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Sample records for td97 measles virus

  1. Autophagy in Measles Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Rozières

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a biological process that helps cells to recycle obsolete cellular components and which greatly contributes to maintaining cellular integrity in response to environmental stress factors. Autophagy is also among the first lines of cellular defense against invading microorganisms, including viruses. The autophagic destruction of invading pathogens, a process referred to as xenophagy, involves cytosolic autophagy receptors, such as p62/SQSTM1 (Sequestosome 1 or NDP52/CALCOCO2 (Nuclear Dot 52 KDa Protein/Calcium Binding And Coiled-Coil Domain 2, which bind to microbial components and target them towards growing autophagosomes for degradation. However, most, if not all, infectious viruses have evolved molecular tricks to escape from xenophagy. Many viruses even use autophagy, part of the autophagy pathway or some autophagy-associated proteins, to improve their infectious potential. In this regard, the measles virus, responsible for epidemic measles, has a unique interface with autophagy as the virus can induce multiple rounds of autophagy in the course of infection. These successive waves of autophagy result from distinct molecular pathways and seem associated with anti- and/or pro-measles virus consequences. In this review, we describe what the autophagy–measles virus interplay has taught us about both the biology of the virus and the mechanistic orchestration of autophagy.

  2. Measles virus: Background and oncolytic virotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Sankhajit Bhattacharjee; Pramod Kumar Yadava

    2018-01-01

    Measles is a highly transmissible disease caused by measles virus and remains a major cause of child mortality in developing countries. Measles virus nucleoprotein (N) encapsidates the RNA genome of the virus for providing protection from host cell endonucleases and for specific recognition of viral RNA as template for transcription and replication. This protein is over-expressed at the time of viral replication. The C-terminal of N protein is intrinsically disordered, which enables this prot...

  3. The glycoprotein of measles virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anttonen, O.; Jokinen, M.; Salmi, A.; Vainionpaeae, R.; Gahmberg, C.G.

    1980-01-01

    Measles virus was propagated in VERO cells and purified from the culture supernatants by two successive tartrate-density-gradient centrifugations. Surface carbohydrates were labelled both in vitro and in vivo with 3 H after treatment with galactose oxidase/NaB 3 H 4 or with [ 3 H]glucosamine. The major labelled glycoprotein in measles virions had a mol.wt. of 79000. After labelling with periodate/NaB 3 H 4 , which would result in specific labelling of sialic acid residues, the 79000-mol.wt. glycoprotein was very weakly labelled. This suggested that there is no or a very low amount of sialic acid in the virions. Further analysis of the glycoprotein showed that galactose is the terminal carbohydrate unit in the oligosaccharide, and the molecular weight of the glycopeptide obtained after Pronase digestion is about 3000. The oligosaccharide is attached to the polypeptide through an alkali-stable bond, indicating a N-glycosidic asparagine linkage. (author)

  4. Vaccine platform recombinant measles virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlebach, Michael D

    2017-10-01

    The classic development of vaccines is lengthy, tedious, and may not necessarily be successful as demonstrated by the case of HIV. This is especially a problem for emerging pathogens that are newly introduced into the human population and carry the inherent risk of pandemic spread in a naïve population. For such situations, a considerable number of different platform technologies are under development. These are also under development for pathogens, where directly derived vaccines are regarded as too complicated or even dangerous due to the induction of inefficient or unwanted immune responses causing considerable side-effects as for dengue virus. Among platform technologies are plasmid-based DNA vaccines, RNA replicons, single-round infectious vector particles, or replicating vaccine-based vectors encoding (a) critical antigen(s) of the target pathogens. Among the latter, recombinant measles viruses derived from vaccine strains have been tested. Measles vaccines are among the most effective and safest life-attenuated vaccines known. Therefore, the development of Schwarz-, Moraten-, or AIK-C-strain derived recombinant vaccines against a wide range of mostly viral, but also bacterial pathogens was quite straightforward. These vaccines generally induce powerful humoral and cellular immune responses in appropriate animal models, i.e., transgenic mice or non-human primates. Also in the recent first clinical phase I trial, the results have been quite encouraging. The trial indicated the expected safety and efficacy also in human patients, interestingly independent from the level of prevalent anti-measles immunity before the trial. Thereby, recombinant measles vaccines expressing additional antigens are a promising platform for future vaccines.

  5. 21 CFR 866.3520 - Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents. 866... Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Rubeola (measles) virus serological... to rubeola virus in serum. The identification aids in the diagnosis of measles and provides...

  6. Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measles is an infectious disease caused by a virus. It spreads easily from person to person. It ... down Tiny white spots inside the mouth Sometimes measles can lead to serious problems. There is no ...

  7. Spread of Measles Virus in Europe

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-06

    Dr. Paul Rota, team lead for the Measles Laboratory, Division of Viral Diseases, at CDC, talks about a measles virus survey in Europe, 2008-2011.  Created: 10/6/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) and National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 10/6/2011.

  8. Radioimmunoassay of measles virus antibodies in SSPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, M.A.; Gut, W.; Kantoch, M.

    1982-01-01

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) was introduced for detecting measles virus IgG and IgM antibodies. The hyperimmune response to the measles virus could be demonstrated more accurately by RIA than by haemagglutination inhibition (HI). The ratio between RIA and HI antibody titres was decidedly higher in sera and cerebrospinal fluids of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis than in those of other groups tested. (author)

  9. Measles to the Rescue: A Review of Oncolytic Measles Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Aref

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic virotherapeutic agents are likely to become serious contenders in cancer treatment. The vaccine strain of measles virus is an agent with an impressive range of oncolytic activity in pre-clinical trials with increasing evidence of safety and efficacy in early clinical trials. This paramyxovirus vaccine has a proven safety record and is amenable to careful genetic modification in the laboratory. Overexpression of the measles virus (MV receptor CD46 in many tumour cells may direct the virus to preferentially enter transformed cells and there is increasing awareness of the importance of nectin-4 and signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM in oncolysis. Successful attempts to retarget MV by inserting genes for tumour-specific ligands to antigens such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, CD20, CD38, and by engineering the virus to express synthetic microRNA targeting sequences, and “blinding” the virus to the natural viral receptors are exciting measures to increase viral specificity and enhance the oncolytic effect. Sodium iodine symporter (NIS can also be expressed by MV, which enables in vivo tracking of MV infection. Radiovirotherapy using MV-NIS, chemo-virotherapy to convert prodrugs to their toxic metabolites, and immune-virotherapy including incorporating antibodies against immune checkpoint inhibitors can also increase the oncolytic potential. Anti-viral host immune responses are a recognized barrier to the success of MV, and approaches such as transporting MV to the tumour sites by carrier cells, are showing promise. MV Clinical trials are producing encouraging preliminary results in ovarian cancer, myeloma and cutaneous non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and the outcome of currently open trials in glioblastoma multiforme, mesothelioma and squamous cell carcinoma are eagerly anticipated.

  10. Unique Measles Virus in Canada

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-08-24

    Dr. Shelley Deeks, chief of communicable diseases at Public Health Ontario, discusses a measles outbreak in Canada.  Created: 8/24/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/24/2017.

  11. Antibody neutralization of retargeted measles viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Patrycja J.; Pappoe, Roland; Nakamura, Takafumi; Tobin, Gregory J.; Nara, Peter L.; Russell, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    The measles virus (MV) vaccine lineage is a promising oncolytic but prior exposure to the measles vaccine or wild-type MV strains limits treatment utility due to the presence of anti-measles antibodies. MV entry can be redirected by displaying a polypeptide ligand on the Hemagglutinin (H) C-terminus. We hypothesized that retargeted MV would escape neutralization by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing the H receptor-binding surface and be less susceptible to neutralization by human antisera. Using chimeric H proteins, with and without mutations that ablate MV receptor binding, we show that retargeted MVs escape mAbs that target the H receptor-binding surface by virtue of mutations that ablate infection via SLAM and CD46. However, C-terminally displayed domains do not mediate virus entry in the presence of human antibodies that bind to the underlying H domain. In conclusion, utility of retargeted oncolytic measles viruses does not extend to evasion of human serum neutralization. PMID:24725950

  12. Radioimmunoassay of measles virus hemagglutinin protein G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, G.A.; Salmi, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    Guinea pig and rabbit antisera from animals immunized with purified measles virus hemagglutinin (G) protein were used to establish a solid-phase four-layer radioimmunoassay for quantitative measurement of the G protein. The sensitivity of the assay was 2 ng of purified G protein, and 200 μg of protein from uninfected Vero cells neither decreased the sensitivity nor reacted non-specifically in the assay. Radioimmunoassay standard dose-response curves were established and unknown values interpolated from these using the logit program of a desktop computer. Using this procedure, a measles virus growth curve in infected Vero cells was determined by measurement of G protein production. Under these same conditions, hemagglutination was not sensitive enough to detect early hemagglutinin production. Viral antigens in canine distemper virus, Newcastle disease virus, parainfluenza viruses 1-4, simian virus 5, and respiratory syncytial virus-infected cell lysates did not cross-react in the radioimmunoassay. A small degree of cross-reactivity was detected with mumps viral antigens, both with Vero cell-derived (wild-type strain) and egg-derived (Enders strain) purified virus preparations and with a cell lysate antigen prepared from wild-type mumps virus-infected Vero cells. (Auth.)

  13. Radioimmunoassay of measles virus hemagglutinin protein G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, G A; Salmi, A A [Turku Univ. (Finland)

    1982-08-01

    Guinea pig and rabbit antisera from animals immunized with purified measles virus hemagglutinin (G) protein were used to establish a solid-phase four-layer radioimmunoassay for quantitative measurement of the G protein. The sensitivity of the assay was 2 ng of purified G protein, and 200 ..mu..g of protein from uninfected Vero cells neither decreased the sensitivity nor reacted non-specifically in the assay. Radioimmunoassay standard dose-response curves were established and unknown values interpolated from these using the logit program of a desktop computer. Using this procedure, a measles virus growth curve in infected Vero cells was determined by measurement of G protein production. Under these same conditions, hemagglutination was not sensitive enough to detect early hemagglutinin production. Viral antigens in canine distemper virus, Newcastle disease virus, parainfluenza viruses 1-4, simian virus 5, and respiratory syncytial virus-infected cell lysates did not cross-react in the radioimmunoassay. A small degree of cross-reactivity was detected with mumps viral antigens, both with Vero cell-derived (wild-type strain) and egg-derived (Enders strain) purified virus preparations and with a cell lysate antigen prepared from wild-type mumps virus-infected Vero cells.

  14. Immunogenicity of UV-inactivated measles virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahorska, R.; Mazur, N.; Korbecki, M.

    1978-01-01

    By means of the antigen extinction limit test it was shown that a triple dose vaccination of guinea pigs with UV-inactivated measles virus gave better results, than a single dose vaccination which was proved by the very low immunogenicity index. For both vaccination schemes (single and triple) the immune response was only sligthly influenced by a change of dose from 10 5 to 10 6 HadU 50 /ml or by the addition of aluminum adjuvant. In the antigen extinction limit test the antibody levels were determined by two methods (HIT and NT) the results of which were statistically equivalent. The UV-inactivated measles virus was also found to induce hemolysis-inhibiting antibodies. (orig.) [de

  15. Measles Outbreak with Unique Virus Genotyping, Ontario, Canada, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Shari; Hiebert, Joanne; Gubbay, Jonathan B; Gournis, Effie; Sharron, Jennifer; Severini, Alberto; Jiaravuthisan, Manisa; Shane, Amanda; Jaeger, Valerie; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Fediurek, Jill; Sander, Beate; Mazzulli, Tony; Schulz, Helene; Deeks, Shelley L

    2017-07-01

    The province of Ontario continues to experience measles virus transmissions despite the elimination of measles in Canada. We describe an unusual outbreak of measles in Ontario, Canada, in early 2015 that involved cases with a unique strain of virus and no known association among primary case-patients. A total of 18 cases of measles were reported from 4 public health units during the outbreak period (January 25-March 23, 2015); none of these cases occurred in persons who had recently traveled. Despite enhancements to case-patient interview methods and epidemiologic analyses, a source patient was not identified. However, the molecular epidemiologic analysis, which included extended sequencing, strongly suggested that all cases derived from a single importation of measles virus genotype D4. The use of timely genotype sequencing, rigorous epidemiologic investigation, and a better understanding of the gaps in surveillance are needed to maintain Ontario's measles elimination status.

  16. Reverse genetics of measles virus and resulting multivalent recombinant vaccines: applications of recombinant measles viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeter, M A; Naim, H Y; Udem, S A

    2009-01-01

    An overview is given on the development of technologies to allow reverse genetics of RNA viruses, i.e., the rescue of viruses from cDNA, with emphasis on nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses (Mononegavirales), as exemplified for measles virus (MV). Primarily, these technologies allowed site-directed mutagenesis, enabling important insights into a variety of aspects of the biology of these viruses. Concomitantly, foreign coding sequences were inserted to (a) allow localization of virus replication in vivo through marker gene expression, (b) develop candidate multivalent vaccines against measles and other pathogens, and (c) create candidate oncolytic viruses. The vector use of these viruses was experimentally encouraged by the pronounced genetic stability of the recombinants unexpected for RNA viruses, and by the high load of insertable genetic material, in excess of 6 kb. The known assets, such as the small genome size of the vector in comparison to DNA viruses proposed as vectors, the extensive clinical experience of attenuated MV as vaccine with a proven record of high safety and efficacy, and the low production cost per vaccination dose are thus favorably complemented.

  17. Will Synergizing Vaccination with Therapeutics Boost Measles Virus Eradication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plemper, Richard K; Hammond, Anthea L

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Measles virus is a major human pathogen responsible for approximately 150,000 measles deaths annually. The disease is vaccine preventable and eradication of the virus is considered feasible in principle. However, a herd immunity exceeding 95% is required to prevent sporadic viral outbreaks in a population. Declining disease prevalence combined with public anxieties about vaccination safety has increased vaccine refusal especially in the European region, which has resulted in measles resurgence in some areas. Areas covered Here, we discuss whether synergizing effective measles therapeutics with vaccination could contribute to solving an endgame conundrum of measles elimination by accelerating the eradication effort. Based on an anticipated use for protection of high-risk contacts of confirmed measles cases through post-exposure prophylaxis, we identify key elements of the desirable drug profile, review current disease management strategies and the state of experimental inhibitor candidates, evaluate the risk associated with viral escape from inhibition, and consider the potential of measles therapeutics for the management of persistent viral infection of the CNS. Assuming a post-measles world with waning measles immunity, we contemplate the possible impact of therapeutics on controlling the threat imposed by closely related zoonotic pathogens of the same genus as measles virus. Expert opinion Efficacious therapeutics given for post-exposure prophylaxis of high-risk social contacts of confirmed index cases may aid measles eradication by closing herd immunity gaps due to vaccine refusal or failure in populations with overall good vaccination coverage. The envisioned primarily prophylactic application of measles therapeutics to a predominantly pediatric and/or adolescent patient population dictates the drug profile; the article must be safe and efficacious, orally available, shelf-stable at ambient temperature, and amenable to cost-effective manufacture

  18. A comparative analysis of measles virus RNA by oligonucleotide fingerprinting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, J.R.; Meulen, V. ter

    1982-01-01

    Isolates from two cases of acute measles, one case of acute measles encephalitis and three patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis were compared. This comparison was based upon the electrophoretic analysis of T 1 oligonucleotides from single-stranded, full-length RNA isolated from cytoplasmic nucleocapsids. Although all viruses have oligonucleotides in common, each isolate generated a unique pattern of oligonucleotides. However, no group of oligonucleotides was observed which would allow differentiation between viruses isolated from acute infections and those isolated from CNS diseases; indicating that probably all measles viruses differ in their nucleotide sequence, regardless of origin. (Author)

  19. Complete genome sequences of six measles virus strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan, M.V.T. (My V.T.); C.M.E. Schapendonk (Claudia); B.B. Oude Munnink (Bas B.); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); R.L. de Swart (Rik); Cotten, M. (Matthew)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractGenetic characterization of wild-type measles virus (MV) strains is a critical component of measles surveillance and molecular epidemiology. We have obtained complete genome sequences of six MV strains belonging to different genotypes, using random-primed next generation sequencing.

  20. Molecular epidemiology of measles virus in Italy during 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Magurano

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. In view of the goal of measles elimination, it is of great importance to assess the circulation of wild-type measles virus (MV. Genetic analysis is indispensable to understand the epidemiology of measles. A large measles outbreak occurred in Italy in 2008, with over 4000 cases reported to the enhanced measles surveillance system introduced in 2007, 37% of which were laboratory confirmed. METHODS. Urine and saliva samples were collected during 2008. A phylogenetic analysis of measles sequences was performed in order to understand the epidemiological situation of wild-type (MV circulation in that period. RESULT AND DISCUSSION. Data showed predominant circulation of the genotype D4. Genotypes A, D8, D9 and H1 were also detected in a small number of samples, probably representing imported cases.

  1. Measles virus genotypes circulating in India, 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Sunil R; Chowdhury, Deepika T

    2017-05-01

    The Government of India is accepted to participate in the measles elimination and rubella control goal 2020, hence genetic characterization of measles viruses (MeV) becomes essential. At National Reference Laboratory (National Institute of Virology, Pune), the throat swabs/urine specimens (n = 380) or PCR products (n = 219) obtained from the suspected measles cases were referred for the molecular testing and subsequently, MeV nucleoprotein (N) gene sequencing/genotyping. In addition, 2,449 suspected measles cases, mainly from the Maharashtra state were referred for the laboratory diagnosis. A detailed study was performed on N gene sequences obtained during last two decades. Indian MeV sequences obtained during 2011-2015 were compared with 1996-2010 sequences and genetic divergence was studied. Circulation of measles genotypes B3 (n = 3), D4 (n = 49), and D8 (n = 351) strains were observed in 19 States and three Union Territories of India. In addition, 64 measles viruses were isolated from 253 throat swab or urine specimens obtained from the suspected measles cases. During 2011-2015, 67.9% (1,663/2,449) suspected measles cases were laboratory confirmed. Molecular studies showed circulation of measles genotype B3 in India along with prominently circulating genotypes D4 and D8 except D7 strains. The genetic diversion within Indian B3, D4, and D8 genotypes was 0.3%, 1.1%, and 2.1%, respectively. The genetic divergence of Indian B3, D4, and D8 measles strains with the WHO reference sequences was 2.5%, 2.6%, and 1.8%, respectively. It is crucial data for national immunization program. More measles/rubella genotyping studies are necessary to track transmission and to support measles elimination and rubella control. J. Med. Virol. 89:753-758, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A population screening test for antibody to measles virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, M.G.

    1981-01-01

    In areas where sporadic cases of measles continue to occur in spite of vaccination programs, the availability of a simple screening test for determination of seropositivity to measles virus is desirable. A sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) screening test (ST) for the detection of IgG antibody to measles virus, based on a solid phase RIA, is described. The assays were performed on polyvinyl microtiter plates for which the RIAST requires only 5 μl of serum per subject. Antigen consisted of a sonicated extract of measles virus-infected Vero cells. Rabbit antihuman IgG specific for the Fc-segment of human IgG, labelled with 125 I, was used to detect human IgG bound to viral antigen. The basic RIA method was characterized by carrying out full titrations of sera of 53 healthy adults, 10 children, and 13 patients with measles-associated illness. These sera were also tested by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) technique; most of the measles sera were also tested by complement fixation (CF). RIAST results (expressed as binding ratios) obtained for 52 healthy adults are compared with their RIA serum titers. Of the 200 sera of patients of various ages tested by the RIAST, 63 borderline sera were also tested by HI. The RIAST, which does not require serum treatment other than inactivation, proved to be more sensitive as an indicator of seropositivity than HI. Implications of the results and practical applications of the screening test are discussed. (author)

  3. Measles Epidemics Among Children in Vietnam: Genomic Characterization of Virus Responsible for Measles Outbreak in Ho Chi Minh City, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van H. Pham

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Measles viruses responsible for outbreaks in Southern Vietnam belonged to a genotype D8 variant group which had unique amino acid sequences in the N gene. Our report provides important genomic information about the virus for measles elimination in Southeast Asia.

  4. Improving molecular tools for global surveillance of measles virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankamp, Bettina; Byrd-Leotis, Lauren A; Lopareva, Elena N; Woo, Gibson K S; Liu, Chunyu; Jee, Youngmee; Ahmed, Hinda; Lim, Wilina W; Ramamurty, Nalini; Mulders, Mick N; Featherstone, David; Bellini, William J; Rota, Paul A

    2013-09-01

    The genetic characterization of wild-type measles viruses plays an important role in the description of viral transmission pathways and the verification of measles elimination. The 450 nucleotides that encode the carboxyl-terminus of the nucleoprotein (N-450) are routinely sequenced for genotype analysis. The objectives of this study were to develop improved primers and controls for RT-PCR reactions used for genotyping of measles samples and to develop a method to provide a convenient, safe, and inexpensive means to distribute measles RNA for RT-PCR assays and practice panels. A newly designed, genetically defined synthetic RNA and RNA isolated from cells infected with currently circulating genotypes were used to compare the sensitivity of primer pairs in RT-PCR and nested PCR. FTA® cards loaded with lysates of measles infected cells were tested for their ability to preserve viral RNA and destroy virus infectivity. A new primer pair, MeV216/MeV214, was able to amplify N-450 from viruses representing 10 currently circulating genotypes and a genotype A vaccine strain and demonstrated 100-fold increased sensitivity compared to the previously used primer set. A nested PCR assay further increased the sensitivity of detection from patient samples. A synthetic positive control RNA was developed that produced PCR products that are distinguishable by size from PCR products amplified from clinical samples. FTA® cards completely inactivated measles virus and stabilized RNA for at least six months. These improved molecular tools will advance molecular characterization of circulating measles viruses globally and provide enhanced quality control measures. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Distinct Contributions of Autophagy Receptors in Measles Virus Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkova, Denitsa S; Verlhac, Pauline; Rozières, Aurore; Baguet, Joël; Claviere, Mathieu; Kretz-Remy, Carole; Mahieux, Renaud; Viret, Christophe; Faure, Mathias

    2017-05-22

    Autophagy is a potent cell autonomous defense mechanism that engages the lysosomal pathway to fight intracellular pathogens. Several autophagy receptors can recognize invading pathogens in order to target them towards autophagy for their degradation after the fusion of pathogen-containing autophagosomes with lysosomes. However, numerous intracellular pathogens can avoid or exploit autophagy, among which is measles virus (MeV). This virus induces a complete autophagy flux, which is required to improve viral replication. We therefore asked how measles virus interferes with autophagy receptors during the course of infection. We report that in addition to NDP52/CALCOCO₂ and OPTINEURIN/OPTN, another autophagy receptor, namely T6BP/TAXIBP1, also regulates the maturation of autophagosomes by promoting their fusion with lysosomes, independently of any infection. Surprisingly, only two of these receptors, NDP52 and T6BP, impacted measles virus replication, although independently, and possibly through physical interaction with MeV proteins. Thus, our results suggest that a restricted set of autophagosomes is selectively exploited by measles virus to replicate in the course of infection.

  6. Vaccination against acute respiratory virus infections and measles in man.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); P. de Vries (Petra)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractSeveral viruses may cause more or less severe acute respiratory infections in man, some of which are followed by systemic infection. Only for influenza and measles are licensed vaccines available at present. The protection induced by influenza vaccines, which are based on inactivated

  7. The Ondersteport Canine distemper virus strain and measles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three groups of dogs aged three months each were used in an experiment to assess efficacy of imported Canine distemper vaccine (Ondersteport strain) and measles vaccine in protecting Nigerian dogs against local isolates of Canine distemper virus. Each group consisted of four randomly selected puppies. One group ...

  8. The Measles Virus Receptor SLAMF1 Can Mediate Particle Endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Carneiro, Daniel; McKeating, Jane A; Bailey, Dalan

    2017-04-01

    The signaling lymphocyte activation molecule F1 (SLAMF1) is both a microbial sensor and entry receptor for measles virus (MeV). Herein, we describe a new role for SLAMF1 to mediate MeV endocytosis that is in contrast with the alternative, and generally accepted, model that MeV genome enters cells only after fusion at the cell surface. We demonstrated that MeV engagement of SLAMF1 induces dramatic but transient morphological changes, most prominently in the formation of membrane blebs, which were shown to colocalize with incoming viral particles, and rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton in infected cells. MeV infection was dependent on these dynamic cytoskeletal changes as well as fluid uptake through a macropinocytosis-like pathway as chemical inhibition of these processes inhibited entry. Moreover, we identified a role for the RhoA-ROCK-myosin II signaling axis in this MeV internalization process, highlighting a novel role for this recently characterized pathway in virus entry. Our study shows that MeV can hijack a microbial sensor normally involved in bacterial phagocytosis to drive endocytosis using a complex pathway that shares features with canonical viral macropinocytosis, phagocytosis, and mechanotransduction. This uptake pathway is specific to SLAMF1-positive cells and occurs within 60 min of viral attachment. Measles virus remains a significant cause of mortality in human populations, and this research sheds new light on the very first steps of infection of this important pathogen. IMPORTANCE Measles is a significant disease in humans and is estimated to have killed over 200 million people since records began. According to current World Health Organization statistics, it still kills over 100,000 people a year, mostly children in the developing world. The causative agent, measles virus, is a small enveloped RNA virus that infects a broad range of cells during infection. In particular, immune cells are infected via interactions between glycoproteins found

  9. High titer oncolytic measles virus production process by integration of dielectric spectroscopy as online monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grein, Tanja A; Loewe, Daniel; Dieken, Hauke; Salzig, Denise; Weidner, Tobias; Czermak, Peter

    2018-05-01

    Oncolytic viruses offer new hope to millions of patients with incurable cancer. One promising class of oncolytic viruses is Measles virus, but its broad administration to cancer patients is currently hampered by the inability to produce the large amounts of virus needed for treatment (10 10 -10 12 virus particles per dose). Measles virus is unstable, leading to very low virus titers during production. The time of infection and time of harvest are therefore critical parameters in a Measles virus production process, and their optimization requires an accurate online monitoring system. We integrated a probe based on dielectric spectroscopy (DS) into a stirred tank reactor to characterize the Measles virus production process in adherent growing Vero cells. We found that DS could be used to monitor cell adhesion on the microcarrier and that the optimal virus harvest time correlated with the global maximum permittivity signal. In 16 independent bioreactor runs, the maximum Measles virus titer was achieved approximately 40 hr after the permittivity maximum. Compared to an uncontrolled Measles virus production process, the integration of DS increased the maximum virus concentration by more than three orders of magnitude. This was sufficient to achieve an active Measles virus concentration of > 10 10 TCID 50 ml -1 . © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Occurrence of measles in a country with elimination status: Amplifying measles infection in hospitalized children due to imported virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, HyeEun; Park, YoungJoon; Kim, JooWhee; Yang, Jeong-Sun; Kang, HaeJi; Kim, Kisoon; Chun, Byung Chul; Park, Ok; Hong, Jeong Ik

    2018-01-01

    The Republic of Korea declared measles elimination in 2006. However, a measles outbreak occurred in 2013. This study aimed to identify the epidemiological characteristics of the sources of infection and the pattern of measles transmission in 2013 in South Korea. We utilized surveillance data, epidemiological data, immunization registry data, and genetic information. We describe the epidemiological characteristics of all measles case patients (sex, age distribution, vaccination status, sources of infection) as well as details of the outbreak (the pattern of transmission, duration, mean age of patients, and generation time). In 2013, a total of 107 measles cases were notified. Most patients were infants (43.0%) and unvaccinated individuals (60.7%). We identified 4 imported and 103 import-related cases. A total of 105 cases were related to four outbreaks that occurred in Gyeongnam, northern Gyeonggi, southern Gyeonggi, and Seoul. The predominant circulating genotype was B3 type, which was identified in the Gyeongnam, northern Gyeonggi, and southern Gyeonggi outbreaks. The B3 type had not been in circulation in South Korea in the previous 3 years; virologic evidence suggests that these outbreaks were import-related. Most measles cases in South Korea have been associated with imported measles virus. Although Korea has maintained a high level of herd immunity, clustering of susceptible people can cause such measles outbreaks.

  11. Wild type measles virus attenuation independent of type I IFN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horvat Branka

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measles virus attenuation has been historically performed by adaptation to cell culture. The current dogma is that attenuated virus strains induce more type I IFN and are more resistant to IFN-induced protection than wild type (wt. Results The adaptation of a measles virus isolate (G954-PBL by 13 passages in Vero cells induced a strong attenuation of this strain in vivo. The adapted virus (G954-V13 differs from its parental strain by only 5 amino acids (4 in P/V/C and 1 in the M gene. While a vaccine strain, Edmonston Zagreb, could replicate equally well in various primate cells, both G954 strains exhibited restriction to the specific cell type used initially for their propagation. Surprisingly, we observed that both G954 strains induced type I IFN, the wt strain inducing even more than the attenuated ones, particularly in human plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells. Type I IFN-induced protection from the infection of both G954 strains depended on the cell type analyzed, being less efficient in the cells used to grow the viral strain. Conclusion Thus, mutations in M and P/V/C proteins can critically affect MV pathogenicity, cellular tropism and lead to virus attenuation without interfering with the α/β IFN system.

  12. Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z Regions » Africa Americas South-East Asia Europe Eastern Mediterranean Western Pacific WHO in countries » Overview Statistics ... of children to receive measles vaccine in north-eastern Nigeria 16 January 2017 WHO strengthens South Sudan’s ...

  13. Epidemiology of two large measles virus outbreaks in Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torner, Núria; Anton, Andres; Barrabeig, Irene; Lafuente, Sara; Parron, Ignasi; Arias, César; Camps, Neus; Costa, Josep; Martínez, Ana; Torra, Roser; Godoy, Pere; Minguell, Sofia; Ferrús, Glòria; Cabezas, Carmen; Domínguez, Ángela; Elimination Program Surveillance Network of Spain, the Measles

    2013-01-01

    Measles cases in the European Region have been increasing in the last decade; this illustrates the challenge of what we are now encountering in the form of pediatric preventable diseases. In Catalonia, autochthonous measles was declared eliminated in the year 2000 as the result of high measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR) coverage for first and second dose (15 mo and 4 y) since the mid-1990s. From then on, sporadic imported cases and small outbreaks appeared, until in 2006–2007 a large measles outbreak affecting mostly unvaccinated toddlers hit the Barcelona Health Region. Consequently, in January 2008, first dose administration of MMR was lowered from 15 to 12 mo of age. A new honeymoon period went by until the end of 2010, when several importations of cases triggered new sustained transmission of different wild measles virus genotypes, but this time striking young adults. The aim of this study is to show the effect of a change in MMR vaccination schedule policy, and the difference in age incidence and hospitalization rates of affected individuals between both outbreaks. Epidemiologic data were obtained by case interviews and review of medical records. Samples for virological confirmation and genotyping of cases were collected as established in the Measles Elimination plan guidelines. Incidence rate (IR), rate ratio (RR) and their 95% CI and hospitalization rate (HR) by age group were determined. Statistic z was used for comparing proportions. Total number of confirmed cases was 305 in the 2010 outbreak and 381 in the 2006–2007 outbreak; mean age 20 y (SD 14.8 y; 3 mo to 51 y) vs. 15 mo (SD 13.1 y; 1 mo to 50 y). Highest proportion of cases was set in ≥ 25 y (47%) vs. 24.2% in 2006 (p < 0.001). Differences in IR for ≤ 15 mo (49/100,000 vs. 278.2/100,000; RR: 3,9; 95%CI 2,9–5.4) and in overall HR 29.8% vs. 15.7% were all statistically significant (p < 0.001). The change of the month of age for the administration of the first MMR dose proved successful to

  14. Advances in the design and development of oncolytic measles viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutzen B

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Brian Hutzen,1 Corey Raffel,2 Adam W Studebaker1 1Center for Childhood Cancer and Blood Diseases, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children’s Hospital, Columbus, OH, USA; 2Department of Neurological Surgery and Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA Abstract: A successful oncolytic virus is one that selectively propagates and destroys cancerous tissue without causing excessive damage to the normal surrounding tissue. Oncolytic measles virus (MV is one such virus that exhibits this characteristic and thus has rapidly emerged as a potentially useful anticancer modality. Derivatives of the Edmonston MV vaccine strain possess a remarkable safety record in humans. Promising results in preclinical animal models and evidence of biological activity in early phase trials contribute to the enthusiasm. Genetic modifications have enabled MV to evolve from a vaccine agent to a potential anticancer therapy. Specifically, alterations of the MV genome have led to improved tumor selectivity and delivery, therapeutic potency, and immune system modulation. In this article, we will review the advancements that have been made in the design and development of MV that have led to its use as a cancer therapy. In addition, we will discuss the evidence supporting its use, as well as the challenges associated with MV as a potential cancer therapeutic. Keywords: virotherapy, measles virus, oncolytic therapy

  15. Measles virus polypeptides in purified virions and in infected cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vainionpaeae, R.; Ziola, B.; Salmi, A.

    1978-01-01

    A wild-type measles virus was radiolabeled during growth in VERO cells and purified by two successive potassium tartrate gradient centrifugations. The virion polypeptide composition was determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis employing two different buffer systems. Six virus-specific polypeptides were consistently detected. The largest (L) had a molecular weight (MW) of greater than 150,000. The second largest polypeptide, G (MW 79,000), was the only glycoprotein found. The proteins designated polypeptide 2 (MW 66 to 70,000) and nucleocapsid protein or NP (MW 61,000) were phosphorylated. The remaining virus-coded proteins were polypeptide 5 (MW 40,000) and the matrix or M protein (MW 37,000). Measles virions also contained a polypeptide (MW 42,000) thought to be actin due to co-migration with this component of uninfected cells. Analysis of in vitro 3 H-acetic anhydride radiolabeled virions confirmed the presence of these seven polypeptides. Acetic anhydride also labeled a protein designated polypeptide 4 (MW 53,000) which was not consistently radiolabeled in vivo, as well as several other minor proteins believed to be cellular in origin. Synthesis of the six virus-specific structural polypeptides was detected in lysates of infected cells by SDS-polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis. Virus specificity of polypeptide 4 could not be confirmed due to the similar MW of several cellular polypeptides. Two non-virion, but virus-specified polypeptides, of MW 38,000 and 18,000 were also detected. Synthesis of the virus structural proteins was in the same proportions as the polypeptides found in virions except for under production of polypeptide G and over production of polypeptide 2. (author)

  16. Population immunity to measles virus and the effect of HIV-1 infection after a mass measles vaccination campaign in Lusaka, Zambia: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowther, Sara A; Curriero, Frank C; Kalish, Brian T; Shields, Timothy M; Monze, Mwaka; Moss, William J

    2009-03-21

    Measles control efforts are hindered by challenges in sustaining high vaccination coverage, waning immunity in HIV-1-infected children, and clustering of susceptible individuals. Our aim was to assess population immunity to measles virus after a mass vaccination campaign in a region with high HIV prevalence. 3 years after a measles supplemental immunisation activity (SIA), we undertook a cross-sectional survey in Lusaka, Zambia. Households were randomly selected from a satellite image. Children aged 9 months to 5 years from selected households were eligible for enrolment. A questionnaire was administered to the children's caregivers to obtain information about measles vaccination history and history of measles. Oral fluid samples were obtained from children and tested for antibodies to measles virus and HIV-1 by EIA. 1015 children from 668 residences provided adequate specimens. 853 (84%) children had a history of measles vaccination according to either caregiver report or immunisation card. 679 children (67%) had antibodies to measles virus, and 64 (6%) children had antibodies to HIV-1. Children with antibodies to HIV-1 were as likely to have no history of measles vaccination as those without antibodies to HIV-1 (odds ratio [OR] 1.17, 95% CI 0.57-2.41). Children without measles antibodies were more likely to have never received measles vaccine than those with antibodies (adjusted OR 2.50, 1.69-3.71). In vaccinated children, 33 (61%) of 54 children with antibodies to HIV-1 also had antibodies to measles virus, compared with 568 (71%) of 796 children without antibodies to HIV-1 (p=0.1). 3 years after an SIA, population immunity to measles was insufficient to interrupt measles virus transmission. The use of oral fluid and satellite images for sampling are potential methods to assess population immunity and the timing of SIAs.

  17. Identification of different lineages of measles virus strains circulating in Uttar Pradesh, North India

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    Shakya Akhalesh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic analysis of measles viruses associated with recent cases and outbreaks has proven to bridge information gaps in routine outbreak investigations and has made a substantial contribution to measles control efforts by helping to identify the transmission pathways of the virus. Materials and methods The present study describes the genetic characterization of wild type measles viruses from Uttar Pradesh, India isolated between January 2008 and January 2011. In the study, 526 suspected measles cases from 15 outbreaks were investigated. Blood samples were collected from suspected measles outbreaks and tested for the presence of measles specific IgM; throat swab and urine samples were collected for virus isolation and RT-PCR. Genotyping of circulating measles viruses in Uttar Pradesh was performed by sequencing a 450-bp region encompassing the nucleoprotein hypervariable region and phylogenetic analysis. Results and conclusion Based on serological results, all the outbreaks were confirmed as measles. Thirty eight strains were obtained. Genetic analysis of circulating measles strains (n = 38 in Uttar Pradesh from 235 cases of laboratory-confirmed cases from 526 suspected measles cases between 2008 and 2011 showed that all viruses responsible for outbreaks were within clade D and all were genotype D8. Analysis of this region showed that it is highly divergent (up to 3.4% divergence in the nucleotide sequence and 4.1% divergence in the amino acid sequence between most distant strains. Considerable genetic heterogeneity was observed in the MV genotype D8 viruses in North India and underscores the need for continued surveillance and in particular increases in vaccination levels to decrease morbidity and mortality attributable to measles.

  18. Measles Virus Fusion Protein: Structure, Function and Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Plattet

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Measles virus (MeV, a highly contagious member of the Paramyxoviridae family, causes measles in humans. The Paramyxoviridae family of negative single-stranded enveloped viruses includes several important human and animal pathogens, with MeV causing approximately 120,000 deaths annually. MeV and canine distemper virus (CDV-mediated diseases can be prevented by vaccination. However, sub-optimal vaccine delivery continues to foster MeV outbreaks. Post-exposure prophylaxis with antivirals has been proposed as a novel strategy to complement vaccination programs by filling herd immunity gaps. Recent research has shown that membrane fusion induced by the morbillivirus glycoproteins is the first critical step for viral entry and infection, and determines cell pathology and disease outcome. Our molecular understanding of morbillivirus-associated membrane fusion has greatly progressed towards the feasibility to control this process by treating the fusion glycoprotein with inhibitory molecules. Current approaches to develop anti-membrane fusion drugs and our knowledge on drug resistance mechanisms strongly suggest that combined therapies will be a prerequisite. Thus, discovery of additional anti-fusion and/or anti-attachment protein small-molecule compounds may eventually translate into realistic therapeutic options.

  19. Structural and mechanistic studies of measles virus illuminate paramyxovirus entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K Plemper

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Measles virus (MeV, a member of the paramyxovirus family of enveloped RNA viruses and one of the most infectious viral pathogens identified, accounts for major pediatric morbidity and mortality worldwide although coordinated efforts to achieve global measles control are in place. Target cell entry is mediated by two viral envelope glycoproteins, the attachment (H and fusion (F proteins, which form a complex that achieves merger of the envelope with target cell membranes. Despite continually expanding knowledge of the entry strategies employed by enveloped viruses, our molecular insight into the organization of functional paramyxovirus fusion complexes and the mechanisms by which the receptor binding by the attachment protein triggers the required conformational rearrangements of the fusion protein remain incomplete. Recently reported crystal structures of the MeV attachment protein in complex with its cellular receptors CD46 or SLAM and newly developed functional assays have now illuminated some of the fundamental principles that govern cell entry by this archetype member of the paramyxovirus family. Here, we review these advances in our molecular understanding of MeV entry in the context of diverse entry strategies employed by other members of the paramyxovirus family.

  20. Seroepidemiology and phylogenetic characterisation of measles virus in Ireland, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Riordan, Bernadette; Carr, Michael J; Connell, Jeff; Dunford, Linda; Hall, William W; Hassan, Jaythoon

    2014-08-01

    Ireland is classified as an area of high measles incidence. A World Health Organisation-European Region strategic plan exists for measles elimination by 2015. To retrospectively investigate measles outbreaks using all patient samples (sera and oral fluid) received for measles laboratory diagnosis and characterise the genetic diversity of circulating measles genotypes in Ireland. 704 cases of acute measles infection as determined by the presence of measles specific IgM in sera and oral fluids were confirmed at the National Virus Reference Laboratory. Measles positive samples (n=116) were examined by genotyping, sequence analysis and phylogenetic characterisation. Three measles outbreaks occurred over the study period: 2004, 2009/2010 and 2011. Measles IgM positivity ranged from 22-29% in outbreak years to 5-10% in the intervening years. Age profile analysis revealed that whereas individuals >10 years accounted for only 8% of cases in the 2004 outbreak, this increased to 33% and 29% in the 2009/2010 and 2011 outbreaks, respectively. The transmission and also importation events. Clade D viruses were exclusively found circulating in Ireland, with autochthonous transmission of diverse genotype D4 strains associated with large outbreaks across Europe. More recently, genotype D8 was identified and these were associated with importation events. This study provides a comprehensive genetic analysis of circulating measles genotypes in Ireland and discriminated between indigenous and imported viral strains. Notably, an increase in laboratory-confirmed measles cases in the greater than 10 years of age group was seen over the study period. This information is valuable to inform vaccination strategies with a focus on those populations who remain susceptible to measles infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Host DNA synthesis-suppressing factor in culture fluid of tissue cultures infected with measles virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minagawa, T.; Nakaya, C.; Iida, H.

    1974-01-01

    Host DNA synthesis is suppressed by the culture fluid of cell cultures infected with measles virus. This activity in the culture fluid is initiated somewhat later than the growth of infectious virus. Ninety percent of host DNA synthesis in HeLa cells is inhibited by culture fluid of 3-day-old cell cultures of Vero or HeLa cells infected with measles virus. This suppressing activity is not a property of the virion, but is due to nonvirion-associated componentnent which shows none of the activities of measles virus such as hemagglutination, hemolysis, or cell fusion nor does it have the antigenicity of measles virus as tested by complement-fixation or hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody blocking tests. Neutralization of the activity of this component is not attained with the pooled sera of convalescent measles patients. This component has molecular weights of about 45,000, 20,000, and 3,000 and appears to be a heat-stable protein. The production of host DNA suppressing factor (DSF) is blocked by cycloheximide. Neither uv-inactivated nor antiserum-neutralized measles virus produce DSF. Furthermore, such activity of nonvirion-associated component is not detected in the culture fluid of cultures infected with other RNA viruses such as poliovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, or Sindbis virus. (auth)

  2. Performance Evaluation of the VIDAS® Measles IgG Assay and Its Diagnostic Value for Measuring IgG Antibody Avidity in Measles Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dina, Julia; Creveuil, Christian; Gouarin, Stephanie; Viron, Florent; Hebert, Amelie; Freymuth, Francois; Vabret, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is primarily to compare the performance of the VIDAS® Measles immunoglobulin (Ig)G assay to that of two other serological assays using an immunoassay technique, Enzygnost® Anti-measles Virus/IgG (Siemens) and Measles IgG CAPTURE EIA® (Microimmune). The sensitivity and the agreement of the VIDAS® Measles IgG assay compared to the Enzygnost® Anti-measles Virus/IgG assay and the Measles IgG CAPTURE EIA® assay are 100%, 97.2% and 99.0%, 98.4%, respectively. The very low number of negative sera for IgG antibodies does not allow calculation of specificity. As a secondary objective, we have evaluated the ability of the VIDAS® Measles IgG assay to measure anti-measles virus IgG antibody avidity with the help of the VIDAS® CMV IgG Avidity reagent, using 76 sera from subjects with measles and 238 other sera. Different groups of populations were analyzed. In the primary infection measles group, the mean IgG avidity index was 0.16 (range of 0.07 to 0.93) compared to 0.79 (range of 0.25 to 1) in the serum group positive for IgG antibodies and negative for IgM. These data allow to define a weak anti-measles virus IgG antibody avidity as an avidity index (AI) 0.6. The VIDAS® Measles IgG assay has a performance equivalent to that of other available products. Its use, individual and quick, is well adapted to testing for anti-measles immunity in exposed subjects. PMID:27556477

  3. Identification of measles virus genotype B3 associated with outbreaks in Islamabad, Pakistan, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Syed Sohail Zahoor; Hameed, Abdul; Suleman Rana, Muhammad; Alam, Muhammad Masroor; Umair, Massab; Aamir, Uzma Bashir; Hussain, Maqbool; Sharif, Salmaan; Shaukat, Shahzad; Angez, Mehar; Khurshid, Adnan

    2017-11-09

    Measles virus infection remains a significant cause of childhood mortality and morbidity despite continued global efforts and the availability of a safe and effective vaccine. Molecular analysis of indigenous measles viruses could provide critical information on outbreak linkages and transmission pathways that can aid the implementation of appropriate control programs in Pakistan. Blood samples and throat swabs were collected from subjects suspected with measles in Islamabad, Pakistan from 2013 to 2015. Serum samples were tested for the presence of measles immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) while throat swabs were used for the isolation (Vero/SLAM cell line) and subsequent characterization and phylogenetic analysis of measles strains. Of 373 blood samples, 66% tested positive for measles IgM. Male subjects were more often infected (58%) than female (42%) with the highest frequency of positive cases (63%) in the 0-5-years age group. Among the positive cases, only 13% had received one or two doses of the measles vaccine, while 87% were unvaccinated. Of 80 throat swabs, 29 (36%) showed a measles virus-specific cytopathic effect (CPE) and were characterized as genotype B3 through partial sequencing of the nucleoprotein (N) gene. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the Pakistani B3 strains to be closely related to strains from neighboring countries (Iran and Afghanistan) as well as with B3 viruses from the USA, Germany, and the UK. The study results showed that despite the availability of an effective vaccine, the burden of measles infections is very high in Pakistan due to poor routine immunization coverage even in major cities, including the capital city of Islamabad. It is imperative that national health authorities take urgent strategic steps to improve routine immunization and implement adequate molecular identification methods to tackle future measles outbreaks. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  4. Interaction of measles virus vectors with Auger electron emitting radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingli, David; Peng, K.-W.; Harvey, Mary E.; Vongpunsawad, Sompong; Bergert, Elizabeth R.; Kyle, Robert A.; Cattaneo, Roberto; Morris, John C.; Russell, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    A recombinant measles virus (MV) expressing the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) is being considered for therapy of advanced multiple myeloma. Auger electrons selectively damage cells in which the isotope decays. We hypothesized that the Auger electron emitting isotope 125 I can be used to control viral proliferation. MV was engineered to express both carcinoembryonic antigen and NIS (MV-NICE). Cells were infected with MV-NICE and exposed to 125 I with appropriate controls. MV-NICE replication in vitro is inhibited by the selective uptake of 125 I by cells expressing NIS. Auger electron damage is partly mediated by free radicals and abrogated by glutathione. In myeloma xenografts, control of MV-NICE with 125 I was not possible under the conditions of the experiment. MV-NICE does not replicate faster in the presence of radiation. Auger electron emitting isotopes effectively stop propagation of MV vectors expressing NIS in vitro. Additional work is necessary to translate these observations in vivo

  5. Biosynthesis of measles virus hemagglutinin in persistently infected cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellini, W.J.; Silver, G.D.; McFarlin, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    The synthesis of the hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein of measles virus was investigated in a persistently infected cell line using a monoclonal anti-HA. The synthesis of the HA protein was shown to be associated with the rough endoplasmic reticulum. The unglycosylated (HA 0 ) apoprotein is synthesized as a 65.000 dalton peptide and is inserted into the rough endoplasmic reticulum as a transmembrane protein with approximately 2 to 3000 daltons of the peptide exposed to the cytoplasmic membrane surface. Primary glycosylation of the HA protein was found to occur through the lipid-linked carrier, dolichol-phosphate, as determined by inhibition of glycosylation by tunicamycin. Glycosylation, however, was not a prerequisite for membrane insertion. Endo-β-N-acetyl-Glucosaminidase H digestion of the fully glycosylated HA protein indicated that both simple and complex oligosaccharides are present on the surface glycoprotein. (Author)

  6. Preparation and characterization of high-specific activity radiolabeled 50 S measles virus RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spruance, S.L.; Ashton, B.N.; Smith, C.B.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described to radiolabeled measles virus RNA for hybridization studies. Tritiated nucleosides were added to the media of measles virus infected Vero cells and negative-strand (genome) RNA with a specific activity of 6X10 5 c.p.m./μg was purified from viral nucleocapsids. 50 S RNA was the sole RNA present in nucleocapsids and self-annealed to 50% due to the presence of 25% 50 S plus-strands (anti-genomes). (Auth.)

  7. Molecular detection of measles virus from children during a sporadic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), African region accounts for 36% of deaths caused by measles worldwide. Nigeria has, over the years, recorded the highest average annual measles incidence per 100,000 populations in Africa. Measles epidemics have consistently been reported in northern ...

  8. Measles Virus Neutralizing Antibodies in Intravenous Immunoglobulins: Is an Increase by Revaccination of Plasma Donors Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrof, Jens; Tille, Björn; Farcet, Maria R; McVey, John; Schreiner, Jessica A; Borders, Charles M; Gudino, Maria; Fitzgerald, Peter; Simon, Toby L; Kreil, Thomas R

    2017-11-15

    We report a screen of plasma donors confirming that widespread use of childhood measles vaccination since 1963 resulted in a decrease in average measles virus antibody titers among plasma donors, which is reflected in intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIGs). The measles virus antibody titer, however, is a potency requirement for IVIGs, as defined in a Food and Drug Administration regulation. To mitigate the decline in measles virus antibody titers in IVIGs and to ensure consistent product release, revaccination of plasma donors was investigated as a means to boost titers. However, revaccination-induced titer increases were only about 2-fold and short-lived. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Enrichment of measles virus-like RNA in the nucleocapsid fraction isolated from subacute sclerosing panencephalitis brains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedows, E; Payne, F E [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor (USA). School of Public Health; Kohne, D E [Center for Neurologic Study, San Diego, CA, USA; Tourtellotte, W W [Neurology Service, V.A. Wadsworth Hospital Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA

    1982-02-01

    A procedure has been developed which facilitates the detection of measles virus RNA sequences in human brains. The procedure involves isolating subviral components (nucleocapsids) from brain tissues prior to RNA purification, followed by hybridization of these RNAs to cDNA synthesized from measles virus 50 S RNA template. Using these techniques we were able to obtain an RNA fraction which was manyfold enriched in measles virus-specific RNA, relative to unfractionated subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) brain RNAs. 70-100% of the measles virus-specific RNA present in these SSPE brain samples were recovered in this enriched fraction.

  10. Enrichment of measles virus-like RNA in the nucleocapsid fraction isolated from subacute sclerosing panencephalitis brains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedows, E.; Payne, F.E.; Kohne, D.E.; Tourtellotte, W.W.

    1982-01-01

    A procedure has been developed which facilitates the detection of measles virus RNA sequences in human brains. The procedure involves isolating subviral components (nucleocapsids) from brain tissues prior to RNA purification, followed by hybridization of these RNAs to cDNA synthesized from measles virus 50 S RNA template. Using these techniques we were able to obtain an RNA fraction which was manyfold enriched in measles virus-specific RNA, relative to unfractionated subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) brain RNAs. 70-100% of the measles virus-specific RNA present in these SSPE brain samples were recovered in this enriched fraction. (Auth.)

  11. MEASLES VIRUS IMMUNITY LEVEL STUDY IN PARTICULAR POPULATION GROUPS OF THE REPUBLIC OF GUINEA WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF GLOBAL MEASLES ELIMINATION PROGRAM. REPORT 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Popova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A goal for measles elimination globally by 2010–2020 was recognized as one of the priorities in the WHO program “Health for All in the 21st Century” (1998. However measles outbreaks occurred in 2010–2016 in countries with high level of measles vaccine coverage including USA and some European countries.Large measles outbreaks were also registered on the African continent and particular in the Republic of Guinea as a result of the decline of measles vaccine coverage due to the Ebola virus epidemic in the Republic of Guinea in 2014–2015. WHO recommends carrying out the routine measles vaccination as well as the supplemental immunization activities after the stop of the Ebola virus transmission. Effectiveness of the activities is definitely connected with the detection of the epidemically significant for the supplemental immunization age groups. The aim of the study was to evaluate the measles immunity level in different age groups of population in the Republic of Guinea. Materials and methods. Twenty five blood serum samples of healthy adult Guineans aged 28–66 and 121 blood serum samples of adolescences and adults admitted to hospital in the town of Kindia (Republic of Guinea for indoor treatment were tested by ELISA. The specific measles virus antibodies were detected using the following commercial ELISA test-systems produced by Euroimmun Medizinische Labordiagnostika AG Company (Germany: IgM-antibodies — by “Anti-Measles Virus ELISA (IgM”, IgG-antibodi es — by “Anti-Measles Virus ELISA (IgG”, IgG-avidity measles virus antibodies — by “Avidity: Anti-Measles Virus ELISA (IgG”. A part of sera was studied by “Vector-Best IgM-measles” and “Vector-Best IgG-measles” ELISA test-systems (Russia. Results and discussion. The comparative quantitative study of the measles immunity level (i.e. IgG-antibodies titers of the healthy adult Guineans in 2015 and 2016 revealed the lack of IgGantibodies in serum

  12. The molecular basis of the antigenic cross-reactivity between measles and cowpea mosaic viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszewska, Wieslawa; Steward, Michael W.

    2003-01-01

    Two nonrelated viruses, cowpea mosaic virus (wtCPMV) and measles virus (MV), were found to induce cross-reactive antibodies. The nature of this cross-reactivity was studied and results are presented here demonstrating that antiserum raised against wtCPMV reacted with peptide from the fusion (F) protein of MV. Furthermore, the F protein of MV was shown to share an identical conformational B cell epitope with the small subunit of CPMV coat protein. Passive transfer of anti-wtCPMV antibodies into BALB/c mice conferred partial protection against measles virus induced encephalitis. The results are discussed in the context of cross-protection

  13. Proof-of-principle that a decoy virus protects oncolytic measles virus against neutralizing antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Xu C; Goß AV; Dorneburg C; Debatin KM; Wei J; Beltinger C

    2018-01-01

    Chun Xu,1,2,* Annika Verena Goß,1,* Carmen Dorneburg,1 Klaus-Michael Debatin,1 Jiwu Wei,2 Christian Beltinger1 1Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Section of Experimental Pediatric Oncology, University Medical Center Ulm, Ulm, Germany; 2Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Medical School of Nanjing University, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Attenuated oncolytic measles virus (OMV) is a promising antitumor agent in early-phase cl...

  14. The recombinant globular head domain of the measles virus hemagglutinin protein as a subunit vaccine against measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanova, Liubov M; Eng, Nelson F; Satkunarajah, Malathy; Mutwiri, George K; Rini, James M; Zakhartchouk, Alexander N

    2012-04-26

    Despite the availability of live attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccines, a large number of measles-associated deaths occur among infants in developing countries. The development of a measles subunit vaccine may circumvent the limitations associated with the current live attenuated vaccines and eventually contribute to global measles eradication. Therefore, the goal of this study was to test the feasibility of producing the recombinant globular head domain of the MV hemagglutinin (H) protein by stably transfected human cells and to examine the ability of this recombinant protein to elicit MV-specific immune responses. The recombinant protein was purified from the culture supernatant of stably transfected HEK293T cells secreting a tagged version of the protein. Two subcutaneous immunizations with the purified recombinant protein alone resulted in the production of MV-specific serum IgG and neutralizing antibodies in mice. Formulation of the protein with adjuvants (polyphosphazene or alum) further enhanced the humoral immune response and in addition resulted in the induction of cell-mediated immunity as measured by the production of MV H-specific interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin 5 (IL-5) by in vitro re-stimulated splenocytes. Furthermore, the inclusion of polyphosphazene into the vaccine formulation induced a mixed Th1/Th2-type immune response. In addition, the purified recombinant protein retained its immunogenicity even after storage at 37°C for 2 weeks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Measles virus-specified polypeptides in infected cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vainionpaepae, R.

    1979-01-01

    The synthesis of wild-type measles virus-specified polypeptides in Vero cells in pulse-chase experiments, in cells with synchronized protein synthesis by high salt concentration, and in the presence of proteolytic enzyme inhibitors was analyzed by polyacrylamide slab-gel electrophoresis. Six major (L, G, 2, NP, 5 and M) structural polypeptides were identified in infected cells. The results of pulse-chase experiments suggested that most of the structural polypeptides were synthesized at their final length. Polypeptide M was found to be sensitive to trypsin. In TLCK-treated cells its molecular weight was about 1000-2000 daltons higher than in untreated cells. A minor virus-specific polypeptide with a molecular weight of about 23,000 was found as a very faint and diffuse band. In addition, three nonstructural polypeptides with molecular weights of 65,000, 38,000 and 18,000 were also detected. The experiments with proteolytic enzyme inhibitors and with synchronized protein synthesis suggested that the polypeptide with a molecular weight of 65,000 might be a precursor of the structural polypeptide 5. (author)

  16. Treatment of medulloblastoma with oncolytic measles viruses expressing the angiogenesis inhibitors endostatin and angiostatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutzen, Brian; Bid, Hemant Kumar; Houghton, Peter J; Pierson, Christopher R; Powell, Kimerly; Bratasz, Anna; Raffel, Corey; Studebaker, Adam W

    2014-01-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most common type of pediatric brain tumor. Although numerous factors influence patient survival rates, more than 30% of all cases will ultimately be refractory to conventional therapies. Current standards of care are also associated with significant morbidities, giving impetus for the development of new treatments. We have previously shown that oncolytic measles virotherapy is effective against medulloblastoma, leading to significant prolongation of survival and even cures in mouse xenograft models of localized and metastatic disease. Because medulloblastomas are known to be highly vascularized tumors, we reasoned that the addition of angiogenesis inhibitors could further enhance the efficacy of oncolytic measles virotherapy. Toward this end, we have engineered an oncolytic measles virus that express a fusion protein of endostatin and angiostatin, two endogenous and potent inhibitors of angiogenesis. Oncolytic measles viruses encoding human and mouse variants of a secretable endostatin/angiostatin fusion protein were designed and rescued according to established protocols. These viruses, known as MV-hE:A and MV-mE:A respectively, were then evaluated for their anti-angiogenic potential and efficacy against medulloblastoma cell lines and orthotopic mouse models of localized disease. Medulloblastoma cells infected by MV-E:A readily secrete endostatin and angiostatin prior to lysis. The inclusion of the endostatin/angiostatin gene did not negatively impact the measles virus’ cytotoxicity against medulloblastoma cells or alter its growth kinetics. Conditioned media obtained from these infected cells was capable of inhibiting multiple angiogenic factors in vitro, significantly reducing endothelial cell tube formation, viability and migration compared to conditioned media derived from cells infected by a control measles virus. Mice that were given a single intratumoral injection of MV-E:A likewise showed reduced numbers of tumor-associated blood

  17. Expression of defective measles virus genes in brain tissues of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baczko, K.; Liebert, U.G.; Billeter, M.; Cattaneo, R.; Budka, H.; Ter Meulen, V.

    1986-01-01

    The persistence of measles virus in selected areas of the brains of four patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) was characterized by immunohistological and biochemical techniques. The five measles virus structural proteins were never simultaneously detectable in any of the bran sections. Nucleocapsid proteins and phosphoproteins were found in every diseased brain area, whereas hemagglutinin protein was detected in two cases, fusion protein was detected in three cases, and matrix protein was detected in only one case. Also, it could be shown that the amounts of measles virus RNA in the brains differed from patient to patient and in the different regions investigated. In all patients, plus-strand RNAs specific for these five viral genes could be detected. However, the amounts of fusion and hemagglutinin mRNAs were low compared with the amounts in lytically infected cells. The presence of particular measles virus RNAs in SSPE-infected brains did not always correlate with mRNA activity. In in vitro translations, the matrix protein was produced in only one case, and the hemagglutinin protein was produced in none. These results indicate that measles virus persistence in SSPE is correlated with different defects of several genes which probably prevent assembly of viral particles in SSPE-infected brain tissue

  18. Measles vaccination of nonhuman primates provides partial protection against infection with canine distemper virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.D. de Vries (Rory); M. Ludlow (Martin); R.J. Verbugh (Joyce); G. van Amerongen (Geert); S. Yüksel (Selma); D.T. Nguyen (Tien); S. McQuaid (Stephen); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); W.P. Duprex (Paul); R.L. de Swart (Rik)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractMeasles virus (MV) is being considered for global eradication, which would likely reduce compliance with MV vaccination. As a result, children will grow up without MV-specific immunity, creating a potential niche for closely related animal morbilliviruses such as canine distemper virus

  19. The nucleocapsid protein of measles virus blocks host interferon response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, Ikuyo; Sato, Hiroki; Watanabe, Akira; Omi-Furutani, Mio; Sugai, Akihiro; Kanki, Keita; Yoneda, Misako; Kai, Chieko

    2012-01-01

    Measles virus (MV) belongs to the genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. A number of paramyxoviruses inhibit host interferon (IFN) signaling pathways in host immune systems by various mechanisms. Inhibition mechanisms have been described for many paramyxoviruses. Although there are inconsistencies among previous reports concerning MV, it appears that P/V/C proteins interfere with the pathways. In this study, we confirmed the effects of MV P gene products of a wild MV strain on IFN pathways and examined that of other viral proteins on it. Interestingly, we found that N protein acts as an IFN-α/β and γ-antagonist as strong as P gene products. We further investigated the mechanisms of MV-N inhibition, and revealed that MV-N blocks the nuclear import of activated STAT without preventing STAT and Jak activation or STAT degradation, and that the nuclear translocation of MV-N is important for the inhibition. The inhibitory effect of the N protein was observed as a common feature of other morbilliviruses. The results presented in this report suggest that N protein of MV as well as P/V/C proteins is involved in the inhibition of host IFN signaling pathways.

  20. The nucleocapsid protein of measles virus blocks host interferon response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takayama, Ikuyo; Sato, Hiroki; Watanabe, Akira; Omi-Furutani, Mio; Sugai, Akihiro; Kanki, Keita; Yoneda, Misako; Kai, Chieko, E-mail: ckai@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2012-03-01

    Measles virus (MV) belongs to the genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. A number of paramyxoviruses inhibit host interferon (IFN) signaling pathways in host immune systems by various mechanisms. Inhibition mechanisms have been described for many paramyxoviruses. Although there are inconsistencies among previous reports concerning MV, it appears that P/V/C proteins interfere with the pathways. In this study, we confirmed the effects of MV P gene products of a wild MV strain on IFN pathways and examined that of other viral proteins on it. Interestingly, we found that N protein acts as an IFN-{alpha}/{beta} and {gamma}-antagonist as strong as P gene products. We further investigated the mechanisms of MV-N inhibition, and revealed that MV-N blocks the nuclear import of activated STAT without preventing STAT and Jak activation or STAT degradation, and that the nuclear translocation of MV-N is important for the inhibition. The inhibitory effect of the N protein was observed as a common feature of other morbilliviruses. The results presented in this report suggest that N protein of MV as well as P/V/C proteins is involved in the inhibition of host IFN signaling pathways.

  1. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: measles virus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term measles virus 名詞 一般 * * * * 麻疹ウイル...ス マシンウイルス マシンウイルス Thesaurus2015 200906067469554060 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 measles virus

  2. Measles vaccination of nonhuman primates provides partial protection against infection with canine distemper virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Rory D; Ludlow, Martin; Verburgh, R Joyce; van Amerongen, Geert; Yüksel, Selma; Nguyen, D Tien; McQuaid, Stephen; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Duprex, W Paul; de Swart, Rik L

    2014-04-01

    Measles virus (MV) is being considered for global eradication, which would likely reduce compliance with MV vaccination. As a result, children will grow up without MV-specific immunity, creating a potential niche for closely related animal morbilliviruses such as canine distemper virus (CDV). Natural CDV infection causing clinical signs has never been reported in humans, but recent outbreaks in captive macaques have shown that CDV can cause disease in primates. We studied the virulence and tropism of recombinant CDV expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein in naive and measles-vaccinated cynomolgus macaques. In naive animals CDV caused viremia and fever and predominantly infected CD150(+) lymphocytes and dendritic cells. Virus was reisolated from the upper and lower respiratory tracts, but infection of epithelial or neuronal cells was not detectable at the time points examined, and the infections were self-limiting. This demonstrates that CDV readily infects nonhuman primates but suggests that additional mutations are necessary to achieve full virulence in nonnatural hosts. Partial protection against CDV was observed in measles-vaccinated macaques, as demonstrated by accelerated control of virus replication and limited shedding from the upper respiratory tract. While neither CDV infection nor MV vaccination induced detectable cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies, MV-specific neutralizing antibody levels of MV-vaccinated macaques were boosted by CDV challenge infection, suggesting that cross-reactive VN epitopes exist. Rapid increases in white blood cell counts in MV-vaccinated macaques following CDV challenge suggested that cross-reactive cellular immune responses were also present. This study demonstrates that zoonotic morbillivirus infections can be controlled by measles vaccination. Throughout history viral zoonoses have had a substantial impact on human health. Given the drive toward global eradication of measles, it is essential to understand the

  3. Recombinant measles virus vaccine expressing the Nipah virus glycoprotein protects against lethal Nipah virus challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misako Yoneda

    Full Text Available Nipah virus (NiV is a member of the genus Henipavirus, which emerged in Malaysia in 1998. In pigs, infection resulted in a predominantly non-lethal respiratory disease; however, infection in humans resulted in over 100 deaths. Nipah virus has continued to re-emerge in Bangladesh and India, and person-to-person transmission appeared in the outbreak. Although a number of NiV vaccine studies have been reported, there are currently no vaccines or treatments licensed for human use. In this study, we have developed a recombinant measles virus (rMV vaccine expressing NiV envelope glycoproteins (rMV-HL-G and rMV-Ed-G. Vaccinated hamsters were completely protected against NiV challenge, while the mortality of unvaccinated control hamsters was 90%. We trialed our vaccine in a non-human primate model, African green monkeys. Upon intraperitoneal infection with NiV, monkeys showed several clinical signs of disease including severe depression, reduced ability to move and decreased food ingestion and died at 7 days post infection (dpi. Intranasal and oral inoculation induced similar clinical illness in monkeys, evident around 9 dpi, and resulted in a moribund stage around 14 dpi. Two monkeys immunized subcutaneously with rMV-Ed-G showed no clinical illness prior to euthanasia after challenge with NiV. Viral RNA was not detected in any organ samples collected from vaccinated monkeys, and no pathological changes were found upon histopathological examination. From our findings, we propose that rMV-NiV-G is an appropriate NiV vaccine candidate for use in humans.

  4. A chimeric measles virus with a lentiviral envelope replicates exclusively in CD4+/CCR5+ cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourez, Thomas; Mesel-Lemoine, Mariana; Combredet, Chantal; Najburg, Valerie; Cayet, Nadege; Tangy, Frederic

    2011-01-01

    We generated a replicating chimeric measles virus in which the hemagglutinin and fusion surface glycoproteins were replaced with the gp160 envelope glycoprotein of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac239). Based on a previously cloned live-attenuated Schwarz vaccine strain of measles virus (MV), this chimera was rescued at high titers using reverse genetics in CD4+ target cells. Cytopathic effect consisted in the presence of large cell aggregates evolving to form syncytia, as observed during SIV infection. The morphology of the chimeric virus was identical to that of the parent MV particles. The presence of SIV gp160 as the only envelope protein on chimeric particles surface altered the cell tropism of the new virus from CD46+ to CD4+ cells. Used as an HIV candidate vaccine, this MV/SIVenv chimeric virus would mimic transient HIV-like infection, benefiting both from HIV-like tropism and the capacity of MV to replicate in dendritic cells, macrophages and lymphocytes.

  5. A measles outbreak in Sindh, Pakistan caused by a genotype B3 virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Syed Sohail Zahoor; Hameed, Abdul; Ali, Naeem; Umair, Massab; Alam, Muhammad Masroor; Rana, Muhammad Suleman; Sharif, Salmaan; Aamir, Uzma Bashir; Shaukat, Shahzad; Angez, Mehar; Khurshid, Adnan; Akhtar, Ribqa; Mehmood, Nayab; Badar, Nazish

    2017-12-01

    Measles continues to be a major public health issue causing substantial outbreaks worldwide, mostly affecting young children. Molecular analysis of measles viruses provides important information on outbreak linkages and transmission pathways that can be helpful towards implementation of appropriate control programs. In Pakistan, the control of measles is still tenuous, and progress towards elimination has been irregular and challenging. In the 2013 measles outbreak we received 4,682 sera collected from suspected patients in 23 districts across Sindh. A total of 3,283 samples were confirmed measles positive using IgM ELISA with the highest infection rate in children aged 1-12 months. Males were more affected than females and a visible peak was observed from January to April. Among the 3,283 cases, 59.1% were unvaccinated, 29.6% had received 1 dose and 10.3% had received 2 doses of measles vaccine while 0.85% had an unknown vaccination status. For genotype detection and phylogenetic analysis, 60 throat swab samples were collected from suspected patients below 15 years of age in eight districts of Sindh province. Forty four (73%; 44/60) throat swab samples were successfully genotyped using RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analyses based on partial sequences of the nucleocapsid protein gene revealed that all Pakistani measles virus strains belonged to genotype B3 and were closely related to those isolated from neighboring countries such as Iran, Afghanistan (99.1-100%) and India with 98.6 - 99.6% nucleotide homology. This is the first report on the phylogenetic analysis of measles B3 genotype strains from Pakistan and highlights the need for strengthening the surveillance systems and improving immunization coverage across the country.

  6. Immune status of health care workers to measles virus: evaluation of protective titers in four measles IgG EIAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorigo-Zetsma, J.W.; Hall, M.A.; Vreeswijk, J.; Vries, J.J. de; Vossen, A.C.; Hulscher, H.I. Ten; Kerkhof, J.; Smits, G.P.; Ruijs, W.L.M.; Koopmans, M.P.; Binnendijk, R.S. van

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Following the recognition of a measles case in a hospital in The Netherlands, health care workers (HCW) from the premises were screened by a commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for measles IgG to identify persons at risk for measles. At least 10% of the HCW were tested measles

  7. Rapid Titration of Measles and Other Viruses: Optimization with Determination of Replication Cycle Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorov, Boyan; Rabilloud, Jessica; Lawrence, Philip; Gerlier, Denis

    2011-01-01

    Background Measles virus (MV) is a member of the Paramyxoviridae family and an important human pathogen causing strong immunosuppression in affected individuals and a considerable number of deaths worldwide. Currently, measles is a re-emerging disease in developed countries. MV is usually quantified in infectious units as determined by limiting dilution and counting of plaque forming unit either directly (PFU method) or indirectly from random distribution in microwells (TCID50 method). Both methods are time-consuming (up to several days), cumbersome and, in the case of the PFU assay, possibly operator dependent. Methods/Findings A rapid, optimized, accurate, and reliable technique for titration of measles virus was developed based on the detection of virus infected cells by flow cytometry, single round of infection and titer calculation according to the Poisson's law. The kinetics follow up of the number of infected cells after infection with serial dilutions of a virus allowed estimation of the duration of the replication cycle, and consequently, the optimal infection time. The assay was set up to quantify measles virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) using antibody labeling of viral glycoprotein, virus encoded fluorescent reporter protein and an inducible fluorescent-reporter cell line, respectively. Conclusion Overall, performing the assay takes only 24–30 hours for MV strains, 12 hours for VSV, and 52 hours for HIV-1. The step-by-step procedure we have set up can be, in principle, applicable to accurately quantify any virus including lentiviral vectors, provided that a virus encoded gene product can be detected by flow cytometry. PMID:21915289

  8. Morbillivirus Experimental Animal Models: Measles Virus Pathogenesis Insights from Canine Distemper Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fontoura Budaszewski, Renata; von Messling, Veronika

    2016-10-11

    Morbilliviruses share considerable structural and functional similarities. Even though disease severity varies among the respective host species, the underlying pathogenesis and the clinical signs are comparable. Thus, insights gained with one morbillivirus often apply to the other members of the genus. Since the Canine distemper virus (CDV) causes severe and often lethal disease in dogs and ferrets, it is an attractive model to characterize morbillivirus pathogenesis mechanisms and to evaluate the efficacy of new prophylactic and therapeutic approaches. This review compares the cellular tropism, pathogenesis, mechanisms of persistence and immunosuppression of the Measles virus (MeV) and CDV. It then summarizes the contributions made by studies on the CDV in dogs and ferrets to our understanding of MeV pathogenesis and to vaccine and drugs development.

  9. Engineered measles virus Edmonston strain used as a novel oncolytic viral system against human hepatoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shu-Cheng; Wang, Wei-Lin; Cai, Wei-Song; Jiang, Kai-Lei; Yuan, Zheng-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Hepatoblastoma (HB) is the most common primary, malignant pediatric liver tumor in children. The treatment results for affected children have markedly improved in recent decades. However, the prognosis for high-risk patients who have extrahepatic extensions, invasion of the large hepatic veins, distant metastases and very high alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) serum levels remains poor. There is an urgent need for the development of novel therapeutic approaches. An attenuated strain of measles virus, derived from the Edmonston vaccine lineage, was genetically engineered to produce carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). We investigated the antitumor potential of this novel viral agent against human HB both in vitro and in vivo. Infection of the Hep2G and HUH6 HB cell lines, at multiplicities of infection (MOIs) ranging from 0.01 to 1, resulted in a significant cytopathic effect consisting of extensive syncytia formation and massive cell death at 72–96 h after infection. Both of the HB lines overexpressed the measles virus receptor CD46 and supported robust viral replication, which correlated with CEA production. The efficacy of this approach in vivo was examined in murine Hep2G xenograft models. Flow cytometry assays indicated an apoptotic mechanism of cell death. Intratumoral administration of MV-CEA resulted in statistically significant delay of tumor growth and prolongation of survival. The engineered measles virus Edmonston strain MV-CEA has potent therapeutic efficacy against HB cell lines and xenografts. Trackable measles virus derivatives merit further exploration in HB treatment

  10. Single Endemic Genotype of Measles Virus Continuously Circulating in China for at Least 16 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiling; Zhu, Zhen; Ji, Yixin; Liu, Chunyu; Zhang, Xiaojie; Sun, Liwei; Zhou, Jianhui; Lu, Peishan; Hu, Ying; Feng, Daxing; Zhang, Zhenying; Wang, Changyin; Fang, Xueqiang; Zheng, Huanying; Liu, Leng; Sun, Xiaodong; Tang, Wei; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yan; Gao, Hui; Tian, Hong; Ma, Jiangtao; Gu, Suyi; Wang, Shuang; Feng, Yan; Bo, Fang; Liu, Jianfeng; Si, Yuan; Zhou, Shujie; Ma, Yuyan; Wu, Shengwei; Zhou, Shunde; Li, Fangcai; Ding, Zhengrong; Yang, Zhaohui; Rota, Paul A.; Featherstone, David; Jee, Youngmee; Bellini, William J.; Xu, Wenbo

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of measles in China from 1991 to 2008 was reviewed, and the nucleotide sequences from 1507 measles viruses (MeV) isolated during 1993 to 2008 were phylogenetically analyzed. The results showed that measles epidemics peaked approximately every 3 to 5 years with the range of measles cases detected between 56,850 and 140,048 per year. The Chinese MeV strains represented three genotypes; 1501 H1, 1 H2 and 5 A. Genotype H1 was the predominant genotype throughout China continuously circulating for at least 16 years. Genotype H1 sequences could be divided into two distinct clusters, H1a and H1b. A 4.2% average nucleotide divergence was found between the H1a and H1b clusters, and the nucleotide sequence and predicted amino acid homologies of H1a viruses were 92.3%–100% and 84.7%–100%, H1b were 97.1%–100% and 95.3%–100%, respectively. Viruses from both clusters were distributed throughout China with no apparent geographic restriction and multiple co-circulating lineages were present in many provinces. Cluster H1a and H1b viruses were co-circulating during 1993 to 2005, while no H1b viruses were detected after 2005 and the transmission of that cluster has presumably been interrupted. Analysis of the nucleotide and predicted amino acid changes in the N proteins of H1a and H1b viruses showed no evidence of selective pressure. This study investigated the genotype and cluster distribution of MeV in China over a 16-year period to establish a genetic baseline before MeV elimination in Western Pacific Region (WPR). Continuous and extensive MeV surveillance and the ability to quickly identify imported cases of measles will become more critical as measles elimination goals are achieved in China in the near future. This is the first report that a single endemic genotype of measles virus has been found to be continuously circulating in one country for at least 16 years. PMID:22532829

  11. Single endemic genotype of measles virus continuously circulating in China for at least 16 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    Full Text Available The incidence of measles in China from 1991 to 2008 was reviewed, and the nucleotide sequences from 1507 measles viruses (MeV isolated during 1993 to 2008 were phylogenetically analyzed. The results showed that measles epidemics peaked approximately every 3 to 5 years with the range of measles cases detected between 56,850 and 140,048 per year. The Chinese MeV strains represented three genotypes; 1501 H1, 1 H2 and 5 A. Genotype H1 was the predominant genotype throughout China continuously circulating for at least 16 years. Genotype H1 sequences could be divided into two distinct clusters, H1a and H1b. A 4.2% average nucleotide divergence was found between the H1a and H1b clusters, and the nucleotide sequence and predicted amino acid homologies of H1a viruses were 92.3%-100% and 84.7%-100%, H1b were 97.1%-100% and 95.3%-100%, respectively. Viruses from both clusters were distributed throughout China with no apparent geographic restriction and multiple co-circulating lineages were present in many provinces. Cluster H1a and H1b viruses were co-circulating during 1993 to 2005, while no H1b viruses were detected after 2005 and the transmission of that cluster has presumably been interrupted. Analysis of the nucleotide and predicted amino acid changes in the N proteins of H1a and H1b viruses showed no evidence of selective pressure. This study investigated the genotype and cluster distribution of MeV in China over a 16-year period to establish a genetic baseline before MeV elimination in Western Pacific Region (WPR. Continuous and extensive MeV surveillance and the ability to quickly identify imported cases of measles will become more critical as measles elimination goals are achieved in China in the near future. This is the first report that a single endemic genotype of measles virus has been found to be continuously circulating in one country for at least 16 years.

  12. Genetic analysis of Asian measles virus strains--new endemic genotype in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, A T; Mulders, M N; Gautam, D C; Ammerlaan, W; de Swart, R L; King, C C; Osterhaus, A D; Muller, C P

    2001-07-01

    In many parts of Asia measles virus (MV) continues to be endemic. However, little is known about the genetic characteristics of viruses circulating on this continent. This study reports the molecular epidemiological analysis based on the entire nucleocapsid (N) and hemagglutinin (H) genes of the first isolates from Nepal and Taiwan, as well as of recent MV strains from India, Indonesia, and China. Four isolates collected in various regions in Nepal during 1999 belonged to a new genotype, tentatively called D8. Another Nepalese isolate and one from India belonged to genotype D4. The diversity of the Nepalese strains indicated that measles continues to be endemic in this country. The isolate from Taiwan grouped with D3 viruses and one Chinese strain isolated in The Netherlands was assigned to the previously described clade H, known to be endemic in Mainland China. Molecular characterization emerges as an important tool for monitoring virus endemicity and vaccination efforts.

  13. Measles re-emergence in Northern Italy: Pathways of measles virus genotype D8, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, Antonella; Bianchi, Silvia; Lai, Alessia; Canuti, Marta; Piralla, Antonio; Baggieri, Melissa; Ranghiero, Alberto; Piatti, Alessandra; Tanzi, Elisabetta; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Magurano, Fabio; Baldanti, Fausto

    2017-03-01

    Molecular surveillance and advanced phylogenetic methods are important tools to track the pathways of Measles virus (MV) genotypes, provide evidence for the interruption of endemic transmission and verify the elimination of the disease. The aims of this study were to describe the genetic profile of MV genotype D8 (D8-MV) strains circulating in Northern Italy (Lombardy Region) during the 2013-2014 period and to analyze the transmission chains and estimate the introduction time points using a phylogenetic approach. Forty-four strains of D8-MV identified from 12 outbreaks and 28 cases reported as sporadic were analyzed. Molecular analysis was performed by sequencing the highly variable 450nt region of the N gene of MV genome (N-450), as recommended by the WHO. Phylogenetic analyses and tree time-scaled reconstruction were performed with BEAST software. We could trace back the transmission pathways that resulted in three chains of transmission, two introductions with limited spread (two familiar outbreaks), and two single introductions (true sporadic cases). The D8-Taunton transmission chain, which was involved in 7 outbreaks and 13 sporadic cases, was endemic during the studied period. Furthermore, two novel local variants emerged independently in March 2014 and caused two transmission chains linked to at least 3 outbreaks. Overall, viral diversity was high and strains belonging to 5 different variants were identified. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that multiple lineages of D8-MV co-circulated in Northern Italy. Measles can be considered a re-emerging disease in Italy and additional efforts are necessary to achieve measles elimination goal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Antagonism of the Phosphatase PP1 by the Measles Virus V Protein Is Required for Innate Immune Escape of MDA5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, Meredith E.; Wang, May K.; Rennick, Linda J.; Full, Florian; Gableske, Sebastian; Mesman, Annelies W.; Gringhuis, Sonja I.; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.; Duprex, W. Paul; Gack, Michaela U.

    2014-01-01

    The cytosolic sensor MDA5 is crucial for antiviral innate immune defense against various RNA viruses including measles virus; as such, many viruses have evolved strategies to antagonize the antiviral activity of MDA5. Here, we show that measles virus escapes MDA5 detection by targeting the

  15. External Quality Assessment for the Detection of Measles Virus by Reverse Transcription-PCR Using Armored RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhang

    Full Text Available In recent years, nucleic acid tests for detection of measles virus RNA have been widely applied in laboratories belonging to the measles surveillance system of China. An external quality assessment program was established by the National Center for Clinical Laboratories to evaluate the performance of nucleic acid tests for measles virus. The external quality assessment panel, which consisted of 10 specimens, was prepared using armored RNAs, complex of noninfectious MS2 bacteriophage coat proteins encapsulated RNA of measles virus, as measles virus surrogate controls. Conserved sequences amplified from a circulating measles virus strain or from a vaccine strain were encapsulated into these armored RNAs. Forty-one participating laboratories from 15 provinces, municipalities, or autonomous regions that currently conduct molecular detection of measles virus enrolled in the external quality assessment program, including 40 measles surveillance system laboratories and one diagnostic reagent manufacturer. Forty laboratories used commercial reverse transcription-quantitative PCR kits, with only one laboratory applying a conventional PCR method developed in-house. The results indicated that most of the participants (38/41, 92.7% were able to accurately detect the panel with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Although a wide range of commercially available kits for nucleic acid extraction and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were used by the participants, only two false-negative results and one false-positive result were generated; these were generated by three separate laboratories. Both false-negative results were obtained with tests performed on specimens with the lowest concentration (1.2 × 104 genomic equivalents/mL. In addition, all 18 participants from Beijing achieved 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Overall, we conclude that the majority of the laboratories evaluated have reliable diagnostic capacities for the detection

  16. Spread of Measles Virus D4-Hamburg, Europe, 2008–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihneva, Zefira; Gold, Hermann; Baumgarte, Sigrid; Baillot, Armin; Helble, Rudolph; Roggendorf, Hedwig; Bosevska, Golubinka; Nedeljkovic, Jasminka; Makowka, Agata; Hutse, Veronik; Holzmann, Heidemarie; Aberle, Stefan W.; Cordey, Samuel; Necula, Gheorghe; Mentis, Andreas; Korukluoğlu, Gulay; Carr, Michael; Brown, Kevin E.; Hübschen, Judith M.; Muller, Claude P.; Mulders, Mick N.; Santibanez, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    A new strain of measles virus, D4-Hamburg, was imported from London to Hamburg in December 2008 and subsequently spread to Bulgaria, where an outbreak of >24,300 cases was observed. We analyzed spread of the virus to demonstrate the importance of addressing hard-to-reach communities within the World Health Organization European Region regarding access to medical care and vaccination campaigns. The D4-Hamburg strain appeared during 2009–2011 in Poland, Ireland, Northern Ireland, Austria, Greece, Romania, Turkey, Macedonia, Serbia, Switzerland, and Belgium and was repeatedly reimported to Germany. The strain was present in Europe for >27 months and led to >25,000 cases in 12 countries. Spread of the virus was prevalently but not exclusively associated with travel by persons in the Roma ethnic group; because this travel extends beyond the borders of any European country, measures to prevent the spread of measles should be implemented by the region as a whole. PMID:21801615

  17. Viral Oncolysis — Can Insights from Measles Be Transferred to Canine Distemper Virus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Lapp

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neoplastic diseases represent one of the most common causes of death among humans and animals. Currently available and applied therapeutic options often remain insufficient and unsatisfactory, therefore new and innovative strategies and approaches are highly needed. Periodically, oncolytic viruses have been in the center of interest since the first anecdotal description of their potential usefulness as an anti-tumor treatment concept. Though first reports referred to an incidental measles virus infection causing tumor regression in a patient suffering from lymphoma several decades ago, no final treatment concept has been developed since then. However, numerous viruses, such as herpes-, adeno- and paramyxoviruses, have been investigated, characterized, and modified with the aim to generate a new anti-cancer treatment option. Among the different viruses, measles virus still represents a highly interesting candidate for such an approach. Numerous different tumors of humans including malignant lymphoma, lung and colorectal adenocarcinoma, mesothelioma, and ovarian cancer, have been studied in vitro and in vivo as potential targets. Moreover, several concepts using different virus preparations are now in clinical trials in humans and may proceed to a new treatment option. Surprisingly, only few studies have investigated viral oncolysis in veterinary medicine. The close relationship between measles virus (MV and canine distemper virus (CDV, both are morbilliviruses, and the fact that numerous tumors in dogs exhibit similarities to their human counterpart, indicates that both the virus and species dog represent a highly interesting translational model for future research in viral oncolysis. Several recent studies support such an assumption. It is therefore the aim of the present communication to outline the mechanisms of morbillivirus-mediated oncolysis and to stimulate further research in this potentially expanding field of viral oncolysis in a highly

  18. Viral Oncolysis — Can Insights from Measles Be Transferred to Canine Distemper Virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapp, Stefanie; Pfankuche, Vanessa M.; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Puff, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Neoplastic diseases represent one of the most common causes of death among humans and animals. Currently available and applied therapeutic options often remain insufficient and unsatisfactory, therefore new and innovative strategies and approaches are highly needed. Periodically, oncolytic viruses have been in the center of interest since the first anecdotal description of their potential usefulness as an anti-tumor treatment concept. Though first reports referred to an incidental measles virus infection causing tumor regression in a patient suffering from lymphoma several decades ago, no final treatment concept has been developed since then. However, numerous viruses, such as herpes-, adeno- and paramyxoviruses, have been investigated, characterized, and modified with the aim to generate a new anti-cancer treatment option. Among the different viruses, measles virus still represents a highly interesting candidate for such an approach. Numerous different tumors of humans including malignant lymphoma, lung and colorectal adenocarcinoma, mesothelioma, and ovarian cancer, have been studied in vitro and in vivo as potential targets. Moreover, several concepts using different virus preparations are now in clinical trials in humans and may proceed to a new treatment option. Surprisingly, only few studies have investigated viral oncolysis in veterinary medicine. The close relationship between measles virus (MV) and canine distemper virus (CDV), both are morbilliviruses, and the fact that numerous tumors in dogs exhibit similarities to their human counterpart, indicates that both the virus and species dog represent a highly interesting translational model for future research in viral oncolysis. Several recent studies support such an assumption. It is therefore the aim of the present communication to outline the mechanisms of morbillivirus-mediated oncolysis and to stimulate further research in this potentially expanding field of viral oncolysis in a highly suitable

  19. Attenuated Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi and Shigella flexneri 2a Strains Mucosally Deliver DNA Vaccines Encoding Measles Virus Hemagglutinin, Inducing Specific Immune Responses and Protection in Cotton Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Pasetti, Marcela F.; Barry, Eileen M.; Losonsky, Genevieve; Singh, Mahender; Medina-Moreno, Sandra M.; Polo, John M.; Ulmer, Jeffrey; Robinson, Harriet; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Levine, Myron M.

    2003-01-01

    Measles remains a leading cause of child mortality in developing countries. Residual maternal measles antibodies and immunologic immaturity dampen immunogenicity of the current vaccine in young infants. Because cotton rat respiratory tract is susceptible to measles virus (MV) replication after intranasal (i.n.) challenge, this model can be used to assess the efficacy of MV vaccines. Pursuing a new measles vaccine strategy that might be effective in young infants, we used attenuated Salmonella...

  20. A novel, polymer-coated oncolytic measles virus overcomes immune suppression and induces robust antitumor activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaname Nosaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although various therapies are available to treat cancers, including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, cancer has been the leading cause of death in Japan for the last 30 years, and new therapeutic modalities are urgently needed. As a new modality, there has recently been great interest in oncolytic virotherapy, with measles virus being a candidate virus expected to show strong antitumor effects. The efficacy of virotherapy, however, was strongly limited by the host immune response in previous clinical trials. To enhance and prolong the antitumor activity of virotherapy, we combined the use of two newly developed tools: the genetically engineered measles virus (MV-NPL and the multilayer virus-coating method of layer-by-layer deposition of ionic polymers. We compared the oncolytic effects of this polymer-coated MV-NPL with the naked MV-NPL, both in vitro and in vivo. In the presence of anti-MV neutralizing antibodies, the polymer-coated virus showed more enhanced oncolytic activity than did the naked MV-NPL in vitro. We also examined antitumor activities in virus-treated mice. Complement-dependent cytotoxicity and antitumor activities were higher in mice treated with polymer-coated MV-NPL than in mice treated with the naked virus. This novel, polymer-coated MV-NPL is promising for clinical cancer therapy in the future.

  1. Immunogenicity of peptides of measles virus origin and influence of adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halassy, Beata; Mateljak, Sanja; Bouche, Fabienne B; Pütz, Mike M; Muller, Claude P; Frkanec, Ruza; Habjanec, Lidija; Tomasić, Jelka

    2006-01-12

    Epitope-based peptide antigens have been under development for protection against measles virus. The immunogenicity of five peptides composed of the same B cell epitope (BCE) (H236-250 of the measles virus hemagglutinin), and different T cell epitopes of measles virus fusion protein (F421-435, F256-270, F288-302) and nucleoprotein (NP335-345) was studied in mice (subcutaneous immunisation). The adjuvant effects of peptidoglycan monomer (PGM), Montanide ISA 720 and 206 were also investigated. Results showed basic differences in peptide immunogenicity that were consistent with already described structural differences. PGM elevated peptide-specific IgG when applied together with four of five tested peptides. A strong synergistic effect was observed after co-immunisation of mice with a mixture containing all five chimeric peptides in small and equal amounts. Results revealed for the first time that immunisation with several peptides having the common BCE generated significantly higher levels of both anti-peptide and anti-BCE IgG in comparison to those obtained after immunisation with a single peptide in much higher quantity. Further improvement of immune response was obtained after incorporation of such a peptide mixture into oil-based adjuvants.

  2. A chimeric measles virus with canine distemper envelope protects ferrets from lethal distemper challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouxel, Ronan Nicolas; Svitek, Nicholas; von Messling, Veronika

    2009-08-06

    CDV infects a broad range of carnivores, and over the past decades it has caused outbreaks in a variety of wild carnivore populations. Since the currently available live-attenuated vaccine is not sufficiently safe in these highly susceptible species, we produced a chimeric virus combining the replication complex of the measles Moraten vaccine strain with the envelope of a recent CDV wild type isolate. The resulting virus did not cause disease or immunosuppression in ferrets and conferred protection from challenge with a lethal wild type strain, demonstrating its potential value for wildlife conservation efforts.

  3. Implementation of a National Measles Elimination Program in Iran: Phylogenetic Analysis of Measles Virus Strains Isolated during 2010–2012 Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Vahid; Abbasi, Simin; Zahraei, Seyed Mohsen; Fatemi-Nasab, Ghazal; Adjaminezhad-Fard, Fatemeh; Shadab, Azadeh; Ghavami, Nastaran; Zareh-Khoshchehre, Raziyeh; Soltanshahi, Rambod; Bont, Louis; Mokhtari-Azad, Talat

    2014-01-01

    Measles virus (MV) causes small and large outbreaks in Iran. Molecular assays allow identifying and the sources of measles imported from neighboring countries. We carried out a phylogenetic analysis of measles virus circulating in Iran over the period 2010–2012. Specimens from suspected cases of measles were collected from different regions of Iran. Virus isolation was performed on urine and throat swabs. Partial nucleoprotein gene segments of MV were amplified by RT-PCR. PCR products of 173 samples were sequenced and analyzed. The median age of confirmed cases was 2 years. Among all confirmed cases, 32% had unknown vaccination status, 20% had been vaccinated, and 48% had not been vaccinated. Genotypes B3 and D8 (for the first time), H1 and D4 were detected mainly in unvaccinated toddlers and young children. Genotype B3 became predominant in 2012 and was closely related to African strains. H1 strains were also found in small and large outbreaks during 2012 but were not identical to Iranian H1-2009 strains. A majority of the Iranian D4 strains during 2010–2012 outbreaks were linked to the D4 strain identified in the Pakistan in 2007. We identified a single case in 2010 belonging to D8 genotype with 99.7% identity to Indian isolates. Although the vaccination program is currently good enough to prevent nationwide epidemics and successfully decreased measles incidence in Iran, the fraction of protected individuals in the population was not high enough to prevent continuous introduction of cases from abroad. Due to increasing number of susceptible individuals in some areas, sustained transmission of the newly introduced viral genotype remains possible. PMID:24736720

  4. Measles virus antibody responses in children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer edmonston-zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age, 9 months of age, or 9 and 18 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, Carlitos

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends administration of measles vaccine (MV) at age 9 months in low-income countries. We tested the measles virus antibody response at 4.5, 9, 18, and 24 months of age for children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer Edmonston-Zagreb MV at 4.5 and 9 months...

  5. A transgenic mouse model for measles virus infection of the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rall, Glenn F.; Manchester, Marianne; Daniels, Lia R.; Callahan, Eric M.; Belman, Alec R.; Oldstone, Michael B. A.

    1997-01-01

    In addition to the rash, fever, and upper respiratory tract congestion that are the hallmarks of acute measles virus (MV) infection, invasion of the central nervous system (CNS) can occur, establishing a persistent infection primarily in neurons. The recent identification of the human membrane glycoprotein, CD46, as the MV receptor allowed for the establishment of transgenic mice in which the CD46 gene was transcriptionally regulated by a neuron-specific promoter. Expression of the measles receptor rendered primary CD46-positive neurons permissive to infection with MV–Edmonston. Notably, viral transmission within these cultures occurred in the absence of extracellular virus, presumably via neuronal processes. No infection was seen in nontransgenic mice inoculated intracerebrally with MV–Edmonston. In contrast, scattered neurons were infected following inoculation of transgenic adults, and an impressive widespread neuronal infection was established in transgenic neonates. The neonatal infection resulted in severe CNS disease by 3–4 weeks after infection. Illness was characterized initially by awkward gait and a lack of mobility, and in later stages seizures leading to death. These results show that expression of the MV receptor on specific murine cells (neurons) in vivo is absolutely essential to confer both susceptibility to infection and neurologic disease by this human virus. The disparity in clinical findings between neonatal and adult transgenic mice indicates that differences exist between the developing and mature CNS with respect to MV infection and pathogenesis. PMID:9114047

  6. Resting lymphocyte transduction with measles virus glycoprotein pseudotyped lentiviral vectors relies on CD46 and SLAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Qi; Schneider, Irene C.; Gallet, Manuela; Kneissl, Sabrina; Buchholz, Christian J.

    2011-01-01

    The measles virus (MV) glycoproteins hemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) were recently shown to mediate transduction of resting lymphocytes by lentiviral vectors. MV vaccine strains use CD46 or signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) as receptor for cell entry. A panel of H protein mutants derived from vaccine strain or wild-type MVs that lost or gained CD46 or SLAM receptor usage were investigated for their ability to mediate gene transfer into unstimulated T lymphocytes. The results demonstrate that CD46 is sufficient for efficient vector particle association with unstimulated lymphocytes. For stable gene transfer into these cells, however, both MV receptors were found to be essential.

  7. The measles virus N(TAIL)-XD complex: an illustrative example of fuzziness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, I focus on the biochemical and structural characterization of the complex between the intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain of the measles virus nucleoprotein (N(TAIL)) and the C-terminal X domain (XD) of the viral phosphoprotein (P). I summarize the main experimental data available so far pointing out the prevalently disordered nature of N(TAIL) even after complex formation and the role of the flexible C-terminal appendage in the binding reaction. I finally discuss the possible functional role of these residual disordered regions within the complex in terms of their ability to capture other regulatory, binding partners.

  8. Epitope Dampening Monotypic Measles Virus Hemagglutinin Glycoprotein Results in Resistance to Cocktail of Monoclonal Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Patrycja J.; Tobin, Gregory J.; Bushnell, Ruth; Gutschenritter, Emily; Pham, Linh D.; Nace, Rebecca; Verhoeyen, Els; Cosset, François-Loïc; Muller, Claude P.; Russell, Stephen J.; Nara, Peter L.

    2013-01-01

    The measles virus (MV) is serologically monotypic. Life-long immunity is conferred by a single attack of measles or following vaccination with the MV vaccine. This is contrary to viruses such as influenza, which readily develop resistance to the immune system and recur. A better understanding of factors that restrain MV to one serotype may allow us to predict if MV will remain monotypic in the future and influence the design of novel MV vaccines and therapeutics. MV hemagglutinin (H) glycoprotein, binds to cellular receptors and subsequently triggers the fusion (F) glycoprotein to fuse the virus into the cell. H is also the major target for neutralizing antibodies. To explore if MV remains monotypic due to a lack of plasticity of the H glycoprotein, we used the technology of Immune Dampening to generate viruses with rationally designed N-linked glycosylation sites and mutations in different epitopes and screened for viruses that escaped monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). We then combined rationally designed mutations with naturally selected mutations to generate a virus resistant to a cocktail of neutralizing mAbs targeting four different epitopes simultaneously. Two epitopes were protected by engineered N-linked glycosylations and two epitopes acquired escape mutations via two consecutive rounds of artificial selection in the presence of mAbs. Three of these epitopes were targeted by mAbs known to interfere with receptor binding. Results demonstrate that, within the epitopes analyzed, H can tolerate mutations in different residues and additional N-linked glycosylations to escape mAbs. Understanding the degree of change that H can tolerate is important as we follow its evolution in a host whose immunity is vaccine induced by genotype A strains instead of multiple genetically distinct wild-type MVs. PMID:23300970

  9. CD147/EMMPRIN Acts as a Functional Entry Receptor for Measles Virus on Epithelial Cells▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Akira; Yoneda, Misako; Ikeda, Fusako; Terao-Muto, Yuri; Sato, Hiroki; Kai, Chieko

    2010-01-01

    Measles is a highly contagious human disease caused by measles virus (MeV) and remains the leading cause of death in children, particularly in developing countries. Wild-type MeV preferentially infects lymphocytes by using signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM), whose expression is restricted to hematopoietic cells, as a receptor. MeV also infects other epithelial and neuronal cells that do not express SLAM and causes pneumonia and diarrhea and, sometimes, serious symptoms such as measles encephalitis and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. The discrepancy between the tissue tropism of MeV and the distribution of SLAM-positive cells suggests that there are unknown receptors other than SLAM for MeV. Here we identified CD147/EMMPRIN (extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer), a transmembrane glycoprotein, which acts as a receptor for MeV on epithelial cells. Furthermore, we found the incorporation of cyclophilin B (CypB), a cellular ligand for CD147, in MeV virions, and showed that inhibition of CypB incorporation significantly attenuated SLAM-independent infection on epithelial cells, while it had no effect on SLAM-dependent infection. To date, MeV infection was considered to be triggered by binding of its hemagglutinin (H) protein and cellular receptors. Our present study, however, indicates that MeV infection also occurs via CD147 and virion-associated CypB, independently of MeV H. Since CD147 is expressed in a variety of cells, including epithelial and neuronal cells, this molecule possibly functions as an entry receptor for MeV in SLAM-negative cells. This is the first report among members of the Mononegavirales that CD147 is used as a virus entry receptor via incorporated CypB in the virions. PMID:20147391

  10. CD147/EMMPRIN acts as a functional entry receptor for measles virus on epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Akira; Yoneda, Misako; Ikeda, Fusako; Terao-Muto, Yuri; Sato, Hiroki; Kai, Chieko

    2010-05-01

    Measles is a highly contagious human disease caused by measles virus (MeV) and remains the leading cause of death in children, particularly in developing countries. Wild-type MeV preferentially infects lymphocytes by using signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM), whose expression is restricted to hematopoietic cells, as a receptor. MeV also infects other epithelial and neuronal cells that do not express SLAM and causes pneumonia and diarrhea and, sometimes, serious symptoms such as measles encephalitis and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. The discrepancy between the tissue tropism of MeV and the distribution of SLAM-positive cells suggests that there are unknown receptors other than SLAM for MeV. Here we identified CD147/EMMPRIN (extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer), a transmembrane glycoprotein, which acts as a receptor for MeV on epithelial cells. Furthermore, we found the incorporation of cyclophilin B (CypB), a cellular ligand for CD147, in MeV virions, and showed that inhibition of CypB incorporation significantly attenuated SLAM-independent infection on epithelial cells, while it had no effect on SLAM-dependent infection. To date, MeV infection was considered to be triggered by binding of its hemagglutinin (H) protein and cellular receptors. Our present study, however, indicates that MeV infection also occurs via CD147 and virion-associated CypB, independently of MeV H. Since CD147 is expressed in a variety of cells, including epithelial and neuronal cells, this molecule possibly functions as an entry receptor for MeV in SLAM-negative cells. This is the first report among members of the Mononegavirales that CD147 is used as a virus entry receptor via incorporated CypB in the virions.

  11. Cap-dependent translational control of oncolytic measles virus infection in malignant mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Blake A; Sadiq, Ahad A; Tang, Shaogeng; Jay-Dixon, Joe; Patel, Manish R; Drees, Jeremy; Sorenson, Brent S; Russell, Stephen J; Kratzke, Robert A

    2017-09-08

    Malignant mesothelioma has a poor prognosis for which there remains an urgent need for successful treatment approaches. Infection with the Edmonston vaccine strain (MV-Edm) derivative of measles virus results in lysis of cancer cells and has been tested in clinical trials for numerous tumor types including mesothelioma. Many factors play a role in MV-Edm tumor cell selectivity and cytopathic activity while also sparing non-cancerous cells. The MV-Edm receptor CD46 (cluster of differentiation 46) was demonstrated to be significantly higher in mesothelioma cells than in control cells. In contrast, mesothelioma cells are not reliant upon the alternative MV-Edm receptor nectin-4 for entry. MV-Edm treatment of mesothelioma reduced cell viability and also invoked apoptotic cell death. Forced expression of eIF4E or translation stimulation following IGF-I (insulin-like growth factor 1) exposure strengthened the potency of measles virus oncolytic activity. It was also shown that repression of cap-dependent translation by treatment with agents [4EASO, 4EGI-1] that suppress host cell translation or by forcing cells to produce an activated repressor protein diminishes the strength of oncolytic viral efficacy.

  12. Molecular characterization of wild-type measles viruses in Tamil Nadu, India, during 2005-2006: relationship of genotype D8 strains from Tamil Nadu to global strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraisamy, Raja; Rota, Paul A; Palani, Gunasekaran; Elango, Varalakshmi; Sambasivam, Mohana; Lowe, Luis; Lopareva, Elena; Ramamurty, Nalini

    2012-02-01

    Molecular characterization of measles viruses is a valuable tool for measuring the effectiveness of measles control and elimination programmes. WHO recommends that virological surveillance be conducted during all phases of measles control to document circulation of indigenous strains and trace future importation. This report describes the genetic characterization of wild type measles viruses from Tamil Nadu, India isolated between January 2005 and January 2006. In the study, 304 suspected measles cases (292 from 56 outbreaks and 12 sporadic cases) were investigated. Blood samples were collected from suspected measles outbreaks and 11 suspected sporadic cases and tested for the presence of measles and rubella specific IgM. Based on serological results, 53 outbreaks were confirmed as measles, 2 as a combination of measles and rubella, and 1 negative for both. Eight sporadic cases were confirmed as measles and one as rubella. Throat swab and urine samples were collected for virus isolation and 28 isolates were obtained. Sequencing and analysis showed that 3 isolates belonged to genotype D4 and 25 to genotype D8. Comparison of the genotype D8 sequences from Tamil Nadu with previously reported genotype D8 sequences from India and abroad showed six distinct clusters with Tamil Nadu strains forming two clusters. This study has established baseline molecular data and is the first report that describes genetic diversity of circulating measles strains in Tamil Nadu, a state in India. D8 has multiple lineages and this has been linked with importation of measles into the USA and UK. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. In vitro measles virus infection of human lymphocyte subsets demonstrates high susceptibility and permissiveness of both naive and memory B cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M. Laksono (Brigitta); C. Grosserichter-Wagener (Christina); R.D. de Vries (Rory); Langeveld, S.A.G. (Simone A.G.); M.D. Brem (Maarten); J.J.M. van Dongen (Jacques); Katsikis, P.D. (Peter D.); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); M.C. van Zelm (Menno); R.L. de Swart (Rik)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractMeasles is characterized by a transient immune suppression, leading to an increased risk of opportunistic infections. Measles virus (MV) infection of immune cells is mediated by the cellular receptor CD150, expressed by subsets of lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages, and

  14. Selective translation of the measles virus nucleocapsid mRNA by La protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihisa eInoue

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Measles, caused by measles virus (MeV infection, is the leading cause of death in children because of secondary infections attributable to MeV-induced immune suppression. Recently, we have shown that wild-type MeVs induce the suppression of protein synthesis in host cells (referred to as "shutoff" and that viral mRNAs are preferentially translated under shutoff conditions in infected cells. To determine the mechanism behind the preferential translation of viral mRNA, we focused on the 5 untranslated region (UTR of nucleocapsid (N mRNA. The La/SSB autoantigen (La was found to specifically bind to an N-5UTR probe. Recombinant La enhanced the translation of luciferase mRNA containing the N-5UTR (N-fLuc, and RNA interference of La suppressed N-fLuc translation. Furthermore, recombinant MeV lacking the La-binding motif in the N-5UTR displayed delayed viral protein synthesis and growth kinetics at an early phase of infection. These results suggest that La induced predominant translation of N mRNA via binding to its 5UTR under shutoff conditions. This is the first report on a cellular factor that specifically regulates paramyxovirus mRNA translation.

  15. Tyrosine 110 in the measles virus phosphoprotein is required to block STAT1 phosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaux, Patricia; Messling, Veronika von; Songsungthong, Warangkhana; Springfeld, Christoph; Cattaneo, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    The measles virus (MV) P gene encodes three proteins: P, an essential polymerase cofactor, and C and V, which have multiple functions including immune evasion. We show here that the MV P protein also contributes to immune evasion, and that tyrosine 110 is required to block nuclear translocation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription factors (STAT) after interferon type I treatment. In particular, MV P inhibits STAT1 phosphorylation. This is shown not only by transient expression but also by reverse genetic analyses based on a new functional infectious cDNA derived from a MV vaccine vial (Moraten strain). Our study also identifies a conserved sequence around P protein tyrosine 110 as a candidate interaction site with a cellular protein

  16. Combination of Vaccine-Strain Measles and Mumps Viruses Enhances Oncolytic Activity against Human Solid Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ho Anh; Zhang, LiFeng; Cuong, Bui Khac; Van Tong, Hoang; Cuong, Le Duy; Hang, Ngo Thu; Nhung, Hoang Thi My; Yamamoto, Naoki; Toan, Nguyen Linh

    2018-02-07

    Oncolytic measles and mumps viruses (MeV, MuV) have a potential for anti-cancer treatment. We examined the anti-tumor activity of MeV, MuV, and MeV-MuV combination (MM) against human solid malignancies (HSM). MeV, MuV, and MM targeted and significantly killed various cancer cell lines of HSM but not normal cells. MM demonstrated a greater anti-tumor effect and prolonged survival in a human prostate cancer xenograft tumor model compared to MeV and MuV. MeV, MuV, and MM significantly induced the expression of immunogenic cell death markers and enhanced spleen-infiltrating immune cells. In conclusion, MM combination significantly improves the treatment of human solid malignancies.

  17. Annexin A2 Mediates the Localization of Measles Virus Matrix Protein at the Plasma Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Ritsuko; Kubota, Marie; Hashiguchi, Takao; Yanagi, Yusuke; Ohno, Shinji

    2018-02-28

    Annexins are a family of structurally related proteins that bind negatively charged membrane phospholipids in a Ca 2+ -dependent manner. Annexin A2 (AnxA2), a member of the family, has been implicated in a variety of cellular functions including the organization of membrane domains, vesicular trafficking and cell-cell adhesion. AnxA2 generally forms the heterotetrameric complex with a small Ca 2+ -binding protein S100A10. Measles virus (MV), a member of the family Paramyxoviridae , is an enveloped virus with a nonsegmented negative strand RNA genome. Knockdown of AnxA2 greatly reduced MV growth in cells, without affecting its entry and viral RNA production. In MV-infected, AnxA2-knockdown cells, the expression level of the matrix (M) protein, but not other viral proteins, was reduced compared with that in control cells, and the distribution of the M protein at the plasma membrane was decreased. The M protein lines the inner surface of the envelope and plays an important role in virus assembly by connecting the nucleocapsid to the envelope proteins. The M protein bound to AnxA2 independently of AnxA2's phosphorylation or its association with S100A10, and was co-localized with AnxA2 within cells. Truncation of the N-terminal 10 amino acid residues, but not the N-terminal 5 residues, compromised the ability of the M protein to interact with AnxA2 and localize at the plasma membrane. These results indicate that AnxA2 mediates the localization of the MV M protein at the plasma membrane by interacting with its N-terminal region (especially residues at positions 6-10), thereby aiding in MV assembly. IMPORTANCE Measles virus (MV) is an important human pathogen, still claiming ∼ 100,000 lives per year despite the presence of effective vaccines, and causes occasional outbreaks even in developed countries. Replication of viruses largely relies on the functions of host cells. Our study revealed that the reduction of the host protein annexin A2 compromises the replication of

  18. Measles and canine distemper virus antibodies in patients with multiple sclerosis determined by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnadottir, T.

    1980-01-01

    Antibodies against measles virus (MV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) were measured by solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) of sera and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 28 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and matched neurological controls. When the groups were compared for MV antibody titers and CDV antibody titers of sera and MV/CDV serum antibody titer ratios, no significant difference was found. The CDV antibody titers and the MV antibody titers were in good correlation. CDV antibodies showed RIA titration curves typical of low avidity antibodies. In tests for MV antibodies in CSF, 82% of the MS patients and 19% of the controls were positive, whereas 36% of the MS patients and 4% of the controls were positive in CDV RIA. The correlation between MV and CDV antibody levels, the low avidity of CDV antibodies and the fact that absorption of the specimens with MV antigen abolished all CDV antibody activity suggest that the CDV antibodies are MV antibodies cross-reacting with CDV. It is concluded that canine distemper virus is unlikely to be involved in the etiology of multiple sclerosis. (author)

  19. Expression of measles virus nucleoprotein induces apoptosis and modulates diverse functional proteins in cultured mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashima Bhaskar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Measles virus nucleoprotein (N encapsidates the viral RNA, protects it from endonucleases and forms a virus specific template for transcription and replication. It is the most abundant protein during viral infection. Its C-terminal domain is intrinsically disordered imparting it the flexibility to interact with several cellular and viral partners. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we demonstrate that expression of N within mammalian cells resulted in morphological transitions, nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation and activation of Caspase 3 eventuating into apoptosis. The rapid generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS was involved in the mechanism of cell death. Addition of ascorbic acid (AA or inhibitor of caspase-3 in the extracellular medium partially reversed N induced apoptosis. We also studied the protein profile of cells expressing N protein. MS analysis revealed the differential expression of 25 proteins out of which 11 proteins were up regulated while 14 show signs of down regulation upon N expression. 2DE results were validated by real time and semi quantitative RT-PCR analysis. CONCLUSION: These results show the pro-apoptotic effects of N indicating its possible development as an apoptogenic tool. Our 2DE results present prima facie evidence that the MV nucleoprotein interacts with or causes differential expression of a wide range of cellular factors. At this stage it is not clear as to what the adaptive response of the host cell is and what reflects a strategic modulation exerted by the virus.

  20. Measles virus C protein suppresses gamma-activated factor formation and virus-induced cell growth arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Shin-ichi; Okabayashi, Tamaki; Fujii, Nobuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Measles virus (MeV) produces two accessory proteins, V and C, from the P gene. These accessory proteins have been reported to contribute to efficient virus proliferation through the modulation of host cell events. Our previous paper described that Vero cell-adapted strains of MeV led host cells to growth arrest through the upregulation of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1), and wild strains did not. In the present study, we found that C protein expression levels varied among MeV strains in infected SiHa cells. C protein levels were inversely correlated with IRF-1 expression levels and with cell growth arrest. Forced expression of C protein released cells from growth arrest. C-deficient recombinant virus efficiently upregulated IRF-1 and caused growth arrest more efficiently than the wild-type virus. C protein preferentially bound to phosphorylated STAT1 and suppressed STAT1 dimer formation. We conclude that MeV C protein suppresses IFN-γ signaling pathway via inhibition of phosphorylated STAT1 dimerization.

  1. Nectin-4 Interactions Govern Measles Virus Virulence in a New Model of Pathogenesis, the Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpeut, Sébastien; Sawatsky, Bevan; Wong, Xiao-Xiang; Frenzke, Marie; Cattaneo, Roberto; von Messling, Veronika

    2017-06-01

    In addition to humans, only certain nonhuman primates are naturally susceptible to measles virus (MeV) infection. Disease severity is species dependent, ranging from mild to moderate for macaques to severe and even lethal for certain New World monkey species. To investigate if squirrel monkeys ( Saimiri sciureus ), which are reported to develop a course of disease similar to humans, may be better suited than macaques for the identification of virulence determinants or the evaluation of therapeutics, we infected them with a green fluorescent protein-expressing MeV. Compared to cynomolgus macaques ( Macaca fascicularis ) infected with the same virus, the squirrel monkeys developed more-severe immunosuppression, higher viral load, and a broader range of clinical signs typical for measles. In contrast, infection with an MeV unable to interact with the epithelial receptor nectin-4, while causing immunosuppression, resulted in only a mild and transient rash and a short-lived elevation of the body temperature. Similar titers of the wild-type and nectin-4-blind MeV were detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and lymph node homogenates, but only the wild-type virus was found in tracheal lavage fluids and urine. Thus, our study demonstrates the importance of MeV interactions with nectin-4 for clinical disease in the new and better-performing S. sciureus model of measles pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE The characterization of mechanisms underlying measles virus clinical disease has been hampered by the lack of an animal model that reproduces the course of disease seen in human patients. Here, we report that infection of squirrel monkeys ( Saimiri sciureus ) fulfills these requirements. Comparative infection with wild-type and epithelial cell receptor-blind viruses demonstrated the importance of epithelial cell infection for clinical disease, highlighting the spread to epithelia as an attractive target for therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2017 American Society for

  2. Genetic Characterization of the Hemagglutinin Genes of Wild-Type Measles Virus Circulating in China, 1993–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen; Liu, Chunyu; Mao, Naiying; Ji, Yixin; Wang, Huiling; Jiang, Xiaohong; Li, Chongshan; Tang, Wei; Feng, Daxing; Wang, Changyin; Zheng, Lei; Lei, Yue; Ling, Hua; Zhao, Chunfang; Ma, Yan; He, Jilan; Wang, Yan; Li, Ping; Guan, Ronghui; Zhou, Shujie; Zhou, Jianhui; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Hong; Zheng, Huanying; Liu, Leng; Ma, Hemuti; Guan, Jing; Lu, Peishan; Feng, Yan; Zhang, Yanjun; Zhou, Shunde; Xiong, Ying; Ba, Zhuoma; Chen, Hui; Yang, Xiuhui; Bo, Fang; Ma, Yujie; Liang, Yong; Lei, Yake; Gu, Suyi; Liu, Wei; Chen, Meng; Featherstone, David; Jee, Youngmee; Bellini, William J.; Rota, Paul A.; Xu, Wenbo

    2013-01-01

    Background China experienced several large measles outbreaks in the past two decades, and a series of enhanced control measures were implemented to achieve the goal of measles elimination. Molecular epidemiologic surveillance of wild-type measles viruses (MeV) provides valuable information about the viral transmission patterns. Since 1993, virologic surveillnace has confirmed that a single endemic genotype H1 viruses have been predominantly circulating in China. A component of molecular surveillance is to monitor the genetic characteristics of the hemagglutinin (H) gene of MeV, the major target for virus neutralizing antibodies. Principal Findings Analysis of the sequences of the complete H gene from 56 representative wild-type MeV strains circulating in China during 1993–2009 showed that the H gene sequences were clustered into 2 groups, cluster 1 and cluster 2. Cluster1 strains were the most frequently detected cluster and had a widespread distribution in China after 2000. The predicted amino acid sequences of the H protein were relatively conserved at most of the functionally significant amino acid positions. However, most of the genotype H1 cluster1 viruses had an amino acid substitution (Ser240Asn), which removed a predicted N-linked glycosylation site. In addition, the substitution of Pro397Leu in the hemagglutinin noose epitope (HNE) was identified in 23 of 56 strains. The evolutionary rate of the H gene of the genotype H1 viruses was estimated to be approximately 0.76×10−3 substitutions per site per year, and the ratio of dN to dS (dN/dS) was measles in China. PMID:24073194

  3. Plasticity in Structural and Functional Interactions between the Phosphoprotein and Nucleoprotein of Measles Virus*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yaoling; Habchi, Johnny; Costanzo, Stéphanie; Padilla, André; Brunel, Joanna; Gerlier, Denis; Oglesbee, Michael; Longhi, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    The measles virus (MeV) phosphoprotein (P) tethers the polymerase to the nucleocapsid template for transcription and genome replication. Binding of P to nucleocapsid is mediated by the X domain of P (XD) and a conserved sequence (Box-2) within the C-terminal domain of the nucleoprotein (NTAIL). XD binding induces NTAIL α-helical folding, which in turn has been proposed to stabilize the polymerase-nucleocapsid complex, with cycles of binding and release required for transcription and genome replication. The current work directly assessed the relationships among XD-induced NTAIL folding, XD-NTAIL binding affinity, and polymerase activity. Amino acid substitutions that abolished XD-induced NTAIL α-helical folding were created within Box-2 of Edmonston MeV NTAIL. Polymerase activity in minireplicons was maintained despite a 35-fold decrease in XD-NTAIL binding affinity or reduction/loss of XD-induced NTAIL alpha-helical folding. Recombinant infectious virus was recovered for all mutants, and transcriptase elongation rates remained within a 1.7-fold range of parent virus. Box-2 mutations did however impose a significant cost to infectivity, reflected in an increase in the amount of input genome required to match the infectivity of parent virus. Diminished infectivity could not be attributed to changes in virion protein composition or production of defective interfering particles, where changes from parent virus were within a 3-fold range. The results indicated that MeV polymerase activity, but not infectivity, tolerates amino acid changes in the XD-binding region of the nucleoprotein. Selectional pressure for conservation of the Box-2 sequence may thus reflect a role in assuring the fidelity of polymerase functions or the assembly of viral particles required for optimal infectivity. PMID:22318731

  4. Plasticity in structural and functional interactions between the phosphoprotein and nucleoprotein of measles virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yaoling; Habchi, Johnny; Costanzo, Stéphanie; Padilla, André; Brunel, Joanna; Gerlier, Denis; Oglesbee, Michael; Longhi, Sonia

    2012-04-06

    The measles virus (MeV) phosphoprotein (P) tethers the polymerase to the nucleocapsid template for transcription and genome replication. Binding of P to nucleocapsid is mediated by the X domain of P (XD) and a conserved sequence (Box-2) within the C-terminal domain of the nucleoprotein (N(TAIL)). XD binding induces N(TAIL) α-helical folding, which in turn has been proposed to stabilize the polymerase-nucleocapsid complex, with cycles of binding and release required for transcription and genome replication. The current work directly assessed the relationships among XD-induced N(TAIL) folding, XD-N(TAIL) binding affinity, and polymerase activity. Amino acid substitutions that abolished XD-induced N(TAIL) α-helical folding were created within Box-2 of Edmonston MeV N(TAIL). Polymerase activity in minireplicons was maintained despite a 35-fold decrease in XD-N(TAIL) binding affinity or reduction/loss of XD-induced N(TAIL) alpha-helical folding. Recombinant infectious virus was recovered for all mutants, and transcriptase elongation rates remained within a 1.7-fold range of parent virus. Box-2 mutations did however impose a significant cost to infectivity, reflected in an increase in the amount of input genome required to match the infectivity of parent virus. Diminished infectivity could not be attributed to changes in virion protein composition or production of defective interfering particles, where changes from parent virus were within a 3-fold range. The results indicated that MeV polymerase activity, but not infectivity, tolerates amino acid changes in the XD-binding region of the nucleoprotein. Selectional pressure for conservation of the Box-2 sequence may thus reflect a role in assuring the fidelity of polymerase functions or the assembly of viral particles required for optimal infectivity.

  5. Naturally processed measles virus peptide eluted from class II HLA-DRB1*03 recognized by T lymphocytes from human blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; Johnson, Kenneth L.; Naylor, Stephen; Muddiman, David C.; Poland, Gregory A.

    2003-01-01

    This is the first report of the direct identification of a HLA-DRB1*03 measles-derived peptide from measles virus infected EBV-transformed B cells. We purified HLA-DR3-peptide complexes from EBV-B cells infected with measles virus (Edmonston strain) and sequenced the HLA-DR3-peptides by mass spectrometry. A class II peptide, derived from a measles phosphoprotein, ASDVETAEGGEIHELLRLQ (P1, residues 179-197), exhibited the capacity to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells to proliferate. Our data provides direct evidence that the antigenic peptide of measles virus was processed by antigen-presenting cells, presented in the context of HLA class II molecules, and was recognized by peripheral blood T cells from healthy individuals previously immunized with measles vaccine. The approach described herein provides a useful methodology for the future identification of HLA-presented pathogen-derived epitopes using mass spectrometry. The study of cell-mediated immune responses to the measles-derived peptide in immune persons should provide significant insight into the design and development of new vaccines

  6. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the measles virus hemagglutinin in complex with the CD46 receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago, César; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Angel; Tucker, Paul A.; Stehle, Thilo; Casasnovas, José M.

    2009-01-01

    A complex of the measles virus hemagglutinin and the CD46 receptor representing the initial step of the cell infection has been crystallized. The measles virus (MV) hemagglutinin (MV-H) mediates the attachment of MV particles to cell-surface receptors for entry into host cells. MV uses two receptors for attachment to host cells: the complement-control protein CD46 and the signalling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM). The MV-H glycoprotein from an Edmonston MV variant and the MV-binding fragment of the CD46 receptor were overproduced in mammalian cells and used to crystallize an MV-H–CD46 complex. Well diffracting crystals containing two complexes in the asymmetric unit were obtained and the structure of the complex was solved by the molecular-replacement method

  7. Lack of association between measles virus vaccine and autism with enteropathy: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mady Hornig

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of measles virus (MV RNA in bowel tissue from children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD and gastrointestinal (GI disturbances was reported in 1998. Subsequent investigations found no associations between MV exposure and ASD but did not test for the presence of MV RNA in bowel or focus on children with ASD and GI disturbances. Failure to replicate the original study design may contribute to continued public concern with respect to the safety of the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR vaccine.The objective of this case-control study was to determine whether children with GI disturbances and autism are more likely than children with GI disturbances alone to have MV RNA and/or inflammation in bowel tissues and if autism and/or GI episode onset relate temporally to receipt of MMR. The sample was an age-matched group of US children undergoing clinically-indicated ileocolonoscopy. Ileal and cecal tissues from 25 children with autism and GI disturbances and 13 children with GI disturbances alone (controls were evaluated by real-time reverse transcription (RT-PCR for presence of MV RNA in three laboratories blinded to diagnosis, including one wherein the original findings suggesting a link between MV and ASD were reported. The temporal order of onset of GI episodes and autism relative to timing of MMR administration was examined. We found no differences between case and control groups in the presence of MV RNA in ileum and cecum. Results were consistent across the three laboratory sites. GI symptom and autism onset were unrelated to MMR timing. Eighty-eight percent of ASD cases had behavioral regression.This study provides strong evidence against association of autism with persistent MV RNA in the GI tract or MMR exposure. Autism with GI disturbances is associated with elevated rates of regression in language or other skills and may represent an endophenotype distinct from other ASD.

  8. Upon Infection the Cellular WD Repeat-containing Protein 5 (WDR5) Localizes to Cytoplasmic Inclusion Bodies and Enhances Measles Virus Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dzwokai; George, Cyril X; Nomburg, Jason; Pfaller, Christian K; Cattaneo, Roberto; Samuel, Charles E

    2017-12-13

    Replication of negative-strand RNA viruses occurs in association with discrete cytoplasmic foci called inclusion bodies. Whereas inclusion bodies represent a prominent subcellular structure induced by viral infection, our knowledge of the cellular protein components involved in inclusion body formation and function is limited. Using measles virus-infected HeLa cells, we found that the WD repeat-containing protein 5 (WDR5), a subunit of histone H3 lysine 4 methyltransferases, was selectively recruited to virus-induced inclusion bodies. Furthermore, WDR5 was found in complexes containing viral proteins associated with RNA replication. WDR5 was not detected with mitochondria, stress granules, or other known secretory or endocytic compartments of infected cells. WDR5 deficiency decreased both viral protein production and infectious virus yields. Interferon production was modestly increased in WDR5 deficient cells. Thus, our study identifies WDR5 as a novel viral inclusion body-associated cellular protein and suggests a role for WDR5 in promoting viral replication. IMPORTANCE Measles virus is a human pathogen that remains a global concern with more than 100,000 measles-related deaths annually despite the availability of an effective vaccine. As measles continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality, understanding the virus-host interactions at the molecular level that affect virus replication efficiency is important for development and optimization of treatment procedures. Measles virus is an RNA virus that encodes six genes and replicates in the cytoplasm of infected cells in discrete cytoplasmic replication bodies, though little is known of the biochemical nature of these structures. Here we show that the cellular protein WDR5 is enriched in the cytoplasmic viral replication factories and enhances virus growth. WDR5-containing protein complex includes viral proteins responsible for viral RNA replication. Thus, we have identified WDR5 as a host factor that

  9. The pathogenesis of measles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Rory D.; Mesman, Annelies W.; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.; Duprex, W. Paul; de Swart, Rik L.

    2012-01-01

    Measles is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Measles virus (MV) is transmitted via the respiratory route and causes systemic disease. Over the last decade, identification of new cellular receptors and studies in animal models have challenged the

  10. Development of new therapy for canine mammary cancer with recombinant measles virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichiro Shoji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic virotherapy is a promising treatment strategy for cancer. We previously generated a recombinant measles virus (rMV-SLAMblind that selectively uses a poliovirus receptor-related 4 (PVRL4/Nectin4 receptor, but not signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM. We demonstrated that the virus exerts therapeutic effects against human breast cancer cells. Here, we examined the applicability of rMV-SLAMblind to treating canine mammary cancers (CMCs. We found that the susceptibilities of host cells to rMV-SLAMblind were dependent on canine Nectin-4 expression. Nectin-4 was detected in four of nine CMC cell lines. The rMV-SLAMblind efficiently infected those four Nectin-4-positive cell lines and was cytotoxic for three of them (CF33, CHMm, and CTBm. In vivo experiment showed that the administration of rMV-SLAMblind greatly suppressed the progression of tumors in mice xenografted with a CMC cell line (CF33. Immunohistochemistry revealed that canine Nectin-4 was expressed in 45% of canine mammary tumors, and the tumor cells derived from one clinical specimen were efficiently infected with rMV-SLAMblind. These results suggest that rMV-SLAMblind infects CMC cells and displays antitumor activity in vitro, in xenografts, and ex vivo. Therefore, oncolytic virotherapy with rMV-SLAMblind can be a novel method for treating CMCs.

  11. Synergistic Effects of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Mexican Seaweeds against Measles Virus

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    Karla Morán-Santibañez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated polysaccharides (SPs extracted from five seaweed samples collected or cultivated in Mexico (Macrocystis pyrifera, Eisenia arborea, Pelvetia compressa, Ulva intestinalis, and Solieria filiformis were tested in this study in order to evaluate their effect on measles virus in vitro. All polysaccharides showed antiviral activity (as measured by the reduction of syncytia formation and low cytotoxicity (MTT assay at inhibitory concentrations. SPs from Eisenia arborea and Solieria filiformis showed the highest antiviral activities (confirmed by qPCR and were selected to determine their combined effect. Their synergistic effect was observed at low concentrations (0.0274 μg/mL and 0.011 μg/mL of E. arborea and S. filiformis SPs, resp., which exhibited by far a higher inhibitory effect (96% syncytia reduction in comparison to the individual SP effects (50% inhibition with 0.275 μg/mL and 0.985 μg/mL of E. arborea and S. filiformis, resp.. Time of addition experiments and viral penetration assays suggest that best activities of these SPs occur at different stages of infection. The synergistic effect would allow reducing the treatment dose and toxicity and minimizing or delaying the induction of antiviral resistance; sulfated polysaccharides of the tested seaweed species thus appear as promising candidates for the development of natural antiviral agents.

  12. Neurokinin-1 enables measles virus trans-synaptic spread in neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhortova, Nina R.; Askovich, Peter; Patterson, Catherine E.; Gechman, Lisa A.; Gerard, Norma P.; Rall, Glenn F.

    2007-01-01

    Measles virus (MV), a morbillivirus that remains a significant human pathogen, can infect the central nervous system, resulting in rare but often fatal diseases, such as subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Previous work demonstrated that MV was transmitted trans-synaptically and that, while a cellular receptor for the hemagglutinin (H) protein was required for MV entry, it was dispensable for subsequent cell-to-cell spread. Here, we explored what role the other envelope protein, fusion (F), played in trans-synaptic transport. We made the following observations: (1) MV-F expression in infected neurons was similar to that seen in infected fibroblasts; (2) fusion inhibitory peptide (FIP), an inhibitor of MV fusion, prevented both infection and spread in primary neurons; (3) Substance P, a neurotransmitter with the same active site as FIP, also blocked neuronal MV spread; and (4) both genetic deletion and pharmacological inhibition of the Substance P receptor, neurokinin-1 (NK-1), reduced infection of susceptible mice. Together, these data implicate a role for NK-1 in MV CNS infection and spread, perhaps serving as an MV-F receptor or co-receptor on neurons

  13. The measles virus phosphoprotein interacts with the linker domain of STAT1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaux, Patricia; Priniski, Lauren; Cattaneo, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The measles virus (MV) phosphoprotein (P) and V proteins block the interferon (IFN) response by impeding phosphorylation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) by the Janus kinase 1 (JAK1). We characterized how STAT1 mutants interact with P and JAK1 phosphorylation. Certain mutants of the linker, the Src-homology 2 domain (SH2), or the transactivation domain had reduced or abolished phosphorylation through JAK1 after IFN treatment. Other mutants, mainly localized in the linker, failed to interact with P as documented by the lack of interference with nuclear translocation. Thus the functional footprint of P on STAT1 localizes mainly to the linker domain; there is also some overlap with the STAT1 phosphorylation functional footprint on the SH2 domain. Based on these observations, we discuss how the MV-P might operate to inhibit the JAK/STAT pathway. - Highlights: • Residue in the linker and SH2 domains of STAT1 are important for MV-P interaction. • Residue in the linker and SH2 domains of STAT1 are important for STAT1 phosphorylation. • Residues interferring with both functions have similar location on STAT1. • The viral P and V proteins may operate in concert to inhibit the JAK/STAT pathway

  14. The measles virus phosphoprotein interacts with the linker domain of STAT1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devaux, Patricia, E-mail: devaux.patricia@mayo.edu; Priniski, Lauren; Cattaneo, Roberto

    2013-09-15

    The measles virus (MV) phosphoprotein (P) and V proteins block the interferon (IFN) response by impeding phosphorylation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) by the Janus kinase 1 (JAK1). We characterized how STAT1 mutants interact with P and JAK1 phosphorylation. Certain mutants of the linker, the Src-homology 2 domain (SH2), or the transactivation domain had reduced or abolished phosphorylation through JAK1 after IFN treatment. Other mutants, mainly localized in the linker, failed to interact with P as documented by the lack of interference with nuclear translocation. Thus the functional footprint of P on STAT1 localizes mainly to the linker domain; there is also some overlap with the STAT1 phosphorylation functional footprint on the SH2 domain. Based on these observations, we discuss how the MV-P might operate to inhibit the JAK/STAT pathway. - Highlights: • Residue in the linker and SH2 domains of STAT1 are important for MV-P interaction. • Residue in the linker and SH2 domains of STAT1 are important for STAT1 phosphorylation. • Residues interferring with both functions have similar location on STAT1. • The viral P and V proteins may operate in concert to inhibit the JAK/STAT pathway.

  15. Optimising measles virus-guided radiovirotherapy with external beam radiotherapy and specific checkpoint kinase 1 inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touchefeu, Yann; Khan, Aadil A.; Borst, Gerben; Zaidi, Shane H.; McLaughlin, Martin; Roulstone, Victoria; Mansfield, David; Kyula, Joan; Pencavel, Tim; Karapanagiotou, Eleni M.; Clayton, Jamie; Federspiel, Mark J.; Russell, Steve J.; Garrett, Michelle; Collins, Ian; Harrington, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: We previously reported a therapeutic strategy comprising replication-defective NIS-expressing adenovirus combined with radioiodide, external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and DNA repair inhibition. We have now evaluated NIS-expressing oncolytic measles virus (MV-NIS) combined with NIS-guided radioiodide, EBRT and specific checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) inhibition in head and neck and colorectal models. Materials and methods: Anti-proliferative/cytotoxic effects of individual agents and their combinations were measured by MTS, clonogenic and Western analysis. Viral gene expression was measured by radioisotope uptake and replication by one-step growth curves. Potential synergistic interactions were tested in vitro by Bliss independence analysis and in in vivo therapeutic studies. Results: EBRT and MV-NIS were synergistic in vitro. Furthermore, EBRT increased NIS expression in infected cells. SAR-020106 was synergistic with EBRT, but also with MV-NIS in HN5 cells. MV-NIS mediated 131 I-induced cytotoxicity in HN5 and HCT116 cells and, in the latter, this was enhanced by SAR-020106. In vivo studies confirmed that MV-NIS, EBRT and Chk1 inhibition were effective in HCT116 xenografts. The quadruplet regimen of MV-NIS, virally-directed 131 I, EBRT and SAR-020106 had significant anti-tumour activity in HCT116 xenografts. Conclusion: This study strongly supports translational and clinical research on MV-NIS combined with radiation therapy and radiosensitising agents

  16. Measles virus envelope pseudotyped lentiviral vectors transduce quiescent human HSCs at an efficiency without precedent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy, Camille; Amirache, Fouzia; Girard-Gagnepain, Anais; Frecha, Cecilia; Roman-Rodríguez, Francisco J; Bernadin, Ornellie; Costa, Caroline; Nègre, Didier; Gutierrez-Guerrero, Alejandra; Vranckx, Lenard S; Clerc, Isabelle; Taylor, Naomi; Thielecke, Lars; Cornils, Kerstin; Bueren, Juan A; Rio, Paula; Gijsbers, Rik; Cosset, François-Loïc; Verhoeyen, Els

    2017-10-24

    Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-based gene therapy trials are now moving toward the use of lentiviral vectors (LVs) with success. However, one challenge in the field remains: efficient transduction of HSCs without compromising their stem cell potential. Here we showed that measles virus glycoprotein-displaying LVs (hemagglutinin and fusion protein LVs [H/F-LVs]) were capable of transducing 100% of early-acting cytokine-stimulated human CD34 + (hCD34 + ) progenitor cells upon a single application. Strikingly, these H/F-LVs also allowed transduction of up to 70% of nonstimulated quiescent hCD34 + cells, whereas conventional vesicular stomatitis virus G (VSV-G)-LVs reached 5% at the most with H/F-LV entry occurring exclusively through the CD46 complement receptor. Importantly, reconstitution of NOD/SCIDγc -/- (NSG) mice with H/F-LV transduced prestimulated or resting hCD34 + cells confirmed these high transduction levels in all myeloid and lymphoid lineages. Remarkably, for resting CD34 + cells, secondary recipients exhibited increasing transduction levels of up to 100%, emphasizing that H/F-LVs efficiently gene-marked HSCs in the resting state. Because H/F-LVs promoted ex vivo gene modification of minimally manipulated CD34 + progenitors that maintained stemness, we assessed their applicability in Fanconi anemia, a bone marrow (BM) failure with chromosomal fragility. Notably, only H/F-LVs efficiently gene-corrected minimally stimulated hCD34 + cells in unfractionated BM from these patients. These H/F-LVs improved HSC gene delivery in the absence of cytokine stimulation while maintaining their stem cell potential. Thus, H/F-LVs will facilitate future clinical applications requiring HSC gene modification, including BM failure syndromes, for which treatment has been very challenging up to now.

  17. Vaccination against measles: a neverending story.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.J. Stittelaar (Koert); R.L. de Swart (Rik); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractMeasles, a highly contagious viral disease, is a major childhood killer in developing countries, accounting for almost 1 million deaths every year globally. Measles virus normally does not cause a persistent infection, no animal reservoir for measles virus exists, no vector is involved

  18. Oncolytic measles virus enhances antitumour responses of adoptive CD8+NKG2D+ cells in hepatocellular carcinoma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Aiping; Zhang, Yonghui; Meng, Gang; Jiang, Dengxu; Zhang, Hailin; Zheng, Meihong; Xia, Mao; Jiang, Aiqin; Wu, Junhua; Beltinger, Christian; Wei, Jiwu

    2017-07-12

    There is an urgent need for novel effective treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Oncolytic viruses (OVs) not only directly lyse malignant cells, but also induce potent antitumour immune responses. The potency and precise mechanisms of antitumour immune activation by attenuated measles virus remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the potency of the measles virus vaccine strain Edmonston (MV-Edm) in improving adoptive CD8 + NKG2D + cells for HCC treatment. We show that MV-Edm-infected HCC enhanced the antitumour activity of CD8 + NKG2D + cells, mediated by at least three distinct mechanisms. First, MV-Edm infection compelled HCC cells to express the specific NKG2D ligands MICA/B, which may contribute to the activation of CD8 + NKG2D + cells. Second, MV-Edm-infected HCC cells stimulated CD8 + NKG2D + cells to express high level of FasL resulting in enhanced induction of apoptosis. Third, intratumoural administration of MV-Edm enhanced infiltration of intravenously injected CD8 + NKG2D + cells. Moreover, we found that MV-Edm and adoptive CD8 + NKG2D + cells, either administered alone or combined, upregulated the immune suppressive enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) in HCC. Elimination of IDO1 by fludarabine enhanced antitumour responses. Taken together, our data provide a novel and clinically relevant strategy for treatment of HCC.

  19. The C protein of measles virus inhibits the type I interferon response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaffer, Jessica A.; Bellini, William J.; Rota, Paul A.

    2003-01-01

    Type I interferons (IFNα/β) are an important part of innate immunity to viral infections because they induce an antiviral response and limit viral replication until the adaptive response clears the infection. Since the nonstructural proteins of several paramyxoviruses inhibit the IFNα/β response, we chose to explore the role of the C protein of measles virus (MV) in such inhibition. Previous studies have suggested that the MV C protein may serve as a virulence factor, but its role in the pathogenesis of MV remains undefined. In the present study, a recombinant MV strain that does not express the C protein (MV C-) and its parental strain (Ed Tag) were used. Growth of MV C- was restricted in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and HeLa cells, but in the presence of neutralizing antibodies to IFNα/β, MV C- produced titers that were equivalent to those of Ed Tag. In addition, expression of the MV C protein from plasmid DNA inhibited the production of an IFNα/β responsive reporter gene and, to a lesser extent, inhibited an IFNγ responsive reporter gene. The ability of the MV C protein to suppress the IFNα/β response was confirmed using a biologic assay. After IFNβ stimulation, HeLa cells infected with Ed Tag produced five-fold less IFNα/β than cells infected with MV C-. While the mechanism of inhibition remains unclear, these data suggest that the MV C protein plays an important role in the pathogenesis of MV by inhibiting IFNα/β signaling

  20. Live attenuated measles virus vaccine therapy for locally established malignant glioblastoma tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Shammari AM

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed M Al-Shammari,1 Farah E Ismaeel,2 Shahlaa M Salih,2 Nahi Y Yaseen11Experimental Therapy Department, Iraqi Center for Cancer and Medical Genetic Researches, Mustansiriya University, 2Departments of Biotechnology, College of Science, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad, IraqAbstract: Glioblastoma multiforme is the most aggressive malignant primary brain tumor in humans, with poor prognosis. A new glioblastoma cell line (ANGM5 was established from a cerebral glioblastoma multiforme in a 72-year-old Iraqi man who underwent surgery for an intracranial tumor. This study was carried out to evaluate the antitumor effect of live attenuated measles virus (MV Schwarz vaccine strain on glioblastoma multiforme tumor cell lines in vitro. Live attenuated MV Schwarz strain was propagated on Vero, human rhabdomyosarcoma, and human glioblastoma-multiform (ANGM5 cell lines. The infected confluent monolayer appeared to be covered with syncytia with granulation and vacuolation, as well as cell rounding, shrinkage, and large empty space with cell debris as a result of cell lysis and death. Cell lines infected with virus have the ability for hemadsorption to human red blood cells after 72 hours of infection, whereas no hemadsorption of uninfected cells is seen. Detection of MV hemagglutinin protein by monoclonal antibodies in infected cells of all cell lines by immunocytochemistry assay gave positive results (brown color in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Cell viability was measured after 72 hours of infection by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Results showed a significant cytotoxic effect for MV (P≤0.05 on growth of ANGM5 and rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines after 72 hours of infection. Induction of apoptosis by MV was assessed by measuring mitochondrial membrane potentials in tumor cells after 48, 72, and 120 hours of infection. Apoptotic cells were counted, and the mean percentage of dead cells was significantly higher after 48, 72

  1. Computational Analysis of the Interaction Energies between Amino Acid Residues of the Measles Virus Hemagglutinin and Its Receptors

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    Fengqi Xu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Measles virus (MV causes an acute and highly devastating contagious disease in humans. Employing the crystal structures of three human receptors, signaling lymphocyte-activation molecule (SLAM, CD46, and Nectin-4, in complex with the measles virus hemagglutinin (MVH, we elucidated computationally the details of binding energies between the amino acid residues of MVH and those of the receptors with an ab initio fragment molecular orbital (FMO method. The calculated inter-fragment interaction energies (IFIEs revealed a number of significantly interacting amino acid residues of MVH that played essential roles in binding to the receptors. As predicted from previously reported experiments, some important amino-acid residues of MVH were shown to be common but others were specific to interactions with the three receptors. Particularly, some of the (non-polar hydrophobic residues of MVH were found to be attractively interacting with multiple receptors, thus indicating the importance of the hydrophobic pocket for intermolecular interactions (especially in the case of Nectin-4. In contrast, the electrostatic interactions tended to be used for specific molecular recognition. Furthermore, we carried out FMO calculations for in silico experiments of amino acid mutations, finding reasonable agreements with virological experiments concerning the substitution effect of residues. Thus, the present study demonstrates that the electron-correlated FMO method is a powerful tool to search exhaustively for amino acid residues that contribute to interactions with receptor molecules. It is also applicable for designing inhibitors of MVH and engineered MVs for cancer therapy.

  2. Live attenuated measles vaccine expressing HIV-1 Gag virus like particles covered with gp160ΔV1V2 is strongly immunogenic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerbois, Mathilde; Moris, Arnaud; Combredet, Chantal; Najburg, Valerie; Ruffie, Claude; Fevrier, Michele; Cayet, Nadege; Brandler, Samantha; Schwartz, Olivier; Tangy, Frederic

    2009-01-01

    Although a live attenuated HIV vaccine is not currently considered for safety reasons, a strategy inducing both T cells and neutralizing antibodies to native assembled HIV-1 particles expressed by a replicating virus might mimic the advantageous characteristics of live attenuated vaccine. To this aim, we generated a live attenuated recombinant measles vaccine expressing HIV-1 Gag virus-like particles (VLPs) covered with gp160ΔV1V2 Env protein. The measles-HIV virus replicated efficiently in cell culture and induced the intense budding of HIV particles covered with Env. In mice sensitive to MV infection, this recombinant vaccine stimulated high levels of cellular and humoral immunity to both MV and HIV with neutralizing activity. The measles-HIV virus infected human professional antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells and B cells, and induced efficient presentation of HIV-1 epitopes and subsequent activation of human HIV-1 Gag-specific T cell clones. This candidate vaccine will be next tested in non-human primates. As a pediatric vaccine, it might protect children and adolescents simultaneously from measles and HIV.

  3. Measles Virus Suppresses RIG-I-like Receptor Activation in Dendritic Cells via DC-SIGN-Mediated Inhibition of PP1 Phosphatases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesman, Annelies W.; Zijlstra-Willems, Esther M.; Kaptein, Tanja M.; de Swart, Rik L.; Davis, Meredith E.; Ludlow, Martin; Duprex, W. Paul; Gack, Michaela U.; Gringhuis, Sonja I.; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are targets of measles virus (MV) and play central roles in viral dissemination. However, DCs express the RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) RIG-I and Mda5 that sense MV and induce type I interferon (IFN) production. Given the potency of this antiviral response, RLRs are tightly

  4. Measles virus suppresses RIG-I-like receptor activation in dendritic cells via DC-SIGN-mediated inhibition of PP1 phosphatases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.W. Mesman (Annelies ); E.M. Zijlstra-Willems (Esther); T.M. Kaptein (Tanja); R.L. de Swart (Rik); M.E. Davis (Meredith); M. Ludlow (Martin); W.P. Duprex (Paul); M.U. Gack (Michaela); S.I. Gringhuis (Sonja); T.B.H. Geijtenbeek (Teunis)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractDendritic cells (DCs) are targets of measles virus (MV) and play central roles in viral dissemination. However, DCs express the RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) RIG-I and Mda5 that sense MV and induce type I interferon (IFN) production. Given the potency of this antiviral response, RLRs are

  5. Measles virus antibody responses in children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer edmonston-zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age, 9 months of age, or 9 and 18 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cesario; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, Carlitos; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Njie-Jobe, Jainaba; Benn, Christine S; Whittle, Hilton; Aaby, Peter

    2014-09-01

    The World Health Organization recommends administration of measles vaccine (MV) at age 9 months in low-income countries. We tested the measles virus antibody response at 4.5, 9, 18, and 24 months of age for children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer Edmonston-Zagreb MV at 4.5 and 9 months, at 9 months, or at 9 and 18 months of age. At 4.5 months of age, 75% had nonprotective measles virus antibody levels. Following receipt of MV at 4.5 months of age, 77% (316/408) had protective antibody levels at 9 months of age; after a second dose at 9 months of age, 97% (326/337) had protective levels at 24 months of age. In addition, the response at both 9 and 24 months of age was inversely correlated with the antibody level at receipt of the first dose of MV, and the second dose of MV, received at 9 months of age, provided a significant boost in antibody level to children who had low antibody levels. In the group of 318 children who received MV at 9 months of age, with or without a second dose at 18 months of age, 99% (314) had protective levels at 24 months of age. The geometric mean titer at 24 months of age was significantly lower in the group that received MV at 4.5 and 9 months of age than in the group that received MV at 9 months of age (P = .0001). In conclusion, an early 2-dose MV schedule was associated with protective measles virus antibody levels at 24 months of age in nearly all children. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00168558. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Enhanced lysis by bispecific oncolytic measles viruses simultaneously using HER2/neu or EpCAM as target receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan RH Hanauer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To target oncolytic measles viruses (MV to tumors, we exploit the binding specificity of designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPins. These DARPin-MVs have high tumor selectivity while maintaining excellent oncolytic potency. Stability, small size, and efficacy of DARPins allowed the generation of MVs simultaneously targeted to tumor marker HER2/neu and cancer stem cell (CSC marker EpCAM. For optimization, the linker connecting both DARPins was varied in flexibility and length. Flexibility had no impact on fusion helper activity whereas length had. MVs with bispecific MV-H are genetically stable and revealed the desired double-target specificity. In vitro, the cytolytic activity of bispecific MVs was superior or comparable to mono-targeted viruses depending on the target cells. In vivo, therapeutic efficacy of the bispecific viruses was validated in an orthotopic ovarian carcinoma model revealing an effective reduction of tumor mass. Finally, the power of bispecific targeting was demonstrated on cocultures of different tumor cells thereby mimicking tumor heterogeneity in vitro, more closely reflecting real tumors. Here, bispecific excelled monospecific viruses in efficacy. DARPin-based targeting domains thus allow the generation of efficacious oncolytic viruses with double specificity, with the potential to handle intratumoral variation of antigen expression and to simultaneously target CSCs and the bulk tumor mass.

  7. Do HIV-positive adult immigrants need to be screened for measles-mumps-rubella and varicella zoster virus immunization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llenas-García, Jara; Rubio, Rafael; Hernando, Asunción; Arrazola, Pilar; Pulido, Federico

    2013-08-01

    A systematic screening for measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) in HIV-positive adult immigrants in Spain was evaluated, and factors associated with MMR and VZV vaccines' indication were studied. Every HIV-positive immigrant was tested for VZV and MMR-IgG. MMR vaccine was indicated to patients with lymphocytes CD4+ >200 cells/mm³ and a negative measles-IgG, a negative mumps-IgG and/or a negative rubella-IgG. VZV vaccine was indicated to every VZV-IgG negative patient with CD4+ >400 cells/mm³. In total, 289 patients were screened; seroprevalence was 95.2%, 92.2%, 70.3% and 89.3% for VZV, measles, mumps and rubella IgG, respectively. Having a negative VZV-IgG was statistically associated with coming from sub-Saharan Africa (prevalence ratio [PR]: 6.52; 95% CI: 1.71-24.84; p=0.006), while having secondary education was a protective factor (PR: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.07-0.97; p=0.045). Fourteen patients (4.8%) had indication of VZV vaccine; vaccination was feasible in 21.4% of them at first visit. Eighty-one patients (29.7%) had indication of MMR vaccine, most of them due to mumps-IgG negative (53.1%) or rubella-IgG negative (24.7%). Age Especial attention should be given to immigrant women of childbearing age.

  8. Detection of Measles Virus Genotypes B3, D4, D5, D8, and H1 in the Surveillance System in Hokkaido, Japan, 2006-2015, the Last Decade toward the Elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Masahiro; Komagome, Rika; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Ohnishi, Asami; Kikuchi, Masayuki; Ishida, Setsuko; Nagano, Hideki; Okano, Motohiko

    2017-05-24

    Measles is an acute and highly contagious disease caused by measles virus (MeV). The government of Japan, following the last epidemic in 2007 and 2008, which was caused by genotype D5 strains, introduced a catch-up-vaccination program for teenagers during Japan fiscal years 2008-2012 and a mandatory case-based reporting system for the nationwide elimination. Furthermore, laboratory confirmation of measles cases by genotyping of isolates has been performed to clarify the source of infection and support the interruption of measles cases. Owing to these preventive measures, the number of measles cases has been steadily decreasing after the last epidemic. In March 2015, Japan was internationally verified as having achieved measles elimination by the World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific. The continuous elimination of measles and high levels of vaccination coverage for MeV have been maintained nationally. However, imported or import-associated cases of measles have sporadically occurred during this time. After the last nationwide epidemic, 17 imported or import-associated measles cases (MeV strains identified as genotypes H1, D4, D8, and B3) were reported in Hokkaido, the northern islands of Japan. In this study, we present the occurrence of measles and surveillance activities in Hokkaido during 2006-2015.

  9. Attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Shigella flexneri 2a strains mucosally deliver DNA vaccines encoding measles virus hemagglutinin, inducing specific immune responses and protection in cotton rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasetti, Marcela F; Barry, Eileen M; Losonsky, Genevieve; Singh, Mahender; Medina-Moreno, Sandra M; Polo, John M; Ulmer, Jeffrey; Robinson, Harriet; Sztein, Marcelo B; Levine, Myron M

    2003-05-01

    Measles remains a leading cause of child mortality in developing countries. Residual maternal measles antibodies and immunologic immaturity dampen immunogenicity of the current vaccine in young infants. Because cotton rat respiratory tract is susceptible to measles virus (MV) replication after intranasal (i.n.) challenge, this model can be used to assess the efficacy of MV vaccines. Pursuing a new measles vaccine strategy that might be effective in young infants, we used attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi CVD 908-htrA and Shigella flexneri 2a CVD 1208 vaccines to deliver mucosally to cotton rats eukaryotic expression plasmid pGA3-mH and Sindbis virus-based DNA replicon pMSIN-H encoding MV hemagglutinin (H). The initial i.n. dose-response with bacterial vectors alone identified a well-tolerated dosage (1 x 10(9) to 7 x 10(9) CFU) and a volume (20 micro l) that elicited strong antivector immune responses. Animals immunized i.n. on days 0, 28, and 76 with bacterial vectors carrying DNA plasmids encoding MV H or immunized parenterally with these naked DNA vaccine plasmids developed MV plaque reduction neutralizing antibodies and proliferative responses against MV antigens. In a subsequent experiment of identical design, cotton rats were challenged with wild-type MV 1 month after the third dose of vaccine or placebo. MV titers were significantly reduced in lung tissue of animals immunized with MV DNA vaccines delivered either via bacterial live vectors or parenterally. Since attenuated serovar Typhi and S. flexneri can deliver measles DNA vaccines mucosally in cotton rats, inducing measles immune responses (including neutralizing antibodies) and protection, boosting strategies can now be evaluated in animals primed with MV DNA vaccines.

  10. Treatment of medulloblastoma using an oncolytic measles virus encoding the thyroidal sodium iodide symporter shows enhanced efficacy with radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutzen, Brian; Pierson, Christopher R; Russell, Stephen J; Galanis, Evanthia; Raffel, Corey; Studebaker, Adam W

    2012-01-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood. Although the clinical outcome for medulloblastoma patients has improved significantly, children afflicted with the disease frequently suffer from debilitating side effects related to the aggressive nature of currently available therapy. Alternative means for treating medulloblastoma are desperately needed. We have previously shown that oncolytic measles virus (MV) can selectively target and destroy medulloblastoma tumor cells in localized and disseminated models of the disease. MV-NIS, an oncolytic measles virus that encodes the human thyroidal sodium iodide symporter (NIS), has the potential to deliver targeted radiotherapy to the tumor site and promote a localized bystander effect above and beyond that achieved by MV alone. We evaluated the efficacy of MV-NIS against medulloblastoma cells in vitro and examined their ability to incorporate radioiodine at various timepoints, finding peak uptake at 48 hours post infection. The effects of MV-NIS were also evaluated in mouse xenograft models of localized and disseminated medulloblastoma. Athymic nude mice were injected with D283med-Luc medulloblastoma cells in the caudate putamen (localized disease) or right lateral ventricle (disseminated disease) and subsequently treated with MV-NIS. Subsets of these mice were given a dose of 131 I at 24, 48 or 72 hours later. MV-NIS treatment, both by itself and in combination with 131 I, elicited tumor stabilization and regression in the treated mice and significantly extended their survival times. Mice given 131 I were found to concentrate radioiodine at the site of their tumor implantations. In addition, mice with localized tumors that were given 131 I either 24 or 48 hours after MV-NIS treatment exhibited a significant survival advantage over mice given MV-NIS alone. These data suggest MV-NIS plus radioiodine may be a potentially useful therapy for the treatment of medulloblastoma

  11. Treatment of medulloblastoma using an oncolytic measles virus encoding the thyroidal sodium iodide symporter shows enhanced efficacy with radioiodine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutzen Brian

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood. Although the clinical outcome for medulloblastoma patients has improved significantly, children afflicted with the disease frequently suffer from debilitating side effects related to the aggressive nature of currently available therapy. Alternative means for treating medulloblastoma are desperately needed. We have previously shown that oncolytic measles virus (MV can selectively target and destroy medulloblastoma tumor cells in localized and disseminated models of the disease. MV-NIS, an oncolytic measles virus that encodes the human thyroidal sodium iodide symporter (NIS, has the potential to deliver targeted radiotherapy to the tumor site and promote a localized bystander effect above and beyond that achieved by MV alone. Methods We evaluated the efficacy of MV-NIS against medulloblastoma cells in vitro and examined their ability to incorporate radioiodine at various timepoints, finding peak uptake at 48 hours post infection. The effects of MV-NIS were also evaluated in mouse xenograft models of localized and disseminated medulloblastoma. Athymic nude mice were injected with D283med-Luc medulloblastoma cells in the caudate putamen (localized disease or right lateral ventricle (disseminated disease and subsequently treated with MV-NIS. Subsets of these mice were given a dose of 131I at 24, 48 or 72 hours later. Results MV-NIS treatment, both by itself and in combination with 131I, elicited tumor stabilization and regression in the treated mice and significantly extended their survival times. Mice given 131I were found to concentrate radioiodine at the site of their tumor implantations. In addition, mice with localized tumors that were given 131I either 24 or 48 hours after MV-NIS treatment exhibited a significant survival advantage over mice given MV-NIS alone. Conclusions These data suggest MV-NIS plus radioiodine may be a potentially useful therapy for

  12. Sequence analysis of measles virus strains collected during the pre- and early-vaccination era in Denmark reveals a considerable diversity of ancient strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Schöller, S.; Schierup, M. H.

    2002-01-01

    A total of 199 serum samples from patients with measles collected in Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands from 1964 to 1983 were analysed by PCR. Measles virus (MV) RNA could be detected in 38 (19%) of the samples and a total of 18 strains were subjected to partial sequence analysis of the he......A total of 199 serum samples from patients with measles collected in Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands from 1964 to 1983 were analysed by PCR. Measles virus (MV) RNA could be detected in 38 (19%) of the samples and a total of 18 strains were subjected to partial sequence analysis...... of the hemagglutinin gene. The strains exhibited a considerable genomic diversity, which is at odds with the assumption that one genome type prevailed among globally circulating MV strains prior to the advent of live-attenuated vaccines. Our data indicate that the similarity of the various vaccine strains...... is attributed to their having originated from the same primary isolate. Consequently, it is implied that a small number of clinical manifestations of MV worldwide from which strains similar to the vaccine strain were identified were vaccine related rather than being caused by members of a persistently...

  13. Chemovirotherapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with EGFR-targeted and CD/UPRT-armed oncolytic measles virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaoui, K; Bossow, S; Grossardt, C; Leber, M F; Springfeld, C; Plinkert, P K; Kalle, C von; Ungerechts, G

    2012-03-01

    First-line treatment of recurrent and/or refractory head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is based on platinum, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and the monoclonal antiEGFR antibody cetuximab. However, in most cases this chemoimmunotherapy does not cure the disease, and more than 50% of HNSCC patients are dying because of local recurrence of the tumors. In the majority of cases, HNSCC overexpress the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and its presence is associated with a poor outcome. In this study, we engineered an EGFR-targeted oncolytic measles virus (MV), armed with the bifunctional enzyme cytosine deaminase/uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (CD/UPRT). CD/UPRT converts 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) into the chemotherapeutic 5-FU, a mainstay of HNSCC chemotherapy. This virus efficiently replicates in and lyses primary HNSCC cells in vitro. Arming with CD/UPRT mediates efficient prodrug activation with high bystander killing of non-infected tumor cells. In mice bearing primary HNSCC xenografts, intratumoral administration of MV-antiEGFR resulted in statistically significant tumor growth delay and prolongation of survival. Importantly, combination with 5-FC is superior to virus-only treatment leading to significant tumor growth inhibition. Thus, chemovirotherapy with EGFR-targeted and CD/UPRT-armed MV is highly efficacious in preclinical settings with direct translational implications for a planned Phase I clinical trial of MV for locoregional treatment of HNSCC.

  14. Protective immunity provided by HLA-A2 epitopes for fusion and hemagglutinin proteins of measles virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Sang Kon; Stegman, Brian; Pendleton, C. David; Ota, Martin O.; Pan, C.-H.; Griffin, Diane E.; Burke, Donald S.; Berzofsky, Jay A.

    2006-01-01

    Natural infection and vaccination with a live-attenuated measles virus (MV) induce CD8 + T-cell-mediated immune responses that may play a central role in controlling MV infection. In this study, we show that newly identified human HLA-A2 epitopes from MV hemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) proteins induced protective immunity in HLA-A2 transgenic mice challenged with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing F or H protein. HLA-A2 epitopes were predicted and synthesized. Five and four peptides from H and F, respectively, bound to HLA-A2 molecules in a T2-binding assay, and four from H and two from F could induce peptide-specific CD8 + T cell responses in HLA-A2 transgenic mice. Further experiments proved that three peptides from H (H9-567, H10-250, and H10-516) and one from F protein (F9-57) were endogenously processed and presented on HLA-A2 molecules. All peptides tested in this study are common to 5 different strains of MV including Edmonston. In both A2K b and HHD-2 mice, the identified peptide epitopes induced protective immunity against recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing H or F. Because F and H proteins induce neutralizing antibodies, they are major components of new vaccine strategies, and therefore data from this study will contribute to the development of new vaccines against MV infection

  15. Not all that rashes is measles:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, S. A.; Mustafa, O. A.

    1998-01-01

    Measles is a major cause of infant mortality in third world countries, leading to approximately one million deaths each year. The WHO aims to globally eradicate measles virus at the beginning of the next century, which will need a major effort in particular in countries like Sudan. To achieve goal epidemiological studies I am needed to estimate the magnitude of the problem for which accurate diagnostic test are needed. We therefore conducted a study in El hag Yousif area (population 500 000) in Khartoum North where measles is prevalent despite vaccination effort by EPI. We studied the accuracy of the WHO criteria for clinical diagnosis in comparison with laboratory diagnosis during a one-year period. A total of 145 under five suspected measles cases were identified by active, case finding and examined. 111 cases fully complied with the WHO criteria for diagnosis of clinical measles. Out of 103 clinical measles cases, tested using prototype rapid measles test IgM Elisa and Pcr, 77(75%) were measles positive. A battery of virus test was run on 21 sera out of the 26(25%) measles negatives: Herpes virus-6, Epstein-Bar and Dengue viruses were detected in five, one and one case, respectively. It was concluded that one out of every four cases diagnosed by the clinical as measles rash is probably caused by other viruses. (Author)

  16. A Review of Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardis, Melissa R.

    2012-01-01

    Measles, once a common childhood illness that many older school nurses could recognize without difficulty, needs review again after reemerging from Europe and other continents. A highly contagious disease, which has been referenced since the seventh century, the virus can cause serious illness and death, despite the fact that it is vaccine…

  17. Phase I Trial of Intratumoral Administration of NIS-Expressing Strain of Measles Virus in Unresectable or Recurrent Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0115 TITLE: Phase I Trial of Intratumoral Administration of NIS-Expressing Strain of Measles Virus in Unresectable or...Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT: Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form...Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time

  18. Measles Virus: Identification in the M Protein Primary Sequence of a Potential Molecular Marker for Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Kweder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis (SSPE, a rare lethal disease of children and young adults due to persistence of measles virus (MeV in the brain, is caused by wild type (wt MeV. Why MeV vaccine strains never cause SSPE is completely unknown. Hypothesizing that this phenotypic difference could potentially be represented by a molecular marker, we compared glycoprotein and matrix (M genes from SSPE cases with those from the Moraten vaccine strain, searching for differential structural motifs. We observed that all known SSPE viruses have residues P64, E89, and A209 (PEA in their M proteins whereas the equivalent residues for vaccine strains are either S64, K89, and T209 (SKT as in Moraten or PKT. Through the construction of MeV recombinants, we have obtained evidence that the wt MeV-M protein PEA motif, in particular A209, is linked to increased viral spread. Importantly, for the 10 wt genotypes (of 23 that have had their M proteins sequenced, 9 have the PEA motif, the exception being B3, which has PET. Interestingly, cases of SSPE caused by genotype B3 have yet to be reported. In conclusion, our results strongly suggest that the PEA motif is a molecular marker for wt MeV at risk to cause SSPE.

  19. Attenuated, oncolytic, but not wild-type measles virus infection has pleiotropic effects on human neutrophil function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Patel, Bella; Dey, Aditi; Ghorani, Ehsan; Rai, Lena; Elham, Mohammed; Castleton, Anna Z; Fielding, Adele K

    2012-02-01

    We previously showed that neutrophils play a role in regression of human tumor xenografts in immunodeficient mice following oncolytic vaccine measles virus (MV-Vac) treatment. In this study, we sought, using normal human neutrophils, to identify potential neutrophil-mediated mechanisms for the attenuated MV-Vac induced effects seen in vivo, by comparison with those consequent on wild-type (WT-MV) infection. Both MV-Vac and WT-MV infected and replicated within neutrophils, despite lack of SLAM expression. In both cases, neutrophils survived longer ex vivo postinfection. Furthermore, MV-Vac (but not WT-MV) infection activated neutrophils and stimulated secretion of several specific antitumor cytokines (IL-8, TNF-α, MCP-1, and IFN-α) via induction of de novo RNA and protein synthesis. In addition, MV-Vac (but not WT-MV) infection caused TRAIL secretion in the absence of de novo synthesis by triggering release of prefabricated TRAIL, via a direct effect upon degranulation. The differences between the outcome of infection by MV-Vac and WT-MV were not entirely explained by differential infection and replication of the viruses within neutrophils. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of potential mechanisms of oncolytic activity of an attenuated MV as compared with its WT parent. Furthermore, our study suggests that neutrophils have an important role to play in the antitumor effects of oncolytic MV.

  20. Cell-to-Cell Measles Virus Spread between Human Neurons Is Dependent on Hemagglutinin and Hyperfusogenic Fusion Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuma; Watanabe, Shumpei; Fukuda, Yoshinari; Hashiguchi, Takao; Yanagi, Yusuke; Ohno, Shinji

    2018-03-15

    Measles virus (MV) usually causes acute infection but in rare cases persists in the brain, resulting in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). Since human neurons, an important target affected in the disease, do not express the known MV receptors (signaling lymphocyte activation molecule [SLAM] and nectin 4), how MV infects neurons and spreads between them is unknown. Recent studies have shown that many virus strains isolated from SSPE patients possess substitutions in the extracellular domain of the fusion (F) protein which confer enhanced fusion activity. Hyperfusogenic viruses with such mutations, unlike the wild-type MV, can induce cell-cell fusion even in SLAM- and nectin 4-negative cells and spread efficiently in human primary neurons and the brains of animal models. We show here that a hyperfusogenic mutant MV, IC323-F(T461I)-EGFP (IC323 with a fusion-enhancing T461I substitution in the F protein and expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein), but not the wild-type MV, spreads in differentiated NT2 cells, a widely used human neuron model. Confocal time-lapse imaging revealed the cell-to-cell spread of IC323-F(T461I)-EGFP between NT2 neurons without syncytium formation. The production of virus particles was strongly suppressed in NT2 neurons, also supporting cell-to-cell viral transmission. The spread of IC323-F(T461I)-EGFP was inhibited by a fusion inhibitor peptide as well as by some but not all of the anti-hemagglutinin antibodies which neutralize SLAM- or nectin-4-dependent MV infection, suggesting the presence of a distinct neuronal receptor. Our results indicate that MV spreads in a cell-to-cell manner between human neurons without causing syncytium formation and that the spread is dependent on the hyperfusogenic F protein, the hemagglutinin, and the putative neuronal receptor for MV. IMPORTANCE Measles virus (MV), in rare cases, persists in the human central nervous system (CNS) and causes subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) several

  1. Measles & rubella outbreaks in Maharashtra State, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Sunil R.; Kamble, Madhukar B.; Chowdhury, Deepika T.; Kumbhar, Neelakshi S.

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Under the outbreak-based measles surveillance in Maharashtra State the National Institute of Virology at Pune receives 3-5 serum samples from each outbreak and samples from the local hospitals in Pune for laboratory diagnosis. This report describes one year data on the measles and rubella serology, virus isolation and genotyping. Methods: Maharashtra State Health Agencies investigated 98 suspected outbreaks between January-December 2013 in the 20 districts. Altogether, 491 serum samples were received from 20 districts and 126 suspected cases from local hospitals. Samples were tested for the measles and rubella IgM antibodies by commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA). To understand the diagnostic utility, a subset of serum samples (n=53) was tested by measles focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT). Further, 37 throat swabs and 32 urine specimens were tested by measles reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and positive products were sequenced. Virus isolation was performed in Vero hSLAM cells. Results: Of the 98 suspected measles outbreaks, 61 were confirmed as measles, 12 as rubella and 21 confirmed as the mixed outbreaks. Four outbreaks remained unconfirmed. Of the 126 cases from the local hospitals, 91 were confirmed for measles and three for rubella. Overall, 93.6 per cent (383/409) confirmed measles cases were in the age group of 0-15 yr. Measles virus was detected in 18 of 38 specimens obtained from the suspected cases. Sequencing of PCR products revealed circulation of D4 (n=9) and D8 (n=9) strains. Four measles viruses (three D4 & one D8) were isolated. Interpretation & conclusions: Altogether, 94 measles and rubella outbreaks were confirmed in 2013 in the State of Maharasthra indicating the necessity to increase measles vaccine coverage in the State. PMID:27121521

  2. Measles, immune suppression and vaccination: direct and indirect nonspecific vaccine benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Michael J

    2017-06-01

    The measles virus is among the most transmissible viruses known to infect humans. Prior to measles vaccination programs, measles infected over 95% of all children and was responsible for over 4 million deaths each year. Measles vaccination programs have been among the greatest public health achievements reducing, eliminating endemic measles in the whole of the Americas and across much of the globe. Where measles vaccines are introduced, unexpectedly large reductions in all-cause childhood mortality have been observed. These gains appear to derive in part from direct heterologous benefits of measles vaccines that enhance innate and adaptive immune responses. Additionally, by preventing measles infections, vaccination prevents measles-associated short- and long-term immunomodulating effects. Before vaccination, these invisible hallmarks of measles infections increased vulnerability to non-measles infections in nearly all children for weeks, months, or years following acute infections. By depleting measles incidence, vaccination has had important indirect benefits to reduce non-measles mortality. Delineating the relative importance of these two modes of survival benefits following measles vaccine introduction is of critical public health importance. While both support continued unwavering global commitments to measles vaccination programs until measles eradication is complete, direct heterologous benefits of measles vaccination further support continued commitment to measles vaccination programs indefinitely. We discuss what is known about direct and indirect nonspecific measles vaccine benefits, and their implications for continued measles vaccination programs. © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biased hypermutation occurred frequently in a gene inserted into the IC323 recombinant measles virus during its persistence in the brains of nude mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otani, Sanae [Department of Virology and Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, 1-4-3 Asahimachi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan); Ayata, Minoru, E-mail: maverick@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Virology and Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, 1-4-3 Asahimachi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Takeuchi, Kaoru [Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology, Division of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Takeda, Makoto [Department of Virology 3, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo (Japan); Shintaku, Haruo [Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan); Ogura, Hisashi [Department of Virology and Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, 1-4-3 Asahimachi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    Measles virus (MV) is the causative agent of measles and its neurological complications, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) and measles inclusion body encephalitis (MIBE). Biased hypermutation in the M gene is a characteristic feature of SSPE and MIBE. To determine whether the M gene is the preferred target of hypermutation, an additional transcriptional unit containing a humanized Renilla reniformis green fluorescent protein (hrGFP) gene was introduced into the IC323 MV genome, and nude mice were inoculated intracerebrally with the virus. Biased hypermutation occurred in the M gene and also in the hrGFP gene when it was inserted between the leader and the N gene, but not between the H and L gene. These results indicate that biased hypermutation is usually found in a gene whose function is not essential for viral proliferation in the brain and that the location of a gene in the MV genome can affect its mutational frequency. - Highlights: • Wild-type MV can cause persistent infections in nude mice. • Biased hypermutation occurred in the M gene. • Biased hypermutation occurred in an inessential gene inserted between the leader and the N gene.

  4. Biased hypermutation occurred frequently in a gene inserted into the IC323 recombinant measles virus during its persistence in the brains of nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otani, Sanae; Ayata, Minoru; Takeuchi, Kaoru; Takeda, Makoto; Shintaku, Haruo; Ogura, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Measles virus (MV) is the causative agent of measles and its neurological complications, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) and measles inclusion body encephalitis (MIBE). Biased hypermutation in the M gene is a characteristic feature of SSPE and MIBE. To determine whether the M gene is the preferred target of hypermutation, an additional transcriptional unit containing a humanized Renilla reniformis green fluorescent protein (hrGFP) gene was introduced into the IC323 MV genome, and nude mice were inoculated intracerebrally with the virus. Biased hypermutation occurred in the M gene and also in the hrGFP gene when it was inserted between the leader and the N gene, but not between the H and L gene. These results indicate that biased hypermutation is usually found in a gene whose function is not essential for viral proliferation in the brain and that the location of a gene in the MV genome can affect its mutational frequency. - Highlights: • Wild-type MV can cause persistent infections in nude mice. • Biased hypermutation occurred in the M gene. • Biased hypermutation occurred in an inessential gene inserted between the leader and the N gene

  5. In Vitro Measles Virus Infection of Human Lymphocyte Subsets Demonstrates High Susceptibility and Permissiveness of both Naive and Memory B Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laksono, Brigitta M; Grosserichter-Wagener, Christina; de Vries, Rory D; Langeveld, Simone A G; Brem, Maarten D; van Dongen, Jacques J M; Katsikis, Peter D; Koopmans, Marion P G; van Zelm, Menno C; de Swart, Rik L

    2018-04-15

    Measles is characterized by a transient immune suppression, leading to an increased risk of opportunistic infections. Measles virus (MV) infection of immune cells is mediated by the cellular receptor CD150, expressed by subsets of lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages, and thymocytes. Previous studies showed that human and nonhuman primate memory T cells express higher levels of CD150 than naive cells and are more susceptible to MV infection. However, limited information is available about the CD150 expression and relative susceptibility to MV infection of B-cell subsets. In this study, we assessed the susceptibility and permissiveness of naive and memory T- and B-cell subsets from human peripheral blood or tonsils to in vitro MV infection. Our study demonstrates that naive and memory B cells express CD150, but at lower frequencies than memory T cells. Nevertheless, both naive and memory B cells proved to be highly permissive to MV infection. Furthermore, we assessed the susceptibility and permissiveness of various functionally distinct T and B cells, such as helper T (T H ) cell subsets and IgG- and IgA-positive memory B cells, in peripheral blood and tonsils. We demonstrated that T H 1T H 17 cells and plasma and germinal center B cells were the subsets most susceptible and permissive to MV infection. Our study suggests that both naive and memory B cells, along with several other antigen-experienced lymphocytes, are important target cells of MV infection. Depletion of these cells potentially contributes to the pathogenesis of measles immune suppression. IMPORTANCE Measles is associated with immune suppression and is often complicated by bacterial pneumonia, otitis media, or gastroenteritis. Measles virus infects antigen-presenting cells and T and B cells, and depletion of these cells may contribute to lymphopenia and immune suppression. Measles has been associated with follicular exhaustion in lymphoid tissues in humans and nonhuman primates, emphasizing the

  6. Epidemiology of two large measles virus outbreaks in Catalonia: what a difference the month of administration of the first dose of vaccine makes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torner, Núria; Anton, Andres; Barrabeig, Irene; Lafuente, Sara; Parron, Ignasi; Arias, César; Camps, Neus; Costa, Josep; Martínez, Ana; Torra, Roser; Godoy, Pere; Minguell, Sofia; Ferrús, Glòria; Cabezas, Carmen; Domínguez, Ángela; Spain

    2013-03-01

    Measles cases in the European Region have been increasing in the last decade; this illustrates the challenge of what we are now encountering in the form of pediatric preventable diseases. In Catalonia, autochthonous measles was declared eliminated in the year 2000 as the result of high measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR) coverage for first and second dose (15 mo and 4 y) since the mid-1990s. From then on, sporadic imported cases and small outbreaks appeared, until in 2006-2007 a large measles outbreak affecting mostly unvaccinated toddlers hit the Barcelona Health Region. Consequently, in January 2008, first dose administration of MMR was lowered from 15 to 12 mo of age. A new honeymoon period went by until the end of 2010, when several importations of cases triggered new sustained transmission of different wild measles virus genotypes, but this time striking young adults. The aim of this study is to show the effect of a change in MMR vaccination schedule policy, and the difference in age incidence and hospitalization rates of affected individuals between both outbreaks.   Epidemiologic data were obtained by case interviews and review of medical records. Samples for virological confirmation and genotyping of cases were collected as established in the Measles Elimination plan guidelines. Incidence rate (IR), rate ratio (RR) and their 95% CI and hospitalization rate (HR) by age group were determined. Statistic z was used for comparing proportions. Total number of confirmed cases was 305 in the 2010 outbreak and 381 in the 2006-2007 outbreak; mean age 20 y (SD 14.8 y; 3 mo to 51 y) vs. 15 mo (SD 13.1 y; 1 mo to 50 y). Highest proportion of cases was set in ≥ 25 y (47%) vs. 24.2% in 2006 (p < 0.001). Differences in IR for ≤ 15 mo (49/100,000 vs. 278.2/100,000; RR: 3,9; 95%CI 2,9-5.4) and in overall HR 29.8% vs. 15.7% were all statistically significant (p < 0.001). The change of the month of age for the administration of the first MMR dose proved successful to

  7. Immunovirotherapy with measles virus strains in combination with anti-PD-1 antibody blockade enhances antitumor activity in glioblastoma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, Jayson; Mills, Lisa; Malo, Courtney S; Jin, Fang; Kurokawa, Cheyne; Geekiyanage, Hirosha; Schroeder, Mark; Sarkaria, Jann; Johnson, Aaron J; Galanis, Evanthia

    2017-04-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor and has a dismal prognosis. Measles virus (MV) therapy of GBM is a promising strategy due to preclinical efficacy, excellent clinical safety, and its ability to evoke antitumor pro-inflammatory responses. We hypothesized that combining anti- programmed cell death protein 1 (anti-PD-1) blockade and MV therapy can overcome immunosuppression and enhance immune effector cell responses against GBM, thus improving therapeutic outcome. In vitro assays of MV infection of glioma cells and infected glioma cells with mouse microglia ± aPD-1 blockade were established to assess damage associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule production, migration, and pro-inflammatory effects. C57BL/6 or athymic mice bearing syngeneic orthotopic GL261 gliomas were treated with MV, aPD-1, and combination treatment. T2* weighted immune cell-specific MRI and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of treated mouse brains was used to examine adaptive immune responses following therapy. In vitro, MV infection induced human GBM cell secretion of DAMP (high-mobility group protein 1, heat shock protein 90) and upregulated programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1). MV infection of GL261 murine glioma cells resulted in a pro-inflammatory response and increased migration of BV2 microglia. In vivo, MV+aPD-1 therapy synergistically enhanced survival of C57BL/6 mice bearing syngeneic orthotopic GL261 gliomas. MRI showed increased inflammatory cell influx into the brains of mice treated with MV+aPD-1; FACS analysis confirmed increased T-cell influx predominantly consisting of activated CD8+ T cells. This report demonstrates that oncolytic measles virotherapy in combination with aPD-1 blockade significantly improves survival outcome in a syngeneic GBM model and supports the potential of clinical/translational strategies combining MV with αPD-1 therapy in GBM treatment. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press

  8. Global eradication of measles: Are we poised?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra D Kulkarni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles, a highly infectious viral disease is the next target for eradication following poliovirus. Decades of experience with highly effective vaccination has invigorated us to take on this virus. The task is not only Titanic but is laced with intricate issues. Recently, an outbreak of fever with rash occurred on a tertiary care teaching hospital campus and was confirmed serologically as measles outbreak by IgMELISA. Therefore, we searched the literature related to outbreaks, transmission of the measles virus, age groups involved, vaccination strategies, vaccination failure and epidemiological features of the disease and reviewed the possible reasons for such outbreaks and problems in the global eradication of the virus.

  9. Interaction between the C-terminal domains of measles virus nucleoprotein and phosphoprotein: a tight complex implying one binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocquel, David; Habchi, Johnny; Costanzo, Stéphanie; Doizy, Anthony; Oglesbee, Michael; Longhi, Sonia

    2012-10-01

    The intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain (N(TAIL) ) of the measles virus (MeV) nucleoprotein undergoes α-helical folding upon binding to the C-terminal X domain (XD) of the phosphoprotein. The N(TAIL) region involved in binding coupled to folding has been mapped to a conserved region (Box2) encompassing residues 489-506. In the previous studies published in this journal, we obtained experimental evidence supporting a K(D) for the N(TAIL) -XD binding reaction in the nM range and also showed that an additional N(TAIL) region (Box3, aa 517-525) plays a role in binding to XD. In striking contrast with these data, studies published in this journal by Kingston and coworkers pointed out a much less stable complex (K(D) in the μM range) and supported lack of involvement of Box3 in complex formation. The objective of this study was to critically re-evaluate the role of Box3 in N(TAIL) -XD binding. Since our previous studies relied on N(TAIL) -truncated forms possessing an irrelevant Flag sequence appended at their C-terminus, we, herein, generated an N(TAIL) devoid of Box3 and any additional C-terminal residues, as well as a form encompassing only residues 482-525. We then used isothermal titration calorimetry to characterize the binding reactions between XD and these N(TAIL) forms. Results effectively argue for the presence of a single XD-binding site located within Box2, in agreement with the results by Kingston et al., while providing clear experimental support for a high-affinity complex. Altogether, the present data provide mechanistic insights into the replicative machinery of MeV and clarify a hitherto highly debated point. Copyright © 2012 The Protein Society.

  10. Conformational analysis of the partially disordered measles virus N(TAIL)-XD complex by SDSL EPR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavalenka, Aleh; Urbancic, Iztok; Belle, Valérie; Rouger, Sabrina; Costanzo, Stéphanie; Kure, Sandra; Fournel, André; Longhi, Sonia; Guigliarelli, Bruno; Strancar, Janez

    2010-03-17

    To characterize the structure of dynamic protein systems, such as partly disordered protein complexes, we propose a novel approach that relies on a combination of site-directed spin-labeled electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and modeling of local rotation conformational spaces. We applied this approach to the intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain of the measles virus nucleoprotein (N(TAIL)) both free and in complex with the X domain (XD, aa 459-507) of the viral phosphoprotein. By comparing measured and modeled temperature-dependent restrictions of the side-chain conformational spaces of 12 SL cysteine-substituted N(TAIL) variants, we showed that the 490-500 region of N(TAIL) is prestructured in the absence of the partner, and were able to quantitatively estimate, for the first time to our knowledge, the extent of the alpha-helical sampling of the free form. In addition, we showed that the 505-525 region of N(TAIL) conserves a significant degree of freedom even in the bound form. The latter two findings provide a mechanistic explanation for the reported rather high affinity of the N(TAIL)-XD binding reaction. Due to the nanosecond timescale of X-band EPR spectroscopy, we were also able to monitor the disordering in the 488-525 region of N(TAIL), in particular the unfolding of the alpha-helical region when the temperature was increased from 281 K to 310 K. Copyright 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. In Vivo Efficacy of Measles Virus Fusion Protein-Derived Peptides Is Modulated by the Properties of Self-Assembly and Membrane Residence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, T. N.; Palermo, L. M.; Veiga, A. S.; Huey, D.; Alabi, C. A.; Santos, N. C.; Welsch, J. C.; Mathieu, C.; Niewiesk, S.; Moscona, A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Measles virus (MV) infection is undergoing resurgence and remains one of the leading causes of death among young children worldwide despite the availability of an effective measles vaccine. MV infects its target cells by coordinated action of the MV hemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) envelope glycoproteins; upon receptor engagement by H, the prefusion F undergoes a structural transition, extending and inserting into the target cell membrane and then refolding into a postfusion structure that fuses the viral and cell membranes. By interfering with this structural transition of F, peptides derived from the heptad repeat (HR) regions of F can inhibit MV infection at the entry stage. In previous work, we have generated potent MV fusion inhibitors by dimerizing the F-derived peptides and conjugating them to cholesterol. We have shown that prophylactic intranasal administration of our lead fusion inhibitor efficiently protects from MV infection in vivo. We show here that peptides tagged with lipophilic moieties self-assemble into nanoparticles until they reach the target cells, where they are integrated into cell membranes. The self-assembly feature enhances biodistribution and the half-life of the peptides, while integration into the target cell membrane increases fusion inhibitor potency. These factors together modulate in vivo efficacy. The results suggest a new framework for developing effective fusion inhibitory peptides. IMPORTANCE Measles virus (MV) infection causes an acute illness that may be associated with infection of the central nervous system (CNS) and severe neurological disease. No specific treatment is available. We have shown that fusion-inhibitory peptides delivered intranasally provide effective prophylaxis against MV infection. We show here that specific biophysical properties regulate the in vivo efficacy of MV F-derived peptides. PMID:27733647

  12. Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) immune-stimulating complexes (iscoms), but not measles virus iscoms, protect dogs against CDV infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. de Vries (Petra); F.G.C.M. Uytdehaag (Fons); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractThe potential of immune-stimulating complexes (iscoms), a novel form of antigenic presentation, for the induction of protective immunity against morbillivirus infection was shown by immunizing dogs with canine distemper virus (CDV) iscoms, which contained the fusion (F) protein and a

  13. Measles outbreak in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Terri B; Dayan, Gustavo H; Langidrik, Justina R; Nandy, Robin; Edwards, Russell; Briand, Kennar; Konelios, Mailynn; Marin, Mona; Nguyen, Huong Q; Khalifah, Anthony P; O'leary, Michael J; Williams, Nobia J; Bellini, William J; Bi, Daoling; Brown, Cedric J; Seward, Jane F; Papania, Mark J

    2006-04-01

    Measles is a highly contagious viral infection. Measles transmission can be prevented through high population immunity (>or=95%) achieved by measles vaccination. In the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), no measles cases were reported during 1989-2002; however, a large measles outbreak occurred in 2003. Reported 1-dose measles vaccine coverage among children aged 12-23 months varied widely (52-94%) between 1990 and 2000. RMI is a Pacific island nation (1999 population: 50,840). A measles case was defined as fever, rash, and cough, or coryza, or conjunctivitis, in an RMI resident between July 13 and November 7, 2003. A vaccination campaign was used for outbreak control. Of the 826 reported measles cases, 766 (92%) occurred in the capital (Majuro). There were 186 (23%) cases in infants aged or=15 years. The attack rate was highest among infants (Majuro atoll: 213 cases/1,000 infants). Among cases aged 1-14 years, 281 (59%) reported no measles vaccination before July 2003. There were 100 hospitalizations and 3 deaths. The measles H1 genotype was identified. The vaccination campaign resulted in 93% coverage among persons aged 6 months to 40 years. Interpretation Populations without endemic measles transmission can accumulate substantial susceptibility and be at risk for large outbreaks when measles virus is imported. 'Islands' of measles susceptibility may develop in infants, adults, and any groups with low vaccine coverage. To prevent outbreaks, high population immunity must be sustained by maintaining and documenting high vaccine coverage.

  14. Risk Factors for Measles Virus Infection Among Adults During a Large Outbreak in Postelimination Era in Mongolia, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, José E; Takashima, Yoshihiro; Sarankhuu, Amarzaya; Dashpagma, Otgonbayar; Jantsansengee, Baigalmaa; Pastore, Roberta; Nyamaa, Gunregjav; Yadamsuren, Buyanjargal; Mulders, Mick N; Wannemuehler, Kathleen A; Anderson, Raydel; Bankamp, Bettina; Rota, Paul; Goodson, James L

    2017-12-05

    In 2015, a large nationwide measles outbreak occurred in Mongolia, with very high incidence in the capital city of Ulaanbaatar and among young adults. We conducted an outbreak investigation including a matched case-control study of risk factors for laboratory-confirmed measles among young adults living in Ulaanbaatar. Young adults with laboratory-confirmed measles, living in the capital city of Ulaanbaatar, were matched with 2-3 neighborhood controls. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted matched odds ratios (aMORs) for risk factors, with 95% confidence intervals. During March 1-September 30, 2015, 20 077 suspected measles cases were reported; 14 010 cases were confirmed. Independent risk factors for measles included being unvaccinated (adjusted matched odds ratio [aMOR] 2.0, P < .01), being a high school graduate without college education (aMOR 2.6, P < .01), remaining in Ulaanbaatar during the outbreak (aMOR 2.5, P < .01), exposure to an inpatient healthcare facility (aMOR 4.5 P < .01), and being born outside of Ulaanbaatar (aMOR 1.8, P = .02). This large, nationwide outbreak shortly after verification of elimination had high incidence among young adults, particularly those born outside the national capital. In addition, findings indicated that nosocomial transmission within health facilities helped amplify the outbreak. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  15. Prior DNA vaccination does not interfere with the live-attenuated measles vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premenko-Lanier, Mary; Rota, Paul; Rhodes, Gary; Bellini, William; McChesney, Michael

    2004-01-26

    The currently used live-attenuated measles vaccine is very effective although maternal antibody prevents its administration prior to 6 months of age. We are investigating the ability of a DNA vaccine encoding the measles viral hemagglutinin, fusion and nucleoprotein to protect newborn infants from measles. Here, we show that a measles DNA vaccine protects juvenile macaques from pathogenic measles virus challenge and that macaques primed and boosted with this DNA vaccine have anemnestic antibody and cell-mediated responses after vaccination with a live-attenuated canine distemper-measles vaccine. Therefore, this DNA vaccine administered to newborn infants may not hinder the subsequent use of live-attenuated measles vaccine.

  16. Measles Cases during Ebola Outbreak, West Africa, 2013-2106.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colavita, Francesca; Biava, Mirella; Castilletti, Concetta; Quartu, Serena; Vairo, Francesco; Caglioti, Claudia; Agrati, Chiara; Lalle, Eleonora; Bordi, Licia; Lanini, Simone; Guanti, Michela Delli; Miccio, Rossella; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Capobianchi, Maria R; Di Caro, Antonino

    2017-06-01

    The recent Ebola outbreak in West Africa caused breakdowns in public health systems, which might have caused outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. We tested 80 patients admitted to an Ebola treatment center in Freetown, Sierra Leone, for measles. These patients were negative for Ebola virus. Measles virus IgM was detected in 13 (16%) of the patients.

  17. Measles in HIV-infected children in southern Africa | Sheikh | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Given the high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence in the region, the particular features of measles in HIV-infected individuals are of interest to clinicians, especially as regards children, as are measles immunisation strategies for ...

  18. Oral or parenteral administration of replication-deficient adenoviruses expressing the measles virus haemagglutinin and fusion proteins: protective immune responses in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fooks, A R; Jeevarajah, D; Lee, J; Warnes, A; Niewiesk, S; ter Meulen, V; Stephenson, J R; Clegg, J C

    1998-05-01

    The genes encoding the measles virus (MV) haemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) proteins were placed under the control of the human cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter in a replication-deficient adenovirus vector. Immunofluorescence and radioimmune precipitation demonstrated the synthesis of each protein and biological activity was confirmed by the detection of haemadsorption and fusion activities in infected cells. Oral as well as parenteral administration of the H-expressing recombinant adenovirus elicited a significant protective response in mice challenged with MV. While the F-expressing adenovirus failed to protect mice, cotton rats immunized with either the H- or F-expressing recombinant showed reduced MV replication in the lungs. Antibodies elicited in mice following immunization with either recombinant had no in vitro neutralizing activity, suggesting a protective mechanism involving a cell-mediated immune response. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using oral administration of adenovirus recombinants to induce protective responses to heterologous proteins.

  19. Progress Toward Regional Measles Elimination - Worldwide, 2000-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbagh, Alya; Patel, Minal K; Dumolard, Laure; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Mulders, Mick N; Okwo-Bele, Jean-Marie; Kretsinger, Katrina; Papania, Mark J; Rota, Paul A; Goodson, James L

    2017-10-27

    The fourth United Nations Millennium Development Goal, adopted in 2000, set a target to reduce child mortality by two thirds by 2015. One indicator of progress toward this target was measles vaccination coverage (1). In 2010, the World Health Assembly (WHA) set three milestones for measles control by 2015: 1) increase routine coverage with the first dose of a measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) among children aged 1 year to ≥90% at the national level and to ≥80% in every district; 2) reduce global annual measles incidence to measles mortality by 95% from the 2000 estimate (2).* In 2012, WHA endorsed the Global Vaccine Action Plan, † with the objective of eliminating measles in four World Health Organization (WHO) regions by 2015 and in five regions by 2020. Countries in all six WHO regions have adopted goals for measles elimination by or before 2020. Measles elimination is defined as the absence of endemic measles virus transmission in a region or other defined geographic area for ≥12 months, in the presence of a high quality surveillance system that meets targets of key performance indicators. This report updates a previous report (3) and describes progress toward global measles control milestones and regional measles elimination goals during 2000-2016. During this period, annual reported measles incidence decreased 87%, from 145 to 19 cases per million persons, and annual estimated measles deaths decreased 84%, from 550,100 to 89,780; measles vaccination prevented an estimated 20.4 million deaths. However, the 2015 milestones have not yet been met; only one WHO region has been verified as having eliminated measles. Improved implementation of elimination strategies by countries and their partners is needed, with focus on increasing vaccination coverage through substantial and sustained additional investments in health systems, strengthening surveillance systems, using surveillance data to drive programmatic actions, securing political commitment, and raising

  20. Photos of Measles and People with Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish Resources Related Links Measles and Rubella Initiative World Health Organization Pan American Health Organization Photos of Measles and ... Library (PHIL) Related Links Measles and Rubella Initiative World Health Organization Pan American Health Organization Language: English (US) Español ( ...

  1. Biological characterization of clones derived from the edmonston strain of measles virus in comparison with schwarz and CAM-70 vaccine strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz Junqueira Borges

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Four virus clones were derived from the Edmonston strain of measles virus by repeated plaque purification. These clones were compared with the vaccine strains Schwarz and CAM-70 in terms of biological activities including plaque formation, hemagglutination, hemolysis and replication in Vero cells and chick embryo fibroblasts (CEF. Two clones of intermediate plaque yielded mixed plaque populations on subcultivation whereas the other two, showing small and large plaque sizes, showed stable plaque phenotypes. The vaccine strains showed consistent homogeneous plaque populations. All the Edmonston clones showed agglutination of monkey erythrocytes in isotonic solution while both vaccine strains hemagglutinated only in the presence of high salt concentrations. Variation in the hemolytic activity was observed among the four clones but no hemolytic activity was detected for the vaccine virus strains. Vaccine strains replicated efficiently both in Vero cells and CEF. All four clones showed efficient replication in Vero cells but different replication profiles in CEF. Two of them replicated efficiently, one was of intermediate efficiency and the other showed no replication in CEF. Two of the clones showed characteristics similar to vaccine strains. One in terms of size and homogeneity of plaques, the other for a low hemolytic activity and both for the efficiency of propagation in CEF.

  2. Disneyland Measles Outbreak

    OpenAIRE

    Palladino, Erica

    2015-01-01

    This media information sheet analyzes print and online coverage of the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak. The frameworks that the media used to report on the outbreak presented vaccination as the only viable option from preventing the spread of measles. Reporting also failed to mention that the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak was smaller than U.S. measles outbreaks in 2013 and 2014.

  3. Measles Virus Hemagglutinin epitopes immunogenic in natural infection and vaccination are targeted by broad or genotype-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Alía, Miguel Angel; Casasnovas, José M; Celma, María Luisa; Carabaña, Juan; Liton, Paloma B; Fernandez-Muñoz, Rafael

    2017-05-15

    Measles virus (MV) remains a leading cause of vaccine-preventable deaths in children. Protection against MV is associated with neutralizing antibodies that preferentially recognize the viral hemagglutinin (MV-H), and to a lesser extent, the fusion protein (MV-F). Although MV is serologically monotypic, 24 genotypes have been identified. Here we report three neutralization epitopes conserved in the more prevalent circulating MV genotypes, two located in the MV-H receptor binding site (RBS) (antigenic site III) and a third in MV-H/MV-F interphase (antigenic site Ia) which are essential for MV multiplication. In contrast, two MV-H neutralization epitopes, showed a genotype-specific neutralization escape due to a single amino acid change, that we mapped in the "noose" antigenic site, or an enhanced neutralization epitope (antigenic site IIa). The monoclonal antibody (mAb) neutralization potency correlated with its binding affinity and was mainly driven by kinetic dissociation rate (k off ). We developed an immunoassay for mAb binding to MV-H in its native hetero-oligomeric structure with MV-F on the surface of a MV productive steady-state persistently infected (p.i.) human cell lines, and a competitive-binding assay with serum from individuals with past infection by different MV genotypes. Binding assays revealed that a broad neutralization epitope, in RBS antigenic site, a genotype specific neutralization epitopes, in noose and IIa sites, were immunogenic in natural infection and vaccination and may elicit long-lasting humoral immunity that might contribute to explain MV immunogenic stability. These results support the design of improved measles vaccines, broad-spectrum prophylactic or therapeutic antibodies and MV-used in oncolytic therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Measles in Sudan: Diagnosis, Epidemiology and Humoral Immune Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.S. El Mubarak

    2004-01-01

    textabstractDespite the availability of safe and effective live attenuated vaccines, measles remains endemic in many developing countries. Little is known about the pathogenesis of measles virus (MV) infections in the areas of itsendemicity, largely due to the limited infrastructure and political

  5. FastStats: Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women’s Health State and Territorial Data Reproductive Health Contraceptive Use Infertility Reproductive Health Notice Regarding FastStats Mobile ... measles, mumps, rubella: 91.9% (2015) Percent of adolescents aged 13-17 years vaccinated against measles, mumps, ...

  6. Combination of the oral histone deacetylase inhibitor resminostat with oncolytic measles vaccine virus as a new option for epi-virotherapeutic treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Ruf

    Full Text Available Epigenetic therapies such as histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi not only have the capability to decrease tumor cell proliferation and to induce tumor cell death but also to silence antiviral response genes. Here, we investigated whether the combination of an oncolytic measles vaccine virus (MeV with the novel oral HDACi resminostat (Res, being in clinical testing in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, results in an enhanced efficacy of this epi-virotherapeutic approach compared to any of the two corresponding monotherapies. When testing a panel of human hepatoma cell lines, we found (i a significantly improved rate of primary infections when using oncolytic MeV under concurrent treatment with resminostat, (ii a boosted cytotoxic effect of the epi-virotherapeutic combination (Res + MeV with enhanced induction of apoptosis, and, quite importantly, (iii an absence of any resminostat-induced impairment of MeV replication and spread. Beyond that, we could also show that (iv resminostat, after hepatoma cell stimulation with exogenous human interferon (IFN-β, is able to prevent the induction of IFN-stimulated genes, such as IFIT-1. This finding outlines the possible impact of resminostat on cellular innate immunity, being instrumental in overcoming resistances to MeV-mediated viral oncolysis. Thus, our results support the onset of epi-virotherapeutic clinical trials in patients exhibiting advanced stages of HCC.

  7. Solution structure of the C-terminal X domain of the measles virus phosphoprotein and interaction with the intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain of the nucleoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gely, Stéphane; Lowry, David F; Bernard, Cédric; Jensen, Malene R; Blackledge, Martin; Costanzo, Stéphanie; Bourhis, Jean-Marie; Darbon, Hervé; Daughdrill, Gary; Longhi, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    In this report, the solution structure of the nucleocapsid-binding domain of the measles virus phosphoprotein (XD, aa 459-507) is described. A dynamic description of the interaction between XD and the disordered C-terminal domain of the nucleocapsid protein, (N(TAIL), aa 401-525), is also presented. XD is an all alpha protein consisting of a three-helix bundle with an up-down-up arrangement of the helices. The solution structure of XD is very similar to the crystal structures of both the free and bound form of XD. One exception is the presence of a highly dynamic loop encompassing XD residues 489-491, which is involved in the embedding of the alpha-helical XD-binding region of N(TAIL). Secondary chemical shift values for full-length N(TAIL) were used to define the precise boundaries of a transient helical segment that coincides with the XD-binding domain, thus shedding light on the pre-recognition state of N(TAIL). Titration experiments with unlabeled XD showed that the transient alpha-helical conformation of N(TAIL) is stabilized upon binding. Lineshape analysis of NMR resonances revealed that residues 483-506 of N(TAIL) are in intermediate exchange with XD, while the 475-482 and 507-525 regions are in fast exchange. The N(TAIL) resonance behavior in the titration experiments is consistent with a complex binding model with more than two states.

  8. Modified measles versus rubella versus atypical measles: One and same thing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender Nikhil Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In outbreak settings, more than one virus may be infecting the given population. In twin or triple outbreak of measles, German measles (rubella, and varicella in highly immunized hilly areas, maximal number of the case patients in all the hilly villages belonged to the older age group. It suggested an obvious shift to the higher age group, warranting second dose opportunity in such case scenario. The clinical presentations of viral diseases are too similar to differentiate. The aim is to clearly categorize the case patients of modified measles, rubella, and atypical measles in outbreak settings. Results: Four outbreaks are listed. In the first one, sixty case patients were identified from 1026 people in 5 villages. Of these, 41 were diagnosed by clinically, 8 were laboratory confirmed as measles and 11 were epidemiologically linked German measles case patients. Seventy percent of the cases were vaccinated for measles. In second case, we identified 29/35 measles and 6/35 were confirmed as epidemiologically linked unvaccinated chickenpox case patients. In third one, we identified 116 cases in eight villages (112/116 clinically and 04/116 laboratory confirmed. Majority of cases were immunized against measles, but only minor cases for rubella. In fourth case, we identified 505 case patients from mixed outbreaks of varicella, measles and rubella (30/505 clinically, 467/505 epidemiologically linked and 8/505 laboratory confirmed case patients from a study population of 3280. In all the four outbreaks, prima facie, the clinical presentations of both rubella and modified measles were difficult to differentiate. Discussion: On the basis of outbreak investigation and analytical inference, it has been observed that the symtomatology of modified measles and laboratory confirmed rubella case patients/epidemiologically linked cases are so similar placed that many a time, it becomes much difficult to line list the cases in one section of modified

  9. Epstein–Barr Virus, but Not Cytomegalovirus, Latency Accelerates the Decay of Childhood Measles and Rubella Vaccine Responses—A 10-Year Follow-up of a Swedish Birth Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintare Lasaviciute

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEpstein–Barr virus (EBV and cytomegalovirus (CMV are ubiquitous and persistent herpesviruses commonly acquired during childhood. Both viruses have a significant impact on the immune system, especially through mediating the establishment of cellular immunity, which keeps these viruses under control for life. Far less is known about how these viruses influence B-cell responses.ObjectivesTo evaluate the impact of latent EBV and CMV infection on rubella- and measles-specific antibody responses as well as on the B-cell compartment in a prospective birth cohort followed during the first 10 years of life.MethodsIgG titers against rubella and measles vaccines were measured in plasma obtained from the same donors at 2, 5, and 10 years of age. Peripheral B-cell subsets were evaluated ex vivo at 2 and 5 years of age. Factors related to optimal B-cell responses including IL-21 and CXCL13 levels in plasma were measured at all-time points.ResultsEBV carriage in the absence of CMV associated with an accelerated decline of rubella and measles-specific IgG levels (p = 0.003 and p = 0.019, respectively, linear mixed model analysis, while CMV carriage in the absence of EBV associated with delayed IgG decay over time for rubella (p = 0.034. At 5 years of age, EBV but not CMV latency associated with a lower percentage of plasmablasts, but higher IL-21 levels in the circulation.ConclusionOur findings suggest that EBV carriage in the absence of CMV influences the B-cell compartment and the dynamics of antibody responses over time during steady state in the otherwise healthy host.

  10. Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles) Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... child's back. Distribution is similar to that of measles, but the lesions are less intensely red. This ...

  11. Acute measles encephalitis in partially vaccinated adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Fox

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of acute measles encephalitis (AME is poorly understood. Treatment with immune-modulators is based on theories that post-infectious autoimmune responses cause demyelination. The clinical course and immunological parameters of AME were examined during an outbreak in Vietnam.Fifteen measles IgM-positive patients with confusion or Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score below 13, and thirteen with uncomplicated measles were enrolled from 2008-2010. Standardized clinical exams were performed and blood collected for lymphocyte and measles- and auto-antibody analysis. The median age of AME patients was 21 years, similar to controls. Eleven reported receiving measles vaccination when aged one year. Confusion developed a median of 4 days after rash. Six patients had GCS <8 and four required mechanical ventilation. CSF showed pleocytosis (64% and proteinorrhachia (71% but measles virus RNA was not detected. MRI revealed bilateral lesions in the cerebellum and brain stem in some patients. Most received dexamethasone +/- IVIG within 4 days of admission but symptoms persisted for ≥3 weeks in five. The concentration of voltage gated calcium channel-complex-reactive antibodies was 900 pM in one patient, and declined to 609 pM ∼ 3 months later. Measles-reactive IgG antibody avidity was high in AME patients born after vaccine coverage exceeded 50% (∼ 25 years earlier. AME patients had low CD4 (218/µl, p = 0.029 and CD8 (200/µl, p = 0.012 T-cell counts compared to controls.Young adults presenting with AME in Vietnam reported a history of one prior measles immunization, and those aged <25 years had high measles-reactive IgG avidity indicative of prior vaccination. This suggests that one-dose measles immunization is not sufficient to prevent AME in young adults and reinforces the importance of maintaining high coverage with a two-dose measles immunization schedule. Treatment with corticosteroids and IVIG is common practice, and should be

  12. Measles Outbreak among Unvaccinated Children in Bajura

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    S Sitaula

    2010-12-01

    CFR of this outbreak is higher than the national CFR. Vaccine efficacy of 50% points towards the need for investigation of vaccine logistics and cold chain system. Moreover, this laboratory test confirmed an outbreak showing that the measles virus could be imported from an endemic region and rapidly spread through a susceptible population who were previously not immunized.

  13. Expression and purification of chimeric peptide comprising EGFR B-cell epitope and measles virus fusion protein T-cell epitope in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meizhi; Zhao, Lin; Zhu, Lei; Chen, Zhange; Li, Huangjin

    2013-03-01

    Chimeric peptide MVF-EGFR(237-267), comprising a B-cell epitope from the dimerization interface of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and a promiscuous T-cell epitope from measles virus fusion protein (MVF), is a promising candidate antigen peptide for therapeutic vaccine. To establish a high-efficiency preparation process of this small peptide, the coding sequence was cloned into pET-21b and pET-32a respectively, to be expressed alone or in the form of fusion protein with thioredoxin (Trx) and His(6)-tag in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The chimeric peptide failed to be expressed alone, but over-expressed in the fusion form, which presented as soluble protein and took up more than 30% of total proteins of host cells. The fusion protein was seriously degraded during the cell disruption, in which endogenous metalloproteinase played a key role. Degradation of target peptide was inhibited by combined application of EDTA in the cell disruption buffer and a step of Source 30Q anion exchange chromatography (AEC) before metal-chelating chromatography (MCAC) for purifying His(6)-tagged fusion protein. The chimeric peptide was recovered from the purified fusion protein by enterokinase digestion at a yield of 3.0 mg/L bacteria culture with a purity of more than 95%. Immunogenicity analysis showed that the recombinant chimeric peptide was able to arouse more than 1×10(4) titers of specific antibody in BALB/c mice. Present work laid a solid foundation for the development of therapeutic peptide vaccine targeting EGFR dimerization and provided a convenient and low-cost preparation method for small peptides. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Detection of measles IgM antibodies in children at Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measles virus IgM antibodies virus was assayed for in 270 sera from children aged 5 months to 8 years attending Yusuf Dantsoho Memorial Hospital, Kaduna, Northern Nigeria, using ELISA. Out of the 270 sera, 192(71.1%) tested positive to measles IgM and 78(28.9%) negative. The sample distribution was 137 from males, ...

  15. Meeting measles elimination indicators: surveillance performance in a regional area of Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N Durrheim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO Western Pacific Region has established specific measles elimination surveillance indicators. There has been concern in Australia that these indicators may be too stringent and that measles elimination can occur without all surveillance prerequisites being met, in particular the minimum fever and rash clinician-suspected measles reporting rate with subsequent laboratory exclusion of measles. A regional public health unit in northern New South Wales, Australia, prompted local general practitioners to report fever and rash presentations that met the measles case definition or that they considered to be clinical measles. These notifications from July 2006 to June 2008 were reviewed to determine whether measles indicators for monitoring progress towards measles elimination could be achieved in Australia. Results confirmed that the surveillance indicators of “>2 reported suspected measles cases per 100 000 population,” “at least 80% of suspected cases adequately investigated within 48 hours” and “greater than 80% of cases had adequate blood samples collected” could be met. Only half the cases had virology that would allow genotyping of measles virus. Special efforts to engage and convince Australian medical doctors about the public health value of reporting clinically suggestive measles cases and collecting confirmatory blood tests, resulted in the current WHO Western Pacific Region indicators for progress towards measles elimination being met in a regional area of Australia.

  16. Transmission of measles among healthcare Workers in Hospital W, Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Haimei; Ma, Chao; Lu, Mengting; Fu, Jianping; Rodewald, Lance E; Su, Qiru; Wang, Huaqin; Hao, Lixin

    2018-01-12

    As China approaches the elimination of measles, outbreaks of measles continue to occur. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are known to be at high risk of infection and transmission of measles virus. A measles outbreak occurred in a hospital in Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China. We report an investigation of this outbreak and its implications for measles elimination and outbreak preparedness. We conducted a retrospective search for measles cases using hospital records. Information on cases was collected by interview, and was used to determine epidemiological linkages. We surveyed HCWs to determine their demographic characteristics, disease history and vaccination status, and knowledge about measles. We identified 19 cases, ages 18 to 45 years, in Hospital W between December 2015 and January 2016; 14 were laboratory-confirmed, and 5 were epidemiologically linked. The primary case was a 25-year-old neurology department nurse who developed a rash on 22 December 2015 that was reported on 11 January 2016. She continued working and living with her workmates in a dormitory during her measles transmission period. Among the 19 infected HCWs, 2 had received a dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV) before the outbreak, and 16 had unknown vaccination status. Outbreak response immunization activities were started on 8 January in a non-selective manner by offering vaccine regardless of vaccination history; 605(68%) of 890 HCWs were vaccinated. The HCW survey had a 73% response rate (646/890); 41% of HCWs reported that they had received MCV before outbreak, and 56% exhibited good knowledge of measles symptoms, transmission, complications, and vaccination. Low MCV coverage, low measles knowledge among HCWs, delayed reporting of measles cases, and absence of proper case management were associated with this outbreak. Training and vaccinating HCWs against measles are essential activities to prevent measles virus transmission among HCWs.

  17. Measles (lecture, continuing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shostakovych-Koretsraya L.R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The second part of the article discusses differential diagnosis during different measles periods. Routine and confirmatory laboratory diagnosis, including cytological, serological and molecular genetic methods is outlined. Criteria of suspected, probable and proved diagnosis of measles cases are provided. Principles of diagnosis formulation according to WHO criteria are described. Complications of measles ac¬cording to cause (viral and bacterial, by different systems and particularities in high risk patients are considered. Complications of measles from central nervous system are described in details. Therapeutic management of measles is described in details, including indications for hospital admission, etiotropic therapy, strict indications for steroids and immunoglobulins prescription, vitamin A in dosages, therapy of complications, indications for antibiotics usage and other pathogenetic therapy. Specific therapy of measles complications from central nervous system is outlined. Active and passive immunization, anti-epidemic activities, patient follow-up after episode of measles and disease prognosis are described. The literature reference list consists of 121 items, including Cyrillic, Latin articles and electronic resources.

  18. Patterns of measles transmission among airplane travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelson, Paul J

    2012-09-01

    With advanced air handling systems on modern aircraft and the high level of measles immunity in many countries, measles infection in air travelers may be considered a low-risk event. However, introduction of measles into countries where transmission has been controlled or eliminated can have substantial consequences both for the use of public health resources and for those still susceptible. In an effort to balance the relatively low likelihood of disease transmission among largely immune travelers and the risk to the public health of the occurrence of secondary cases resulting from importations, criteria in the United States for contact investigations for measles exposures consider contacts to be those passengers who are seated within 2 rows of the index case. However, recent work has shown that cabin air flow may not be as reliable a barrier to the spread of measles virus as previously believed. Along with these new studies, several reports have described measles developing after travel in passengers seated some distance from the index case. To understand better the potential for measles virus to spread on an airplane, reports of apparent secondary cases occurring in co-travelers of passengers with infectious cases of measles were reviewed. Medline™ was searched for articles in all languages from 1946 to week 1 of March 2012, using the search terms "measles [human] or rubeola" and ("aircraft" or "airplane" or "aeroplane" or "aviation" or "travel" or "traveler" or "traveller"); 45 citations were returned. Embase™ was searched from 1988 to week 11 2012, using the same search strategy; 95 citations were returned. Papers were included in this review if they reported secondary cases of measles occurring in persons traveling on an airplane on which a person or persons with measles also flew, and which included the seating location of both the index case(s) and the secondary case(s) on the plane. Nine reports, including 13 index cases and 23 apparent secondary cases

  19. Prevalence of measles neutralizing antibody in children under 15 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The immune status of children under 15 years in the Southwestern region of Nigeria against measles virus was determined using the neutralization test with a view to assessing the herd immunity to the virus in these communities. A total of 256 serum samples collected from children were tested by the beta method of ...

  20. Improving molecular tools for global surveillance of measles virus⋆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankamp, Bettina; Byrd-Leotis, Lauren A.; Lopareva, Elena N.; Woo, Gibson K.S.; Liu, Chunyu; Jee, Youngmee; Ahmed, Hinda; Lim, Wilina W.; Ramamurty, Nalini; Mulders, Mick N.; Featherstone, David; Bellini, William J.; Rota, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Background The genetic characterization of wild-type measles viruses plays an important role in the description of viral transmission pathways and the verification of measles elimination. The 450 nucleotides that encode the carboxyl-terminus of the nucleoprotein (N-450) are routinely sequenced for genotype analysis. Objectives The objectives of this study were to develop improved primers and controls for RT-PCR reactions used for genotyping of measles samples and to develop a method to provide a convenient, safe, and inexpensive means to distribute measles RNA for RT-PCR assays and practice panels. Study design A newly designed, genetically defined synthetic RNA and RNA isolated from cells infected with currently circulating genotypes were used to compare the sensitivity of primer pairs in RT-PCR and nested PCR. FTA® cards loaded with lysates of measles infected cells were tested for their ability to preserve viral RNA and destroy virus infectivity. Results A new primer pair, MeV216/MeV214, was able to amplify N-450 from viruses representing 10 currently circulating genotypes and a genotype A vaccine strain and demonstrated 100-fold increased sensitivity compared to the previously used primer set. A nested PCR assay further increased the sensitivity of detection from patient samples. A synthetic positive control RNA was developed that produced PCR products that are distinguishable by size from PCR products amplified from clinical samples. FTA® cards completely inactivated measles virus and stabilized RNA for at least six months. Conclusions These improved molecular tools will advance molecular characterization of circulating measles viruses globally and provide enhanced quality control measures. PMID:23806666

  1. NuMA and nuclear lamins are cleaved during viral infection - inhibition of caspase activity prevents cleavage and rescues HeLa cells from measles virus-induced but not from rhinovirus 1B-induced cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taimen, Pekka; Berghaell, Heidi; Vainionpaeae, Raija; Kallajoki, Markku

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear matrix is a structural framework of important nuclear processes. We studied the effect of two different types of viral infections on nuclear matrix. HeLa cells were infected with human rhinovirus 1B (HRV 1B) or measles virus (MV), and Nuclear Mitotic Apparatus protein (NuMA) and lamins A/C and B were used as markers for internal nuclear matrix and peripheral nuclear lamina, respectively. We show that NuMA, lamins, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 are cleaved during viral infection in a virus family-specific manner suggesting that these viruses activate different sets of proteases. Morphologically, NuMA was excluded from the condensed chromatin, lamins showed a folded distribution, and both proteins finally remained around the nuclear fragments. A general caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (z-VAD-FMK) prevented the nuclear disintegration and the cleavage of the proteins studied. Interestingly, z-VAD-FMK rescued MV-infected but not HRV 1B-infected cells from cell death. These results show for the first time that NuMA and lamins are specific target proteins during virus-induced programmed cell death

  2. A Recombinant Measles Vaccine with Enhanced Resistance to Passive Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julik, Emily; Reyes-Del Valle, Jorge

    2017-09-21

    Current measles vaccines suffer from poor effectiveness in young infants due primarily to the inhibitory effect of residual maternal immunity on vaccine responses. The development of a measles vaccine that resists such passive immunity would strongly contribute to the stalled effort toward measles eradication. In this concise communication, we show that a measles virus (MV) with enhanced hemagglutinin (H) expression and incorporation, termed MVvac2-H2, retained its enhanced immunogenicity, previously established in older mice, when administered to very young, genetically modified, MV-susceptible mice in the presence of passive anti-measles immunity. This immunity level mimics the sub-neutralizing immunity prevalent in infants too young to be vaccinated. Additionally, toward a more physiological small animal model of maternal anti-measles immunity interference, we document vertical transfer of passive anti-MV immunity in genetically-modified, MV susceptible mice and show in this physiological model a better MVvac2-H2 immunogenic profile than that of the parental vaccine strain. In sum, these data support the notion that enhancing MV hemagglutinin incorporation can circumvent in vivo neutralization. This strategy merits additional exploration as an alternative pediatric measles vaccine.

  3. Correlation between live attenuated measles viral load and growth inhibition percentage in non-small cell lung cancer cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Fadhel Obaid

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion Live attenuated measles virus strain induced cytotoxic effect against human lung cancer cell line (A549 by induction of apoptosis as an important mechanism of anti-tumor activity, in addition, it indicates a correlation between the quantity of MV genomesand percentage of growth inhibition. This relation  has proved that measles virus had anticancer effect.

  4. Aerosol measles vaccination in macaques: Preclinical studies of immune responses and safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. de Swart (Rik); T. Kuiken (Thijs); J. Fernandez-de Castro (Jorge); M.J. Papania (Mark); J.V. Bennett (John); J.L. Valdespino (José); P.D. Minor; C.L. Witham (Clyde); S. Yüksel (Selma); H.W. Vos (Helma); G. van Amerongen (Geert); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe comparative efficacy and safety of measles vaccination via the aerosol route versus subcutaneous injection has not been fully resolved. We vaccinated cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) with the live-attenuated Edmonston-Zagreb measles virus (MV) vaccine and compared different

  5. Measles: What we have learned from non-human primate models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. de Swart (Rik)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractStudies in non-human primates (NHPs) have been crucial for our understanding of measles as a high impact viral disease of humans. Over a century ago, inoculations of NHPs with filtered secretions from measles patients first identified a virus as the causative agent of this disease. In

  6. [EIA-IgG antibody measles prevention level estimated from measles neutralizing, particle agglutination and hemagglutination-inhibition antibody titer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Naohide; Saika, Shizuko; Ichinohe, Sadato

    2009-09-01

    Measles hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titer, widely used in clinical practice to simply and easily determine the measles immunity level has, in recent years, been increasingly replaced by measles IgG-antibody titer determined by enzyme-immunoassay (EIA). HI antibody titer appears to reflect this protective level, because HI measures the antibody against H protein required for the measles virus to adhere to host cells. EIA-IgG antibody titer does not correlate with the protective level, similar to particle agglutination (PA) titer, because EIA measures different antibodies, including those unrelated to measles protection. After determining HI, PA, neutralizing test (NT) results, and EIA-IgG antibody titer for individual specimens, we compared EIA-IgG antibody titer obtained using an EIA-Kit (Denka Seiken) to HI, PA, and NT titer with the following results: (1) Subjects with EIA-IgG titer of > or = 12.0 may be protected against measles: (2) Subjects with EIA-IgG titer of 4.0 to 8.0 appear to be protected insufficiently requiring a booster dose against measles: (3) Subjects with EIA-IgG titer of 8.0 to 12.0 may benefit from booster vaccination.

  7. Genotyping of circulating measles strains in Italy in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Baggieri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The European Regional Office of the World Health Organization developed a strategic approach to stop the indigenous transmission of measles in its 53 Member States by 2015. In Italy, laboratory surveillance activity is implemented by the National Reference Laboratory for Measles and Rubella at the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome. The role of the National Reference Laboratory is to strengthen surveillance systems through rigorous case investigation and laboratory confirmation of suspected sporadic cases and outbreaks. Genetic characterization of wild-type measles virus is an essential component of the laboratory-based surveillance. This study describes the molecular characterization of measles virus strains isolated during 2010. METHODS: Dried blood spots, urine and oral fluid samples were collected from patients with a suspected measles infection. Serological tests were performed on capillary blood, and viral detection was performed on urine and oral fluid samples through molecular assay. Positive samples were sequenced and phylogenetically analysed. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The phylogenetic analysis showed a co-circulation of genotypes D4 and D8, and sporadic cases associated to genotypes D9 and B3. Then, molecular epidemiology of measles cases permitted to establish that D4 and D8 were the endemic genotypes in Italy during 2010.

  8. Suscetibilidade da linhagem de células Vero a cepas vacinais do vírus do sarampo Susceptibility of Vero cell line to vaccine strains of the measles virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Sayoko Takata

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available A suscetibilidade da linhagem de células Vero ao vírus do sarampo é bem conhecida e sua utilização no controle da potência da vacina contra o sarampo é amplamente difundida. Com o objetivo de comparar a suscetibilidade de células Vero empregadas em titulações, amostras provenientes de dois laboratórios controladores (Vero IB e Vero INCQS, foram testadas frente a três cepas vacinais: Moraten, Schwarz e Biken CAM-70. Foram titulados 72 lotes de vacinas contra o sarampo, sendo 25 produzidos com a cepa Moraten, 24 com a cepa Schwarz e 23 com a cepa Biken CAM-70. A análise estatística dos resultados obtidos nas titulações, feita através dos testes Limites para uma Média e "t" de Student, mostrou que para as cepas Moraten e Biken CAM-70, as diferenças de títulos não foram estatisticamente significantes, o mesmo não ocorrendo com a cepa Schwarz, para a qual as células Vero IB se mostraram mais sensíveis.Vero cells used by distinct measles vaccine control laboratories had their susceptibility to Moraten, Schwarz and Biken CAM-70 vaccine strains assayed. Of a total of 72 lots of measles vaccine whose potency was titrated by microtechnique in two Vero cell samples (Vero IB and Vero INCQS, 25 had been produced with Moraten strain, 24 with Schwarz and 23 with Biken CAM-70. The statistical analysis of the results demonstrated that both Vero cells assayed presented comparable susceptibility to Moraten and Biken CAM-70 strains. As to the Schwarz strain, Vero IB cells were more susceptible than the other cell sample tested, thus confirming the existence of different sensitivities of Vero cells to some measles vaccine strains, or even to viruses derived from the same strain but with different passage histories. An altered cell susceptibility to virus replication may significantly alter the results in potency testing. Such alteration may be caused not only by the adoption of distinct protocols for the maintenance of cell cultures by

  9. [Ophthalmological symptoms of measles and their treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Végh, Mihály; Hári-Kovács, András; Roth, Hans-Walter; Facskó, Andrea

    2017-10-01

    Measles, caused by the Morbilli virus, is a highly (about 95 %) contagious disease affecting primarily children, but without proper immunisation, adults can also be infected. The leading symptoms of the disease are high fever that presents after an incubation period of 9-10 days and the red rash that begins several days after the fever starts. Beyond specific generalized symptoms, measles may have ocular symptoms. The most commonly occurring conjunctivitis, the so-called "red eye symptom", is not characteristic only for measles infection, however, by taking the generalized symptoms it can suggest the diagnosis at the beginning of the disease. Conjunctivitis of varying severity is noticed in the half of the cases without using ophthalmological instrumentation. Using ophthalmological instrumentation, the mild forms of conjunctivitis can be diagnosed, by meticulous ophthalmological examination, further eye diseases can be discovered. The viral conjunctivitis can progress to keratitis and bacterial superinfection can occur. If the infection presents in childhood it can affect the posterior segment. The fight against measles is very effective in Hungary since the vaccination has been introduced, and the lack of vaccination is also the primary cause of the risk to the disease. In the diagnosis, symptomatic treatment of the disease and the curbing of possible mass infections, the practicing physician (general practitioner) has a key role. The correct care of the infected patient in Hungary is provided by a methodological letter, professional information and legal guides. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(39): 1523-1527.

  10. Measles vaccination using a microneedle patch☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edens, Chris; Collins, Marcus L.; Ayers, Jessica; Rota, Paul A.; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Measles vaccination programs would benefit from delivery methods that decrease cost, simplify logistics, and increase safety. Conventional subcutaneous injection is limited by the need for skilled healthcare professionals to reconstitute and administer injections, and by the need for safe needle handling and disposal to reduce the risk of disease transmission through needle re-use and needlestick injury. Microneedles are micron-scale, solid needles coated with a dry formulation of vaccine that dissolves in the skin within minutes after patch application. By avoiding the use of hypodermic needles, vaccination using a microneedle patch could be carried out by minimally trained personnel with reduced risk of blood-borne disease transmission. The goal of this study was to evaluate measles vaccination using a microneedle patch to address some of the limitations of subcutaneous injection. Viability of vaccine virus dried onto a microneedle patch was stabilized by incorporation of the sugar, trehalose, and loss of viral titer was less than 1 log10(TCID50) after storage for at least 30 days at room temperature. Microneedle patches were then used to immunize cotton rats with the Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine strain. Vaccination using microneedles at doses equaling the standard human dose or one-fifth the human dose generated neutralizing antibody levels equivalent to those of a subcutaneous immunization at the same dose. These results show that measles vaccine can be stabilized on microneedles and that vaccine efficiently reconstitutes in vivo to generate a neutralizing antibody response equivalent to that generated by subcutaneous injection. PMID:23044406

  11. Measles outbreak reveals measles susceptibility among adults in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The World Health Organization, African Region, set the goal of achieving measles elimination by 2020. Namibia was one of seven African countries to implement an accelerated measles control strategy beginning in 1996. Following implementation of this strategy, measles incidence decreased; however, ...

  12. An increasing, potentially measles-susceptible population over time after vaccination in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hae Ji; Han, Young Woo; Kim, Su Jin; Kim, You-Jin; Kim, A-Reum; Kim, Joo Ae; Jung, Hee-Dong; Eom, Hye Eun; Park, Ok; Kim, Sung Soon

    2017-07-24

    In Korea, measles occurs mainly in infants measles infection. Age-specific measles seroprevalence was evaluated by performing enzyme immunoassays and plaque reduction-neutralization tests on 3050 subjects aged 0-50years (birth cohort 1964-2014) and 480 subjects aged 2-30years (birth cohort 1984-2012). The overall seropositivity and measles antibody concentrations were 71.5% and 1366mIU/mL, respectively. Progressive decline in antibody levels and seropositivity were observed over time after vaccination in infants, adolescents, and young adults. The accumulation of potentially susceptible individuals in the population was confirmed by comparing data from 2010 and 2014 seroprevalence surveys. The statistical correlation between measles incidence and measles seronegativity was determined. Waning levels of measles antibodies with increasing time post-vaccination suggests that measles susceptibility is potentially increasing in Korea. This trend may be related to limitations of vaccine-induced immunity in the absence of natural boosting by the wild virus, compared to naturally acquired immunity triggered by measles infection. This study provides an important view into the current measles herd immunity in Korea. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. VIRUS FAMILIES – contd

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. VIRUS FAMILIES – contd. Minus strand RNA viruses. Rhabdovirus e.g. rabies. Paramyxovirus e.g. measles, mumps. Orthomyxovirus e.g. influenza. Retroviruses. RSV, HTLV, MMTV, HIV. Notes:

  14. Measles (Rubeola) Cases and Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What’s this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Measles Cases and Outbreaks Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... Español: Casos y brotes de sarampión Number of measles cases by year since 2010 Measles cases per ...

  15. A point-of-care test for measles diagnosis: detection of measles-specific IgM antibodies and viral nucleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrener, Lenesha; Slibinskas, Rimantas; Chua, Kaw Bing; Nigatu, Wondatir; Brown, Kevin E; Sasnauskas, Kestutis; Samuel, Dhanraj; Brown, David

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the performance of a newly developed point-of-care test (POCT) for the detection of measles-specific IgM antibodies in serum and oral fluid specimens and to assess if measles virus nucleic acid could be recovered from used POCT strips. The POCT was used to test 170 serum specimens collected through measles surveillance or vaccination programmes in Ethiopia, Malaysia and the Russian Federation: 69 were positive for measles immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies, 74 were positive for rubella IgM antibodies and 7 were positive for both. Also tested were 282 oral fluid specimens from the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) surveillance programme of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The Microimmune measles IgM capture enzyme immunoassay was the gold standard for comparison. A panel of 24 oral fluids was used to investigate if measles virus haemagglutinin (H) and nucleocapsid (N) genes could be amplified by polymerase chain reaction directly from used POCT strips. With serum POCT showed a sensitivity and specificity of 90.8% (69/76) and 93.6% (88/94), respectively; with oral fluids, sensitivity and specificity were 90.0% (63/70) and 96.2% (200/208), respectively. Both H and N genes were reliably detected in POCT strips and the N genes could be sequenced for genotyping. Measles virus genes could be recovered from POCT strips after storage for 5 weeks at 20-25 °C. The POCT has the sensitivity and specificity required of a field-based test for measles diagnosis. However, its role in global measles control programmes requires further evaluation.

  16. Phylogenetic and epidemiological analysis of measles outbreaks in Denmark, 2013 to 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lasse Dam; Fonager, Jannik; Knudsen, Lisbet Krause

    2015-01-01

    Despite the introduction of safe, effective vaccines decades ago and joint global public health efforts to eliminate measles, this vaccine-preventable disease continues to pose threats to children's health worldwide. During 2013 and 2014, measles virus was introduced into Denmark through several...... an outbreak. The majority of the cases were unvaccinated (n = 27) or recipients of one dose of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine (n = 7). In addition, two fully vaccinated adult cases were reported in 2014. We demonstrate the transmission of measles virus in a population in which the two-dose MMR...... vaccination coverage rate was 80% and how even vaccinated individuals may be at risk of contracting measles once transmission has been established....

  17. MEASLES IN INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Timchenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A clinical observation and treatment of 36 children between the ages of 5 months up to 3 years old with measles. In 34 persons. (94.4% diagnosed with typical moderate forms, from 2 people (5.6% — atypical (mitigirovannaya a mild form of the disease. All children are vaccinated against measles. Typical measles char-acterized by moderate forms of cyclical flow with the change of the classical period and the presence of characteristic clinical syndromes. Pathognomonic symptom found: spots Belsky — Filatov — Koplik (67.7%, stages a rash (100%, stages of pigmentation (100%. Causal therapy was VIFERON®. Revealed the rapid disappearance of intoxication and normalization of body temperature, the early decline in the severity and duration of catarrhal syndrome, reducing the severity and frequency of complications, no stratification of SARS.

  18. Association between seroprevalence of measles and various social determinants in the year following a measles outbreak in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emek, M; Islek, D; Atasoylu, G; Ozbek, O A; Ceylan, A; Acikgoz, A; Tay, Z; Demiral, Y; Oktem, M A; Unal, B

    2017-06-01

    Despite an ongoing measles elimination programme, a measles outbreak occurred in 2013 in Turkey. Population-based seroprevalence studies are needed to determine seronegativity and explore the reasons for this outbreak. This study aimed to explore the seroprevalence of measles and its association with various social determinants in a provincial population in Turkey in the year following a measles outbreak. Cross-sectional study. This study was conducted in Manisa Province in 2014 in a sample of 1740 people aged >2 years. The dependent variable was the seroprevalence of measles. Independent variables were sex, age, migration, household size, household density, income, education level, existence of chronic disease and occupational class. Blood samples were collected from participants at family health centres. The presence of specific measles antibodies in serum samples was determined using an anti-measles virus IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. Chi-squared test and logistic regression analysis were performed. Overall, data from 1250 people were analysed. The seroprevalence of measles in the whole study population was 82.2% (95% confidence interval 80.0-84.2). Seroprevalence was 55.4% among subjects aged 2-9 years, 48.7% among subjects aged 10-19 years, 74.1% among subjects aged 20-29 years and 93.6% among subjects aged 30-39 years (P 40 years was >95%. The lowest seroprevalence was found in primary school children (40.2%), followed by those below the age for primary education (69.8%) and secondary school graduates (75.1%). The prevalence of measles seronegativity was not associated with any of the social determinants when adjusted for age. The seroprevalence of measles was lower than expected in the study population and was particularly low in subjects aged measles elimination targets, suggesting that it may be necessary to re-evaluate the need for an extra dose of measles vaccine. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier

  19. Biological Feasibility of Measles Eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strebel, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Recent progress in reducing global measles mortality has renewed interest in measles eradication. Three biological criteria are deemed important for disease eradication: (1) humans are the sole pathogen reservoir; (2) accurate diagnostic tests exist; and (3) an effective, practical intervention is available at reasonable cost. Interruption of transmission in large geographical areas for prolonged periods further supports the feasibility of eradication. Measles is thought by many experts to meet these criteria: no nonhuman reservoir is known to exist, accurate diagnostic tests are available, and attenuated measles vaccines are effective and immunogenic. Measles has been eliminated in large geographical areas, including the Americas. Measles eradication is biologically feasible. The challenges for measles eradication will be logistical, political, and financial. PMID:21666201

  20. Nosocomial measles cluster in Denmark following an imported case, December 2008-January 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, C; Bottiger, Be; Plesner, A

    2009-01-01

    A cluster of six confirmed cases with identical measles virus genotype was reported in Denmark between December 2008 and January 2009. The findings highlight the importance of vaccination before travelling and adherence to the routine vaccination schedule.......A cluster of six confirmed cases with identical measles virus genotype was reported in Denmark between December 2008 and January 2009. The findings highlight the importance of vaccination before travelling and adherence to the routine vaccination schedule....

  1. Characteristics of patients with measles admitted to allied hospital rawalpindi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultana, A.; Sabir, S.A.; Awan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Measles, a virus borne droplet infection, is one of the leading causes of death among young children worldwide despite presence of a safe and cost-effective vaccine. Objective of our study was to identify the characteristics of measles patients admitted to Allied Hospitals, Rawalpindi. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted amongst patients admitted with measles in paediatric units of Rawalpindi Medical College Allied Hospitals, Rawalpindi. A standard proforma was used to collect data from the respondents. Results: A total of 55 patients (mean age-29.36 months) with measles were included in the study. 65.5% children were vaccinated while 34.5% were not vaccinated. Among those vaccinated 14 were male. Out of the vaccinated children 52.6% were residents of middle class areas, 31.6% lower middle class area, 10.5% upper middle class areas and 5.3% rural areas. In 55.0% of patients who were vaccinated with at least one dose of measles at nine month of age the estimated calendar months of vaccination was March to April while in 30% the overall climatic period of vaccination was of summer (May to September). Twenty one study subjects were exposed to a case of measles in the family and thirty five out of all developed at least one known complication of the disease. Pneumonia was the most common complication reported in patients (63.6%) followed by diarrhoea (27.3%). Conclusion: Majority of the patients suffering from measles were not vaccinated and the most common reason for failure to immunize children was lack of awareness. Educated and well off fathers were more likely to get their children immunized. The vaccinated children who developed measles majority were vaccinated during months of March, April and May. (author)

  2. Measles: Information for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as mumps and rubella. • Prevents your child from getting an uncomfortable rash and high fever from measles. • Keeps your child from missing school or childcare (and keeps you from missing work to care for your sick child). Is the MMR shot safe? Yes. The MMR shot is very safe, and it ...

  3. Rash after measles vaccination: laboratory analysis of cases reported in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Maria I

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The clinical differential diagnosis of rash due to viral infections is often difficult, and misdiagnosis is not rare, especially after the introduction of measles and rubella vaccination. A study to determine the etiological diagnosis of exanthema was carried out in a group of children after measles vaccination. METHODS: Sera collected from children with rash who received measles vaccine were reported in 1999. They were analyzed for IgM antibodies against measles virus, rubella virus, human parvovirus B19 (HPV B19 using ELISA commercial techniques, and human herpes virus 6 (HHV 6 using immunofluorescence commercial technique. Viremia for each of those viruses was tested using a polimerase chain reaction (PCR. RESULTS: A total of 17 cases of children with exanthema after measles immunization were reported in 1999. The children, aged 9 to 12 months (median 10 months, had a blood sample taken for laboratory analysis. The time between vaccination and the first rash signs varied from 1 to 60 days. The serological results of those 17 children suspected of measles or rubella infection showed the following etiological diagnosis: 17.6% (3 in 17 HPV B19 infection; 76.5% (13 in 17 HHV 6 infection; 5.9% (1 in 17 rash due to measles vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: The study data indicate that infection due to HPV B19 or HHV 6 can be misdiagnosed as exanthema due to measles vaccination. Therefore, it is important to better characterize the etiology of rash in order to avoid attributing it incorrectly to measles vaccine.

  4. Rash after measles vaccination: laboratory analysis of cases reported in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria I Oliveira

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The clinical differential diagnosis of rash due to viral infections is often difficult, and misdiagnosis is not rare, especially after the introduction of measles and rubella vaccination. A study to determine the etiological diagnosis of exanthema was carried out in a group of children after measles vaccination. METHODS: Sera collected from children with rash who received measles vaccine were reported in 1999. They were analyzed for IgM antibodies against measles virus, rubella virus, human parvovirus B19 (HPV B19 using ELISA commercial techniques, and human herpes virus 6 (HHV 6 using immunofluorescence commercial technique. Viremia for each of those viruses was tested using a polimerase chain reaction (PCR. RESULTS: A total of 17 cases of children with exanthema after measles immunization were reported in 1999. The children, aged 9 to 12 months (median 10 months, had a blood sample taken for laboratory analysis. The time between vaccination and the first rash signs varied from 1 to 60 days. The serological results of those 17 children suspected of measles or rubella infection showed the following etiological diagnosis: 17.6% (3 in 17 HPV B19 infection; 76.5% (13 in 17 HHV 6 infection; 5.9% (1 in 17 rash due to measles vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: The study data indicate that infection due to HPV B19 or HHV 6 can be misdiagnosed as exanthema due to measles vaccination. Therefore, it is important to better characterize the etiology of rash in order to avoid attributing it incorrectly to measles vaccine.

  5. Is early measles vaccination better than later measles vaccination?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesário L; Ravn, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    WHO recommends delaying measles vaccination (MV) until maternal antibody has waned. However, early MV may improve child survival by reducing mortality from conditions other than measles infection. We tested whether early MV improves child survival compared with later MV. We found 43 studies compa...

  6. Antecedent causes of a measles resurgence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scobie, Heather Melissa; Ilunga, Benoît Kebela; Mulumba, Audry; Shidi, Calixte; Coulibaly, Tiekoura; Obama, Ricardo; Tamfum, Jean-Jacques Muyembe; Simbu, Elisabeth Pukuta; Smit, Sheilagh Brigitte; Masresha, Balcha; Perry, Robert Tyrrell; Alleman, Mary Margaret; Kretsinger, Katrina; Goodson, James

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite accelerated measles control efforts, a massive measles resurgence occurred in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) starting in mid-2010, prompting an investigation into likely causes. Methods We conducted a descriptive epidemiological analysis using measles immunization and surveillance data to understand the causes of the measles resurgence and to develop recommendations for elimination efforts in DRC. Results During 2004-2012, performance indicator targets for case-based surveillance and routine measles vaccination were not met. Estimated coverage with the routine first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) increased from 57% to 73%. Phased supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) were conducted starting in 2002, in some cases with sub-optimal coverage (≤95%). In 2010, SIAs in five of 11 provinces were not implemented as planned, resulting in a prolonged interval between SIAs, and a missed birth cohort in one province. During July 1, 2010-December 30, 2012, high measles attack rates (>100 cases per 100,000 population) occurred in provinces that had estimated MCV1 coverage lower than the national estimate and did not implement planned 2010 SIAs. The majority of confirmed case-patients were aged measles virus strains that were previously identified in the region. Conclusion The resurgence was likely caused by an accumulation of unvaccinated, measles-susceptible children due to low MCV1 coverage and suboptimal SIA implementation. To achieve the regional goal of measles elimination by 2020, efforts are needed in DRC to improve case-based surveillance and increase two-dose measles vaccination coverage through routine services and SIAs. PMID:26401224

  7. The significance for epidemiological studies anti-measles antibody detection examined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siennicka, Joanna; Częścik, Agnieszka; Trzcińska, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    The paper discusses the role of anti-measles antibodies for protection and significance for epidemiological studies determination of antibodies by different serological methods. The comparison of anti-measles virus antibodies levels measured by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test (PRNT) was described. It was found that the 200 mIU/ml of anti-measles activity measured by PRNT (level protection against symp- tomatic disease) is equivalent of 636 mIU/ml measured by EIA (Enzygnost®Anti-Measles Virus/IgG, Simens).

  8. [Measles in Poland in 2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Kondej, Barbara; Paweł, Stefanoff

    2006-01-01

    In Poland 11 measles cases were registered in 2004 (0.03 per 100,000 population), of which 3 were cases imported from Chechnya. Of 8 local cases, 3 cases occurred in unvaccinated persons, 2 in persons vaccinated with one dose and 3 in vaccinated with two doses of measles vaccine (administered at the age of 13-15 months and 7 years). The most affected age groups were 1-year old children (0.29 per 100,000 population) and 6-year olds (0.25). Out of 11 reported cases 2 were hospitalized. There were no deaths attributed to measles. Poland participates in the WHO Measles Elimination Strategy. Presently, the most important is the maintenance of a sensitive and timely surveillance of measles and measles-compatible cases, with serologic testing of one suspect case per 100,000 population. The performance of the surveillance system was insufficient with only 44 measles-compatible cases reported in 2004 (12% of expected reports). Serologic confirmation of cases was also insufficient, with 5 cases confirmed in WHO accredited laboratory. These results indicate the need to maintain the high immunisation coverage and improve measles surveillance system.

  9. [Measles in Germany: An Epidemiological Analysis and First Measures for Containment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysiak-Klose, Dorothea; Wicker, Sabine

    2017-11-01

    Measles are one of the most contagious diseases of mankind. Measles incidence has declined worldwide since the introduction of vaccinations. Due to low numbers of measles cases in countries with high vaccination rates the population is not aware of possible complications of measles any more. Measles elimination is an important goal set by all regions of the World Health Organization. However, it remains a challenge for Germany and other European countries. Because of a high proportion of susceptibles in specific population and age groups outbreaks take place in Germany every year after importation of the virus. More than 50 % of measles cases are 20 years and older. However, the highest incidences have been seen in two-year-olds since several years. In addition to epidemiological findings such as case numbers and risk groups, genotyping permits e. g. an assessment of the endemic circulation of viruses. Suspicion of a measles case should result in immediate and consistent measures. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. [Drug clinics. Drug of the month. A new measles-rubella-mumps vaccine (Priorix)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senterre, J

    1999-02-01

    A novel measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (Priorix) has been marketed by SmithKline Beecham. It contains live attenuated virus with measles and mumps strains slightly different from those present in MMR VAX (Pasteur Merieux MSD). The indications and contraindications are similar for both vaccines. Immunogenicity is also equivalent as well as general reactogenicity. By contrast local symptoms were reported significantly less frequently after Priorix.

  11. Measles mimicking HIV seroconversion syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brook Gary

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Measles is on the rise in the United Kingdom and must be considered in the differential diagnosis of any patient presenting with fever and rash. As a highly infectious disease, identified patients must be isolated in the hospital setting. Case presentation A 28-year-old Polish woman presented ill to the accident and emergency department of a district general hospital. She had painful genital ulceration, oral soreness, fever, and a facial rash. She became hypoxic within 24 hours of presentation and began to tire, thus requiring noninvasive ventilation. Her respiratory symptoms were out of proportion to the findings of her chest radiograph, which remained virtually normal. Human immunodeficiency virus seroconversion syndrome complicated by Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia was high among the differential diagnoses. She was given cotrimoxazole, high-dose steroids, broad spectrum antibiotics, and anti fungal cover. Human immunodeficiency virus polymerase chain reaction came back as negative and her symptoms resolved within 10 days of presentation. She was taken off all treatment and discharged home feeling well. Serological measles was confirmed as part of a viral screen, but its clinical suspicion was low. Conclusion The presentation of measles in this patient was unique and atypical. With its incidence rising in the United Kingdom, measles must be increasingly considered as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with fever and rash.

  12. Low titers of measles antibody in mothers whose infants suffered from measles before eligible age for measles vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Qiaozhen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resurgence or outbreak of measles recently occurred in both developed and developing countries despite long-standing widespread use of measles vaccine. Measles incidence in China has increased since 2002, particularly in infants and in persons ≥ 15 years of age. It is speculated that infants may acquire fewer measles IgG from their mothers, resulting in the reduced duration of protection during their early months of life. This study aimed to clarify the reason of increased susceptibility to measles in young infants in China. Measles IgG in 24 measles infants ≤ 9 months of age and their vaccinated mothers was quantitatively measured. The mean measles neutralizing titer in the vaccinated mothers and in 13 age-match women with the histories of clinical measles were compared. Results All the mothers were confirmed to be vaccinated successfully by the presence of measles IgG. Six vaccinated mothers were positive for measles IgM and had high concentrations of measles IgG and the neutralizing antibody, indicating underwent natural boosting. The mean measles neutralizing titer in 18 vaccinated mothers without natural boosting were significantly lower than that in 13 age-match women with the histories of clinical measles (1:37 vs 1:182, P Conclusions Our results suggest that infants born to mothers who acquired immunity to measles by vaccination may get a relatively small amount of measles antibody, resulting in loss of the immunity to measles before the vaccination age. Measures to improve the immunity in young infants not eligible for measles vaccination would be critical to interrupt the measles transmission in China.

  13. [Measles in Poland in 2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanoff, Paweł; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    2005-01-01

    In Poland 48 measles cases were registered in 2003 (0.13 per 100,000 population)--of which 65% were cases imported from Chechnya and Afghanistan. Measles outbreaks occurred in 3 centers for immigrants. In total, 31 cases were reported, of which 96.8% were unvaccinated, and 93.5% were under 15 years of age. Of 17 local cases, 5 (29.4%) cases occurred in unvaccinated persons, 3 (17.6%) in persons vaccinated with one dose and 7 (41.2%) in those vaccinated with two doses of measles vaccine (administered at the age of 13-15 months and 7 years). Among 12 vaccinated cases only one 2-year old child was recently vaccinated. The remaining cases were in the 3-7 and 10-24 age ranges. The most affected were infants (incidence 0.57 per 100,000), 1-year old (0.28) and 2-year old children (incidence 0.27). Cases among adolescents and adults over 15 years of age increased from 23.5% in 2002 to 47.1% in 2003. The increasing age of locally-acquired cases, together with constantly high immunization coverage indicates high effectiveness of vaccinations in Poland. Out of all reported cases 13 (38%) were hospitalized. There were no deaths due to measles in Poland in 2003. Poland participates in the WHO Measles Elimination Strategy. Presently, the most important is the maintenance of a sensitive and timely surveillance of measles and measles-compatible cases, with serologic confirmation of one rash-like illness per 100 000 population. The performance of the surveillance system is insufficient with only 55 measles-compatible cases reported in 2003 (15% of expected reports). Serologic confirmation of cases was also insufficient, with 22 cases (40.0%) confirmed by IgM ELISA test. These results indicate the need to maintain the high immunisation coverage and improve measles surveillance system.

  14. Measles: summary of worldwide impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaad, F

    1983-01-01

    Nearly every measles infection results in well-recognized clinical disease. In nonimmunized populations almost every child will get measles early in life. The universality of the disease in nonimmunized communities, particularly those in the developing world, has led to a more or less passive acceptance of measles as an unavoidable risk of early life. The clinical spectrum of measles ranges from a mild, self-limiting illness to a fatal disease. Conditions encountered mainly in the developing world, e.g., unfavorable nutrition, high risk of concurrent infection, and inadequate case management -- particularly at home -- favor the development of complications and adverse outcome. Conversely, good clinical management of an otherwise healthy child, a situation seen mostly in the developed world, greatly influences the course of the disease. Hence many in the medical profession believe that measles is a mild disease except among populations living under particularly unfavorable conditions. Measles vaccine is effective in preventing disease in the individual and in controlling it in the community if it is given at the critical age when maternal antibodies wane and the risk of natural infection increases sharply and if a high immunization rate is maintained in the target population. The experience with immunization, particularly in sub-saharan Africa, is rewarding: mothers who had previously accepted measles as an unavoidable risk clamour for immunization of their children once its effectiveness has been demonstrated. No reason exists for measles to claim its present toll of morbidity and mortality. With extension of the Expanded Programme on Immunization of the World Health Organization, the impact of measles should progressively decline.

  15. Measles - Educational Resources for Parents and Childcare Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Measles (Rubeola) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Measles Home About Measles History of Measles Signs and ...

  16. Effects of supplemental measles immunization on cases of measles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... Background: Measles is a highly contagious vaccine-preventable infection which continues to be a significant cause of .... other exanthematous childhood illnesses not in con- .... Sixty-third World Health Assembly Agenda pro-.

  17. Measles immune suppression: lessons from the macaque model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory D de Vries

    Full Text Available Measles remains a significant childhood disease, and is associated with a transient immune suppression. Paradoxically, measles virus (MV infection also induces robust MV-specific immune responses. Current hypotheses for the mechanism underlying measles immune suppression focus on functional impairment of lymphocytes or antigen-presenting cells, caused by infection with or exposure to MV. We have generated stable recombinant MVs that express enhanced green fluorescent protein, and remain virulent in non-human primates. By performing a comprehensive study of virological, immunological, hematological and histopathological observations made in animals euthanized at different time points after MV infection, we developed a model explaining measles immune suppression which fits with the "measles paradox". Here we show that MV preferentially infects CD45RA(- memory T-lymphocytes and follicular B-lymphocytes, resulting in high infection levels in these populations. After the peak of viremia MV-infected lymphocytes were cleared within days, followed by immune activation and lymph node enlargement. During this period tuberculin-specific T-lymphocyte responses disappeared, whilst strong MV-specific T-lymphocyte responses emerged. Histopathological analysis of lymphoid tissues showed lymphocyte depletion in the B- and T-cell areas in the absence of apoptotic cells, paralleled by infiltration of T-lymphocytes into B-cell follicles and reappearance of proliferating cells. Our findings indicate an immune-mediated clearance of MV-infected CD45RA(- memory T-lymphocytes and follicular B-lymphocytes, which causes temporary immunological amnesia. The rapid oligoclonal expansion of MV-specific lymphocytes and bystander cells masks this depletion, explaining the short duration of measles lymphopenia yet long duration of immune suppression.

  18. Measles in vaccinated children 1.5 to 3 years of age in rural community of district peshawar, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Ullah, O.; Ahmad, I.

    2015-01-01

    In many developing countries measles is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. Despite of vaccination thousands of children have been infected by measles virus during last couple of years in Pakistan. The objective of this study was to determine the measles vaccination coverage rate and frequency of measles among vaccinated children of age 1.5-3 years in rural community of district Peshawar. Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out among 385 children aged 1.5-3 year of rural community of Peshawar. After taking informed consent from parents/guardians a predesigned questionnaire was filled. Evidence of vaccination and measles history was taken by vaccination card, doctor prescription and parent/guardian recall. Data was gathered and analysed by using SPSS-16. Results: Of the 385 children, 361 (93.7%) were vaccinated against measles at 9 month. It was found that 27 (7.48%) vaccinated children had measles history of which 23 (6.74%) were infected after 9 month vaccination. One hundred and ninety-two (49.8%) children were vaccinated both at 9 and 15 months, and 14 (7.29%) dual vaccinated children had a measles history, 9 among them (4.68%) were infected after taking both measles doses. Conclusion: The occurrence of measles among vaccinated children and low coverage rate of second dose of measles vaccine raises many questions about vaccination program and its efficacy. Further studies are needed to evaluate the influence of other predisposing factors like vaccine quality, manufacturer, supply, cold chain, handling, nutritional status of children and technical approach, on measles vaccine efficacy. (author)

  19. Epidemiological and molecular investigation of a measles outbreak in Punjab, Pakistan, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Syed Sohail Zahoor; Hameed, Abdul; Ali, Naeem; Rana, Muhammad Suleman; Umair, Massab; Alam, Muhammad Masroor; Aamir, Uzma Bashir; Khurshid, Adnan; Sharif, Salmaan; Shaukat, Shahzad; Angez, Mehar; Mujtaba, Ghulam; Arshad, Yasir; Akthar, Ribqa; Sufian, Mian Muhammad; Mehmood, Nayab

    2018-04-28

    Despite the availability of an effective vaccine, the measles virus continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality in children worldwide. Molecular characterization of wild-type measles strains is an invaluable component of epidemiological studies or surveillance systems that provides important information pertinent to outbreak linkages and transmission pathways. Serum samples and throat swabs were collected from suspected measles cases from the Punjab province of Pakistan (2013-2015) and further tested for measles immunoglobulin M (IgM) through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for molecular characterization. Among the total of 5415 blood samples, 59% tested positive for measles IgM. Males had a higher infection rate (55%) than females (45%), and the highest frequency of positive cases (63%) was found in the age group of 0 to 5 years. Partial sequencing of the nucleoprotein gene showed that 27 strains belonged to the B3 genotype, whereas 2 viruses were identified as D4. On phylogenetic analysis, Pakistani B3 strains were found to be closely related to previously reported indigenous strains and those from neighboring countries of Iran and Qatar. This is the first report on the detection of the measles B3 genotype from Punjab, Pakistan. The current study shows a high burden of measles infections in Punjab province owing to poor routine immunization coverage in major cities. It is imperative that national health authorities adopt strategic steps on an urgent basis for improvement of routine immunization coverage. Molecular epidemiology of the measles viruses circulating in different parts of the country can provide useful data to manage future outbreaks. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. [Monitoring of implementation of international programs of poliomyelitis eradication and measles and rubella elimination in the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring of implementation of international programs of poliomyelitis eradication, and measles and rubella elimination in the Republic of Belarus based on results of molecular-epidemiologic studies of 2009 - 2010. 271 viral agents isolated from children with acute flaccid paralysis syndrome, other diseases, healthy children and from sewage water within the framework of poliomyelitis control implementation were identified by serological and molecular methods. Blood sera of 528 patients with fever and rash were examined for the presence of IgM to measles and rubella virus, 418 - for the presence of IgM to parvovirus B19 and parvovirus DNA. Blood sera of 33 pregnant women and 64 children with signs of intrauterine infection were studied for IgM and IgG antibodies to rubella virus. Measles virus was isolated, N-gene sequence and phylogenetic analysis carried out. The studies performed confirmed that indigenous wild polioviruses in the country do not circulate, imported wild or vaccine-related polioviruses were also not detected. Measles and rubella morbidity in the Republic of Belarus was less than 1 in 1 000 000. 2 cases of rubella (2009) and 1 case of measles (2010) was detected during adequate control level: the rate of detection of patients with fever and rash, in whom measles and rubella diagnosis was excluded by the results of laboratory examination, was more than 2 in 100 000 of the population. The etiologic agent in more than 20% of diseases with fever and rash was parvovirus B19. A single case of measles was caused by genotype D8 virus imported from India. The data obtained give evidence to conformance of the poliomyelitis, measles, rubella, innate rubella syndrome control implemented in the Republic of Belarus to WHO recommendations; maintenance of status of country as free from poliomyelitis and achievement of main criteria of elimination of both measles and rubella by 2010.

  1. Routine vitamin A supplementation for the prevention of blindness due to measles infection in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bello, Segun; Meremikwu, Martin M; Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina I

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reduced vitamin A concentration increases the risk of blindness in children infected with the measles virus. Promoting vitamin A supplementation in children with measles contributes to the control of blindness in children, which is a high priority within the World Health Organization...... (WHO) VISION 2020 The Right to Sight Program. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of vitamin A in preventing blindness in children with measles without prior clinical features of vitamin A deficiency. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL 2015, Issue 11, MEDLINE (1950 to December week 3, 2015), Embase...... (1974 to December 2015) and LILACS (1985 to December 2015). SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of vitamin A in preventing blindness in well-nourished children diagnosed with measles but with no prior clinical features of vitamin A deficiency. DATA COLLECTION...

  2. Investigation of measles IgM-seropositive cases of febrile rash illnesses in the absence of documented measles virus transmission, State of São Paulo, Brazil, 2000-2004 Investigação dos casos de doenças febris exantemáticas com IgM reagente contra o sarampo na ausência de transmissão documentada do vírus do sarampo, Estado de São Paulo, 2000-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Helena Ciccone

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To review measles IgM-positive cases of febrile rash illnesses in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, over the five-year period following interruption of measles virus transmission. METHODS: We reviewed 463 measles IgM-positive cases of febrile rash illness in the State of São Paulo, from 2000 to 2004. Individuals vaccinated against measles INTRODUÇÃO: Revisar os casos de doenças febris exantemáticas com IgM reagente contra o sarampo, no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, durante os cinco anos seguidos a interrupção da transmissão do vírus do sarampo. MÉTODOS: Nós revisamos 463 casos de doenças febris exantemáticas com IgM reagente contra o sarampo, no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, de 2000 a 2004. Indivíduos vacinados contra o sarampo 56 dias antes da coleta de amostra foram considerados expostos à vacina. Soros da fase aguda e de convalescença foram testados para a evidência de infecção de sarampo, rubéola, parvovírus B19 e herpes vírus 6. Na ausência de soroconversão para imunoglobulina G contra o sarampo, casos com IgM reagente contra o sarampo foram considerados falsos positivos em pessoas com evidência de outras infecções virais. RESULTADOS: Entre as 463 pessoas com doenças febris exantemáticas que testaram positivo para anticorpos IgM contra o sarampo durante o período, 297 (64% pessoas foram classificadas como expostas à vacina. Entre os 166 casos não expostos à vacina, 109 (66% foram considerados falsos positivos baseado na ausência de soroconversão, dos quais 21 (13% tiveram evidência de infecção por vírus da rubéola, 49 (30% parvovírus B19 e 28 (17% infecção por herpes vírus humano 6. CONCLUSÕES: Após a interrupção da transmissão do vírus do sarampo é necessária exaustiva investigação dos casos com IgM reagente contra o sarampo, especialmente dos casos não expostos à vacina. Testes laboratoriais para etiologias das doenças febris exantemáticas ajudam na interpreta

  3. Trials of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T G; Whittle, H; Mordhorst, Camilla

    1994-01-01

    In two trials of measles vaccination in Guinea-Bissau, children were randomized to receive either the Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) virus at age 4-8 months or, as a control group, a standard dose (5000 p.f.u.) of the Schwarz (SW) virus at 9-12 months. In the first trial a medium dose of EZ virus (40,000 p...

  4. Epidemiology and genetic characterization of measles strains in Senegal, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dia, Ndongo; Fall, Ameth; Ka, Rouguiyatou; Fall, Amary; Kiori, David E; Goudiaby, Deborah G; Fall, Aichatou D; Faye, El Hadj Abdourahmane; Dosseh, Annick; Ndiaye, Kader; Diop, Ousmane M; Niang, Mbayame Nd

    2015-01-01

    In Senegal, with the variable routine vaccination coverage, the risk for illness and death from measles still exists as evidenced by the measles epidemic episode in 2009. Since 2002 a laboratory-based surveillance system of measles was established by the Ministry of Health and the Institut Pasteur de Dakar. The present study analysed the data collected over the 10 years inclusive between 2004-2013 in order to define a measles epidemiological profile in Senegal, and we carried out a phylogenetic analysis of measles virus circulating in Senegal over the period 2009-2012. A total number of 4580 samples were collected from suspected cases, with the most cases between 2008 and 2010 (2219/4580; 48.4%). The majority of suspected cases are found in children from 4-6 years old (29%). 981 (21.4%) were measles laboratory-confirmed by IgM ELISA. The measles confirmation rate per year is very high during 2009-2010 periods (48.5% for each year). Regarding age groups, the highest measles IgM-positivity rate occurred among persons aged over 15 years with 39.4% (115/292) followed by 2-3 years old age group with 30.4% (323/1062) and 30% (148/494) in children under one year old group. The majority of suspected cases were collected between February and June and paradoxically confirmed cases rates increased from July (77/270; 28.6%) and reached a peak in November with 60% (93/155). Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the 29 sequences from strains that circulated in Senegal between 2009 and 2012 belong to the B3 genotype and they are clustered in B3.1 (2011-2012) and B3.3 (2009-2011) sub-genotypes according to a temporal parameter. Improvements in the measles surveillance in Senegal are required and the introduction of oral fluid and FTA cards as an alternative to transportation of sera should be investigated to improve surveillance. The introduction of a national vaccine database including number of doses of measles-containing vaccine will greatly improve efforts to interrupt and

  5. Measles transmission from an anthroposophic community to the general population, Germany 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    measles virus into a pocket of susceptible persons (e.g. vaccination opponents or sceptics) may lead to large outbreaks in the general population, if the general population's vaccination coverage is below the WHO recommended level. Education on the safety of measles vaccine needs to be strengthened to increase measles vaccination coverage. Early intervention may limit spread in schools or kindergartens. Suspected measles has to be reported immediately to the local health authorities in order to allow intervention as early as possible. PMID:21676265

  6. Measles hectic in Pakistan; Upsurge versus the lurking vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Measles has claimed more lives than anticipated, as the outbreaks hit Pakistan severely in 2013 as compared to 2012. Claiming 350 lives through the year 2013, Measles became a headache for the health agencies, authorities and common people. The sudden appearance of the virus in different parts of the country both rural and urban at the same time can be linked to more than one cause. The notable being corruption in health system, poor health infrastructure, destabilized routine immunization, shortage in number of vaccinators, negligence among parents, and floods. As a consequence of these causative factors, the unclear picture of immunization coverage can be presumed as the ultimate etiology of outbreaks in such numbers. Therefore, there is an urgent need to draw out the actual data of immunisation coverage and focus on elimination of hurdles in the road to success in fully coverage with vaccines.

  7. Mitigating measles outbreaks in West Africa post-Ebola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truelove, Shaun A; Moss, William J; Lessler, Justin

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola outbreak in 2014-2015 devastated the populations, economies and healthcare systems of Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. With this devastation comes the impending threat of outbreaks of other infectious diseases like measles. Strategies for mitigating these risks must include both prevention, through vaccination, and case detection and management, focused on surveillance, diagnosis and appropriate clinical care and case management. With the high transmissibility of measles virus, small-scale reactive vaccinations will be essential to extinguish focal outbreaks, while national vaccination campaigns are needed to guarantee vaccination coverage targets are reached in the long term. Rapid and multifaceted strategies should carefully navigate challenges present in the wake of Ebola, while also taking advantage of current Ebola-related activities and international attention. Above all, resources and focus currently aimed at these countries must be utilized to build up the deficit in infrastructure and healthcare systems that contributed to the extent of the Ebola outbreak.

  8. Measles: who pays the cost?

    OpenAIRE

    Hastings, A; Hostler, A; Solen, A

    1987-01-01

    An epidemic of measles resulting in 164 cases in a Leicester group practice was analysed by means of a case-control study and a questionnaire. Estimates were made of the physical, social, and financial costs to children, parents, and family doctors. On average each child was ill for 10.8 days and the illness cost his parents pounds 11.06. His family doctor spent 26 minutes providing care. These results provide an additional stimulus to the primary care team to promote the uptake of measles va...

  9. Development of the Global Measles Laboratory Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featherstone, David; Brown, David; Sanders, Ray

    2003-05-15

    The routine reporting of suspected measles cases and laboratory testing of samples from these cases is the backbone of measles surveillance. The Global Measles Laboratory Network (GMLN) has developed standards for laboratory confirmation of measles and provides training resources for staff of network laboratories, reference materials and expertise for the development and quality control of testing procedures, and accurate information for the Measles Mortality Reduction and Regional Elimination Initiative. The GMLN was developed along the lines of the successful Global Polio Laboratory Network, and much of the polio laboratory infrastructure was utilized for measles. The GMLN has developed as countries focus on measles control activities following successful eradication of polio. Currently more than 100 laboratories are part of the global network and follow standardized testing and reporting procedures. A comprehensive laboratory accreditation process will be introduced in 2002 with six quality assurance and performance indicators.

  10. Effects of supplemental measles immunization on cases of measles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Measles is a highly contagious vaccine-preventable infection which continues to be a significant cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries particularly those with poor routine immunisation coverage. Supplemental immunisation activities (SIAs) were thus introduced to improve vaccine ...

  11. High Concentrations of Measles Neutralizing Antibodies and High-Avidity Measles IgG Accurately Identify Measles Reinfection Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Jennifer S.; Hickman, Carole J.; Mercader, Sara; Redd, Susan; McNall, Rebecca J.; Williams, Nobia; McGrew, Marcia; Walls, M. Laura; Rota, Paul A.; Bellini, William J.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, approximately 9% of the measles cases reported from 2012 to 2014 occurred in vaccinated individuals. Laboratory confirmation of measles in vaccinated individuals is challenging since IgM assays can give inconclusive results. Although a positive reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay result from an appropriately timed specimen can provide confirmation, negative results may not rule out a highly suspicious case. Detection of high-avidity measles IgG in serum samples provides laboratory evidence of a past immunologic response to measles from natural infection or immunization. High concentrations of measles neutralizing antibody have been observed by plaque reduction neutralization (PRN) assays among confirmed measles cases with high-avidity IgG, referred to here as reinfection cases (RICs). In this study, we evaluated the utility of measuring levels of measles neutralizing antibody to distinguish RICs from noncases by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Single and paired serum samples with high-avidity measles IgG from suspected measles cases submitted to the CDC for routine surveillance were used for the analysis. The RICs were confirmed by a 4-fold rise in PRN titer or by RT-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assay, while the noncases were negative by both assays. Discrimination accuracy was high with serum samples collected ≥3 days after rash onset (area under the curve, 0.953; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.854 to 0.993). Measles neutralizing antibody concentrations of ≥40,000 mIU/ml identified RICs with 90% sensitivity (95% CI, 74 to 98%) and 100% specificity (95% CI, 82 to 100%). Therefore, when serological or RT-qPCR results are unavailable or inconclusive, suspected measles cases with high-avidity measles IgG can be confirmed as RICs by measles neutralizing antibody concentrations of ≥40,000 mIU/ml. PMID:27335386

  12. Determining infants' age for measles vaccination based on persistence of protective level of maternal measles antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilpi, Tanjida; Sattar, Humayun; Miah, Md Ruhul Amin

    2009-12-01

    The present study was conducted over a period of one year to find the right time for measles vaccination when maternal antibody titer in infants was decayed rendering them susceptible to wild virus infection. Blood samples were collected from the cord of new born (147), 2-5 months (47) and 5 to 7.5 months (24) of age. The mean measles IgG antibody titer detected in cord blood at birth (0 months) was 348.8 mlU/mL which steeply decreased to 155.6 mlU/mL by the age of 2-3 months. After that the fall in antibody becomes relatively slower and decreased to 101.6 mIU/mL by the age of 3-5 months and 38.8 mlU/mL by the age of 5-6 months and to 19.2 mIU/mL between the age of 6 to 7.5 months. The fall in antibody level with the advance of age was statistically significant (p < 0.001 ). Majority of the subjects (97.6%) exhibited protective level of antibody at birth. But only a little above one-quarter (25.5%) of them persisted the protective level between the age of 2-5 months and none had protective level from 5 months onwards.

  13. Structural and Functional Studies on the Fusion and Attachment Envelope Glycoproteins of Nipah Virus and Hendra Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    including measles virus (MeV), mumps virus, Sendai virus (SeV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), rinderpest virus, canine distemper virus (CDV), human...Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD. Hut 102, MT2, MT4, and CEM human T cell lines were provided by Chou-Zen Giam, USUHS, Bethesda, MD. The human osteosarcoma

  14. Successful public health response to four cases of imported measles in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Nestor; Guerra, Ilka; Abrego, Leyda; Cisneros, Julio; Castillo, Juan; Nieto-Guevara, Javier; Gálvez, Carlos; Moltó, Yadira; Smith, Rebecca E; Pascale, Juan Miguel

    2012-08-21

    In Panama, the last endemic cases of measles occurred in 1995. In this paper, we report four cases of imported measles in three girls and one boy after they returned from a trip to Poland and Israel between 28 April and 11 May 2011. The etiologic diagnosis of the four cases was confirmed by detection of IgM antibodies against measles virus and positive polymerase chain reaction using measles-specific primers. All cases had genotype D4 with close genetic similarity to virus reported from Poland. Public health interventions included isolation of the cases in their homes and an extensive search for and vaccination of contacts of the four cases, regardless of their vaccination status. A nationwide vaccination campaign was also implemented after the first case was identified. A total of 70,950 measles vaccine doses were administered in Panama in the two months following the identification of these cases. In addition, 94,179 persons were confirmed to have their immunization schedule up-to-date and did not receive the vaccine. No secondary cases were detected in Panama in the following six months.

  15. Post-Ebola Measles Outbreak in Lola, Guinea, January-June 2015(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Jonathan E; Paez Jimenez, Adela; Kourouma, Mamadou; Derrough, Tarik; Baldé, Mamadou; Honomou, Patric; Kolie, Nestor; Mamadi, Oularé; Tamba, Kaduono; Lamah, Kalaya; Loua, Angelo; Mollet, Thomas; Lamah, Molou; Camara, Amara Nana; Prikazsky, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    During public health crises such as the recent outbreaks of Ebola virus disease in West Africa, breakdowns in public health systems can lead to epidemics of vaccine-preventable diseases. We report here on an outbreak of measles in the prefecture of Lola, Guinea, which started in January 2015.

  16. Factors Influencing University Nursing Students' Measles Vaccination Rate During a Community Measles Outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Soo Kim, RN, PhD

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: A systematic measles vaccination program targeting nursing students upon their entry to university is needed. In order to increase the measles vaccination rate, application of effective promotion campaigns and education programs is necessary.

  17. The roentgenological study of measles pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, U.; Song, C. H.; Lee, H. Y.; Chung, H. K.; Joo, K. B.

    1983-01-01

    Measles is important infectious disease of pediatrics and pneumonia is the most commonest complication of measles. We have experienced 20 cases of pneumonia among 31 cases of measles in infant nursing home of Chae Chun during of December. 1981. The results a are as follows; 1. The incidence of measles pneumonia is 64.5%. 2. The patterns of pneumonic infiltration is : The pneumonia may have a bronchopneumonia (60%), Lobar pneumonia (15%), or combined form (35%). 3. Both lungs are involved by measles pneumonia: Right lung only (30%), Left lung only (5%), or Bilateral (65%). 4. Hilar lymphadenopathy (51.6%). Hilar lymphadenopathy with pneumonia (82.2%) and hilar lymphadenopathy without pneumonia (17.8%). 5. There is no pulmonary nodule which is noted frequently in atypical measles pneumonia as a seguale

  18. Resurgence of measles in a country of elimination: interim assessment and current control measures in the Republic of Korea in early 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Un Yang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of 2014, the Republic of Korea has experienced a resurgence of measles cases. Among the 220 cases confirmed as measles during epidemiological weeks 1–20 (December 29, 2013 to May 17, 2014, 10 imported cases were identified. The predominant genotype was B3, which reflects the circulating measles virus in adjacent countries. Even with the verification of measles elimination in March 2014 by the World Health Organization, recent importation has been related to international travel. Targeted control measures have been implemented in addition to proper isolation and patient care. A vigilant surveillance system and high levels of vaccine coverage should be maintained to sustain the measles elimination status.

  19. [Difficulties in the epidemiological surveillance of measles in Africa: exemplified by the Ivory Coast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, J L; Trolet, C; Soro, B; Cunin, P; Merouze, F

    1991-06-01

    In tropical areas measles cases often are under-reported but the authors comment here two epidemics which had at first been considered as outbreaks of measles but were not. The first epidemic resembled a Chikungunya virus outbreak with important rashes, hyperthermia and pain attacks and was due to Igbo-Ora arbovirus. In the second epidemic children were having rashes with hyperthermia and adenopathy evoking rubella. The authors consider the possibility of over-reporting in view of the surveillance of measles, the target-disease in EPI (Expanded Programme on Immunization). This hypothesis is confirmed by the distribution of reported cases at national level with a high rate of out-season cases and among adults.

  20. A random PCR screening system for the identification of type 1 human herpes simplex virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xuelian; Shi, Bisheng; Gong, Yan; Zhang, Xiaonan; Shen, Silan; Qian, Fangxing; Gu, Shimin; Hu, Yunwen; Yuan, Zhenghong

    2009-10-01

    Several viral diseases exhibit measles-like symptoms. Differentiation of suspected cases of measles with molecular epidemiological techniques in the laboratory is useful for measles surveillance. In this study, a random PCR screening system was undertaken for the identification of isolates from patients with measles-like symptoms who exhibited cytopathic effects, but who had negative results for measles virus-specific reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assays. Sequence analysis of random amplified PCR products showed that they were highly homologous to type 1 human herpes simplex virus (HSV-1). The results were further confirmed by an HSV-1-specific TaqMan real-time PCR assay. The random PCR screening system described in this study provides an efficient procedure for the identification of unknown viral pathogens. Measles-like symptoms can also be caused by HSV-1, suggesting the need to include HSV-1 in differential diagnoses of measles-like diseases.

  1. Immunoglobulin GM and KM genes and measles vaccine-induced humoral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Larrabee, Beth R; Schaid, Daniel J; Poland, Gregory A

    2017-10-04

    Identifying genetic polymorphisms that explain variations in humoral immunity to live measles virus vaccine is of great interest. Immunoglobulin GM (heavy chain) and KM (light chain) allotypes are genetic markers known to be associated with susceptibility to several infectious diseases. We assessed associations between GM and KM genotypes and measles vaccine humoral immunity (neutralizing antibody titers) in a combined cohort (n=1796) of racially diverse healthy individuals (age 18-41years). We did not discover any significant associations between GM and/or KM genotypes and measles vaccine-induced neutralizing antibody titers. African-American subjects had higher neutralizing antibody titers than Caucasians (1260mIU/mL vs. 740mIU/mL, p=7.10×10 -13 ), and those titers remained statistically significant (p=1.68×10 -09 ) after adjusting for age at enrollment and time since last vaccination. There were no statistically significant sex-specific differences in measles-induced neutralizing antibody titers in our study (p=0.375). Our data indicate a surprising lack of evidence for an association between GM and KM genotypes and measles-specific neutralizing antibody titers, despite the importance of these immune response genes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Placental malaria and immunity to infant measles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owens, S.; Harper, G.; Amuasi, J.; Offei-Larbi, G.; Ordi, J.; Brabin, B. J.

    2006-01-01

    The efficiency of transplacental transfer of measles specific antibody was assessed in relation to placental malaria. Infection at delivery was associated with a 30% decrease in expected cord measles antibody titres. Uninfected women who received anti-malarial drugs during pregnancy transmitted 30%

  3. Measles control in the urbanising environment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-04-20

    Apr 20, 1991 ... measles infection in childhood is characterised by a high risk between 5 and 11 months of age, soon after loss of ... urban areas compared with 10% in rural areas are infected with measles before 8 months of age. ... magnitude of in- and out-migration, and the respective vac- cination coverage rates.15In ...

  4. Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pougnet, Laurence; Thill, Chloé; Pougnet, Richard; Auvinet, Henri; Giacardi, Christophe; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2016-12-01

    A 21-year old woman from New-Caledonia had 40 ̊C fever with vomiting, arthralgia, myalgia, and measles-like rash. Etiological analyses showed primary infection with Zika virus. Because of severe clinical presentation, she was hospitalized in the intensive care unit of the Brest military Hospital. Zika virus is mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. If they settle in Metropolitan France, Zika virus might also spread there.

  5. Case Based Measles Surveillance in Pune: Evidence to Guide Current and Future Measles Control and Elimination Efforts in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Anindya Sekhar; Jafari, Hamid; Sosler, Stephen; Narula, Arvinder Pal Singh; Kulkarni, V. M.; Ramamurty, Nalini; Oommen, John; Jadi, Ramesh S.; Banpel, R. V.; Henao-Restrepo, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background According to WHO estimates, 35% of global measles deaths in 2011 occurred in India. In 2013, India committed to a goal of measles elimination by 2020. Laboratory supported case based measles surveillance is an essential component of measles elimination strategies. Results from a case-based measles surveillance system in Pune district (November 2009 through December 2011) are reported here with wider implications for measles elimination efforts in India. Methods Standard protocols were followed for case identification, investigation and classification. Suspected measles cases were confirmed through serology (IgM) or epidemiological linkage or clinical presentation. Data regarding age, sex, vaccination status were collected and annualized incidence rates for measles and rubella cases calculated. Results Of the 1011 suspected measles cases reported to the surveillance system, 76% were confirmed measles, 6% were confirmed rubella, and 17% were non-measles, non-rubella cases. Of the confirmed measles cases, 95% were less than 15 years of age. Annual measles incidence rate was more than 250 per million persons and nearly half were associated with outbreaks. Thirty-nine per cent of the confirmed measles cases were vaccinated with one dose of measles vaccine (MCV1). Conclusion Surveillance demonstrated high measles incidence and frequent outbreaks in Pune where MCV1 coverage in infants was above 90%. Results indicate that even high coverage with a single dose of measles vaccine was insufficient to provide population protection and prevent measles outbreaks. An effective measles and rubella surveillance system provides essential information to plan, implement and evaluate measles immunization strategies and monitor progress towards measles elimination. PMID:25290339

  6. Polio and Measles Down the Drain: Environmental Enterovirus Surveillance in the Netherlands, 2005 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benschop, Kimberley S M; van der Avoort, Harrie G; Jusic, Edin; Vennema, Harry; van Binnendijk, Rob; Duizer, Erwin

    2017-07-01

    Polioviruses (PVs) are members of the genus Enterovirus In the Netherlands, the exclusion of PV circulation is based on clinical enterovirus (EV) surveillance (CEVS) of EV-positive cases and routine environmental EV surveillance (EEVS) conducted on sewage samples collected in the region of the Netherlands where vaccination coverage is low due to religious reasons. We compared the EEVS data to those of the CEVS to gain insight into the relevance of EEVS for poliovirus and nonpolio enterovirus surveillance. Following the polio outbreak in Syria, EEVS was performed at the primary refugee center in Ter Apel in the Netherlands, and data were compared to those of CEVS and EEVS. Furthermore, we assessed the feasibility of poliovirus detection by EEVS using measles virus detection in sewage during a measles outbreak as a proxy. Two Sabin-like PVs were found in routine EEVS, 11 Sabin-like PVs were detected in the CEVS, and one Sabin-like PV was found in the Ter Apel sewage. We observed significant differences between the three programs regarding which EVs were found. In 6 sewage samples collected during the measles outbreak in 2013, measles virus RNA was detected in regions where measles cases were identified. In conclusion, we detected PVs, nonpolio EVs, and measles virus in sewage and showed that environmental surveillance is useful for poliovirus detection in the Netherlands, where live oral poliovirus vaccine is not used and communities with lower vaccination coverage exist. EEVS led to the detection of EV types not seen in the CEVS, showing that EEVS is complementary to CEVS. IMPORTANCE We show that environmental enterovirus surveillance complements clinical enterovirus surveillance for poliovirus detection, or exclusion, and for nonpolio enterovirus surveillance. Even in the presence of adequate surveillance, only a very limited number of Sabin-like poliovirus strains were detected in a 10-year period, and no signs of transmission of oral polio vaccine (OPV) strains

  7. Etiology of maculopapular rash in measles and rubella suspected patients from Belarus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina A Yermalovich

    Full Text Available As a result of successful implementation of the measles/rubella elimination program, the etiology of more and more double negative cases remains elusive. The present study determined the role of different viruses as causative agents in measles or rubella suspected cases in Belarus. A total of 856 sera sent to the WHO National Laboratory between 2009 and 2011 were tested for specific IgM antibodies to measles virus (MV, rubella virus (RV and human parvovirus B19 (B19V. The negatives were further investigated for antibodies to enterovirus (EV and adenovirus (AdV. Children of up to 3 years were tested for IgM antibodies to human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6. A viral etiology was identified in 451 (52.7% cases, with 6.1% of the samples being positive for MV; 2.6% for RV; 26.2% for B19V; 9.7% for EV; 4.6% for AdV; and 3.6% for HHV6. Almost all measles and rubella cases occurred during limited outbreaks in 2011 and nearly all patients were at least 15 years old. B19V, EV and AdV infections were prevalent both in children and adults and were found throughout the 3 years. B19V occurred mainly in 3-10 years old children and 20-29 years old adults. EV infection was most common in children up to 6 years of age and AdV was confirmed mainly in 3-6 years old children. HHV6 infection was mostly detected in 6-11 months old infants. Laboratory investigation of measles/rubella suspected cases also for B19V, EV, AdV and HHV6 allows diagnosing more than half of all cases, thus strengthening rash/fever disease surveillance in Belarus.

  8. Measles IgG antibody index correlates with T2 lesion load on MRI in patients with early multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berit Rosche

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: B cells and humoral immune responses play an important role in the pathogenesis and diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS. A characteristic finding in patients with MS is a polyspecific intrathecal B cell response against neurotropic viruses, specifically against measles virus, rubella virus, and varicella zoster virus, also known as an MRZ reaction (MRZR. Here, we correlated from the routine clinical diagnostics individual IgG antibody indices (AIs of MRZR with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings in patients with first MS diagnosis. METHODS/RESULTS: MRZR was determined in 68 patients with a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS or early relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS. Absolute AI values for measles virus, rubella virus, and varicella zoster virus were correlated with T2 lesion load and gadolinium enhancing lesions on cerebral MRI (cMRI and cMRI combined with spinal MRI (sMRI. Measles virus AI correlated significantly with T2 lesion load on cMRI (p = 0.0312, Mann-Whitney U test and the sum of lesions on cMRI and sMRI (p = 0.0413. Varicella zoster virus AI also showed a correlation with T2 lesion load on cMRI but did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.2893. CONCLUSION: The results confirm MRZR as part of the polyspecific immune reaction in MS with possible prognostic impact on MRI and clinical parameters. Furthermore, the data indicate that intrathecal measles virus IgG production correlates with disease activity on cMRI and sMRI in patients with early MS.

  9. ANALISIS GEN HAEMAGGLUTININ PADA VIRUS CAMPAK LIAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subangkit Subangkit

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPenyakit Campak disebabkan oleh virus campak yang termasuk genus Morbilivirus dan Family Paramyxoviridae. Penyakit campak masih menjadi masalah kesehatan karena masih ditemukan Kejadian Luar Biasa (KLB di Indonesia. Salah satu penyebab terjadinya KLB tersebut diduga sebagaiakibat perbedaan antigenesitas antara strain vaksin yang digunakan dengan strain virus campak liar yang beredar di Indonesia. Penelitian ini bertujuan mendapatkan gambaran tentang karakteristik genetik gen Haemagglutinin virus campak liar yang ada di Indonesia. Spesimen yang digunakan sebanyak 27 isolat virus penyebab KLB dari 17 propinsi selama periode tahun 2003-2010. Isolat virus dilakukan pemeriksaan secara RT-PCR dan sekuensing dengan metode Sanger. Hasil sekuensing dianalisis dengan menggunakan perangkat lunak Bioedit 7.0 dan MEGA 4.0. Hasil penelitian didapatkan perbedaan 10 asam amino antara virus campak strain vaksin CAM-70 dan virus campak liar pada posisi D416N; K424T; V451M; N455T; V466I; I473T; F476L; Y481S atau Y481N; H495N; G505D. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah terdapat perbedaan karakteristik genetik antara virus campak liar di Indonesia berbeda dengan strain virus vaksin CAM-70.Kata kunci : Campak, Analisis Molekuler, Hemagglutinin, CD46AbstractMeasles is caused by virus belonging to the genus Morbilivirus and Family Paramyxoviridae. Measles is still a public health problem because outbreak of measles still found in Indonesia. Outbreak is suspected as a result of differences in antigenicity between vaccine strains used with wild-type measles virus strains circulating in Indonesia. This study aims to get genetic characteristics of wild-type measles virus haemagglutinin gene in Indonesia. The specimens were used 27 viral isolates from 17 provinces period 2003-2010. Viral isolates examined by RT-PCR and sequencing with Sanger method. Sequencing analysis were conducted using Bioedit 7.0 and MEGA 4.0 software. The results showed 10 amino acid differences

  10. Priming T-cell responses with recombinant measles vaccine vector in a heterologous prime-boost setting in non-human primates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolton, Diane L.; Santra, Sampa; Swett-Tapia, Cindy; Custers, Jerome; Song, Kaimei; Balachandran, Harikrishnan; Mach, Linh; Naim, Hussein; Kozlowski, Pamela A.; Lifton, Michelle; Goudsmit, Jaap; Letvin, Norman; Roederer, Mario; Radošević, Katarina

    2012-01-01

    Licensed live attenuated virus vaccines capable of expressing transgenes from other pathogens have the potential to reduce the number of childhood immunizations by eliciting robust immunity to multiple pathogens simultaneously. Recombinant attenuated measles virus (rMV) derived from the Edmonston

  11. Girls may have lower levels of maternal measles antibodies and higher risk of subclinical measles infection before the age of measles vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario; Bale, Carlitos; Garly, May-Lill

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that girls may have lower maternal measles antibody levels than boys. Girls might therefore be more likely to contract measles infection before the normal age of measles vaccination at 9 months of age. METHODS: In connection with a clinical trial...... of different measles vaccination strategies, we collected pre-measles vaccination blood samples at 4.5 months of age from two subgroups of children. Samples from these children were used to assess possible differences in maternal antibody levels for boys and girls. At 9 months of age another subgroup...... of children was sampled before the normal measles vaccination; these samples were used to assess the frequency of subclinical measles infection among boys and girls. RESULTS: We determined measles-specific antibody levels for 812 children at 4.5 months of age and for 896 children at 9 months of age. At 4...

  12. MMR Vaccine (Measles, Mumps, and Rubella)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumpsvax® Mumps Vaccine ... Biavax® II (as a combination product containing Mumps Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine) ... II (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Mumps Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine)

  13. Clinical features of measles pneumonia in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Honma, Shin-ichi; Yamagishi, Masahiko; Honda, Yasuhito; Abe, Shosaku; Igarashi, Tomofumi; Sekine, Kyuichiro.

    1993-01-01

    The clinical features, chest radiographs and computed tomographic (CT) images were evaluated in 11 cases of serologically proved adult measles complicated with pneumonia (10 were previously healthy and one had sarcoidosis). Pneumonia appeared during the rash period in all cases. Respiratory symptoms were cough (9/11), dyspnea (3/11), and hypoxemia (10/11). Pneumonia manifestations were detected in only 4 cases by chest radiograph; on the other hand, they were seen in all cases by CT scan and consisted of ground-glass opacities (73%), nodular opacities (64%) and consolidation (27%). CT seems to be useful method to detect measles pneumonia if it is suspected. Measles pneumonia in previously healthy patients had a good prognosis, as the hypoxemia disappeared within 6 days in all cases. The sarcoidosis patient showed prolonged pneumonic shadows and period of hypoxemia. Measles pneumonia occurring in a host with cellular immunodeficiency may have a severe clinical course. (author)

  14. Modeling seasonal measles transmission in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhenguo; Liu, Dan

    2015-08-01

    A discrete-time deterministic measles model with periodic transmission rate is formulated and studied. The basic reproduction number R0 is defined and used as the threshold parameter in determining the dynamics of the model. It is shown that the disease will die out if R0 1 . Parameters in the model are estimated on the basis of demographic and epidemiological data. Numerical simulations are presented to describe the seasonal fluctuation of measles infection in China.

  15. Allergic disease and atopic sensitization in children in relation to measles vaccination and measles infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenlund, H.; Bergstrom, A.; Alm, J.; Swartz, J.; Scheynius, A.; van Hage, M.; Johansen, K.; Brunekreef, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; von Mutius, E.; Ege, M.; Riedler, J.; Braun-Fahrlander, C.; Waser, M.; Pershagen, G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the role of measles vaccination and measles infection in the development of allergic disease and atopic sensitization. METHODS: A total of 14 893 children were included from the cross-sectional, multicenter Prevention of Allergy-Risk Factors for Sensitization in

  16. Allergic Disease and Atopic Sensitization in Children in Relation to Measles Vaccination and Measles Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenlund, Helen; Bergstrom, Anna; Alm, Johan S.; Swartz, Jackie; Scheynius, Annika; van Hage, Marianne; Johansen, Kari; Brunekreef, Bert; von Mutius, Erika; Ege, Markus J.; Riedler, Josef; Braun-Fahrlaender, Charlotte; Waser, Marco; Pershagen, Goran

    OBJECTIVE. Our aim was to investigate the role of measles vaccination and measles infection in the development of allergic disease and atopic sensitization. METHODS. A total of 14 893 children were included from the cross-sectional, multicenter Prevention of Allergy-Risk Factors for Sensitization in

  17. Measles epidemic in Brazil in the post-elimination period: Coordinated response and containment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Daniele Rocha Queiroz; Franco, Aidée Ramirez; de Sá Roriz, Maria Lúcia Feitosa; Carneiro, Ana Karine Borges; de Oliveira Garcia, Márcio Henrique; de Souza, Fábia Lidiana; Duron Andino, Regina; de Góes Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona

    2017-03-23

    The measles virus circulation was halted in Brazil in 2001 and the country has a routine vaccination coverage against measles, mumps and rubella higher than 95%. In Ceará, the last confirmed case was in 1999. This article describes the strategies adopted and the effectiveness of surveillance and control measures implemented during a measles epidemic in the post-elimination period. The epidemic started in December 2013 and lasted 20 months, reaching 38 cities and 1,052 confirmed cases. The D8 genotype was identified. More than 50,000 samples were tested for measles and 86.4% of the confirmed cases had a laboratory diagnosis. The beginning of an campaign vaccination was delayed in part by the availability of vaccine. The classic control measures were not enough to control the epidemic. The creation of a committee of experts, the agreement signed between managers of the three spheres of government, the conducting of an institutional active search of suspected cases, vaccination door to door at alternative times, the use of micro planning, a broad advertising campaign at local media and technical operative support contributed to containing the epidemic. It is important to recognize the possibility of epidemics at this stage of post-elimination and prepare a sensitive surveillance system for timely response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Measles burden in urban settings: characteristics of measles cases in Addis Ababa city administration, Ethiopia, 2004-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersha, Amare Mengistu; Braka, Fiona; Gallagher, Kathleen; Tegegne, Aysheshim Ademe; Argay, Aron Kassahun; Mekonnen, Mekonnen Admassu; Aragaw, Merawi; Abegaz, Debritu Mengesha; Worku, Etsehiwot Zeamlak; Baynesagn, Mekonen Getahun

    2017-01-01

    In developing countries, measles was a major cause of morbidity and mortality before the wide spread use of measles vaccine. The purpose of this study was to describe measles burden in an urban setting, Addis Ababa- since the implementation of measles case-based surveillance in Ethiopia. We analyzed measles surveillance data for 2004 -2014. Incidence of measles was described by sub city, by year and by age groups. Age specific incidence rate were calculated. Logistic regression was used to identify the predictors of confirmed measles cases. Of 4220 suspected measles cases 39% were confirmed cases. Males and females were equally affected. The mean affected age was 7.59 years. Measles cases peaked in 2010 and 2013-2014. Incidence of measles is higher among children less than five years old. Outer sub cities were more affected by measles in all years. Sub cities bordering with Oromia Regional State were more affected by measles. Older age groups were more affected than younger age groups (age ≤ five years old). Efforts to close immunity gaps against measles and further strengthen surveillance in urban settings, particularly among children below five years old, should be prioritized.

  19. Measles: Make Sure Your Child Is Fully Immunized

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Measles: Make Sure Your Child is Fully Immunized Language: ... also become infected if they are not protected. Measles in the U.S. From January 2 to March ...

  20. Frequently Asked Questions about Measles in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pan American Health Organization Frequently Asked Questions about Measles in the U.S. Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... I’ve been exposed to someone who has measles. What should I do? A: Immediately call your ...

  1. Don't Let Measles Be Your Travel Souvenir

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who have never had measles should be vaccinated. International Travel and Measles Traveling abroad for spring or ... site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple ...

  2. Priming T-cell responses with recombinant measles vaccine vector in a heterologous prime-boost setting in non-human primates

    OpenAIRE

    Bolton, Diane L.; Santra, Sampa; Swett, Cindy; Custers, Jerome; Song, Kaimei; Balachandran, Harikrishnan; Kozlowski, Pamela A.; Letvin, Norman; Roederer, Mario; Radošević, Katarina

    2012-01-01

    Licensed live attenuated virus vaccines capable of expressing transgenes from other pathogens have the potential to reduce the number of childhood immunizations by eliciting robust immunity to multiple pathogens simultaneously. Recombinant attenuated measles virus (rMV) derived from the Edmonston Zagreb vaccine strain was engineered to express simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Gag protein for the purpose of evaluating the immunogenicity of rMV as a vaccine vector in rhesus macaques. rMV-Gag...

  3. measles case-based surveillance and outbreak response in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the existing national technical guideline on measles case- based surveillance and outbreak response in Nigeria in ... according to the revised national measles technical guideline9. However, with the strengthening of the ... involves immediate reporting and investigating any suspected case of measles by clinicians using ...

  4. A general measles vaccination campaign in urban Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, S.; Thysen, S. M.; Rodrigues, A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Measles vaccination campaigns targeting children aged 9–59 months are conducted every three years in Guinea-Bissau. Studies have demonstrated beneficial non-specific effects of measles vaccine. We compared mortality one year after the December 2012 measles vaccination campaign in Bissa...

  5. Measles trends and vaccine effectiveness in Nairobi, Kenya | Borus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine morbidity and mortality from measles and to estimate measles vaccine effectiveness among children hospitalised with measles in two hospitals in Nairobi. Design: A review of hospital records (index cards). Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital and Mbagathi District Hospitals covering the years ...

  6. Unsustainability of a measles immunisation campaign - rise in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 1990 national mass measles immunisation campaign resulted in a marked reduction in measles incidence in Natal/KwaZulu in the first 6 months after the campaign. Data from the measles ward admissions book at Clairwood Hospital were collated for the period 1 January 1989 to 31 May 1992 to assess the ...

  7. The impact of declining vaccination coverage on measles control: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Efforts at immunizing children against measles was intensified in Nigeria with nation-wide measles vaccination campaigns in 2005 - 2006, 2008 and 2011 targeting children between 9 and 59 months. However, there were measles outbreaks in 2010 and 2011in Abia state Nigeria. This study seeks to find out if ...

  8. Antecedent causes of a measles resurgence in the Democratic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Despite accelerated measles control efforts, a massive measles resurgence occurred in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) starting in mid-2010, prompting an investigation into likely causes. Methods: We conducted a descriptive epidemiological analysis using measles immunization and surveillance ...

  9. Prolonged hospital stay in measles patients | Ashir | Sahel Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Measles is still a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in Nigeria despite the availability of safe and effective vaccines. The burden of measles using length of hospital stay as a result of complications in hospitalised children with measles is reported. Methods: We carried out a two year retrospective ...

  10. An evaluation of the 2012 measles mass vaccination campaign in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: To estimate the post-campaign level of measles vaccination coverage in Guinea. Method: Interview of parents and observation of measles vaccination cards of children aged 9 to 59 months during the mass measles campaign. A nationwide cluster randomized sample under health District stratification. Results: ...

  11. Seringas hipodérmicas descartáveis versus reutilizáveis: estudo de possíveis efeitos sobre o vírus da vacina viva, atenuada contra o sarampo Disposable versus reusable hypodermic syringes: study of feasible effects upon the virus of the live, attenuated measles vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edda de Rizzo

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se verificar entre seringas hipodérmicas descartáveis e reutilizáveis qual interfere mais com o vírus vivo presente na vacina contra o sarampo. Vacinas pertencentes a dois lotes foram reconstituídas com os dois tipos de seringas, de modo a formarem dois pools distintos, mantidos à temperatura de +2 a+8°C e protegidos da luz. De cada lote foram realizadas, no mínimo, seis titulações em paralelo, com amostragem a cada hora, de zero a seis horas após reconstituição. A análise estatística dos resultados obtidos nas titulações, feita pelo sistema de retas de regressão demonstrou que embora as vacinas manipuladas com ambos os tipos de seringas apresentassem um decréscimo de título estatisticamente significativo com o decorrer das horas, ele foi bem mais acentuado para as vacinas reconstituídas com seringas reutilizáveis. A menor interferência das descartáveis no título da vacina viva, atenuada contra o sarampo, demonstrou que a preconização e uso desse tipo de seringas pela Secretaria de Estado da Saúde de São Paulo é o ideal e recomendável, por preservar mais a vacina desde a reconstituição até sua administração e, conseqüentemente, a sua eficácia na prevenção dessa infecção.The study was performed in the State of S.Paulo, SP, Brazil, with the purpose of finding out whether reusable (glass and disposable hypodermic syringes used for administration of live attenuated measles vaccines would interfere with their virus. At least six different experiments using two distinct lots of vaccines were carried out. Each time, a lot was reconstituted with reusable and disposable syringes in parallel to form separate pools from which samples were collected hourly from zero to the sixtieth hour after reconstitution for virus titration in monolayers of Vero cells. The straight line regression system chosen for the analysis of the results demonstrated that although vaccines reconstituted with both types of syringes

  12. Diagnosis of measles by clinical case definition in dengue-endemic areas: implications for measles surveillance and control.

    OpenAIRE

    Dietz, V. J.; Nieburg, P.; Gubler, D. J.; Gomez, I.

    1992-01-01

    In many countries, measles surveillance relies heavily on the use of a standard clinical case definition; however, the clinical signs and symptoms of measles are similar to those of dengue. For example, during 1985, in Puerto Rico, 22 (23%) of 94 cases of illnesses with rashes that met the measles clinical case definition were serologically confirmed as measles, but 32 (34%) others were serologically confirmed as dengue. Retrospective analysis at the San Juan Laboratories of the Centers for D...

  13. Measles vaccination in children with neurological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Kaplina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The data on the current vaccination process and specific antibody in 212 children with pathology of nervous systems in age from 1 year to 6 years old, vaccinated against measles. The comparison group consisted of 36 children without neurological disease. 86 children (40,6% were vaccinated measles – mumps vaccine, and 126 children (59,4% only measles vaccine. Post-vaccination period in 77,8% immunized against measles, was uneventful, layering intercurrent infections was noted in 22,2% of vaccine’s, and demonstrated the development of viral respiratory infections, bronchitis, otitis media and exacerbation of underlying disease. It is shown that the level of specific antibody to measles in children with pathology of nervous systems at 30 days after vaccination was 5,04±0,16 log 2, which did not differ from the comparison group (5,88±0,31 log 2. No significant differences in the level of antibody in a smooth and complicated course of vaccination period were found. Immunization of children with disorders of the nervous system of live vaccines is quite effective and leads to the formation of protective antibody titers in all vaccinated.

  14. THE RESULTS OF STUDY OF THE LEVELS OF SPECIFIC ANTIBODIES TO THE COMBINED INJECTION VACCINES AGAINST INFLUENZA, MEASLES, RUBELLA AND MUMPS AND DT IN CHILDREN WITH CHRONIC PHYSICAL ILLNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Haritе

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of antibodies to the separate and combined administration of the vaccine plus Grippol® Plus and vaccines against measles, mumps and/or rubella, diphtheria and tetanus (DT in children with chronic medical illnesses, including HIV and organic CNS. Revealed that at low reactogenicity and safety of the vaccine Grippol® Plus, concomitant vaccination does not affect the dynamics of the synthesis (seroprotection, seroconversion, diphtheria, mumps, and rubella antibodies, however, reduces the synthesis of measles antibodies. When combined administration of DT and mumps-measles vaccines + Grippol® Plus suppressed antibody response to a strain of influenza virus A/H3N2. 

  15. The potential for measles transmission in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser Graham

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the schools vaccination campaign in 1994, measles has been eliminated from England. Maintaining elimination requires low susceptibility levels to keep the effective reproduction number R below 1. Since 1995, however, MMR coverage in two year old children has decreased by more than 10%. Methods Quarterly MMR coverage data for children aged two and five years resident in each district health authority in England were used to estimate susceptibility to measles by age. The effective reproduction numbers for each district and strategic health authority were calculated and possible outbreak sizes estimated. Results In 2004/05, about 1.9 million school children and 300,000 pre-school children were recorded as incompletely vaccinated against measles in England, including more than 800,000 children completely unvaccinated. Based on this, approximately 1.3 million children aged 2–17 years were susceptible to measles. In 14 of the 99 districts, the level of susceptibility is sufficiently high for R to exceed 1, indicating the potential for sustained measles transmission. Eleven of these districts are in London. Our model suggests that the potential exists for an outbreak of up to 100,000 cases. These results are sensitive to the accuracy of reported vaccination coverage data. Conclusion Our analysis identified several districts with the potential for sustaining measles transmission. Many London areas remain at high risk even allowing for considerable under-reporting of coverage. Primary care trusts should ensure that accurate systems are in place to identify unimmunised children and to offer catch-up immunisation for those not up to date for MMR.

  16. Girls may have lower levels of maternal measles antibodies and higher risk of subclinical measles infection before the age of measles vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cesario; Bale, Carlitos; Garly, May-Lill; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Lisse, Ida M; Andersen, Andreas; Eriksson, Mia; Benn, Christine S; Whittle, Hilton; Aaby, Peter

    2009-08-20

    Previous studies have suggested that girls may have lower maternal measles antibody levels than boys. Girls might therefore be more likely to contract measles infection before the normal age of measles vaccination at 9 months of age. In connection with a clinical trial of different measles vaccination strategies, we collected pre-measles vaccination blood samples at 4.5 months of age from two subgroups of children. Samples from these children were used to assess possible differences in maternal antibody levels for boys and girls. At 9 months of age another subgroup of children was sampled before the normal measles vaccination; these samples were used to assess the frequency of subclinical measles infection among boys and girls. We determined measles-specific antibody levels for 812 children at 4.5 months of age and for 896 children at 9 months of age. At 4.5 months of age girls were less likely to have protective maternal antibody levels, the male-female ratio for protective antibody level being 1.23 (1.00-1.51). Among children sampled at 9 months of age, girls were more likely to have protective levels, the female-male ratio for having protective antibody levels being 1.65 (0.98-2.78) (p=0.054) and the geometric mean titre was significantly higher for girls (p=0.007). Children who lived in houses with known measles cases were more likely to have protective levels at 9 months of age even though they had not reported measles infection. Since we had excluded children with known measles infection, girls may have been more likely to have had subclinical measles infection. Combining clinical and possible subclinical measles infection, girls tended to be more likely than boys to contract measles infection before 9 months of age, the RR being 1.36 (0.97-1.90). Girls lost maternal measles antibodies more rapidly than boys and well before 9 months of age. They may be more likely to contract subclinical measles infection before the current age of measles vaccination.

  17. Measles Case Fatality Rate in Bihar, India, 2011–12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murhekar, Manoj V.; Ahmad, Mohammad; Shukla, Hemant; Abhishek, Kunwar; Perry, Robert T.; Bose, Anindya S.; Shimpi, Rahul; Kumar, Arun; Kaliaperumal, Kanagasabai; Sethi, Raman; Selvaraj, Vadivoo; Kamaraj, Pattabi; Routray, Satyabrata; Das, Vidya Nand; Menabde, Nata; Bahl, Sunil

    2014-01-01

    Background Updated estimates of measles case fatality rates (CFR) are critical for monitoring progress towards measles elimination goals. India accounted for 36% of total measles deaths occurred globally in 2011. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to estimate measles CFR and identify the risk factors for measles death in Bihar–one of the north Indian states historically known for its low vaccination coverage. Methods We systematically selected 16 of the 31 laboratory-confirmed measles outbreaks occurring in Bihar during 1 October 2011 to 30 April 2012. All households of the villages/urban localities affected by these outbreaks were visited to identify measles cases and deaths. We calculated CFR and used multivariate analysis to identify risk factors for measles death. Results The survey found 3670 measles cases and 28 deaths (CFR: 0.78, 95% confidence interval: 0.47–1.30). CFR was higher among under-five children (1.22%) and children belonging to scheduled castes/tribes (SC/ST, 1.72%). On multivariate analysis, independent risk factors associated with measles death were age Measles CFR in Bihar was low. To further reduce case fatality, health authorities need to ensure that SC/ST are targeted by the immunization programme and that outbreak investigations target for vitamin A treatment of cases in high risk groups such as SC/ST and young children and ensure regular visits by health-workers in affected villages to administer vitamin A to new cases. PMID:24824641

  18. RESPONSE OF VOLTA CHILDREN TO JET INOCULATION OF COMBINED LIVE MEASLES, SMALLPOX AND YELLOW FEVER VACCINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MEYER, H M; HOSTETLER, D D; BERNHEIN, B C; ROGERS, N G; LAMBIN, P; CHASSARY, A; LABUSQUIERE, R; SMADEL, J E

    1964-01-01

    An earlier study established that Upper Volta children respond to vaccination with the Enders live attenuated measles strain in the same general fashion as do children in the USA. The present report describes a second pilot project carried out in Ouagadougou, Upper Volta. During this investigation various mixtures of live measles, smallpox and 17D yellow fever vaccines were introduced into susceptible infants by jet injection. Combining the attenuated virus vaccines did not alter or accentuate the characteristic clinical reactions elicited by the individual components, nor was there evidence of significant immunological interference. From this experience it is concluded that combined vaccination with these agents may be safely and effectively employed in larger programmes as the need dictates.

  19. Molecular surveillance of measles and rubella in the WHO European Region: new challenges in the elimination phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santibanez, S; Hübschen, J M; Ben Mamou, M C; Muscat, M; Brown, K E; Myers, R; Donoso Mantke, O; Zeichhardt, H; Brockmann, D; Shulga, S V; Muller, C P; O'Connor, P M; Mulders, M N; Mankertz, A

    2017-08-01

    The WHO European Region (EUR) has adopted the goal of eliminating measles and rubella but individual countries perform differently in achieving this goal. Measles virus spread across the EUR by mobile groups has recently led to large outbreaks in the insufficiently vaccinated resident population. As an instrument for monitoring the elimination process and verifying the interruption of endemic virus transmission, molecular surveillance has to provide valid and representative data. Irrespective of the country's specific situation, it is required to ensure the functionality of the laboratory surveillance that is supported by the WHO Global Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network. To investigate whether the molecular surveillance in the EUR is adequate for the challenges in the elimination phase, we addressed the quality assurance of molecular data, the continuity and intensity of molecular monitoring, and the analysis of transmission chains. Published articles, the molecular External Quality Assessment Programme of the WHO, the Centralized Information System for Infectious Diseases of the WHO EUR and the WHO Measles and Rubella Nucleotide Surveillance databases served as information sources. Molecular proficiency testing conducted by the WHO in 2016 has shown that the expertise for measles and rubella virus genotyping exists in all parts of the EUR. The analysis of surveillance data reported nationally to the WHO in 2013-2016 has revealed some countries with outbreaks but not sufficiently representative molecular data. Long-lasting supranational MV transmission chains were identified. A more systematic molecular monitoring and recording of the transmission pattern for the whole EUR could help to create a meaningful picture of the elimination process. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. All rights reserved.

  20. Subacute encephalomyelitis following measles infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manchev, L.; Manchev, I.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: A 36-years-old woman was admitted in a Clinic of Neurology due to emergency presented with acute onset of altered mental status, tonic-clonic convulsions in four extremities, bladder and bowel dysfunction. This attack lasted for 2-3 minutes.The neurological investigation showed lesion of n.facialis and n.hypoglossus on the right side from central origin, right hemiparesis, positive pathologic reflex Babinski on the right side, partial sensor and motor aphasia. An analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed increased levels of protein - 2.15 g/l. A week before admission to the hospital the patient had been discharged from an Infectious ward, where Measles had been diagnosed.The diagnosis was verified also with the presence of specific IgM in serum. Magnetic resonance tomography: Supratentorial on the T2W and more visibly on the FLAIR images were seen relatively homogenous high signal foci, affecting the left putamen, partially the hind limb of the left internal capsule, the body of the left nucleus caudatis, as well as more diffuse changes, affecting the cortex and subcortex in the stroke area, the upper and partially the left medial temporal gyrus. On the T1W images the changes were low signal ones. Small-degree compression of the cella media of the left lateral ventricle was noted in the changes, affecting nucleus caudatus. Infratentorial: No signal changes, affecting the cerebral stem, the small brain structures, the pontocerebral angles and the internal auditory canals were observed. Conclusion: The finding corresponds to areas of demielinization, edema and gliosis with the localization described with possible infectious genesis (encephalitis)

  1. Measles seroprevalence, outbreaks, and vaccine coverage in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seruyange, Eric; Gahutu, Jean-Bosco; Mambo Muvunyi, Claude; Uwimana, Zena G; Gatera, Maurice; Twagirumugabe, Theogene; Katare, Swaibu; Karenzi, Ben; Bergström, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Measles outbreaks are reported after insufficient vaccine coverage, especially in countries recovering from natural disaster or conflict. We compared seroprevalence to measles in blood donors in Rwanda and Sweden and explored distribution of active cases of measles and vaccine coverage in Rwanda. 516 Rwandan and 215 Swedish blood donors were assayed for measles-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data on vaccine coverage and acute cases in Rwanda from 1980 to 2014 were collected, and IgM on serum samples and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on nasopharyngeal (NPH) swabs from suspected measles cases during 2010-2011 were analysed. The seroprevalence of measles IgG was significantly higher in Swedish blood donors (92.6%; 95% CI: 89.1-96.1%) compared to Rwandan subjects (71.5%; 95% CI: 67.6-75.4%) and more pronounced Rwanda, with the exception of an outbreak in 1995 following the 1994 genocide. 76/544 serum samples were IgM positive and 21/31 NPH swabs were PCR positive for measles, determined by sequencing to be of genotype B3. Measles seroprevalence was lower in Rwandan blood donors compared to Swedish subjects. Despite this, the number of reported measles cases in Rwanda rapidly decreased during the study period, concomitant with increased vaccine coverage. Taken together, the circulation of measles was limited in Rwanda and vaccine coverage was favourable, but seroprevalence and IgG levels were low especially in younger age groups.

  2. Perspective on Global Measles Epidemiology and Control and the Role of Novel Vaccination Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M. Coughlin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles is a highly contagious, vaccine preventable disease. Measles results in a systemic illness which causes profound immunosuppression often leading to severe complications. In 2010, the World Health Assembly declared that measles can and should be eradicated. Measles has been eliminated in the Region of the Americas, and the remaining five regions of the World Health Organization (WHO have adopted measles elimination goals. Significant progress has been made through increased global coverage of first and second doses of measles-containing vaccine, leading to a decrease in global incidence of measles, and through improved case based surveillance supported by the WHO Global Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network. Improved vaccine delivery methods will likely play an important role in achieving measles elimination goals as these delivery methods circumvent many of the logistic issues associated with subcutaneous injection. This review highlights the status of global measles epidemiology, novel measles vaccination strategies, and describes the pathway toward measles elimination.

  3. Measles transmission following the tsunami in a population with a high one-dose vaccination coverage, Tamil Nadu, India 2004–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wairgkar Niteen S

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On 26 December 2004, a tsunami struck the coast of the state of Tamil Nadu, India, where one-dose measles coverage exceeded 95%. On 29 December, supplemental measles immunization activities targeted children 6 to 60 months of age in affected villages. On 30 December, Cuddalore, a tsunami-affected district in Tamil Nadu reported a cluster of measles cases. We investigated this cluster to estimate the magnitude of the problem and to propose recommendations for control. Methods We received notification of WHO-defined measles cases through stimulated passive surveillance. We collected information regarding date of onset, age, sex, vaccination status and residence. We collected samples for IgM antibodies and genotype studies. We modeled the accumulation of susceptible individuals over the time on the basis of vaccination coverage, vaccine efficacy and birth rate. Results We identified 101 measles cases and detected IgM antibodies against measles virus in eight of 11 sera. Cases were reported from tsunami-affected (n = 71 and unaffected villages (n = 30 with attack rates of 1.3 and 1.7 per 1000, respectively. 42% of cases in tsunami-affected villages had an onset date within 14 days of the tsunami. The median ages of case-patients in tsunami-affected and un-affected areas were 54 months and 60 months respectively (p = 0.471. 36% of cases from tsunami-affected areas were above 60 months of age. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the sequences of virus belonged to genotype D8 that circulated in Tamil Nadu. Conclusion Measles virus circulated in Cuddalore district following the tsunami, although there was no association between the two events. Transmission despite high one-dose vaccination coverage pointed to the limitations of this vaccination strategy. A second opportunity for measles immunization may help reducing measles mortality and morbidity in such areas. Children from 6 month to 14 years of age must be targeted for

  4. Measles Vaccination in the Presence or Absence of Maternal Measles Antibody: Impact on Child Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesário L.; Garly, May-Lill; Andersen, Andreas; Fisker, Ane B.; Claesson, Mogens H.; Ravn, Henrik; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Whittle, Hilton C.; Benn, Christine S.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Measles vaccine (MV) has a greater effect on child survival when administered in early infancy, when maternal antibody may still be present. Methods. To test whether MV has a greater effect on overall survival if given in the presence of maternal measles antibody, we reanalyzed data from 2 previously published randomized trials of a 2-dose schedule with MV given at 4–6 months and at 9 months of age. In both trials antibody levels had been measured before early measles vaccination. Results. In trial I (1993–1995), the mortality rate was 0.0 per 1000 person-years among children vaccinated with MV in the presence of maternal antibody and 32.3 per 1000 person-years without maternal antibody (mortality rate ratio [MRR], 0.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0–.52). In trial II (2003–2007), the mortality rate was 4.2 per 1000 person-years among children vaccinated in presence of maternal measles antibody and 14.5 per 1000 person-years without measles antibody (MRR, 0.29; 95% CI, .09–.91). Possible confounding factors did not explain the difference. In a combined analysis, children who had measles antibody detected when they received their first dose of MV at 4–6 months of age had lower mortality than children with no maternal antibody, the MRR being 0.22 (95% CI, .07–.64) between 4–6 months and 5 years. Conclusions. Child mortality in low-income countries may be reduced by vaccinating against measles in the presence of maternal antibody, using a 2-dose schedule with the first dose at 4–6 months (earlier than currently recommended) and a booster dose at 9–12 months of age. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00168558. PMID:24829213

  5. Antibody levels to tetanus, diphtheria, measles and varicella in patients with primary immunodeficiency undergoing intravenous immunoglobulin therapy: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Fernanda Aimée; Gonzalez, Isabela Garrido da Silva; Simão, Raquel Maria; de Moraes Pinto, Maria Isabel; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz Tavares

    2014-06-21

    Patients with antibody deficiencies depend on the presence of a variety of antibody specificities in intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) to ensure continued protection against pathogens. Few studies have examined levels of antibodies to specific pathogens in IVIG preparations and little is known about the specific antibody levels in patients under regular IVIG treatment. The current study determined the range of antibodies to tetanus, diphtheria, measles and varicella in IVIG products and the levels of these antibodies in patients undergoing IVIG treatment. We selected 21 patients with primary antibody deficiencies who were receiving regular therapy with IVIG. Over a period of one year, we collected four blood samples from each patient (every 3 months), immediately before immunoglobulin infusion. We also collected samples from the IVIG preparation the patients received the month prior to blood collection. Antibody levels to tetanus, diphtheria, measles and varicella virus were measured in plasma and IVIG samples. Total IgG levels were determined in plasma samples. Antibody levels to tetanus, diphtheria, varicella virus and measles showed considerable variation in different IVIG lots, but they were similar when compared between commercial preparations. All patients presented with protective levels of antibodies specific for tetanus, measles and varicella. Some patients had suboptimal diphtheria antibody levels. There was a significant correlation between serum and IVIG antibodies to all pathogens, except tetanus. There was a significant correlation between diphtheria and varicella antibodies with total IgG levels, but there was no significant correlation with antibodies to tetanus or measles. The study confirmed the variation in specific antibody levels between batches of the same brand of IVIG. Apart from the most common infections to which these patients are susceptible, health care providers must be aware of other vaccine preventable diseases, which still exist

  6. Investigation of a measles outbreak in Cordillera, northern Philippines, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Katrina Ching

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Measles is a highly infectious viral illness that remains one of the leading causes of death among children worldwide. In the Philippines, decreasing routine vaccination coverage from 2007 to 2011 led to local measles outbreaks. A team investigated a measles outbreak reported in Cordillera of the Philippines in May 2013. Methods: Measles case data with symptom onset from 2 February to 27 May 2013 were obtained from official sources and verified on site. Data included age, sex, residential address, signs and symptoms and vaccination status. Active case-findings were also conducted for contacts of these cases. The living environments of the cases were investigated. A survey was conducted with the cases and caregivers to understand their knowledge and attitudes about measles. Results: There were 50 measles cases identified with an age range from six months to 32 years (median: 16 years. Thirty-two were male (64%. Twenty (40% were hospitalized with one death. Thirty-two (64% cases were laboratory confirmed, and 36 (72% received a single dose of measles vaccine. Overcrowded living environments were observed among many cases. The majority of respondents (46/48, 96% knew about measles, but there were misconceptions about the cause of measles and how it can be prevented and managed. Conclusion: This measles outbreak occurred in an area with low immunization coverage. Achieving 95% measles immunization coverage and strengthening routine immunization strategies to address high-risk populations are recommended. Also, we recommend health education campaigns to include components that address misconceptions about measles.

  7. Stop measles in Switzerland - The importance of travel medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, Silja; Lang, Phung; Bally, Bettina; Hatz, Christoph; Jaeger, Veronika K

    2017-06-27

    In line with the worldwide strive to combat measles, the Swiss Federal Office of Public Heath (FOPH) launched a National Strategy for measles elimination 2011-2015. In this study, we highlight the importance of travel medicine consultations to complement measles vaccination programmes based on data from the Travel Clinic of the University of Zurich. We analysed measles vaccination data from the Zurich Travel Clinic between July 2010 and February 2016 and focused on three groups: (i) all clients who received the measles vaccination, (ii) all clients aged>two years who received the measles vaccination ("catch-up vaccination"), and (iii) all clients aged>two years and born after 1963 ("FOPH recommended catch-up vaccination"). 107,669 consultations were performed from 2010 to 2016. In 12,470 (11.6%) of these, a measles vaccination was administered; 90.9% measles vaccinations were given during a pre-travel consultation, and 99.4% were administered to individuals aged>two years ("catch-up vaccinations"). An "FOPH recommended catch-up vaccination" was received by 13.6% of all Zurich Travel Clinic clients aged >2years and born after 1963. In this study, we highlight the importance of travel medicine consultations to enhance the measles vaccination coverage in the adult Swiss population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Measles in Italy: Co-circulation of B3 variants during 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magurano, Fabio; Baggieri, Melissa; Bordi, Licia; Lalle, Eleonora; Chironna, Maria; Lazzarotto, Tiziana; Amendola, Antonella; Baldanti, Fausto; Ansaldi, Filippo; Filia, Antonietta; Declich, Silvia; Iannazzo, Stefania; Pompa, Maria Grazia; Bucci, Paola; Marchi, Antonella; Nicoletti, Loredana

    2016-06-01

    In 2013, the majority of the WHO/EUR countries reported an annual incidence of >1 case per one million population indicating that the elimination target is far from being met. Thus, there is the urgent need to uncover and analyze chains of measles virus (MV) transmission with the objective to identify vulnerable groups and avoid possible routes of introduction of MV variants in the European population. The analysis of molecular epidemiology of MV B3 strains identified in 2014 has shown that four different variants co-circulated in Italy, including the strain that caused a cruise-line ship outbreak at the beginning of the year. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. IMPROVEMENT OF THE QUALITY CONTROL OF ELISA TESTING FOR THE LABORATORY CONFIRMATION OF MEASLES AND RUBELLA INFECTIONS AT THE STAGE OF THE MEASLES/ RUBELLA ELIMINATION PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Mamaeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To estimate ELISA serological studies results of IgM and IgG specific Measles and Rubella Viruses (MRV antibodies detection the “in-house” laboratory controls (ILC including the specific markers of MRV infections were for the first time commercially prepared by the Vector Best PLC (Russia: “Measles-IgM, ser.1”, “Measles-IgM, ser.2”, “Rubella-IgM”, Measles-IgG” and “Rubella-IgG”. This task was realized under the special Executive Order of the Government of Russia N 523-r, 2014, April, 4. According to passport characteristics ILC samples are the lyophilized human sera, inactivated by heating (1 hour at 56°C and stabilized by the mixture of sucrose (5% and ProClin-3000 as the conservation agent. Samples are free of HBs Ag, anti-HVC, T.Pallidum, HIV-1/2, HIV-1Ag р24.The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of using the ILC for detection of the MRV IgM and IgG antibodies by ELISA with commercial ELISA kits used in Russia and CIS countries. In the process of detecting the specific activity of “Measles-IgM, ser.1”, “Measles-IgM, ser.2” and “Rubella-IgM” by ELISA kits of different formats (Vector Best, EcoLab and Siemens Companies the statistically different results were received (p < 0.05. The optical density (OD values of IgM in the “Measles-IgM, ser.1” and “Measles-IgM, ser.2” ILC, obtained by ELISA “VectoMeasles IgM” (Vector Best were significantly higher than those obtained by ELISA IgEnzygnost®Anti-MeaslesVirus/IgМ. These values consisted for the ser. 1–1.33±0.02 о.u. vs. 0.18±0.01 о.u. (р < 0.05 and for the ser. 2–2.83±0.03 о.u. vs. 0.7±0.02 о.е. (р < 0.05 in the Vector Best and Siemens ELISA kits correspondently. In the “Rubella-IgM” ILC the OD values of the specific IgM by the “ELISA-Rubella IgM” EcoLab were also higher than those obtained by IgEnzygnost®Anti-RubellaVirus/IgМ ELISA kit. These values consisted 2.92±0.04 о.u. vs. 0.88±0.03

  10. Evidence of pestivirus RNA in human virus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasawa, R; Tomiyama, T

    1994-01-01

    We examined live virus vaccines against measles, mumps, and rubella for the presence of pestivirus RNA or of pestiviruses by reverse transcription PCR. Pestivirus RNA was detected in two measles-mumps-rubella combined vaccines and in two monovalent vaccines against mumps and rubella. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the PCR products indicated that a modified live vaccine strain used for immunization of cattle against bovine viral diarrhea is not responsible for the contamination of the vaccines. Images PMID:8077414

  11. Clinical outcome in measles patients hospitalized with complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, A.U.; Saeed, T.

    2008-01-01

    Measles is a highly communicable viral illness and is common cause of childhood mortality and morbidity. Keeping in view the high prevalence of measles in the developing world, we carried out this study to look into the complicated measles cases and clinical outcome in patients admitted in children ward of Ayub Teaching Hospital. Detailed history and physical examination of all the hospitalized patients with complication of measles were recorded in a proforma. Immunization and nutritional status of each admitted patient was assessed and the clinical outcome of measles was compared with demographic profile. one hundred thirty six hospitalized patients with complications of measles were studied. There was 60.3% male and 57.3% of patients were vaccinated against measles. Malnourished patients were 71.35% and had longer hospital stay (>5 days). Pneumonia (39.7%) and diarrhoea (38.2%) were the commonest complications. Seven children died and encephalitis (57.1%) was the commonest cause of death. The most common complications of measles are pneumonia and diarrhoea with dehydration requiring admission. Malnutrition results in more complications and longer hospital stay. Mortality is significantly associated with encephalitis. (author)

  12. Measles Antibodies in the Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels of complement-fixing antibodies to measles antigen in the sera and cerebrospinal fluids of 17 patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis seen in a 2-year period, are compared with those in 14 measles patients with or without acute encephalitis and 25 patients with neurological disease.

  13. Measles Antibodies in the Serum and Cerebro- spinal Fluid in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5 Januarie 1974-. Measles Antibodies in the Serum and Cerebro- spinal Fluid in Subacute Sclerosing. Panencephalitis. A. KIPPS, W. DU T. NAUDE, T. SMITH, D. 1. M. MACKENZIE, R. McDONALD. SUMMARY. The levels of complement-fixing antibodies to measles antigen in the sera and cerebrospinal fluids of 17 patients.

  14. Measles Epidemic in Pakistan: In Search of Solutions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    The recent outbreak of measles in different areas of Pakistan has raised questions over its immunization program once again. The number of cases of measles in 2012 was reported to be. 14,000 with 210 patients dying of it.[1] Unfortunately, due to a lack of proper surveillance infrastructure, the demographic statistics ...

  15. Review of childhood measles admissions at the National Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The global disease burden from measles as a vaccine preventable disease remains high despite decades of interventions by various organs and agencies. To determine the prevalence and outcome of childhood cases of measles admitted into the children's emergency ward of the National hospital and highlight the ...

  16. The influence of the school year on measles epidemics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Viggo

    The measles incidence record for Copenhagen 1880-1966 shows that the date of admission of new pupils has major impact on the structure of the epidemics, suggesting that measles transmission should be modelled in a way that accounts for the pulsed influx of new pupils. Assuming that the school year...

  17. Measles: The past, the present and the future | Abdulkarim | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measles is one of the most infectious diseases known to affect man. It spreads rapidly from an index case to many susceptible individuals resulting in cycles of epidemics in different parts of the world especially in the African continent. The contribution of measles to childhood mortality and morbidity remains high because it ...

  18. Measles and its Complications | Wesley | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The radiological features that accompany measles are reviewed. Changes due to viral infection may be complicated by those secondary to bacterial superinfection. The syndrome of relapsing pulmonary infection after measles is discussed, and studies on the pathogenesis are presented. S. Afr. Med. J., 48, 1001 (1974) ...

  19. Antibody response to routine measles vaccination among a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2013-02-08

    Feb 8, 2013 ... Abstract Background: Despite a global decline in mortality and morbidity from measles in the last decade, outbreaks continue to occur in some parts of the world including Nigeria. Objective: To determine antibody response to routine measles vacci- nation in Nigerian children and evaluate vaccine potency.

  20. Estimation Of Measles Sero-conversion in Children Vaccinated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of seroconversion of 115 children between 9 months to 5 years vaccinated against measles was conducted in Oriowon local government area of Edo State. This has to establish the immune status of the children against measles after immunisation. Haemagglutination inhibition technique was used. Prevaccination ...

  1. Measles outbreak in a poorly vaccinated region in Cameroon: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preventable deaths in Africa; especially in unvaccinated populations. We reviewed the medical reports of the measles outbreak that occurred in Misaje, in the North west region of Cameroon from 11/03/2015 to 14/05/2015. Six measles cases ...

  2. The reduction of measles transmission during school vacations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinkenberg, Don; Hahné, Susan Jm; Woudenberg, Tom; Wallinga, Jacco

    2018-01-01

    Historically, measles incidence has shown clear seasonal patterns driven by the school calendar, but since the start of mass vaccination in developed countries there are only occasional outbreaks, which may have changed the effect of school vacations on transmission. In 2013-2014 a large measles

  3. Implication of health care personnel in measles transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torner, Núria; Solano, Ruben; Rius, Cristina; Domínguez, Angela; Surveillance Network of Catalonia, Spain, the Measles Elimination Program

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare personnel (HCP) play an important role in transmission of highly contagious diseases such as measles. Current immunization guidelines in Catalonia include Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) immunization for HCP born after 1967 without evidence of immunity. Despite high vaccination coverage (90%) a high burden of measles cases related to outbreaks have occurred. The aim of this study was to assess the implication of HCP in measles transmission related to healthcare setting. A review of surveillance case data from 2001 to 2013 gathered through the Measles Elimination Program in Catalonia was performed. Twenty six outbreaks involving 797 cases were reported, 52 (6.5%) were HCP aged 21–41 years, 72,5% (38) patient were care personnel (doctors and nurses) and 22,5% (14) other health care related personnel. Forty six 87%) were unvaccinated, 4(10%) had only one dose and 2 had two doses of MMR. In community outbreaks 30 clusters with HCP involved were observed, yet none were identified as index cases. Non-vaccinated HCPs against measles were all under 45 years of age. Vaccination is the only reliable protection against nosocomial spread of measles from HCPs. Assessing vaccination status of HCPs and implementing a 2 dose vaccination in those lacking evidence of immunity is needed in order to set to zero the risk of acquiring and spreading measles in healthcare (HC) settings. PMID:25483548

  4. Measles in Pakistan: Time to make steps towards eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Inayat Ur; Bukhsh, Allah; Khan, Tahir Mehmood

    World Health Organization (WHO) measles surveillance data report a reduction in cases of measles globally from 67,524 cases in 2015 to 16,846 in 2016, and a reduction in deaths from 546,800 to 114,900 during period of 2000-14. Pakistan is among the five nations where almost a million children did not receive their first dose of measles vaccination, and outbreaks of the disease resulted in 4386 cases in 2011, 14,687 cases in 2012 with 310 deaths. In 2013, about 25,401 cases of measles were reported and 321 affected children died. The measles vaccination coverage is very low in Pakistan for both 1st dose and booster dose. To prevent outbreaks of measles in Pakistan a national vaccination program should be launched side by side with a polio eradication program in each district and township and a campaign should be launched to educate parents on measles vaccination for childrens to reduce the measles case fatality rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence and genotypic characterization of Human Parvovirus B19 in children with measles- and rubella-like illness in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Farhad; Sarshari, Behrang; Ghavami, Nastaran; Meysami, Parisa; Shadab, Azadeh; Salimi, Hamid; Mokhtari-Azad, Talat

    2016-06-01

    Human Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a prototype of the Erythroparvovirus genus in Parvoviridae family. B19V infections are often associated with fever and rash, and can be mistakenly reported as measles or rubella. Differential diagnosis of B19V illness is necessary for case management and also for public health control activities, particularly in outbreak situations in which measles or rubella is suspected. To investigate the causative role of B19V infection in children with measles- and rubella-like illness, a total of 583 sera from children with exanthema were tested for presence of B19V by determining anti-B19V IgG and IgM antibodies by ELISA as well as B19V DNA detection by nested PCR. DNA positive samples were assessed further for determination of viral load and sequence analysis by Real-Time PCR and Sanger sequencing method, respectively. Out of 583 patients, 112 (19.21%) patients were positive for B19V-IgM antibody, 110 (18.87%) were positive for B19V-IgG antibody, and 63 (10.81%) were positive for B19V viral DNA. The frequency of B19V-IgG antibodies were increased with age; that is children under 6 year old showed 7.11% seroprevalence for B19V-IgG as compared to 18.39% and 28.91% for age groups 6 to >11 and 11-14 years old, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the NS1-VPu1 overlapping region revealed that all sequenced B19V-DNA belonged to genotype 1. The results of this study may aid the surveillance programs aiming at eradicating measles/rubella virus in Iran, as infections with B19V can be mistakenly reported as measles or rubella if laboratory testing is not conducted. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Modelling the effects of treatment and quarantine on measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beay, Lazarus Kalvein

    2018-03-01

    Treatment and quarantine are efforts to cure as well as to overcome the spread of diseases including measles. The spread of measles can be expressed by mathematical modelling in the form of nonlinear dynamical systems. In this study was conducted on the spread of measles by considering the effect of treatment and quarantine on the infected individuals. By using the basic reproduction number of the model, can be analyzed the effects of treatment and quarantine to reduce the spread of measles. Basic reproduction number of models is monotonically descreasing as treatment and quarantine increasing. Numerical simulations conducted on the analysis of the results. The results showed that treatment and quarantine was given to infected individuals who were infectious has a major influence to eliminate measles from the system.

  7. An Outbreak of Measles in a University in Korea, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Young June; Park, Young Joon; Kim, Ju Whi; Eom, Hye Eun; Park, Ok; Oh, Myoung Don; Lee, Jong Koo

    2017-11-01

    Measles has been declared eliminated from the Korea since 2006. In April 2014, a measles outbreak occurred at a University in Seoul. A total of 85 measles cases were identified. In order to estimate vaccine effectiveness of measles vaccine, we reviewed the vaccination records of the university students. The vaccine effectiveness of two doses of measles containing vaccine was 60.0% (95% CI, 38.2-74.1; P < 0.05). Transmission was interrupted after the introduction of outbreak-response immunization. The outbreak shows that pockets of under-immunity among college students may have facilitated the disease transmission despite the high 2-dose vaccination coverage in the community. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  8. Measles in Italy, laboratory surveillance activity during 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Fortuna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The European Regional Office of the World Health Organization (WHO/Europe developed a strategic approach to stop the indigenous transmission of measles in its 53 Member States by 2015. This study describes the measles laboratory surveillance activity performed by the National Reference Laboratory for Measles and Rubella at the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità during 2010. METHODS: Urine, oral fluid and capillary blood samples from 211 suspected measles cases arrived to the NRL from different regions of Italy for confirmation of the clinical diagnosis. Serological and/or molecular assays were performed; after molecular detection, positive samples were sequenced and genotyped. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: 85% (180/211 of the specimens were confirmed as measles cases and 139 of these were analyzed phylogenetically. The phylogenetic analysis revealed a co-circulation of D4 and D8 genotypes for the reviewed period.

  9. Measles, One of the Re-emerging Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Türe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study is to stand out the measles which is a highly contagious re-emerging viral illness and may cause severe complications in susceptible population. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted on patients who were diagnosed with measles in the department of Infectious Diseases, Erciyes University Hospital, between January 2013 and February 2014. The diagnosis of measles was confirmed by measles specific immunoglobulin M (IgM antibody positivity in serum samples. Results: Nine patients were included the study. Three patients had a co-morbid condition including hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, pregnancy and diabetes mellitus. Four of the patients had hepatitis and one of them had pneumonia as a complication. Conclusion: Susceptible population, especially immunocompromised people are still at risk about measles. Adherence to universal vaccination programs is determinative in terms of breaking out of an outbreak. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2016;6(1: 19-22

  10. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE MEASLES IN KIROVOGRAD REGION in 2004 – 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Operchuk, N.I.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction.The incidence of measles in Ukraine remains an actual problem. Measle is related to vaccine - controled infections. However, low levels of imunization of the child population by planned measles vaccine, insufficient provision of immunobiological drugs (vaccines) in recent years, anti-vaccine companies contribute to the increase of the measles morbidity in Ukraine.Prominent scientist L.V. Gromashevsky spoke about measles, which is a "disease of unique distribution". In the implem...

  11. Differential miRNA expression in B cells is associated with inter-individual differences in humoral immune response to measles vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haralambieva, Iana H; Kennedy, Richard B; Simon, Whitney L; Goergen, Krista M; Grill, Diane E; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Poland, Gregory A

    2018-01-01

    MicroRNAs are important mediators of post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression through RNA degradation and translational repression, and are emerging biomarkers of immune system activation/response after vaccination. We performed Next Generation Sequencing (mRNA-Seq) of intracellular miRNAs in measles virus-stimulated B and CD4+ T cells from high and low antibody responders to measles vaccine. Negative binomial generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used for miRNA assessment and the DIANA tool was used for gene/target prediction and pathway enrichment analysis. We identified a set of B cell-specific miRNAs (e.g., miR-151a-5p, miR-223, miR-29, miR-15a-5p, miR-199a-3p, miR-103a, and miR-15a/16 cluster) and biological processes/pathways, including regulation of adherens junction proteins, Fc-receptor signaling pathway, phosphatidylinositol-mediated signaling pathway, growth factor signaling pathway/pathways, transcriptional regulation, apoptosis and virus-related processes, significantly associated with neutralizing antibody titers after measles vaccination. No CD4+ T cell-specific miRNA expression differences between high and low antibody responders were found. Our study demonstrates that miRNA expression directly or indirectly influences humoral immunity to measles vaccination and suggests that B cell-specific miRNAs may serve as useful predictive biomarkers of vaccine humoral immune response.

  12. Overview of measles and mumps vaccine: origin, present, and future of vaccine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betáková, T; Svetlíková, D; Gocník, M

    2013-01-01

    Measles and mumps are common viral childhood diseases that can cause serious complications. Vaccination remains the most efficient way to control the spread of these viruses. The manufacturing capability for viral vaccines produced in embryonated hen eggs and conventional/classical cell substrates, such as chicken embryo fibroblast or primary dog kidney cell substrates, is no longer sufficient. This limitation can be overcome by utilizing other recognized cell substrates such as Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK), Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO), Vero (monkey origin) cells, MRC-5 (human diploid) or as an alternative, introducing new cell substrates of human or avian origin. A very important factor in vaccine production is the safety and immunogenicity of the final vaccine, where the proper choice of cell substrate used for virus propagation is made. All substrates used in vaccine production must be fully characterized to avoid the contamination of hidden unknown pathogens which is difficult to achieve in primary cell substrates.

  13. Seroprevalence of transplacentally acquired measles antibodies in HIV-exposed versus HIV-unexposed infants at six months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha Jain

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Most HEI lacked measles antibodies at six months age and were, therefore, more vulnerable to measles than HUnI. Seroconversion in response to a single dose of measles vaccine administered at six months age was low in these infants, signifying the need of additional dose(s of measles/measles-containing vaccine.

  14. Emergency measles control activities--Darfur, Sudan, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-01

    The Darfur region of Sudan, composed of three states with a population of approximately six million, has experienced civil conflict during the previous year, resulting in the internal displacement of approximately one million residents and an exodus of an estimated 170,000 persons to neighboring Chad. The conflict has left a vulnerable population with limited access to food, health care, and other basic necessities. In addition, measles vaccination coverage has been adversely affected; in 2003, coverage was reported to be 46%, 57%, and 77% in North, West, and South Darfur, respectively. This report describes measles-control activities in Darfur region conducted by the Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) in Sudan in collaboration with the United Nations and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) during March-August 2004. Ongoing measles transmission in camps for internally displaced persons (IDPs) and neighboring communities in Darfur led to a regionwide measles vaccination campaign targeting all children aged 9 months-15 years, resulting in a reduction in reported measles cases. Once security is improved, ongoing efforts to increase measles vaccine coverage will be required to eliminate persistent susceptibility to measles in the Darfur population.

  15. Measles elimination and immunisation: national surveillance trends in Japan, 2008-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaida, S; Matsuno, S; Kobune, F

    2017-08-01

    Measles elimination relies on vaccination programmes. In Japan, a major outbreak started in 2007. In response, 5-year two-dose catch-up vaccination programme was initiated in April 2008 for children 13-16-years-old. In this study, we analysed the epidemic curves, incidence rates for each age group, virus genotype, vaccination coverage and ratio of measles gelatin particle agglutination (PA) antibody using surveillance data for 2008-2015. Monthly case counts markedly decreased as vaccination coverage increased. D5, which is the endemic virus type, disappeared after 2011, with the following epidemic caused by imported viruses. Most cases were confirmed to have a no-dose or single-dose vaccination status. Although the incidence rate among all age groups ⩾5-years-old decreased during the study period, for children <5-years-old, the incidence rate remained relatively high and increased in 2014. The ratio of PA antibody (⩾1:128 titres) increased for the majority of age groups, but with a decrease for specific age groups: the 0-5 months and the 2-4, 14, 19 and most of the 26-55- and the 60-year-old groups (-1 to -9%). This seems to be the result of higher vaccination coverage, which would result in decreasing natural immunity booster along with decreasing passive immunity in infants whose mothers did not have the natural immunity booster. The 20-29- and 30-39-year-old age groups had higher number of cases, suggesting that vaccination within these age groups might be important for eliminating imported viruses.

  16. Cross-sectional study on factors hampering implementation of measles pre- and postexposure measures in Dutch hospitals during the 2013-2014 measles outbreak.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fievez, L C R; Wong, A; Ruijs, W L M; Meerstadt-Rombach, F S; Timen, A

    2017-01-01

    This study examined adherence to national recommendations on measles pre- and postexposure measures, including immunization of health care workers (HCWs) in Dutch hospitals, during a national outbreak of measles in The Netherlands. This study also investigated which hospital characteristics and

  17. Measles outbreak in adults: A changing epidemiological pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Bajaj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thirty-one cases of fever with rash were reported among students of a college in Pune, India, from March to May 2014. The clinical profile was similar to that of measles and 7 of them tested positive for measles-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM. An outbreak of measles was declared, and epidemiological investigation was carried out to assess the situation and suggest preventive measures. Methods: An epidemiological case sheet filled for each case to identify the source and likely contacts. Medical and administrative authorities were sensitized about the increase in incidence and clustering of cases. A surveillance system was set up for detection of new cases and follow-up of contacts. Throat swabs and blood samples from 12 cases were tested by ELISA method for commonly occurring viral exanthematous fevers to confirm the diagnosis and 7 were positive for measles-specific IgM antibody. Preventive measures were advised to control the outbreak. Results: A total of 31 cases of fever with rashes were reported among students of a college in Pune, India, during the months of March–May 2014. Most of the students were in the age group of 18–24 years. Samples from 12 cases were sent for testing and 7 tested positive for measles-specific IgM antibodies. Seven cases were epidemiologically linked to a lab-confirmed case. All cases had fever, maculopapular rash, and sore throat and gave a history of vaccination for measles in childhood. Conclusion: An epidemiological investigation was carried out for outbreak of measles in a young adult population of college students from Pune. It is reported that, with increase in overall coverage of vaccination, there is a rise in incidence of measles in vaccinated individuals. The age profile also shifts to higher age groups. Investigation of such outbreaks provides an opportunity to identify high-risk groups, changes in measles epidemiology and weaknesses in the routine immunization programs.

  18. The measles epidemic trend over the past 30 years in a central district in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bing; Xiong, JianJing; Lu, Yihan; Jiang, Qingwu

    2017-01-01

    Background Measles vaccination over the past 50 years has greatly reduced the incidence of measles. However, measles among migrants and the resulting changes in epidemiological characteristics have brought new challenges to the elimination of measles. We aim to describe the measles epidemic trend over the past 30 years in a central district in Shanghai, China. Methods The present study was conducted in the Jing’an District, which is located in the center of Shanghai. Based on historical surveillance data of measles, we calculated the incidence of measles among local residents and migrants separately. Next, we classified all of the cases of the measles among local residents between 1984 and 2015 into 8 age groups and 5 birth cohorts. Finally, we calculated the measles incidence in each time period by the different age groups and birth cohorts, to understand the measles epidemic trend over past 30 years in the Jing'an District. Results A total of 103 cases of measles were reported from the Jing’an District, Shanghai, from 1984 to 2015. For infants less than 1 year of age and adults over 30 years of age, the incidence of measles continued to rise over the past 30 years. For a specific birth cohort, the incidence of measles after measles vaccination declined initially, and was then followed by a rebound. Conclusions The incidence of measles in older adults and infants increased in some developed regions, which slows the process of measles elimination. This suggested that the population immunity against measles after measles vaccination would gradually reduce with time. We recommend supplemental immunization against measles in adults in order to reduce the immunity decline, especially for migrants. PMID:28640919

  19. The measles epidemic trend over the past 30 years in a central district in Shanghai, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Gao

    Full Text Available Measles vaccination over the past 50 years has greatly reduced the incidence of measles. However, measles among migrants and the resulting changes in epidemiological characteristics have brought new challenges to the elimination of measles. We aim to describe the measles epidemic trend over the past 30 years in a central district in Shanghai, China.The present study was conducted in the Jing'an District, which is located in the center of Shanghai. Based on historical surveillance data of measles, we calculated the incidence of measles among local residents and migrants separately. Next, we classified all of the cases of the measles among local residents between 1984 and 2015 into 8 age groups and 5 birth cohorts. Finally, we calculated the measles incidence in each time period by the different age groups and birth cohorts, to understand the measles epidemic trend over past 30 years in the Jing'an District.A total of 103 cases of measles were reported from the Jing'an District, Shanghai, from 1984 to 2015. For infants less than 1 year of age and adults over 30 years of age, the incidence of measles continued to rise over the past 30 years. For a specific birth cohort, the incidence of measles after measles vaccination declined initially, and was then followed by a rebound.The incidence of measles in older adults and infants increased in some developed regions, which slows the process of measles elimination. This suggested that the population immunity against measles after measles vaccination would gradually reduce with time. We recommend supplemental immunization against measles in adults in order to reduce the immunity decline, especially for migrants.

  20. Concurrent multiple outbreaks of varicella, rubeola, german measles in unvaccinated children of co-educational mount carmel senior secondary school, thakurdwara palampur of northern himachal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Surender Nikhil; Gupta, Naveen; Gupta, Shivani

    2015-01-01

    In April, 2009, in a co-education school, we investigated suspected triple outbreak; varicella first and then with chance detection of rubeola and rubella. The aim was to confirm diagnosis and recommend remedial measures to prevent further outbreaks. We defined a case of varicella with maculopapulovesicular rash without other apparent cause in students or staff of the school and residents of neighboring villages of Khalet and Roady since 23(rd) March to 14(th) October, 2009. We line listed case patients and collected information on age, sex, residence, date of onset, symptoms, signs, traveling, treatment history, and vaccination status. The outbreak was described by time, place, and person characteristics. Diagnosis was confirmed epidemiologically and serologically; first to chickenpox, measles, and german measles viruses. We identified 505 case patients from mixed outbreaks of varicella, measles, and german measles (30/505 clinically, 467/505 epidemiologically linked and 8/505 laboratory confirmed case patients from a study population of 3280. We investigated the suspected outbreak with case definition of varicella but measles 20/3280 (0.60%) and rubella 34/3280 (1.03%) cases were also observed. The overall attack rate (AR) was 15% while in school; it was 22% but highest (56%) in Nursery up to 4(th) standard with index case in first standard. Sex-specific AR was (23%) more in boys. Triple concurrent infection caused 05% complications but no death was reported. Severity of the symptoms was more in 5(th) standard onwards with 49-249 lesions and severer in poor villages Roady and Khalet (P traditional treatment vs modern medicine (P < 0.001). 5/10 samples for IgM antibodies for chickenpox and 2/10 samples were positive for rubella. Triple infection of varicella, measles, and rubella was confirmed epidemiologically and serologically. We recommended local authorities for MMRV in the school and near villages with aggressive IEC activities in affected areas.

  1. Spotlight on measles 2010: measles outbreak in Ireland 2009-2010.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gee, S

    2010-01-01

    Measles cases are increasing in Ireland, with 320 cases notified since August 2009. Nearly two-thirds of these cases (n=206) were unvaccinated. In the early stages of the outbreak a substantial number of cases were linked to the Traveller community with some cases also reported among the Roma community, other citizens from eastern Europe and children whose parents objected to vaccination. By February 2010, there had been considerable spread to the general population.

  2. Measles vaccination in the presence or absence of maternal measles antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesário L; Garly, May-Lill

    2014-01-01

    vaccinated with MV in the presence of maternal antibody and 32.3 per 1000 person-years without maternal antibody (mortality rate ratio [MRR], 0.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0-.52). In trial II (2003-2007), the mortality rate was 4.2 per 1000 person-years among children vaccinated in presence of maternal...... mortality than children with no maternal antibody, the MRR being 0.22 (95% CI, .07-.64) between 4-6 months and 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: Child mortality in low-income countries may be reduced by vaccinating against measles in the presence of maternal antibody, using a 2-dose schedule with the first dose at 4......BACKGROUND: Measles vaccine (MV) has a greater effect on child survival when administered in early infancy, when maternal antibody may still be present. METHODS: To test whether MV has a greater effect on overall survival if given in the presence of maternal measles antibody, we reanalyzed data...

  3. An evaluation of the 2012 measles mass vaccination campaign in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... 1Ministry of Health and Public Hygiene, Guinea, 2WHO country office, Guinea, 3Ministry of Public health ... Abstract. Introduction: To estimate the post-campaign level of measles vaccination coverage in Guinea. ..... CONAKRY.

  4. Measles vaccination coverage in high-incidence areas of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    including cold-chain maintenance.[5] ... Methods. Households were consecutively sampled in high-incidence areas identified using measles epidemic surveillance data. ... ratio in under-5s was 6.9/1 000 (Department of Health, Provincial.

  5. Measles outbreak--California, December 2014-February 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipprich, Jennifer; Winter, Kathleen; Hacker, Jill; Xia, Dongxiang; Watt, James; Harriman, Kathleen

    2015-02-20

    On January 5, 2015, the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) was notified about a suspected measles case. The patient was a hospitalized, unvaccinated child, aged 11 years with rash onset on December 28. The only notable travel history during the exposure period was a visit to one of two adjacent Disney theme parks located in Orange County, California. On the same day, CDPH received reports of four additional suspected measles cases in California residents and two in Utah residents, all of whom reported visiting one or both Disney theme parks during December 17-20. By January 7,seven California measles cases had been confirmed, and CDPH issued a press release and an Epidemic Information Exchange (Epi-X) notification to other states regarding this outbreak. Measles transmission is ongoing.

  6. Mathematical Model for the Control of measles 1*PETER, OJ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    2018-04-16

    Apr 16, 2018 ... 5Department of Mathematics/Statistics, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria ... ABSTRACT: We proposed a mathematical model of measles disease dynamics with vaccination by ...... Equation with application.

  7. Measles diagnosis at the Subcarpathian region: yesterday, today, tomorrow

    OpenAIRE

    R.M. Savchuk; N.I. Sidneva; T.B. Djus; L.Y. Pogorila; A.M. Stepanovich

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with the results of the epidemiological analysis of measles rate in Ivano-Frankivsk region, laboratory diagnosis, studying of the specific immune resistance and prognosis of morbidity for 2017–2018.

  8. Measles diagnosis at the Subcarpathian region: yesterday, today, tomorrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Savchuk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the results of the epidemiological analysis of measles rate in Ivano-Frankivsk region, laboratory diagnosis, studying of the specific immune resistance and prognosis of morbidity for 2017–2018.

  9. Measles in Morocco: epidemiological profile and impact of vaccination strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheikh, Amine; Ziani, Mouncif; Cheikh, Zakia; Barakat, Amina; El Menzhi, Omar; Braikat, Mohammed; Benomar, Ali; Cherrah, Yahya; El Hassani, Amine

    2015-02-01

    Measles continues to persist as one of the leading causes of infant mortality due to preventable diseases through vaccination. This study aims to highlight measles in Morocco, and to present the vaccination strategy implemented to control and eliminate the disease in this country. Throughout this study, and based on data from the Directorate of Epidemiology and Control of Diseases and those of the Directorate of Population, we present an overview on the epidemiological trends of measles from 1997 to 2012, while evoking the plans established by the Ministry of Health (MoH) for the control and elimination of this disease. The number of measles cases has decreased in Morocco between 1997 and 2012 (2574-720 reported cases per year) as a result of four important steps: first, increasing the routine vaccination coverage (73-94%); second, the introduction of the second dose of the combined vaccine against measles and rubella in schools (children aged 6 years) since 2003; third, the first catch-up campaign of vaccination in Morocco in 2008, for which coverage was highly satisfactory (96% and 100% for age groups 5-59 months and 5-14 years, respectively); and fourth, the organization of a mass vaccination campaign in 2013 that targeted children from aged 9 months to 19 years. The vaccination plan and the surveillance system executed in Morocco within the framework of the regional project implemented by the World Health Organization (WHO) to eliminate measles has given remarkable results regarding the reduction of measles cases and mortality due to this disease. According to the data from MoH and WHO, the number of reported and confirmed measles cases decreased drastically during 2014. However, these efforts are still unsatisfactory compared to the prospective of eliminating the disease by 2015.

  10. Adding interventions to mass measles vaccinations in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johri, Mira; Verguet, Stéphane; Morris, Shaun K; Sharma, Jitendar K; Ram, Usha; Gauvreau, Cindy; Jones, Edward; Jha, Prabhat; Jit, Mark

    2016-10-01

    To quantify the impact on mortality of offering a hypothetical set of technically feasible, high-impact interventions for maternal and child survival during India's 2010-2013 measles supplementary immunization activity. We developed Lives Saved Tool models for 12 Indian states participating in the supplementary immunization, based on state- and sex-specific data on mortality from India's Million Deaths Study and on health services coverage from Indian household surveys. Potential add-on interventions were identified through a literature review and expert consultations. We quantified the number of lives saved for a campaign offering measles vaccine alone versus a campaign offering measles vaccine with six add-on interventions (nutritional screening and complementary feeding for children, vitamin A and zinc supplementation for children, multiple micronutrient and calcium supplementation in pregnancy, and free distribution of insecticide-treated bednets). The measles vaccination campaign saved an estimated 19 016 lives of children younger than 5 years. A hypothetical campaign including measles vaccine with add-on interventions was projected to save around 73 900 lives (range: 70 200-79 300), preventing 73 700 child deaths (range: 70 000-79 000) and 300 maternal deaths (range: 200-400). The most effective interventions in the whole package were insecticide-treated bednets, measles vaccine and preventive zinc supplementation. Girls accounted for 66% of expected lives saved (12 712/19 346) for the measles vaccine campaign, and 62% of lives saved (45 721/74 367) for the hypothetical campaign including add-on interventions. In India, a measles vaccination campaign including feasible, high-impact interventions could substantially increase the number of lives saved and mitigate gender-related inequities in child mortality.

  11. Measles Antibodies in Mother-Infant Dyads in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Matthew L; Wang, Xiexiu; Wagner, Abram L; Zhang, Ying; Carlson, Bradley F; Gillespie, Brenda W; Ding, Yaxing

    2017-11-27

    Many measles cases in Tianjin, China, occur in infants whose mothers were born after widespread vaccination programs. We assessed age-specific decreases in maternal measles antibodies in infants and examined maternal and infant characteristics in relation to infant antibody titers. Infant and mother dyads were enrolled from a sample of immunization clinics in all Tianjin districts. Participants' antibody titers were measured from dried blood spots. A multivariable log-linear model regressed infant antibody titers onto infant and mother characteristics. Among 551 infants aged ≤8 months, protective levels of measles antibodies were observed in infants whose mothers had measles titers ≥800 IU/mL (mean antibody titer, 542.5 IU/mL) or 400 to measles and an accordingly low efficiency of transplacental transmission to a fetus. Current vaccination programs, which target children aged 8 months through adolescence may be ineffective in controlling transmission of measles to infants. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Decline in measles mortality: nutrition, age at infection, or exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Peter; Bukh, Jette; Lisse, Ida Maria; da Silva, Maria Clotilde

    1988-01-01

    The mortality from measles was studied in an urban area of Guinea-Bissau one year before and five years after the introduction of a vaccination programme. The years after the introduction of immunisation saw a decline in mortality among unvaccinated children with measles. This decline occurred despite a lower age at infection and an increasing prevalence of malnourished children. State of nutrition (weight for age) did not affect the outcome of measles infection. The incidence of isolated cases, however, increased in the period after the introduction of measles vaccination. As mortality was lower among these cases, diminished clustering explained some of the reduction in mortality. Comparison between the urban district and a rural area inhabited by the same ethnic group showed a lower age at infection, less clustering of cases, and lower case fatality ratios in the urban area. Endemic transmission of measles in urban districts leads to less clustering of cases, which may help explain the usually lower case fatality ratios in these areas. As measles vaccination increases herd immunity and diminishes clustering of cases, it may reduce mortality even among unvaccinated children who contract the disease. PMID:3133023

  13. Acute encephalitis associated with measles: MRI features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.Y.; Cho, W.H.; Kim, S.H. [Department of Radiology, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University, 760-1 Sanggye-7 dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139707 (Korea); Kim, H.D. [Department of Paediatrics, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University, 760-1 Sanggye-7 dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139707 (Korea); Kim, I.O. [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 28, Yongon-dong, Chongno-gu, Seoul 110744 (Korea)

    2003-02-01

    We document the MRI features in six patients aged 5-14 years with acute encephalitis following measles. The diagnosis was made on a characteristic morbiliform rash and detection of specific IgM and IgG antibodies. The symptoms of encephalitis occurred 1-11 days after the appearance of the rash. All patients underwent MRI within 1-4 days of the onset of neurological symptoms. Diffusion weighted images (DWI) were obtained in three patients. In all patients, T2-weighted images showed widely distributed, multifocal high signal in both cerebral hemispheres with swelling of the cortex, with bilateral, symmetrical involvement of the putamen and caudate nucleus. The lesions had showed low apparent diffusion coefficients. Three patients showed subacute gyriform haemorrhage, and asymmetrical gyriform contrast enhancement on follow-up MRI. (orig.)

  14. The Role of the Hendra Virus and Nipah Virus Attachment Glycoproteins in Receptor Binding and Antibody Neutralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-31

    of important human (measles (MeV), mumps, human parainfluenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)) and animal ( canine distemper virus (CDV...occurrence of a natural canine infection (6; 7). Since the emergence of HeV there have been a total of 86 horse fatalities, 2 canine infections and 7...Infectious Diseases 6. Anonymous. 2011. HENDRA VIRUS, EQUINE - AUSTRALIA (21): (QUEENSLAND) CANINE . Pro-Med-mail, Archive No. 20110802.2324

  15. Measles epidemics and seroepidemiology of population in Wujin, Changzhou city, Jiangsu province, China 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lingyan; Zhou, Yihong; Pan, Yingzi; Zhu, Hongming

    2017-05-19

    The measles epidemic was rather severe in Wujin 2015, and a seroprevalence survey of measles antibody was conducted during June to September 2015 in Wjin district of Changzhou city. Blood samples were collected from community health population and convenient samples of residual blood from hospitals. Measles-specific IgG levels were measured by ELISA assay. A total of 122 measles cases were reported 2015 in Wujin district with an incidence of 8.31 per 100000 populations. A large proportion of measles cases were adults ≥20years (62.30%) and infants aged measles were 82.71% and 551.19mIU/ml, respectively. Although the seroprevalence among children aged 9months to 4years was consistently over 90%, it began to decrease since 24months, and till the age of ≥10years, the seroprevalences were all measles and GMT levels between genders. The seroprevalence and GMT in people with measles vaccination were higher than those without measles vaccination or people whose measles vaccination are unknown (Pmeasles cases have become a serious problem in Wujin district, which may mainly relate to the increasing size of the floating population with low measles vaccine coverage. The seroprevalence of measles decreased dramatically with increasing age since teenagers, which may mainly caused by waning vaccine-induced immunity. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen measles vaccine in these people especially floating population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella) vaccine - what you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taken in its entirety from the CDC MMR (Measles, Mumps, & Rubella) Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc. ... Why get vaccinated? Measles, mumps, and rubella are viral diseases that can ... Before vaccines, these diseases were very common in ...

  17. A Global Perspective of Vaccination of Healthcare Personnel against Measles: Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebelkorn, Amy Parker; Seward, Jane F.; Orenstein, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Measles transmission has been well documented in healthcare facilities. Healthcare personnel who are unvaccinated and who lack other evidence of measles immunity put themselves and their patients at risk for measles. We conducted a systematic literature review of measles vaccination policies and their implementation in healthcare personnel, measles seroprevalence among healthcare personnel, measles transmission and disease burden in healthcare settings, and impact/costs incurred by healthcare facilities for healthcare-associated measles transmission. Five database searches yielded 135 relevant articles; 47 additional articles were found through cross-referencing. The risk of acquiring measles is estimated to be 2 to 19 times higher for susceptible healthcare personnel than for the general population. Fifty-three articles published worldwide during 1989–2013 reported measles transmission from patients to healthcare personnel; many of the healthcare personnel were unvaccinated or had unknown vaccination status. Eighteen articles published worldwide during 1982–2013 described examples of transmission from healthcare personnel to patients or to other healthcare personnel. Half of European countries have no measles vaccine policies for healthcare personnel. There is no global policy recommendation for the vaccination of healthcare personnel against measles. Even in countries such as the United States or Finland that have national policies, the recommendations are not uniformly implemented in healthcare facilities. Measles serosusceptibility in healthcare personnel varied widely across studies (median 6.5%, range 0%-46%) but was consistently higher among younger healthcare personnel. Deficiencies in documentation of two doses of measles vaccination or other evidence of immunity among healthcare personnel presents challenges in responding to measles exposures in healthcare settings. Evaluating and containing exposures and outbreaks in healthcare settings can be

  18. Topical issues of vaccination and epidemiological surveillance over measles and rubella in Ukraine.

    OpenAIRE

    Daragan, G. M.; Krushinska, T. Yu.; Stepanskiy, D. O.; Demchyshyna, I. V.; Kolesnikova, I. P.

    2018-01-01

    The analysis of measles and rubella morbidity, the state of their vaccination in Ukraine was carried out. Despite decades of preventive vaccination, there is a 5-6 years’ cyclicity of measles epidemic process at present time. Measles morbidity increased 46.8 times in 2017 in comparison with 2016. Elevated rates of rubella epidemic morbidity were registered in 2004 and 2011. There was decrease of routine measles and rubella immunization coverage in the period from 2009 to 2016. Critically low ...

  19. 9 CFR 113.313 - Measles Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... shall meet the special requirements prescribed in this section. (b) To detect virulent canine distemper virus, each of two canine distemper susceptible ferrets shall be injected with a sample of the Master... from each vaccinate and individually tested for antibody against canine distemper virus. For a valid...

  20. Controlling measles using supplemental immunization activities: a mathematical model to inform optimal policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verguet, Stéphane; Johri, Mira; Morris, Shaun K; Gauvreau, Cindy L; Jha, Prabhat; Jit, Mark

    2015-03-03

    The Measles & Rubella Initiative, a broad consortium of global health agencies, has provided support to measles-burdened countries, focusing on sustaining high coverage of routine immunization of children and supplementing it with a second dose opportunity for measles vaccine through supplemental immunization activities (SIAs). We estimate optimal scheduling of SIAs in countries with the highest measles burden. We develop an age-stratified dynamic compartmental model of measles transmission. We explore the frequency of SIAs in order to achieve measles control in selected countries and two Indian states with high measles burden. Specifically, we compute the maximum allowable time period between two consecutive SIAs to achieve measles control. Our analysis indicates that a single SIA will not control measles transmission in any of the countries with high measles burden. However, regular SIAs at high coverage levels are a viable strategy to prevent measles outbreaks. The periodicity of SIAs differs between countries and even within a single country, and is determined by population demographics and existing routine immunization coverage. Our analysis can guide country policymakers deciding on the optimal scheduling of SIA campaigns and the best combination of routine and SIA vaccination to control measles. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. A Two-Center Randomized Trial of an Additional Early Dose of Measles Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Nebie, Eric; Schoeps, Anja

    2018-01-01

    Background: Besides protecting against measles, measles vaccine (MV) may have beneficial non-specific effects. We tested the effect of an additional early MV on mortality and measles antibody levels. Methods: Children aged 4-7 months in two rural health and demographic surveillance sites in Burki...

  2. Measles vaccine: a 27-year follow-up.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ramsay, M E

    1994-04-01

    In 1964, the Medical Research Council undertook a trial of measles vaccine in over 36,000 United Kingdom children; 9577 of whom received live vaccine, 10,625 received inactivated followed by live vaccines, and 16,328 acted as unvaccinated controls. Participants in this study have been followed to determine the long term protection from measles vaccine and follow-up data were available on 4194, 4638 and 274 respectively. During the 5-year period 1986-90, the protective efficacy of live measles vaccine has remained high at 87%, but the 95% confidence interval was wide (-43 to 99%) due to the small numbers of cases. Between 1976 and 1990, however, the overall efficacy of the live vaccine was 92% (95% confidence interval 86 to 95%) and there was no evidence of a decline in efficacy (P = 0.13) over the 15-year period. This study suggests that the protection from live measles vaccine persists for up to 27 years after vaccination, and that no change in the current United Kingdom measles immunization policy should be made on the grounds of waning immunity.

  3. Assessment of coverage levels of single dose measles vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, P.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the consequences of low coverage levels of a single dose of measles vaccine. Results: mean age observed in measles cases was 2 years and 8 months with a range from 3 months to 8 years. Maximum number of cases reported were <1 year of age (n=22,32%). Fifty percent of cases were seen among vaccinated children. Seventy-five percent (n=51) had history of contact with a measles case. Pneumonia was the commonest complication followed by acute gastroenteritis, encephalitis, febrile convulsions, oral ulcers, oral thrush, eye changes of vitamin-A deficiency and pulmonary tuberculosis (T.B.) in descending order of frequency. Fifty four cases were successfully treated for complications of measles and discharged. Nine cases left against medical advice. Five patients died all of them had encephalitis either alone (n=1) or in combination with pneumonia and acute gastroenteritis (n=4). Conclusion: There is a dire need to increase the immunization coverage to reduce the rate of vaccine failure and achieve effective control of measles.(author)

  4. Head-to-head immunogenicity comparison of Edmonston-Zagreb vs. AIK-C measles vaccine strains in infants aged 8-12 months: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Shahrokh; Zahraei, Seyed Mohsen; Salehi, Masoud; Mohammadi, Mahdi; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mehdi; Mokhtari-Azad, Talat

    2018-01-29

    A non-inferiority multi-centre parallel randomized double-blind trial was implemented in Zahedan district, Sistan-va-Baluchestan province, Iran, to compare the performance of the two measles vaccines which are in use in the National Immunization Programme of Iran and are of two different measles virus vaccine strains: Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) strain vs. AIK-C strain. The main outcome measure was appearance of anti-measles antibody in sera. 200 infants, 8-12 months old, whose parents consented for their children to be included in the study, were randomized in permutation blocks of size 4-8 in four Urban Health Clinics. Having given a pre-vaccination blood sample, they received measles-rubella vaccine containing one of the vaccine strains mentioned before. After 60 days, the second blood sample was taken. The sera of the pre- and post-vaccination blood samples were tested for anti-measles antibodies in the National Reference Measles Laboratory. Parents, laboratory technicians and statistician were blind to groupings. Of the 200 children equally randomized in the two arms, 185 who were seronegative before vaccination (88 in the EZ arm and 97 in the AIK-C arm) were entered in the final analysis. The seroconversion rate in the EZ arm was 76.1% (95% CI: 60.2-85.2%), and that in the AIK-C arm was 58.7%; (95% CI: 48.8-68.7%). The absolute rate difference was 17. 4% (4.1-30.9%; P-value: .012), and the relative seroconversion rate of EZ to AIK-C was 1.3 (95% CI: 1.1-1.6; P-value: .012). No adverse events were reported during the study period. A considerable difference in the seropositivity of different measles containing vaccines could be demonstrated in the first year of life. Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials Registration Number: IRCT2016032827144N1; May 10, 2016 (www.who.int/ictrp/network/irct/en/). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Concurrent multiple outbreaks of varicella, rubeola, german measles outbreak in unvaccinated children of co-educational mount carmel senior secondary school, Thakurdwara Palampur of Northern Himachal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender Nikhil Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In April, 2009, in a co-education school, we investigated suspected triple outbreak; varicella first and then with chance detection of rubeola and rubella. The aim was to confirm diagnosis and recommend remedial measures to prevent further outbreaks. Materials and Methods: We defined a case of varicella with maculopapulovesicular rash without other apparent cause in students or staff of the school and residents of neighboring villages of Khalet and Roady since 23 rd March to 14 th October, 2009. We line listed case patients and collected information on age, sex, residence, date of onset, symptoms, signs, traveling, treatment history, and vaccination status. The outbreak was described by time, place, and person characteristics. Diagnosis was confirmed epidemiologically and serologically; first to chickenpox, measles, and german measles viruses. Results: We identified 505 case patients from mixed outbreaks of varicella, measles, and german measles (30/505 clinically, 467/505 epidemiologically linked and 8/505 laboratory confirmed case patients from a study population of 3280. We investigated the suspected outbreak with case definition of varicella but measles 20/3280 (0.60% and rubella 34/3280 (1.03% cases were also observed. The overall attack rate (AR was 15% while in school; it was 22% but highest (56% in Nursery up to 4 th standard with index case in first standard. Sex-specific AR was (23% more in boys. Triple concurrent infection caused 05% complications but no death was reported. Severity of the symptoms was more in 5 th standard onwards with 49-249 lesions and severer in poor villages Roady and Khalet (P < 0.05. Only 4% were immunized against varicella/german measles privately. Seventeen percent of the cases went for traditional treatment vs modern medicine (P < 0.001. 5/10 samples for IgM antibodies for chickenpox and 2/10 samples were positive for rubella. Conclusions: Triple infection of varicella, measles, and rubella was

  6. Assessing age-dependent susceptibility to measles in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Ryo; Nishiura, Hiroshi

    2017-06-05

    Routine vaccination against measles in Japan started in 1978. Whereas measles elimination was verified in 2015, multiple chains of measles transmission were observed in 2016. We aimed to reconstruct the age-dependent susceptibility to measles in Japan so that future vaccination strategies can be elucidated. An epidemiological model was used to quantify the age-dependent immune fraction using datasets of vaccination coverage and seroepidemiological survey. The second dose was interpreted in two different scenarios, i.e., booster and random shots. The effective reproduction number, the average number of secondary cases generated by a single infected individual, and the age at infection were explored using the age-dependent transmission model and the next generation matrix. While the herd immunity threshold of measles likely ranges from 90% to 95%, assuming that the basic reproductive number ranges from 10 to 20, the estimated immune fraction in Japan was below those thresholds in 2016, despite the fact that the estimates were above 80% for all ages. If the second dose completely acted as the booster shot, a proportion immune above 90% was achieved only among those aged 5years or below in 2016. Alternatively, if the second dose was randomly distributed regardless of primary vaccination status, a proportion immune over 90% was achieved among those aged below 25years. The effective reproduction number was estimated to range from 1.50 to 3.01 and from 1.50 to 3.00, respectively, for scenarios 1 and 2 in 2016; if the current vaccination schedule were continued, the reproduction number is projected to range from 1.50 to 3.01 and 1.39 to 2.78, respectively, in 2025. Japan continues to be prone to imported cases of measles. Supplementary vaccination among adults aged 20-49years would be effective if the chains of transmission continue to be observed in that age group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Measles control and elimination in Somalia: the good, the bad, and the ugly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamadjeu, Raoul; Assegid, Kebede; Naouri, Boubker; Mirza, Imran Raza; Hirsi, Abdurazak; Mohammed, Abdurahman; Omer, Mohammed; Dualle, Abdi Hassan; Mulugeta, Abraham

    2011-07-01

    Despite enormous challenges, Somalia has been successfully implementing accelerated measles control activities since 2005. Through innovative strategies and with the support of local and international partners, the country has shown potentials of implementing measles mortality reduction activities in complex emergencies. Measles incidence has been reduced by >80% after the measles catch-up campaigns of 2005-2007, and national reported measles routine immunization coverage with first dose measles containing vaccine has reached 59% for the first time in 2009. However, the near collapse of the health care system and the ongoing insecurity continue to hamper the implementation of recommended measles control and elimination strategies in some parts of the country, making these achievements fragile. Somalia exemplifies the challenges in meeting measles elimination goals in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean region. As the region is entering its 2010 measles elimination goals, it appears necessary to establish realistic and flexible interim goals for measles control in Somalia that will take into consideration the specificities of the country. Maintaining flexibility in conducting field operations, securing financial resources, multiplying opportunities for measles vaccination, and improving disease monitoring systems will remain vital to sustain and improve current achievements. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

  8. Epidemiology Of Measles And Its Complications In Non- Hospitalized Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangal N

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in 1985-86 amongst non-hospitalized children of jaipur city in33 investigative units having 3791 families with 6183 children in the 0-9 years age group. Measles vaccine coverage was only 21.7% Measles developed in 189 cases. Maximum incidence occurred in the 1-2 years olds and during the first half of the years (January to June. Complication developed in 50 (26.5% children. The most frequent was diarrohea (14.3% followed by respiratory infection (6.9%. No case fatality was reported.

  9. Risk factors for measles death: Kyegegwa District, western Uganda, February-September, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafigiri, Richardson; Nsubuga, Fred; Ario, Alex Riolexus

    2017-07-03

    On 18 August 2015, Kyegegwa District reported eight deaths during a measles outbreak to the Uganda Ministry of Health (MoH). We investigated this death cluster to verify the cause, identify risk factors, and inform public health interventions. We defined a probable measles case as onset of fever and generalised rash in a Kyegegwa District resident from 1 February - 15 September 2015, plus ≥1 of the following: coryza, conjunctivitis, and cough. A confirmed measles case was a probable case with measles-specific IgM positivity. A measles death was a death of a probable or confirmed case-person. We conducted an active case-finding to identify measles patients who survived or died. In a case-control study, we compared risk factors between 16 measles patients who died (cases) and 48 who survived (controls), matched by age (±4 years) and village of residence. We identified 94 probable measles cases, 10 (11%) were confirmed by positive measles-specific IgM. Of the 64 probable measles patients aged measles was found in 94% (15/16) among the case-persons (i.e., measles patients who died) and 54% (26/48) among the controls (i.e., measles patients who survived) (OR M-H  = 12; 95% CI = 1.6-104), while 56% (9/16) of case-persons and 67% (17/48) of controls (OR M-H  = 2.3; 95% CI =0.74-7.4) did not receive vitamin A supplementation during illness. 63% (10/16) among the case-persons and 6.3% (3/48) of the controls (OR M-H  = 33; 95% CI = 6.8-159) were not treated for measles illness at a health facility (a proxy for more appropriate treatment), while 38% (6/16) of the case-persons and 25% (12/48) of the controls (OR M-H  = 2.5; 95% CI = 0.67-9.1) were malnourished. Lack of vaccination and no treatment in a health facility increased the risk for measles deaths. The one-dose measles vaccination currently in the national vaccination schedule had a protective effect against measles death. We recommended enhancing measles vaccination and adherence to measles treatment

  10. MEASLES IN ILORIN: AN EPIDEMIC IN THE MIDDLE OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty-one cases of measles were seen within 3 months period in Emergency Paediatric Unit (EPU) of the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH) as against a recent report from the same center, which reported 52 cases over a 12 months period. More of the patients in this series needed hospitalization. Males were ...

  11. Measles and Mumps Tests: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used to: Find out whether you have an active infection of measles or mumps. An active infection means you have symptoms of the illness. ... will be collected into a test tube or vial. You may feel a little sting when the ...

  12. Measles outbreak in South Africa, 2003 - 2005 ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nations, including South Africa, and resulted in the virtual elimination of measles in ... Department of Immunization, Vaccines, and Biologicals, World Health Organization,. Geneva, Switzerland ..... Lancet 1996; 348: 415. 18. Helfand RF, Moss WJ, Harpaz R, Scott S, Cutts F. Evaluating the impact of the HIV pandemic.

  13. Evaluation of measles vaccine cold chain in Lagos State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The National (level 1), State (L2), and Local government vaccine cold stores (L3) as well as some vaccination centres (L4) were physically inspected in Lagos State, Nigeria and the potency of the live-attenuated measles vaccine was tested. Both the L1 and L2 storage facilities were formally adequately equipped and ...

  14. Randomized Trial of 2 Versus 1 Dose of Measles Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønd, Marie; Martins, Cesario L; Byberg, Stine

    2018-01-01

    Background: Two doses of measles vaccine (MV) might reduce the nonmeasles mortality rate more than 1 dose of MV does. The effect of 2 versus 1 dose on morbidity has not been examined. Within a randomized trial of the effect of 2 doses versus 1 dose of MV on mortality in Guinea-Bissau, we investig...

  15. Measles vaccination coverage in high-incidence areas of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Despite significant advances in measles control, large epidemics occurred in many African countries in 2009 - 2011, including. South Africa. South Africa's control strategy includes mass vaccination campaigns about every 4 years, the last of which was conducted nationally in April 2010 and coincided with the ...

  16. The 1992 measles epidemic in Cape Town - a changing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over the last 6 years there has been a decline in the incidence of measles in Cape Town. However, during August 1992 an outbreak occurred, with cases reported at many schools in children presumably immunised. The objectives of this study were to characterise the epidemic in Cape Town and to determine possible ...

  17. How Safe Is Measles Immunization Of Sick Children? | Ogbonna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prospective study to ascertain how safe is maeales immunization of sick children was carried out in Jos University Teaching Hospital, Family Health Centre. Out of 125 children who were vaccinated against measles 17(16%) were sick at the time of vaccination. Two (12%) of the sick children had post vaccination reaction.

  18. Some factors associated with non-acceptance of measles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data from a child health survey in Chikwawa District was used to investigate characteristics of non-acceptance of measles immunization. 9.3% of the children with vaccination cards had not been vaccinated. Distance to a static health centre and failure to attend a growth monitoring clinic were predictors of lack of ...

  19. Mothers' perception of incidence of measles in a Nigerian rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In Nigeria today measles is the greatest NPI target disease with the greatest impact on child health and ranks as one of the leading causes of childhood morbidity and mortality. Mothers have been known to make most decisions on home treatment of their children. This paper contributes to the knowledge on the ...

  20. Trends in performance of the National Measles Case-Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Since adoption of the measles case-based surveillance system in Zimbabwe in 1998, data has been routinely collected at all levels of the health delivery system and sent to national level with little or no documented evidence of use to identify risky populations, monitor impact of interventions and measure ...

  1. Some factors associated with non-acceptance of measles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data from a child health survey in Chikwawa District was used to investigate characteristics of non-acceptance of measles immu- nization. 9.3% of the children with vaccination cards had not been vaccinated. Distance to a static health centre and failure to attend a growth monitoring clinic were predictors of lack of immuniza-.

  2. Measles elimination - Is it achievable? Lessons from an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To detennine routine measles coverage at district level and to explore reasons for immunisation failure in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Design. An adaptation of the World Health Organisation (WHO) Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EFl) cluster sampling method was used to make a random ...

  3. A stochastic modeling of recurrent measles epidemic | Kassem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple stochastic mathematical model is developed and investigated for the dynamics of measles epidemic. The model, which is a multi-dimensional diffusion process, includes susceptible individuals, latent (exposed), infected and removed individuals. Stochastic effects are assumed to arise in the process of infection of ...

  4. [The knowledge of pediatricians in Salvador, Brazil about measles vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, L A; Carvalho, F M; Silvany-Neto, A M; Peres, M F

    1997-12-01

    The success of international initiatives for the eradication of measles depends in large part on knowledge about vaccination. In 1992, a cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate knowledge about measles vaccine among pediatricians in the Brazilian city of Salvador, Bahia. Of the 506 pediatricians residing in the city, 299 (59%) could be located and responded to a questionnaire containing 15 questions that posed hypothetical situations regarding indications and contraindications for this vaccine. The average number of correct responses was 9.3 out of 15, which illustrates the pediatricians' poor knowledge of measles vaccine. Conditions commonly seen in pediatric practice in Brazil--malnutrition, upper respiratory tract infection, diarrhea, and prematurity--were often erroneously considered contraindications for immunization. More than half (62%) of the pediatricians did not know the correct way to administer the vaccine. Knowledge about the vaccine did not differ according to the length of time that had elapsed since the physicians' university training in pediatrics or as a result of working in health centers operated by the State Health Secretariat. University professors, pediatricians with a postgraduate degree, and those pursuing postgraduate studies scored slightly higher than the rest. These results point to the need to strengthen training on measles vaccination in medical schools and programs of continuing education for pediatricians.

  5. The Aetiology of Pneumonia Associated with Measles in Bantu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antemortem and postmortem lung puncture aspiration was performed in Bantu children with pneumonia associated with measles. The superinfecting organisms were commonly Staphylococcus pyogenes, but from one-third of the patients Gramnegative organisms were cultured. These organisms were rarely sensitive to ...

  6. Measles vaccination in humanitarian emergencies: a review of recent practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson John

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health needs of children and adolescents in humanitarian emergencies are critical to the success of relief efforts and reduction in mortality. Measles has been one of the major causes of child deaths in humanitarian emergencies and further contributes to mortality by exacerbating malnutrition and vitamin A deficiency. Here, we review measles vaccination activities in humanitarian emergencies as documented in published literature. Our main interest was to review the available evidence focusing on the target age range for mass vaccination campaigns either in response to a humanitarian emergency or in response to an outbreak of measles in a humanitarian context to determine whether the current guidance required revision based on recent experience. Methods We searched the published literature for articles published from January 1, 1998 to January 1, 2010 reporting on measles in emergencies. As definitions and concepts of emergencies vary and have changed over time, we chose to consider any context where an application for either a Consolidated Appeals Process or a Flash Appeal to the UN Central Emergency Revolving Fund (CERF occurred during the period examined. We included publications from countries irrespective of their progress in measles control as humanitarian emergencies may occur in any of these contexts and as such, guidance applies irrespective of measles control goals. Results Of the few well-documented epidemic descriptions in humanitarian emergencies, the age range of cases is not limited to under 5 year olds. Combining all data, both from preventive and outbreak response interventions, about 59% of cases in reports with sufficient data reviewed here remain in children under 5, 18% in 5-15 and 2% above 15 years. In instances where interventions targeted a reduced age range, several reports concluded that the age range should have been extended to 15 years, given that a significant proportion of cases occurred

  7. The epidemiological and serological characteristics of measles in Dongguan, China, 2005–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ke; Chen, Shaoli; Tang, Cuifei; Wen, Jinjun; Li, Jingquan; Ni, Jindong; Zheng, Xueli

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study examined the epidemiological and serological characteristics of measles in Dongguan, China. From 2005 to 2014, a total of 8,224 measles cases were reported in Dongguan, 33.5% of which were aged 14 y. From 2005 to 2014, the proportion of the measles cases increased year by year from 24.3% to 47.9%. Of the cases aged ≥8 months (n = 6,768 cases), only 11.6% had been immunized with at least one dose of measles vaccine. Of the 2,213 cases who had never been immunized with measles vaccine, immigrants accounted for 82.4%. 52.4% of the measles cases were diagnosed with pneumonia, and 12 cases died from respiratory failure. Seroprevalence rate in women and their newborns was 86.0% and 82.5%, respectively. Measurement of serum measles antibody levels for infants aged less than 8 months indicated that seroprevalence rate dramatically declined from 97.3% at birth to 9.3% and 13.2% at 6- and 7- month old. The existence of a sufficient pool of unvaccinated people (especially immigrants) and decreased level of passively transferred measles antibodies in infants from vaccinated mothers contributed to the sustained transmission observed in Dongguan. In addition to high routine vaccination coverage, new strategies and innovations for measles vaccination are needed to eliminate measles. PMID:27003239

  8. Laboratory confirmation of measles in elimination settings: experience from the Republic of the Marshall Islands, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Terri B; Nandy, Robin; Hickman, Carole J; Langidrik, Justina R; Strebel, Peter M; Papania, Mark J; Seward, Jane F; Bellini, William J

    2009-02-01

    To highlight the complications involved in interpreting laboratory tests of measles immunoglobulin M (IgM) for confirmation of infection during a measles outbreak in a highly vaccinated population after conducting a mass immunization campaign as a control measure. This case study was undertaken in the Republic of the Marshall Islands during a measles outbreak in 2003, when response immunization was conducted. A measles case was defined as fever and rash and one or more of cough, coryza or conjunctivitis. Between 13 July and 7 November 2003, serum samples were obtained from suspected measles cases for serologic testing and nasopharyngeal swabs were taken for viral isolation by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Specimens were collected from 201 suspected measles cases (19% of total): of the ones that satisfied the clinical case definition, 45% were IgM positive (IgM+) and, of these, 24% had received measles vaccination within the previous 45 days (up to 45 days after vaccination an IgM+ result could be due to either vaccination or wild-type measles infection). The proportion of IgM+ results varied with clinical presentation, the timing of specimen collection and vaccination status. Positive results on RT-PCR occurred in specimens from eight IgM-negative and four IgM+ individuals who had recently been vaccinated. During measles outbreaks, limiting IgM testing to individuals who meet the clinical case definition and have not been recently vaccinated allows for measles to be confirmed while conserving resources.

  9. Effect of jet injection on infectivity of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine in a bench model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Melissa M; Collins, Marcus; Saxon, Gene; Jarrahian, Courtney; Zehrung, Darin; Cappello, Chris; Dhere, Rajeev; Royals, Michael; Papania, Mark; Rota, Paul A

    2015-08-26

    Disposable-syringe jet injectors (DSJIs) with single-use, auto disable, needle-free syringes offer the opportunity to avoid hazards associated with injection using a needle and syringe. Clinical studies have evaluated DSJIs for vaccine delivery, but most studies have focused on inactivated, subunit, or DNA vaccines. Questions have been raised about possible damage to live attenuated viral vaccines by forces generated during the jet injection process. This study examines the effect of jet injection on the integrity of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR), measured by viral RNA content and infectivity. Three models of DSJIs were evaluated, each generating a different ejection force. Following jet injection, the RNA content for each of the vaccine components was measured using RT-qPCR immediately after injection and following passage in Vero cells. Jet injection was performed with and without pig skin as a simulation of human skin. There was little to no reduction of RNA content immediately following jet injection with any of the three DSJIs. Samples passaged in Vero cells showed no loss in infectivity of the measles vaccine following jet injection. Mumps vaccine consistently showed increased replication following jet injection. Rubella vaccine showed no loss after jet injection alone but some infectivity loss following injection through pig skin with two of the devices. Overall, these data demonstrated that forces exerted on a live attenuated MMR vaccine did not compromise vaccine infectivity. The bench model and protocol used in this study can be applied to evaluate the impact of jet injection on other live virus vaccines. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Measles Outbreak in Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Patients in Shanghai, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yan-Ling; Zhai, Xiao-Wen; Zhu, Yan-Feng; Wang, Xiang-Shi; Xia, Ai-Mei; Li, Yue-Fang; Zeng, Mei

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite substantial progress toward measles control are making in China, measles outbreaks in immunocompromised population still pose a challenge to interrupt endemic transmission. This study aimed to investigate the features of measles in pediatric hematology and oncology patients and explore the reasons behind the outbreak. Methods: We collected demographic, epidemiological, and clinical data of immunocompromised measles children. All suspected measles cases were laboratory-confirmed based on the presence of measles IgM and/or identification of measles RNA. The clinical data were statistically analyzed by t-test for continuous variables and Fisher's exact test for categorical variables. Results: From March 9 to July 25 in 2015, a total of 23 children with malignancies and post hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (post-HSCT) were notified to develop measles in Shanghai. Of these 23 patients with the median age of 5.5 years (range: 11 months–14 years), 20 (87.0%) had received 1–3 doses of measles vaccine previously; all patients had fever with the median fever duration of 8 days; 21 (91.3%) had cough; 18 (78.3%) had rash; 13 (56.5%) had Koplik's spot; 13 (56.5%) had complications including pneumonia and acute liver failure; and five (21.7%) vaccinated patients died from severe pneumonia or acute liver failure. Except the first patient, all patients had hospital visits within 7–21 days before measles onset and 20 patients were likely to be exposed to each other. Conclusions: The outcome of measles outbreak in previously vaccinated oncology and post-HSCT pediatric patients during chemotherapy and immunosuppressant medication was severe. Complete loss of protective immunity induced by measles vaccine during chemotherapy was the potential reason. Improved infection control practice was critical for the prevention of measles in malignancy patients and transplant recipients. PMID:28524832

  11. Genotype-Specific Measles Transmissibility: A Branching Process Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackley, Sarah F; Hacker, Jill K; Enanoria, Wayne T A; Worden, Lee; Blumberg, Seth; Porco, Travis C; Zipprich, Jennifer

    2018-04-03

    Substantial heterogeneity in measles outbreak sizes may be due to genotype-specific transmissibility. Using a branching process analysis, we characterize differences in measles transmission by estimating the association between genotype and the reproduction number R among postelimination California measles cases during 2000-2015 (400 cases, 165 outbreaks). Assuming a negative binomial secondary case distribution, we fit a branching process model to the distribution of outbreak sizes using maximum likelihood and estimated the reproduction number R for a multigenotype model. Genotype B3 is found to be significantly more transmissible than other genotypes (P = .01) with an R of 0.64 (95% confidence interval [CI], .48-.71), while the R for all other genotypes combined is 0.43 (95% CI, .28-.54). This result is robust to excluding the 2014-2015 outbreak linked to Disneyland theme parks (referred to as "outbreak A" for conciseness and clarity) (P = .04) and modeling genotype as a random effect (P = .004 including outbreak A and P = .02 excluding outbreak A). This result was not accounted for by season of introduction, age of index case, or vaccination of the index case. The R for outbreaks with a school-aged index case is 0.69 (95% CI, .52-.78), while the R for outbreaks with a non-school-aged index case is 0.28 (95% CI, .19-.35), but this cannot account for differences between genotypes. Variability in measles transmissibility may have important implications for measles control; the vaccination threshold required for elimination may not be the same for all genotypes or age groups.

  12. Protective efficacy of standard Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccination in infants aged 4.5 months: interim analysis of a randomised clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, C.L.; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, C.

    2008-01-01

    -Bissau. Intervention Measles vaccination using standard titre Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine at 4.5 months of age. Main outcome measures Vaccine efficacy against measles infection, admission to hospital for measles, and measles mortality before standard vaccination at 9 months of age. Results 28% of the children tested at 4...... children developed measles; 19% of unvaccinated children had measles before 9 months of age. The monthly incidence of measles among the 441 children enrolled in the treatment arm was 0.7% and among the 892 enrolled in the control arm was 3.1%. Early vaccination with the Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine...... against measles may be low and severe outbreaks of measles can occur in infants before the recommended age of vaccination at 9 months. Outbreaks of measles may be curtailed by measles vaccination using the Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine as early as 4.5 months of age. Trial registration Clinical Trials NCT...

  13. Is there enough vaccine to eradicate measles? An integrated analysis of measles-containing vaccine supply and demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Graegar; Michelson, Joshua; Singh, Rohit; Dabbagh, Alya; Hoekstra, Edward; van den Ent, Maya; Mallya, Apoorva

    2011-07-01

    Responding to regional advancements in combating measles, the World Health Organization in May 2008 called for an assessment of the feasibility of measles eradication, including whether sufficient vaccine supply exists. Interviews with international health officials and vaccine-makers provided data for a detailed model of worldwide demand and supply for measles-containing vaccine (MCV). The study projected global MCV demand through 2025 with and without a global eradication goal. The study found that 5.2 billion MCV doses must be administered during 2010-2025 to maintain current measles programs, and 5.9 billion doses would likely be needed with a 2020 eradication goal; in the most intensive scenario, demand could increase to 7.5 billion doses. These volumes are within existing and planned MCV-manufacturing capacity, although there are risks. In some markets, capacity is concentrated: Supply-chain disruptions could reduce supply or increase prices. Mitigation strategies could include stockpiling, long-term contracts, and further coordination with manufacturers. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

  14. Cost of a measles outbreak in a remote island economy: 2014 Federated States of Micronesia measles outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Jamison; Tippins, Ashley; Nyaku, Mawuli; Eckert, Maribeth; Helgenberger, Louisa; Underwood, J Michael

    2017-10-13

    After 20years with no reported measles cases, on May 15, 2014 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) was notified of two cases testing positive for measles-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). Under the Compact of Free Association, FSM receives immunization funding and technical support from the United States (US) domestic vaccination program managed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). In a collaborative effort, public health officials and volunteers from FSM and the US government worked to respond and contain the measles outbreak through an emergency mass vaccination campaign, contact tracing, and other outbreak investigation activities. Contributions were also made by United Nations Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) and World Health Organization (WHO). Total costs incurred as a result of the outbreak were nearly $4,000,000; approximately $10,000 per case. Direct medical costs (≈$141,000) were incurred in the treatment of those individuals infected, as well as lost productivity of the infected and informal caregivers (≈$250,000) and costs to contain the outbreak (≈$3.5 million). We assessed the economic burden of the 2014 measles outbreak to FSM, as well as the economic responsibilities of the US. Although the US paid the majority of total costs of the outbreak (≈67%), examining each country's costs relative to their respective economy illustrates a far greater burden to FSM. We demonstrate that while FSM was heavily assisted by the US in responding to the 2014 Measles Outbreak, the outbreak significantly impacted their economy. FSM's economic burden from the outbreak is approximately equivalent to their entire 2016 Fiscal Year budget dedicated to education. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. [Viruses and civilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastel, C

    1999-01-01

    A few million years ago, when primates moved from the east African forest to the savannah, they were already infected with endogenous viruses and occultly transmitted them to the prime Homo species. However it was much later with the building of the first large cities in Mesopotamia that interhuman viral transmission began in earnest. Spreading was further enhanced with the organization of the Egyptian, Greek, Roman, and Arab empires around the Mediterranean. Discovery of the New World in 1492 led to an unprecedented clash of civilizations and the destruction of pre-Columbian Indian civilizations. It also led to a rapid spread of viruses across the Atlantic Ocean with the emergence of yellow fever and appearance of smallpox and measles throughout the world. However the greatest opportunities for worldwide viral development have been created by our present, modern civilization. This fact is illustrated by epidemic outbreaks of human immunodeficiency virus, Venezuela hemorrhagic fever, Rift valley fever virus, and monkey pox virus. Close analysis underscores the major role of human intervention in producing these events.

  16. Characterizing measles transmission in India: a dynamic modeling study using verbal autopsy data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verguet, Stéphane; Jones, Edward O; Johri, Mira; Morris, Shaun K; Suraweera, Wilson; Gauvreau, Cindy L; Jha, Prabhat; Jit, Mark

    2017-08-10

    Decreasing trends in measles mortality have been reported in recent years. However, such estimates of measles mortality have depended heavily on assumed regional measles case fatality risks (CFRs) and made little use of mortality data from low- and middle-income countries in general and India, the country with the highest measles burden globally, in particular. We constructed a dynamic model of measles transmission in India with parameters that were empirically inferred using spectral analysis from a time series of measles mortality extracted from the Million Death Study, an ongoing longitudinal study recording deaths across 2.4 million Indian households and attributing causes of death using verbal autopsy. The model was then used to estimate the measles CFR, the number of measles deaths, and the impact of vaccination in 2000-2015 among under-five children in India and in the states of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh (UP), two states with large populations and the highest numbers of measles deaths in India. We obtained the following estimated CFRs among under-five children for the year 2005: 0.63% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.40-1.00%) for India as a whole, 0.62% (0.38-1.00%) for Bihar, and 1.19% (0.80-1.75%) for UP. During 2000-2015, we estimated that 607,000 (95% CI: 383,000-958,000) under-five deaths attributed to measles occurred in India as a whole. If no routine vaccination or supplemental immunization activities had occurred from 2000 to 2015, an additional 1.6 (1.0-2.6) million deaths for under-five children would have occurred across India. We developed a data- and model-driven estimation of the historical measles dynamics, CFR, and vaccination impact in India, extracting the periodicity of epidemics using spectral and coherence analysis, which allowed us to infer key parameters driving measles transmission dynamics and mortality.

  17. Measles outbreak linked to European B3 outbreaks, Wales, United Kingdom, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Jonny; Davies, Llion; McCarthy, Joanne; Perry, Malorie; Moore, Catherine; Cottrell, Simon; Bowley, Mererid; Williams, Chris; Shankar, Ananda Giri; Stiff, Rhianwen

    2017-10-01

    The United Kingdom achieved interrupted endemic measles transmission for 36 months in 2016. Despite this, ongoing challenges from sporadic measles cases typically imported from abroad remain. We summarise a B3 measles genotype outbreak in south-east Wales occurring between May and September 2017, linked with other European outbreaks, and lessons learnt. Seventeen confirmed cases and one probable case occurred principally in education and healthcare-settings. Six confirmed cases attended healthcare settings when infectious, without being isolated.

  18. What Obstetric Health Care Providers Need to Know About Measles and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Jamieson, Denise J.

    2015-01-01

    From January 1 to April 3, 2015, 159 people from 18 states and the District of Columbia were reported as having measles. Most cases are part of an outbreak linked to a California amusement park. Because measles was eliminated in the United States in 2000, most U.S. clinicians are unfamiliar with the condition. We reviewed information on the current outbreak, measles manifestations, diagnostic methods, treatment, and infection-control recommendations. To identify information on measles and pregnancy, we reviewed reports with 20 or more measles cases during pregnancy that included data on effects on pregnant women or pregnancy outcomes. These reports were identified through MEDLINE from inception through February 2015 using the following strategy: (((pregnan*) AND measles) AND English[Language]) NOT review[Publication Type]. Reference lists also were reviewed to identify additional articles. Pregnant women infected with measles are more likely to be hospitalized, develop pneumonia, and die than nonpregnant women. Adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pregnancy loss, preterm birth, and low birth weight, are associated with maternal measles; however, the risk of congenital defects does not appear to be increased. No antiviral therapy is available; treatment is supportive. Early identification of possible cases is needed so that appropriate infection control can be instituted promptly. The recent measles outbreak highlights the role that obstetric health care providers play in vaccine-preventable illnesses; obstetrician–gynecologists should ensure that patients are up to date on all vaccines, including measles-containing vaccines, and should recommend and ideally offer a measles-containing vaccine to women without evidence of measles immunity before or after pregnancy. PMID:25899422

  19. Measles outbreak investigation in Guji zone of Oromia Region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Ketema; Tegegne, Ayesheshem Ademe; Mersha, Amare Mengistu; Bayenessagne, Mekonnen Getahun; Hussein, Ibrahim; Bezabeh, Belay

    2017-01-01

    Despite the increase of immunization coverage (administrative) of measles in the country, there are widespread outbreaks of measles. In this respect, we investigated one of the outbreaks that occurred in hard to reach kebeles of Guji Zone, Oromia region, to identify the contributing factors that lead to the protracted outbreak of measles. We used a cross-sectional study design to investigate a measles outbreak in Guji zone, Oromia region. Data entry and analysis was performed using EPI-Info version 7.1.0.6 and MS-Microsoft Excel. In three months' time a total of 1059 suspected cases and two deaths were reported from 9 woredas affected by a measles outbreak in Guji zone. The cumulative attack rate of 81/100,000 population and case fatality ratio of 0.2% was recorded. Of these, 821 (77.5%) cases were measles vaccine. Although, all age groups were affected under five years old were more affected 495 (48%) than any other age groups. In response to the outbreak, an outbreak response immunization was organized at the 11th week of the epidemic, when the epidemic curve started to decline. 6 months to14 years old were targeted for outbreak response immunization and the overall coverage was 97 % (range: 90-103%). Case management with vitamin A supplementation, active case search, and health education was some of the activities carried out to curb the outbreak. We conclude that low routine immunization coverage in conjunction with low access to routine immunization in hard to reach areas, low community awareness in utilization of immunization service, inadequate cold chain management and delivery of a potent vaccine in hard to reach woredas/kebeles were likely contributed to the outbreak that's triggered a broad spread epidemic affecting mostly children without any vaccination. We also figured that the case-based surveillance lacks sensitivity and timely confirmation of the outbreak, which as a result outbreak response immunization were delayed. We recommend establishing

  20. Epstein-Barr virus but not cytomegalovirus is associated with reduced vaccine antibody responses in Gambian infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Holder

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and cytomegalovirus (CMV are persistent herpesviruses that have various immunomodulatory effects on their hosts. Both viruses are usually acquired in infancy in Sub-Saharan Africa, a region where childhood vaccines are less effective than in high income settings. To establish whether there is an association between these two observations, we tested the hypothesis that infection with one or both viruses modulate antibody responses to the T-cell independent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine and the T-cell dependent measles vaccines.Infection with EBV and CMV was diagnosed by the presence of virus-specific IgM in the peripheral blood or by the presence of IgG at higher levels than that found in umbilical cord blood. Anti-meningococcus IgG and IgM were quantified by ELISA. Anti-measles antibody responses were quantified by haemagglutinin antibody inhibition assay. Infants infected with EBV had reduced IgG and IgM antibody responses to meningococcal polysaccharides and to measles vaccine. Infection with CMV alone predicted no changes in the response to meningococcal polysaccharide. While CMV alone had no discernable effect on the antibody response to measles, the response of infants infected with both CMV and EBV was similar to that of infants infected with neither, suggesting that the effects of CMV infection countered the effects of EBV on measles antibody responses.The results of this exploratory study indicate that infection with EBV is associated with reduced antibody responses to polysaccharides and to measles vaccine, but suggest that the response to T-cell dependent antigens such as measles haemagglutinin may be restored by infection with CMV.

  1. The V domain of dog PVRL4 (nectin-4) mediates canine distemper virus entry and virus cell-to-cell spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpeut, Sebastien; Noyce, Ryan S; Richardson, Christopher D

    2014-04-01

    The entry of canine distemper virus (CDV) is a multistep process that involves the attachment of CDV hemagglutinin (H) to its cellular receptor, followed by fusion between virus and cell membranes. Our laboratory recently identified PVRL4 (nectin-4) to be the epithelial receptor for measles and canine distemper viruses. In this study, we demonstrate that the V domain of PVRL4 is critical for CDV entry and virus cell-to-cell spread. Furthermore, four key amino acid residues within the V domain of dog PVRL4 and two within the CDV hemagglutinin were shown to be essential for receptor-mediated virus entry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Global importation and population risk factors for measles in New Zealand: a case study for highly immunized populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, D T S; Marshall, J C; French, N P; Carpenter, T E; Roberts, M G; Kiedrzynski, T

    2017-07-01

    As endemic measles is eliminated through immunization, countries must determine the risk factors for the importation of measles into highly immunized populations to target control measures. Despite eliminating endemic measles, New Zealand suffers from outbreaks after introductions from abroad, enabling us to use it as a model for measles introduction risk. We used a generalized linear model to analyze risk factors for 1137 measles cases from 2007 to June 2014, provide estimates of national immunity levels, and model measles importation risk. People of European ethnicity made up the majority of measles cases. Age is a positive risk factor, particularly 0-2-year-olds and 5-17-year-old Europeans, along with increased wealth. Pacific islanders were also at greater risk, but due to 0-2-year-old cases. Despite recent high measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine immunization coverage, overall population immunity against measles remains ~90% and is lower in people born between 1982 and 2005. Greatest measles importation risk is during December, and countries predicted to be sources have historical connections and highest travel rates (Australia and UK), followed by Asian countries with high travel rates and higher measles incidences. Our results suggest measles importation due to travel is seeding measles outbreaks, and immunization levels are insufficient to continue to prevent outbreaks because of heterogeneous immunity in the population, leaving particular age groups at risk.

  3. Measles and respiratory failure: Case report and review of the last European outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Lagunes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Measles is an preventable acute viral illness, with the potential for severe and fatal complications. According to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control in the last surveillance report, a total of 10 271 cases of measles were reported from January to December 2013. And 127 of those were reported in Spain with a 2.7/1 million habitants rate. In 2010, the World Health Organization European Region made a new commitment to eradicate measles by 2015 in the zone, however, measles cases and outbreaks are still occurring in many countries. We present the last 2 cases with severe measles-associated respiratory failure and a review of the literature of the last European outbreaks. Two young adults were admitted in the intensive care unit due to respiratory failure with a confirmed measles infection. Both treated with high flow nasal cannula during 3 to 5 days; one had a pneumococcal pneumonia coinfection. An incomplete vaccination schedule was documented in one of them while the other did not remember his. Within 10 days of admission, both were discharged from intensive care unit and the hospital with no complications. Measles can present with a variety of symptoms in adults and is responsible for a high morbidity especially during outbreaks. Pneumonia is a severe complication of measles infection, commonly reported. Surveillance and vaccination programs should be strengthened in order to achieve measles elimination.

  4. Towards measles elimination in Italy: Virological surveillance and genotypes trend (2013-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magurano, Fabio; Baggieri, Melissa; Filia, Antonietta; Del Manso, Martina; Lazzarotto, Tiziana; Amendola, Antonella; D'Agaro, Pierlanfranco; Chironna, Maria; Ansaldi, Filippo; Iannazzo, Stefania; Bucci, Paola; Marchi, Antonella; Nicoletti, Loredana

    2017-05-15

    In accordance with the goal of the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, the Italian National Measles and Rubella Elimination Plan aimed to interrupt indigenous measles transmission in Italy by the end of 2015. However, from 2013 to 2015, Italy experienced high measles burden with 4902 measles cases (49.3% laboratory-confirmed) reported to the enhanced measles surveillance system (cumulative incidence in the triennium reference period: 2.4/100,000 population). The measles elimination goal was not reached. Laboratory surveillance of measles circulating genotypes is performed by the Measles and Rubella National Reference Laboratory (NRL) at the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità - ISS), in Rome. Samples received from 1 January 2013-31 December 2015 were analysed. Those positive for measles genome by molecular tests were sequenced and phylogenetically analysed. Phylogenetic analysis performed by NRL identified that genotypes D4 and D8 were endemic and co-circulated in 2011-2013: study results show that genotype D4 disappeared during 2013. Sporadic cases were associated to genotype B3 during 2011-2013, which became endemic in Italy during 2014 and co-circulated with D8 until 2015. Sporadic cases were found belonging to genotypes D9 and H1 all over the period in exam. Similar trend has been observed in European WHO Region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Drivers of measles mortality: the historic fatality burden of famine in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, A S; Alam, N; Metcalf, C J E

    2017-12-01

    Measles is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in many parts of the world. Estimates of the case-fatality rate (CFR) of measles have varied widely from place to place, as well as in the same location over time. Amongst populations that have experienced famine or armed conflict, measles CFR can be especially high, although past work has mostly focused on refugee populations. Here, we estimate measles CFR between 1970 and 1991 in a rural region of Bangladesh, which experienced civil war and famine in the 1970s. We use historical measles mortality data and a mechanistic model of measles transmission to estimate the CFR of measles. We first demonstrate the ability of this model to recover the CFR in the absence of incidence data, using simulated mortality data. Our method produces CFR estimates that correspond closely to independent estimates from surveillance data and we can capture both the magnitude and the change in CFR suggested by these previous estimates. We use this method to quantify the sharp increase in CFR that resulted in a large number of deaths during a measles outbreak in the region in 1976. Most of the children who died during this outbreak were born during a famine in 1974, or in the 2 years preceding the famine. Our results suggest that the period of turmoil during and after the 1971 war and the sustained effects of the famine, is likely to have contributed to the high fatality burden of the 1976 measles outbreak in Matlab.

  6. Case report: Ribavirin and vitamin A in a severe case of measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichon, Amandine; Aubry, Camille; Benarous, Lucas; Drouet, Hortense; Zandotti, Christine; Parola, Philippe; Lagier, Jean-Christophe

    2017-12-01

    Despite a vaccine being widely available, measles continues to occur frequently, with sometimes lethal consequences. The mortality rate reaches 35% and measles represents 44% of the 1.4 million deaths which are due to preventable diseases. Severe forms of measles are reported, mainly in young, unvaccinated adults, and in specific populations. The risk factors for severe measles include no or incomplete vaccination and vitamin A deficiency. Apart from secondary measles-related infections, severe measles is mainly represented by neurological, respiratory, and digestive symptoms. Strengthening the hypothesis that there is a link between vitamin A deficiency and severe measles in this paper we report the case of a 25-year-old unvaccinated man hospitalized for severe and complicated measles. The evolution was good after administration of intramuscular vitamin A as well as intravenous ribavirin. Measles remains a fatal and serious disease. The early use of ribavirin and vitamin A shows significant improvements regarding morbimortality and should be systematic in severe cases. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The impact of declining vaccination coverage on measles control: a case study of Abia state Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeh, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Ahaneku, Hycienth Peterson

    2013-01-01

    Efforts at immunizing children against measles was intensified in Nigeria with nation-wide measles vaccination campaigns in 2005-2006, 2008 and 2011 targeting children between 9 and 59 months. However, there were measles outbreaks in 2010 and 2011 in Abia state Nigeria. This study seeks to find out if there is any association between measles immunization coverage and measles outbreak. This is a descriptive analysis of the 2007 to 2011 Abia state measles case-based surveillance data supplied to Abia state World Health Organization office and Abia State Ministry of Health by the disease surveillance and notification officers. As the proportion of cases with febrile rash who were immunized decreased from 81% in 2007 to 42% in 2011, the laboratory confirmed cases of measles increased from two in 2007 to 53 in 2011.Of the laboratory confirmed cases of measles, five (7%) occurred in children Abia state bearing in mind that measles immunization coverage in urban and rural areas was not markedly different.

  8. Measles epidemics of variable lethality in the early 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, G Dennis; Hu, Zheng; Waller, Michael; Lee, Seung-eun; Terfa, Daniel; Howard, Alan; van Heyningen, Elizabeth; Brundage, John F

    2014-02-15

    Until the mid-20th century, mortality rates were often very high during measles epidemics, particularly among previously isolated populations (e.g., islanders), refugees/internees who were forcibly crowded into camps, and military recruits. Searching for insights regarding measles mortality rates, we reviewed historical records of measles epidemics on the Polynesian island of Rotuma (in 1911), in Boer War concentration camps (in 1900-1902), and in US Army mobilization camps during the First World War (in 1917-1918). Records classified measles deaths by date and clinical causes; by demographic characteristics, family relationships (for Rotuma islanders and Boer camp internees), and prior residences; and by camp (for Boer internees and US Army recruits). During the Rotuman and Boer War epidemics, measles-related mortality rates were high (up to 40%); however, mortality rates differed more than 10-fold across camps/districts, even though conditions were similar. During measles epidemics, most deaths among camp internees/military recruits were due to secondary bacterial pneumonias; in contrast, most deaths among Rotuman islanders were due to gastrointestinal complications. The clinical expressions, courses, and outcomes of measles during first-contact epidemics differ from those during camp epidemics. The degree of isolation from respiratory pathogens other than measles may significantly determine measles-related mortality risk.

  9. Priming T-cell responses with recombinant measles vaccine vector in a heterologous prime-boost setting in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Diane L; Santra, Sampa; Swett-Tapia, Cindy; Custers, Jerome; Song, Kaimei; Balachandran, Harikrishnan; Mach, Linh; Naim, Hussein; Kozlowski, Pamela A; Lifton, Michelle; Goudsmit, Jaap; Letvin, Norman; Roederer, Mario; Radošević, Katarina

    2012-09-07

    Licensed live attenuated virus vaccines capable of expressing transgenes from other pathogens have the potential to reduce the number of childhood immunizations by eliciting robust immunity to multiple pathogens simultaneously. Recombinant attenuated measles virus (rMV) derived from the Edmonston Zagreb vaccine strain was engineered to express simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Gag protein for the purpose of evaluating the immunogenicity of rMV as a vaccine vector in rhesus macaques. rMV-Gag immunization alone elicited robust measles-specific humoral and cellular responses, but failed to elicit transgene (Gag)-specific immune responses, following aerosol or intratracheal/intramuscular delivery. However, when administered as a priming vaccine to a heterologous boost with recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 expressing the same transgene, rMV-Gag significantly enhanced Gag-specific T lymphocyte responses following rAd5 immunization. Gag-specific humoral responses were not enhanced, however, which may be due to either the transgene or the vector. Cellular response priming by rMV against the transgene was highly effective even when using a suboptimal dose of rAd5 for the boost. These data demonstrate feasibility of using rMV as a priming component of heterologous prime-boost vaccine regimens for pathogens requiring strong cellular responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Epidemiology of infectious disease: the example of measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, F L; Pinheiro, F; Hierholzer, W J; Lee, R V

    1977-01-01

    The situation of unacculturated Brazilian Amazon tribes is described. The isolation of these populations has been sufficiently tight that they have been free of most epidemic diseases of the cosmopolitan world, although diseases associated with persistent infection have a high prevalence. The history of measles epidemics in Amerind populations is reviewed and it is concluded that most deaths can be prevented by basic nursing care but that there is a residual excess mortality characteristic of these populations. Three Brazilian virgin-soil populations and one experienced tribe in Chile, the Mapuche, were vaccinated against measles. Elevated febrile responses were observed in the three virgin-soil populations relative to the fevers seen in the Mapuche and in cosmopolitan populations. Nutritional status, immunological experience, humoral immune response and genetic characters have been examined for an explanation of this phenomenon. The most pronounced correspondence detected so far is a high degree of homozygosity in HLA loci of the virgin populations.

  11. MHealth to Improve Measles Immunization in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Emil Rossing; Ravn, Henrik; Batista, Celso Soares Pereira

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have revealed a low measles vaccination (MV) rate in the Republic of Guinea-Bissau (West Africa) that has not increased in accordance with the increasing coverage of other vaccinations. Measles is the deadliest of all childhood rash/fever illnesses and spreads easily...... receiving the MV, will be enrolled when they arrive with their children at the health center to receive the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination, usually within one month of the child's birth. Enrolment will continue until a study population of 990 children has been reached. The participants...... will be randomly assigned to a control arm or one of two intervention arms. Each of the three groups will have 330 participants, distributed equally between health centers. Participants in the first intervention arm will receive a scheduled short message service (SMS) text message reminding them of the MV...

  12. An evaluation of the national measles vaccination campaign in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significant determinants of vaccination coverage were: place of birth (X2 = 9,7; 2 df; P = 0,008); ≤6 months stay in Cape Town (odds ratio (OR) 2,22; 95% Cl 1,2 - 4,0%); and home birth (OR 3,21; 95% Cl 1,2 - 8,4%). The value of campaigns in controlling measles, as well as the role of a comprehensive health care service ...

  13. Reduced childhood mortality after standard measles vaccination at 4-8 months compared with 9-11 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Andersen, M; Sodemann, Morten

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the impact on mortality of standard Schwarz measles immunisation before 9 months of age.......To evaluate the impact on mortality of standard Schwarz measles immunisation before 9 months of age....

  14. Benefits and challenges in using sero-prevalence data to inform models for measles and rubella elimination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, A K; Martinez, M E; Cutts, F T; Moss, W J; Ferrari, M; McKee, A; Lessler, J; Hayford, K; Wallinga, J; Metcalf, C J E

    2018-01-01

    Control efforts for measles and rubella are intensifying globally. It becomes increasingly important to identify and reach remaining susceptible populations as elimination is approached. Serological surveys for measles and rubella can potentially measure susceptibility directly, but their use

  15. Facebook and Twitter vaccine sentiment in response to measles outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiner, Michael S; Fathy, Cherie; Kim, Jessica; Niemeyer, Katherine; Ramirez, David; Ackley, Sarah F; Liu, Fengchen; Lietman, Thomas M; Porco, Travis C

    2017-11-01

    Social media posts regarding measles vaccination were classified as pro-vaccination, expressing vaccine hesitancy, uncertain, or irrelevant. Spearman correlations with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-reported measles cases and differenced smoothed cumulative case counts over this period were reported (using time series bootstrap confidence intervals). A total of 58,078 Facebook posts and 82,993 tweets were identified from 4 January 2009 to 27 August 2016. Pro-vaccination posts were correlated with the US weekly reported cases (Facebook: Spearman correlation 0.22 (95% confidence interval: 0.09 to 0.34), Twitter: 0.21 (95% confidence interval: 0.06 to 0.34)). Vaccine-hesitant posts, however, were uncorrelated with measles cases in the United States (Facebook: 0.01 (95% confidence interval: -0.13 to 0.14), Twitter: 0.0011 (95% confidence interval: -0.12 to 0.12)). These findings may result from more consistent social media engagement by individuals expressing vaccine hesitancy, contrasted with media- or event-driven episodic interest on the part of individuals favoring current policy.

  16. Positive predictive value and effectiveness of measles case-based surveillance in Uganda, 2012-2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Nsubuga

    Full Text Available Disease surveillance is a critical component in the control and elimination of vaccine preventable diseases. The Uganda National Expanded Program on Immunization strives to have a sensitive surveillance system within the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR framework. We analyzed measles surveillance data to determine the effectiveness of the measles case-based surveillance system and estimate its positive predictive value in order to inform policy and practice.An IDSR alert was defined as ≥1 suspected measles case reported by a district in a week, through the electronic Health Management Information System. We defined an alert in the measles case-based surveillance system (CBS as ≥1 suspected measles case with a blood sample collected for confirmation during the corresponding week in a particular district. Effectiveness of CBS was defined as having ≥80% of IDSR alerts with a blood sample collected for laboratory confirmation. Positive predictive value was defined as the proportion of measles case-patients who also had a positive measles serological result (IgM +. We reviewed case-based surveillance data with laboratory confirmation and measles surveillance data from the electronic Health Management Information System from 2012-2015.A total of 6,974 suspected measles case-persons were investigated by the measles case-based surveillance between 2012 and 2015. Of these, 943 (14% were measles specific IgM positive. The median age of measles case-persons between 2013 and 2015 was 4.0 years. Between 2013 and 2015, 72% of the IDSR alerts reported in the electronic Health Management Information System, had blood samples collected for laboratory confirmation. This was however less than the WHO recommended standard of ≥80%. The PPV of CBS between 2013 and 2015 was 8.6%.In conclusion, the effectiveness of measles case-based surveillance was sub-optimal, while the PPV showed that true measles cases have significantly reduced in Uganda

  17. Determinants of apparent rural-urban differentials in measles vaccination uptake in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Renae C; Awofeso, Niyi; Rammohan, Anu

    2011-01-01

    Regional differences in vaccination uptake are common in both developed and developing countries, and are often linked to the availability of healthcare services and socioeconomic factors. In 2007, 0.9 million eligible Indonesian children missed measles vaccination, and 19 456 cases of measles were documented among Indonesian children. The authors investigated rural-urban differentials in measles vaccination coverage among young Indonesian children, and sought to identify key factors influencing the probability of a child receiving the first dose of measles vaccination in Indonesia. Data used in the analyses were sourced from the nationally representative Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 2007. The influence of location of residence, household wealth, maternal and paternal education, total children ever born and use of skilled birth attendants on measles vaccination coverage was investigated using bivariate analysis and chi-square tests. The independent effects of these variables were established using binomial logistic regression analysis. Indonesia's 2007 first-dose measles national vaccination coverage was, at 72.8%, lower than the 2008 global first-dose measles vaccination average coverage of 82%. Bivariate analysis revealed that the first-dose measles vaccination coverage in rural areas of Indonesia was 68.5%, compared with 80.1% in urban regions (p rural residence in impairing vaccination coverage was marginal after controlling for the sex of the child, maternal age, maternal and paternal education, wealth, and access to skilled health workers. Apart from sustainable initiatives to increase measles vaccination coverage globally, it is important to close the rural-urban gap in Indonesia's measles vaccination uptake. Addressing critical determinants of inferior measles vaccination coverage in Indonesia's rural regions will facilitate major improvements in Indonesia's child health trends. This article suggests initiatives for addressing three of such

  18. Toward rubella elimination in Poland: need for supplemental immunization activities, enhanced surveillance, and further integration with measles elimination efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Laura; Rogalska, Justyna; Wannemuehler, Kathleen A; Haponiuk, Marzena; Kosek, Adam; Pauch, Ewa; Plonska, Elzbieta; Veltze, Daniel; Czarkowski, Miroslaw P; Buddh, Nilesh; Reef, Susan; Stefanoff, Pawel

    2011-07-01

    All Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region have endorsed rubella elimination and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) prevention. However, Poland has continued high levels of reported rubella. We reviewed rubella incidence in Poland since 1966 and analyzed national aggregated surveillance data from the period 2003-2008 and case-based data from 4 provinces from the period 2006-2008. We described CRS cases since 1997 and assessed maternal receipt of vaccine. We reviewed national vaccination coverage from 1992 through 2008. Since 1966, rubella outbreaks have occurred every 4-6 years in Poland. Aggregate and case-based data from the period 2003-2008 indicate that rubella virus transmission has occurred across wide age ranges (from continues. To achieve rubella elimination, supplemental immunization activities among adolescent boys are needed, as is integration with measles elimination efforts. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2011.

  19. Factors affecting compliance with measles vaccination in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phimmasane, Maniphet; Douangmala, Somthana; Koffi, Paulin; Reinharz, Daniel; Buisson, Yves

    2010-09-24

    In line with WHO objectives, the Lao Government is committed to eliminate measles by 2012. Yet from 1992 to 2007, the annual incidence of measles remained high while the vaccination coverage showed a wide diversity across provinces. A descriptive study was performed to determine factors affecting compliance with vaccination against measles, which included qualitative and quantitative components. The qualitative study used a convenience sample of 13 persons in charge of the vaccination program, consisting of officials from different levels of the health care structure and members of vaccination teams. The quantitative study performed on the target population consisted of a matched, case-control survey conducted on a stratified random sample of parents of children aged 9-23 months. Overall, 584 individuals (292 cases and 292 controls) were interviewed in the three provinces selected because of low vaccination coverage. On the provision of services side (supply), the main problems identified were a lack of vaccine supply and diluent, a difficulty in maintaining the cold chain, a lack of availability and competence among health workers, a lack of coordination and a limited capacity to assess needs and make coherent decisions. In the side of the consumer (demand), major obstacles identified were poor knowledge about measles immunization and difficulties in accessing vaccination centers because of distance and cost. In multivariate analysis, a low education level of the father was a factor of non-immunization while the factors of good compliance were high incomes, spacing of pregnancies, a feeling that children must be vaccinated, knowledge about immunization age, presenting oneself to the hospital rather than expecting the mobile vaccination teams and last, immunization of other family members or friends' children. The main factors affecting the compliance with vaccination against measles in Laos involve both the supply side and the demand side. Obtaining an effective

  20. The average cost of measles cases and adverse events following vaccination in industrialised countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kou Ulla

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even though the annual incidence rate of measles has dramatically decreased in industrialised countries since the implementation of universal immunisation programmes, cases continue to occur in countries where endemic measles transmission has been interrupted and in countries where adequate levels of immunisation coverage have not been maintained. The objective of this study is to develop a model to estimate the average cost per measles case and per adverse event following measles immunisation using the Netherlands (NL, the United Kingdom (UK and Canada as examples. Methods Parameter estimates were based on a review of the published literature. A decision tree was built to represent the complications associated with measles cases and adverse events following imminisation. Monte-Carlo Simulation techniques were used to account for uncertainty. Results From the perspective of society, we estimated the average cost per measles case to be US$276, US$307 and US$254 for the NL, the UK and Canada, respectively, and the average cost of adverse events following immunisation per vaccinee to be US$1.43, US$1.93 and US$1.51 for the NL, UK and Canada, respectively. Conclusions These average cost estimates could be combined with incidence estimates and costs of immunisation programmes to provide estimates of the cost of measles to industrialised countries. Such estimates could be used as a basis to estimate the potential economic gains of global measles eradication.

  1. Evaluation of the World Health Organization global measles and rubella quality assurance program, 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambos, Vicki; Leydon, Jennie; Riddell, Michaela; Clothier, Hazel; Catton, Mike; Featherstone, David; Kelly, Heath

    2011-07-01

    During 2001-2008, the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory (VIDRL) prepared and provided a measles and rubella proficiency test panel for distribution to the World Health Organization (WHO) measles and rubella network laboratories as part of their annual laboratory accreditation assessment. Panel test results were forwarded to VIDRL, and results from 8 consecutive years were analyzed. We assessed the type of assays used and results achieved on the basis of the positive and negative interpretation of submitted results, by year and WHO region, for measles and rubella. Over time, there has been a noticeable increase in laboratory and WHO regional participation. For all panels, the proportion of laboratories in all WHO regions using the WHO-validated Dade Behring assay for measles and rubella-specific IgM antibodies ranged from 35% to 100% and 59% to 100%, respectively. For all regions and years, the proportion of laboratories obtaining a pass score ranged from 87% to 100% for measles and 93% to 100% for rubella. During 2001-2008, a large proportion of laboratories worldwide achieved and maintained a pass score for both measles and rubella. Measles and rubella proficiency testing is regarded as a major achievement for the WHO measles and rubella laboratory program. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

  2. Long term impact of high titer Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine on T lymphocyte subsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Aaby, P; Knudsen, K

    1994-01-01

    Several trials of high titer measles vaccine (> 10(4.7) plaque-forming unit) have found female recipients of Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) vaccine to have lower survival than female recipients of standard measles vaccine. Two trials with medium and high titer EZ vaccine from the age of 4 months were...

  3. Measles among migrants in the European Union and the European Economic Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, G.A.; Bacci, S.; Shadwick, R.; Tillmann, T.; Rechel, B.; Noori, T.; Suk, J.E.; Odone, A.; Ingleby, J.D.; Mladovsky, P.; McKee, M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Progress towards meeting the goal of measles elimination in the EU and the European Economic Area (EEA) by 2015 is being obstructed, as some children are either not immunized on time or never immunized. One group thought to be at increased risk of measles is migrants; however, the extent to

  4. The effect of early measles vaccination on thymic size. A randomized study from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lone Damkjær; Eriksen, Helle Brander; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie

    2014-01-01

    In low-income countries early measles vaccine (MV) is associated with reduced child mortality which cannot be explained by prevention of measles. A large thymus gland in infancy is also associated with reduced mortality. We hypothesized that early MV is associated with increased thymic size. Within...

  5. Trend in mortality from a recent measles outbreak in Cameroon: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: measles is a highly contagious viral infection with high mortality in poorly vaccinated regions. We sought to establish the trend in mortality and the factors that favoured the recent measles outbreak that occurred in Benakuma, in the North west region of Cameroon from the 21/06/2015 to 26/09/2015. Methods: we ...

  6. Epidemiology of measles in Blantyre, Malawi: analyses of passive surveillance data from 1996 to 1998

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamaguchi, S.; Dunga, A.; Broadhead, R. L.; Brabin, B. J.

    2002-01-01

    Measles surveillance data in Blantyre, Malawi were reviewed for 1996-8 to describe the epidemiology of infection and to estimate vaccine efficacy (VE) by the screening method. A total of 674 measles cases were reported to the Blantyre District Health Office during this period. Age distribution

  7. Clinical profile and outcomes of measles in south-western Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Barely two years to the end-point of the count-down to 2015, measles still remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Nigerian children, despite being vaccine-preventable. Aims/objectives: We evaluated the spectrum of clinical morbidities and determinant of poor outcomes associated with measles in ...

  8. A ten-year study of measles admissions in a Nigerian Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Measles remains a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in Nigeria despite the availability of safe and effective vaccines. The last report on measles from our center was about 15 years ago. A review of the current status is necessary in order to strengthen interventional strategies. Objectives: To ...

  9. Lessons from worldwide measles out-breaks in 2011-2012 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measles is a leading cause of under-five mortality among vaccine preventable diseases in today's developing world. In fact, Tanzania has been experiencing measles out-breaks almost every year. Since last year, the world has experienced several out-breaks in several areas including many developed countries with high ...

  10. Age at first dose of measles vaccination in Ethiopia | Berhane | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Although measles vaccination is recommended to be given at nine months of age in Ethiopia and in most of sub-Saharan Africa, no information is available about the age at which children actually receive their first dose of measles vaccine. This has important implications in terms of preventing infection and ...

  11. Measles outbreak in South Africa, 2003 - 2005 | McMorrow | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. Measles was virtually eliminated in South Africa following control activities in 1996/7. However, from July 2003 to November 2005, 1 676 laboratory-confirmed measles cases were reported in South Africa. We investigated the outbreak's cause and the role of HIV. Design. We traced laboratory-confirmed ...

  12. Risk factors for persisting measles susceptibility: a case-control study among unvaccinated orthodox Protestants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Munter, Anne C; Tostmann, Alma; Hahné, Susan J M; Spaan, D Henri; van Ginkel, Rijk; Ruijs, Wilhelmina L M

    2018-01-01

    Measles is an infectious disease providing lifelong immunity. Epidemics periodically occur among unvaccinated orthodox Protestants in the Netherlands. During the 2013/2014 epidemic, 17% of the reported patients was over 14 years old. Apparently, they did not catch measles during the previous

  13. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in papua new guinean children: the cost of continuing inadequate measles vaccine coverage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurens Manning

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE is a late, rare and usually fatal complication of measles infection. Although a very high incidence of SSPE in Papua New Guinea (PNG was first recognized 20 years ago, estimated measles vaccine coverage has remained at ≤ 70% since and a large measles epidemic occurred in 2002. We report a series of 22 SSPE cases presenting between November 2007 and July 2009 in Madang Province, PNG, including localized clusters with the highest ever reported annual incidence.as part of a prospective observational study of severe childhood illness at Modilon Hospital, the provincial referral center, children presenting with evidence of meningo-encephalitis were assessed in detail including lumbar puncture in most cases. A diagnosis of SSPE was based on clinical features and presence of measles-specific IgG in cerebrospinal fluid and/or plasma. The estimated annual SSPE incidence in Madang province was 54/million population aged 100/million/year. The distribution of year of birth of the 22 children with SSPE closely matched the reported annual measles incidence in PNG, including a peak in 2002.SSPE follows measles infections in very young PNG children. Because PNG children have known low seroconversion rates to the first measles vaccine given at 6 months of age, efforts such as supplementary measles immunisation programs should continue in order to reduce the pool of non-immune people surrounding the youngest and most vulnerable members of PNG communities.

  14. Mumps vaccine virus strains and aseptic meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Marie-Claude; Dutta, Anil; Weinberger, Clement; Plotkin, Stanley A

    2006-11-30

    Mumps immunization can easily be included in national schedules, particularly if combined with measles or measles and rubella vaccines, but debate continues concerning the relative safety of various licensed mumps vaccine strains. The opportunities for control of mumps are also being affected by differences in the cost of the vaccines prepared with different strains of mumps virus. The present report evaluates available data on the association of the Urabe and other strains of mumps vaccine with the occurrence of aseptic meningitis. We also review the comparative immunogenicity and efficacies of the most widely used mumps vaccines in controlled clinical trials and field evaluations, and briefly examine relative cost as it relates to the implementation of national immunization programs. We conclude that extensive experience with the most widely used mumps vaccine strains in many countries has shown that the risk-benefit ratio of live mumps vaccines is highly favourable for vaccination, despite the occasional occurence of aseptic meningitis.

  15. Soil transmitted helminth infections are not associated with compromised antibody responses to previously administered measles and tetanus vaccines among HIV-1 infected, ART naïve Kenyan adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen L. Storey

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In many regions of sub-Saharan Africa, both HIV and helminth infections are prevalent. HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and helminth infections can both compromise immune responses in humans. To determine whether the presence of helminth infection or the treatment of helminth infection alters unstimulated vaccine responses among HIV-1 infected individuals, we conducted two nested serologic studies. Blood samples were collected for HIV disease monitoring and vaccine-specific serologic assays, while stool was evaluated by direct microscopy methods. We compared antibody responses to measles and tetanus vaccines in helminth-infected (Ascaris, Trichuris, hookworm and/or Schistosoma mansoni and uninfected adults 18 years and older (n = 100. We also compared measles and tetanus antibody responses in Ascaris only-infected adults receiving 400 mg albendazole daily for 3 days (n = 16 vs. placebo (n = 19 in a separate study. In both cohorts, over 70% of participants had measles and tetanus responses above the protective threshold. Prevalence of measles responses were similar between helminth-infected and uninfected individuals (82%, 95% CI: 71–93% vs 72%, 95% CI: 59–85%, as well as log10 tetanus antibody levels (−0.133 IU/mL vs −0.190 IU/mL, p > 0.05, and did not differ by helminth species. In the Ascaris-infected cohort, changes in measles responses and tetanus responses did not differ between those who received anthelminthic vs. placebo (p > 0.05 for both. In these studies, neither helminth infection, nor deworming, appeared to affect previously administered vaccine responsiveness in HIV-1 infected, ART naïve, adults in Kenya.

  16. Record High US Measles Cases: Patient Vaccination, Clinical Assessment and Management

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Record High US Measles Cases: Patient Vaccination, Clinical Assessment and Management. In May 2014, the United States recorded the largest number of reported measles cases since 1994 and the number continues to rise. Most cases reported have been acquired in the U.S. and are associated with importations from countries where measles is still common. This highly contagious, acute viral illness spreads quickly in unvaccinated populations once reaching the U.S. The recent measles outbreaks highlight the importance of maintaining high vaccination coverage in the U.S. and ensuring age-appropriate vaccination for international travelers. During this COCA call, clinicians will learn the status of measles in the U.S. and CDC vaccination recommendations and guidelines for patient assessment and management.

  17. Epidemiology of Measles Cases in South Darfur State, Sudan, 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Taha Hussein; Kambo, Rehab Ibrahim; Ahmed, Abdelkareem Abdallah; Musa, Hassan Hussein

    2017-12-01

    Case-based surveillance measles data was defined according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. A total of 511 measles cases were studied from 2011 to 2015 in Southern Darfur State, Sudan and 58.1% of cases were confirmed from Nyala city. About 43.4% of cases were males, 56.6% of cases were female, and 47.7% were children under five years old. Similarity, within February to June, the cases increased by 8.0% in children vaccinated through measles campaign, and 5.3% in children that used child vaccination card and 78.7% in unvaccinated one. The epidemiologically linked (EPI-Linked) measles cases declined from 2011 to 2015; consequently, Measles still remain to be a significant challenge in south Darfur state, Sudan. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  18. Measles Antibody Titres In 0-5 Years Children At Aligarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandpal S D

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the level of measles antibodies in 0-5 year children? Objectives: 1.To assess the pattern of decline of maternal antibodies in 0-9 months infants. 2. To estimate the seropositivity for measles antibodies in vaccinated 9 months infants. Study design: Cross- sectional. Setting: Rural areas of District Aligarh, U.P. Participants: 456 children in the age group of 0-5 years. Statistical analysis: Percentages, correlation coefficient. Results: 1. In all the study subjects below 9 months of age, the transplacentally acquired maternal measles antibodies showed a linear decline with increase in age. Out of 202 study subjects who had been immunized against measles 195(96.50% were seropositive and 7(3.5% were seronegative for measles antibodies.

  19. Measles incidence, vaccine efficacy, and mortality in two urban African areas with high vaccination coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Knudsen, K; Jensen, T G

    1990-01-01

    Measles incidence, vaccine efficacy, and mortality were examined prospectively in two districts in Bissau where vaccine coverage for children aged 12-23 months was 81% (Bandim 1) and 61% (Bandim 2). There was little difference in cumulative measles incidence before 9 months of age (6.1% and 7.......6%, respectively). Between 9 months and 2 years of age, however, 6.1% contracted measles in Bandim 1 and 13.7% in Bandim 2. Even adjusting for vaccination status, incidence was significantly higher in Bandim 2 (relative risk 1.6, P = .04). Even though 95% of the children had measles antibodies after vaccination......, vaccine efficacy was not more than 68% (95% confidence interval [CI] 39%-84%) and was unrelated to age at vaccination. Unvaccinated children had a mortality hazard ratio of 3.0 compared with vaccinated children (P = .002), indicating a protective efficacy against death of 66% (CI 32%-83%) of measles...

  20. Measles outbreaks affecting children in Jewish ultra-orthodox communities in Jerusalem

    Science.gov (United States)

    STEIN-ZAMIR, C.; ZENTNER, G.; ABRAMSON, N.; SHOOB, H.; ABOUDY, Y.; SHULMAN, L.; MENDELSON, E.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY In 2003 and 2004 two measles outbreaks occurred in Jewish ultra-orthodox communities in Jerusalem. The index case of the first outbreak (March 2003) was a 2-year-old unvaccinated child from Switzerland. Within 5 months, 107 cases (mean age 8·3±7·5 years) emerged in three crowded neighbourhoods. The first cases of the second outbreak (June 2004) were in three girls aged 4–5 years in one kindergarten in another community. By November 2004, 117 cases (mean age 7·3±6·5 years) occurred. The virus genotypes were D8 and D4 respectively. Altogether, 96 households accounted for the two outbreaks, with two or more patients per family in 79% of cases. Most cases (91·5%) were unvaccinated. Immunization coverage was lower in outbreak than in non-outbreak neighbourhoods (88·3% vs. 90·3%, P=0·001). Controlling the outbreaks necessitated a culture-sensitive approach, and targeted efforts increased MMR vaccine coverage (first dose) to 95·2%. Despite high national immunization coverage (94–95%), special attention to specific sub-populations is essential. PMID:17433131

  1. Paternal education status significantly influences infants’ measles vaccination uptake, independent of maternal education status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rammohan Anu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite increased funding of measles vaccination programs by national governments and international aid agencies, structural factors encumber attainment of childhood measles immunisation to levels which may guarantee herd immunity. One of such factors is parental education status. Research on the links between parental education and vaccination has typically focused on the influence of maternal education status. This study aims to demonstrate the independent influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation. Methods Comparable nationally representative survey data were obtained from six countries with the highest numbers of children missing the measles vaccine in 2008. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the influence of paternal education on uptake of the first dose of measles vaccination, independent of maternal education, whilst controlling for confounding factors such as respondent’s age, urban/rural residence, province/state of residence, religion, wealth and occupation. Results The results of the analysis show that even if a mother is illiterate, having a father with an education of Secondary (high school schooling and above is statistically significant and positively correlated with the likelihood of a child being vaccinated for measles, in the six countries analysed. Paternal education of secondary or higher level was significantly and independently correlated with measles immunisation uptake after controlling for all potential confounders. Conclusions The influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation uptake was investigated and found to be statistically significant in six nations with the biggest gaps in measles immunisation coverage in 2008. This study underscores the imperative of utilising both maternal and paternal education as screening variables to identify children at risk of missing measles vaccination prospectively.

  2. Paternal education status significantly influences infants’ measles vaccination uptake, independent of maternal education status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite increased funding of measles vaccination programs by national governments and international aid agencies, structural factors encumber attainment of childhood measles immunisation to levels which may guarantee herd immunity. One of such factors is parental education status. Research on the links between parental education and vaccination has typically focused on the influence of maternal education status. This study aims to demonstrate the independent influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation. Methods Comparable nationally representative survey data were obtained from six countries with the highest numbers of children missing the measles vaccine in 2008. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the influence of paternal education on uptake of the first dose of measles vaccination, independent of maternal education, whilst controlling for confounding factors such as respondent’s age, urban/rural residence, province/state of residence, religion, wealth and occupation. Results The results of the analysis show that even if a mother is illiterate, having a father with an education of Secondary (high school) schooling and above is statistically significant and positively correlated with the likelihood of a child being vaccinated for measles, in the six countries analysed. Paternal education of secondary or higher level was significantly and independently correlated with measles immunisation uptake after controlling for all potential confounders. Conclusions The influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation uptake was investigated and found to be statistically significant in six nations with the biggest gaps in measles immunisation coverage in 2008. This study underscores the imperative of utilising both maternal and paternal education as screening variables to identify children at risk of missing measles vaccination prospectively. PMID:22568861

  3. Paternal education status significantly influences infants' measles vaccination uptake, independent of maternal education status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammohan, Anu; Awofeso, Niyi; Fernandez, Renae C

    2012-05-08

    Despite increased funding of measles vaccination programs by national governments and international aid agencies, structural factors encumber attainment of childhood measles immunisation to levels which may guarantee herd immunity. One of such factors is parental education status. Research on the links between parental education and vaccination has typically focused on the influence of maternal education status. This study aims to demonstrate the independent influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation. Comparable nationally representative survey data were obtained from six countries with the highest numbers of children missing the measles vaccine in 2008. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the influence of paternal education on uptake of the first dose of measles vaccination, independent of maternal education, whilst controlling for confounding factors such as respondent's age, urban/rural residence, province/state of residence, religion, wealth and occupation. The results of the analysis show that even if a mother is illiterate, having a father with an education of Secondary (high school) schooling and above is statistically significant and positively correlated with the likelihood of a child being vaccinated for measles, in the six countries analysed. Paternal education of secondary or higher level was significantly and independently correlated with measles immunisation uptake after controlling for all potential confounders. The influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation uptake was investigated and found to be statistically significant in six nations with the biggest gaps in measles immunisation coverage in 2008. This study underscores the imperative of utilising both maternal and paternal education as screening variables to identify children at risk of missing measles vaccination prospectively.

  4. Risk factors for measles mortality and the importance of decentralized case management during an unusually large measles epidemic in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo in 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Gignoux, E; Polonsky, J; Ciglenecki, I; Bichet, M; Coldiron, M; Thuambe Lwiyo, E; Akonda, I; Serafini, M; Porten, K

    2018-01-01

    In 2013, a large measles epidemic occurred in the Aketi Health Zone of the Democratic Republic of Congo. We conducted a two-stage, retrospective cluster survey to estimate the attack rate, the case fatality rate, and the measles-specific mortality rate during the epidemic. 1424 households containing 7880 individuals were included. The estimated attack rate was 14.0%, (35.0% among children aged

  5. Perfil epidemiológico do sarampo no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil, de 1996 a 2000 Measles epidemiology in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, 1996-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina de Sousa Santos Faversani

    2005-04-01

    . Approximately 80% of all measles cases during 1996-2000 occurred among schoolchildren and young adults. Measles virus circulation in the municipality in the previous year and population density increased the risk of measles. Two imported cases of measles in Santa Catarina in 2004 illustrate that it would be premature to describe the current situation as one of eradication.

  6. Prevalence of Inadequate Immunity to Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella in MLB and NBA Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Justin J; Toresdahl, Brett G; Ling, Daphne I; Boniquit, Nicole T; Callahan, Lisa R; Kinderknecht, James J

    2018-05-01

    Multiple outbreaks of vaccine-preventable viral diseases have occurred in professional sports in recent years. Currently, there is no established protocol for vaccination or immunity screening for professional athletes. There are significant differences in the prevalence of inadequate immunity dependent on age, sport, country of birth, and participation in collegiate sports. Cross-sectional cohort study. Level 4. A sample of Major League Baseball (MLB) and National Basketball Association (NBA) players were screened for serologic evidence of immunity to measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella prior to the 2015 and 2016 seasons. The results were designated as adequate (immune) or inadequate (equivocal or nonimmune) based on laboratory criteria. Comparison with an age-matched control group was performed using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). A total of 98 athletes (62 MLB, 36 NBA) were screened. The prevalence of inadequate immunity for any virus was 35.5% in MLB players and 33.3% in NBA players. There was a significantly greater risk of inadequate immunity to rubella (risk ratio, 6.38; P < 0.01) and varicella (risk ratio, 4.21; P < 0.01) in athletes compared with the age-matched NHANES population. Our analysis did not reveal differences in rates of immunity based on sport, country of birth (US born vs international), or participation in college athletics. There was a lower rate of inadequate immunity to varicella with increasing age (odds ratio, 0.72; P = 0.05). One-third of athletes studied had inadequate immunity to 1 of the 4 viruses tested. Younger players had a significantly greater risk of inadequate immunity to varicella. Birth outside the US and lack of participation in college athletics were not found to influence immunity rates. These results can inform the development of future screening programs to prevent outbreaks of viral infections in professional athletes.

  7. Prevalence of measles antibodies among health care workers in Catalonia (Spain) in the elimination era

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Interruption of measles transmission was achieved in Catalonia (Spain) in 2000. Six years later, a measles outbreak occurred between August 2006 and June 2007 with 381 cases, 11 of whom were health care workers (HCW). The objective was to estimate susceptibility to measles in HCW and related demographic and occupational characteristics. Methods A measles seroprevalence study was carried out in 639 HCW from six public tertiary hospitals and five primary healthcare areas. Antibodies were tested using the Vircell Measles ELISA IgG Kit. Data were analyzed according to age, sex, type of HCW, type of centre and vaccination history. The odds ratios (OR) and their 95% CI were calculated to determine the variables associated with antibody prevalence. OR were adjusted using logistic regression. Positive predictive values (PPV) and the 95% confidence intervals (CI) of having two documented doses of a measles containing vaccine (MCV) for the presence of measles antibodies and of reporting a history of measles infection were calculated. Results The prevalence of measles antibodies in HCW was 98% (95% CI 96.6-98.9), and was lower in HCW born in 1981 or later, after the introduction of systematic paediatric vaccination (94.4%; 95% CI 86.4-98.5) and higher in HCW born between 1965 and 1980 (99.0%; 95% CI 97.0-99.8). Significant differences were found for HCW born in 1965–1980 with respect to those born in 1981 and after (adjusted OR of 5.67; 95% CI: 1.24-25.91). A total of 187 HCW reported being vaccinated: the proportion of vaccinated HCW decreased with age. Of HCW who reported being vaccinated, vaccination was confirmed by the vaccination card in 49%. Vaccination with 2 doses was documented in only 50 HCW, of whom 48 had measles antibodies. 311 HCW reported a history of measles. The PPV of having received two documented doses of MCV was 96% (95% CI 86.3-99.5) and the PPV of reporting a history of measles was 98.7% (95% CI 96.7-99.6). Conclusions Screening to detect

  8. VACCINATION OF CHILDREN AGAINST MEASLES, PAROTIDITIS AND VITAMINOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Kharit

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The researchers observed 45 children inoculated with the Russian divalent vaccine (measles–parotiditis. 25 children received mineral and vitamin complex «jungle» for a month since the date of vaccination. The application of «jungle» medication was efficient and conduced to prophylaxis of the complication of the vaccination, prevention of the inter current diseases among the vaccinated, as well as positively affected the intensity of the special antibody formation because of activation of cellular and antiviral mechanisms.Key words: vaccination, measles, parotiditis, prevention, mineral and vitamin complex, children.

  9. Effect of early measles vaccine on pneumococcal colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Nadja Skadkær; Byberg, Stine; Hervig Jacobsen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measles vaccine (MV) may have non-specific beneficial effects for child health and particularly seems to prevent respiratory infections. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia among children worldwide, and nasopharyngeal colonization precedes infection....... OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether providing early MV at 18 weeks of age reduced pneumococcal colonization and/or density up to 9 months of age. METHOD: The study was conducted in 2013-2014 in Guinea-Bissau. Pneumococcal vaccine was not part of the vaccination program. Infants aged 18 weeks were block...

  10. Innovations in communication technologies for measles supplemental immunization activities: lessons from Kenya measles vaccination campaign, November 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbabazi, William B; Tabu, Collins W; Chemirmir, Caleb; Kisia, James; Ali, Nasra; Corkum, Melissa G; Bartley, Gene L

    2015-01-01

    Background To achieve a measles free world, effective communication must be part of all elimination plans. The choice of communication approaches must be evidence based, locally appropriate, interactive and community owned. In this article, we document the innovative approach of using house visits supported by a web-enabled mobile phone application to create a real-time platform for adaptive management of supplemental measles immunization days in Kenya. Methods One thousand nine hundred and fifty-two Red Cross volunteers were recruited, trained and deployed to conduct house-to-house canvassing in 11 urban districts of Kenya. Three days before the campaigns, volunteers conducted house visits with a uniform approach and package of messages. All house visits were documented using a web-enabled mobile phone application (episurveyor®) that in real-time relayed information collected to all campaign management levels. During the campaigns, volunteers reported daily immunizations to their co-ordinators. Post-campaign house visits were also conducted within 4 days, to verify immunization of eligible children, assess information sources and detect adverse events following immunization. Results Fifty-six per cent of the 164 643 households visited said that they had heard about the planned 2012 measles vaccination campaign 1–3 days before start dates. Twenty-five per cent of households were likely to miss the measles supplemental dose if they had not been reassured by the house visit. Pre- and post-campaign reasons for refusal showed that targeted communication reduced misconceptions, fear of injections and trust in herbal remedies. Daily reporting of immunizations using mobile phones informed changes in service delivery plans for better immunization coverage. House visits were more remembered (70%) as sources of information compared with traditional mass awareness channels like megaphones (41%) and radio (37%). Conclusions In high-density settlements, house-to-house visits

  11. [Effectiveness, population-level effects, and heath economics of measles and rubella vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, O; Ultsch, B

    2013-09-01

    Vaccination against measles and rubella has been included in national immunization programs worldwide for several decades. In this article, we present the evidence related to the effectiveness of measles and rubella vaccination based on published systematic reviews, and we describe the epidemiological and health economic effects of vaccination at a population level. Several observational studies demonstrate the high effectiveness (> 90 %) of both measles and rubella vaccination. The global measles mortality reduction and the dramatic decrease in rubella and measles incidences after introduction of routine immunization contribute to the very high quality of evidence. The countries of the Americas have proved that it is feasible to eliminate measles and rubella by strengthening infant immunization through routine vaccination services and by conducting supplemental immunization activities in other childhood age groups so as to close immunity gaps. An economic evaluation of measles and rubella vaccination specifically for the healthcare system in Germany does not exist. However, we conducted a systematic review and identified 11 health-economic studies from other industrialized countries and one for a hypothetical industrialized country. Results indicate that vaccination against measles and rubella had either a cost-effective or even a cost-saving potential, which could be assumed with some limitations also for the German setting. In conclusion, there is compelling evidence that the available vaccines are very effective and that measles and rubella elimination is feasible if adequate vaccination strategies are implemented. In Germany, catch-up vaccination programs are urgently needed for children, adolescents, and young adults specifically in the western federal states.

  12. Measles epidemic in Switzerland and other parts of Europe

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS Commission

    2008-01-01

    There has been a measles epidemic in Switzerland since November 2006. By April 2008 the number of cases had reached almost 2500, with over 1300 since the beginning of the year alone. All cantons are affected but to varying degrees, the largest number of cases occurring in the north and east of the country. In all cases, the low vaccination coverage is responsible for the spread of this highly contagious disease. The contagious period starts 4 days before the rash appears and lasts until 4 days afterwards. In the event of infection, children must be kept away from school and measures must be taken to protect those who come into contact with them, which may include vaccination if the infection is less than 72 hours old. The Swiss and international health authorities recommend the following measures to prevent the spread of the disease: those who have already contracted the disease, received 2 doses of the vaccine (often in the form of the combined MMR - measles, mumps, rubella...

  13. Follow-up measles campaign in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    The Dominican Republic conducted a national follow-up measles vaccination campaign 6 weeks after sustaining heavy damage from Hurricane Georges, on November 6-12, targeting 830,517 children aged 9 months to 5 years in 29 provinces and the capital city. This campaign was the first mass vaccination effort in the country, following the beginning of the decentralized delivery of health services. Priority was given to vaccinating against diphtheria, whooping cough, and tetanus, especially in refugee camps. More than 500,000 vaccines were given to different age groups, with almost 100,000 of those immunized under 5 years old. Children aged 9 months to 5 years were targeted for immunization regardless of their vaccination status. At the same time, children aged 2 months through 2 years were immunized against poliomyelitis. Vaccination activities were continued until the entire target population was reached and no important side effects have thus far been reported. The government of Mexico donated 300,000 doses of measles vaccine, while other vaccines for the campaign were acquired through the PAHO Revolving Fund for Vaccine Procurement. The decentralized implementation of this campaign allowed the population to actively participate and the resulting high vaccination coverage rates.

  14. Measles, social media and surveillance in Baltimore City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Katherine E; Wen, Leana S

    2017-09-01

    Baltimore City was faced with two potential measles outbreaks in 2015. Both cases occurred in the wake of national media attention paid to the Disneyland outbreaks of the same year. A comparative case study approach was used applying qualitative data to elicit best practices in infectious disease protocols in the age of social media. The research also used search engine data from Google Trends to track constituent engagement over time. Across the two case studies, the Baltimore City Health Department identified a number of best practices to inform the public via social media and minimize levels of misinformation and panic. These practices included clarity in messaging across platforms and public health jurisdictions; pre-emptor alerts of potential measles cases to control and shape the media messaging; and targeted, in-person outreach to engage groups in a culturally competent manner. The Baltimore City Health Department's response drew out a critical need for re-examining infectious disease protocols in the age of social media (e.g. contact notification, quarantine, media sensitivity) and anti-vaccination movements that pose new obstacles to government intervention. The benefits and challenges of greater connectivity between providers, patients, and public health officers are discussed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Measles outbreak after 12 years without endemic transmission, Portugal, February to May 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Francisco; Valente, João; Augusto, Gonçalo F; Silva, Andreia J; Pereira, Natália; Fernandes, Teresa; Palminha, Paula; Aguiar, Bárbara A; Martins, António; Santos, Estêvão; Valente, Paula; Calé, Etelvina; Leça, Ana; Nogueira, Paulo J

    2017-06-08

    We report a measles outbreak in two Portuguese health regions (Algarve and Lisbon and the Tagus Valley) since February 2017, and which by 31 May resulted in 28 confirmed cases, of which 16 were unvaccinated. Thirteen cases were healthcare workers. One unvaccinated teenager died. Genotype B3 was identified in 14 cases from both regions. This outbreak occurs after 12 years without endemic measles transmission, and in a context of high measles vaccination coverage and immunity. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  16. Long term impact of high titer Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine on T lymphocyte subsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Aaby, P; Knudsen, K

    1994-01-01

    Several trials of high titer measles vaccine (> 10(4.7) plaque-forming unit) have found female recipients of Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) vaccine to have lower survival than female recipients of standard measles vaccine. Two trials with medium and high titer EZ vaccine from the age of 4 months were...... unlikely to explain the reduced survival which has been associated with high titer EZ measles vaccination. In the 2 years after the investigation of T cell subsets, there was no increased mortality for recipients of EZ vaccine. Hence it is unlikely that high titer vaccine has an persistent adverse effect...

  17. Reduced All-Cause Child Mortality After General Measles Vaccination Campaign in Rural Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane Bærent; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Martins, Cesario

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Randomised trials have shown that measles vaccine (MV) prevents non-measles deaths. MV-campaigns are conducted to eliminate measles infection.The overall mortality effect of MV-campaigns has not been studied. METHODS: Bandim Health Project (BHP) surveys children aged 0-4 years in rural...... in the same age group during the two previous years. RESULTS: 8158 children aged 6-59 months were under BHP surveillance during the 2006-campaign and 7999 and 8108 during similar periods in 2004 and 2005. At least 90% of the eligible children received MV in the campaign. There were 161 non-accident deaths...

  18. Vacinas contra varicela e vacina quádrupla viral Varicella vaccines and measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Ferro Bricks

    2006-07-01

    vaccine protects 70 to 90% of immunized children against any form of varicella zoster infection, but the efficacy against severe forms is higher (95 to 98%. This is a well-tolerated vaccine that causes few reactions. Since the vaccine was licensed, there have been three confirmed cases of transmission of the vaccine virus by domestic contacts to previously healthy people, who went on to develop mild disease. Despite evidence that the protection offered by this vaccine can wane over a number of years, it is not yet possible to state that a second dose is warranted, bearing in mind exposure to wild virus. After universal vaccination the chances of natural stimulation should drop and it is very probable that booster doses will become necessary. A measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine has recently been licensed that combines vaccines for measles, mumps, rubella and varicella in a single product with high rates of seroconversion. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian Society of Pediatrics recommends the varicella vaccine for children from 1 year on. We hope that the measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine will soon be available in Brazil, since combined vaccines facilitate wider vaccination coverage.

  19. Assessing the cost-effectiveness of different measles vaccination strategies for children in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Reena H; Eckhoff, Philip; Cheng, Alvan; Hoff, Nicole A; Mukadi, Patrick; Shidi, Calixte; Gerber, Sue; Wemakoy, Emile Okitolonda; Muyembe-Tafum, Jean-Jacques; Kominski, Gerald F; Rimoin, Anne W

    2017-10-27

    One of the goals of the Global Measles and Rubella Strategic Plan is the reduction in global measles mortality, with high measles vaccination coverage as one of its core components. While measles mortality has been reduced more than 79%, the disease remains a major cause of childhood vaccine preventable disease burden globally. Measles immunization requires a two-dose schedule and only countries with strong, stable immunization programs can rely on routine services to deliver the second dose. In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), weak health infrastructure and lack of provision of the second dose of measles vaccine necessitates the use of supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) to administer the second dose. We modeled three vaccination strategies using an age-structured SIR (Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered) model to simulate natural measles dynamics along with the effect of immunization. We compared the cost-effectiveness of two different strategies for the second dose of Measles Containing Vaccine (MCV) to one dose of MCV through routine immunization services over a 15-year time period for a hypothetical birth cohort of 3 million children. Compared to strategy 1 (MCV1 only), strategy 2 (MCV2 by SIA) would prevent a total of 5,808,750 measles cases, 156,836 measles-related deaths and save U.S. $199 million. Compared to strategy 1, strategy 3 (MCV2 by RI) would prevent a total of 13,232,250 measles cases, 166,475 measles-related deaths and save U.S. $408 million. Vaccination recommendations should be tailored to each country, offering a framework where countries can adapt to local epidemiological and economical circumstances in the context of other health priorities. Our results reflect the synergistic effect of two doses of MCV and demonstrate that the most cost-effective approach to measles vaccination in DRC is to incorporate the second dose of MCV in the RI schedule provided that high enough coverage can be achieved. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Measles antibody levels after vaccination with Edmonston-Zagreb and Schwarz measles vaccine at 9 months or at 9 and 18 months of age: a serological study within a randomised trial of different measles vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cesario; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, Carlitos; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Benn, Christine S; Whittle, Hilton; Aaby, Peter

    2013-11-19

    Standard-titre Schwarz (SW) and Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccines (MV) are both used in the routine immunisation programme. Within a trial of different strains of MV, we examined antibody responses in both one-dose and two-dose schedules when the first dose was administered at 9 months. The trial was conducted in an urban area in Guinea-Bissau where we have had a health and demographic surveillance system and studied strategies to prevent measles infection since 1978. In the present study, children were randomised to SW or EZ as the first MV and furthermore randomised to a second dose of the same MV or no vaccine at 18 months of age. We obtained blood samples from 996 children at baseline; post-vaccination blood samples were collected at 18 and 24 months of age to assess measles antibody levels after one or two doses of MV. At age 18 months all had responded to the first dose and only 1% (8/699) of the children had non-protective antibody levels irrespective of vaccine type. SW was associated with significantly higher levels of measles antibodies (geometric mean titre (GMT)=2114 mIU/mL (95%CI 1153-2412)) than EZ (GMT=807 mIU/mL (722-908)) (p=0.001). Antibody concentration was significantly higher in girls than in boys after EZ but not after SW. Antibody levels were higher in the rainy than the dry season. There was no clear indication that a booster dose at 18 months increased the antibody level at 24 months of age. Maternal antibody levels have declined significantly in recent years and 99% had protective levels of measles antibody following primary MV at 9 months of age. It is unlikely that measles prevention and child health will be improved by increasing the age of MV as currently recommended. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. [Reemergence of measles in vaccinated patients: report of 6 cases and proposals for prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agut-Busquet, Eugènia; Gené Tous, Emili; Navarro, Gemma; González, Araceli

    2016-06-01

    A 2014 measles outbreak in Catalonia affected 131 persons. We describe a series of 6 cases diagnosed in our emergency department. All the patients were under 31 years of age and complained of flu-like symptoms, including high fever and rash. Five had been properly vaccinated and one was a health care worker. A firm diagnosis of measles need not be made in the emergency department, but a high level of suspicion is important for ruling out complications, isolating the patient, and protecting health care staff at high risk for exposure. We found that 6% of the staff of our emergency department had a low level of immunity to measles. Given our findings, we suggest that preventive treatment is necessary when health care staff have been exposed to measles and their vaccination status is unknown.

  2. Ongoing large measles outbreak with nosocomial transmission in Milan, northern Italy, March-August 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, Antonella; Bianchi, Silvia; Frati, Elena R; Ciceri, Giulia; Faccini, Marino; Senatore, Sabrina; Colzani, Daniela; Lamberti, Anna; Baggieri, Melissa; Cereda, Danilo; Gramegna, Maria; Nicoletti, Loredana; Magurano, Fabio; Tanzi, Elisabetta

    2017-08-17

    A large measles outbreak has been ongoing in Milan and surrounding areas. From 1 March to 30 June 2017, 203 measles cases were laboratory-confirmed (108 sporadic cases and 95 related to 47 clusters). Phylogenetic analysis revealed the co-circulation of two different genotypes, D8 and B3. Both genotypes caused nosocomial clusters in two hospitals. The rapid analysis of epidemiological and phylogenetic data allowed effective surveillance and tracking of transmission pathways. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  3. Measles and rubella elimination in the WHO Region for Europe: progress and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, P; Jankovic, D; Muscat, M; Ben-Mamou, M; Reef, S; Papania, M; Singh, S; Kaloumenos, T; Butler, R; Datta, S

    2017-08-01

    Globally measles remains one of the leading causes of death among young children even though a safe and cost-effective vaccine is available. The World Health Organization (WHO) European Region has seen a decline in measles and rubella cases in recent years. The recent outbreaks have primarily affected adolescents and young adults with no vaccination or an incomplete vaccination history. Eliminating measles and rubella is one of the top immunization priorities of the European Region as outlined in the European Vaccine Action Plan 2015-2020. Following the 2010 decision by the Member States in the Region to initiate the process of verifying elimination, the European Regional Verification Commission for Measles and Rubella Elimination (RVC) was established in 2011. The RVC meets every year to evaluate the status of measles and rubella elimination in the Region based on documentation submitted by each country's National Verification Committees. The verification process was however modified in late 2014 to assess the elimination status at the individual country level instead of at regional level. The WHO European Region has made substantial progress towards measles and rubella elimination over the past 5 years. The RVC's conclusion in 2016 that 70% and 66% of the 53 Member States in the Region had interrupted the endemic transmission of measles and rubella, respectively, by 2015 is a testament to this progress. Nevertheless, where measles and rubella remain endemic, challenges in vaccination service delivery and disease surveillance will need to be addressed through focused technical assistance from WHO and development partners. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The basic reproduction number (R0) of measles: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Fiona M; Bolotin, Shelly; Lim, Gillian; Heffernan, Jane; Deeks, Shelley L; Li, Ye; Crowcroft, Natasha S

    2017-12-01

    The basic reproduction number, R nought (R 0 ), is defined as the average number of secondary cases of an infectious disease arising from a typical case in a totally susceptible population, and can be estimated in populations if pre-existing immunity can be accounted for in the calculation. R 0 determines the herd immunity threshold and therefore the immunisation coverage required to achieve elimination of an infectious disease. As R 0 increases, higher immunisation coverage is required to achieve herd immunity. In July, 2010, a panel of experts convened by WHO concluded that measles can and should be eradicated. Despite the existence of an effective vaccine, regions have had varying success in measles control, in part because measles is one of the most contagious infections. For measles, R 0 is often cited to be 12-18, which means that each person with measles would, on average, infect 12-18 other people in a totally susceptible population. We did a systematic review to find studies reporting rigorous estimates and determinants of measles R 0 . Studies were included if they were a primary source of R 0 , addressed pre-existing immunity, and accounted for pre-existing immunity in their calculation of R 0 . A search of key databases was done in January, 2015, and repeated in November, 2016, and yielded 10 883 unique citations. After screening for relevancy and quality, 18 studies met inclusion criteria, providing 58 R 0 estimates. We calculated median measles R 0 values stratified by key covariates. We found that R 0 estimates vary more than the often cited range of 12-18. Our results highlight the importance of countries calculating R 0 using locally derived data or, if this is not possible, using parameter estimates from similar settings. Additional data and agreed review methods are needed to strengthen the evidence base for measles elimination modelling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The role of travel in measles outbreaks in Australia - An enhanced surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, C R; Karki, S; Sheikh, M; Zwar, N; Heywood, A E

    2016-08-17

    Many developed countries, like Australia, maintain a high population level immunity against measles, however, there remains a risk of acquisition of measles in non-immune travellers and subsequent importation into Australia leading to localised outbreaks. In this study, we estimate the incidence of measles and describe characteristics including immunisation and pre-travel health seeking behaviour of notified cases of measles in New South Wales and Victoria, Australia between February 2013 and January 2014. Cases were followed up by telephone interview using a questionnaire to collect information of demographic and travel characteristics. In NSW, the incidence was highest in age group 0-9years (20/million population) whereas in Victoria the highest incidence was observed in 10-19 (23/million population) years group. Out of 44 cases interviewed, 25 (56.8%) had history of travel outside of Australia during or immediately prior to the onset of measles. Holiday (60%) was the main reason for travel with 44% (11/25) reporting visiting friends and relatives (VFR) during the trip. The major reason described for not seeking prior medical advice before travel were "no perceived risk of diseases" (41%) and "previous overseas travel without any problem" (41%). Of the 25 measles cases with recent overseas travel during the incubation period, one reported a measles vaccine prior to their recent trip. Four cases were children of parents who refused vaccination. Twenty out of 25 (80.0%) had attended mass gathering events. Young adults and VFR travellers should be a high priority for preventive strategies in order to maintain measles elimination status. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Humoral immune response to measles and varicella vaccination in former very low birth weight preterm infants

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Schlindwein Mariano Ferreira; Maria Cristina Abrão Aued Perin; Maria Isabel de Moraes-Pinto; Raquel Maria Simão-Gurge; Ana Lucia Goulart; Lily Yin Weckx; Amélia Miyashiro Nunes dos Santos

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Immune response to vaccination in infants born prematurely may be lower than in infants born at full-term. Some clinical factors might be associated with humoral immune response. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to compare the immune response to measles and varicella vaccination in infants born prematurely with those born at full-term and to analyze factors associated with measles and varicella antibody levels. Methods: Prospective study including two groups o...

  7. [Surveillance Plan on Recent Outbreak of Measles and Rubella in Catalonia, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jané, Mireia; Torner, Nuria; Vidal, Ma José

    2015-01-01

    Measles and rubella are two immuno-preventive illnesses. In Catalonia, since 1988 all children are given two doses of measles and rubella vaccine with high levels of vaccination coverage. The measles elimination programme has been carried out since 1990 in Catalonia. This programme includes achieving and keeping high immunization levels among population with high vaccination coverage, intense epidemiological surveillance and an immediate response to the appearance of a case or outbreak. In 2014, the measles incidence rate was 1.9 cases/ 100,000 inhabitants. There were 4 recent outbreaks in 2006, 2011, 2013 and 2014 that affected 381, 289, 31 and 124 people respectively. All outbreaks were triggered by an imported case. In 2011 and 2014 measles outbreaks, 6% and 5.5% of affected people were health care workers. All outbreaks presented a great variety of measles genotypes. Concerning rubella elimination programme, since 2002, 68 cases of postnatal rubella and 5 cases of congenital rubella were confirmed. Regarding measles and rubella surveillance and control, in addition to strengthen vaccination coverage, it is essential immediate notification, within the first 24 hours since suspicion and laboratory confirmation. In addition there is a need to enforce vaccination among health care workers as well as in other susceptible and unvaccinated people. It is recommended to vaccinate all people who were born after 1966 and who have not been vaccinated with two doses of trivalent measles-mumps-rubella vaccine. Furthermore, we have to emphasize that the progress concerning genotypes study allows identifying various imported cases from other European countries with active outbreaks, aspect that makes easier the surveillance of these illnesses.

  8. Household experience and costs of seeking measles vaccination in rural Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byberg, S; Fisker, A B; Rodrigues, A; Balde, I; Enemark, U; Aaby, P; Benn, C S; Griffiths, U K

    2017-01-01

    Children younger than 12 months of age are eligible for childhood vaccines through the public health system in Guinea-Bissau. To limit open vial wastage, a restrictive vial opening policy has been implemented; 10-dose measles vaccine vials are only opened if six or more children aged 9-11 months are present at the vaccination post. Consequently, mothers who bring their child for measles vaccination can be told to return another day. We aimed to describe the household experience and estimate household costs of seeking measles vaccination in rural Guinea-Bissau. Within a national sample of village clusters under demographic surveillance, we interviewed mothers of children aged 9-21 months about their experience with seeking measles vaccination. From information about time and money spent, we calculated household costs of seeking measles vaccination. We interviewed mothers of 1308 children of whom 1043 (80%) had sought measles vaccination at least once. Measles vaccination coverage was 70% (910/1308). Coverage decreased with increasing distance to the health centre. On average, mothers who had taken their child for vaccination took their child 1.4 times. Mean costs of achieving 70% coverage were 2.04 USD (SD 3.86) per child taken for vaccination. Half of the mothers spent more than 2 h seeking vaccination and 11% spent money on transportation. We found several indications of missed opportunities for measles vaccination resulting in suboptimal coverage. The household costs comprised 3.3% of the average monthly income and should be taken into account when assessing the costs of delivering vaccinations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Ebola Virus and Marburg Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebola virus and Marburg virus Overview Ebola virus and Marburg virus are related viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers — illnesses marked by severe bleeding (hemorrhage), organ failure and, in many ...

  10. Knowledge synthesis of benefits and adverse effects of measles vaccination: the Lasbela balance sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledogar, Robert J; Fleming, John; Andersson, Neil

    2009-10-14

    In preparation for a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a community intervention to increase the demand for measles vaccination in Lasbela district of Pakistan, a balance sheet summarized published evidence on benefits and possible adverse effects of measles vaccination. The balance sheet listed: 1) major health conditions associated with measles; 2) the risk among the unvaccinated who contract measles; 3) the risk among the vaccinated; 4) the risk difference between vaccinated and unvaccinated; and 5) the likely net gain from vaccination for each condition. Two models revealed very different projections of net gain from measles vaccine. A Lasbela-specific combination of low period prevalence of measles among the unvaccinated, medium vaccination coverage and low vaccine efficacy rate, as revealed by the baseline survey, resulted in less-than-expected gains attributable to vaccination. Modelled on estimates where the vaccine had greater efficacy, the gains from vaccination would be more substantial. Specific local conditions probably explain the low rates among the unvaccinated while the high vaccine failure rate is likely due to weaknesses in the vaccination delivery system. Community perception of these realities may have had some role in household decisions about whether to vaccinate, although the major discouraging factor was inadequate access. The balance sheet may be useful as a communication tool in other circumstances, applied to up-to-date local evidence.

  11. Production of antibodies against measles virions by use of the mouse hybridoma technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togashi, T; Oervell, C; Norrby, E [Kungliga Karolinska Mediko-Kirurgiska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Vartdal, F [Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway)

    1981-01-01

    Mouse hybridoma cell lines were produced by fusion of P3 x 63 Ag8 mycloma cells with spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with purified measles virions. About 60 per cent of single cell colonies in wells were found to produce measles antibodies as determined by a radioimmune assay. Selected measles antibody producing hybridoma cell lines were passaged intraperitoncally in mice and ascites fluids were collected. This material contained 20 - 200 times higher antibody titers than unconcentrated medium from hybridoma cell lines propagated in tissue culture. The ascites fluid antibody products of 23 hybridoma cell lines were characterized by different measles serological tests. Seventeen lines produced high titers of hemagglutination inhibiting (HI) and hemolysis-inhibition (HLI) antibodies. One hybridoma cell line produced Ig with low HI but high HLI activity and the remaining 5 hybridoma cell line products only carried HLI activity. Unexepctedly it was found in radioimmune precipitation assays that all hybridomas studied, including those showing HLI but no HI antibody activity, gave a selective precipitation of the 79 K measles hemagglutinin polypeptide. Radioimmune precipitation assays with sera from immunized animals showed that they contained high titers of antibodies precipitating the 79 K polypeptide but in addition also somewhat lower titers of antibodies precipitating the 60 K nucleoprotein, 40 K fusion and 36 K matrix polypeptides. Homogeneous Ig products carrying measles antibody activity were demonstrated by imprint immunoelectrophoresis of ascites materials.

  12. Public Health Economic Burden Associated with Two Single Measles Case Investigations - Colorado, 2016-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Grace E; Chase, Jennifer; Jasperse, Joseph; Stinson, Kaylan; McDonald, Carol E; Runfola, Janine K; Jaskunas, Jillian; Hite, Donna; Barnes, Meghan; Askenazi, Michele; Albanese, Bernadette

    2017-11-24

    During July 2016-January 2017, two unrelated measles cases were identified in the Denver, Colorado area after patients traveled to countries with endemic measles transmission. Each case resulted in multiple exposures at health care facilities and public venues, and activated an immediate and complex response by local and state public health agencies, with activities led by the Tri-County Health Department (TCHD), which serves Adams, Arapahoe, and Douglas counties. To track the economic burden associated with investigating and responding to single measles cases, personnel hours and supply costs incurred during each investigation were tracked prospectively. No secondary cases of measles were identified in either investigation. Postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) was administered to 31 contacts involving the first case; no contacts of the second case were eligible for PEP because of a delay in diagnosing measles disease. Public health costs of disease investigation in the first and second case were estimated at $49,769 and $18,423, respectively. Single measles cases prompted coordinated public health action and were costly and resource-intensive for local public health agencies.

  13. Production of antibodies against measles virions by use of the mouse hybridoma technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togashi, T.; Oervell, C.; Norrby, E.; Vartdal, F.

    1981-01-01

    Mouse hybridoma cell lines were produced by fusion of P3 x 63 Ag8 mycloma cells with spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with purified measles virions. About 60 per cent of single cell colonies in wells were found to produce measles antibodies as determined by a radioimmune assay. Selected measles antibody producing hybridoma cell lines were passaged intraperitoncally in mice and ascites fluids were collected. This material contained 20 - 200 times higher antibody titers than unconcentrated medium from hybridoma cell lines propagated in tissue culture. The ascites fluid antibody products of 23 hybridoma cell lines were characterized by different measles serological tests. Seventeen lines produced high titers of hemagglutination inhibiting (HI) and hemolysis-inhibition (HLI) antibodies. One hybridoma cell line produced Ig with low HI but high HLI activity and the remaining 5 hybridoma cell line products only carried HLI activity. Unexepctedly it was found in radioimmune precipitation assays that all hybridomas studied, including those showing HLI but no HI antibody activity, gave a selective precipitation of the 79 K measles hemagglutinin polypeptide. Radioimmune precipitation assays with sera from immunized animals showed that they contained high titers of antibodies precipitating the 79 K polypeptide but in addition also somewhat lower titers of antibodies precipitating the 60 K nucleoprotein, 40 K fusion and 36 K matrix polypeptides. Homogeneous Ig products carrying measles antibody activity were demonstrated by imprint immunoelectrophoresis of ascites materials. (Author)

  14. Risk factors associated with the outbreak of measles in lahore, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, S.

    2014-01-01

    In Pakistan, three consecutive epidemics of measles in 2012 - 13 affected many thousands of children. Objectives: To determine the risk factors associated with the outbreak of measles in Lahore. Methods: A population based case-control study with 1: 1 case to control ratio was conducted in Lahore. Pur posive Sampling was done. Results: Out of 100 subjects 50 were cases and 50 were controls. Demographic characteristics were described. The risk estimation was done by Odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals. Logistic regression analysis was employed at significance of alpha 0.05. Among cases 89% children> 9 months of age, 57% males and 43% females came from highly populated areas with lack of vaccine availability (75%), mostly belonging to middle socioeconomic status (83%) and educated families (63%). Fifty five percent were vaccinated against measles from hospital or dispensary and few from mobile teams. 79% had history of travel to epidemic areas and history of breast feeding was present in 66%. Coexisting illness along with measles was present in 30% and 28% had Vitamin - A deficient diet. Twenty four percent parents showed lack of confidence in immunization program. Nineteen per- cent measles patient's mothers were sick and treated during pregnancy. The lack of cold chain, lack of awareness of expanded program of immunization, and malnutrition were found statistically significant. Conclusion: The lack of Expanded Program of Immunization, transmission from surroundings and coexisting illness were found significant in measles epi- demic. (author)

  15. Immunohistochemical detection of virus through its nuclear cytopathic effect in idiopathic interstitial pneumonia other than acute exacerbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.C. dos Santos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias include complex diseases that have a strong interaction between genetic makeup and environmental factors. However, in many cases, no infectious agent can be demonstrated, and these clinical diseases rapidly progress to death. Theoretically, idiopathic interstitial pneumonias could be caused by the Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, adenovirus, hepatitis C virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and herpesvirus, which may be present in such small amounts or such configuration that routine histopathological analysis or viral culture techniques cannot detect them. To test the hypothesis that immunohistochemistry provides more accurate results than the mere histological demonstration of viral inclusions, this method was applied to 37 open lung biopsies obtained from patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. As a result, immunohistochemistry detected measles virus and cytomegalovirus in diffuse alveolar damage-related histological patterns of acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia in 38 and 10% of the cases, respectively. Alveolar epithelium infection by cytomegalovirus was observed in 25% of organizing pneumonia patterns. These findings were coincident with nuclear cytopathic effects but without demonstration of cytomegalovirus inclusions. These data indicate that diffuse alveolar damage-related cytomegalovirus or measles virus infections enhance lung injury, and a direct involvement of these viruses in diffuse alveolar damage-related histological patterns is likely. Immunohistochemistry was more sensitive than the histological demonstration of cytomegalovirus or measles virus inclusions. We concluded that all patients with diffuse alveolar damage-related histological patterns should be investigated for cytomegalovirus and measles virus using sensitive immunohistochemistry in conjunction with routine procedures.

  16. Measles Elimination Efforts and 2008–2011 Outbreak, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy-Bruhl, Daniel; Baudon, Claire; Freymuth, François; Lamy, Mathieu; Maine, Catherine; Floret, Daniel; Parent du Chatelet, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Although few measles cases were reported in France during 2006 and 2007, suggesting the country might have been close to eliminating the disease, a dramatic outbreak of >20,000 cases occurred during 2008–2011. Adolescents and young adults accounted for more than half of cases; median patient age increased from 12 to 16 years during the outbreak. The highest incidence rate was observed in children <1 year of age, reaching 135 cases/100,000 infants during the last epidemic wave. Almost 5,000 patients were hospitalized, including 1,023 for severe pneumonia and 27 for encephalitis/myelitis; 10 patients died. More than 80% of the cases during this period occurred in unvaccinated persons, reflecting heterogeneous vaccination coverage, where pockets of susceptible persons still remain. Although vaccine coverage among children improved, convincing susceptible young adults to get vaccinated remains a critical issue if the target to eliminate the disease by 2015 is to be met. PMID:23618523

  17. Understanding the persistence of measles: reconciling theory, simulation and observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Matt J; Grenfell, Bryan T

    2002-01-01

    Ever since the pattern of localized extinction associated with measles was discovered by Bartlett in 1957, many models have been developed in an attempt to reproduce this phenomenon. Recently, the use of constant infectious and incubation periods, rather than the more convenient exponential forms, has been presented as a simple means of obtaining realistic persistence levels. However, this result appears at odds with rigorous mathematical theory; here we reconcile these differences. Using a deterministic approach, we parameterize a variety of models to fit the observed biennial attractor, thus determining the level of seasonality by the choice of model. We can then compare fairly the persistence of the stochastic versions of these models, using the 'best-fit' parameters. Finally, we consider the differences between the observed fade-out pattern and the more theoretically appealing 'first passage time'. PMID:11886620

  18. Measles Vaccine : A Study On Seroconversion And Side Effects

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    Malik Abida

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: 1. What is the extent of immune response of Edmonston Zagreb Strain in children? 2. What are the side effects of this vaccine? Objectives: 1. To follow up children after Edmonston Zagreb strain vaccination for evaluation of seroconverstion. Study: Cross sectional Setting: Well Baby Clinic of pediatrics OPD at J.N. Medical College, A.M.U., Aigarh (U.P participants: Children between 9-15 months. Sample Size: 100 consecutive children coming for routine immunization. Study variable: Malnourished and poor socio-economic status Outcome variable: Extent of seroconversion with no statistical significant difference between malnourished and socio-economically poor children. 26% showed minor self-limiting post vaccination reactions in all age groups. Recommendations: Edmonston Zagreb measles vaccine is recommended since it has very good immunogenic activity and post vaccination reactions.

  19. Effective vaccine communication during the disneyland measles outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broniatowski, David A; Hilyard, Karen M; Dredze, Mark

    2016-06-14

    Vaccine refusal rates have increased in recent years, highlighting the need for effective risk communication, especially over social media. Fuzzy-trace theory predicts that individuals encode bottom-line meaning ("gist") and statistical information ("verbatim") in parallel and those articles expressing a clear gist will be most compelling. We coded news articles (n=4581) collected during the 2014-2015 Disneyland measles for content including statistics, stories, or bottom-line gists regarding vaccines and vaccine-preventable illnesses. We measured the extent to which articles were compelling by how frequently they were shared on Facebook. The most widely shared articles expressed bottom-line gists, although articles containing statistics were also more likely to be shared than articles lacking statistics. Stories had limited impact on Facebook shares. Results support Fuzzy Trace Theory's predictions regarding the distinct yet parallel impact of categorical gist and statistical verbatim information on public health communication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of health determinants in a measles outbreak in Ecuador: a case-control study with aggregated data

    OpenAIRE

    María F. Rivadeneira; Sérgio L. Bassanesi; Sandra C. Fuchs

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background In 2011–2012, an outbreak of measles occurred in Ecuador. This study sought to ascertain which population characteristics were associated. Methods Case-control study of aggregate data. The unit of analysis was the parish (smallest geographic division). The national communicable disease surveillance database was used to identify 52 case parishes (with at least one confirmed case of measles) and 972 control parishes (no cases of measles). A hierarchical model was used to det...

  1. Cross-sectional study on factors hampering implementation of measles pre- and postexposure measures in Dutch hospitals during the 2013-2014 measles outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fievez, L C R; Wong, A; Ruijs, W L M; Meerstadt-Rombach, F S; Timen, A

    2017-07-01

    This study examined adherence to national recommendations on measles pre- and postexposure measures, including immunization of health care workers (HCWs) in Dutch hospitals, during a national outbreak of measles in The Netherlands. This study also investigated which hospital characteristics and organizational issues hamper implementation. This was a cross-sectional survey among all general and academic hospitals in The Netherlands. An online structured questionnaire (48 questions) was administered. Analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Of 88 hospitals, 70 (79.5%) were included. Of 68 hospitals, 48 (70.6%) assessed susceptibility to measles in HCWs. Of 70 hospitals, 61 (87.1%) offered vaccination to susceptible HCWs. Of 63 hospitals, 42 (66.7%) had postexposure policies consistent with national recommendations. Of 62 hospitals, 30 (48.4%) implemented all these measures, which is the minimum set of measures considered necessary to adequately prevent measles in HCWs. Logistic regression suggests that hospitals with several locations, hospitals with more employees, and hospitals where infectious disease experts designed infection prevention policies while occupational health experts implemented the policy less often implemented this minimum set of measures (P measles outbreak, most hospitals took measures to prevent measles in HCWs, but less than half implemented the minimum set of measures required. Implementation strategies in hospitals need to be improved, especially in large-sized hospitals and hospitals with several locations, and with respect to the assignment of responsibilities for infection prevention policies. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Protective efficacy of standard Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccination in infants aged 4.5 months: interim analysis of a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cesário L; Garly, May-Lill; Balé, Carlito; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Ravn, Henrik; Whittle, Hilton C; Lisse, Ida M; Aaby, Peter

    2008-07-24

    To examine the protective efficacy of measles vaccination in infants in a low income country before 9 months of age. Randomised clinical trial. 1333 infants aged 4.5 months: 441 in treatment group and 892 in control group. Urban area in Guinea-Bissau. Measles vaccination using standard titre Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine at 4.5 months of age. Vaccine efficacy against measles infection, admission to hospital for measles, and measles mortality before standard vaccination at 9 months of age. 28% of the children tested at 4.5 months of age had protective levels of maternal antibodies against measles at enrolment. After early vaccination against measles 92% had measles antibodies at 9 months of age. A measles outbreak offered a unique situation for testing the efficacy of early measles vaccination. During the outbreak, 96 children developed measles; 19% of unvaccinated children had measles before 9 months of age. The monthly incidence of measles among the 441 children enrolled in the treatment arm was 0.7% and among the 892 enrolled in the control arm was 3.1%. Early vaccination with the Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine prevented infection; vaccine efficacy for children with serologically confirmed measles and definite clinical measles was 94% (95% confidence interval 77% to 99%), for admissions to hospital for measles was 100% (46% to 100%), and for measles mortality was 100% (-42% to 100%). The number needed to treat to prevent one case of measles between ages 4.5 months and 9 months during the epidemic was 7.2 (6.8 to 9.2). The treatment group tended to have lower overall mortality (mortality rate ratio 0.18, 0.02 to 1.36) although this was not significant. In low income countries, maternal antibody levels against measles may be low and severe outbreaks of measles can occur in infants before the recommended age of vaccination at 9 months. Outbreaks of measles may be curtailed by measles vaccination using the Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine as early as 4.5 months of age. TRIAL

  3. Effect of thermal environment on the temporal, spatial and seasonal occurrence of measles in Ondo state, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omonijo, Akinyemi Gabriel; Matzarakis, Andreas; Oguntoke, Olusegun; Adeofun, Clement Olabinjo

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the temporal and spatial dynamics, as well as the seasonal occurrence of measles in Ondo state, Nigeria, to better understand the role of the thermal environment in the occurrence of the childhood killer disease measles, which ranks among the top ten leading causes of child deaths worldwide. The linkages between measles and atmospheric environmental factors were examined by correlating human-biometeorological parameters in the study area with reported clinical cases of measles for the period 1998-2008. We also applied stepwise regression analysis in order to determine the human-biometeorological parameters that lead to statistical changes in reported clinical cases of measles. We found that high reported cases of measles are associated with the least populated areas, where rearing and cohabitation of livestock/domestic animals within human communities are common. There was a significant correlation ( P measles and human-biometeorological parameters except wind speed and vapour pressure. High transmission of measles occurred in the months of January to May during the dry season when human thermal comfort indices are very high. This highlights the importance of the thermal environment in disease demographics since it accounted for more than 40% variation in measles transmission within the study period.

  4. Encuesta serológica nacional del sarampión en niños: evidencias para su eliminación Measles serologic survey in Mexican children: evidence for its elimination in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ruiz-Gómez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analizar la distribución y frecuencia de anticuerpos protectores contra sarampión en una muestra representativa estatal en niños de 1-9 años, así como contribuir a la evaluación de los programas de vacunación contra este agente. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se estudió la presencia de anticuerpos contra el virus del sarampión en una muestra de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2000. Los sueros se recolectaron de noviembre de 1999 a junio de 2000. La muestra consta de 6 270 niños y se utilizó la técnica de reducción de placas por neutralización. RESULTADOS: La seropositividad (>120 UI/L de los niños de 1-4 años fue menor que la de los niños de 5-9 años, 98.3% (IC95% 97.7-98.8 contra 99.4% (IC95% 99.2-99.6, pOBJECTIVE: To analyze the frequency and distribution of protective antibodies against measles in a sample of children from 1-9 years old representative of each of the 32 states in Mexico; to contribute to the evaluation of the measles vaccination programs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Measles antibodies (plaque reduction neutralization (PRN assay were studied in 6 270 sera selected from the 24 232 sera from children 1-9 years of age, collected by the 2000 National Health Survey (ENSA 2000 that was conducted from November 1999 to June 2000. RESULTS: Proportion of seropositive samples (>120 IU/L among 1-4 year-old children (98.3% [95%CI: 97.7-98.8] was less than that of 5-9 year-old children (99.4% [95%CI: 99.2-99.6]; p<0.001. Seropositivity was associated with the number of measles and/or measles-rubella-mumps vaccine doses and was not associated with gender, place of residence or socio-economic status. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that there is adequate vaccination coverage. However, the expansion of data revealed that there are 417 000 children with negative antibody titers who are susceptible to acquiring the disease, transmitting the virus and causing outbreaks.

  5. Impact of measles supplementary immunization activities on reaching children missed by routine programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Allison; Jit, Mark; Helleringer, Stéphane; Verguet, Stéphane

    2018-01-02

    Measles supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) are vaccination campaigns that supplement routine vaccination programs with a recommended second dose opportunity to children of different ages regardless of their previous history of measles vaccination. They are conducted every 2-4 years and over a few weeks in many low- and middle-income countries. While SIAs have high vaccination coverage, it is unclear whether they reach the children who miss their routine measles vaccine dose. Determining who is reached by SIAs is vital to understanding their effectiveness, as well as measure progress towards measles control. We examined SIAs in low- and middle-income countries from 2000 to 2014 using data from the Demographic and Health Surveys. Conditional on a child's routine measles vaccination status, we examined whether children participated in the most recent measles SIA. The average proportion of zero-dose children (no previous routine measles vaccination defined as no vaccination date before the SIA) reached by SIAs across 14 countries was 66%, ranging from 28% in São Tomé and Príncipe to 91% in Nigeria. However, when also including all children with routine measles vaccination data, this proportion decreased to 12% and to 58% when imputing data for children with vaccination reported by the mother and vaccination marks on the vaccination card across countries. Overall, the proportions of zero-dose children reached by SIAs declined with increasing household wealth. Some countries appeared to reach a higher proportion of zero-dose children using SIAs than others, with proportions reached varying according to the definition of measles vaccination (e.g., vaccination dates on the vaccination card, vaccination marks on the vaccination card, and/or self-reported data). This suggests that some countries could improve their targeting of SIAs to children who miss other measles vaccine opportunities. Across all countries, SIAs played an important role in reaching

  6. Contagious comments: what was the online buzz about the 2011 Quebec measles outbreak?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Pereira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although interruption of endemic measles was achieved in the Americas in 2002, Quebec experienced an outbreak in 2011 of 776 reported cases; 80% of these individuals had not been fully vaccinated. We analyzed readers' online responses to Canadian news articles regarding the outbreak to better understand public perceptions of measles and vaccination. METHODS: We searched Canadian online English and French news sites for articles posted between April 2011 and March 2012 containing the words "measles" and "Quebec". We included articles that i concerned the outbreak or related vaccination strategies; and ii generated at least ten comments. Two English and two bilingual researchers coded the unedited comments, categorizing codes to allow themes to emerge. RESULTS: We analyzed 448 comments from 188 individuals, in response to three French articles and six English articles; 112 individuals expressed positive perceptions of measles vaccination (2.2 comments/person, 38 were negative (4.2 comments/person, 11 had mixed feelings (1.5 comments/person, and 27 expressed no opinion (1.1 comments/person. Vaccine-supportive themes involved the success of vaccination in preventing disease spread, societal responsibility to vaccinate for herd immunity, and refutation of the autism link. Those against measles vaccination felt it was a personal rather than societal choice, and conveyed a distrust of vaccine manufacturers, believing that measles infection is not only safe but safer than vaccination. Commenters with mixed feelings expressed uncertainty of the infection's severity, and varied in support of all vaccines based on perceived risk/benefit ratios. CONCLUSION: The anti-vaccine minority's volume of comments translates to a disproportionately high representation on online boards. Public health messages should address concerns by emphasizing that immunization is always a personal choice in Canada, and that the pharmaceutical industry is strictly

  7. The tragic 1824 journey of the Hawaiian king and queen to London: history of measles in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Stanford T; Shulman, Deborah L; Sims, Ronald H

    2009-08-01

    The susceptibility of isolated island-based populations to acute infections like measles is well documented, most clearly in Fiji and the Faröe Islands. We review the remarkably tragic 1824 journey of King Kamehameha II and Queen Kamamalu of Hawaii to London and the later enormous impact of measles on Hawaii on first arrival in 1848. The young royalty came to seek an audience with King George IV to negotiate an alliance with England. Virtually the entire royal party developed measles within weeks of arrival, 7 to 10 days after visiting the Royal Military Asylum housing hundreds of soldiers' children. Within the month the king (27) and queen (22) succumbed to measles complications. Their bodies were transported to Hawaii by Right Honorable Lord Byron (Captain George Anson, the poet's cousin). Before 1848 measles was unknown in Hawaii. Several epidemics struck Hawaii in late 1848, beginning with measles and pertussis, then diarrhea and influenza. Measles arrived at this time from California, spreading from Hilo, Hawaii, through all the islands; 10% to 33% of the population died. Subsequent measles epidemics occurred in 1861, 1889 to 1890, 1898, and 1936 to 1937, the latter with 205 deaths. The imported epidemics of infections including measles diminished Hawaii's population from approximately 300,000 at Captain Cook's arrival in 1778 to 135,000 in 1820 and 53,900 in 1876. The measles deaths of the king and queen in London in 1824, likely acquired visiting a large children's home, was a harbinger of the devastating impact of measles upon Hawaiians 24 years later with its first arrival to the Sandwich (Hawaiian) Islands.

  8. Does Measles Vaccination Reduce the Risk of Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI and Diarrhea in Children: A Multi-Country Study?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Bawankule

    Full Text Available Pneumonia and diarrhea occur either as complications or secondary infections in measles affected children. So, the integrated Global Action Plan for Pneumonia and Diarrhea (GAPPD by WHO and UNICEF includes measles vaccination as preventive measure in children. The objective of the study is to examine the effect of measles vaccination on Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI and diarrhea in children in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan.We analyzed data from the most recent rounds of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS in the selected countries. We included children age 12-59 months in the analysis. We used multivariable binary logistic regression to examine the effect of measles vaccination on ARI and diarrhea in children. We also estimated Vaccination Effectiveness (VE.More than 60 percent of the children age 12-59 months were given measles vaccine before the survey in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, India and Pakistan. Children who were given the measles vaccine were less likely to suffer from ARI than unvaccinated children in India and Pakistan. Children who were given the measles vaccine had a lower risk of diarrhea than those who did not receive it in all the selected countries except Ethiopia. Measles vaccination was associated with reduction in ARI cases by 15-30 percent in India and Pakistan, and diarrhea cases by 12-22 percent in the Democratic Republic of Congo, India, Nigeria and Pakistan.The receipt of the measles vaccine was associated with decrease in ARI and diarrhea in children. The immunization program must ensure that each child gets the recommended doses of measles vaccine at the appropriate age. The measles vaccination should be given more attention as a preventive intervention under the Global Action Plan for Pneumonia and Diarrhea (GAPPD in all low and middle-income countries.

  9. Does Measles Vaccination Reduce the Risk of Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) and Diarrhea in Children: A Multi-Country Study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawankule, Rahul; Singh, Abhishek; Kumar, Kaushalendra; Shetye, Sadanand

    2017-01-01

    Pneumonia and diarrhea occur either as complications or secondary infections in measles affected children. So, the integrated Global Action Plan for Pneumonia and Diarrhea (GAPPD) by WHO and UNICEF includes measles vaccination as preventive measure in children. The objective of the study is to examine the effect of measles vaccination on Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) and diarrhea in children in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan. We analyzed data from the most recent rounds of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in the selected countries. We included children age 12-59 months in the analysis. We used multivariable binary logistic regression to examine the effect of measles vaccination on ARI and diarrhea in children. We also estimated Vaccination Effectiveness (VE). More than 60 percent of the children age 12-59 months were given measles vaccine before the survey in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, India and Pakistan. Children who were given the measles vaccine were less likely to suffer from ARI than unvaccinated children in India and Pakistan. Children who were given the measles vaccine had a lower risk of diarrhea than those who did not receive it in all the selected countries except Ethiopia. Measles vaccination was associated with reduction in ARI cases by 15-30 percent in India and Pakistan, and diarrhea cases by 12-22 percent in the Democratic Republic of Congo, India, Nigeria and Pakistan. The receipt of the measles vaccine was associated with decrease in ARI and diarrhea in children. The immunization program must ensure that each child gets the recommended doses of measles vaccine at the appropriate age. The measles vaccination should be given more attention as a preventive intervention under the Global Action Plan for Pneumonia and Diarrhea (GAPPD) in all low and middle-income countries.

  10. Trend of measles, mumps, and rubella incidence following the measles-rubella catch up vaccination in the Republic of Korea, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Young June; Eom, Hye-Eun; Cho, Sung-Il

    2017-09-01

    Following the introduction of measles-rubella (MR) catch-up vaccination in 2001 and two dose measles-mumps-rubella (MMR2) keep-up program in 2002, the incidence of measles, mumps, and rubella was not evaluated systematically. To describe the recent changes in epidemiology, a population-based incidence study from 2001 to 2015 using national notifiable disease surveillance data was conducted. Between 2001 and 2015, there was decrease in the incidence of measles and rubella, whereas a steady increase in mump incidence was noted. The age distribution of mumps cases has shifted to the older age group, whereas rubella became more frequent in younger age group. The incidence of mumps showed an increase in every birth cohorts, except for the decrease in incidence for catch-up vaccination cohort from 131 cases in 2007-2011 to 64 cases per 100 000 in 2012-2015. Continuing in monitoring of mumps and strengthening of the high two-dose MMR vaccination coverage should be taken place in Korea. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Measles antibody levels after vaccination with Edmonston-Zagreb and Schwarz measles vaccine at 9 months or at 9 and 18 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, Carlitos

    2013-01-01

    Standard-titre Schwarz (SW) and Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccines (MV) are both used in the routine immunisation programme. Within a trial of different strains of MV, we examined antibody responses in both one-dose and two-dose schedules when the first dose was administered at 9 months....

  12. Randomized Trials Comparing Inactivated Vaccine after Medium- or High-titer Measles Vaccine with Standard Titer Measles Vaccine after Inactivated Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Ravn, Henrik; Benn, Christine S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Observational studies have suggested that girls have higher mortality if their most recent immunization is an inactivated vaccine rather than a live vaccine. We therefore reanalyzed 5 randomized trials of early measles vaccine (MV) in which it was possible to compare an inactivated va...

  13. A randomized trial of a standard dose of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine given at 4.5 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario L; Benn, Christine Stabell; Andersen, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Observational studies and trials from low-income countries indicate that measles vaccine has beneficial nonspecific effects, protecting against non-measles-related mortality. It is not known whether measles vaccine protects against hospital admissions. Between 2003 and 2007, 6417 children who had...

  14. Cost-benefit analyses of supplementary measles immunisation in the highly immunized population of New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, D T S; Marshall, J C; French, N P; Carpenter, T E; Roberts, M G; Kiedrzynski, T

    2017-09-05

    As endemic measles is eliminated from countries through increased immunisation, the economic benefits of enhanced immunisation programs may come into question. New Zealand has suffered from outbreaks after measles introductions from abroad and we use it as a model system to understand the benefits of catch up immunisation in highly immunised populations. We provide cost-benefit analyses for measles supplementary immunisation in New Zealand. We model outbreaks based on estimates of the basic reproduction number in the vaccinated population (R v , the number of secondary infections in a partially immunised population), based on the number of immunologically-naïve people at district and national levels, considering both pre- and post-catch up vaccination scenarios. Our analyses suggest that measles R v often includes or exceeds one (0.18-3.92) despite high levels of population immunity. We calculate the cost of the first 187 confirmed and probable measles cases in 2014 to be over NZ$1 million (∼US$864,200) due to earnings lost, case management and hospitalization costs. The benefit-cost ratio analyses suggest additional vaccination beyond routine childhood immunisation is economically efficient. Supplemental vaccination-related costs are required to exceed approximately US$66 to US$1877 per person, depending on different scenarios, before supplemental vaccination is economically inefficient. Thus, our analysis suggests additional immunisation beyond childhood programs to target naïve individuals is economically beneficial even when childhood immunisation rates are high. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The clinical usefulness of Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT in acute measles encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung Hee

    2003-01-01

    Since the prognosis of measles encephalitis is poor, early diagnosis and proper management are very important to improve clinical outcomes. We compared Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT (SPECT) with MR imaging (MRI) for the detection of acute measles encephalitis. Eleven patients (M : F=4 : 7, age range 18 months-14 yrs) with acute measles encephalitis were enrolled in this studies. All of them underwent both MRI and SPECT. The results of SPECT were scored from 0 (normal) to 3 (most severe defect) according to perfusion state. We compared two image modalities for the detection of brain abnormality in acute measles encephalitis. Seven of 11 patients (63.6%) revealed high signal intensity in the white matter on T2WI of MRI, on the other hand all patients (100%) showed hypoperfusion on SPECT. Severe perfusion deficits above score 2 were located with decreasing frequencies in the frontal lobe (81.8%), temporal lobe (72.7%), occipital lobe (27.3%), basal ganglia (27.3%), and parietal lobe (9.1%). We conclude that SPECT is more useful than MRI for the detection of brain involvement in patients with acute measles encephalitis

  16. Seroprevalence of Measles Antibodies and Predictors for Seropositivity among Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqin; Ma, Mei; Hui, Zhaozhao; Terry, Paul D; Zhang, Yue; Su, Rui; Wang, Mingxu; Gu, Wei; Li, Ling

    2017-06-06

    Background : Supplementary measles immunization has been implemented since 2010 throughout China, yet few studies have reported its effect in the northwest regions. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among children aged 2 to 4 years old ( n = 755) from February to September 2014 in 25 towns of Qian County, Shaanxi Province. Blood samples were analyzed for measles antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent immunoglobulin G (IgG) assays. Socio-demographic factors were assessed by questionnaire. Data on vaccine dose were collected from town medical records. Univariate and logistic regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with measles antibody seropositivity. Results : Measles antibody seroprevalence was 91.13% (95% CI: 89.52-92.83) in our sample. Compared with children whose mother's highest education was primary school, seroprevalence was higher in children whose maternal education was middle school (adjusted OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 0.7-2.8), high school (adjusted OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.3-7.7), and college/university (adjusted OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.2-9.3). Vaccine dose was positively associated with seropositivity. Conclusions : Measles seroprevalence is high in China and is associated with the mother's education and vaccine dose.

  17. Modeling and Managing the Risks of Measles and Rubella: A Global Perspective, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Cochi, Stephen L

    2016-07-01

    Over the past 50 years, the use of vaccines led to significant decreases in the global burdens of measles and rubella, motivated at least in part by the successive development of global control and elimination targets. The Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) includes specific targets for regional elimination of measles and rubella in five of six regions of the World Health Organization by 2020. Achieving the GVAP measles and rubella goals will require significant immunization efforts and associated financial investments and political commitments. Planning and budgeting for these efforts can benefit from learning some important lessons from the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI). Following an overview of the global context of measles and rubella risks and discussion of lessons learned from the GPEI, we introduce the contents of the special issue on modeling and managing the risks of measles and rubella. This introduction describes the synthesis of the literature available to support evidence-based model inputs to support the development of an integrated economic and dynamic disease transmission model to support global efforts to optimally manage these diseases globally using vaccines. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. The clinical usefulness of Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT in acute measles encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung Hee [School of Medicine, Chonbuk National Univ., Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-08-01

    Since the prognosis of measles encephalitis is poor, early diagnosis and proper management are very important to improve clinical outcomes. We compared Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT (SPECT) with MR imaging (MRI) for the detection of acute measles encephalitis. Eleven patients (M : F=4 : 7, age range 18 months-14 yrs) with acute measles encephalitis were enrolled in this studies. All of them underwent both MRI and SPECT. The results of SPECT were scored from 0 (normal) to 3 (most severe defect) according to perfusion state. We compared two image modalities for the detection of brain abnormality in acute measles encephalitis. Seven of 11 patients (63.6%) revealed high signal intensity in the white matter on T2WI of MRI, on the other hand all patients (100%) showed hypoperfusion on SPECT. Severe perfusion deficits above score 2 were located with decreasing frequencies in the frontal lobe (81.8%), temporal lobe (72.7%), occipital lobe (27.3%), basal ganglia (27.3%), and parietal lobe (9.1%). We conclude that SPECT is more useful than MRI for the detection of brain involvement in patients with acute measles encephalitis.

  19. Record High US Measles Cases: Patient Vaccination, Clinical Assessment and Management

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-30

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Record High US Measles Cases: Patient Vaccination, Clinical Assessment and Management. In May 2014, the United States recorded the largest number of reported measles cases since 1994 and the number continues to rise. Most cases reported have been acquired in the U.S. and are associated with importations from countries where measles is still common. This highly contagious, acute viral illness spreads quickly in unvaccinated populations once reaching the U.S. The recent measles outbreaks highlight the importance of maintaining high vaccination coverage in the U.S. and ensuring age-appropriate vaccination for international travelers. During this COCA call, clinicians will learn the status of measles in the U.S. and CDC vaccination recommendations and guidelines for patient assessment and management.  Created: 6/30/2014 by : National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases; Division of Viral Diseases; Healthcare Preparedness Activity (HPA); Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 6/30/2014.

  20. Measles outbreak in Greater Manchester, England, October 2012 to September 2013: epidemiology and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegorie, M; Shankar, K; Welfare, W S; Wilson, R W; Khiroya, C; Munslow, G; Fiefield, D; Bothra, V; McCann, R

    2014-12-11

    This paper describes the epidemiology and management of a prolonged outbreak of measles across the 2.7 million conurbation of Greater Manchester in the United Kingdom. Over a period of one year (from October 2012 to September 2013), over a thousand suspected measles cases (n = 1,073) were notified across Greater Manchester; of these, 395 (37%) were laboratory-confirmed, 91 (8%) were classed as probable, 312 (29%) were classed as possible and 275 (26%) excluded. Most confirmed and probable cases occurred in children within two age groups—infants (too young to be eligible for measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination according to the national immunisation programme) and children aged 10-19 years (low vaccine uptake in this cohort because of unfounded alleged links between the MMR vaccine and autism). During this one year period, there were a series of local outbreaks and many of these occurred within the secondary school setting. A series of public health measures were taken to control this prolonged outbreak: setting up incident management teams to control local outbreaks, a concerted immunisation catch-up campaign (initially local then national) to reduce the pool of children partially or totally unprotected against measles, and the exclusion of close contacts from nurseries and school settings for a period of 10 days following the last exposure to a case of measles.

  1. Seroprevalence of Measles Antibodies and Predictors for Seropositivity among Chinese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqin Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Supplementary measles immunization has been implemented since 2010 throughout China, yet few studies have reported its effect in the northwest regions. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among children aged 2 to 4 years old (n = 755 from February to September 2014 in 25 towns of Qian County, Shaanxi Province. Blood samples were analyzed for measles antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent immunoglobulin G (IgG assays. Socio-demographic factors were assessed by questionnaire. Data on vaccine dose were collected from town medical records. Univariate and logistic regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with measles antibody seropositivity. Results: Measles antibody seroprevalence was 91.13% (95% CI: 89.52–92.83 in our sample. Compared with children whose mother’s highest education was primary school, seroprevalence was higher in children whose maternal education was middle school (adjusted OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 0.7–2.8, high school (adjusted OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.3–7.7, and college/university (adjusted OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.2–9.3. Vaccine dose was positively associated with seropositivity. Conclusions: Measles seroprevalence is high in China and is associated with the mother’s education and vaccine dose.

  2. Clinical and epidemiological evolution of modern therapy and measles in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Timchenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and epidemiological research on the evolution of measles in children in Leningrad – St. Petersburg from 1927–2014 with an analysis of the effectiveness of treatment of this infection. Divided into three periods of fighting «child plague». First period – to use in the practice of specific therapies and antibacterial drugs, characterized by high morbidity, severe weight, high rates of mortality. In the second period the use of donor serum syvotrotki convalescents and sulfa drugs significantly lowered the mortality rate due to the effective treatment of pneumococcal pneumonia. The use of penicillin and broad-spectrum antibiotics led to a further reduction in the severity of measles, a sharp decline in mortality – to tenths and hundredths of a percent. The third period is due to the mass of active immunization against measles, characterized by a significant decline in incidence rates up to her absence in some years. Combined therapy of children with measles in modern conditions with the inclusion etiotropic drugs (Viferon causes rapid regression of the symptoms of measles, warns layering respiratory viral infection contributes to the smooth course of the disease. 

  3. Measles cases among adolescents in southern Pakistan 2012-2015: The case for revisiting vaccination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakoor, Sadia; Khan, Erum; Rajput, Muhammad Imran; Rahimoon, Wali Muhammad

    2017-07-03

    Surveillance of adult measles in Pakistan is a challenge as it does not enjoy the status of a reportable disease unlike childhood cases and therefore cases remain undetected and unreported or misdiagnosed. Consequently no data or estimates of young adult cases, seroprevalence, or estimates of susceptible preadolescent or young adult population exist. We have presented both laboratory conformed and clinically suspected cases of measles occurring in adolescents and adults in the southern province of Sindh in Pakistan. Through an examination of 2 independent databases, i.e. a laboratory database of measles IgM positive cases and clinically detected cases on surveillance performed by the Disease Early Warning System, we have analyzed and reported age-specific positivity rates from 2012 to 2015 in Sindh, Pakistan. High rates of laboratory confirmed measles were observed in those aged 9 y and younger. Among adolescents and adults, significantly higher positivity rates were observed among those aged 10-19 y. Clinically detected cases from Sindh showed similar distribution of cases. High burden of cases among children <9 y of age confirm that supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) among this age group are inadequate and need to be strengthened. Cases among those 10-19 y further demonstrate the need for consolidating SIAs with an additional strategy to vaccinate those who remain non-immune at college entry and in institutions where outbreaks can be prevented. Such measures are essential to achieving the goal of measles elimination in the country and region.

  4. Transitioning Lessons Learned and Assets of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative to Global and Regional Measles and Rubella Elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretsinger, Katrina; Strebel, Peter; Kezaala, Robert; Goodson, James L

    2017-07-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative has built an extensive infrastructure with capabilities and resources that should be transitioned to measles and rubella elimination efforts. Measles continues to be a major cause of child mortality globally, and rubella continues to be the leading infectious cause of birth defects. Measles and rubella eradication is feasible and cost saving. The obvious similarities in strategies between polio elimination and measles and rubella elimination include the use of an extensive surveillance and laboratory network, outbreak preparedness and response, extensive communications and social mobilization networks, and the need for periodic supplementary immunization activities. Polio staff and resources are already connected with those of measles and rubella, and transitioning existing capabilities to measles and rubella elimination efforts allows for optimized use of resources and the best opportunity to incorporate important lessons learned from polio eradication, and polio resources are concentrated in the countries with the highest burden of measles and rubella. Measles and rubella elimination strategies rely heavily on achieving and maintaining high vaccination coverage through the routine immunization activity infrastructure, thus creating synergies with immunization systems approaches, in what is termed a "diagonal approach." © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  5. Long-term survival in trial of medium-titre Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Lisse, Ida; Whittle, H

    1994-01-01

    A trial of protective efficacy which compared medium-titre Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccine (10(4.6) p.f.u.) from the age of 4 months with the standard Schwarz (SW) measles vaccine given from the age of 9 months was started in an urban community in Guinea-Bissau in 1985. Because trials of high...

  6. A Randomized Trial of an Early Measles Vaccine at 4½ Months of Age in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Søndergaard, Mia; Andersen, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: After measles vaccine (MV), all-cause mortality is reduced more than can be explained by the prevention of measles, especially in females. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study the biological mechanisms underlying the observed non-specific and sex-differential effects of MV on mortality. METHO...

  7. DTP with or after measles vaccination is associated with increased in-hospital mortality in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Biai, Sidu; Veirum, Jens Erik

    2007-01-01

    The sequence of routine immunisations may be important for childhood mortality. Three doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) should be given at 6, 10, and 14 weeks and measles vaccine (MV) at 9 months of age. The sequence is not always respected. We examined in-hospital mortality...... of children having received DTP with or after measles vaccine....

  8. Seroprevalence of measles, mumps and rubella among young adults, after 20 years of universal 2-dose MMR vaccination in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Hagai; Zarka, Salman; Ankol, Omer E; Rozhavski, Vladi; Davidovitch, Nadav; Aboudy, Yair; Balicer, Ran D

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based vaccination policy is important for the global and local efforts of achieving control over measles. In 2007, the first Israeli birth cohort to be twice vaccinated during childhood with Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccine reached adulthood. In parallel, Israel experienced its largest measles outbreak since 1994. We aimed to assess the seroprevalence of measles IgG antibodies and concordance with rubella and mumps seroprevalence among young Israeli adults born 1988-9 in comparison to previous birth cohorts, in order to inform evidence based prevention policy. We conducted a seroprevalence study of IgG antibodies among 439 Israeli adults born in 1988-9, based on a representative sample of sera collected at age 18-19 upon recruitment to mandatory military service in 2007. In total, 85.7% were seropositive for measles as compared with 95.6% in the 1996 recruitment (P Israel and in other countries.

  9. Deep sequencing reveals persistence of cell-associated mumps vaccine virus in chronic encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfopoulou, Sofia; Mee, Edward T; Connaughton, Sarah M; Brown, Julianne R; Gilmour, Kimberly; Chong, W K 'Kling'; Duprex, W Paul; Ferguson, Deborah; Hubank, Mike; Hutchinson, Ciaran; Kaliakatsos, Marios; McQuaid, Stephen; Paine, Simon; Plagnol, Vincent; Ruis, Christopher; Virasami, Alex; Zhan, Hong; Jacques, Thomas S; Schepelmann, Silke; Qasim, Waseem; Breuer, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Routine childhood vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella has virtually abolished virus-related morbidity and mortality. Notwithstanding this, we describe here devastating neurological complications associated with the detection of live-attenuated mumps virus Jeryl Lynn (MuV JL5 ) in the brain of a child who had undergone successful allogeneic transplantation for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). This is the first confirmed report of MuV JL5 associated with chronic encephalitis and highlights the need to exclude immunodeficient individuals from immunisation with live-attenuated vaccines. The diagnosis was only possible by deep sequencing of the brain biopsy. Sequence comparison of the vaccine batch to the MuV JL5 isolated from brain identified biased hypermutation, particularly in the matrix gene, similar to those found in measles from cases of SSPE. The findings provide unique insights into the pathogenesis of paramyxovirus brain infections.

  10. Descriptive analysis of measles cases seen in a tertiary health facility in Sokoto, Northwest Nigeria – implication of disease eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Yahaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Measles is a vaccine preventable viral disease that affects mostly children under-five years of age. It is highly contagious infection associated with high morbidity and mortality. Objective To describe the morbidity and mortality pattern of measles cases in person, place and time. Methods A health facility based study and cross sectional descriptive study design was used. All cases of measles that presented at the facility from January to June 2016 were profiled and their medical records reviewed. Representative blood samples were taken and analyzed using the Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method for the diagnosis of measles. Data was entered into MS Excel version 2016 and later analysed using Epi-info version 7. Results A total of 149 patients were seen over a period of 6 months. They represent 88 males and 61 females with a male to female ratio of 2:1. The median age of the cases was 30 months (range of 108 months to 9 month. The trend analysis shows a steady increased in number of cases from January with the month of March having the highest number of 46 cases, then there was steady decline for the subsequent months. Only 14 children, which accounted for 9.4% were reported to have being vaccinated against measles, while majority, 135 that represented 90.6% were not. Seven deaths were recorded; all were males and among cases that never received vaccine against measles, giving Case fatality rate (CFR of 5.0%. Measles specific immunoglobulin M (IgM was detected in all the blood samples that were sent for investigations. Conclusion Nearly all the cases did not receive measles vaccine and among the deaths recorded, none had been vaccinated against measles. Concerted efforts are required by all stakeholders to ensure every child is completely immunized in line with the global measles elimination strategy.

  11. Hospital preparedness in community measles outbreaks—challenges and recommendations for low-resource settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakoor, Sadia; Mir, Fatima; Zaidi, Anita K. M.; Zafar, Afia

    2015-01-01

    We have reviewed various strategies involved in containment of measles in healthcare facilities during community outbreaks. The strategies that are more applicable to resource-poor settings, such as natural ventilation, mechanical ventilation with heating and air-conditioning systems allowing unidirectional air-flow, and protection of un-infected patients and healthcare workers (HCWs), have been examined. Ventilation methods need innovative customization for resource-poor settings followed by validation and post-implementation analysis for impact. Mandatory vaccination of all HCWs with two doses of measles-containing vaccine, appropriate post-exposure prophylaxis of immunocompromised inpatients, and stringent admission criteria for measles cases can contribute toward reduction of nosocomial and secondary transmission within facilities. PMID:25882388

  12. Evaluation of the mass measles vaccination campaign in Guangdong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhi Qiang; Chen, Wei Shi; He, Qun; Peng, Guo Wen; Wu, Cheng Gang; Xu, Ning; Zhao, Zhan Jie; Shu, Jun; Tan, Qiu; Zheng, Hui Zhen; Lin, Li Feng; Deng, Hui Hong; Lin, Jin Yan; Zhang, Yong Hui

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the mass measles vaccination campaign of 2009 in Guangdong Province, China. Data on the campaign implementation, measles surveillance, and serological surveillance were reviewed and analyzed by statistical methods. Rapid coverage surveys showed that 98.09% of children were vaccinated during the campaign. The coverage of migrant children increased significantly from 67.10% to 97.32% (pvaccinated during the campaign. Flyers, notices of information from doctors, and television programs were the best methods to inform parents of the campaign. Awareness of the campaign by residents increased significantly from 91.86% to 97.10% (pvaccination campaign approach for controlling measles in a developing region like Guangdong Province with a vast migrant population has proved effective. Comprehensive mobilization, communication with the mass media, and support from government departments were critical to the success of the campaign. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Vaccine-preventable diseases in pediatric patients: a review of measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella [digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Deborah A; Pade, Kathryn H

    2016-12-22

    Vaccine-preventable diseases such as measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella continue to plague children and adults worldwide. Although public health programs have helped decrease the prevalence and sequelae of these diseases, outbreaks still occur. To limit the spread of these diseases, emergency clinicians must be able to readily identify the characteristic presentations of the rashes associated with measles, rubella, and varicella, as well as the common presenting features associated with mumps. Diagnostic laboratory studies are not usually necessary, as a complete history and physical examination usually lead to an accurate diagnosis. Treatment for these vaccine-preventable diseases usually consists of supportive care, but, in some cases, severe complications and death may occur. This issue provides a review of the clinical features, differential diagnoses, potential complications, and treatment options for measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice].

  14. Recent advances on Ebola virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Waheed

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The 2014–2015 Ebola epidemic in West Africa was the largest of its kind, with more than 11 000 deaths and 28 637 cases. The epidemic mobilized a coalition of countries from US to China, European Union, and African countries. The international community was not prepared to face this unprecedented epidemic. Numbers of research groups are working to find a potent vaccine against Ebola. Ebola virus has the ability to dodge the immune system either by blocking interferon production or by glycoprotein-based immune diversion. Individuals who survived from the Ebola virus are facing different health issues after the infection. The rate of miscarriage is also high in Ebola survivors while there are variable reports of the presence of Ebola virus in semen of Ebola survivors. There are many asymptomatic Ebola patients under consideration. West African countries lack the basic healthcare system, for which the actual number of deaths by the Ebola outbreak are much more than the deaths caused by the direct viral infection. The hospitals were empty due to fear and death of nurses and doctors. Millions of children missed the vaccine against measles. Hundreds of thousands of people could not get food. The Ebola epidemic also affected the mental health of people living in endemic countries. The families affected by Ebola are facing discrimination in the society. There is a dire need to adopt United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3, which stresses to prepare ourselves to face any national or global health risk.

  15. Measles serodiagnosis: production and evaluation of the IgM-measles ELISA IAL reagent Sorodiagnóstico de sarampo: produção e avaliação da técnica de ELISA IgM IAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumie Hoshino-Shimizu

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent measles outbreaks in different countries led to an increase of laboratory measles diagnosis. Thus, we developed the IgM-Measles ELISA IAL, using measles virus antigens obtained from cell cultured in microcarriers in order to supply reagent kits to Brazilian public health laboratories. A batch of antigenic reagent was produced and evaluated in the enzyme immunoassay in comparison with clinical diagnosis and with as reference assay (IgM Capture ELISA CDC data. This study was performed in a positive panel with 70 serum samples from patients with measles, and a negative panel with 132 samples from patients with unrelated diseases and without recent measles or vaccination history. In relation to other diagnostic methods, the IgM ELISA IAL presented sensitivity higher than 97.1%, specificity and precision of 97%, and agreement kappa (k index higher than 0.94 (P Recentes epidemias de sarampo em diferentes países induziram aumento de sorodiagnóstico do sarampo, inclusive em laboratórios de saúde pública brasileiros. Desta forma, desenvolvemos uma técnica de ELISA IgM IAL, utilizando antígenos de vírus do sarampo obtidos de células cultivadas em microcarregadores, com o objetivo de fornecer "kits" de reagentes para diferentes laboratórios. Foi produzida uma partida de reagente para esta técnica imunoenzimática, e os parâmetros diagnósticos foram avaliados em comparação com dados clínicos e de ensaio de referência (ELISA de captura IgM. O reagente foi estudado em um painel positivo tendo 70 soros de pacientes com sarampo e painel negativo com 132 soros de pacientes com doenças não relacionadas e sem história de sarampo recente ou vacinação. A técnica de ELISA IgM IAL demonstrou sensibilidade de 97,1% e 98,6%, especificidades de 97%, e índices kapa de concordância de 0,94 e 0,95 (p < 0,05. O perfil de anticorpo IgM de sarampo da fase aguda foi também semelhante ao do ensaio de referência. Foi proposto ainda um sistema pr

  16. Comparison of measles complications in well nourished and mal-nourished children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaisar, I.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, A.

    2009-01-01

    Measles is the most common and the most infectious of the viral infections of childhood. It can cause severe pneumonia, diarrhoea, encephalitis, and death. A significant proportion of deaths due to measles in young children worldwide are attributable to low weight for age. To compare the measles complications in well-nourished and mal-nourished children, this cross-sectional study was conducted at Paediatric out-patient department and paediatric unit 1 Bahawal Victoria Hospital Bahawalpur. Total 120 patients were included in the study. All patients presented with signs and symptoms suggestive of measles according to WHO criteria. These patients were divided into well nourished and malnourished according to the modified Gomez classification. Both groups were evaluated for measles complications like pneumonia, diarrhoea, encephalitis, corneal ulceration, thrombocytopenia, otitis media and myocarditis by detailed history and complete physical examination, and statistically analysed. In the studied patients, 75 were males and 45 were females. Mean age was 23 months. Fifty-nine (49.2%) patients were well-nourished and 61 (50.8%) were undernourished. Fifty-two (43.3%) patients were having pneumonia. Fifty-three (44.2%) patients were having diarrhoea. Twenty-six (21.7%) patients were having encephalitis. Corneal ulceration was found in 9 (7.5%) patients. Thrombocytopenia and otitis media was present in 1 patient in each group. Fourteen patients expired. Measles is a global epidemic problem having many serious complications, including pneumonia, diarrhoea, encephalitis, corneal ulcerations etc. Moreover these complications are more frequent in under nourished children. Efforts should be made to improve the nutritional status of the children and to eradicate this disease by effective vaccination. (author)

  17. Impact of Nonmedical Vaccine Exemption Policies on the Health and Economic Burden of Measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Melanie D; Kempe, Allison; Dempsey, Amanda; Herlihy, Rachel; Campbell, Jonathan D

    2017-07-01

    Despite relatively high national vaccination coverage for measles, geographic vaccination variation exists resulting in clusters of susceptibility. A portion of this geographic variation can be explained by differences in state policies related to nonmedical vaccine exemptions. The objective of this analysis was to determine the magnitude, likelihood, and cost of a measles outbreak under different nonmedical vaccine exemption policies. An agent-based transmission model simulated the likelihood and magnitude of a measles outbreak under different nonmedical vaccine exemption policies, previously categorized as easy, medium, or difficult. The model accounted for measles herd immunity, infectiousness of the pathogen, vaccine efficacy, duration of incubation and communicable periods, acquired natural immunity, and the rate of recovery. Public health contact tracing was also modeled. Model outcomes, including the number of secondary cases, hospitalizations, and deaths, were monetized to determine the economic burden of the simulated outbreaks. A state with easy nonmedical vaccine exemption policies is 140% and 190% more likely to experience a measles outbreak compared with states with medium or difficult policies, respectively. The magnitude of these outbreaks can be reduced by half by strengthening exemption policies. These declines are associated with significant cost reductions to public health, the health care system, and the individual. Strengthening nonmedical vaccine exemption policies is 1 mechanism to increase vaccination coverage to reduce the health and economic effect of a measles outbreak. States exploring options for decreasing their vulnerability to outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases should consider more stringent requirements for nonmedical vaccine exemptions. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Parental attitudes towards measles vaccination in the canton of Aargau, Switzerland: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Carine; Schröpfer, Daniel; Merten, Sonja

    2016-08-11

    Despite the successes of routine national childhood vaccination programmes, measles remains a public health concern. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how patterns of parental attitudes are linked to the decision-making process for or against MMR vaccination. This exploratory study was designed to identify distinct patterns of attitudes towards or against measles vaccination through Latent Class Analysis (LCA) in a sub-sample of mothers living in the canton of Aargau in Switzerland. Parents of young children below 36 months of age were randomly selected through parents' counsellors' registries. Among other questions, respondents were asked to state their agreement in response to 14 belief statements regarding measles vaccination on a 5-point Likert scale. To identify groups of parents showing distinct patterns of attitudes and beliefs regarding measles vaccination, we used Latent Class Analysis (LCA). The LCA showed three classes of parents with different attitudes and believes towards measles vaccination: The biggest group (class 1) are those having positive attitudes towards immunisation, followed by the second biggest group (class 2) which is characterised by having fearful attitudes and by showing uncertainty about immunisation. The third group (class 3) shows distinct patterns of critical attitudes against immunisation. Within this group over 90 % agree or totally agree that immunisation is an artificial intrusion into the natural immune system and therefore want to vaccinate their children only if necessary. We find that parents in the Canton Aargau who hesitate to vaccinate their children against measles, mumps and rubella show distinct opinions and attitudes. Health professionals should be aware of these perceptions to tailor their messages accordingly and positively influence these parents to vaccinate their children. Special attention needs to be given to those parents who are planning to vaccinate their children but are not following the

  19. Serological assessment of the establishment of herd immunity against measles in a health district in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlina, Y; Marlindawati, M A; Shamsuddin, K

    2016-12-08

    Malaysia still faces challenges optimizing resources to effectively eliminate measles through high immunization and herd immunity, with sporadic outbreaks of measles as evidence. The objective of this study is to determine the age-specific positive measles antibodies seroprevalence used for assessing the establishment of herd immunity against measles in different age groups. This is useful for identifying vulnerable age groups requiring supplementary immunization. A seroprevalence study was conducted among respondents aged 6-9 years, 15-24 years and 45-54 years attending government health clinics in Seremban between September 2014 and January 2015. A total of 1541 measles IgG antibody status were determined using ELISA technique (NovaTec Immundiagnostica GMBH) and assessment of establishment of herd immunity was based on indicators developed by Plans. Data on socio-demographic background as well as medical and medication history were also gathered. Seropositive rate for all respondents were 87% (95% CI 85-89), while the rest had either indeterminate [6% (95% CI 5-7)] or negative titre [7% (95% CI 6-8)]. None of the factors analyzed except for age were significant predictors of positive measles antibodies. Seropositive rate differed by age with the highest rate seen in adults (94%; CI 92-96), followed by children (90%; 95% CI 87-94) and adolescents, and young adults (74%; 95% CI 70-78). Based on Plans' indicators, herd immunity was established in adults and children, but not in adolescents and young adults. To tackle the most susceptible group in the present study, it is advisable to give booster vaccination to secondary school students and freshmen who enter colleges and universities in Malaysia.

  20. Engineered Herpes Simplex Viruses for the Treatment of Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    lines). This is an entry receptor usually limited to lymphoid cells has not been previously identified in neuroectodermal tissue. Year 3: As a... innate and adaptive immune 327 response. However, resistance is common in vitro and therefore, to the extent that tumor cell lines 328 maintain the...Handgretinger R, et al. Innate immune 461 defense defines susceptibility of sarcoma cells to measles vaccine virus-based oncolysis. J Virol. 462 2013;87