potent antioxidative effects of the tea

  4. Effects of Psidium guajava Leaf Infusion on Streptococci viridans

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    Hing Yi Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is recognized as the most important oral burden. It is caused by the formation of lactate acid formed through reaction of bacteria and carbohydrates. Streptococci viridans has been proven as the primary etiologic agents for dental caries. Low accessibility in oral care services leads the Indonesian community to use plants in order to prevent dental caries. One of those plants is Psidium guajava (pink guava. The leaves were suggested to have antimicrobial effects on some gram-positive bacteria. When the organism is resistant to specific substance tested on media, a circular/inhibition zone around a disc containing antimicrobial substance was formed. The purpose of this study was to identify the presence of inhibition zones by infusion of Psidium guajava leaf on Streptococci viridians in vitro. Methods: This laboratory experiment was carried out in September to October 2014 at the Microbiology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran. Infusions of Psidium guajava leaf were made into four different concentrations (10%, 25%, 50% and 100%, respectively and the identification of inhibition zones on Streptococci viridans obtained from the laboratory was tested using modified disk diffusion test. Distilled water acted as negative control. The results were then interpreted after 24 hours of incubation. Every procedure was repeated three times. Results: All four concentrations of Psidium guajava leaf infusions have formed inhibition zones on the media, with the highest concentration (100% producing largest average diameter. Conclusions: The infusion of Psidium guajava leaf produces inhibition zones on Streptococci virdans in vitro.

  5. Dual mechanisms regulating glutamate decarboxylases and accumulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid in tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves exposed to multiple stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xin; Chen, Yiyong; Zhang, Lingyun; Fu, Xiumin; Wei, Qing; Grierson, Don; Zhou, Ying; Huang, Yahui; Dong, Fang; Yang, Ziyin

    2016-03-29

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is one of the major inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. It has multiple positive effects on mammalian physiology and is an important bioactive component of tea (Camellia sinensis). GABA generally occurs at a very low level in plants but GABA content increases substantially after exposure to a range of stresses, especially oxygen-deficiency. During processing of tea leaves, a combination of anoxic stress and mechanical damage are essential for the high accumulation of GABA. This is believed to be initiated by a change in glutamate decarboxylase activity, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In the present study we characterized factors regulating the expression and activity of three tea glutamate decarboxylase genes (CsGAD1, 2, and 3), and their encoded enzymes. The results suggests that, unlike the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, there are dual mechanisms regulating the accumulation of GABA in tea leaves exposed to multiple stresses, including activation of CsGAD1 enzymatic activity by calmodulin upon the onset of the stress and accumulation of high levels of CsGAD2 mRNA induced by a combination of anoxic stress and mechanical damage.

  6. PLE in the analysis of plant compounds. Part I. The application of PLE for HPLC analysis of caffeine in green tea leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Wianowska, Dorota

    2005-04-29

    A broad spectrum of sample preparation methods is currently used for the isolation of pharmacologically active compounds from plant and herbal materials. The paper compares the effectiveness of infusion, microwave assisted solvent extraction (MASE), matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) and pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) as sample preparation methods for the isolation of caffeine from green tea leaves. The effect of PLE variables, such as extraction temperature, pressure and time, on the yield of caffeine from the investigated matrix is discussed. The obtained results revealed that PLE, in comparison with other sample preparation methods applied, has significantly lower efficacy for caffeine isolation from green tea leaves. The evaluation of PLE conditions leads to the conclusion that elevated pressure applied in the PLE process is the factor hindering the extraction.

  7. Specific 14C labelling of 3-phosphoglyceric acid by light enhanced dark CO2 fixation in tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Satoshi

    1984-01-01

    Conditions for light enhanced dark CO 2 fixation (LED), products of LED and distribution pattern of 14 C of 3-phosphoglyceric acid (PGA) were investigated. By LED, 14 C-bicarbonate was abruptly and temporarily incorporated in single cells and discs of tea leaves. Optimal conditions of temperature, preillumination period and light intensity for LED in single cells were 28 deg C, 10 min and 20 klx respectively, and 20 deg C, 20 - 30 min and 40 - 80 klx respectively, in leaf discs. By photosynthesis for 30 sec and 60 sec of leaf discs, although 14 C-bicarbonate was considerably incorporated into PGA and phosphateesters, 14 C was incorporated into malate, serin+glycine and sucrose, too. Malate was predominantly labelled by dark fixation. On the other hand, by LED, 14 C-bicarbonate was incorporated into PGA. PGA was degradated by the modified Sakami's method and their distribution pattern was analyzed. By photosynthesis for 60 sec, 14 C of C-1 carbon (carboxylic carbon), C-2 carbon and C-3 carbon of PGA were 70, 17 and 13 %, respectively. By LED of 60 sec, however, 97 % of 14 C was at C-1. From these results, it is clear that carboxylic carbon of PGA was specifically labelled from 14 C-bicarbonate by LED. (Kubozono, M.)

  8. Mass transfer and kinetic modelling of supercritical CO 2 extraction of fresh tea leaves (Camellia sinensis L.

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    Pravin Vasantrao Gadkari

    Full Text Available Abstract Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction was employed to extract solids from fresh tea leaves (Camellia sinensis L. at various pressures(15 to 35 MPa and temperatures (313 to 333K with addition of ethanol as a polarity modifier. The diffusion model and Langmuir model fit well to experimental data and the correlation coefficients were greater than 0.94. Caffeine solubility was determined in supercritical CO2 and the Gordillo model was employed to correlate the experimental solubility values. The Gordillo model fit well to the experimental values with a correlation coefficient 0.91 and 8.91% average absolute relative deviation. Total phenol content of spent materials varied from 57 to 85.2 mg of gallic acid equivalent per g spent material, total flavonoid content varied from 50.4 to 58.2 mg of rutin equivalent per g spent material and the IC50 value (antioxidant content varied from 27.20 to 38.11 µg of extract per mL. There was significant reduction in polyphenol, flavonoid and antioxidant content in the extract when supercritical CO2 extraction was carried out at a higher pressure of 35 MPa.

  9. Respons of Erythrocytes, Hematocrit and Hemoglobin River Catfish (Mystus Nemurus) Combination Fed Guava Leaves (Psidium Guajava) and Bitter (Andrographis Paniculata Ness)

    OpenAIRE

    Susanti, Mesi; Lukystiowati, Iesje; Syawal, Henni

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted from April-June 2013 in the Laboratory of Aquaculture and Fish Diseases and Parasites Laboratory Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences University of Riau. The purpose of this study was to determine the response of erythrocytes, hematocrit, and blood hemoglobin river catfish (Mystus nemurus) fed a combination of guava leaves and bitter infected with the bacterium A. hydrophila. This study used 5 treatments of: negative control (without any solution guava, bitter and...

  10. Daun Jambu Biji (Psidium Guajava L.) Sebagai Antikanker Payudara

    OpenAIRE

    Dwitiyanti, Dwitiyanti

    2015-01-01

    Guava Leaves (Psidium Guajava Linn) is a natural substance that is used as an anticancer. In previous studies, have proved that guava leaves contain high levels of quercetin in the amount of 61.71 % can act as an anticancer . This shows that the guava leaves are chemical compounds that have the potential cytotoxic. Hence, this research aimed to determine the cytotoxic effect of 70 % ethanol extract of guava leaves on T47D cells performed in vitro by direct calculation method ( viable cell cou...

  11. Regeneración de brotes adventicios en hojas de guayaba (Psidium guajava L. cultivadas in vitro Adventitious shoot regeneration from in vitro cultured leaves of guava (Psidium guava L.

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    Trujillo Sánchez Reinaldo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available La regeneración de brotes adventicios es una etapa clave para la aplicación de las técnicas de ingeniería gené­tica. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo el desarrollo de un procedimiento para la regeneración de brotes por organogénesis a partir de hojas de microesquejes o brotes de guayaba (Psidium guajava L. cultivados in vi­tro. Para ello se estudiaron algunos de los principales factores que afectan la regeneración de brotes, tales como la concentración de reguladores del crecimiento (citoquinina, el estado fisiológico del explante y la he­rida. En todos los experimentos se utilizaron como explantes hojas de vitroplantas de guayaba de la variedad Enana Roja Cubana EEA18-40 de diferentes subcultivos. El mejor resultado se alcanzó con una concentración de 0,75 mg/L de 6-bencilaminopurina como suplemento hormonal del medio MS. Se comprobó que para las hojas provenientes de microesquejes con mayor número de subcultivo y tomadas de la parte inferior de los brotes, el potencial morfogenético disminuye significativamente (p60% y el mayor número de brotes por explante promedio (>3 se alcanzó al realizar varias heridas en forma de punteaduras en el nervio central de las hojas. Este protocolo de regeneración constituye una importante herramienta que puede ser empleada para futuros estudios de transformación genética en esta especie. Palabras clave: cultivo de tejidos, explantes de hoja, reguladores de crecimiento, organogénesis, guayaba.Adventitious regeneration is a key step in the application of genetic engineering to the breeding programs of plants. In this work a method for adventitious shoot regeneration from leaves of micropropagated guava shoots has been developed and some of main factors to affect the shoot regeneration like, concentration of plant growth regulators (citoquinine, physiological state of explants and the wound are studied. Leaves from guava in vitro cultured of variety Cuban Red Dwarf 18-40 was used

  12. Effects of heat stress on some reproductive parameters of male cavie (Cavia porcellus) and mitigation strategies using guava (Psidium guajava) leaves essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoula, Ferdinand; Guemdjo Tekam, Maryvonne; Kenfack, Augustave; Tadondjou Tchingo, Cyrille D'Alex; Nouboudem, Sandrine; Ngoumtsop, Herman; Tsafack, Borice; Teguia, Alexis; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Galeotti, Marco; Tchoumboue, Joseph

    2017-02-01

    Climate changes, particularly the increase of temperature are among the main causes behind the decline of fertility in humans as well as animals. In this study, the effects of heat stress on some reproductive parameters of male cavies and mitigation strategies using guava leaves essential oil (GLEO) were studied. For this purpose, 40 male cavies aged 2.5-3 months and weighing between 348 and 446g were divided into 4 groups of 10 animals each and subjected to the following temperatures: Ambient temperature (20-25°C) for the control group, 35°C for group 1, 45°C for group 2 and 45°C+100µl GLEO/kg body weight, administered by gavage to animals for group 3. Exposure time of heat was 7h per day for 60 days. Results reveal that the relative weights of testes, epididymis, vas deferens and seminal vesicles were hardly affected by the temperature levels considered (P>0.05). The mass and individual sperm motility was significantly lower (Pleaves essential oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Phenolic composition and medicinal usage of Psidium guajava Linn.: Antifungal activity or inhibition of virulence?

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    Maria F.B. Morais-Braga

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Psidium guajava is a Myrtaceae plant whose medicinal properties are recognized in several locations. The use of teas and tinctures prepared from their leaves has been used to combat infections caused by fungi of the genus Candida. In this study, aqueous extracts of leaves and hydroethanolic were tested to verify the antifungal potential and its chemical composition has been investigated. The microbiological assays were performed by broth microdilution to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and from these the minimum fungicidal concentration was performed (MFC by subculturing on solid media. A cell viability curve was obtained for demonstration of inhibition of fungal growth of strains of Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. Tests to check morphological changes by the action of the extracts were performed in microcultive cameras depleted environment at concentrations of MIC/2, MIC and MIC × 2. Extracts analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography demonstrated flavonoids and phenolic acids. The extracts showed fungistatic effect and no fungicide with MIC >8192 μg/mL, MFC above 8192 μg/mL. The IC50 was calculated ranging from 1803.02 to 5623.41 μg/mL. It has been found that the extracts affect the morphological transition capability, preventing the formation of pseudohyphae and hyphae. Teas and tinctures, therefore, have the potential antifungal, by direct contact, causing inhibition of fungal multiplication and its virulence factor, the cell dimorphism, preventing tissue invasion. Further studies are needed to elucidate the biochemical pathways and genes assets involved in these processes.

  14. Analysis of herbal teas made from the leaves of comfrey (Symphytum officinale): reduction of N-oxides results in order of magnitude increases in the measurable concentration of pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlies, Nicholas H; Kim, Nam-Cheol; Brine, Dolores R; Collins, Bradley J; Handy, Robert W; Sparacino, Charles M; Wani, Mansukh C; Wall, Monroe E

    2004-10-01

    To determine the relative quantities of two hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, symphytine and echimidine, in teas prepared from comfrey leaves (Symphytum officinale), and to determine the potential contribution of the N-oxide forms of these alkaloids to levels of the parent alkaloids. Comfrey leaves were purchased from three commercial sources and used to prepare tea in a manner consistent with the methods used by consumers. An extraction scheme was devised for extraction of the alkaloids, and a gas chromatographic method was developed to quantify the two major alkaloids, symphytine and echimidine. Recognising that the N-oxide derivatives of these alkaloids have also been identified in comfrey preparations, chemical reduction was applied to determine the total quantities of the alkaloids as free bases and as N-oxide derivatives. The concentration of symphytine and echimidine varied considerably between teas prepared from leaves purchased from the different vendors of plant material. Moreover, a much higher concentration of symphytine was found in the tea when steps were included to reduce N-oxides prior to analysis. The treatment of pure symphytine with hot water did not generate the N-oxide derivative de novo. Since the pyrrolizidine alkaloids are known to be hepatotoxic, consumption of herbal teas made from comfrey leaves may be ill-advised. The concentration of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in such teas may be underestimated substantially unless the concentration of N-oxides is taken into consideration.

  15. Preparation of Orally Disintegrating Tablets Containing Powdered Tea Leaves with Enriched Levels of Bioactive Compounds by Means of Microwave Irradiation Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hironori; Iwao, Yasunori; Izumikawa, Masahiro; Sano, Syusuke; Ishida, Hitoshi; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a microwave treatment process has been applied to prepare orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) containing powdered tea leaves with enriched levels of the anti-inflammatory compounds such as chafuroside A (CFA) and chafuroside B (CFB). The use of distilled water as the adsorbed and granulation solvents in this preparation process afforded tablets with a long disintegration time (more than 120 s). The CFA and CFB contents of these tablets did not also change after 4 min of microwave irradiation due to the tablet temperature, which only increased to 100°C. In contrast, the tablet temperature increased up to 140°C after 3 min of microwave irradiation when a 1.68 M Na2HPO4 solution instead of distilled water. Notably, the disintegration time of these tablets was considerably improved (less than 20 s) compared with the microwave-untreated tablets, and there were 7- and 11-fold increases in their CFA and CFB contents. In addition, the operational conditions for the preparation of the tablets were optimized by face-centered composite design based on the following criteria: tablet hardness greater than 13 N, disintegration time less than 30 s and friability less than 0.5%. The requirements translated into X1 (the amount of granulation solvent), X2 (tableting pressure) and X3 (content of the powdered tea leaves) values of 45%, 0.43 kN and 32%, respectively, and the ODTs containing powdered tea leaves prepared under these optimized conditions were found to show excellent tablet properties and contain enriched levels of CFA and CFB.

  16. Developmental processes and responses to hormonal stimuli in tea plant (Camellia sinensis) leaves are controlled by GRF and GIF gene families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Wen-Li; Zhuang, Jing

    2017-09-01

    Tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) is an important leaf-type woody crop used for producing of non-alcoholic beverages worldwide. The GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR (GRF) transcription factors cooperated with GRF-INTERACTING FACTOR (GIF) transcriptional coactivators positively regulate leaf development. In the present study, six GRF and two GIF genes were identified and characterized in the leaf transcriptome of C. sinensis, respectively. The alignment results showed that the feature structures of the predicted homologous GRF and GIF proteins of C. sinensis hold a high identity with Arabidopsis and rice. The presence of C. sinensis miR396 target sites suggested that these miR396 members are the potential post-transcriptional regulators of CsGRF genes. The expression profiles of CsGRF and CsGIF1 genes were higher in tender leaves and consistently downregulated during tea plant leaf development. Those results suggested that these genes may be actively involved in the early stage leaf tissue formation in tea plant. The divergence of CsGRF and CsGIF genes in response to different hormonal stimuli revealed the possible multiple functions of these genes in hormonal regulation. This study provided the potential molecular basis of the CsGRF and CsGIF family genes for future functional research on leaf development and hormonal stimuli in C. sinensis.

  17. Anti-obesity effects of tea from Mangifera indica L. leaves of the Ubá variety in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Natalia Medina; Toledo, Renata C Lopes; Moreira, Maria E Castro; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Benjamin, Laércio Dos Anjos; de Queiroz, José H; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha

    2017-07-01

    Due to the high content of bioactive compounds, herbal teas are being investigated as adjuvant in chronic disease management. Studies have shown that mango leaf tea contain mangiferin, total phenolics and antioxidants, compounds with many functional properties. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the anti-obesity effects of tea from Mangifera indica L. leaves, Ubá variety (TML), in obese rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). For this, adult male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n=8): the control group (fed AIN-93 diet), obese group (fed a HFD) and treated group (fed a HFD and supplemented with TML for 8 weeks). We analysed biometric measures and serum biochemical parameters of metabolic control, inflammation and oxidative stress biomarkers, histomorphometry of visceral adipose tissue and mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1 alpha (PPAR-γ), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and fatty acid synthase (FAS). The consumption of TML (24.7±2.1mL/day) exerted antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, increasing total antioxidant capacity and interleukin-10 serum concentrations, reduced abdominal fat accumulation, upregulated PPAR-γ and LPL and downregulated FAS expression. Our data suggest that TML has therapeutic potential in treating obesity and related diseases through regulating the expression of transcriptional factors and enzymes associated with adipogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Caracterização química do óleo essencial de folhas de goiabeira (Psidium guajava L. e seus efeitos no comportamento da lagarta-do-cartucho do milho Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Essential oil chemical composition from leaves of guava (Psidium guajava L. and its effects on the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Karin Lima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nesta pesquisa, objetivou-se a obtenção e caracterização do óleo essencial de folhas da goiabeira Psidium guajava cv. Pedro Sato, e seus possíveis efeitos no comportamento da lagarta-do-cartucho do milho Spodoptera frugiperda. O óleo essencial foi obtido pela técnica "arraste a vapor d'água", utilizando-se de um aparelho de Clevenger modificado e submetido, posteriormente, à análise por cromatografia gasosa acoplada a um espectrômetro de massas CG-EM, a fim de investigar sua composição. Para a avaliação dos efeitos do óleo essencial no comportamento das lagartas de 1º ínstar foram testados quatro tratamentos, dois com o óleo essencial na concentração de 0,01% e 0,001%, diluídos em etanol/água 1:1, e duas testemunhas, uma com água e outra com etanol/água 1:1. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o óleo essencial de folhas de goiabeira apresenta na sua constituição o α-terpineol (0,9%, 1,8-cineol (7,0%, β-cariofileno (7,2% e o óxido de cariofileno (13,8%. Constatou-se, também, que o óleo essencial demonstrou efeito repelente para a lagarta-do-cartucho na concentração de 0,01%.The aim of this research was to obtain and characterize essential oil from leaves of Psidium guajava cv. Pedro Sato, and its possible effects on fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda behavior. The essential oil was obtained through steam distillation, by using a modified Clevenger apparatus, and the chemical composition was later analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy GC-MS. In order to evaluate the essential oil effect on the armyworm of 1st instars behavior, four treatments were tested; two with oil at 0.01 and 0.001 % in ethanol/water 1:1 concentration; two controls with water and the other with ethanol/water 1:1. The results showed that the above analyzed essential oil constituted of á-terpineole (0.9%, 1,8-cineole (7.0%, â-caryophyllene (7.2% and the caryophyllene oxide (13.8%. It was also found that the essential

  19. Influence of agronomic variables on the composition of mate tea leaves (Ilex paraguariensis) extracts obtained from CO2 extraction at 30 degrees C and 175 bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmelindro, Angela Aquino; Girardi, Jonathan Dos Santos; Mossi, Altemir; Jacques, Rosângela Assis; Dariva, Cláudio

    2004-04-07

    The aim of this work is to assess the influence of light intensity (plants with direct sun exposure and in a controlled light intensity) and age of leaves (6-24 months) on the characteristics of the extracts of mate tea leaves obtained from carbon dioxide at high pressures. Samples of mate were collected in an experiment conducted under agronomic control at Industria e Comercio de Erva-Mate Barão LTDA, Brazil. The content of selected organic compounds of the extracts was evaluated by gas chromatography together with mass spectrometry. Quantitative analysis of caffeine, theobromine, phytol, vitamin E, squalene, and stigmasterol was performed, and the results showed that field variables exert a strong influence on the liquid yield and on the chemical distribution of the extracts.

  20. Use of constrained mixture design for optimization of method for determination of zinc and manganese in tea leaves employing slurry sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida Bezerra, Marcos, E-mail: mbezerra47@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica, 45200-190, Jequie, Bahia (Brazil); Teixeira Castro, Jacira [Universidade Federal do Reconcavo da Bahia, Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas, 44380-000, Cruz das Almas, Bahia (Brazil); Coelho Macedo, Reinaldo; Goncalves da Silva, Douglas [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica, 45200-190, Jequie, Bahia (Brazil)

    2010-06-18

    A slurry suspension sampling technique has been developed for manganese and zinc determination in tea leaves by using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The proportions of liquid-phase of the slurries composed by HCl, HNO{sub 3} and Triton X-100 solutions have been optimized applying a constrained mixture design. The optimized conditions were 200 mg of sample ground in a tungsten carbide balls mill (particle size < 100 {mu}m), dilution in a liquid-phase composed by 2.0 mol L{sup -1} nitric, 2.0 mol L{sup -1} hydrochloric acid and 2.5% Triton X-100 solutions (in the proportions of 50%, 12% and 38% respectively), sonication time of 10 min and final slurry volume of 50.0 mL. This method allowed the determination of manganese and zinc by FAAS, with detection limits of 0.46 and 0.66 {mu}g g{sup -1}, respectively. The precisions, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), are 6.9 and 5.5% (n = 10), for concentrations of manganese and zinc of 20 and 40 {mu}g g{sup -1}, respectively. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of the certified apple leaves (NIST 1515) and spinach leaves (NIST 1570a). The proposed method was applied for the determination of manganese and zinc in tea leaves used for the preparation of infusions. The obtained concentrations varied between 42 and 118 {mu}g g{sup -1} and 18.6 and 90 {mu}g g{sup -1}, respectively, for manganese and zinc. The results were compared with those obtained by an acid digestion procedure and determination of the elements by FAAS. There was no significant difference between the results obtained by the two methods based on a paired t-test (at 95% confidence level).

  1. Evaluation of antidiarrhoeal effects of Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae aqueous leaf extract in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. R.N. Salgado

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    A crude aqueous extract of the leaves of the guava tree, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae, were studied for antidiarrhoeal effects, to place one of its traditional medical uses. The extract induced a decrease in the propulsive movements of the intestinal contents in mice. These findings suggested that an aqueous extract of guava leaves may be used as an effective treatment for non-specific diarrhoea in folk medicine. Keywords: Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae; in vivo test; guava tree; intestinal motility.

  2. Biotransformation of catechin and extraction of active polysaccharide from green tea leaves via simultaneous treatment with tannase and pectinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Joo Hyun; Shin, Kwang-Soon; Park, Yooheon; Yu, Kwang-Won; Suh, Hyung Joo; Choi, Hyeon-Son

    2015-08-30

    Green tea is a dietary source of bioactive compounds for human health. Enzymatic treatments induce the bioconversion of bioactive components, which can improve biological activities. In this study, we investigated the effect of simultaneous treatment with tannase and Rapidase on biotransformation of catechins and extraction of polysaccharide from green tea extract (GTE). Tannase and pectinase treatments induced the biotransformation of catechins and altered tea polysaccharide () content. The addition of GTE to the enzyme reaction resulted in a significant increase in degallated catechins, including gallic acid, a product of the tannase reaction (314.5-4076.0 µg mL(-1)) and a reduction in epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Biotransformation of catechins improved the radical scavenging activity of GTE. Pectinase treatment led to change of TPS composition in GTE by hydrolyzing polysaccharides. In addition, pectinase-driven hydrolysis in polysaccharides significantly increased TPS-induced Interleukin 6 (IL-6) production in macrophages. In particular, treatment of Rapidase (TPS-Ra) led to the highest IL-6 production among TPS samples, similar to treatment of highly purified pectinase (TPS-GTE), a positive control. Simultaneous processing with tannase and Rapidase can be an efficient method for the extraction of bioactive polysaccharides and biotransformation of catechins with enhanced radical scavenging activity from green tea. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Identification and quantification of 1,3-dimethylbutylamine (DMBA) from Camellia sinensis tea leaves and dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1, 3-Dimethylbutylamine (DMBA), is a CNS stimulant which has recently been identified in multiple dietary supplements and sometimes labeled as a natural constituent of Pouchung tea. DMBA is an homologue of 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA) which the US Food and Drug Administration has attempted to remov...

  4. Fluorine content of Fukien teas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T H; Lin, C S; Wu, C; Liao, C E; Lin, H Y

    1949-01-01

    A study was made on the fluorine contents of Fukien teas and analytical results indicated the amount ranged from 5.7 to 35.5 mg. per 100 grams of dry tea. The high content of fluorine was found not to be due to contamination nor to the high fluorine content of the soil in which the tea plant was cultivated. Differences in the methods of manufacture had no effect on the fluorine content of the final products. Different varieties of tea plants have different powers to absorb fluorine from the soil. Of the two varieties of tea plants studied, Shui-Sen leaves possessed the lower fluorine content. Age of the tea leaves exerted an important influence on the fluorine content, the older leaves containing considerably more fluorine than the younger. The amount of fluorine that may be extracted in a two per cent infusion varies from 29.1 per cent for fresh leaves to 50.5 per cent for black tea. The process of roasting and rolling rendered the fluorine more soluble, hence the amount extracted increased in green tea. Fermentation further increased the extractability of the fluorine; thus the amount extracted was the highest in black tea, which was fermented, less in the semi-fermented oolong tea, and least in the unfermented green tea. The extractability of fluorine was also increased with age of the leaves.

  5. Fermentation and complex enzyme hydrolysis for improving the total soluble phenolic contents, flavonoid aglycones contents and bio-activities of guava leaves tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Luo, You; Wu, Yanan; Liu, Yan; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2018-10-30

    There are both soluble and insoluble-bound forms of phenolics in tea-leaf products. In order to increase total soluble phenolics contents, guava leaves tea (GLT) was first fermented with Monascus anka and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and then hydrolyzed with complex enzymes. The changes in phenolics profiles, antioxidant activities and inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase in processed GLT were investigated. Compared with the un-fermented GLT, fermentation and complex enzymatic processing (FE) significantly increased the total phenolics, total flavonoids, quercetin and kaempferol contents by 2.1, 2.0, 13.0 and 6.8 times, respectively. After the FE, a major proportion of phenolics existed in the soluble form. Quercetin was released in the highest amount among different phenolics. In addition, soluble phenolic extracts from GLT following FE exhibited a highest antioxidant activity and inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase. The paper suggested an improved method for processing GLT into high-value products rich in phenolics and flavonoids aglycones with enhanced health benefits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Isolation and biomimetic synthesis of (±)-guajadial B, a novel meroterpenoid from Psidium guajava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Wang, Gang-Qiang; Wei, Kun; Hai, Ping; Wang, Fei; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2012-12-07

    (±)-Guajadial B (1), an unusual humulene-based meroterpenoid, was isolated as a racemate from the leaves of Psidium guajava, collected from Vietnam. The structure of this novel secondary metabolite was established on the basis of extensive analysis of NMR spectra and confirmed by biomimetic synthesis in a domino three-component coupling reaction.

  7. Chernobyl radioactivity in Turkish tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molzahn, D.; Tufail, M.; Patzelt, P.

    1990-01-01

    Radioactivity measurement of Turkish tea of 1986 crops is reported. The total cesium activity ranged from about 5500 Bq kg -1 up to 43600 Bq kg -1 . Some other fission products from Chernobyl could be detected in the tea samples, e.g., 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 106 Ru, 110m Ag and 125 Sb. In addition, some activity values found in tea from USSR are given. The transfer rate of cesium from tea leaves to tea water was found to be about 74%. (author) 6 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs

  8. Effects of acute administration of the hydroalcoholic extract of mate tea leaves (Ilex paraguariensis) in animal models of learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prediger, Rui D S; Fernandes, Marcelo S; Rial, Daniel; Wopereis, Sandro; Pereira, Vitor S; Bosse, Tamara S; Da Silva, Camila B; Carradore, Renata S; Machado, Marina S; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; Costa-Campos, Luciane

    2008-12-08

    Ilex paraguariensis St. Hilaire (Aquifoliaceae) is a plant widely cultivated in South America that is used to prepare a tea-like beverage with a reputation to improve cognitive function, a response that has been attributed to the constituents of the leaves, especially caffeine. Our previous study indicated that the hydroalcoholic extract of Ilex paraguariensis presents an antiparkinsonian profile in reserpine- and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine hydrochloride (MPTP)-treated rodents. In the present study, the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Ilex paraguariensis on the short- and long-term learning and memory of rats were assessed with the social recognition, Morris water maze, and step-down inhibitory avoidance tasks. A preliminary HPLC fingerprint of the plant extract confirmed the presence of caffeine (the major compound), rutin and kaemperol, and revealed the absence of detectable concentrations of caffeic acid, quercetin and ursolic acid. Acute pre-training intraperitoneal (i.p.) or oral administration of the extract of Ilex paraguariensis improved the short-term social memory in a specific manner as well as facilitated the step-down inhibitory avoidance short-term memory evaluated 1.5h after training. Moreover, a synergistic response was observed following the co-administration of 'non-effective' doses of caffeine and Ilex paraguariensis in the social memory. In contrast, pre-training administration of hydroalcoholic extract of Ilex paraguariensis did not alter the step-down inhibitory avoidance long-term memory evaluated 24h after training, while the highest dose tested (250 mg/kg, i.p.) disrupted the animals' performance in a cued version of the Morris water maze. These results partly substantiate the traditional use of mate tea for improvement of cognition indicating that acute administration of hydroalcoholic extract of Ilex paraguariensis differentially modulates short- and long-term learning and memory in rats probably through its

  9. How Does Alkali Aid Protein Extraction in Green Tea Leaf Residue: A Basis for Integrated Biorefinery of Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Sanders, Johan P. M.; Xiao, Ting T.; Bruins, Marieke E.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf protein can be obtained cost-efficiently by alkaline extraction, but overuse of chemicals and low quality of (denatured) protein limits its application. The research objective was to investigate how alkali aids protein extraction of green tea leaf residue, and use these results for further improvements in alkaline protein biorefinery. Protein extraction yield was studied for correlation to morphology of leaf tissue structure, protein solubility and hydrolysis degree, and yields of non-protein components obtained at various conditions. Alkaline protein extraction was not facilitated by increased solubility or hydrolysis of protein, but positively correlated to leaf tissue disruption. HG pectin, RGII pectin, and organic acids were extracted before protein extraction, which was followed by the extraction of cellulose and hemi-cellulose. RGI pectin and lignin were both linear to protein yield. The yields of these two components were 80% and 25% respectively when 95% protein was extracted, which indicated that RGI pectin is more likely to be the key limitation to leaf protein extraction. An integrated biorefinery was designed based on these results. PMID:26200774

  10. How Does Alkali Aid Protein Extraction in Green Tea Leaf Residue: A Basis for Integrated Biorefinery of Leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhang

    Full Text Available Leaf protein can be obtained cost-efficiently by alkaline extraction, but overuse of chemicals and low quality of (denatured protein limits its application. The research objective was to investigate how alkali aids protein extraction of green tea leaf residue, and use these results for further improvements in alkaline protein biorefinery. Protein extraction yield was studied for correlation to morphology of leaf tissue structure, protein solubility and hydrolysis degree, and yields of non-protein components obtained at various conditions. Alkaline protein extraction was not facilitated by increased solubility or hydrolysis of protein, but positively correlated to leaf tissue disruption. HG pectin, RGII pectin, and organic acids were extracted before protein extraction, which was followed by the extraction of cellulose and hemi-cellulose. RGI pectin and lignin were both linear to protein yield. The yields of these two components were 80% and 25% respectively when 95% protein was extracted, which indicated that RGI pectin is more likely to be the key limitation to leaf protein extraction. An integrated biorefinery was designed based on these results.

  11. Behavior of cesium-134 in the tea tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yinliang; Chen Kaixuan; Chen Chuangqun

    1996-01-01

    The radioactivity changes of 134 Cs in the aged and the young leaves followed an exponential regression function after spraying 134 Cs in the tea trees. Contamination by spraying 134 Cs greatly harmed tea tree and by irrigating or mixing 134 Cs with soil resulted in a potential endangerment. The concentrating ability of tea leaves for 134 CS was very low and K value was 0.02. After the fresh tea leaves were processed to dry tea, the content of 134 Cs decreased by about 13.3%. When the tea leaves were soaked in hot water, the extraction ratio was around 83.6%

  12. [Historical consideration of tea trees and tea flowers, especially regarding the use of tea flowers as food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harima, Shoichi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Tokuoka, Kiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Not only tea leaves, but also many kinds of plants have been used as tea, even those plants not belonging to Camellia sinensis, and they should be called "tea out of tea" in the Lucidophyllous forest zone. Generally, the tea leaf is drank after being decocted (almost boiled). The growth distribution of tea ranges in a belt-like zone of 30-40 degrees north latitude. Therefore, tea might have grown wild as "YAMACHA (mountain tea)" from ancient times in Japan as well as China. The first recored of tea drinking in Japan is the ceremony of "GYOUCHA" at the Imperial Court of the Emperor SHOUMU in 729. On the other hand, the oldest book about tea in China (CHAKYOU) was written in 770. Therefore, it seems that tea drinking started at nearly the same time in both countries. Tea was dispensed as medical supplies by Chinese medicinal prescription (SENKYUCHACHOUSAN) in Japan, but in China, tea was used as powdered medicine for drinking (SEICHA). However, the leaf of a certain plant used as "tea out of tea," was applied as a galenical preparation for traditional Chinese medicinal constitution. However, it is not possible to judge whether or not there was adaptability in Chinese medicine theory. In Japan, when tea was first consumed as a food, other than a few exceptions tea leaves were used as a coarse tea (BANCHA) until the latter half of the Meiji period. Mixing in air by stirring a tea solution, and at the same time, letting tea match with hot water. It was wisdom to improve the taste. As a result, in order to make bubble well, both of the condition and technique were devised. One of the approaches was to add the dried plant of Leguminosae (saponin) or tea flower (saponin), when "BANCHA" was decorted. And also tools such as a bamboo tea whisk (CHASEN) as well as bowl (GOROHACHI-CHAWAN), were conceived. "FURICHA" was served as a medicine by KUUYASHOUNIN in Japan in 951. Afterwards, the prayer ceremonies at shrines and temples used CHARAZU," showing the custom to serve tea in

  13. Quickly Screening for Potential α-Glucosidase Inhibitors from Guava Leaves Tea by Bioaffinity Ultrafiltration Coupled with HPLC-ESI-TOF/MS Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Liu, Yufeng; Luo, You; Huang, Kuiying; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2018-02-14

    Guava leaves tea (GLT) has a potential antihyperglycemic effect. Nevertheless, it is unclear which compound plays a key role in reducing blood sugar. In this study, GLT extract (IC 50 = 19.37 ± 0.21 μg/mL) exhibited a stronger inhibitory potency against α-glucosidase than did acarbose (positive control) at IC 50 = 178.52 ± 1.37 μg/mL. To rapidly identify the specific α-glucosidase inhibitor components from GLT, an approach based on bioaffinity ultrafiltration combined with high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (BAUF-HPLC-ESI-TOF/MS) was developed. Under the optimal bioaffinity ultrafiltration conditions, 11 corresponding potential α-glucosidase inhibitors with high affinity degrees (ADs) were screened and identified from the GLT extract. Quercetin (IC 50 = 4.51 ± 0.71 μg/mL) and procyanidin B3 (IC 50 = 28.67 ± 5.81 μg/mL) were determined to be primarily responsible for the antihyperglycemic effect, which further verified the established screening method. Moreover, structure-activity relationships were discussed. In conclusion, the BAUF-HPLC-ESI-TOF/MS method could be applied to determine the potential α-glucosidase inhibitors from complex natural products quickly.

  14. Metal Analysis in Citrus Sinensis Fruit Peel and Psidium Guajava Leaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Anju; Nanda, Arun; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2011-01-01

    The determination of metal traces is very important because they are involved in biological cycles and indicate high toxicity. The objective of the present study is to measure the levels of heavy metals and mineral ions in medicinally important plant species, Citrus sinensis and Psidium guajava. This study investigates the accumulation of Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd), Aluminum (Al), Mercury (Hg), Arsenic (As), Selenium (Se) and inorganic minerals like Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) in C. sinensis (sweet orange) fruit peel and P. guajava (guava) leaf, to measure the levels of heavy metal contamination. Dried powdered samples of the plants were digested using wet digestion method and elemental determination was done by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation and analysed by student's ‘t’ test. Values are considered significant at P guajava leaves were within the acceptable limits for human consumption. The order of concentration of elements in both the samples showed the following trend: Mg > Ca > Al > Zn > Cu > Cd > Hg = As = Se. The content of Hg, As and Se in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves was significantly low and below detection limit. The content of toxic metals in tested plant samples was found to be low when compared with the limits prescribed by various authorities (World Health Organization, WHO; International Centre for Materials Research, ICMR; American Public Health Association, APHA). The content of Hg, As and Se in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves was not detectable and met the appropriate safety standards. In conclusion, the tested plant parts taken in the present study were found to be safe. PMID:21976824

  15. Protective effect of Psidium guajava leaf extract on altered carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haseena Banu Hedayathullah; Shanmugavalli, R; Rajendran, Deepa; Bai, Mookambikai Ramya; Sorimuthu, Subramanian

    2013-12-01

    Psidium guajava is an important plant of high medicinal value and has been used in traditional systems of medicine against various ailments. The antidiabetic effect of the ethanolic extract of Psidium guajava leaves and also its protective effect on altered glucose metabolism was evaluated in streptozotocin (stz)-induced diabetic rat model. Diabetes was induced in rats by means of intraperitoneal injection of 50-mg/kg body weight (b.wt.) of stz. Diabetes-induced rats were randomly divided into two groups. One group of rats was treated with Psidium guajava leaf extract at a dosage of 300-mg/kg b.wt. and the other group of rats was treated with the standard drug glyclazide at a dosage of 5-mg/kg b.wt. for 30 days. The blood glucose levels, plasma insulin, Hb, HbA1c were measured. The effect on the drug on altered glucose metabolizing enzymes were also studied. Treatment with Psidium guajava extract showed a significant reduction in blood glucose and HbA1c levels and a significant increase in plasma insulin levels. The drug also significantly restored the activities of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes. This suggests that the potential antidiabetic effect of the ethanolic extract of the Psidium guajava leaves may be due to the presence of flavonoids and other phenolic components present in the drug.

  16. PAH in tea and coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Navarantem, Marin; Adamska, Joanna

    For food regulation in the European Union maximum limits on other foods than tea and coffee includes benzo[a]pyrene and the sum of PAH4 (sum of benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene and benzo[b]fluoranthene). This study includes analysis of the above mentioned PAH in both, tea leaves, coffee...... beans and ready-to-drink preparations. Compared to other food matrices (e.g. fish), the analytical methods were challenged by the hot water extracts. Preparation of tea includes roasting and drying of the tea leaves using combustion gases from burning wood, oil, or coal. These are responsible...... for accumulation of PAH in tea leaves. Different varieties of tea leaves were analyzed and highest concentrations were found in leaves from mate and black tea with maximum concentrations of 32 μg/kg for benzo[a]pyrene and 115 μg/kg for the sum of PAH4. Also, coffee beans are roasted during processing. However...

  17. Residues and contaminants in tea and tea infusions: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Aty, A M; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Kim, Sung-Woo; Tosun, Alev; Shim, Jae-Han

    2014-01-01

    Consumers are very aware of contaminants that could pose potential health hazards. Most people drink tea as an infusion (adding hot water); however, in some countries, including India, China and Egypt, tea is drunk as a decoction (tea and water are boiled together). An infusion usually brings the soluble ingredients into solution, whereas a decoction brings all soluble and non-soluble constituents together. Therefore, a cup of tea may contain various kinds of contaminants. This review focuses on green and black tea because they are most commonly consumed. The target was to examine the transfer rate of contaminants - pesticides, environmental pollutants, mycotoxins, microorganisms, toxic heavy metals, radioactive isotopes (radionuclides) and plant growth regulators - from tea to infusion/brewing, factors contributing to the transfer potential and contaminants degradation, and residues in or on the spent leaves. It is concluded that most contaminants leaching into tea infusion are not detected or are detected at a level lower than the regulatory limits. However, the traditional practice of over-boiling tea leaves should be discouraged as there may be a chance for more transfer of contaminants from the tea to the brew.

  18. Oligomerization and hydroxylation of green tea catechins by oxidative enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Black teas are known for their characteristic brown colour, bitter taste and astringent mouth feel. These sensory characteristics are mainly influenced by the phenolic oxidation products present in black tea. The oxidation of phenolics from green tea leaves during black tea manufacturing is an

  19. Antimicrobial compounds from leaf extracts of Jatropha curcas, Psidium guajava, and Andrographis paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S H; Mohamed, M T M; Ab Rahman, M Z

    2014-01-01

    The present research was conducted to discover antimicrobial compounds in methanolic leaf extracts of Jatropha curcas and Andrographis paniculata and ethanolic leaf extract of Psidium guajava and the effectiveness against microbes on flower preservative solution of cut Mokara Red orchid flowers was evaluated. The leaves were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of nine, 66, and 29 compounds were identified in J. curcas, P. guajava, and A. paniculata leaf extracts, with five (88.18%), four (34.66%), and three (50.47%) having unique antimicrobial compounds, respectively. The experimental design on vase life was conducted using a completely randomized design with 10 replications. The flower vase life was about 6 days in the solution containing the P. guajava and A. paniculata leaf extracts at 15 mg/L. Moreover, solution with leaf extracts of A. paniculata had the lowest bacterial count compared to P. guajava and J. curcas. Thus, these leaf extracts revealed the presence of relevant antimicrobial compounds. The leaf extracts have the potential as a cut flower solution to minimize microbial populations and extend flower vase life. However, the activities of specific antimicrobial compounds and double or triple combination leaf extracts to enhance the effectiveness to extend the vase life need to be tested.

  20. Psidium guajava leaf extract prevents intestinal colonization of Citrobacter rodentium in the mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diarrheal diseases are the second highest cause of mortality of children under 5 years worldwide. There is a continuous search for developing a cost-effective treatment for diarrhea as the present ones are facing challenges. Medicinal plants can be explored further as an alternative treatment for diarrhea. Psidium guajava leaves have been used as an antidiarrheal globally. Citrobacter rodentium, a common mouse pathogen, is known to mimic the pathogenecity of enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic E. coli. It can thus present an effective model to study infectious diarrhea. In the present study, the P. guajava leaf extract was tested for its efficacy in treating infectious diarrhea using a C. rodentium mouse model. The mice in the test group (treated with P. guajava leaf extract showed quicker clearance of infection as compared with the control group. The bacterial load in the fecal sample of the mice in the test group was high on Day 4 as compared with that in the control group, suggesting a flush out of the bacteria. In the test group, 6/7 (85.71% mice showed clearance of infection by Day 19. The control group continued to show infection till Day 29. P. guajava leaf extract thus has the potential for use in the treatment of infectious diarrhea.

  1. Psidium guajava leaf extract prevents intestinal colonization of Citrobacter rodentium in the mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pooja; Birdi, Tannaz

    2015-01-01

    Diarrheal diseases are the second highest cause of mortality of children under 5 years worldwide. There is a continuous search for developing a cost-effective treatment for diarrhea as the present ones are facing challenges. Medicinal plants can be explored further as an alternative treatment for diarrhea. Psidium guajava leaves have been used as an antidiarrheal globally. Citrobacter rodentium, a common mouse pathogen, is known to mimic the pathogenecity of enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic E. coli. It can thus present an effective model to study infectious diarrhea. In the present study, the P. guajava leaf extract was tested for its efficacy in treating infectious diarrhea using a C. rodentium mouse model. The mice in the test group (treated with P. guajava leaf extract) showed quicker clearance of infection as compared with the control group. The bacterial load in the fecal sample of the mice in the test group was high on Day 4 as compared with that in the control group, suggesting a flush out of the bacteria. In the test group, 6/7 (85.71%) mice showed clearance of infection by Day 19. The control group continued to show infection till Day 29. P. guajava leaf extract thus has the potential for use in the treatment of infectious diarrhea. PMID:25878465

  2. Black Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mental alertness as well as learning, memory, and information processing skills. It is also used for treating headache; ... of carbamazepine. Since black tea contains caffeine, in theory taking black tea with carbamazepine might decrease the ...

  3. Guadial A and psiguadials C and D, three unusual meroterpenoids from Psidium guajava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Meng; Wang, Ying; Jian, Yu-Qing; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Tang, Qing-Fa; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Sun, Xue-Gang; Lv, Zhi-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2012-10-19

    The first monoterpene-based meroterpenoid (1) and two novel sesquiterpene-based ones (2 and 3) with unprecedented skeletons were isolated from the leaves of Psidium guajava. Their structures with absolute configuration were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic studies. A plausible biosynthetic pathway for all meroterpenoids from the title plant is also proposed. Compounds 2 and 3 showed significant cytotoxicity toward HepG2 and HepG2/ADM cells.

  4. Microbial fermented tea - a potential source of natural food preservatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mo, H.Z.; Yang Zhu, Yang; Chen, Z.M.

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial activities of microbial fermented tea are much less known than its health beneficial properties. These antimicrobial activities are generated in natural microbial fermentation process with tea leaves as substrates. The antimicrobial components produced during the fermentation process

  5. Psidium guajava L., from ethnobiology to scientific evaluation: Elucidating bioactivity against pathogenic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana B; Carneiro, Joara Nalyda P; Machado, Antonio Júdson T; Dos Santos, Antonia Thassya L; Sales, Débora L; Lima, Luciene F; Figueredo, Fernando G; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas M

    2016-12-24

    The use of popular plants has guided pharmaceutical research aimed at combating pathogenic microorganisms. Psidium guajava L. is a plant of great versatility and it has been used both as food and as a therapeutic agent. Root, bark, leaves, fruits, flowers and seeds are used for medicinal purposes, especially in infusions and decoctions for oral and topical use. P. guajava is utilized in symptomatology treatment related to organ malfunction and of diseases caused by the action of pathogenic and/or opportunistic microorganisms. Many pharmacological studies have been conducted to scientifically assess its therapeutic potential. The aim of the current study is to relate the popular use of this plant and its bioscientific assessment as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of diseases and symptoms caused by the action of protozoa, fungi, bacteria and viruses, and also evaluate the safety for the usage and the interaction with drugs. A bibliographic database the ethnobiology of Psidium guajava (2005-2015) and the pharmacological infections and parasitic diseases (2010-2015). Searches were done in scientific disclosure databases such as PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus. P. guajava leaf extracts were scientifically investigated for the treatment of diseases caused by protozoa (leishmaniasis, malaria, giardiasis, amoebiasis and trichomoniasis), fungi (dermatosis, systemic and mucocutaneous diseases), bacteria (respiratory, mucocutaneous and gastrointestinal infections, cholera, gastritis and stomach ulcers, oral and periodontal infections, venereal diseases and urinary infections) and viruses (herpes, influenza, rotavirus disease and AIDS). The toxicity assays indicates the safet for usage. Highlight and elucidate the therapeutic potential and versatility of P. guajava. They also justify using ethnobiology efficiency to guide pharmacological studies. Some limitations can be observed in this kind of study, as the lack for ethnobiological informations and the absence of some

  6. Antibacterial activity of GUAVA, Psidium guajava Linnaeus, leaf extracts on diarrhea-causing enteric bacteria isolated from Seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Flávia A; Andrade Neto, Manoel; Bezerra, José N S; Macrae, Andrew; Sousa, Oscarina Viana de; Fonteles-Filho, Antonio A; Vieira, Regine H S F

    2008-01-01

    Guava leaf tea of Psidium guajava Linnaeus is commonly used as a medicine against gastroenteritis and child diarrhea by those who cannot afford or do not have access to antibiotics. This study screened the antimicrobial effect of essential oils and methanol, hexane, ethyl acetate extracts from guava leaves. The extracts were tested against diarrhea-causing bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli. Strains that were screened included isolates from seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller) and laboratory-type strains. Of the bacteria tested, Staphylococcus aureus strains were most inhibited by the extracts. The methanol extract showed greatest bacterial inhibition. No statistically significant differences were observed between the tested extract concentrations and their effect. The essential oil extract showed inhibitory activity against S. aureus and Salmonella spp. The strains isolated from the shrimp showed some resistance to commercially available antibiotics. These data support the use of guava leaf-made medicines in diarrhea cases where access to commercial antibiotics is restricted. In conclusion, guava leaf extracts and essential oil are very active against S. aureus, thus making up important potential sources of new antimicrobial compounds.

  7. Evaluation of Antinociceptive Activity of Aqueous Extract of Bark of Psidium Guajava in Albino Rats and Albino Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasree, T.; Ubedulla, Shaikh; Dixit, Rohit; V S, Manohar; J, Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Psidium guajava is commonly known as guava. Psidium guajava is a medium sized tree belonging to the family Myrtaceae found throughout the tropics. All the parts of the plant, the leaves, followed by the fruits, bark and the roots are used in traditional medicine. The traditional uses of the plant are Antidiarrheal, Antimicrobial Activity, Antimalarial/Antiparasitic Activity, Antitussive and antihyperglycaemic. Leaves are used as Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antinociceptive effects. Aim: To evaluate the antinociceptive activity of aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava in albino rats with that of control and standard analgesic drugs aspirin and tramadol. Materials and Methods: Mechanical (Tail clip method) and thermal (Tail flick method using Analgesiometer), 0.6% solution of acetic acid writhing models of nociception were used to evaluate the extract antinociceptive activity. Six groups of animals, each consists of 10 animals, first one as control, second and third as standard drugs, Aspirin and Tramadol, fourth, fifth and sixth groups as text received the extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/ kg) orally 60 min prior to subjection to the respective test. Results: The results obtained demonstrated that aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava produced significant antinociceptive response in all the mechanical and thermal-induced nociception models. Conclusion: AEPG antinociceptive activity involves activation of the peripheral and central mechanisms. PMID:25386462

  8. Evaluation of antinociceptive activity of aqueous extract of bark of psidium guajava in albino rats and albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, N Chandra; Jayasree, T; Ubedulla, Shaikh; Dixit, Rohit; V S, Manohar; J, Shankar

    2014-09-01

    Psidium guajava is commonly known as guava. Psidium guajava is a medium sized tree belonging to the family Myrtaceae found throughout the tropics. All the parts of the plant, the leaves, followed by the fruits, bark and the roots are used in traditional medicine. The traditional uses of the plant are Antidiarrheal, Antimicrobial Activity, Antimalarial/Antiparasitic Activity, Antitussive and antihyperglycaemic. Leaves are used as Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antinociceptive effects. To evaluate the antinociceptive activity of aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava in albino rats with that of control and standard analgesic drugs aspirin and tramadol. Mechanical (Tail clip method) and thermal (Tail flick method using Analgesiometer), 0.6% solution of acetic acid writhing models of nociception were used to evaluate the extract antinociceptive activity. Six groups of animals, each consists of 10 animals, first one as control, second and third as standard drugs, Aspirin and Tramadol, fourth, fifth and sixth groups as text received the extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/ kg) orally 60 min prior to subjection to the respective test. The results obtained demonstrated that aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava produced significant antinociceptive response in all the mechanical and thermal-induced nociception models. AEPG antinociceptive activity involves activation of the peripheral and central mechanisms.

  9. Psidium guajava as a bioaccumulator of nickel around an oil refinery, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade Perry, Carolina; Divan, Armando Molina; Raya Rodriguez, Maria Teresa; Lúcia Atz, Vera

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate the potential of Psidium guajava as a biological accumulator of air pollutants, saplings were exposed at nine sites receiving atmospheric emissions from an oil refinery (five within, four outside the industrial area) and another reference site located at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, 27 km from the refinery. Exposures lasted about 3 months each, coincided with the seasons, and totaled five exposures between 2005 and 2006. The following parameters were evaluated: dry weight of leaves, stems, and roots, leaf area, rate of relative height increase, Ni and S contents, maximum assimilation rate, and carboxylation efficiency invivo. P. guajava was found to be an efficient accumulator of Ni, since highly significant differences were observed (Pguajava is a good bioaccumulator for Ni. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Aspectos biológicos de Thyrinteina arnobia (Lep.: Geometriadae provenientes de lagartas criadas em folhas de Eucalyptus cloeziana ou de Psidium guajava sob condições de campo Biological aspects of Thyrinteina arnobia (Lep.: Geometridae adults originated from caterpillars reared on leaves of Eucalyptus cloeziana or Psidium guajava under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Mathias Holtz

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Os plantios de Eucalyptus no Brasil podem sofrer danos por espécies nativas de insetos de diversas ordens, como Orthoptera, Coleoptera e Lepidoptera. Esses insetos podem alimentar-se tanto de mirtáceas brasileiras como goiabeira, gabirobeira, jabuticabeira, entre outras, como de espécies do gênero Eucalyptus. Entre os desfolhadores, destaca-se Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll (Lepidoptera: Geometridae como o mais daninho dessa ordem para a eucaliptocultura brasileira. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar aspectos biológicos de adultos de T. arnobia provenientes de lagartas alimentadas com plantas de eucalipto e, ou, goiabeira. Adultos deste inseto criados em folhas de eucalipto e, ou, de goiabeira apresentaram diferenças significativas para a maioria dos aspectos biológicos avaliados, exceto para a duração dos períodos de préoviposição, de oviposição e razão sexual. Assim, insetos herbívoros que vivem em hospedeiros filogeneticamente próximos ao eucalipto são capazes de causar danos consideráveis em reflorestamentos com espécies desse grupo, o que provavelmente ocorre pelo fato de elas estarem ainda em processo de adaptação a essa praga que atacaria o eucalipto, por estar fugindo da pressão exercida por barreiras físicas e químicas existentes nas mirtáceas nativas brasileiras.Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil may be damaged by native insects of many orders including Orthoptera, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera. These insects feed on Brazilian tree species of the family Myrtaceae to which the genus Eucalyptus belongs. The Lepidoptera Thyrinteina arnobia Stoll (Lepidoptera: Geometridae is the most harmful defoliator of Eucalyptus in Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate biological aspects of T. arnobia adults originated from caterpillars fed on guava or eucalyptus plants. Adults of T. arnobia originated from caterpillars reared with eucalyptus or guava leaves presented significant differences for most biological

  11. A hexane fraction of guava Leaves (Psidium guajava L.) induces anticancer activity by suppressing AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin/ribosomal p70 S6 kinase in human prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Nae Hyung; Park, Kyung-Ran; Kim, Sung-Moo; Yun, Hyung-Mun; Nam, Dongwoo; Lee, Seok-Geun; Jang, Hyeung-Jin; Ahn, Kyoo Seok; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Shim, Bum Sang; Choi, Seung-Hoon; Mosaddik, Ashik; Cho, Somi K; Ahn, Kwang Seok

    2012-03-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the anticancer effects of guava leaf extracts and its fractions. The chemical compositions of the active extracts were also determined. In the present study, we set out to determine whether the anticancer effects of guava leaves are linked with their ability to suppress constitutive AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/ribosomal p70 S6 kinase (S6K1) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation pathways in human prostate cancer cells. We found that guava leaf hexane fraction (GHF) was the most potent inducer of cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in PC-3 cells. The molecular mechanism or mechanisms of GHF apoptotic potential were correlated with the suppression of AKT/mTOR/S6K1 and MAPK signaling pathways. This effect of GHF correlated with down-regulation of various proteins that mediate cell proliferation, cell survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Analysis of GHF by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry tentatively identified 60 compounds, including β-eudesmol (11.98%), α-copaene (7.97%), phytol (7.95%), α-patchoulene (3.76%), β-caryophyllene oxide (CPO) (3.63%), caryophylla-3(15),7(14)-dien-6-ol (2.68%), (E)-methyl isoeugenol (1.90%), α-terpineol (1.76%), and octadecane (1.23%). Besides GHF, CPO, but not phytol, also inhibited the AKT/mTOR/S6K1 signaling pathway and induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Overall, these findings suggest that guava leaves can interfere with multiple signaling cascades linked with tumorigenesis and provide a source of potential therapeutic compounds for both the prevention and treatment of cancer.

  12. Microbial composition of guava (Psidium guajava), hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial composition of guava (Psidium guajava), hibiscus (Hibiscus-rosa sinensis), mango (Mangifera indica) and pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook) ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... The microbial genera isolated from this study showed that, both human and plant pathogens can colonize plants' phyllosphere.

  13. Green Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and cancer. Green tea is consumed as a beverage. It is also sold in liquid extracts, capsules, and tablets and is sometimes used in topical products (intended to be applied to the skin). How Much Do We Know? Although many studies have been done on green tea and its ...

  14. Caracterização físico-química da erva mate: influência das etapas do processamento industrial Effects of industrial processing steps on the physico-chemical characteristics of mate tea leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Esmelindro

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A erva-mate é uma matéria-prima de grande importância para a região Sul do Brasil, sendo que a produção anual é de aproximadamente 650.000 toneladas de folhas. Atualmente, problemas com o excesso de oferta têm incentivado pesquisadores e empresários a buscar alternativas para a utilização da erva-mate como matéria-prima para o desenvolvimento de novos produtos bem como promover melhorias no processamento industrial visando a obtenção de características organolépticas desejáveis. Neste sentido, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo realizar a caracterização físico-química da erva-mate em função das etapas do processamento industrial (sapeco, secagem e tempo de cancheamento e verificar como estas etapas influem nos teores de cinzas, fibras, gorduras, proteínas, glicose, sacarose e cafeína presentes na matéria-prima. Os resultados obtidos permitiram verificar que as etapas do processamento industrial influem diretamente nos teores dos compostos citados, mostrando a relevância em se analisar estes resultados quando o objetivo é utilizar esta matéria-prima para o desenvolvimento de novos produtos alimentícios que podem exigir características específicas.Mate tea leaves is a raw material of great importance to Southern Brazil, considering its annual production of approximately 650,000 tons of leaves. Currently the excess of mate tea leaves supply in the market has encouraged researchers and entrepreneurs to search for alternatives involving the application of this raw material in the development of new products, as well as the improvement the industrial process, seeking to obtain desirable organoleptic properties. Thus, the present work performed the physical-chemical characterization of mate tea leaves, correlating its qualities to the industrial processing steps ("sapeco", drying and time of "cancheamento". The effect of these steps on the content of ash, fiber, fat, protein, glucose, sucrose and caffeine in the raw

  15. Health Benefits of Tea Consumption | Sharma | Tropical Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tea is the most common beverage after water. It is extracted from the leaves of Camellia sinensis (family: Theaceae). It is consumed in different forms, namely, oolong, green, black and Ilex tea depending on post-harvest treatment and chemical components. Being rich in natural antioxidants, tea is reported to be used in the ...

  16. Antiviral effects of green tea ( Camellia sinensis ) against pathogenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tea is the second most addictive worldwide after formulations containing caffeine in carbonated beverage. Green tea is made from leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant. In the repertoire of traditional Chinese medicine, green tea beverages have played a fundamental role associated with their culture.

  17. Fumigant Activity of the Psidium guajava Var. Pomifera (Myrtaceae) Essential Oil in Drosophila melanogaster by Means of Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Antonio Ivanildo; Wallau, Gabriel Luz; Nunes, Mauro Eugenio Medina; Leite, Nadghia Figueiredo; Tintino, Saulo Relison; da Cruz, Litiele Cezar; da Cunha, Francisco Assis Bezerra; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Douglas Melo Coutinho, Henrique; Posser, Thais

    2014-01-01

    The guava fruit, Psidium guajava var. pomifera (Myrtaceae family), is a native plant from South America. Its leaves and fruits are widely used in popular medicine in tropical and subtropical countries. Drosophila melanogaster has been used as one of the main model organisms in genetic studies since the 1900s. The extensive knowledge about this species makes it one of the most suitable organisms to study many aspects of toxic compound effects. Due to the lack of studies on the effects of the bioactive compounds present in the P. guajava var. pomifera essential oil, we performed a phytochemical characterization by CG-MS and evaluated the toxicity induced by the essential oil in the D. melanogaster insect model. In order to understand the biochemical mechanisms of toxicity, changes on the Nrf2 signaling as well as hallmarks of oxidative stress response were followed in the exposed flies. Our results showed that exposure of insects to the P. guajava oil increased mortality and locomotor deficits in parallel with an oxidative stress response signaling. Therefore, it suggested a bioinsecticidal activity for P. guajava volatile compounds by means of oxidative stress. Further studies are ongoing to identify which oil compounds are responsible for such effect. PMID:25478063

  18. Fumigant Activity of the Psidium guajava Var. Pomifera (Myrtaceae Essential Oil in Drosophila melanogaster by Means of Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ivanildo Pinho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The guava fruit, Psidium guajava var. pomifera (Myrtaceae family, is a native plant from South America. Its leaves and fruits are widely used in popular medicine in tropical and subtropical countries. Drosophila melanogaster has been used as one of the main model organisms in genetic studies since the 1900s. The extensive knowledge about this species makes it one of the most suitable organisms to study many aspects of toxic compound effects. Due to the lack of studies on the effects of the bioactive compounds present in the P. guajava var. pomifera essential oil, we performed a phytochemical characterization by CG-MS and evaluated the toxicity induced by the essential oil in the D. melanogaster insect model. In order to understand the biochemical mechanisms of toxicity, changes on the Nrf2 signaling as well as hallmarks of oxidative stress response were followed in the exposed flies. Our results showed that exposure of insects to the P. guajava oil increased mortality and locomotor deficits in parallel with an oxidative stress response signaling. Therefore, it suggested a bioinsecticidal activity for P. guajava volatile compounds by means of oxidative stress. Further studies are ongoing to identify which oil compounds are responsible for such effect.

  19. Fumigant activity of the Psidium guajava var. pomifera (Myrtaceae) essential oil in Drosophila melanogaster by means of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Antonio Ivanildo; Wallau, Gabriel Luz; Nunes, Mauro Eugenio Medina; Leite, Nadghia Figueiredo; Tintino, Saulo Relison; da Cruz, Litiele Cezar; da Cunha, Francisco Assis Bezerra; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Douglas Melo Coutinho, Henrique; Posser, Thais; Franco, Jeferson Luis

    2014-01-01

    The guava fruit, Psidium guajava var. pomifera (Myrtaceae family), is a native plant from South America. Its leaves and fruits are widely used in popular medicine in tropical and subtropical countries. Drosophila melanogaster has been used as one of the main model organisms in genetic studies since the 1900s. The extensive knowledge about this species makes it one of the most suitable organisms to study many aspects of toxic compound effects. Due to the lack of studies on the effects of the bioactive compounds present in the P. guajava var. pomifera essential oil, we performed a phytochemical characterization by CG-MS and evaluated the toxicity induced by the essential oil in the D. melanogaster insect model. In order to understand the biochemical mechanisms of toxicity, changes on the Nrf2 signaling as well as hallmarks of oxidative stress response were followed in the exposed flies. Our results showed that exposure of insects to the P. guajava oil increased mortality and locomotor deficits in parallel with an oxidative stress response signaling. Therefore, it suggested a bioinsecticidal activity for P. guajava volatile compounds by means of oxidative stress. Further studies are ongoing to identify which oil compounds are responsible for such effect.

  20. Evaluation of seven different drying treatments in respect to total flavonoid, phenolic, vitamin C content, chlorophyll, antioxidant activity and color of green tea (Camellia sinensis or C. assamica) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshanak, Sahar; Rahimmalek, Mehdi; Goli, Sayed Amir Hossein

    2016-01-01

    The effect of seven drying treatments (sun, shade, oven 60 °C, oven 80 °C, oven 100 °C, microwave and freeze-drying) were evaluated with respect total flavonoid (TFC), phenolic (TPC), antioxidant activity, vitamin C and color characteristics of green tea. In general, drying increased antioxidant activity, TPC, TFC and chlorophyll content, while it led to a decrease in vitamin C. The highest TPC (209.17 mg Gallic acid/gdw) and TFC (38.18 mg Quercitin/gdw) were obtained in oven drying at 60 and 100 °C, respectively. Among methods, oven drying at 60 °C revealed the highest radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 167.166 μg/ml), while microwave showed the lowest one (IC50 = 505.5 μg/ml). Similar trend was also observed in reducing power assay. The highest vitamin C (16.36 mg/100gDM) and Chlorophyll a (17.35 mg/l) were obtained in freeze drying. Finally, sun and freeze drying methods were considered as the least and the most desirable drying methods, respectively the final color of green tea leaves.

  1. Possibility of irradiation degradation of Fenpropathrin and Deltamethrin in green tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yifang; Wan Xiaochun; Hou Ruyan; Zhang Haiwei; Zhao Xiuxia; Wang Xiaohui

    2011-01-01

    The effects of 60 Co γ irradiation and green tea manufacturing processing on degradation of Fenpropathrin and Deltamethrin in green tea during its manufacturing processing were studied. The two pesticides were sprayed onto the tea bushes and fresh tea leaves were picked at the same day, respectively. Half of the fresh leaves were processed into green tea. The fresh tea leaves and green tea were irradiated at 5 kGy and the Fenpropathrin in fresh tea degraded 7.3% after irradiation, while Deltamethrin degraded 14.7%. In green tea, Fenpropathrin and Deltamethrin degraded 2.2% and 12.1% respectively after irradiation. Green tea manufacturing processes could reduce 16.4% of Fenpropathrin, and 4.4% of Deltamethrin. (authors)

  2. Influence of drying methods and agronomic variables on the chemical composition of mate tea leaves (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil) obtained from high-pressure CO2 extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Rosângela Assis; Krause, Laiza Canielas; Freitas, Lisiane dos Santos; Dariva, Cláudio; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Caramão, Elina Bastos

    2007-12-12

    The main objective of this work is to assess the influence of two drying methods (microwave and vacuum oven) and some agronomic variables (plant fertilization conditions and sunlight intensity) on the characteristics of mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) leaves extracts obtained from high-pressure carbon dioxide extractions performed in the temperature range from 20 to 40 degrees C and from 100 to 250 bar. Samples of mate were collected in an experiment conducted under agronomic control at Ervateira Barão LTDA, Brazil. Chemical distribution of the extracts was evaluated by gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer detector (GC/MS). In addition to extraction variables, results showed that both sample drying methods and agronomic conditions exert a pronounced influence on the extraction yield and on the chemical distribution of the extracts.

  3. Triterpenoids from Psidium guajava with Biocidal Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, P.; Mandal, A.; Chakraborty, P.; Rasul, M. G.; Chakraborty, Madhumita; Saha, A.

    2010-01-01

    In continuation of our studies on the phytochemical investigation of medicinal plants available in the foothills of Darjeeling and Teri, we report herein the isolation of two triterpenoids betulinic acid and lupeol from the leaf extract of Psidium guajava and their potential antimicrobial and phytotoxic activities. All the structures of the isolated compounds were confirmed by spectral (IR, NMR) analysis and by comparison with the literature reports. PMID:21218065

  4. [Study on processed senna found in health teas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Mitsuko; Miyazawa, Maki; Sakurai, Katsumi; Watabe, Kenjiro; Kojima, Takashi

    2009-12-01

    Sennoside A and B were detected in 21 commercial health tea products surveyed in 2000-2007, but there were 8 products in which the leaves could not be identified as senna because the leaves had become discolored. The results of assay of sennoside levels and TLC chromatograms suggested that processed senna had been used in these products. Next, with reference to tea and health tea manufacturing methods, pharmaceutical senna was roasted or wet-processed experimentally. The results indicated that the discolored leaves contained in commercial health tea were most likely derived from senna leaves. Moreover, sennosides in medicinal doses were detected in some processed senna samples, and were determined to have a cathartic action in mice. Based on morphological confirmation and the results of component analysis, including sennoside, the discolored leaves found in commercial health teas were therefore determined to be senna leaves. There may be possible health risks, including diarrhea.

  5. Monitoring content of cadmium, calcium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium and manganese in tea leaves by electrothermal and flame atomizer atomic absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prkić Ante

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the simplicity of tea preparation (pouring hot water onto different dried herbs and its high popularity as a beverage, monitoring and developing a screening methodology for detecting the metal content is very important. The concentrations of Cd, Ca, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mg and Mn in 11 different samples of sage (Salvia officinalis L., linden (Tilia L. and chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L. purchased at local herbal pharmacy were determined using electrothermal atomizer atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS and flame atomizer atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS. The concentrations determined were: Cd (0.012 – 0.470 mg kg−1, Ca (5209 – 16340 mg kg−1, Cu (22.01 – 33.05 mg kg−1, Fe (114.2 – 440.3 mg kg−1, Pb (0.545 – 2.538 mg kg−1, Mg (2649 – 4325 mg kg−1 and Mn (34.00 – 189.6 mg kg−1. Principal Component Analysis (PCA was applied to identify factors (soil and climate influencing the content of the measured elements in herbal samples. The proposed methodology developed in this work was successfully applied to the detection of metals in herbal samples. The analysis showed that the content of toxic metals in herbal teas was below the maximum dose recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO.

  6. Aluminum bioavailability from tea infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokel, Robert A; Florence, Rebecca L

    2008-12-01

    The objective was to estimate oral Al bioavailability from tea infusion in the rat, using the tracer (26)Al. (26)Al citrate was injected into tea leaves. An infusion was prepared from the dried leaves and given intra-gastrically to rats which received concurrent intravenous (27)Al infusion. Oral Al bioavailability (F) was calculated from the area under the (26)Al, compared to (27)Al, serum concentration x time curves. Bioavailability from tea averaged 0.37%; not significantly different from water (F=0.3%), or basic sodium aluminum phosphate (SALP) in cheese (F=0.1-0.3%), but greater than acidic SALP in a biscuit (F=0.1%). Time to maximum serum (26)Al concentration was 1.25, 1.5, 8 and 4.8h, respectively. These results of oral Al bioavailability x daily consumption by the human suggest tea can provide a significant amount of the Al that reaches systemic circulation. This can allow distribution to its target organs of toxicity, the central nervous, skeletal and hematopoietic systems. Further testing of the hypothesis that Al contributes to Alzheimer's disease may be more warranted with studies focusing on total average daily food intake, including tea and other foods containing appreciable Al, than drinking water.

  7. Tea and Health: Studies in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naghma; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Tea, next to water is the cheapest beverage humans consume. Drinking the beverage tea has been considered a health-promoting habit since ancient times. The modern medicinal research is providing a scientific basis for this belief. The evidence supporting the health benefits of tea drinking grows stronger with each new study that is published in the scientific literature. Tea plant Camellia sinensis has been cultivated for thousands of years and its leaves have been used for medicinal purposes. Tea is used as a popular beverage worldwide and its ingredients are now finding medicinal benefits. Encouraging data showing cancer-preventive effects of green tea from cell-culture, animal and human studies have emerged. Evidence is accumulating that black tea may have similar beneficial effects. Tea consumption has also been shown to be useful for prevention of many debilitating human diseases that include maintenance of cardiovascular and metabolic health. Various studies suggest that polyphenolic compounds present in green and black tea are associated with beneficial effects in prevention of cardiovascular diseases, particularly of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. In addition, anti-aging, antidiabetic and many other health beneficial effects associated with tea consumption are described. Evidence is accumulating that catechins and theaflavins, which are the main polyphenolic compounds of green and black tea, respectively, are responsible for most of the physiological effects of tea. This article describes the evidences from clinical and epidemiological studies in the prevention of chronic diseases like cancer and cardiovascular diseases and general health promotion associated with tea consumption. PMID:23448443

  8. Occurrence of Functional Molecules in the Flowers of Tea (Camellia sinensis Plants: Evidence for a Second Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyong Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis is an important crop, and its leaves are used to make the most widely consumed beverage, aside from water. People have been using leaves from tea plants to make teas for a long time. However, less attention has been paid to the flowers of tea plants, which is a waste of an abundant resource. In the past 15 years, researchers have attempted to discover, identify, and evaluate functional molecules from tea flowers, and have made insightful and useful discoveries. Here, we summarize the recent investigations into these functional molecules in tea flowers, including functional molecules similar to those in tea leaves, as well as the preponderant functional molecules in tea flowers. Tea flowers contain representative metabolites similar to those of tea leaves, such as catechins, flavonols, caffeine, and amino acids. The preponderant functional molecules in tea flowers include saponins, polysaccharides, aromatic compounds, spermidine derivatives, and functional proteins. We also review the safety and biological functions of tea flowers. Tea flower extracts are proposed to be of no toxicological concern based on evidence from the evaluation of mutagenicity, and acute and subchronic toxicity in rats. The presence of many functional metabolites in tea flowers indicates that tea flowers possess diverse biological functions, which are mostly related to catechins, polysaccharides, and saponins. Finally, we discuss the potential for, and challenges facing, future applications of tea flowers as a second resource from tea plants.

  9. The initiation of a tropic shrub specia Psidium guajava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Emilia ROMOCEA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Because this tropical fruit is not so popular in Europe, we sis try he initiation of an tropic shrub of Psidium guajava it was possible to make, using them seeds from the matured fruit of guava. The fruit is originally from Egypt – Alexandria. Those seeds were dry and before using them, they were kept in sterile water few hours, after that it was performed the sterilization process, and they were inoculated in 4 different experimental variants.Because them germination process was start late, after 2 months from inoculation, observations were made to the level of the germinated seeds, didn’t shown any infections, but the best results were noticed only on variant V1 (BM basic medium - MS with BA (1 mg/l + IBA (1 mg/l, where the germination capacity it was more bigger.Finally, we did noticed that after the end of this experiment, the best medium culture for the generation of stemlets with many leaves is V1 and V3, but for the root development only V2 showed a very good result. Kept in good light intensity, humidity and optimal temperature conditions, the experiment showed good results, what made this research possible.

  10. Beneficial effects of Psidium guajava leaf extract on diabetic myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soman, Sowmya; Rajamanickam, Chellam; Rauf, Arun A; Indira, Madambath

    2013-01-01

    Non enzymatic glycosylation (glycation) between reducing sugar and protein results in the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which is believed to play an important role in diabetes associated cardiovascular complications. Thus agents that inhibit the formation of AGEs are believed to have therapeutic potential against diabetic complications. In the present study we evaluated the antiglycative potential of ethyl acetate fraction of Psidium guajava leaves (PGEt) by administering the extract into streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Daily administration of the extract for a period of one month significantly decreased the blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin and fructosamine levels in a dose dependent manner. Evaluation of the toxicity markers like SGOT and SGPT revealed the non toxic nature of the extract. Apart from this we evaluated the presence of cardiac isoform of liver alpha 2 macroglobulin, which is a major protein associated with earlier stages of cardiac hypertrophy. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the level of this protein decreased significantly in extract treated groups compared to diabetic control. These findings support that the administration of PGEt extract may be beneficial for preventing cardiovascular complications associated with diabetes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Cytotoxic Activity of Hexane Extracts of Psidium guajava L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , kaempferol, which was identified as a constituent of the extract. Conclusion: The results suggest that further chemical analysis and mechanistic investigations should be conducted on P. guajava and C. alata extracts to validate their potential ...

  12. Cytotoxic Activity of Hexane Extracts of Psidium Guajava L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    , kaempferol, which was identified as a constituent of the extract. Conclusion: The results suggest that further chemical analysis and mechanistic investigations should be conducted on P. guajava and C. alata extracts to validate their potential ...

  13. Anti-hyperglycemic effect and glucose tolerance of guajava (Psidium guajava L.) leaf ethanol extract in diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanis Musdja, Muhammad; Mahendra, Feizar; Musir, Ahmad

    2017-12-01

    Traditionally guava (Psidium guajava L) leaf is used for treatment of various ailments like diarrhea, wounds, rheumatism, anti-allergy, ant-spasmodic, etc, as folk medicine. The aim of this research is to know the effect of hypoglycemia and glucose tolerance of ethanol extract of guava leaf against male white rat. The guajava leaf was obtained from Balitro Bogor. Preparation of guajava leaf extract was done by cold maceration extraction technique using ethanol 70%. Male albino rats were made into diabetics using the alloxan method. Rats were divided into 6 groups, as a comparative drug for anti-hyperglycemic used glibenclamid and as a comparative drug for glucose tolerance used acarbose. The result of blood glucometer test showed that ethanol extract 70% of guajava leaf had effect as anti-hyperglycemic and glucose tolerance with no significant difference with glibenclamid drug as anti-hyperglycemic and acarbose as glucose tolerance drug.

  14. Metabolic dependence of green tea on plucking positions revisited: a metabolomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jang-Eun; Lee, Bum-Jin; Hwang, Jeong-Ah; Ko, Kwang-Sup; Chung, Jin-Oh; Kim, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Jun; Hong, Young-Shick

    2011-10-12

    The dependence of global green tea metabolome on plucking positions was investigated through (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis coupled with multivariate statistical data set. Pattern recognition methods, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection on latent structure-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), were employed for a finding metabolic discrimination among fresh green tea leaves plucked at different positions from young to old leaves. In addition to clear metabolic discrimination among green tea leaves, elevations in theanine, caffeine, and gallic acid levels but reductions in catechins, such as epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), glucose, and sucrose levels were observed, as the green tea plant grows up. On the other hand, the younger the green tea leaf is, the more theanine, caffeine, and gallic acid but the lesser catechins accumlated in the green tea leaf, revealing a reverse assocation between theanine and catechins levels due to incorporaton of theanine into catechins with growing up green tea plant. Moreover, as compared to the tea leaf, the observation of marked high levels of theanine and low levels of catechins in green tea stems exhibited a distinct tea plant metabolism between the tea leaf and the stem. This metabolomic approach highlights taking insight to global metabolic dependence of green tea leaf on plucking position, thereby providing distinct information on green tea production with specific tea quality.

  15. Anthelmintic effect of Psidium guajava and Tagetes erecta on wild-type and Levamisole-resistant Caenorhabditis elegans strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña-Vázquez, Denia M; Mayoral-Peña, Zyanya; Gómez-Sánchez, Maricela; Salazar-Olivo, Luis A; Arellano-Carbajal, Fausto

    2017-04-18

    Psidium guajava and Tagetes erecta have been used traditionally to treat gastrointestinal parasites, but their active metabolites and mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. To evaluate the anthelmintic potential of Psidium guajava and Tagetes erecta extracts on Levamisole-sensitive and Levamisole-resistant strains of the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Aqueous extracts of Psidium guajava (PGE) and Tagetes erecta (TEE) were assayed on locomotion and egg-laying behaviors of the wild-type (N2) and Levamisole-resistant (CB193) strains of Caenorhabditis elegans. Both extracts paralyzed wild-type and Levamisole-resistant nematodes in a dose-dependent manner. In wild-type worms, TEE 25mg/mL induced a 75% paralysis after 8h of treatment and PGE 25mg/mL induced a 100% paralysis after 4h of treatment. PGE exerted a similar paralyzing effect on N2 wild-type and CB193 Levamisole-resistant worms, while TEE only partially paralyzed CB193 worms. TEE 25mg/mL decreased N2 egg-laying by 65% with respect to the untreated control, while PGE did it by 40%. Psidium guajava leaves and Tagetes erecta flower-heads possess hydrosoluble compounds that block the motility of Caenorhabditis elegans by a mechanism different to that of the anthelmintic drug Levamisole. Effects are also observable on oviposition, which was diminished in the wild-type worms. The strong anthelmintic effects in crude extracts of these plants warrants future work to identify their active compounds and to elucidate their molecular mechanisms of action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cytomorphological characterization of tea cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, H.; Khalil, I.H.; Shah, S.M.A.; Khanzada, T.Z.; Abbasi, F.M; Ahmad, H.; Shah, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Cytomorphological characterization was performed on tea cultivars, three each of Camellia sinensis and Camellia assamica species. For plant morphological study, one and a half year old healthy shoots were obtained from the selected mother bushes of the six tea cultivars. The field experiment conducted in randomized complete block design having four replications was aimed at evaluating plant height, number of leaves plant-l, number of branches plant-l, number of flowers plant-1, fresh and dry leaf weight plant-I. The data indicated significant difference between the two species with narrow leaved cultivars having increased plant height, number of leaves and branches plant-I than the broad leaved cultivars, but less number of flowers plant-l, fresh and dry leaf weight. Karyotype analysis indicated that both the groups are diploid with 2n = 30. On the basis of chromosome morphology, C. assamica had larger chromosomes (3-10.5 mu m) as compared to C. sinensis (3.9-8 mu m). C. assamica has relatively advanced features as compared to C. sinensis. However, both the groups possessed mostly median to sub-median centromeres with no secondary constrictions which possibly indicates that little or no evolutionary changes have taken place in tea and that the karyotype is still at a primitive stage, with C. sinensis being more primitive than C. assamica. Our results suggest that both the groups are different from each other in morphological as well as cytological attributes and could therefore generate more germplasm if the two species could be involved in tea breeding programs. (author)

  17. Effect of natural and artificial drying of leaf biomassof Psidium guajava on the content and chemical composition of essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Aparecida Josefi da Silva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Psidium guajava L. is native to Central and South America. It is widely distributed and well adapted to Brazil, a producer of essential oils rich in terpenes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of natural and artificial drying on the content and chemical composition of the essential oil of guava leaves (Psidium guajava L. grown in Rio Verde (GO. The two treatments consisted of drying fresh leaves either naturally in the shade or artificially at 40°C. Chemical composition was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by gas coupled with mass spectrometer chromatography (GC/MS and gas chromatography using a flame ionizer (GC-FID, respectively. The method of drying changed the content and chemical composition of the essential oil of guava leaves. Drying in the shade reduced the content and altered the constituents of the essential oil, whereas drying in an oven at 40°C, despite having reduced the amounts of the constituents, exhibited the highest essential oil content and increased the concentration of certain major constituents as compared to that in the natural shade drying method. The major components found in the essential oil of leaves regardless of the drying processes were trans-caryophyllene, ?-humulene, aromadendrene, ?-selinene, and selin-11-en-4?-ol. According to reports in the literature, these compounds possess fungicidal, insecticidal, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activity, among others beneficial actions.

  18. Protective Effect of Psidium guajava in Arsenic-induced Oxidative Stress and Cytological Damage in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Neeraj; Roy, Manju; Roy, Sushovan; Gupta, Neelu

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of aqueous extract of Psidium guajava leaves against sodium arsenite-induced toxicity in experimental rats. Animals were divided into four groups. Control group received arsenic free distilled water and three treatment groups (II, III, and IV) exposed to the arsenic (NaAsO2) (20 mg/kg b.wt) through drinking water. Group III and IV were administered a daily oral dose of P. guajava leaf extract 50 and 100 mg/kg b.wt. (AEPG50 and AEPG100) for the period of 6 weeks. Blood samples and organs were collected at the end of the experiment. Arsenic exposure resulted in significant rise in lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels in erythrocyte, liver, kidney, and brain. In addition toxin decreased (Pguajava) @100 mg/kg body weight) significantly restored activities of oxidative stress markers like LPO levels, GSH levels, SOD, and CAT activities but having the limited protective activity of the herbal extract was observed on tissues architecture. It is therefore concluded that prophylactic co-administration of AEPG could provide specific protection from oxidative injury and to some extent on tissue damage. PMID:23293461

  19. A comparison of aluminum levels in tea products from Hong Kong markets and in varieties of tea plants from Hong Kong and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, K F; Carr, H P; Poon, B H T; Wong, M H

    2009-05-01

    This study project aimed to investigate the concentrations of aluminum (Al) in tea products available in Hong Kong markets. Tea samples consisting of 47 different tea bags and 28 samples of tea leaves were analysed for concentrations of Al. All tea samples released Al (0.70-5.93 mg L(-1)) during a standard infusion period. In comparison to the Joint FAO/WHO Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake guideline of 7 mg Al kg(-1) body weight, it was concluded that tea made with these tea leaves will not impose adverse human health impacts. The relative effects of age, soil available Al, and genetic differences on the levels of Al accumulated by tea bushes were investigated. It was found that there was no definite trend between the amount of Al accumulated and the age of tea bushes. The soil available Al influenced the levels of Al in Camellia sinensis to a certain extent, but it was evident that the ability of different varieties of C. sinensis to accumulate Al was variable. C. sinensis accumulated Al in all stages of growth. Young seedlings had lower contents of Al while the mobility of Al within the tea bushes was high. In a manner typical of hyperaccumulators, Al was not retained in the roots, but was consistently transported to the shoots. Aluminum in the tea bush was distributed between the different parts in the following order: mature leaves>roots>branches>young leaves.

  20. Productivity and biochemical properties of green tea in response to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The expression of three homologues of the expansin genes, which regulate plant cell growth, and the CsCHS gene encoding a tea chalcone synthase, which critically regulates the biosynthesis of catechols, were induced in germinal leaves of tea plants following treatment with HpaG1–94 or HpaGXooc. Higher levels of ...

  1. Proximate, caffeine and tannin analyses in some brands of tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    China, Kenya, India, Srilanka and Mambilla) tea leaves samples sold in Kano markets was conducted. The moisture content was generally high in all the tea samples and ranged from 5.6% in Mambila to 7.5% in India samples. Ash content was ...

  2. Herbal antihyperlipidemic formulation of cocoa tea: Preparation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To prepare and characterize a formulation containing an ethanol extract of Camellia ptilophylla leaves (cocoa tea), with a focus on antihyperlipidemic and anti-obesity activities. Methods: An aloe vera–based formulation of an ethanol extract of cocoa tea (C. ptilophylla) was prepared. The formulation was given ...

  3. Trace microanalysis of uranium in Indian tea samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, V.; Prasad, Rajendra

    1991-01-01

    The microscopic detection of radiation damage in plastic detectors has been used for the microanalysis of uranium contents in tea samples, commercially available in the market. The uranium concentration has been found to vary from 0.007±0.0001 to 0.12±0.001 ppm in various tea leaves. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab

  4. Both phenolic and non-phenolic green tea fractions inhibit migration of cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green tea consumption is associated with chemoprevention of many cancer types. Fresh tea leaves are rich in polyphenolic catechins, which can constitute up to 30% of the dry leaf weight. While the polyphenols of green tea have been well investigated, it is still largely unknown, whether or not non-p...

  5. Study on flavour volatiles of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) green tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The volatile components of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) tea produced by two different kinds of technological process separately namely: vacuum and water immersion were studied. It was shown by the sensory evaluation that the color of the soup and the extracted leaves of GABA tea were similar to that of the oolong tea, ...

  6. Fluorine in food with special reference to tea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, P.W.; Hitchcock, A.E.; Gwirtsman, J.

    A review of the literature showed that in 1932 commercial tea, Camellia sinensis Kuntze (Thea sinensis L., Camellia thea Link.), was known to contain fluorine (F). Since ornamental camellias (C. japonica L.) and tea are members of the Theaceae family, comparisons were made of the F in leaves of the two species. The dry leaves of various domestic brands of tea, composed mostly of young leaves, contained 72 to 115 parts per million (p.p.m.) F and Chinese tea 131 to 178 p.p.m. F on a dry weight basis. One sample of fresh leaves of greenhouse grown tea plants contained 1530 p.p.m. F on a dry weight basis and the older leaves of ornamental camellias up to 3062 p.p.m. F. One sample of young leaves of C. japonica contained 67 p.p.m. F. Thus both species of Camellia have the capacity to accumulate relatively large amounts of F, especially in the older leaves. The infusion (beverage) from one tea bag in 4.5 fluid oz. of water contained 0.8 to 1.7 p.p.m. F after 3 minutes steeping and 1.0 to 2.0 p.p.m. F after 3 minutes boiling.

  7. Study on essential and toxic elements intake from drinking of Chinese tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hai-Qing Zhang; Bang-Fa Ni; Wei-Zhi Tian; Gui-Ying Zhang; Dong-Hui Huang; Cun-Xiong Liu; Cai-Jin Xiao; Hong-Chao Sun; Chang-Jun Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Twenty different brands of Chinese tea were analyzed for multiple trace elements, including some essential and toxic elements, by neutron activation analysis (NAA). A comparison among tea brands from China, India, US and other countries was made for the ranges and averages of concentrations for Na, K, Mn, Cu, and Br. It has been observed that the trace element contents in tea leaves are largely dependent upon the soil and the environment where the tea grows. Chinese tea is rich in Mn and Cu comparing with those of other counties surveyed, but is indigent in Na. The transference ratio for each element determined (i.e., the fraction of an element in tea leave transferred into solution when tea is leached by percolation) is also reported. Adult daily intakes of some essential and toxic elements from tea drinking were also estimated. (author)

  8. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw and waste tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-02-19

    Feb 19, 2007 ... Key words: Agaricus bisporus, wheat straw, waste tea leaves, wheat chaff, pin head formation, compost temperature .... kg then filled into plastic bags as 7 kg wet weight basis. ..... substrate environment for mushroom growing.

  9. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw and waste tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw and waste tea leaves based composts and locally available casing materials Part III: Dry matter, protein, and carbohydrate contents of Agaricus bisporus.

  10. Swelling and infusion of tea in tea bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Geeta U; Joshi, Bhushan S; Patwardhan, Ashwin W; Singh, Gurmeet

    2017-07-01

    The present study deals with swelling and infusion kinetics of tea granules in tea bags. The swelling and infusion kinetics of tea bags differing in tea loading and tea bag shapes were compared with loose tea. Increment in temperature and dipping frequency of tea bag in hot water increased the infusion kinetics of tea bags. Reduction in particle size enhanced the swelling and infusion kinetics of tea in a tea bag. The effects of tea particle size, tea bag dipping rate, loading of tea granules in tea bag and tea bag shapes on infusion kinetics were investigated. Increase in tea loading in tea bags resulted in reduced infusion kinetics. Double chambered tea bag showed the highest swelling (30%) and infusion kinetics (8.30% Gallic acid equivalence) while single chambered tea bags showed the lowest kinetics, amongst the various bags studied. The swelling and infusion kinetics of loose tea was always faster and higher than that of tea bags. It was found that overall effect of percentage filling of tea granules and height of tea bed in a tea bag affects tea infusion kinetics the most. Weibull model was found to be in good agreement with the swelling data.

  11. Aroma changes of black tea prepared from methyl jasmonate treated tea plants*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiang; Wang, Li; Ma, Cheng-ying; Lv, Hai-peng; Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was widely applied in promoting food quality. Aroma is one of the key indicators in judging the quality of tea. This study examined the effect of exogenous MeJA treatment on tea aroma. The aroma components in black tea prepared from MeJA-treated fresh tea leaves were extracted using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-olfactometry (GC-O). Forty-five volatile compounds were identified. The results revealed that the MeJA-treated black tea had higher levels of terpene alcohols and hexenyl esters than the untreated tea. Moreover, several newly components, including copaene, cubenol, and indole, were induced by the MeJA treatment. The activities of polyphenol oxidase and β-glucosidase in fresh tea leaves changed after the MeJA treatment. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the gene expression levels of polyphenol oxidase and β-primeverosidase were upregulated by two and three folds, respectively, by the MeJA treatment (Ptea was clearly improved. PMID:24711352

  12. Uptake, Translocation, Metabolism, and Distribution of Glyphosate in Nontarget Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Mengmeng; Gao, Wanjun; Jiao, Weiting; Zhou, Jie; Li, Yeyun; He, Lili; Hou, Ruyan

    2017-09-06

    The uptake, translocation, metabolism, and distribution behavior of glyphosate in nontarget tea plant were investigated. The negative effects appeared to grown tea saplings when the nutrient solution contained glyphosate above 200 mg L -1 . Glyphosate was highest in the roots of the tea plant, where it was also metabolized to aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA). The glyphosate and AMPA in the roots were transported through the xylem or phloem to the stems and leaves. The amount of AMPA in the entire tea plant was less than 6.0% of the amount of glyphosate. The glyphosate level in fresh tea shoots was less than that in mature leaves at each day. These results indicated that free glyphosate in the soil can be continuously absorbed by, metabolized in, and transported from the roots of the tea tree into edible leaves, and therefore, free glyphosate residues in the soil should be controlled to produce teas free of glyphosate.

  13. Residue pattern of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during green tea manufacturing and their transfer rates during tea brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guanwei; Chen, Hongping; Liu, Pingxiang; Hao, Zhenxia; Ma, Guicen; Chai, Yunfeng; Wang, Chen; Lu, Chengyin

    2017-06-01

    Residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in green tea and tea infusion were determined using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to study their dissipation pattern during green tea processing and infusion. Concentration and evaporation of PAHs during tea processing were the key factors affecting PAH residue content in product intermediates and in green tea. PAH residues in tea leaves increased by 2.4-3.1 times during the manufacture of green tea using the electric heating model. After correction to dry weight, PAH residue concentrations decreased by 33.5-48.4% during green tea processing because of PAH evaporation. Moreover, spreading and drying reduced PAH concentrations. The transfer rates of PAH residues from green tea to infusion varied from 4.6% to 7.2%, and PAH leaching was higher in the first infusion than in the second infusion. These results are useful for assessing exposure to PAHs from green tea and in formulating controls for the maximum residue level of PAHs in green tea.

  14. Anticancer Properties of Psidium guajava - a Mini-Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Mariana Goncalves; Couto, Jessica Soldani; Teodoro, Anderson Junger

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease caused by a progressive accumulation of multiple genetic mutations. Consumption of fruits is associated with lower risk of several cancers, which is mainly associated to their phytochemical content. The use of functional foods and chemopreventive compounds seems to contribute in this process, acting by mechanisms of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and hormonal. The Psidium Guajava has high potential functional related to pigments who are involved in the process of cancer prevention by having antioxidant activity. The aim of the present review is to expose some chemical compounds from P. Guajava fractions and their association with anti-carcinogenic function. The evidences supports the theory of anticancer properties of P. Guajava, although the mechanisms are still not fully elucidated, but may include scavenging free radicals, regulation of gene expression, modulation of cellular signalling pathways including those involved in DNA damage repair, cell proliferation and apoptosis.

  15. Scale and causes of lead contamination in Chinese tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Wenyan; Zhao Fangjie; Shi Yuanzhi; Ma Lifeng; Ruan Jianyun

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the scale and causes of Pb contamination in Chinese tea. Lead concentrations in 1225 tea samples collected nationally between 1999 and 2001 varied from -1 dry weight (DW), with 32% of the samples exceeding the national maximum permissible concentration (MPC) of 2.0 mg kg -1 DW and a significant difference between tea types. There was an increasing trend in tea Pb concentration from 1989 to 2000. Proximity to highway and surface dust contamination were found to cause elevated Pb concentrations in tea leaves. Furthermore, Pb concentration in tea leaves correlated significantly and positively with soil extractable Pb, and negatively with soil pH, suggesting that root uptake of Pb from soils also contributed to Pb accumulation in tea. Potential contributions to human Pb intake from drinking tea were small at the median or national MPC Pb values, but considerable at the highest concentration found in the study. - 32% of Chinese tea samples exceeded the national maximum permissible concentration for Pb

  16. Risks associated with consumption of herbal teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manteiga, R; Park, D L; Ali, S S

    1997-01-01

    Plants have been used for medicinal purposes for centuries. Health-oriented individuals are turning to herbal teas as alternatives to caffeinated beverages such as coffee, tea, and cocoa and for low-caloric supplements. The popularity of herbal tea consumption has increased significantly during the past two decades in the U.S. Hundreds of different teas made up of varied mixtures of roots, leaves, seeds, barks, or other parts of shrubs, vines, or trees are sold in health food stores. Although chemists have been characterizing toxic plant constituents for over 100 years, toxicological studies of herbal teas have been limited and, therefore, the safety of many of these products is unknown. Plants synthesize secondary metabolites that are not essential in the production of energy and whose role may be in the defense mechanisms as plant toxins to their interactions with other plants, herbivores, and parasites. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) were among the first naturally occurring carcinogens identified in plant products, and their presence in herbal teas is a matter of public health significance. Some herbal tea mixtures and single-ingredient herbal teas have been analyzed for toxic/mutagenic potential by bioassay and chromatographic techniques. Numerous human and animal intoxications have been associated with naturally occurring components, including pyrrolizidine alkaloids, tannins, and safrole. Thus, the prevention of human exposure to carcinogens or mutagens present in herbal tea mixture extracts is crucial. Preparation of infusion drinks prepared from plants appears to concentrate biologically active compounds and is a major source of PA poisoning. The quantity and consumption over a long period of time is of major concern. It is recommended that widespread consumption of herbal infusions should be minimized until data on the levels and varieties of carcinogens, mutagens, and toxicants are made available.

  17. Caffeine Content of Tea and Coffee

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-03-13

    Mar 13, 1974 ... The xanthines (caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine) occur in plants widely distributed throughout the world. Best known for the preparation of beverages are coffee beans which contain caffeine, tea leaves which contain caffeine and theophylline, and cocoa seeds which contain caffeine and ...

  18. Quantification of Phenolic Compounds and In Vitro Radical Scavenging Abilities with Leaf Extracts from Two Varieties of Psidium guajava L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Camarena-Tello

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Guava leaf (Psidium guajava L. extracts are used in both traditional medicine and the pharmaceutical industry. The antioxidant compounds in P. guajava leaves can have positive effects including anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperglycemic, hepatoprotective, analgesic, anti-cancer effects, as well as protecting against cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, phenolic compounds and in vitro antioxidant capacity were measured in extracts obtained with polar and non-polar solvents from leaves of two varieties of guava, Calvillo Siglo XXI and Hidrozac. The quantity of total phenolics and total flavonoids were expressed as equivalents of gallic acid and quercetin, respectively. Hydroxyl radical, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity using fluorescein (ORAC-FL in vitro tests were used to assess the radical scavenging abilities of the extracts. The total phenolics were higher in the aqueous fraction of the variety Calvillo Siglo XXI, while in the Hidrozac variety total phenolics were higher in the acetone and chloroform fractions. Total flavonoids were higher in all fractions in the variety Calvillo Siglo XXI. Total phenolics showed a highly positive correlation for ORAC-FL, and a moderately positive correlation with hydroxyl radicals. Finally, total flavonoids showed a slightly positive correlation for ORAC-FL and hydroxyl radicals. Both varieties of guava leaf extract showed excellent antioxidant properties.

  19. Quantification of Phenolic Compounds and In Vitro Radical Scavenging Abilities with Leaf Extracts from Two Varieties of Psidium guajava L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Flores, Héctor Eduardo; Garnica-Romo, Ma. Guadalupe; Padilla-Ramírez, José Saúl; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Alvarez-Cortes, Osvaldo; Bartolomé-Camacho, María Carmen; Rodiles-López, José Octavio

    2018-01-01

    Guava leaf (Psidium guajava L.) extracts are used in both traditional medicine and the pharmaceutical industry. The antioxidant compounds in P. guajava leaves can have positive effects including anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperglycemic, hepatoprotective, analgesic, anti-cancer effects, as well as protecting against cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, phenolic compounds and in vitro antioxidant capacity were measured in extracts obtained with polar and non-polar solvents from leaves of two varieties of guava, Calvillo Siglo XXI and Hidrozac. The quantity of total phenolics and total flavonoids were expressed as equivalents of gallic acid and quercetin, respectively. Hydroxyl radical, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity using fluorescein (ORAC-FL) in vitro tests were used to assess the radical scavenging abilities of the extracts. The total phenolics were higher in the aqueous fraction of the variety Calvillo Siglo XXI, while in the Hidrozac variety total phenolics were higher in the acetone and chloroform fractions. Total flavonoids were higher in all fractions in the variety Calvillo Siglo XXI. Total phenolics showed a highly positive correlation for ORAC-FL, and a moderately positive correlation with hydroxyl radicals. Finally, total flavonoids showed a slightly positive correlation for ORAC-FL and hydroxyl radicals. Both varieties of guava leaf extract showed excellent antioxidant properties. PMID:29495514

  20. Quantification of Phenolic Compounds and In Vitro Radical Scavenging Abilities with Leaf Extracts from Two Varieties of Psidium guajava L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarena-Tello, Julio César; Martínez-Flores, Héctor Eduardo; Garnica-Romo, Ma Guadalupe; Padilla-Ramírez, José Saúl; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Alvarez-Cortes, Osvaldo; Bartolomé-Camacho, María Carmen; Rodiles-López, José Octavio

    2018-02-27

    Guava leaf ( Psidium guajava L.) extracts are used in both traditional medicine and the pharmaceutical industry. The antioxidant compounds in P. guajava leaves can have positive effects including anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperglycemic, hepatoprotective, analgesic, anti-cancer effects, as well as protecting against cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, phenolic compounds and in vitro antioxidant capacity were measured in extracts obtained with polar and non-polar solvents from leaves of two varieties of guava, Calvillo Siglo XXI and Hidrozac. The quantity of total phenolics and total flavonoids were expressed as equivalents of gallic acid and quercetin, respectively. Hydroxyl radical, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity using fluorescein (ORAC-FL) in vitro tests were used to assess the radical scavenging abilities of the extracts. The total phenolics were higher in the aqueous fraction of the variety Calvillo Siglo XXI, while in the Hidrozac variety total phenolics were higher in the acetone and chloroform fractions. Total flavonoids were higher in all fractions in the variety Calvillo Siglo XXI. Total phenolics showed a highly positive correlation for ORAC-FL, and a moderately positive correlation with hydroxyl radicals. Finally, total flavonoids showed a slightly positive correlation for ORAC-FL and hydroxyl radicals. Both varieties of guava leaf extract showed excellent antioxidant properties.

  1. Effect of the aqueous extract of Psidium guajava on erythromycin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Psidium guajava extract on erythromycin-induced liver damage in albino rats was investigated using 30 normal rats grouped into six . Group I and II served as the normal and treatment controls that were administered with normal saline and 100mg/kg body weight of erythromycin stearate daily for 14 days ...

  2. Safety and anti-hyperglycemic efficacy of various tea types in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Manman; Zhao, Guangshan; Wang, Yijun; Wang, Dongxu; Sun, Feng; Ning, Jingming; Wan, Xiachun; Zhang, Jinsong

    2016-01-01

    Tea, a beverage consumed worldwide, has proven anti-hyperglycemic effects in animal models. Better efficacies of tea beverages are frequently associated with high-dose levels, whose safety attracts considerable attention. Based on the inherent nature of tea catechin oxidation, fresh tea leaves are manufactured into diverse tea types by modulating the oxidation degree of catechins. The present study aimed to assess various tea types for their safety properties and anti-hyperglycemic effects. Mice were allowed free access to tea infusion (1:30, w/v) for one week, and the rare smoked tea caused salient adverse reactions, including hepatic and gastrointestinal toxicities; meanwhile, the widely-consumed green and black teas, unlike the rare yellow tea, suppressed growth in fast-growing healthy mice. When mice were fed a high-fat diet and allowed free access to tea infusion (1:30, w/v) for 25 days, only yellow tea significantly reduced blood glucose. Therefore, various teas showed different safety profiles as well as anti-hyperglycemic efficacy strengths. To achieve an effective and safe anti-hyperglycemic outcome, yellow tea, which effectively suppressed high-fat diet-induced early elevation of hepatic thioredoxin-interacting protein, is an optimal choice. PMID:27531374

  3. The Benefits and Risks of Consuming Brewed Tea: Beware of Toxic Element Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry Schwalfenberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Increasing concern is evident about contamination of foodstuffs and natural health products. Methods. Common off-the-shelf varieties of black, green, white, and oolong teas sold in tea bags were used for analysis in this study. Toxic element testing was performed on 30 different teas by analyzing (i tea leaves, (ii tea steeped for 3-4 minutes, and (iii tea steeped for 15–17 minutes. Results were compared to existing preferred endpoints. Results. All brewed teas contained lead with 73% of teas brewed for 3 minutes and 83% brewed for 15 minutes having lead levels considered unsafe for consumption during pregnancy and lactation. Aluminum levels were above recommended guidelines in 20% of brewed teas. No mercury was found at detectable levels in any brewed tea samples. Teas contained several beneficial elements such as magnesium, calcium, potassium, and phosphorus. Of trace minerals, only manganese levels were found to be excessive in some black teas. Conclusions. Toxic contamination by heavy metals was found in most of the teas sampled. Some tea samples are considered unsafe. There are no existing guidelines for routine testing or reporting of toxicant levels in “naturally” occurring products. Public health warnings or industry regulation might be indicated to protect consumer safety.

  4. Determination of alpha activity produced by Indian tea samples using solid state nuclear track detection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azam, Ameer; Naqvi, A.H.; Srivastava, D.S.

    2001-01-01

    India has first place in the world in the production, consumption and export of tea. The average production of tea in India is about 780 million kg annually. Indian population uses tea as a favourite beverage specially with the breakfast. Tea leaves are perennial plants and they have extension root system spread over deeper layers in the soil. Soil contains uranium as trace element. Hence, uranium is transferred to the leaves as a result of uptake from the soil over the years. Since many of the decay products of uranium are alpha emitters hence tea is a source of alpha radioactivity and can cause damaging effects. Therefore, data on alpha activity of tea samples will be useful in estimating these harmful effects at least qualitatively. In the present study the alpha activity produced by thirteen samples of tea available in the local market was measured

  5. Chemical composition, antioxidant, antitumor, anticancer and cytotoxic effects of Psidium guajava leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Aisha; Sarfraz, Raja Adil; Rashid, Muhammad Abid; Mahmood, Adeel; Shahid, Muhammad; Noor, Nadia

    2016-10-01

    Context Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) leaves are used in traditional medicines for the treatment of cancer, inflammation and other ailments. Objective The current study explores scientific validation for this traditional medication. Materials and methods We used ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazil (DPPH) assays to estimate antioxidant activity of P. guajava leaf extracts (methanol, hexane and chloroform). Antitumour and in vivo cytotoxic activities were determined using potato disc assay (PDA) and brine shrimp lethality assay, respectively. Three human carcinoma cell lines (KBM5, SCC4 and U266) were incubated with different doses (10-100 μg/mL) of extracts and the anticancer activity was estimated by MTT assay. NF-κB suppressing activity was determined using electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Chemical composition of the three extracts was identified by GC-MS. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured by colorimetric assays. Results and discussions The order of antioxidant activity of three extracts was methanol > chloroform > hexane. The IC50 values ranged from 22.73 to 51.65 μg/mL for KBM5; 22.82 to 70.25 μg/mL for SCC4 and 20.97 to 89.55 μg/mL for U266 cells. The hexane extract exhibited potent antitumour (IC50  value = 65.02 μg/mL) and cytotoxic (LC50  value = 32.18 μg/mL) activities. This extract also completely inhibited the TNF-α induced NF-κB activation in KBM5 cells. GC-MS results showed that pyrogallol, palmitic acid and vitamin E were the major components of methanol, chloroform and hexane extracts. We observed significant (p guajava leaf extracts play a substantial role against cancer and down-modulate inflammatory nuclear factor kB.

  6. Survival of Salmonella on chamomile, peppermint, and green tea during storage and subsequent survival or growth following tea brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Susanne E; Stam, Christina N; Gradl, Dana R; Chen, Zhengzai; Larkin, Emily L; Pickens, Shannon R; Chirtel, Stuart J

    2015-04-01

    The survival of Salmonella on dried chamomile flowers, peppermint leaves, and green tea leaves stored under different conditions was examined. Survival and growth of Salmonella was also assessed after subsequent brewing using dried inoculated teas. A Salmonella enterica serovar cocktail was inoculated onto different dried tea leaves or flowers to give starting populations of approximately 10 log CFU/g. The inoculum was allowed to dry (at ambient temperature for 24 h) onto the dried leaves or flowers prior to storage under 25 and 35 °C at low (90% RH) humidity levels. Under the four storage conditions tested, survival followed the order 25 °C with low RH > 35 °C with low RH > 25 °C with high RH > 35 °C with high RH. Salmonella losses at 25 °C with low RH occurred primarily during drying, after which populations showed little decline over 6 months. In contrast, Salmonella decreased below detection after 45 days at 35 °C and high RH in all teas tested. The thermal resistance of Salmonella was assessed at 55 °C immediately after inoculation of tea leaves or flowers, after drying (24 h) onto tea leaves or flowers, and after 28 days of storage at 25 °C with low RH. All conditions resulted in similar D-values (2.78 ± 0.12, 3.04 ± 0.07, and 2.78 ± 0.56, at 0 h, 24 h, and 28 days, respectively), indicating thermal resistance of Salmonella in brewed tea did not change after desiccation and 28 days of storage. In addition, all brewed teas tested supported the growth of Salmonella. If Salmonella survives after storage, it may also survive and grow after a home brewing process.

  7. Chemical profile and antioxidant capacity verification of Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae) fruits at different stages of maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Heverton M; Rodrigues, Fabíola F G; Costa, Wégila D; Nonato, Carla de F A; Rodrigues, Fábio F G; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L; Costa, José G M

    2015-01-01

    Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae), a common plant in Cariri region, Ceara, Brazil, as well as in various parts of the world, contains high concentrations of bioactive compounds and in many communities its parts are used for therapeutic purposes. Studies describe antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-diarrheal actions from extracts obtained from leaves, but information about the activities of the fruits and comparison of these at different maturity stages (immature, partially mature and mature) are scarce. This study aims to evaluate the antioxidant properties by quantifying the levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds, carotenoids and vitamin C of P. guajava fruits at different stages of maturation. The content of phenolic compounds for the immature fruit, partially mature and mature were: 22.41; 34.61 and 32.92 mg of AG/g fraction. The flavonoid content for immature fruits, intermediate and mature were: 2.83; 5.10 and 5.65 mg RUT/g fraction, respectively. Following the same standards of maturation stages, the ascorbic acid content was determined with values of 0.48; 0.38 and 0.21 mg AA/g fraction, respectively. HPLC analysis identified and quantified the presence of gallic acid, catechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, epicatechin, rutin, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, quercetin, kaempferol, glycosylated campeferol, tocopherol, β-carotene and lycopene. The antioxidant activity carried out by DPPH method showed the mature fruits bearing the best results, whereas chelation of Fe2+ ions showed higher percentage for the immature fruit. The results obtained by lipidic peroxidation were not satisfactory.

  8. A study on the variation of strontium isotopic ratio in Darjeeling tea using MC-ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagad, Rupali A.; Alamelu, D.; Jagadish Kumar, S.; Aggarwal, Suresh K.; Rai, Vinai; Singh, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, an analytical procedure based on the determination of the Sr isotope ratio 87 Sr/ 86 Sr in the Darjeeling tea samples by MC-ICP-MS was developed and applied to 15 green tea samples obtained from different tea gardens in Darjeeling. Variation in 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio was observed among eleven different tea gardens fro different geographical locations. The obtained data on 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ration in authentic tea leaves samples can be useful while comparing it with processed tea samples from respective regions

  9. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in tea (Japanese tea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in tea (Japanese tea) were determined. Five hundred grams of manufactured green tea was collected from six sampling locations in Japan. The results are shown in a table. (Namekawa, K.)

  10. Antibacterial activity of GUAVA, Psidium guajava Linnaeus, leaf extracts on diarrhea-causing enteric bacteria isolated from Seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller Avaliação da atividade antibacteriana de extrato de folhas de goiabeira, Psidium guajava Linnaeus, sobre bactérias entéricas diarreiogênicas, isoladas de camarão sete-barbas, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia A. Gonçalves

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Guava leaf tea of Psidium guajava Linnaeus is commonly used as a medicine against gastroenteritis and child diarrhea by those who cannot afford or do not have access to antibiotics. This study screened the antimicrobial effect of essential oils and methanol, hexane, ethyl acetate extracts from guava leaves. The extracts were tested against diarrhea-causing bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli. Strains that were screened included isolates from seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller and laboratory-type strains. Of the bacteria tested, Staphylococcus aureus strains were most inhibited by the extracts. The methanol extract showed greatest bacterial inhibition. No statistically significant differences were observed between the tested extract concentrations and their effect. The essential oil extract showed inhibitory activity against S. aureus and Salmonella spp. The strains isolated from the shrimp showed some resistance to commercially available antibiotics. These data support the use of guava leaf-made medicines in diarrhea cases where access to commercial antibiotics is restricted. In conclusion, guava leaf extracts and essential oil are very active against S. aureus, thus making up important potential sources of new antimicrobial compounds.O chá de folhas de goiaba Psidium guajava Linnaeus é comumente usado como remédio nas gastrenterites e diarréias infantis por aqueles que não têm acesso a antibióticos. Esta pesquisa estudou o efeito antibacteriano sobre bactérias causadoras de diarréias, do óleo essencial e do extrato de folhas de goiabeira usando como diluente: metanol, hexano e acetato de etila. Os extratos foram testados sobre Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp. e Escherichia coli. As bactérias testadas foram isoladas de camarão sete-barbas Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller usando-se como controle cepas padrão, de cada espécie. Das bactérias testadas, o melhor efeito inibitório foi

  11. Wudang Daoist Tea Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean De Bernardi; Zheng Weibin

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the promotion of tea culture at Wudang Mountain, a Daoist tem-ple complex in Hubei Province that is a popular tourist destination. At shops in temples and market areas, vendors brand their tea as Wudang Daoist tea, emphasizing its health benefits and connecting their teas to the Daoist discourse of life-nourishing ( yang sheng) practices. In their marketing materi-als and on their websites, the management of the Eight Immortal Temple Tea Plantation further cites folklore and mythic history to claim profound local roots for Wudang tea culture. In so doing, this company echoes the memory narratives of more fa-mous Chinese teas like Iron Guanyin and Dahong-pao. In China as elsewhere, convenient travel now puts people in contact with areas and peoples that a few decades earlier only a few non-locals explored. As a consequence of a global trend towards com-modification, members of local groups, including distinctive ethnocultural groups, now seek to create distinctive local brands for a tourist market. Corpo-rations now regularly mine local traditions to find i-tems that they can transform into commodities for a wider market ( Comaroff and Comaroff 2009 ) . One of Hubei’s richest tourism assets is the Daoist temple complex at Wudang Moutain, which draws pilgrims and tourists from China and Greater China. China’s State Council identified Wudang Moutain as a National Key Scenic Area in 1982 , and UNESCO added its ancient temples to its World Heritage list in 1994 . The Chinese govern-ment has worked with the Daoist Federation to de-velop Wudang’s temples and pavilions, which are spread over 400 square kilometers of mountainous terrain, into a major tourist destination. The gov-ernment tourist office promotes Wudang Mountain for its scenic beauty, its deep historical heritage, its religious culture, and famous martial arts. Al-though its tea culture is less renowned, local tea sellers claim that Wudang tea has a deep history and Daoist

  12. Advanced phytochemical analysis of herbal tea in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J; Deng, J W; Chen, Y W; Li, S P

    2013-10-25

    Herbal tea is a commonly consumed beverage brewed from the leaves, flowers, seeds, fruits, stems and roots of plants species rather than Camellia sinensis L., which has been widely used for health care and diseases prevention for centuries. With the increasing consumption of herbal tea, a number of public health issues e.g., efficacy, safety and quality assurance have attracted concern. However, to date, there is no a review focus on herbal tea. Phytochemical analysis, as a key step to investigate the chemical composition of herbal tea and ensure the quality, is very important. In this review, we summarized and discussed the recent development (2005-2012) in phytochemical analysis of herbal tea commonly used in China. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Czech Tea Profession and the Phenomenon of Tea Rooms

    OpenAIRE

    Schröderová, Karolína

    2015-01-01

    In this bachelor thesis I have focused on the Czech tea culture and tea profession across tea rooms. I have dealt with influences that led to the present tea rooms' appearances. Furthermore I am dealing with ways of tea culture spreading, and what conduces to the tea room establishing. I am using the term of subculture in the connection with the tea culture, its meaning and position in the Czech culture. The main data source were semi- structured interviews with the tea rooms owners, all comp...

  14. [Spectroscopic characteristics of novel Psidium meroterpenoids isolated from guava leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wen; Zhu, Xiao-ai; Liu, Xiao-juan; Yie, Shu-min; Zhao, Litchao; Su, Lei; Cao, Yong

    2015-07-01

    Recently, novel Psidium meroterpenoids were reported in the guava leaves. According to careful analysis of the spectral data of literatures, the spectroscopic characteristics and biosynthetic pathway of Psidium meroterpenoids were summarized in this paper. The results showed that Psidium meroterpenoids had distinct spectroscopic features and reasonable biosynthetic routines, however the number order of carbon atoms was not consistent in the reported literatures. It was concluded that Psidium meroterpenoids were the characteristic chemical constituents of Psidium guajava Linn.

  15. Development and Application of UPLC-QTof/MS Method for the Differentiation between Tea Varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandrić, Zora

    2016-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is one of the most popularly consumed beverages worldwide. It has been used as a natural medicine for thousands of years, containing many compounds beneficial to health. The two most popular varieties are green (favoured in Asia) and black tea (favoured in the western countries). The different growing season, geographical regions, processing and fermentation methods create many varieties of tea, some of which have premium value compared to the others. The expansion of the consumer market, which has increased demand for “manufactured” food as well as transported “pure” food such as tea, has encouraged adulteration simply because of the prospects for increased profit. The adulteration of tea has become a common problem. Mixing exhausted tealeaves with leaves of some other plants (e.g. elder, hawthorn, sloe), addition of the dust of the tea leaves and sand, chemical enhancement of green tea (with Prussian blue and sulphate of lime or gypsum) and simply redried and resold tea-leaves, are some of the main examples of tea adulteration. To help address these issues, the Food and Environmental Protection Laboratory (FEPL) applied an untargeted metabolomics approach previously developed for some other commodities (e.g. honey, fruit juices) to investigate the possibility of distinguishing teas from different origins, and detecting varieties that had been adulterated.

  16. Psidium guajava 'Paluma' (the guava plant) as a new bio-indicator of ozone in the tropics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furlan, C.M. [Departamento de Botanica, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 11461, 05422-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: furlancm@yahoo.com.br; Moraes, R.M. [Instituto de Botanica, SMA, CP 4005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Bulbovas, P. [Departamento de Botanica, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 11461, 05422-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Domingos, M. [Instituto de Botanica, SMA, CP 4005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Salatino, A. [Departamento de Botanica, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 11461, 05422-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sanz, M.J. [Fundacion Centro de Estudios Ambientales del Mediterraneo, C/C. Darwin, 14, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain)

    2007-06-15

    Psidium guajava 'Paluma' saplings were exposed to carbon filtered air (CF), ambient non-filtered air (NF), and ambient non-filtered air + 40 ppb ozone (NF + O{sub 3}) 8 h per day during two months. The AOT40 values at the end of the experiment were 48, 910 and 12 895 ppb h{sup -1}, respectively for the three treatments. After 5 days of exposure (AOT40 = 1497 ppb h{sup -1}), interveinal red stippling appeared in plants in the NF + O{sub 3} chamber. In the NF chamber, symptoms were observed only after 40 days of exposure (AOT40 = 880 ppb h{sup -1}). After 60 days, injured leaves per plant corresponded to 86% in NF + O{sub 3} and 25% in the NF treatment, and the average leaf area injured was 45% in NF + O{sub 3} and 5% in the NF treatment. The extent of leaf area injured (leaf injury index) was explained mainly by the accumulated exposure of ozone (r {sup 2} = 0.91; p < 0.05). - Psidium guajava 'Paluma', a tropical species widely used in Brazilian food industry, is a potential sensitive bio-indicator of ozone.

  17. Psidium guajava 'Paluma' (the guava plant) as a new bio-indicator of ozone in the tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlan, C.M.; Moraes, R.M.; Bulbovas, P.; Domingos, M.; Salatino, A.; Sanz, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Psidium guajava 'Paluma' saplings were exposed to carbon filtered air (CF), ambient non-filtered air (NF), and ambient non-filtered air + 40 ppb ozone (NF + O 3 ) 8 h per day during two months. The AOT40 values at the end of the experiment were 48, 910 and 12 895 ppb h -1 , respectively for the three treatments. After 5 days of exposure (AOT40 = 1497 ppb h -1 ), interveinal red stippling appeared in plants in the NF + O 3 chamber. In the NF chamber, symptoms were observed only after 40 days of exposure (AOT40 = 880 ppb h -1 ). After 60 days, injured leaves per plant corresponded to 86% in NF + O 3 and 25% in the NF treatment, and the average leaf area injured was 45% in NF + O 3 and 5% in the NF treatment. The extent of leaf area injured (leaf injury index) was explained mainly by the accumulated exposure of ozone (r 2 = 0.91; p < 0.05). - Psidium guajava 'Paluma', a tropical species widely used in Brazilian food industry, is a potential sensitive bio-indicator of ozone

  18. Effect of guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaf extract on glucose uptake in rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fang-Chi; Shen, Szu-Chuan; Wu, James Swi-Bea

    2009-06-01

    People in oriental countries, including Japan and Taiwan, boil guava leaves (Psidium guajava L.) in water and drink the extract as a folk medicine for diabetes. The present study investigated the enhancement of aqueous guava leaf extract on glucose uptake in rat clone 9 hepatocytes and searched for the active compound. The extract was eluted with MeOH-H(2)O solutions through Diaion, Sephadex, and MCI-gel columns to separate into fractions with different polarities. The uptake test of 2-[1-(14)C] deoxy-D-glucose in rat clone 9 hepatocytes was performed to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of these fractions. The active compound was identified by nuclear magnetic resonance analysis and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results revealed that phenolics are the principal component of the extract, that high polarity fractions of the guava leaf extract are enhancers to glucose uptake in rat clone 9 hepatocytes, and that quercetin is the major active compound. We suggest that quercetin in the aqueous extract of guava leaves promotes glucose uptake in liver cells, and contributes to the alleviation of hypoglycemia in diabetes as a consequence.

  19. Determination of the ultrasound power effects on flavonoid compounds from Psidium guajava L. using ANFIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratu Ayu, Humairoh; Suryono, Suryono; Endro Suseno, Jatmiko; Kurniawati, Ratna

    2018-05-01

    The Adaptive Neural Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) model was used to predict and optimize the content of flavonoid compounds in guava leaves (Psidium Guajava L.). The extraction process was carried out by using ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) with the variable parameters: temperature ranging from 25°C to 35°C, ultrasonic frequency (30 - 40 kHz) and extraction time (20 - 40 minutes). ANFIS learning procedure began by providing the input variable data set (temperature, frequency and time) and the output of the flavonoid compounds from the experiments that had been done. Subtractive clustering methods was used in the manufacture of FIS (fuzzy inference system) structures by varying the range of influence parameters to generate the ANFIS system. The ANFIS trainingsconducted wereaimed at minimum error value. The results showed that the best ANFIS models used a subtractive clustering method, in which the ranges of influence 0.1 were 0.70 x 10-4 for training RMSE, 8.11 for testing RMSE, 2.7 % MAPE, and 7.72 MAE. The optimum condition was obtained at a temperature of 35°C and frequency of 40 kHz, for 30 minutes. This result proves that the ANFIS model can be used to predict the content of flavonoid compounds in guava leaves.

  20. Dissipation, transfer and safety evaluation of emamectin benzoate in tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Luo, Fengjian; Zhang, Xinzhong; Jiang, Yaping; Lou, Zhengyun; Chen, Zongmao

    2016-07-01

    The dissipation and residue of emamectin benzoate in tea leaves and the residue transfer from tea leaves to tea brew were investigated by modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) combined with ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass (UPLC-MS/MS). The average recoveries ranged 85.3-101.3% with relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 15%. The limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.005mgkg(-1) in tea leaves and 0.0004mgL(-1) in brew. Emamectin benzoate dissipated rapidly in tea with half-life (t1/2) of 1.0-1.3days. The terminal residues of emamectin benzoate were less than 0.062mgkg(-1). The leaching rate of emamectin benzoate from freshly-made tea to brew was emamectin benzoate at the recommended dosage was negligible to humans depending on risk quotient (RQ) value, that was lower than 1 significantly. This study could provide guidance for the safe use of emamectin benzoate and serve as a reference for the establishment of maximum residue limits (MRLs) in China. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Characterization of Black and Green Tea from Local Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Ancuta Socaci

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The leaves from Camellia sinensis are used from ancient times for preparation of tea but also as raw material for different extracts which are used in food industry as well as in pharmaceutical or cosmetic products. Due to the increasing interest in tea health benefits, the aim of the present study was to characterize several brands of green and black tea found on local market, regarding their content in total phenolic compounds, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity. Total phenolics and flavonoids were determined spectrophotometrically using a modified Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively a chromogenic system of NaNO2–Al(NO33–NaOH based method. The antioxidant capacity of each tea sample was assessed through the evaluation of free radical scavenging effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The results obtained for the green and black tea samples varied widely, depending on the tea variety. The antioxidant capacity of the analyzed teas ranged between 12.10 and 40.03%RSA, while the total phenolic content was within 2090 and 6080 mg GA/ 100g. The concentrantion in flavonoids was between 9.04 and 15.34 g/100g of tea.

  2. Survey of content of cadmium, calcium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, mercury, sodium and zinc in chamomile and green tea leaves by electrothermal or flame atomizer atomic absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prkić Ante

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the simplicity of tea preparation (pouring hot water onto different dried herbs and its high popularity as a beverage, monitoring and developing a screening methodology for detecting the metal content is very important. The concentrations of Cd, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mg, Mn, Hg, Na and Zn in 8 samples of green tea (Camellia sinesis and in 11 samples chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L. purchased both at local herbal pharmacies and supermarkets were determined using electrothermal atomizer atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS and flame atomizer atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS. The found concentrations in chamomile were: Cd (0.008 – 284 mg kg−1, Ca (2.42 – 6.29%, Cr (0.91 – 6.92 mg kg−1, Cu (6.27 – 11.39 mg kg−1, Fe (133.5 – 534 mg kg−1, Pb (0.561 – 1.277 mg kg−1, Mg (2.27 – 3.73%, Mn (62.2 – 165.6 mg kg−1, Hg (0.660 – 1.346 μg kg−1, Na (0.91 – 1.28% and Zn (63.37 – 108.5 mg kg−1, in green tea Cd (36.29 – 202.1 mg kg−1, Ca (2.77 – 6.40%, Cr (1.520 – 5.278 mg kg−1, Cu (9.354 – 22.56 mg kg−1, Fe (162.6 – 513.3 mg kg−1, Pb (1.808 – 4.770 mg kg−1, Mg (1.41 – 2.62 %, Mn (1.147 – 1.729 g kg−1, Hg (1.045 – 2.802 μg kg−1, Na (0.44 – 0.98% and Zn (30.65 – 115.6 mg kg−1, respectively. Principal Component Analysis (PCA was applied to identify factors (soil, climate and country of origin influencing the content of the measured elements in herbal samples. The proposed methodology developed in this work was successfully applied to the detection of metals in herbal samples. The analysis showed that the content of toxic metals in green tea samples was significantly higher and very close to the maximum dose recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO.

  3. Daily Fluoride Intake from Iranian Green Tea: Evaluation of Various Flavorings on Fluoride Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Maleki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With increased awareness of the health benefits of the compounds in green tea, especially polyphenols, its consumption is rising. The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect of different additives on the released fluoride into tea liquor and also daily fluoride intake. The concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, sulfate, and chloride were measured in 15 different flavored green teas (Refah-Lahijan. The fluoride and other anion concentrations were measured by ion chromatography method. The data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0. The results showed that the minimum and maximum concentrations of fluoride in the green tea infusions were 0.162 mg/L (cinnamon-flavored green tea and 3.29 mg/L (bagged peach-flavored green tea, respectively. The mean concentration of fluoride in the green tea leaves was 52 mg/kg, and approximately 89% of the fluoride was released from the green tea leaves into the infusions after brewing. The fluoride concentrations varied significantly among the examined green teas ( P 0.05. Finally, drinking of the studied green teas cannot make a significant contribution to the daily dietary intake of F for consumers.

  4. Exposure and risk assessment for aluminium and heavy metals in Puerh tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Hongbin; Qiao, Li; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Jianjiang

    2010-01-01

    As the consumption of Puerh tea is booming because of its multiple health-promoting effects, the possible health risks resulting from long-term exposure to metals contained in this tea need to be evaluated. To assess the human risk associated with drinking Puerh tea, concentrations of aluminium, lead, cadmium, mercury, zinc, copper and arsenic were determined in samples of Puerh tea, tea leaves from the plants, and planted soil collected from the Yunnan province, China. Site-specific exposure parameters such as body weight and consumption rate of Puerh tea were investigated in Kunming and Puer cities using face-to-face surveys. Health risks were evaluated for the inhabitants of Kunming and Puer cities by gender and by age groups. Although the Puerh tea plant easily absorbs aluminium from soil, the concentrations of Al and six other elements in Puerh tea were all far below the safety concentration limits of China. Both the HQ (Hazard Quotient) values for single elements and the HI (Hazard Index) value for all seven elements were far below one, indicating no non-carcinogenic risks from these seven elements for inhabitants of Kunming and Puer under the current consumption rates of Puerh tea. However, probabilistic estimation of carcinogenic risk shows that the 95th percentile carcinogenic rate of arsenic in Puerh tea approaches the accepted risk level of 10 -4 for the highest exposure group. Therefore, the arsenic in Puerh tea is of concern.

  5. Morfogenesis Dan Fisiologis Ketuaan Buah Jambu Bangkok (Psidium Guajava L.)

    OpenAIRE

    SUTARNO, H; RASYANI, R

    1987-01-01

    H. SUTARNO & R. RASYANI. 1987. Morphogeneses and physiological maturity of jambu bangkok (Psidium guajava L.) fruits.Berita Biologi 3(7) : 326 - 329. Studies on nVorphogeneses and physiological maturity of jampu bangkok fruits were carried out from grown i plants in Bogor. Fruits developed from oval to round and nerly egg shape with fruit diameter at about 100 - 110 mm for 18 - 25 weeks. Moisture content and softness of fruits increased slowly at the early time of ripening, but respiration ra...

  6. Antidiabetic Effects of Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiu-Yue; Li, Qing-Sheng; Lin, Xiao-Ming; Qiao, Ru-Ying; Yang, Rui; Li, Xu-Min; Dong, Zhan-Bo; Xiang, Li-Ping; Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Lu, Jian-Liang; Yuan, Cong-Bo; Ye, Jian-Hui; Liang, Yue-Rong

    2017-05-20

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic endocrine disease resulted from insulin secretory defect or insulin resistance and it is a leading cause of death around the world. The care of DM patients consumes a huge budget due to the high frequency of consultations and long hospitalizations, making DM a serious threat to both human health and global economies. Tea contains abundant polyphenols and caffeine which showed antidiabetic activity, so the development of antidiabetic medications from tea and its extracts is increasingly receiving attention. However, the results claiming an association between tea consumption and reduced DM risk are inconsistent. The advances in the epidemiologic evidence and the underlying antidiabetic mechanisms of tea are reviewed in this paper. The inconsistent results and the possible causes behind them are also discussed.

  7. Tea and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Apranta; Vita, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for a protective effect of tea consumption against cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes the available epidemiological data providing evidence for and against such an effect. We also review observational and intervention studies that investigated an effect of tea and tea extracts on cardiovascular risk factors, including blood pressure, serum lipids, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. Finally, we review potential mechanisms of benefit, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-proliferative effects, as well as favorable effects on endothelial function. Overall, the observational data suggest a benefit, but results are mixed and likely confounded by lifestyle and background dietary factors. The weight of evidence indicates favorable effects on risk factors and a number of plausible mechanisms have been elucidated in experimental and translational human studies. Despite the growing body evidence, it remains uncertain whether tea consumption should be recommended to the general population or to patients as a strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID:21477653

  8. Black tea: Phytochemicals, cancer chemoprevention, and clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Brahma N; Rawat, A K S; Bhagat, R M; Singh, B R

    2017-05-03

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is the most popular, flavored, functional, and therapeutic non-alcoholic drink consumed by two-thirds of the world's population. Black tea leaves are reported to contain thousands of bioactive constituents such as polyphenols, amino acids, volatile compounds, and alkaloids that exhibit a range of promising pharmacological properties. Due to strong antioxidant property, black tea inhibits the development of various cancers by regulating oxidative damage of biomolecules, endogenous antioxidants, and pathways of mutagen and transcription of antioxidant gene pool. Regular drinking of phytochemicals-rich black tea is linked to regulate several molecular targets, including COX-2, 5-LOX, AP-1, JNK, STAT, EGFR, AKT, Bcl2, NF-κB, Bcl-xL, caspases, p53, FOXO1, TNFα, PARP, and MAPK, which may be the basis of how dose of black tea prevents and cures cancer. In vitro and preclinical studies support the anti-cancer activity of black tea; however, its effect in human trails is uncertain, although more clinical experiments are needed at molecular levels to understand its anti-cancer property. This review discusses the current knowledge on phytochemistry, chemopreventive activity, and clinical applications of black tea to reveal its anti-cancer effect.

  9. Pemanfaatan Ekstrak Daun Jambu Biji (Psidium guajava Linn Sebagai Antibakteri dan Antifungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nuryani

    2017-10-01

    This research is pre experiments research with laboratory test to determine the inhibitory power of guava ethanol extract as anti-bacterial and anti-fungal. Guava leaves are old made 70% ethanol extract in LPPT UGM using maceration method. The extract made 3 concentrations ie 25%, 50% and 75%. Each concentration was tested for inhibitory by knowing the diameter of growth barrier to Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus. Each concentration is repeated 5 times, resulting in 15 data. The data were analyzed descriptively to illustrate their potential comparisons with chlorhexidine as standard materials. The extract of guava leaf using ethanol 70% in laboratory test resulted in average inhibitory zone diameter as follows: for mushroom C.albicans with extract 25%, 50%, and 75% were 13.4mm, 17.6mm, and 19.4mm. While for S. aureus is 2.2mm, 25.6mm, and 27.2mm. The effect of antifungal power of guava leaf extract (Psidium guajava Linn. on the growth of Candida albicans fungus is smaller compared to Staphylococcus aureus bacteria

  10. Analysis by UPLC-MS-QTOF and antifungal activity of guava (Psidium guajava L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Camila Fonseca; Rocha, Janaína Esmeraldo; Nascimento Silva, Maria Karollyna do; de Freitas, Thiago Sampaio; de Sousa, Amanda Karine; Dos Santos, Antônia Thassya Lucas; da Cruz, Rafael Pereira; Ferreira, Maciel Horácio; da Silva, Josefa Carolaine Pereira; Machado, Antonio Judson Targino; Carneiro, Joara Nályda Pereira; Sales, Débora Lima; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Ribeiro, Paulo Riceli Vasconcelos; de Brito, Edy Sousa; Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana Bezerra

    2018-05-08

    Psidium guajava L. is a plant widely used for food and in folk medicine all over the world. Studies have shown that guava leaves have antifungal properties. In this study, Flavonoid and Tannic fractions were tested to investigate their chemical composition and antifungal potential in vitro.21 compounds in the two fractions, presenting a higher content of phenolic compounds. The antifungal assays were performed against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei by microdilution to determine the IC 50 and the cell viability curve. Minimal Fungicidal Concentration(MFC) and the inhibitory effects of the association of the fractions with Fluconazole, as well as the assays used to verify any morphological changes were performed in microculture chambers based on the concentrations from the microdilution. The IC 50 of the isolated fractions and the fractions associated with each other were calculated, varying from 69.29 to 3444.62 μg/mL and the fractions associated with fluconazole varied from 925.56 to 1.57 μg/mL, it was clear that the association of the natural product with the antifungal presented a synergism. The fractions affected pleomorphism capacity and have a potential antifungal activity as they caused fungal inhibition in isolated use, potentiated the action of Fluconazole, reducing its concentration and impeding morphological transition, one of the virulence factors of the genus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Culture medium and growth regulators on in vitro multiplication of Psidium guajava L.

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    Jorge Vilchez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Guava (Psidium guajava L. cultivar `Dwarf Cuban Red 18-40 EEA' has high yields. For large-scale propagation, micropropagation is a possible solution. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of two culture media, two cytokinins and an analog brasinoesteoides (DI-31 in the in vitro multiplication of this cultivar. Two culture media (MS and WPM, three concentrations of benzylaminopurine (BAP (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 mg l-1, three of kinetin (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 mg l-1 and two DI-31 (0.01 and 0.02 mg l-1 were evaluated. The variables evaluated were: number of shoots, number of leaves, shoot length and multiplication coefficient. It was found that the type of culture medium influenced the shoot multiplication of guava. The number of shoots, shoot length and multiplication coefficient were determined by the type and concentration of cytokinin added to the culture medium. With the use of WPM culture medium with 1 mg l-1 BAP It was obtained the highest values of the variables evaluated. The use of DI-31 promoted the shoot growth without affecting the multiplication coefficient. Key words: benzylaminopurine, DI-31, kinetin, guava, micropropagation, multiplication phase

  12. Guava extract (Psidium guajava) alters the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99m*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, P.R.C.; Almeida, M.C.; Bernardo, R.M.; Bernardo, L.C.; Brito, L.C.; Garcia, E.A.C.; Fonseca, A.S.; Bernardo-Filho, M.

    2006-01-01

    Psidium guajava (guava) leaf is a phytotherapic used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal and respiratory disturbances and is used as anti-inflammatory medicine. In nuclear medicine, blood constituents (BC) are labelled with technetium-99m (99mTc) and used to image procedures. However, data have demonstrated that synthetic or natural drugs could modify the labelling of BC with 99mTc. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of guava leaves on the labelling of BC with 99mTc. Blood samples of Wistar rats were incubated with different concentrations of guava extract and labelled with 99mTc after the percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) in BC was determined. The results suggest that aqueous guava extract could present antioxidant action and/or alters the membrane structures involved in ion transport into cells, thus decreasing the radiolabelling of BC with 99mTc. The data showed significant (Pguava extract. PMID:16691636

  13. Anti-inflammatory activity of essential oils from Syzygium cumini and Psidium guajava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siani, Antonio C; Souza, Mariana C; Henriques, Maria G M O; Ramos, Mônica F S

    2013-07-01

    Despite the many biological activities reported for essential oils, their anti-inflammatory ability is relatively underexplored considering the wide variation in plant sources and in their volatile composition. Oils from Syzygium cumini Skells (SC) and Psidium guajava L. (PG) (Myrtaceae) have been described as having diverse pharmacological activities. The current study seeks to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oils from the leaves of SC and PG, as well as some of their terpene-enriched fractions (+V = more volatile and -V = less volatile) obtained by vacuum distillation. Both the pharmacological responses and chemical compositions were correlated. The relative contents of the oils and their fractions were evaluated by gas chromatography. Individual constituents in the oils were characterized by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Anti-inflammatory activity was accessed in the lipopolysaccharide-induced pleurisy model, by measuring the inhibition of total leukocyte, neutrophil and eosinophil migration in the mice pleural lavage, after oil treatment with the oils at 100 mg/kg. Eosinophil migration was inhibited by SC (67%), SC (+V) (63%), PG (76%), PG (+V) (67%) and PG (-V) (74%). This efficacy was correlated with the presence of β-pinene and β-caryophyllene in the oils, a result that was reinforced by evaluating both these pure components (38 and 50% inhibition, respectively). Synergistic effects associated with the presence of α-pinene were speculated. Essential oils from SC and PG may be useful to treat inflammatory diseases by mechanisms that include the inhibition of eosinophil migration.

  14. Tea Tells All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roever, Carol

    2007-01-01

    A beverage, as well as the way it is served, can be a window into the soul of a culture. For the author and her husband, Turkish tea helped them understand and enjoy the culture of Turkey. They learned that the broad nuances of culture can be as instructive as a classroom experience. The tea story begins in Chicago in the spring of 2005 when the…

  15. UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIINFLAMASI KOMBINASI DEKOKTA AKAR BELUNTAS (Pluchea indica L. DAN INFUSA DAUN JAMBU BIJI (Psidium guajava L. TERHADAP TIKUS PUTIH (Rattus norvegicus YANG DIINDUKSI KARAGENAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersamukti Rahmatullah Achmad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Marsh fleabane roots (Pluchea indica L. and guava leaves (Psidium guajava L. are traditionally used as an anti-inflammatory. The research has been conducted with the aim of knowing the anti-inflammatory effect of the combination of decoction of Marsh fleabane  roots (Pluchea indica L. and infusion of guava leaves (Psidium guajava L., and also determining  the effective concentration of such combination. The research used artificial edema method in white rat's leg ( Rattus norvegicus with the observation for 6 hours on the change of leg volume in white rat.  The measurement of white rat's leg volume used a pletismometer. The type of treatment was devided into 5 groups: negative control (Aquadest, positive control (Na Diclofenac, combination 1 (MFR 10% : IGL 8%, combination 2 (MFR 5% : IGL 5%, and combination 3 (MFR 8% : IGL 10%.  The data obtained were processed using One-Way ANOVA method with the result seen on the percent inhibition of inflammation resulting concentration of MFR 5%: IGL 5% amounting to 23.47%, and subsequently combined with a concentration of MFR 10% : IGL 8% and concentrations MFR 8% : IGL 10% respectively by the percent inhibition of inflammation by 20.70% and 13.75%.  The data obtained show the combination with a concentration of 5% : 5% have anti- inflammatory effect are better than the other combinations as well as comparable to the positive  control

  16. Dissipation kinetics of beta-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid in tea and their transfer from processed tea to infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramasivam, M; Deepa, M; Selvi, C; Chandrasekaran, S

    2017-10-01

    Dissipation kinetics of mixed formulation consisting beta-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid in tea crop under an open field ecosystem was investigated. The mixed formulation was applied on tea plant at recommended (27 + 63) and double the recommended (54 + 126g a.i./ha) dose and residues were determined using gas chromatography-electron capture detector and high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector for beta-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid, respectively. The limit of quantification of analytical method was 0.05µg/g and the average recoveries were ranged from 88.36% to 103.49% with relative standard deviations of less than 6% at three spiked levels. The experimental results showed that in the green tea leaves imidacloprid dissipated faster than beta-cyfluthrin with the half-life ranging between 1.20-1.39 and 2.89-3.15days, respectively. The beta-cyfluthrin residues present in the processed tea not transferred into the tea infusion during the infusion process and imidacloprid transferred in the range 43.12-49.7%. On the basis of the transfer of residues from processed tea to infusion, a waiting period of 17 days for tea plucking after pesticide application at recommended dose may be suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Somatic embryogenesis for efficient micropropagation of guava (Psidium guajava L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Nasim

    2013-01-01

    Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is well known for edible fruit, environment friendly pharmaceutical and commercial products for both national and international market. The conventional propagation and in vitro organogenesis do not meet the demand for the good quality planting materials. Somatic embryogenesis for efficient micropropagation of guava (P. guajava L.) has been developed to fill up the gap. Somatic embryogenesis and plantlets regeneration are achieved from 10-week post-anthesis zygotic embryo explants by 8-day inductive treatment with different concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) on MS agar medium containing 5% sucrose. Subsequent development and maturation of somatic embryos occur after 8 days on MS basal medium supplemented with 5% sucrose without plant growth regulator. The process of somatic embryogenesis shows the highest relative efficiency in 8-day treatment of zygotic embryo explants with 1.0 mg L(-1) 2,4-D. High efficiency germination of somatic embryos and plantlet regeneration takes place on half strength semisolid MS medium amended with 3% sucrose within 2 weeks of subculture. Somatic plantlets are grown for additional 2 weeks by subculturing in MS liquid growth medium containing 3% sucrose. Well-grown plantlets from liquid medium have survived very well following 2-4 week hardening process. The protocol of somatic embryogenesis is optimized for high efficiency micropropagation of guava species.

  18. Meroterpenoids with Antitumor Activities from Guava (Psidium guajava).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xu-Jie; Yu, Qian; Yan, Huan; Khan, Afsar; Feng, Mi-Yan; Li, Pan-Pan; Hao, Xiao-Jiang; An, Lin-Kun; Liu, Hai-Yang

    2017-06-21

    Psidium guajava L., a species native to South America, has been widely cultivated in the tropical and subtropical areas of China for its popular fruits. The preliminary analysis by liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (LC-UV) indicated the presence of meroterpenoids in the fruits of P. guajava (guava). Subsequent fractionation of the petroleum ether extract resulted in the identification of two new meroterpenoids, psiguajavadials A (1) and B (2), together with 14 previously described meroterpenoids (3-16). Their structures were fully elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic techniques and theoretical calculations. All of the meroterpenoids showed cytotoxicities against five human cancer cell lines, with guajadial B (12) being the most effective having an IC 50 value of 150 nM toward A549 cells. Furthermore, biochemical topoisomerase I (Top1) assay revealed that psiguajavadial A (1), psiguajavadial B (2), guajadial B (12), guajadial C (14), and guajadial F (16) acted as Top1 catalytic inhibitors and delayed Top1 poison-mediated DNA damage. The flow cytometric analysis indicated that the new meroterpenoids psiguajavadials A (1) and B (2) could induce apoptosis of HCT116 cells. These data suggest that meroterpenoids from guava fruit could be used for the development of antitumor agents.

  19. Analysis of lipophilic compounds of tea coated on the surface of clay teapots

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    Tse-Yu Chung

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The surface of a clay teapot tends to be coated with a waterproof film after constant use for tea preparation. The waterproof films of two kinds of teapots (zisha and zhuni used for preparing oolong tea and old oolong tea were extracted and subjected to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis. The results showed that comparable constituents were detected in these films; they were primarily fatty acids and linear hydrocarbons that were particularly rich in palmitic acid and stearic acid. To explore the source of these two abundant fatty acids, the fatty acid compositions of fresh tea leaves, granules, infusion, and vapor of infusion were analyzed by gas chromatography. Fresh tea leaves were rich in palmitic acid (C-16:0, unsaturated linolenic acid (C-18:3, linoleic acid (C-18:2, and oleic acid (C-18:1, which were presumably from the phospholipid membrane. During the process of manufacturing oolong tea, the three unsaturated fatty acids may be substantially degraded or oxidized to stearic acid (C-18:0, which was enriched with palmitic acid in the tea granules and in the infusion. The vapor of the tea infusion is primarily composed of palmitic acid and stearic acid. Thus, the coated films of teapots mostly originated from the lipophilic compounds of the tea infusions.

  20. Detecting aroma changes of local flavored green tea (Camellia sinensis) using electronic nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralisnawati, D.; Sukartiko, A. C.; Suryandono, A.; Triyana, K.

    2018-03-01

    Indonesia is currently the sixth largest tea producer in the world. However, consumption of the product in the country was considered low. Besides tea, the country also has various local flavor ingredients that are potential to be developed. The addition of local flavored ingredients such as ginger, lemon grass, and lime leaves on green tea products is gaining acceptance from consumers and producers. The aroma of local flavored green tea was suspected to changes during storage, while its sensory testing has some limitations. Therefore, the study aimed to detect aroma changes of local flavors added in green tea using electronic nose (e-nose), an instrument developed to mimic the function of the human nose. The test was performed on a four-gram sample. The data was collected with 120 seconds of sensing time and 60 seconds of blowing time. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to find out the aroma changes of local flavored green tea during storage. We observed that electronic nose could detect aroma changes of ginger flavored green tea from day 0 to day 6 with variance percentage 99.6%. Variance proportion of aroma changes of lemon grass flavored green tea from day 0 to day 6 was 99.3%. Variance proportion of aroma changes of lime leaves flavored green tea from day 0 to day 6 was 99.4%.

  1. Foliar absorption of 15N labeled urea by tea plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshina, Tsuguo; Kozai, Shuji; Ishigaki, Kozo

    1978-01-01

    The effect of foliar application on the nitrogen nutrient status of tea shoots has been studied using 15 N labelled urea. Furthermore, the difference in nitrogen utilization by tea plant between foliar applied and top dressed nitrogen was investigated using 15 N labelled urea and ammonium sulfate. The foliar application of urea increased the amount of chlorophyll and total nitrogen in the new shoot, and the foliar application was more effective under shading condition. The urea sprayed upon old leaves prior to the opening of new leaf translocated to the new shoots. However, the foliar application after the opening of new leaf was more effective on nitrogen absorption by new shoots than one prior to that, and rather than top dressing for new shoots. It could be recognized that the foliar application of urea raises the nitrogen nutrient status of tea leaves in summer. (author)

  2. Determination of 210Po in tea, mat and their infusions and its annual intake by Syrians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Nashawati, A.; Amin, Y.; Al-Akel, B.

    2004-01-01

    Polonium-210 was determined in 34 kinds of imported tea and 9 kinds of mat collected from the Syrian local market. The 210 Po concentration was found to vary from 5.5 to 39 Bq x kg -1 and 47 to 82 Bq x kg -1 in tea and mat samples, respectively. In addition 210 Po was also determined in tea and mat infusions where different infusion conditions have been examined: amount, temperature and infusion time. The results have shown that the amount of 210 Po transferred from tea and mat leaves to the aqueous extract ranged from 9 to 21% and 3 to 15%, respectively. The annual intake of 210 Po by Syrians due to tea consumption and mat infusions was calculated and found to be 9 Bq and 151 Bq for tea and mat respectively: washing of mat with warm water is recommended before preparation the infusions to decrease the annual intake of 210 Po. (author)

  3. Effect of the aqueous extract of Psidium guajava on erythromycin-induced liver damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambo, N; Garba, S H; Timothy, H

    2009-12-01

    The effect of Psidium guajava extract on erythromycin-induced liver damage in albino rats was investigated using 30 normal rats grouped into six. Group I and II served as the normal and treatment controls that were administered with normal saline and 100 mg/kg body weight of erythromycin stearate daily for 14 days respectively. Rats in group III were administered 450 mg/kg body weight of Psidium guajava only for 7 days while rats in groups IV, V and VI were administered Psidium guajava extract for 7 days and 100mg/kg body weight of erythromycin for 14 days. Histopathological investigation of the liver tissues revealed striking oedema and mild periportal mononuclear cell infiltration of hepatic cords in the liver of rats administered 100 mg/kg of erythromycin stearate and 300/450 mg/kg of Psidium guajava extract. Pretreatment with 150 mg/kg of Psidium guajava extract showed a slight degree of protection against the induced hepatic injury caused by 100 mg/kg of erythromycin stearate. Biochemical analysis of the serum obtained revealed a significant increase in serum levels of hepatic enzymes measured in the groups administered with 100 mg/kg of erythromycin stearate and 300/450 mg/kg of Psidium guajava extract compared to the control groups and those pretreated with 150 mg/kg of Psidium guajava extract. This study has shown that the aqueous extract of psidium guajava leaf possesses hepatoprotective property at lower dose and a hepatotoxic property at higher dose but further studies with prolonged duration is recommended.

  4. Psidium guajava L. anti-neoplastic effects: induction of apoptosis and cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontempo, P; Doto, A; Miceli, M; Mita, L; Benedetti, R; Nebbioso, A; Veglione, M; Rigano, D; Cioffi, M; Sica, V; Molinari, A M; Altucci, L

    2012-02-01

    Curative properties of medicinal plants such as Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) have often been indicated by epidemiological studies on populations in which these fruits are consumed daily. However, complete characterization of the active principles responsible for this ability has never been performed. Here, we have characterized P. guajava's anti-cancer potential and identified the parts of the fruit involved in its anti-neoplastic action. We studied morphology of our cells, cell cycle characteristics and apoptosis and performed immunostaining, differentiation and western blot analyses. We report that the P. guajava extract exerted anti-cancer control on both haematological and solid neoplasias. P. guajava extract's anti-tumour properties were found to be tightly bound to induction of apoptosis and differentiation. Use of ex vivo myeloid leukaemia blasts corroborated that P. guajava was able to induce cell death but did not exhibit anti-cancer effects on all malignant cells investigated, indicating selective activity against certain types of tumour. Analyses of P. guajava pulp, peel and seeds identified the pulp as being the most relevant component for causing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, whereas peel was responsible for causing cell differentiation. P. guajava itself and its pulp-derived extract were found to induce apoptosis accompanied by caspase activation and p16, p21, Fas ligand (FASL TNF super-family, member 6), Bcl-2-associated agonist of cell death (BAD) and tumour necrosis factor receptor super-family, member 10b (DR5), overexpression. Our findings showed that P. guajava L. extract was able to exert anti-cancer activity on cultures in vitro and ex vivo, supporting the hypothesis of its anti malignant pro-apoptotic modulation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Pruning for crop regulation in high density guava (Psidium guajava L.) plantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakre, M.; Lal, S.; Uniyal, S.; Goswami, A.K. Prakash. P.

    2016-11-01

    High density management and crop regulation are two important aspects in guava (Psidium guajava L.) production. Therefore, to find out the economic way of managing high density planting and crop regulation, the present work was carried out on 6-year-old guava trees of cv. Pant Prabhat under double-hedge row system of planting during 2009-10 and 2010-11. Seven different forms of pruning [FBT: flower bud thinning by hand, FBTT: flower bud thinning by hand followed by removal of terminal one leaf pair, RLFO: removal of leaves and flower buds by hand, retaining one leaf pair at the top, RLF: removal of all leaves and flowers by hand, OLPS: one leaf pair shoot pruning, FSP: full shoot pruning, OLPF: one leaf pair pruning of fruited shoots only] were studied along with control (C).Minimum annual increase in tree volume (6.764 m3) was recorded with the treatment OLPF, which was 2.31 times less than the control (15.682 m3). Highest yield during winter season (55.30 kg/tree) and total yield (59.87 kg/tree) was obtained from treatment OLPF. One leaf pair pruning of fruited shoots only (OLPF) was also found profitable among other treatments by recording cost:benefit ratio of 1:2.96. This treatment also recorded the highest return distributed in rainy as well as in winter season. On the basis of findings it can be concluded that one leaf pair pruning of fruited shoots only is suitable for profitable high density management as well as crop regulation of guava in farmer friendly manner. (Author)

  6. Pruning for crop regulation in high density guava (Psidium guajava L. plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhubala Thakre

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available High density management and crop regulation are two important aspects in guava (Psidium guajava L. production. Therefore, to find out the economic way of managing high density planting and crop regulation, the present work was carried out on 6-year-old guava trees of cv. Pant Prabhat under double-hedge row system of planting during 2009-10 and 2010-11. Seven different forms of pruning [FBT: flower bud thinning by hand, FBTT: flower bud thinning by hand followed by removal of terminal one leaf pair, RLFO: removal of leaves and flower buds by hand, retaining one leaf pair at the top, RLF: removal of all leaves and flowers by hand, OLPS: one leaf pair shoot pruning, FSP: full shoot pruning, OLPF: one leaf pair pruning of fruited shoots only] were studied along with control (C.Minimum annual increase in tree volume (6.764 m3 was recorded with the treatment OLPF, which was 2.31 times less than the control (15.682 m3. Highest yield during winter season (55.30 kg/tree and total yield (59.87 kg/tree was obtained from treatment OLPF. One leaf pair pruning of fruited shoots only (OLPF was also found profitable among other treatments by recording cost:benefit ratio of 1:2.96. This treatment also recorded the highest return distributed in rainy as well as in winter season. On the basis of findings it can be concluded that one leaf pair pruning of fruited shoots only is suitable for profitable high density management as well as crop regulation of guava in farmer friendly manner.

  7. Effective Subcritical Butane Extraction of Bifenthrin Residue in Black Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yating Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As a natural and healthy beverage, tea is widely enjoyed; however, the pesticide residues in tea leaves affect the quality and food safety. To develop a highly selective and efficient method for the facile removal of pesticide residues, the subcritical butane extraction (SBE technique was employed, and three variables involving temperature, time and extraction cycles were studied. The optimum SBE conditions were found to be as follows: extraction temperature 45 °C, extraction time 30 min, number of extraction cycles 1, and in such a condition that the extraction efficiency reached as high as 92%. Further, the catechins, theanine, caffeine and aroma components, which determine the quality of the tea, fluctuated after SBE treatment. Compared with the uncrushed leaves, pesticide residues can more easily be removed from crushed leaves, and the practical extraction efficiency was 97%. These results indicate that SBE is a useful method to efficiently remove the bifenthrin, and as appearance is not relevant in the production process, tea leaves should first be crushed and then extracted in order that residual pesticides are thoroughly removed.

  8. Effective Subcritical Butane Extraction of Bifenthrin Residue in Black Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yating; Gu, Lingbiao; Wang, Fei; Kong, Lingjun; Qin, Guangyong

    2017-03-30

    As a natural and healthy beverage, tea is widely enjoyed; however, the pesticide residues in tea leaves affect the quality and food safety. To develop a highly selective and efficient method for the facile removal of pesticide residues, the subcritical butane extraction (SBE) technique was employed, and three variables involving temperature, time and extraction cycles were studied. The optimum SBE conditions were found to be as follows: extraction temperature 45 °C, extraction time 30 min, number of extraction cycles 1, and in such a condition that the extraction efficiency reached as high as 92%. Further, the catechins, theanine, caffeine and aroma components, which determine the quality of the tea, fluctuated after SBE treatment. Compared with the uncrushed leaves, pesticide residues can more easily be removed from crushed leaves, and the practical extraction efficiency was 97%. These results indicate that SBE is a useful method to efficiently remove the bifenthrin, and as appearance is not relevant in the production process, tea leaves should first be crushed and then extracted in order that residual pesticides are thoroughly removed.

  9. The legend of laphet: A Myanmar fermented tea leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thazin Han

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Fermentation is the traditional method. Epigallocatechin gallate is a powerful constituent of laphet for human health. Its caffeinated effect is also popular in Myanmar society. This study will contribute to understanding Myanmar fermented tea leaves and spread the legend of laphet around the world.

  10. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw and waste tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to determine the pin head formation time and yield values of Agaricus bisporus on some casing materials. Composts were prepared basically from wheat straw and waste tea leaves by using wheat chaff as activator substance. Temperatures of the compost formulas were measured during ...

  11. Effect of guava (Psidium guajava Linn.) leaf soluble solids on glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Szu-Chuan; Cheng, Fang-Chi; Wu, Ning-Jung

    2008-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of aqueous and ethanol soluble solid extracts of guava (Psidium guajava Linn.) leaves on hypoglycemia and glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats. Low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) and nicotinamide were injected into Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to induce type 2 diabetes. Acute and long-term feeding tests were carried out, and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to follow the changes in plasma glucose and insulin levels was performed to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of guava leaf extracts in diabetic rats.The results of acute and long-term feeding tests showed a significant reduction in the blood sugar level in diabetic rats fed with either the aqueous or ethanol extract of guava leaves (p guava leaf extracts increased the plasma insulin level and glucose utilization in diabetic rats. The results also indicated that the activities of hepatic hexokinase, phosphofructokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in diabetic rats fed with aqueous extracts were higher than in the normal diabetic group (p guava leaf extract and the health function of guava leaves against type 2 diabetes.

  12. FORMULASI PASTA GIGI INFUSA DAUN JAMBU BIJI (Psidium guajavaLinn. DENGAN VARIASI KONSENTRASI Na. CMC SEBAGAI BAHAN PENGIKAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Sa’adah Daud

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Guava leaves (Psidium guajava Linn. has been shown inhibiting effect against dental caries causing bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans. In order to facilitate its activity in overcoming dental caries,formulation into dosage toothpaste was needed. The purpose of this study was to formulate toothpaste from infuse of guava leaves with variations concentration of Sodium Carboxymethylcellulosa as a binder to obtain the best toothpaste formula. The concentration of infuse of guava leaves was 5% and 4%, 6% and 8%for Sodium carbxymethylcellulose respectively for formula each formula. Other additives have been used, they were calcium carbonate, glycerin, sodium lauryl sulfate, α-tocopherol, propyl paraben, methyl paraben, Oleum Menthae Piperatae (OMP and distilled water.The results showed that three toothpaste formula from the organoleptic testwere white coloured, mint flavored with soft and lumpy of textur, with the mean of pH value of 6,9 to 8,3 were eligible, and the foam height value of 3,5 to 5,5 cm. Theviscosity values were increased with the increasing concentration ofSodium carbxymethylcellulose. While the preference test showedthat toothpaste formula C was the most preferred.

  13. Cluster analysis of the biochemical composition in 53 Sichuan EGCG3"Me tea resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J. H.; Chen, S. X.; Zhu, M. Z.; Meng, X. L.

    2017-09-01

    The EGCG3"Me contents in the young tea leaves of 102 tea resources in sichuan were analyzed accurately using HPLC-DAD. The results revealed that there was a wide variation in EGCG3"Me levels among different tea resources. The EGCG3"Me content in different tea resources was in a range from 0 to 11.04 mg/g, mean was 2.33 mg/g.53 tea resources contained EGCG3"Me, accounting for 51.96% of the total number of resources survey. Shucha5, Jinguanyin, Chengxi11, Fenghuang-dancong, Chongpi 71-1 were found to contain higher EGCG3"Me content (>10mg/g).Cluster analysis showed that: 53 Sichuan EGCG3"Me tea resources were divided into six groups and the difference was obvious between their biochemical composition; tea resources rich in EGCG3"Me were mainly distributed in Sichuan, Chongqing and Fujian Province, mostly were shrub and mid-leaf, mainly existed in tea resources which were suitable to make green tea, oolong tea. The morphological and biochemical distribution provided a good theoretical basis for selecting and utilizing higher EGCG3"Me resources.

  14. Sensory and Instrumental Flavor Changes in Green Tea Brewed Multiple Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeehyun; Chambers, Delores; Chambers, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    Green teas in leaf form are brewed multiple times, a common selling point. However, the flavor changes, both sensory and volatile compounds, of green teas that have been brewed multiple times are unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine how the aroma and flavor of green teas change as they are brewed multiple times, to determine if a relationship exists between green tea flavors and green tea volatile compounds, and to suggest the number of times that green tea leaves can be brewed. The first and second brews of the green tea samples provided similar flavor intensities. The third and fourth brews provided milder flavors and lower bitterness and astringency when measured using descriptive sensory analysis. In the brewed liquor of green tea mostly linalool, nonanal, geraniol, jasmone, and β-ionone volatile compounds were present at low levels (using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry). The geraniol, linalool, and linalool oxide compounds in green tea may contribute to the floral/perfumy flavor. Green teas in leaf form may be brewed up to four times: the first two brews providing stronger flavor, bitterness, and astringency whereas the third and fourth brews will provide milder flavor, bitterness, and astringency. PMID:28239138

  15. Characterization of tea polyphenols as potential environment-friendly fire retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fengqi; Zhai, Chunjie; Wang, Haihui; Tao, Junjun

    2018-02-01

    In this work we investigated the oxidation properties of tea polyphenols and their potential as the fire retardants. Two types of tea polyphenols were adopted, which were extracted from red tea and green tea leaves, respectively. Their macroscopic performance during pyrolysis and oxidation at elevated temperatures were examined by using a heating furnace. Mass change, heat evolution and gas products of tea polyphenols during heating in air were also monitored by using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) integrated with a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) in conjunction with online Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and mass spectroscopy (MS). A tea polyphenol sample first becomes a brown semi-fluid after heating, and gradually turns into highly-porous black chars with significantly expanded volume. By raising the temperature to ∼550 °C at a rate of 10 °C/min, the mass of a sample reduces by nearly 70% to form a large quantity of inert gases that are mainly composed of H2O and CO2. It was found that the aerial oxidation products of tea polyphenols in the solid phase possess good heat insulation property; meanwhile, the substantial release of a lot of water and its evaporation during oxidation of tea polyphenols removes a large amount of heat from a sample located in a heating environment. The heat insulation of tea polyphenols may withstand up to 550 °C. The present work confirms tea polyphenols as potential superior and environment-friendly fire retardants.

  16. An EPR study on tea: Identification of paramagnetic species, effect of heat and sweeteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bıyık, Recep; Tapramaz, Recep

    2009-10-01

    Tea ( Camellia Sinensis) is the most widely consumed beverage in the world, and is known to be having therapeutic, antioxidant and nutritional effects. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectral studies made on the tea cultivated along the shore of Black Sea, Turkey, show Mn 2+ and Fe 3+ centers in green tea leaves and in black tea extract. Dry black tea flakes and dry extract show additional sharp line attributed to semiquinone radical. The origins of the paramagnetic species in black tea are defined and discussed. Effect of humidity and heat are investigated. It is observed that dry extract of black tea melts at 100 °C and the semiquinone radical lives up to 140 °C while Mn 2+ sextet disappears just above 100 °C in tea extract. Natural and synthetics sweeteners have different effects on the paramagnetic centers. White sugar (sucrose) quenches the Mn 2+ and semiquinone lines in black tea EPR spectrum, and glucose, fructose, lactose and maltose quench Fe 3+ line while synthetic sweeteners acesulfam potassium, aspartame and sodium saccharine do not have any effect on paramagnetic species in tea.

  17. Anti-quorum sensing activity of Psidium guajava L. flavonoids against Chromobacterium violaceum and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavi, Halkare Suryanarayana; Arun, Ananthapadmanabha Bhagwath; Rekha, Punchapady-Devasya

    2014-05-01

    Psidium guajava L., which has been used traditionally as a medicinal plant, was explored for anti-quorum sensing (QS) activity. The anti-QS activity of the flavonoid (FL) fraction of P. guajava leaves was determined using a biosensor bioassay with Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. Detailed investigation of the effects of the FL-fraction on QS-regulated violacein production in C. violaceum ATCC12472 and pyocyanin production, proteolytic, elastolytic activities, swarming motility and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was performed using standard methods. Possible mechanisms of QS-inhibition were studied by assessing violacein production in response to N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) synthesis in the presence of the FL-fraction in C. violaceum ATCC31532 and by evaluating the induction of violacein in the mutant C. violaceum CV026 by AHL extracted from the culture supernatants of C. violaceum 31532. Active compounds in the FL-fraction were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Inhibition of violacein production by the FL-fraction in a C. violaceum CV026 biosensor bioassay indicated possible anti-QS activity. The FL-fraction showed concentration-dependent decreases in violacein production in C. violaceum 12472 and inhibited pyocyanin production, proteolytic and elastolytic activities, swarming motility and biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Interestingly, the FL-fraction did not inhibit AHL synthesis; AHL extracted from cultures of C. violaceum 31532 grown in the presence of the FL-fraction induced violacein in the mutant C. violaceum CV026. LC-MS analysis revealed the presence of quercetin and quercetin-3-O-arabinoside in the FL-fraction. Both quercetin and quercetin-3-O-arabinoside inhibited violacein production in C. violaceum 12472, at 50 and 100 μg/mL, respectively. Results of this study provide scope for further research to exploit these active molecules as anti-QS agents. © 2014 The Societies and Wiley Publishing

  18. Labrador tea--the aromatic beverage and spice: a review of origin, processing and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dampc, Anna; Luczkiewicz, Maria

    2015-06-01

    Labrador tea is a name for the dried leaves of Rhododendron groenlandicum, R. tomentosum or R. neoglandulosum (family Ericaceae, previously genus Ledum) as well as for the beverage native to North America, which is made from them. The above species are rich in the essential oil, which gives a conifer aroma to the tisane. Labrador tea is a valuable source of ascorbic acid, with tonic, improving digestion and relaxing activity. However, this beverage should not be drunk more than once daily because of the ledol and grayanotoxin toxicity. The common recipe for making Labrador tea is to add one teaspoonful of dried leaves to one cup of boiling water and to brew for 5 min. It is often sweetened or enriched with other flavors. Additionally, Labrador tea dried leaves are used to spice meat, soups, sauces, salads, beer, cakes and other dishes. In agriculture, its insecticidal properties can be useful for controlling pests. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. An Update on the Health Benefits of Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda C. Reygaert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Green tea, which is produced from the leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant, is one of the most popular beverages worldwide. Over the past 30 years or more, scientists have studied this plant in respect to potential health benefits. Research has shown that the main components of green tea that are associated with health benefits are the catechins. The four main catechins found in green tea are: (−-epicatechin (EC, (−-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG, (−-epigallocatechin (EGC, and (−-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG. Of these four, EGCG is present in the largest quantity, and so has been used in much of the research. Among the health benefits of green tea are: anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties, and benefits in cardiovascular disease and oral health. Research has been carried out using various animal models and cells lines, and is now more and more being carried out in humans. This type of research will help us to better understand the direct benefits of green tea. This review will focus primarily on research conducted using human subjects to investigate the health benefits of green tea.

  20. New benzophenone and quercetin galloyl glycosides from Psidium guajava L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Keiichi; Ishii, Rie; Kobiyama, Kaori

    2010-01-01

    New benzophenone and flavonol galloyl glycosides were isolated from an 80% MeOH extract of Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) together with five known quercetin glycosides. The structures of the novel glycosides were elucidated to be 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzophenone 4-O-(6″-O-galloyl)-β-d-glucopyranoside (1, guavinoside A), 2,4,6-trihydroxy-3,5-dimethylbenzophenone 4-O-(6″-O-galloyl)-β-d-glucopyranoside (2, guavinoside B), and quercetin 3-O-(5″-O-galloyl)-α-l-arabinofuranoside (3, guavinoside C) by NMR, MS, UV, and IR spectroscopies. Isolated phenolic glycosides showed significant inhibitory activities against histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells, and nitric oxide production from a murine macrophage-like cell line, RAW 264.7. PMID:20354804

  1. Migration and Accumulation of Octachlorodipropyl Ether in Soil-Tea Systems in Young and Old Tea Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Liao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The migration and accumulation of octachlorodipropyl ether (OCDPE in soil-tea systems were investigated using a gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD method in young and old tea gardens. When the residual concentration of OCDPE was 100 g a.i. hm−2 in soils, the peak concentrations of OCDPE in fresh leaves of young and old tea plants were 0.365 mg/kg and 0.144 mg/kg, taking 45 days and 55 days, respectively. Equations for the accumulation curves of OCDPE in fresh leaves of young and old tea plants were Ct = 0.0227e0.0566t (R2 = 0.9154 and Ct = 0.0298e−0.0306t (R2 = 0.7156, and were Ct = 3.8435e0.055t (R2 = 0.9698 and Ct = 1.5627e−0.048t (R2 = 0.9634 for dissipation curves, with a half-life of 14.4 days and 12.6 days, respectively. These results have practical guiding significance for controlling tea food safety.

  2. Novel acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from Zijuan tea and biosynthetic pathway of caffeoylated catechin in tea plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Fu, Xi-Wen; Dai, Xin-Long; Hua, Fang; Chu, Gang-Xiu; Chu, Ming-Jie; Hu, Feng-Lin; Ling, Tie-Jun; Gao, Li-Ping; Xie, Zhong-Wen; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Bao, Guan-Hu

    2017-12-15

    Zijuan tea is a special cultivar of Yunnan broad-leaf tea (Camellia sinensis var. assamica) with purple buds, leaves, and stems. Phytochemical study on this tea led to the discovery of three hydroxycinnamoylated catechins (HCCs) (1-3), seven other catechins (4-10), three proanthocyanidins (11-13), five flavones and flavone glycosides (14-18), two alkaloids (19, 20), one steroid (21), and one phenylpropanoid glycoside (22). The isolation and structural elucidation of the caffeoylated catechin (1) by means of spectroscopic techniques were described. We also provide the first evidence that 1 is synthesized via a two-step pathway in tea plant. The three HCCs (1-3) were investigated on their bioactivity through molecular modeling simulation and biochemical experiments. Our results show that they bind acetylcholinesterase (AChE) tightly and have strong AChE inhibitory activity with IC 50 value at 2.49, 11.41, 62.26μM, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prospect of indegenous plant extracts in tea pest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S.A. Mamun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tea is a popular beverage made from the leaves of evergreen shrub or tree Camellia sinensis, under the family Theaceae. Tea plant is subjected to the attack of insects, mites, nematodes and some plant pathogenic diseases. Tea production is greatly hindered due to thesemaladies. About 10-15% crop loss occurred by these pests per annum. In severe cases, it would be 100%. To combat these problems different groups of pesticides have been used in the tea fields since 1960. As tea is a consumable commodity, the effect of residue of pesticides in made tea is harmful to human health. In this context, biopesticides are being considered as environmentally safe, selective, biodegradable, economical and renewable alternatives for use in IPM programmes. Biopesticides are natural plant products and may be grown by the planters with minimum cost and extracted by indigenous methods.Biopesticides are secondary metabolites, which include alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, and minor secondary chemicals. It is estimated that as many as 2121 plant species have been reported to posses’ pest control properties. Botanicals like neem, ghora-neem, mahogoni,karanja, adathoda, sweet flag, tobacco, derris, annona, smart weed, bar weed, datura, calotropis, bidens, lantana, chrysanthemum, artemisia, marigold, clerodendrum, wild sunflower and many others may be grown by planters with minimum expense and extracted by indigenous methods. These botanical materials can be used as an alternative to chemical pesticides. These botanical extracts will help in controlling major pests of tea such as Helopeltis, red spider mite, aphids, thrips, jassid, flushworm, termites, nematodes etc. Thepresent note reviews the information of most widely available indigenous plants that may be used for the control of insect pests of tea as a component of IPM.

  4. The Effect of Temperature on Cr (VI) Removal by Using Guava Leaves as a Biosorbent

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana,; Mulana, Farid

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary research on Cr(IV) removal in a liquid waste using guava leaves (Psidium Guajava) as a bio-sorbent has been done. The experiments were conducted in a stirred batch reactor. The effect of temperature on efficiency and absorption capacity has been studied. Both the efficiency and absorptioncapacity are directly proportional to the temperature under the current experimental conditions. The results showed that optimum absorption capacity and absorption efficiency of Cr(VI) use of guav...

  5. Determination of trace elements in drinking tea by various analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chufang; Ke Chenghsiung; Yang Jenqyann

    1993-01-01

    Tea has been one of the most popular simulating beverages which is both heavily produced and consumed in Taiwan. The determination of minor or trace elements in drinking tea and tea leaves is therefore important for estimating the daily intake of Taiwanese considered as a safety indicator. In order to accurately and precisely determine the concentrations of trace elements in samples, several analytical methods such as AAS, NAA and ICP-AES are suggested. This paper attempts to utilize all three methods to determine the concentrations of minor or trace elements in different types of tea leaves and the extracts percolated from them. The influence of fermentation processes on the concentration levels of minor or trace elements in tea samples is investigated. Because only free metal ions are bioavailable for the human body, it is necessary to determine their concentrations in drinking tea. The dissolution of trace elements in drinking tea is therefore studied by simulating the common Chinese style of tea percolation. Concentrations of thirteen elements including Zn, Mn, Ca, Cu, Ni, Al, K, Mg, Cd, Pb, Na, Co and Sc are determined. (author) 14 refs.; 1 fig.; 6 tabs

  6. Tea Bowl: Imperfect Harmony

    OpenAIRE

    Mehring, Gretchen A; Greater Lafayette Museum of Art,

    1998-01-01

    These tea bowls, with their intimate scale and individual personalities, simultaneeously offer an apprectiation of the past and the contemporary. The subtle beauty of traditional-style bowls contrasts with the more exuberant contemporary idiom, raising an awareness of the role that art has, and can play, in everyday life.

  7. Antiparasitic effect of the Psidium guajava L. (guava) and Psidium brownianum MART. EX DC. (araçá-de-veado) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Antonio J T; Santos, Antonia T L; Martins, Gioconda M A B; Cruz, Rafael P; Costa, Maria do S; Campina, Fábia F; Freitas, Maria A; Bezerra, Camila F; Leal, Antonio L A B; Carneiro, Joara N P; Coronel, Cathia; Rolón, Miriam; Gómez, Celeste V; Coutinho, Henrique D M; Morais-Braga, Maria F B

    2018-03-13

    In the search for new therapeutic agents against neglected diseases, both aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts from Psidium guajava L. and P. brownianum Mart ex DC leaves were investigated regarding their antiparasitic effect and cytotoxic potential. The extracts were tested at three concentrations (250, 500 and 1000 μg/mL) against Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigote forms (Chagas, 1909), Leishmania braziliensis (Vianna, 1911) and L. infantum promastigotes forms (Nicolle, 1908), as well as against fibroblasts. P. guajava showed no activity against T. cruzi forms, while the hydroethanolic (PBHE), aqueous by decoction (PBAED) and aqueous by infusion (PBAEI) P. browninaum extracts were responsible, respectively, for inhibiting 100, 100 and 92.68% of T. cruzi epimastigote growth at the 1000 μg/mL concentration. The P. brownianum hydroethanolic extract (PBHE) at the highest concentration caused 58.46% death in L. braziliensis, thus demonstrating moderate activity, however when tested against L. infantum, the PBHE inhibited their growth by 37.16%, revealing its low activity. As for the cytotoxicity assays, the P. brownianum aqueous extract by decoction (PBAED) obtained the highest death percentage when compared to the others, causing 90.85% fibroblast mortality at the 1000 μg/mL concentration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Preparative isolation and purification of five flavonoid glycosides and one benzophenone galloyl glycoside from Psidium guajava by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yindi; Liu, Yue; Zhan, Ying; Liu, Lin; Xu, Yajuan; Xu, Tunhai; Liu, Tonghua

    2013-12-16

    Psidium guajava leaves have a diverse phytochemical composition including flavonoids, phenolics, meroterpenoids and triterpenes, responsible for the biological activities of the medicinal parts. In particular, flavonol glycosides show beneficial effects on type II diabetes mellitus. A simple and efficient HSCCC method has been developed for the preparative separation of five flavonoid glycosides and one diphenylmethane glycoside from P. guajava. A solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (0.7:4:0.8:4, v/v/v/v) was optimized for the separation. The upper phase was used as the stationary phase, and the lower phase was used as the mobile phase. Under the optimized conditions, hyperoside (15.3 mg), isoquercitrin (21.1 mg), reynoutrin (65.2 mg), quercetin-3-O-β-D-arabinopyranoside (71.7 mg), quercetin-3-O-α-L-arabinofuranoside (105.6 mg) and 2,4,6-trihydroxy-3,5-dimethylbenzophenone 4-O-(6''-O-galloyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (98.4 mg) were separated from crude sample (19.8 g). The structures of all the isolates were identified by ESI-MS, 1H- and 13C-NMR analyses and their purities (>95%) were determined using HPLC.

  9. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticle-reduced graphene oxide using Psidium guajava and its application in SERS for the detection of methylene blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chettri, Prajwal; Vendamani, V. S.; Tripathi, Ajay; Singh, Manish Kumar; Pathak, Anand P.; Tiwari, Archana

    2017-06-01

    Here we present the synthesis of reduced graphene oxide and silver nanoparticle-reduced graphene oxide composites using aqueous extract of dry leaves of Psidium guajava by one pot reflux method. Psidium guajava extract simultaneously reduces silver nitrate and graphene oxide in the reaction mixture which is confirmed by various spectroscopic techniques. Variable concentrations of silver nitrate solution are used to obtain reduced graphene oxide with different dosage of silver nanoparticles and the resultant composites are examined using surface enhanced Raman scattering measurements. Considering methylene blue as a probe molecule, it is found that the surface enhanced Raman scattering activity increases with the increase in the dose of silver nanoparticles. Our as-synthesised silver nanoparticle-reduced graphene oxide composite shows remarkable performance in detecting methylene blue with concentration as low as 10-8 M for which the enhancement factor is 4.6 × 105. In addition, we report that the reduced graphene oxide quenches the photoluminescence of methylene blue more efficiently than silver nanoparticle-reduced graphene oxide composite. The charge transfer states have been extracted which are mainly responsible for the quenching processes.

  10. Antibacterial efficacy of ethyl acetate fraction of Psidium guajava leaf aqueous extract on experimental Escherichia coli (O78) infection in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geidam, Y A; Ambali, A G; Onyeyili, P A; Tijjani, M B; Gambo, H I; Gulani, I A

    2015-03-01

    This study was desingned to examine the efficacy of ethyl acetate fraction of aqueous extracted Psidium guajava leaves on chicks experimentally-infected with diarrheagenic strain of Escherichia coli O78. A total of 60 ISA brown male chicks were randomly divided into 6 Groups of ten chicks each in separate cages. Group A was not infected and not treated. Groups B, C and D were infected and treated with extracts at a dose of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg respectively for 10 days. Group E was infected and treated with oxytetracycline while Group F was infected, but left untreated. Chicks from all groups were closely monitored for clinical signs, body weight change and fecal bacterial shedding load during the course of the experiment. Diarrhea, vents pasted with feces, drop in feed intake accompanied by slow weight gain and decreased activity was observed in infected untreated groups. Groups treated with graded doses of the extract experienced a dose-dependent decreased in severity of the clinical signs shown compared to the infected untreated group. Bacterial shedding load was found to be lower in groups treated with the extract and oxytetracycline than those without intervention. Ethyl acetate soluble fraction of leaf extract of Psidium guajava effectively controlled diarrhea and decreased the severity of other clinical signs caused by experimental E. coli infections in chicks.

  11. Preparative Isolation and Purification of Five Flavonoid Glycosides and One Benzophenone Galloyl Glycoside from Psidium guajava by High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography (HSCCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yindi Zhu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Psidium guajava leaves have a diverse phytochemical composition including flavonoids, phenolics, meroterpenoids and triterpenes, responsible for the biological activities of the medicinal parts. In particular, flavonol glycosides show beneficial effects on type II diabetes mellitus. A simple and efficient HSCCC method has been developed for the preparative separation of five flavonoid glycosides and one diphenylmethane glycoside from P. guajava. A solvent system composed of n-hexane–ethyl acetate–methanol–water (0.7:4:0.8:4, v/v/v/v was optimized for the separation. The upper phase was used as the stationary phase, and the lower phase was used as the mobile phase. Under the optimized conditions, hyperoside (15.3 mg, isoquercitrin (21.1 mg, reynoutrin (65.2 mg, quercetin-3-O-β-D-arabinopyranoside (71.7 mg, quercetin-3-O-α-L-arabinofuranoside (105.6 mg and 2,4,6-trihydroxy-3,5-dimethylbenzophenone 4-O-(6''-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (98.4 mg were separated from crude sample (19.8 g. The structures of all the isolates were identified by ESI-MS, 1H- and 13C-NMR analyses and their purities (>95% were determined using HPLC.

  12. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Psidium guajava [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Psidium guajava 名詞 一般 * * * * グアバ... グアバ グアバ Thesaurus2015 200906092188751413 C LS06/LS72 UNKNOWN_2 Psidium guajava

  13. Antimicrobial Activities of Leaf Extracts of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) on Two Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Bipul; Rogers, Kimberly; McLaughlin, Fredrick; Yadav, Anand

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To determine the antimicrobial potential of guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extracts against two gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis) and two gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) which are some of foodborne and spoilage bacteria. The guava leaves were extracted in four different solvents of increasing polarities (hexane, methanol, ethanol, and water). The efficacy of these extracts was tested against those bacteria through a well-diffusion method employing 50 μL leaf-extract solution per well. According to the findings of the antibacterial assay, the methanol and ethanol extracts of the guava leaves showed inhibitory activity against gram-positive bacteria, whereas the gram-negative bacteria were resistant to all the solvent extracts. The methanol extract had an antibacterial activity with mean zones of inhibition of 8.27 and 12.3 mm, and the ethanol extract had a mean zone of inhibition of 6.11 and 11.0 mm against B. cereus and S. aureus, respectively. On the basis of the present finding, guava leaf-extract might be a good candidate in the search for a natural antimicrobial agent. This study provides scientific understanding to further determine the antimicrobial values and investigate other pharmacological properties. PMID:24223039

  14. Antimicrobial Activities of Leaf Extracts of Guava (Psidium guajava L. on Two Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipul Biswas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the antimicrobial potential of guava (Psidium guajava leaf extracts against two gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis and two gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus which are some of foodborne and spoilage bacteria. The guava leaves were extracted in four different solvents of increasing polarities (hexane, methanol, ethanol, and water. The efficacy of these extracts was tested against those bacteria through a well-diffusion method employing 50 μL leaf-extract solution per well. According to the findings of the antibacterial assay, the methanol and ethanol extracts of the guava leaves showed inhibitory activity against gram-positive bacteria, whereas the gram-negative bacteria were resistant to all the solvent extracts. The methanol extract had an antibacterial activity with mean zones of inhibition of 8.27 and 12.3 mm, and the ethanol extract had a mean zone of inhibition of 6.11 and 11.0 mm against B. cereus and S. aureus, respectively. On the basis of the present finding, guava leaf-extract might be a good candidate in the search for a natural antimicrobial agent. This study provides scientific understanding to further determine the antimicrobial values and investigate other pharmacological properties.

  15. Mechanisms of Body Weight Reduction and Metabolic Syndrome Alleviation by Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chung S.; Zhang, Jinsong; Zhang, Le; Huang, Jinbao; Wang, Yijun

    2016-01-01

    Tea, a popular beverage made from leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis, has been shown to reduce body weight, alleviate metabolic syndrome, and prevent diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in animal models and humans. Such beneficial effects have generally been observed in most human studies when the level of tea consumption was 3 to 4 cups (600–900 mg tea catechins) or more per day. Green tea is more effective than black tea. In spite of numerous studies, the fundamental mechanisms for these actions still remain unclear. From a review of the literature, we propose that the two major mechanisms are: 1) decreasing absorption of lipids and proteins by tea constituents in the intestine, thus reducing calorie intake; and 2) activating AMPK by tea polyphenols that are bioavailable in the liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissues. The relative importance of these two mechanisms depends on the types of tea and diet consumed by individuals. The activated AMPK would decrease gluconeogenesis and fatty acid synthesis and increase catabolism, leading to body weight reduction and MetS alleviation. Other mechanisms and the health relevance of these beneficial effects of tea consumption remain to be further investigated. PMID:26577614

  16. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in tea (Japanese tea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Sr-90 and Cs-137 in Japanese tea were determined using radiochemical analysis. Five hundred grams of manufactured green tea was collected from six sampling locations in June 1983, carbonized and ashed in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish. The maximum values of Sr-90 and Cs-137 were 250 +- 6.0 pCi/kg and 88.0 +- 3.2 pCi/kg, respectively, in tea collected from Tagata-gun, Shizuoka. (Namekawa, K.)

  17. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in tea (Japanese tea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Sr-90 and Cs-137 in Japanese tea were determined using radiochemical analysis. Five hundred grams of manufactured green tea was collected from six sampling locations in June 1984, carbonized and ashed in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish. The maximum value of Sr-90 was 88+-3.7 pCi/kg in tea collected from Kyoto; the maximum value of Cs-137 was 99.0+-3.60 pCi/kg collected from Kagoshima. (Namekawa, K.)

  18. Proximate analysis, in vitro organic matter digestibility, and energy content of common guava (Psidium guajava L.) and yellow, strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum Var. lucidum) tree parts and fruits as potential forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Julie Ann Luiz; Arancon, Norman Q; Mathews, Bruce W; Carpenter, James R

    2012-10-24

    The nutrient composition of common guava, Psidium guajava L., and strawberry guava (waiwi), Psidium cattleianum var. lucidum, tree parts and fruits was determined during three seasons for six locations in Hawaii to assess guava as a potential feed for cattle. All guava plant parts were higher (p Guava leaves were higher in fiber and had lower energy densities (p Guava fruits were higher in CP (p guava is low in vitro organic matter digestibility as compared to tropical forage grasses; therefore, it is not recommended as a feedstock for livestock.

  19. Evaluation of authenticity and green tea antimicrobial activity of different commercial brands that are sold in San Jose, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Campos, Jeyson

    2014-01-01

    Various brands of green tea are compared with the leaves of camellia sinensis to verify the antimicrobial effect, authenticity and quality. The main components with antibacterial effect commercially presented are compared to the components present in green tea leaf to determine the quality and authenticity, by thin layer chromatography. The brands marketed studied green tea in the metropolitan area of San Jose, Costa Rica has been really green tea good quality, this can be ensured by the findings in the analysis and comparison of the different profiles of flavonoids, polyphenols, alkaloids and amino acids. The antimicrobial activity has been without to confirmed in the bands of catechins analyzed [es

  20. Acúmulo e efeitos fitotóxicos do flúor em folhas de boldo-gambá e capim-cidreira utilizadas para chás Fluorine accumulation and its phytotoxic effects in blue coleus and lemongrass leaves used for tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiara Viana Campos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de acúmulo de fluoreto em folhas de boldo-gambá (Plectranthus neochilus e capim-cidreira (Cymbopogon citratus, determinar o percentual de liberação do poluente por meio da infusão e caracterizar, visual e microscopicamente, os danos foliares causados pelo poluente. Mudas das duas espécies foram submetidas a nevoeiro simulado com fluoreto de potássio. O acúmulo de fluoreto na matéria seca foi mensurado com eletrodo específico em folhas lavadas e não lavadas, infundidas e não infundidas. O percentual de flúor disponibilizado nos chás foi superior para capim-cidreira, embora essa espécie apresente acúmulo de flúor menor que o boldo-gambá. Não foram observados sintomas visuais nas folhas das espécies estudadas, mas ao microscópio eletrônico de varredura, constatou-se a alteração da turgidez das células epidérmicas, ruptura da cutícula e deformação de estômatos e tricomas. O elevado teor de fluoreto nas folhas de C. citratus e P. neochilus e a ausência de sintomas visuais evidenciam que as espécies são tolerantes ao poluente. A lavagem das folhas em água é ineficiente para a remoção do flúor. O acúmulo e a liberação diferenciais de flúor estão relacionados às características morfoanatômicas das espécies analisadas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the fluoride accumulation in leaves of blue coleus (Plectranthus neochilus and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus, the percentage of fluoride released through infusion and to characterize visually and through microscopy the injuries caused by the pollutant. Saplings of the species were subjected to a simulated fog with potassium fluoride. Fluoride accumulation in dry matter was measured by a specific electrode in washed and unwashed leaves, subjected and not subjected to infusion. The percentage of available fluorine in teas was higher for lemongrass leaves, even though this species shows a lower fluorine

  1. Recent advances on tea polyphenols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwar, Jyoti; Taskeen, Mujtaba; Mohammad, Imthiyaz; Huo, Congde; Chan, Tak Hang; Dou, Qing Ping

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade many scientific and medical studies have focused on green tea for its long-purported health benefits. There is convincing evidence that tea is a cup of life. It has multiple preventive and therapeutic effects. This review thus focuses on the recent advances of tea polyphenols and their applications in the prevention and treatment of human cancers. Of the various polyphenols in tea, (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant, and active compound studied in tea research. EGCG inhibits several molecular targets to inhibit cancer initiation and modulates several essential survival pathways to block cancer progression. Herein, we describe the various mechanisms of action of EGCG and also discuss previous and current ongoing clinical trials of EGCG and green tea polyphenols in different cancer types. PMID:22201858

  2. Simultaneous determination of free amino acids in Pu-erh tea and their changes during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuchen; Luo, Yinghua; Wang, Pengpu; Zhao, Mengyao; Li, Lei; Hu, Xiaosong; Chen, Fang

    2016-03-01

    Pu-erh ripened tea is produced through a unique microbial fermentation process from the sun-dried leaves of large-leaf tea species (Camellia sinensis (Linn.) var. assamica (Masters) Kitamura) in Yunnan province of China. In this study, the changes of amino acid profiles during fermentation of Pu-erh tea were investigated, based on the improved HPLC-UV method with PITC pre-column derivatization for the simultaneous determination of twenty free amino acids. Results showed that aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, alanine, theanine and tyrosine were the major amino acids in tea samples. Fermentation significantly influenced on the amino acid profiles. The total free amino acid contents significantly decreased during fermentation (pfermentation and then decreased gradually. The results provided the useful information for the manipulation of fermentation process according to the changes of amino acids and acrylamide contents in Pu-erh ripened tea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Application of a functional mathematical index for antibacterial and anticarcinogenic effects of tea catechins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finotti, Enrico; Bersani, Enrico; Friedman, Mendel

    2011-02-09

    Tea leaves produce secondary metabolites that are involved in the defense of the plants against invading pathogens. In the case of green teas, these metabolites are polyphenolic compounds called catechins. Previous studies developed a mathematical formula called functional mathematical index (FMI) that was used to describe the quality of different olive oils and potatoes in terms of compositional parameters and antioxidative properties of individual components. This study extends the development of the FMI concept to define an "optimum tea" based on reported relationships between the content of structurally different catechins of a large number of teas and their dual beneficial effects: antimicrobial activities against a foodborne pathogen and inhibition of human cancer cell lines. The described mathematical approach may be useful for predicting relative beneficial effects of new teas based on their catechin content.

  4. Dietary risk evaluation for 28 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tea preparations made of teas available on the Polish retail market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszko, Marek; Kamińska, Marta; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2018-01-02

    The aim of this work was to assess dietary risk resulting from consumption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with tea infusions. To this end, levels of 28 PAHs in black, green, red and white teas available on the Polish retail market have been assessed. Profiles and correlation between concentrations of individual PAHs have been identified. A model study on transfer of PAHs from tea leaves into tea preparations has been conducted. Relatively high concentrations of 28 evaluated PAHs have been found in 58 tested samples of black, green, red and white teas sampled on the Polish retail market. Total concentration ∑28PAH ranged from 57 to 696 µg kg -1 with mean 258 µg kg -1 (dry tea leaves). The most mature tea leaves fermented to a small degree contained relatively the highest PAH levels among all four tested tea types. Relatively low PAH transfer rates into tea infusions and limited volumes of the consumed tea keep the risks associated with PAH dietary intake at a safely low level. The worst-case scenario dietary intake values were 7.62/0.82/0.097 ng kg -1 b.w. day -1 (estimated on the basis of the maximum found concentrations 696/113/23 µg kg -1 and maximum observed transfer rates 24/16/9%) for ∑28PAH/∑PAH4/B[a]P, respectively. MOE values calculated using the above worst case estimates exceeded 700,000 and 400,000 (BMDL 10 0.07 and 0.34 mg kg -1 b.w. day -1 ) for B[a]P and PAH4, respectively. Both B[a]P and PAH4 concentrations may be used as indicators of total PAH concentration in tea leaves; PAH4 slightly better fits low molecular weight PAHs. Several correlations between various PAHs/groups of PAHs have been identified, the strongest one (R 2 = 0.92) between PAH4 and EU PAH 15+1.

  5. Psidium guajava and Piper betle leaf extracts prolong vase life of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S H; Lgu, K S

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. "Carola" and "Pallas Orange" carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a "germicide" (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers.

  6. Psidium guajava and Piper betle Leaf Extracts Prolong Vase Life of Cut Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. “Carola” and “Pallas Orange” carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a “germicide” (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin. Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water. The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers.

  7. In vitro antimicrobial activity of methanolic leaf extract of Psidium guajava L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Dhiman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was designed to examine the chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial potential of methanolic extract of Psidium guajava Linn (Myrtaceae. Materials and Methods: The inhibitory effect of methanolic extract of P. guajava was tested against three bacterial and two fungal strains by using the paper disc diffusion method. Results: The methanolic extract exhibited antibacterial activity against E. coli with minimum inhibitory concentration, 0.78 μg/ml, minimum bactericidal concentration of 50 μg/ml, and appreciable antifungal activity with minimum inhibitory concentration of 12.5 μg/ml. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of methanolic extract revealed the presence of antimicrobial compounds such as flavonoids, steroids, and tannins, which may contribute for the antimicrobial action of P. guajava. Conclusion: The extract was found to be bacteriostatic and fungistatic in action.

  8. In vitro antimicrobial activity of methanolic leaf extract of Psidium guajava L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Anju; Nanda, Arun; Ahmad, Sayeed; Narasimhan, B.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to examine the chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial potential of methanolic extract of Psidium guajava Linn (Myrtaceae). Materials and Methods: The inhibitory effect of methanolic extract of P. guajava was tested against three bacterial and two fungal strains by using the paper disc diffusion method. Results: The methanolic extract exhibited antibacterial activity against E. coli with minimum inhibitory concentration, 0.78 μg/ml, minimum bactericidal concentration of 50 μg/ml, and appreciable antifungal activity with minimum inhibitory concentration of 12.5 μg/ml. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of methanolic extract revealed the presence of antimicrobial compounds such as flavonoids, steroids, and tannins, which may contribute for the antimicrobial action of P. guajava. Conclusion: The extract was found to be bacteriostatic and fungistatic in action. PMID:21687350

  9. Anti-stress effects of drinking green tea with lowered caffeine and enriched theanine, epigallocatechin and arginine on psychosocial stress induced adrenal hypertrophy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, Keiko; Hara, Ayane; Nakagawa, Aimi; Iguchi, Kazuaki; Ohshio, Megumi; Morita, Akio; Nakamura, Yoriyuki

    2016-11-15

    Theanine, an amino acid in tea, has significant anti-stress effects on animals and humans. However, the anti-stress effects of drinking green tea have not yet been elucidated. The present study aimed to explore anti-stress effects of green tea and roles of tea components in a mouse model of psychosocial stress. We examined anti-stress effects of three types of green teas, theanine-rich "Gyokuro", standard "Sencha", and Sencha with lowered caffeine (low-caffeine green tea). Furthermore, the roles of tea components such as caffeine, catechins, and other amino acids in anti-stress effects were examined. To prepare low-caffeine green tea, plucked new tea leaves were treated with a hot-water spray. Mice were psychosocially stressed from a conflict among male mice under confrontational housing. Mice consumed each tea that was eluted with room temperature water ad libitum. As a marker for the stress response, adrenal hypertrophy was compared with mice that ingested water. Caffeine was significantly lowered by spraying hot-water on tea leaves. While epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is the main catechin in tea leaves, epigallocatechin (EGC) was mainly infused into water at room temperature. Adrenal hypertrophy was significantly suppressed in mice that ingested theanine-rich and low-caffeine green tea that were eluted with water at room temperature. Caffeine and EGCG suppressed the anti-stress effects of theanine while EGC and arginine (Arg) retained these effects. These results suggest that drinking green tea exhibits anti-stress effects, where theanine, EGC and Arg cooperatively abolish the counter-effect of caffeine and EGCG on psychosocial stress induced adrenal hypertrophy in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Green Tea Antioxidative Potential in Irradiated Pregnant Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafafy, Y.A.; Roushdy, H.ML.; Ashry, O.M.; Salama, S.F.; Abdel-Haliem, M.; Mossad, M.N.

    2005-01-01

    Green tea (Gt) derived from the leaves of Camellia sinensis contains polyphenolic compounds, also known as epicatechins, which are antioxidants in nature. This study aims to evaluate the possible anti oxidative potential of 2 concentrations of green tea extract in pregnant rats exposed to fractionated 3 Gy gamma irradiation of 1Gy installments at the 7 th, 11 th and 15 th days of gestation. Total and absolute white blood cells count, red blood cells count, hematocrit value, hemoglobin content and blood indices as well as glutathione were significantly decreased by irradiation at the end of the gestation period. Lipid peroxidation, serum lipid profile (total lipids, triglycerides and cholesterol cone.) were elevated. Serum Na+ decreased and K+ ions elevated. Results revealed significant protection by both green tea cone, to counts of RBCs, WBCs, Hg, Ht, as well as lymphocytes and monocytes. Glutathione decreased with both green tea cone, and dropped further with both treatments. Lipid peroxidation and lipid profile were depressed. Moreover, Na+ and K+ levels were significantly ameliorated by both green tea cone., which suggests its applicability as an effective radioprotector. The steadily increasing use of nuclear and radiation technology extended to different fields, which has been paralleled by increasing potential risk for radiation exposure (Kajioka et al, 2000). The low-level radioactivity by environmental, medical and occupational settings has been found to cause several kinds of health damage including premature births, congenital defects, infant mortality, mental retardation, heart ailments, allergies/asthma, cancer, genetic damage and chronic fatigue syndrome (Sternglass, 1986)

  11. Trace elemental characterisation of different Indian tea samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagad, Rupali A.; Alamelu, D.; Aggarwal, S.K.; Acharya, R.

    2010-01-01

    Determination of elemental content of different food materials is of importance since excess or deficiency of some of the elements have direct consequence to health of human beings. Tea is a common beverage consumed widely in India. India is one of the major country where good quality tea is produced. The tea plants are grown over a wide region of the country. It was of interest to study the elemental composition in tea samples from different geographical locations and to develop a suitable methodology to identify the geographical origin from the trace element profiles. With this objective, about 40 tea samples (both from plantations as well as from market) from the different locations in India viz. Assam, Munnar, Himachal Pradesh and Darjeeling were analyzed by INAA. About 150 mg of each of the sample packed in aluminium foil was irradiated in the self serve position of CIRUS reactor, BARC, for 3 to 5 hours at a neutron flux of ∼10 13 cm -2 s -1 . Along with the samples, Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) GBS-7(Tea leaves, as reference standard) and SRM-1515 (Apple leaves as control sample) were irradiated. Radioactive assay of the irradiated samples were carried out using a 40% relative efficiency HPGe detector coupled to 8K MCA and gamma-ray spectra were recorded for sufficient time for obtaining good counting statistics. Peak areas were determined using a peak-fit software PHAST. Concentrations of the different elements in tea samples were determined using relative method of INAA

  12. Psidium guajava: A review on its potential as an adjunct in treating periodontal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, K.; Divyashree, P.

    2014-01-01

    Plants for thousands of years have been used to enhance health and for medicinal purposes. Psidium guajava is one which has an enormous wealth of medicinal value. It for long has been known for its anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiarrheal, antimutagenic properties. Despite of its widespread biologic uses there is a dearth of information on its therapeutic effect in the treatment of periodontal disease. Hence, this review is an attempt to highlight the potential of P. guajava in the treatment of periodontal disease. Internet databases PubMed, Google Scholar were searched and the most relevant articles were considered for review. PMID:25125881

  13. Psidium guajava and Piper betle Leaf Extracts Prolong Vase Life of Cut Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) Flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, M. M.; Ahmad, S. H.; Lgu, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. “Carola” and “Pallas Orange” carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a “germicide” (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and hi...

  14. PAH in Some Brands of Tea and Coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Navaratnam, Marin Arosha; Jewula, J.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of 25 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tea and coffee were investigated with focus on four PAHs (PAH4), classified by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) as suitable indicators; benz[a]anthracene (BaA), chrysene (CHR), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF) and benzo[a]pyrene (Ba......P). PAH4 from samples of 18 brands of tea leaves and 13 brands of coffee were extracted by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by highly automated clean up steps for gel permeation chromatography (SX-3) and solid phase extraction (500mg silica). GC-MS were applied for detection of PAH4. The limit...... of detection (LOD) ranged from 0.1–0.3 μg/kg with recoveries from 94–106% for PAH4. Concentrations of PAH4 followed the pattern of the total sum of 25 PAHs with higher concentrations with a maximum of 115 μg/kg in tea leaves compared to 5.1 μg/kg in coffee. The highest PAH4 levels were found in black tea...

  15. Caffeine in tea Camellia sinensis--content, absorption, benefits and risks of consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramza-Michałowska, A

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic properties of tea Camellia sinensis are of particular interest since it has been consumed for ages and was always regarded as safe beverage. Tea is most popular beverage in the world because of its attractive aroma, exceptional taste, health promoting and pharmaceutical potential. Current results showed that antioxidative, antibacterial and other health effects are attributed to its caffeine content and caffeine - polyphenols interactions. An overview is given on caffeine content in different tea leaves beverage. Special attention is drawn to caffeine physiological effect on human organism. Controversies concerning the possible caffeine influence on human physical and psychological health are briefly summarized and presented.

  16. Antioxidant and antimutagenic potential of Psidium guajava leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahin, Maryam; Ahmad, Iqbal; Aqil, Farrukh

    2017-04-01

    Fruits, vegetables and medicinal herbs rich in phenolics antioxidants contribute toward reduced risk of age-related diseases and cancer. In this study, Psidium guajava leaf extract was fractionated in various organic solvents viz. petroleum ether, benzene, ethyl acetate, ethanl and methanol and tested for their antioxidant and antimutagenic properties. Methanolic fraction showed maximum antioxidant activity comparable to ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) as tested by DPPH free radical scavenging, phosphomolybdenum, FRAP (Fe3 + reducing power) and CUPRAC (cupric ions (Cu 2+ ) reducing ability) assays. The fraction was analyzed for antimutagenic activities against sodium azide (NaN 3 ), methylmethane sulfonate (MMS), 2-aminofluorene (2AF) and benzo(a)pyrene (BP) in Ames Salmonella tester strains. The methanol extracted fraction at 80 μg/ml concentration inhibited above 70% mutagenicity. Further, phytochemical analysis of methanol fraction that was found to be most active revealed the presence of nine major compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This data suggests that guava contains high amount of phenolics responsible for broad-spectrum antimutagenic and antioxidant properties in vitro and could be potential candidates to be explored as modern phytomedicine.

  17. Multivariate analysis in a genetic divergence study of Psidium guajava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, A M; Ferreira, M F S; Guilhen, J H S; Ferreira, A

    2014-12-18

    The family Myrtaceae is widespread in the Atlantic Forest and is well-represented in the Espírito Santo State in Brazil. In the genus Psidium of this family, guava (Psidium guajava L.) is the most economically important species. Guava is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries; however, the widespread cultivation of only a small number of guava tree cultivars may cause the genetic vulnerability of this crop, making the search for promising genotypes in natural populations important for breeding programs and conservation. In this study, the genetic diversity of 66 guava trees sampled in the southern region of Espírito Santo and in Caparaó, MG, Brazil were evaluated. A total of 28 morphological descriptors (11 quantitative and 17 multicategorical) and 18 microsatellite markers were used. Principal component, discriminant and cluster analyses, descriptive analyses, and genetic diversity analyses using simple sequence repeats were performed. Discrimination of accessions using molecular markers resulted in clustering of genotypes of the same origin, which was not observed using morphological data. Genetic diversity was detected between and within the localities evaluated, regardless of the methodology used. Genetic differentiation among the populations using morphological and molecular data indicated the importance of the study area for species conservation, genetic erosion estimation, and exploitation in breeding programs.

  18. Research on the effect of culture time on the kombucha tea beverage's antiradical capacity and sensory value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramza-Michałowska, Anna; Kulczyński, Bartosz; Xindi, Yuan; Gumienna, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Recent consumption trends shows high consumer acceptability and growing medicinal interest in the biological value of kombucha tea. This tea is a sweetened tea leaf brew fermented with a layer containing mainly acetic acid bacteria, yeast and lactic acid bacteria. The main antioxidants in tea leaves are polyphenols, the consumption of which is proven to be beneficial for human health, e.g. protecting from reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of the present research was to evaluate antiradical activity, total polyphenol content (TPC) and sensory value of kombucha tea brews. In the present study, Kombucha tea beverages were analyzed for TPC content, DPPH radical scavenging method and sensory value. The highest TPC content and DPPH radical scavenging capacity values were evaluated in yellow tea samples, both unfermented and kombucha, which did not differ within the storage time. The results of sensory evaluations of kombucha tea brews depend on the tea leaf variety used for preparing the drink. Research indicates that the fermentation process of tea brews with kombucha microbiota does not affect significantly its polyphenol content and antiradical capacity, and retains its components' biological activity.

  19. Taking Leave?

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Planning a holiday? Then if you're a member of the personnel, you'll need to use the Laboratory's new leave system that will be put in place on 1 October. Leave allocations don't change - you are entitled to just as much holiday as before - but instead of being credited annually, your leave will be credited on a monthly basis, and this information will be communicated on your salary slip. The reason for the change is that with the various new leave schemes such as Recruitment by Saved Leave (RSL) and the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP), a streamlined procedure was required for dealing with all kinds of leave. In the new system, each member of the personnel will have leave accounts to which leave will be credited monthly from the payroll and debited each time an absence is registered in the CERN Electronic Document Handling system (EDH). Leave balances will appear on monthly pay slips, and full details of leave transactions and balances will be available through EDH at all times. As the leave will be c...

  20. Tea waste: an effective and economic substrate for oyster mushroom cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Doudou; Liang, Jin; Wang, Yunsheng; Sun, Feng; Tao, Hong; Xu, Qiang; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Zhengzhu; Ho, Chi-Tang; Wan, Xiaochun

    2016-01-30

    Tea waste is the residue that remains after tea leaves have been extracted by hot water to obtain water-soluble components. The waste contains a re-usable energy substrate and nutrients which may pollute the environment if they are not dealt with appropriately. Other agricultural wastes have been widely studied as substrates for cultivating mushrooms. In the present study, we cultivated oyster mushroom using tea waste as substrate. To study the feasibility of re-using it, tea waste was added to the substrate at different ratios in different experimental groups. Three mushroom strains (39, 71 and YOU) were compared and evaluated. Mycelia growth rate, yield, biological efficiency and growth duration were measured. Substrates with different tea waste ratios showed different growth and yield performance. The substrate containing 40-60% of tea waste resulted in the highest yield. Tea waste could be used as an effective and economic substrate for oyster mushroom cultivation. This study also provided a useful way of dealing with massive amounts of tea waste. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Tea and cake [second edition

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Philippa; MacLellan, Tamar

    2011-01-01

    Tea & Cake is an edited version of the original book produced by Philippa Wood in 2007. The book takes a nostalgic look at childhood memories of ‘baking with mother’ or special tea-time treats. The book combines ink-jet printing with typewritten text and rubber stamps; doilly end-papers and embroidered traycloth covers.

  2. Exploratory Characterization of Phenolic Compounds with Demonstrated Anti-Diabetic Activity in Guava Leaves at Different Oxidation States

    OpenAIRE

    D?az-de-Cerio, Elixabet; Verardo, Vito; G?mez-Caravaca, Ana Mar?a; Fern?ndez-Guti?rrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Psidium guajava L. is widely used like food and in folk medicine all around the world. Many studies have demonstrated that guava leaves have anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities, among others, and that these activities belong mainly to phenolic compounds, although it is known that phenolic composition in guava tree varies throughout seasonal changes. Andalusia is one of the regions in Europe where guava is grown, thus, the aim of this work was to study the phenolic compounds ...

  3. Modeling of yield and environmental impact categories in tea processing units based on artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanali, Majid; Mobli, Hossein; Hosseinzadeh-Bandbafha, Homa

    2017-12-01

    In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed for predicting the yield and life cycle environmental impacts based on energy inputs required in processing of black tea, green tea, and oolong tea in Guilan province of Iran. A life cycle assessment (LCA) approach was used to investigate the environmental impact categories of processed tea based on the cradle to gate approach, i.e., from production of input materials using raw materials to the gate of tea processing units, i.e., packaged tea. Thus, all the tea processing operations such as withering, rolling, fermentation, drying, and packaging were considered in the analysis. The initial data were obtained from tea processing units while the required data about the background system was extracted from the EcoInvent 2.2 database. LCA results indicated that diesel fuel and corrugated paper box used in drying and packaging operations, respectively, were the main hotspots. Black tea processing unit caused the highest pollution among the three processing units. Three feed-forward back-propagation ANN models based on Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm with two hidden layers accompanied by sigmoid activation functions and a linear transfer function in output layer, were applied for three types of processed tea. The neural networks were developed based on energy equivalents of eight different input parameters (energy equivalents of fresh tea leaves, human labor, diesel fuel, electricity, adhesive, carton, corrugated paper box, and transportation) and 11 output parameters (yield, global warming, abiotic depletion, acidification, eutrophication, ozone layer depletion, human toxicity, freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity, marine aquatic ecotoxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, and photochemical oxidation). The results showed that the developed ANN models with R 2 values in the range of 0.878 to 0.990 had excellent performance in predicting all the output variables based on inputs. Energy consumption for

  4. Analyzing clonal fidelity of micropropagated Psidium guajava L. plants using simple sequence repeat markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micropropagation of Psidium guajava L. (guava) is a viable alternative to currently adopted techniques for large-scale plant propagation of commercial cultivars. Assessment of clonal fidelity in micropropagated plants is the first step towards ensuring genetic uniformity in mass production of planti...

  5. Euscelus spiniger Voss (Coleoptera : Attelabidae : Attelabinae), nouveau ravageur du goyavier (Psidium guajava L., Myrtaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Couturier, Guy; Delgado, C.

    1995-01-01

    Le coléoptère #Attelabidae Euscelus spriniger$ Voss est cité pour la première fois comme nuisible au goyavier (#Psidium guajava$). Les observations ont été réalisées dans la région d'Iquitos, en Amazoniepéruvienne. (Résumé d'auteur)

  6. Genetic characterization of guava (psidium guajava l.) Germplasm in the United States using microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic diversity of thirty five Psidium guajava accessions maintained at the USDA, National Plants Germplasm System, Hilo, HI, was characterized using 20 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Diversity analysis detected a total of 178 alleles ranging from four to 16. The observed mean heterozygosit...

  7. Daun Jambu Biji (Psidium guajava L. sebagai Antikanker Payudara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwitiyanti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Guava leaves are used as a cytotoxic compound. Previous research has demonstrated that guava leaves contained 61.71% of quercetin and potential as an cytotoxic compound. The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxic activity of 70% ethanol extract of guava leaves against T47D cancer cells. The method used was direct counting (viable cell count to obtained the LC50 value. This study tested six concentrations of 70% ethanol extract of guava leaves that were 130.62; 67.98; 35.98; 18.43; 9.56 and 5 µg/ml. The LC50 value from the 70% ethanol extract of guava leaves was 27.54 µg/ml. The results suggested that the extract of guava leaves has cytotoxic activity against T47D cells.

  8. Daun Jambu Biji (Psidium guajava L.) sebagai Antikanker Payudara

    OpenAIRE

    Dwitiyanti

    2015-01-01

    Guava leaves are used as a cytotoxic compound. Previous research has demonstrated that guava leaves contained 61.71% of quercetin and potential as an cytotoxic compound. The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxic activity of 70% ethanol extract of guava leaves against T47D cancer cells. The method used was direct counting (viable cell count) to obtained the LC50 value. This study tested six concentrations of 70% ethanol extract of guava leaves that were 130.62; 67.98; 35.98; 18.43; ...

  9. 137Cs contamination in tea and yerba mate in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Gregorio, D.E.; Huck, H.; Aristegui, R.; De Lazzari, G.; Jech, A.

    2004-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectra from more than 50 samples of food products available in stores of Buenos Aires city were measured using a germanium detector. Activity concentrations of 137 Cs up to 10 Bq/kg were found in tea and yerba mate manufactured in Apostoles, Argentina. Further measurements of tea leaves, yerba mate leaves and soils, all coming from a cultivated area in that region, also show the presence of 137 Cs contamination. The results suggest that the area was fertilized with a product that originated in a region affected by the fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident

  10. In chemico evaluation of tea tree essential oils as skin sensitizers: Impact of the chemical composition on aging and generation of reactive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tea tree oil (TTO) is a popular skin remedy obtained from the leaves of Melaleuca alternifolia, M. linariifolia or M dissitiflora. Due to the commercial importance ofTTO, substitution or adulteration with other tea tree species (such as cajeput, niaouli, manuka and kanuka oils) is common and may p...

  11. Hypolipidemic Effect of Psidium guajava Leaf Extract Against Hepatotoxicity in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, K; Rengarajan, R L; Radhakrishnan, R; Anand, A Vijaya

    2018-01-01

    Plant-based natural extracts cure several diseases in human. However, the extract of Psidium guajava leaf is not yet evaluated on changes of lipid profile in hepatic disease affected rats. The present study was aimed to evaluate the mitigation effect of the ethanolic extract of P. guajava leaf and its isolated quercetin fraction on hepatotoxic rats. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) was injected to rats for hepatic disease induction and silymarin drug was used as positive control to compare plant ethanolic extract. The lipid profiles were assessed in both plasma and liver tissue of diseased and control rats. Levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, phospholipids, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were increased and the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was decreased in CCl 4 -induced hepatotoxic rats. The treatment of P. guajava (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg, bw) and isolated quercetin fraction (20 mg/kg, bw) doses decreased the elevated levels of all these parameters in diseased rats and restored the normal concentration of HDL-C. The results of the present study concluded that the P. guajava leaf and its isolated quercetin fraction can significantly regulate lipid metabolism in CCl 4 -induced hepatotoxic rats and decrease the disease rate. Psidium guajava leaf extract reduces the hepatotoxicity and disease rate in ratsQuercetin fraction of leaf extract significantly regulates lipid profile in hepatic diseased rats. Abbreviations used: CCl 4 : Carbon tetrachloride; FFA: Free fatty acids; HDL-C: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LCAT: Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase; LDL-C: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; PL: Phospholipids; TC: Total cholesterol; TG: Triglycerides; VLDL-C: Very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

  12. Environmental and nutritional requirements for tea cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajiboland Roghieh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis is an important beverage crop cultivated in the tropics and subtropics under acid soil conditions. Increased awareness of the health-promoting properties of the tea beverage has led to an increase in its level of consumption over the last decades. Tea production contributes significantly to the economy of several tea-cultivating countries in Asia and Africa. Environmental constrains, particularly water deficiency due to inadequate and/or poorly distributed rainfall, seriously limit tea production in the majority of tea-producing countries. It is also predicted that global climate change will have a considerable adverse impact on tea production in the near future. Application of fertilizers for higher production and increased quality and quantity of tea is a common agricultural practice, but due to its environmental consequences, such as groundwater pollution, the rate of fertilizer application needs to be reconsidered. Cultivation of tea under humid conditions renders it highly susceptible to pathogens and pest attacks. Application of pesticides and fungicides adversely affects the quality of tea and increases health risks of the tea beverage. Organic cultivation as an agricultural practice without using synthetic fertilizers and other chemical additives such as pesticides and fungicides is a sustainable and eco-friendly approach to producing healthy tea. A growing number of tea-producing countries are joining organic tea cultivation programmes in order to improve the quality and to maintain the health benefits of the tea produced.

  13. Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase activity by flavonol glycosides of guava (Psidium guajava L.): a key to the beneficial effects of guava in type II diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidenberger, Thomas; Selg, Manuel; Krennhuber, Klaus

    2013-09-01

    Based on the traditional use in popular medicine, the effect of extracts from Psidium guajava L. leaves and of the main flavonol-glycoside components on dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DP-IV), a key enzyme of blood glucose homoeostasis, has been investigated in-vitro. An ethanolic extract was prepared from dried, powdered leaves of guava and was found to contain seven main flavonol-glycosides, which were isolated by semipreparative HPLC and tested individually. The ethanolic guava leave extract was shown to exert a dose-dependent inhibition of DP-IV, with an IC50 of 380 μg/ml test assay solution. Also the individual flavonol-glycosides inhibited DP-IV dose-dependently, with variations of the effects by a factor of 10, and an overall effect accounting for 100% of that observed for the total guava extract. The recovery of individual flavonol-glycosides in CaCo-2 epithelial cells, a model of gastrointestinal tract absorption, amounted to 2.3-5.3% of the amount available for absorption over 60 min at 37°C. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Tea Culture and Its Forms Across the Czech Tea Rooms

    OpenAIRE

    Schröderová, Karolína

    2015-01-01

    In this bachelor thesis I have focused on the Czech tea culture across tea rooms. I have described the specifics of the tea rooms and of the tea culture. Furthermore I am dealing with ways of tea culture spreading, and what is the process of the tea room establishing. I am using the term of subculture in the connection with the tea culture, its meaning and position in the Czech culture. The main data source were semi-structured interviews with the tea rooms owners, all complemented by a parti...

  15. Tea and human health: biomedical functions of tea active components and current issues*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Originating in China, tea and tea planting have spread throughout the world since the middle of the Tang dynasty. Now people from 160 countries in the world are accustomed to tea drinking. A brief history of tea’s medicinal role in China and its spread to the world are introduced. The effectiveness of tea active components and tea drinking on major human diseases, including cancer, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases, is discussed. Also presented are some related issues, such as the bioavailability of tea active components, the new formulations of tea polyphenols, and the safety for consumers of dietary supplements containing tea polyphenols. PMID:25644464

  16. TEA, Trastorno del Espectro Autista :

    OpenAIRE

    Vegas Martín, Irene

    2015-01-01

    La autora expone los aspectos fundamentales sobre el concepto del TEA para posteriormente mostrarnos un caso práctico y su tratamiento durante unos meses con la finalidad que sea un trabajo de consulta práctico

  17. Antimicrobial efficacy of Acacia nilotica, Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel, Eucalyptus hybrid, Psidium guajava extracts and their combination on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra Shekar, B R; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Jain, Richa; Singh, Rupal; Thakur, Rupesh; Shekar, Suma

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to assess antimicrobial efficacy of Acacia nilotica, Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel, Eucalyptus hybrid, Psidium guajava extracts, and their combination on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus. The branches of four plants were collected, identified, and authenticated by a taxonomist. The plants were rinsed in water, healthy leaves were separated and shade dried over a period of 3-4 weeks. Soxhlet apparatus using ethanol was employed for extraction procedure. The combinations of plant extracts were prepared by mixing equal quantities of 10% solutions of each of these extracts. 0.2% chlorhexidine and dimethyl sulfoxide were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The antimicrobial efficacy testing was done using agar well-diffusion method under anaerobic conditions. The mean diameter of inhibition zone was computed and compared between different categories using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post-hoc test. A qualitative assay was carried out to identify the various phytochemical constituents in the plants. The data was assessed by SPSS version 20. The statistical significance was fixed at 0.05. All the plants extracts and their combinations inhibited S. mutans and L. acidophilus. However, the quadruple combination of A. nilotica + M. koenigii (L.) Sprengel + Eucalyptus hybrid + P. guajava produced the maximum inhibition zone (23.5 ± 2.2 mm) against S. mutans. Although, 0.2% chlorhexidine produced the highest inhibition zone against L. acidophilus (18.8 ± 1.2 mm), A. nilotica extract produced maximum inhibition among the various plant extracts and their combinations (14.1 ± 1.8 mm). All the individual plant extracts and their combinations were effective against S. mutans and L. acidophilus. These could be tried as herbal alternates to chlorhexidine. However, these in vitro results have to be further evaluated for any toxicity of the polyherbal combinations in animal models and effectiveness

  18. Application of Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy to optimization of green tea steaming process conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Daiki; Bamba, Takeshi; Oku, Yuichi; Yonetani, Tsutomu; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2011-09-01

    In this study, we constructed prediction models by metabolic fingerprinting of fresh green tea leaves using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy and partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis to objectively optimize of the steaming process conditions in green tea manufacture. The steaming process is the most important step for manufacturing high quality green tea products. However, the parameter setting of the steamer is currently determined subjectively by the manufacturer. Therefore, a simple and robust system that can be used to objectively set the steaming process parameters is necessary. We focused on FT-NIR spectroscopy because of its simple operation, quick measurement, and low running costs. After removal of noise in the spectral data by principal component analysis (PCA), PLS regression analysis was performed using spectral information as independent variables, and the steaming parameters set by experienced manufacturers as dependent variables. The prediction models were successfully constructed with satisfactory accuracy. Moreover, the results of the demonstrated experiment suggested that the green tea steaming process parameters could be predicted on a larger manufacturing scale. This technique will contribute to improvement of the quality and productivity of green tea because it can objectively optimize the complicated green tea steaming process and will be suitable for practical use in green tea manufacture. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Green Tea as an Agricultural Based Health Promoting Food: The Past Five to Ten Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin-Yin Shi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of tea originated in ancient China over 4000 years ago and is currently the second most popular beverage in the world after water. Tea is an aromatic beverage prepared by pouring hot water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant. The link between tea intake, most notably green tea, and health has resulted in intense research on the components responsible for preventing the onset of several chronic diseases, including atherosclerosis, cancer, obesity and diabetes. In particular, the high levels of chemically diverse phenols (e.g., phenolic acids, flavonoids present in tea exhibit potent protective properties against many of these diseases. Although health related research on green tea and its predominant phenol (catechins has been on-going for decades, major advances have occurred in the last 5–10 years. Therefore, this review focuses on seminal studies reported primarily within the last five years but not extending past ten years on the link between health and green tea with an emphasis on the catechins.

  20. Effect of Tea Theaflavins and Catechins on Microvascular Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Fuchs

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Beneficial effects of flavonoid-rich black and green tea on macrocirculation have been well established. Theaflavins are unique to black tea as they are formed from catechins during the enzymatic oxidation of tea leaves. The study was performed to gain more insight into the effects of theaflavins on microcirculation and to compare effects with another important flavonoid class, the green tea derived catechins, which have been reported to improve vascular function. Twenty-four healthy subjects were included in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, cross-over study. On six different days, subjects received capsules with a single dose of catechins (500 mg, four varying doses of theaflavins (100 to 500 mg or placebo. Microcirculation was assessed after each treatment by Pulse Amplitude Tonometry (EndoPAT at baseline and 2, 4 and 6 h after test product intake. The EndoPAT reactive hyperemia response was improved by 500 mg catechins (reactive hyperemia index (RHI: 0.2; p = 0.04 and by 500 mg theaflavins (RHI: 0.19; p = 0.06 compared to placebo. Also, 300 mg theaflavins increased the RHI (0.28; p = 0.02, but no effects were observed at lower doses. The study suggests moderate effects of single doses of catechins and theaflavins on peripheral microcirculation.

  1. Effect of Tea Theaflavins and Catechins on Microvascular Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Dagmar; de Graaf, Young; van Kerckhoven, Roeland; Draijer, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Beneficial effects of flavonoid-rich black and green tea on macrocirculation have been well established. Theaflavins are unique to black tea as they are formed from catechins during the enzymatic oxidation of tea leaves. The study was performed to gain more insight into the effects of theaflavins on microcirculation and to compare effects with another important flavonoid class, the green tea derived catechins, which have been reported to improve vascular function. Twenty-four healthy subjects were included in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, cross-over study. On six different days, subjects received capsules with a single dose of catechins (500 mg), four varying doses of theaflavins (100 to 500 mg) or placebo. Microcirculation was assessed after each treatment by Pulse Amplitude Tonometry (EndoPAT) at baseline and 2, 4 and 6 h after test product intake. The EndoPAT reactive hyperemia response was improved by 500 mg catechins (reactive hyperemia index (RHI): 0.2; p = 0.04) and by 500 mg theaflavins (RHI: 0.19; p = 0.06) compared to placebo. Also, 300 mg theaflavins increased the RHI (0.28; p = 0.02), but no effects were observed at lower doses. The study suggests moderate effects of single doses of catechins and theaflavins on peripheral microcirculation. PMID:25514559

  2. Antioxidant and antifungal activities of Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze leaves obtained by different forms of production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. A. Camargo

    Full Text Available Abstract The antioxidant and anticandidal activities of leaves obtained from Camellia sinensis by non-fermentation (green and white teas, semi-fermentation (red tea and fermentation method (black tea were investigated. It was evaluated the total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau assay; antioxidant capacities were evaluated in vitro using DPPH and ABTS radicals, hypochlorous acid and superoxide anion scavenger assays, induced hemolysis, lipid peroxidation by conjugated diene formation and myeloperoxidase activity. Anticandidal activity was performed on three strains of Candida spp. The results showed that non-fermented teas have a higher concentration of phenolic compounds, and then presented the best inhibitory activity of AAPH-induced hemolysis, the best inhibition of conjugated diene formation and more pronounced antioxidant activity in all tests. The highest anticandidal activity was obtained from fermented tea, followed by non-fermented tea. These results indicate that the antioxidant activity demonstrated has no direct relation with the anticandidal activity.

  3. Tea of thornapple leaves: a rare cause of atropine intoxication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamens, D.; de Hert, S.; Vermeyen, K.

    1994-01-01

    A patient was admitted with signs of an acute psychosis. There was no clear history of drug intake nor injury. The presenting clinical symptoms were similar to those of an atropine intoxication. This was later confirmed on toxicological screening of the urine. This alkaloid was ingested by means of

  4. Comparative toxicity effect of bush tea leaves ( Hyptis suaveolens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hyptis suaveolens) were compared for their toxicity effect on the larvae of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti collected from disused tyres beside College of Natural Sciences building University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria.

  5. Green Tea Polyphenols for the Protection against Renal Damage Caused by Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako Yokozawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Green tea, prepared from the leaves of Camellia sinensis L., is a beverage that is popular worldwide. Polyphenols in green tea have been receiving much attention as potential compounds for the maintenance of human health due to their varied biological activity and low toxicity. In particular, the contribution of antioxidant activity to the prevention of diseases caused by oxidative stress has been focused upon. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of (−-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate and (−-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate, which account for a large fraction of the components of green tea polyphenol, on oxidative stress-related renal disease. Our observations suggest that green tea polyphenols have a beneficial effect on pathological states related to oxidative stress of the kidney.

  6. Multi-element analysis, bioavailability and fractionation of herbal tea products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymczycha-Madeja, Anna; Welna, Maja; Zyrnicki, Wieslaw

    2013-01-01

    Herbal teas (Mentha piperitae foliumand mixture Marticaria chamomilla flos with Lavandula officinalis flos) were compared considering the total contents of micro (Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, V) and macro (C, H, N, S, Ca, Mg, P) elements, bioavailability and fractionation. Different methods (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and CHNS elemental analysis) were applied. The microwave-assisted digestion procedure was found to be more effective than the hot-plate heating for the wet acid digestion of tea. The application of the modified BCR (Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction procedure exhibited differences in the concentrations of metal bound to reducible and oxidizable fractions. The accuracy of method was verified by analysis of certified reference material INCT-TL -1 Tea Leaves. The daily intake of all elements from the analyzed herbal tea infusion did not exceed the maximum permissible levels and does not constitute health risk. (author)

  7. Multi-element analysis, bioavailability and fractionation of herbal tea products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymczycha-Madeja, Anna; Welna, Maja; Zyrnicki, Wieslaw, E-mail: anna.szymczycha@pwr.wroc.pl [Wroclaw University of Technology, Chemistry Department, Analytical Chemistry Division, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2013-05-15

    Herbal teas (Mentha piperitae foliumand mixture Marticaria chamomilla flos with Lavandula officinalis flos) were compared considering the total contents of micro (Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, V) and macro (C, H, N, S, Ca, Mg, P) elements, bioavailability and fractionation. Different methods (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and CHNS elemental analysis) were applied. The microwave-assisted digestion procedure was found to be more effective than the hot-plate heating for the wet acid digestion of tea. The application of the modified BCR (Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction procedure exhibited differences in the concentrations of metal bound to reducible and oxidizable fractions. The accuracy of method was verified by analysis of certified reference material INCT-TL{sup -1} Tea Leaves. The daily intake of all elements from the analyzed herbal tea infusion did not exceed the maximum permissible levels and does not constitute health risk. (author)

  8. Tea, coffee and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andy H; Fraser, Michelle L; Binns, Colin W

    2009-02-01

    Worldwide, prostate cancer has the second highest incidence of all cancers in males with incidence and mortality being much higher in affluent developed countries. Risk and progression of the disease may be linked to both genetic and environmental factors, especially dietary factors. Tea and coffee are two of the most popular beverages in the world and have been investigated for possible effects on health outcomes, including cancer. However, very little dietary advice for their consumption exists. The evidence for a relationship between coffee or tea consumption and prostate cancer is reviewed in this paper. While current evidence indicates that coffee is a safe beverage, its consumption probably has no relationship with prostate cancer. Tea, especially green tea, has shown some potential in the prevention of prostate cancer. While evidence from epidemiologic studies is currently inconclusive, strong evidence has emerged from animal and in vitro studies. We also consider what level of evidence is required to make recommendations for preventive measures to the public. Although evidence on the relationship between coffee, tea and prostate cancer is not complete, we consider it strong enough to recommend tea as a healthier alternative to coffee.

  9. Effect of brewing time and temperature on antioxidant capacity and phenols of white tea: Relationship with sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Burillo, S; Giménez, R; Rufián-Henares, J A; Pastoriza, S

    2018-05-15

    White tea is highly consumed due to its sensory properties and health benefits, although most scientific reports don't include the analysis of both properties. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to unravel the best brewing conditions for optimal extraction of the bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity, while realising the best sensory properties. Infusions of eighty commercial teas (sold in bags or leaves) were obtained at different time-temperature ratios, studying bioactive compounds (caffeine and individual catechins), antioxidant capacity and sensory analysis. Brewing at 98 °C for 7 min was the best condition to obtain a high content of antioxidant polyphenols and pleasant sensory properties. Those teas sold in bags give rise to tea brews with almost double antioxidant capacity. In conclusion, it is very important to link sensory and chemical data to obtain optimal sensorial quality and the highest healthy properties in white tea infusions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of dietary exposure to flavouring substances via consumption of flavoured teas. Part II: transfer rates of linalool and linalyl esters into Earl Grey tea infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Anne-Marie; Poplacean, Iulia; Fastowski, Oxana; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of dietary exposure via the consumption of flavoured foods is a key element of the safety evaluation of flavouring substances. Linalyl acetate and linalool are the major flavouring substances in Earl Grey teas; the objective of this study was to determine their transfer rates from the tea leaves into the tea beverage upon preparation of a hot water infusion. Spiking experiments revealed a transfer rate of 66% for linalool. In contrast, the transfer rate for linalyl acetate was only 1.9%; in turn, the hydrolysis product linalool (17.0%) and a spectrum (19.9%) of degradation and rearrangement products (monoterpene alcohols, esters and hydrocarbons) were present in the tea beverage. The transfer rates were shown to be proportional to the length of the infusion. The impact of the hot water treatment on the enantiomeric compositions of linalyl acetate and linalool was determined, and structure-dependent experiments were performed by variation of the acyl and the alcohol moiety of the monoterpene ester. Comparative dietary exposure assessments demonstrated the need to take correction factors based on the experimentally determined transfer rates into account. Based on tea consumption data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2000/2001), the exposure to linalyl acetate ranges from 0.2 mg day(-1) (average) to 1.8 mg day(-1) (high). The corresponding values for linalool are 4.2 mg day(-1) (average) and 46.6 mg day(-1) (high). The exposure of linalool via consumption of the tea beverage is approximately 26 times higher than that of linalyl acetate, although in the flavoured tea leaves the median content of linalyl acetate is approximately 1.8 times higher than that of linalool.

  11. Green tea for the prevention of cancer: evidence of field epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tea is derived from the leaf of Camellia sinensis, a natural beverage widely consumed around the world. Geological and botanical evidence suggests that the tea plant originated from China. Varying methods of processing tea leaves lead to green tea, black tea, or Oolong tea, which differ in their concentrations of polyphenols. Green tea polyphenols appear to have anti-tumorigenic properties, and form 30-40% of the dry weight of green tea compared with only 3-10% of black tea. Numerous studies in multiple animal models and different cancer cell lines have demonstrated the anti-tumorigenesis by green tea polyphenols. Despite the consistency of laboratory results, evidence of this effect occuring in humans has been inconclusive to date.Objective: To investigate if green tea consumption was associated with longer survival rates in ovarian cancer patients, and a lower risk of ovarian, breast, and colorectal cancer, in addition toadult leukemiaMethods: We have conducted one prospective cohort study in ovarian cancer patients, and fivecase-control studies in ovarian, breast, and colorectal cancers, and leukemia over the past decade. Tea consumption was measured using a structured questionnaire by face-to-face interviews. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire was assessed in a preliminary study, and then evaluated by a test–retest. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to obtain hazard ratios(HRs, 95% confidence intervals(95% CIs, and were adjusted for age at diagnosis, locality, body mass index(BMI, parity, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics(IFGO stage, histologic grade of differentiation, cytology of ascites, residual tumour, and chemotherapeutic status. Odds ratios(ORs and 95% CIs were obtained using logistic regression analyses, which accounted for demographic, lifestyle, hormonal and family cancer factors, and potential confounders.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2

  12. Tea production characteristics of tea growers (plantations and smallholdings and livelihood dimensions of tea workers in Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloise M. Biggs

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article provides summary data regarding tea production in Assam, India. Questionnaires were completed by tea producers and focus group discussions undertaken with tea workers. These data are presented for the four main tea growing regions of the state (Cachar, North Bank, South Bank and Upper Assam. Tables detail tea production characteristics of the tea plantations for both large- (> 10 ha and small- (< 10 ha holders. Figures provide supplementary information for research by Biggs et al. [1] regarding fertilizer application, landscape management strategies, healthcare provisioning and educational facilities within plantations, as well as detailing the livelihood dimensions of tea workers. The questions posed to producers are also included. For further context underpinning the research for which these data were collated, see ‘The tea landscape of Assam: multi-stakeholder insights into sustainable livelihoods under a changing climate’ by Biggs et al. [1].

  13. CFD Analysis to Calculate the Optimal Air Velocity in Drying Green Tea Process Using Fluidized Bed Dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohana, Eflita; Nugraha, Afif Prasetya; Diana, Ade Eva; Mahawan, Ilham; Nugroho, Sri

    2018-02-01

    Tea processing is basically distinguished into three types which black tea, green tea, and oolong tea. Green tea is processed by heating and drying the leaves. Green tea factories in Indonesia are generally using the process of drying by panning the leaves. It is more recommended to use the fluidization process to speed up the drying process as the quality of the tea can be maintained. Bubbling fluidization is expected to occur in this research. It is a process of bubbles are formed in the fluidization. The effectiveness of the drying process in a fluidized bed dryer machine needs to be improved by using a CFD simulation method to proof that umf < u < ut, where the average velocity value is limited by the minimum and the maximum velocity of the calculation the experimental data. The minimum and the maximum velocity value of the fluidization is 0.96 m/s and 8.2 m/s. The result of the simulation obtained that the average velocity of the upper bed part is 1.81 m/s. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that the calculation and the simulation data is in accordance with the condition of bubbling fluidization in fluidized bed dryer.

  14. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of seven cultivars of guava (Psidium guajava) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Gema; Wu, Shi-Biao; Negrin, Adam; Kennelly, Edward J

    2015-03-01

    The antioxidant activity and identification of phenolic compounds of seven edible guava (Psidium guajava) cultivars that varied in colour from white to pink were examined. In the DPPH assay all four pink-pulp guavas (Barbie Pink, Homestead, Sardina 1, Sardina 2) included in the study showed higher activity than the white pulp cultivars (Yen 2 and Sayla) and less than the red pulp guava cultivar (Thai Maroon). In the ABTS(+) assay this trend was the same up to 20 min, but from 20 to 40 min Barbie Pink showed lower activity than the white guavas. Twenty-one compounds were characterised in the cultivars, and ten of them are reported for the first time in this fruit. Principle component analysis was performed to identify differences in chemistry among these cultivars. Our results suggest that the antioxidant activity and phytochemical composition of P. guajava vary significantly according to the cultivar and pulp colour. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Analysis of some metals in some brands of tea sold in Kano, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tea leaves can be a source of mineral components and trace elements as well as some undesirable substances due to exposure to the environment. In this study, Mg, Fe, Ca, Zn, Mn, Cu and Pb were analyzed by Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer (AAS), K and Na were also determined by flame photometer. Among the ...

  16. Ameliorative potential of Psidium guajava in induced arsenic toxicity in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Roy and Sushovan Roy

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to determine the effect of Psidium.guajava leaf extract on arsenic induced biochemical alterations in Wistar rats. Significant (P<0.05 increased glucose serum urea nitrogen and serum creatinine was observed whereas non significant decrease in total protein, calcium and phosphorus was observed. It is concluded that kidney damage caused by arsenic can be repaired up to some extent by AEPG50. [Veterinary World 2011; 4(2.000: 82-83

  17. Root based responses account for Psidium guajava survival at high nickel concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazihizina, Nadia; Redwan, Mirvat; Taiti, Cosimo; Giordano, Cristiana; Monetti, Emanuela; Masi, Elisa; Azzarello, Elisa; Mancuso, Stefano

    2015-02-01

    The presence of Psidium guajava in polluted environments has been reported in recent studies, suggesting that this species has a high tolerance to the metal stress. The present study aims at a physiological characterization of P. guajava response to high nickel (Ni) concentrations in the root-zone. Three hydroponic experiments were carried out to characterize the effects of toxic Ni concentrations on morphological and physiological parameters of P. guajava, focusing on Ni-induced damages at the root-level and root ion fluxes. With up to 300μM NiSO4 in the root-zone, plant growth was similar to that in control plants, whereas at concentrations higher than 1000μM NiSO4 there was a progressive decline in plant growth and leaf gas exchange parameters; this occurred despite, at all considered concentrations, plants limited Ni(2+) translocation to the shoot, therefore avoiding shoot Ni(2+) toxicity symptoms. Maintenance of plant growth with 300μM Ni(2+) was associated with the ability to retain K(+) in the roots meanwhile 1000 and 3000μM NiSO4 led to substantial K(+) losses. In this study, root responses mirror all plant performances suggesting a direct link between root functionality and Ni(2+) tolerance mechanisms and plant survival. Considering that Ni was mainly accumulated in the root system, the potential use of P. guajava for Ni(2+) phytoextraction in metal-polluted soils is limited; nevertheless, the observed physiological changes indicate a good Ni(2+) tolerance up to 300μM NiSO4 suggesting a potential role for the phytostabilization of polluted soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. The cytogenetic effects of black tea and green tea on cultured human lymphocytes

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    Halil Erhan Eroğlu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the cytogenetic effects of black tea and green tea were determined in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes. Results showed that black tea and green tea induced the mitotic and replication indexes and decreased micronuclei. But these data were not statistically significant for green tea. The effects of black tea on the micronucleus formation and mitotic index were statistically significant. The decrease in micronucleus counts indicated that black tea and green tea had considerable anticlastogenic and antigenotoxic effects as observed in vitro in human lymphocytes. Thus, it could be concluded that tea polyphenols protected the normal cells from genotoxic or carcinogenic agents, which indicated the therapeutic and antioxidative role of catechins, flavonoids or other tea compounds.

  19. Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) Seed Oil Extracted by Optimized Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuefei; Sun, Da; Chen, Hao; Qian, Lisheng; Xu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Seeds are another product in addition to leaves (raw materials for teas) of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) plant. The great increase of tea consumption in recent years raises the challenge of finding commercial applications for tea seeds. In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction edible oil from tea seed was carried out, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize processing parameters including time (20–90 min), temperature (35–45 °C) and pressure (50–90 MPa). The fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of the extracted oil was also investigated. The highest yield of oil (29.2 ± 0.6%) was obtained under optimal SC-CO2 extraction conditions (45 °C, 89.7 min and 32 MPa, respectively), which was significantly higher (p Soxhlet extraction. Meanwhile, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 contained approximately 80% unsaturated fatty acids and showed a much stronger scavenging ability on the DPPH radical than that extracted by Soxhlet. SC-CO2 is a promising alternative for efficient extraction of edible oil from tea seed. Moreover, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 is highly edible and has good antioxidant activity, and therefore may play a potential role as a health-promoting food resource in human diets. PMID:22174626

  20. Fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) seed oil extracted by optimized supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuefei; Sun, Da; Chen, Hao; Qian, Lisheng; Xu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Seeds are another product in addition to leaves (raw materials for teas) of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) plant. The great increase of tea consumption in recent years raises the challenge of finding commercial applications for tea seeds. In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) extraction edible oil from tea seed was carried out, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize processing parameters including time (20-90 min), temperature (35-45 °C) and pressure (50-90 MPa). The fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of the extracted oil was also investigated. The highest yield of oil (29.2 ± 0.6%) was obtained under optimal SC-CO(2) extraction conditions (45 °C, 89.7 min and 32 MPa, respectively), which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that (25.3 ± 1.0%) given by Soxhlet extraction. Meanwhile, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO(2) contained approximately 80% unsaturated fatty acids and showed a much stronger scavenging ability on the DPPH radical than that extracted by Soxhlet. SC-CO(2) is a promising alternative for efficient extraction of edible oil from tea seed. Moreover, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO(2) is highly edible and has good antioxidant activity, and therefore may play a potential role as a health-promoting food resource in human diets.

  1. Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Tea (Camellia sinensis L. Seed Oil Extracted by Optimized Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Xu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Seeds are another product in addition to leaves (raw materials for teas of tea (Camellia sinensis L. plant. The great increase of tea consumption in recent years raises the challenge of finding commercial applications for tea seeds. In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction edible oil from tea seed was carried out, response surface methodology (RSM was used to optimize processing parameters including time (20–90 min, temperature (35–45 °C and pressure (50–90 MPa. The fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of the extracted oil was also investigated. The highest yield of oil (29.2 ± 0.6% was obtained under optimal SC-CO2 extraction conditions (45 °C, 89.7 min and 32 MPa, respectively, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than that (25.3 ± 1.0% given by Soxhlet extraction. Meanwhile, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 contained approximately 80% unsaturated fatty acids and showed a much stronger scavenging ability on the DPPH radical than that extracted by Soxhlet. SC-CO2 is a promising alternative for efficient extraction of edible oil from tea seed. Moreover, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 is highly edible and has good antioxidant activity, and therefore may play a potential role as a health-promoting food resource in human diets.

  2. DETERMINATION OF MULTI ELEMENT LEVELS IN LEAVES AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    ICP-OES (Spectro Analytical Instruments, Kleve, Germany) was used for the determination of elements. ... Samples. In this study, 18 different herbal tea samples (leaves and flowers) that are traditionally used for medical ... analysis of CRM were all within the 95% reliability limit. The results ..... reasons for serious health risks.

  3. Pharmacovigilance: Tiens Slimming Tea Causes Increased Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... possible link between the constituents of the slimming tea and increased blood pressure and also provide evidence of other possible harmful effects that may occur with the use of the slimming tea. Keywords: Pharmacovigilance, hypertension, slimming tea. West African Journal of Pharmacology and Drug Research Vol.

  4. Chocolate as a source of tea flavonoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, I.C.W.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Kromhout, D.

    1999-01-01

    The antioxidant catechin content of chocolate is four times that of tea. Chocolate contributed 20% of the catechin intake in a representative sample of the Dutch population, and tea contributes 55%. Epidemiological assessments of health effects of tea should include other foods that are sources of

  5. Bewitched - The Tea Party Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashbee, Edward

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the development of the Tea Party movement, the character of its thinking and the nature of the interests and constituencies to which it is tied. The article suggests that despite the importance of ideas and interests, and the process of interaction between them, the movement....... The political friction that this creates has contributed to the anger that has characterised the movement. While the Tea Party movement may, as such, have only an ephemeral existence, independent conservatives are likely to remain a significant and potent constituency and will, within the institutional...

  6. Profitability and morphological characters of inter-cropping of different vegetables in tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, A.; Hamid, F.S.; Ahmad, N.; Khan, B.M.

    2007-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted at National Tea Research Institute, Shinkiari, Mansehra, during 2006-07 to find out the most productive and profitable tea-based intercropping system with different vegetable crops. The vegetables included were brinjal solanum melongena , chilies Capsicum annum, okra Ahle moselous, potato Solanum tuberosum, spinach Spinacia oleracea, garlic Allium sativum, onion Allium cepa, peas Pisum sativum and tomato Lycopersicon esculentum, as intercrop combination in newly planted tea. Intercropping of peas showed up poorest among all other treatments, in net income of Rs. 4,800.0, whereas intercrops significantly affected no. of branches, leaves, fresh and dry weight/plant of tea crop respectively. Considering the net return and total expenditure incurred on raising of intercrops, the highest net profit of Rs. 6,669.0/acre was obtained from potato, followed by garlic at Rs. 6,200.0. All treatments combination is more or less similar in net return, except T/sub 5/. Yield and yield-attributes in all treatments were significantly affected. Whereas branches and fresh weight remained significant among each other except sole tea crop. Agronomic data showed that the cropping days were also varies from 45 to 150 days in all treatments. Therefore it might be more economically viable than sole tea crop, upto complete bush formation. (author)

  7. Flavonoids, total phenolics and antioxidant capacity: comparison between commercial green tea preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Harumi Kodama

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The potential health benefits attributed to green tea and its catechins such as antioxidant effects, cancer chemoprevention, and weight loss have led to a huge increase of green tea products in the food market. The objectives of this work were to analyze and compare these products in terms of phenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant capacity including tea bags, dehydrated leaves, and ready-to-drink preparations after standardization of the infusion preparation procedure. Total phenolics content in 1 cup of the different teas varied from 90 to 341 mg of catechin equivalents, and the highest and the lowest values were both those of the ready-to-drink products. Infusions prepared from tea bags had contents varying from 96 to 201 mg.200 mL-1, and there were no significant differences among batches. The DPPH radical scavenging and the Oxygen Radical Absorbing Capacities (ORAC varied largely among the different tea preparations, from 23 to 131 mmoles of Trolox Equivalents (TE.200 mL-1 (DPPH, and from 1.2 to 5.1 mmoles of TE.200 mL-1 (ORAC, but again there were no differences among infusions or ready-to-drink commercial preparations. However, the antioxidant capacity of ready-to-drink products was partially due to the presence of other non-phenolic compounds such as ascorbic acid

  8. Recent Scientific Studies of a Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tea, on Prevention of Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung S. Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Green tea (綠茶 Lǜ Chá, made from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis, has traditionally been used as a medicine in China for thousands of years. According to the classical work of Li Shizhen (李時珍 Lǐ Shí Zhēn of the Ming Dynasty, “tea is cold and lowers the fire.” Since fire (inflammation causes many diseases, could tea be effective in the prevention of many diseases? The possible prevention of chronic diseases such as cancer, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases has been studied with contemporary scientific methods, and the results are promising. The molecular mechanisms underlining these observations will be discussed in this presentation. One of the reasons for the failure to demonstrate a disease-preventive effect of tea in some epidemiological studies is the lower quantities of tea consumption in humans. Can we increase the quantity of tea consumption to harness its health benefits without causing gastrointestinal irritation? This is a topic for further research.

  9. Probable Gastrointestinal Toxicity of Kombucha Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Radhika; Smolinske, Susan; Greenbaum, David

    1997-01-01

    Kombucha tea is a health beverage made by incubating the Kombucha “mushroom” in tea and sugar. Although therapeutic benefits have been attributed to the drink, neither its beneficial effects nor adverse side effects have been reported widely in the scientific literature. Side effects probably related to consumption of Kombucha tea are reported in four patients. Two presented with symptoms of allergic reaction, the third with jaundice, and the fourth with nausea, vomiting, and head and neck pain. In all four, use of Kombucha tea in proximity to onset of symptoms and symptom resolution on cessation of tea drinking suggest a probable etiologic association. PMID:9346462

  10. HPLC Fingerprinting of Sennosides in Laxative Drugs with Isolation of Standard Substances from Some Senna Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Omur Demirezer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Senna leaves are one of the oldest medicinal herbs and they are used as laxative. Herbal teas which contain senna leaves are most commonly used to promote weight loss. The quality control of slimming teas which contain Senna leaves and also pharmaceutical preparations including Senna extract enriched by sennoside B was achieved by HPLC fingerprinting method. While the presence of sennoside A and B in laxative drugs was proved, it was seen to be devoid of sennosides in slimming teas. Kaempferol 3-O-β-D-gentiobioside (1, aloe-emodine 8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2, rhein 8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3, torachrysone 8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4, isorhamnetine 3-O-β-D-gentiobioside (5 were also isolated from Senna leaves.

  11. Phenolic compounds of green tea: Health benefits and technological application in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Lorenzo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Green tea has been an important beverage for humans since ancient times, widely consumed and considered to have health benefits by traditional medicine in Asian countries. Green tea phenolic compounds are predominately composed of catechin derivatives, although other compounds such as flavonols and phenolic acids are also present in lower proportion. The bioactivity exerted by these compounds has been associated with reduced risk of severe illnesses such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Particularly, epigallocatechin gallate has been implicated in alteration mechanisms with protective effect in these diseases as indicated by several studies about the effect of green tea consumption and mechanistic explanation through in vitro and in vivo experiments. The biological activity of green tea phenolic compounds also promotes a protective effect by antioxidant mechanisms in biological and food systems, preventing the oxidative damage by acting over either precursors or reactive species. Extraction of phenolic compounds influences the antioxidant activity and promotes adequate separation from green tea leaves to enhance the yield and/or antioxidant activity. Application of green tea phenolic compounds is of great interest because the antioxidant status of the products is enhanced and provides the product with additional antioxidant activity or reduces the undesirable changes of oxidative reactions while processing or storing food. In this scenario, meat and meat products are greatly influenced by oxidative deterioration and microbial spoilage, leading to reduced shelf life. Green tea extracts rich in phenolic compounds have been applied to increase shelf life with comparable effect to synthetic compounds, commonly used by food industry. Green tea has great importance in general health in technological application, however more studies are necessary to elucidate the impact in pathways related to other diseases and food

  12. A case of Kombucha tea toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SungHee Kole, Alison; Jones, Heather D; Christensen, Russell; Gladstein, Jay

    2009-01-01

    Kombucha "mushroom'' tea is touted to have medicinal properties. Here, we present a case of hyperthermia, lactic acidosis, and acute renal failure within 15 hours of Kombucha tea ingestion. A 22 year old male, newly diagnosed with HIV, became short of breath and febrile to 103.0F, within twelve hours of Kombucha tea ingestion. He subsequently became combative and confused, requiring sedation and intubation for airway control. Laboratories revealed a lactate of 12.9 mmol/L, and serum creatinine of 2.1 mg/dL. Kombucha tea is black tea fermented in a yeast-bacteria medium. Several case reports exist of serious, and sometimes fatal, hepatic dysfunction and lactic acidosis within close proximity to ingestion. While Kombucha tea is considered a healthy elixir, the limited evidence currently available raises considerable concern that it may pose serious health risks. Consumption of this tea should be discouraged, as it may be associated with life-threatening lactic acidosis.

  13. Green Tea and Other Tea Polyphenols: Effects on Sebum Production and Acne Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Saric

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are antioxidant molecules found in many foods including nuts, fruits, vegetables, chocolate, wine, and tea. Polyphenols have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic properties. Recent studies suggest that tea polyphenols may be used for reducing sebum production in the skin and for treatment of acne vulgaris. This review examines the evidence for use of topically and orally ingested tea polyphenols against sebum production and for acne treatment and prevention. The PubMed database was searched for studies on tea polyphenols, sebum secretion, and acne vulgaris. Of the 59 studies found, eight met the inclusion criteria. Two studies evaluated tea polyphenol effects on sebum production; six studies examined tea polyphenol effects on acne vulgaris. Seven studies evaluated topical tea polyphenols; one study examined systemic tea polyphenols. None of the studies evaluated both topical and systemic tea polyphenols. Tea polyphenol sources included green tea (six studies and tea, type not specified (two studies. Overall, there is some evidence that tea polyphenols in topical formulation may be beneficial in reducing sebum secretion and in treatment of acne. Research studies of high quality and with large sample sizes are needed to assess the efficacy of tea polyphenols in topical and oral prevention of acne vulgaris and lipid synthesis by the sebaceous glands.

  14. Pharmacodynamic Study of Interaction of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Psidium Guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) with Receptor Systems Using Isolated Tissue Preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaseth, R K; Kumar, S; Dutta, Shagun; Sehgal, Ratika; Rajora, Preety; Mathur, Rajani

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the interaction of aqueous leaf extract of Psidium guajava with muscarinic, serotonergic and adrenergic receptor system using isolated rat ileum, gastric fundus and trachea, respectively. The concentration-dependent contractile response of aqueous leaf extract of Psidium guajava was parallel and rightward of standard agonists, ACh and 5-HT indicating agonistic activity on muscarinic and serotonergic receptor systems. The inhibition of aqueous leaf extract of Psidium guajava mediated contractions in presence of atropine (10(-7) M) and ketanserin (10(-6) M) confirmed the activity. Relaxant effect of PG (0.2 mg/ml) on carbachol induced pre-contracted rat tracheal chain indicated its agonistic action on adrenergic receptor system. Inhibition (P<0.05) of the action in the presence of propranolol (1 ng/ml) confirmed the activity. It may be concluded that PG possesses agonistic action on muscarinic, serotonergic and adrenergic receptor systems.

  15. A Bio-Inspired Herbal Tea Flavour Assessment Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Zawatil Isqi Zakaria

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Herbal-based products are becoming a widespread production trend among manufacturers for the domestic and international markets. As the production increases to meet the market demand, it is very crucial for the manufacturer to ensure that their products have met specific criteria and fulfil the intended quality determined by the quality controller. One famous herbal-based product is herbal tea. This paper investigates bio-inspired flavour assessments in a data fusion framework involving an e-nose and e-tongue. The objectives are to attain good classification of different types and brands of herbal tea, classification of different flavour masking effects and finally classification of different concentrations of herbal tea. Two data fusion levels were employed in this research, low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. Four classification approaches; LDA, SVM, KNN and PNN were examined in search of the best classifier to achieve the research objectives. In order to evaluate the classifiers’ performance, an error estimator based on k-fold cross validation and leave-one-out were applied. Classification based on GC-MS TIC data was also included as a comparison to the classification performance using fusion approaches. Generally, KNN outperformed the other classification techniques for the three flavour assessments in the low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. However, the classification results based on GC-MS TIC data are varied.

  16. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phyu Phyu Khine Zar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fresh loquat leaves contain several kinds of flavonoids and have been reported to have preventive effects against some human diseases such as diabetes, coughs and ulcers,. Recently, fresh loquat leaves in Japan were processed to a beverage, called loquat tea, after the fresh leaves are roasted at 350C for 30 minutes. However, the scientific evidence supporting the functions of these processed leaves is still minimal. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of roasted loquat tea extract (LTE in vitro and in culture cells. Methods: Bioactive fractions of LTE were separated by column chromatograph. Antioxidant activities were determined by DPPH and ROS assay. Pro-inflammatory mediators cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 were determined by Western blot and ELISA assay, respectively. Chemical quantification and characterization were analyzed by HPLC, FR-IR, and NMR. Phenolic content was measured by Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Results: The results showed that loquat tea extract (LTE possessed stronger DPPH scavenging activity than fresh. Cellular data revealed that LTE inhibited the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, and further suppressed the production of COX-2 and PGE2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells. Chemical quantification and characterization data indicated that LTE contained new bioactive phenolic components that were produced from the roasting processes of fresh loquat leaves. Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2013; 3(11:447-461 Page 448 of 461 Conclusions: Loquat tea made from roasted loquat leaves contained new bioactive phenolic compounds that contribute to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities

  17. Metabolite Profiling of 14 Wuyi Rock Tea Cultivars Using UPLC-QTOF MS and UPLC-QqQ MS Combined with Chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wuyi Rock tea, well-recognized for rich flavor and long-lasting fragrance, is a premium subcategory of oolong tea mainly produced in Wuyi Mountain and nearby regions of China. The quality of tea is mainly determined by the chemical constituents in the tea leaves. However, this remains underexplored for Wuyi Rock tea cultivars. In this study, we investigated the leaf metabolite profiles of 14 major Wuyi Rock tea cultivars grown in the same producing region using UPLC-QTOF MS and UPLC-QqQ MS with data processing via principal component analysis and cluster analysis. Relative quantitation of 49 major metabolites including flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins, flavonol glycosides, flavone glycosides, flavonone glycosides, phenolic acid derivatives, hydrolysable tannins, alkaloids and amino acids revealed clear variations between tea cultivars. In particular, catechins, kaempferol and quercetin derivatives were key metabolites responsible for cultivar discrimination. Information on the varietal differences in the levels of bioactive/functional metabolites, such as methylated catechins, flavonol glycosides and theanine, offers valuable insights to further explore the nutritional values and sensory qualities of Wuyi Rock tea. It also provides potential markers for tea plant fingerprinting and cultivar identification.

  18. Utility and Value of Satellite-Based Frost Forecasting for Kenya's Tea Farming Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, I.

    2016-12-01

    Frost damage regularly inflicts millions of dollars of crop losses in the tea-growing highlands of western Kenya, a problem that the USAID/NASA Regional Visualization and Monitoring System (SERVIR) program is working to mitigate through a frost monitoring and forecasting product that uses satellite-based temperature and soil moisture data to generate up to three days of advanced warning before frost events. This paper presents the findings of a value of information (VOI) study assessing the value of this product based on Kenyan tea farmers' experiences with frost and frost-damage mitigation. Value was calculated based on historic trends of frost frequency, severity, and extent; likelihood of warning receipt and response; and subsequent frost-related crop-loss aversion. Quantification of these factors was derived through inferential analysis of survey data from 400 tea-farming households across the tea-growing regions of Kericho and Nandi, supplemented with key informant interviews with decision-makers at large estate tea plantations, historical frost incident and crop-loss data from estate tea plantations and agricultural insurance companies, and publicly available demographic and economic data. At this time, the product provides a forecasting window of up to three days, and no other frost-prediction methods are used by the large or small-scale farmers of Kenya's tea sector. This represents a significant opportunity for preemptive loss-reduction via Earth observation data. However, the tea-growing community has only two realistic options for frost-damage mitigation: preemptive harvest of available tea leaves to minimize losses, or skiving (light pruning) to facilitate fast recovery from frost damage. Both options are labor-intensive and require a minimum of three days of warning to be viable. As a result, the frost forecasting system has a very narrow margin of usefulness, making its value highly dependent on rapid access to the warning messages and flexible access

  19. Protective effects of rooibos ( Aspalathus linearis ), green tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compares the modulation of oxidative stress by an indigenous herbal tea, rooibos, Chinese green tea and commercial rooibos and green tea supplements in rat testicular tissue. Male Wistar rats (n = 60) were fed with either fermented rooibos, “green” rooibos, Chinese green tea, commercial rooibos or green tea ...

  20. Preservation of kombucha tea-effect of temperature on tea components and free radical scavenging properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabalan, Rasu; Marimuthu, Subbaiya; Thangaraj, Periyasamy; Sathishkumar, Muthuswamy; Binupriya, Arthur Raj; Swaminathan, Krishnaswami; Yun, Sei Eok

    2008-10-08

    Kombucha tea is sugared black tea fermented with a consortium of acetic acid bacteria and yeasts (tea fungus) for 14 days. The tea tastes slightly sweet and acidic. The formation of tea fungal biofilms during storage is a big problem when kombucha tea is being stored and commercialized. Various thermal treatments have been tried for long-term storage of kombucha tea. The present study revealed the influence of heat on the biochemical constituents and the free radical scavenging properties of kombucha tea. Heat treatment at 60, 65, and 68 degrees C for 1 min controlled biofilm formation in kombucha tea without changing its clarity, taste, and flavor. However, tea polyphenols and black tea quality parameters showed varying stability during the storage period. A decrease in free radical scavenging properties was also found during the storage period. Because the biological activities of kombucha tea depended on the biochemical constituents, it was concluded that heat treatment was not a suitable method for kombucha tea preservation.

  1. Reduced Stress and Improved Sleep Quality Caused by Green Tea Are Associated with a Reduced Caffeine Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Unno

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine, one of the main components in green tea, can interfere with sleep and block the effect of theanine. Since theanine, the main amino acid in tea leaves, has significant anti-stress effects in animals and humans, we examined the effects of green tea with lowered caffeine content, i.e., low-caffeine green tea (LCGT, on stress and quality of sleep of middle–aged individuals (n = 20, mean age 51.3 ± 6.7 years in a double-blind crossover design. Standard green tea (SGT was used as the control. These teas (≥300 mL/day, which were eluted with room temperature water, were consumed over a period of seven days after a single washout term. The level of salivary α-amylase activity (sAA, a stress marker, was significantly lower in participants that consumed LCGT (64.7 U/mL than in those that consumed SGT (73.9 U/mL. Sleep quality was higher in participants that consumed a larger quantity of LCGT. In addition, a self-diagnostic check for accumulated fatigue was significantly lower in those participants that consumed LCGT than SGT. These results indicate that LCGT intake can reduce stress in middle-aged individuals and improve their quality of sleep. The reduction in caffeine is suggested to be a valid reason for enhancing the anti-stress effect of green tea.

  2. Reduced Stress and Improved Sleep Quality Caused by Green Tea Are Associated with a Reduced Caffeine Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, Keiko; Noda, Shigenori; Kawasaki, Yohei; Yamada, Hiroshi; Morita, Akio; Iguchi, Kazuaki; Nakamura, Yoriyuki

    2017-07-19

    Caffeine, one of the main components in green tea, can interfere with sleep and block the effect of theanine. Since theanine, the main amino acid in tea leaves, has significant anti-stress effects in animals and humans, we examined the effects of green tea with lowered caffeine content, i.e., low-caffeine green tea (LCGT), on stress and quality of sleep of middle-aged individuals ( n = 20, mean age 51.3 ± 6.7 years) in a double-blind crossover design. Standard green tea (SGT) was used as the control. These teas (≥300 mL/day), which were eluted with room temperature water, were consumed over a period of seven days after a single washout term. The level of salivary α-amylase activity (sAA), a stress marker, was significantly lower in participants that consumed LCGT (64.7 U/mL) than in those that consumed SGT (73.9 U/mL). Sleep quality was higher in participants that consumed a larger quantity of LCGT. In addition, a self-diagnostic check for accumulated fatigue was significantly lower in those participants that consumed LCGT than SGT. These results indicate that LCGT intake can reduce stress in middle-aged individuals and improve their quality of sleep. The reduction in caffeine is suggested to be a valid reason for enhancing the anti-stress effect of green tea.

  3. New Sample Preparation Method for Quantification of Phenolic Compounds of Tea (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze: A Polyphenol Rich Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Nimal Punyasiri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical analysis of the Sri Lankan tea (Camellia sinensis, L. germplasm would immensely contribute to the success of the tea breeding programme. However, the polyphenols, particularly catechins (flavan-3-ols, are readily prone to oxidation in the conventional method of sample preparation. Therefore, optimization of the present sample preparation methodology for the profiling of metabolites is much important. Two sample preparation methodologies were compared, fresh leaves (as in the conventional procedures and freeze-dried leaves (a new procedure, for quantification of major metabolites by employing two cultivars, one is known to be high quality black tea and the other low quality black tea. The amounts of major metabolites such as catechins, caffeine, gallic acid, and theobromine, recorded in the new sampling procedure via freeze-dried leaves, were significantly higher than those recorded in the conventional sample preparation procedure. Additionally new method required less amount of leaf sample for analysis of major metabolites and facilitates storage of samples until analysis. The freeze-dried method would be useful for high throughput analysis of large number of samples in shorter period without chemical deterioration starting from the point of harvest until usage. Hence, this method is more suitable for metabolite profiling of tea as well as other phenol rich plants.

  4. The correlation of the radiocaesium concentration of new shoots harvested in 2012 and old leaves, and new shoots harvested in 2011 grown in Kanagawa prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraki, Yoshiya; Takeda, Hajime; Okamoto, Tamotsu; Kita, Nobuhiro

    2013-01-01

    We conducted this study to analyze the correlation between 137 Cs concentration of new shoots harvested in the first crop of tea in 2012, and new shoots harvested in the shuto-bancha in 2011 and old leaves harvested at the same time respectively. In the first crop of tea in 2012, the 137 Cs concentration of new shoots was related to that of old leaves, and the correlation of the coefficient was 0.663(p 137 Cs concentration(new shoots/old leaves) was related to the days until harvest of the first crop of tea in 2012, and the correlation coefficient was -0.771(p 137 Cs concentration was derived from the dilution effect due to growth and development of tea plants. Regression analysis was performed to forecast the 137 Cs concentration of the new shoots in the first crop of tea. The 137 Cs concentration of new shoots in the harvested first crop of tea(Y) was related to the 137 Cs concentration of old leaves harvested the previous winter(X). The correlation of the coefficient was 0.783(p 137 Cs concentration of new shoots of the first crop of tea in 2012 decreased about 1/6 to 1/25 compared with that of new shoots of the first crop of tea in 2011. (author)

  5. Study the influence factors to the adsorption process for separation of polyphenols from green tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Lan Huong; Tran, Trung Kien; Van Quyet, Chu; Phi, Nguyen Thien

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this work is applying adsorption process for separation of polyphenols from extract solution of green tea by-product. The older leaves and stem of green tea tree are collected from Hiep Khanh Tea Company (Hoabinh province, Vietnam). In this study, two kinds of adsorbent (silicagel, active carbon) were applied for the adsorption process in batch stirring vessel. The factors that affected to the process productivity were investigated: temperature, solid/liquid ratio, duration time, stirring speed. The process has been empirically described with statistical models obtained by Design of Experiments. The results indicated that active carbon was verified to offer good adsorption productivity (more than 95%), much more effective than silicagel (with only about 20%). From the model, the most affected factor to the process could be seen as solid/liquid ratio.

  6. Efecto antimicrobiano de Psidium guajava L. contra Salmonella typhymurium en Cavia porcellus L.

    OpenAIRE

    Pineda Castillo, Carlos Alberto

    2013-01-01

    La explotación de cobayos es una actividad económica muy difundida en la zona andina del Perú, la cual tiene que sortear una serie de dificultades, siendo la mas importante de todas la salmonelosis. En consecuencia, para remediar dicho problema, sin incrementar los costes de producción, se opto por emplear la medicina alternativa con recursos propios de la zona. Es así, que se probó la actividad antimicrobiana del extracto etanólico de hojas de guayaba (Psidium guajava L.) contra Salmonella e...

  7. Antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Persea Americana, an invitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Amith; Kumarachandra, Reshma; Rai, Rajalakshmi; Rao, Satish; Suchetha Kumari; Joshi, Manjunath

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation produce deleterious effects in the living organisms. Rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. Several plants have been screened for their radio protective ability and the hunt for identifying many more safe, nontoxic and effective ones is in progress. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity in hydro alcoholic leaf extract of Psidium guajava (guava) and Persea americana (avocado). The antioxidant assay such as 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) free radical scavenging assay, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay, chelation of iron by plant extract, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), and total antioxidant activity of extract was analyzed using spectrophotometer. Phytochemical screening and HPLC analysis of leaf extracts were also performed. The results indicated that the IC50 value of hydro alcoholic leaf extract of P.guajava and P. americana were 14 μg/ml and 15 μg/ml in ABTS free radical scavenging assay, 4 μg/ml and 2.5 μg/ml in DPPH free radical scavenging assay, 7.2 μg/ml and 8.4 μg/ml in chelation of iron by plant extract, 2 μg/ml and, 4.3 μg/ml in hydroxyl radical scavenging assay and effective concentration(EC50) was 57.80 μg/ml and 87.56 μg/ml in FRAP assay respectively. The results for total antioxidant activity indicated that 242.3 μg/ml of P.guajava and 432.7 μg/ml of P.americana extract was equivalent to 100 μg/ml of standard qurecetin respectively. Qualitative analysis of hydroalcoholic leaf extracts revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponions, terpenoids, and glycosides. HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of flavonoids qurecetin and rutin in leaf extracts on comparison with standard compounds. Our study showed that hydro alcoholic leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Persea americana act as strong antioxidant and free

  8. The Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling W

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Walter Ling,1 David Farabee,1 Dagmar Liepa,2 Li-Tzy Wu3 1Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 2Valley Care Medical Center, Panorama City, CA, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA We have been surprised and gratified by the readers’ responses to our article, The Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA: an efficient, patient-centered instrument for evaluating progress in recovery from addiction, which was published in December 2012.1 In the six months since that time, we have received numerous questions and observations about the article, and about the TEA instrument. Respondents were clinicians: physicians, counselors, therapists, nurses; as well as administrators and policy makers.  View original paper by Ling W, Farabee D, Liepa D, Wu LT. 

  9. Health Benefits of Theanine in Green Tea: A Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Zhejiang University Tea Research Institute, Hangzhou 310058, 2Guizhou Tea and Tea Products Quality Supervision and. Inspection ... The bioactive functions of theanine as well as its .... the concentrations of dopamine (DA) and hepatic.

  10. Elemental analysis of essential and toxic content in tea and its infusion used by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Th-Rina Mulyaningsih

    2011-01-01

    Concentration of metal elements K, Ca, Mn, Mg, Fe, Na, Zn, Rb, Br, Cr, Cs, La,Sc and Co from 14 samples of green and black tea with aroma of jasmine, vanilla, roselle flower and tea infusion have been determined by means of neutron activation analysis. The Samples were chosen from the domestic product and were collected from Supermarket in Serpong region. Neutron irradiation of the samples was carried out in the Irradiation Facility of the RSG-GAS reactor at thermal neutron flux in the order of 1,013ncm -2 s -1 .The working procedures follow the Standard Operating Procedures of FNCA. As of the quality control the reference material of SRM-NIST 1573a Tomato leaves and NIST 1,547 Peach leaves have been applied. The analysis results show that concentration of the elements variate depending on the sort of tea.Concentration of Ca, K, Mg dan Mn have a rather high value namely >100 mg/kg. Concentration of Ca and K have values in a range of 1,135.36 - 9,123.21 and 1,064.41-2,473.12 mg/kg as well as Mg of 2,725.6 - 5,528.5; and Mn of 95.38 - 815.48 mg/kg.Concentration of Na, Fe, Co, La, Cr, Br, Sc, Cs, Rb and Zn <100 mg/kg. Most elements in these tea were released into the infusions at different percentages in a range of 27.89 - 68.94% depending on the sort of the tea. There were not detected toxic elements Hg, Cd and As except Cr with low concentration. Therefore tea drinks are adequately good enough as essential elements source and content no toxic elements. (author)

  11. Xerophilic mycopopulations of teas in bulk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škrinjar Marija M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available d.o.o., Novi Sad AU Krunić Vesna J. AF EKOLd.o.o., Novi Sad KW teas % mould contamination % thermal treatment KR nema Other the water, tea is the most popular beverage in the world today. They are used for ages, in the beginning as refreshing drinks, and later more for their healing properties. Teas have been demonstrated to show antioxidative, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-microbial properties. Considering that the teas, during the production, are not treated with any temperature, there is high risk for contamination with different type of microorganisms, especially with moulds. Moulds are ubiquitously distributed in nature and their spores can be found in the atmosphere even at high altitudes and under favorable conditions of temperature and humidity, moulds grow on many commodities including cereals, oil seeds, nuts, herbs and spices. Most of them are potential producers of mycotoxins which present a real hazard to human health. The aim of this work was to investigate total mould count and to identify moulds isolated from teas in bulk, than from teas treated with hot, sterile, distilled water and from the tea filtrates. Tested teas were peppermint, sage, yarrow, black tea, bearberry, lemon balm, mixture of teas from Zlatibor. In teas in balk was observed high contamination with different kinds of moulds (1.84-4.55 cfu/g, such as Aspergillus awamori, A. lovaniensis, A niger, A. phoenicus, A. repens, A. restrictus, A. sydowii, A. versicolor, Eurotium amstelodami, E. chevalieri, E. herbariorum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. The most frequent were species from Aspergillus and Eurotium genera. Thermal treatment with hot, sterile, distilled water reduced the number of fungal colonies. Aspergillus awamori was the most resistant and appeared in six samples of filtrates of tea, Aspergillus niger in one sample and Penicillium chrysogenum in one sample.

  12. Analyzing organic tea certification and traceability system within the Taiwanese tea industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mao-Chang; Yang, Chin-Ying

    2015-04-01

    We applied game theory to the organic tea certification process and traceability system used by the Taiwanese tea industry to elucidate the strategic choices made by tea farmers and organic tea certification agencies. Thus, this paper clarifies how relevant variables affect the organic certification process and traceability system used within the tea industry. The findings indicate that farmers who generate high revenues experience failures regarding tea deliveries, cash outflow, damage compensation, and quasi-rent. An additional problem included the high costs yielded when tea farmers colluded with or switched organic tea certification agencies. Furthermore, there could be decreasing levels of personal interest in planting non-organic tea and lowering the costs of planting organic tea and the managerial accounting costs of building comprehensive traceability systems; thus, the analysis yielded strong results and a superior equilibrium. This research is unprecedented, using an innovative model and providing a novel analysis structure for use in the tea industry. These results contribute to the field of literature and should serve as a valuable reference for members of the tea industry, government, and academia. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Green tea phytocompounds as anticancer: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeeb Ullah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Green tea is universally considered significant and its benefits have been experimentally explored by researchers and scientists. Anticancer potential of green tea has been completely recognized now. Green tea contains anti-cancerous constituents and nutrients that have powerful remedial effects. By using electronic data base (1998–2015, different compounds in green tea possessing anticancer activity including epigallocatechin-3-gallate, paclitaxel and docetaxel combinations, ascorbic acid, catechins, lysine, synergistic arginine, green tea extract, proline, and green tea polyphenols has been reported. Green tea extracts exhibited remedial potential against cancer of lung, colon, liver, stomach, leukemic cells, prostate, breast, human cervical cells, head, and neck. For centuries, green tea has been utilized as medicine for therapeutic purposes. It originated in China and extensively used in Asian countries for blood pressure depression and as anticancer medicine. Green tea has therapeutic potential against many diseases such as lowering of blood pressure, Parkinson’s disease, weight loss, esophageal disease, skin-care, cholesterol, Alzheimer’s disease and diabetes.

  14. COMPETITIVENESS OF INDONESIAN TEA IN INTERNATIONAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jauhar Samudera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2000, Indonesian tea has experienced a lot of problems such as land use change of plantation, lower selling prices, and low productivity. The objectives of this study are to analyze the competitiveness of tea in Indonesia and formulate priority improvements that can support the increasing competitiveness of Indonesian tea. The methods used to analyze the competitiveness were the Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA and the Export Product Dynamics (EPD, and to formulate strategies to increase competitiveness, Importance Performance Analysis (IPA was applied. Based on RCA, the types of Indonesian tea which have strong competitiveness are HS 090 210 and HS 090240. The EPD analysis showed that only tea of HS 090210 is in the rising star position, while the HS 090220, HS 090230 and HS090240 tea types are on the retreat position. Based on IPA, sub-determinants which are priority to improve are in quadrant A (under act consisting of five sub-factors, namely the availability of human resources with the capbility of production management, marketing and possess an entrepreneurial spirit; availability and ease of access to capital; strengthening of the structure of Indonesian tea agribusiness; the government policies in improving domestic demand conditions and in encouraging the development of tea processing industry.Keywords: competitiveness, tea, RCA, EPD, IPA

  15. Sensitivity of microorganisms distributed through Japanese tea manufacturing process by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, M.; Kimura, S.; Sugimoto, Y.; Jo, N.; Nosaka, K.; Iwasaki, I.; Nishimoto, S.

    2002-01-01

    The number of bacteria adhering to Japanese tea is 10E7-10E8 cfu/g in picked fresh tea leaves (almost radiation irresistance), decreasing every heat-treatment in manufacturing process to 10E3-10E4 cfu/g in tea on the market (only radiation resistance). Still more, its decreasing one figures after half a year by effect of anti-bacterium component contained Japanese tea. The number of fungi adhering to almost samples is below 50cfu/g, but that adhering to some powdered tea is 10E2 cfu/g. At heat treatment (80degC, 15min), the number of bacteria decrease very little. The other side, by EB-irradiated treatment (2kGy), its below 10E2 cfu/g (D sub(10-)value; 1.4 ~ 3.8kGy). The needed dose to decrease 10E2 cfu/g is 0.9 ~ 2.5kGy

  16. Quantitative Analysis of Major Constituents in Green Tea with Different Plucking Periods and Their Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Sook Lee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the plucking periods and the major constituents and the antioxidant activity in green tea. Green tea was prepared from leaves plucked from the end of April 2013 to the end of May 2013 at intervals of one week or longer. The contents of theanine, theobromine, caffeine, catechin (C, and gallocatechin gallate (GCg were significantly decreased, whereas those of epicatechin (EC, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg and epigallocatechin (EGC were significantly increased along with the period of tea leaf plucking. In addition, antioxidant activity of green tea and standard catechins was investigated using ABTS, FRAP and DPPH assays. The highest antioxidant activity was observed in relatively the oldest leaf, regardless of the assay methods used. Additionally, the order of antioxidant activity of standard catechins was as follows: EGCg ³ GCg ³ ECg > EGC ³ GC ³ EC ³ C. Moreover, the cis-catechins contents were the key factor affecting the antioxidant activity of green tea in all assays employed (ABTS, r = 0.731, p < 0.01; FRAP, r = 0.886, p < 0.01; DPPH, r = 0.778, p < 0.01.

  17. Effect of shading intensity on morphological and color traits, and chemical components of new tea (Camellia sinensis L.) shoots under direct covering cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Tomohito; Horie, Hideki; Matsunaga, Akiko; Hirono, Yuhei

    2018-05-02

    Use of covering cultivation to shade tea (Camellia sinensis L.) trees to produce high-quality, high-priced green tea has recently increased in Japan. Knowledge of shading effects on morphological and color traits, and chemical components of new tea shoots is important for product quality and productivity. We assessed these traits of tea shoots and their relationships under covering cultivation of various radiation intensities. Leaf thickness, LMA (leaf mass per area), and leaf density of new tea leaves were smaller under covering culture than under open-field culture. SPAD values and chlorophyll contents were larger under covering culture than under open culture. The derived exponential equation for estimating chlorophyll contents from SPAD values was improved by considering leaf thickness. Covering culture decreased EC (epicatechin) and EGC (epigallocatechin) contents, and increased theanine and caffeine contents. Principal component analysis on shoot and leaf traits indicated that LMA, and chlorophyll, EC, and EGC contents were strongly associated with shading effects. Morphological and color traits, and chemical components of new tea shoots and leaves varied depending on radiation intensity, shoot growth, and cropping season. These findings are useful for covering cultivation with high quality and high productivity in tea gardens. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Gamma ray irradiation to roots of tea-plants and induced mutant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Yoshiyuki; Nekaku, Koji; Wada, Mitsumasa

    1990-01-01

    In order to utilize the useful mutation which is induced by irradiation for the breeding of tea-plants, the gamma-ray irradiation to the roots of tea-plants was carried out. The samples were the roots of tea-plants of four varieties dug up in February, 1984, and were adjusted to about 20 cm, then, put in the cold storage at 5degC for 9 months till the time of irradiation in November, 1984. However, a part of them was taken out in August, and planted in a field for 76 days to germinate, thereafter, used as the samples. The gamma-ray from a Co-60 source was irradiated in the radiation breeding laboratory of Agriculture Bioresources Research Institute at the total dose of 1, 2 and 3 kR and the dose rate of 500 R/h. The irradiated roots were planted as they are or in the state of being cut, and the rate of germination, the number of buds and the induced mutation were examined. Clear difference was not observed in the rate of germination and the number of buds between the irradiated samples and those without irradiation. The long roots were superior to the short roots regarding these items. The types of the induced mutation were mostly thin leaves, and also yellowing, mottling, fascination and so on occurred. The mutant system lacking trichomes on the back of new leaves is considered to be strong against tea anthracnose, and is valuable. (K.I.)

  19. Gamma ray irradiation to roots of tea-plants and induced mutant system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Yoshiyuki; Nekaku, Koji; Wada, Mitsumasa (National Research Inst. of Vegetables, Ornamental Plants and Tea, Ano, Mie (Japan))

    1990-11-01

    In order to utilize the useful mutation which is induced by irradiation for the breeding of tea-plants, the gamma-ray irradiation to the roots of tea-plants was carried out. The samples were the roots of tea-plants of four varieties dug up in February, 1984, and were adjusted to about 20 cm, then, put in the cold storage at 5degC for 9 months till the time of irradiation in November, 1984. However, a part of them was taken out in August, and planted in a field for 76 days to germinate, thereafter, used as the samples. The gamma-ray from a Co-60 source was irradiated in the radiation breeding laboratory of Agriculture Bioresources Research Institute at the total dose of 1, 2 and 3 kR and the dose rate of 500 R/h. The irradiated roots were planted as they are or in the state of being cut, and the rate of germination, the number of buds and the induced mutation were examined. Clear difference was not observed in the rate of germination and the number of buds between the irradiated samples and those without irradiation. The long roots were superior to the short roots regarding these items. The types of the induced mutation were mostly thin leaves, and also yellowing, mottling, fascination and so on occurred. The mutant system lacking trichomes on the back of new leaves is considered to be strong against tea anthracnose, and is valuable. (K.I.).

  20. Antioxidant activity of an invasive plant, Melastoma malabathricum and its potential as herbal tea product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, N. M.; Kuspradini, H.; Amirta, R.; Kusuma, I. W.

    2018-04-01

    East Kalimantan possesses abundant biodiversity of tropical medicinal plant. Melastoma malabathricum (known locally as karamunting, senduduk) is an invasive plant along with other species in the family of Melastomataceae with traditional medicinal purposes. This research explored the potential of Karamunting (M. malabathricum) plant for its antioxidant activity and the potential as a material for herbal tea product. The plant was macerated to yield ethanolic extract, and at the same time plant powder was packed into tea bags and extracted with hot water to obtain the infused water. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging assay. The results showed that the ethanol extracts of plant samples displayed ability to inhibit DPPH free radical formation by 82% at 50 ppm concentration. Evaluation of the tea water extract showed that the highest inhibition obtained by leaves powder by 90% and fruit 88% at 1 minutes immersion time. This finding suggest that leaves and fruit of M. malabathricum plants display potential as herbal tea material having antioxidant activity if the safety aspect can be assured.

  1. Bacteriostatic effect of Piper betle and Psidium guajava extracts on dental plaque bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathilah, A R; Rahim, Z H A; Othman, Y; Yusoff, M

    2009-03-15

    In this study, the bacteriostatic effect of Piper betle and Psidium guajava extracts on selected early dental plaque bacteria was investigated based on changes in the doubling time (g) and specific growth rates (micro). Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mitis and Actinomyces sp. were cultured in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) in the presence and absence of the extracts. The growth of bacteria was monitored periodically every 15 min over a period of 9 h to allow for a complete growth cycle. Growth profiles of the bacteria in the presence of the extracts were compared to those in the absence and deviation in the g and micro were determined and analyzed. It was found that the g and mu were affected by both extracts. At 4 mg mL(-1) of P. betle the g-values for S. sanguinis and S. mitis were increased by 12.0- and 10.4-fold, respectively (p betle and P. guajava extracts have bacteriostatic effect on the plaque bacteria by creating a stressed environment that had suppressed the growth and propagation of the cells. Within the context of the dental plaque, this would ensure the attainment of thin and healthy plaque. Thus, decoctions of these plants would be suitable if used in the control of dental plaque.

  2. Nutritional and nutraceutical comparison of Jamaican Psidium cattleianum (strawberry guava) and Psidium guajava (common guava) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCook-Russell, Kayanne P; Nair, Muraleedharan G; Facey, Petrea C; Bowen-Forbes, Camille S

    2012-09-15

    Psidium cattleianum (strawberry guava) is one of many underutilised edible fruits that grow wild in Jamaica, and could potentially be commercially exploited to yield health and economic benefits. In this study, the total phenolics, proximate contents, and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities of P. cattleianum and P. guajava (common guava), a well-known species, were compared. Strawberry guavas were found to be superior to common guavas in antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, total phenolics and vitamin C content. They also possessed relatively high fibre content (24.9%). The hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of strawberry guavas showed cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme inhibitory activities of 18.3% and 26.5%, respectively (250 μg/mL), indicating anti-inflammatory activity. The EtOAc and MeOH extracts of P. guajava showed 56.4% (COX-2) and 44.1% (COX-1) inhibitory activity, respectively. Additionally, nine compounds were isolated from strawberry guava fruits, some of which demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity. These results indicate that strawberry guavas are beneficial for health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Tea seed upgrading facilities and economic assessment of biodiesel production from tea seed oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, Ayhan [Sirnak University, Engineering Faculty, Sirnak (Turkey); Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    Green tea seed (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze) oil was used in this work. The tea seed oil contains more than 84% unsaturated fatty acid, such as oleic acid (62.5% by weight), linoleic acid (18.1% by weight) and linolenic acid. The biodiesel from tea seed oil in itself is not significantly different from biodiesel produced from vegetable oils. However, tea seed oil has lower pour point and lower viscosity as different common vegetable oils. Crude tea seed oil is one of the cheapest vegetable oil feedstocks with average price, 514 (US$/ton). (author)

  4. Tea seed upgrading facilities and economic assessment of biodiesel production from tea seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2010-01-01

    Green tea seed (Camellia sinensisL. Kuntze) oil was used in this work. The tea seed oil contains more than 84% unsaturated fatty acid, such as oleic acid (62.5% by weight), linoleic acid (18.1% by weight) and linolenic acid. The biodiesel from tea seed oil in itself is not significantly different from biodiesel produced from vegetable oils. However, tea seed oil has lower pour point and lower viscosity as different common vegetable oils. Crude tea seed oil is one of the cheapest vegetable oil feedstocks with average price, 514 (US$/ton).

  5. Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze) leaf compost ameliorates the adverse effects of salinity on growth of cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, R.; Shah, P.; Jahan, B.

    2016-01-01

    The pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of tea compost on plant growth under salinity. Plants were grown in clay pots filled with sandy loam soil and irrigated by saline water (0, 50 and 100mM NaCl) with and without tea compost amendments. Soil evapotranspiration (ET), vegetative and reproductive growth and biochemical parameters were studied in this experiment. ET rate was increased with increasing salinity, whereas, it decreased with application of tea compost under all salinity. Vegetative (shoot height, number of leaves, fresh and dry biomass) and reproductive (number of seeds per plant) growth significantly decline under increasing salinity levels. Tea compost treatment helped in improving all these parameters. Total photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b, carotenoids and total chlorophyll content) showed reduction under raising salinity levels, while betterment was recorded with application of tea compost. Organic solutes (soluble sugars, proteins, free amino acids and phenolic content) increased with increasing salinity (50-100mM NaCl). Increased soluble sugars were found with tea compost treatment under non-saline control and decreased in salinity. Soluble proteins, amino acids and phenolic content increased with application of tea compost under both control and salinity. It is concluded that tea compost treatment is found to cope with salinity stress and improve plant growth and biochemical parameters by diluting the hazardous effects of salinity. (author)

  6. Genetic Variation of Flavonols Quercetin, Myricetin, and Kaempferol in the Sri Lankan Tea (Camellia sinensis L. and Their Health-Promoting Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brasathe Jeganathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavonol glycosides in tea leaves have been quantified as aglycones, quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol. Occurrence of the said compounds was reported in fruits and vegetable for a long time in association with the antioxidant potential. However, data on flavonols in tea were scanty and, hence, this study aims to envisage the flavonol content in a representative pool of accessions present in the Sri Lankan tea germplasm. Significant amounts of myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol have been detected in the beverage type tea accessions of the Sri Lankan tea germplasm. This study also revealed that tea is a good source of flavonol glycosides. The Camellia sinensis var. sinensis showed higher content of myricetin, quercetin, and total flavonols than var. assamica and ssp. lasiocalyx. Therefore flavonols and their glycosides can potentially be used in chemotaxonomic studies of tea germplasm. The nonbeverage type cultivars, especially Camellia rosaflora and Camellia japonica Red along with the exotic accessions resembling China type, could be useful in future germplasm studies because they are rich sources of flavonols, namely, quercetin and kaempferol, which are potent antioxidants. The flavonol profiles can be effectively used in choosing parents in tea breeding programmes to generate progenies with a wide range of flavonol glycosides.

  7. Evaluation of free radical scavenging activity of tea infusion of commercial tea products available in uae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nessa, F.; Khan, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, twenty four commercial tea samples were assayed to determine their free radical scavenging activity and polyphenolic contents based on the brewing/infusing period. Tea samples were infused/brewed in 200 mL boiled water at 120 degree C for 1, 2 and 5 min, respectively. The radical scavenging activities of tea infusion/brewing were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay method. The results were ranged from 67.81-90.51% for black tea bags, 90.37-94.51% for green tea bags, 24.66-92.25% for black tea powder, 16.08-93.06% for green tea powder and 32.90- 45.54% for Camomile herbal infusion. The results showed that 1 or 2 min black tea bags infusion exhibited highest radical scavenging activity than 5 min infusion. Antioxidant activities of tea powders were variable with the amount of tea powder. It was observed that antioxidant activity increased with increasing boiling time for smaller amount of sample. In contrary, shorter boiling time was better for larger amount of sample. The polyphenol contents of tea infusion were determined and the results were expressed as milligram quercetin equivalent/200 mL of tea infusion. The polyphenol content was increased with increased brewing period. In contrary, brewing for longer time rendered extract less antiradical activity. This study suggests that infusing tea bag for 1 or 2 min is sufficient for getting infusion with maximum radical scavenging activity and in case of tea powder, shorter boiling time is better for larger amount of powder or small amount of powder should be boiled for minimum 5 min for rendering extract with maximum radical scavenging activity. (author)

  8. Evaluation of gamma irradiation of teas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerolis, Luanai G.L.; Lameiras, Fernando S.; Menezes, Maria A.B.C.; Leal, Alexandre S., E-mail: luanaigraz@yahoo.com.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Krambrock, Klaus, E-mail: klaus@fisica.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica. Lab. de Ressonancia Paramagnetica Eletronica

    2013-07-01

    There is a growing interest in the determination of non-essential traces elements in agroindustrial products. The continuous ingestion and accumulation in the organism of such elements, that may be toxic, can cause hazards to the human health in the long term. Reliable analytical techniques are necessary to monitor such products, including teas. In this work, the neutron activation technique is being employed to determine the trace elements in teas, due to its high sensibility and the possibility to perform a multi-elementary analysis. The gamma irradiation of teas is also being studied, because the shelf life can be extended and no chemical product is added to the teas. There is a concern related to the formation of free radicals in the teas, which is being accessed with electronic paramagnetic resonance. The results of the gamma irradiation up to 20 kGy of Camelia sinensis, Ilex paraguariensis, and Matricaria recutita are presented. (author)

  9. Evaluation of gamma irradiation of teas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerolis, Luanai G.L.; Lameiras, Fernando S.; Menezes, Maria A.B.C.; Leal, Alexandre S.; Krambrock, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the determination of non-essential traces elements in agroindustrial products. The continuous ingestion and accumulation in the organism of such elements, that may be toxic, can cause hazards to the human health in the long term. Reliable analytical techniques are necessary to monitor such products, including teas. In this work, the neutron activation technique is being employed to determine the trace elements in teas, due to its high sensibility and the possibility to perform a multi-elementary analysis. The gamma irradiation of teas is also being studied, because the shelf life can be extended and no chemical product is added to the teas. There is a concern related to the formation of free radicals in the teas, which is being accessed with electronic paramagnetic resonance. The results of the gamma irradiation up to 20 kGy of Camelia sinensis, Ilex paraguariensis, and Matricaria recutita are presented. (author)

  10. Effects of the aqueous extract of white tea (Camellia sinensis) in a streptozotocin-induced diabetes model of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Shahidul

    2011-12-15

    White tea (WT) is very similar to green tea (GT) but it is exceptionally prepared only from the buds and young tea leaves of Camelia sinensis plant while GT is prepared from the matured tea leaves. The present study was investigated to examine the effects of a 0.5% aqueous extract of WT in a streptozotocin-induced diabetes model of rats. Six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups of 6 animals in each group namely: normal control (NC), diabetic control (DBC) and diabetic white tea (DWT). Diabetes was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg BW) in DBC and DWT groups except the NC group. After 4 weeks feeding of 0.5% aqueous extracts of WT, the drink intake was significantly (Pfood intake, body weight gain, serum insulin and fructosamine concentrations were not influenced by the consumption of WT. Data of this study suggest that the 0.5% aqueous extract of WT is effective to reduce most of the diabetes associated abnormalities in a steptozotocin-induced diabetes model of rats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Harvest time on the content and chemical composition of essential oil from leaves of guava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Aparecida Josefi da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The essential oil plants contents can be affected by several factors. For example, in certain plants, collection time has been observed to affect the content and chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the plant. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of collection time on the content and chemical composition of the essential oil from guava ( Psidium guajava L. leaves. Leaves were collected at different times of the day and the content and chemical composition of their essential oil was determined. Collection time did not qualitatively affect the chemical composition of the essential oil. However, concentration of certain substances in the oil, such as α-humulene and trans-caryophyllene, did significantly vary at different collection times. The main constituents of the essential oil of Psidium guajava are limonene (2.2-4.4%, trans-caryophyllene (18.1-17.1%, α-humulene (26.3-20.4%, aromadendrene (7.6-12.2%, α-selinene (7.3-11.3%, caryophyllene oxide (3.7-3.3%, humulene epoxide II (4.1-1.9%, and selin-11-en-4α-ol (7.2-11.1%. Leaves collected at 7:00 AM had higher essential oil production, with a content of 0.38% (d.b., whereas leaves collected at 7:00 PM had lower essential oil production, 0.24% (d.b.. Chemical analysis showed that sesquiterpene compounds represented the highest concentration (62.0%, and monoterpenoids and monoterpenes represented the lowest concentrations (1.1 and 2.2%, respectively. Chemical classes that underwent major changes with respect to collection time were monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and sesquiterpenoids (2.2-4.4%, 63.8-61.7%, and 15.9-13.2%, respectively.

  12. Effect of green tea phytochemicals on mood and cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, Christina; Dekker, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    Background: Green tea is traditionally known to induce mental clarity, cognitive function, physical activation and relaxation. Recently, a special green tea, matcha tea, is rapidly gaining popularity throughout the world and is frequently referred to as a mood- and brain food. Matcha tea

  13. Labour unfreedoms in the tea supply chains : WUR Studium Generals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThe bulk of tea consumed in the Netherlands comes from South Asia, with Sri Lanka and India being among the largest tea exporters world-wide. Tea is the second most popular beverage after water and it is often considered a 'cheap drink'. This session highlights, however, that tea

  14. Health Risk Assessment of Consumption of Tea marketed in Hamadan City, Potential Risk of As, Pb, Cd and Cr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sobhan Ardakani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Tea is the most popular beverage in the world and contains several essential nutrients, which are beneficial for human health. Because the contamination of tea leaves by heavy metals may pose a serious threat to human, this study was carried out for analysis and health risk assessment of As, Pb, Cd and Cr in some black and green tea brand samples marketed in Hamadan City in 2015. Materials & Methods: After collection and preparation of 3 brands from each of cultivated and imported black and green tea specimens with acid digestion method in the laboratory, the concentrations of elements in samples were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometery in 3 replications. Also, all statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical package. Results: The results showed that the maximum mean concentrations of As,Pb,Cd and Cr were as follows : As 0.34±0.54 µg kg-1 in imported green tea, Pb, Cd 577.0±608.0, 37.0±15.0 in domestic green tea respectively, and Cr 165.0±114.0 iimported black tea samples, and significantly lower than WHO and ISIRI permissible limits. Conclusion: Although consumption of tea has not any adverse effects on the consumers’ health, due to the increased use of agricultural inputs, sewage sludge and wastewater by farmers regular periodic monitoring of chemical pollutants content specially heavy metals in foodstuffs are recommended for food safety. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2016; 23 (1:65-74

  15. TEA: A CODE CALCULATING THERMOCHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM ABUNDANCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver, E-mail: jasmina@physics.ucf.edu [Planetary Sciences Group, Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2385 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature–pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows and Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows and Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA.

  16. TEA: A CODE CALCULATING THERMOCHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM ABUNDANCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver

    2016-01-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature–pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows and Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows and Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA.

  17. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS ON INDUSTRIAL SYMBIOSIS BETWEEN CEMENT INDUSTRY AND TEA INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Kumar Yadav

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The project aims at analyzing the feasibility of utilizing cement kiln dust (CKD in treating wastewater from tea industry with the concept of industrial symbiosis. CKD is the dust collected at the air pollution control device(s associated with a kiln system from cement industry. A very less percent of CKD is recycled and the rest is land filled /stockpiled; disrupts groundwater through leaching of minerals. Cement Kiln Dust (CKD, rich in CaO, SiO2, behaves as a neutralizing as well as stabilizing agent for tea effluent treatment. The ability of CKD to reduce the BOD, COD, TSS, and phosphates in tea effluent was analyzed and the optimum dosage is determined. The effect of different dosages of Cement Kiln Dust ranging from (1-3 gm/l has been discussed on the bench scale tests. The results show that, for different CKD concentrations, high removal efficiencies of 94.4 and 99.0, 58.9 for BOD, TSS, phosphates and a lower efficiency for COD with 9.09 are achieved for 2.5gm/l. The persistent presence of color providing proteins theaflavins (TF and the arubigins (TR from the leftover tea leaves in the effluent imparts the low removal efficiencies of COD. However, the COD value is within the dischargeable limits (CPCB standards. Moreover, a considerable removal efficiency and high SVI of 0.181 makes CKD a feasible coagulant in treating tea effluent with optimum dosage of 2.5g/l. The objective of developing industrial symbiosis network was thus achieved using the CKD to treat wastewater from tea industries.   International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-4, Issue-3, June-August 2015Page: 20-34

  18. Scarabaeidae species associate to guava ( Psidium guajava L. in Ciego de Ávila, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Sisne Luis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se colocó una trampa de luz blanca en las plantaciones de la Guayaba (Psidium guajava L., según establece Sisne, 2009 y MINAG, 1985, en la Empresa Cítricos de Ciego de Ávila durante el período comprendido entre mayo y julio del año 2010 con el objetivo de determinar la composición de géneros y especies del orden Coleoptera familia Scarabaeidae asociadas al agroecosistema. Se determinó que las especies Cyclocephala cubana Chapin, Phyllophaga puberula Duval, y Phyllophaga patruelis Chev. están asociadas al cultivo de la Guayaba en estas áreas.

  19. Odour-active compounds in guava (Psidium guajava L. cv. Red Suprema).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Jorge A; Bent, Leandra

    2013-09-01

    Solid phase microextraction and simultaneous distillation-extraction combined with GC-FID, GC/MS, aroma extract dilution analysis and odour activity values were used to analyse volatile compounds from guava (Psidium guajava L. cv. Red Suprema) and to estimate the most odour-active compounds. The analysis led to the detection of 141 compounds, 121 of which were positively identified. The composition of guava fruit volatiles included 43 esters, 37 terpenes, 18 aldehydes, 16 alcohols, ten acids, six ketones, four furans and seven miscellaneous compounds. Seventeen odorants were considered as odour-active compounds, with (E)-β-ionone, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl butanoate, hexanal, (Z)-3-hexenal, hexyl acetate, (E)-2-hexenal and limonene contributing most to the typical guava aroma of this cultivar. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Digital phenotyping for quantification of genetic diversity in inbred guava (Psidium guajava) families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, W; Viana, A P; Cavalcante, N R; Ambrósio, M; Santos, E A; Vieira, H D

    2017-03-22

    Digital image analysis of seeds has been used for the identification of cultivars, determination of seed color and mechanical damage, and classification of different seed sizes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of digital image analysis of seeds for the quantification of genetic diversity among genotypes of inbred guava (Psidium guajava L.) families. The SAS Mini equipment, which consists of a capture module and a software program for analysis, was employed for the capture and analysis of the seed images. Different genetic diversity quantification strategies were tested using the Ward-Modified Location Model method. The set of variables related to geometry of the seeds was the largest contributor to divergence among the guava genotypes. The use of seed descriptors obtained by digital image analysis via the SAS system was efficient at quantifying the genetic diversity among genotypes of inbred guava families associated with the use of the Ward-Modified Location Model method.

  1. Cytotoxic Meroterpenoids with Rare Skeletons from Psidium guajava Cultivated in Temperate Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xu-Jie; Yan, Huan; Ni, Wei; Yu, Mu-Yuan; Khan, Afsar; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Hong-Xia; He, Li; Hao, Xiao-Jiang; di, Ying-Tong; Liu, Hai-Yang

    2016-09-01

    Three new meroterpenoids, guajavadials A-C (1-3), were isolated from Psidium guajava cultivated in temperate zone. Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic evidence and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Guajavadial A (1) represents a novel skeleton of the 3,5-diformylbenzyl phloroglucinol-coupled monoterpenoid, while guajavadials B (2) and C (3) are new adducts of the 3,5-diformylbenzyl phloroglucinol and a sesquiterpene with different coupling models. The plausible biosynthetic pathways as well as antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of these meroterpenoids are also discussed. All these isolates exhibited moderate cytotoxicities against five human cancer cell lines, with 3 being most effective with an IC50 value of 3.54 μM toward SMMC-7721 cell lines.

  2. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of polysaccharide from Psidium guajava L. fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amutha Gnana Arasi, Michael Antony Samy; Gopal Rao, Manchineela; Bagyalakshmi, Janardanan

    2016-10-01

    This study deals with the optimization of microwave assisted extraction of polysaccharide from Psidium guajava L. fruit using Response surface methodology. To evaluate the effect of three independent variables, Water to plant material ratio, microwave power used for extraction and Irradiation time, central composite design has been employed. The yield is considered as dependent variable. The design model estimated the optimum yield of 6.81677% at 200W microwave power level, 3:1 water to plant material ratio and 20min of irradiation time. Three factors three levels Central composite design coupled with RSM was used to model the extraction process. ANOVA was performed to find the significance of the model. The polysaccharide extracted using microwave assisted extraction process was analyzed using FTIR Spectroscopy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Brewing and volatiles analysis of three tea beers indicate a potential interaction between tea components and lager yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Lei; Peng, Li-Juan; Ho, Chi-Tang; Yan, Shou-He; Meurens, Marc; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Li, Da-Xiang; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Bao, Guan-Hu; Gao, Xue-Ling; Ling, Tie-Jun

    2016-04-15

    Green tea, oolong tea and black tea were separately introduced to brew three kinds of tea beers. A model was designed to investigate the tea beer flavour character. Comparison of the volatiles between the sample of tea beer plus water mixture (TBW) and the sample of combination of tea infusion and normal beer (CTB) was accomplished by triangular sensory test and HS-SPME GC-MS analysis. The PCA of GC-MS data not only showed a significant difference between volatile features of each TBW and CTB group, but also suggested some key compounds to distinguish TBW from CTB. The results of GC-MS showed that the relative concentrations of many typical tea volatiles were significantly changed after the brewing process. More interestingly, the behaviour of yeast fermentation was influenced by tea components. A potential interaction between tea components and lager yeast could be suggested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comprehensive Lipidome-Wide Profiling Reveals Dynamic Changes of Tea Lipids during Manufacturing Process of Black Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Hua, Jinjie; Zhou, Qinghua; Dong, Chunwang; Wang, Jinjin; Deng, Yuliang; Yuan, Haibo; Jiang, Yongwen

    2017-11-22

    As important biomolecules in Camellia sinensis L., lipids undergo substantial changes during black tea manufacture, which is considered to contribute to tea sensory quality. However, limited by analytical capacity, detailed lipid composition and its dynamic changes during black tea manufacture remain unclear. Herein, we performed tea lipidome profiling using high resolution liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS), which allows simultaneous and robust analysis of 192 individual lipid species in black tea, covering 17 (sub)classes. Furthermore, dynamic changes of tea lipids during black tea manufacture were investigated. Significant alterations of lipid pattern were revealed, involved with chlorophyll degradation, metabolic pathways of glycoglycerolipids, and other extraplastidial membrane lipids. To our knowledge, this report presented most comprehensive coverage of lipid species in black tea. This study provides a global and in-depth metabolic map of tea lipidome during black tea manufacture.

  5. Cancer Prevention by Tocopherols and Tea Polyphenols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chung S.; Li, Guangxun; Yang, Zhihong; Guan, Fei; Chen, Amber; Ju, Jihyeung

    2013-01-01

    Tocopherols (vitamin E) and tea polyphenols have been reported to have cancer preventive activities. Large-scale human trials with high doses of alpha-tocopherol, however, have produced disappointing results. This review presents data showing that γ- and δ-tocopherols inhibit colon, lung, mammary and prostate carcinogenesis in animal models, whereas α-tocopherol is ineffective in animal and human studies. Possible mechanisms of action are discussed. A broad cancer preventive activity of green tea polyphenols has been demonstrated in animal models, and many mechanisms have been proposed. The cancer preventive activity of green tea in humans, however, has not been conclusively demonstrated and remains to be further investigated. PMID:23403075

  6. Non-preference of the red mite Oligonychus yothersi McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae for oviposition on leaves of Paraguay tea progenies (Ilex paraguariensis/ Não-preferência do ácaro-vermelho, Oligonychus yothersi McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae, para oviposição em folhas de progênies de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Djair Vendramim

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The oviposition preference of the red mite Oligonychus yothersi McGregor was evaluated under laboratory in 52 Paraguay tea progenies and one control collected in a local farm. The experiments were conducted on Paraguay tea leaf discs infested with one adult female mite/disc, incubated in a climate chamber (25±1ºC, 14h photophase for five days. Evaluations were performed daily, by counting the number of eggs laid in the period, the number of female escapes in the first 48 hours, as well as the number of eggs laid before the escaping. It was verified that discrimination by the mite occurred on two groups of progenies, in relation to the number of eggs: one group was different from the control (53.8% of the progenies and the other was identical to it (46.2% of the progenies. In the first group, 60.7% of progenies were less oviposited while a higher number of eggs/female than the control was verified in 39.3% of them. In 57.7% of progenies there was escape of some mites (10 to 40%, and in 10 of these progenies no eggs were laid. The data provide evidences that in some of the progenies evaluated there is resistance by non-preference to oviposition of the Paraguay tea red mite.A preferência para oviposição do ácaro-vermelho, Oligonychus yothersi McGregor, foi avaliada em condições de laboratório em 52 progênies de erva-mate e uma testemunha coletada em uma propriedade da região. Os experimentos foram realizados em discos foliares de erva-mate (2 cm de diâmetro, infestados com uma fêmea adulta do ácaro, e incubados a 25±1ºC e 14h de fotofase, durante cinco dias. As avaliações foram realizadas diariamente, contando-se o número de ovos depositados no período, número de fêmeas que fugiram nas primeiras 48 horas e número de ovos depositados antes da fuga. Verificou-se que houve discriminação do ácaro em dois grupos de progênies, em relação ao número de ovos, um que diferiu em relação à testemunha (53,8% de progênies e

  7. Chemical composition and vascular and intestinal smooth muscle relaxant effects of the essential oil from Psidium guajava fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Hafiz Majid; Khan, Taous; Wahid, Fazli; Khan, Rasool; Shah, Abdul Jabbar

    2016-11-01

    Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) is widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments including cardiovascular and gastrointestinal disorders. The current study investigated the chemical composition and cardiovascular and gastrointestinal effects of the essential oil of P. guajava. The chemical composition of the essential oil was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The biological activity of the essential oil was tested on rabbit aorta and jejunum. All changes in isometric tension were recorded through a force transducer coupled with a bridge amplifier data acquisition system. GC-MS analysis showed the presence of butanoic acid methyl ester, 3-methyl glutaric anhydride, 1-butanol, 3-hexenal, cinnamyl alcohol, 1-hexanol and hexane as the major components. In isolated rabbit aorta preparations, the essential oil showed vasorelaxation at doses of 3-10 mg/mL against high K +  and phenylephrine pre-contractions with EC 50 values of 5.52 (5-6.04) and 6.23 mg/mL (5.0-7.46). The essential oil inhibited spontaneous and high K +  induced contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum with EC 50 values of 0.84 (0.3-1.38) and 0.71 mg/mL (0.3-1.12) and shifted Ca  +   2 concentration curves to the right, similar to verapamil, suggesting spasmolytic activity mediated possibly through Ca  +   2 channel blockade. In summary, the data indicated the presence of seven different phytoconstituents in the essential oil of P. guajava and calcium channel blocking activity, which provides a pharmacological base to the traditional use of P. guajava in cardiovascular and gastrointestinal disorders. Further studies are suggested to explore the molecular nature of these effects.

  8. Refinement of the karyological aspects of Psidium guineense (Swartz, 1788): a comparison with Psidium guajava (Linnaeus, 1753)

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Anelise Machado; Tuler, Am?lia Carlos; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Carrijo, Tatiana Tavares; Ferreira, Marcia Flores da Silva; Clarindo, Wellington Ronildo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Euploidy plays an important role in the evolution and diversification of Psidium Linnaeus, 1753. However, few data about the nuclear DNA content, chromosome characterization (morphometry and class) and molecular markers have been reported for this genus. In this context, the present study aims to shed light on the genome of Psidium guineense Swartz, 1788, comparing it with Psidium guajava Linnaeus, 1753. Using flow cytometry, the nuclear 2C value of Psidium guineense was 2C = 1.85 pi...

  9. Refinement of the karyological aspects of Psidium guineense (Swartz, 1788): a comparison with Psidium guajava (Linnaeus, 1753).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Anelise Machado; Tuler, Amélia Carlos; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Carrijo, Tatiana Tavares; Ferreira, Marcia Flores da Silva; Clarindo, Wellington Ronildo

    2016-01-01

    Euploidy plays an important role in the evolution and diversification of Psidium Linnaeus, 1753. However, few data about the nuclear DNA content, chromosome characterization (morphometry and class) and molecular markers have been reported for this genus. In this context, the present study aims to shed light on the genome of Psidium guineense Swartz, 1788, comparing it with Psidium guajava Linnaeus, 1753. Using flow cytometry, the nuclear 2C value of Psidium guineense was 2C = 1.85 picograms (pg), and the karyotype showed 2n = 4x = 44 chromosomes. Thus, Psidium guineense has four chromosome sets, in accordance with the basic chromosome number of Psidium (x = 11). In addition, karyomorphometric analysis revealed morphologically identical chromosome groups in the karyotype of Psidium guineense. The high transferability of microsatellites (98.6%) further corroborates with phylogenetic relationship between Psidium guajava and Psidium guineense. Based on the data regarding nuclear genome size, karyotype morphometry and molecular markers of Psidium guineense and Psidium guajava (2C = 0.95 pg, 2n = 2x = 22 chromosomes), Psidium guineense is a tetraploid species. These data reveal the role of euploidy in the diversification of the genus Psidium.

  10. Intestinal ameliorative effects of traditional Ogi-tutu, Vernonia amygdalina and Psidium guajava in mice infected with Vibrio cholera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shittu, Olufunke B; Ajayi, Olusola L; Bankole, Samuel O; Popoola, Temitope Os

    2016-06-01

    Cholera, a severe acute watery diarrhea caused by Vibrio cholerae is endemic in Nigeria with most cases occurring in the rural areas. In South West Nigeria, some individuals resort to alternative treatments such as Ogi-tutu, Psidium guajava and Vernonia amygdalina during infections. The effectiveness of these alternatives in the prevention and treatment of V. cholerae infection requires experimental investigation. This study was designed to investigate the ameliorative effects of Ogi-tutu, Vernonia amygdalina and Psidium guajava on intestinal histopathology of experimental mice infected with V. cholerae. Preliminary investigation of in vitro vibriocidal activities of these alternatives were carried out using agar cup diffusion assay. For ameliorative effects, adult mice were inoculated with 100 µl (106 cells) of Vibrio cholerae and dosed at 0 h (immediate prevention) and 4 h (treatment of infection) and their intestines were histopathologically evaluated. The histopathological changes were the same irrespective of the treated groups, but the lesions varied in extent and severity. The ameliorative effects in decreasing order were V. amygdalina > P. guajava > Ogi-tutu. V. amygdalina gave the best ameliorative effects in the prevention and treatment of V. cholerae infection.

  11. Green Tea Protects Testes against Atrazine-induced Toxicity in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Kheirandish

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atrazine (ATZ is a common herbicide in agriculture for control of grass and broad-leaved weeds. It persists in the environment and causes reproductive problems in both human and animals. The present study was aimed at protective effect of green tea against ATZ toxicity in the reproductive system of male rats. Methods: The present study was performed in Veterinary School, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman in 2016. ATZ and treatment groups received ATZ daily 200 mg/kg BW orally for 14 d. In addition, 0.2% methanolic green tea extract was administrated in the treatment group. Results: In histopathologic investigation, number of germinal layers reduced in the most seminiferous tubules in the ATZ group and spermatids were absence. Necrotic spermatocytes, spermatids, and spermatozoa were evident in the testicular tubules. In the morphometric measurements, tubular diameter, germinal epithelium height, and meiosis index decreased significantly. Conclusion: Green tea extract had reduced testicular toxicity of atrazine significantly. ATZ induces toxicity through oxidative damage and green tea extract can protect the testes due to antioxidant activity of its polyphenols especially flavonoids.

  12. Content of Selected Minerals and Active Ingredients in Teas Containing Yerba Mate and Rooibos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusinek-Prystupa, Elżbieta; Marzec, Zbigniew; Sembratowicz, Iwona; Samolińska, Wioletta; Kiczorowska, Bożena; Kwiecień, Małgorzata

    2016-07-01

    The study aimed to determine the content of selected elements: sodium, potassium, copper, zinc, iron, manganese and active ingredients such as phenolic acids and tannins in teas containing Yerba Mate and Rooibos cultivated in various areas. The study material comprised six samples of Yerba Mate teas and of Rooibos teas, both tea bags and leaves, purchased in Puławy and online via Allegro. In total, 24 samples were tested. Yerba Mate was particularly abundant in Mn and Fe. The richest source of these elements was Yerba Mate Yer-Vita (2261.3 mg · kg(-1) d.m.) and (691.6 mg · kg(-1) d.m.). The highest content of zinc was determined in Yerba Mate Amanda with lime (106.0 mg · kg(-1) d.m.), while copper was most abundant in Yerba Mate Big-Active cocoa and vanilla (14.05 mg · kg(-1) d.m.). In Rooibos, the content of sodium was several times higher than in Yerba Mate. A clear difference was observed in the content of minerals in dry weight of the examined products, which could be a result of both the taxonomic distinctness and the origin of the raw material. Leaf teas turned out to be a better source of tannins; on the other hand, tea bags contained substantially more phenolic acids. The richest source of phenolic acids was Yer-Vita in bags (1.8 %), and the highest amount of tannins was recorded in the leaf tea Green Goucho caramel and dark chocolate (9.04 g · 100 g(-1) d.m.). In Rooibos products, the highest content of phenolic acids was recorded in tea bags (Savannah with honey and vanilla 0.96 %), and tannins in (Lord Nelson with strawberry and cream 7.99 g · 100 g (-1) d.m.).

  13. Profiling elements in Puerh tea from Yunnan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianyang; Ma, Guicen; Chen, Liyan; Liu, Ting; Liu, Xin; Lu, Chengyin

    2017-09-01

    Puerh tea, as the most representative Chinese dark tea, has attracted global interest in recent years. Profiling the levels of metal elements in Puerh tea is very important since its presence is related to human health. In this study, 41 elements in 98 Puerh tea samples from Yunnan province, China including Puerh raw tea and Puerh ripe tea were evaluated by microwave digestion combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry . The content of toxic elements, essential elements and rare earth elements of Puerh tea from different regions was discussed in detail. The concentrations of Ba, Cr, As, Pb, Bi, Fe, Zn, V, Mn, Be, Ag and Tl showed significant differences (p tea from different regions. This study provided a comprehensive database for Puerh tea quality control and intake risk assessment.

  14. Psidium guajava Linn. leaf extract affects hepatic glucose transporter-2 to attenuate early onset of insulin resistance consequent to high fructose intake: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, R.; Dutta, Shagun; Velpandian, T.; Mathur, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Insulin resistance (IR) is amalgam of pathologies like altered glucos metabolism, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and associated with type-II diabetes and cardiometabolic diseases. One of the reasons leading to its increased and early incidence is understood to be a high intake of processed fructose containing foods and beverages by individuals, especially, during critical developmental years. Objective: To investigate the preventive potential of aqueous extract of Psidium guajava leaves (PG) against metabolic pathologies, vis-à-vis, IR, dyslipidemia, hyperleptinemia and hypertension, due to excess fructose intake initiated during developmental years. Materials and Methods: Post-weaning (4 weeks old) male rats were provided fructose (15%) as drinking solution, ad libitum, for 8 weeks and assessed for food and water/fructose intake, body weight, fasting blood sugar, mean arterial pressure, lipid biochemistry, endocrinal (insulin, leptin), histopathological (fatty liver) and immunohistochemical (hepatic glucose transporter [GLUT2]) parameters. Parallel treatment groups were administered PG in doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg/d, po × 8 weeks and assessed for same parameters. Using extensive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry protocols, PG was analyzed for the presence of phytoconstituents like Myrecetin, Luteolin, Kaempferol and Guavanoic acid and validated to contain Quercetin up to 9.9%w/w. Results: High fructose intake raised circulating levels of insulin and leptin and hepatic GLUT2 expression to promote IR, dyslipidemia, and hypertension that were favorably re-set with PG. Although PG is known for its beneficial role in diabetes mellitus, for the first time we report its potential in the management of lifelong pathologies arising from high fructose intake initiated during developmental years. PMID:25829790

  15. Ethnopharmacological evaluation of radal (leaves of Lomatia hirsuta and isolation of 2-methoxyjuglone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzmán Alfonso

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leaves of Lomatia hirsuta are used in traditional medicine in Chile under the common name of "radal". A tea of radal is traditionally used for treatment of cough, bronchial troubles, and asthma. In a preliminary screening, extracts of the leaves revealed antifungal activity, and the present phytochemical study was undertaken to explain this activity and support the traditional use. Methods Along with the traditional tea, extracts of the leaves were screened for antifungal and toxic activities. The profile of secondary constituents was obtained using GC-MS. Results 2-Methoxyjuglone was isolated from the leaves of Lomatia hirsuta and found to be active against the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans (MIC = 8 μg/mL. Cinnamic acid and vanillic acid were identified as major constituents in the tea by GC-MS. The tea was found not to be toxic against Artemia salina. Conclusion The presence of phenolic acids with antimicrobial properties supports the traditional use of Radal, and encourages further studies.

  16. Critical parameters in cost-effective alkaline extraction for high protein yield from leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, C.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Bruins, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Leaves are potential resources for feed or food, but their applications are limited due to a high proportion of insoluble protein and inefficient processing. To overcome these problems, parameters of alkaline extraction were evaluated using green tea residue (GTR). Protein extraction could be

  17. Parental Leave in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine; Christoffersen, Mogens; Weise, Hanne

    This artcle considders the political aims for different leave schemes and reviews studies af these schemes. The use of parental leave is sensitive to the financial loss involved in taking leave: a decrease in the benefit payments has had a significant influence on take-up, while, in general, fami......, families'' loss of income is less if leave is taken up by the mothers. Only few fathers participate in parental leave....

  18. Adverse effects of concentrated green tea extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönthal, Axel H

    2011-06-01

    A myriad of health claims are being made in favor of the consumption of green tea. However, mostly due to the easy availability and greater than ever popularity of highly concentrated green tea extracts, sometimes combined with an attitude of more-is-better, certain health risks of green tea consumption have begun to emerge. Among such risks are the possibility of liver damage, the potential to interact with prescription drugs to alter their therapeutic efficacy, and the chance to cause harm when combined with other highly popular herbal remedies. This review will summarize documented examples of adverse effects of green tea in humans, and will discuss risks of copious consumption of highly concentrated green tea extracts as indicated by studies in animals. While there is no intention to minimize any of the scientifically established benefits of the use of green tea, the purpose of this review is to focus primarily on the potential for adverse effects and raise awareness of the rare, yet under-appreciated risks. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Kombucha fermentation test used for various types of herbal teas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novi Primiani, C.; Pujiati; Mumtahanah, Mahda; Ardhi, Waskitho

    2018-05-01

    Tea is a common drink in the community, the benefits of tea can be improved by processing fermented tea called kombucha. Kombucha is a refreshing drink made from tea water plus sugar, obtained through the fermentation process by acetic acid bacteria and fungi, is consumed for its health benefits. The common Kombucha starter is called SCOOBY (Simbyotic of Bacteri and Yeast). Kombucha research using herbal tea is very rarely done, it is necessary kombucha research using a variety of herbal teas to determine the quality of its inhibitory power against bacteria and its quality compared with kombucha berkomposisi tea Camelia sinensis in general. The purpose of this research was to know kombucha quality with ph parameter, thickness of nata, total acid and its inhibitory power to Escherchia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. This research used Randomized Block Design (RAK) method using 1 tea type treatment, with 3 replications. The first type of green tea (P1), roselle tea (P2), mangosteen peel tea (P3), soursop leaf tea (P4), moringa leaf tea (P5) and yellow leaf tea (P6), so there are 18 treatment combinations. Based on statistical analysis, there was influence of tea type to kombucha quality. Treatments of P1 and P2 were found to have an optimum and significant effect for kombucha. the results in level of acidity [pH] on green tea (P1) was 3.05, nata thickness of 4.63 and total acid of 0.69. Acidity in roselle tea (P2) was 2.86, nata thickness of 3.83, and total acid of 0.71. While the lowest quality was found in the treatment of mangosteen peel (P3) tea with pH 2.57, nata thickness of 0.35, and total acid of 0.79.

  20. Protective effects of Mengshan green tea and hawk tea against UV-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoming; Ren Zhenglong; Zhang Huaiyu; Tang Zongxiang; Luo Peigao

    2005-01-01

    A group of cultured normal human skin-derived fibroblasts was used as the cell model to investigate protective and repair effects of aqueous extracts of Mengshan green tea and Hawk tea against 320-400 nm UV-ray irradiation, with the methods of MTT colorimetry and LDH release. It was found that the aqueous extracts had strong protective effect on fibroblasts against the UV-rays with dose dependence. There were no significant differences between the two kinds of tea aqueous extracts in a higher concentration of 5 mg/mL, whereas at lower concentrations of 2.5 and 1.25 mg/mL the, green tea aqueous extract was less effective than the hawk-tea aqueous extract in protecting fibroblasts from the UV-ray damage. Meanwhile, it was discovered that the green tea and hawk-tea aqueous extract could repair damages induced by the UV irradiation with dose dependence. But there were no statistically significant differences between the two kinds of aqueous extract. The effects may be related to antioxidant effect of tea polyphenol. (authors)

  1. Safety assessment of green tea based beverages and dried green tea extracts as nutritional supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekant, Wolfgang; Fujii, Kenkichi; Shibata, Eiichiro; Morita, Osamu; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2017-08-05

    The safety of green tea infusions and green tea extract (GTE)-based products is reviewed regarding catechins. Epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), the major catechin present in green tea, is suspected of being responsible for liver toxicity reported in humans consuming food supplements. Intake of EGCG with green tea infusions and GTE-based beverages is up to about 450mg EGCG/person/day in Europe and higher in Asia. Consumption of green tea is not associated with liver damage in humans, and green tea infusion and GTE-based beverages are considered safe in the range of historical uses. In animal studies, EGCG's potency for liver effects is highly dependent on conditions of administration. Use of NOAELs from bolus administration to derive a tolerable upper intake level applying the margin of safety concept results in acceptable EGCG-doses lower than those from one cup of green tea. NOAELs from toxicity studies applying EGCG with diet/split of the daily dose are a better point of departure for risk characterization. In clinical intervention studies, liver effects were not observed after intakes below 600mg EGCG/person/day. Thus, a tolerable upper intake level of 300mg EGCG/person/day is proposed for food supplements; this gives a twofold safety margin to clinical studies that did not report liver effects and a margin of safety of 100 to the NOAELs in animal studies with dietary administration of green tea catechins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Suppressive Effects of Tea Catechins on Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Li-Ping; Wang, Ao; Ye, Jian-Hui; Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Polito, Curt Anthony; Lu, Jian-Liang; Li, Qing-Sheng; Liang, Yue-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Tea leaf (Camellia sinensis) is rich in catechins, which endow tea with various health benefits. There are more than ten catechin compounds in tea, among which epigallocatechingallate (EGCG) is the most abundant. Epidemiological studies on the association between tea consumption and the risk of breast cancer were summarized, and the inhibitory effects of tea catechins on breast cancer, with EGCG as a representative compound, were reviewed in the present paper. The controversial results regarding the role of tea in breast cancer and areas for further study were discussed. PMID:27483305

  3. Growth inhibition of Walker carcinosarcoma 256 with alcoholic extract of green tea leaves (Camellia sinensis Inibição do crescimento do carcinossarcoma 256 de Walker pelo extrato alcoólico de folhas de chá verde(Camellia sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauriclécio Franco Ponte

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the antitumor activity of alcoholic extracts of green tea (Camella sinensis. METHODS: Four groups of six Wistar rats were inoculated intramuscularly with 10(6 Walker tumor cells/mL. During 10 days, the animals received by gavage either 0.9% saline solution (Group I; negative control, solution containing 20 mg/Kg of tamoxifen (Group II; positive control, solution containing 0.07 g/Kg alcoholic extract of C. sinensis (Group III, or solution containing 0.14 g/Kg alcoholic extract of C. sinensis (Group IV. Following euthanasia on the tenth day, the tumor, liver, kidneys and spleen were excised and weighed, and tumor volume and tumor growth inhibition were quantified. RESULTS: The average weight of the animals was greater in Group IV than in Group II (p=0.0107. Tumor weight was smaller in Group IV than in Group I (p=0.0062, but did not differ from Group II. Tumor volume was smaller in Groups II and IV than in Group I (p=0.0131. Tumor growth inhibition was observed in Groups II (44.67% ± 32.47, III (16.83% ± 53.02 and IV (66.4% ± 25.82 (p>0.05. The groups did not differ with regard to the weight of the excised organs. CONCLUSION: Alcoholic extracts of green tea have antitumor activity.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a atividade antitumoral do extrato alcoólico do chá verde (C. sinensis. MÉTODOS: Quatro grupos de seis ratos Wistar foram inoculados com 1x10(6 células/mL do tumor de Walker por via intramuscular. Os grupos foram tratados durante 10 dias, por gavagem, com salina 0,9 % (Grupo I, controle negativo, 20 mg/Kg de tamoxifeno (Grupo II, controle positivo e extrato alcoólico de C. sinensis nas doses de 0,07 g/Kg (Grupo III ou 0,14 g/Kg (Grupo IV. O volume e a inibição do crescimento tumoral foram calculados. RESULTADOS: A média dos pesos dos animais foi maior no Grupo IV do que no Grupo II (p=0,0107. O peso tumoral do Grupo IV foi menor do que o Grupo I (p=0,0062, mas não houve diferença quando comparado ao Grupo II. O volume

  4. Proteomic analysis of tea plants (Camellia sinensis with purple young shoots during leaf development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiongqiong Zhou

    Full Text Available Tea products made from purple leaves are highly preferred by consumers due to the health benefits. This study developed a proteome reference map related to color changes during leaf growth in tea (Camellia sinensis plant with purple young shoots using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE. Forty-six differentially expressed proteins were detected in the gel and successfully identified by using MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. The pronounced changes in the proteomic profile between tender purple leaves (TPL and mature green leaves (MGL included: 1 the lower activity of proteins associated with CO2 assimilation, energy metabolism and photo flux efficiency and higher content of anthocyanins in TPL than those in MGL may protect tender leaves against photo-damage; 2 the higher abundance of chalcone synthase (CHS, chalcone isomerase (CHI and flavonol synthase (FLS likely contributes to the synthesis of anthocyanins, catechins and flavonols in TPL tissues; 3 higher abundance of stress response proteins, such as glutathione S-transferases (GST and phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx, could enhance the tolerance of TPL tissues to adverse condition in; and 4 the increased abundance of proteins related to protein synthesis, nucleic acids and cell wall proteins should be beneficial for the proliferation and expansion of leaf cell in TPL tissues. qPCR analysis showed that the expression of differentially abundant proteins was regulated at the transcriptional level. Therefore, the results indicated that higher abundance of CHI and CHS may account for the production of the purple-shoot phenotype in Wuyiqizhong 18 and thereby, enhancing the anthocyanin biosynthesis. The higher abundance of glutamine synthetase (GS proteins related to the theanine biosynthesis may improve the flavor of tea products from TPL materials. Thus, this work should help to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the changes in leaf color alteration.

  5. The contents of fifteen essential trace and toxic elements in some green tea samples and in their infusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahito, S.R.; Kazi, T.G.; Kazi, G.H.; Jakharani, M.A.; Shar, Q.G.; Shaikh, S.

    2005-01-01

    The content of fifteen elements i.e. Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Mn, Zn, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pd, Cd, Ba and Al were determined for 30 sample from three types of green tea samples using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The samples were purchased from authentic tea dealer in Peshawar imported from India, China and Kenya. However, some samples were taken which were locally produced in Pakistan with branded packing and without package. The NBS tea leaves. The wet digestion and infusion procedure reference material was also analyzed simultaneously with tea samples. The wet digestion and infusion procedures were employed for determination of total elements and aqueous extracted elements respectively. It was found that, considerable amount of essential and trace elements are present in total in tea infusion. The levels of toxic metals are low but level of aluminum is high in both forms. The results obtained from this analysis have shown good accuracy and reproducibility. The relative error and relative standard deviation were less than 10% for most of the elements analyzed. (author)

  6. Population nutrikinetics of green tea extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Catharina; Lepper, Anna; Lehr, Thorsten; Hanke, Nina; Schneider, Katharina Luise; Brockmöller, Jürgen; Seufferlein, Thomas; Stingl, Julia Carolin

    2018-01-01

    Green tea polyphenols may contribute to the prevention of cancer and other diseases. To learn more about the pharmacokinetics and interindividual variation of green tea polyphenols after oral intake in humans we performed a population nutrikinetic study of standardized green tea extract. 84 healthy participants took green tea extract capsules standardized to 150 mg epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG) twice a day for 5 days. On day 5 catechin plasma concentrations were analyzed using non-compartmental and population pharmacokinetic methods. A strong between-subject variability in catechin pharmacokinetics was found with maximum plasma concentrations varying more than 6-fold. The AUCs of EGCG, EGC and ECG were 877.9 (360.8-1576.5), 35.1 (8.0-87.4), and 183.6 (55.5-364.6) h*μg/L respectively, and the elimination half lives were 2.6 (1.8-3.8), 3.9 (0.9-10.7) and 1.8 (0.8-2.9) h, respectively. Genetic polymorphisms in genes of the drug transporters MRP2 and OATP1B1 could at least partly explain the high variability in pharmacokinetic parameters. The observed variability in catechin plasma levels might contribute to interindividual variation in benefical and adverse effects of green tea polyphenols. Our data could help to gain a better understanding of the causes of variability of green tea effects and to improve the design of studies on the effects of green tea polyphenols in different health conditions. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01360320.

  7. Monitoring of Some Pesticides Residue in Consumed tea in Tehran Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Amirahmadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea is an agricultural product of the leaves, leaf buds, and internodes of various cultivars and sub-varieties of the Camellia sinensis plant, processed and vulcanized using various methods. Tea is a main beverage in Iranian food basket so should be free from toxic elements such as pesticides residue. There is no data bank on the residue of pesticides in the consumed black tea in Iran. The present study is the first attempt for monitoring of 25 pesticide residues from different chemical groups in tea samples obtained from local markets in Tehran, I.R. Iran during the period 2011. A reliable and accurate method based on spiked calibration curve and QuEChERS sample preparation was developed for determination of pesticide residues in tea by gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The using of spiked calibration standards for constructing the calibration curve substantially reduced adverse matrix-related effects and negative recovery affected by GCB on pesticides. The recovery of pesticides at 3 concentration levels (n = 3 was in range of 81.4 - 99.4%. The method was proved to be repeatable with RSDr lower than 20%. The limits of quantification for all pesticides were <=20 ng/g. 53 samples from 17 imported and manufactured brand were analyzed. Detectable pesticides residues were found in 28.3% (15 samples of the samples. All of the positive samples were contaminated with unregulated pesticides (Endosulfan Sulfate or Bifenthrin which are established by ISIRI. None of the samples had contamination higher than maximum residue limit set by EU and India.

  8. Monitoring of some pesticides residue in consumed tea in Tehran market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamedani Morteza Pirali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tea is an agricultural product of the leaves, leaf buds, and internodes of various cultivars and sub-varieties of the Camellia sinensis plant, processed and vulcanized using various methods. Tea is a main beverage in Iranian food basket so should be free from toxic elements such as pesticides residue. There is no data bank on the residue of pesticides in the consumed black tea in Iran. The present study is the first attempt for monitoring of 25 pesticide residues from different chemical groups in tea samples obtained from local markets in Tehran, I.R. Iran during the period 2011. A reliable and accurate method based on spiked calibration curve and QuEChERS sample preparation was developed for determination of pesticide residues in tea by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The using of spiked calibration standards for constructing the calibration curve substantially reduced adverse matrix-related effects and negative recovery affected by GCB on pesticides. The recovery of pesticides at 3 concentration levels (n = 3 was in range of 81.4 - 99.4%. The method was proved to be repeatable with RSDr lower than 20%. The limits of quantification for all pesticides were ≤20 ng/g. 53 samples from 17 imported and manufactured brand were analyzed. Detectable pesticides residues were found in 28.3% (15 samples of the samples. All of the positive samples were contaminated with unregulated pesticides (Endosulfan Sulfate or Bifenthrin which are established by ISIRI. None of the samples had contamination higher than maximum residue limit set by EU and India.

  9. 9,10-Anthraquinone deposit in tea plantation might be one of the reasons for contamination in tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Zhou, Li; Luo, Fengjian; Zhang, Xinzhong; Sun, Hezhi; Yang, Mei; Lou, Zhengyun; Chen, Zongmao

    2018-04-01

    9,10-Anthraquinone (AQ) was a new contaminant, with unknown sources, occurred globally in tea. European Union (EU) fixed the maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.02mg/kg. The pollution source of AQ in tea was traced from the view of AQ deposit on tea crop by simulation. The possible contamination pathway and main factors to decrease AQ were explored in tea cultivation- tea manufacture- tea infusion, on the basis of AQ analytical methods by using solvent extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) quantification. 58.8-84.6% of AQ degraded in tea processing, and drying played a key role to reduce the AQ contamination. Certain concentration of AQ deposited on tea shoots could resulted in AQ beyond the MRL of 0.02mg/kg in tea. AQ leaching into tea brew (about 10%) could lead to the possible health risk. AQ deposit on tea crop during the tea cultivation might cause the AQ contamination in tea. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Goodbye, Mandatory Maternity Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation's Schools, 1972

    1972-01-01

    In precedent-setting decrees, courts and federal and State authorities have branded compulsory maternity leaves either unconstitutional or illegal. School administrators are urged to prod boards of education to adopt more lenient maternity leave policies -- now. (Author)

  11. Leaving home in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Skovgaard

    2015-01-01

    The paper focuses on ethnic differences in the timing and patterns of leaving the parental home. Leaving home is a key transition in the life course of the individual, and extensive research has been conducted on the timing and patterns of leaving it. However, ethnic differences in these patterns...... of leaving home. Results showed that while some differences disappeared when controlling for covariates, others persisted, thus indicating ethnic differences in home-leaving patterns. A strong link between leaving home and marriage was substantiated for Turks, but not for Somalis. The home-leaving patterns...... of Somalis were much more similar to those of Danes. Overall, Turkish descendants were similar to Turkish immigrants but with some differentiation. The analyses identified the existence of ethnic differences in home-leaving patterns but also found evidence of a shift towards less traditional patterns, i...

  12. Antimutagenicity and catechin content of soluble instant teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, A; Varga, N; Richoz, J; Stadler, R H

    1996-03-01

    The antimutagenic properties of soluble instant teas were examined using the bacterial Ames assay. Inhibition of the numbers of revertants induced from a number of known mutagens indicates that aqueous extracts of instant teas have antimutagenic activity and antioxidative properties, and can inhibit nitrosation reactions. Despite a significant reduction in the amounts of major green tea catechins, quantified using reversed-phase HPLC with electro-chemical detection, no differences in antimutagenicity were observed between the instant teas, a black fermented tea and a green tea. Oxidation of polyphenolic compounds which occurs during the production of instant tea does not therefore decrease the antioxidant, free radical scavenging and antimutagenic properties. This suggests that catechins are not the only compounds responsible for the protective effects of teas.

  13. Monitoring of essential and toxic metals in imported herbal teas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... Teas are the most consumed beverage worldwide after water, and its consumption ... Key words: Herbal teas, food safety, health risk assessment, THQ, EDI, HI, toxic metals ...

  14. Photoprotective Effect of Tea and its Extracts against Ultraviolet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ultraviolet (UV) exposure induces photodamage of skin. It is a matter of ... to the skin as well as the photoprotective effects of tea and its extracts have been highlighted. ..... storage of skin cream supplemented with green tea catechins or EGCG ...

  15. Chemical compositions and antimicrobial activities of Athrixia phylicoides DC. (bush tea), Monsonia burkeana (special tea) and synergistic effects of both combined herbal teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshivhandekano, Itani; Ntushelo, Khayalethu; Ngezimana, Wonder; Tshikalange, Thilivhali Emmanuel; Mudau, Fhatuwani Nixwell

    2014-09-01

    To determine the chemical compositions and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of bush tea (Athrixia phylicoides DC.), special tea (Monsonia burkeana) and synergy (combination of bush tea and special tea). Total polyphenols were determined using the methods reported by Singleton and Rossi (1965) and modified by Waterman and Mole (1994). Tannins were determined using vanillin HCL methods described by Prince et al. (1978). Total antioxidants were determined using the methods described by Awika et al. (2004). The micro dilution technique using 96-well micro-plates, as described by Eloff (1998) was used to obtain the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimum microbicidal concentration (MMC) values of the ethanol extracts against the microorganisms under study. The microbes strain used was Gram negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Proteus vulgaris, Serratia marcescens, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia; Gram positive bacteria such as Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and a fungus Candida albicans. The results demonstrated that special tea contains significantly higher content of total polyphenols (8.34 mg/100 g) and total antioxidant (0.83 mg/100 g) as compared to bush tea [total polyphenols (6.41 mg/100g) and total antioxidant (0.63 mg/100g)] and combination of bush tea and special tea [total polyphenols (6.42 mg/100 g) and total antioxidant (0.64 mg/100 g)]. There was no significant difference in tannins between bush tea, special tea and synergy. The results of antimicrobial activity (MIC and MMC) demonstrated that the ethanol extracts of bush tea, special tea and synergy possessed antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms at different zones. The MIC of bush tea ranged from 1.56 to 12.50 mg/mL while the MMC ranged from 0.78 to 12.50 mg/mL. Special tea's MIC ranged from 0.39 to 12.50 mg/mL while the MMC ranged from 0.01 to 12.50 mg/mL. The MIC of synergy ranged from 3.13 to 12.50 mg/mL while the MMC ranged from 3

  16. Herbal products, food supplements and teas for improvement of digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Mozūraitienė, Vilija

    2016-01-01

    Objective of the study: To examine and systematize assortment of herbal products, food supplements and teas for improvement of digestion and also to find out public opinion about herbal products, food supplements and teas for improvement of digestion using questionnaire. Aim of the study: (1) To examine which digestive tract ailments are treated most frequently herbal products, food supplements and teas. (2) To examine which herbal products, food supplements and teas are used most frequent...

  17. Effects of two medicinal plants Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) and Diospyros mespiliformis L. (Ebenaceae) leaf extracts on rat skeletal muscle cells in primary culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belemtougri, R.G.; Constantin, B.; Cognard, C.; Raymond, G.; Sawadogo, L.

    2006-01-01

    Crude decoction, aqueous and ethanolic extracts of two medicinal plants (Psidium guajava and Diospyros mespiliformis), widely used in the central plateau of Burkina Faso to treat many diseases were evaluated for their antagonistic effects on caffeine induced calcium release from sarcoplasmic reticulum of rat skeletal muscle cells. These different extracts showed a decrease of caffeine induced calcium release in a dose dependent manner. Comparison of the results showed that Psidium guajava leaf extracts are more active than extracts of Diospyros mespiliformis and that crude decoctions show better inhibitory activity. The observed results could explaine their use as antihypertensive and antidiarrhoeal agents in traditional medicine, by inhibiting intracellular calcium release. PMID:16365927

  18. DNA landmarks for genetic diversity assessment in tea genotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) is one of the most important non-alcoholic beverages of the world. Natural genetic diversity in tea has been reduced due to continue selection in favor of desirable traits. The present study was conducted to estimate genetic diversity in tea genotypes cultivated in Pakistan using 20 randomly amplified ...

  19. Nutritive value of tea (Camellia sinensis, Linn) waste for cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananthasubramaniam, C R; Menachery, M

    1977-01-01

    Tea waste, the residue of instant tea manufacturing, was subjected to feeding trails in cattle in order to find out its nutritive value. The material possesses a digestable crude protein of 9.7% and a total digestible N of 43.0%. The total tanins represented only 1.9%. Results indicated that tea waste is a potential feed source for livestock.

  20. Optimal extraction parameters of Theabrownin from Sichuan Dark Tea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sichuan Dark Tea is a popular beverage with hypolipidemic and lifting greasy properties in the minority neighborhoods of Sichuan and Tibet regions. The theabrownin, an important pigment of dark tea, has been proven for the role of the hypolipidemic property in Sichuan Dark Tea. The objective of the study ...

  1. Physico-Chemical, Microbiological Profiles of Blends of Tea and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sample of tea obtained from Mambilla, Nigeria highland was blended with mistletoe - a known medicinal parasitic plant of cocoa. The ratios of the blends were Tea(T)/Mistletoe (M) 90:10 10:90, 75:25, 25:75, and 50:50 while ordinary tea and mistletoes served as control samples. Chemical analyses of blends were done ...

  2. Formulation and Sensory Evaluation of Herb Tea from Moringa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sensory appeal of tea, like all food products, is an important consideration in new product de-velopment. Tea in general and herb tea in particular are gaining increasing consumer attention due to a growing awareness of health benefits derived from their consumption. Even though sev-eral underutilized plants exist with ...

  3. Productivity and resource use in ageing tea plantations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamau, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Kenya, Camellia sinensis L., clones, seedlings, tea industry, management, N-P-K, biomass, made tea yields.

    The tea industry in Kenya is rural-based and provides livelihood to over three million people along the value chain. The industry which started in the first quarter of the

  4. Control of media browning in micropropagation of guava (Psidium guajava L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Nafees, M.; Ashraf, I.

    2016-01-01

    Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is a highly valuable fruit of the tropical regions of the world. This species faces browning or blackening of culture medium during In vitro culture due to leaching of phenolic, microbial contagion and tissue recalcitrance. A study therefore designed to evaluate the effects of antioxidants in reduction of phenolic exudation which hampers In vitro regeneration. The nodal explants of the plant were cultured on MS media after pre-soaking in antioxidant solutions of citric acid, ascorbic acid, poly vinyl pyrrolidine (PVP) and charcoal. After culturing explants, the amount of phenolic exude was determined periodically on spectrophotometer at 750 nm absorbance. Phenolic exudation from guava was significantly reduced in nodes treated with charcoal as compared to control and rest of the treatments. Moreover, guava nodes survival percentage was also significantly increased in charcoal treated nodes. It is concluded that pre-soaking in different antioxidants significantly reduced the media browning and thus micro-propagation of guava could be achieved on commercial basis. (author)

  5. Preliminary Study on the Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Guava (Psidium Guajava L.) Fruit Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbashir, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    White fleshed guava (Psidium guajava L.) fruits were exposed to three doses of gamma irradiation (0.025, 0.05 and 0.1 kGy) to disinfest the fruit fly infestation. Irradiated fruits were tested for post-harvest qualities. Weight loss increased during the ripening period but the rate was greater in the control fruits. The irradiated fruits showed a gradual decrease in tissue firmness. TSS showed fluctuations, however, those treated with 0.1kGy showed highest TSS on the ninth day compared to control and those treated with lower doses. After the seventh day, most irradiated fruits reached peak titratable acidity values. There was a decrease in ascorbic acid content in the control fruits which was more pronounced than in those irradiated with 0.025 and 0.05kGy, however, no decrease in its content was noticed in fruits irradiated with 0.10kGy in the ninth day compared to the first day which suggests a probable preservation of ascorbic acid by gamma irradiation. No microbial infections or insect infestations were observed on the fruits treated with 0.1kGy.

  6. Penggunaan Ekstrak Daun Jambu Biji (Psidium guajava sebagai Pengawet Pindang Tongkol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Ariyani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian aplikasi ekstrak daun jambu biji (Psidium guajava untuk menghambat kemunduran mutu pindang tongkol (Scomber australasicus CV telah dilakukan. Pada penelitian ini digunakan 4 konsentrasi ekstrak daun jambu (0, 3, 6, dan 9% sebagai larutan perebus pada pengolahan pindang tongkol. Perubahan mutu ikan pindang diamati setiap 24 jam secara organoleptik, kimia (TVB, TBA dan mikrobiologi (TPC, kapang, sedangkan pengamatan terhadap perubahan asam lemak dilakukan pada ikan pindang dengan perlakuan terbaik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan ekstrak daun jambu sebagai larutan perebus pada pemindangan ikan tongkol mampu menghambat peningkatan kadar TBA dan menekan oksidasi asam lemak tidak jenuh, tetapi tidak mampu menghambat peningkatan kadar TVB dan pertumbuhan mikroorganisme selama penyimpanan pada suhu ruang. Meskipun penggunaan ekstrak daun jambu menyebabkan warna pindang cenderung menjadi lebih gelap (kecoklatan, pindang tongkol yang direbus dengan ekstrak daun jambu mempunyai intensitas bau dan rasa tengik yang sangat rendah dan tekstur yang lebih baik bila disbanding kontrol. Perlakuan ekstrak daun jambu yang paling efektif sebagai pengawet pindang tongkol dengan nilai sensori terbaik adalah perlakuan ekstrak daun jambu pada konsentrasi 9%.

  7. Hydroethanolic extract of Psidium guajava leaf for induced osteoarthritis using a guinea pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanideh, N; Zare, Z; Jamshidzadeh, A; Lotfi, M; Azarpira, Negar; Sepehrimanesh, M; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, O

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the therapeutic effects of an extract of Psidium guajava (guava) leaf on experimentally induced osteoarthritis in guinea pig. The left knee of 30 male guinea pigs was anesthetized and the cranial cruciate ligament was severed. The animals were followed for 8 weeks until osteoarthritis was confirmed by radiography and histopathology. Animals were divided randomly into five groups; group 1, the ligament was severed and untreated; group 2, the ligament was severed and treated with piascledine, an extract of soybean and avocado; group 3, the ligament was severed and treated with 200 mg/kg hydroethanolic extract of guava; group 4, the ligament was severed and treated with 400 mg/kg hydroethanolic extract of guava; and group 5, control animals without surgery or extracts. Radiological and histopathological evaluations after 8 weeks showed reduced severity of osteoarthritis in the piascledine treatment group compared to group 1. The guava extract also reduce the severity of osteoarthritis compared to controls. Histopathological examination of treatment and control groups showed that treatment the guava extract improved lesions significantly. Hydroethanolic extracts of guava leaf appears to prevent osteoarthritis by inhibition of free radical formation in the knee joint.

  8. Renal protective effects of extracts from guava fruit (Psidium guajava L.) in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Yu; Lin, Chia-Yun; Yin, Mei-Chin

    2012-09-01

    This study analyzed the content of phenolic acids and flavonoids in extracts of guava fruit (Psidium guajava L.), and examined the renal protective effects of guava aqueous extract (GAE) and ethanol extract (GEE) in diabetic mice. GAE had more caffeic acid, myricetin, and quercetin; and GEE had more cinnamic, coumaric and ferulic acids. GAE or GEE at 1 and 2 % was supplied in diet for 12 weeks. GAE or GEE intake at 2 % significantly reduced glucose and blood urea nitrogen levels, increased insulin level in plasma of diabetic mice (p < 0.05). GAE or GEE treatments dose-dependently reserved glutathione content, retained activity of catalase and glutathione peroxidase, and decreased reactive oxygen species, interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-1β levels in kidney (p < 0.05). GAE and GEE treatments at 2 % significantly declined renal N (ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine, pentosidine and fructose levels (p < 0.05), and suppressed renal activity of aldose reductase (p < 0.05). These findings support that guava fruit could protect kidney against diabetic progression via its anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-glycative effects.

  9. Psidium guajava: A Single Plant for Multiple Health Problems of Rural Indian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daswani, Poonam G; Gholkar, Manasi S; Birdi, Tannaz J

    2017-01-01

    The rural population in India faces a number of health problems and often has to rely on local remedies. Psidium guajava Linn. (guava), a tropical plant which is used as food and medicine can be used by rural communities due to its several medicinal properties. A literature search was undertaken to gauge the rural health scenario in India and compile the available literature on guava so as to reflect its usage in the treatment of multiple health conditions prevalent in rural communities. Towards this, electronic databases such as Pubmed, Science Direct, google scholar were scanned. Information on clinical trials on guava was obtained from Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Clinicaltrial.gov. The literature survey revealed that guava possesses various medicinal properties which have been reported from across the globe in the form of ethnobotanical/ethnopharmacological surveys, laboratory investigations and clinical trials. Besides documenting the safety of guava, the available literature shows that guava is efficacious against the following conditions which rural communities would encounter. (a) Gastrointestinal infections; (b) Malaria; (c)Respiratory infections; (d) Oral/dental infections; (e) Skin infections; (f) Diabetes; (g) Cardiovascular/hypertension; (h) Cancer; (i) Malnutrition; (j) Women problems; (k) Pain; (l) Fever; (m) Liver problems; (n) Kidney problems. In addition, guava can also be useful for treatment of animals and explored for its commercial applications. In conclusion, popularization of guava, can have multiple applications for rural communities.

  10. Antimicrobial Effects of Psidium Guajava Extract as One Mechanism of its Antidiarrhoeal Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutterodt, G.D.; Ismail, A.; Basheer, R.H.; Baharudin, H. Mohd.

    1999-01-01

    A morphine-like spasmolytic action (not naloxone reversible; involving the inhibition of acetylcholine release) and also effects on the transmural transport of electrolytes (Na+ and K+) and water have been reported as possible modes of the antidiarrhoeal action of polar fractions of Psidium guajava leaf extractives. The objective for this study was to verify if the reported modes of the antidiarrhoeal action should be broadened to include direct antimicrobial actions on some of the more common bacteria known to cause toxin-induced acute diarrhoea. Serial dilutions of a water-soluble, freeze-dried methanolic extract were tested on 10 such organisms, grown separately on nutrient agar plates, to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for each of these bacteria. These included the causative agents for (i) enteric fever (Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi A, Salmonella paratyphi B and Salmonella paratyphi C), (ii) food poisoning (Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus), (iii) dysentery (Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei), and (iv) cholera (Vibrio cholerae). The growth of all these organisms was inhibited at the MIC of 10mg/ml of the extract, which is equivalent to 2.5μg/ml of active extractable flavonoids. The most sensitive organisms (MIC = 1mg/ml) were Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae and Shigella flexneri. PMID:22589684

  11. Epiphitic microbiote and fungi contaminats from in vitro establishment of guajaba (Psidium guajava L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Acosta-Suárez

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The studying of contaminats micobiote on guajaba (Psidium guajava L. could help for creating schedule treatment of donator plants and its explants to eliminate or prevent the fungi contamination during guajaba micropropagation. The present work were focused on: qualitative evaluation of epiphytic micobiote from explants of Enana Roja cubana EEA 18-40 plants (treated and not treated with fungicide, to isolate, characterize and identify the filamentous fungi from in vitro establishment of nodal segments. For the filamentous identification was used the wet chamber method and preparations were observed in optic microscopic. PDA Petri dishes were used to cultivate the filamentous fungi at 28ºC and dark during 7 to 14 days. The cultural and morphological characteristics were used to identifying each isolate. Nine filamentous fungi genera were identify on donator plants without any fungicide application, the principal genera’s were: Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Curvularia, Fusarium, Nigrospora, Penicillium and Trichoderma. The application of Mancozeb 80 PH (7.5g.l-1 and Benomyl 50 PH (4g.l-1 was not effective on epiphytic contaminants micobiote elimination. All these genera’s with the exception of Nigrospora were detected during the establishment of nodal segments. However the disinfection with hypochlorite at 3% for 10 minutes and HgCl2 solution at 0.05% and 0.1% could reduced the 50% of al contaminates genera’s. Key words: micropropagation, microbiote contamination,filamentous fungi, surface dessinfectants.

  12. IoT based Growth Monitoring System of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamet, W.; Irham, N. M.; Sutan, M. S. A.

    2018-05-01

    Growth monitoring of plant is important especially to evaluate the influence of environment or growing condition on its productivity. One way to monitor the plant growth is by measuring the radial growth (i.e., the change of circumference) of certain part of plant such as trunk, branch, and fruit. In this study we develop an internet of things (IoT) based monitoring system of radial growth of plant using a low-cost optoelectronic sensor. The system was applied to monitor radial growth of guava fruits (Psidium guajava L.). The principle of the developed sensor is based on the optoelectronic sensor which detects alternating white and black narrow bar printed on reflective tapes. Reflective tape was installed encircling the fruit. The movement of reflective tapes will follow the radial growth of the fruit so that the infrared sensor on the optoelectronic would response reflective tapes movement. This device is designed to measure object continuously and long-term monitor with minimum maintenance. The data collected by the sensors are then sent to the server and also can be monitored in real-time. Based on field test, at current stage, the developed sensor could measure the radial growth of the fruits with a maximum error 2 mm. In term of data transfer, the success rate of the developed system was 97.54%. The result indicated that the developed system can be used as an effective tool for growth monitoring of plant.

  13. Chemical composition, fatty acid profile and bioactive compounds of guava seeds (Psidium guajava L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Athayde Uchôa-thomaz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the chemical composition, determine the fatty acid profile, and quantify the bioactive compounds present in guava seed powder (Psidium guajava L.. The powder resulted from seeds obtained from guava pulp processing. The agro-industrial seeds from red guava cv. paluma were used, and they were donated by a frozen pulp fruit manufacturer. They contain varying amounts of macronutrients and micronutrients, with a high content of total dietary fiber (63.94 g/100g, protein (11.19 g/100g, iron (13.8 mg/100g, zinc (3.31 mg/100g, and reduced calorie content (182 kcal/100g. Their lipid profile showed a predominance of unsaturated fatty acids (87.06%, especially linoleic acid (n6 and oleic acid (n9. The powder obtained contained significant amounts of bioactive compounds such as ascorbic acid (87.44 mg/100g, total carotenoids (1.25 mg/100 g and insoluble dietary fiber (63.55 g/100g. With regard to their microbiological quality, the samples were found suitable for consumption. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the powder produced has favorable attributes for industrial use, and that use of these seeds would be a viable alternative to prevent various diseases and malnutrition in our country and to reduce the environmental impact of agricultural waste.

  14. Poppy tea drinking in East Anglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, M; O'Regan, T; Aust, P; Stockford, A

    1990-10-01

    Poppy tea drinking was a widespread traditional practice in the Fenlands of East Anglia during the nineteenth century. The subsequent social changes which led to greater integration of the area with the rest of the country may have contributed to a decline in the practice. In recent years poppy tea drinking has been revived within the illicit drug using community and a survey using a self-report questionnaire was carried out among patients attending the Cambridge Drug Dependency Unit. Forty-three patients admitted to drinking poppy tea, usually during the summer months and on an intermittent basis. The potency of the infusion varied and was unpredictable but in general was low. Although poisoning from herbicides and pesticides was seen as the main risk, it is in the main perceived by drug users as a harmless secondary activity existing alongside the more regular and more potent drugs of misuse.

  15. Efeitos do ácido indolbutírico e da época de coleta no enraizamento de estacas de goiabeira (Psidium guajava L. Effects of indolebutiric acid and of collection date on the rooting of guava cuttings (Psidium guajava L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. W. Tavares

    1995-08-01

    on the rooting of apical and mid cuttings of guava (Psidium guajava L.. Two clones were used, one of white flesh and another of red flesh fruits. The cuttings were collected from the trees at four times: February, April, June and October of 1993. Apical cuttings with two leaves and mid part branch cuttings with four halfleaves, both 15 cm long, were treated with 0, 4000, 5000, 6000 or 7000 ppm of IBA as a powder mixture, introducing 1 cm of their basal end In the mixture containing IBA. After treatement the cuttings were planted in plastic bags containg ash of rice husk as substrate and kept in greenhouse under mist conditions. The experimental design was of randomized complete block with three replications and 12 cuttings per plot After a 60 day period the cuttings were evaluated for the percentage of rooted cuttings, with calus, with new leaves and root dry weight per cutting. The date of cutting had significant effects on all data. The highest percentage of rooted cuttings (51,52% was observed on cuttings collected in February. Sprouting did not affect rooting. IBA treatments only increased dry weight of roots per cutting and percentage of rooting. There was a difference between the two clones with respect to the percentage of rooted cuttings and of sprouting, that were higher for the white flesh clone than for the red flesh clone, for the cuttings collected in October.

  16. Pyrrolizidine and tropane alkaloids in teas and the herbal teas peppermint, rooibos and chamomile in the Israeli market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimshoni, Jakob Avi; Duebecke, Arne; Mulder, Patrick P J; Cuneah, Olga; Barel, Shimon

    2015-01-01

    Dehydro pyrrolizidine alkaloids (dehydro PAs) are carcinogenic phytotoxins prevalent in the Boraginaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae families. Dehydro PAs enter the food and feed chain by co-harvesting of crops intended for human and animal consumption as well as by carry-over into animal-based products such as milk, eggs and honey. Recently the occurrence of dehydro PAs in teas and herbal teas has gained increasing attention from the EU, due to the high levels of dehydro PAs found in commercially available teas and herbal teas in Germany and Switzerland. Furthermore, several tropane alkaloids (TAs, e.g. scopolamine and hyoscyamine) intoxications due to the consumption of contaminated herbal teas were reported in the literature. The aim of the present study was to determine the dehydro PAs and TAs levels in 70 pre-packed teabags of herbal and non-herbal tea types sold in supermarkets in Israel. Chamomile, peppermint and rooibos teas contained high dehydro PAs levels in almost all samples analysed. Lower amounts were detected in black and green teas, while no dehydro PAs were found in fennel and melissa herbal teas. Total dehydro PAs concentrations in chamomile, peppermint and rooibos teas ranged from 20 to 1729 μg/kg. Except for black tea containing only mono-ester retrorsine-type dehydro PAs, all other teas and herbal teas showed mixed patterns of dehydro PA ester types, indicating a contamination by various weed species during harvesting and/or production. The TA levels per teabag were below the recommended acute reference dose; however, the positive findings of TAs in all peppermint tea samples warrant a more extensive survey. The partially high levels of dehydro PAs found in teas and herbal teas present an urgent warning letter to the regulatory authorities to perform routine quality control analysis and implement maximum residual levels for dehydro PAs.

  17. Elemental PIXE analysis of oolong tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, M.; Ishii, K.; Matsuyama, S.

    2008-01-01

    The contamination of heavy metals in food becomes a serious problem. We analyzed oolong tea from different production areas by PIXE using very simple sample preparation and examined trace elements contained in these samples. From the results of this experiment, we could know oolong tea which analyzed in this experiment contains various minerals such as K, Ca, P, S, Cl, Fe, Mn, Cu and Cr but not toxic element of As which detection limit of PIXE was lower than the standard values given by the food hygiene law in Japan. (author)

  18. Costus spicatus tea failed to improve diabetic progression in C57BLKS/J db/db mice, a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Amy C; Vandebroek, Ina; Liu, Youping; Balick, Michael J; Kronenberg, Fredi; Kennelly, Edward J; Brillantes, Anne-Marie B

    2009-01-21

    Costus spicatus Sw. (Costaceae) is a prominent medicinal herb used by Dominicans in the Dominican Republic and the United States for the treatment of diabetes, a growing epidemic in the Hispanic community. An ethnobotanical survey of the Dominican community in New York City revealed the popular use of a tea from the insulina plant to treat hyperglycemia. Insulina was identified as Costus spicatus. We tested the ability of a tea made from the leaves of Costus spicatus to alter glucose homeostasis in C57BLKS/J (KS) db/db mice, a model of obesity-induced hyperglycemia with progressive beta cell depletion. From 6 to 16 weeks of age, Experimental and Control animals (n=6/5) were given ad lib access to Costus spicatus tea or water, respectively. Weight gain and progression of hyperglycemia and insulinopenia between the Experimental and Control groups were statistically indistinguishable. There was no difference between groups in average fed or fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Intraperitoneal (IP) insulin tolerance testing after the 10-week study period showed that Costus spicatus tea consumption did not alter insulin sensitivity. These data suggest that at the dose given, tea made from Costus spicatus leaves had no efficacy in the treatment of obesity-induced hyperglycemia. More investigation is needed to more fully explore dosages and the possible utility and biological activity of this common Dominican herbal remedy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  19. Changes in some biophysical and biochemical parameters of mungbean [vigna radiata (L.) wilczek] grown on chromium-contaminated soils treated with solid tea wastage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmat, R.; Akhtar, H.

    2010-01-01

    The success of solid tea wastage treatment technology in remediating chromium (111) contamination in the soil has been demonstrated on growth of Vigna radiata. The present research was designed to study the effect of chromium (Cr3/sup +/) on plant growth, potassium (K), phosphorus (P), protease activity and proline profile of Vigna radiata as a bio indicator in the presence and absence of the solid tea surface as a bio sorbent to control the mobility of Cr3/sup +/ in the soil. Results showed toxic effects of Cr3/ sup +/ on plant growth and development, which include high protease activity with prominent proline and decreased potassium and phosphorus contents at elevated concentration of metal. Proline content is the only amino acid that accumulates to a greater extent in the leaves of plants under stress. An increase in proline contents in leaves, stem and root with high concentration of Cr3/s sup +/ gets reduced in a solid tea wastage amended plants. Metabolic alteration by Cr3/ sup +/exposure and their control by solid tea wastage already described in the first report, showed direct effect on enzymes or other metabolites or by its ability to generate reactive oxygen species which may cause oxidative stress. It is suggested that the plant can grow under chromium stress if some suitable adsorbent (like tea wastage) is mixed with the soil which can protect the plants from the phyto toxicity of Cr 3/sup +/ by altering various metabolic processes. (author)

  20. Chemical composition, toxicity and antioxidant activities of essential oils of stem bark of Nigerian species of guava (Psidium guajava Linn.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasola, Taiye R.; Oloyede, Ganiyat Kehinde; Aponjolosun, Babalola S.

    2011-01-01

    Essential oil from the stem bark of Nigerian species of Psidium guajava of the family Myrtaceae was obtained by hydro-distillation using an all-glass Clavenger apparatus. GC and GC/MS analysis were carried out on the essential oil and was found to contain 62 compounds constituting 99.98 % of the total oil composition. The principal constituents are hydrocarbons, amines, amides and esters with 3,6-dioxa-2,4,5,7-tetraoctane,2,2,4,4,5,5,7,7-octamethyl (11.67 %) and cyclononane (10.66 %) dominating the total essential oil. Brine shrimp lethality test was carried out to determine the toxicity of the oils to living organisms (shrimps). LC50 value (µg/ml) of 1.0009 obtained showed that the essential oil of P. guajava stem bark was toxic. The antioxidant property of essential oil was investigated by measuring the decrease in absorption at 517 nm of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) in a UV/visible spectrophotometer. The oil showed better activity as a radical scavenger than α-tocopherol. The oil activity was 71.83 % at 0.2 mg/ml and the absorption is stoichiometric with respect to the number of electron taken up. Thus, the results of this study showed that the essential oil from P. guajava was not only toxic; it possessed antioxidant activity, which could exert beneficial actions against pathological alterations caused by the presence of highly reactive free radicals. The toxicity of the oil can be taken advantage of in the therapy of diseases involving cell or tumor growth. PMID:27857663

  1. Measurement of N uptake efficiency at various age of tea plant using isotope technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wibowo, Z.S.; Rachmiati, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Three months experiment to determine the efficiency of N uptake by tea plant of various age was conducted. The experiment was carried out on Andosols soil and the chosen plants were groupen in 1-5, 6-15, 16-30, 31-60 and 60 years old. The experiment used urea fertilizer enriched by 2% 15-N atom, excess. Urea of the rate of 23 kg N/ha was given in one application in the form of solution. The 15-N assay was done weekly for young shoots, old leaves, stalks, and branches. Results of the experiment showed that N uptake of tea plant increased significantly after two weeks upto five weeks of N application. The efficiency of N uptake accumulated in the plucked leaves was the highest in the plant of 6-15 years old. The N uptake efficiency of the other groups of plant was nearly equal. The uptake of N-fertilizer accumulated in pruning materials of the older plant was higher than in the younger one. It proved that the absorbed N in the older plant was mostly used for old leaves and wood development. (author). 4 refs.; 1 fig.; 3 tabs

  2. Studies on aluminium leaching from cookware in tea and coffee and estimation of aluminium content in toothpaste, baking powder and paan masala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajwanshi, P; Singh, V; Gupta, M K; Kumari, V; Shrivastav, R; Ramanamurthy, M; Dass, S

    1997-01-30

    Studies were conducted in order to assess the level of aluminium (Al) in samples of Indian tea, coffee, toothpaste, paan masala (mouth freshener) and baking powder. Leaching of Al from cookware while preparing tea and coffee was also studied. Experiments were also conducted to study the sequential leaching of Al from cookware by preparing tea and coffee in the presence of standard size Al sheets (coupons). A small amount of Al was found to have leached from coupons during preparation of tea. Tea leaves, were found to be a rich source of Al and a maximum of 2.2% Al is extracted in tea infusions. Coffee powder on the other hand was not found to be a rich source of Al. Baking powder was found to be a rich source of Al and 1 kg of cake prepared with 1-3 teaspoon of baking powder may contain 2-12.7 mg of Al in each serving (25 g). Toothpaste also contains a significant quantity of Al, more so, when packed in Al tubes. Ingestion pattern of Al from these items by humans is also discussed.

  3. Functional Characterization of Salicylic Acid Carboxyl Methyltransferase from Camellia sinensis, Providing the Aroma Compound of Methyl Salicylate during the Withering Process of White Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei-Wei; Wang, Rongxiu; Yang, Tianyuan; Jiang, Li'na; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu

    2017-12-20

    Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is one of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that releases floral scent and plays an important role in the sweet flowery aroma of tea. During the withering process for white tea producing, MeSA was generated by salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (SAMT) with salicylic acid (SA), and the specific floral scent was formed. In this study, we first cloned a CsSAMT from tea leaves (GenBank accession no. MG459470) and used Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to express the recombinant CsSAMT. The enzyme activity in prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems was identified, and the protein purification, substrate specificity, pH, and temperature optima were investigated. It was shown that CsSAMT located in the chloroplast, and the gene expression profiles were quite different in tea organs. The obtained results might give a new understanding for tea aroma formation, optimization, and regulation and have great significance for improving the specific quality of white tea.

  4. Effect of various teas on color stability of resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinç Ata, Gül; Gokay, Osman; Müjdeci, Arzu; Kivrak, Tugba Congara; Mokhtari Tavana, Armin

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the effect of various teas on color stability of resin composites. Two methacrylate-based (Arabesk Top, Grandio) and a silorane-based (Filtek Silorane) resin composites were used. 110 cylindrical samples of each resin composite were prepared (2 mm thickness and 8 mm diameter), polished and stored in distilled water (37°C for 24 hours). They were randomly divided into 11 groups (n= 10) and color measurements were taken. Then the samples were immersed in tap water (control), a black tea, a green tea or one of the eight herbal-fruit teas (37°C for 1 week) and subsequently subjected to the final color measurements. The color change of samples (ΔE*) was calculated, data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD tests. Teas, resin composites and their interactions were significant (P= 0.000). All the teas and control caused color changes in all three resin composites. Rosehip tea caused the most color changes, while tap water showed the least in all resin composites. Arabesk Top had the most staining potential in all the teas and control, whereas Filtek Silorane was the most stain resistant except Grandio immersed in sage tea. Color stability of all resin composites used were affected from both structure of resin materials and constituents of teas used. All resin composites were susceptible to staining by all teas especially rosehip tea. Arabesk Top composite showed the greatest color susceptibility in all teas and Filtek Silorane the least with one exception. Color of resin composites can be negatively affected from teas consumed. Clinicians should advise patients that drinking different kind of teas could intensify surface staining of resin based restorations.

  5. Exploratory Characterization of Phenolic Compounds with Demonstrated Anti-Diabetic Activity in Guava Leaves at Different Oxidation States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elixabet Díaz-de-Cerio

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Psidium guajava L. is widely used like food and in folk medicine all around the world. Many studies have demonstrated that guava leaves have anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities, among others, and that these activities belong mainly to phenolic compounds, although it is known that phenolic composition in guava tree varies throughout seasonal changes. Andalusia is one of the regions in Europe where guava is grown, thus, the aim of this work was to study the phenolic compounds present in Andalusian guava leaves at different oxidation states (low, medium, and high. The phenolic compounds in guava leaves were determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS. The results obtained by chromatographic analysis reported that guava leaves with low degree of oxidation had a higher content of flavonols, gallic, and ellagic derivatives compared to the other two guava leaf samples. Contrary, high oxidation state guava leaves reported the highest content of cyanidin-glucoside that was 2.6 and 15 times higher than guava leaves with medium and low oxidation state, respectively. The QTOF platform permitted the determination of several phenolic compounds with anti-diabetic properties and provided new information about guava leaf phenolic composition that could be useful for nutraceutical production.

  6. Exploratory Characterization of Phenolic Compounds with Demonstrated Anti-Diabetic Activity in Guava Leaves at Different Oxidation States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-de-Cerio, Elixabet; Verardo, Vito; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-05-11

    Psidium guajava L. is widely used like food and in folk medicine all around the world. Many studies have demonstrated that guava leaves have anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities, among others, and that these activities belong mainly to phenolic compounds, although it is known that phenolic composition in guava tree varies throughout seasonal changes. Andalusia is one of the regions in Europe where guava is grown, thus, the aim of this work was to study the phenolic compounds present in Andalusian guava leaves at different oxidation states (low, medium, and high). The phenolic compounds in guava leaves were determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS. The results obtained by chromatographic analysis reported that guava leaves with low degree of oxidation had a higher content of flavonols, gallic, and ellagic derivatives compared to the other two guava leaf samples. Contrary, high oxidation state guava leaves reported the highest content of cyanidin-glucoside that was 2.6 and 15 times higher than guava leaves with medium and low oxidation state, respectively. The QTOF platform permitted the determination of several phenolic compounds with anti-diabetic properties and provided new information about guava leaf phenolic composition that could be useful for nutraceutical production.

  7. Exploratory Characterization of Phenolic Compounds with Demonstrated Anti-Diabetic Activity in Guava Leaves at Different Oxidation States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-de-Cerio, Elixabet; Verardo, Vito; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Psidium guajava L. is widely used like food and in folk medicine all around the world. Many studies have demonstrated that guava leaves have anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities, among others, and that these activities belong mainly to phenolic compounds, although it is known that phenolic composition in guava tree varies throughout seasonal changes. Andalusia is one of the regions in Europe where guava is grown, thus, the aim of this work was to study the phenolic compounds present in Andalusian guava leaves at different oxidation states (low, medium, and high). The phenolic compounds in guava leaves were determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS. The results obtained by chromatographic analysis reported that guava leaves with low degree of oxidation had a higher content of flavonols, gallic, and ellagic derivatives compared to the other two guava leaf samples. Contrary, high oxidation state guava leaves reported the highest content of cyanidin-glucoside that was 2.6 and 15 times higher than guava leaves with medium and low oxidation state, respectively. The QTOF platform permitted the determination of several phenolic compounds with anti-diabetic properties and provided new information about guava leaf phenolic composition that could be useful for nutraceutical production. PMID:27187352

  8. Psidium guajava L. and Psidium brownianum Mart ex DC.: Chemical composition and anti - Candida effect in association with fluconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana B; Sales, Débora L; Carneiro, Joara Nalyda P; Machado, Antonio Júdson T; Dos Santos, Antonia Thassya L; de Freitas, Maria Audilene; Martins, Gioconda Morais de A Bezerra; Leite, Nadghia Figueiredo; de Matos, Yedda Maria L S; Tintino, Saulo R; Souza, Djair S L; Menezes, Irwin R A; Ribeiro-Filho, Jaime; Costa, José G M; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2016-06-01

    The therapeutic combinations have been increasingly used against fungal resistance. Natural products have been evaluated in combination with pharmaceutical drugs in the search for new components able to work together in order to neutralize the multiple resistance mechanisms found in yeasts from the genus Candida. The aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts from Psidium brownianum Mart ex DC. and Psidium guajava L. species were evaluated for their potential to change the effect of commercial pharmaceutical drugs against Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis strains. The tests were performed according to the broth microdilution method. Plate readings were carried out by spectrophotometry, and the data generated the cell viability curve and IC50 of the extracts against the yeasts. A chemical analysis of all the extracts was performed for detection and characterization of the secondary metabolites. The total phenols were quantified in gallic acid eq/g of extract (GAE/g) and the phenolic composition of the extracts was determined by HPLC. Fluconazole and all extracts presented high Minimum Inhibitories Concentrations (MICs). However, when associated with the extracts at sub-inhibitory concentrations (MIC/16), fluconazole had its effect potentiated. A synergistic effect was observed in the combination of fluconazole with Psidium brownianum extracts against all Candida strains. However, for Psidium guajava extracts the synergistic effect was produced mainly against the Candida albicans LM77 and Candida tropicalis INCQS 400042 strains. The IC50 values of fluconazole ranged from 19.22 to 68.1 μg/mL when it was used alone, but from 2.2 to 45.4 μg/mL in the presence of the extracts. The qualitative chemical characterization demonstrated the presence of phenols, flavonoids and tannins among the secondary metabolites. The concentration of total phenols ranged from 49.25 to 80.77 GAE/g in the P. brownianum extracts and from 68.06 to 82.18 GAE/g in the P. guajava extracts

  9. Preliminary criteria for the handling of radioactive tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezemre, A.Y.

    1993-01-01

    Two years after the Chernobyl accident, tea plantations in northeastern Turkey, at Rize and its surroundings especially, were affected by radioactive fallout. As a radiological countermeasure, the turkish Atomic energy commission (AEC) was called in before tea packing and set up a maximum permissible limit of 12,500 Bq/kg for dry tea in the market; 58,078 t of radioactive tea (≥ 25,000 Bq/kg) were set apart as radioactive waste. In its concern to determine the best solution about the handling of radioactive tea and considering the national conditions, the AEC developed four preliminary criteria that led to select the burial option. (author)

  10. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in tea (Japanese tea); from May 1980 to Jun. 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Five hundred grams of manufactured green tea was collected, carbonized and ashed in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish. The results obtained from May 1980 to June 1980 were shown in a table. (J.P.N.)

  11. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  12. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  13. Assessment of Culturable Tea Rhizobacteria Isolated from Tea Estates of Assam, India for Growth Promotion in Commercial Tea Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Jintu; Handique, Pratap J.; Thakur, Debajit

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, 217 rhizobacterial isolates were obtained from six different tea estates of Assam, India and subjected to preliminary in vitro plant growth promotion (PGP) screening for indole acetic acid (IAA) production, phosphate solubilization, siderophore production and ammonia production. Fifty isolates showed all the PGP traits and five isolates did not exhibit any PGP traits. These 50 potential isolates were further analyzed for quantitative estimation of the PGP traits along with the aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, protease and cellulose production. After several rounds of screening, four rhizobacteria were selected based on their maximum ability to produce in vitro PGP traits and their partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that they belong to Enterobacter lignolyticus strain TG1, Burkholderia sp. stain TT6, Bacillus pseudomycoides strain SN29 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain KH45. To evaluate the efficacy of these four rhizobacteria as plant growth promoters, three different commercially important tea clones TV1, TV19, and TV20 plants were inoculated with these rhizobacteria in greenhouse condition and compared to the uninoculated control plants. Though, all the rhizobacterial treatments showed an increase in plant growth compared to control but the multivariate PCA analysis confirmed more growth promotion by TG1 and SN29 strains than the other treatments in all three clones. To validate this result, the fold change analysis was performed and it revealed that the tea clone TV19 plants inoculated with the E. lignolyticus strain TG1 showed maximum root biomass production with an increase in 4.3-fold, shoot biomass with increase in 3.1-fold, root length by 2.2-fold and shoot length by 1.6-fold. Moreover, two way ANOVA analysis also revealed that rhizobacterial treatment in different tea clones showed the significant increase (P biofertilizer for growth promotion of tea crops. PMID:26617590

  14. Metaphysics of the tea ceremony: a randomized trial investigating the roles of intention and belief on mood while drinking tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiah, Yung-Jong; Radin, Dean

    2013-01-01

    This study explored whether drinking tea "treated" with good intentions would enhance mood more than drinking ordinary tea, under double-blind, randomized conditions. Each evening, for seven days in a row, volunteers recorded their mood using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire. On days three, four, and five of the test, each participant drank 600 mL of oolong tea in the morning and again in the afternoon. One randomly assigned group blindly received tea that had been intentionally treated by three Buddhist monks; the other group blindly received untreated tea from the same source. On the last day of the test, each person indicated what type of tea he/she believed he/she had been drinking. Stratified, random sampling was used to assign 189 adults into two groups matched by age, gender, the psychological trait of neuroticism, and the amount of tea consumed on average per day. All participants were Taiwanese and lived in Kaohsiung, Taiwan, and the test was conducted over the course of one week to reduce mood fluctuations due to changes in local weather and other common influences. Those who drank treated tea showed a greater increase in mood than those who drank untreated tea (Cohen's d = 0.65, P = .02, two-tailed). Change in mood in those who believed that they were drinking treated tea was much better than those who did not believe (Cohen's d = 1.45, P = .00002, two-tailed). Tea treated with good intentions improved mood more than ordinary tea derived from the same source. Belief that one was drinking treated tea produced a large improvement in mood, but only if one was actually drinking the treated tea, indicating that belief and intentional enhancement interact. This also suggests that the esthetic and intentional qualities associated with the traditional tea ceremony may have subtle influences that extend beyond the ritual itself. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of Agricultural Water Productivity for Tea Production in Tea Fields of Guilan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kourosh majdsalimi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Water productivity index is one of the main factors in efficient use of water for agricultural products. In this study, the rate of water productivity (WP in six irrigated tea fields and three rainfed (no irrigation were assessed by farmer’s management for two years (2009-2010. Yield of each tea field in successive harvests, soil moisture monitoring by gravimetric soil and use of water balance equation was conducted during the growing seasons. Volume of water entered to irrigation system and amount of water reached to surface level were also measured. Tea mean yield in irrigated and rainfed field were 2843 and 1095 Kg. ha-1, respectively. Average of gross irrigation and effective rainfall (WP and irrigation water productivity (IWP in the irrigated fields were 4.39 and 4.55 kg (made tea ha-1 mm-1 and average of net WP (actual evaportanspiration and net IWP was 5.18 and 6.61 kg ha-1 mm-1, respectively. Average WP in rainfed tea fields was 3.4 kg ha-1 for each mm of effective rainfall. The most effective factors on WP reduction in tea fields were improper harvesting operations (un standard plucking and economic problems. Moreover, improper operation and maintenance and old irrigation systems and unprincipled irrigation scheduling in irrigated tea fields were also effective on WP reduction. Comparing the results of this study with other studies in past, showed that by implementing the proper methods in irrigation management and appropriate agricultural practices can improve water productivity in tea fields.

  16. Tea shoot production in relation to rainfall, solar radiation, and temperature in Pagilaran tea estate, Batang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yudono, P.

    2000-01-01

    Tea shoot production pattern in PT Pagilaran tea estate, Batang, is studied in relation to rainfall, solar radiation, and temperature. Pagilaran tea estate is located at 700-1,500 m above the sea level, with temperature of 15-30 deg. C and rainfall ranging from 4,500 mm to 7,000 mm per year. However, the area is also characterized by two up to three dry months for every three years. Monthly data of rainfall, solar radiation, and temperature were collected and were related to tea shoot production using correlation and regression analysis. The results indicated that there was no significant different pattern of tea shoot production form the three estate units (Kayulandak, Pagilaran, and Andongsili). Monthly shoots production increases during October up to December, and then goes down in January up to February. It fluctuated at a lesser degree in the upper units (Kayulandak and Andongsili) which might be attributed to better soil moisture available in the area. They are right below a forests area which understandably serves as rainfall catchment area and maintains soil moisture of the area below in a better condition. Weak to moderate correlation was obtained when monthly tea shoot production was correlated to amount of rainfall (r = -0.3771), days of rainfall (r = -0.3512), maximum temperature (r = -0.3502), minimum temperature (r = -0.2786), and solar radiation (r=0.6607) of the same month. On regressing monthly tea shoot production to those variables, rainfall and duration of solar radiation turned out to be the two significant factors through the following equation y = 759.5616-0.1802 xi-1 + 0.1057 xi-2 + 0.5239 zi-1 (R at the power of 2 = 0.3398), where y = tea shoots production, x=amount of monthly rainfall, z=duration of solar radiation, and i refer to month [in

  17. Tea and cancer prevention: an evaluation of the epidemiologic literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmeier, L; Weterings, K G; Steck, S; Kok, F J

    1997-01-01

    Animal and in vitro studies provide evidence of an anticarcinogenic potential of active ingredients in teas. This review encompasses epidemiologic studies of stomach, colon, and lung cancer as well as the evidence of a relationship between tea drinking and cancer at large in humans. Cohort studies do not suggest a protective role for tea drinking in the total risk of cancer. Site-specific studies reveal a more complex picture. The epidemiologic studies on tea drinking and stomach cancer do not justify claims of a cancer-protective effect. A protective effect of green tea on the development of colon cancer is suggested. The evidence regarding black tea is less clear, with some indication of a risk of colon or rectal cancer associated with regular use of black tea. The studies on tea and lung cancer also suggest an increased risk with increased tea consumption. The range and crude categorization of tea consumption, choice of control groups, and inadequate control for confounding might have obscured possible relationships. From the limited studies that suggest a favorable effect from tea, it is likely that benefits are restricted to high intakes in high-risk populations.

  18. Effects of Exogenous Enzymatic Treatment During Processing on the Sensory Quality of Summer Tieguanyin Oolong Tea from the Chinese Anxi County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Bo Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to att enuate the bitt er taste and improve the aroma of the summer tieguanyin oolong tea from the Chinese Anxi county, the eff ects of processing treatment with exogenous laccase and α-galactosidase on tea sensory quality and related compounds were investigated. The solutio ns of laccase and/or α-galactosidase were sprayed on the tea leaves before the fi rst drying process. The sensory evaluation results showed that the sensory quality of the tea was signifi cantly enhanced with the enzymatic treatment. The combined application of laccase a t 8.25 and α- galactosidase at 22 U per kg of fresh tea shoots achieved the most satisfying sensory quality. Further analysis of fl avour-related constituents was carried out by HPLC and GC-MS. The HPLC analysis showed that the contents of catechins and total polyphen ols were reduced, compared to the untreated group, by 11.9 and 13.3 % respectively, and the total soluble sugars and water extract content were increased by 19.4 and 6.6 % respectively, aft er the treatment with both enzymes. The decrease of catechins and total polyphenols reduced the bitt erness and astringency of the summer tea, while the increase of total soluble sugars and water extract content improved the sweetness and mellow taste. The aromatic compound data from GC-MS showed that the total essential oil content in these tea samples co-treated with laccase and α-galactos idase increased significantly, in which aldehydes, alcohols, esters and alkenes increased by 23.28, 37.05, 20.10 and 38.99 %, respectively. Our data suggest that the exogenous enzymatic treatment can enhance the summer oolong tea quality, especially its taste and aroma.

  19. Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis): Chemistry and Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad S; Zohaib, Sana; Najeeb, Shariq; Naseem, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Green tea is a widely consumed beverage worldwide. Numerous studies have suggested about the beneficial effects of green tea on oral conditions such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and halitosis. However, to date there have not been many review articles published that focus on beneficial effects of green tea on oral disease. The aim of this publication is to summarize the research conducted on the effects of green tea on oral cavity. Green tea might help reduce the bacterial activity in the oral cavity that in turn, can reduce the aforementioned oral afflictions. Furthermore, the antioxidant effect of the tea may reduce the chances of oral cancer. However, more clinical data is required to ascertain the possible benefits of green tea consumption on oral health.

  20. Tea polyphenols dominate the short-term tea (Camellia sinensis) leaf litter decomposition*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dong-mei; Fan, Kai; Yu, Cui-ping; Lu, Ya-ting; Wang, Xiao-chang

    2017-01-01

    Polyphenols are one of the most important secondary metabolites, and affect the decomposition of litter and soil organic matter. This study aims to monitor the mass loss rate of tea leaf litter and nutrient release pattern, and investigate the role of tea polyphenols played in this process. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and classical litter bag method were used to simulate the decomposition process of tea leaf litter and track the changes occurring in major polyphenols over eight months. The release patterns of nitrogen, potassium, calcium, and magnesium were also determined. The decomposition pattern of tea leaf litter could be described by a two-phase decomposition model, and the polyphenol/N ratio effectively regulated the degradation process. Most of the catechins decreased dramatically within two months; gallic acid (GA), catechin gallate (CG), and gallocatechin (GC) were faintly detected, while others were outside the detection limits by the end of the experiment. These results demonstrated that tea polyphenols transformed quickly and catechins had an effect on the individual conversion rate. The nutrient release pattern was different from other plants which might be due to the existence of tea polyphenols. PMID:28124839