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Sample records for tc-99m-disida hepatobiliary kinetics

  1. Effect of ketamine, pentobarbital, and morphine on Tc-99m-DISIDA hepatobiliary kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durakovic, A.; Dubois, A.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate hapatobiliary kinetics of Tc-99m-DISIDA in dogs after administration of anesthetic sedative or narcotic agents. Four groups of six male Beagle dogs were studied as a non-treated control group and after parenteral administration of ketamine (30 mg/kg IM), pentobarbital (25 mg/kg IV) or morphine (1 mg/kg IV). Each animal was injected with 4 mCi Tc-99m-DISIDA and hepatobiliary scintigraphic studies were obtained using a gamma camera with parallel hole multipurpose collimator and an A/sup 3/ MDS computer. The authors determined; peak activity of Tc-99m-DISIDA in the liver, visualization and peak activity of gallbladder, and intestinal visualization of Tc-99m-DISIDA. Total bilirubin, LDH, SGOT and SGPT were not modified significantly after any drug compared to control. The results showed that two commonly used anesthetics and sedatives (ketamine and pentobarbital) have dramatic and opposite effects on extrahepatic biliary kinetics. Furthermore, ketamine, but not pentobarbital, significantly accelerates intrahepatic biliary kinetics. Finally, as expected, morphine delayed extrahepatic biliary kinetics. Thus, studies of biliary kinetics should be interpreted with caution when measurements are made after administration of anesthetic, sedative or narcotic agents

  2. Gastric Reflux on Routine Tc-99m DISIDA hepatobiliary Scintigraphy

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    Lee, Kang Wook; Lee, Heon Young [Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-15

    Reflux of bile and digestive enzymes from the small bowel and duodenum into stomach has been observed in patients with various gastroduodenal diseases. Tc-99m iminodiacetic acid derivatives hepatobiliary scan has been used as a noninvasive method to detect duodenogastric reflux. Sometimes, gastric reflux can be observed incidentally on routine Tc-99m DISA hepatobiliary scintigraphy. To evaluate the clinical meaning of gastric reflux on routine Tc-99m DISIDA hepatobiliary scan, we analyzed 36 patients showed gastric reflux incidentally on the routine Tc-99m-DISIDA hepatobiliary scintigraphy from December 1991 to June 1995 in Chungnam National University Hospital. The results were as follows: 1) The gastric reflux was observed in 2.3% of 1,553 cases of routine Tc-99m DISIDA Hepatobiliary scintigraphy for 43 months. 2) Nineteen percent of patients with gastric reflux had the past medical history of operations on stomach or biliary system. And that history was more prevalent in patients with reflux than those without reflux, significantly (p<0.01). 3) On fiberoptic gastroduodenpscopic examination, 87% of the patients with gastric reflux had the gastroduodenal diseases such as gastritis, gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, gastric cancer, duodenal cancer and ampullary diverticulosis. We thought that the gastric reflux can be observed considerably in patients without any operation history on stomach or duodenum, although the operation history is more prevalent in patients with gastric reflux than those without reflux, significantly and most of patients with gastric reflux on routine Tc-99m DISIDA scan has various gastroduodenal diseases.

  3. Gastric Reflux on Routine Tc-99m DISIDA hepatobiliary Scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang Wook; Lee, Heon Young

    1995-01-01

    Reflux of bile and digestive enzymes from the small bowel and duodenum into stomach has been observed in patients with various gastroduodenal diseases. Tc-99m iminodiacetic acid derivatives hepatobiliary scan has been used as a noninvasive method to detect duodenogastric reflux. Sometimes, gastric reflux can be observed incidentally on routine Tc-99m DISA hepatobiliary scintigraphy. To evaluate the clinical meaning of gastric reflux on routine Tc-99m DISIDA hepatobiliary scan, we analyzed 36 patients showed gastric reflux incidentally on the routine Tc-99m-DISIDA hepatobiliary scintigraphy from December 1991 to June 1995 in Chungnam National University Hospital. The results were as follows: 1) The gastric reflux was observed in 2.3% of 1,553 cases of routine Tc-99m DISIDA Hepatobiliary scintigraphy for 43 months. 2) Nineteen percent of patients with gastric reflux had the past medical history of operations on stomach or biliary system. And that history was more prevalent in patients with reflux than those without reflux, significantly (p<0.01). 3) On fiberoptic gastroduodenpscopic examination, 87% of the patients with gastric reflux had the gastroduodenal diseases such as gastritis, gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, gastric cancer, duodenal cancer and ampullary diverticulosis. We thought that the gastric reflux can be observed considerably in patients without any operation history on stomach or duodenum, although the operation history is more prevalent in patients with gastric reflux than those without reflux, significantly and most of patients with gastric reflux on routine Tc-99m DISIDA scan has various gastroduodenal diseases.

  4. Clinical significance of segmental parenchymal excretion delay on Tc-99m DISIDA hepatobiliary scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, D. Y.; Ryu, J. S.; Moon, D. H.; Lee, S. K.; Kim, M. H.; Lee, H. K.

    1998-01-01

    Segmental parenchymal excretion delay on Tc-99m DISIDA scan in caused by intrahepatic bile duct obstruction. However, the diagnostic value for intrahepatic bile duct obstruction is unknown. We conducted this study to assess the positive predictive value of segmental excretion delay for the diagnosis of intrahepatic bile duct obstruction, and additional benefit over other noninvasive radiologic studies. The study population consisted of 43 patients (48 scans) who showed segmental parenchymal excretion delay on Tc-99m DISIDA scan. The results of abdominal CT or ultrasonography, which was done within 1 month of Tc-99m DISIDA scan, were compared with scintigraphic findings. The etiology of segmental parenchymal excretion delay was determined by ERC or PTC in 31 scans, and follow-up studies in 13 scans. No causes were identified in 4 scans. The positive predictive value of segmental parenchymal excretion delay for intrahepatic bile duct obstruction was 92% (44/48). On the other hand, 13% (5/38) of CT and 28% (5/18) of ultrasonography were normal. In 18% *7/38) of CT and 17% (3/18) of ultrasonography, only intrahepatic bile duct dilatation was noted without any diagnostic findings of intrahepatic bile duct obstruction. Segmental parenchymal excretion delay on Tc-99m DISIDA scan had a high positive predictive value for the diagnosis of intrahepatic bile duct obstruction. Tc-99m DISIDA scan may be useful for the diagnosis of intrahepatic bile duct obstruction, especially in patients with nondiagnostic CT or ultrasonography. The diagnostic usefulness need to be confirmed by further prospective studies

  5. Evaluation of hepatobiliary imaging using Tc-99m-DISIDA in hepatobiliary disease

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    Kim, Yong Ga; Chung, Duck Soo; Kim, Ok Dong [Taegu Catholic Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-06-15

    Hepatobiliary scintigraphy using Tc-labelled radiopharmaceuticals is employed primarily for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis and for demonstration of biliary tract patency. We concluded a retrospective study of 55 patients with hepatobiliary disease from Jun. '84 to Sep. '84 at Taegu Catholic Hospital and tried to determine the etiology and find the possible differential points by analyzing the scintigraphic findings. The following results were obtained; 1. Tree-like photon defect on hepatic parenchyme was suggested characteristic of complete obstructive biliary disease, but could be seen in either benign or malignant etiology. 2. The grade of hepatocyte clearance was not useful in determining whether the cause of obstructive biliary disease was benign or malignant in this study. 3. Hepatocyte clearance was more severely impaired in hepatocellular disease than in obstructive biliary disease. 4. The photon defect in porta hepatis with complete biliary obstruction was suggested characteristic of common bile duct cancer. 5. The meniscus appearance at obstructed site of common bile duct was pathognomonic sign of choledocholithiasis. 6. When the gallbladder was not visualized, the differential diagnosis between acute and chronic cholecystitis was possible without delayed image by observing the transit time to bowel. The delayed transit to bowel was a favorable of chronic cholecystitis rather than of acute cholecystitis. 7. Acute pancreatitis could be easily differentiated from partial biliary obstruction by clinical and laboratory examination, but the finding of abrupt narrowing of pancreatic common bile duct with slight proximal dilatation on cholescintigraphy was also a key point in acute pancreatitis. 8. The segmental dilatation of intrahepatic duct was thought meaningful sign of clonorchiasis.

  6. Evaluation of hepatobiliary imaging using Tc-99m-DISIDA in hepatobiliary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Ga; Chung, Duck Soo; Kim, Ok Dong

    1985-01-01

    Hepatobiliary scintigraphy using Tc-labelled radiopharmaceuticals is employed primarily for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis and for demonstration of biliary tract patency. We concluded a retrospective study of 55 patients with hepatobiliary disease from Jun. '84 to Sep. '84 at Taegu Catholic Hospital and tried to determine the etiology and find the possible differential points by analyzing the scintigraphic findings. The following results were obtained; 1. Tree-like photon defect on hepatic parenchyme was suggested characteristic of complete obstructive biliary disease, but could be seen in either benign or malignant etiology. 2. The grade of hepatocyte clearance was not useful in determining whether the cause of obstructive biliary disease was benign or malignant in this study. 3. Hepatocyte clearance was more severely impaired in hepatocellular disease than in obstructive biliary disease. 4. The photon defect in porta hepatis with complete biliary obstruction was suggested characteristic of common bile duct cancer. 5. The meniscus appearance at obstructed site of common bile duct was pathognomonic sign of choledocholithiasis. 6. When the gallbladder was not visualized, the differential diagnosis between acute and chronic cholecystitis was possible without delayed image by observing the transit time to bowel. The delayed transit to bowel was a favorable of chronic cholecystitis rather than of acute cholecystitis. 7. Acute pancreatitis could be easily differentiated from partial biliary obstruction by clinical and laboratory examination, but the finding of abrupt narrowing of pancreatic common bile duct with slight proximal dilatation on cholescintigraphy was also a key point in acute pancreatitis. 8. The segmental dilatation of intrahepatic duct was thought meaningful sign of clonorchiasis

  7. Surgical, pathological and clinical correlation of Tc-99m DISIDA hepatobiliary imaging in 138 adult males, in the diagnosis of functional cystic duct obstruction VS acute or chronic cholecystitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, J.H.K.; Beal, W.H.; Ware, R.W.; Straw, J.D.; Chaudhuri, T.K.

    1985-01-01

    Despite the wide acceptance of the hepatobiliary scintigraphy as a popular diagnostic imaging modality for gallbladder and hepatobiliary disease, correlation between radionuclide diagnoses and the final clinical and/or pathologic findings have not been thoroughly evaluated. The lack of correlative studies frequently generates difficulties in making appropriate diagnostic interpretation of the objective findings. A retrospective clinical pathological and surgical correlative study was undertaken by the authors in 138 male veteran patients, who underwent computer assisted minute by minute Tc-99m DISIDA cholescintigraphy. A very high percentage (75%) revealed abnormalities; non-visualization of gallbladder (GB) with normal choledochus system (46%), choledochal obstruction with no GB visualization (13%), choledochal obstruction with normal GB visualization (6%), severe hepatocellular disease with non-diagnostic GB (4%), and delayed GB visualization (longer than 60 minutes) (3%). Non-visualization of GB but normal choledochus demonstrated diverse pathologic etiologies, acute and chronic cholecystitis (64%), S/P cholecystectomy (8%), functional obstruction secondary to sepsis or pancreatitis (6%), and various other pathologies including porcelain GB and cholangitis (22%). The most important cause of choledochal obstruction was mass lesions or local infiltration with metastases (33%) rather than acute cholecystitis (27%). Although the sensitivity (98%) and specificity (92%) for cystic duct obstruction were very high, the specificity decreases significantly for cholecystitis

  8. Assessment of hepatocyte and kupffer cell function using Tc-99m DISIDA/Tc-99m tin colloid in thioacetamide-induced liver injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, B. C.; Chun, K. A.; Lee, J.; Lee, K. B.

    1997-01-01

    Toxic liver injury is not unusual in clinical field and liver biopsy is one of the most accurate method to define the severity of liver injury. But occasionally, it is impossible to obtain liver tissue in patients with acute toxic liver injury. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possibility of liver scintigraphy with Tc-99m DISIDA or Tc-99m tin colloid as a non-invasive tool in predicting functional status of hepatocyte and Kupffer cell and severity of liver injury. Intraperitoneal injection of thioacetamide was performed to make acute liver injury in mice and rats, and liver status was assessed by pathologic specimen and scintigraphic methods. Scintigraphic evaluation were performed by biodistribution of Tc-99m DISIDA or Tc-99m tin colloid in thioacetamide-treated mice. Liver time-activity curves were generated. Comparison between histologic data and scintigraphic data was done with SAS program. Thioacetamide-treated mice demonstrated hepatocyte necrosis in histologic examination and low liver/blood uptake ratios in biodistribution studies using both radiotracers. Biodistribution study using Tc-99m tin colloid revealed increased lung radioactivity in thioacetamide-treated mice. Twenty-four hours after thioacetamide administration, thioacetamide-treated rats demonstrated maximal hepatocyte necrosis and inflammation in histologic finding and delayed maximal uptake time (Tmax) and prolonged half time (T 1/2 ) of liver time-activity curve in liver scintigraphy. Histologic results and scintigraphic data were well correlated, and these two scintigraphic parameters (Tmax T 1/2 ) seemed to be good predictors of histologic change of liver. These data showed that liver injury could be assessed by non-invasive scintigraphic study in rat and mouse. This experimental study might be used as a animal model to evaluate the liver protecting drugs, and this scintigraphic study could be applied to acute toxic hepatitis for assessment of liver status in men

  9. Evaluation of the biliary gallbladder emptying in patients with calcificant chronic pancreatitis through a scintilographic study with DISIDA Tc-99m; Avaliacao do esvaziamento da vesicula biliar em portadores de pancreatite cronica calcificante, atraves do estudo cintilografico com Tc-99m DISIDA

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    Pedroso, Martha Regina Arcon

    1996-07-01

    The eventual relation between biliary lithiasis and chronic pancreatitis (CP) has been studied before but the research on the gallbladder involvement in chronic pancreatitis patients are rare, specially from a functional point of view. In order to study that, gallbladder emptying was evaluated in 11 patients with CP and the results were compared and analyzed statistically with the ones observed in 10 controls. This series exclude patients and controls who presented any kind of prior or current affection, or condition, that could interfere with the gastric or gallbladder emptying and the release of the entero pancreatic hormones. Gallbladder emptying was studied through the scintillographic method, using Tc-99m DISIDA, through the calculation of the ejection (EF) of the gallbladder (GB), at 30, 45 and 60 minutes. In the patients this evaluation was studied in two different periods of time with an interval of two to four weeks between them, without (CPWOP) and with (CPWP) the addition of pancreatic extract. The analyses of the results disclosed that the EF of GB at 60 minutes was significantly higher in the controls when compared tro chronic pancreatopaths. On the other hand, the EF of GB in these patients did not show any statistically significant differences after the administration of pancreatic extract. The results suggest that the delay in the gallbladder emptying does not depend exclusively on the eventual alteration in the intestinal phase of the gallbladder stimulation, but it probably also results from the association with other factors involved, as a mechanic factor, which depends on the compression of the main biliary tract through the chronic pathological process located in the cephalic portion of the pancreas. (author)

  10. Gallbladder emptying evaluation in calcific chronic pancreatitis using Tc-99m DISIDA scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedroso, Martha Regina A.; Cunha, Renata M.; Guarita, Dulce R.; Buchpieguel, Carlos A.; Mott, Carlos B.; Laudanna, Antonio Atilio

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the gallbladder motor function in chronic pancreatitis (C) patients. Gallbladder emptying was evaluated in 11 patients, without and with addition of pancreatic extract and in ten controls. The results were compared and analyzed statistically. The ejection fraction (E F) of the gallbladder (GB) at 30, 45 and 60 minutes were calculated by using Tc-9 9 m DISIDA scintigraphy. The E F of GB at 60 minutes was significantly higher in the controls when compared to patients, although the results between patients were similar without and with addition of pancreatic extract. The results suggest that the delay in the GB emptying does not depend on the eventual alteration in the intestinal phase of the vesicular stimulation, but it probably results from a mechanic factor, which depends on the chronic pathological process located in the head of the pancreas. (author)

  11. The role of hepatobiliary scintigraphy and MR cholangiography in the assessment of bile duct obstruction after biliary surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Seung; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Lee, Moon Gyu; Lee, Sung Gyu; Lee, Hee Kyung

    1998-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the role of MR cholangiography (MRC) and hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS) in the assessemtn of recurrent bile duct obstruction after biliary surgery. Twenty-three patients (15 men and 8 women: mean age 49.8) with post-biliary operation state (16 biliary-enteric anastomoses and seven cholecystectomy) underwent a total of 28 MRC and 28 HBS using Tc-99m DISIDA within 3 days of each other. Interval between surgery and MRC or HBS ranged from 2 wk to 15 yr (median: 14 mon). MRC and HBS were analyzed for the presence of bile duct obstruction. The final diagnoses were cofirmed by percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage or surgical operation in 11 of 28 cases and by the follow-up clinical course in the rests. Of 14 instances with bile duct obstruction (13 intrahepatic bile duct obstruction and 1 common bile duct obstruction), HBS showed complete intrahepatic bile duct (IHD) obstruction in 7, incomplete IHD obstruction in 5, parenchymal dysfuction in 1, and IHD dilation without obstructon in 1, resulting in sensitivity of 86% (12/14). MRC showed stone in 6, stricture in 4, IHD dilatation in 3, and normal in 1. The sensitivity of MRC was 71% (10/14). Fourteen instances were without obstruction. HBS showed no evidence of obstruction in all 14 instances (specificity 100%). However, stricture on MRC was found in 4 instances, resulting in specificity of 71% (10/14). HBS is useful in the diagnosis of recurrent bile duct obstruction after surgery. MRC is a useful modality for assessing the diagnosis of obstruction itself as well as the cause and location of bile duct obstruction. However, the specificity of MRC appears to be lower because of possible overestimation of stricture

  12. Gall blandder kinetics in diabetics. A hepatobiliary scintigraphy overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelley, S.; Indirani, M.; Gokhale, S.; Anirudhan, N.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Hepatobiliary scintigraphy is underutilized in the evaluation of Gall Bladder(GB) function in diabetics when compared to various other imaging modalities that are currently available.It establishes the function of GB in Diabetes mellitus noninvasively, with a quantified ejection fraction thereby helping to resolve the problem of diabetic cholecystopathy, in the evaluation of visceral neuropathy. Aim: To study Gall Bladder kinetics and emptying in diabetic patients. Materials and methods: One forty eight patients of both sexes in the age group of 30 to 70 were included in the study between 1997 to 1999 in our institution.A 90 minute dynamic post mebrofenin study was acquired. A fatty meal of 600 kcal was given to these patients once the Gall Bladder was visualized.Time activity curves were generated and the Gall Bladder contraction in these patients was evaluated.Patients were classified into 3 groups-Group 1 consists of established Diabetic patients. Group 2 consists of patients with impaired glucose tolerance. Group 3 consists of controls. Observation and result: In Group 1 (n=47) ,28 patients (60%) showed reduced ejection fraction and the mean EF% was 44.12 +/- 16.6. In Group 2 (n=48), 18 patients (38%) showed slightly reduced ejection fraction and the mean EF % was 51.56 +/- 15.67. In Group 3(n=53), 7 patients (13%) showed reduced ejection fraction and the meanEF % was 69.77 +/- 13.59. Test of significance was done using 'Z' test also called normal test in large samples. This study has shown that the average Ejection Fraction (in%) is maximum in normal group and least in diabetic group. Conclusion: Hepatobiliary scintigraphy is helpful in early identification of autonomic dysfunction of Gall Bladder in diabetic patients and in patients with impaired glucose tolerance. (authors)

  13. Direct integral linear least square regression method for kinetic evaluation of hepatobiliary scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuke, Noriyuki

    1991-01-01

    In hepatobiliary scintigraphy, kinetic model analysis, which provides kinetic parameters like hepatic extraction or excretion rate, have been done for quantitative evaluation of liver function. In this analysis, unknown model parameters are usually determined using nonlinear least square regression method (NLS method) where iterative calculation and initial estimate for unknown parameters are required. As a simple alternative to NLS method, direct integral linear least square regression method (DILS method), which can determine model parameters by a simple calculation without initial estimate, is proposed, and tested the applicability to analysis of hepatobiliary scintigraphy. In order to see whether DILS method could determine model parameters as good as NLS method, or to determine appropriate weight for DILS method, simulated theoretical data based on prefixed parameters were fitted to 1 compartment model using both DILS method with various weightings and NLS method. The parameter values obtained were then compared with prefixed values which were used for data generation. The effect of various weights on the error of parameter estimate was examined, and inverse of time was found to be the best weight to make the error minimum. When using this weight, DILS method could give parameter values close to those obtained by NLS method and both parameter values were very close to prefixed values. With appropriate weighting, the DILS method could provide reliable parameter estimate which is relatively insensitive to the data noise. In conclusion, the DILS method could be used as a simple alternative to NLS method, providing reliable parameter estimate. (author)

  14. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velchik, M.G.

    1988-01-01

    This chapter describes the role of nuclear medicine in the evaluation of the hepatobiliary system. The technical aspects of hepatobiliary scintigraphy, or cholescintigraphy (radiopharmaceutical, radiation dosimetry, instrumentation, and method) are briefly presented, followed by a discussion of each of the indications for such examination. Its relative advantages and disadvantages with respect to alternative radiographic examinations are emphasized. Logical, efficient, cost-effective sequences of diagnostic studies are recommended whenever appropriate in order to derive the maximum information with the least time and expense. It is hoped that the reader will come away with an appreciation of the type of diagnostic information provided by hepatobiliary scintigraphy, its accuracy, its application in the workup of the patient with hepatobiliary disease, and its strengths and limitations compared with other radiologic studies

  15. Hepatobiliary fascioliasis

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    Andrade, Daniel Ramos; Andrade, Luísa; Antunes, Célia; Donato, Paulo; Semedo, Luís Curvo; Alves, Filipe Caseiro

    2017-01-01

    Hepatobiliary fascioliasis is a parasitic disease caused by Fasciola hepatica, which is a trematode that primarily infects cattle and sheep, but may also affect humans in endemic areas.There are two phases of the disease: the acute one - where the parasites infect the liver parenchyma; and the subacute / chronic phase - when the parasites reach the biliary ducts and gallbladder, providing typical imaging findings.Because this disease may mimic several hepatobiliary disorders, misdiagnosis or ...

  16. Hepatobiliary scanning

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    Verdegaal, W P

    1978-01-01

    The use of hepatobiliary scintigraphy is discussed on the basis of personal observations with sup(99m)Tc-pyridoxylideneglutamate (sup(99m)Tc-PG). Hepatobiliary scintigraphy appears to be a useful tool in differentiating the causes of jaundice. Its value as a test for biliary reflux to the stomach and as a method to evaluate the function of intestinal and bilidigestive anastomoses needs further investigation.

  17. Hepatobiliary transport kinetics of the conjugated bile acid tracer 11C-CSar quantified in healthy humans and patients by positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ørntoft, Nikolaj Worm; Munk, Ole Lajord; Frisch, Kim; Ott, Peter; Keiding, Susanne; Sørensen, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Hepatobiliary secretion of bile acids is an important liver function. Here, we quantified the hepatic transport kinetics of conjugated bile acids using the bile acid tracer [N-methyl- 11 C]cholylsarcosine ( 11 C-CSar) and positron emission tomography (PET). Nine healthy participants and eight patients with varying degrees of cholestasis were examined with 11 C-CSar PET and measurement of arterial and hepatic venous blood concentrations of 11 C-CSar. Results are presented as median (range). The hepatic intrinsic clearance was 1.50 (1.20-1.76) ml blood/min/ml liver tissue in healthy participants and 0.46 (0.13-0.91) in patients. In healthy participants, the rate constant for secretion of 11 C-CSar from hepatocytes to bile was 0.36 (0.30-0.62)min -1 , 20 times higher than the rate constant for backflux from hepatocytes to blood (0.02, 0.005-0.07min -1 ). In the patients, rate constant for transport from hepatocyte to bile was reduced to 0.12 (0.006-0.27)min -1 , 2.3times higher than the rate constant for backflux to blood (0.05, 0.04-0.09). The increased backflux did not fully normalize exposure of the hepatocyte to bile acids as mean hepatocyte residence time of 11 C-CSar was 2.5 (1.6-3.1)min in healthy participants and 6.4 (3.1-23.7)min in patients. The rate constant for transport of 11 C-CSar from intrahepatic to extrahepatic bile was 0.057 (0.023-0.11)min -1 in healthy participants and only slightly reduced in patients 0.039 (0.017-0.066). This first in vivo quantification of individual steps involved in the hepatobiliary secretion of a conjugated bile acid in humans provided new insight into cholestatic disease. Positron emission tomography (PET) using the radiolabelled bile acid ( 11 C-CSar) enabled quantification of the individual steps of the hepatic transport of bile acids from blood to bile in man. Cholestasis reduced uptake and secretion and increased backflux to blood. These findings improve our understanding of cholestatic liver diseases and may support

  18. Imaging in hepatobiliary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, J.

    1987-01-01

    This book covers the diagnostic and interventional use of imaging techniques in hepatobiliary disease. The first of the book's two sections describes the role of imaging in the diagnostic work up of common clinical syndromes. The second part is concerned with therapy and reviews interventional techniques for hepatobiliary disease

  19. Hepatobiliary Hands of Hopkins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Henry A

    2018-02-01

    This historical perspective documents the role that John L. Cameron played in advancing hepatobiliary research, education, and surgery at Johns Hopkins in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s. Dating back to William S. Halsted in the 19th century, leaders of the Department of Surgery at Johns Hopkins have been interested in hepatobiliary disease and surgery. John L. Cameron had broad hepato-pancreato-biliary (HPB) interests when he completed his surgical training. Over the next 3 decades, he focused on the pancreas. As a result, many faculty and trainee hepatobiliary careers were launched. This perspective is based on 18 years of service as a surgical resident and faculty member at Johns Hopkins. An extensive literature search on the hepatobiliary publications of Halsted, Trimble, Blalock, Longmire, Zuidema, and Cameron was undertaken for this manuscript. Numerous hepatobiliary publications from Johns Hopkins from the 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s were also reviewed. John L. Cameron's early biliary interests included stones, infections, malignancies, and strictures. He was innovative with respect to portal hypertension and Budd-Chiari surgery and supportive when liver transplantation emerged in the 1980s. Volume-outcome studies in the 1990s included hepatic and complex biliary surgery. He supported and encouraged studies of biliary lithotripsy, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, clinical pathways, hepatobiliary cysts, and gallstone pathogenesis. Lessons learned by many who worked with John L. Cameron included the importance of mentorship, innovation, friendship, and collaboration. He taught leadership and change management by example. He fostered a multidisciplinary approach and encouraged randomized controlled trials.

  20. Radiopharmaceuticals for hepatobiliary imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chervu, L.R.; Nunn, A.D.; Loberg, M.D.

    1982-01-01

    Tests for liver function have by and large centered around clinical laboratory diagnostic procedures for a number of years. Besides these, radiographic imaging procedures, including oral cholecystography and intravenous cholangiography, serve a very useful purpose, but several of them are invasive and involve a certain degree of risk from the administered contrast media as well as discomfort to the patient. The cholescintigraphic procedures, though noninvasive, have not played a significant role in the evaluation of hepatobiliary disorders prior to the introduction of the currently available /sup 99m/Tc-labeled IDAs. These new hepatobiliary agents offer many advantages over the previously utilized radiopharmaceuticals ( 131 I-rose bengal in particular) in terms of the high degree of specificity for localization in the gallbladder with rapid extraction rates by the polygonal cells of the liver and very low excretion via the GU tract. A detailed understanding of the structure distribution relationship of the various groups in the complex enable the design of agents with an improvement in hepatobiliary specificity and other desirable characteristics. In many clinical situations, even in patients with high bilirubin levels, the /sup 99m/Tc-labeled IDAs offer far superior clinical information over the alternative diagnostic imaging modalities. Further, the absorbed radiation dose imparted to the critical organs is far lower than with the older agents. Thus, the introduction of the cholescintigraphic procedures with the /sup 99m/Tc-labeled IDAs have ushered in a new phase in the diagnostic workup of patients with impaired hepatocellular function and other biliary disorders

  1. Gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.N.J.; Perriss, R.W.; Scarsbrook, A.F.

    2006-01-01

    This is the fifth in the series of short reviews of internet-based radiological learning resources and will focus on gastrointestinal (GI) and hepatobiliary radiology. Below are details of a few of the higher quality resources currently available. Most of the sites cater for medical students and trainee or non-specialist radiologists, but may be also be of interest to specialists, especially for use in teaching. Hyperlinks are available in the electronic version of this article and were all active at the time of going to press (May 2006)

  2. Hepatobiliary sequential scintiscanning

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    Germann, G.; Hottenrott, C.; Maul, F.D.

    1985-01-04

    The duodeno-gastric reflux was evaluated in 33 patients following gastric surgery by functional hepato-biliary scintigraphy. In 16 of 26 patients with gastric resection a reflux was found. The Y-en-Roux and the retrocolic B II resection with Braun's Anastomosis showed the lowest incidence of reflux. The functional scintigraphy permits an objective diagnosis of reflux without provocation by diagnostic manipulations. The high percentage of accuracy in evaluating reflux recommends the scintigraphy as an optimal method in postoperative reflux control.

  3. Hepatobiliary scan in neonatal Jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahar, Nurun; Hasan, Mizanul; Karim, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Jaundice is more or less common in newborn babies. Through physiological jaundice is most common cause of neonatal jaundice, possibility of obstructive jaundice especially biliary atresia should be kept in mind. Early diagnosis of biliary atresia followed by surgical treatment can save baby's life. Otherwise death is inevitable due to liver failure. Hepatobiliary scan is the imaging study of choice in neonatal jaundice especially when there is persistent conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia. Total 27 newborn babies of suspected biliary atresia, aged 14 days to 4 months were referred to Institute of Nuclear Medicine for Hepatobiliary scan. All of them had high serum bilirubin ranged from 6.0 mg/dl with an average of 9.35 ng/dl serum bilirubin level. Ultrasonography of hepatobiliary system was performed in 14 cases showing normal sized liver in 4 cases and hepatomegaly in 10 cases. Hepatobiliary scan was done with 99m Tc-Mebrofenin (Br IDA) after preparing the baby with phenobarbitone for 3-5 days. 20 (67%) cases were scan positive suggesting biliary atresia (BA) and 7(27%) cases were scan negative. In BA there will be increased hepatic uptake of the radionuclide without any significant excretion even in 24 hours delayed images. Presence of radiotracer in the bowel exclude the diagnosis of BA. Early diagnosis of biliary atresia is very important because in this condition surgery should be performed early (within 60 days of life). Studies suggest that hepatobiliary scan after hepatic stimulation with phenobarbitone for a period of 3-5 days is highly accurate for differentiating biliary atresia from other causes of neonatal jaundice. It is very important to perform hepatobiliary scan in a case of neonatal jaundice to exclude biliary atresia for the sake of baby's life.(author)

  4. Dynamic hepatobiliary scintigraphy using EHIDA and HIDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radtke, J.

    1980-01-01

    Data of 9 healthy test persons studied on an empty stomach using EHIDA and HIDA were analyzed in order to determine the influence of a region of interest on the shape of heart and liver function curves. The kinetics of EHIDA and HIDA in these 9 test persons showed marked differences in the passage of the hepatobiliary system and in plasma kinetics but not in renal urinary excretion. Further, functional histograms of the heart, liver, gall bladder, and duodenum of 25 healthy patients were established after meals and administration of EHIDA or HIDA. The parameters derived from these functional histograms did not differ significantly from the data of the test persons examined on an empty stomach. Also, the time interval since the last meal was found to be negligible. In 3 healthy test persons, the injected concentration of the radiopharmaceutical was increased to 8 times the standard dose. There was no significant change in HIDA kinetics except for a more rapid excretion into the intestine. In 7 healthy test persons, a comparative study was carried out of HIDA kinetics with and without decholine premedication. The normal collectives were compared with 118 patients with different morphological and functional findings. However, this method was not superior to sequential scintiscanning. Differential diagnosis of parenchymal and obstructive jaundice using the liver function curve is possible only in the acute stage in consideration of the analogue scintiscanning images. The data of the 9 healthy test persons were also used to assess the usefulness of EDP in eliminating statistical variations of the functional curves and in determining descriptive parameters. Curve smoothing by data bounding resulted in reproducible values, and the systematic error introduced by estination was avoided. (orig./MG) [de

  5. Hepatobiliary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... placed over the patient's body. SPECT involves the rotation of the gamma camera heads around the patient's ... prescribed procedure with your doctor, the medical facility staff and/or your insurance provider to get a ...

  6. Emergency surgeon-performed hepatobiliary ultrasonography.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kell, M R

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Acute hepatobiliary pathology is a common general surgical emergency referral. Diagnosis requires imaging of the biliary tree by ultrasonography. The accuracy and impact of surgeon-performed ultrasonography (SUS) on the diagnosis of emergent hepatobiliary pathology was examined. METHODS: A prospective study, over a 6-month period, enrolled all patients with symptoms or signs of acute hepatobiliary pathology. Patients provided informed consent and underwent both SUS and standard radiology-performed ultrasonography (RUS). SUS was performed using a 2-5-MHz broadband portable ultrasound probe by two surgeons trained in ultrasonography, and RUS using a 2-5-MHz fixed unit. SUS results were correlated with those of RUS and pathological diagnoses. RESULTS: Fifty-three consecutive patients underwent 106 ultrasonographic investigations. SUS agreed with RUS in 50 (94.3 per cent) of 53 patients. SUS accurately detected cholelithiasis in all but two cases and no patient was inaccurately diagnosed as having cholelithiasis at SUS (95.2 per cent sensitivity and 100 per cent specificity). As an overall complementary diagnostic tool SUS provided the correct diagnosis in 96.2 per cent of patients. Time to scan was significantly shorter following SUS (3.1 versus 12.0 h, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: SUS provides a rapid and accurate diagnosis of emergency hepatobiliary pathology and may contribute to the emergency management of hepatobiliary disease.

  7. Evaluation of bile reflux in HIDA images based on fluid mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Rong-Chin; Huang, Wen-Lin; Fan, Yu-Ming

    2015-05-01

    We propose a new method to help physicians assess, using a hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid scan image, whether or not there is bile reflux into the stomach. The degree of bile reflux is an important index for clinical diagnosis of stomach diseases. The proposed method applies image-processing technology combined with a hydrodynamic model to determine the extent of bile reflux or whether the duodenum is also folded above the stomach. This condition in 2D dynamic images suggests that bile refluxes into the stomach, when endoscopy shows no bile reflux. In this study, we used optical flow to analyze images from Tc99m-diisopropyl iminodiacetic acid cholescintigraphy (Tc99m-DISIDA) to ascertain the direction and velocity of bile passing through the pylorus. In clinical diagnoses, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is the main clinical tool for evaluating functional images of hepatobiliary metabolism. Computed tomography (CT) shows anatomical images of the external contours of the stomach, liver, and biliary extent. By exploiting the functional fusion of the two kinds of medical image, physicians can obtain a more accurate diagnosis. We accordingly reconstructed 3D images from SPECT and CT to help physicians choose which cross sections to fuse with software and to help them more accurately diagnose the extent and quantity of bile reflux. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Study of a new hepatobiliary radiotracer: sup(99m)Tc diethyl IDA. Its value in the diagnosis of cholestasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roques, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    This work examines a new means of investigation: Technetium 99 (2,6 diethyl acetanilido) imino-diacetic acid, or HEPATOBIDA, hepatobiliary scintigraphy. A survey of different scintigraphic techniques is necessary. At first the kinetic study of hepatobiliary radiotracers was carried out with multiprobe systems giving quantitative information on the various organs or pools concerned. With the appearance of the scintillation camera it became possible to obtain not only quantitative data but also topographical and morphological information. Since 1976 the derivatives of iminodiacetic acid have been widely adopted, possessing features most closely resembling those of the ideal hepatobiliatropic molecules. Examinations have been performed at the Angers Radioisotopes Service with the diethyl derivative or HEPATOBIDA (Nuclear Solca Lab.) The results recorded in a group of cholestasis patients are studied, with normal data supplied by a set of 8 reference subjects free from hepatobiliary diseases [fr

  9. Hepatobiliary Disorders in Celiac Disease: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushal K. Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This communication reviews recent literature and summarizes hepatobiliary abnormalities that may complicate the clinical course of celiac disease. A wide spectrum of hepatobiliary diseases has been described, including asymptomatic elevations of liver enzyme levels, nonspecific hepatitis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and autoimmune and cholestatic liver disease. Moreover, in the majority of patients, liver enzyme levels will normalize on a gluten-free diet. In addition, celiac disease may be associated with rare hepatic complications, such as hepatic T-cell lymphoma. Because many celiac patients do not have overt gastrointestinal symptoms, a high index of suspicion is required. Simple methods of detecting celiac disease such as serum antibody tests help in the early identification of the disease, thus preventing serious complications of the disorder. The IgG DGP antibody test and IgA tTG antibody test used in combination are an excellent screening test for suspected cases of celiac disease.

  10. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy in patients with bile leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carichner, S.L.; Nagle, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    Hepatobiliary scintigraphy has been recognized as a useful tool in detecting the presence and sites of bile leaks. The clinical settings in which bile leaks are likely to occur, as well as some of the scintigraphic patterns seen in patients with bile leaks, are reviewed here. Tips for technologists are offered on interventions that might enhanced the quality of information available to the nuclear physician

  11. Bile ascites in adults. Diagnosis using hepatobiliary scintigraphy and paracentesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagle, C.E.; Fink-Bennett, D.; Freitas, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Hepatobiliary scintigraphy has been recognized as a useful diagnostic tool in detecting the presence and site of bile leaks. The authors report a case of bile ascites secondary to a postsurgical biliary leak, the scintigraphic findings in bile ascites, and the potential use of paracentesis, in combination with hepatobiliary scintigraphy, in confirming the presence of bile ascites and a bile leak

  12. Obstructive jaundice due to hepatobiliary cystadenoma or cystadenocarcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erdogan, Deha; Busch, Olivier R. C.; Rauws, Erik A. J.; van Delden, Otto M.; Gouma, Dirk J.; van-Gulik, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    Hepatobiliary cystadenomas (HBC) and cystadenocarcinomas are rare cystic lesions. Most patients with these lesions are asymptomatic, but presentation with obstructive jaundice may occur. The first patient presented with intermittent colicky pain and recurrent obstructive jaundice. Imaging studies

  13. Hepatobiliary fascioliasis in non-endemic zones: a surprise diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Ashish Kumar; Goenka, Mahesh Kumar; Goenka, Usha; Chakrabarti, Amrita

    2013-03-01

    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic infection caused by Fasciola hepatica. Because of population migration and international food trade, human fascioliasis is being an increasingly recognised entity in nonendemic zones. In most parts of Asia, hepatobiliary fascioliasis is sporadic. Human hepatobiliary infection by this trematode has two distinct phases: an acute hepatic phase and a chronic biliary phase. Hepatobiliary infection is mostly associated with intense peripheral eosinophilia. In addition to classically defined hepatic phase and biliary phase fascioliasis, some cases may have an overlap of these two phases. Chronic liver abscess formation is a rare presentation. We describe a surprise case of hepatobiliary fascioliasis who presented to us with liver abscess without intense peripheral eosinophilia, a rare presentation of human fascioliasis especially in non-endemic zones. Copyright © 2013 Arab Journal of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hepatobiliary cystadenoma can protrude and grow into the bile ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzijev, E M; Pleskovic, A; Stanisavljevic, D; Ferlan-Marolt, V; Trotovsek, B

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the phenomenon and the potential reasons for protrusion and growth of hepatobiliary cystadenoma into the extrahepatic bile ducts in our patients, accomplished by a review of the data regarding hepatobiliary cystadenomas published elsewhere. In a retrospective open study conducted over the last eight years, five patients with hepatobiliary cystadenoma and one patient with hepatobiliary cystadenocarcinoma were operated on. All the patients were females aged between 25 to 61 years. Diagnostic procedures, laboratory, operative and histopathological findings and treatment were evaluated. Most of our patients were found to have hepatobiliary cystadenoma located in the left surgical liver. In three out of five patients with HBC mesenchymal stroma was histologically detected. In two of the three, protrusion and growth into the extrahepatic bile ducts was found. Considering the pathogenesis, location and the morphology of HBC, the mesenchymal stroma may present the competent potential for intraductal progression of the tumor. Radical excision should be performed for successful treatment of hepatobiliary cystadenomas, because of the potential for reoccurrence.

  15. Radiology illustrated. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung Ihn

    2014-01-01

    Clear, practical guide to the diagnostic imaging of diseases of the liver, biliary tree, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen. A wealth of carefully selected and categorized illustrations. Highlighted key points to facilitate rapid review. Aid to differential diagnosis. Radiology Illustrated: Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Radiology is the first of two volumes that will serve as a clear, practical guide to the diagnostic imaging of abdominal diseases. This volume, devoted to diseases of the liver, biliary tree, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen, covers congenital disorders, vascular diseases, benign and malignant tumors, and infectious conditions. Liver transplantation, evaluation of the therapeutic response of hepatocellular carcinoma, trauma, and post-treatment complications are also addressed. The book presents approximately 560 cases with more than 2100 carefully selected and categorized illustrations, along with key text messages and tables, that will allow the reader easily to recall the relevant images as an aid to differential diagnosis. At the end of each text message, key points are summarized to facilitate rapid review and learning. In addition, brief descriptions of each clinical problem are provided, followed by both common and uncommon case studies that illustrate the role of different imaging modalities, such as ultrasound, radiography, CT, and MRI.

  16. Radiology illustrated. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Ihn (ed.) [Seoul National Univ. Hospital (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2014-04-01

    Clear, practical guide to the diagnostic imaging of diseases of the liver, biliary tree, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen. A wealth of carefully selected and categorized illustrations. Highlighted key points to facilitate rapid review. Aid to differential diagnosis. Radiology Illustrated: Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Radiology is the first of two volumes that will serve as a clear, practical guide to the diagnostic imaging of abdominal diseases. This volume, devoted to diseases of the liver, biliary tree, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen, covers congenital disorders, vascular diseases, benign and malignant tumors, and infectious conditions. Liver transplantation, evaluation of the therapeutic response of hepatocellular carcinoma, trauma, and post-treatment complications are also addressed. The book presents approximately 560 cases with more than 2100 carefully selected and categorized illustrations, along with key text messages and tables, that will allow the reader easily to recall the relevant images as an aid to differential diagnosis. At the end of each text message, key points are summarized to facilitate rapid review and learning. In addition, brief descriptions of each clinical problem are provided, followed by both common and uncommon case studies that illustrate the role of different imaging modalities, such as ultrasound, radiography, CT, and MRI.

  17. Application of da Vinci surgical robotic system in hepatobiliary surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jiahai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of minimally invasive surgery has brought a revolutionary change to surgery techniques, and endoscopic surgical robots, especially Da Vinci robotic surgical system, has further broaden the scope of minimally invasive surgery, which has been applied in a variety of surgical fields including hepatobiliary surgery. Today, the application of Da Vinci surgical robot can cover most of the operations in hepatobiliary surgery which has proved to be safe and practical. What’s more, many clinical studies in recent years have showed that Da Vinci surgical system is superior to traditional laparoscopy. This paper summarize the advantage and disadvantage of Da Vinci surgical system, and outlines the current status of and future perspectives on the robot-assisted hepatobiliary surgery based on the cases reports in recent years of the application of Da Vinci surgical robot.

  18. Evaluation of six new /sup 99m/Tc-IDA agents for hepatobiliary imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chervu, L.R.; Joseph, J.A.; Chun, S.B.; Rolleston, R.E.; Synnes, E.I.; Thompson, L.M.; Aldis, A.E.; Rosenthall, L.

    1988-10-01

    IDA derivatives of three substituted benzothiazol, and two substituted chlorophenyl and one substituted pyrazoline compounds have been labeled with /sup 99m/Tc and screened with four rat models with hepatocellular dysfunction manifesting varying degrees of change of liver architecture and hepatocellular damage associated with an active parenchymal destruction, fatty metamorphosis and cirrhosis. Organ distribution studies at 1 h postinjection have been compared in normal and diseased animal models for each agent labeled with /sup 99m/Tc and with /sup 99m/Tc-Disofenin (Disida) and Lidofenin (Hida) and /sup 131/I-Rose Bengal. From the data obtained with the six new IDA derivatives, the distribution kinetics of /sup 99m/Tc-Arclophenin, (N-N'-2-benzoyl-4-chlorophenyl)carbamoylmethyl) imino diacetic acid (Phenida), are closely comparable to /sup 99m/Tc-Disofenin in all animal models. Crossover patient studies (n = 14) for clinical evaluation of /sup 99m/Tc-Arclophenin vs /sup 99m/Tc-Disofenin indicate the close similarity of the 2 agents with regard to blood pool retention, gross liver/heart ratios and liver washout, suggesting Arclophenin as a suitable agent for hepatobiliary function studies. The impaired hepatocellular animal models presented should serve for fast screening of hepatobiliary agents and enable comparison of a series of closely related compounds.

  19. PIPIDA excretory scintigraphy in the diagnosis of hepatobiliary disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelot, D.; Berk, J.E.; Wistow, B.W.; Morton, M.E.

    1981-01-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of hepatobiliary radionuclide imaging using 99 mTC-labeled para-isopropyl acetanilido-iminodiacetic acid ( 99 mTc-PIPIDA) in patients with hepatobiliary disorders was assessed in 50 patients. Thirty of the study group were jaundiced; the remaining 20 had other clinical features suggestive of some hepatobiliary disorder. The findings using PIPIDA proved to be correct in 22 (73%) of the 30 jaundiced patients and in 18 (90%) of 20 patients without jaundice. There appears to be a close relationship between the diagnostic accuracy of the test and the level of serum bilirubin. Thus, the diagnosis indicated by the PIPIDA test was correct in 30 (88%) of 34 patients in whom the serum bilirubin was less than 5 mg./dl. but only in 10 (62%) of 16 patients whose serum bilirubin exceeded 5 mg./dl. It is concluded from these observations that: 1. PIPIDA is diagnostically useful in the evaluation of hepatobiliary disorders, especially when the serum bilirubin is less than 5 mg./dl. and 2. the accuracy of this test is not absolute and the findings are not always definitive

  20. Gastroesophageal reflux demonstrated by hepatobiliary imaging in scleroderma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawaf, N.W.; Orzel, J.A.; Weiland, F.L.

    1987-01-01

    Radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging was performed on a patient with a longstanding history of scleroderma who presented with abdominal pain suggestive of biliary disease. Cystic duct patency was documented after 10 min with tracer accumulation in the second portion of the duodenum which failed to progress consistent with the duodenal hypomotility of scleroderma. The patient was given intravenous Kinevac resulting in gastroesophageal reflux of radionuclide

  1. Gastroesophageal reflux demonstrated by hepatobiliary imaging in scleroderma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawaf, N.W.; Orzel, J.A.; Weiland, F.L.

    1987-03-01

    Radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging was performed on a patient with a longstanding history of scleroderma who presented with abdominal pain suggestive of biliary disease. Cystic duct patency was documented after 10 min with tracer accumulation in the second portion of the duodenum which failed to progress consistent with the duodenal hypomotility of scleroderma. The patient was given intravenous Kinevac resulting in gastroesophageal reflux of radionuclide.

  2. Hepatobiliary fascioliasis: a case with unusual radiological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeşildağ, Ahmet; Senol, Altuğ; Köroğlu, Mert; Koçkar, Cem; Oyar, Orhan; Işler, Mehmet

    2010-12-01

    We report a case of hepatobiliary fascioliasis presenting with unusual radiological findings that have not been reported previously. Imaging studies revealed hepatic cystic pouches communicating with intrahepatic bile ducts. Snail-like, oval shaped and conglomerated echogenic particles with no acoustic shadowing, suggesting F. hepatica, were detected in these cystic pouches. In addition, secondary sclerosing cholangitis developed after fascioliasis.

  3. [Hepatobiliary System Diseases as the Predictors of Psoriasis Progression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, S V; Barilo, A A; Smolnikova, M V

    2016-01-01

    To assess the state of the hepatobiliary system in psoriasis andpsoriatic arthritis in order to establish a causal relationship and to identify clinical and functional predictors of psoriatic disease progression. The study includedpatients with extensive psoriasis vulgaris (n = 175) aged 18 to 66 years old and healthy donors (n = 30), matched by sex and age: Group 1--patients with psoriasis (PS, n = 77), group 2--patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA, n = 98), group 3--control. The evaluation of functional state of the hepatobiliary system was performed by the analysis of the clinical and anamnestic data and by the laboratory-instrumental methods. We identified predictors of psoriasis: triggers (stress and nutritionalfactor), increased total bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, eosinophilia, giardiasis, carriers of hepatitis C virus, ductal changes andfocal leisons in the liver, thickening of the walls of the gallbladder detected by ultrasound. Predictors ofpsoriatic arthritis: age over 50 years, dyspeptic complaints, the presence of hepatobiliary system diseases, the positive right hypochondrium syndrome, the clinical symptoms of chronic cholecystitis, excess body weight, high levels of bilirubin, cholesterol and low density lipoprotein, hepatomegaly, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. High activity of hepatocytes cytolysis, cholestasis, inflammation, metabolic disorders let us considerpsoriatic arthritis as a severe clinical stage psoriatic disease when the hepatobiliary system, in turn, is one of the main target organs in systemic psoriatic process. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and chronic cholecystitis are predictors of psoriatic disease progression.

  4. 99Tcm-MIBI hepatobiliary scintigraphy in peadiatric patients with severe cholestatic infant hepatitis syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guibing; Huang Jinxiong; He Xiaojiang; Luo Zuoming; Lu Zhengyuan; Wu Hua

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Because of the limited of 99 Tc m -diethyl iminodiacetic acid ( 99 Tc m -EHIDA) hepatobiliary scintigraphy in the diagnosis of severe cholestatic infant hepatitis syndrome, trial use 99 Tc m -methoxy isobutyl isonitrile ( 99 Tc m -MIBI) as a new hepatobiliary scintigraphy imaging agent to understand its applied basis and primary evaluate value in diagnosis of severe cholestatic infant hepatitis syndrome. Methods: constructed choledochal atresia animal model and investigated the application basis of 99 Tc m -MIBI hepatobiliary scintigraphy. Twenty-seven children patients of severe cholestatic who finally confirmed infant hepatitis syndrome were underwent firstly 99 Tc m -EHIDIA hepatobiliary scintigraphy. After 24 h delay imaging next day, 99 Tc m -MIBI hepatobiliary scintigraphy was underwent after 1 h. Two imaging agents of value in the diagnosis of severe cholestatic infant hepatitis syndrome were compared. Results: It was proved that 99 Tc m -MIBI was surely excreted by hepatobiliary and had no intestinal autocrine phenomenon in animal test. So 99 Tc m -MIBI can be used to undergo hepatobiliary scintigraphy. The sensitivity of 99 Tc m -MIBI hepatobiliary scintigraphy in the diagnosis of severe cholestatic infant hepatitis syndrome was 100% in our primary clinical study. Its sensitivity was higher than which of 99 Tc m -EHIDA hepatobiliary scintigraphy (66.67%) by far. Conclusion: With regard to those children patients who suspected highly severe cholestatic infant hepatitis syndrome in clinical, the sensitivity of 99 Tc m -MIBI hepatobiliary scintigraphy is obviously superior to conventional 99 Tc m -EHIDA hepatobiliary scintigraphy. (authors)

  5. Indocyanine green labeled with 123I for dynamic studies of the hepato-biliary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Ansari, A.N.; Wolf, A.P.; Atkins, H.L.

    1975-01-01

    This report summarizes the results to develop an iodine-123 labeled agent for dynamic studies of the hepato-biliary system. Iodine-123 is an ideal nuclide for radiopharmaceuticals, because of its short half-life (T/sub 1 / 2 / = 13.3 hr); its decay with a high abundance (83%) of 159 keV photons; and the reduced patient radiation exposure (a factor of 100 less than iodine-131). Indocyanine green, a tricarbanocyanine dye, was introduced by Heseltine and co-workers in 1956, has several characteristics which suggested that iodine-123 labeled ICG might be potentially useful for hepatic functional evaluation. The plasma clearance and biliary excretion kinetics of 123 I-ICG (in dogs) will be compared to 131 I-rose bengal and bromosulphalein labeled with iodine-125

  6. Percutaneous cholecystocentesis in cats with suspected hepatobiliary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byfield, Victoria L; Callahan Clark, Julie E; Turek, Bradley J; Bradley, Charles W; Rondeau, Mark P

    2017-12-01

    Objectives The objective was to evaluate the safety and diagnostic utility of percutaneous ultrasound-guided cholecystocentesis (PUC) in cats with suspected hepatobiliary disease. Methods Medical records of 83 cats with suspected hepatobiliary disease that underwent PUC were retrospectively reviewed. Results At the time of PUC, at least one additional procedure was performed in 79/83 cats, including hepatic aspiration and/or biopsy (n = 75) and splenic aspiration (n = 18). Complications were noted in 14/83 cases, including increased abdominal fluid (n = 11), needle-tip occlusion (n = 1), failed first attempt to penetrate the gall bladder wall (n = 1) and pneumoperitoneum (n = 1). There were no reports of gall bladder rupture, bile peritonitis or hypotension necessitating treatment with vasopressor medication. Blood products were administered to 7/83 (8%) cats. Seventy-two cats (87%) survived to discharge. Of the cats that were euthanized (9/83) or died (2/83), none were reported as a definitive consequence of PUC. Bacteria were identified cytologically in 10/71 samples (14%); all 10 had a positive aerobic bacterial culture. Bile culture was positive in 11/80 samples (14%). Of the cases with a positive bile culture, cytological description of bacteria corresponded to the organism cultured in fewer than 50% of cases. The most common cytologic diagnosis was hepatic lipidosis (49/66). The most common histopathologic diagnosis was cholangitis (10/21). Conclusions and relevance PUC was safe in this group of cats with suspected hepatobiliary disease. Complications were likely associated with ancillary procedures performed at the time of PUC. Bile analysis yielded an abnormal result in nearly one-third of cats with suspected hepatobiliary disease. Complete agreement between bile cytology and culture was lacking. Further evaluation of the correlation between bile cytology and bile culture is warranted.

  7. Tc99m- hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid (HIDA) scintigraphy in clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambie, H.; Cook, A.M.; Scarsbrook, A.F.; Lodge, J.P.A.; Robinson, P.J.; Chowdhury, F.U.

    2011-01-01

    There have been evolutionary changes in the management of pathological conditions of the hepatobiliary system over recent years, particularly with an increasing emphasis on modern hepatobiliary surgical techniques. Concurrent advances have occurred in imaging technology and availability, leading to a greater use of ultrasound, multidetector computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the primary evaluation of hepatobiliary disease. Radionuclide imaging using technetium 99m (Tc 99m ) hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid (HIDA) derivatives is an established technique that complements morphological imaging, providing valuable functional information in both pre- and postoperative evaluation of patients with suspected or known hepatobiliary disease. This review discusses the current clinical indications for Tc 99m HIDA scintigraphy using clinical cases to demonstrate how this technique continues to play a valuable diagnostic role in the assessment of the functional integrity of the hepatobiliary system.

  8. Value of an hepatobiliary imaging agent for diagnosing hepatoma. Example of diethyl-IDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourguet, P.; Estable, P.; Herry, J.Y.

    1985-01-01

    A comparative study was performed using two hepatic tracers, a Tc 99m labelled colloid and an hepatobiliary agent Tc 99m labelled diethyl-IDA. In some patients with isolated primary hepatocarcinoma the uptake of the hepatobiliary agent was observed but the colloid was not taken up. In the contrary, the hepatobiliary agent has proved to be of limited value for the diagnosis of hepatomas coexisting with cirrhosis and for the detection of secondary hepatocarcinoma [fr

  9. Value of an hepatobiliary imaging agent for diagnosing hepatoma. Example of diethyl-IDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourguet, P; Estable, P; Herry, J Y

    1985-01-01

    A comparative study was performed using two hepatic tracers, a Tc 99m labelled colloid and an hepatobiliary agent Tc 99m labelled diethyl-IDA. In some patients with isolated primary hepatocarcinoma the uptake of the hepatobiliary agent was observed but the colloid was not taken up. In the contrary, the hepatobiliary agent has proved to be of limited value for the diagnosis of hepatomas coexisting with cirrhosis and for the detection of secondary hepatocarcinoma.

  10. Hsp90 and hepatobiliary transformation during sea lamprey metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Yeh, Chu-Yin; Bussy, Ugo; Li, Ke; Davidson, Peter J; Nanlohy, Kaben G; Brown, C Titus; Whyard, Steven; Li, Weiming

    2015-12-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is a human infant disease with inflammatory fibrous obstructions in the bile ducts and is the most common cause for pediatric liver transplantation. In contrast, the sea lamprey undergoes developmental BA with transient cholestasis and fibrosis during metamorphosis, but emerges as a fecund adult. Therefore, sea lamprey liver metamorphosis may serve as an etiological model for human BA and provide pivotal information for hepatobiliary transformation and possible therapeutics. We hypothesized that liver metamorphosis in sea lamprey is due to transcriptional reprogramming that dictates cellular remodeling during metamorphosis. We determined global gene expressions in liver at several metamorphic landmark stages by integrating mRNA-Seq and gene ontology analyses, and validated the results with real-time quantitative PCR, histological and immunohistochemical staining. These analyses revealed that gene expressions of protein folding chaperones, membrane transporters and extracellular matrices were altered and shifted during liver metamorphosis. HSP90, important in protein folding and invertebrate metamorphosis, was identified as a candidate key factor during liver metamorphosis in sea lamprey. Blocking HSP90 with geldanamycin facilitated liver metamorphosis and decreased the gene expressions of the rate limiting enzyme for cholesterol biosynthesis, HMGCoA reductase (hmgcr), and bile acid biosynthesis, cyp7a1. Injection of hsp90 siRNA for 4 days altered gene expressions of met, hmgcr, cyp27a1, and slc10a1. Bile acid concentrations were increased while bile duct and gall bladder degeneration was facilitated and synchronized after hsp90 siRNA injection. HSP90 appears to play crucial roles in hepatobiliary transformation during sea lamprey metamorphosis. Sea lamprey is a useful animal model to study postembryonic development and mechanisms for hsp90-induced hepatobiliary transformation.

  11. Delayed hepatobiliary imaging in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.; Ma, Z.; Tang, Z.

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, the use of ultrasonography (US), X-CT and MRI has reduced the employment of isotopic explorations in the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). But sometime the results of US, X-CT or MRI were different and diagnosis was very difficult. This present investigation was aimed to assess the usefulness of delayed hepatobiliary imaging in the diagnosis of HCC in these patients. Forty-eight patients consisting of 33 males and 15 females were entered into the research protocol. The mean age was 46 yr old (range 12-71 yr old). All of the patients were performed by surgery and verified histologically after nuclear examination. The subject was in a supine position under a gamma camera (Elscint, Apex Ap-6) and 555 MBq of Tc-99m-PMT were injected intravenously. The initial scinphotos obtained within 1 min after injection were used to image the blood pool phase. Subsequently, hepatic scans were obtained at 5 min, 1,2 and 5 hr. Anterior, right lateral and posterior hepatic images were recorded. According to the radioactive uptake by the lesion in delayed phase, the negative (no or minor uptake), positive (equal or greater uptake) or very strong positive (almost equal to the activity, of gallbladder) were judged. The positive were considered as diagnostic of HCC. And the very strong positive, were considered as diagnostic of benign hepatoma, such as adenoma or FNH. Thirty-seven of the forty-eight patients were HCC based on histology. Delayed imaging revealed increased or equilibrated uptake of radioactivity by the tumors in 22 of 37 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The sensitivity was 59.5%. One patient final diagnosis based on histology was focal nodular regenerative hyperplasia, and only the diagnosis with delayed hepatobiliary imaging before surgery was correct. Compared with US, X-CT and MRI, delayed hepatobiliary imaging had the highest specificity for diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. In recent group, the specificity of Tc-99m-PMT delayed

  12. Enhancements in hepatobiliary imaging: the spectrum of gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid usages in hepatobiliary magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channual, Stephanie; Pahwa, Anokh; Lu, David S; Raman, Steven S

    2016-09-01

    Gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) is a unique hepatocyte-specific contrast agent approved for clinical use in the United States in 2008. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR has shown to improve detection and characterization of hepatic lesions. Gd-EOB-DTPA is now being routinely used in daily clinical practice worldwide. Therefore, it is important for radiologists to be familiar with the potential uses and pitfalls of Gd-EOB-DTPA, which extends beyond the assessment of focal hepatic lesions. The purpose of this article is to review the various usages of Gd-EOB-DTPA in hepatobiliary MR imaging.

  13. Hepatobiliary scanning using /sup 99m/Tc--pyridoxylideneglutamate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matolo, N.M.; Stadalnik, R.C.; Wolfman, E.F. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Technetium 99m-pyridoxylideneglutamate (99mTc-PG) administered intravenously is excreted by hepatocytes into the bile canaliculi and enters the gallbladder through the cystic duct and consequently, can be used for scanning the hepatobiliary ductal system. A total of 166 patients representing 27 normal subjects, 84 patients referred for investigation for pain in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen and 55 jaundiced patients were evaluated with 99mTc-PG. In normal human volunteers, the agent reached the liver in five minutes, and the common bile duct, gallbladder, and duodenum within 15 minutes. Satisfactory images of the hepatobiliary tract were obtained using small dosages of 99mTc-PG. The gallbladder was not visualized when the cystic duct was occluded. In the presence of acute cholecystitis, cystic duct obstruction, or in chronic cholecystitis where other roentgenographic studies showed a nonfunctioning gallbladder, there was no concentration of 99mTc-PG in the gallbladder. In partial common bile duct obstruction, distended common bile duct was visualized along with delay in transit of radioactivity into the duodenum. Complete common bile duct obstruction was associated with no radioactivity in either the biliary or the gastrointestinal tracts up to 24 hours after injection. Hepatocellular disease was characterized by delayed liver clearance and delayed visualization of biliary and gastrointestinal tracts. 99mTc-PG scanning proved capable of differentiating betweenhepatocellular disease and extrahepatic biliary tract obstruction

  14. Sphincter of Oddi stenosis: diagnosis using hepatobiliary scintigraphy and endoscopic manometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.G.L.; Gregg, J.A.; Koroshetz, A.M.; Hill, T.C.; Clouse, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    To determine the role of radionuclide imaging in diagnosing sphincter of Oddi stenosis, 21 patients with symptoms suggesting this disorder underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, cholescintigraphy, and, when possible, endoscopic manometry. Those patients with abnormal hepatobiliary scintigraphy results had a mean basal sphincter pressure of 38.5 mm Hg. Sphincter pressures could not be measured in six patients with sphincters too tight to cannulate. Ten patients who underwent hepatobiliary scanning both before and after sphincter surgery had normal scan results of the repeat study. Hepatobiliary imaging appears useful for diagnosis of sphincter of Oddi stenosis in selected patients in whom manometry cannot be performed and for objective assessment of response to therapy

  15. Value of hepatobiliary scanning in complex liver trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gartman, D.M.; Zeman, R.K.; Cahow, C.E.; Baker, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate the use of biliary scintigraphy with /sup 99m/Tc-dimethyl analogs (HIDA) in traumatic liver injuries, a group of 26 patients with penetrating and blunt liver injuries were studied. The results indicate that HIDA scanning is an effective noninvasive method of evaluating the hepatobiliary tree in the post-traumatic setting. The HIDA scan is a sensitive tool for studying the hepatic parenchyma and the presence or absence of bile leaks. Its evaluation of the extrahepatic biliary ductal system is not specific and should be assessed with further studies. Gallbladder nonvisualization by HIDA scans in this setting cannot be presumed to be secondary to acute cholecystitis and should be interpreted with extreme caution

  16. Hepatobiliary scanning in cardiac transplant patients maintained on cyclosporine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhekne, R.D.; Long, S.E.; Moore, W.H.; Frazier, O.H.

    1987-01-01

    Many patients receiving cyclosporine (CSA) develop hepatic dysfunction or pancreatitis. The authors reviewed 106 records of cardiac transplant patients maintained on CSA. Eleven patients underwent 16 hepatobiliary scans (HBSs) for abdominal pain and/or abnormal liver function. Of 16 HBSs, ten demonstrated normal gallbladder visualization. Follow-up in all cases confirmed scan findings. Five patients had no gallbladder visualization; confirmation of acute cholecystitis was obtained by surgery in two and by autopsy in three. One patient had previous cholecystectomy. The authors found HPS useful for evaluating acute cholecystitis in patients receiving CSA with or without associated drug-related pancreatitis and hepatic insufficiency and suggest that HBS can assist in the selection of patients for CSA dose adjustment

  17. Diagnostic imaging in the study of human hepatobiliary fascioliasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantisani, V; Cantisani, C; Mortelé, K; Pagliara, E; D'Onofrio, M; Fernandez, M; D'Ambrosio, U; Lombardi, V; Marigliano, C; Ricci, P

    2010-02-01

    Fascioliasis is a rare zoonotic disease caused by the trematode Fasciola hepatica. We present the typical patterns of hepatobiliary fascioliasis observed in ten patients studied with multimodality imaging. Between 2002 and 2005, ten women with fascioliasis were admitted to the Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School (BWH), with abdominal pain and mild fever. All imaging modalities, including ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (n = 2) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) (n = 1) were reviewed by two expert radiologists working in consensus. In all patients (10/10, 100%), US showed parenchymal heterogeneity characterised by multiple subcapsular and peribiliary hypoechoic nodular lesions that were ill-defined and coalesced into tubular or tortuous structures. In six patients (6/10, 60%), the lesions appeared hypoechoic, whereas in four patients (4/10, 40%), there was an alternation of hyperechoic and hypoechoic nodules. On CT, all patients (10/10, 100%) showed hypodense patchy lesions in subcapsular, peribiliary or periportal locations, which coalesced to form tubular structures and were more evident during the portal phase. Lesion diameter ranged from 2 cm to 7 cm. Capsular enhancement was seen in four cases on CT (4/10, 40%) and in one also at MR imaging. MR imaging, performed in two patients, confirmed the presence of the lesions, which appeared hyperintense on T2-weighted images and were characterised by mild peripheral enhancement after gadolinium administration. Four patients had gallbladder wall thickening (4/10, 40%), with parasites in the gallbladder lumen. Although rare, hepatobiliary fascioliasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis in the appropriate clinical scenario, especially in patients coming from endemic areas. The typical imaging pattern of fascioliasis is the presence of subcapsular, peribiliary or periportal nodules that are usually ill-defined and coalesce

  18. Specific diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma by delayed hepatobiliary imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Y.; Nakano, S.; Ibuka, K.

    1986-01-01

    For assessment of the value of delayed hepatobiliary imaging with technetium 99m (/sup 99m/Tc)-(Sn)-N-pyridoxyl-5-methyltryptophan (/sup 99m/Tc-PMT) for specific diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma, 88 patients with various malignant and benign liver diseases (49 with hepatocellular carcinoma, 4 with cholangiocellular carcinoma, 10 with metastatic liver carcinoma, 2 with liver cysts, 2 with liver hemangioma, 1 with liver abscess, 2 with intrahepatic lithiasis, 12 with liver cirrhosis, and 6 with chronic hepatitis) were studied. In 20 (41%) of the 49 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, greater uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-PMT by the tumor than by the surrounding liver tissue was seen in delayed hepatobiliary images, whereas in eight patients (16%), equilibrated uptake was seen. No increased uptake of the radioisotope by hepatic lesions was seen in 21 patients with localized liver diseases other than hepatoma. Moreover, in 18 patients with diffuse liver diseases, no focal accumulation of the radioisotope was seen in delayed /sup 99m/Tc-PMT images. In addition, of 28 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in whom the serum alpha-fetoprotein level showed little or no increase, 12 showed increased uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-PMT by the tumor. In assessing delayed /sup 99m/Tc-PMT images, however, it was necessary to consider following complications: accumulation of tracer in obstructed and dilated biliary trees; retention of radioactivity in nonneoplastic liver tissues; difficulties in evaluating /sup 99m/Tc-PMT uptake by small hepatic tumors; overlapping of radioactivity in the gut and gallbladder in delayed /sup 99m/Tc-PMT images of tumors. This study indicates that delayed /sup 99m/Tc-PMT images can be useful in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

  19. Specific preoperative diagnosis of choledochal cysts by combined sonography and hepatobiliary scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanicolaou, N.; Abramson, S.J.; Teele, R.L.; Treves, S.

    1985-01-01

    The combined use of sonography and hepatobiliary scintigraphy correctly identified a choledochal cyst preoperatively in seven consecutive infants and children. The high resolution anatomic images provided by sonography coupled with physiologic data on filing of the cyst, biliary patency and liver function derived from radionuclide scanning offer valuable information in the diagnosis and planning of corrective surgery of the cyst and coexisting hepatobiliary anomalies. Invasive diagnostic procedures should be reserved for occasional problematic cases [fr

  20. Diagnostic value of hepatobiliary sequence scintigraphy in patients with postcholecystectomy syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, H.; Jorke, D.; Gottschild, D.; Langbein, T.; Zinner, G.; Kob, D.

    1992-01-01

    The autors report about the possibility of registration from functionally disturbances of gall fluid with the help of hepatobiliary sequence-scintigraphy in patients with postcholecystectomy-syndrome. The diagnostic importance of this methode and the meaning of other usually procedures is discussed. A selection of patients succeed in objective manner with hepatobiliary sequence-scintigraphy together with clinically dates of laboratory. In patients with postcholecystectomy-syndrome the procedure can show functionally disturbances in the area of extrahepatic gall ways. (orig.) [de

  1. A quadriplegic patient's cholescintigraphic findings: delayed gallbladder visualization and common bile duct dilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, W. J.; Magoun, S.; Lu, G.

    1996-01-01

    A Tc-99m DISIDA cholescintigraphic study of a 37-year-old patient with a 20-year history of quadriplegia demonstrated dilation of the common bile duct and delayed gallbladder visualization. A concurrent sonographic study showed an enlarged gallbladder with stones and dilation of the common bile duct. These findings were proved by autopsy. Quadriplegia secondary to a high level of spinal cord injury may result in gallbladder dysfunction. Images Figure PMID:8776068

  2. A Review of Circulating Tumor DNA in Hepatobiliary Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabir Mody

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA is released into circulation (blood specifically from tumor cells undergoing metabolic secretion, apoptosis, or necrosis, carries tumor-specific genetic or epigenetic alterations. Technologies enabling clinical evaluation of ctDNA continue to advance rapidly and allow for the assessment of patient-specific tumoral genetic and epigenetic alterations. This holds great potential for earlier detection of disease, serial monitoring of tumor heterogeneity, identification of therapeutic targets, and evaluation of treatment response and mechanisms of resistance. Hepatobiliary malignancies are often diagnosed late, recur commonly, yield limited available tumor on biopsy, and harbor several genomic alterations with potential therapeutic impacts. Patients suffering from or at risk for these diseases thus stand to benefit immensely from this technology. Herein, we review the limited literature pertaining to the potential for ctDNA technologies in such patients. Patients with these cancers stand to benefit greatly from the application of ctDNA technologies, and concerted efforts at further investigation of such are ongoing and greatly needed.

  3. Synthesis And Characterization Of Mebrofenin For Hepatobiliary Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purwoko; Tamat, Swasono R.; Yunita, Fitri; Kristanti, Eti

    2003-01-01

    Mebrofenin labeled with Technetium-99m is a new radiopharmaceutical having superior and ideal characteristic as a hepatobiliary-imaging agent. The synthesis and characterization of Mebrofenin (3-Bromo-2,4,6-trimethyl acetanilido iminodiacetic acid) as IDA derivative has been carried out involving three steps of reaction i.e. : acetyllization of 2,4,6-Trimethyl aniline to get 2,4,6-trimethyl chloro acetanilide which upon bromination gives the intermediate bromotrimethyl derivative and [mally by nucleophilic substitution this intermediate product with iminodiacetic acid (IDA) gives mebrofenin. The acetylation and bromination reactions were carried out in acetic acid condition while the substitution was carried out by reflux for 5 hours in ethanol and water adjusted at pH 11. The ethanol was then removed under low pressure, and the unreacted compound was removed by filtration. The filtrate was adjusted to pH 2 - 2.5, and the resulting mebrofenin was isolated by filtration and recrystallized 3 times in ethanol. Characterization of the mebrofenin product was performed by observing its melting point (197-l99 o C), ultra violet and infra red spectra as well as mass spectrometric and high performance liquid chromatographic analysis. The results showed that the product was highly pure and the yield was around 20%

  4. Detection of common bile duct stone by hepatobiliary scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Hisao; Sakai, Toyohiko; Takahashi, Norio

    1991-01-01

    Hepatobiliary scintigraphy and direct X-ray cholangiography were compared in 29 patients with common bile duct (CBD) stones confirmed at surgery. The scintigraphic findings included no visualization of the biliary system (NV), pooling of bile in the biliary system (PB), prolonged transit time over 60 min (PTT), filling defect in the CBD image (FD), and reflux of bile toward the intrahepatic ducts after gallbladder stimulation (RB). The positive rates of NV, PB, PTT, FD, and RB in patients with CBD stones were 7%, 31%, 17%, 48%, and 14%, respectively. One or more of these five findings was found in 83%. Although the NV was a useful finding suggesting complete obstruction of the CBD, it shared little in the diagnosis of CBD stone. The positive rate of the PB was relatively high and it would be a useful finding as an indication of the presence of passage disturbance of the CBD. The PB was usually accompanied by the FD. The PTT had some usefulness in the detection of incomplete obstruction of the CBD in patients with a visualized gallbladder. In patients with no visualization of the gallbladder, however, the transit time tended to be shorter than that of gallbladder visualized patients. Therefore, the judgement of PTT in patients with no visualized gallbladder needed another criteria. The FD was the most frequent among the five findings and the sites of FD correlated well with CBD stones on direct X-ray cholangiography. The FD would be a reliable finding indicating CBD stone or CBD stenosis. Although the RB was a finding limited in patients with a visualized gallbladder, it seemed to be a helpful findings for the detection of CBD stone in patients with a mildly dilated CBD. (author)

  5. Hepato-biliary effects of mucoviscidosis: use of Mebrofenine scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin-Fayolle, O.; Morelec, I.; Gilly, R.; Roche, S.; Sappey-Marinier, D.; Briere, J.; Bonmartin, A.; Bellon, G.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this work is the scintigraphic profile of patients afflicted with mucoviscidosis with portal hypertension (PHT) and the questions whether there exists a criterion to characterized the first stage of fibrosis as well as whether exist in this stage lesions of hepato cellular insufficiency (HCI). The method of the work implied the study of the dynamics of 60 minutes after injecting 40 - 120 MBq of Mebrofenine in 18 patients, 9 presenting a certain PHT, and 9, signs of hepatobiliary affliction without genuine PHT. In the population with PHT, all patients presented a splenomegaly, a very heterogeneous fixation and a retention of the tracer in the intrahepatic-biliary tracts (IHBT) with augmentation of T 1/2 in 5 cases; 8 presented a diminution of the hepatic extraction fraction (HEF), serving as control of HCI. In the population without PHT 2 patients are normal. In the other seven, the most frequently found anomalies are the accumulation of tracer in the IHBT (5/7) and the hepatic heterogeneity (4/7). HEF is low in one case. No dilatation was visible by echography. In conclusion, the accumulation in the IHBT (14 patients, 9 PHT and 5 non PHT) expresses the presence of a functional stasis without organic effects (no echographic dilatation), consequence of a obstruction of biliary ducts by mucus plugs due to dehydration of the bile. The HEF, labeller of HCI, is low in 8 PHT and in one non-PHT, hence tardy in the evolution of the disease, the portal cirrhosis occurring at more on less long term. This parameter can not be considered as a labeller of fibrosis, on the contrary, the accumulation of this tracer in the IHBT and the hepatic heterogeneity seems more interesting for an early detection and start of a preventive treatment

  6. Variants of hepatobiliary leakage: Biloma and aberrant drainage paths - case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, J M; Peracha, H; Sziklas, J J; Rosenberg, R J; Spencer, R P

    1987-04-01

    Three variants of abnormal biliary drainage, on Tc-99m-DIPIDA studies, were illustrated, despite patency of the normal pathway. A 23-year-old man had gun shot fragments removed from the liver. An area originally negative for uptake of the hepatobiliary agent later demonstrated an increased content after the remainder of the liver had drained (a biloma). A 67-year-old woman showed passage of Tc-99m-DIPIDA simultaneously from 2 pathways. One was via a biliary-cutaneous fistula site along a prior T-tube tract, and the other was into the small intestine via a biliary stent. Following cholecystectomy, a hepatobiliary study in a 46-year-old man revealed a 'gallbladder'. This represented leakage into the prior gallbladder bed. The hepatobiliary agents can exit via traumatically or surgically created pathways, even when the 'usual' anatomic drainage is present.

  7. Evaluation of the hepatobiliary function with 99mTc-EHIDA imaging during total parenteral nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Qian; Jiang Zhouming; Yang Meifang

    1988-01-01

    14 surgical patients with non-hepatobiliary diseases were studied with 99m Tc-EHIDA imaging to evaluate the effect of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) on the hepatobiliary function. Duration of TPN ranged from 6-56 days, 10 of the 14 patients Beijing within 10 days. The results showed that: (1) 11 of 14 patients had abnormal scintigraphic features. The most prominet findings were delayed liver excretion and prolonged blood clearance time. This fact suggests that not only the rate of excretion of the bile from the liver is decreased but the uptake ability of the hepatorcyte is also impaired. (2) The effect of TPN on liver function is reversible. It was concluded that in order to prevent irreversible damage of hepatobiliary function caused by TPN, the duration of TPN should not be too long and oral intake of nutrients should be resumed as soon as possible

  8. Hepatobiliary cystadenoma exhibiting morphologic changes from simple hepatic cyst shown by 11-year follow up imagings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato Koichi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A long-term follow up case of hepatobiliary cystadenoma originating from simple hepatic cyst is rare. Case presentation We report a case of progressive morphologic changes from simple hepatic cyst to hepatobiliary cystadenoma by 11 – year follow up imaging. A 25-year-old man visited our hospital in 1993 for a simple hepatic cyst. The cyst was located in the left lobe of the liver, was 6 cm in diameter, and did not exhibit calcification, septa or papillary projections. No surgical treatment was performed, although the cyst was observed to gradually enlarge upon subsequent examination. The patient was admitted to our hospital in 2004 due to epigastralgia. Re-examination of the simple hepatic cyst revealed mounting calcification and septa. Abdominal CT on admission revealed a hepatic cyst over 10 cm in diameter and a high-density area within the thickened wall. MRI revealed a mass of low intensity and partly high intensity on a T1-weighted image. Abdominal angiography revealed hypovascular tumor. The serum levels of AST and ALT were elevated slightly, but tumor markers were within normal ranges. Left lobectomy of the liver was performed with diagnosis of hepatobiliary cystadenoma or hepatobiliary cystadenocarcinoma. The resected specimen had a solid component with papillary projections and the cyst was filled with liquid-like muddy bile. Histologically, the inner layer of the cyst was lined with columnar epithelium showing mild grade dysplasia. On the basis of these findings, hepatobiliary cystadenoma was diagnosed. Conclusion We believe this case provides evidence of a simple hepatic cyst gradually changing into hepatobiliary cystadenoma.

  9. Hepatobiliary contrast agents for contrast-enhanced MRI of the liver: properties, clinical development and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimer, Peter; Schneider, Guenter; Schima, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    Hepatobiliary contrast agents with uptake into hepatocytes followed by variable biliary excretion represent a unique class of cell-specific MR contrast agents. Two hepatobiliary contrast agents, mangafodipir trisodium and gadobenate dimeglumine, are already clinically approved. A third hepatobiliary contrast agent, Gd-EOB-DTPA, is under consideration. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview on the properties, clinical development and application of these three hepatobiliary contrast agents. Bolus injectable paramagnetic hepatobiliary contrast agents combine established features of extracellular agents with the advantages of hepatocyte specificity. The detection and characterisation of focal liver disease appears to be improved compared to unenhanced MRI, MRI with unspecific contrast agents and contrast-enhanced CT. To decrease the total time spent by a patient in the MR scanner, it is advisable to administer the agent immediately after acquisition of unenhanced T1-w MRI. After infusion or bolus injection (with dynamic FS-T1-w 2D or 3D GRE) of the contrast agent, moderately and heavily T2w images are acquired. Post-contrast T1-w MRI is started upon completion of T2-w MRI for mangafodipir trisodium and Gd-EOB-DTPA as early as 20 min following injection, while gadobenate dimeglumine scans are obtained >60 min following injection. Post-contrast acquisition techniques with near isotropic 3D pulse sequences with fat saturation parallel the technical progress made by MSCT combined with an unparalleled improvement in tumour-liver contrast. The individual decision that hepatobiliary contrast agent one uses is partly based on personal preferences. No comparative studies have been conducted comparing the advantages or disadvantages of all three agents directly against each other. (orig.)

  10. Benzimidazolyl methyliminodiacetic acids: new bifunctional chelators of technetium for hepatobiliary scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, F.C.; Wilson, J.G.; Maddalena, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    Dimethyl- and chloro- substituted benzimidazolyl methyliminodiacetic acids have been synthesized and evaluated as new bifunctional chelators of /sup 99m/Tc. Stannous chelates of these compounds were prepared as freeze-dried kits and labeled with /sup 99m/Tc. The radiopharmaceuticals thus prepared were rapidly excreted by the hepatobiliary system of rats and rabbits with little urinary excretion. The chloro- compound had a higher biliary and lesser urinary excretion than the dimethyl- however both technetium complexes provided good scintigraphic images of the hepatobiliary system in animals. The compounds behaved similarly to the /sup 99m/Tc-lidocaine iminodiacetic acid [HIDA] complexes with respect to their biliary elimination

  11. Application status of three-dimensional CT reconstruction in hepatobiliary surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIANG Chao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With the development of imaging technology, three-dimensional CT reconstruction has been widely used in hepatobiliary surgery. Three-dimensional CT reconstruction can divide and reconstruct two-dimensional images into three-dimensional images and clearly show the location of lesion and its relationship with the intrahepatic bile duct system. It has an important value in the preoperative assessment of liver volume, diagnosis and treatment decision-making process, intraoperative precise operation, and postoperative individualized management, and promotes the constant development of hepatobiliary surgery and minimally invasive technology, and therefore, it holds promise for clinical application.

  12. A study on hepato-biliary and alimentary scintigram by means of triple tracer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aibata, Hirofumi; Torizumi, Kazutami; Okada, Takashi; Kiji, Shigeyuki; Yamada, Ryusaku; Shimada, Kosuke; Taniguchi, Katsutoshi; Aoki, Yozo

    1987-01-01

    In order to evaluate the gastric emptying and postprandial mixing of bile with food, the scintigraphies of hepatobiliary and gastrointestinal tracts by using three different kinds of radioisotopes were performed simultaneously ( 99m Tc-E · HIDA for hepatobiliary scintigraphy, 111 In-DTPA containing orange juice and 131 I-albumin containing scrambled egg for gastrointestinal scintigraphy). This method was available for observation of gastric emptying of liquid and solid foods and also examination of the mixing effect of bile and food quantitatively. (author)

  13. Pathophysiological analysis of hepatobiliary function on sup(99m)Tc-labeled-cholescintigram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, K; Hayashi, S; Kogure, T; Hirakawa, K; Akaike, A [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1979-05-01

    sup(99m)Tc-pylidoxylideneisoleucine (PI) was injected into 106 patients in order to study the mechanism of bile accumulation in the gallbladder in analysis of the visualization time of the gallbladder, intrahepatic bile duct, common bile duct and duodenum on sup(99m)Tc-PI cholescintigrams relating to hepatobiliary function. In cases of normal hepatobiliary function, sup(99m)Tc-PI is rapidly cleared from the blood by hepatocytes and is rapidly excreted through the biliary tree into the duodenum. The common bile duct was seen within 15 min of injection in 93.5% of the patients, the gallbladder within 20 min in 80.8%, the intrahepatic bile duct within 20 min in 96.3%, and the duodenum within 30 min in 58%. Marked accumulation of sup(99m)Tc-PI was noted in the gallbladder within 30 min. In cases of hepatobiliary dysfunction, the duodenum is visualized earlier than the gallbladder and intrahepatic bile duct, and the visualization ratio of the gallbladder and intrahepatic bile duct is decreased with an increased degree of hepatobiliary dysfunction. In regard to serum bilirubin level, the gallbladder was seen up to 3.5 mg%, the intrahepatic bile duct up to 4.0 mg% and the common bile duct up to 22.6 mg%. The duodenum was seen in all but two cases of complete obstruction of the common bile duct. In regard to meal time, marked accumulation of sup(99m)Tc-PI in the gallbladder was seen within 30 min and re-dilatation was seen with in 90 min after the beginning of contraction. In cases of normal hepatobiliary function, the gallbladder was seen in over 70% of the cases more than two hours after meals. This study shows that the hepatobiliary tract can be easily imaged by sup(99m)Tc-PI in proportion to hepatobiliary function and that this agent may be useful in the diagnosis of abnormal hepatobiliary tract and the jaundiced patient with hyperbilirubinemias. (Bell, E.).

  14. Structure-activity studies on 99mTc phenolic aminocarboxyllic acid hepatobiliary agente

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddalena, D.J.; Wilson, J.G.; Snowdon, G.M.

    1987-01-01

    Biodistributions of a series of eight 99m Tc hydroxybenzylsarcosine (HBS) complexes were carried out in rats and their urinary and hepatobiliary excretion compared with their lipophilicities, the influence of substituent on the phenyl ring and plasma protein binding ability. The charge on the complexes was determined by electrophoresis at varying pH values. The HBS derivatives formed anionic complexes with 99m Tc that excreted mainly via the urinary route. An increase in the lipophilicity of the complexes by substitution of halogens onto the phenyl ring led to an increase in serum protein binding and a decrease in the urinary output but hat no direct effect on hepatobiliary output. (Author) [es

  15. Radionuclide study of the hepatobiliary system function in patients with diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavnov, V.M.; Savich, O.A.; Markov, V.V.

    2002-01-01

    The functional state of the liver parenchyma, concentration and motor functions of the gallbladder in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) was studied. To analyze hepatobiliary system disorders depending on the type of DM, presence of complications, duration of the disease and the age of the patients

  16. sup(99m)Tc-pyridoxylidene glutamate - a radiopharmaceutical for the hepatobiliary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noronha, O.P.D.; Sewatkar, A.B.; Ganatra, R.D.; Subramanian, G.

    1976-01-01

    sup(99m)Tc-pyridoxylidene glutamate is a good agent to visualize the hepatobiliary system. The method of preparation and quality control, and preliminary data on its behaviour in human controls is presented. In humans the gall bladder could be well seen in about 15-20 minutes after intravenous injection. (orig.) [de

  17. Robotic resections in hepatobiliary oncology - initial experience with Xi da Vinci system in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandarana, M; Patkar, S; Tamhankar, A; Garg, S; Bhandare, M; Goel, M

    2017-01-01

    Minimal invasive surgery has proven its advantages over open surgeries in the perioperative period. Food and Drug Administration approved da Vinci robot in 2000. The latest version, da Vinci Xi system has a mobile tower-based robot with several modifications to improve the functionality, versatility, and operative ease. None of the centers have reported exclusively on hepatobiliary oncology using the da Vinci Xi system. We report our initial experience. To study the feasibility, advantages, and discuss the operative technique of da Vinci Xi system in hepatobiliary oncology. Data were analyzed retrospectively from a prospectively maintained database from June 2015 to October 2016. Twenty-five patients with suspected or proven hepatobiliary malignancies were operated. Total robotic technique using da Vinci Xi system was used. Demographic details and perioperative outcomes were noted. Of the 25 surgeries, 14 patients had a suspected gallbladder malignancy, 11 patients had primary or metastatic liver tumor. Median age was 53 years. The average duration of surgery was 225 min with a median blood loss 150 ml. The median postoperative stay was 4 days. The median nodal yield for radical cholecystectomy was seven. Five patients required conversion. Two of these developed postoperative morbidity. Robotic surgery for hepatobiliary oncology is feasible and can be performed safely in experienced hands. Increasing experience in this field may equal or even prove advantageous over conventional or laparoscopic approach in future. A cautious approach with judicious patient selection is the key to establishing robotic surgery as a standard surgical approach.

  18. 99m Tc-DISIDA hepatobiliary scintigram in evaluation of clonorchis sinensis infestation in endemic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yum, Ha Yong

    1985-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate clinical utilization of 99 mTc-DISIDA scintigraphy in detection of Cs-infestation and its complication as well as combined disease in liver, in comparison with detection rate of Cs-stool ova and to describe unique pattern of hepatobiliary bile flow found on the study. (Author)

  19. Morbidity and mortality after liver resection for benign and malignant hepatobiliary lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erdogan, Deha; Busch, Olivier R. C.; Gouma, Dirk J.; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Although most partial liver resections are performed for malignant lesions, an increasing contingent of benign lesions is also considered for surgery. The aim was to assess post-operative morbidity and mortality after liver resection for benign hepatobiliary lesions in comparison with outcome

  20. Indocyanine green labeled with /sup 123/I for dynamic studies of the hepato-biliary system. [/sup 131/I, /sup 125/I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Ansari, A.N.; Wolf, A.P.; Atkins, H.L.

    1975-01-01

    This report summarizes the results to develop an iodine-123 labeled agent for dynamic studies of the hepato-biliary system. Iodine-123 is an ideal nuclide for radiopharmaceuticals, because of its short half-life (T/sub /sup 1///sub 2// = 13.3 hr); its decay with a high abundance (83%) of 159 keV photons; and the reduced patient radiation exposure (a factor of 100 less than iodine-131). Indocyanine green, a tricarbanocyanine dye, was introduced by Heseltine and co-workers in 1956, has several characteristics which suggested that iodine-123 labeled ICG might be potentially useful for hepatic functional evaluation. The plasma clearance and biliary excretion kinetics of /sup 123/I-ICG (in dogs) will be compared to /sup 131/I-rose bengal and bromosulphalein labeled with iodine-125.

  1. 99mTc-O2S4: a new generation hepatobiliary imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babbar, A.K.; Mathur, R.; Katiyar, N.; Dutta, M.; Flora; Mishra, A.K.; Yadav, A.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Hepatobiliary imaging radionuclide - 99m Tc-Mebrofenin is indicated as a hepatobiliary imaging agent for the evaluation of hepatobiliary tract patency to differentiate jaundice resulting from hepatocellular causes from jaundice resulting from partial or complete biliary obstruction; to differentiate extrahepatic biliary atresia from neonatal hepatitis; to detect cystic duct obstruction associated with acute cholecystitis; and to detect bile leaks. Also, 99m Tc-Mebrofenin may be useful to detect intrahepatic cholestasis and to distinguish it from other hepatobiliary diseases, which involve hepatocyte damage. However, the Mebrofenin kit has to be obtained at an exorbitant cost and there was need to develop an indigenous kit that was readily available and could give similar results. For the first time in India, a derivative of DMSA developed by DRDE, Gwalior and modified at INMAS, Delhi to adopt early transition metals, was successfully labelled with 99m Tc (LE>99%). The reaction conditions were optimized after studying the effects of amount of SnCl 2 , pH of the reaction and effect of incubation time. The labelled product 99m Tc-O 2 S 4 , was characterized by ITLC-SG using acetone and saline. The complex was found to be fairly stable at room temperature and showed>95% plasma protein binding. The biodistribution studies showed that after intravenous administration, there was immediate accumulation of radioactivity in liver, the activity kept on increasing in gall bladder with time and thereafter the radioactivity moved to common bile duct (CBD) and small intestines. No significant radioactivity was found in kidneys and blood. Clear visualization of the gallbladder and intestines, within 15 to 45 minutes of administration of 99m Tc-O 2 S 4 in normal rabbit, demonstrates hepatobiliary tract patency of the newly developed radiotracer. The dynamic and static images showed that the newly developed radiopharmaceutical 99m Tc-O 2 S 4 has full potential in studying

  2. Pharmacokinetics of hepatobiliary imaging agents in rats: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.B.; Coupal, J.; DeLand, F.H.; Triplett, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    The distribution and elimination kinetics of Tc-99m pyridoxylidene glutamate (Tc-99m PG), of Tc-99m N-(2,6-dimethyl-phenylcarbamoylmethyl)iminodiacetic acid (Tc-99m HIDA), and of I-131 rose bengal in blood were quantitated after i.v. injection in rats. This was performed by use of a unique indwelling catheter that externalizes the systemic circulation, permitting continuous monitoring of blood radioactivity. The blood activity-time curves of Tc-99m PG and Tc-99m HIDA are described by the sum of three exponential functions. Only two exponentials are required in the case of I-131 rose bengal. The rank order for the rates of loss from blood was Tc-99m HIDA > Tc-99m PG > I-131 rose bengal. Bile was collected after administration of Tc-99m HIDA and Tc-99m PG. The total excretion of radioactivity over a 70-min period amounted to 65.7% and 42.8% of the dose of Tc-99m HIDA and Tc-99m PG, respectively. A linear compartmental kinetic model was developed to account for the disappearance from blood and the biliary excretion of these radiopharmaceuticals in rats

  3. Diagnostic imaging of digestive tract involvement in cystic fibrosis. Part 1: hepatobiliary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miralles, M.; Gonzalez, G.; Serrano, C.; Manzanares, J.; Berrocal, T.

    1998-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is a severe hereditary disease characterized by epithelial chloride channel dysfunction, leading to the production of abnormally thick secretions. The abnormal gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 7. Hepatobiliary involvement derives from ductal obstruction causing cholestasis, steatosis, cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Biliary sludge, cholelithiasis and gallbladder sclerosis and atrophy are common findings. As the correlation between the hepatobiliary changes and their clinical and analytical impact is very limited, imaging techniques are essential in this disease. Ultrasound is the basic imaging tool, both for initial evaluation and follow-up of the hepatic and biliary involvement, although other techniques such as radionuclide imaging, magnetic resonance and computed tomography can be highly useful. Given the long-term, chronic nature of this disease, the use of aggressive techniques or irradiation should be carefully weighed. (Author) 38 refs

  4. Evaluation gallbladder function in patients with spinal cord injury using 99Tcm-DISIDA hepatobiliary imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Changsuo; Li Hong; Hong Guangxiang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate gallbladder function in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: Eighteen normal control subjects, 16 other traumatic control subjects and 46 SCI patients were include. Gallbladder function was quantitatively evaluated by 99 Tc m labeled imino-diacetic acid analogue (DISIDA) hepatobiliary imaging using two parameters as filling fraction (FF) and ejection fraction (EF). The gallbladder function of SCI patients was further analyzed according to age, sex, body weight, injury gradient (with ASIA criteria), cord injury level and the duration of injury. Results: 52% of SCI patients had abnormal FF and 59% with abnormal EF. Significantly decreased FF and EF values were found in SCI patients, especially in those who were female, severe and high-level injuries of spinal cord. Conclusion: With the use of quantitative 99 Tc m -DISIDA hepatobiliary imaging, significant impairment of the gallbladder function was found in SCI patients. (authors)

  5. Liver cysts associated with polycystic kidney disease: Role of Tc-99m hepatobiliary imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, M.; Keeffe, E.B.

    1989-01-01

    A 42-year-old woman with multiple hepatic cysts associated with autosomal polycystic kidney disease was evaluated for abdominal discomfort and new liver test abnormalities following blind aspirations of her liver cysts. Tc-99m mebrofenin hepatobiliary imaging revealed a markedly enlarged liver with multiple photon deficient areas, focal retention of isotope in the left hepatic ductal system, no accumulation of radionuclide in cysts, and an unusual medial gallbladder position. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography confirmed all of these findings. Abdominal discomfort and liver biochemical abnormalities were attributed to cyst compression of nearby structures, including bile ducts. Hepatobiliary imaging is useful to exclude communication of bile ducts with hepatic cysts, to detect incidental abnormalities such as partial bile duct obstruction, and to distinguish the gallbladder from nearby hepatic cysts

  6. Diagnosis of acute cholecystitis using hepatobiliary scan with technetium-99m PIPIDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, M.T.; Sheldon, M.I.; dos Remedios, L.V.; Weber, P.M.

    1981-01-01

    Sixty patients were evaluated for acute abdominal pain using technetium-99m PIPIDA hepatobiliary imaging. The sensitivity of the test was 90.6 percent in all patients and the accuracy was 93.3 percent. In the evaluation of acutely ill patients with right upper quadrant pain, fever, nausea and vomiting, hepatobiliary imaging with PIPIDA is the preferred test for diagnosing acute cholecystitis. If the test is positive, disease of the gallbladder and probably acute cholecystitis are present. Early operation can proceed if desirable. If the test is negative and the bilirubin level is less than 5.0 mg/dl, acute cholecystitis is not present. In such cases conservative treatment is appropriate, and follow-up tests should be performed to evaluate the possibility of chronic cholecystitis. When the bilirubin level exceeds 5.0 mg/dl, the test is often indeterminate

  7. Postoperative follow-up studies in congenital dilatation of the common bile duct using hepatobiliary scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirobe, Seiichi; Ishida, Haruo; Hayashi, Akira; Kamagata, Shoichiro; Fuchimoto, Yasufumi; Mizuno, Dai; Yano, Tsunehiro [Tokyo Metropolitan Kiyose Children`s Hospital (Japan); Ishii, Katsumi

    1995-03-01

    Follow-up studies in congenital dilatation of the common bile duct were done in 20 cases ranging 3 to 20 years after operation. Operative cholangiography had shown dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts in 15 patients (75%), of these, 7 patients had cystic dilatation. Five cases of these 7 patients showed prolonged stasis of the nuclide in the cystic dilated intrahepatic bile ducts by {sup 99m}Tc-PMT hepatobiliary scintigraphy in the follow-up studies even at 10 years after operation. But none of 20 cases had complication such as intrahepatic lithiasis, cholangitis, and liver dysfunction. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy could provide moderate anatomic and excellent functional information which were useful for these follow-up studies and careful follow-up should be done in the case of cystic dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts. (author).

  8. Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) for innovation in hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery: preface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Maki

    2009-01-01

    Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has captured the interest of interventional endoscopists and may represent the next stage of evolution of minimally invasive surgery. It provides the potential for performance of incisionless operations. It is gaining momentum both in the animal laboratory and in human case reports. Developments in the field of NOTES have led to the formation of the Natural Orifice Surgery Consortium for Assessment and Research (NOSCAR) in 2006. In this special issue, the current trends in NOTES in the field of hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery are featured, including NOTES cholecystectomy, hepatectomy splenectomy, pancreatic necrosectomy, and the future of NOTES. In this issue, we discuss the potential benefits of these procedures in hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery. We have just started the evaluation process for this new technology. The concept of NOTES is becoming established and is enormously advantageous for the patient. Both the surgeon and gastroenterologist should contribute to developing NOTES in making use of their specialties.

  9. Hepatobiliary system functional analysis by blood flow and clearance delay model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboltins, A.; Reinholds, E.

    2002-01-01

    A mathematical model for describing liver uptake-excretion is developed and approved. Model is based on different timing delays in hepatobiliary and blood flow system elements. Series of scintigraphic images with 99m Tc-mebrofenins or 99m Tc-HIDA taken with standard nuclear medicine gamma camera are used as the real data for calculations. The time-activity curves are obtained from many regions of human body - heart, liver, gallbladder, spleen, aorta, vein, etc. Both first pass and dynamic acquisition data are used. Results are calculated using real system parameters and compared to real scintigraphy data. Mathematical simulations are made to show difference of hepatobiliary system function at three main points: normal function, good blood flow with bad hepatic function and bad blood flow with good hepatic function. (authors)

  10. Utility of morphine-augmented hepatobiliary scanning in evaluation of acute cholecystitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kistler, A.M.; Ziessman, H.A.; Gooch, D.; Bitterman, P.

    1989-01-01

    The authors review experience with morphine sulfate-augmented cholescintigraphy in suspected acute cholecystitis. MS has been recommended to reduce study time while maintaining accuracy of hepatobiliary scans. Patients received 5-mCi injections of Tc-99m mebrofenin and imaged on a low-field-view gamma camera. In 32 patients with nonvisualization of the gallbladder at 30-40 minutes after injection, 2 mg MS was given intravenously, and imaging continued for an additional 30 minutes

  11. 99Tcm-EHIDA hepatobiliary imaging for neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Jian; Deng Mei; Song Yuanzong; Xu Hao

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the imaging characteristics of 99 Tc m -EHIDA hepatobiliary scintigraphy in neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD). Methods: 99 Tc m -EHIDA hepatobiliary scan was performed on 12 NICCD infants (aged (127 ±27) d) and 5 infants as a control group (including 4 cases with hepatitis syndrome and 1 with abnormal lipid metabolism, aged (164 ± 15) d). The differences of hepatic activity retention time and bowel activity visualization time between the two groups were observed. The two-sample Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to analyze the data. Results: In the NICCD group, both hepatic activity retention time and bowel activity visualization time were 180-1440 min (median=360 min). In the control group, hepatic activity retention time and bowel activity visualization time were 60-180 min (median=60 min) and 15-30 min (median=15 min), respectively. The differences of hepatic activity retention time and bowel activity visualization time between the two groups were statistically significant (Z=-3.20 and -3.17, both P<0.05). Three NICCD infants showed minimal hepatic uptake of the tracer. The bowel activity was not visible in 1 NICCD case.The hepatic uptake and biliary excretion function of this infant were significantly improved on hepatobiliary scintigraphy after treatment, with a bowel activity visualization time of 15 min. Conclusion: NICCD infants show impaired hepatic uptake and biliary excretion function on 99 Tc m -EHIDA hepatobiliary imaging, which may be used in NICCD diagnosis and treatment response evaluation. (authors)

  12. [Discussion on relationship between hepatobiliary pathological changes under B-ultrasound and Clonorchis sinensis infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhi-cheng; Qiu, Shou-zhong; Luo, Li-xuan

    2015-12-01

    To explore the relationship between the hepatobiliary pathological changes under B-ultrasound examinations and Clonorchis sinensis infection, so as to provide the evidence for further prevention and control. The stool test and ELISA were applied to test the pathogeny and antibody to C. sinensis of the suspicious patients who had the hepatobiliary pathological changes under B-ultrasound examinations in People's Hospital of Wuxuan County from Jan. 2010 to Dec. 2013. Totally 113 suspicious patients of C. sinensis infection were investigated, and the positive rates of egg and serum antibody were 64.60% (73 cases) and 66.37% (75 cases) respectively. The positive rates of the male and those aged ≥ 50 years were significantly higher than those of the female and the cases younger than 50 years respectively (χ² = 3.554, 6.267, both P sinensis infected patients, the degree of pathological changes of hepatobiliary was positively correlated with the infectiosity of C. sinensis (χ² = 64.952, P sinensis, and the patients with the changes should be further investigated for the pathogen and antibody to C. sinensis.

  13. Basic and clinical studies on hepatobiliary function test with sup(99m)Tc-PI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narabayashi, Isamu; Shigemoto, Hirosada; Ito, Yasuhiko; Muranaka, Akira; Ohtsuka, Nobuaki

    1979-01-01

    In these basic and clinical studies, the usefulness of sup(99m)Tc-pyridoxilideneisoleucine, a new hepatobiliary agent, was evaluated for a hepatobiliary function test in comparison with sup(99m)Tc-N-[N-(2,6 dimethylphenyl)carbamoylmethyl] iminodiacetic acid (HIDA) and 131 I-rose bengal (RB). The experiments were performed with 2.5 - 5 kg rabbits. Hepatic uptake and the excretion of sup(99m)Tc-pyridoxylidene isoleucine (PI) were earlier than those of 131 I-RB. However, biliary excretions of sup(99m)Tc-PI and sup(99m)Tc-HIDA were less than that of 131 I-RB, because urinary excretions of sup(99m)Tc-labeled compounds were greater. During the first 2.5 - 5 min, sup(99m)Tc-labeled agents had lower blood levels than 131 I-RB. At 6 days after the choledochal ligation, no hepatic uptake of sup(99m)Tc-PI was noted, although 131 I-RB concentrated to the liver. Blood retention of sup(99m)Tc-PI might not always reflect hepatobiliary function, especially in the hyperbilirubinemia. On the other hand, hepatograms from a region of interest corresponding to the liver varied with changes in the serum bilirubin level, although no hepatic uptake was detected in the complete obstructive jaundice and severe parenchymal liver disease being over 7 mg/dl in the serum bilirubin level. (author)

  14. Sonographic findings of hepatobiliary fascioliasis accompanied by extrahepatic expansion and ectopic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teke, Memik; Önder, Hakan; Çiçek, Mutalip; Hamidi, Cihad; Göya, Cemil; Çetinçakmak, Mehmet Güli; Hattapoğlu, Salih; Ülger, Burak Veli

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the sonographic findings of hepatobiliary fascioliasis with extrahepatic expansion and ectopic lesions. The study included 45 patients with fascioliasis. All diagnoses were confirmed via serologic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Sonographic findings in the hepatobiliary system, extrahepatic expansion, and ectopic lesions were defined. The most common hepatic lesions were subcapsular localized, small, confluent, multiple hypoechoic nodules with poorly defined borders. We also detected ectopic lesion in 5 patients (11.1%) and live parasites in the gallbladder and bile duct in 11 (24.4%). The large spectrum of entities in the differential diagnosis of hepatobiliary fascioliasis may lead to misdiagnosis and incorrect treatment. However, the diagnosis can be made when the characteristic sonographic features are seen, such as heterogeneity of the liver with multiple poorly defined hypoechoic-isoechoic lesions and multiple echogenic nonshadowing particles in the gallbladder or common bile ducts. Nonetheless, the differential diagnosis of fascioliasis versus other hepatic lesions may still be difficult. In these situations, pathologic confirmation should be performed to exclude the possibility of malignancy. © 2013 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  15. Development of a novel fusion imaging technique in the diagnosis of hepatobiliary-pancreatic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soga, Koichi; Ochiai, Jun; Miyajima, Takashi; Kassai, Kyoichi; Itani, Kenji; Yagi, Nobuaki; Naito, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    Multi-row detector computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) play an important role in the imaging diagnosis of hepatobiliary-pancreatic lesions. Here we investigated whether unifying the MDCT and MRCP images onto the same screen using fusion imaging could overcome the limitations of each technique, while still maintaining their benefits. Moreover, because reports of fusion imaging using MDCT and MRCP are rare, we assessed the benefits and limitations of this method for its potential application in a clinical setting. The patient group included 9 men and 11 women. Among the 20 patients, the final diagnoses were as follows: 10 intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, 5 biliary system carcinomas, 1 pancreatic adenocarcinoma and 5 non-neoplastic lesions. After transmitting the Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine data of the MDCT and MRCP images to a workstation, we performed a 3-D organisation of both sets of images using volume rendering for the image fusion. Fusion imaging enabled clear identification of the spatial relationship between a hepatobiliary-pancreatic lesion and the solid viscera and/or vessels. Further, this method facilitated the determination of the relationship between the anatomical position of the lesion and its surroundings more easily than either MDCT or MRCP alone. Fusion imaging is an easy technique to perform and may be a useful tool for planning treatment strategies and for examining pathological changes in hepatobiliary-pancreatic lesions. Additionally, the ease of obtaining the 3-D images suggests the possibility of using these images to plan intervention strategies.

  16. Hepatobiliary transporter expression and post-operative jaundice in patients undergoing partial hepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Gerwin A; Zollner, Gernot; Cerwenka, Herwig; Kornprat, Peter; Fickert, Peter; Bacher, Heinz; Werkgartner, Georg; Müller, Gabriele; Zatloukal, Kurt; Mischinger, Hans-Jörg; Trauner, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Post-operative hyperbilirubinaemia in patients undergoing liver resections is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Apart from different known factors responsible for the development of post-operative jaundice, little is known about the role of hepatobiliary transport systems in the pathogenesis of post-operative jaundice in humans after liver resection. Two liver tissue samples were taken from 14 patients undergoing liver resection before and after Pringle manoeuvre. Patients were retrospectively divided into two groups according to post-operative bilirubin serum levels. The two groups were analysed comparing the results of hepatobiliary transporter [Na-taurocholate cotransporter (NTCP); multidrug resistance gene/phospholipid export pump(MDR3); bile salt export pump (BSEP); canalicular bile salt export pump (MRP2)], heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression as well as the results of routinely taken post-operative liver chemistry tests. Patients with low post-operative bilirubin had lower levels of NTCP, MDR3 and BSEP mRNA compared to those with high bilirubin after Pringle manoeuvre. HSP70 levels were significantly higher after ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in both groups resulting in 4.5-fold median increase. Baseline median mRNA expression of all four transporters prior to Pringle manoeuvre tended to be lower in the low bilirubin group whereas expression of HSP70 was higher in the low bilirubin group compared to the high bilirubin group. Higher mRNA levels of HSP70 in the low bilirubin group could indicate a possible protective effect of high HSP70 levels against IR injury. Although the exact role of hepatobiliary transport systems in the development of post-operative hyper bilirubinemia is not yet completely understood, this study provides new insights into the molecular aspects of post-operative jaundice after liver surgery. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. The usefulness of hepatobiliary scan in insulin dependent diabetic patients (IDDM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taddei, G.; Carletto, M.; Santaniello, B.; Curti, G.; Villa, G.; Altrinetti, V.; Tommasi, L.; Piccardo, A.; Gianiorio, F.

    2002-01-01

    Aim:The purpose of the study is to point out morpho-functional alterations of intra-extrahepatic biliary tract in IDDM patients and to verify any possible correlation between the seriousness of such disorders and the presence of autonomic neuropathy. Material and method: there have been studied 47 pts. (20 females and 27 males), average age 35.(yrs (range 18-73) with normal blood levels of HbA1C (2.5-4.6%), fructosamine (285 mmol/l), fasting glycemia between 120 and 140 mg/dl. The average duration of the illness was 14.53 yrs. (range 3-31); The daily intensive treatment of insulin was 38 U/I p.day (average dose). No pt. showed any clinical, instrumental or laboratory signs referring to hepatobiliary pathology; 1 pt. had undergone cholecystectomy. All pts. have been submitted to a hepatobiliary scan after i.v. injection of 5 mCi of Tc-99m DIDA using a large-field gamma-camera (SP-6 Elscint). The presence autonomic neuropathy was evaluated according to Ewing's parameters. The statistical analysis was performed with Man-Whitney's U test. Results: a mild delay in the visualization of the intrahepatic biliary ducts was observed in 3 pts. The dismission of the radiotracer from the gallbladder was normal in 3 pts, in 2 of them there was a mild delay while in the remainders such abnormality was very significant. The presence of radioactivity in the bowel was delayed in 7 pts. Duodena-gastric backflow was observed in 10 pts. The statistical analysis showed a good correlation between score of neuropathy and duodena-gastric backflow (p<0.01) and between score of neuropathy and delayed dismission of the radiotracer from the gallbladder (p<0.003). Conclusion: hepatobiliary scan seems to give a good contribution to the study of autonomic neuropathy of gastroenteric apparatus in IDDM pts. in absence of comparative studies on the subject

  18. Histology atlas of the developing mouse hepatobiliary hemolymphatic vascular system with emphasis on embryonic days 11.5-18.5 and early postnatal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    A critical event in fetal development is the proper formation of the vascular system, of which the hepatobiliary system plays a pivotal role. This has lead pathologists and scientists to utilize transgenic mice to identify developmental disorders associated with the hepatobiliary vascular system. Va...

  19. Potential Pitfalls on the (99m)Tc-Mebrofenin Hepatobiliary Scintigraphy in a Patient with Biliary Atresia Splenic Malformation Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maestri Brittain, Jane; Borgwardt, Lise

    2016-01-01

    the first years of life. Kasai portoenterostomy restores bile flow and delay the progressive liver damage thereby postponing liver transplantation. An early diagnosis is of most importance to ensure the effectiveness of the operation. The (99m)Tc-Mebrofenin hepatobiliary scintigraphy is part...... of BA. Laparotomy with antegrade cholangiography is then performed giving the final diagnosis when the remains of the obliterated biliary tree are revealed in the case of BA. We present a case demonstrating some of the challenges of interpreting the (99m)Tc-Mebrofenin hepatobiliary scintigraphy...... in an infant with BASM and stress the importance that the (99m)Tc-Mebrofenin hepatobiliary scintigraphy is part of a spectrum of imaging modalities in diagnosing BA....

  20. Phenolic aminocarboxylate chelates of 99mTc as hepatobiliary agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, F C; Maddalena, D J; Wilson, J G; Bautovich, G J

    1986-01-01

    A series of alkyl- and halogen-substituted derivatives of ethylenediamine di[o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid] (EDDHA) and N,N'-bis[2-hydroxybenzyl] ethylenediamine N,N'-diacetic acid (HBED) were complexed with 99mTc and their biodistribution was determined in rats. All complexes displayed substantial hepatobiliary excretion; of each series, 99mTc-Br-EDDHA and 99mTc-di-Cl-HBED had the maximum amount in the gastrointestinal tract. Scintigraphic studies of 99mTc-Cl-EDDHA in dogs revealed prompt imaging of the liver followed by imaging of the gall bladder as the complex was excreted into the bile.

  1. Phenolic aminocarboxylate chelates of sup(99m)Tc as hepatobiliary agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, F.C.; Maddalena, D.J.; Wilson, J.G.; Bautovich, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    A series of alkyl- and halogen-substituted derivatives of ethylenediamine di[omicron-hydroxyphenylacetic acid] (EDDHA) and N,N'-bis[2-hydroxybenzyl] ethylenediamine N,N'-diacetic acid (HBED) were complexed with sup(99m)Tc and their biodistribution was determined in rats. All complexes displayed substantial hepatobiliary excretion; of each series, sup(99m)Tc-Br-EDDHA and sup(99m)Tc-di-Cl-HBED had the maximum amount in the gastrointestinal tract. Scintigraphic studies of sup(99m)Tc-Cl-EDDHA in dogs revealed prompt imaging of the liver followed by imaging of the gall bladder as the complex was excreted into the bile. (author)

  2. Synthesis and animal experiment of 99mTc-labeled hepatobiliary imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xirui; Chen Shaoliang; Chen Guohui; Xu Qinfeng

    1993-01-01

    Six new compounds based on the principle of isosterism and hybridization had been synthesized. Methobrofenin was prepared by reduction of nitro mesitylene, followed by bromination and acylation with nitrilotriacetic acid. The 99m Tc-complexes of these compounds were prepared by stannous chloride reduction of sodium pertechnetate in aqueous solution. These labeled compounds, being similar to 99m Tc-mebrofenin, all were quick in the uptake by the liver cells, rapidly cleared off from the blood in mice, and had higher cumulative hepatobiliary excretion rates than Tc-99m-EHIDA

  3. Iron-EHPG as an hepatobiliary MR contrast agent: initial imaging and biodistribution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauffer, R.B.; Greif, W.L.; Stark, D.D.; Vincent, A.C.; Saini, S.; Wedeen, V.J.; Brady, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    A paramagnetic relaxation agent targeted to functioning hepatocytes of the liver and excreted into the bile would be useful in the enhancement of normal liver and biliary anatomy in MR imaging. We sought to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach using the prototype hepatobiliary MR contrast agent, iron(III) ethylenebis-(2-hydroxyphenylglycine) (Fe(EHPG) - ). The biodistribution, relaxation enhancement, and imaging characteristics of Fe(EHPG) - were compared to those of the non-specific iron chelate iron(III) diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Fe(DTPA) 2- ), which has a comparable effect on water proton relaxation times. (author)

  4. Scintigraphic hepatobiliary function studies in newborn infants to diagnose biliary hypoplasia or atresia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askari-Sabi, Z.

    1987-01-01

    The results obtained from scintigraphic hepatobiliary function studies, intraoperative cholangiography and histological examinations in a total of 17 infants suspected of having biliary atresia were compared and analysed with reference to the clinical signs and symptoms observed. In most cases, the individual diagnostic procedures led to consistent findings, even though there were some variations in the clinical picture. Patient outcome is largely determined by the site of atresia, due to which fact surgical correction should be carried out as soon as possible, in any case before the 8th week post partum. (TRV) [de

  5. Differentiation of infantile jaundice with 99mTc-EHIDA hepatobiliary scintigraphy and determination of bilixanthine from duodenal drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Ming; Wu Hua; Huang Zhihua

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an effective diagnostic method for infantile jaundice. 99m Tc-EHIDA hepatobiliary scintigraphy and determination of bilixanthine from duodenal drainage were carried out in 33 infants with persistent jaundice. The final diagnosis was confirmed by surgical operation, pathology or clinical follow-up. For diagnosing biliary atresia, the sensitivity and specificity of scintigraphy were 100% and 72.7% respectively and those of bilixanthine measurement were 100% and 95.5%. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy may be a sensitive, simple, safe and noninvasive method for differentiating infantile jaundice. Duodenal bilixanthine determination may improve the specificity in the case without intestinal radioactivity in scintigram

  6. 99m-Tc-IDA scintigraphic demonstrability of biliary elements and liver function tests in hepatobiliary diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.Y.; Bahk, Y.W.

    1982-01-01

    In the present communication, the results will be reported on a clinical study of how well scintigraphic visualization of the hepatobiliary elements and several commonly used clinical liver function tests correlate each other in various diseases of the hepatobiliary system. The demonstrability of the biliary tract, gallblader (GB) and duodenum was rather closely paralleled to serum bilirubin level and less closely to alkaline phosphatase and rather poorly to SGOT and SGPT. The biliary tree could not be visualized scintigraphically when bilirubin exceeded 10 mg/dl

  7. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy with 99mTc-PIPIDA in the evaluation of neonatal jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majd, M.; Reba, R.C.; Altman, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    Hepatobiliary scintigraphy with technetium 99m-labeled p-isopropylacetanilido iminodiacetic acid (99mTc-PIPIDA) was used to evaluate 22 neonates with mixed jaundice. Ten patients were proved to have biliary atresia; ten others were diagnosed as having neonatal hepatitis. In the remaining two, jaundice was secondary to prolonged hyperalimentation. Initial studies in all ten patients with biliary atresia showed no evidence of excretion of the tracer into the intestinal tract. Following three to seven days of oral administration of phenobarbital, repeat studies were performed in six of the ten patients. None showed evidence of excretion. Initial studies of the 12 patients with intrahepatic cholestasis showed definite excretion in five, questionable evidence of excretion in two, and no demonstrable excretion in five. Studies after phenobarbital therapy in five of the seven patients with questionable or no excretion on the initial studies showed definite excretion in four. Only in one patient who had poor hepatic extraction did the phenobarbital therapy not change the scintigraphic pattern. The authors conclude that hepatobiliary scintigraphy with 99mTc-PIPIDA after three to seven days of phenobarbital therapy is a highly accurate test for differentiating biliary atresia from other causes of neonatal jaundice

  8. Exercising the hepatobiliary-gut axis. The impact of physical activity performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Molina, Emilio; Lunardi Baccetto, Raquel; Wang, David Q-H; de Bari, Ornella; Krawczyk, Marcin; Portincasa, Piero

    2018-05-24

    Physical inactivity puts the populations at risk of several health problems, while regular physical activity brings beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease, mortality and other health outcomes, including obesity, glycaemic control and insulin resistance. The hepatobiliary tract is greatly involved in several metabolic aspects which include digestion and absorption of nutrients in concert with intestinal motility, bile acid secretion and flow across the enterohepatic circulation and intestinal microbiota. Several metabolic abnormalities, including nonalcoholic fatty liver as well as cholesterol cholelithiasis, represent two conditions explained by changes of the aforementioned pathways. This review defines different training modalities and discusses the effects of physical activity in two metabolic disorders, that is nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cholelithiasis. Emphasis is given to pathogenic mechanisms involving intestinal bile acids, microbiota and inflammatory status. A full definition of physical activity includes the knowledge of aerobic and endurance exercise, metabolic equivalent tasks, duration, frequency and intensity, beneficial and harmful effects. Physical activity influences the hepatobiliary-gut axis at different levels and brings benefits to fat distribution, liver fat and gallbladder disease while interacting with bile acids as signalling molecules, intestinal microbiota and inflammatory changes in the body. Several beneficial effects of physical activity are anticipated on metabolic disorders linking liver steatosis, gallstone disease, gut motility, enterohepatic circulation of signalling bile acids in relation to intestinal microbiota and inflammatory changes. © 2018 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  9. GROWTH HORMONE LEVEL EVOLUTION IN CHILDREN WITH HEPATOBILIARY DISEASES, UNDERGOING LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Shevchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available End stage liver disease is often associated with growth retardation in children with congenital and hereditary diseases of hepatobiliary system. The aim was to investigate the serum growth hormone level before and after liver transplantation in 52 children with congenital and hereditary diseases of hepatobiliary system. Data of our research work revealed increased serum level of growth hormone in children with liver cirrhosis (3,32 ± 7,7 ng/ml vs. 1,16 ± 1,46 ng/ml in healthy children, p = 0,01, which correlates with PELD score (r = 0,62, p < 0,001. In a month after liver transplantation growth hormone concentration decreases (p < 0,001 and in a year after transplantation it doesn’t differ from healthy children. There wasn’t revealed any interaction between serum growth hormone level and anthropometric parameters before liver transplantation, but in a year after there was significant correlation between growth hormone concentration and height (r = 0,79, p = 0,01. Investigation of growth hormone level in children with liver cirrhosis and its evolution after liver transplantation is of interest as objective criterion of recovery of physical development regulation and as an additional parameter, which cor- relates with severity of end-stage liver disease. 

  10. Interactions between Bacteria and Bile Salts in the Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Tracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Urdaneta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bile salts and bacteria have intricate relationships. The composition of the intestinal pool of bile salts is shaped by bacterial metabolism. In turn, bile salts play a role in intestinal homeostasis by controlling the size and the composition of the intestinal microbiota. As a consequence, alteration of the microbiome–bile salt homeostasis can play a role in hepatic and gastrointestinal pathological conditions. Intestinal bacteria use bile salts as environmental signals and in certain cases as nutrients and electron acceptors. However, bile salts are antibacterial compounds that disrupt bacterial membranes, denature proteins, chelate iron and calcium, cause oxidative damage to DNA, and control the expression of eukaryotic genes involved in host defense and immunity. Bacterial species adapted to the mammalian gut are able to endure the antibacterial activities of bile salts by multiple physiological adjustments that include remodeling of the cell envelope and activation of efflux systems and stress responses. Resistance to bile salts permits that certain bile-resistant pathogens can colonize the hepatobiliary tract, and an outstanding example is the chronic infection of the gall bladder by Salmonella enterica. A better understanding of the interactions between bacteria and bile salts may inspire novel therapeutic strategies for gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary diseases that involve microbiome alteration, as well as novel schemes against bacterial infections.

  11. Sporadic incidence of Fascioliasis detected during hepatobiliary procedures: a study of 18 patients from Sulaimaniyah governorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawramy, Tahir Abdullah Hussein; Saeed, Kamal Ahmed; Qaradaghy, Seerwan Hama Sharif; Karboli, Taha Ahmed; Nore, Beston Faiek; Bayati, Noora Hisham Abood

    2012-12-21

    Fascioliasis is an often-neglected zoonotic disease and currently is an emerging infection in Iraq. Fascioliasis has two distinct phases, an acute phase, exhibiting the hepatic migratory stage of the fluke's life cycle, and a chronic biliary phase manifested with the presence of the parasite in the bile ducts through hepatic tissue. The incidence of Fascioliasis in Sulaimaniyah governorate was unexpected observation. We believe that shedding light on this disease in our locality will increase our physician awareness and experience in early detection, treatment in order to avoid unnecessary surgeries. We retrospectively evaluated this disease in terms of the demographic features, clinical presentations, and managements by reviewing the medical records of 18 patients, who were admitted to the Sulaimani Teaching Hospital and Kurdistan Centre for Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Patients were complained from hepatobiliary and/or upper gastrointestinal symptoms and diagnosed accidentally with Fascioliasis during hepatobiliary surgeries and ERCP by direct visualization of the flukes and stone analysis. Elevated liver enzymes, white blood cells count and eosinophilia were notable laboratory indices. The dilated CBD, gallstones, liver cysts and abscess were found common in radiological images. Fascioliasis diagnosed during conventional surgical CBD exploration and choledochodoudenostomy, open cholecystectomy, surgical drainage of liver abscess, ERCP and during gallstone analysis. Fascioliasis is indeed an emerging disease in our locality, but it is often underestimated and ignored. We recommend the differential diagnosis of patients suffering from Rt. Hypochondrial pain, fever and eosinophilia. The watercress ingestion was a common factor in patient's history.

  12. Hepatobiliary imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingensmith, W.C.

    1988-01-01

    If the gallbladder is not being evaluated, no patient preparation is necessary. However, if the gallbladder is being evaluated, the patient must have fasted for approximately 2-14 hr prior to injection of the radiopharmaceutical. If the patient has fasted for less than 2 hr. the gallbladder may still be contracting and, thus, prevent the inflow of radioactive bile. On the other hand, if the patient has fasted for more than 14 hr. the gallbladder may have concentrated its contents to the point where the osmotic gradient prevents further reabsorption of water. The author discusses how, in this situation, an analog of cholecystokinin-pancreazymin such as sincalide can be given intravenously approximately 20 min before injection of the radiopharmaceutical. This agent will cause the gallbladder to empty so that reabsorption of water and filling of the gallbladder can begin again

  13. Hepatobiliary ultrasonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiring, J.

    2018-03-01

    Ultrasound is one of the most widely used imaging technologies in medicine. It is portable, free of radiation risk, non-invasive and relatively inexpensive when compared with other imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance and computed tomography. Ultrasound is a useful procedure for evaluating many structures organ in our body. An examination may include the entirety of the abdomen and retroperitoneum from a single organ to several organs. An abdominal ultrasound examination survey would include the liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, pancreas, spleen, kidneys and retroperitoneal structures. It needsperforming when there is a valid medical reason.

  14. Microproteinuria during Opisthorchis viverrini infection: a biomarker for advanced renal and hepatobiliary pathologies from chronic opisthorchiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasert Saichua

    Full Text Available Approximately 680 million people are at risk of infection with Opisthorchis viverrini (OV and Clonorchis sinensis, with an estimated 10 million infected with OV in Southeast Asia alone. While opisthorchiasis is associated with hepatobiliary pathologies, such as advanced periductal fibrosis (APF and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA, animal models of OV infection show that immune-complex glomerulonephritis is an important renal pathology that develops simultaneously with hepatobiliary pathologies. A cardinal sign of immune-complex glomerulonephritis is the urinary excretion of immunoglobulin G (IgG (microproteinuria. In community-based studies in OV endemic areas along the Chi River in northeastern Thailand, we observed that over half of the participants had urine IgG against a crude OV antigen extract (OV antigen. We also observed that elevated levels of urine IgG to OV antigen were not associated with the intensity of OV infection, but were likely the result of immune-complex glomerulonephritis as seen in animal models of OV infection. Moreover, we observed that urine IgG to OV antigen was excreted at concentrations 21 times higher in individuals with APF and 158 times higher in individuals with CCA than controls. We also observed that elevated urine IgG to OV antigen could identify APF+ and CCA+ individuals from non-cases. Finally, individuals with urine IgG to OV antigen had a greater risk of APF as determined by Odds Ratios (OR = 6.69; 95%CI: 2.87, 15.58 and a greater risk of CCA (OR = 71.13; 95%CI: 15.13, 334.0 than individuals with no detectable level of urine IgG to OV antigen. Herein, we show for the first time the extensive burden of renal pathology in OV endemic areas and that a urine biomarker could serve to estimate risk for both renal and hepatobiliary pathologies during OV infection, i.e., serve as a "syndromic biomarker" of the advanced pathologies from opisthorchiasis.

  15. Comparative evaluation of intragastric bile acids and hepatobiliary scintigraphy in the diagnosis of duodenogastric reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Teng-Fei; Yadav, Praveen K; Wu, Rui-Jin; Yu, Wei-Hua; Liu, Chang-Qin; Lin, Hui; Liu, Zhan-Ju

    2013-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of a combination of intragastric bile acids and hepatobiliary scintigraphy in the detection of duodenogastric reflux (DGR). The study contained 99 patients with DGR and 70 healthy volunteers who made up the control group. The diagnosis was based on the combination of several objective arguments: a long history of gastric symptoms (i.e., nausea, epigastric pain, and/or bilious vomiting) poorly responsive to medical treatment, gastroesophageal reflux symptoms unresponsive to proton-pump inhibitors, gastritis on upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy and/or at histology, presence of a bilious gastric lake at > 1 upper GI endoscopy, pathologic 24-h intragastric bile monitoring with the Bilitec device. Gastric juice was aspirated in the GI endoscopy and total bile acid (TBA), total bilirubin (TBIL) and direct bilirubin (DBIL) were tested in the clinical laboratory. Continuous data of gastric juice were compared between each group using the independent-samples Mann-Whitney U-test and their relationship was analysed by Spearman's rank correlation test and Fisher's linear discriminant analysis. Histopathology of DGR patients and 23 patients with chronic atrophic gastritis was compared by clinical pathologists. Using the Independent-samples Mann-Whitney U-test, DGR index (DGRi) was calculated in 28 patients of DGR group and 19 persons of control group who were subjected to hepatobiliary scintigraphy. Receiver operating characteristic curve was made to determine the sensitivity and specificity of these two methods in the diagnosis of DGR. The group of patients with DGR showed a statistically higher prevalence of epigastric pain in comparison with control group. There was no significant difference between the histology of gastric mucosa with atrophic gastritis and duodenogastric reflux. The bile acid levels of DGR patients were significantly higher than the control values (Z: TBA: -8.916, DBIL: -3.914, TBIL: -6.197, all P Reflux: Y = 0.012TBA + 0

  16. Phenolic aminocarboxylate chelates of sup(99m)Tc as hepatobiliary agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, F.C.; Maddalena, D.J.; Wilson, J.G.; Bautovich, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    A series of alkyl- and halogen-substituted derivatives of ethylenediamine di(omicron-hydroxyphenylacetic acid) (EDDHA) and N,N'-bis(2-hydroxybenzyl) ethylenediamine N,N'-diacetic acid (HBED) were complexed with sup(99m)Tc and their biodistribution was determined in rats. All complexes displayed substantial hepatobiliary excretion; of each series, sup(99m)Tc-Br-EDDHA and sup(99m)Tc-di-Cl-HBED had the maximum amount in the gastrointestinal tract. Scintigraphic studies of sup(99m)Tc-Cl-EDDHA in dogs revealed prompt imaging of the liver followed by imaging of the gall bladder as the complex was excreted into the bile.

  17. Synthesis of 99mTc-aroylhydrazinocarbo-nylmethyliminodiacetic acids and their animal study, hepatobiliary pharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yong; Zhou Xirui; Chen Shaoliang; Chen Guohui

    1994-01-01

    Based on the structure specificity of a new compound isonicotinoylhydrazino-carbonylmethyliminodiacetic acid, nine similar derivatives were synthesized by esterification of aromatic acids, followed by hydrazinolysis, and acylation with nitrilotriacetic acid. The 99m Tc-complexes of these compounds were prepared by stannous chloride reduction of sodium pertechnetate in aqueous solution at pH 6 ∼ 7. The experimental results in mice and rabbits showed that the 99m Tc-complexes all exhibited varying degrees in the uptake by the liver cells, cleared off from the blood and excreted into the biliary tract. The hepatobiliary specificity of 99m Tc-2-methoxy-5-bromobenzoylhydrazinocarbonylmethyliminodiacetic acid was the best among them. It is concluded preliminarily that the aroylhydrazinocarbonylmethyliminodiacetic acids provide to be a fruitful source for 99m Tc-labeledhepatobiliary radiopharmaceuticals

  18. MR imaging evaluation of pancreas and hepatobiliary system in cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, S.; Robinson, A.E.; Stallworth, J.; Mulvihill, D.; Beckerman, R.; Davis, S.

    1988-01-01

    The pancreas and hepatobiliary system of 20 patients with cystic fibrosis were analyzed with a 1.5-T magnet. T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and proton-density images were obtained, and the T1 and T2 values of the pancreas were calculated. Signal intensity ratios were calculated for the signal intensities of the pancreas and the liver relative to that of muscle and fat on each pulse sequence. Fatty replacement of the pancreas and regenerating nodules of biliary cirrhosis were readily identified on T1-weighted images. The T1 values for pancreatic tissue showed promise as a good marker for pancreatic disease progression. Pancreas-to-fat signal intensity ratios on 300/20 (repetition time msec/echo time msec) and 2,000/75 images were considered to be a good standard for evaluating the level of pancreatic involvement

  19. Radionuclide diagnosis of hepatobiliary system functional state at complex treatment of uterine cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vusik, Yi.M.; Slabodchikov, M.Je.; Nesterov, V.G.

    1993-01-01

    The study involved 68 patients with uterine cancer (stage II-III) who underwent complex treatment and 16 healthy women aged 27-69. The patients were performed hepatography (44 of them - dynamic liver scintigraphy with Tc 99m - mezida) before the treatment, immediately after and 1-1.5 and 2-3 years after the course of radiotherapy. Latent disturbance of hepatobiliary system function which can be revealed with radionuclide study is shown to be observed in the patients with uterine cancer before the treatment. The level of hepatocytes functioning after the treatment depends largely on their initial functional state. Computer assisted multichannel radiography with evaluation of effective blood flow in the liver and effective fraction of minute volume of the blood flow is the most reasonable for monitoring hepatocytes function during treatment in the patients with uterine cancer

  20. Prevalence of hepatobiliary dysfunction in a regional group of patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, V; Gluud, C; Schlichting, P

    1991-01-01

    A regional group of outpatients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis, n = 396, and Crohn's disease, n = 125) was biochemically screened to estimate the prevalence of hepatobiliary dysfunction. Among the 396 patients with ulcerative colitis, 69 (17%; 95% confidence limits, 14...... primary sclerosing cholangitis, of whom two were primarily diagnosed; one patient had cholangiocarcinoma also primarily diagnosed; and two patients were found to have alcoholic hepatic damage. Among the 125 patients with Crohn's disease, 38 (30%; 95% confidence limits, 23-38%) had at least 1 abnormal...... the criteria for further evaluation as described above. One patient appeared to have epithelioid granuloma in the liver and one patient had alcoholic liver disease, whereas one patient refused further examination.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  1. Characteristic MR and CT imaging findings of hepatobiliary paragonimiasis and their pathologic correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Chunyan; Hu, Yajun; Chen, Weixia [Dept of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan Univ., Sichuan (China)], e-mail: wxchen25@126.com

    2012-06-15

    Background: Hepatobiliary paragonimiasis (HP) is not commonly encountered and may be confused with hepatobiliary tumors; however, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of HP allow this entity to be distinguished from other diseases. Purpose: To present the CT and MRI findings in patients with HP and to describe some specific imaging findings along with their pathological correlations. Material and Methods: Imaging and clinical findings of 21 patients (9 boys/men and 12 girls/women; age range 3-67 years; mean age 40 years) who were diagnosed with HP were retrospectively evaluated. Among these patients, 16 underwent CT examination only, two had MR examination only, and three underwent both CT and MR. All patients underwent surgery, and the HP diagnosis was confirmed by the surgical and histopathologic results. Results: Chronic abdominal pain or back pain was reported by 14 patients, severe abdominal pain with acute onset was reported by one patient, and six patients were asymptomatic and were discovered incidentally. Peripheral eosinophilia was present in 14 patients (14/21, 66.7%), and abnormal liver function tests were found in 16 patients (16/21, 76.2%). Of the 19 patients who underwent CT imaging, 17 patients showed multiple mixed hypodense lesions or multiple cysts with inlaying septation with separate irregular rims or circular enhancement on post-contrast CT images. Tunnel-shaped micro abscesses and necrotic cavities were found in the lesions of 12 of those 17 patients. The other two patients showed smaller cystic masses. MRI showed faveolate T1 hypointense and T2 hyperintense areas in the liver parenchyma with rim or peripheral enhancement. Nodular or circular hyperintense materials were found scattered in the lesions on T1-weighted imaging. Conclusion: CT and MRI can reveal the radiological-pathological features of HP. Together with laboratory findings, MRI and CT findings may provide diagnostic clues, especially in endemic

  2. Identity disorder and social-psychological adaptation in patients with hepatobiliary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Khramtsova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Negative bodily experience due to health complications and disability is perceived as a difficult life situation. The success of adaptation, commitment to treatment and cooperation with a doctor depend on the personality characteristics that define behavioral representations. Aim. Investigate the structure of identity and mechanisms of social-psychological adaptation of patients with the hepatobiliary system disease. Contingent and methods. 75 patients with a diffuse liver disease - chronic hepatitis, mostly of viral etiology (36 people and liver cirrhosis (39 patients have been examined. We have applied clinical, clinical-psychological, mathematical and empirical methods, semi-structured cross-interviews ("patient-doctor", "patient-psychologist", diagnostics of personal characteristics, identity structure, social-psychological components of adaptation. Three leading personality profiles have been highlighted. Results. Persons with a disharmonious personality development are characterized by disorders in the area of identity formation and development. Fragmentation, the impossibility of personal integration and severe penetrability from the environment contribute to social-psychological maladjustment. The coping is aimed at preserving the problem situation and intensifying the intrapersonal conflict. For persons with difficulties in the adaptation of the personality, a violation of activity interaction with the surrounding world is characteristic, a ban on one's self-identity. Social adaptation is often disrupted due to instability in the emotional-volitional sphere and choosing low-adaptive coping strategies. Genuine "I" and identity formation is impeded for the individuals suppressing aggressive impulses. Adaptability tends to be discrete. With mental stress increasing, the likelihood of choosing low-adaptive coping strategies increases. Conclusions. When drafting psycho-correction programs and medical treatment of people with a hepatobiliary

  3. Diagnostic performance of traditional hepatobiliary biomarkers of drug-induced liver injury in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennulat, Daniela; Magid-Slav, Michal; Rehm, Sabine; Tatsuoka, Kay S

    2010-08-01

    Nonclinical studies provide the opportunity to anchor biochemical with morphologic findings; however, liver injury is often complex and heterogeneous, confounding the ability to relate biochemical changes with specific patterns of injury. The aim of the current study was to compare diagnostic performance of hepatobiliary markers for specific manifestations of drug-induced liver injury in rat using data collected in a recent hepatic toxicogenomics initiative in which rats (n = 3205) were given 182 different treatments for 4 or 14 days. Diagnostic accuracy of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (Tbili), serum bile acids (SBA), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), total cholesterol (Chol), and triglycerides (Trig) was evaluated for specific types of liver histopathology by Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. To assess the relationship between biochemical and morphologic changes in the absence of hepatocellular necrosis, a second ROC analysis was performed on a subset of rats (n = 2504) given treatments (n = 152) that did not cause hepatocellular necrosis. In the initial analysis, ALT, AST, Tbili, and SBA had the greatest diagnostic utility for manifestations of hepatocellular necrosis and biliary injury, with comparable magnitude of area under the ROC curve and serum hepatobiliary marker changes for both. In the absence of hepatocellular necrosis, ALT increases were observed with biochemical or morphologic evidence of cholestasis. In both analyses, diagnostic utility of ALP and GGT for biliary injury was limited; however, ALP had modest diagnostic value for peroxisome proliferation, and ALT, AST, and total Chol had moderate diagnostic utility for phospholipidosis. None of the eight markers evaluated had diagnostic value for manifestations of hypertrophy, cytoplasmic rarefaction, inflammation, or lipidosis.

  4. Sporadic incidence of Fascioliasis detected during Hepatobiliary procedures: A study of 18 patients from Sulaimaniyah governorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Fascioliasis is an often-neglected zoonotic disease and currently is an emerging infection in Iraq. Fascioliasis has two distinct phases, an acute phase, exhibiting the hepatic migratory stage of the fluke’s life cycle, and a chronic biliary phase manifested with the presence of the parasite in the bile ducts through hepatic tissue. The incidence of Fascioliasis in Sulaimaniyah governorate was unexpected observation. We believe that shedding light on this disease in our locality will increase our physician awareness and experience in early detection, treatment in order to avoid unnecessary surgeries. Findings We retrospectively evaluated this disease in terms of the demographic features, clinical presentations, and managements by reviewing the medical records of 18 patients, who were admitted to the Sulaimani Teaching Hospital and Kurdistan Centre for Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Patients were complained from hepatobiliary and/or upper gastrointestinal symptoms and diagnosed accidentally with Fascioliasis during hepatobiliary surgeries and ERCP by direct visualization of the flukes and stone analysis. Elevated liver enzymes, white blood cells count and eosinophilia were notable laboratory indices. The dilated CBD, gallstones, liver cysts and abscess were found common in radiological images. Fascioliasis diagnosed during conventional surgical CBD exploration and choledochodoudenostomy, open cholecystectomy, surgical drainage of liver abscess, ERCP and during gallstone analysis. Conclusion Fascioliasis is indeed an emerging disease in our locality, but it is often underestimated and ignored. We recommend the differential diagnosis of patients suffering from Rt. Hypochondrial pain, fever and eosinophilia. The watercress ingestion was a common factor in patient’s history. PMID:23259859

  5. Sporadic incidence of Fascioliasis detected during Hepatobiliary procedures: A study of 18 patients from Sulaimaniyah governorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawramy Tahir Abdullah Hussein

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fascioliasis is an often-neglected zoonotic disease and currently is an emerging infection in Iraq. Fascioliasis has two distinct phases, an acute phase, exhibiting the hepatic migratory stage of the fluke’s life cycle, and a chronic biliary phase manifested with the presence of the parasite in the bile ducts through hepatic tissue. The incidence of Fascioliasis in Sulaimaniyah governorate was unexpected observation. We believe that shedding light on this disease in our locality will increase our physician awareness and experience in early detection, treatment in order to avoid unnecessary surgeries. Findings We retrospectively evaluated this disease in terms of the demographic features, clinical presentations, and managements by reviewing the medical records of 18 patients, who were admitted to the Sulaimani Teaching Hospital and Kurdistan Centre for Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Patients were complained from hepatobiliary and/or upper gastrointestinal symptoms and diagnosed accidentally with Fascioliasis during hepatobiliary surgeries and ERCP by direct visualization of the flukes and stone analysis. Elevated liver enzymes, white blood cells count and eosinophilia were notable laboratory indices. The dilated CBD, gallstones, liver cysts and abscess were found common in radiological images. Fascioliasis diagnosed during conventional surgical CBD exploration and choledochodoudenostomy, open cholecystectomy, surgical drainage of liver abscess, ERCP and during gallstone analysis. Conclusion Fascioliasis is indeed an emerging disease in our locality, but it is often underestimated and ignored. We recommend the differential diagnosis of patients suffering from Rt. Hypochondrial pain, fever and eosinophilia. The watercress ingestion was a common factor in patient’s history.

  6. Characteristic MR and CT imaging findings of hepatobiliary paragonimiasis and their pathologic correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Chunyan; Hu, Yajun; Chen, Weixia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Hepatobiliary paragonimiasis (HP) is not commonly encountered and may be confused with hepatobiliary tumors; however, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of HP allow this entity to be distinguished from other diseases. Purpose: To present the CT and MRI findings in patients with HP and to describe some specific imaging findings along with their pathological correlations. Material and Methods: Imaging and clinical findings of 21 patients (9 boys/men and 12 girls/women; age range 3-67 years; mean age 40 years) who were diagnosed with HP were retrospectively evaluated. Among these patients, 16 underwent CT examination only, two had MR examination only, and three underwent both CT and MR. All patients underwent surgery, and the HP diagnosis was confirmed by the surgical and histopathologic results. Results: Chronic abdominal pain or back pain was reported by 14 patients, severe abdominal pain with acute onset was reported by one patient, and six patients were asymptomatic and were discovered incidentally. Peripheral eosinophilia was present in 14 patients (14/21, 66.7%), and abnormal liver function tests were found in 16 patients (16/21, 76.2%). Of the 19 patients who underwent CT imaging, 17 patients showed multiple mixed hypodense lesions or multiple cysts with inlaying septation with separate irregular rims or circular enhancement on post-contrast CT images. Tunnel-shaped micro abscesses and necrotic cavities were found in the lesions of 12 of those 17 patients. The other two patients showed smaller cystic masses. MRI showed faveolate T1 hypointense and T2 hyperintense areas in the liver parenchyma with rim or peripheral enhancement. Nodular or circular hyperintense materials were found scattered in the lesions on T1-weighted imaging. Conclusion: CT and MRI can reveal the radiological-pathological features of HP. Together with laboratory findings, MRI and CT findings may provide diagnostic clues, especially in endemic

  7. Renal enhancement and excretion of the hepatobiliary contrast agent Gd-EOB-DTPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zangos, S.; Hammerstingl, R.; Mack, M.G.; Straub, R.; Engelmann, K.; Eichler, K.; Vogl, T.J.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical value of the renal clearance using MR imaging with different doses of gadolinium ethoxybenzyl-DTPA (Gd-EOB-DTPA) in comparison to gadolinium DTPA (Gd-DTPA). Material and Methods: In a double-blind and randomized clinical phase II study. MR imaging at 1.5 T was performed in 61 patients with five different doses of Gd-EOB-DTPA (3, 6, 12.5, 25 and 50 μmol/kg b.w. as a bolus injection). The study protocol comprised T 1 - and T 2 -weighted spin-echo magnetic resonance and two-dimensional fast low-angle shot imaging before and at increasing intervals for up to 45 min after injection of Gd-EOB-DTPA. These images were compared with Gd-DTPA-enhanced imaging (0.1 mmol/kg b. w. as a bolus injection). Results: After bolus injection of the hepatobiliary MR contrast agent Gd-EOB-DTPA a renal elimination was observed. Immediately after the injection of Gd-EOB-DTPA until the eighth minute a corticomedullary enhancement of the kidney was conspicuous. After the fourth minute a contrast enhancement could be seen in the renal pelvis. The best enhancement was noted after 20 minutes in the FLASH GRE and T 1 -weighted images with good pelvicaliceal contrast. After 45 minutes an outflow of Gd-EOB-DTPA into the ureter could be observed. Conclusion: In addition to the hepatobiliary secretion Gd-EOB-DTPA appears useful for the evaluation of renal structures and renal function on account of the renal excretion without diuretic preparation of the patients. (orig.) [de

  8. The changes of bile dynamics in patients with gallstones by quantitative hepatobiliary scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Wei'na; Yu Shupeng

    2004-01-01

    The gold standard of diagnosing SOD is endoscopic sphincter of Oddi manometry, but it is not widely used because it is invasive, expensive and there are more complicateds after examination. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy can give us quantitative parameters of bile emptying and it is a noninvasive, sensitive and accurate method in diagnosing SOD. The bile dynamics after cholecystectomy was seldom studied, the aim of this study is to obtain the normal changes of bile emptying after cholecystectomy by hepatobiliary scintigraphy and provide basis for diagnosing SOD. Objective: Quantitative hepatobiliary scintigraphy, a noninvasive method used to diagnose dysfunction of bile duct, can show bile secretion and outflow in bile duct. The goal of this study was to examine the dynamics of bile secretion and outflow by quantitative hepatobiliary scintigraphy in patients with gallstones, postcholecystectomy and normal groups, got the parameters of normal changes of bile emptying in postcholecystectomy patients and to help diagnosing SOD. Methods: 1 Patients. 31 patients with gallstones, demonstrated single or multiple gallstones by abdominal ultrasonography; 12 normal controls and 12 patients after cholecystectomy. They were all rulled out liver diseases and bile duct stones by liver function tests and US respectively, the diameter of common bile duct were normal, liver functions were normal and there were not symptoms of bile duct diseases. 2 Methods. All the patients were examined by fatty meal * hepatobiliary scintigraphy according to the same method. after fasting over 4 hours, 740 MBq 99m Tc-EHIDA was injected intravenously. Images were recorded continuously at one frame per minute for 100 minutes, at 60th minute two fry eggs were taken. Then the parameters of of bile emptying (Tmax in liver and common bile duct, T1/2 in liver and common bile duct, time of duodenal appeared (DAT), transit time from liver to duodenol(HDTT) and half-emptying time in common bile duct after fatty

  9. Computed functional analysis of 99mTc EHIDA kinetics in patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaha, V.; Cihak, I; Nicek, F; Horak, J.

    1987-01-01

    It is presented a method of EHIDA (dietyl-imino-acetanilido-diacetic acid) kinetic analysing in patients, particularly the kinetic in the hepatic parenchima. A group of 367 patients with different hepatobiliary or other gastrointestinal deseases, was examined and each studied was quantified either in whole extent or at least partially. The scintigraphy is made with several small modifications of the commonly known methods. The hepatic curve is analysed by a computer programme. The results obtained in the whole group of patients were submitted to a statistical evaluation to obtain general conclusions. (M.E.L.) [es

  10. Increased biliary excretion of glutathione is generated by the glutathione-dependent hepatobiliary transport of antimony and bismuth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyurasics, A; Koszorús, L; Varga, F; Gregus, Z

    1992-10-06

    We have recently demonstrated that the hepatobiliary transport of arsenic is glutathione-dependent and is associated with a profound increase in biliary excretion of glutathione (GSH), hepatic GSH depletion and diminished GSH conjugation (Gyurasics A, Varga F and Gregus Z, Biochem Pharmacol 41: 937-944 and Gyurasics A, Varga F and Gregus Z, Biochem Pharmacol 42: 465-468, 1991). The present studies in rats aimed to determine whether antimony and bismuth, other metalloids in group Va of the periodic table, also possess similar properties. Antimony potassium tartrate (25-100 mumol/kg, i.v.) and bismuth ammonium citrate (50-200 mumol/kg, i.v.) increased up to 50- and 4-fold, respectively, the biliary excretion of non-protein thiols (NPSH). This resulted mainly from increased hepatobiliary transport of GSH as suggested by a close parallelism in the biliary excretion of NPSH and GSH after antimony or bismuth administration. Within 2 hr, rats excreted into bile 55 and 3% of the dose of antimony (50 mumol/kg, i.v.) and bismuth (150 mumol/kg, i.v.), respectively. The time courses of the biliary excretion of these metalloids and NPSH or GSH were strikingly similar suggesting co-ordinate hepatobiliary transport of the metalloids and GSH. However, at the peak of their excretion, each molecule of antimony or bismuth resulted in a co-transport of approximately three molecules of GSH. Diethyl maleate, indocyanine green and sulfobromophthalein (BSP), which decreased biliary excretion of GSH, significantly diminished excretion of antimony and bismuth into bile indicating that hepatobiliary transport of these metalloids is GSH-dependent. Administration of antimony, but not bismuth, decreased hepatic GSH level by 30% and reduced the GSH conjugation and biliary excretion of BSP. These studies demonstrate that the hepatobiliary transport of trivalent antimony and bismuth is GSH-dependent similarly to the hepatobiliary transport of trivalent arsenic. Proportionally to their biliary

  11. Hepato-biliary scan using sup(99m)Tc-pyridoxylidene isoleucine (sup(99m)Tc-PI) and its clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, S; Watahiki, H; Takeda, I; Kitamura, K; Ichikawa, H [Ogaki Municipal Hospital, Gifu (Japan)

    1978-05-01

    The hepato-biliary scan with sup(99m)Tc-pyridoxylidene Isoleucine (sup(99m)Tc-PI) was able to demonstrate the biliary system much more clearly than that using usual radiopharmaceuticals such as /sup 131/I-BSP of /sup 131/I-Rose Bengal. The hepato-biliary scan with sup(99m)Tc-PI demonstrated the hepatobiliary system more clearly than DIC in 47.6% of all cases studied. Especially the demonstration of changes of intra-hepatic biliary tree in cases with intra-hepatic gall stone and cholangiocarcinoma was quite superior to DIC, although there was somewhat difficulty in getting information about the right hepatic duct. For the diagnosis of gall stone in the gall bladder, DIC was more suitable than sup(99m)Tc-PI hepatobiliary scan. The sup(99m)Tc-PI hepato-biliary scan was able to demonstrate the biliary system even in cases having moderate jaundice, in which cases DIC could not demonstrate the biliary system. This sup(99m)Tc-PI hepato-biliary scan was proved to be useful in determing a certain cause of defects shown on the conventional liver scan. No side effect was noticed in this series of the study.

  12. Hepatobiliary Clearance Prediction: Species Scaling From Monkey, Dog, and Rat, and In Vitro-In Vivo Extrapolation of Sandwich-Cultured Human Hepatocytes Using 17 Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, Emi; Bi, Yi-An; Kosa, Rachel E; Tremaine, Larry M; Varma, Manthena V S

    2017-09-01

    Hepatobiliary elimination can be a major clearance pathway dictating the pharmacokinetics of drugs. Here, we first compared the dose eliminated in bile in preclinical species (monkey, dog, and rat) with that in human and further evaluated single-species scaling (SSS) to predict human hepatobiliary clearance. Six compounds dosed in bile duct-cannulated (BDC) monkeys showed biliary excretion comparable to human; and the SSS of hepatobiliary clearance with plasma fraction unbound correction yielded reasonable predictions (within 3-fold). Although dog SSS also showed reasonable predictions, rat overpredicted hepatobiliary clearance for 13 of 24 compounds. Second, we evaluated the translatability of in vitro sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes (SCHHs) to predict human hepatobiliary clearance for 17 drugs. For drugs with no significant active uptake in SCHH studies (i.e., with or without rifamycin SV), measured intrinsic biliary clearance was directly scalable with good predictability (absolute average fold error [AAFE] = 1.6). Drugs showing significant active uptake in SCHH, however, showed improved predictability when scaled based on extended clearance term (AAFE = 2.0), which incorporated sinusoidal uptake along with a global scaling factor for active uptake and the canalicular efflux clearance. In conclusion, SCHH is a useful tool to predict human hepatobiliary clearance, whereas BDC monkey model may provide further confidence in the prospective predictions. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ruthenium-97 hepatobiliary agents for delayed studies of the bilary tract I: Ru-97 PIPIDA: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schachner, E.R.; Gil, M.C.; Atkins, H.L.; Som, P.; Srivastava, S.C.; Badia, J.; Sacker, D.F.; Fairchild, R.G.; Richards, P.

    1981-01-01

    Failure of early diagnosis of biliary atresia results in the development of cirrhosis and death. Commonly used hepatobiliary agents are not ideal for follow-up studies because of their unfavorable physical properties or short half-life. The excellent physical properties of Ru-97 should overcome these limitations. Therefore, Ru-97 PIPIDA (N,α-(p-isopropyl acetanilide) iminoacetic acid) is being investigated as a potential hepatobiliary agent that would allow an improved diagnosis of the disease. Ruthenium-97 PIPIDA and Tc-99m PIPIDA showed similar blood clearance rates in dogs. Ru-97 PIPIDA scintigrams in dogs showed early uptake in liver and gallbladder and slow excretion through the gastrointestinal tract. Biodistribution studies were performed in normal rats and rats with biliary obstruction. The findings suggest that Ru-97 PIPIDA should be useful for delayed studies ( 1 to 3 days) of the biliary tract

  14. Kinetic Typography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo; Djonov, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    After discussing broad cultural drivers behind the development of kinetic typography, the chapter outlines an approach to analysing kinetic typography which is based on Halliday's theory of transitivity, as applied by Kress and Van Leeuwen to visual images.......After discussing broad cultural drivers behind the development of kinetic typography, the chapter outlines an approach to analysing kinetic typography which is based on Halliday's theory of transitivity, as applied by Kress and Van Leeuwen to visual images....

  15. Added value of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced Hepatobiliary phase MR imaging in evaluation of focal solid hepatic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haimerl, Michael; Wächtler, Max; Platzek, Ivan; Müller-Wille, Rene; Niessen, Christoph; Hoffstetter, Patrick; Schreyer, Andreas Georg; Stroszczynski, Christian; Wiggermann, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Correct characterization of focal solid hepatic lesions has always been a challenge and is of great diagnostic and therapeutic relevance. The purpose of this study was to determine the added value of hepatobiliary phase images in Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for differentiating focal solid hepatic lesions. In this retrospective trial 84 consecutive patients underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR examinations. MRI was conducted for 64 patients with malignant focal hepatic lesions (34 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 30 metastases) and for 20 patients with benign hepatic lesions (14 focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), 3 adenoma, 3 hemangioma). Five radiologists independently reviewed three sets of MR images by means of a 5-point confidence scale from score 1 (definitely benign) to score 5 (definitely malignant): set 1: unenhanced images; set 2: unenhanced and Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced dynamic images; set 3: hepatobiliary phase images in addition to set 2. Accuracy was assessed by the alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic curve (A z ) and the index of diagnostic performance was calculated. Diagnostic accuracy was significantly improved by the addition of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced dynamic images: A z in set 1 was 0.708 and 0.833 in set 2 (P = 0.0002). The addition of hepatobiliary phase images increased the A z value to 0.941 in set 3 (set 3 vs set 2, P < 0.0001; set 3 vs set 1, P < 0.0001). The index of diagnostic performance was lowest in set 1 (45%), improved in set 2 (71%), and highest in set 3 (94%). Hepatobiliary phase images obtained after Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced dynamic MRI improve the differentiation of focal solid hepatic lesions

  16. Clinical evaluation of sup(99m)Tc-N-pyridoxyl-5-methyltryptophan hepatobiliary scintigraphy in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiwagi, Toru; Azuma, Masayoshi; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Yoshioka, Hiroaki; Ishizu, Hiroshi; Mitsutani, Natsuki; Koizumi, Takeo; Kobayashi, Yasushi

    1985-09-01

    We have assessed the diagnostic value of sup(99m)Tc-N-pyridoxyl-5-methyltryptophan (sup(99m)Tc-PMT) hepatobiliary scintigraphy in 28 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who had obvious filling defects on sup(99m)Tc-phytate liver scintigram. Uptake of sup(99m)Tc-PMT in obvious defects on sup(99m)Tc-phytate liver scintigram was observed in 16 out of 28 patients (57.1 %). Most of HCC with sup(99m)Tc-PMT uptake were histologically well-differenciated. However, well-differenciated HCC did not always take up sup(99m)Tc-PMT. No correlation was observed between sup(99m)Tc-PMT uptake in the tumor and levels of serum alpha-fetoprotein. Patients with high alpha-fetoprotein level (>3000 ng/ml) were only 9 patients (32.1 %) in our study. By the combined results of sup(99m)Tc-PMT hepatobiliary scintigraphy and alpha-fetoprotein level (>3000 ng/ml), diagnostic rate for HCC was markedly elevated up to 75 %. Therefore, it is considered that sup(99m)Tc-PMT hepatobiliary scintigraphy is clinically useful for specific diagnosis of HCC. Furthermore, it provides the information for invasion of HCC into the bile duct.

  17. Clinical evaluation of sup(99m)Tc-N-pyridoxyl-5-methyltryptophan hepatobiliary scintigraphy in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwagi, Toru; Azuma, Masayoshi; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Yoshioka, Hiroaki; Ishizu, Hiroshi; Mitsutani, Natsuki; Koizumi, Takeo; Kobayashi, Yasushi

    1985-01-01

    We have assessed the diagnostic value of sup(99m)Tc-N-pyridoxyl-5-methyltryptophan (sup(99m)Tc-PMT) hepatobiliary scintigraphy in 28 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who had obvious filling defects on sup(99m)Tc-phytate liver scintigram. Uptake of sup(99m)Tc-PMT in obvious defects on sup(99m)Tc-phytate liver scintigram was observed in 16 out of 28 patients (57.1 %). Most of HCC with sup(99m)Tc-PMT uptake were histologically well-differenciated. However, well-differenciated HCC did not always take up sup(99m)Tc-PMT. No correlation was observed between sup(99m)Tc-PMT uptake in the tumor and levels of serum alpha-fetoprotein. Patients with high alpha-fetoprotein level (>3000 ng/ml) were only 9 patients (32.1 %) in our study. By the combined results of sup(99m)Tc-PMT hepatobiliary scintigraphy and alpha-fetoprotein level (>3000 ng/ml), diagnostic rate for HCC was markedly elevated up to 75 %. Therefore, it is considered that sup(99m)Tc-PMT hepatobiliary scintigraphy is clinically useful for specific diagnosis of HCC. Furthermore, it provides the information for invasion of HCC into the bile duct. (author)

  18. Hepatocellular carcinoma: clinical significance of signal heterogeneity in the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Nobuhiro; Nishie, Akihiro; Asayama, Yoshiki; Ushijima, Yasuhiro; Moirta, Koichiro; Honda, Hiroshi [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Kubo, Yuichiro; Aishima, Shinichi [Kyushu University, Department of Anatomic Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Takayama, Yukihisa [Kyushu University, Department of Molecular Imaging and Diagnosis, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Shirabe, Ken [Kyushu University, Department of Surgery and Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2015-01-15

    To clarify the relationship between the biological behaviour of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and their signal intensity in the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging with a special focus on the signal heterogeneity. A total of 68 patients with 70 pathologically proven HCCs were enrolled. On the basis of the signal intensity in the hepatobiliary phase, the lesions were classified into three groups: group 1, homogeneous hypointensity (n = 44); group 2, heterogeneous hyperintensity (n = 20); and group 3, homogeneous hyperintensity (n = 6). The clinicopathological findings were compared among the three groups. The tumour size and the serum level of protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) were significantly higher in group 2 compared to group 1 (p = 0.0155, p = 0.0215, respectively) and compared to group 3 (p = 0.0330, p = 0.0220, respectively). The organic anion transporting polypeptide 8 (OATP8) expression in group 2 and group 3 was significantly higher than in group 1 (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, respectively). Group 2 showed a significantly lower disease-free survival rate compared to group 1 (p = 0.0125), and group 2 was an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival (p = 0.0308). HCCs in the hepatobiliary phase that are heterogeneously hyperintense on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging have more malignant potential than other types of HCCs. (orig.)

  19. {sup 99m}Tc sestamibi imaging. Can it be a useful substitute for hepatobiliary scintigraphy in infantile jaundice?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, R.; Kakhki, V.R.D.; Zakavi, R. [Mashhad Univ. of Medical Sciences (Iran). Nuclear Medicine Dept.; Kianifar, H.R. [Mashhad Univ. of Medical Sciences (Iran). Paediatric Dept.; Ansari, K. [Tehran Univ. of Medical Sciences (Iran). Nuclear Medicine Dept.

    2009-07-01

    Hepatobiliary scintigraphy is an integral part in the diagnostic work-up of the neonatal cholestasis syndrome. However, less than optimal specificity is its major disadvantage. Differentiation between biliary atresia and neonatal hepatitis is nearly impossible in some cases with poor hepatocellular function. {sup 99m}Tc sestamibi (MIBI) is a cationic lipophilic agent which is a substrate of P-glycoprotein. This glycoprotein is normally expressed in biliary canalicular surfaces of hepatocytes. This property provides a hepatic excretory mechanism which is different from bilirubin excretion. In this study we evaluated the value of {sup 99m}Tc MIBI in differential diagnosis of neonatal cholestasis. 20 infants with a mean age of 2.41 months (range, 0.1-5 months) were included in the study. Ten infants turned out to have extrahepatic biliary atresia and the other ten had neonatal hepatitis. Hepatobiliary (with {sup 99m}Tc BrIDA) and {sup 99m}Tc MIBI scintigraphy were performed for all the patients. {sup 99m}Tc MIBI scintigraphy has shown bowel activity in all patients, including the patients with biliary atresia. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy revealed bowel activity only in five patients with neonatal hepatitis. Bowel visualization with {sup 99m}Tc MIBI may be seen in patients with biliary atresia and {sup 99m}Tc MIBI has limited value in differential diagnosis of neonatal cholestasis. (orig.)

  20. Prediction of therapy response to interferon-alpha in chronic viral hepatitis-B by liver and hepatobiliary scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caglar, M.; Sari, O.; Akcan, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Interferon (IFN) provides effective treatment in some patients with chronic hepatitis. The clarification of factors predictive of therapy response would be helpful in identifying patients who would benefit from treatment. In this study, we evaluated the potential utility of Tc-99m sulfur colloid liver/spleen and Tc-99m-disofenin hepatobiliary scintigraphy to predict therapy response to IFN in patients with chronic active hepatitis. The study group consisted of ten patients with chronic viral hepatitis B who were treated with 4.5 units of interferon alpha for 12 months. Prior to the start of the therapy, sulfur colloid scintigraphy was obtained by which the liver/spleen ratios were derived. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy was performed on a separate day and time-activity curves were generated from regions of interest drawn over the liver, heart and gall-bladder. The index of blood and liver clearance time was calculated. Histological grading and laboratory values were obtained for clinical correlation. Responders (n=6) to IFN were defined as those who improved clinically with normalized transaminase levels and had hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion. On sulfur colloid (SC) scintigraphy, the liver/spleen ratio of non-responders was significantly lower than responders (median values: 0.69 vs. 1.16, p=0.01) but on hepatobiliary scintigraphy no statistically significant parameters were found to predict response to interferon therapy. (author)

  1. Feasibility of semiautomated MR volumetry using gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI at hepatobiliary phase for living liver donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeongjin; Kim, Kyoung Won; Kim, So Yeon; Kim, Bohyoung; Lee, So Jung; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lee, Jong Seok; Lee, Moon Gyu; Song, Gi-Won; Hwang, Shin; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2014-09-01

    To assess the feasibility of semiautomated MR volumetry using gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI at the hepatobiliary phase compared with manual CT volumetry. Forty potential live liver donor candidates who underwent MR and CT on the same day, were included in our study. Semiautomated MR volumetry was performed using gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI at the hepatobiliary phase. We performed the quadratic MR image division for correction of the bias field inhomogeneity. With manual CT volumetry as the reference standard, we calculated the average volume measurement error of the semiautomated MR volumetry. We also calculated the mean of the number and time of the manual editing, edited volume, and total processing time. The average volume measurement errors of the semiautomated MR volumetry were 2.35% ± 1.22%. The average values of the numbers of editing, operation times of manual editing, edited volumes, and total processing time for the semiautomated MR volumetry were 1.9 ± 0.6, 8.1 ± 2.7 s, 12.4 ± 8.8 mL, and 11.7 ± 2.9 s, respectively. Semiautomated liver MR volumetry using hepatobiliary phase gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI with the quadratic MR image division is a reliable, easy, and fast tool to measure liver volume in potential living liver donors. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The usefulness of hepatobiliary scintigraphy in the diagnosis of complications after adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Seung; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Lee, Hee Kyung [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Sung Gyu; Lee, Young Joo; Park, Kwang Min; Hwang, Shin [Department of General Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    Living donor liver transplantation has become an accepted procedure to overcome the shortage of adult donor organs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of hepatobiliary scintigraphy in the diagnosis of complications after adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation. We analysed 82 hepatobiliary scintigraphy studies performed using technetium-99m DISIDA in 60 adult patients (44 males, 16 females) who had been transplanted with a living donor's hepatic lobe (right lobe, 32; left lobe, 28). Indications for hepatobiliary scintigraphy were abnormal symptoms and/or liver function tests (n=54) or suspected bile leak or biloma (n=28). Median interval between transplantation and scintigraphy was 69 days (9 days to 23 months). Scintigraphic findings were classified into hepatic parenchymal dysfunction, total biliary obstruction, segmental biliary obstruction, bile leak and normal graft. Scintigraphic findings were confirmed by liver biopsy in 17 cases, and by radiological and clinical follow-up in 65 cases. There were 29 events relating to biliary complications (six total biliary obstructions, eight segmental biliary obstructions and 15 bile leaks) and 19 relating to non-biliary complications (15 cases of rejection, two of infection and two of vascular compromise) in 38 patients. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy provided the correct diagnosis in all eight segmental and five of six total biliary obstructions, and in all 15 cases of bile leak. Of the 19 non-biliary complications, 16 showed parenchymal dysfunction regardless of the aetiology and three showed total biliary obstruction on scintigraphy. All but three of 34 normally functioning grafts were normal on scintigraphy. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of scintigraphy for biliary obstruction in the 54 patients with abnormal symptoms or liver function tests were 93% (100% for segmental, 83% for total) and 88% (35/40), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity were each 100% (15/15, 13

  3. Cytologic diagnosis of hepatobiliary cystadenoma with mesenchymal stroma during intraoperative consultation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltaggio, Lysandra; Szeto, Oliver J; Tabbara, Sana O

    2010-01-01

    Hepatobiliary cystadenoma with mesenchymal stroma (HCMS) is a rare cystic tumor characterized by a layer of mucinous cuboidal to columnar epithelium situated on top of a basement membrane resting on an ovarian-like stroma. Cytologic features of this entity have not been extensively studied. We present a case of HCMS with emphasis on cytologic material obtained at the time of intraoperative consultation (IOC). A 51-year-old woman had partial resection of a liver cyst. Seven months later she sought further medical attention and presented for surgical reevaluation and reexcision of the same lesion. Initial computed tomography revealed a multiloculated liver cyst. Five months after reexcision the lesion recurred and was again excised. During IOC, scrape cytology revealed both biliary epithelial and mesenchymal stromal cells in a cystic background. Permanent sections showed histologic features of HCMS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first cytologic description of such a neoplasm to include both epithelial and mesenchymal stromal elements. The use of scrape cytology during IOC can be a fast and effective way of identifying both the epithelium and mesenchymal stroma when HCMS is in the differential diagnosis of a cystic liver lesion.

  4. Hepatobiliary gammagraphy and its importance for differential diagnosis of mechanic and hepatocellular jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, J.

    1983-01-01

    The reliability of hepatobiliary gammagraphy following sup(99m)Tc-EHIDA administration and its variations with the concentration of the total plasma bilirubin were assessed in 155 hepatitis patients in whom differential diagnosis was performed for mechanical or hepatocellular jaundice. In mechanical jaundice (28 patients), sensitivity of the method was 75.8%, specificity 95.9%, diagnostic accuracy 90.9%. In hepatocellular jaundice (127 patients) the respective values were 95.9%, 90.3%, 94.8%. The differential diagnosis reliability was found to decrease with the increasing level of total bilirubin. For a level of up to 21.5 μmol/l, diagnostic accuracy was 93.6%, for a level between 21.6 and 85.5 μmol/l it was 91.0%, from 85.6 to 171.0 μmol/l it was 66.6%, from 171.1 to 242.0 μmol/l it was 50.0%, and above 242.0 μmol/l, diagnostic accuracy was 28.5%. At the same time, the sensitivity and specificity of examination decreased with increasing bilirubin level. In respect of differential diagnosis of jaundice, a concentration of the total plasma bilirubin of 242.O μmol/l is considered to be the limit concentration. (author)

  5. Comparison of parenchymal phase of hepatobiliary gammagraphy with radiocolloid liver gammagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimacek, J; Stupakova, E; Takacs, J

    1985-08-01

    A comparison was performed of the parenchymal phase of hepatobiliary gammagraphy (HBG) with radiocolloid gammagraphy (RCG) in 148 patients to assess the importance of both methods depending on the nature of the liver disease. Gammagraphic changes were mostly identical (43.9%), changes notable in HBG rather than RCG were more frequent (29.1%) than changes more marked in RCG (17.6%). Changes appearing only in HBG or only in RCG had the same frequency (4.7% each). The same results in both kinds of examination (identical findings) in all patients occurred only in metastases of malignant tumours of the liver, i.e., in these cases both examinations had the same diagnostic value. In HBG of hepatocellular carcinoma the defect found in RCG was supplemented in 1/4 of the patients, which shows high specificity in combination of both types of examination from the point of view of differential diagnosis. In mechanical jaundice and chronic hepatitis HBG is of greater importance and should be preferred to RCG. In acute hepatitis and further undifferentiated chronic hepatopathies most changes were identical for both HBG and RCG, but the relatively higher incidence of more notable changes with HBG made it preferrable to RCG. In liver cirrhosis RCG was more important.

  6. Labeling of ursodeoxycholic acid with technetium-99m for hepatobiliary imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanad, M.H.; El-Tawoosy, M.

    2013-01-01

    An adopted method for the preparation of high radiochemical purity 99m Tc-ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) was conducted with a high radiochemical yield up to 97.5 %. The reaction proceeds well using 2 mg UDCA, 50 μg tin chloride in solution of pH 8 at room temperature for 30 min. The radiochemical yield was up to 97.5 % as pure as 99m Tc-UDCA. Different chromatographic techniques (paper chromatography and electrophoresis) were used to evaluate the radiochemical yield and purity of the labeled product. Biodistribution studies were carried out in Albino Swiss mice at different time intervals after administration of 99m Tc-UDCA. The uptake of 99m Tc-UDCA in the liver gave the chance to diagnose it. The results indicate that the labeled compound cleared from the systematic circulation within 2 h after administration and majority of organs showed significant decrease in uptake of 99m Tc-UDCA. Finally, the liver uptake was high and the results indicate the possibility of using 99m Tc-UDCA for hepatobiliary imaging.

  7. Morphological and functional criteria of hepatobiliary scintigraphy with IDA derivatives in patients with hepatocellular jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biersack, H.J.; Breuel, H.P.; Altland, H.; Bell, E.

    1979-01-01

    In 31 Patients with histologically proven hepatocellular jaundice hepatobiliary scintigraphy with Tc-99m labelled IDA derivatives was performed. Results were classified under morphological (demonstration of liver parenchyma, ductus choledochus, bile ducts, gallbladder, kidney) and functional (Tsub(max), halftime of bile excretion, appearance of activity in ductus choledochus, gallbladder, and intestines) criteria. The liver parenchyma could be demonstrated in 90.3% of cases, ductus choledochus in 71% and the gallbladder in 72.4%. The type of tracer excretion into the intestines showed 9.5% activity accumulation in the gallbladder with late bile excretion into the intestines and 90.5% early activity excretion into the duodenum with late filling of the gallbladder. The intrahepatic bile ducts were demonstrated in 22.6% (left hepatic duct) and 6.5% (right hepatic duct). In 35.5% of cases the kidneys were still visible after 15 min p.i. All cases showed - sometimes delayed - bile excretion into the GI tract. The time of appearance of activity in ductus choledochus (18.4 min) and gallbladder (39.5 min) was delayed. The liver histogram showed likewise delayed values concerning Tsub(max) (14.3 min) and half life of tracer excretion (> 30 min) when compared to controls. The differentiation of hepatocellular jaundice from obstructive jaundice is possible by the demonstration of bile excretion into the intestines, normal width of the bile ducts, and filling of the gallbladder. (orig.) [de

  8. Increase in Operator's Sympathetic Nerve Activity during Complicated Hepatobiliary Surgery: Evidence for Surgeons' Mental Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Kosho; Hayashida, Naomi; Kuba, Sayaka; Sakimura, Chika; Kuroki, Tamotsu; Togo, Michita; Katayama, Noritada; Takamura, Noboru; Eguchi, Susumu

    2015-11-01

    Surgeons often experience stress during operations. The heart rate variability (HRV) is the variability in the beat-to-beat interval, which has been used as parameters of stress. The purpose of this study was to evaluate mental stress of surgeons before, during and after operations, especially during pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Additionally, the parameters were compared in various procedures during the operations. By frequency domain method using electrocardiograph, we measured the high frequency (HF) component, representing the parasympathetic activity, and the low frequency (LF)/HF ratio, representing the sympathetic activity. In all 5 cases of PD, the surgeon showed significantly lower HF component and higher LF/HF during operation, indicating predominance of sympathetic nervous system and increased stress, than those before the operation (p operation. Out of the 4 LDLT cases, the value of HF was decreased in two and the LF/HF increased in three cases (p operation compared to those before the operation. In all cases, the value of HF was decreased and/or the LF/HF increased significantly during the reconstruction of the vessels or bile ducts than during the removal of the liver. Thus, sympathetic nerve activity increased during hepatobiliary surgery compared with the level before the operation, and various procedures during the operations induced diverse changes in the autonomic nervous activities. The HRV analysis could assess the chronological changes of mental stress by measuring the autonomic nervous balances.

  9. Recent advances in 3D computed tomography techniques for simulation and navigation in hepatobiliary pancreatic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Masafumi

    2014-04-01

    A few years ago it could take several hours to complete a 3D image using a 3D workstation. Thanks to advances in computer science, obtaining results of interest now requires only a few minutes. Many recent 3D workstations or multimedia computers are equipped with onboard 3D virtual patient modeling software, which enables patient-specific preoperative assessment and virtual planning, navigation, and tool positioning. Although medical 3D imaging can now be conducted using various modalities, including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and ultrasonography (US) among others, the highest quality images are obtained using CT data, and CT images are now the most commonly used source of data for 3D simulation and navigation image. If the 2D source image is bad, no amount of 3D image manipulation in software will provide a quality 3D image. In this exhibition, the recent advances in CT imaging technique and 3D visualization of the hepatobiliary and pancreatic abnormalities are featured, including scan and image reconstruction technique, contrast-enhanced techniques, new application of advanced CT scan techniques, and new virtual reality simulation and navigation imaging. © 2014 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  10. Age dependence of spleen- and muscle-corrected hepatic signal enhancement on hepatobiliary phase gadoxetate MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matoori, Simon [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Hirslanden Clinic St. Anna, Clinical Research Group, Lucerne (Switzerland); Froehlich, Johannes M. [Hirslanden Clinic St. Anna, Clinical Research Group, Lucerne (Switzerland); ETH Zurich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zurich (Switzerland); Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland); Breitenstein, Stefan [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Surgery, Clinic for Visceral and Thoracic Surgery, Winterthur (Switzerland); Doert, Aleksis [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland); Pozdniakova, Viktoria [Stavanger University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stavanger (Norway); Koh, Dow-Mu [Royal Marsden Hospital, Department of Radiology, Surrey, England (United Kingdom); Gutzeit, Andreas [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Hirslanden Clinic St. Anna, Clinical Research Group, Lucerne (Switzerland); Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland)

    2016-06-15

    To identify correlations of signal enhancements (SE) and SE normalized to reference tissues of the spleen, kidney, liver, musculus erector spinae (MES) and ductus hepatocholedochus (DHC) on hepatobiliary phase gadoxetate-enhanced MRI with patient age in non-cirrhotic patients. A heterogeneous cohort of 131 patients with different clinical backgrounds underwent a standardized 3.0-T gadoxetate-enhanced liver MRI between November 2008 and June 2013. After exclusion of cirrhotic patients, a cohort of 75 patients with no diagnosed diffuse liver disease was selected. The ratio of signal intensity 20 min post- to pre-contrast administration (SE) in the spleen, kidney, liver, MES and DHC, and the SE of the kidney, liver and DHC normalized to the reference tissues spleen or MES were compared to patient age. Patient age was inversely correlated with the liver SE normalized to the spleen and MES SE (both p < 0.001) and proportionally with the SE of the spleen (p = 0.043), the MES (p = 0.030) and the kidney (p = 0.022). No significant correlations were observed for the DHC (p = 0.347) and liver SE (p = 0.606). The age dependence of hepatic SE normalized to the enhancement in the spleen and MES calls for a cautious interpretation of these quantification methods. (orig.)

  11. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy in the assessment of biliary obstruction after hepatic resection with biliary-enteric anastomosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.S.; Moon, D.H.; Shin, J.W.; Ryu, J.S.; Lee, H.K. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Lee, S.G.; Lee, Y.J.; Park, K.M. [Department of General Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-02-01

    We investigated the usefulness of hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS) for diagnosing biliary obstruction after curative hepatic resection with biliary-enteric anastomosis. The study population consisted of 54 patients who underwent surgery for benign (n=18) or malignant (n=36) biliary disease. We analysed 68 technetium-99m DISIDA scintigrams which were performed at least 1 month after the surgery (median: 9 months). Final diagnosis was made by operative exploration, other invasive radiological studies or clinical and radiological follow-up for at least 6 months after the surgery. Diagnostic accuracy was analysed according to the pretest likelihood of biliary obstruction. There were two total and 15 segmental biliary obstructions. In patients with symptoms of biliary obstruction and abnormal liver function, HBS always allowed correct diagnosis (two instances of total obstruction, seven of segmental obstruction and seven of non-obstruction). Among the patients with non-specific symptoms or isolated elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase, HBS diagnosed segmental biliary obstruction in seven of the eight instances, and non-obstruction in 22 of 23 instances. There were no cases of biliary obstruction and no false-positive results of HBS in 21 instances with no clinical signs or symptoms of biliary obstruction. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of HBS for biliary obstruction were 94% (16/17) and 97% (50/51), respectively. In conclusion, HBS is a highly accurate modality for the diagnosis of segmental biliary obstruction during long-term follow-up after hepatic resection with biliary-enteric anastomosis. (orig.)

  12. Comparative cardiac effects of three hepatobiliary radiopharmacologicals in the dog: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shani, J.; Sarel, O.; Rogel, S.; Weininger, J.; Lubin, E.

    1982-01-01

    Three hepatobiliary agents with an acetanilide-imidoacetic-acid moiety resembling that in lidocaine were investigated for their possible effects on contractility and conductivity in the heart and on arterial pressure and aortic blood flow. This was done in the light of lidocaine's numerous cardiac side effects. HIDA, BIDA, and DIPA, each with traces of decayed /sup 99m/Tc, were injected i.v. into anesthetized dogs with an A-V block, and their effects on the above parameters were followed until control levels were reestablished. Whereas lidocaine raises the diastolic threshold and prolongs the refractory period, the three agents tested do not prolong myocardial conductivity. Both HIDA and BIDA have an effect similar to that of lidocaine, but DIPA has no effect on the latter two parameters. Moreover, whereas lidocaine depressed myocardial contractility, blood pressure, and blood flow, HIDA has a less prominent effect on these parameters, and neither BIDA nor DIPA has any such effect. It is concluded that even though the effect of HIDA on the heart is milder than that of lidocaine, the effects of both BIDA and DIPA are even less pronounced, and they are less likely to cause cardiac side effects when similar doses are administered during nuclear medicine procedures

  13. A novel combined interventional radiologic and hepatobiliary surgical approach to a complex traumatic hilar biliary stricture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. NeMoyer

    Full Text Available Introduction: Benign strictures of the biliary system are challenging and uncommon conditions requiring a multidisciplinary team for appropriate management. Presentation of case: The patient is a 32-year-old male that developed a hilar stricture as sequelae of a gunshot wound. Due to the complex nature of the stricture and scarring at the porta hepatis a combined interventional radiologic and surgical approach was carried out to approach the hilum of the right and left hepatic ducts. The location of this stricture was found by ultrasound guidance intraoperatively using a balloon tipped catheter placed under fluoroscopy in the interventional radiology suite prior to surgery. This allowed the surgeons to select the line of parenchymal transection for best visualization of the stricture. A left hepatectomy was performed, the internal stent located and the right hepatic duct opened tangentially to allow a side-to-side Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy (a Puestow-like anastomosis. Discussion: Injury to the intrahepatic biliary ductal confluence is rarely fatal, however, the associated injuries lead to severe morbidity as seen in this example. Management of these injuries poses a considerable challenge to the surgeon and treating physicians. Conclusion: Here we describe an innovative multi-disciplinary approach to the repair of this rare injury. Keywords: Combined approach, Interventional radiology, Hepatobiliary surgery, Complex traumatic hilar biliary stricture, Case report

  14. Basic studies on the hepatobiliary scintigraphy with 123I-rose bengal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narabayashi, Isamu; Ito, Yasuhiko; Otsuka, Nobuaki; Muranaka, Akira; Konno, Katsunobu.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the values of 123 I-rose bengal. sup(99m)Tc-labels for the hepatobiliary radiopharmaceutical are not fully satisfied because of greater urinary excretion, especially in cases of hyperbilirubinemia. 123 I is a lower gamma ray energy emitter more suitable for imaging and has a short half life with 13 hours. Commercially obtained rose bengal was purified using Sephadex G-25 column on gelfiltration. 123 I-rose bengal was prepared using iodine exchange reaction between nonradioactive rose bengal and Na 123 I. Radiochemical purity of 123 I-rose bengal was examined by paper chromatography. Biological distribution of 123 I-rose bengal in rabbits at 1 hours after intravenous injection indicated that the tracer was cleared from the blood to the liver, thereafter excreted into the small intestine through the common bile duct. Hepatic uptake and excretion of activity has been measured for 60 minutes using a scintillation camera in conjunction with a VTR system. There existed no significant relative to those of 131 I-rose bengal. Serial scintigraphic images showed satisfactorily better images even in a rabbit with complete obstructive jaundice. (author)

  15. Building the Nonuniversity, Tertiary Care Center Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery Practice: Structural and Financial Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Erin H; Siddiqui, Imran; Vrochides, Dionisios; Iannitti, David A; Martinie, John B; Rorabaugh, Lauren; Jeyarajah, D Rohan; Swan, Ryan Z

    2016-12-01

    Early in their careers, many new surgeons lack the background and experience to understand essential components needed to build a surgical practice. Surgical resident education is often devoid of specific instruction on the business of medicine and practice management. In particular, hepatobiliary and pancreatic (HPB) surgeons require many key components to build a successful practice secondary to significant interdisciplinary coordination and a scope of complex surgery, which spans challenging benign and malignant disease processes. In the following, we describe the required clinical and financial components for developing a successful HPB surgery practice in the nonuniversity tertiary care center. We discuss significant financial considerations for understanding community need and hospital investment, contract establishment, billing, and coding. We summarize the structural elements and key personnel necessary for establishing an effectual HPB surgical team. This article provides useful, essential information for a new HPB surgeon looking to establish a surgical practice. It also provides insight for health-care administrators as to the value an HPB surgeon can bring to a hospital or health-care system.

  16. Comparative cardiac effects of three hepatobiliary radiopharmacologicals in the dog: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shani, J.; Rogel, S.; Weininger, J.; Lubin, E.

    1982-01-01

    Three hepatobiliary agents with an acetanilide-imidoacetic-acid moiety resembling that in lidocaine were investigated for their possible effects on contractility and conductivity in the heart and on arterial pressure and aortic blood flow. This was done in the light of lidocaine's numerous cardiac side effects. HIDA, BIDA, and DIPA, each with traces of decayed Tc-99m, were injected i.v. into anesthetized dogs with an A-V block, and their effects on the above parameters were followed until control levels were reestablished. Wheras lidocaine raises the diastolic threshold and prolongs the refractory period, the three agents tested do not prolong myocardial conductivity. Both HIDA and BIDA have an effect similar to that of lidocaine, but DIPA has no effect on the latter two parameters. Moreover, whereas lidocaine depresses myocardial contractility, blood pressure, and blood flow, HIDA has a less prominent effect on these parameters, and neither BIDA nor DIPA has any such effect. It is concluded that even though the effect of HIDA on the heart is milder than that of lidocaine, the effects of both BIDA and DIPA are even less pronounced, and they are less likely to cause cardiac side effects when similar doses are administered during nuclear medicine procedures

  17. [CHANGES OF CAROTID AND VERTEBRAL ARTERIES IN PATENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION AND HEPATOBILIARY PATHOLOGY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, V Ya; Nikolaev, Yu A; Pegova, S V; Matsievskaya, T R; Obukhov, I V

    2016-01-01

    The study included 1172 patients (410 men and 762 women) at the mean age of 60.3 ± 10.4 years with grade I-II (stage I-II) arterial hypertension (AH) admitted to the clinic of Institute of Experimental Medicine. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on the results of clinical and laboratory diagnostics. Group 1 (n = 525) included patients with AH and hepatobiliary system (HBS) diseases, group 2 (n = 647) patients with AH without HBS diseases. The patients group 1 had a thicker intima-media complex of carotid arteries, higher peak systolic bloodflow rate in the internal and vertebral carotid arteries, more pronounced coiling of internal carotid arteries than patients of group 2. Patients with AH and HBS diseases exhibited correlation between bloodflow rate in external carotid arteries and atherogenicity coefficient. Duplex scanning of neck vessels of in patients with AH without HBS diseases revealed peculiar changes of the intima-media thickness and hemodynamically significant changes of the blood flow in the internal carotid arteries that may be of prognostic value in this nosological syntropy and require the personified approach to diagnostics, treatment, and prevention of these conditions.

  18. Age dependence of spleen- and muscle-corrected hepatic signal enhancement on hepatobiliary phase gadoxetate MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matoori, Simon; Froehlich, Johannes M.; Breitenstein, Stefan; Doert, Aleksis; Pozdniakova, Viktoria; Koh, Dow-Mu; Gutzeit, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    To identify correlations of signal enhancements (SE) and SE normalized to reference tissues of the spleen, kidney, liver, musculus erector spinae (MES) and ductus hepatocholedochus (DHC) on hepatobiliary phase gadoxetate-enhanced MRI with patient age in non-cirrhotic patients. A heterogeneous cohort of 131 patients with different clinical backgrounds underwent a standardized 3.0-T gadoxetate-enhanced liver MRI between November 2008 and June 2013. After exclusion of cirrhotic patients, a cohort of 75 patients with no diagnosed diffuse liver disease was selected. The ratio of signal intensity 20 min post- to pre-contrast administration (SE) in the spleen, kidney, liver, MES and DHC, and the SE of the kidney, liver and DHC normalized to the reference tissues spleen or MES were compared to patient age. Patient age was inversely correlated with the liver SE normalized to the spleen and MES SE (both p < 0.001) and proportionally with the SE of the spleen (p = 0.043), the MES (p = 0.030) and the kidney (p = 0.022). No significant correlations were observed for the DHC (p = 0.347) and liver SE (p = 0.606). The age dependence of hepatic SE normalized to the enhancement in the spleen and MES calls for a cautious interpretation of these quantification methods. (orig.)

  19. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy in the assessment of biliary obstruction after hepatic resection with biliary-enteric anastomosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.S.; Moon, D.H.; Shin, J.W.; Ryu, J.S.; Lee, H.K.; Lee, S.G.; Lee, Y.J.; Park, K.M.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the usefulness of hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS) for diagnosing biliary obstruction after curative hepatic resection with biliary-enteric anastomosis. The study population consisted of 54 patients who underwent surgery for benign (n=18) or malignant (n=36) biliary disease. We analysed 68 technetium-99m DISIDA scintigrams which were performed at least 1 month after the surgery (median: 9 months). Final diagnosis was made by operative exploration, other invasive radiological studies or clinical and radiological follow-up for at least 6 months after the surgery. Diagnostic accuracy was analysed according to the pretest likelihood of biliary obstruction. There were two total and 15 segmental biliary obstructions. In patients with symptoms of biliary obstruction and abnormal liver function, HBS always allowed correct diagnosis (two instances of total obstruction, seven of segmental obstruction and seven of non-obstruction). Among the patients with non-specific symptoms or isolated elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase, HBS diagnosed segmental biliary obstruction in seven of the eight instances, and non-obstruction in 22 of 23 instances. There were no cases of biliary obstruction and no false-positive results of HBS in 21 instances with no clinical signs or symptoms of biliary obstruction. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of HBS for biliary obstruction were 94% (16/17) and 97% (50/51), respectively. In conclusion, HBS is a highly accurate modality for the diagnosis of segmental biliary obstruction during long-term follow-up after hepatic resection with biliary-enteric anastomosis. (orig.)

  20. Dose and batch-dependent hepatobiliary toxicity of 10 nm silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella De Maglie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs are widely used because of their antimicrobial properties in medical devices and in a variety of consumer products. The extensive use of AgNPs raises concerns about their potential toxicity, although it is still difficult to draw definite conclusions about their toxicity based on published data. Our preliminary studies performed to compare the effect of the AgNPs size (10-40-100 nm on toxicity, demonstrated that the smallest AgNPs determine the most severe toxicological effects. In order to best investigate the impact of physicochemical characteristics of 10 nm AgNPs on toxicity, we compare three different batches of 10 nm AgNPs slightly different in size distribution (Batch A: 8.8±1.7 nm; Batch B: 9.4±1.7 nm; Batch C: 10.0±1.8 nm. Mice were intravenously treated with two doses (5 and 10 mg/kg of the 3 AgNPs. 24 hours after the treatment, mice were euthanized and underwent complete necropsy. Tissues were collected for histopathological examination and total silver content was determined in tissues by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. All batches induced severe hepatobiliary lesions, i.e. marked hepatocellular necrosis and massive hemorrhage of the gall bladder. The toxicity was dose-dependent and interestingly, the toxic effects were more severe in mice treated with batches A and B that contained smaller AgNPs. Since the total silver mass concentration was similar, the observed batch-dependent toxicity suggest that even subtle differences in size may contribute to relevant changes in the toxicological outcomes, confirming the fundamental involvement of physicochemical features with respect to toxicity.

  1. Comparison of traditional methods with 3D computer models in the instruction of hepatobiliary anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keedy, Alexander W; Durack, Jeremy C; Sandhu, Parmbir; Chen, Eric M; O'Sullivan, Patricia S; Breiman, Richard S

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether an interactive three-dimensional presentation depicting liver and biliary anatomy is more effective for teaching medical students than a traditional textbook format presentation of the same material. Forty-six medical students volunteered for participation in this study. Baseline demographic information, spatial ability, and knowledge of relevant anatomy were measured. Participants were randomized into two groups and presented with a computer-based interactive learning module comprised of animations and still images to highlight various anatomical structures (3D group), or a computer-based text document containing the same images and text without animation or interactive features (2D group). Following each teaching module, students completed a satisfaction survey and nine-item anatomic knowledge post-test. The 3D group scored higher on the post-test than the 2D group, with a mean score of 74% and 64%, respectively; however, when baseline differences in pretest scores were accounted for, this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.33). Spatial ability did not statistically significantly correlate with post-test scores for the 3D group or the 2D group. In the post-test satisfaction survey the 3D group expressed a statistically significantly higher overall satisfaction rating compared to students in the 2D control group (4.5 versus 3.7 out of 5, P = 0.02). While the interactive 3D multimedia module received higher satisfaction ratings from students, it neither enhanced nor inhibited learning of complex hepatobiliary anatomy compared to an informationally equivalent traditional textbook style approach. . Copyright © 2011 American Association of Anatomists.

  2. Prior inpatient admission increases the risk of post-operative infection in hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zachary M; Chidi, Alexis P; Goswami, Julie; Han, Katrina; Simmons, Richard L; Rosengart, Matthew R; Tsung, Allan

    2015-12-01

    Hepatobiliary and pancreatic (HPB) operations have a high incidence of post-operative nosocomial infections. The aim of the present study was to determine whether hospitalization up to 1 year before HPB surgery is associated with an increased risk of post-operative infection, surgical-site infection (SSI) and infection resistant to surgical chemoprophylaxis. A retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing HPB surgeries between January 2008 and June 2013 was conducted. A multivariable logistic regression model was used for controlling for potential confounders to determine the association between pre-operative admission and post-operative infection. Of the 1384 patients who met eligibility criteria, 127 (9.18%) experienced a post-operative infection. Pre-operative hospitalization was independently associated with an increased risk of a post-operative infection [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-2.46] and SSI (aOR: 1.79, 95% CI: 1.07-2.97). Pre-operative hospitalization was also associated with an increased risk of post-operative infections resistant to standard pre-operative antibiotics (OR: 2.64, 95% CI: 1.06-6.59) and an increased risk of resistant SSIs (OR: 3.99, 95% CI: 1.25-12.73). Pre-operative hospitalization is associated with an increased incidence of post-operative infections, often with organisms that are resistant to surgical chemoprophylaxis. Patients hospitalized up to 1 year before HPB surgery may benefit from extended spectrum chemoprophylaxis. © 2015 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  3. Physical kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lifschitz, E.M.; Pitajewski, L.P.

    1983-01-01

    The textbook covers the subject under the following headings: kinetic gas theory, diffusion approximation, collisionless plasma, collisions within the plasma, plasma in the magnetic field, theory of instabilities, dielectrics, quantum fluids, metals, diagram technique for nonequilibrium systems, superconductors, and kinetics of phase transformations

  4. Heparin kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swart, C.A.M. de.

    1983-01-01

    The author has studied the kinetics of heparin and heparin fractions after intravenous administration in humans and in this thesis the results of this study are reported. Basic knowledge about the physico-chemical properties of heparin and its interactions with proteins resulting in anticoagulant and lipolytic effects are discussed in a review (chapter II), which also comprises some clinical aspects of heparin therapy. In chapter III the kinetics of the anticoagulant effect are described after intravenous administration of five commercial heparin preparations. A mathematical model is presented that fits best to these kinetics. The kinetics of the anticoagulant and lipolytic effects after intravenous injection of various 35 S-radiolabelled heparin fractions and their relationship with the disappearance of the radiolabel are described in chapter IV. Chapter V gives a description of the kinetics of two radiolabels after injection of in vitro formed complexes consisting of purified, 125 I-radiolabelled antithrombin III and various 35 S-radiolabelled heparin fractions. (Auth.)

  5. New series of Tc-99m-labeled hepatobiliary tracers: N'-acyl- and N'-sulfonyl ethylenediamine-N,N-diacetic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karube, Y.; Kono, A.; Maeda, T.; Ohya, M.; Matsushima, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Various Tc-99m-labeled N'-substituted derivatives of ethylenediamine-N,N-diacetic acid (EDDA) are evaluated as hepatobiliary imaging agents. N-substituted aromatic acyl and aromatic sulfonyl derivatives of EDDA, labeled with Tc-99m, were administered to rabbits and golden hamsters, and the distribution indicated clearance by the hepatobiliary system. N'-aromatic sulfonyl EDDAs were labeled with Tc-99m by the SnCl 2 method with more than 99% yield. Clearance of Tc-99m-p-toluenesulfonyl EDDA from the blood and the liver was as rapid as that of TC-99m N-(2,6-diethylphenylcarbamoylmethyl)iminodiacetic acid (Tc-99m benzenesulfonyl EDDA lowered urinary excretion. It is concluded that the sulfonyl EDDAs provide a fruitful source for Tc-99m-labeled hepatobiliary radiopharmaceuticals

  6. New series of Tc-99m-labeled hepatobiliary tracers: N'-acyl- and N'-sulfonyl ethylenediamine-N,N-diacetic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karube, Y.; Kono, A.; Maeda, T.; Ohya, M.; Matsushima, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Various Tc-99m-labeled N'-substituted derivatives of ethylenediamine-N,N-diacetic acid (EDDA) are evaluated as hepatobiliary imaging agents. N'-substituted aromatic acyl and aromatic sulfonyl derivatives of EDDA, labeled with Tc-99m, were administered to rabbits and golden hamsters, and the distribution indicated clearance by the hepatobiliary system. N'-aromatic sulfonyl EDDAs were labeled with Tc-99m by the SnCl 2 method with more than 99% yield. Clearance of Tc-99m-p-toluenesulfonyl EDDA from the blood and the liver was as rapid as that of Tc-99m N-(2,6-diethylphenylcarbamoylmethyl)iminodiacetic acid (Tc-99m diethyl IDA). Substitution of a bulky group at the aromatic ring in Tc-99m benzene-sulfonyl EDDA lowered urinary excretion. It is concluded that the sulfonyl EDDAs provide a fruitful source for Tc-99m-labeled hepatobiliary radiopharmaceuticals

  7. Overcoming obstacles to establish a multidisciplinary team approach to hepatobiliary diseases: a working model in a Caribbean setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawich, Shamir O; Johnson, Peter B; Shah, Sundeep; Roberts, Patrick; Arthurs, Milton; Murphy, Trevor; Bonadie, Kimon O; Crandon, Ivor W; Harding, Hyacinth E; Abu Hilal, Mohammed; Pearce, Neil W

    2014-01-01

    By providing a structured forum to exchange information and ideas, multidisciplinary team meetings improve working relationships, expedite investigations, promote evidence-based treatment, and ultimately improve clinical outcomes. This discursive paper reports the introduction of a multidisciplinary team approach to manage hepatobiliary diseases in Jamaica, focusing on the challenges encountered and the methods used to overcome these obstacles. Despite multiple challenges in resource-limited environments, a multidisciplinary team approach can be incorporated into clinical practice in developing nations. Policy makers should make it a priority to support clinical, operational, and governance aspects of the multidisciplinary teams.

  8. Evaluation of 99mTc-Mercaptoacetyltriglycine-Biocytin as a new hepatobiliary imaging agent in mice coinjected with bilirubin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Meyoung-kon; Seidel, Juergen; Le Nhat; Kim, In-Sook; Yoo, Tae-Moo; Barker, Craig; Kobayashi, Hisataka; Green, Michael V.; Carrasquillo, Jorge A.; Paik, Chang H.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated 99m Tc-labeled mercaptoacetyltriglycine ( 99m Tc-MAG3)-biocytin as a hepatobiliary imaging agent in the absence and presence of bilirubin in mice. We then compared its pharmacokinetic parameters; peak liver/heart activity ratio (r max ) and half clearance time (HCT) with those of 99m Tc-labeled diisopropyl-iminodiacetic acid ( 99m Tc-disofenin). Balb/c mice were injected intravenously with hepatobiliary agent ( 99m Tc-MAG3-biocytin or 99m Tc-disofenin) alone or in combination with bilirubin at two doses (7 and 14 mg/kg) dissolved in 5% human serum albumin. Images were acquired every 15 s for 30 min with a gamma-camera equipped with a pinhole collimator. Dynamic images showed rapid hepatic uptake of 99m Tc-MAG3-biocytin, with rapid clearance from the blood and rapid excretion via the biliary system. Its hepatic uptake was not affected by bilirubin coinjection, whereas 99m Tc-disofenin coinjected with bilirubin showed a higher blood background than 99m Tc-disofenin alone. These qualitative findings were reflected in pharmacokinetic parameters, r max and HCT. The r max was obtained from plots of time versus liver/heart activity ratios obtained in equal-area regions of interest over the heart and liver. The HCT was calculated from the hepatic clearance curve from plots of time versus liver activity. 99m Tc-MAG3-biocytin without bilirubin coinjection showed an r max of 8.9±1.3 and an HCT of 399±36 s. These values did not change even when 14 mg/kg of bilirubin were coinjected. By contrast, the parameters for 99m Tc-disofenin with bilirubin were significantly (p max was decreased from 7.9±2.5 to 1.4±0.2 and HCT was increased from 292±32 s to 782±133 s. 99m Tc-MAG3-biocytin hepatobiliary scintigraphy in mice is not affected by bilirubin coinjection, and this hepatobiliary agent appears to offer promise for estimating hepatic function in patients with high bilirubin levels

  9. Biological evaluation of 99m Tc-N-(3-bromo-trimethyl-acetanilide)-iminodiacetic acid (99mTc mebrofenin) as hepatobiliary radiopharmaceutical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, E.S.

    1994-01-01

    Technetium-99 m-N-(3-bromo-2,4,6-trimethyl acetanilide) iminodiacetic acid ( 99m Tc-Mebrofenin) has been described as having optimal properties as hepatobiliary radiopharmaceutical. This paper describes the synthesis, radiopharmaceutical preparation and biological distribution of new labeled compound. The biodistribution study of 99m Tc-Mebrofenin- was carried out in normal mice. The specificity for hepatobiliary excretion blood clearance and cumulative biliary excretion were evaluated in normal and cirrhotic rats. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  10. Kinetic Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A kinetic interface for orientation detection in a video training system is disclosed. The interface includes a balance platform instrumented with inertial motion sensors. The interface engages a participant's sense of balance in training exercises.......A kinetic interface for orientation detection in a video training system is disclosed. The interface includes a balance platform instrumented with inertial motion sensors. The interface engages a participant's sense of balance in training exercises....

  11. Diagnostic value of ultrasonography, infusion tomography of the gall-bladder and sup(99m)Tc-DIDA hepatobiliary scanning in cases of suspected acute cholecystitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holst Pedersen, J.; Hancke, S.; Christensen, B.; Gammelgaard, J.; Haubek, A.; Ingemann Jensen, L.; Munck, O.; Wied, U. (Koebenhavns amts sygehus i Herlev, kirurgisk gastroenterologisk afd., Herlev, Denmark)

    1982-01-01

    Ultrasonography, infusion tomography of the gall-bladder and sup(99m)Tc-diethyl acetanilide iminodiacetic acid (DIDA) hepatobiliary scanning were compared in a prospective investigation of 45 consecutive patients in whom acute cholecystitis was suspected clinically. The definitive diagosis of acute cholecystitis was established or excluded at operation in 35 patients, by oral cholecystography in five and by intravenous cholangiography in five. The predictive values of positive and negative results of investigation were 100% and 83%. respectively, with ultrasonography and 98% and 88%, respectively, in hepatobiliary scanning. The corresponding values for infusion tomography were 87% and 33%, respectively. It is concluded from these results that ultrasonography and sup(99m)Tc-DIDA hepatobiliary scanning are capable of establishing the diagnosis rapidly and with certainty in cases of suspected acute cholecystitis. A preliminary account of the results of routine employment of sup(99m)Tc-DIDA hepatobiliary scanning in 29 consecutive patients revealed no erroneous diagnoses. In the majority of patients with acute cholecystitis, operation proved possible within 48 hours of admission.

  12. Kinetics and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Ahmadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous degradation of Reactive Yellow 84 (RY84 by potassium peroxydisulfate (K2S2O8 has been studied in laboratory scale experiments. The effect of the initial concentrations of potassium peroxydisulfate and RY84, pH and temperature on RY84 degradation were also examined. Experimental data were analyzed using first and second-order kinetics. The degradation kinetics of RY84 of the potassium peroxydisulfate process followed the second-order reaction kinetics. These rate constants have an extreme values similar to of 9.493 mM−1min−1 at a peroxydisulfate dose of 4 mmol/L. Thermodynamic parameters such as activation (Ea and Gibbs free energy (ΔG° were also evaluated. The negative value of ΔGo and Ea shows the spontaneous reaction natural conditions and exothermic nature.

  13. Granulocyte kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, A.M.; Lavender, J.P.; Saverymuttu, S.H.

    1985-01-01

    By using density gradient materials enriched with autologous plasma, the authors have been able to isolate granulocutes from other cellular elements and label them with In-111 without separation from a plasma environment. The kinetic behavior of these cells suggests that phenomena attributed to granulocyte activation are greatly reduced by this labeling. Here, they review their study of granulocyte kinetics in health and disease in hope of quantifying sites of margination and identifying principal sites of destruction. The three principle headings of the paper are distribution, life-span, and destruction

  14. Clinical evaluation of sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI (sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-pyridoxylidene isoleucine) in the various hepatobiliary disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, S; Iio, M; Yamada, H; Murata, H; Chiba, K [Tokyo Metropolitan Geriatric Medical Center (Japan)

    1978-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the hepatobiliary scanning using sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI in clinical diagnosis of various hepatobiliary disorders. Nineteen patients were scanned with sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI. The results were as follows: 1) The stability of sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI examined by paper chromatography using saline as a solvent showed satisfied result at scanning time. sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI in the blood was assumed to be bound to serum proteins immediately after injection. sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI in the urine was assumed to keep the form of sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI. 2) The appearance times of kidney, liver, bile duct, gallbladder, and intestine in the normal case were 5, 5, 10 and 15 minutes respectively after injection. The peak times of hepatogram in the normal case, drug induced hepatitis and obstructive jaundice were 12, 15 and 18 minutes respectively after injection. The images obtained by sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI was superior to the images obtained by /sup 131/I-BSP. 3) The blood clearance and urinary excretion rate of sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI also provided us clinical usefulness. 4) The scanning of Dubin-Johnson syndrome of sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI showed almost normal hepatobiliary image similar to the sequential scan by /sup 131/I-RB as was reported previously by authors. In conclusion, the hepatobiliary scan using sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI provided clear hepatobiliary images. Other parameters such as blood clearance, urinary excretion rate and diameter of choledochus were also favorable. By combining it with sup(99m)Tc-HIDA a differential diagnosis of congenital jaundice is also expected.

  15. Clinical evaluation of sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI [sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-pyridoxylidene isoleucine] in the various hepatobiliary disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Schinichiro; Iio, Masahiro; Yamada, Hideo; Murata, Hajime; Chiba, Kazuo

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the hepatobiliary scanning using sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI in clinical diagnosis of various hepatobiliary disorders. Nineteen patients were scanned with sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI. The results were as follows: 1) The stability of sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI examined by paper chromatography using saline as a solvent showed satisfied result at scanning time. sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI in the blood was assumed to be bound to serum proteins immediately after injection. sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI in the urine was assumed to keep the form of sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI. 2) The appearance times of kidney, liver, bile duct, gallbladder, and intestine in the normal case were 5, 5, 10 and 15 minutes respectively after injection. The peak times of hepatogram in the normal case, drug induced hepatitis and obstructive jaundice were 12, 15 and 18 minutes respectively after injection. The images obtained by sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI was superior to the images obtained by 131 I-BSP. 3) The blood clearance and urinary excretion rate of sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI also provided us clinical usefulness. 4) The scanning of Dubin-Johnson syndrome of sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI showed almost normal hepatobiliary image similar to the sequential scan by 131 I-RB as was reported previously by authors. In conclusion, the hepatobiliary scan using sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI provided clear hepatobiliary images. Other parameters such as blood clearance, urinary excretion rate and diameter of choledochus were also favorable. By combining it with sup(99m)Tc-HIDA a differential diagnosis of congenital jaundice is also expected. (author)

  16. Clinical evaluation of Tc-99m-mebrofenin and comparison with Tc-disofenin for radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingensmith, W. III; Fritzberg, A.; Spitzer, V.

    1982-01-01

    The clinical comparison reported indicates that Tc-mebrofenin has a significantly lower level of renal excretion that Tc-disofenin at all bilirubin levels. At a total bilirubin level of 25 mg/dl the renal excretion of Tc-mebrofenin is still less than the renal excretion of Tc-disofenin in subjects with normal bilirubin levels. In addition, renal radioactivity in images was never seen in subjects with normal bilirubins while visualization of renal radioactivity is routine in normal subjects with Tc-disofenin. No significant differences were found in any other parameter including hepatocyte extraction efficiency, time of maximum hepatic radioactivity, and hepatic parenchymal washout. This study indicates that Tc-mebrofenin is equal to Tc-disofenin in its hepatobiliary characteristics and superior in its renal characteristics

  17. Hepato-biliary scintigraphy and hepatography with Tc-99m diethyl-acetanilido-iminodiacetate in obstructive jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, S.P.; Trap-Jensen, J.; Lindenberg, J.; Nielsen, M.L.

    1978-01-01

    Tc-99m diethyl-IDA was used for combined serial hepato-biliary scintigraphy and processing of hepatographic curves, using a scintillation camera and an image-processing system. Patients with obstruction of the common bile duct, proven by operation, were investigated. Hepatograms from an area of interest corresponding to the periphery of the right liver lobe varied predictably with changes in the serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin. Both anatomical and functional information was obtained. The investigation could be carried out even under reduced liver function. Hepatic uptake of the agent was noted at serum alkaline phosphatase levels up to 1000 U/l and serum bilirubin levels up to 170 μmol/l

  18. Functional scintiscanning with sup(99m)technetium-diethyl-HIDA as a nuclear diagnostical means in hepatobiliary diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummel, G.

    1982-01-01

    The study aimed to delimit the value of sequential hepatobiliary scintiscanning with the aid of sup(99m)technetium-diethyl-HIDA as a diagnostical method in functional or morphological disorders of the gall bladder and bile ducts. The most frequent indications to carry through the investigation therefore were inflammations calculosis in the biliary system, suspected intrahepatic icterus or conditions following biliodigestive anastomoses. Special attention was directed to the question in how far the results were in accordance with those of x-ray cholecystography/cholangiography. Furthermore the possibility for semiquantitative evaluation of serial functional scintiscanning was looked into and clearance determinations were carried through in part of the patients investigated. (orig./MG) [de

  19. Application of a simple, affordable quality metric tool to colorectal, upper gastrointestinal, hernia, and hepatobiliary surgery patients: the HARM score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Justin T; Ko, Bona; Hohmann, Samuel F; Crawshaw, Benjamin P; Leinicke, Jennifer A; Steele, Scott R; Augestad, Knut M; Delaney, Conor P

    2018-06-01

    Quality is the major driver for both clinical and financial assessment. There remains a need for simple, affordable, quality metric tools to evaluate patient outcomes, which led us to develop the HospitAl length of stay, Readmission and Mortality (HARM) score. We hypothesized that the HARM score would be a reliable tool to assess patient outcomes across various surgical specialties. From 2011 to 2015, we identified colorectal, hepatobiliary, upper gastrointestinal, and hernia surgery admissions using the Vizient Clinical Database. Individual and hospital HARM scores were calculated from length of stay, 30-day readmission, and mortality rates. We evaluated the correlation of HARM scores with complication rates using the Clavien-Dindo classification. We identified 525,083 surgical patients: 206,981 colorectal, 164,691 hepatobiliary, 97,157 hernia, and 56,254 upper gastrointestinal. Overall, 53.8% of patients were admitted electively with a mean HARM score of 2.24; 46.2% were admitted emergently with a mean HARM score of 1.45 (p  4 (p  4, complication rates were 9.3, 23.2, 38.8, and 71.6%, respectively. There was a similar trend for increasing HARM score in emergent admissions as well. For all surgical procedure categories, increasing HARM score, with and without risk adjustment, correlated with increasing severity of complications by Clavien-Dindo classification. The HARM score is an easy-to-use quality metric that correlates with increasing complication rates and complication severity across multiple surgical disciplines when evaluated on a large administrative database. This inexpensive tool could be adopted across multiple institutions to compare the quality of surgical care.

  20. Photodynamic effect of photosensitizer-loaded hollow silica nanoparticles for hepatobiliary malignancies: an in vitro and in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaofeng; Xiong, Li; Wen, Yu; Liu, Zhongtao; Pei, Dongni; Huang, Yaxun; Miao, Xiongying

    2014-03-01

    Background and aims: Nanoparticles have been explored recently as an efficient delivery system for photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy. In this study, polyhematoporphyrin (C34H38N4NaO5,) was loaded into hollow silica nanoparticles (HSNP) by one-step wet chemical-based synthetic route. We evaluate the efficacy and safety of polyhematoporphyrin-loaded HSNP with hepatobiliary malignant cells and in vivo models. Methods: Human liver cancer, cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer cells were cultured with the HSNP and cellular viability was determined by MTT assay. Apoptotic and necrotic cells were measured by flow cytometry. Finally, we investigate its effect in vivo. Results: In MTT assay, the cell viability of QBC939, Huh-7, GBC-SD and HepG2 cells of the HSNP was 6.4+/-1.3%, 6.5+/-1.2%, 3.7+/-1.2% and 4.7+/-2.0%, respectively, which were significant different from that of free polyhematoporphyrin 62.4+/-4.7%, 62.5+/-6.0%, 33.4+/-6.5% and 44.3+/-1.9%. Flow cytometry demonstrated the laser-induced cell death with polyhematoporphyrin-loaded HSNP was much more severe. Similarly, in vivo results of each kind of cell revealed 14 days post-photoradiated, tumor sizes of the HSNP group were significantly smaller. Administration of the HSNP without illumination cannot cause killing effect both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Conclusions: HSNP is a desirable delivery system in photodynamic therapy for hepatobiliary malignacies, with improved aqueous solubility, stability and transport efficiency of photosensitizers.

  1. Prognostic impact of hepatobiliary scintigraphy in diagnosis and postoperative follow-up of newborns with biliary atresia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossmueller, B.; Porn, U.; Dresel, S.; Hahn, K.; Schuster, T.; Lang, T.

    2000-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the prognostic relevance of hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS) in newborns suffering from biliary atresia (BA) for establishing the primary diagnosis and in the postoperative follow-up after portoenterostomy (Kasai). Methods: Twenty newborns with direct hyperbilirubinemia and 6 children after operative treatment of BA (Kasai) underwent HBS with Tc-99m-DEIDA. In patients without intestinal drainage, hepatocellular extraction was estimated visually and calculated semiquantitatively by means of liver/heart-ratio 5 min p.i. Results: 10/20 patients with hyperbilirubinemia did not display biliary drainage; 6 had BA, 3 intrahepatic hypoplasia, and one showed a bile plug syndrom. 4/6 with BA but none of the 4 children with diagnoses other than BA presented with a good extraction. All of the 4 children with BA, who had either pre- or postoperatively a bad extraction, needed liver transplantation due to liver failure. Both of the two newborns with BA and favourable outcome after Kasai had a good extraction in the preoperative HBS and demonstrated good intestinal drainage in the postoperative scan. Conclusion: HBS rules out BA with high accuracy by demonstrating drainage of bile into the intestine. In newborns without drainage a good extraction favours the diagnosis of BA. In newborns with BA a bad extraction seems to indicate a poor postoperative prognosis after Kasai operation. HBS might therefore help to select those children who will not benefit from portoenterostomy. Postoperatively, HBS can easily and quickly confirm the successful hepatobiliary anastomosis by demonstrating biliary drainage into the intestine. (orig.) [de

  2. Physisorption kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Kreuzer, Hans Jürgen

    1986-01-01

    This monograph deals with the kinetics of adsorption and desorption of molecules physisorbed on solid surfaces. Although frequent and detailed reference is made to experiment, it is mainly concerned with the theory of the subject. In this, we have attempted to present a unified picture based on the master equation approach. Physisorption kinetics is by no means a closed and mature subject; rather, in writing this monograph we intended to survey a field very much in flux, to assess its achievements so far, and to give a reasonable basis from which further developments can take off. For this reason we have included many papers in the bibliography that are not referred to in the text but are of relevance to physisorption. To keep this monograph to a reasonable size, and also to allow for some unity in the presentation of the material, we had to omit a number of topics related to physisorption kinetics. We have not covered to any extent the equilibrium properties of physisorbed layers such as structures, phase tr...

  3. Stochastic kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombino, A.; Mosiello, R.; Norelli, F.; Jorio, V.M.; Pacilio, N.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear system kinetics is formulated according to a stochastic approach. The detailed probability balance equations are written for the probability of finding the mixed population of neutrons and detected neutrons, i.e. detectrons, at a given level for a given instant of time. Equations are integrated in search of a probability profile: a series of cases is analyzed through a progressive criterium. It tends to take into account an increasing number of physical processes within the chosen model. The most important contribution is that solutions interpret analytically experimental conditions of equilibrium (moise analysis) and non equilibrium (pulsed neutron measurements, source drop technique, start up procedures)

  4. Comparison of the dynamics of bile emptying by quantitative hepatobiliary scintigraphy before and after cholecystectomy in patients with uncomplicated gallstone disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madácsy, L; Toftdahl, D B; Middelfart, H V

    1999-01-01

    of cholecystectomy on the bile flow has not yet been investigated. The goal of the current study was to examine the dynamics and normal variations of bile flow by quantitative hepatobiliary scintigraphy before and after cholecystectomy in a group of patients with uncomplicated gallstone disease. METHODS: Twenty...... patients were evaluated before and after cholecystectomy through cholecystokinin octapeptide-augmented quantitative hepatobiliary scintigraphy, and quantitative parameters of bile emptying (Tmax: time to peak activity, T1/2: half-emptying time before and after cholecystokinin octapeptide and duodenum...... appearance time) were determined and then compared. RESULTS: Before operation, the bile outflow displayed wide variations, with a moderately delayed common bile duct emptying time in some patients. After cholecystectomy, the T1/2 of the common bile duct decreased significantly when compared...

  5. Dynamic Study on the Hepatobiliary Diseases with Combination of 131I-Rose bengal and 198Au-Colloid Scintiphotography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Yong Kok

    1971-01-01

    The radioactive 131 I-Rose bengal serial scintiphotography was performed in 62 patients with the hepatobiliary diseases and in 20 normal subjects. This approach permitted visualization of the hepatic uptake of 131 I-Rose bengal from the circulation and its excretion into the biliary trees and the intestines. In some of these patients, gallbladder function was examined, using eggs as a gallbladder constrictor. The time of maximum hepatic uptake was well correlated to the conventional biochemical liver function tests. In addition to 131 I-Rose bengal scintiphotography, 198 Au-colloid scintiphotography was also performed to make comparison of these two tests. The results obtained were as follows: 1) In normal subjects, the maximum hepatic uptake of 131 I-Rose bengal occurred at 23±2.9 minutes, the initial hepatic excretion at 34±5.1 minutes, the visualization of the gallbladder at 29±5.7 minutes and the intestinal visualization at 54±25.8 minutes. The radioactivity in the gallbladder decreased to 10.7±5.0% one hour after the ingestion of eggs. 2) In the patients with cirrhosis of the liver, there was a delayed and decreased hepatic uptake. The maximum hepatic uptake occurred at 43±12.9 minutes. The differences in the results of uptake between the cirrhotic and the normal group were statistically significant. The initial hepatic excretion occurred at 60±18.5 minutes and had tendency of delaying compared with the normal controls. The gallbladder was visualized in 13 of 16 cases (81%) and its visualization occurred at 49±14.6 minutes with a tendency to be delayed compared with the normal controls. The intestinal visualization occurred at 63±15.8 minutes and its delaying tendency was somewhat more prominent. 3) In patients with hepatitis, the maximum hepatic uptake occurred at 59±21.4 minutes and was significantly delayed. The initial hepatic excretion occurred at 82±34.3 minutes and the results revealed a delaying tendency. The gallbladder was visualized in 15

  6. Tolrestat kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, D.R.; Kraml, M.; Cayen, M.N.; Dubuc, J.; Ryder, S.; Dvornik, D.

    1984-01-01

    The kinetics of tolrestat, a potent inhibitor of aldose reductase, were examined. Serum concentrations of tolrestat and of total 14 C were measured after dosing normal subjects and subjects with diabetes with 14 C-labeled tolrestat. In normal subjects, tolrestat was rapidly absorbed and disappearance from serum was biphasic. Distribution and elimination t 1/2s were approximately 2 and 10 to 12 hr, respectively, after single and multiple doses. Unchanged tolrestat accounted for the major portion of 14 C in serum. Radioactivity was rapidly and completely excreted in urine and feces in an approximate ratio of 2:1. Findings were much the same in subjects with diabetes. In normal subjects, the kinetics of oral tolrestat were independent of dose in the 10 to 800 mg range. Repetitive dosing did not result in unexpected cumulation. Tolrestat was more than 99% bound to serum protein; it did not compete with warfarin for binding sites but was displaced to some extent by high concentrations of tolbutamide or salicylate

  7. Agreement between microscopic examination and bacterial culture of bile samples for detection of bactibilia in dogs and cats with hepatobiliary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashmakova, Medora B; Piccione, Julie; Bishop, Micah A; Nelson, Whitney R; Lawhon, Sara D

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the agreement between results of microscopic examination and bacterial culture of bile samples from dogs and cats with hepatobiliary disease for detection of bactibilia. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. ANIMALS 31 dogs and 21 cats with hepatobiliary disease for which subsequent microscopic examination and bacterial culture of bile samples was performed from 2004 through 2014. PROCEDURES Electronic medical records of included dogs and cats were reviewed to extract data regarding diagnosis, antimicrobials administered, and results of microscopic examination and bacterial culture of bile samples. Agreement between these 2 diagnostic tests was assessed by calculation of the Cohen κ value. RESULTS 17 (33%) dogs and cats had bactibilia identified by microscopic examination of bile samples, and 11 (21%) had bactibilia identified via bacterial culture. Agreement between these 2 tests was substantial (percentage agreement [positive and negative results], 85%; κ = 0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.38 to 0.89) and improved to almost perfect when calculated for only animals that received no antimicrobials within 24 hours prior to sample collection (percentage agreement, 94%; κ = 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.61 to 1.00). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that agreement between microscopic examination and bacterial culture of bile samples for detection of bactibilia is optimized when dogs and cats are not receiving antimicrobials at the time of sample collection. Concurrent bacterial culture and microscopic examination of bile samples are recommended for all cats and dogs evaluated for hepatobiliary disease.

  8. Hepatobiliary magnetic resonance imaging in patients with liver disease: correlation of liver enhancement with biochemical liver function tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukuk, Guido M.; Schaefer, Stephanie G.; Hadizadeh, Dariusch R.; Schild, Hans H.; Willinek, Winfried A. [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Bonn (Germany); Fimmers, Rolf [University of Bonn, Department of Medical Biometry, Informatics and Epidemiology, Bonn (Germany); Ezziddin, Samer [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany); Spengler, Ulrich [Department of Internal Medicine I, Bonn (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    To evaluate hepatobiliary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using Gd-EOB-DTPA in relation to various liver function tests in patients with liver disorders. Fifty-one patients with liver disease underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MRI. Based on region-of-interest (ROI) analysis, liver signal intensity was calculated using the spleen as reference tissue. Liver-spleen contrast ratio (LSCR) and relative liver enhancement (RLE) were calculated. Serum levels of total bilirubin, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum albumin level (AL), prothrombin time (PT), creatinine (CR) as well as international normalised ratio (INR) and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score were tested for correlation with LSCR and RLE. Pre-contrast LSCR values correlated with total bilirubin (r = -0.39; p = 0.005), GGT (r = -0.37; p = 0.009), AST (r = -0.38; p = 0.013), ALT (r = -0.29; p = 0.046), PT (r = 0.52; p < 0.001), GLDH (r = -0.55; p = 0.044), INR (r = -0.42; p = 0.003), and MELD Score (r = -0.53; p < 0.001). After administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA bilirubin (r = -0.45; p = 0.001), GGT (r = -0.40; p = 0.004), PT (r = 0.54; p < 0.001), AST (r = -0.46; p = 0.002), ALT (r = -0.31; p = 0.030), INR (r = -0.45; p = 0.001) and MELD Score (r = -0.56; p < 0.001) significantly correlated with LSCR. RLE correlated with bilirubin (r = -0.40; p = 0.004), AST (r = -0.38; p = 0.013), PT (r = 0.42; p = 0.003), GGT (r = -0.33; p = 0.020), INR (r = -0.36; p = 0.011) and MELD Score (r = -0.43; p = 0.003). Liver-spleen contrast ratio and relative liver enhancement using Gd-EOB-DTPA correlate with a number of routinely used biochemical liver function tests, suggesting that hepatobiliary MRI may serve as a valuable biomarker for liver function. The strongest correlation with liver enhancement was found for the MELD Score. (orig.)

  9. The role of Tc-99m IDA hepatobiliary and Tc-99m colloid hepatic imaging in primary biliary cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aburano, T.; Yokoyama, K.; Shuke, N.; Kinuya, S.; Takayama, T.; Tonami, N.; Hisada, K.

    1991-01-01

    To assess the presence of primary biliary cirrhosis, 15 patients at various histopathologic stages were studied by Tc-99m IDA hepatobiliary and/or Tc-99m colloid hepatic imaging. In the earlier stages (I and II), seven of eight patients (88%) showed uniform hepatic retention of Tc-99m IDA. Of seven patients in the same stage, however, four (57%) showed no abnormality on Tc-99m colliod imaging. In three of these four negative patients (75%), uniform hepatic retention of Tc-99m IDA was noted. In the later stages (III and IV), all seven patients showed decreased clearance with or without delayed tracer appearance in the intestine and prominent hepatic retention on Tc-99m IDA imaging; with Tc-99m colloid imaging there was enlargement of the spleen and increased activity in the spleen and bone marrow. Thus, Tc-99m IDA imaging is considered to be more useful in revealing this functional disorder at the earlier stage of primary biliary cirrhosis and in evaluating progression from an earlier to a later stage of disease. Tc-99m colloid imaging also effectively evaluated progression

  10. A Prototype Educational Model for Hepatobiliary Interventions: Unveiling the Role of Graphic Designers in Medical 3D Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javan, Ramin; Zeman, Merissa N

    2018-02-01

    In the context of medical three-dimensional (3D) printing, in addition to 3D reconstruction from cross-sectional imaging, graphic design plays a role in developing and/or enhancing 3D-printed models. A custom prototype modular 3D model of the liver was graphically designed depicting segmental anatomy of the parenchyma containing color-coded hepatic vasculature and biliary tree. Subsequently, 3D printing was performed using transparent resin for the surface of the liver and polyamide material to develop hollow internal structures that allow for passage of catheters and wires. A number of concepts were incorporated into the model. A representative mass with surrounding feeding arterial supply was embedded to demonstrate tumor embolization. A straight narrow hollow tract connecting the mass to the surface of the liver, displaying the path of a biopsy device's needle, and the concept of needle "throw" length was designed. A connection between the middle hepatic and right portal veins was created to demonstrate transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) placement. A hollow amorphous structure representing an abscess was created to allow the demonstration of drainage catheter placement with the formation of pigtail tip. Percutaneous biliary drain and cholecystostomy tube placement were also represented. The skills of graphic designers may be utilized in creating highly customized 3D-printed models. A model was developed for the demonstration and simulation of multiple hepatobiliary interventions, for training purposes, patient counseling and consenting, and as a prototype for future development of a functioning interventional phantom.

  11. Fundamental and clinical studies on simultaneous, quantitative analysis of hepatobiliary and gastrointestinal scintigrams using double isotope method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Y; Kakihara, M; Sasaki, M; Tabuse, Y; Takei, N [Wakayama Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1981-04-01

    Double isotope method was applied to carry out simultaneous and quantitative analysis of hepatobiliary and gastrointestinal scintigrams. A scinticamera with parallel collimator for medium energy was connected to a computer to distinguish the two isotopes at a time. 4mCi of sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-pyridoxylideneisoleucine (Tc-PI) and 200 ..mu..Ci of /sup 111/In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (In-DTPA) were administrated by i.v. injection and per oral, respectively. Three normal (two women and a man) and 16 patients after the operation of gastric cancer (10 recovered by Roux-en Y method after the total gastrectomy, and 6 recovered after the operation replacing the jejunum between the esophagus and duodenum) were investigated. The process of bile secretion and its mixing with food were followed by the scanning quantitatively. The analysis of time-activity variation at each organ indicated that the replacing operation gave more physiological recovery than that by Roux-en Y method. This method is noninvasive to patients and is promising to follow the process or activity of digestion in any digestive organ after surgery.

  12. Altered intestinal bile salt biotransformation in a cystic fibrosis (Cftr-/-) mouse model with hepato-biliary pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodewes, Frank A J A; van der Wulp, Mariëtte Y M; Beharry, Satti; Doktorova, Marcela; Havinga, Rick; Boverhof, Renze; James Phillips, M; Durie, Peter R; Verkade, Henkjan J

    2015-07-01

    Cftr(-/-tm1Unc) mice develop progressive hepato-biliary pathology. We hypothesize that this liver pathology is related to alterations in biliary bile hydrophobicity and bile salt metabolism in Cftr(-/-tm1Unc) mice. We determined bile production, biliary and fecal bile salt- and lipid compositions and fecal bacterial composition of C57BL/6J Cftr(-/-tm1Unc) and control mice. We found no differences between the total biliary bile salt or lipid concentrations of Cftr(-/-) and controls. Compared to controls, Cftr(-/-) mice had a ~30% higher bile production and a low bile hydrophobicity, related to a ~7 fold higher concentration of the choleretic and hydrophilic bile salt ursocholate. These findings coexisted with a significantly smaller quantity of fecal Bacteroides bacteria. Liver pathology in Cftr(-/-tm1Unc) is not related to increased bile hydrophobicity. Cftr(-/-) mice do however display a biliary phenotype characterized by increased bile production and decreased biliary hydrophobicity. Our findings suggest Cftr dependent, alterations in intestinal bacterial biotransformation of bile salts. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Application of pharmacokinetic modeling to the radiation dosimetry of hepatobiliary agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loberg, M.D.; Buddemeyer, E.U.

    1981-01-01

    Dosimetry calculations based on biodistribution data from lower animal species often inadequately approximate the true dosimetry in humans and seldom apply in the presence of human pathology. An alternative approach is to use animal data for the limited purpose of developing a pharmacokinetic model describing the various compartments and their interconnecting pathways. To the extent that components are similarly connected in man, the model can be used to compute cumulative concentrations (μCi-h/gm) in humans by using the compartment masses and rate constants appropriate for man. In this manner dose estimates can be obtained which are less dependent upon the species from which the model was derived. The altered radiation dose in certain disease states having a known relationship to the model can also be predicted with confidence. This work reports the development in dogs of a four-compartment model which accurately describes the in-vivo distribution of Tc/sup 99m/-HIDA. The pharmacokinetic model was used to predict the kinetics of the HIDA analog which would yield clinically useful information, while minimizing patient radiation exposure

  14. The enhanced value of combining conventional and 'omics' analyses in early assessment of drug-induced hepatobiliary injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellinger-Ziegelbauer, Heidrun; Adler, Melanie; Amberg, Alexander; Brandenburg, Arnd; Callanan, John J.; Connor, Susan; Fountoulakis, Michael; Gmuender, Hans; Gruhler, Albrecht; Hewitt, Philip; Hodson, Mark; Matheis, Katja A.; McCarthy, Diane; Raschke, Marian; Riefke, Bjoern; Schmitt, Christina S.; Sieber, Max; Sposny, Alexandra; Suter, Laura; Sweatman, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The InnoMed PredTox consortium was formed to evaluate whether conventional preclinical safety assessment can be significantly enhanced by incorporation of molecular profiling ('omics') technologies. In short-term toxicological studies in rats, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics data were collected and analyzed in relation to routine clinical chemistry and histopathology. Four of the sixteen hepato- and/or nephrotoxicants given to rats for 1, 3, or 14 days at two dose levels induced similar histopathological effects. These were characterized by bile duct necrosis and hyperplasia and/or increased bilirubin and cholestasis, in addition to hepatocyte necrosis and regeneration, hepatocyte hypertrophy, and hepatic inflammation. Combined analysis of liver transcriptomics data from these studies revealed common gene expression changes which allowed the development of a potential sequence of events on a mechanistic level in accordance with classical endpoint observations. This included genes implicated in early stress responses, regenerative processes, inflammation with inflammatory cell immigration, fibrotic processes, and cholestasis encompassing deregulation of certain membrane transporters. Furthermore, a preliminary classification analysis using transcriptomics data suggested that prediction of cholestasis may be possible based on gene expression changes seen at earlier time-points. Targeted bile acid analysis, based on LC-MS metabonomics data demonstrating increased levels of conjugated or unconjugated bile acids in response to individual compounds, did not provide earlier detection of toxicity as compared to conventional parameters, but may allow distinction of different types of hepatobiliary toxicity. Overall, liver transcriptomics data delivered mechanistic and molecular details in addition to the classical endpoint observations which were further enhanced by targeted bile acid analysis using LC/MS metabonomics.

  15. Experimental and clinical studies on hepatobiliary scintigraphy and function test with sup(99m)Tc-E-HIDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narabayashi, Isamu; Otsuka, Nobuaki; Terashima, Hideaki; Yokobayashi, Tsuneo; Kaji, Tatsumi

    1980-01-01

    In experimental and clinical studies, the usefulness of sup(99m)Tc-E-HIDA has been evaluated for dynamic imaging and function test. Biological distribution of sup(99m)Tc-E-HIDA in rabbits at 1 hour after the intravenous administration indicated that activity was 62% of the injected dose in the gallbladder and intestine, 2% in the liver, and 9% in the kidneys and urine. Hepatic uptake and excretion of sup(99m)Tc-E-HIDA were discussed in comparison with those of sup(99m)Tc-p-butyl-IDA, sup(99m)Tc-HIDA, sup(99m)Tc-PI and 123 I-RB. Radiochemical purity was ascertained by thin layer chromatography in saline. Labelling was nearly 100%, namely no unreacted pertechnetate was detected. In clinical study, the imaging of liver, bile ducts, gallbladder and intestine was satisfactory with sup(99m)Tc-E-HIDA. There was no or faint renal visualization in cases with hepatic uptake on the hepatogram. Quantitative analysis of blood retention, blood clearance and hepatogram with sup(99m)Tc-E-HIDA reflected excretory liver function in various hepatobiliary disorders. We concluded that sup(99m)Tc-E-HIDA has a lower urinary excretion and seems more effective than the other sup(99m)Tc-labels, such as sup(99m)Tc-HIDA and sup(99m)Tc-PI, at higher bilirubin levels. However, when the level of the bilirubin in blood rises above 7.4 mg/dl, no hepatic uptake of sup(99m)Tc-E-HIDA was obtained with greater renal excretion. (author)

  16. Augmented reality technology for preoperative planning and intraoperative navigation during hepatobiliary surgery: A review of current methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rui; Ma, Long-Fei; Rong, Zhi-Xia; Li, Mo-Dan; Zeng, Jian-Ping; Wang, Xue-Dong; Liao, Hong-En; Dong, Jia-Hong

    2018-04-01

    Augmented reality (AR) technology is used to reconstruct three-dimensional (3D) images of hepatic and biliary structures from computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging data, and to superimpose the virtual images onto a view of the surgical field. In liver surgery, these superimposed virtual images help the surgeon to visualize intrahepatic structures and therefore, to operate precisely and to improve clinical outcomes. The keywords "augmented reality", "liver", "laparoscopic" and "hepatectomy" were used for searching publications in the PubMed database. The primary source of literatures was from peer-reviewed journals up to December 2016. Additional articles were identified by manual search of references found in the key articles. In general, AR technology mainly includes 3D reconstruction, display, registration as well as tracking techniques and has recently been adopted gradually for liver surgeries including laparoscopy and laparotomy with video-based AR assisted laparoscopic resection as the main technical application. By applying AR technology, blood vessels and tumor structures in the liver can be displayed during surgery, which permits precise navigation during complex surgical procedures. Liver transformation and registration errors during surgery were the main factors that limit the application of AR technology. With recent advances, AR technologies have the potential to improve hepatobiliary surgical procedures. However, additional clinical studies will be required to evaluate AR as a tool for reducing postoperative morbidity and mortality and for the improvement of long-term clinical outcomes. Future research is needed in the fusion of multiple imaging modalities, improving biomechanical liver modeling, and enhancing image data processing and tracking technologies to increase the accuracy of current AR methods. Copyright © 2018 First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine in China. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  17. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Video in Advance Care Planning for Progressive Pancreas and Hepatobiliary Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volandes, Angelo E.; Chen, Ling Y.; Gary, Kristen A.; Li, Yuelin; Agre, Patricia; Levin, Tomer T.; Reidy, Diane L.; Meng, Raymond D.; Segal, Neil H.; Yu, Kenneth H.; Abou-Alfa, Ghassan K.; Janjigian, Yelena Y.; Kelsen, David P.; O'Reilly, Eileen M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an important advance directive (AD) topic in patients with progressive cancer; however such discussions are challenging. Objective This study investigates whether video educational information about CPR engenders broader advance care planning (ACP) discourse. Methods Patients with progressive pancreas or hepatobiliary cancer were randomized to an educational CPR video or a similar CPR narrative. The primary end-point was the difference in ACP documentation one month posttest between arms. Secondary end-points included study impressions; pre- and post-intervention knowledge of and preferences for CPR and mechanical ventilation; and longitudinal patient outcomes. Results Fifty-six subjects were consented and analyzed. Rates of ACP documentation (either formal ADs or documented discussions) were 40% in the video arm (12/30) compared to 15% in the narrative arm (4/26), OR=3.6 [95% CI: 0.9–18.0], p=0.07. Post-intervention knowledge was higher in both arms. Posttest, preferences for CPR had changed in the video arm but not in the narrative arm. Preferences regarding mechanical ventilation did not change in either arm. The majority of subjects in both arms reported the information as helpful and comfortable to discuss, and they recommended it to others. More deaths occurred in the video arm compared to the narrative arm, and more subjects died in hospice settings in the video arm. Conclusions This pilot randomized trial addressing downstream ACP effects of video versus narrative decision tools demonstrated a trend towards more ACP documentation in video subjects. This trend, as well as other video effects, is the subject of ongoing study. PMID:23725233

  18. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy and function test with sup(99m)Tc-N-pyridoxyl-5-methyltryptophan (sup(99m)Tc-PMT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimura, Kazuro; Nishiyama, Shoji; Narabayashi, Isamu

    1985-01-01

    The authors studied the effectiveness of sup(99m)Tc-N-pyridoxyl-5-methyltryptophan (sup(99m)Tc-PMT) for dynamic imaging and function on 40 patients with various hepatobiliary diseases and on healthy individuals. In healthy subjects, sup(99m)Tc-PMT is rapidly removed from the blood by the parenchymal cells of the liver and is excreted through the biliary system. The imaging of the liver, bile ducts, gallbladder and intestines with sup(99m)Tc-PMT was satisfactory. There was no renal visualization. In the case of serial images of healthy individuals, the gallbladder, intrahepatic bile duct and small intestine were visualized after 18.8 +- 7.2, 8.8 +- 1.4, and 16.7 +- 6.3 min, respectively; the mean peak time on the hepatogram was 8.0 +- 5.3 min. The bile ducts of patients with liver disorders were visualized later than those of healthy individuals. Particularly in the case of severe liver parenchymal diseases, the appearance time for the bile duct was significantly delayed. However, the delays in appearance time did not correlate well with low scores on the liver function test. At 70 min after the intravenous administration of sup(99m)Tc-PMT, 2.5 +- 1.5 % of the injected dose was excreted into the urine of the healthy individuals. The urinary excretion of sup(99m)Tc-PMT by the patients with hepatobiliary diseases showed no increase, and it was not entirely related to the results of the serum function tests. However, a larger amount of sup(99m)Tc-PMT was retained in the blood of the patients with hepatobiliary diseases. The blood retention values at 20 min after injection into those with liver cirrhosis and hepatoma were significantly delayed. (author)

  19. Influence of ursodeoxycholic acid on hepatobiliary scintigraphy with /sup 99m/Tc-N-pyridoxyl-5-methyltryptophan in chronic liver diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Tomihiro; Katagiri, Kenji; Shiraki, Shigehiro and others

    1988-11-01

    Hepatobiliary scintigraphy using /sup 99m/Tc-N-pyridoxyl-5-methyltryptophan (PMT) was used to elucidate the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment on chronic liver diseases. After UDCA administration, the peak of the hepatic uptake-excretion curve of /sup 99m/Tc-PMT (peak time) was significantly shortened. Serum ..gamma..-GTP level also improved during UDCA therapy. These results suggest that UDCA enhances uptake especially of anions like /sup 99m/Tc-PMT, and increases their secretion into bile. Consequently, UDCA may be pharmachologically useful for chronic liver diseases.

  20. The influence of ursodeoxycholic acid on hepatobiliary scintigraphy with 99mTc-N-pyridoxyl-5-methyltryptophan in chronic liver diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Tomihiro; Katagiri, Kenji; Shiraki, Shigehiro

    1988-01-01

    Hepatobiliary scintigraphy using 99m Tc-N-pyridoxyl-5-methyltryptophan (PMT) was used to elucidate the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment on chronic liver diseases. After UDCA administration, the peak of the hepatic uptake-excretion curve of 99m Tc-PMT (peak time) was significantly shortened. Serum γ-GTP level also improved during UDCA therapy. These results suggest that UDCA enhances uptake especially of anions like 99m Tc-PMT, and increases their secretion into bile. Consequently, UDCA may be pharmachologically useful for chronic liver diseases. (author)

  1. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy in the assessment of long-term complication after biliary-enteric anastomosis: role in the diagnosis of post-operative segmental or total biliary obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Seung; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Lee, Sung Gyu; Lee, Yung Joo; Park, Kwang Min; Shin, Jung Woo; Ryu, Jin Sook; Lee, Hee Kyung [Asan Medicial Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS) in the diagnosis of segmental or total biliary obstruction during long-term follow-up period after curative radical surgery with biliary-enteric anastomosis. The study population included 80 patients who underwent biliary-enteric anastomoses for benign (n=33) or malignant (n=47) biliary disease. Fifty-six of these 80 patients also underwent curative hepatic resection. Ninety eight hepatobiliary scintigrams using {sup 99m}Tc-DISIDA were performed at least 1 month after surgery (median 9 month). The scintigraphic criteria of total biliary obstruction we used were intestinal excretion beyond one hour or delayed hepatobiliary washout despite the presence of intestinal excretion. Segmental biliary obstruction was defined as delayed segmental excretion. The accuracy for biliary obstruction was evaluated according to different clinical situations. There were 9 instances with total biliary obstruction and 23 with segmental bile duct obstruction. Diagnosis of biliary obstruction was confirmed by percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography or surgery in 13, and follow-up clinical data for at least 6 months in 19 instances. Among the 32 instances with biliary symptoms and abnormal liver function, HBS allowed correct diagnosis in all 32(9 total, 14 segmental obstruction and 9 non-obstruction). Of the 40 with nonspecific symptom or isolated elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase, HBS diagnosed 8 of the 9 segmental biliary obstruction and 30 of the 31 non-obstruction. There were no biliary obstruction and no false positive result of scintigraphy in 26 instances which had no clinical symptom or signs of biliary obstruction. Diagnostic sensitivity of HBS was 100% (9/9) for total biliary obstruction, and 96%(22/23) for segmental bile obstruction. Specificity was 98%(39/40) in patients who had abnormal symptom or sign. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy is a highly accurate modality in the

  2. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy in the assessment of long-term complication after biliary-enteric anastomosis: role in the diagnosis of post-operative segmental or total biliary obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Seung; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Lee, Sung Gyu; Lee, Yung Joo; Park, Kwang Min; Shin, Jung Woo; Ryu, Jin Sook; Lee, Hee Kyung

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS) in the diagnosis of segmental or total biliary obstruction during long-term follow-up period after curative radical surgery with biliary-enteric anastomosis. The study population included 80 patients who underwent biliary-enteric anastomoses for benign (n=33) or malignant (n=47) biliary disease. Fifty-six of these 80 patients also underwent curative hepatic resection. Ninety eight hepatobiliary scintigrams using 99m Tc-DISIDA were performed at least 1 month after surgery (median 9 month). The scintigraphic criteria of total biliary obstruction we used were intestinal excretion beyond one hour or delayed hepatobiliary washout despite the presence of intestinal excretion. Segmental biliary obstruction was defined as delayed segmental excretion. The accuracy for biliary obstruction was evaluated according to different clinical situations. There were 9 instances with total biliary obstruction and 23 with segmental bile duct obstruction. Diagnosis of biliary obstruction was confirmed by percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography or surgery in 13, and follow-up clinical data for at least 6 months in 19 instances. Among the 32 instances with biliary symptoms and abnormal liver function, HBS allowed correct diagnosis in all 32(9 total, 14 segmental obstruction and 9 non-obstruction). Of the 40 with nonspecific symptom or isolated elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase, HBS diagnosed 8 of the 9 segmental biliary obstruction and 30 of the 31 non-obstruction. There were no biliary obstruction and no false positive result of scintigraphy in 26 instances which had no clinical symptom or signs of biliary obstruction. Diagnostic sensitivity of HBS was 100% (9/9) for total biliary obstruction, and 96%(22/23) for segmental bile obstruction. Specificity was 98%(39/40) in patients who had abnormal symptom or sign. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy is a highly accurate modality in the evaluation of

  3. Transport mechanisms of hepatic uptake and bile excretion in clinical hepatobiliary scintigraphy with 99mTc-N-pyridoxyl-5-methyltryptophan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masato; Nakanishi, Takeo; Nishi, Kodai; Higaki, Yusuke; Okudaira, Hiroyuki; Ono, Masahiro; Tsujiuchi, Takafumi; Mizutani, Asuka; Nishii, Ryuichi; Tamai, Ikumi; Arano, Yasushi; Kawai, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In clinical hepatobiliary scintigraphy, 99m Tc-N-pyridoxyl-5-methyltryptophan ( 99m Tc-PMT) is an effective radiotracer among the 99m Tc-pyridoxylaminates. However, the mechanisms of human hepatic uptake and bile excretion transport of 99m Tc-PMT have not been determined. We thus investigated the transport mechanisms of human hepatic uptake and bile excretion in hepatobiliary scintigraphy with 99m Tc-PMT. Methods: Four solute carrier (SLC) transporters involved in hepatic uptake were evaluated using human embryonic kidney (HEK) and HeLa cells with high expression of SLC transporters (organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)1B1, OATP1B3, OATP2B1, organic anion transporters (OAT)2 and organic cation transporters (OCT)1) after 5 min of 99m Tc-PMT incubation. Metabolic analysis of 99m Tc-PMT was performed using pooled human liver S9. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporters for bile excretion were examined using hepatic ABC transporter vesicles human expressing multiple drug resistance 1 (MDR1), multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2), breast cancer resistance protein or bile salt export pump. 99m Tc-PMT was incubated for 1, 3 and 5 min with ATP or adenosine monophosphate and these vesicles. SPECT scans were performed in normal and Eisai hyperbilirubinemic (EHBR) model rats, deficient in Mrp2 transporters, without and with verapamil (rat Mdr1 and human MDR1 inhibitor) after intravenous injection of 99m Tc-PMT. Results: Uptake of 99m Tc-PMT in HEK293/OATP1B1 and HeLa/OATP1B3 was significantly higher than that in HEK293- and HeLa-mock cells. 99m Tc-PMT was not metabolized in the human liver S9. In vesicles with high expression of ABC transporters, uptake of MDR1 or MRP2 was significantly higher at all incubation times. Bile excretion of 99m Tc-PMT was also identified by comparison between normal and EHBR rats with and without verapamil on in-vivo imaging. Conclusions: Human hepatic uptake of 99m Tc-PMT was transferred

  4. Evaluating Hepatobiliary Transport with 18F-Labeled Bile Acids: The Effect of Radiolabel Position and Bile Acid Structure on Radiosynthesis and In Vitro and In Vivo Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stef De Lombaerde

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An in vivo determination of bile acid hepatobiliary transport efficiency can be of use in liver disease and preclinical drug development. Given the increased interest in bile acid Positron Emission Tomography- (PET- imaging, a further understanding of the impact of 18-fluorine substitution on bile acid handling in vitro and in vivo can be of significance. Methods. A number of bile acid analogues were conceived for nucleophilic substitution with [18F]fluoride: cholic acid analogues of which the 3-, 7-, or 12-OH function is substituted with a fluorine atom (3α-[18F]FCA; 7β-[18F]FCA; 12β-[18F]FCA; a glycocholic and chenodeoxycholic acid analogue, substituted on the 3-position (3β-[18F]FGCA and 3β-[18F]FCDCA, resp.. Uptake by the bile acid transporters NTCP and OATP1B1 was evaluated with competition assays in transfected CHO and HEK cell lines and efflux by BSEP in membrane vesicles. PET-scans with the tracers were performed in wild-type mice (n=3 per group: hepatobiliary transport was monitored and compared to a reference tracer, namely, 3β-[18F]FCA. Results. Compounds 3α-[18F]FCA, 3β-[18F]FGCA, and 3β-[18F]FCDCA were synthesized in moderate radiochemical yields (4–10% n.d.c. and high radiochemical purity (>99%; 7β-[18F]FCA and 12β-[18F]FCA could not be synthesized and included further in this study. In vitro evaluation showed that 3α-FCA, 3β-FGCA, and 3β-FCDCA all had a low micromolar Ki-value for NTCP, OATP1B1, and BSEP. In vivo, 3α-[18F]FCA, 3β-[18F]FGCA, and 3β-[18F]FCDCA displayed hepatobiliary transport with varying efficiency. A slight yet significant difference in uptake and efflux rate was noticed between the 3α-[18F]FCA and 3β-[18F]FCA epimers. Conjugation of 3β-[18F]FCA with glycine had no significant effect in vivo. Compound 3β-[18F]FCDCA showed a significantly slower hepatic uptake and efflux towards gallbladder and intestines. Conclusion. A set of 18F labeled bile acids was synthesized that are

  5. The transport, hepatobiliary distribution and clearance of sup(99m)Tc-Sn-lidocaine iminodiacetic acid, sup(99m)Tc-Sn-Lida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noronha, O.P.D.; Sewatkar, A.B.; Ganatra, R.D.; Subramanian, G.

    1977-01-01

    Details are given of the preparation of stable sterile solutions of the radiopharmaceutical sup(99m)Tc-Sn-LIDA for use as a hepatobiliary scanning agent. Toxicity and survival studies in mice showed no untoward response even at a concentration of up to 210 mg/kg mouse, and the usual human dose is very much less than this. Tissue distribution studies in rats and mice showed a rapid decrease in liver activity with concomitant increase in gut activity. Scintiscans of a rabbit injected (i.v.) with 2.0 mCi of sup(99m)Tc-Sn-LIDA also showed extremely rapid excretion of the radiopharmaceutical. Sequential gamma camera images obtained 2 to 60 min after administration to overnight fasting normal human subjects revealed rapid liver uptake and gall bladder localization in about 20 min, followed by a gradual decrease in liver activity and increase in the activity in the intestinal tract. After about 40 min the liver has been washed-out of activity, leaving the gall bladder visible. sup(99m)Tc-Sn-LIDA is therefore an excellent hepatobiliary scanning agent. (U.K.)

  6. Study On Preparation Of Lyophilized DISIDA Kit For Labeling With 99mTc Using In Nuclear Medicine To Diagnose Hepatobiliary Diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong Van Dong; Bui Van Cuong; Pham Ngoc Dien; Chu Van Khoa; Mai Phuoc Tho; Nguyen Thi Thu; Vo Thi Cam Hoa

    2011-01-01

    Lyophilization is the method of choice for preserving a variety of health care pharmaceutical as the type of kit used labeled with radioactive isotopes. Lyophilization ensures the overall stability of the product, inhibit bacterial growth and create good conditions for transportation. A more significant is that it helps ensure the durability of stannous chloride in the composition of the kit. In the process of freeze-dried, the first product to be frozen, then reducing the surrounding pressure and temperature increase sufficient to allow the water molecules in the material sublimates directly from solid to gas. This report presents freeze-drying method and quality control of compound iminoacetic 2,6-diisopropylcetanilido acid (DISIDA) for long term storage, convenient for transportation to remote areas for nuclear medicine diagnosis of hepatobiliary disease. The purpose of the study were the survey of labeling process of 99m Tc with DISIDA and established freeze-drying process of DISIDA having standard quality for nuclear medicine diagnosis of hepatobiliary diseases. (author)

  7. Preparation of N-(3-BROMO-2,4,6-trimethylacetanilide) iminodiacetic acid and its 99MTc-complex for hepatobiliary imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Ok Ja; Hong, Young Don; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Choi, Sang Mu; Choi, Sun Ju

    2005-01-01

    N-(3-bromo-2,4,6-trimethylacetanilide) iminodiacetic acid (BrTIDA) was synthesized using nitrilotriacetic anhydride prepared in situ, and lyophilized vials were prepared which contained 20 mg of BrTIDA and 0.4 mg of SnCl 2 . To evaluate the clinical efficacy of the in-house prepared lyophilized kit, a technetium-99m complex of BrTIDA was prepared; its in vivo pharmacokinetic behavior was evaluated via animal studies to assess the hepatocytic function and the functional status of the cystic duct and the gallbladder. Serial static image scans of rabbits and the biodistribution in mice injected with 99m Tc-BrTIDA revealed that none of the tissues except for the hepatobiliary system showed radioactivity concentrations, and a rapid clearance from the organs was observed. In conclusion, a lyophilized kit and its prepared 99m Tc-BrTIDA can be applied as a hepatobiliary imaging agent for the evaluation of the functional status of the hepatocytes and the patency of the biliary duct

  8. Technetium-99m-labeled N-(2,6-dimethylphenylcarbamoylmethyl) iminodiacetic acid (/sup 99m/Tc HIDA): a new radiopharmaceutical for hepatobiliary imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, J.; Cooper, M.; Loberg, M.; Harvey, E.; Sikorski, S.

    1977-01-01

    An easily formulated, stable kit preparation of technetium-99m HIDA, suitable for use in humans, was developed and tested in mice and dogs. The tracer was cleared rapidly from the blood and excreted predominantly by the liver in both species. In dogs, the hepatobiliary clearance of Tc-99m HIDA was significantly greater than that of C-14 HIDA and Sn-113 HIDA. The LD 50 for HIDA in mice, 168 mg/kg, exceeded the average human dose by a factor of 1000 on a per-weight basis. Blood clearance curves for Tc-99m HIDA in 12 normal subjects were biexponential with half-times of 4.6 +- 1.0 min and 31.5 +- 7.0 min, and cumulative 90-min urine samples contained 14.2 +- 1.8% of the injected dose. Images in normal subjects and nonjaundiced patients showed rapid concentration of tracer by the liver and activity was present within the biliary system in 10 to 20 min. In jaundiced patients, the tracer blood clearance was delayed and urinary excretion increased, but intestinal activity, indicating biliary patency, was imaged in those patients without complete focal obstruction of the common duct. Technetium-99m HIDA is a nontoxic radiopharmaceutical useful for clinical evaluation of hepatobiliary disorders in humans

  9. Cesium removal and kinetics equilibrium: Precipitation kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    This task consisted of both non-radioactive and radioactive (tracer) tests examining the influence of potentially significant variables on cesium tetraphenylborate precipitation kinetics. The work investigated the time required to reach cesium decontamination and the conditions that affect the cesium precipitation kinetics

  10. Plasma kinetic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Plasma kinetic theory is discussed and a comparison made with the kinetic theory of gases. The plasma is described by a modified set of fluid equations and it is shown how these fluid equations can be derived. (UK)

  11. Synthesis of 2,6-diisopropyl-phenylcarbamoylmethyl-iminodiacetic acid (DISIDA) and 4-n-p-butyl-phenylcarbamoylmethyl-iminodiacetic acid (BUTYL-IDA). Preparation of lyophilized kit to be used as 99(supm)Tc agent in hepatobiliary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, E.S.; Barbosa, M.F. de; Theodora, M.A.; Almeida, M. de; Colturato, M.T.; Muramoto, E.; Silva, C.P.G. da.

    1987-08-01

    The synthesis of 2,6 diisopropyl IDA (DISIDA) and 4-n-butyl IDA (BUTIL-IDA) is described. Their spectroscopic properties, radiopharmaceutical preparation and their use as 99 (sup m)Tc complex agent in hepatobiliary studies, are also reported. (Author) [pt

  12. Predictors of Toxicity Associated With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy to the Central Hepatobiliary Tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundson, Evan C.; Wu, Yufan; Luxton, Gary; Bazan, Jose G.; Koong, Albert C.; Chang, Daniel T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To identify dosimetric predictors of hepatobiliary (HB) toxicity associated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for liver tumors. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed 96 patients treated with SBRT for primary (53%) or metastatic (47%) liver tumors between March 2006 and November 2013. The central HB tract (cHBT) was defined by a 15-mm expansion of the portal vein from the splenic confluence to the first bifurcation of left and right portal veins. Patients were censored for toxicity upon local progression or additional liver-directed therapy. HB toxicities were graded according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. To compare different SBRT fractionations, doses were converted to biologically effective doses (BED) by using the standard linear quadratic model α/β = 10 (BED10). Results: Median follow-up was 12.7 months after SBRT. Median BED10 was 85.5 Gy (range: 37.5-151.2). The median number of fractions was 5 (range: 1-5), with 51 patients (53.1%) receiving 5 fractions and 29 patients (30.2%) receiving 3 fractions. In total, there were 23 (24.0%) grade 2+ and 18 (18.8%) grade 3+ HB toxicities. Nondosimetric factors predictive of grade 3+ HB toxicity included cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) histology (P<.0001), primary liver tumor (P=.0087), and biliary stent (P<.0001). Dosimetric parameters most predictive of grade 3+ HB toxicity were volume receiving above BED10 of 72 Gy (V BED10 72) ≥ 21 cm 3 (relative risk [RR]: 11.6, P<.0001), V BED10 66 ≥ 24 cm 3 (RR: 10.5, P<.0001), and mean BED10 (Dmean BED10 ) cHBT ≥14 Gy (RR: 9.2, P<.0001), with V BED10 72 and V BED10 66 corresponding to V40 and V37.7 for 5 fractions and V33.8 and V32.0 for 3 fractions, respectively. V BED10 72 ≥ 21 cm 3 , V BED10 66 ≥ 24 cm 3 , and Dmean BED10 cHBT ≥14 Gy were consistently predictive of grade 3+ toxicity on multivariate analysis. Conclusions: V BED10 72, V BED10 66, and Dmean BED10 to cHBT are

  13. Phantom and animal studies of a new hepatobiliary agent for MR imaging: comparison of Gd-DTPA-DeA with Gd-EOB-DTPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Kohki; Inoue, Yusuke; Akahane, Masaaki; Shimada, Morio; Itoh, Sayaka; Seno, Atsushi; Hayashi, Sanshin

    2003-08-01

    To investigate the characteristics of Gd-DTPA-DeA as a hepatobiliary contrast agent for MR imaging in comparison with those of Gd-EOB-DTPA. We undertook phantom experiments to assess T1 relaxivity for Gd-DTPA-DeA, Gd-EOB-DTPA, and Gd-DTPA in human plasma. For Gd-DTPA-DeA and Gd-EOB-DTPA, we evaluated the contrast effect in rats using an SPGR sequence. The contrast ratios of liver and abdominal aorta were measured up to 21 minutes after intravenous administration of the agents. Visualization of the bile duct and renal pelvis was also assessed. In human plasma, T1 relaxivity was similar for Gd-DTPA-DeA and Gd-EOB-DTPA, and higher than those for Gd-DTPA. Whereas the contrast ratio of liver peaked about five minutes after the injection of Gd-EOB-DTPA and was followed by a subsequent decline, a continuous rise was shown for Gd-DTPA-DeA, resulting in a larger maximal contrast effect. Contrast ratios of the abdominal aorta were larger for Gd-DTPA-DeA. Biliary excretion was observed for both agents but occurred earlier with Gd-EOB-DTPA. While renal excretion was shown for all rats three minutes after the injection of Gd-EOB-DTPA, it was not observed for Gd-DTPA-DeA. Gd-DTPA-DeA may be used as a hepatobiliary contrast agent and shows different pharmacokinetics from Gd-EOB-DTPA. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Correcting for respiratory motion in liver PET/MRI: preliminary evaluation of the utility of bellows and navigated hepatobiliary phase imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hope, Thomas A.; Verdin, Emily F.; Bergsland, Emily K.; Ohliger, Michael A.; Corvera, Carlos University; Nakakura, Eric K.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of bellows-based respiratory compensation and navigated hepatobiliary phase imaging to correct for respiratory motion in the setting of dedicated liver PET/MRI. Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained. Six patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumor were imaged using Ga-68 DOTA-TOC PET/MRI. Whole body imaging and a dedicated 15-min liver PET acquisition was performed, in addition to navigated and breath-held hepatobiliary phase (HBP) MRI. Liver PET data was reconstructed three ways: the entire data set (liver PET), gated using respiratory bellows (RC-liver PET), and a non-gated data set reconstructed using the same amount of data used in the RC-liver PET (shortened liver PET). Liver lesions were evaluated using SUV max , SUV peak , SUV mean , and Vol isocontour . Additionally, the displacement of each lesion between the RC-liver PET images and the navigated and breath-held HBP images was calculated. Respiratory compensation resulted in a 43 % increase in SUVs compared to ungated data (liver vs RC-liver PET SUV max 26.0 vs 37.3, p < 0.001) and a 25 % increase compared to a non-gated reconstruction using the same amount of data (RC-liver vs shortened liver PET SUV max 26.0 vs 32.6, p < 0.001). Lesion displacement was minimized using navigated HBP MRI (1.3 ± 1.0 mm) compared to breath-held HBP MRI (23.3 ± 1.0 mm). Respiratory bellows can provide accurate respiratory compensation when imaging liver lesions using PET/MRI, and results in increased SUVs due to a combination of increased image noise and reduced respiratory blurring. Additionally, navigated HBP MRI accurately aligns with respiratory compensated PET data.

  15. The role of surgical clips in the evaluation of interfractional uncertainty for treatment of hepatobiliary and pancreatic cancer with postoperative radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Jin Suk; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Won Taek; Kim, Yong Ho; Park, Dahl; Ki, Yong Kan

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the utility of implanted surgical clips for detecting interfractional errors in the treatment of hepatobiliary and pancreatic cancer with postoperative radiotherapy (PORT). Twenty patients had been treated with PORT for locally advanced hepatobiliary or pancreatic cancer, from November 2014 to April 2016. Patients underwent computed tomography simulation and were treated in expiratory breathing phase. During treatment, orthogonal kilovoltage (kV) imaging was taken twice a week, and isocenter shifts were made to match bony anatomy. The difference in position of clips between kV images and digitally reconstructed radiographs was determined. Clips were consist of 3 proximal clips (clip_p, ≤2 cm) and 3 distal clips (clip_d, >2 cm), which were classified according to distance from treatment center. The interfractional displacements of clips were measured in the superior-inferior (SI), anterior-posterior (AP), and right-left (RL) directions. The translocation of clip was well correlated with diaphragm movement in 90.4% (190/210) of all images. The clip position errors greater than 5 mm were observed in 26.0% in SI, 1.8% in AP, and 5.4% in RL directions, respectively. Moreover, the clip position errors greater than 10 mm were observed in 1.9% in SI, 0.2% in AP, and 0.2% in RL directions, despite respiratory control. Quantitative analysis of surgical clip displacement reflect respiratory motion, setup errors and postoperative change of intraabdominal organ position. Furthermore, position of clips is distinguished easily in verification images. The identification of the surgical clip position may lead to a significant improvement in the accuracy of upper abdominal radiation therapy

  16. The role of surgical clips in the evaluation of interfractional uncertainty for treatment of hepatobiliary and pancreatic cancer with postoperative radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jin Suk; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Won Taek; Kim, Yong Ho; Park, Dahl; Ki, Yong Kan [Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    To evaluate the utility of implanted surgical clips for detecting interfractional errors in the treatment of hepatobiliary and pancreatic cancer with postoperative radiotherapy (PORT). Twenty patients had been treated with PORT for locally advanced hepatobiliary or pancreatic cancer, from November 2014 to April 2016. Patients underwent computed tomography simulation and were treated in expiratory breathing phase. During treatment, orthogonal kilovoltage (kV) imaging was taken twice a week, and isocenter shifts were made to match bony anatomy. The difference in position of clips between kV images and digitally reconstructed radiographs was determined. Clips were consist of 3 proximal clips (clip{sub p}, ≤2 cm) and 3 distal clips (clip{sub d}, >2 cm), which were classified according to distance from treatment center. The interfractional displacements of clips were measured in the superior-inferior (SI), anterior-posterior (AP), and right-left (RL) directions. The translocation of clip was well correlated with diaphragm movement in 90.4% (190/210) of all images. The clip position errors greater than 5 mm were observed in 26.0% in SI, 1.8% in AP, and 5.4% in RL directions, respectively. Moreover, the clip position errors greater than 10 mm were observed in 1.9% in SI, 0.2% in AP, and 0.2% in RL directions, despite respiratory control. Quantitative analysis of surgical clip displacement reflect respiratory motion, setup errors and postoperative change of intraabdominal organ position. Furthermore, position of clips is distinguished easily in verification images. The identification of the surgical clip position may lead to a significant improvement in the accuracy of upper abdominal radiation therapy.

  17. Prognosis of small hepatocellular nodules detected only at the hepatobiliary phase of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging as hypointensity in cirrhosis or chronic hepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higaki, Atsushi; Ito, Katsuyoshi; Tamada, Tsutomu; Sone, Teruki; Kanki, Akihiko; Noda, Yasufumi; Yasokawa, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Akira [Kawasaki Medical School, Department of Radiology, Kurashiki City, Okayama (Japan)

    2014-10-15

    To evaluate the prognosis of ''strict'' high-risk nodules (small hepatocellular nodules detected only in the hepatobiliary phase of initial Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR examination) in patients with cirrhosis or chronic hepatitis. The study included thirty-three patients with 60 ''strict'' high-risk nodules showing hypointensity at the hepatobiliary phase that was undetectable at the vascular phase and other conventional sequences of initial Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging. These nodules were observed on follow-up MR examinations until hypervascularity was detected. The potential predictive factors for hypervascular transformation were compared between two groups (group A showing hypervascular transformation, group B not showing hypervascularization). Ten (16.7 %) of 60 ''strict'' high-risk nodules showed hypervascular transformation during follow-up periods (group A). The growth rates of the nodules in group A (6.3 ± 4.5 mm/year) were significantly higher than those in group B (3.4 ± 7.2 mm/year) (p = 0.003). Additionally, the median observation period in group A (177.5 ± 189.5 day) was significantly shorter than in group B (419 ± 372.2 day) (p = 0.045). The other predictive factors were not significantly correlated with hypervascularization. Subsets of ''strict'' high-risk nodules showed hypervascular transformation during follow-up periods in association with increased growth rates, indicating that nodule growth rate is an important predictive factor for hypervascularization. (orig.)

  18. Correcting for respiratory motion in liver PET/MRI: preliminary evaluation of the utility of bellows and navigated hepatobiliary phase imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hope, Thomas A. [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Department of Radiology, San Francisco VA Medical Center, San Francisco, CA (United States); Verdin, Emily F. [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Bergsland, Emily K. [Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Ohliger, Michael A. [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Department of Radiology, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, CA (United States); Corvera, Carlos University; Nakakura, Eric K. [Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2015-09-18

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of bellows-based respiratory compensation and navigated hepatobiliary phase imaging to correct for respiratory motion in the setting of dedicated liver PET/MRI. Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained. Six patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumor were imaged using Ga-68 DOTA-TOC PET/MRI. Whole body imaging and a dedicated 15-min liver PET acquisition was performed, in addition to navigated and breath-held hepatobiliary phase (HBP) MRI. Liver PET data was reconstructed three ways: the entire data set (liver PET), gated using respiratory bellows (RC-liver PET), and a non-gated data set reconstructed using the same amount of data used in the RC-liver PET (shortened liver PET). Liver lesions were evaluated using SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub peak}, SUV{sub mean}, and Vol{sub isocontour}. Additionally, the displacement of each lesion between the RC-liver PET images and the navigated and breath-held HBP images was calculated. Respiratory compensation resulted in a 43 % increase in SUVs compared to ungated data (liver vs RC-liver PET SUV{sub max} 26.0 vs 37.3, p < 0.001) and a 25 % increase compared to a non-gated reconstruction using the same amount of data (RC-liver vs shortened liver PET SUV{sub max} 26.0 vs 32.6, p < 0.001). Lesion displacement was minimized using navigated HBP MRI (1.3 ± 1.0 mm) compared to breath-held HBP MRI (23.3 ± 1.0 mm). Respiratory bellows can provide accurate respiratory compensation when imaging liver lesions using PET/MRI, and results in increased SUVs due to a combination of increased image noise and reduced respiratory blurring. Additionally, navigated HBP MRI accurately aligns with respiratory compensated PET data.

  19. Principles of chemical kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    House, James E

    2007-01-01

    James House's revised Principles of Chemical Kinetics provides a clear and logical description of chemical kinetics in a manner unlike any other book of its kind. Clearly written with detailed derivations, the text allows students to move rapidly from theoretical concepts of rates of reaction to concrete applications. Unlike other texts, House presents a balanced treatment of kinetic reactions in gas, solution, and solid states. The entire text has been revised and includes many new sections and an additional chapter on applications of kinetics. The topics covered include quantitative rela

  20. Introduction to chemical kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Soustelle, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This book is a progressive presentation of kinetics of the chemical reactions. It provides complete coverage of the domain of chemical kinetics, which is necessary for the various future users in the fields of Chemistry, Physical Chemistry, Materials Science, Chemical Engineering, Macromolecular Chemistry and Combustion. It will help them to understand the most sophisticated knowledge of their future job area. Over 15 chapters, this book present the fundamentals of chemical kinetics, its relations with reaction mechanisms and kinetic properties. Two chapters are then devoted to experimental re

  1. Kinetic equation solution by inverse kinetic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas, G.

    1983-01-01

    We propose a computer program (CAMU) which permits to solve the inverse kinetic equation. The CAMU code is written in HPL language for a HP 982 A microcomputer with a peripheral interface HP 9876 A ''thermal graphic printer''. The CAMU code solves the inverse kinetic equation by taking as data entry the output of the ionization chambers and integrating the equation with the help of the Simpson method. With this program we calculate the evolution of the reactivity in time for a given disturbance

  2. Kinetics in radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummel, A.

    1987-01-01

    In this chapter the authors first briefly review the kinetics of first- and second-order processes for continuous and pulsed irradiation, without taking the effects of nonhomogeneous formation of the species into consideration. They also discuss diffusion controlled reactions under conditions where interactions of more than two particles can be neglected, first the kinetics of the diffusion-controlled reaction of randomly generated species (homogeneous reaction) and then that of isolated pairs of reactants. The latter is often called geminate kinetics when dealing with pairs of oppositely charged species; they shall use this term for the kinetics of isolated pairs in general. In the last section they discuss briefly the kinetics of groups of more than two reactants

  3. Non-kinetic capabilities: complementing the kinetic prevalence to targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Ducheine, P.

    2014-01-01

    Targeting is used in military doctrine to describe a military operational way, using (military) means to influence a target (or addressee) in order to achieve designated political and/or military goals. The four factors italicized are used to analyse non-kinetic targeting, complementing our knowledge and understanding of the kinetic prevalence. Paradoxically, non-kinetic targeting is not recognized as a separate concept: kinetic and non-kinetic are intertwined facets of targeting. Kinetic tar...

  4. Kinetics of phase transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, M.O.; Aziz, M.J.; Stephenson, G.B.

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the Materials Research Society symposium on Kinetics of Phase Transformations held in Boston, Massachusetts from November 26-29, 1990. The symposium provided a forum for research results in an exceptionally broad and interdisciplinary field. Presentations covered nearly every major class of transformations including solid-solid, liquid-solid, transport phenomena and kinetics modeling. Papers involving amorphous Si, a dominant topic at the symposium, are collected in the first section followed by sections on four major areas of transformation kinetics. The symposium opened with joint sessions on ion and electron beam induced transformations in conjunction with the Surface Chemistry and Beam-Solid Interactions: symposium. Subsequent sessions focused on the areas of ordering and nonlinear diffusion kinetics, solid state reactions and amorphization, kinetics and defects of amorphous silicon, and kinetics of melting and solidification. Seven internationally recognized invited speakers reviewed many of the important problems and recent results in these areas, including defects in amorphous Si, crystal to glass transformations, ordering kinetics, solid-state amorphization, computer modeling, and liquid/solid transformations

  5. Dynamic Study on the Hepatobiliary Diseases with Combination of {sup 131}I-Rose bengal and {sup 198}Au-Colloid Scintiphotography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Yong Kok [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1971-03-15

    The radioactive {sup 131}I-Rose bengal serial scintiphotography was performed in 62 patients with the hepatobiliary diseases and in 20 normal subjects. This approach permitted visualization of the hepatic uptake of {sup 131}I-Rose bengal from the circulation and its excretion into the biliary trees and the intestines. In some of these patients, gallbladder function was examined, using eggs as a gallbladder constrictor. The time of maximum hepatic uptake was well correlated to the conventional biochemical liver function tests. In addition to {sup 131}I-Rose bengal scintiphotography, {sup 198}Au-colloid scintiphotography was also performed to make comparison of these two tests. The results obtained were as follows: 1) In normal subjects, the maximum hepatic uptake of {sup 131}I-Rose bengal occurred at 23+-2.9 minutes, the initial hepatic excretion at 34+-5.1 minutes, the visualization of the gallbladder at 29+-5.7 minutes and the intestinal visualization at 54+-25.8 minutes. The radioactivity in the gallbladder decreased to 10.7+-5.0% one hour after the ingestion of eggs. 2) In the patients with cirrhosis of the liver, there was a delayed and decreased hepatic uptake. The maximum hepatic uptake occurred at 43+-12.9 minutes. The differences in the results of uptake between the cirrhotic and the normal group were statistically significant. The initial hepatic excretion occurred at 60+-18.5 minutes and had tendency of delaying compared with the normal controls. The gallbladder was visualized in 13 of 16 cases (81%) and its visualization occurred at 49+-14.6 minutes with a tendency to be delayed compared with the normal controls. The intestinal visualization occurred at 63+-15.8 minutes and its delaying tendency was somewhat more prominent. 3) In patients with hepatitis, the maximum hepatic uptake occurred at 59+-21.4 minutes and was significantly delayed. The initial hepatic excretion occurred at 82+-34.3 minutes and the results revealed a delaying tendency. The

  6. Diagnostic Significance of the Blood Disappearance Rate of {sup 131}I-Rose Bengal and of {sup 198}Au colloid in Hepatobiliary Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Young Kyoon; Hahn, Shim Suk; Koh, Chang Soon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1971-09-15

    The liver function test was performed by means of two radioisotope tracer techniques in 20 normal subjects and in 63 patients with hepatobiliary diseases. The blood disappearance rates of {sup 131}I-rose bengal and of {sup 198}Au colloid were determined by external counting method. The hepatocellular function and the hepatic blood flow were estimated from the observed data and the results were compared with those of the conventional liver function tests. The results obtained were as follows: 1. The mean blood disappearance half time of {sup 131}I-rose bengal was 6.6+-0.63 minutes in normal control, 17.7+-6.93 in cirrhosis of the liver, 16.6+-4. 80 in acute hepatitis, and 14 7+-3.46 in obstructive jaundice. It was markedly prolonged in the hepatobiliary diseases as compared with the normal control, but there was no significant difference among the hepatobiliary diseases. 2.The mean blood disappearance half time of {sup 198}Au colloid was 4. 0+-0. 66 minutes in normal control, 9.8+-3.42 in cirrhosis of the liver, 4.4+-0.82 in acute hepatitis, and 5.0+-1.42 in obstructive jaundice. The difference between cirrhosis of the liver and normal control was statistically significant. However, there was no definite difference among acute hepatitis, obstructive jaundice, and normal control. The mean blood disappearance rate constant (K value) was 0.177+-0.028/minute in normal control, In cirrhosis of the liver, it was markedly decreased which was suggestive of the reduced hepatic blood flow. 3. The ratio of {sup 131}I-rose bengal blood disappearance half time to {sup 198}Au colloid disappearance half time was 1.68+-0.20 in normal control, 1.82+-0.31 in cirrhosis of the liver, 3.80+-0.82 in acute hepatitis, and 3.01+-0.54 in obstructive jaundice. The ratios in acute hepatitis and obstructive jaundice were remarkably higher than those in normal control and cirrhosis of the liver. 4. There was a significant correlation between the blood disappearance half time of {sup 131}I

  7. Diagnostic Significance of the Blood Disappearance Rate of 131I-Rose Bengal and of 198Au colloid in Hepatobiliary Diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Young Kyoon; Hahn, Shim Suk; Koh, Chang Soon

    1971-01-01

    The liver function test was performed by means of two radioisotope tracer techniques in 20 normal subjects and in 63 patients with hepatobiliary diseases. The blood disappearance rates of 131 I-rose bengal and of 198 Au colloid were determined by external counting method. The hepatocellular function and the hepatic blood flow were estimated from the observed data and the results were compared with those of the conventional liver function tests. The results obtained were as follows: 1. The mean blood disappearance half time of 131 I-rose bengal was 6.6±0.63 minutes in normal control, 17.7±6.93 in cirrhosis of the liver, 16.6±4. 80 in acute hepatitis, and 14 7±3.46 in obstructive jaundice. It was markedly prolonged in the hepatobiliary diseases as compared with the normal control, but there was no significant difference among the hepatobiliary diseases. 2.The mean blood disappearance half time of 198 Au colloid was 4. 0±0. 66 minutes in normal control, 9.8±3.42 in cirrhosis of the liver, 4.4±0.82 in acute hepatitis, and 5.0±1.42 in obstructive jaundice. The difference between cirrhosis of the liver and normal control was statistically significant. However, there was no definite difference among acute hepatitis, obstructive jaundice, and normal control. The mean blood disappearance rate constant (K value) was 0.177±0.028/minute in normal control, In cirrhosis of the liver, it was markedly decreased which was suggestive of the reduced hepatic blood flow. 3. The ratio of 131 I-rose bengal blood disappearance half time to 198 Au colloid disappearance half time was 1.68±0.20 in normal control, 1.82±0.31 in cirrhosis of the liver, 3.80±0.82 in acute hepatitis, and 3.01±0.54 in obstructive jaundice. The ratios in acute hepatitis and obstructive jaundice were remarkably higher than those in normal control and cirrhosis of the liver. 4. There was a significant correlation between the blood disappearance half time of 131 I-rose bengal and that of 198 Au colloid in

  8. Irreversible processes kinetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Brush, Stephen G

    2013-01-01

    Kinetic Theory, Volume 2: Irreversible Processes deals with the kinetic theory of gases and the irreversible processes they undergo. It includes the two papers by James Clerk Maxwell and Ludwig Boltzmann in which the basic equations for transport processes in gases are formulated, together with the first derivation of Boltzmann's ""H-theorem"" and a discussion of this theorem, along with the problem of irreversibility.Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to the fundamental nature of heat and of gases, along with Boltzmann's work on the kinetic theory of gases and s

  9. Hepatobiliary function assessed by {sup 99m}Tc-mebrofenin cholescintigraphy in the evaluation of severity of steatosis in a rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetelaeinen, Reeta L.; Vliet, Arlene van; Gulik, Thomas M. van [Academic Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bennink, Roelof J.; Bruin, Kora de [Academic Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-10-15

    This study evaluated the utility of non-invasive assessment of hepatobiliary function by {sup 99m}Tc-mebrofenin cholescintigraphy in a rat model of diet-induced steatosis. Male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were fed a standard methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet for up to 5 weeks, thereby inducing hepatic fat accumulation, progressive inflammation and fibrogenesis corresponding with clinical steatosis. {sup 99m}Tc-mebrofenin pinhole scintigraphy was used to evaluate the hepatocyte mebrofenin uptake rate, the time of maximum hepatic uptake (T{sub peak}) and the time required for peak activity to decrease by 50% (T{sub 1/2peak}). Scintigraphic parameters were correlated with biochemical and serological parameters and with liver histopathology. MCD diet induced mild steatosis after 1 week and severe steatosis with prominent inflammation after 5 weeks. T{sub peak}, T{sub 1/2peak} prolonged and the uptake rate decreased significantly, while the severity of steatosis increased (p<0.05). There was a strong, significant correlation between the severity of steatosis (histopathology, hepatic triglyceride content) and the {sup 99m}Tc-mebrofenin uptake rate (r {sup 2}=0.83, p<0.0001 and r {sup 2}=0.82, p<0.0001, respectively). In addition, the uptake rate correlated significantly with the increased inflammation (plasma and hepatic TNF-{alpha}, r {sup 2}=0.72, p<0.0001 and r {sup 2}=0.52, p=0.001, respectively). The correlation of the uptake rate with hepatocellular damage was weak (AST and ALT, r {sup 2}=0.29 and 0.32, respectively), but correlation with synthetic function was strong (prothrombin time, r {sup 2}=0.70, p<0.001). Hepatobiliary function assessed by {sup 99m}Tc-mebrofenin scintigraphy correlates with the extent and progression of steatosis. These results suggest a potential role for mebrofenin scintigraphy as a non-invasive functional follow-up method for disease progression in steatotic patients. (orig.)

  10. Clinical evaluation of the scoring of optical findings with technetium-99m-N-pyridoxyl-5-methyl-tryptophan (PMT) hepatobiliary scintigraphy for fulminant hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Katsuhiro; Kuniyasu, Yoshio; Niio, Yasuo

    1998-01-01

    Fulminant hepatitis is one of the most life-threatening diseases for which adequate medical therapy does not exist. Then, we evaluated the usefulness of technetium-99m-N-pyridoxyl-5-methyl-tryptophan (PMT) hepatobiliary scintigraphy to estimate the diagnosis and prognosis of fulminant hepatitis. In total 60 patients, 23 with fulminant hepatitis (FH), 25 with severe acute hepatitis (SAH) and 12 with acute hepatitis (AH), computer data acquisition by gamma-camera system started just after the injection of 185 MBq 99m Tc-PMT. The optical finding score which included cardiac blood pool remaining time (0-3), distribution of radioactivity in the liver (0-3), extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) and intestine appearance time (0-3) were studied. The cardiac blood pool remaining time score was 2.8±0.5 in FH, 2.2±0.8 in SAH, 0.9±1.1 in AH. The intrahepatic distribution score was 2.1±0.8 in FH, 0.3±0.6 in SAH, 0.1±0.3 in AH. The EHBD and intestine appearance time score was 1.9±1.1 in FH, 1.5±1.2 in SAH, 0.3±0.6 in AH. The total score was 6.7±1.4 in FH, 4.0±1.6 in SAH, 1.3±1.3 in AH. There were significantly statistical differences among three groups. While, the cardiac blood pool remaining time score was 3.0±0 in 14 hospital death patients (HD), 1.9±1.0 in 46 alive patients (AL). The intrahepatic distribution score was 2.2±0.8 in HD, 0.5±0.9 in AL. The EHBD and intestine appearance time score was 2.1±1.2 in HD, 1.2±1.1 in AL. The total score was 7.3±1.3 in HD, 3.6±2.2 in AL. There were significantly statistical differences in these groups. The optimal finding score of 99m Tc-PMT hepatobiliary scintigraphy was useful in establishing the diagnosis and prognosis of FH. (author)

  11. SHORT COMMUNICATION CATALYTIC KINETIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IV) catalyzes the discoloring reaction of DBS-arsenazo oxidized by potassium bromate, a new catalytic kinetic spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace titanium (IV) was developed. The linear range of the determination of ...

  12. Clinical comparison of diisopropyl-IDA Tc 99m and diethyl-IDA Tc 99m for evaluation of the hepatobiliary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingensmith, W.C.; Fritzberg, A.R.; Spitzer, V.M.; Kuni, C.C.; Shanahan, W.S.

    1981-01-01

    Thirty-one patients with a wide range of hepatobiliary function and clinical diagnoses were studied with both diisopropyl-IDA Tc 99m and diethyl-IDA Tc 99m. Images were similar except for an increased liver-to-kidney ratio with diisopropyl-IDA Tc 99m (p less than 0.01) and a tendency toward an increased liver-to-background ratio at five minutes with diisopropyl-IDA Tc 99m (p greater than 0.05). Quantification of the relative hepatocyte extraction efficiency indicated a 16% higher extraction efficiency for diisopropyl-IDA Tc 99m (p greater than 0.05). Cumulative three-hour urine collections following injection demonstrated no significant difference in renal excretion in patients with normal total serum bilirubin levels. Both radiopharmaceuticals demonstrated increasing renal excretion with increasing total serum bilirubin levels; however, renal excretion of diisopropyl-IDA Tc 99m increased more slowly than excretion of diethyl-IDA Tc 99m (p less than 0.01). We conclude that, while the overall differences between these two radiopharmaceuticals are small, diisopropyl-IDA Tc 99m is superior because of a lower renal excretion rate in patients with decreased hepatocyte function

  13. Evaluation of reserved hepatic function in patients with hepatobiliary tumor by {sup 99m}Tc-GSA. Effect of hyperbilirubinemia and usefulness of regional reserved hepatic functional imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Wu; Ishikawa, Nobuyoshi; Takeda, Tohoru; Sato, Motohiro; Todoroki, Takeshi; Itai, Yuji [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Fukunaga, Kiyoshi; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Hatakeyama, Rokurou

    1996-02-01

    The evaluation of the reserved hepatic function was performed by {sup 99m}Tc-galactosyl serum albumin ({sup 99m}Tc-GSA) in 70 patients with hepatobiliary tumor. The dynamic study was performed to evaluate global reserved hepatic function following the intravenous bolus injection of {sup 99m}Tc-GSA, and the hepatic single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was obtained to assess the regional reserved hepatic function. The functional hepatic index (LHL{sub 15}) was derived from liver time-activity data, and it was compared with serum total-bilirubin level, serum albumin level and plasma disappearance rate of indocyanine green (ICG{sub 15}). In the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, LHL{sub 15} value agreed well with ICG{sub 15} value, serum total-bilirubin level, and serum albumin level. Moderate or severe hepatic dysfunction was observed at 65.4% of these patients. In the patients with cholangiocellular carcinoma, a discrepancy of LHL{sub 15} value and ICG{sub 15} value was observed. Increment of the ICG{sub 15} value was correlated with that of the serum total-bilirubin level, whereas the correlation was not observed between the LHL{sub 15} value and the serum total-bilirubin level. These results indicate that {sup 99m}Tc-GSA scintigraphy can evaluate the reserved hepatic function without the embellishment of jaundice. This method is useful for assessing the global and regional reserved hepatic function. (author).

  14. Tc-99m-BrIDA hepatobiliary (HIDA) scan has a low sensitivity for detecting biliary complications after orthotopic liver transplantation in patients with hyperbilirubinemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, L.O.; Feyssa, E.; Parsikia, A.; Khanmoradi, K.; Zaki, R.; Campos, S.; Araya, V.; Tran, H.; Ortiz, J.

    2011-01-01

    Tc-99m-BrIDA hepatobiliary scans are noninvasive tests for detecting biliary leaks and obstructions. However, there is low sensitivity and specificity in patients with hyperbilirubinemia. Biliary complications (BC) are the Achilles heel of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). We questioned whether hyperbilirubinemia in liver transplant recipients rendered HIDA scanning less dependable. HIDA findings were compared to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, laparotomy, and clinical course. Results were categorized as follows: true positive (TP), true negative (TN), false positive (FP), false negative (FN), or nondiagnostic/inconclusive. We searched for variables associated with erroneous or nondiagnostic tests which we defined as all examinations determined to be FP, FN and/or nondiagnostic/inconclusive. Thirty-four patients underwent a HIDA scan. The sensitivity and specificity were 70 and 100%. The sensitivity of HIDA improved to 100% in patients with a total bilirubin (TB) 5 mg/dl. One FN had a TB <5 mg/dl, but was determined inconclusive due to the roux-en-Y. HIDA scans performed when the total bilirubin was <5 mg/dl had a high sensitivity and specificity for detecting biliary complications after OLT. However, when the total bilirubin exceeded 5 mg/dl, the specificity was still 100% but the numbers of nondiagnostic/inconclusive and FN exams were increased. (author)

  15. Rare Type of Course and Distribution of an Additional Right Hepatic Artery: A Possible Source of Iatrogenic Injury During Hepato-biliary and Pancreatic Surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakashchandra Shetty

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Celiac artery shows frequent variations in its branching pattern. Knowledge of its possible variations is useful in gastric, pancreatic and hepato-biliary surgeries. During our dissection classes, we observed a rare variation of the branching pattern of celiac trunk. It divided normally into its three branches; left gastric, splenic and common hepatic arteries. Left gastric and splenic arteries were normal in their course and distribution. The common hepatic artery trifurcated to give hepatic artery proper, gastroduodenal artery and an additional right hepatic artery. The branching pattern of hepatic artery proper and gastroduodenal arteries was normal. The additional right hepatic artery gave origin to a right gastric artery and a large pancreatic branch to the head of the pancreas. It coursed parallel to the bile duct, being on its right side, passed through the Calot’s triangle and entered the right lobe of liver through the fossa for gall bladder. In the Calot’s triangle, it gave a cystic branch to the gall bladder. We discuss the clinical importance of this rare variation in this paper.

  16. Added value of smooth hypointense rim in the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI in identifying tumour capsule and diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Chansik; Han, Kyunghwa; Choi, Jin-Young; Park, Mi-Suk; Kim, Myeong-Jin [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, Hyungjin [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project for Medical Science, Integrated Genomic Research Center for Metabolic Regulation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young-Nyun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project for Medical Science, Integrated Genomic Research Center for Metabolic Regulation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yonsei University College of Medicine, Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sumi [National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Department of Radiology, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    To examine the added value of considering smooth hypointense rim in the hepatobiliary phase (HBP) of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI as capsule appearance for diagnosing tumour capsules and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A total of 377 hepatic lesions (330 HCCs, 35 non-HCC malignancies and 12 benign) were included from 345 patients who underwent resection after MRI between January 2008 and December 2011. Two radiologists assessed the presence or absence of conventional capsule appearance and smooth hypointense rim in the HBP, and categorized each hepatic lesion according to the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System. Difference in diagnostic performance was evaluated using the generalized estimating equation method. For identifying capsule, the sensitivity and accuracy of HBP hypointense rim were significantly higher than those of conventional capsule appearance (81.5 % vs. 57.8 % and 76.1 % vs. 59.4 %, respectively; P < 0.001). For diagnosing HCC, the sensitivity and accuracy of LR-5 or LR-5 V were significantly higher when the HBP hypointense rim was also considered capsule appearance (83 % vs. 72.7 % and 84.1 % vs. 75.1 %, respectively; P < 0.001), with the same specificity (91.5 %). Regarding smooth hypointense rim in the HBP as capsule appearance could improve the detection of tumour capsule and the diagnosis of HCC. (orig.)

  17. [The efficacy of the combined rehabilitative treatment of the patients presenting with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diseases of the hepatobiliary system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherchinian, A S

    2012-01-01

    A total of 80 patients presenting with exogenous constitutional obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diseases of the hepatobiliary system (including chronic non-calculous cholecystitis and fatty hepatosis) were enrolled to participate in the present study. The basal treatment consisted of the adequate reducing diet, remedial gymnastics, massage, reflexo-acupuncture, the application of galvanic muds, and controlled intake of chofitol. It was supplemented with magnetic laser irradiation of selected abdominal regions, and electrical stimulation of femoral, dorsal, and abdominal muscles. It was shown that the combination of the above procedures and physical factors significantly improves the overall outcome of the treatment. The patients suffering intestinal dysbacteriosis were prescribed the intake of probiotic Nor Narine together with Jermuk mineral water; they were found to benefit from such treatment due to normalization of intestinal biocenosis and improvement of their general condition. The clinical and paraclinical data obtained in this study give evidence of the therapeutic efficacy of certain physical factors and especially their combination used for the medical rehabilitation of the patients presenting with constitutional obesity, metabolic syndrome, and digestive disorders. Moreover, the well-apparent positive results were documented from the combined treatment with magnetic laser radiation and therapeutic muds.

  18. Evaluation of reserved hepatic function in patients with hepatobiliary tumor by 99mTc-GSA. Effect of hyperbilirubinemia and usefulness of regional reserved hepatic functional imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Wu; Ishikawa, Nobuyoshi; Takeda, Tohoru; Sato, Motohiro; Todoroki, Takeshi; Itai, Yuji; Fukunaga, Kiyoshi; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Hatakeyama, Rokurou.

    1996-01-01

    The evaluation of the reserved hepatic function was performed by 99m Tc-galactosyl serum albumin ( 99m Tc-GSA) in 70 patients with hepatobiliary tumor. The dynamic study was performed to evaluate global reserved hepatic function following the intravenous bolus injection of 99m Tc-GSA, and the hepatic single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was obtained to assess the regional reserved hepatic function. The functional hepatic index (LHL 15 ) was derived from liver time-activity data, and it was compared with serum total-bilirubin level, serum albumin level and plasma disappearance rate of indocyanine green (ICG 15 ). In the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, LHL 15 value agreed well with ICG 15 value, serum total-bilirubin level, and serum albumin level. Moderate or severe hepatic dysfunction was observed at 65.4% of these patients. In the patients with cholangiocellular carcinoma, a discrepancy of LHL 15 value and ICG 15 value was observed. Increment of the ICG 15 value was correlated with that of the serum total-bilirubin level, whereas the correlation was not observed between the LHL 15 value and the serum total-bilirubin level. These results indicate that 99m Tc-GSA scintigraphy can evaluate the reserved hepatic function without the embellishment of jaundice. This method is useful for assessing the global and regional reserved hepatic function. (author)

  19. Hepatobiliary delivery of polyaminopolycarboxylate chelates: Synthesis and characterization of a cholic acid conjugate of EDTA and biodistribution and imaging studies with its indium-111 chelate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betebenner, D.A.; Carney, P.L.; Zimmer, A.M.; Kazikiewicz, J.M.; Bruecher, E.S.; Sherry, A.D.; Johnson, D.K. (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois (USA))

    1991-03-01

    A conjugate in which the steroid nucleus of cholic acid was linked to EDTA via an 11-atom spacer was obtained by reacting the succinimidyl ester of cholic acid with the amine formed by reaction of a benzyl isothiocyanate derivative of EDTA with N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)ethylenediamine and subsequent deprotection. Potentiometric titration studies with model complexes showed that the EDTA moiety retained the ability to form 1:1 chelates of high thermodynamic stability, although formation constants were some 3-4 log K units lower for complexes of the conjugate than for the analogous chelates with underivatized EDTA. A complex formed between the cholic acid-EDTA conjugate and 111InIII was clearly rapidly into the liver when injected iv into mice, with subsequent excretion from the liver into the gastrointestinal tract being complete within 1 h of injection. Radioscintigraphic imaging studies conducted in a rabbit given the 111In-labeled conjugate also showed early liver uptake followed by rapid clearance from the liver into the intestine, with good visualization of the gallbladder in images obtained at 20-25 min postinjection. It is concluded that conjugation to cholic acid provides a useful means for the hepatobiliary delivery of EDTA chelates that otherwise exhibit predominantly extracellular distribution and renal clearance.

  20. Hepatobiliary delivery of polyaminopolycarboxylate chelates: Synthesis and characterization of a cholic acid conjugate of EDTA and biodistribution and imaging studies with its indium-111 chelate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betebenner, D.A.; Carney, P.L.; Zimmer, A.M.; Kazikiewicz, J.M.; Bruecher, E.S.; Sherry, A.D.; Johnson, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    A conjugate in which the steroid nucleus of cholic acid was linked to EDTA via an 11-atom spacer was obtained by reacting the succinimidyl ester of cholic acid with the amine formed by reaction of a benzyl isothiocyanate derivative of EDTA with N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)ethylenediamine and subsequent deprotection. Potentiometric titration studies with model complexes showed that the EDTA moiety retained the ability to form 1:1 chelates of high thermodynamic stability, although formation constants were some 3-4 log K units lower for complexes of the conjugate than for the analogous chelates with underivatized EDTA. A complex formed between the cholic acid-EDTA conjugate and 111InIII was clearly rapidly into the liver when injected iv into mice, with subsequent excretion from the liver into the gastrointestinal tract being complete within 1 h of injection. Radioscintigraphic imaging studies conducted in a rabbit given the 111In-labeled conjugate also showed early liver uptake followed by rapid clearance from the liver into the intestine, with good visualization of the gallbladder in images obtained at 20-25 min postinjection. It is concluded that conjugation to cholic acid provides a useful means for the hepatobiliary delivery of EDTA chelates that otherwise exhibit predominantly extracellular distribution and renal clearance

  1. Diagnosis of hepatobiliary disease by Technetium-99m-HIDA and BIDA cholecystography in 210 patients treated at ''Soroka Medical Center'' between 1977 - 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garty, I.; Silberman, C.

    1979-01-01

    Cholescintigraphy experience with Tc 99 m-HIDA and BIDA in 210 patients with gallbladder disease treated at the Soroka Medical Center between the years 1977 - 1979 is described. In this work the utility of the method in both acute and chronic cholecystitis and hepatobiliary disease in the presence of jaundice up to 26 mg% of Bilirubin is demosntrated. Four patients were diagnosed as suffering from Atresia of biliary duct. The most common findings in our series are: all normal gallbladders exhibited filling; absence of visualization indicated gallbladder disease and/or cystic duct obstruction; visualization of the gallbladder after a fatty meal-induced emptying excluded an obstructed cystic duct and acute cholecystitis; a definite diagnosis of hepato-cellular disease, partial and complete obstruction, is possible in jaundiced patients with hyperbilirubinemia. No diagnostic failures due to too low concentration of the tracer in the biliary tract, were observed. Radiation exposure is somewhat greater than in cholecystography and cholangiography. Cholescintigraphy is a suitable complementary or alternative investigation to intravenous cholangiography, especially when poor excretion of the contrast medium or adverse reaction impair the result of the latter. In some of our cases this method proved to be the first choice non invasive procedure, especially in cases with high serum bilirubin up to 26 mg%. (B.G.)

  2. Disorders of Bone Mineral Density and Secondary Osteoporosis in Pathology of Hepatobiliary System and Gastrointestinal Tract: at the Crossing of Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Yu. Golovach

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This review article covers the issues of development of osteoporosis and disorders of bone mineral density in patients with various gastroenterological and hepatobiliary diseases. The article emphasized that the osteoporosis may be associated with many somatic diseases, especially of the digestive tract. Such situation requires participation of therapeutists and gastroenterologists in rehabilitation health care programs. According to the practical guidelines of the World Organization of Gastroenterology (OMGE, 2004 list of chronic diseases of the digestive system triggering the dangerous development of osteoporosis includes short bowel syndrome, postgastrectomy syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, cholestatic liver disease, as well as glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. The etiology and pathogenesis of lower bone mineral density in patients with chronic diseases of the digestive system include, besides population-based risk factors, processes associated with disorders of vitamin D conversion, which leads to reduction of the absorption of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus in the intestine and increase of their excretion by the kidneys. Hypocalcemia results in activation of the parathyroid glands and secondary hyperparathyroidism, and against the background of chronic inflammation increases the activity of cytokines, in particular tumor necrosis factor α and interleukins-1, -6, having bone resorptive action. The main risk factors for osteoporosis for various diseases associated with the peculiarities of the digestive tract’ disease were identified.

  3. Imaging-based evaluation of liver function: comparison of {sup 99m}Tc-mebrofenin hepatobiliary scintigraphy and Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisel, Dominik; Gebauer, Bernhard [Charite Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Luedemann, Lutz [Essen University Hospital, Department of Medical Physics, Essen (Germany); Froeling, Vera; Denecke, Timm [Charite Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Charite Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Malinowski, Maciej; Stockmann, Martin; Baron, Annekathrin; Seehofer, Daniel [Charite Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of General, Visceral and Thoracic Surgery, Berlin (Germany); Prasad, Vikas [Charite Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Berlin (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    To compare Gd-EOB-enhanced MRI and {sup 99m}Tc-mebrofenin hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS) as imaging-based liver function tests for separate evaluation of right (RLL) and left liver lobe (LLL) function. Fourteen patients underwent Gd-EOB-enhanced MRI and {sup 99m}Tc-mebrofenin HBS after portal vein embolization within 24 h. Relative enhancement (RE) and hepatic uptake index (HUI) were determined from MRI; and T{sub max}, T{sub 1/2} and mebrofenin uptake were determined from HBS, all values separately for RLL and LLL. Mebrofenin uptake correlated significantly with HUI and RE for both liver lobes. There was strong correlation of mebrofenin uptake with HUI for RLL (r{sup 2} = 0.802, p = 0.001) and RE for LLL (r{sup 2} = 0.704, p = 0.005) and moderate correlation with HUI for LLL (r{sup 2} = 0.560, p = 0.037) and RE for RLL (r{sup 2} = 0.620, p = 0.018). Correlating the percentage share of RLL function derived from MRI (with HUI) with the percentage of RLL function derived from mebrofenin uptake revealed a strong correlation (r{sup 2} = 0.775, p = 0.002). Both RE and HUI correlate with mebrofenin uptake in HBS. The results suggest that Gd-EOB-enhanced MRI and {sup 99m}Tc-mebrofenin HBS may equally be used to separately determine right and left liver lobe function. (orig.)

  4. Relativistic Chiral Kinetic Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephanov, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    This very brief review of the recent progress in chiral kinetic theory is based on the results of Refs. [J.-Y. Chen, D. T. Son, M. A. Stephanov, H.-U. Yee, Y. Yin, Lorentz Invariance in Chiral Kinetic Theory, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 (18) (2014) 182302. doi: (10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.182302); J.-Y. Chen, D. T. Son, M. A. Stephanov, Collisions in Chiral Kinetic Theory, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115 (2) (2015) 021601. doi: (10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.021601); M. A. Stephanov, H.-U. Yee, The no-drag frame for anomalous chiral fluid, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116 (12) (2016) 122302. doi: (10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.122302)].

  5. Relativistic Chiral Kinetic Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephanov, Mikhail

    2016-12-15

    This very brief review of the recent progress in chiral kinetic theory is based on the results of Refs. [J.-Y. Chen, D. T. Son, M. A. Stephanov, H.-U. Yee, Y. Yin, Lorentz Invariance in Chiral Kinetic Theory, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 (18) (2014) 182302. doi: (10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.182302); J.-Y. Chen, D. T. Son, M. A. Stephanov, Collisions in Chiral Kinetic Theory, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115 (2) (2015) 021601. doi: (10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.021601); M. A. Stephanov, H.-U. Yee, The no-drag frame for anomalous chiral fluid, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116 (12) (2016) 122302. doi: (10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.122302)].

  6. Erbium hydride decomposition kinetics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrizz, Robert Matthew

    2006-11-01

    Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) is used to study the decomposition kinetics of erbium hydride thin films. The TDS results presented in this report are analyzed quantitatively using Redhead's method to yield kinetic parameters (E{sub A} {approx} 54.2 kcal/mol), which are then utilized to predict hydrogen outgassing in vacuum for a variety of thermal treatments. Interestingly, it was found that the activation energy for desorption can vary by more than 7 kcal/mol (0.30 eV) for seemingly similar samples. In addition, small amounts of less-stable hydrogen were observed for all erbium dihydride films. A detailed explanation of several approaches for analyzing thermal desorption spectra to obtain kinetic information is included as an appendix.

  7. Relativistic Kinetic Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereshchagin, Gregory V.; Aksenov, Alexey G.

    2017-02-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; Acronyms and definitions; Introduction; Part I. Theoretical Foundations: 1. Basic concepts; 2. Kinetic equation; 3. Averaging; 4. Conservation laws and equilibrium; 5. Relativistic BBGKY hierarchy; 6. Basic parameters in gases and plasmas; Part II. Numerical Methods: 7. The basics of computational physics; 8. Direct integration of Boltzmann equations; 9. Multidimensional hydrodynamics; Part III. Applications: 10. Wave dispersion in relativistic plasma; 11. Thermalization in relativistic plasma; 12. Kinetics of particles in strong fields; 13. Compton scattering in astrophysics and cosmology; 14. Self-gravitating systems; 15. Neutrinos, gravitational collapse and supernovae; Appendices; Bibliography; Index.

  8. Quantum kinetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bonitz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book presents quantum kinetic theory in a comprehensive way. The focus is on density operator methods and on non-equilibrium Green functions. The theory allows to rigorously treat nonequilibrium dynamics in quantum many-body systems. Of particular interest are ultrafast processes in plasmas, condensed matter and trapped atoms that are stimulated by rapidly developing experiments with short pulse lasers and free electron lasers. To describe these experiments theoretically, the most powerful approach is given by non-Markovian quantum kinetic equations that are discussed in detail, including computational aspects.

  9. Prognostic impact of hepatobiliary scintigraphy in diagnosis and postoperative follow-up of newborns with biliary atresia; Prognostische Wertigkeit der hepatobiliaeren Funktionszintigraphie in Diagnostik und Nachsorge der Gallengangsatresie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossmueller, B.; Porn, U.; Dresel, S.; Hahn, K. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Schuster, T. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Kinderchirurgische Klinik; Lang, T. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Kinderklinik

    2000-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the prognostic relevance of hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS) in newborns suffering from biliary atresia (BA) for establishing the primary diagnosis and in the postoperative follow-up after portoenterostomy (Kasai). Methods: Twenty newborns with direct hyperbilirubinemia and 6 children after operative treatment of BA (Kasai) underwent HBS with Tc-99m-DEIDA. In patients without intestinal drainage, hepatocellular extraction was estimated visually and calculated semiquantitatively by means of liver/heart-ratio 5 min p.i. Results: 10/20 patients with hyperbilirubinemia did not display biliary drainage; 6 had BA, 3 intrahepatic hypoplasia, and one showed a bile plug syndrom. 4/6 with BA but none of the 4 children with diagnoses other than BA presented with a good extraction. All of the 4 children with BA, who had either pre- or postoperatively a bad extraction, needed liver transplantation due to liver failure. Both of the two newborns with BA and favourable outcome after Kasai had a good extraction in the preoperative HBS and demonstrated good intestinal drainage in the postoperative scan. Conclusion: HBS rules out BA with high accuracy by demonstrating drainage of bile into the intestine. In newborns without drainage a good extraction favours the diagnosis of BA. In newborns with BA a bad extraction seems to indicate a poor postoperative prognosis after Kasai operation. HBS might therefore help to select those children who will not benefit from portoenterostomy. Postoperatively, HBS can easily and quickly confirm the successful hepatobiliary anastomosis by demonstrating biliary drainage into the intestine. (orig.) [German] Ziel der Studie war es, die diagnostische Wertigkeit und die prognostische Aussagekraft der hepatobiliaeren Funktionsszintigraphie (HB-FS) in der Primaerdiagnostik der Gallengangsatresie (GG-Atresie) und bei postoperativen Kontrollen nach Portoenterostomie (Kasai-OP) zu ueberpruefen. Methoden: 20 Neugeborene (Alter: 3-119 d) mit

  10. Oxidative desulfurization: kinetic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhir, S; Uppaluri, R; Purkait, M K

    2009-01-30

    Increasing environmental legislations coupled with enhanced production of petroleum products demand, the deployment of novel technologies to remove organic sulfur efficiently. This work represents the kinetic modeling of ODS using H(2)O(2) over tungsten-containing layered double hydroxide (LDH) using the experimental data provided by Hulea et al. [V. Hulea, A.L. Maciuca, F. Fajula, E. Dumitriu, Catalytic oxidation of thiophenes and thioethers with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of W-containing layered double hydroxides, Appl. Catal. A: Gen. 313 (2) (2006) 200-207]. The kinetic modeling approach in this work initially targets the scope of the generation of a superstructure of micro-kinetic reaction schemes and models assuming Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) and Eley-Rideal (ER) mechanisms. Subsequently, the screening and selection of above models is initially based on profile-based elimination of incompetent schemes followed by non-linear regression search performed using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (LMA) for the chosen models. The above analysis inferred that Eley-Rideal mechanism describes the kinetic behavior of ODS process using tungsten-containing LDH, with adsorption of reactant and intermediate product only taking place on the catalyst surface. Finally, an economic index is presented that scopes the economic aspects of the novel catalytic technology with the parameters obtained during regression analysis to conclude that the cost factor for the catalyst is 0.0062-0.04759 US $ per barrel.

  11. Oxidative desulfurization: Kinetic modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhir, S.; Uppaluri, R.; Purkait, M.K.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing environmental legislations coupled with enhanced production of petroleum products demand, the deployment of novel technologies to remove organic sulfur efficiently. This work represents the kinetic modeling of ODS using H 2 O 2 over tungsten-containing layered double hydroxide (LDH) using the experimental data provided by Hulea et al. [V. Hulea, A.L. Maciuca, F. Fajula, E. Dumitriu, Catalytic oxidation of thiophenes and thioethers with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of W-containing layered double hydroxides, Appl. Catal. A: Gen. 313 (2) (2006) 200-207]. The kinetic modeling approach in this work initially targets the scope of the generation of a superstructure of micro-kinetic reaction schemes and models assuming Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) and Eley-Rideal (ER) mechanisms. Subsequently, the screening and selection of above models is initially based on profile-based elimination of incompetent schemes followed by non-linear regression search performed using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (LMA) for the chosen models. The above analysis inferred that Eley-Rideal mechanism describes the kinetic behavior of ODS process using tungsten-containing LDH, with adsorption of reactant and intermediate product only taking place on the catalyst surface. Finally, an economic index is presented that scopes the economic aspects of the novel catalytic technology with the parameters obtained during regression analysis to conclude that the cost factor for the catalyst is 0.0062-0.04759 US $ per barrel

  12. Modeling chemical kinetics graphically

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heck, A.

    2012-01-01

    In literature on chemistry education it has often been suggested that students, at high school level and beyond, can benefit in their studies of chemical kinetics from computer supported activities. Use of system dynamics modeling software is one of the suggested quantitative approaches that could

  13. CATALYTIC KINETIC SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    acetylchlorophosphonazo(CPApA) by hydrogen peroxide in 0.10 M phosphoric acid. A novel catalytic kinetic-spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of copper based on this principle. Copper(II) can be determined spectrophotometrically ...

  14. Kinetic energy budget details

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper presents the detailed turbulent kinetic energy budget and higher order statistics of flow behind a surface-mounted rib with and without superimposed acoustic excitation. Pattern recognition technique is used to determine the large-scale structure magnitude. It is observed that most of the turbulence ...

  15. Point kinetics modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimpland, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    A normalized form of the point kinetics equations, a prompt jump approximation, and the Nordheim-Fuchs model are used to model nuclear systems. Reactivity feedback mechanisms considered include volumetric expansion, thermal neutron temperature effect, Doppler effect and void formation. A sample problem of an excursion occurring in a plutonium solution accidentally formed in a glovebox is presented

  16. Features of the mental status of patients with community-acquired pneumonia, combined with a chronic pathology of the hepatobiliary system of non-viral genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razumnyi R.V.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to study the characteristics of mental status of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP, combined with a chronic pathology of the hepatobiliary system of non-viral genesis. We observed 165 patients with CAP in the age of 25-57 years. All patients were divided into two representative groups: I group (68 patients – CAP was comorbid with hepatic steatosis (HS, II group (96 patients with absence of chronic liver disease. To evaluate the psychological profile of patients’ personality we used a standardized multivariate method of personality research and to evaluate the level of anxiety and depression the scale of Spielberger-Hanin test and Beck’s questionnaire were used. Results of the study revealed that 66.2% of patients with CAP, comorbid with HS, declared the formation of psycho-emotional disorders in the form of neurotic reactions to the disease with prevalence of hypochondria, depression, hysterical manifestations with high psychasthenia, trait anxiety and somatic reactions with prevalence of anxiety and emotional instability, lots of somatic complaints, fixation on their own condition with formation of distinctive thinking mode and behavior by the type of "flight into disease". After completion of the standard treatment of patients with CAP, combined with HS, 42,7% of patients had psycho-emotional disorders, which were moderately expressed. Thus, in the complex of treatment and rehabilitative measures in patients with CAP, combined with HS some characteristics of the psychological profile, in the form of psycho-neurotic reaction to the disease should be considered to take optimal corrective actions.

  17. Hepatobiliary imaging: a comparison of 99Tcsup(m)-dihydro-thioctic acid and 99Tcsup(m)-pyridoxylidene glutamate in the non-jaundiced patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenner, R.E.; Howard, E.R.; Clarke, M.B.; Barrett, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    A comparison of two hepatobiliary imaging agents, 99 Tcsup(m)-dihydrothioctic acid ( 99 Tcsup(m)-DHT) and 99 Tcsup(m)-pyridoxylidene glutamate ( 99 Tcsup(m)-PG) has been carried out in 44 non-jaundiced patients. Thirty-one patients were admitted for investigation of upper abdominal pain and 13 patients were volunteers who were undergoing treatment for unrelated conditions. Satisfactory liver images were obtained with both agents in patients without liver disease, but they were inferior to those seen after 99 Tcsup(m)-sulphur colloid. 99 Tcsup(m)-PG produced clearer images of the gall-bladder and bile ducts than 99 Tcsup(m)-DHT. Non-visualization of the gall-bladder was interpreted as gall-bladder disease; in patients with inflammatory gall-bladder disease no gall-bladder image was seen (nine 99 Tcsup(m)-DHT, nine 99 Tcsup(m)-PG). The gall-bladder was also not demonstrated in two of the volunteers' group (one 99 Tcsup(m)-DHT, one 99 Tcsup(m)-PG), nor was a gall-bladder seen in five patients whose abdominal pain was not due to acute cholecystitis. Despite this, there was agreement between the results of imaging and oral cholecystography in 21 out of 22 subjects. 99 Tcsup(m)-PG is non-toxic, cheap and rapidly excreted by the liver into the bile. A 99 Tcsup(m)-PG scan would be useful when rapid diagnosis is required in suspected acute cholecystitis when conventional contrast radiology is unlikely to be of value. (author)

  18. Hepatobiliary transit times of gadoxetate disodium (Primovist) for protocol optimization of comprehensive MR imaging of the biliary system-What is normal?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringe, Kristina I., E-mail: ringe.kristina@mh-hannover.de [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Box 3808, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Hannover Medical School, Department of Radiology, Carl-Neuberg Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Husarik, Daniela B., E-mail: danielahusarik@yahoo.com [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Box 3808, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Gupta, Rajan T., E-mail: rajan.gupta@duke.edu [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Box 3808, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Boll, Daniel T., E-mail: daniel.boll@duke.edu [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Box 3808, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Merkle, Elmar M., E-mail: elmar.merkle@duke.edu [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Box 3808, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine transit times for excretion of Gd-EOB-DTPA into different segments of the hepatobiliary system in patients with normal liver function. Methods: This retrospective study was IRB approved with a waiver of consent granted. 61 patients (39 female, 22 male, mean age 52.5 years) with normal liver and renal function who underwent contrast enhanced hepatic MRI after injection of 10 mLGd-EOB-DTPA at 1.5 T and 3 T were included. Two readers evaluated all delayed images (3-20 min post contrast) for the presence of contrast agent in the intrahepatic bile ducts (IBD), the common bile duct (CBD), the gallbladder and the duodenum. A two-tailed, unpaired Student's t-test with p < 0.05 deemed significant was used to determine whether transit times were affected by patient gender, age or body mass index. Results: 20 min after contrast initiation, Gd-EOB-DTPA could be detected in the IBD and the CBD in all patients (100%); gallbladder reflux was visible in 53 (86.9%), duodenal excretion in 40 patients (65.5%), respectively. Mean transit times for contrast appearance in the various segments were as follows: IBD 12 min 13 s; CBD 12 min 27 s; gallbladder 13 min 32 s. Transit times were not significantly affected by patient gender, age or BMI. Conclusion: Within 20 min post contrast initiation, Gd-EOB-DTPA can be expected in the IBD and the CBD in patients with normal liver function. However, functional information about the sphincter Oddi complex can be ascertained only in about two thirds of these patients within this timeframe.

  19. Comparison of /sup 99m/Tc diethyl-iminodiacetic acid and 131I rose bengal for hepatobiliary studies in liver-transplant patients: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingensmith, W.C. III; Fritzberg, A.R.; Koep, L.J.

    1979-01-01

    Previous animal studies indicate that technetium-99m N,α-(2,6-diethylacetanilide)-iminodiacetic acid (/sup 99m/Tc diethyl-IDA) is superior to 131 I rose bengal ( 131 I RB) in most, but not all, physiologic parameters. Technetium-99m diethyl-IDA has a faster blood clearance, greater hepatic clearance, and a shorter hepatocyte transit time, but 131 I RB exhibits less renal clearance. We evaluated the relative merits of /sup 99m/Tc-diethyl-IDA and 131 I RB in paired studies in ten liver-transplant patients. Technetium-99m diethyl-IDA images were superior to 131 I RB images in demonstrating: (1) the liver parenchyma, (2) intrahepatic ducts, (3) small-bowel activity early after injection, and (4) in a smaller number of comparisons, colonic activity at 24 hr after injection. In addition, the percentage of dose excreted in the urine in 3 h for both radiopharmaceuticals was measured in 19 patients (total serum bilirubin range: 0.5 to 22.4 mg/dl). The percentage of dose of/sup 99m/Tc diethyl-IDA excreted in the urine averaged 7.5 in patients with normal total bilirubin levels and increased significantly with increasing total bilirubin levels. In the case of 131 I RB, normal patients averaged 4.9% of the injected dose in the urine and there was no increase with increasing total bilirubin levels. It is concluded that (1) /sup 99m/TC diethyl-IDA is superior to 131 I RB for imaging the hepatobiliary system, and (2) renal excretion of 131 I RB, unlike that of /sup 99m/Tc diethyl-IDA, is relatively unaffected by the total serum bilirubin level during the first 3 h after injection

  20. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 regulates the hepatobiliary excretion and plasma exposure of thienorphine and its glucuronide conjugate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Lei Kong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Thienorphine (TNP is a novel partial opioid agonist that has completed phase II clinical evaluation as a promising drug candidate for the treatment of opioid dependence. Previous studies have shown that TNP and its glucuronide conjugate (TNP-G undergo significant bile excretion. The purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of efflux transporters in regulating biliary excretion and plasma exposure of TNP and TNP-G. An ATPase assay suggested that TNP and TNP-G were substrates of P-gp and MRP2, respectively. The in vitro data from rat hepatocytes showed that bile excretion of TNP and TNP-G was regulated by the P-gp and MRP2 modulators. The accumulation of TNP and TNP-G in HepG2 cells significantly increased by the treatment of mdr1a or MRP2 siRNA for P-gp or MRP2 modulation. In intact rats, the bile excretion and pharmacokinetic profiles of TNP and TNP-G were remarkably changed with tariquidar and probenecid pretreatment, respectively. Tariquidar increased the Cmax and AUC0-t and decreased MRT and T1/2 of TNP, whereas probenecid decreased the plasma exposure of TNP-G and increased its T1/2. Knockdown P-gp and MRP2 function using siRNA significantly increased the plasma exposure of TNP and TNP-G and reduced their mean retention time in mice. These results indicated the important roles of P-gp and MRP2 in hepatobiliary excretion and plasma exposure of TNP and TNP-G. Inhibition of the efflux transporters may affect the pharmacokinetics of TNP and result in a drug-drug interaction between TNP and the concomitant transporter inhibitor or inducer in clinic.

  1. Hepatobiliary function assessed by 99mTc-mebrofenin cholescintigraphy in the evaluation of severity of steatosis in a rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetelaeinen, Reeta L.; Vliet, Arlene van; Gulik, Thomas M. van; Bennink, Roelof J.; Bruin, Kora de

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the utility of non-invasive assessment of hepatobiliary function by 99m Tc-mebrofenin cholescintigraphy in a rat model of diet-induced steatosis. Male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were fed a standard methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet for up to 5 weeks, thereby inducing hepatic fat accumulation, progressive inflammation and fibrogenesis corresponding with clinical steatosis. 99m Tc-mebrofenin pinhole scintigraphy was used to evaluate the hepatocyte mebrofenin uptake rate, the time of maximum hepatic uptake (T peak ) and the time required for peak activity to decrease by 50% (T 1/2peak ). Scintigraphic parameters were correlated with biochemical and serological parameters and with liver histopathology. MCD diet induced mild steatosis after 1 week and severe steatosis with prominent inflammation after 5 weeks. T peak , T 1/2peak prolonged and the uptake rate decreased significantly, while the severity of steatosis increased (p 99m Tc-mebrofenin uptake rate (r 2 =0.83, p 2 =0.82, p 2 =0.72, p 2 =0.52, p=0.001, respectively). The correlation of the uptake rate with hepatocellular damage was weak (AST and ALT, r 2 =0.29 and 0.32, respectively), but correlation with synthetic function was strong (prothrombin time, r 2 =0.70, p 99m Tc-mebrofenin scintigraphy correlates with the extent and progression of steatosis. These results suggest a potential role for mebrofenin scintigraphy as a non-invasive functional follow-up method for disease progression in steatotic patients. (orig.)

  2. Gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-DTPA as a hepatobiliary contrast agent for use in MR cholangiography: results of an in vivo phase-I clinical evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollow, M.; Taupitz, M.; Hamm, B.; Staks, T.; Wolf, K.J.; Weinmann, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the time course of contrast enhancement in bile ducts and the gallbladder (GB) after injection of gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-DTPA (Gd-EOB-DTPA). In a clinical phase-I study, MR imaging at 1.5T was performed in 16 healthy volunteers with four different doses of Gd-EOB-DTPA (10, 25, 50, and 100 μmol/kg b. w., four volunteers per dosage). The study protocol comprised a heavily T1-weighted fast multiplanar gradient-echo (GE) sequence before and at increasing intervals for up to 360 min after injection of Gd-EOB-DTPA. The signal enhancement was evaluated in extra-and intrahepatic bile ducts as well as in the GB. In all 16 volunteers the common bile duct showed intense signal enhancement beginning 5-16 min after injection (mean 10 min) and persisting for at least 120 min in 4 subjects and for 360 min in 12 subjects. The duration of signal enhancement was significantly (p < 0.05) longer for higher doses (50, 100 μmol/kg) than for lower doses (10, 25 μmol/kg). Intrahepatic bile ducts were hyperintense as compared with liver parenchyma in all subjects receiving 10 μmol/kg from approximately 50-120 min after contrast agent application. Intrahepatic bile ducts were not displayed using the higher doses, probably because of the strong enhancement of the liver parenchyma. Gallbladder contrasting was achieved in all cases beginning 7-33 min after injection (mean 19 min) and remained visible for up to 360 min in 94 %. Hyperintense visualization of normal extrahepatic bile ducts as well as the GB is regularly achieved with the hepatobiliary contrast agent Gd-EOB-DTPA. The dosage for hyperintense visualization of intrahepatic bile ducts is 10 μmol/kg. (orig.). With 8 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Comparison of gadolinium Cy2DOTA, a new hepatobiliary agent, and gadolinium HP-DO3A, an extracellular agent, in healthy liver and metastatic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runge, V.M.; Wells, J.W.; Williams, N.M.

    1995-01-01

    A new gadolinium (Gd) chelate with preferential hepatobiliary uptake, Gd Cy 2 DOTA, was compared in two animal species with Gd HP-DO3A (gadoteridol), a clinically approved contrast agent with extracellular distribution. Liver enhancement was evaluated for these two contrast agents using magnetic resonance imaging, whereas an experimental model of metastatic disease was used to evaluate the agents' efficacy for liver-lesion delineation. The two agents were compared in four healthy Rhesus monkeys (eight studies) and five New Zealand White rabbits with implanted VX-2 liver tumors (ten studies). The contrast dose was 0.1 mmol/kg, with the agents given in random order and at least 72 hours between contrast injections. Breathhold T1-weighted spin echo scans were obtained at 1.5 tesla (T) before and after contrast was administered. Postcontrast scans were obtained 1 to 90 minutes after injection in the monkeys and 1 to 240 minutes after injection in the rabbits. Prolonged hepatic enhancement, superior in degree to that with Gd HP-DO3A, was noted to both monkeys and rabbits after injection of Gd Cy 2 DOTA. Two minutes after contrast, liver SI was 1.94 ± 0.05 with Gd Cy 2 DOTA compared with 1.5 ± 0.05 with Gd HP-DO3A in monkeys. Sixty minutes after contrast, liver SI was 1.60 ± 0.09 compared with 1.20 ± 0.02. The difference between agents was significant at all times from 2 to 60 minutes after contrast injection (P 2 DOTA but not with Gd HP-DO3A. The maximum improvement in lesion conspicuity (rabbit) occurred 45 minutes after injection of Gd Cy 2 DOTA and 5 minutes after injection of Gd HP-DO3A. 22 refs., 12 figs

  4. LLNL Chemical Kinetics Modeling Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Mehl, M; Herbinet, O; Curran, H J; Silke, E J

    2008-09-24

    The LLNL chemical kinetics modeling group has been responsible for much progress in the development of chemical kinetic models for practical fuels. The group began its work in the early 1970s, developing chemical kinetic models for methane, ethane, ethanol and halogenated inhibitors. Most recently, it has been developing chemical kinetic models for large n-alkanes, cycloalkanes, hexenes, and large methyl esters. These component models are needed to represent gasoline, diesel, jet, and oil-sand-derived fuels.

  5. Kinetic energy absorbing pad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricmont, R.J.; Hamilton, P.A.; Ming Long Ting, R.

    1981-01-01

    Reactors, fuel processing plants etc incorporate pipes and conduits for fluids under high pressure. Fractures, particularly adjacent to conduit elbows, produce a jet of liquid which whips the broken conduit at an extremely high velocity. An enormous impact load would be applied to any stationary object in the conduit's path. The design of cellular, corrugated metal impact pads to absorb the kinetic energy of the high velocity conduits is given. (U.K.)

  6. Calcite Dissolution Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berelson, W.; Subhas, A.; Dong, S.; Naviaux, J.; Adkins, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    A geological buffer for high atmospheric CO2 concentrations is neutralization via reaction with CaCO3. We have been studying the dissolution kinetics of carbonate minerals using labeled 13C calcite and Picarro-based measurements of 13C enrichments in solution DIC. This methodology has greatly facilitated our investigation of dissolution kinetics as a function of water carbonate chemistry, temperature and pressure. One can adjust the saturation state Omega by changing the ion activity product (e.g. adjusting carbonate ion concentration), or by changing the solubility product (e.g. adjusting temperature or pressure). The canonical formulation of dissolution rate vs. omega has been refined (Subhas et al. 2015) and shows distinct non-linear behavior near equilibrium and rates in sea water of 1-3 e-6 g/cm2day at omega = 0.8. Carbonic anhydrase (CA), an enzyme that catalyzes the hydration of dissolved CO2 to carbonic acid, was shown (in concentrations 500x. This result points to the importance of carbonic acid in enhancing dissolution at low degrees of undersaturation. CA activity and abundance in nature must be considered regarding the role it plays in catalyzing dissolution. We also have been investigating the role of temperature on dissolution kinetics. An increase of 16C yields an order of magnitude increase in dissolution rate. Temperature (and P) also change Omega critical, the saturation state where dissolution rates change substantially. Increasing pressure (achieved in a pressure reaction chamber we built) also shifts Omega critical closer to equilibrium and small pressure increases have large impact on dissolution kinetics. Dissolution rates are enhanced by an order of magnitude for a change in pressure of 1500 psi relative to the dissolution rate achieved by water chemistry effects alone for an omega of 0.8. We've shown that the thermodynamic determination of saturation state does not adequately describe the kinetics of dissolution. The interplay of mineral

  7. Technetium-99m-labeled N-(2,6-dimethylphenylcarbamoylmethyl) iminodiacetic acid (/sup 99m/Tc HIDA): a new radiopharmaceutical for hepatobiliary imaging studies. [/sup 14/C, /sup 113/Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, J.; Cooper, M.; Loberg, M.; Harvey, E.; Sikorski, S.

    1977-10-01

    An easily formulated, stable kit preparation of technetium-99m HIDA, suitable for use in humans, was developed and tested in mice and dogs. The tracer was cleared rapidly from the blood and excreted predominantly by the liver in both species. In dogs, the hepatobiliary clearance of Tc-99m HIDA was significantly greater than that of C-14 HIDA and Sn-113 HIDA. The LD/sub 50/ for HIDA in mice, 168 mg/kg, exceeded the average human dose by a factor of 1000 on a per-weight basis. Blood clearance curves for Tc-99m HIDA in 12 normal subjects were biexponential with half-times of 4.6 +- 1.0 min and 31.5 +- 7.0 min, and cumulative 90-min urine samples contained 14.2 +- 1.8% of the injected dose. Images in normal subjects and nonjaundiced patients showed rapid concentration of tracer by the liver and activity was present within the biliary system in 10 to 20 min. In jaundiced patients, the tracer blood clearance was delayed and urinary excretion increased, but intestinal activity, indicating biliary patency, was imaged in those patients without complete focal obstruction of the common duct. Technetium-99m HIDA is a nontoxic radiopharmaceutical useful for clinical evaluation of hepatobiliary disorders in humans.

  8. Development and intra-institutional and inter-institutional validation of a comprehensive new hepatobiliary software: Part 1--Liver and gallbladder function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Gerbail T; Krishnamurthy, Shakuntala; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Rodrigues, Cesar; Rosenberg, Jarrett; Schiepers, Christiaan; Buxton-Thomas, Muriel

    2009-12-01

    Food and Drug Administration-approved personal computer-based Krishnamurthy Hepato-Biliary Software for quantification of the liver and gallbladder function shows promise for consistently repeatable and reproducible results both within and between institutions, and may help to promote universal standardization of data acquisition and analysis in nuclear hepatology.

  9. Hepatobiliary phase images using gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid-enhanced MRI as an imaging surrogate for the albumin–bilirubin grading system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takatsu, Yasuo, E-mail: pcblue2@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, Osaka Red Cross Hospital, 5-30 Fudegasaki, Tennouji-ku, Osaka, 543-8555 (Japan); Division of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kanazawa University, 5-11-80 Kodatsuno, Kanazawa, 920-0942 (Japan); Kobayashi, Satoshi, E-mail: satoshik@staff.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Division of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kanazawa University, 5-11-80 Kodatsuno, Kanazawa, 920-0942 (Japan); Miyati, Tosiaki, E-mail: ramiyati@mhs.mp.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Division of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kanazawa University, 5-11-80 Kodatsuno, Kanazawa, 920-0942 (Japan); Shiozaki, Toshiki, E-mail: shiozaki.toshiki@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Osaka Red Cross Hospital, 5-30 Fudegasaki, Tennouji-ku, Osaka, 543-8555 (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Objectives: To clarify the correlation between hepatobiliary phase (HBP) images using gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) and albumin–bilirubin (ALBI) grading system. Materials and methods: We evaluated 220 consecutive patients who underwent liver magnetic resonance imaging with Gd-EOB-DTPA. Quantitative liver–spleen contrast ratio (Q-LSC) was calculated in HBP images approximately 20 min after Gd-EOB-DTPA administration. To evaluate the degree of association between Q-LSC and ALBI grade, the Child–Pugh (C-P) score was used for comparison. Correlation coefficients were calculated, and median Q-LSC values were compared with the C-P scores and ALBI grades. The Steel–Dwass multiple comparison test was used for statistical analysis. Results: The correlation coefficient between Q-LSC and C-P score was −0.35, P < 0.0001, and the ALBI grade was −0.61, P < 0.0001. Q-LSC of overall median, C-P A, B, and C were 1.94, 1.91, 1.96, and 1.33, respectively. The differences between C-P A and C-P B, C-P B and C-P C, and C-P A and C-P C were P = 0.999, 0.126, and 0.149, respectively. Q-LSC of the overall median, ALBI grade 1, 2, and 3 were 1.94, 2.12, 1.69, and 1.30, respectively. The differences between ALBI grades 1 and 2, 2 and 3, and 1 and 3 were P < 0.0001, P = 0.0466, and P = 0.0035, respectively. Q-LSC was better correlated and discriminated by ALBI grade than C-P score. Conclusion: A strong correlation was observed between Q-LSC of an HBP image with Gd-EOB-DTPA and ALBI grade; HBP imaging could be a surrogate for the ALBI grade.

  10. Kinetics of tetrataenite disordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dos Santos, E.; Gattacceca, J.; Rochette, P.; Fillion, G.; Scorzelli, R.B.

    2015-01-01

    Tetrataenite is a chemically ordered L1 0 -type Fe 50 Ni 50 alloy detected for the first time in 1977 by 57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy studies in iron meteorites. The thermal history of meteorites, in particular short thermal events like those associated to hypervelocity impacts, can be constrained by tracing the presence of tetrataenite or its disordering into taenite. The knowledge of the disordering kinetics of tetrataenite, that is associated with changes in its magnetic properties, is still very fragmentary so that the time–temperature history of these meteorites cannot be constrained in details. Furthermore, knowledge of disordering kinetics is important due to potential technological application of tetrataenite as a rare-earth free strong magnet. Thus, this work provides the first time–temperature data for disordering reaction of tetrataenite. We have shown that disordering is not an instantaneous process but is a kinetic limited reaction. It was shown that disordering may take place at any temperature above the order–disorder transition for L 10 superstructure phase (∼320 °C) when the appropriate time-scale is considered. This result means that the apparent Curie point for tetrataenite is not an absolute property in the sense that any estimate of this parameter should be referred to a given time-scale. - Highlights: • The first time–temperature data for tetrataenite disordering reaction is provided. • Previous works does not give a complete picture of tetrataenite disordering. • Apparent Curie temperature of tetrataenite should be referred to a time-scale. • Tetrataenite can be used as a probe to detect thermal/shock events recorded in meteorites

  11. Quantum kinetic Ising models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augusiak, R; Cucchietti, F M; Lewenstein, M; Haake, F

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a quantum generalization of classical kinetic Ising models (KIM), described by a certain class of quantum many-body master equations. Similarly to KIMs with detailed balance that are equivalent to certain Hamiltonian systems, our models reduce to a set of Hamiltonian systems determining the dynamics of the elements of the many-body density matrix. The ground states of these Hamiltonians are well described by the matrix product, or pair entangled projected states. We discuss critical properties of such Hamiltonians, as well as entanglement properties of their low-energy states.

  12. Kinetics of coal pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seery, D.J.; Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M. (United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (USA)); Howard, J.B.; Peters, W.; Hsu, J.; Hajaligol, M.; Sarofim, A. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA)); Jenkins, R.; Mallin, J.; Espindola-Merin, B. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (USA)); Essenhigh, R.; Misra, M.K. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (USA))

    1989-07-01

    This report contains results of a coordinated, multi-laboratory investigation of coal devolatilization. Data is reported pertaining to the devolatilization for bituminous coals over three orders of magnitude in apparent heating rate (100 to 100,000 + {degree}C/sec), over two orders of magnitude in particle size (20 to 700 microns), final particle temperatures from 400 to 1600{degree}C, heat transfer modes ranging from convection to radiative, ambient pressure ranging from near vacuum to one atmosphere pressure. The heat transfer characteristics of the reactors are reported in detail. It is assumed the experimental results are to form the basis of a devolatilization data base. Empirical rate expressions are developed for each phase of devolatilization which, when coupled to an awareness of the heat transfer rate potential of a particular devolatilization reactor, indicate the kinetics emphasized by a particular system reactor plus coal sample. The analysis indicates the particular phase of devolatilization that will be emphasized by a particular reactor type and, thereby, the kinetic expressions appropriate to that devolatilization system. Engineering rate expressions are developed from the empirical rate expressions in the context of a fundamental understanding of coal devolatilization developed in the course of the investigation. 164 refs., 223 figs., 44 tabs.

  13. Repair kinetics in tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thames, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    Monoexponential repair kinetics is based on the assumption of a single, dose-independent rate of repair of sublethal injury in the target cells for tissue injury after exposure to ionizing radiation. Descriptions of the available data based on this assumption have proved fairly successful for both acutely responding (skin, lip mucosa, gut) and late-responding (lung, spinal cord) normal tissues. There are indications of biphasic exponential repair in both categories, however. Unfortunately, the data usually lack sufficient resolution to permit unambiguous determination of the repair rates. There are also indications that repair kinetics may depend on the size of the dose. The data are conflicting on this account, however, with suggestions of both faster and slower repair after larger doses. Indeed, experiments that have been explicitly designed to test this hypothesis show either no effect (gut, spinal cord), faster repair after higher doses (lung, kidney), or slower repair after higher doses (skin). Monoexponential repair appears to be a fairly accurate description that provides an approximation to a more complicated picture, the elucidation of whose details will, however, require very careful and extensive experimental study. (author). 30 refs.; 1 fig

  14. Diffusion Influenced Adsorption Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Toshiaki; Seki, Kazuhiko

    2015-08-27

    When the kinetics of adsorption is influenced by the diffusive flow of solutes, the solute concentration at the surface is influenced by the surface coverage of solutes, which is given by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood adsorption equation. The diffusion equation with the boundary condition given by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood adsorption equation leads to the nonlinear integro-differential equation for the surface coverage. In this paper, we solved the nonlinear integro-differential equation using the Grünwald-Letnikov formula developed to solve fractional kinetics. Guided by the numerical results, analytical expressions for the upper and lower bounds of the exact numerical results were obtained. The upper and lower bounds were close to the exact numerical results in the diffusion- and reaction-controlled limits, respectively. We examined the validity of the two simple analytical expressions obtained in the diffusion-controlled limit. The results were generalized to include the effect of dispersive diffusion. We also investigated the effect of molecular rearrangement of anisotropic molecules on surface coverage.

  15. Chemical kinetics and reaction mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Ou Sik; Park, Youn Yeol

    1996-12-01

    This book is about chemical kinetics and reaction mechanism. It consists of eleven chapters, which deal with reaction and reaction speed on reaction mechanism, simple reaction by rate expression, reversible reaction and simultaneous reaction, successive reaction, complicated reaction mechanism, assumption for reaction mechanism, transition state theory, successive reaction and oscillating reaction, reaction by solution, research method high except kinetics on reaction mechanism, high reaction of kinetics like pulsed radiolysis.

  16. Chemical kinetics of gas reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kondrat'Ev, V N

    2013-01-01

    Chemical Kinetics of Gas Reactions explores the advances in gas kinetics and thermal, photochemical, electrical discharge, and radiation chemical reactions. This book is composed of 10 chapters, and begins with the presentation of general kinetic rules for simple and complex chemical reactions. The next chapters deal with the experimental methods for evaluating chemical reaction mechanisms and some theories of elementary chemical processes. These topics are followed by discussions on certain class of chemical reactions, including unimolecular, bimolecular, and termolecular reactions. The rema

  17. Adsorption analysis equilibria and kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Do, Duong D

    1998-01-01

    This book covers topics of equilibria and kinetics of adsorption in porous media. Fundamental equilibria and kinetics are dealt with for homogeneous as well as heterogeneous particles. Five chapters of the book deal with equilibria and eight chapters deal with kinetics. Single component as well as multicomponent systems are discussed. In kinetics analysis, we deal with the various mass transport processes and their interactions inside a porous particle. Conventional approaches as well as the new approach using Maxwell-Stefan equations are presented. Various methods to measure diffusivity, such

  18. Kinetics of Social Contagion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Zhongyuan; Iñiguez, Gerardo; Karsai, Márton; Kertész, János

    2015-11-01

    Diffusion of information, behavioral patterns or innovations follows diverse pathways depending on a number of conditions, including the structure of the underlying social network, the sensitivity to peer pressure and the influence of media. Here we study analytically and by simulations a general model that incorporates threshold mechanism capturing sensitivity to peer pressure, the effect of "immune" nodes who never adopt, and a perpetual flow of external information. While any constant, nonzero rate of dynamically introduced spontaneous adopters leads to global spreading, the kinetics by which the asymptotic state is approached shows rich behavior. In particular, we find that, as a function of the immune node density, there is a transition from fast to slow spreading governed by entirely different mechanisms. This transition happens below the percolation threshold of network fragmentation, and has its origin in the competition between cascading behavior induced by adopters and blocking due to immune nodes. This change is accompanied by a percolation transition of the induced clusters.

  19. The temperature hydration kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Oroian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the hydration kinetics of lentil seeds (Lens culinaris in water at different temperatures (25, 32.5, 40, 55, 70 and 80 °C for assessing the adequacy of models for describing the absorption phenomena during soaking. The diffusion coefficient values were calculated using Fick’s model for spherical and hemispherical geometries and the values were in the range of 10−6 m2/s. The experimental data were fitted to Peleg, Sigmoidal, Weibull and Exponential models. The models adequacy was determined using regression coefficients (R2, root mean square error (RMSE and reduced chi-square (χ2. The Peleg model is the suitable one for predicting the experimental data. Temperature had a positive and significant effect on the water absorption capacities and absorption was an endothermic process.

  20. Kinetic theory of Jeans instability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trigger, S.A.; Ershkovic, A.I.; Heijst, van G.J.F.; Schram, P.P.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Kinetic treatment of the Jeans gravitational instability, with collisions taken into account, is presented. The initial-value problem for the distribution function which obeys the kinetic equation, with the collision integral conserving the number of particles, is solved. Dispersion relation is

  1. Discussion on twenty-two hepatobiliary scintigraphs performed with technetium 99m-labelled N-(2,6 dimethylphenylcarbamoylmethyl) iminodiacetic acid (or HIDA-99mTc) at the Val-de-Grace Army Instruction Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoste, Philippe.

    1978-12-01

    Intraveinously injected technetium 99m-labelled N-(2,6 dimethyl-phenylcarbamoylmethyl) iminodiacetic acid, or HIDA-99mTc, is taken up by the hepatocytes and secreted in the bile, a fraction being normally eliminated by the kidneys. Isotopic examination with HIDA-99mTc gives valuable information on the morphology of the liver during the first minutes of the test, thus revealing the presence of parenchyma disease. In all observed cases of secondary hepatic localisations in particular the HIDA-99mTc images overlie those obtained with technetium colloids. By the examination it is also possible: - to establish the existence or otherwise of a functional vesicle, - to follow the path of the radiotracer along the bile duct. In short, HIDA-99mTc hepatobiliary scintigraphy is particularly useful for the study of hepatocyte uptake and bile elimination since it allows a continuous quantitative study of the liver-bile function under given physiological conditions [fr

  2. Gadoxetic acid-enhanced 3.0 T MRI for the evaluation of hepatic metastasis from colorectal cancer: Metastasis is not always seen as a “defect” on the hepatobiliary phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Aram, E-mail: arkim.rad@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, 80 Guro-dong, Guro-gu, Seoul 152-703 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang Hee, E-mail: chlee86@hanmail.net [Department of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, 80 Guro-dong, Guro-gu, Seoul 152-703 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Baek Hui, E-mail: maelstrom@naver.com [Department of Pathology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, 80 Guro-dong, Guro-gu, Seoul 152-703 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jongmee, E-mail: leejongmee@hanmail.net [Department of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, 80 Guro-dong, Guro-gu, Seoul 152-703 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jae Woong, E-mail: cooljay@korea.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, 80 Guro-dong, Guro-gu, Seoul 152-703 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yang Shin, E-mail: pys797979@naver.com [Department of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, 80 Guro-dong, Guro-gu, Seoul 152-703 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyeong Ah, E-mail: kahkim@korea.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, 80 Guro-dong, Guro-gu, Seoul 152-703 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Cheol Min, E-mail: chlee86@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, 80 Guro-dong, Guro-gu, Seoul 152-703 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To determine specific imaging features of hepatic metastasis from colorectal cancer, focusing on the hepatobiliary phase (HBP) of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI. Materials and methods: Over a 2-year period, 79 hepatic metastatic lesions were identified from 32 patients (22 men and 10 women) who proven colorectal cancer and underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced 3.0 T MRI. Hepatic metastases were proven pathologically in 16 patients: by surgical liver resection (n = 14) and by US-guided biopsy (n = 2). The remaining 16 patients were considered to have hepatic metastasis based on imaging studies and clinical information. Two radiologists evaluated the imaging features of each MRI sequence, including high resolution T2WI, dynamic contrast enhancement study with hepatobiliary phase, and diffusion weighted image. We also compared SI of the lesions on T2WI and HBP. Results: T2WI showed homogeneous high SI (n = 25; 31.7%), target appearance (n = 3; 3.8%), reversed target appearance (n = 2; 2.6%), and heterogeneously high SI (n = 49; 62%). On HBP, homogeneous defect were seen in 22 lesions (27.9%), target appearance in five lesions (6.4%), reversed target appearance in two lesions (2.5%), and heterogeneous defect in 50 lesions (63.3%); including reticular (70%), partially globular (26%), and diffuse GGO-like (4%) patterns. According to the imaging features on HBP, the homogeneous defect and heterogeneous defect groups had a mean ADC value of 0.99 × 10{sup −3} and 1.07 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s, respectively, without statistically significant difference. Conclusion: Hepatic metastasis from colorectal cancer usually showed as a heterogeneous defect on HBP and a heterogeneous high SI on T2WI. The generally accepted “true defect” was not a common finding in hepatic metastasis from colorectal cancer.

  3. Sequential hepatobiliary scintigraphy of the patients with constitutional jaundice, ICG excretory defect disease and hepatocellular carcinoma with 99mTc-PI, 99mTc-HIDA and 99mTc-EHIDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitani, Tsuyoshi

    1987-01-01

    Sequential 2 min scintiphotos were obtained with a scintilation camera after intravenous injection of 3 mCi of 99m Tc-HIDA or 99m Tc-PI. Digital matrix images were simultaneously recorded with computer. Sequential samples for the blood clearance of 99m Tc-HIDA or 99m Tc-PI were obtained for 120 min following injection to the patient of constitutional hyperbilirubinemia and ICG excretory defect disease. In Dubin-Johnson syndrome, the hepatic uptake of 99m Tc-HIDA was faster or normal but the excretion was extremely slower than in normal cases. Both hepatic uptake and excretion of 99m Tc-PI were almost normal. In Rotor's disease, hepatic uptake of 99m Tc-HIDA or 99m Tc-PI was very poor, showing almost no hepatic images in all time. In Gilbert's disease and ICG excretory defect disease, hepatic uptake and excretion of 99m Tc-HIDA or 99m Tc-PI were within normal limit. From these results, Dubin-Johnson syndrome, Rotor's disease and Gilbert's disease show the different patterns between hepatic uptake and excretion of 99m Tc-HIDA and 99m Tc-PI hepatobiliary scintigraphy and these patterns contribute to the differential diagnosis of constitutional jaundice. The usefulness of hepatobiliary imaging with 99m Tc-EHIDA in diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma was studied in 15 patients with histologically verified HCC. In 15 patients, 3 patients (20 %) showed increased radioactivity with 99m Tc-EHIDA image, where liver scan with 99m Tc-Sn colloid showed filling defect. These results indicate that use of 99m Tc-EHIDA scan and 67 Ga-citrate imaging is useful for positive visualization of HCC. (author)

  4. Gadoxetic acid-enhanced 3.0 T MRI for the evaluation of hepatic metastasis from colorectal cancer: Metastasis is not always seen as a “defect” on the hepatobiliary phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Aram; Lee, Chang Hee; Kim, Baek Hui; Lee, Jongmee; Choi, Jae Woong; Park, Yang Shin; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Park, Cheol Min

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine specific imaging features of hepatic metastasis from colorectal cancer, focusing on the hepatobiliary phase (HBP) of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI. Materials and methods: Over a 2-year period, 79 hepatic metastatic lesions were identified from 32 patients (22 men and 10 women) who proven colorectal cancer and underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced 3.0 T MRI. Hepatic metastases were proven pathologically in 16 patients: by surgical liver resection (n = 14) and by US-guided biopsy (n = 2). The remaining 16 patients were considered to have hepatic metastasis based on imaging studies and clinical information. Two radiologists evaluated the imaging features of each MRI sequence, including high resolution T2WI, dynamic contrast enhancement study with hepatobiliary phase, and diffusion weighted image. We also compared SI of the lesions on T2WI and HBP. Results: T2WI showed homogeneous high SI (n = 25; 31.7%), target appearance (n = 3; 3.8%), reversed target appearance (n = 2; 2.6%), and heterogeneously high SI (n = 49; 62%). On HBP, homogeneous defect were seen in 22 lesions (27.9%), target appearance in five lesions (6.4%), reversed target appearance in two lesions (2.5%), and heterogeneous defect in 50 lesions (63.3%); including reticular (70%), partially globular (26%), and diffuse GGO-like (4%) patterns. According to the imaging features on HBP, the homogeneous defect and heterogeneous defect groups had a mean ADC value of 0.99 × 10 −3 and 1.07 × 10 −3 mm 2 /s, respectively, without statistically significant difference. Conclusion: Hepatic metastasis from colorectal cancer usually showed as a heterogeneous defect on HBP and a heterogeneous high SI on T2WI. The generally accepted “true defect” was not a common finding in hepatic metastasis from colorectal cancer.

  5. Kinetics of thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Mitsuo; Nishikawa, Mitsushige; Naito, Kimikazu; Ishii, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    1980-01-01

    Kinetics of thyroid hormones were outlined, and recent progress in metabolism of these hormones was also described. Recently, not only T 4 and T 3 but also rT 3 , 3,3'-T 2 , 3',5'-T 2 , and 3,5-T 2 can be measured by RIA. To clarify metabolic pathways of these hormones, metabolic clearance rate and production rate of these hormones were calculated. As single-compartment analysis was insufficient to clarify disappearance curves of thyroid hormones in blood such as T 3 and T 2 of which metabolic speed was so fast, multi-compartment analysis or non-compartment analysis were also performed. Thyroid hormones seemed to be measured more precisely by constant infusion method. At the first step of T 4 metabolism, T 3 was formed by 5'-monodeiodination of T 4 , and rT 3 was formed by 5-monodeiodination of T 4 . As metabolic pathways of T 3 and rT 3 , conversion of them to 3,3'-T 2 or to 3',5'-T 2 and 3,5-T 2 was supposed. This subject will be an interesting research theme in future. (Tsunoda, M.)

  6. Kinetic effects on magnetohydrodynamic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Taro

    2001-01-01

    Resistive and ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theories are insufficient to adequately explain MHD phenomena in the high-temperature plasma. Recent progress in numerical simulations concerning kinetic effects on magnetohydrodynamic phenomena is summarized. The following three topics are studied using various models treating extended-MHD phenomena. (1) Kinetic modifications of internal kink modes in tokamaks with normal and reversed magnetic shear configurations. (2) Temporal evolution of the toroidal Alfven eigenmode and fishbone mode in tokamaks with energetic ions. (3) Kinetic stabilization of a title mode in field-reversed configurations by means of anchoring ions and beam ions. (author)

  7. The influence of bilirubin, alcohol and certain drugs on the kinetics of sup(99m)Tc-diethyl IDA (EHIDA) in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenegracht, J.M.; Oei, T.L.; Breda Vriesman, P.J.C. van; Rijksuniversiteit Limburg, Maastricht

    1983-01-01

    On the basis of the mathematical analysis of sup(99m)Tc-EHIDA hepatobiliary time-activity curves of normal individuals two rate constants, one related to accumulation of radioactivity (uptake) and the other to excretion, were calculated indicating a two-compartmental model. By means of computerized fitting the rate constant of excretion (Ksub(b)), the time of maximum uptake (Tsub(max)) and the rate constant of uptake (Ksub(a)) were calculated. In severely jaundiced patients (serum bilirubin concentrations >140 μmol/l) a markedly decreased or absent uptake of sup(99m)Tc-EHIDA was observed. In moderately jaundiced patients a low Ksub(b) was invariably observed; in obstructive jaundice due to malignant disease - but not in jaundice of benign obstructive or hepatocellular origin - an increase in Ksub(a) was frequently present. This latter finding was not always present, however, and consequently kinetic studies do not unequivocally differentiate between jaundice of obstructive and hepatocellular origin. A markedly increased uptake (a high Ksub(a)) was noticed in alcoholics and patients taking phenobarbital and diphenylhydantoin possibly because of drug-induced membrane alterations. When the alcoholics developed hepatocellular injury the Ksub(a) converted to normal values. Thus, sup(99m)Tc-EHIDA kinetics may be useful in the follow-up of patients with established or suspected alcoholism by virtue of the fact that it appears to be a sensitive monitor of functional changes in hepatocyte plasma membrane properties. (orig.)

  8. Influence of bilirubin, alcohol and certain drugs on the kinetics of sup(99m)Tc-diethyl IDA (EHIDA) in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenegracht, J.M.; Oei, T.L.; van Breda Vriesman, P.J.C.

    1983-04-01

    On the basis of the mathematical analysis of sup(99m)Tc-EHIDA hepatobiliary time-activity curves of normal individuals two rate constants, one related to accumulation of radioactivity (uptake) and the other to excretion, were calculated indicating a two-compartmental model. By means of computerized fitting the rate constant of excretion (Ksub(b)), the time of maximum uptake (Tsub(max)) and the rate constant of uptake (Ksub(a)) were calculated. In severely jaundiced patients (serum bilirubin concentrations >140 ..mu..mol/l) a markedly decreased or absent uptake of sup(99m)Tc-EHIDA was observed. In moderately jaundiced patients a low Ksub(b) was invariably observed; in obstructive jaundice due to malignant disease - but not in jaundice of benign obstructive or hepatocellular origin - an increase in Ksub(a) was frequently present. This latter finding was not always present, however, and consequently kinetic studies do not unequivocally differentiate between jaundice of obstructive and hepatocellular origin. A markedly increased uptake (a high Ksub(a)) was noticed in alcoholics and patients taking phenobarbital and diphenylhydantoin possibly because of drug-induced membrane alterations. When the alcoholics developed hepatocellular injury the Ksub(a) converted to normal values. Thus, sup(99m)Tc-EHIDA kinetics may be useful in the follow-up of patients with established or suspected alcoholism by virtue of the fact that it appears to be a sensitive monitor of functional changes in hepatocyte plasma membrane properties.

  9. Bicarbonate kinetics in Indian males

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    ized kinetics of bicarbonate using a three-compartment model, to assess which compartmental fluxes changed dur- .... total VCO2 was < 3 % and the average respiratory quotient ..... a part of the nonrespiratory losses of 13CO2 occur to this.

  10. Kinetic equations in dirty superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraehenbuehl, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Kinetic equations for superconductors in the dirty limit are derived using a method developed for superfluid systems, which allows a systematic expansion in small parameters; exact charge conservation is obeyed. (orig.)

  11. Cell kinetics and therapeutic efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeff, M.; Abenhardt, W.; Gruner, B.; Stoffner, D.; Mainz Univ.

    1976-01-01

    The study shows that cell kinetics effects correlate with the effects of cytostatic drugs in the tumour model investigated here. It should, however, be noted that even genetically related tumour cell types may react differently to the same cytostatic drug, and that the cell kinetics effects, due to the changes in the cell cycle, cannot be predicted but should be followed with a very fast method, e.g. sequential flan fluorescence cytophotometry, for optimal therapeutic results. (orig./GSE) [de

  12. Kinetic parameters from thermogravimetric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    High performance polymeric materials are finding increased use in aerospace applications. Proposed high speed aircraft will require materials to withstand high temperatures in an oxidative atmosphere for long periods of time. It is essential that accurate estimates be made of the performance of these materials at the given conditions of temperature and time. Temperatures of 350 F (177 C) and times of 60,000 to 100,000 hours are anticipated. In order to survey a large number of high performance polymeric materials on a reasonable time scale, some form of accelerated testing must be performed. A knowledge of the rate of a process can be used to predict the lifetime of that process. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) has frequently been used to determine kinetic information for degradation reactions in polymeric materials. Flynn and Wall studied a number of methods for using TGA experiments to determine kinetic information in polymer reactions. Kinetic parameters, such as the apparent activation energy and the frequency factor, can be determined in such experiments. Recently, researchers at the McDonnell Douglas Research Laboratory suggested that a graph of the logarithm of the frequency factor against the apparent activation energy can be used to predict long-term thermo-oxidative stability for polymeric materials. Such a graph has been called a kinetic map. In this study, thermogravimetric analyses were performed in air to study the thermo-oxidative degradation of several high performance polymers and to plot their kinetic parameters on a kinetic map.

  13. Gyrocenter-gauge kinetic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, H.; Tang, W.M.; Lee, W.W.

    2000-01-01

    Gyrocenter-gauge kinetic theory is developed as an extension of the existing gyrokinetic theories. In essence, the formalism introduced here is a kinetic description of magnetized plasmas in the gyrocenter coordinates which is fully equivalent to the Vlasov-Maxwell system in the particle coordinates. In particular, provided the gyroradius is smaller than the scale-length of the magnetic field, it can treat high frequency range as well as the usual low frequency range normally associated with gyrokinetic approaches. A significant advantage of this formalism is that it enables the direct particle-in-cell simulations of compressional Alfven waves for MHD applications and of RF waves relevant to plasma heating in space and laboratory plasmas. The gyrocenter-gauge kinetic susceptibility for arbitrary wavelength and arbitrary frequency electromagnetic perturbations in a homogeneous magnetized plasma is shown to recover exactly the classical result obtained by integrating the Vlasov-Maxwell system in the particle coordinates. This demonstrates that all the waves supported by the Vlasov-Maxwell system can be studied using the gyrocenter-gauge kinetic model in the gyrocenter coordinates. This theoretical approach is so named to distinguish it from the existing gyrokinetic theory, which has been successfully developed and applied to many important low-frequency and long parallel wavelength problems, where the conventional meaning of gyrokinetic has been standardized. Besides the usual gyrokinetic distribution function, the gyrocenter-gauge kinetic theory emphasizes as well the gyrocenter-gauge distribution function, which sometimes contains all the physics of the problems being studied, and whose importance has not been realized previously. The gyrocenter-gauge distribution function enters Maxwell's equations through the pull-back transformation of the gyrocenter transformation, which depends on the perturbed fields. The efficacy of the gyrocenter-gauge kinetic approach is

  14. Crystallization Kinetics within a Generic Modelling Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meisler, Kresten Troelstrup; von Solms, Nicolas; Gernaey, Krist

    2013-01-01

    An existing generic modelling framework has been expanded with tools for kinetic model analysis. The analysis of kinetics is carried out within the framework where kinetic constitutive models are collected, analysed and utilized for the simulation of crystallization operations. A modelling...... procedure is proposed to gain the information of crystallization operation kinetic model analysis and utilize this for faster evaluation of crystallization operations....

  15. Transformation kinetics for nucleus clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa, Elena; Rios, Paulo R.

    2009-01-01

    A rigorous mathematical approach based on stochastic geometry concepts is presented to extend previous Johnson-Mehl, Avrami, Kolmogorov treatment of transformation kinetics to situations in which nuclei are not homogeneously located in space but are located in clusters. An exact analytical solution is presented here for the first time assuming that nucleation sites follow a Matern cluster process. The influence of Matern cluster process parameters on subsequent growth kinetics and the microstructural path are illustrated by means of numerical examples. Moreover, using the superposition principle, exact analytical solutions are also obtained when nucleation takes place by a combination of a Matern cluster process and an inhomogeneous Poisson point process. The new solutions presented here significantly increase the number of exactly solvable cases available to formal kinetics.

  16. Chapter 22. Cell population kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.

    1975-01-01

    The main contribution of radioisotopes to the development of a new discipline, cell population kinetics, was shown. The aim of this science is to establish, for each tissue of the organism, the life span of its component cells and the mechanisms governing its growth, its differentiation and its homeostasis with respect to outside attacks. Labelling techniques have been used to follow the cells during these various processes. The case of non-dividing cells was considered first, taking as example, the red blood cells of which the lifetime was studied, after which the case of proliferating cells was examined using 14 C- or tritium-labelled thymidine. The methods used to measure the cell cycle parameters were described: labelled-mitosis curve method, double-labelling and continuous labelling methods, proliferation coefficient measurement. Cell kinetics were shown to allow an interpretation of radiobiological data. Finally the practical value of cell kinetics research was shown [fr

  17. Kinetic theory and transport phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Soto, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    This textbook presents kinetic theory, which is a systematic approach to describing nonequilibrium systems. The text is balanced between the fundamental concepts of kinetic theory (irreversibility, transport processes, separation of time scales, conservations, coarse graining, distribution functions, etc.) and the results and predictions of the theory, where the relevant properties of different systems are computed. The book is organised in thematic chapters where different paradigmatic systems are studied. The specific features of these systems are described, building and analysing the appropriate kinetic equations. Specifically, the book considers the classical transport of charges, the dynamics of classical gases, Brownian motion, plasmas, and self-gravitating systems, quantum gases, the electronic transport in solids and, finally, semiconductors. Besides these systems that are studied in detail, concepts are applied to some modern examples including the quark–gluon plasma, the motion of bacterial suspen...

  18. Studies on quality control of technetium-99m labelling kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Rok; Park, Kyung Bae; Awh, Ok Doo

    1987-12-01

    Various experiments for the quality control of Tc-99m labelled radiopharmaceuticals such as Tc-99m-phytate, Tc-99m-MDP, Tc-99m-Tin Colloid, Tc-99m-DISIDA, Tc-99m-DTPA,Tc-99m-DMSA, Tc-99m-Gulcoheptonate, TC-99m-Pyrophosphate, Tc-99m-HSA, and Tc-99m-HAM were carried out. Labelling yield and radiochemical purity of each of the instant labelling kit of KAERI made were determined by means of radiochromatography. Biodistribution in mice and whole body or specific organ imagings of rabbits were also carried out and discussed the relationship between the data of biodistributions and radiochemical purities. Labelling yeilds were above 98% for almost all of the labelling kits. The radio-pharmaceuticals were accumulated at each target organ with moderate specifities. In case of radiochemical purity of above 98%, the biodistribution and gamma imagings were also better. The kits of MDP and DISIDA were stable at least for four moths while the other kits at least eight months. (Author)

  19. Selected readings in chemical kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Back, Margaret H

    2013-01-01

    Selected Readings in Chemical Kinetics covers excerpts from 12 papers in the field of general and gas-phase kinetics. The book discusses papers on the laws of connexion between the conditions of a chemical change and its amount; on the reaction velocity of the inversion of the cane sugar by acids; and the calculation in absolute measure of velocity constants and equilibrium constants in gaseous systems. The text then tackles papers on simple gas reactions; on the absolute rate of reactions in condensed phases; on the radiation theory of chemical action; and on the theory of unimolecular reacti

  20. Chemical kinetics and reaction dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Houston, Paul L

    2006-01-01

    This text teaches the principles underlying modern chemical kinetics in a clear, direct fashion, using several examples to enhance basic understanding. It features solutions to selected problems, with separate sections and appendices that cover more technical applications.Each chapter is self-contained and features an introduction that identifies its basic goals, their significance, and a general plan for their achievement. This text's important aims are to demonstrate that the basic kinetic principles are essential to the solution of modern chemical problems, and to show how the underlying qu

  1. Chemical kinetics and combustion modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to gain qualitative insight into how pollutants are formed in combustion systems and to develop quantitative mathematical models to predict their formation rates. The approach is an integrated one, combining low-pressure flame experiments, chemical kinetics modeling, theory, and kinetics experiments to gain as clear a picture as possible of the process in question. These efforts are focused on problems involved with the nitrogen chemistry of combustion systems and on the formation of soot and PAH in flames.

  2. Deuteration kinetics of the graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nefedov, Alexei; Woell, Christof [KIT, Leopoldshafen (Germany); Paris, Alessio; Calliari, Lucia [FBK-CMM, Trento (Italy); Verbitskiy, Nikolay [MSU, Moscow (Russian Federation); University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Wang, Ying; Irle, Stephan [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Fedorov, Alexander [IFW Dresden, Dresden (Germany); St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Haberer, Danny; Knupfer, Martin; Buechner, Bernd [IFW Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Oetzelt, Martin [BESSY II, Berlin (Germany); Petaccia, Luca [Elettra, Trieste (Italy); Usachov, Dmitry [St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Vyalikh, Denis [St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); TU Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Sagdev, Hermann [MPI fuer Polymerforschung, Mainz (Germany); Yashina, Lada [MSU, Moscow (Russian Federation); Grueneis, Alexander [IFW Dresden, Dresden (Germany); University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    The kinetics of the hydrogenation/deuteration reaction of graphene was studied by time-dependent x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). The graphene layer was then exposed to hydrogen or deuterium atomic gas beams, obtained by thermal cracking in a tungsten capillary at T=3000 K. After each step XPS of the C1s line was performed in order to measure H/C and D/C ratios. We have observed a strong kinetic isotope effect for the hydrogenation/deuteration reaction leading to substantially faster adsorption and higher maximum D/C ratios as compared to H/C (D/C 35% vs. H/C 25%).

  3. Vlasov simulations of Kinetic Alfven Waves at proton kinetic scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.L. Vasconez; F. Valentini (Francesco); E. Camporeale (Enrico); P. Veltri

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractKinetic Alfv ́en waves represent an important subject in space plasma physics, since they are thought to play a crucial role in the development of the turbulent energy cascade in the solar wind plasma at short wavelengths (of the order of the proton inertial length d p and beyond). A

  4. Elements of plasma kinetic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.

    1976-01-01

    The physical foundations of plasma kinetic equations are exposed inside a series of seminars on plasma and fusion physics. The Vlasov and collisional equations with its application range have been discussed. The momenta equations for the macroscopic magnitudes and the more usual approximations have been obtained: two fluid equations for cold and warm plasmas, magnetohydrodynamic equations and the double-adiabatic theory. (author)

  5. Kinetic studies on leucite precursors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrázová, M.; Kloužková, A.; Kohoutková, Martina

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 2 (2009), s. 205-210 ISSN 1895-1066 R&D Projects: GA MPO 2A-1TP1/063 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : leucite * crystallization kinetics * hydrothermal Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 1.065, year: 2009

  6. Some parameters of radionuclide kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokof'ev, O.N.; Smirnov, V.A.; Belen'kij, E.I.

    1978-01-01

    Numerical values of the rates of radionuclide absorption into, and elimination from, bovine organs were determined. Kinetic rate constants of radionuclides such as 89 Sr, 99 Mo, 131 I, 132 Tl, and 140 Be were calculated. The calculations were done for muscle, liver, and kidney

  7. Solving Simple Kinetics without Integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Pen~a, Lisandro Herna´ndez

    2016-01-01

    The solution of simple kinetic equations is analyzed without referencing any topic from differential equations or integral calculus. Guided by the physical meaning of the rate equation, a systematic procedure is used to generate an approximate solution that converges uniformly to the exact solution in the case of zero, first, and second order…

  8. Robustness Analysis of Kinetic Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    Kinetic structures in architecture follows a new trend which is emerging in responsive architecture coined by Nicholas Negroponte when he proposed that architecture may benefit from the integration of computing power into built spaces and structures, and that better performing, more rational...

  9. Kinetics of Bio-Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, John

    2015-01-01

    his chapter predicts the specific rates of reaction by means of a mathematical expression, the kinetics of the reaction. This expression can be derived through a mechanistic interpretation of an enzymatically catalyzed reaction, but it is essentially of empirical nature for cell reactions. The mo...

  10. Resonance transport and kinetic entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Yu.B.; Knoll, J.; Voskresensky, D.N.

    2000-01-01

    We continue the description of the dynamics of unstable particles within the real-time formulation of nonequilibrium field theory initiated in a previous paper . There we suggest to use Baym's PHI-functional method in order to achieve approximation schemes with 'built in' consistency with respect to conservation laws and thermodynamics even in the case of particles with finite damping width. Starting from Kadanoff-Baym equations we discuss a consistent first order gradient approach to transport which preserves the PHI-derivable properties. The validity conditions for the resulting quantum four-phase-space kinetic theory are discussed under the perspective to treat particles with broad damping widths. This non-equilibrium dynamics naturally includes all those quantum features already inherent in the corresponding equilibrium limit (e.g. Matsubara formalism) at the same level of PHI-derivable approximation. Various collision-term diagrams are discussed including those of higher order which lead to memory effects. As an important novel part we derive a generalized nonequilibrium expression for the kinetic entropy flow, which includes contributions from fluctuations and mass-width effects. In special cases an H-theorem is derived implying that the entropy can only increase with time. Memory effects in the kinetic terms provide contributions to the kinetic entropy flow that in the equilibrium limit recover the famous bosonic type T 3 lnT correction to the specific heat in the case of Fermi liquids like Helium-3

  11. Hypovascular hypointense nodules on hepatobiliary phase without T2 hyperintensity on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR images in patients with chronic liver disease: long-term outcomes and risk factors for hypervascular transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Seek [Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Department of Radiology, Jeonju-si, Chonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ji Soo; Lee, Hyun Kyung; Han, Young Min [Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Department of Radiology, Jeonju-si, Chonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Chonbuk National University-Biomedical Research Institute of Chonbuk National University Hospital, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    To evaluate the long-term outcomes and imaging features associated with hypervascularization of hypovascular nodules that show T2 iso-/hypointensity and hypointensity on hepatobiliary phase (HBP) of gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) images in patients with chronic liver disease. Sixty patients and 114 nodules, which were hypovascular and iso-/hypointense on T2-weighted images and hypointense on HBP of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI, were included. We evaluated the effect of baseline clinical features, baseline MR features and growth rate on subsequent hypervascularization. Twenty-seven nodules in 21 patients transformed to hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Using multivariate Cox analysis, T1 hyperintensity (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.69, P = 0.021), previous history of HCC (HR = 2.64, P = 0.021), and initial nodule size (HR = 1.09, P = 0.046) were identified to be associated with hypervascularization. The growth rate of nodules was a more powerful determinant of subsequent hypervascularization than baseline clinical and MR features. At long-term follow-up after >3 years, only one nodule with T1 isointensity showed hypervascularization. Careful follow-up or diagnostic procedures, such as biopsy, should be considered for up to 3 years after detection of hypointense nodules on HBP with T1 hyperintensity or a higher growth rate. (orig.)

  12. Sequential hepato-biliary scintigraphy of the patients with constitutional jaundices and ICG excretory defect disease with sup(99m)Tc-HIDA and sup(99m)Tc-PI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Hideo; Asahara, Akira; Hishinuma, Sanpei; Toogin, Masayuki; Takagi, Masao

    1979-01-01

    The hepato-biliary scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-HIDA and sup(99m)Tc-PI and the measurement of hepatic clearance have been studied on constitutional hyperbilirubinemia and ICG excretory defect disease. The results obtained are as follows: 1) In Dubin-Johnson's syndrome cases, the hepatic uptake of sup(99m)Tc-HIDA was faster, but the excretion was extremely slower than in normal cases. 2) Hepatic uptake and excretion of sup(99m)Tc-PI were both almost normal in Dubin-Johnson's syndrome. 3) In Rotor's disease, hepatic uptake of sup(99m)Tc-HIDA was very poor, showing almost no hepatic image. 4) In Gilbert's disease and ICG excretory defect disease, hepatic uptake and excretion of sup(99m)Tc-HIDA were both within normal limit. From these results it can be presumed that Dubin-Johnson's syndrome and Rotor's disease differ in morbid condition. Dubin-Johnson's syndrome, Rotor's disease and Gilbert's disease show the different patterns between hepatic uptake and excretion on sup(99m)Tc-HIDA hepatoscintigraphy and the patterns contribute to the differential diagnosis of constitutional jaundice. (author)

  13. Correlation between hepatobiliary scintigraphy and surgery or postmortem examination findings in dogs and cats with extrahepatic biliary obstruction, partial obstruction, or patency of the biliary system: 18 cases (1995-2004).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Laurie L; Daniel, Gregory B

    2005-11-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of serum biochemical variables and scintigraphic study results for differentiating between dogs and cats with complete extrahepatic biliary obstruction (EHO) and those with partial EHO or patent bile ducts. Retrospective case series. 17 dogs and 1 cat. Animals that underwent hepatobiliary scintigraphy and had either surgical or postmortem confirmation of the degree of bile duct patency were included. Scintigraphic images were evaluated and biliary tracts were classified as patent, partially obstructed but patent, or obstructed. Surgery or postmortem examination was considered the gold standard for diagnosis, and compared with those findings, sensitivity and specificity of scintigraphy were calculated. With absence of radioactivity in the intestinal tract as the diagnostic criterion for EHO, the sensitivity and specificity of scintigraphic diagnosis were both 83% when final images were acquired at 19 to 24 hours, compared with 100% and 33%, respectively, when 180 minutes was used as the cutoff time. Animals with partial biliary obstruction had less intestinal radioactivity that arrived later than that observed in animals with patent biliary tracts. Animals in which intestinal radioactivity has not been observed after the standard 3 to 4 hours should undergo additional scintigraphic imaging. Findings in animals with partial biliary obstruction include delayed arrival of radioactivity and less radioactivity in the intestine. Distinguishing between complete and partial biliary tract obstruction is important because animals with partial obstruction may respond favorably to medical management and should not be given an erroneous diagnosis of complete obstruction.

  14. Some Aspects of Extended Kinetic Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the pathway model of Mathai introduced in 2005 [Linear Algebra and Its Applications, 396, 317–328] we extend the standard kinetic equations. Connection of the extended kinetic equation with fractional calculus operator is established. The solution of the general form of the fractional kinetic equation is obtained through Laplace transform. The results for the standard kinetic equation are obtained as the limiting case.

  15. Holographic kinetic k-essence model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Norman [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Casilla 307, Santiago (Chile)], E-mail: ncruz@lauca.usach.cl; Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F.; Rozas-Fernandez, Alberto [Colina de los Chopos, Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: a.rozas@cfmac.csic.es; Sanchez, Guillermo [Departamento de Matematica y Ciencia de la Computacion, Facultad de Ciencia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Casilla 307, Santiago (Chile)], E-mail: gsanchez@usach.cl

    2009-08-31

    We consider a connection between the holographic dark energy density and the kinetic k-essence energy density in a flat FRW universe. With the choice c{>=}1, the holographic dark energy can be described by a kinetic k-essence scalar field in a certain way. In this Letter we show this kinetic k-essential description of the holographic dark energy with c{>=}1 and reconstruct the kinetic k-essence function F(X)

  16. Kinetic modelling of enzymatic starch hydrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bednarska, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Kinetic modelling of enzymatic starch hydrolysis – a summary

    K.A. Bednarska

    The dissertation entitled ‘Kinetic modelling of enzymatic starch hydrolysis’ describes the enzymatic hydrolysis and kinetic modelling of liquefaction and saccharification of wheat starch.

  17. Morphogenesis of Kinetic Reciprocal Frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Sassone, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Kinetic structures in civil engineering and architecture gained considerable more attention in the very recent years as a practical solution to face time dependant performances. Realized projects are mostly bridges, retractable roofs, while in architecture the trend follows the category of intera......Kinetic structures in civil engineering and architecture gained considerable more attention in the very recent years as a practical solution to face time dependant performances. Realized projects are mostly bridges, retractable roofs, while in architecture the trend follows the category...... (RF) were studied in the past as a practical solution to span distances with shorter elements. Leonardo da Vinci discovered interesting RF patterns and studied three dimensional arch structures for bridges. RF are generally defined as structures that forms closed circuits of forces, and where elements...

  18. Kinetic approach to relativistic dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbana, A.; Mendoza, M.; Succi, S.; Tripiccione, R.

    2017-08-01

    Despite a long record of intense effort, the basic mechanisms by which dissipation emerges from the microscopic dynamics of a relativistic fluid still elude complete understanding. In particular, several details must still be finalized in the pathway from kinetic theory to hydrodynamics mainly in the derivation of the values of the transport coefficients. In this paper, we approach the problem by matching data from lattice-kinetic simulations with analytical predictions. Our numerical results provide neat evidence in favor of the Chapman-Enskog [The Mathematical Theory of Non-Uniform Gases, 3rd ed. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 1970)] procedure as suggested by recent theoretical analyses along with qualitative hints at the basic reasons why the Chapman-Enskog expansion might be better suited than Grad's method [Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 2, 331 (1949), 10.1002/cpa.3160020403] to capture the emergence of dissipative effects in relativistic fluids.

  19. Kinetic theory of tearing instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.; Dobrott, D.; Wang, T.S.

    1975-01-01

    The guiding-center kinetic equation with Fokker-Planck collision term is used to study, in cylindrical geometry, a class of dissipative instabilities of which the classical tearing mode is an archetype. Variational solution of the kinetic equation obviates the use of an approximate Ohm's law or adiabatic assumption, as used in previous studies, and it provides a dispersive relation which is uniformly valid for any ratio of wave frequency to collision frequency. One result of using the rigorous collision operator is the prediction of a new instability. This instability, driven by the electron temperature gradient, is predicted to occur under the long mean-free path conditions of present tokamak experiments, and has significant features in common with the kink-like oscillations observed in such experiments

  20. Kinetics of cadmium hydroxide precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.W.; Marani, D.; Luo, B.; Swenson, P.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents some preliminary results on the kinetics of Cd(OH)/sub 2/ precipitation, both in the absence and the presence of citric acid as an inhibiting agent. Batch and continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) precipitation studies are performed by mixing equal volumes of NaOH and Cd(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ solutions, in order to avoid localized supersaturation conditions. The rate of metal removal from the soluble phase is calculated from the mass balance for the CSTR precipitation tests. In addition, precipitation kinetics are studied in terms of nucleation and crystal growth rates, by means of a particle counter that allows a population balance analysis for the precipitation reactor at steady state conditions

  1. Art Engineering and Kinetic Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış Yılmaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Performing an art, either by painting or by sculpturing, requires to be interdisciplinary. When an artist creates his/her work of art, the process he/she realizes is supported by different engineering disciplines. Therefore, especially modern artists need to understand engineering science and this results in transforming artists into engineers. Opportunities provided by technology and science enable artists to expand his/her vision and to improve his/her works. Especially kinetic art has become an approach that combines art with engineering. Kinetic art, which is nourished with varied disciplines, is an excellent example to prove that art is interdisciplinary and to show the relationship between artist/art and engineering.

  2. Modeling the isochronal crystallization kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahay, S.S.; Krishnan, Karthik

    2004-01-01

    The classical Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) model, originally formulated for the isothermal condition, is often used in conjunction with additivity principle for modeling the non-isothermal crystallization kinetics. This approach at times results in significant differences between the model prediction and experimental data. In this article, a modification to this approach has been imposed via an additional functional relationship between the activation energy and heating rate. The methodology has been validated with experimental isochronal crystallization kinetic data in Se 71 Te 20 Sb 9 glass and Ge 20 Te 80 systems. It has been shown that the functional relationship between heating rate and activation energy, ascribed to the reduction in apparent activation energy due to increasing non-isothermality, provides better phenomenological description and therefore improves the prediction capability of the JMAK model under isochronal condition

  3. Muscular Oxygen Uptake Kinetics in Aged Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschate, J; Drescher, U; Baum, K; Eichberg, S; Schiffer, T; Latsch, J; Brixius, K; Hoffmann, U

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary oxygen uptake (V˙O2) kinetics and heart rate kinetics are influenced by age and fitness. Muscular V˙O2 kinetics can be estimated from heart rate and pulmonary V˙O2. In this study the applicability of a test using pseudo-random binary sequences in combination with a model to estimate muscular V˙O2 kinetics was tested. Muscular V˙O2 kinetics were expected to be faster than pulmonary V˙O2 kinetics, slowed in aged subjects and correlated with maximum V˙O2 and heart rate kinetics. 27 elderly subjects (73±3 years; 81.1±8.2 kg; 175±4.7 cm) participated. Cardiorespiratory kinetics were assessed using the maximum of cross-correlation functions, higher maxima implying faster kinetics. Muscular V˙O2 kinetics were faster than pulmonary V˙O2 kinetics (0.31±0.1 vs. 0.29±0.1 s; p=0.004). Heart rate kinetics were not correlated with muscular or pulmonary V˙O2 kinetics or maximum V˙O2. Muscular V˙O2 kinetics correlated with maximum V˙O2 (r=0.35; p=0.033). This suggests, that muscular V˙O2 kinetics are faster than estimates from pulmonary V˙O2 and related to maximum V˙O2 in aged subjects. In the future this experimental approach may help to characterize alterations in muscular V˙O2 under various conditions independent of motivation and maximal effort. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Bumetanide kinetics in renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentikaeinen, P.J.P.; Pasternack, A.; Lampainen, E.; Neuvonen, P.J.; Penttilae, A.

    1985-01-01

    To study the effects of renal failure on bumetanide kinetics, the authors administered single intravenous doses of 1.0 mg/3.08 microCi 14 C-bumetanide to six healthy subjects and 22 patients with variable degrees of renal failure. The kinetics of 14 C-bumetanide and total 14 C were adequately described by a two-compartment open model in the control subjects and in the patients. The volume of the central compartment and the distribution t1/2 were of the same order in both groups, whereas the mean (+/- SE) volume at steady state was larger (22.1 +/- 1.6 and 16.9 +/- 1.0 L) and the elimination t1/2 was longer (1.9 +/- 0.2 and 1.4 +/- 0.1 hours) in patients with renal failure than in healthy controls. Bumetanide renal clearance was lower (10 +/- 3 and 90 +/- 13 ml/min) in patients than in subjects and correlated with creatinine clearance (r = 0.784) and log serum creatinine level (r = -0.843), whereas nonrenal clearance was significantly higher in the patients (153 +/- 14 and 99 +/- 6 ml/min). Bumetanide total plasma clearance did not significantly change. The non-protein-bound, free fraction of bumetanide was higher in patients and correlated with plasma albumin levels (r = -0.777). The kinetics of total 14 C showed similar but greater changes than those of 14C-bumetanide. Thus the most important changes in bumetanide kinetics in patients with renal failure are low renal clearance and a high free fraction, with a consequent increase in nonrenal clearance, volume of distribution, and elimination t1/2

  5. Production kinetics of zirconium tetrachloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudjoko, D.; Masduki, B.; Sunardjo; Sulistyo, B.

    1996-01-01

    This research was intended to study the kinetics of zirconium tetrachloride production. The process was carried out in semi continuous reactor, equipped with heater, temperature controller, sublimator and scrubber. The variables investigated were time, temperature and the pellet forming pressure. Within the range of variables studied, the expression of the process in the chemical reaction controller region and diffusion controller region were both presented. (author)

  6. On the kinetic energy density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, R.J.; Mas, D.; Moszkowski, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    We discuss two expressions for the density of kinetic energy which differ by an integration by parts. Using the Wigner transform we shown that the arithmetic mean of these two terms is closely analogous to the classical value. Harmonic oscillator wavefunctions are used to illustrate the radial dependence of these expressions. We study the differences they induce through effective mass terms when performing self-consistent calculations. (author)

  7. Kinetics of UO2 sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristic, M.M.

    1962-01-01

    Detailed conclusions related to the UO 2 sintering can be drawn from investigating the kinetics of the sintering process. This report gives an thorough analysis of the the data concerned with sintering available in the literature taking into account the Jander and Arrhenius laws. This analysis completes the study of influence of the O/U ratio and the atmosphere on the sintering. Results presented are fundamentals of future theoretical and experimental work related to characterisation of the UO 2 sintering process

  8. KINETIC ALGORITHMS FOR HARBOUR MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Gold

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern harbour management for a busy port needs to resolve a variety of simultaneous problems. Harbour traffic may be busy and the waterways congested, both by the major shipping and by the attendant harbour tugs. The harbour channel may be narrow and tortuous, and rapidly changing tides may require frequent course adjustments. Navigation aids must be clearly specified and immediately identifiable, in order to permit safe passage for the vessels. This requires a GIS with attributes not easily available with traditional products. The GeoVS system is a kinetic GIS with full three-dimensional visualisation, so that ships, bathymetry and landscape may be viewed in a form that is immediately understandable to both harbour pilots and the harbour authority. The system is kinetic because the data structures used to preserve the topological relationships between ships, seafloor and coastline are able to be maintained on a real-time basis, taking account of ship movement recorded on the compulsory AIS (Automatic Information System beacons. Maintenance of this real-time topology allows for easy detection of potential collisions, as well as real-time bathymetric estimations, necessary to prevent ship grounding in highly tidal environments. The system, based on previous research into kinetic Voronoi diagrams, as well as development of a completely new graphical engine, is now in commercial production, where its advantages over simpler twodimensional models without automatic collision and grounding detection are becoming evident. Other applications are readily envisaged, and will be addressed in the near future.

  9. Oxidation kinetics of corium pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulatsky, A.A., E-mail: andrei314@mail.ru [Alexandrov Research Institute of Technologies (NITI), Sosnovy Bor (Russian Federation); Smirnov, S.A. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus (NIIEFA), St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Granovsky, V.S.; Khabensky, V.B.; Krushinov, E.V.; Vitol, S.A.; Kotova, S.Yu. [Alexandrov Research Institute of Technologies (NITI), Sosnovy Bor (Russian Federation); Fischer, M.; Hellmann, S. [AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Tromm, W.; Miassoedov, A. [Forschungzentrum Karlsruhe (FZK), Karlsruhe (Germany); Bottomley, D. [EUROPÄISCHE KOMMISSION, Joint Research Centre Institut für Transurane (ITU), Karlsruhe (Germany); Piluso, P. [CEA Cadarache-DEN/DTN/STRI, St.Paul-lez-Durance (France); Barrachin, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et Sûreté Nucléaire, St.Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • The analysis of experimental data on molten corium oxidation was been carried out. • The analysis has revealed the main factors influencing the oxidation kinetics. • The analysis was used for developing a qualitative analytical model. • The numerical modeling has confirmed the results of experimental data analysis. -- Abstract: Experimental, theoretical and numerical studies of oxidation kinetics of an open surface corium pool have been reported. The experiments have been carried out within OECD MASCA program and ISTC METCOR, METCOR-P and EVAN projects. It has been shown that the melt oxidation is controlled by an oxidant supply to the melt free surface from the atmosphere, not by the reducer supply from the melt. The project experiments have not detected any input of the zirconium oxidation kinetics into the process chemistry. The completed analysis puts forward a simple analytical model, which gives an explanation of the main features of melt oxidation process. The numerical modeling results are in good agreement with experimental data and theoretical considerations.

  10. Oxidation kinetics of corium pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulatsky, A.A.; Smirnov, S.A.; Granovsky, V.S.; Khabensky, V.B.; Krushinov, E.V.; Vitol, S.A.; Kotova, S.Yu.; Fischer, M.; Hellmann, S.; Tromm, W.; Miassoedov, A.; Bottomley, D.; Piluso, P.; Barrachin, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The analysis of experimental data on molten corium oxidation was been carried out. • The analysis has revealed the main factors influencing the oxidation kinetics. • The analysis was used for developing a qualitative analytical model. • The numerical modeling has confirmed the results of experimental data analysis. -- Abstract: Experimental, theoretical and numerical studies of oxidation kinetics of an open surface corium pool have been reported. The experiments have been carried out within OECD MASCA program and ISTC METCOR, METCOR-P and EVAN projects. It has been shown that the melt oxidation is controlled by an oxidant supply to the melt free surface from the atmosphere, not by the reducer supply from the melt. The project experiments have not detected any input of the zirconium oxidation kinetics into the process chemistry. The completed analysis puts forward a simple analytical model, which gives an explanation of the main features of melt oxidation process. The numerical modeling results are in good agreement with experimental data and theoretical considerations

  11. Aluminum corrosion product release kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Matt, E-mail: Matthew.Edwards@cnl.ca; Semmler, Jaleh; Guzonas, Dave; Chen, Hui Qun; Toor, Arshad; Hoendermis, Seanna

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Release of Al corrosion product was measured in simulated post-LOCA sump solutions. • Increased boron was found to enhance Al release kinetics at similar pH. • Models of Al release as functions of time, temperature, and pH were developed. - Abstract: The kinetics of aluminum corrosion product release was examined in solutions representative of post-LOCA sump water for both pressurized water and pressurized heavy-water reactors. Coupons of AA 6061 T6 were exposed to solutions in the pH 7–11 range at 40, 60, 90 and 130 °C. Solution samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, and coupon samples were analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The results show a distinct “boron effect” on the release kinetics, expected to be caused by an increase in the solubility of the aluminum corrosion products. New models were developed to describe both sets of data as functions of temperature, time, and pH (where applicable)

  12. Hepatobiliary alterations in massive biliary ascariasis: histopathological aspects of an autopsy case Lesões hepatobiliares em ascaridíase biliar maciça: aspectos histopatológicos em um caso de autópsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos da Costa Gayotto

    1990-04-01

    Full Text Available Hepatobiliary alterations found in an autopsy case of massive Biliary Ascariasis, are reported on histological grounds. Severe cholangitis was the main finding, but other changes were also detected, such as pyloric and intestinal metaplasia, hyperplasia of the epithelial lining, with intraductal papillomas and adenomatous proliferation. Remnants of the worm were observed tightly adhered to the epithelium, forming microscopic intrahepatic calculi. Mucopolysaccharides, especially acid, showed to be strongly positive on the luminal border, and in proliferated glands around the ducts. The authors discuss the similarity between such findings and Oriental Cholangiohepatitis, and suggest that inflammation and the presence of the parasitic remnants are responsible for the hyperplastic and metaplastic changes, similarly with what occurs in chlonorchiasis, fascioliasis and schistosomiasis.Os autores apresentam os aspectos histopatológicos encontrados no fígado de um caso de autópsia de Ascaridíase Biliar maciça. A intensa colangite foi o aspecto predominante, mas outras lesões também foram encontradas, tais como metaplasia pilórica e intestinal, hiperplasia epitelial com papilomas intraductais, e por vezes padrão adenomatoso. Restos do helminto foram encontrados fortemente aderidos ao epitélio, sendo intensa a positividade de mucopolissacárides, principalmente ácidos, na borda luminal do epitélio ductal e em glândulas proliferadas ao redor dos ductos. Os autores discutem a semelhança da Ascaridíase Biliar com a Colangio Hepatite Oriental, e sugerem que o processo inflamatório e a presença de restos do verme são responsáveis pelas alterações hiperplásicas e metaplásicas, analogamente ao que ocorre na clonorquíase, fasciolíase e esquistossomose.

  13. Nonlinear Kinetics on Lattices Based on the Kinetic Interaction Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Kaniadakis

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Master equations define the dynamics that govern the time evolution of various physical processes on lattices. In the continuum limit, master equations lead to Fokker–Planck partial differential equations that represent the dynamics of physical systems in continuous spaces. Over the last few decades, nonlinear Fokker–Planck equations have become very popular in condensed matter physics and in statistical physics. Numerical solutions of these equations require the use of discretization schemes. However, the discrete evolution equation obtained by the discretization of a Fokker–Planck partial differential equation depends on the specific discretization scheme. In general, the discretized form is different from the master equation that has generated the respective Fokker–Planck equation in the continuum limit. Therefore, the knowledge of the master equation associated with a given Fokker–Planck equation is extremely important for the correct numerical integration of the latter, since it provides a unique, physically motivated discretization scheme. This paper shows that the Kinetic Interaction Principle (KIP that governs the particle kinetics of many body systems, introduced in G. Kaniadakis, Physica A 296, 405 (2001, univocally defines a very simple master equation that in the continuum limit yields the nonlinear Fokker–Planck equation in its most general form.

  14. A kinetics database and scripts for PHREEQC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, B.; Zhang, Y.; Teng, Y.; Zhu, C.

    2017-12-01

    Kinetics of geochemical reactions has been increasingly used in numerical models to simulate coupled flow, mass transport, and chemical reactions. However, the kinetic data are scattered in the literature. To assemble a kinetic dataset for a modeling project is an intimidating task for most. In order to facilitate the application of kinetics in geochemical modeling, we assembled kinetics parameters into a database for the geochemical simulation program, PHREEQC (version 3.0). Kinetics data were collected from the literature. Our database includes kinetic data for over 70 minerals. The rate equations are also programmed into scripts with the Basic language. Using the new kinetic database, we simulated reaction path during the albite dissolution process using various rate equations in the literature. The simulation results with three different rate equations gave difference reaction paths at different time scale. Another application involves a coupled reactive transport model simulating the advancement of an acid plume in an acid mine drainage site associated with Bear Creek Uranium tailings pond. Geochemical reactions including calcite, gypsum, and illite were simulated with PHREEQC using the new kinetic database. The simulation results successfully demonstrated the utility of new kinetic database.

  15. Thermodynamic basis for cluster kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Lina; Bian, Xiufang; Qin, Xubo

    2006-01-01

    Due to the inaccessibility of the supercooled region of marginal metallic glasses (MMGs) within the experimental time window, we study the cluster kinetics above the liquidus temperature, Tl, to acquire information on the fragility of the MMG systems. Thermodynamic basis for the stability...... of locally ordered structure in the MMG liquids is discussed in terms of the two-order-parameter model. It is found that the Arrhenius activation energy of clusters, h, is proportional to the chemical mixing enthalpy of alloys, Hchem. Fragility of the MMG forming liquids can be described by the ratio...

  16. Kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Boudart, Michel

    2014-01-01

    This book is a critical account of the principles of the kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions in the light of recent developments in surface science and catalysis science. Originally published in 1984. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase acc

  17. Kinetic equations with pairing correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauser, R.

    1995-12-01

    The Gorkov equations are derived for a general non-equilibrium system. The Gorkov factorization is generalized by the cumulant expansion of the 2-particle correlation and by a generalized Wick theorem in the case of a perturbation expansion. A stationary solution for the Green functions in the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism is presented taking into account pairing correlations. Especially the effects of collisional broadening on the spectral functions and Green functions is discussed. Kinetic equations are derived in the quasi-particle approximation and in the case of particles with width. Explicit expressions for the self-energies are given. (orig.)

  18. Kinetic theory of radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansur, L.K.

    1987-01-01

    To help achieve the quantitative and mechanistic understanding of these processes, the kinetic theory of radiation effects has been developed in the DOE basic energy sciences radiation effects and fusion reactor materials programs, as well as in corresponding efforts in other countries. This discipline grapples with a very wide range of phenomena and draws on numerous sub-fields of theory such as defect physics, diffusion, elasticity, chemical reaction rates, phase transformations and thermodynamics. The theory is cast in a mathematical framework of continuum dynamics. Issues particularly relevant to the present inquiry can be viewed from the standpoints of applications of the theory and areas requiring further progress

  19. A kinetic model for hydrodesulfurisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sau, M.; Narasimhan, C.S.L.; Verma, R.P. [Indian Oil Corporation Limited, Research and Development Centre, Faridabad (India)

    1997-07-01

    Due to stringent environmental considerations and related insistence on low sulfur fuels, hydrodesulfurisation has emerged as an important component of any refining scheme globally. The process is used ranging from Naphta/Kerosine hydrotreating to heavy oil hydrotreating. Processes such as Deep gas oil desulfurisation aiming at reduction of sulfur levels to less than 500 ppm have emerged as major players in the scenario. Hydrodesulfurisation (HDS) involves parallel desulfurisation of different organo-sulfur compounds present in the complex petroleum mixtures. In order to design, monitor, optimise and control the HDS reactor, it is necessary to have a detailed, yet simple model which follows the reaction chemistry accurately. In the present paper, a kinetic model is presented for HDS using continuum theory of lumping. The sulfur distribution in the reaction mixture is treated as continuum and parallel reaction networks are devised for kinetic modelling using continuum theory of lumping approach. The model based on the above approach follows the HDS chemistry reasonably well and hence the model parameters are almost feed invariant. Methods are also devised to incorporate heat and pressure effects into the model. The model has been validated based on commercial kero-HDS data. It is found that the model predictions agree with the experimental/commercial data. 17 refs.

  20. Kinetic Profiles in NSTX Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, R.E.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Bourdelle, C.; Ernst, D.R.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Gates, D.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Johnson, D.W.; Kaye, S.M.; Maingi, R.; Medley, S.; Menard, J.E.; Mueller, D.; Ono, M.; Paoletti, F.; Peng, M.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Stutman, D.; Swain, D.W.; Synakowski, E.J.; Wilson, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio (R/a approximately 1.3) device with auxiliary heating from neutral-beam injection (NBI) and high-harmonic fast-wave heating (HHFW). Typical NSTX parameters are R(subscript ''0'') = 85 cm, a = 67 cm, I(subscript ''p'') = 0.7-1.4 MA, B(subscript ''phi'') = 0.25-0.45 T. Three co-directed deuterium neutral-beam sources have injected P(subscript ''NB'') less than or equal to 4.7 MW. HHFW plasmas typically have delivered P(subscript ''RF'') less than or equal to 3 MW. Important to the understanding of NSTX confinement are the new kinetic profile diagnostics: a multi-pulse Thomson scattering system (MPTS) and a charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy (CHERS) system. The MPTS diagnostic currently measures electron density and temperature profiles at 30 Hz at ten spatial locations. The CHERS system has recently become available to measure carbon ion temperature and toroidal flow at 17 radial positions spanning the outer half of the minor radius with 20 msec time resolution during NBI. Experiments conducted during the last year have produced a wide range of kinetic profiles in NSTX. Some interesting examples are presented below

  1. Conformational kinetics of aliphatic tails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, Alberta; Moro, Giorgio; Nordio, Pier Luigi

    The master equation describing the random walk between sites identified with the stable conformers of a chain molecule, represents the extension to the time domain of the Rotational Isomeric State model. The asymptotic analysis of the multidimensional diffusion equation in the continuous torsional variables subjected to the configurational potential, provides a rigorous justification for the discrete models, and it supplies, without resorting to phenomenological parameters, molecular definitions of the kinetic rates for the conformational transitions occurring at each segment of the chain. The coupling between the torsional variables is fully taken into account, giving rise to cooperative effects. A complete calculation of the specific correlation functions which describe the time evolution of the angular functions probed by N.M.R. and dielectric relaxation measurements, has been performed for alkyl chains attached to a massive core. The resulting behaviour has been compared with the decay of trans and gauche populations of specific bonds, expressed in terms of suitable correlation functions whose time integrals lead quite naturally to the definition of effective kinetic constants for the conformational transitions.

  2. Blood-organ transfer kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrable, K.W.; Chabot, G.E.; French, C.S.; Wrenn, M.E.; Lipsztein, J.; Sasso, T.L.; Durbin, P.W.

    1980-01-01

    Exact and approximate kinetics equations relating to the transfer and elimination of radionuclides from the blood and various organs in the body are presented. These expressions may be used to estimate the instantaneous activity or the total number of disintegrations of a radionuclide in the blood or various organs of reference in the body, hence, also the respective dose rates and doses. The exact kinetics equations may be used to relate measurements of radionuclides in excreta to burdens in the body. They do give better results for exposure intervals long compared to the effective mean lives of the radionuclide in the various organs of reference, and they yield the exact steady state expressions. Fortunately, this condition is often satisfied for the relatively long standard exposure interval of 50 years that is applied to occupational exposure. In addition, the steady state expressions may be used along with metabolic data of the distribution of elements in the body, diet and excreta to estimate values of the rate constants used in both the exact and approximate expressions. A comparison of the exact and approximate expressions is given for the uranium metabolic model of Wrenn et al. and a comparison is made with current ICRP models. (author)

  3. Combustion kinetics and reaction pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemm, R.B.; Sutherland, J.W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This project is focused on the fundamental chemistry of combustion. The overall objectives are to determine rate constants for elementary reactions and to elucidate the pathways of multichannel reactions. A multitechnique approach that features three independent experiments provides unique capabilities in performing reliable kinetic measurements over an exceptionally wide range in temperature, 300 to 2500 K. Recent kinetic work has focused on experimental studies and theoretical calculations of the methane dissociation system (CH{sub 4} + Ar {yields} CH{sub 3} + H + Ar and H + CH{sub 4} {yields} CH{sub 3} + H{sub 2}). Additionally, a discharge flow-photoionization mass spectrometer (DF-PIMS) experiment is used to determine branching fractions for multichannel reactions and to measure ionization thresholds of free radicals. Thus, these photoionization experiments generate data that are relevant to both reaction pathways studies (reaction dynamics) and fundamental thermochemical research. Two distinct advantages of performing PIMS with high intensity, tunable vacuum ultraviolet light at the National Synchrotron Light Source are high detection sensitivity and exceptional selectivity in monitoring radical species.

  4. Numerical Simulation of the Kinetic Critical Nucleus

    OpenAIRE

    Sanada, Masaaki; Nishioka, Kazumi; Okada, Masahumi; Maksimov, Igor, L.

    1997-01-01

    Our main interest is to see whether the number density indicates a peak at the kinetically stable critical nucleus due to its kinetical stability. We have numerically calculated the time evolution of the number densities of clusters in the case of water vapor nucleation. We employ the condition in which the difference between the size of the thermodynamic crtitical nucleus and that of the kinetic one is appreciable. The results show that the peak does not appear in the number densities of clu...

  5. Drug-Target Kinetics in Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonge, Peter J

    2018-01-17

    The development of therapies for the treatment of neurological cancer faces a number of major challenges including the synthesis of small molecule agents that can penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Given the likelihood that in many cases drug exposure will be lower in the CNS than in systemic circulation, it follows that strategies should be employed that can sustain target engagement at low drug concentration. Time dependent target occupancy is a function of both the drug and target concentration as well as the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters that describe the binding reaction coordinate, and sustained target occupancy can be achieved through structural modifications that increase target (re)binding and/or that decrease the rate of drug dissociation. The discovery and deployment of compounds with optimized kinetic effects requires information on the structure-kinetic relationships that modulate the kinetics of binding, and the molecular factors that control the translation of drug-target kinetics to time-dependent drug activity in the disease state. This Review first introduces the potential benefits of drug-target kinetics, such as the ability to delineate both thermodynamic and kinetic selectivity, and then describes factors, such as target vulnerability, that impact the utility of kinetic selectivity. The Review concludes with a description of a mechanistic PK/PD model that integrates drug-target kinetics into predictions of drug activity.

  6. Tantalum high-temperature oxidation kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'ev, Yu.M.; Sarkisyan, A.A.; Merzhanov, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    Kinetics of heat release and scale growth during tantalum oxidation within 650-1300 deg C temperature range in oxygen-containing media is investigated. Kinetic equations and temperature and pressure dependences of constants are ound Applicability of the kinetic Lorie mechanism for the description of the tantalum oxidation kinetics applicably to rapid-passing processes is shown. It is stated that the process rate (reaction ability) is determined by adsorption desorption factors on the external surface of the ''protective'' oxide for the ''linear'' oxidation stage [ru

  7. Disordering kinetics in surface overlayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesina, A.; Tringides, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    The disordering kinetics of the O/W(110)-p(2x1)+p(2x2) overlayer, prepared initially in a well-ordered state, are studied with low-energy electron diffraction profile analysis. The decay of the peak intensity, used as a measure of the growing disorder, cannot be fitted to a power law as in the case of ordering processes. The full width at half maximum of the time-dependent structure factor S(q,t) is constant with time, which suggests that the average size remains constant. Diffusion activation energy extracted for the temperature dependence of the disordering is 1.0±0.05 eV, which is different from the value of 0.6 eV measured in ordering processes. The difference can be explained by the adsorbate-adsorbate interactions, which contribute differently to the diffusion barrier, in the two experiments

  8. Analysis of kinetic reaction mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Turányi, Tamás

    2014-01-01

    Chemical processes in many fields of science and technology, including combustion, atmospheric chemistry, environmental modelling, process engineering, and systems biology, can be described by detailed reaction mechanisms consisting of numerous reaction steps. This book describes methods for the analysis of reaction mechanisms that are applicable in all these fields. Topics addressed include: how sensitivity and uncertainty analyses allow the calculation of the overall uncertainty of simulation results and the identification of the most important input parameters, the ways in which mechanisms can be reduced without losing important kinetic and dynamic detail, and the application of reduced models for more accurate engineering optimizations. This monograph is invaluable for researchers and engineers dealing with detailed reaction mechanisms, but is also useful for graduate students of related courses in chemistry, mechanical engineering, energy and environmental science and biology.

  9. Nuclear reactor kinetics and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewins, J.

    1978-01-01

    A consistent, integrated account of modern developments in the study of nuclear reactor kinetics and the problem of their efficient and safe control. It aims to prepare the student for advanced study and research or practical work in the field. Special features include treatments of noise theory, reliability theory and safety related studies. It covers all aspects of the operation and control of nuclear reactors, power and research and is complete in providing physical data methods of calculation and solution including questions of equipment reliability. The work uses illustrations of the main types of reactors in use in the UK, USA and Europe. Each chapter contains problems and worked examples suitable for course work and study. The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introductory review; neutron and precursor equations; elementary solutions at low power; linear reactor process dynamics with feedback; power reactor control systems; fluctuations and reactor noise; safety and reliability; nonlinear systems (safety and control); analogue computing. (author)

  10. Method of molybdenum kinetic determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejngol'd, S.U.; Dzotsenidze, N.E.; Ruseishviyai, T.G.; Nelen', I.M.

    1980-01-01

    The method molybdenum kinetic determination according to oxidation of pyrogallol with bromate in the medium of 0.05-0.15 M perchloric or sulphuric acids is presented. 1 mg of Ni, Co, Mn, Mg, Zn, Cr(3); 100 μg of Ca, Al, Cu, 10 μg of Cr(4), W; 10 μg of Fe in the presence of 22x10 - 4 M solution of EDTA, as well as 10 - 4 M solutions of chlorides and fluorides, 10 - 5 M solutions of bromides do not interfere with molybdenum determination using the given method. The method is rather simple, it takes 30 min to carry out the analysis. Determination limit of molybdenum constitutes 0.01 μg/ml

  11. Quantum-statistical kinetic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loss, D.; Schoeller, H.

    1989-01-01

    Considering a homogeneous normal quantum fluid consisting of identical interacting fermions or bosons, the authors derive an exact quantum-statistical generalized kinetic equation with a collision operator given as explicit cluster series where exchange effects are included through renormalized Liouville operators. This new result is obtained by applying a recently developed superoperator formalism (Liouville operators, cluster expansions, symmetrized projectors, P q -rule, etc.) to nonequilibrium systems described by a density operator ρ(t) which obeys the von Neumann equation. By means of this formalism a factorization theorem is proven (being essential for obtaining closed equations), and partial resummations (leading to renormalized quantities) are performed. As an illustrative application, the quantum-statistical versions (including exchange effects due to Fermi-Dirac or Bose-Einstein statistics) of the homogeneous Boltzmann (binary collisions) and Choh-Uhlenbeck (triple collisions) equations are derived

  12. Growth kinetics in multicomponent fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.; Lookman, T.

    1995-01-01

    The hydrodynamic effects on the late-stage kinetics in spinodal decomposition of multicomponent fluids are examined using a lattice Boltzmann scheme with stochastic fluctuations in the fluid and at the interface. In two dimensions, the three- and four-component immiscible fluid mixture (with a 1024 2 lattice) behaves like an off-critical binary fluid with an estimated domain growth of t 0.4 +/= 0.03 rather than t 1/3 as previously estimated, showing the significant influence of hydrodynamics. In three dimensions (with a 256 3 lattice), we estimate the growth as t 0.96 +/= 0.05 for both critical and off-critical quenches, in agreement with phenomenological theory

  13. NESTLE: A nodal kinetics code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Chalabi, R.M.; Turinsky, P.J.; Faure, F.-X.; Sarsour, H.N.; Engrand, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    The NESTLE nodal kinetics code has been developed for utilization as a stand-alone code for steady-state and transient reactor neutronic analysis and for incorporation into system transient codes, such as TRAC and RELAP. The latter is desirable to increase the simulation fidelity over that obtained from currently employed zero- and one-dimensional neutronic models and now feasible due to advances in computer performance and efficiency of nodal methods. As a stand-alone code, requirements are that it operate on a range of computing platforms from memory-limited personal computers (PCs) to supercomputers with vector processors. This paper summarizes the features of NESTLE that reflect the utilization and requirements just noted

  14. Kinetics model for lutate dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, M.F.; Mesquita, C.H.

    2013-01-01

    The use of compartmental analysis to predict the behavior of drugs in the organism is considered the better option among numerous methods employed in pharmacodynamics. A six compartments model was developed to determinate the kinetic constants of 177Lu-DOTATATO biodistribution using data from one published study with 67 patients treated by PRRT (Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy) and followed by CT during 68,25 hours. The compartmental analysis was made using the software AnaComp®. The influence of the time pos-injection over the dose assessment was studied taking into account the renal excretion management by aminoacid coinfusion, whose direct effects persist in the first day. The biodistribution curve was split in five sectors: 0-0.25h; 0-3.25h; 3.25-24.25h; 24.25-68.25h and 3.25-68.25h. After the examination of that influence, the study was concentrated in separate the biodistribution curve in two phases. Phase 1: governed by uptake from the blood, considering the time pos-injection until 3.25h and phase 2: governed by renal excretion, considering the time pos-injection from 3.25h to 68.25h. The model considered the organs and tissues superposition in the CT image acquisition by sampling parameters as the contribution of the the activity concentration in blood and relation between the sizes of the whole body and measured organs. The kinetic constants obtained from each phase (1 and 2) were used in dose assessment to patients in 26 organs and tissues described by MIRD. Dosimetry results were in agreement with the available results from literature, restrict to whole body, kidneys, bone marrow, spleen and liver. The advantage of the proposed model is the compartmental method quickness and power to estimate dose in organs and tissues, including tumor that, in the most part, were not discriminate by voxels of phantoms built using CT images. (author)

  15. Nanoparticle shape, thermodynamics and kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, L D; Peng, L

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles can be beautiful, as in stained glass windows, or they can be ugly as in wear and corrosion debris from implants. We estimate that there will be about 70 000 papers in 2015 with nanoparticles as a keyword, but only one in thirteen uses the nanoparticle shape as an additional keyword and research focus, and only one in two hundred has thermodynamics. Methods for synthesizing nanoparticles have exploded over the last decade, but our understanding of how and why they take their forms has not progressed as fast. This topical review attempts to take a critical snapshot of the current understanding, focusing more on methods to predict than a purely synthetic or descriptive approach. We look at models and themes which are largely independent of the exact synthetic method whether it is deposition, gas-phase condensation, solution based or hydrothermal synthesis. Elements are old dating back to the beginning of the 20th century—some of the pioneering models developed then are still relevant today. Others are newer, a merging of older concepts such as kinetic-Wulff constructions with methods to understand minimum energy shapes for particles with twins. Overall we find that while there are still many unknowns, the broad framework of understanding and predicting the structure of nanoparticles via diverse Wulff constructions, either thermodynamic, local minima or kinetic has been exceedingly successful. However, the field is still developing and there remain many unknowns and new avenues for research, a few of these being suggested towards the end of the review. (topical review)

  16. Kinetics model for lutate dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, M.F.; Mesquita, C.H., E-mail: mflima@ipen.br, E-mail: chmesqui@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-11-01

    The use of compartmental analysis to predict the behavior of drugs in the organism is considered the better option among numerous methods employed in pharmacodynamics. A six compartments model was developed to determinate the kinetic constants of 177Lu-DOTATATO biodistribution using data from one published study with 67 patients treated by PRRT (Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy) and followed by CT during 68,25 hours. The compartmental analysis was made using the software AnaComp Registered-Sign . The influence of the time pos-injection over the dose assessment was studied taking into account the renal excretion management by aminoacid coinfusion, whose direct effects persist in the first day. The biodistribution curve was split in five sectors: 0-0.25h; 0-3.25h; 3.25-24.25h; 24.25-68.25h and 3.25-68.25h. After the examination of that influence, the study was concentrated in separate the biodistribution curve in two phases. Phase 1: governed by uptake from the blood, considering the time pos-injection until 3.25h and phase 2: governed by renal excretion, considering the time pos-injection from 3.25h to 68.25h. The model considered the organs and tissues superposition in the CT image acquisition by sampling parameters as the contribution of the the activity concentration in blood and relation between the sizes of the whole body and measured organs. The kinetic constants obtained from each phase (1 and 2) were used in dose assessment to patients in 26 organs and tissues described by MIRD. Dosimetry results were in agreement with the available results from literature, restrict to whole body, kidneys, bone marrow, spleen and liver. The advantage of the proposed model is the compartmental method quickness and power to estimate dose in organs and tissues, including tumor that, in the most part, were not discriminate by voxels of phantoms built using CT images. (author)

  17. Conformational Diffusion and Helix Formation Kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummer, Gerhard; Garcia, Angel E.; Garde, Shekhar

    2000-01-01

    The time, temperature, and sequence dependences of helix formation kinetics of fully atomistic peptide models in explicit solvent are described quantitatively by a diffusive search within the coil state with barrierless transitions into the helical state. Conformational diffusion leads to nonexponential kinetics and jump-width dependences in temperature jump experiments. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  18. Towards Free-Form Kinetic Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2012-01-01

    of pin-slot paths starting from the local displacements of element [2] [3]. In the design of kinetic structures, in particular when complex three dimensional and non regular configurations are involved, the functionality is frequently related to a global displacement capability of the assembly rather...... for the generation of free-form kinetic structures....

  19. Modeling composting kinetics: A review of approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2004-01-01

    Composting kinetics modeling is necessary to design and operate composting facilities that comply with strict market demands and tight environmental legislation. Current composting kinetics modeling can be characterized as inductive, i.e. the data are the starting point of the modeling process and

  20. Saffman-Taylor fingers with kinetic undercooling

    KAUST Repository

    Gardiner, Bennett P. J.

    2015-02-23

    © 2015 American Physical Society. The mathematical model of a steadily propagating Saffman-Taylor finger in a Hele-Shaw channel has applications to two-dimensional interacting streamer discharges which are aligned in a periodic array. In the streamer context, the relevant regularization on the interface is not provided by surface tension but instead has been postulated to involve a mechanism equivalent to kinetic undercooling, which acts to penalize high velocities and prevent blow-up of the unregularized solution. Previous asymptotic results for the Hele-Shaw finger problem with kinetic undercooling suggest that for a given value of the kinetic undercooling parameter, there is a discrete set of possible finger shapes, each analytic at the nose and occupying a different fraction of the channel width. In the limit in which the kinetic undercooling parameter vanishes, the fraction for each family approaches 1/2, suggesting that this "selection" of 1/2 by kinetic undercooling is qualitatively similar to the well-known analog with surface tension. We treat the numerical problem of computing these Saffman-Taylor fingers with kinetic undercooling, which turns out to be more subtle than the analog with surface tension, since kinetic undercooling permits finger shapes which are corner-free but not analytic. We provide numerical evidence for the selection mechanism by setting up a problem with both kinetic undercooling and surface tension and numerically taking the limit that the surface tension vanishes.

  1. Chemical kinetics and oil shale process design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, A.K.

    1993-07-01

    Oil shale processes are reviewed with the goal of showing how chemical kinetics influences the design and operation of different processes for different types of oil shale. Reaction kinetics are presented for organic pyrolysis, carbon combustion, carbonate decomposition, and sulfur and nitrogen reactions.

  2. A Comprehensive Enzyme Kinetic Exercise for Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Janice S.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a comprehensive treatment of experimental enzyme kinetics strongly coupled to electronic data acquisition and use of spreadsheets to organize data and perform linear and nonlinear least-squares analyses, all in a manner that promotes development of important reasoning skills. Kinetic parameters are obtained for the stable…

  3. Kinetic equations for the collisional plasma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rij, W.I. Van; Meier, H.K.; Beasley, C.O. Jr.; McCune, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    Using the Collisional Plasma Model (CPM) representation, expressions are derived for the Vlasov operator, both in its general form and in the drift-kinetic approximation following the recursive derivation by Hazeltine. The expressions for the operators give easily calculated couplings between neighbouring components of the CPM representation. Expressions for various macroscopic observables in the drift-kinetics approximation are also given. (author)

  4. Chemistry and reaction kinetics of biowaste torrefaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelt, van der M.J.C.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis addresses the question of how the chemistry and reaction kinetics of torrefaction are influenced by reaction conditions and the effects occuring during the reaction. This research question can be specified by questions such as, what controls their kinetics during torrefaction and what

  5. Determination of the kinetics of ethene epoxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, E.P.S.; Schouten, E.P.S.; Borman, P.C.; Borman, P.C.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1996-01-01

    Several problems and pitfalls in the use of laboratory reactors for the determination of the kinetics of ethene epoxidation over industrial silver on α-alumina catalyst are discussed. Also, commonly used methodologies for kinetic studies are dealt with because of the general nature of some problems.

  6. Kinetic spectrophotometric determination of some fluoroquinolone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple and sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of some fluoroquinolonea antibiotics; gemifloxacin mesylate, moxifloxacin hydrochloride and gatifloxacin in bulk and in pharmaceutical preparations. The method is based upon a kinetic investigation of the oxidation reaction of ...

  7. Saffman-Taylor fingers with kinetic undercooling

    KAUST Repository

    Gardiner, Bennett P. J.; McCue, Scott W.; Dallaston, Michael C.; Moroney, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Physical Society. The mathematical model of a steadily propagating Saffman-Taylor finger in a Hele-Shaw channel has applications to two-dimensional interacting streamer discharges which are aligned in a periodic array. In the streamer context, the relevant regularization on the interface is not provided by surface tension but instead has been postulated to involve a mechanism equivalent to kinetic undercooling, which acts to penalize high velocities and prevent blow-up of the unregularized solution. Previous asymptotic results for the Hele-Shaw finger problem with kinetic undercooling suggest that for a given value of the kinetic undercooling parameter, there is a discrete set of possible finger shapes, each analytic at the nose and occupying a different fraction of the channel width. In the limit in which the kinetic undercooling parameter vanishes, the fraction for each family approaches 1/2, suggesting that this "selection" of 1/2 by kinetic undercooling is qualitatively similar to the well-known analog with surface tension. We treat the numerical problem of computing these Saffman-Taylor fingers with kinetic undercooling, which turns out to be more subtle than the analog with surface tension, since kinetic undercooling permits finger shapes which are corner-free but not analytic. We provide numerical evidence for the selection mechanism by setting up a problem with both kinetic undercooling and surface tension and numerically taking the limit that the surface tension vanishes.

  8. Concepts of radial and angular kinetic energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jens Peder; Schleich, W.P.

    2002-01-01

    We consider a general central-field system in D dimensions and show that the division of the kinetic energy into radial and angular parts proceeds differently in the wave-function picture and the Weyl-Wigner phase-space picture, Thus, the radial and angular kinetic energies are different quantities...

  9. Conformational Diffusion and Helix Formation Kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummer, Gerhard [Laboratory of Chemical Physics, Building 5, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-0520 (United States); Garcia, Angel E. [Theoretical Biology and Biophysics Group T-10, MS K710, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Garde, Shekhar [Department of Chemical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2000-09-18

    The time, temperature, and sequence dependences of helix formation kinetics of fully atomistic peptide models in explicit solvent are described quantitatively by a diffusive search within the coil state with barrierless transitions into the helical state. Conformational diffusion leads to nonexponential kinetics and jump-width dependences in temperature jump experiments. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  10. Inflation Rates, Car Devaluation, and Chemical Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogliani, Lionello; Berberan-Santos, Mario N.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the inflation rate problem and offers an interesting analogy with chemical kinetics. Presents and solves the car devaluation problem as a normal chemical kinetic problem where the order of the rate law and the value of the rate constant are derived. (JRH)

  11. The value of paradoxical uptake of hepatocellular carcinoma on the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver magnetic resonance imaging for the prediction of lipiodol uptake after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Woo, E-mail: pridebio@naver.com [Department of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang Hee, E-mail: chlee86@korea.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yang Shin, E-mail: pys797979@naver.com [Department of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Tae Seok, E-mail: g1q1papa@korea.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Myung Gyu, E-mail: acube808@naver.com [Department of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hoon, E-mail: kjhhepar@naver.com [Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyeong Ah, E-mail: kahkim@korea.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Cheol Min, E-mail: radpic@hanmail.net [Department of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • HCC{sub para} shows more frequent initial compact lipiodol uptake after TACE than HCC{sub def}. • HCC{sub para} demonstrates less frequent early local recurrence after TACE. • HCC{sub para} has larger mean size, lower AER, and more frequent capsule appearance. - Abstract: Purpose: To compare the response to transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with paradoxical uptake on the hepatobiliary phase (HBP) (HCC{sub para}) and HCC with defect on the HBP (HCC{sub def}), and to identify some imaging features that can differentiate between two groups. Materials and methods: Ninety-three HCCs from 54 patients who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior to TACE were included. HCCs were classified into two groups according to the signal intensity (SI) on the HBP: HCC{sub para} and HCC{sub def}. Using post-TACE computed tomography (CT) as a reference standard, initial compact lipiodol uptake was assessed and compared between groups. The arterial enhancement ratio (AER), SI ratios of the arterial phase and HBP, and presence of the capsule appearance were compared between groups. After initial response, local tumor recurrence within 6 and 18 months was evaluated based on follow-up CT or MRI. Results: Fifteen HCC{sub para} and 78 HCC{sub def} were included. Compared to HCC{sub def}, HCC{sub para} showed more frequent initial compact lipiodol uptake (p = 0.009), larger mean size (p = 0.019), lower AER (p = 0.005), higher SI ratio of the HBP (p < 0.0001), and more frequent capsule appearance (p < 0.0001). Local tumor recurrence rate within 6 months was also significantly lower in HCC{sub para} than in HCC{sub def} (p = 0.008). Conclusion: Despite larger size and lower AER, HCC{sub para} showed more frequent initial compact lipiodol uptake and lower early local recurrence rate after TACE than did HCC{sub def}.

  12. Kinetic theory of gases and plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schram, P.P.J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Kinetic theory provides the link between the non-equilibrium statistical mechanics of many-particle systems and macroscopic or phenomenological physics. This volume deals with the derivation of kinetic equations, their limitations and generalizations,and with the applications of kinetic theory to physical phenomena and the calculation of transport coefficients. This book is divided in 12 chapters which discuss a wide range of topics such as balanced equations, the Klimontovich, Vlasov-Maxwell, and Boltzmann equations, Chapman-Enskog theory, the kinetic theory of plasmas, B.G.K. models, linear response theory, Brownian motion and renormalized kinetic theory. Each chapter is concluded with exercises, which not only enable the readers to test their understanding of the theory, but also present additional examples which complement the text. 151 refs.; 35 figs.; 5 tabs

  13. Crystallization Kinetics within a Generic Modeling Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meisler, Kresten Troelstrup; von Solms, Nicolas; Gernaey, Krist V.

    2014-01-01

    of employing a well-structured model library for storage, use/reuse, and analysis of the kinetic models are highlighted. Examples illustrating the application of the modeling framework for kinetic model discrimination related to simulation of specific crystallization scenarios and for kinetic model parameter......A new and extended version of a generic modeling framework for analysis and design of crystallization operations is presented. The new features of this framework are described, with focus on development, implementation, identification, and analysis of crystallization kinetic models. Issues related...... to the modeling of various kinetic phenomena like nucleation, growth, agglomeration, and breakage are discussed in terms of model forms, model parameters, their availability and/or estimation, and their selection and application for specific crystallization operational scenarios under study. The advantages...

  14. Hydrogen electrode reaction: A complete kinetic description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaino, P.M.; Gennero de Chialvo, M.R.; Chialvo, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    The kinetic description of the hydrogen electrode reaction (HER) in the whole range of overpotentials (-0.2 < η (V) < 0.40) is presented. The Volmer-Heyrovsky-Tafel mechanism was solved considering simultaneously the following items: (i) the diffusional contribution of the molecular hydrogen from and towards the electrode surface, (ii) the forward and backward reaction rates of each elementary step and (iii) a Frumkin type adsorption for the reaction intermediate. In order to verify the descriptive capability of the kinetic expressions derived, an experimental study of the HER was carried out on a rotating platinum disc electrode in acid solution. From the correlation of these results the elementary kinetic parameters were evaluated and several aspects related to the kinetic mechanism were discussed. Finally, the use of these kinetic expressions to interpret results obtained on microelectrodes is also analysed

  15. Kinetic advantage of controlled intermediate nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xiaoming

    2012-01-01

    The dominated process of controlled fusion is to let nuclei gain enough kinetic energy to overcome Coulomb barrier. As a result, a fusion scheme can consider two factors in its design: to increase kinetic energy of nuclei and to alter the Coulomb barrier. Cold Fusion and Hot fusion are all one-factor schemes while Intermediate Fusion is a twofactors scheme. This made CINF kinetically superior. Cold Fusion reduces deuteron-deuteron distance, addressing Coulomb barrier, and Hot Fusion heat up plasma into extreme high temperature, addressing kinetic energy. Without enough kinetic energy made Cold Fusion skeptical. Extreme high temperature made Hot Fusion very difficult to engineer. Because CIFN addresses both factors, CIFN is a more promising technique to be industrialized.

  16. Kinetics of solid state phase transformations: Measurement and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    heating or cooling rate can also exert a crucial influence on the kinetic outcome is stressed. The kinetic ... A simple and general modelling methodology for understanding the kinetics of ... state is of interest on both basic and applied grounds.

  17. Kinetic theory of tearing instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, J.F.; Lee, Y.C.

    1977-01-01

    The transition of the tearing instability from the collisional to the collisionless regime is investigated kinetically using a Fokker--Planck collision operator to represent electron-ion collisions. As a function of the collisionality of the plasma, the tearing instability falls into three regions, which are referred to as collisionless, semi-collisional, and collisional. The width Δ of the singular layer around kxB 0 =0 is limited by electron thermal motion along B 0 in the collisional and semi-collisional regimes and is typically smaller than rho/sub i/, the ion Larmor radius. Previously accepted theories, which are based on the assumption Δvery-much-greater-thanrho/sub i/, are found to be valid only in the collisional regime. The effects of density and temperature gradients on the instabilities are also studied. The tearing instability is only driven by the temperature gradient in the collisional and semi-collisional regimes. Numerical calculations indicate that the semi-collisional tearing instability is particularly relevant to present day high temperature tokamak discharges

  18. Kinetics of DNA tile dimerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shuoxing; Yan, Hao; Liu, Yan

    2014-06-24

    Investigating how individual molecular components interact with one another within DNA nanoarchitectures, both in terms of their spatial and temporal interactions, is fundamentally important for a better understanding of their physical behaviors. This will provide researchers with valuable insight for designing more complex higher-order structures that can be assembled more efficiently. In this report, we examined several spatial factors that affect the kinetics of bivalent, double-helical (DH) tile dimerization, including the orientation and number of sticky ends (SEs), the flexibility of the double helical domains, and the size of the tiles. The rate constants we obtained confirm our hypothesis that increased nucleation opportunities and well-aligned SEs accelerate tile-tile dimerization. Increased flexibility in the tiles causes slower dimerization rates, an effect that can be reversed by introducing restrictions to the tile flexibility. The higher dimerization rates of more rigid tiles results from the opposing effects of higher activation energies and higher pre-exponential factors from the Arrhenius equation, where the pre-exponential factor dominates. We believe that the results presented here will assist in improved implementation of DNA tile based algorithmic self-assembly, DNA based molecular robotics, and other specific nucleic acid systems, and will provide guidance to design and assembly processes to improve overall yield and efficiency.

  19. Kinetics of vein graft hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwolak, R.M.; Adams, M.C.; Clowes, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    Human aortocoronary vein grafts fail due to accelerated occlusive disease. The possibility that this is related to cellular hyperplasia was investigated in a rabbit model where kinetics of vein graft thickening, endothelial (EC) repair, and smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation were measured from 2 days to 24 weeks after implanting jugular vein segments in the carotid artery. Immediately after graft placement focal EC denudation was observed. These defects were repaired within 1 week and did not recur. By 4 weeks intimal area had increased 30 fold from 0.028 +/- 0.004 to 0.705 +/- 0.021 mm 2 , and a 24 weeks was 0.93 +/- 0.21 mm 2 . This response did not produce a reduction in graft lumen area. EC and SMC thymidine-labeling index were measured by en face and cross-section autoradiography after injection of 3 H-thymidine and perfusion fixation. Despite rapid EC surface repair EC labeling index remained elevated and only returned to normal levels at 12 weeks; SMC labeling was 10 fold greater than baseline even at 24 weeks (0.22% vs 0.02%). SMC mass demonstrated morphometrically increased between 2 and 12 weeks. Intimal thickening in vein grafts is due to SMC proliferation and develops after the EC layer has been restored. In contrast, intimal SMC proliferate in damaged arteries when the EC layer is absent and cease when the EC layer is regenerated

  20. Azo compound degradation kinetics and halonitromethane formation kinetics during chlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jing; Wang, Xiaomao; Bai, Weiliang; Yang, Hongwei; Xie, Yuefeng F

    2017-05-01

    The chlorination of azo compounds can produce halonitromethanes (HNMs), which have attracted increasing concern due to their high genotoxicity. By impacting the speciation of chlorine and azo compounds, pH impacts apparent second-order rate constants of Methyl Orange (MO, 27.5-1.4 × 10 3  M -1  s -1 ), Acid Orange II (AO, 16.7-99.3 M -1  s -1 ), and Acid Red 1 (AR 1, 3.7-72.5 M -1  s -1 ) (pH range 6.3-9.0). The two-compartment first-order model successfully described the chloropicrin (TCNM) formation kinetics, suggesting that both fast- and slow-reacting precursors of TCNM are generated from the chlorination of azo compounds. The ratios between fast and slow formation rate constants for MO and AO were 15.6-5.4 × 10 2 , while that of AR 1 was 9.8-19.4 (pH range 6.5-9.0). The fraction of the fast-reacting TCNM precursors decreased with increasing pH for MO and AO; while that for AR 1 decreased when pH increased from 6.5 to 8.0, and then increased when pH increased from 8.0 to 9.0. The impact of pH on TCNM formation was also precursor-specific. The highest molar yields of TCNM predicted from the model in this study were 2.4%, 2.5%, and 1.5% for MO, AO, and AR 1, respectively. The study demonstrates that azo compounds are important HNM precursors, and pose a potential threat to drinking water safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of 2-Methylhexane Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Samah Y.

    2015-03-30

    Accurate chemical kinetic combustion models of lightly branched alkanes (e.g., 2-methylalkanes) are important for investigating the combustion behavior of diesel, gasoline, and aviation fuels. Improving the fidelity of existing kinetic models is a necessity, as new experiments and advanced theories show inaccuracy in certain portions of the models. This study focuses on updating thermodynamic data and kinetic model for a gasoline surrogate fuel, 2-methylhexane, with recently published group values and rate rules. These update provides a better agreement with rapid compression machine measurements of ignition delay time, while also strengthening the fundamental basis of the model.

  2. Nuclear reactor kinetics and plant control

    CERN Document Server

    Oka, Yoshiaki

    2013-01-01

    Understanding time-dependent behaviors of nuclear reactors and the methods of their control is essential to the operation and safety of nuclear power plants. This book provides graduate students, researchers, and engineers in nuclear engineering comprehensive information on both the fundamental theory of nuclear reactor kinetics and control and the state-of-the-art practice in actual plants, as well as the idea of how to bridge the two. The first part focuses on understanding fundamental nuclear kinetics. It introduces delayed neutrons, fission chain reactions, point kinetics theory, reactivit

  3. Research in chemical kinetics, v.2

    CERN Document Server

    1994-01-01

    This is the second volume in a new series, which aims to publish authoritative review articles on a wide range of exciting and contemporary topics in gas and condensed phase kinetics. Research in Chemical Kinetics complements the acclaimed series Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics, and is edited by the same team of professionals. The reviews contained in this volume are concise, topical accounts of specific research written by acknowledged experts. The authors summarize their latest work and place it in a general context. Particular strengths of the volume are the quality of the c

  4. Isoconversional kinetics of thermally stimulated processes

    CERN Document Server

    Vyazovkin, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    The use of isoconversional kinetic methods for analysis of thermogravimetric and calorimetric data on thermally stimulated processes is quickly growing in popularity. The purpose of this book is to create the first comprehensive resource on the theory and applications of isoconversional methodology. The book introduces the reader to the kinetics of physical and chemical condensed phase processes that occur as a result of changing temperature and discusses how isoconversional analysis can provide important kinetic insights into them. The book will help the readers to develop a better understanding of the methodology, and promote its efficient usage and successful development.

  5. Research in Chemical Kinetics, v.3

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This series of volumes aims to publish authoritative review articles on a wide range of exciting and contemporary topics in gas and condensed phase kinetics. Research in Chemical Kinetics complements the acclaimed series Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics, and is edited by the same team of professionals. The reviews contained in this volume are concise, topical accounts of specific research written by acknowledged experts. The authors summarize their latest work and place it in a general context. Particular strengths of the volume are the quality of the contributions and their top

  6. Liquefaction chemistry and kinetics: Hydrogen utilization studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothenberger, K.S.; Warzinski, R.P.; Cugini, A.V. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this project are to investigate the chemistry and kinetics that occur in the initial stages of coal liquefaction and to determine the effects of hydrogen pressure, catalyst activity, and solvent type on the quantity and quality of the products produced. The project comprises three tasks: (1) preconversion chemistry and kinetics, (2) hydrogen utilization studies, and (3) assessment of kinetic models for liquefaction. The hydrogen utilization studies work will be the main topic of this report. However, the other tasks are briefly described.

  7. Update on radionuclide imaging in hepatobiliary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthall, L.

    1981-01-01

    The recent introduction of technetium Tc 99m-labeled acetanilide iminodiacetic acid (/sup 99m/Tc-IDA) analogues has facilitated the clincal study of the bile flow pathways. A variety of /sup 99m/Tc-IDA derivaties are under investigation. Basically all are metabolized by the hepatocyte and immediately thereafter excreted unconjugated into the biliary tract. Of the various derivatives tested, e.g., dimethyl (lidofenin), diethyl, paraisopropyl (iprofenin), parabutyl (butilfenin), and diisopropyl (disofenin), the last named is the best universal agent at this time. By serial liver imaging the patency of the cystic duct and the integrity of altered cholangiointestinal anatomy can be assessed, leakage of bile and gastric reflux can be disclosed, and medical and surgical jaundice can be distinguished

  8. Hepatobiliary Fascioliasis: Clinical and Radiological Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Aghazade

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Fascioliasis is a worldwide but unevenly distributed zoonosis caused by the trematode Fasciola hepatica that infects do­mesti­cated herbivores. Fasciolosis also occurs accidentally in humans by ingestion of metacercaria-laden freshwater or water plants. Human infections are common in developing countries and are not rare in Europe. The clinical course has been con­ventionally described in two phases: an acute phase of hepatic parenchymal invasion of an immature worm larva (parenchy­mal phase and a stationary phase after residence in the bile duct and production of eggs (ductal phase. We report a 34 years old woman from Ilam, western Iran with hepatic disorder, RUQ pain, and jaundice. The diagnosis was made by sonography, CT scan and serologic studies. Serologic exam (ELISA was positive & CT findings were compatible with fascioliasis.

  9. Progress in antenna coupled kinetic inductance detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baryshev, A.; Baselmans, J.J.A.; Freni, A.; Gerini, G.; Hoevers, H.F.C.; Iacono, A.; Neto, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the combined Dutch efforts toward the development of large wideband focal plane array receivers based on kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs). Taking into account strict electromagnetic and detector sensitivity requirements for future ground and space based observatories, this

  10. A mathematical model for iodine kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, E.A.T. da.

    1976-01-01

    A mathematical model for the iodine kinetics in thyroid is presented followed by its analytical solution. An eletroanalogical model is also developed for a simplified stage and another is proposed for the main case [pt

  11. Kinetic Study of Curcumin on Modal Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Naser Md. Ahsanul Haque

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A kinetic study of curcumin on modal fabric was carried out using an initial dye concentration of 1 g/L at three different temperatures, 70 °C, 85 °C and 100 °C, at pH 7 and an material to liquor ratio of 1:20. Pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order kinetics were applied, and it was found that the adsorption kinetics of curcumin on modal fabric matched the pseudo second-order kinetic model. The activation energy was found to be equal to 71.14 kJ/mol, while the enthalpy and entropy of activation were 68.16 kJ/mol and –66.02 J/molK respectively.

  12. Kinetic Model of Growth of Arthropoda Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershov, Yu. A.; Kuznetsov, M. A.

    2018-05-01

    Kinetic equations were derived for calculating the growth of crustacean populations ( Crustacea) based on the biological growth model suggested earlier using shrimp ( Caridea) populations as an example. The development cycle of successive stages for populations can be represented in the form of quasi-chemical equations. The kinetic equations that describe the development cycle of crustaceans allow quantitative prediction of the development of populations depending on conditions. In contrast to extrapolation-simulation models, in the developed kinetic model of biological growth the kinetic parameters are the experimental characteristics of population growth. Verification and parametric identification of the developed model on the basis of the experimental data showed agreement with experiment within the error of the measurement technique.

  13. Kinetic investigation on enantioselective hydrolytic resolution of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kinetic investigation on enantioselective hydrolytic resolution of epichlorohydrin by crude epoxide hydrolase from domestic duck liver. X Ling, D Lu, J Wang, J Chen, L Ding, J Chen, H Chai, P Ouyang ...

  14. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of 2-Methylhexane Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Samah Y.; Sarathy, Mani

    2015-01-01

    necessity, as new experiments and advanced theories show inaccuracy in certain portions of the models. This study focuses on updating thermodynamic data and kinetic model for a gasoline surrogate fuel, 2-methylhexane, with recently published group values

  15. Kinetics of oxidic phase dissolution in acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorichev, I.G.; Kipriyanov, N.A.

    1981-01-01

    The critical analysis of the experimental data on dissolution kinetics of metal oxides (BeO, V 2 O 5 , UO 2 , Nb 2 O 5 , Ta 2 O 5 etc.) in acid media is carried out. Kinetic peculiarities of oxide dissolution are explained on the basis of the notions of electron- proton theory. It is established that the surface nonstoichiometric ccomposition of oxide phase and potential jump, appearing on the interface of the oxide-electrolyte phase are the important factors, determining the dissolution rate of a solid phase. The dissolution rate of metal oxides is limited by the transition of protons into the solid oxide phase. Morphological models of heterogeneous kinetics are used when explaining kinetic regularities of oxide dissolution process [ru

  16. Thermodynamic, kinetic and mechanistic investigations of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with respect to the rate determining step and the thermodynamic quantities with respect to the equilibrium steps were evaluated and ... are, (1) to establish a rate law through kinetic measure- ments, (2) to ..... second and third equilibrium steps.

  17. Kinetic Theory of the Inner Magnetospheric Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Khazanov, George V

    2011-01-01

    This book provides a broad introduction to the kinetic theory of space plasma physics with the major focus on the inner magnetospheric plasma. It is designed to provide a comprehensive description of the different kinds of transport equations for both plasma particles and waves with an emphasis on the applicability and limitations of each set of equations. The major topics are: Kinetic Theory of Superthermal Electrons, Kinetic Foundation of the Hydrodynamic Description of Space Plasmas (including wave-particle interaction processes), and Kinetic Theory of the Terrestrial Ring Current. Distinguishable features of this book are the analytical solutions of simplified transport equations. Approximate analytic solutions of transport phenomena are very useful because they help us gain physical insight into how the system responds to varying sources of mass, momentum and energy and also to various external boundary conditions. They also provide us a convenient method to test the validity of complicated numerical mod...

  18. Plasma heating by kinetic Alfven wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assis, A.S. de.

    1982-01-01

    The heating of a nonuniform plasma (electron-ion) due to the resonant excitation of the shear Alfven wave in the low β regime is studied using initially the ideal MHD model and posteriorly using the kinetic model. The Vlasov equation for ions and the drift kinetic equation for electrons have been used. Through the ideal MHD model, it is concluded that the energy absorption is due to the continuous spectrum (phase mixing) which the shear Alfven wave has in a nonuniform plasma. An explicit expression for the energy absorption is derived. Through the kinetic model it is concluded that the energy absorption is due to a resonant mode convertion of the incident wave into the kinetic Alfven wave which propagates away from the resonant region. Its electron Landau damping has been observed. There has been a concordance with the MHD calculations. (Author) [pt

  19. Kinetics from Replica Exchange Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzl, Lukas S; Hummer, Gerhard

    2017-08-08

    Transitions between metastable states govern many fundamental processes in physics, chemistry and biology, from nucleation events in phase transitions to the folding of proteins. The free energy surfaces underlying these processes can be obtained from simulations using enhanced sampling methods. However, their altered dynamics makes kinetic and mechanistic information difficult or impossible to extract. Here, we show that, with replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD), one can not only sample equilibrium properties but also extract kinetic information. For systems that strictly obey first-order kinetics, the procedure to extract rates is rigorous. For actual molecular systems whose long-time dynamics are captured by kinetic rate models, accurate rate coefficients can be determined from the statistics of the transitions between the metastable states at each replica temperature. We demonstrate the practical applicability of the procedure by constructing master equation (Markov state) models of peptide and RNA folding from REMD simulations.

  20. Fundamental aspects of plasma chemical physics kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Capitelli, Mario; Colonna, Gianpiero; Esposito, Fabrizio; Gorse, Claudine; Hassouni, Khaled; Laricchiuta, Annarita; Longo, Savino

    2016-01-01

    Describing non-equilibrium "cold" plasmas through a chemical physics approach, this book uses the state-to-state plasma kinetics, which considers each internal state as a new species with its own cross sections. Extended atomic and molecular master equations are coupled with Boltzmann and Monte Carlo methods to solve the electron energy distribution function. Selected examples in different applied fields, such as microelectronics, fusion, and aerospace, are presented and discussed including the self-consistent kinetics in RF parallel plate reactors, the optimization of negative ion sources and the expansion of high enthalpy flows through nozzles of different geometries. The book will cover the main aspects of the state-to-state kinetic approach for the description of nonequilibrium cold plasmas, illustrating the more recent achievements in the development of kinetic models including the self-consistent coupling of master equations and Boltzmann equation for electron dynamics. To give a complete portrayal, the...

  1. Practical steady-state enzyme kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorsch, Jon R

    2014-01-01

    Enzymes are key components of most biological processes. Characterization of enzymes is therefore frequently required during the study of biological systems. Steady-state kinetics provides a simple and rapid means of assessing the substrate specificity of an enzyme. When combined with site-directed mutagenesis (see Site-Directed Mutagenesis), it can be used to probe the roles of particular amino acids in the enzyme in substrate recognition and catalysis. Effects of interaction partners and posttranslational modifications can also be assessed using steady-state kinetics. This overview explains the general principles of steady-state enzyme kinetics experiments in a practical, rather than theoretical, way. Any biochemistry textbook will have a section on the theory of Michaelis-Menten kinetics, including derivations of the relevant equations. No specific enzymatic assay is described here, although a method for monitoring product formation or substrate consumption over time (an assay) is required to perform the experiments described. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Some concepts in condensed phase chemical kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelman, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    Some concepts in condensed phase chemical kinetics which have emerged from a recent rigorous statistical mechanical treatment of condensed phase chemical reaction dynamics (S.A. Adelman, Adv. Chem. Phys.53:61 (1983)) are discussed in simple physical terms

  3. MBS Analysis Of Kinetic Structures Using ADAMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2009-01-01

    The present paper considers multibody system (MBS) analysis of kinetic structures using the software package ADAMS. Deployable, foldable, expandable and reconfigurable kinetic structures can provide a change in the geometric morphology of the envelope by contributing to making it adaptable to e.......g. changing external climate factors, in order to improve the indoor climate performance of the building. The derivation of equations of motion for such spatial mechanical systems is a challenging issue in scientific community. However, with new symbolic tools one can automatically derive equations in so......-called multibody system (MBS) formalism. The present paper considers MBS modeling of kinetic architectural structures using the software packages ADAMS. As a result, it is found that symbolic MBS simulation tools facilitate a useful evaluation environment for MBS users during a design phase of responsive kinetic...

  4. Kinetic Theory of Granular Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trizac, Emmanuel [Center of Theoretical Biological Physics, UC San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0374 (United States); Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modeles Statistiques, Campus Universitaire, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2005-11-25

    Granular gases are composed of macroscopic bodies kept in motion by an external energy source such as a violent shaking. The behaviour of such systems is quantitatively different from that of ordinary molecular gases: due to the size of the constituents, external fields have a stronger effect on the dynamics and, more importantly, the kinetic energy of the gas is no longer a conserved quantity. The key role of the inelasticity of collisions has been correctly appreciated for about fifteen years, and the ensuing consequences in terms of phase behaviour or transport properties studied in an increasing and now vast body of literature. The purpose of this book is to help the newcomer to the field in acquiring the essential theoretical tools together with some numerical techniques. As emphasized by the authors-who were among the pioneers in the domain- the content could be covered in a one semester course for advanced undergraduates, or it could be incorporated in a more general course dealing with the statistical mechanics of dissipative systems. The book is self-contained, clear, and avoids mathematical complications. In order to elucidate the main physical ideas, heuristic points of views are sometimes preferred to a more rigorous route that would lead to a longer discussion. The 28 chapters are short; they offer exercises and worked examples, solved at the end of the book. Each part is supplemented with a relevant foreword and a useful summary including take-home messages. The editorial work is of good quality, with very few typographical errors. In spite of the title, kinetic theory stricto sensu is not the crux of the matter covered. The authors discuss the consequences of the molecular chaos assumption both at the individual particle level and in terms of collective behaviour. The first part of the book addresses the mechanics of grain collisions. It is emphasized that considering the coefficient of restitution {epsilon} -a central quantity governing the

  5. Kinetic Theory of Granular Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trizac, Emmanuel

    2005-01-01

    Granular gases are composed of macroscopic bodies kept in motion by an external energy source such as a violent shaking. The behaviour of such systems is quantitatively different from that of ordinary molecular gases: due to the size of the constituents, external fields have a stronger effect on the dynamics and, more importantly, the kinetic energy of the gas is no longer a conserved quantity. The key role of the inelasticity of collisions has been correctly appreciated for about fifteen years, and the ensuing consequences in terms of phase behaviour or transport properties studied in an increasing and now vast body of literature. The purpose of this book is to help the newcomer to the field in acquiring the essential theoretical tools together with some numerical techniques. As emphasized by the authors-who were among the pioneers in the domain- the content could be covered in a one semester course for advanced undergraduates, or it could be incorporated in a more general course dealing with the statistical mechanics of dissipative systems. The book is self-contained, clear, and avoids mathematical complications. In order to elucidate the main physical ideas, heuristic points of views are sometimes preferred to a more rigorous route that would lead to a longer discussion. The 28 chapters are short; they offer exercises and worked examples, solved at the end of the book. Each part is supplemented with a relevant foreword and a useful summary including take-home messages. The editorial work is of good quality, with very few typographical errors. In spite of the title, kinetic theory stricto sensu is not the crux of the matter covered. The authors discuss the consequences of the molecular chaos assumption both at the individual particle level and in terms of collective behaviour. The first part of the book addresses the mechanics of grain collisions. It is emphasized that considering the coefficient of restitution ε -a central quantity governing the inelasticity of

  6. Thermal physics kinetic theory and thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Devraj; Yadav, Raja Ram

    2016-01-01

    THERMAL PHYSICS: Kinetic Theory and Thermodynamics is designed for undergraduate course in Thermal Physics and Thermodynamics. The book provides thorough understanding of the fundamental principles of the concepts in Thermal Physics. The book begins with kinetic theory, then moves on liquefaction, transport phenomena, the zeroth, first, second and third laws, thermodynamics relations and thermal conduction. The book concluded with radiation phenomenon. KEY FEATURES: * Include exercises * Short Answer Type Questions * Long Answer Type Questions * Numerical Problems * Multiple Choice Questions

  7. NLTE4 Plasma Population Kinetics Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 159 NLTE4 Plasma Population Kinetics Database (Web database for purchase)   This database contains benchmark results for simulation of plasma population kinetics and emission spectra. The data were contributed by the participants of the 4th Non-LTE Code Comparison Workshop who have unrestricted access to the database. The only limitation for other users is in hidden labeling of the output results. Guest users can proceed to the database entry page without entering userid and password.

  8. Hamiltonian kinetic theory of plasma ponderomotive processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, S.W.; Kaufman, A.N.

    1982-01-01

    The nonlinear nonresonant interaction of plasma waves and particles is formulated in Hamiltonian kinetic theory which treats the wave-action and particle distributions on an equal footing, thereby displaying reciprocity relations. In the quasistatic limit, a nonlinear wave-kinetic equation is obtained. The generality of the formalism allows for applications to arbitrary geometry, with the nonlinear effects expressed in terms of the linear susceptibility

  9. Thermal decomposition kinetics of ammonium uranyl carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E.H.; Park, J.J.; Park, J.H.; Chang, I.S.; Choi, C.S.; Kim, S.D.

    1994-01-01

    The thermal decomposition kinetics of AUC [ammonium uranyl carbonate; (NH 4 ) 4 UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 [ in an isothermal thermogravimetric (TG) reactor under N 2 atmosphere has been determined. The kinetic data can be represented by the two-dimensional nucleation and growth model. The reaction rate increases and activation energy decreases with increasing particle size and precipitation time which appears in the particle size larger than 30 μm in the mechano-chemical phenomena. (orig.)

  10. Preventing Corrosion by Controlling Cathodic Reaction Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-25

    3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 09/23/15 - 04/22/16 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Preventing Corrosion by Controlling Cathodic Reaction...Preventing corrosion by controlling cathodic reaction kinetics Progress Report for Period: 1 SEP 2015-31 MAR 2016 John Keith Department of...25 March 2016 Preventing corrosion by controlling cathodic reaction kinetics Annual Summary Report: FY16 PI: John Keith, 412-624-7016,jakeith

  11. Hamiltonian kinetic theory of plasma ponderomotive processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, S.W.; Kaufman, A.N.

    1981-12-01

    The nonlinear nonresonant interaction of plasma waves and particles is formulated in a Hamiltonian kinetic theory which treats the wave-action and particle distributions on an equal footing, thereby displaying reciprocity relations. In the quasistatic limit, a nonlinear wave-kinetic equation is obtained. The generality of the formalism allows for applications to arbitrary geometry, with the nonlinear effects expressed in terms of the linear susceptibility

  12. Ozone mass transfer and kinetics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollyky, L.J.; Beary, M.M.

    1981-12-01

    Experiments were conducted at the Hanford Site to determine the most efficient pH and temperature levels for the destruction of complexants in Hanford high-level defense waste. These complexants enhance migration of radionuclides in the soil and inhibit the growth of crystals in the evaporator-crystallizer. Ozone mass transfer and kinetics tests have been outlined for the determination of critical mass transfer and kinetics parameters of the ozone-complexant reaction

  13. Spatial neutron kinetic module of ROSA code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherezov, A.L.; Shchukin, N.V.

    2009-01-01

    A spatial neutron kinetic module was developed for computer code ROSA. The paper describes a numerical scheme used in the module for resolving neutron kinetic equations. Analytical integration for delayed neutrons emitters method and direct numerical integration method (Gear's method) were analyzed. The two methods were compared on their efficiency and accuracy. Both methods were verified with test problems. The results obtained in the verification studies were presented [ru

  14. Kinetic mixing and the supersymmetric gauge hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dienes, K.R.; Kolda, C.; March-Russell, J.

    1997-01-01

    The most general Lagrangian for a model with two U(1) gauge symmetries contains a renormalizable operator which mixes their gauge kinetic terms. Such kinetic mixing can be generated at arbitrarily high scales but will not be suppressed by large masses. In models whose supersymmetry (SUSY)-breaking hidden sectors contain U(1) gauge factors, we show that such terms will generically arise and communicate SUSY breaking to the visible sector through mixing with hypercharge. In the context of the usual supergravity- or gauge-mediated communication scenarios with D-terms of order the fundamental scale of SUSY breaking, this effect can destabilize the gauge hierarchy. Even in models for which kinetic mixing is suppressed or the D-terms are arranged to be small, this effect is a potentially large correction to the soft scalar masses and therefore introduces a new measurable low-energy parameter. We calculate the size of kinetic mixing both in field theory and in string theory, and argue that appreciable kinetic mixing is a generic feature of string models. We conclude that the possibility of kinetic mixing effects cannot be ignored in model building and in phenomenological studies of the low-energy SUSY spectra. (orig.)

  15. Neutron inverse kinetics via Gaussian Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picca, Paolo; Furfaro, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel technique for the interpretation of experiments in ADS is presented. ► The technique is based on Bayesian regression, implemented via Gaussian Processes. ► GPs overcome the limits of classical methods, based on PK approximation. ► Results compares GPs and ANN performance, underlining similarities and differences. - Abstract: The paper introduces the application of Gaussian Processes (GPs) to determine the subcriticality level in accelerator-driven systems (ADSs) through the interpretation of pulsed experiment data. ADSs have peculiar kinetic properties due to their special core design. For this reason, classical – inversion techniques based on point kinetic (PK) generally fail to generate an accurate estimate of reactor subcriticality. Similarly to Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Gaussian Processes can be successfully trained to learn the underlying inverse neutron kinetic model and, as such, they are not limited to the model choice. Importantly, GPs are strongly rooted into the Bayes’ theorem which makes them a powerful tool for statistical inference. Here, GPs have been designed and trained on a set of kinetics models (e.g. point kinetics and multi-point kinetics) for homogeneous and heterogeneous settings. The results presented in the paper show that GPs are very efficient and accurate in predicting the reactivity for ADS-like systems. The variance computed via GPs may provide an indication on how to generate additional data as function of the desired accuracy.

  16. Kinetic partitioning mechanism of HDV ribozyme folding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jiawen; Gong, Sha; Wang, Yujie; Zhang, Wenbing, E-mail: wbzhang@whu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China)

    2014-01-14

    RNA folding kinetics is directly tied to RNA biological functions. We introduce here a new approach for predicting the folding kinetics of RNA secondary structure with pseudoknots. This approach is based on our previous established helix-based method for predicting the folding kinetics of RNA secondary structure. In this approach, the transition rates for an elementary step: (1) formation, (2) disruption of a helix stem, and (3) helix formation with concomitant partial melting of an incompatible helix, are calculated with the free energy landscape. The folding kinetics of the Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ribozyme and the mutated sequences are studied with this method. The folding pathways are identified by recursive searching the states with high net flux-in(out) population starting from the native state. The theory results are in good agreement with that of the experiments. The results indicate that the bi-phasic folding kinetics for the wt HDV sequence is ascribed to the kinetic partitioning mechanism: Part of the population will quickly fold to the native state along the fast pathway, while another part of the population will fold along the slow pathway, in which the population is trapped in a non-native state. Single mutation not only changes the folding rate but also the folding pathway.

  17. Dual kinetic curves in reversible electrochemical systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Hankins

    Full Text Available We introduce dual kinetic chronoamperometry, in which reciprocal relations are established between the kinetic curves of electrochemical reactions that start from symmetrical initial conditions. We have performed numerical and experimental studies in which the kinetic curves of the electron-transfer processes are analyzed for a reversible first order reaction. Experimental tests were done with the ferrocyanide/ferricyanide system in which the concentrations of each component could be measured separately using the platinum disk/gold ring electrode. It is shown that the proper ratio of the transient kinetic curves obtained from cathodic and anodic mass transfer limited regions give thermodynamic time invariances related to the reaction quotient of the bulk concentrations. Therefore, thermodynamic time invariances can be observed at any time using the dual kinetic curves for reversible reactions. The technique provides a unique possibility to extract the non-steady state trajectory starting from one initial condition based only on the equilibrium constant and the trajectory which starts from the symmetrical initial condition. The results could impact battery technology by predicting the concentrations and currents of the underlying non-steady state processes in a wide domain from thermodynamic principles and limited kinetic information.

  18. Variational estimates of point-kinetics parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favorite, J.A.; Stacey, W.M. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Variational estimates of the effect of flux shifts on the integral reactivity parameter of the point-kinetics equations and on regional power fractions were calculated for a variety of localized perturbations in two light water reactor (LWR) model problems representing a small, tightly coupled core and a large, loosely coupled core. For the small core, the flux shifts resulting from even relatively large localized reactivity changes (∼600 pcm) were small, and the standard point-kinetics approximation estimates of reactivity were in error by only ∼10% or less, while the variational estimates were accurate to within ∼1%. For the larger core, significant (>50%) flux shifts occurred in response to local perturbations, leading to errors of the same magnitude in the standard point-kinetics approximation of the reactivity worth. For positive reactivity, the error in the variational estimate of reactivity was only a few percent in the larger core, and the resulting transient power prediction was 1 to 2 orders of magnitude more accurate than with the standard point-kinetics approximation. For a large, local negative reactivity insertion resulting in a large flux shift, the accuracy of the variational estimate broke down. The variational estimate of the effect of flux shifts on reactivity in point-kinetics calculations of transients in LWR cores was found to generally result in greatly improved accuracy, relative to the standard point-kinetics approximation, the exception being for large negative reactivity insertions with large flux shifts in large, loosely coupled cores

  19. Decomposition kinetics of plutonium hydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haschke, J.M.; Stakebake, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    Kinetic data for decomposition of PuH/sub 1/ /sub 95/ provides insight into a possible mechanism for the hydriding and dehydriding reactions of plutonium. The fact that the rate of the hydriding reaction, K/sub H/, is proportional to P/sup 1/2/ and the rate of the dehydriding process, K/sub D/, is inversely proportional to P/sup 1/2/ suggests that the forward and reverse reactions proceed by opposite paths of the same mechanism. The P/sup 1/2/ dependence of hydrogen solubility in metals is characteristic of the dissociative absorption of hydrogen; i.e., the reactive species is atomic hydrogen. It is reasonable to assume that the rates of the forward and reverse reactions are controlled by the surface concentration of atomic hydrogen, (H/sub s/), that K/sub H/ = c'(H/sub s/), and that K/sub D/ = c/(H/sub s/), where c' and c are proportionality constants. For this surface model, the pressure dependence of K/sub D/ is related to (H/sub s/) by the reaction (H/sub s/) reversible 1/2H/sub 2/(g) and by its equilibrium constant K/sub e/ = (H/sub 2/)/sup 1/2//(H/sub s/). In the pressure range of ideal gas behavior, (H/sub s/) = K/sub e//sup -1/(RT)/sup -1/2/ and the decomposition rate is given by K/sub D/ = cK/sub e/(RT)/sup -1/2/P/sup 1/2/. For an analogous treatment of the hydriding process with this model, it can be readily shown that K/sub H/ = c'K/sub e//sup -1/(RT)/sup -1/2/P/sup 1/2/. The inverse pressure dependence and direct temperature dependence of the decomposition rate are correctly predicted by this mechanism which is most consistent with the observed behavior of the Pu--H system.

  20. Thermal dehydration kinetics of phosphogypsum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López, F. A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Phsophogypsum is a by-product from the processing phosphate rock. Before the use of it in cement industry such as setting regulator is necessary a study of dehydration reaction of phosphogypsum to avoid the false setting during the milling. The aim is to study the thermal behavior of two different phosphogypsum sources (Spain and Tunisia under non-isothermal conditions in argon atmosphere by using Thermo-Gravimetriy, Differential Thermal Analysis (TG-DTA and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. DSC experiments were carried out at temperatures ranging from ambient to 350 °C at different heating rates. The temperatures of conversion from gypsum to hemihydrate and anhydrite states and heat of dehydration were determined. Various methods were used to analyze the DSC data for reaction kinetics determination. The activation energy and frequency factor were calculated for dehydration of phosphogypsum. Activation energy values of the main dehydration reaction of phosphogypsum were calculated to be approximately 61–118 kJ/mol.El fosfoyeso es un subproducto procedente del procesado de la roca fosfato. Una de las posibles vías de reutilización y revalorización es su uso como regulador del fraguado en la industria cementera. Debido a los posibles problemas de falso fraguado asociado a los procesos de deshidratación que tienen lugar durante la molienda del cemento, esta investigación estudió el comportamiento térmico, bajo condiciones no-isotérmicas en atmósfera de argón, de dos fosfoyesos, mediante TG-DTA y DSC. Los ensayos de DSC se realizaron hasta los 350 °C a diferentes velocidades de calentamiento. La temperatura de conversión del yeso a las formas de hemihidrato y anhidrita y el calor de hidratación fueron determinados. Las cinéticas de reacción fueron obtenidas analizando los datos de DSC mediante varios métodos. Se calculó la energía de activación y el factor de frecuencia para las reacciones de deshidratación del

  1. Stochastic theory of interfacial enzyme kinetics: A kinetic Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Biswajit; Gangopadhyay, Gautam

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Stochastic theory of interfacial enzyme kinetics is formulated. Numerical results of macroscopic phenomenon of lag-burst kinetics is obtained by using a kinetic Monte Carlo approach to single enzyme activity. Highlights: ► An enzyme is attached with the fluid state phospholipid molecules on the Langmuir monolayer. ► Through the diffusion, the enzyme molecule reaches the gel–fluid interface. ► After hydrolysing a phospholipid molecule it predominantly leaves the surface in the lag phase. ► The enzyme is strictly attached to the surface with scooting mode of motion and the burst phase appears. - Abstract: In the spirit of Gillespie’s stochastic approach we have formulated a theory to explore the advancement of the interfacial enzyme kinetics at the single enzyme level which is ultimately utilized to obtain the ensemble average macroscopic feature, lag-burst kinetics. We have provided a theory of the transition from the lag phase to the burst phase kinetics by considering the gradual development of electrostatic interaction among the positively charged enzyme and negatively charged product molecules deposited on the phospholipid surface. It is shown that the different diffusion time scales of the enzyme over the fluid and product regions are responsible for the memory effect in the correlation of successive turnover events of the hopping mode in the single trajectory analysis which again is reflected on the non-Gaussian distribution of turnover times on the macroscopic kinetics in the lag phase unlike the burst phase kinetics.

  2. The Application of Biomimicry in Kinetic Facades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijdan Deyaa Abdul Jalil

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Biomimicry, as a way of thinking to go back to nature for inspiration, has its impact on many contemporary technological achievements. Some of them are used to design and construct kinetic facades in architecture, because of the importance role of facades in reducing sun radiation, that enter the building through using shading systems and components. In light of this, research problem is determined: "Do technologies which are inspired by biomimicry effect shading in kinetic facades through its characteristics in materials and the mechanics. So the research identifies its goal as: "To identify the types of kinetic facades in buildings and their characteristics as materials and shading mechanism associated with the biomimicry. The research explains the basic types of kinetic facades depending on the technology and materials used to provide the possibility of reducing solar radiation that enters the building. It also compares the case studies which have been chosen in their inspiration concept from biological world, which reflect on the system used of protecting against sun and reducing energy consumption as the designer teams suggest. The research concluded that kinetic façade which is depending on smart materials is self-responding and don't need energy to operate, so it is better in reducing consumption of energy.

  3. Modeling the degradation kinetics of ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Micha; Normand, Mark D; Dixon, William R; Goulette, Timothy R

    2018-06-13

    Most published reports on ascorbic acid (AA) degradation during food storage and heat preservation suggest that it follows first-order kinetics. Deviations from this pattern include Weibullian decay, and exponential drop approaching finite nonzero retention. Almost invariably, the degradation rate constant's temperature-dependence followed the Arrhenius equation, and hence the simpler exponential model too. A formula and freely downloadable interactive Wolfram Demonstration to convert the Arrhenius model's energy of activation, E a , to the exponential model's c parameter, or vice versa, are provided. The AA's isothermal and non-isothermal degradation can be simulated with freely downloadable interactive Wolfram Demonstrations in which the model's parameters can be entered and modified by moving sliders on the screen. Where the degradation is known a priori to follow first or other fixed order kinetics, one can use the endpoints method, and in principle the successive points method too, to estimate the reaction's kinetic parameters from considerably fewer AA concentration determinations than in the traditional manner. Freeware to do the calculations by either method has been recently made available on the Internet. Once obtained in this way, the kinetic parameters can be used to reconstruct the entire degradation curves and predict those at different temperature profiles, isothermal or dynamic. Comparison of the predicted concentration ratios with experimental ones offers a way to validate or refute the kinetic model and the assumptions on which it is based.

  4. Kinetic parameters for source driven systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulla, S.; Ravetto, P.; Carta, M.; D'Angelo, A.

    2006-01-01

    The definition of the characteristic kinetic parameters of a subcritical source-driven system constitutes an interesting problem in reactor physics with important consequences for practical applications. Consistent and physically meaningful values of the parameters allow to obtain accurate results from kinetic simulation tools and to correctly interpret kinetic experiments. For subcritical systems a preliminary problem arises for the adoption of a suitable weighting function to be used in the projection procedure to derive a point model. The present work illustrates a consistent factorization-projection procedure which leads to the definition of the kinetic parameters in a straightforward manner. The reactivity term is introduced coherently with the generalized perturbation theory applied to the source multiplication factor ks, which is thus given a physical role in the kinetic model. The effective prompt lifetime is introduced on the assumption that a neutron generation can be initiated by both the fission process and the source emission. Results are presented for simplified configurations to fully comprehend the physical features and for a more complicated highly decoupled system treated in transport theory. (authors)

  5. Nonlocal kinetic-energy-density functionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, P.; Alvarellos, J.E.; Chacon, E.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we present nonlocal kinetic-energy functionals T[n] within the average density approximation (ADA) framework, which do not require any extra input when applied to any electron system and recover the exact kinetic energy and the linear response function of a homogeneous system. In contrast with previous ADA functionals, these present good behavior of the long-range tail of the exact weight function. The averaging procedure for the kinetic functional (averaging the Fermi momentum of the electron gas, instead of averaging the electron density) leads to a functional without numerical difficulties in the calculation of extended systems, and it gives excellent results when applied to atoms and jellium surfaces. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  6. Kinetics model of bainitic transformation with stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mingxing; Xu, Guang; Hu, Haijiang; Yuan, Qing; Tian, Junyu

    2018-01-01

    Thermal simulations were conducted on a Gleeble 3800 simulator. The main purpose is to investigate the effects of stress on the kinetics of bainitic transformation in a Fe-C-Mn-Si advanced high strength bainitic steel. Previous studies on modeling the kinetics of stress affected bainitic transformation only considered the stress below the yield strength of prior austenite. In the present study, the stress above the yield strength of prior austenite is taken into account. A new kinetics model of bainitic transformation dependent on the stress (including the stresses below and above the yield strength of prior austenite) and the transformation temperature is proposed. The new model presents a good agreement with experimental results. In addition, it is found that the acceleration degree of stress on bainitic transformation increases with the stress whether its magnitude is below or above the yield strength of austenite, but the increasing rate gradually slows down when the stress is above the yield strength of austenite.

  7. Kinetic mechanism for modeling of electrochemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervenka, Petr; Hrdlička, Jiří; Přibyl, Michal; Snita, Dalimil

    2012-04-01

    We propose a kinetic mechanism of electrochemical interactions. We assume fast formation and recombination of electron donors D- and acceptors A+ on electrode surfaces. These mediators are continuously formed in the electrode matter by thermal fluctuations. The mediators D- and A+, chemically equivalent to the electrode metal, enter electrochemical interactions on the electrode surfaces. Electrochemical dynamics and current-voltage characteristics of a selected electrochemical system are studied. Our results are in good qualitative agreement with those given by the classical Butler-Volmer kinetics. The proposed model can be used to study fast electrochemical processes in microsystems and nanosystems that are often out of the thermal equilibrium. Moreover, the kinetic mechanism operates only with the surface concentrations of chemical reactants and local electric potentials, which facilitates the study of electrochemical systems with indefinable bulk.

  8. Sulfide toxicity kinetics of a uasb reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Paula Jr.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of sulfide toxicity on kinetic parameters of anaerobic organic matter removal in a UASB (up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor is presented. Two lab-scale UASB reactors (10.5 L were operated continuously during 12 months. The reactors were fed with synthetic wastes prepared daily using glucose, ammonium acetate, methanol and nutrient solution. One of the reactors also received increasing concentrations of sodium sulfide. For both reactors, the flow rate of 16 L.d-1 was held constant throughout the experiment, corresponding to a hydraulic retention time of 15.6 hours. The classic model for non-competitive sulfide inhibition was applied to the experimental data for determining the overall kinetic parameter of specific substrate utilization (q and the sulfide inhibition coefficient (Ki. The application of the kinetic parameters determined allows prediction of methanogenesis inhibition and thus the adoption of operating parameters to minimize sulfide toxicity in UASB reactors.

  9. Kinetic study of solid-state processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, Jiri; Mitsuhashi, Takefumi

    2003-01-01

    A simple method for kinetic analysis of solid-state processes has been developed and the criteria capable of classifying different processes are explored. They provide a useful tool for the determination of the most suitable kinetic model. The method has been applied to the analysis of calorimetric data corresponding to the crystallization processes in amorphous ZrO 2 . It is found that the crystallization kinetics of amorphous powder sample exhibits a complex behavior under non-isothermal conditions. A two-parameter model provides a satisfactory description of the crystallization process for isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. This enables better control of crystallization extent in fine ZrO 2 powders that is important for preparation of zirconia ceramics with defined properties. (author)

  10. Kinetic chain abnormalities in the athletic shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciascia, Aaron; Thigpen, Charles; Namdari, Surena; Baldwin, Keith

    2012-03-01

    Overhead activities require the shoulder to be exposed to and sustain repetitive loads. The segmental activation of the body's links, known as the kinetic chain, allows this to occur effectively. Proper muscle activation is achieved through generation of energy from the central segment or core, which then transfers the energy to the terminal links of the shoulder, elbow, and hand. The kinetic chain is best characterized by 3 components: optimized anatomy, reproducible efficient motor patterns, and the sequential generation of forces. However, tissue injury and anatomic deficits such as weakness and/or tightness in the leg, pelvic core, or scapular musculature can lead to overuse shoulder injuries. These injuries can be prevented and maladaptations can be detected with a thorough understanding of biomechanics of the kinetic chain as it relates to overhead activity.

  11. Kinetics and spectroscopy of low temperature plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Loureiro, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    This is a comprehensive textbook designed for graduate and advanced undergraduate students. Both authors rely on more than 20 years of teaching experience in renowned Physics Engineering courses to write this book addressing the students’ needs. Kinetics and Spectroscopy of Low Temperature Plasmas derives in a full self-consistent way the electron kinetic theory used to describe low temperature plasmas created in the laboratory with an electrical discharge, and presents the main optical spectroscopic diagnostics used to characterize such plasmas. The chapters with the theoretical contents make use of a deductive approach in which the electron kinetic theory applied to plasmas with basis on the electron Boltzmann equation is derived from the basic concepts of Statistical and Plasma Physics. On the other hand, the main optical spectroscopy diagnostics used to characterize experimentally such plasmas are presented and justified from the point of view of the Atomic and Molecular Physics. Low temperature plasmas...

  12. Transient processes in cell proliferation kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Yakovlev, Andrej Yu

    1989-01-01

    A mathematician who has taken the romantic decision to devote himself to biology will doubtlessly look upon cell kinetics as the most simple and natural field of application for his knowledge and skills. Indeed, the thesaurus he is to master is not so complicated as, say, in molecular biology, the structural elements of the system, i. e. ceils, have been segregated by Nature itself, simple considerations of balance may be used for deducing basic equations, and numerous analogies in other areas of science also superficial add to one"s confidence. Generally speaking, this number of impression is correct, as evidenced by the very great theoretical studies on population kinetics, unmatched in other branches of mathematical biology. This, however, does not mean that mathematical theory of cell systems has traversed in its development a pathway free of difficulties or errors. The seeming ease of formalizing the phenomena of cell kinetics not infrequently led to the appearance of mathematical models lacking in adequ...

  13. Kinetics and thermodynamics of living copolymerization processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspard, Pierre

    2016-11-13

    Theoretical advances are reported on the kinetics and thermodynamics of free and template-directed living copolymerizations. Until recently, the kinetic theory of these processes had only been established in the fully irreversible regime, in which the attachment rates are only considered. However, the entropy production is infinite in this regime and the approach to thermodynamic equilibrium cannot be investigated. For this purpose, the detachment rates should also be included. Inspite of this complication, the kinetics can be exactly solved in the regimes of steady growth and depolymerization. In this way, analytical expressions are obtained for the mean growth velocity, the statistical properties of the copolymer sequences, as well as the thermodynamic entropy production. The results apply to DNA replication, transcription and translation, allowing us to understand important aspects of molecular evolution.This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling at the physics-chemistry-biology interface'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. Redox kinetics and mechanism in silicate melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochain, B.

    2009-12-01

    This work contributes to better understand iron redox reactions and mechanisms in silicate melts. It was conducted on compositions in both Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 -FeO and Na 2 O-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 -FeO systems. The influence of boron-sodium and aluminum-sodium substitutions and iron content on properties and structure of glasses and on the iron redox kinetics has been studied by Raman, Moessbauer and XANES spectroscopies at the B and Fe K-edges. In borosilicate glasses, an increase in iron content or in the Fe 3+ /ΣFe redox state implies a structural rearrangement of the BO 4 species in the glass network whereas the BO 3 and BO 4 relative proportions remain nearly constant. In all studied glasses and melts, Fe 3+ is a network former in tetrahedral coordination, unless for aluminosilicates of ratio Al/Na≥1 where Fe 3+ is a network modifier in five-fold coordination. Near Tg, diffusion of network modifying cations controls the iron redox kinetics along with a flux of electron holes. At liquidus temperatures, oxygen diffusion is considered to be the mechanism that governs redox reactions. This study shows the role played by the silicate network polymerization on the redox kinetics. In borosilicate melts, iron redox kinetics depends on the boron speciation between BO 3 and BO 4 that depends itself on the sodium content. Furthermore, an increase in the network-former/network-modifier ratio implies a decrease in oxygen diffusion that results in a slowing down of the redox kinetics. The obtained results allow a description of the iron redox kinetics for more complex compositions as natural lavas or nuclear waste model glasses. (author)

  15. Relaxation and kinetics in scalar field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyanovsky, D.; Lawrie, I.D.; Lee, D.

    1996-01-01

    A new approach to the dynamics of relaxation and kinetics of thermalization in a scalar field theory is presented that incorporates the relevant time scales through the resummation of hard thermal loops. An alternative derivation of the kinetic equations for the open-quote open-quote quasiparticle close-quote close-quote distribution functions is obtained that allows a clear understanding of the different open-quote open-quote coarse-graining close-quote close-quote approximations usually involved in a kinetic description. This method leads to a systematic perturbative expansion to obtain the kinetic equations including hard thermal loop resummation and to an improvement including renormalization, off-shell effects, and contributions that change chemical equilibrium on short time scales. As a by-product of these methods we establish the equivalence between the relaxation time scale in the linearized equation of motion of the quasiparticles and the thermalization time scale of the quasiparticle distribution function in the open-quote open-quote relaxation time approximation close-quote close-quote including hard thermal loop effects. Hard thermal loop resummation dramatically modifies the scattering rate for long wavelength modes as compared to the usual (semi)classical estimate. Relaxation and kinetics are studied both in the unbroken and broken symmetry phases of the theory. The broken symmetry phase also provides the setting to obtain the contribution to the kinetic equations from processes that involve decay of a heavy scalar into light scalar particles in the medium. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  16. Exercise: Kinetic considerations for gas exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiter, Harry B

    2011-01-01

    The activities of daily living typically occur at metabolic rates below the maximum rate of aerobic energy production. Such activity is characteristic of the nonsteady state, where energy demands, and consequential physiological responses, are in constant flux. The dynamics of the integrated physiological processes during these activities determine the degree to which exercise can be supported through rates of O₂ utilization and CO₂ clearance appropriate for their demands and, as such, provide a physiological framework for the notion of exercise intensity. The rate at which O₂ exchange responds to meet the changing energy demands of exercise--its kinetics--is dependent on the ability of the pulmonary, circulatory, and muscle bioenergetic systems to respond appropriately. Slow response kinetics in pulmonary O₂ uptake predispose toward a greater necessity for substrate-level energy supply, processes that are limited in their capacity, challenge system homeostasis and hence contribute to exercise intolerance. This review provides a physiological systems perspective of pulmonary gas exchange kinetics: from an integrative view on the control of muscle oxygen consumption kinetics to the dissociation of cellular respiration from its pulmonary expression by the circulatory dynamics and the gas capacitance of the lungs, blood, and tissues. The intensity dependence of gas exchange kinetics is discussed in relation to constant, intermittent, and ramped work rate changes. The influence of heterogeneity in the kinetic matching of O₂ delivery to utilization is presented in reference to exercise tolerance in endurance-trained athletes, the elderly, and patients with chronic heart or lung disease. © 2011 American Physiological Society.

  17. The coke drum thermal kinetic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldescu, Maria M.; Romero, Sim; Larson, Mel [KBC Advanced Technologies plc, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    The coke drum thermal kinetic dynamics fundamentally affect the coker unit yields as well as the coke product properties and unit reliability. In the drum the thermal cracking and polymerization or condensation reactions take place in a semi-batch environment. Understanding the fundamentals of the foaming kinetics that occur in the coke drums is key to avoiding a foam-over that could result in a unit shutdown for several months. Although the most dynamic changes with time occur during drum filling, other dynamics of the coker process will be discussed as well. KBC has contributed towards uncovering and modelling the complexities of heavy oil thermal dynamics. (author)

  18. Kinetic Parameters of Thermal Degradation of Polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱新生; 程嘉祺

    2003-01-01

    The derivative expressions between activation energy (E) and the temperature at the maximum mass loss rate(Tmax) and between activation energy (E) and exponent (N) were deduced in the light of Arrhenius theory. It was found that the increase of activation energy results in the decrease of exponent and the increase of Tmax. The kinetic parameters were involved in the analysis of the thermal degradation of several polymers. The degradation kinetics of these polymers well complied with the prediction of the derivative expressions for the polymer degradation with single mechanism dominated.

  19. Calmodulin-lanthanide ion exchange kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buccigross, J.; O'Donnell, C.; Nelson, D.

    1985-01-01

    A flow dialysis apparatus suitable for the study of high affinity metal binding proteins has been utilized to study calmodulin-metal exchange kinetics. Calmodulin labeled with Eu-155 and Gd-153 was dialyzed against buffer containing various competing metal ions. The rate of metal exchange was monitored by a gamma-ray scintillation detector. The kinetics of exchange are first order, and the rates fall into two categories: Ca (II) and CD (II) in one, and the lanthanides Eu (III), Gd (III), and La (III) in the other

  20. Unified kinetic theory in toroidal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitchcock, D.A.; Hazeltine, R.D.

    1980-12-01

    The kinetic theory of toroidal systems has been characterized by two approaches: neoclassical theory which ignores instabilities and quasilinear theory which ignores collisions. In this paper we construct a kinetic theory for toroidal systems which includes both effects. This yields a pair of evolution equations; one for the spectrum and one for the distribution function. In addition, this theory yields a toroidal generalization of the usual collision operator which is shown to have many similar properties - conservation laws, H theorem - to the usual collision operator

  1. Catalytic Kinetic Resolution of Biaryl Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Gaoyuan; Sibi, Mukund P

    2015-08-10

    Biaryl compounds with axial chirality are very common in synthetic chemistry, especially in catalysis. Axially chiral biaryls are important due to their biological activities and extensive applications in asymmetric catalysis. Thus the development of efficient enantioselective methods for their synthesis has attracted considerable attention. This Minireview discusses the progress made in catalytic kinetic resolution of biaryl compounds and chronicles significant advances made recently in catalytic kinetic resolution of biaryl scaffolds. © 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Alternative kinetic energy metrics for Lagrangian systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlet, W.; Prince, G.

    2010-11-01

    We examine Lagrangian systems on \\ {R}^n with standard kinetic energy terms for the possibility of additional, alternative Lagrangians with kinetic energy metrics different to the Euclidean one. Using the techniques of the inverse problem in the calculus of variations we find necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of such Lagrangians. We illustrate the problem in two and three dimensions with quadratic and cubic potentials. As an aside we show that the well-known anomalous Lagrangians for the Coulomb problem can be removed by switching on a magnetic field, providing an appealing resolution of the ambiguous quantizations of the hydrogen atom.

  3. Kinetic studies of elementary chemical reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durant, J.L. Jr. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This program concerning kinetic studies of elementary chemical reactions is presently focussed on understanding reactions of NH{sub x} species. To reach this goal, the author is pursuing experimental studies of reaction rate coefficients and product branching fractions as well as using electronic structure calculations to calculate transition state properties and reaction rate calculations to relate these properties to predicted kinetic behavior. The synergy existing between the experimental and theoretical studies allow one to gain a deeper insight into more complex elementary reactions.

  4. Supercritical kinetic analysis in simplified system of fuel debris using integral kinetic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuya, Delgersaikhan; Obara, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Kinetic analysis in simplified weakly coupled fuel debris system was performed. • The integral kinetic model was used to simulate criticality accidents. • The fission power and released energy during simulated accident were obtained. • Coupling between debris regions and its effect on the fission power was obtained. - Abstract: Preliminary prompt supercritical kinetic analyses in a simplified coupled system of fuel debris designed to roughly resemble a melted core of a nuclear reactor were performed using an integral kinetic model. The integral kinetic model, which can describe region- and time-dependent fission rate in a coupled system of arbitrary geometry, was used because the fuel debris system is weakly coupled in terms of neutronics. The results revealed some important characteristics of coupled systems, such as the coupling between debris regions and the effect of the coupling on the fission rate and released energy in each debris region during the simulated criticality accident. In brief, this study showed that the integral kinetic model can be applied to supercritical kinetic analysis in fuel debris systems and also that it can be a useful tool for investigating the effect of the coupling on consequences of a supercritical accident.

  5. Evaluation of the biliary gallbladder emptying in patients with calcificant chronic pancreatitis through a scintilographic study with DISIDA Tc-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedroso, Martha Regina Arcon

    1996-01-01

    The eventual relation between biliary lithiasis and chronic pancreatitis (CP) has been studied before but the research on the gallbladder involvement in chronic pancreatitis patients are rare, specially from a functional point of view. In order to study that, gallbladder emptying was evaluated in 11 patients with CP and the results were compared and analyzed statistically with the ones observed in 10 controls. This series exclude patients and controls who presented any kind of prior or current affection, or condition, that could interfere with the gastric or gallbladder emptying and the release of the entero pancreatic hormones. Gallbladder emptying was studied through the scintillographic method, using Tc-99m DISIDA, through the calculation of the ejection (EF) of the gallbladder (GB), at 30, 45 and 60 minutes. In the patients this evaluation was studied in two different periods of time with an interval of two to four weeks between them, without (CPWOP) and with (CPWP) the addition of pancreatic extract. The analyses of the results disclosed that the EF of GB at 60 minutes was significantly higher in the controls when compared tro chronic pancreatopaths. On the other hand, the EF of GB in these patients did not show any statistically significant differences after the administration of pancreatic extract. The results suggest that the delay in the gallbladder emptying does not depend exclusively on the eventual alteration in the intestinal phase of the gallbladder stimulation, but it probably also results from the association with other factors involved, as a mechanic factor, which depends on the compression of the main biliary tract through the chronic pathological process located in the cephalic portion of the pancreas. (author)

  6. Kinetic theory of nonideal gases and nonideal plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Klimontovich, Yu L

    2013-01-01

    Kinetic Theory of Nonideal Gases and Nonideal Plasmas presents the fundamental aspects of the kinetic theory of gases and plasmas. The book consists of three parts, which attempts to present some of the ideas, methods and applications in the study of the kinetic processes in nonideal gases and plasmas. The first part focuses on the classical kinetic theory of nonideal gases. The second part discusses the classical kinetic theory of fully ionized plasmas. The last part is devoted to the quantum kinetic theory of nonideal gases and plasmas. A concluding chapter is included, which presents a shor

  7. Kinetics of fibrilar aggregation of food proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnaudov, L.N.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis we study the kinetics of fibrilar aggregation of two model proteins widely used in the food industry -b-lactoglobulin (b-lg) and hen

  8. Thermodynamics, Kinetics and Microstructural Evolution during Nitrocarburising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somers, Marcel A.J.; Du, Hong

    2000-01-01

    The evolution of the phase distribution, the composition and the growth kinetics of the compound layer is described for nitrocarburising experiments at well defined combinations of nitriding and carburising potentials in the gaseous environment. Initially, the compound layer development is associ...

  9. Kinetic equation of heterogeneous catalytic isotope exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trokhimets, A I [AN Belorusskoj SSR, Minsk. Inst. Fiziko-Organicheskoj Khimii

    1979-12-01

    A kinetic equation is derived for the bimolecular isotope exchange reaction between AXsub(n)sup(*) and BXsub(m)sup(o), all atoms of element X in each molecule being equivalent. The equation can be generalized for homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic isotope exchange.

  10. Application of dhurrin for kinetics and thermodynamic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The entropy change (ΔS) increased with enzyme purity from 0.588 J/mol.deg. to 1.4625Jmol degree. The enthalpy change KJ/mol followed the same pattern whereby increases influenced by enzyme purity ranged from 1892 KJ/mol to 13104KJ/mol. Keywords: kinetics, thermodynamic, characterization, dhurrin, genetically ...

  11. Microstructure and transformation kinetics in bainitic steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luzginova, N.V.

    2008-01-01

    With the aim of reaching a better understanding of the microstructure evolution and the overall phase transformation kinetics in hyper-eutectoid steels a commercial SAE 52100 bearing steel and 7 model alloys with different concentrations of chromium, cobalt and aluminum have been studied in this

  12. Some remarks concerning relativistic kinetic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeter, J.

    1990-01-01

    The starting point of our investigation is a classical kinetic theory which includes correlational effects as well as the complete electromagnetic interaction. Also classical gravitation can be incorporated. The relativistic version of this theory is written down using some heuristic arguments. Its essential feature is the difference between terms representing gravitational interaction and the metric tensor representing geometrical properties. (author)

  13. Rehydration kinetics of freeze-dried carrots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeldt, F.J.; Dalen, van G.; Duijster, A.J.; Voda, A.; Khalloufi, S.; Vliet, van L.J.; As, van H.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Rehydration kinetics by two modes of imbibition is studied in pieces of freeze-dried winter carrot, after different thermal pre-treatments. Water ingress at room temperature is measured in real time by in situ MRI and NMR relaxometry. Blanched samples rehydrate substantially faster compared to

  14. Deposition kinetics of nanocolloidal gold particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, E.A.M.; Kooij, Ernst S.; Hakbijl, Mark; Wormeester, Herbert; Poelsema, Bene

    2005-01-01

    The deposition kinetics of the irreversible adsorption of citrate-stabilized, nanocolloidal gold particles on Si/SiO2 surfaces, derivatized with (aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES), is investigated in situ using single wavelength optical reflectometry. A well-defined flow of colloids towards the

  15. CHEMSIMUL: A simulator for chemical kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, P.; Bjergbakke, E.

    1999-01-01

    CHEMSIMUL is a computer program system for numerical simulation of chemical reaction systems. It can be used for modeling complex kinetics in many contexts, in particular radiolytic processes. It contains a translator module and a module for solving theresulting coupled nonlinear ordinary...

  16. Kinetic modeling of reactions in Foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2008-01-01

    The level of quality that food maintains as it travels down the production-to-consumption path is largely determined by the chemical, biochemical, physical, and microbiological changes that take place during its processing and storage. Kinetic Modeling of Reactions in Foods demonstrates how to

  17. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SOME EXISTING KINETIC MODELS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biosorption of three heavy metal ions namely; Zn2+, Cu2+ and Mn2+ using five microorganisms namely; Bacillus circulans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus xylosus, Streptomyces rimosus and Yeast (Saccharomyces sp.) were studied. In this paper, the effectiveness of six existing and two proposed kinetic ...

  18. Free-Form Kinetic Reciprocal System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Sassone, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Kinetic Reciprocal System (KRS) are innovative moveable structures based on the principle of reciprocity [1] with internal pin-slot constraints [2]. The analysis of KRS kinematic and static determinacy is developed through the construction of kinematic matrices, accordingly with [3] and a discuss...

  19. Trapped particle stability for the kinetic stabilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, H. L.; Pratt, J.

    2011-08-01

    A kinetically stabilized axially symmetric tandem mirror (KSTM) uses the momentum flux of low-energy, unconfined particles that sample only the outer end-regions of the mirror plugs, where large favourable field-line curvature exists. The window of operation is determined for achieving magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability with tolerable energy drain from the kinetic stabilizer. Then MHD stable systems are analysed for stability of the trapped particle mode. This mode is characterized by the detachment of the central-cell plasma from the kinetic-stabilizer region without inducing field-line bending. Stability of the trapped particle mode is sensitive to the electron connection between the stabilizer and the end plug. It is found that the stability condition for the trapped particle mode is more constraining than the stability condition for the MHD mode, and it is challenging to satisfy the required power constraint. Furthermore, a severe power drain may arise from the necessary connection of low-energy electrons in the kinetic stabilizer to the central region.

  20. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics and physical kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Bikkin, Halid

    2014-01-01

    This graduate textbook covers contemporary directions of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics as well as classical methods of kinetics. With one of the main propositions being to avoid terms such as "obviously" and "it is easy to show", this treatise is an easy-to-read introduction into this traditional, yet vibrant field.

  1. Temperatures of fragment kinetic energy spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, W.

    1995-01-01

    Multifragmentation reactions without large compression in the initial state (proton-induced reactions, reverse kinematics, projectile fragmentation) are examined, and it is verified quantitatively that the high temperatures obtained from fragment kinetic energy spectra and lower temperatures obtained from observables such as level population or isotope ratios can be understood in a common framework

  2. Kinetics of Oxidation of Fe–6Si

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lashin, Abdel Rahman; Schneeweiss, Oldřich; Svoboda, Milan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 5-6 (2008), s. 359-374 ISSN 0030-770X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1041404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : iron silicon * Mössbauer spectroscopy * XRD * iron oxides * oxidation kinetics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.359, year: 2008

  3. Combustion Kinetic Studies of Gasolines and Surrogates

    KAUST Repository

    Javed, Tamour

    2016-01-01

    . These measurements were performed in shock tubes and rapid compression machines over a wide range of experimental conditions (650 – 1250 K, 10 – 40 bar) relevant to internal combustion engines. Using the measured the data and chemical kinetic analyses, the surrogate

  4. Copper laser diagnostics and kinetics support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    In the effort MSNW participated with the LINL copper-Vapor Laser Program by providing a useful plasma diagnostic for interpretation of Copper-vapor laser kinetics. MSNW developed and delivered a pulsed interferometric diagnostic package to LLNL. Moreover MSNW provided personal services at the request and direction of LLL in the implementation of the diagnostic and interpretation of the data

  5. An Inversion Recovery NMR Kinetics Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Travis J.; Kershaw, Allan D.; Li, Vincent; Wu, Xinping

    2011-01-01

    A convenient laboratory experiment is described in which NMR magnetization transfer by inversion recovery is used to measure the kinetics and thermochemistry of amide bond rotation. The experiment utilizes Varian spectrometers with the VNMRJ 2.3 software, but can be easily adapted to any NMR platform. The procedures and sample data sets in this…

  6. A kinetic equation for irreversible aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanette, D.H.

    1990-09-01

    We introduce a kinetic equation for describing irreversible aggregation in the ballistic regime, including velocity distributions. The associated evolution for the macroscopic quantities is studied, and the general solution for Maxwell interaction models is obtained in the Fourier representation. (author). 23 refs

  7. The kinetic theory of open systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimontovich, Yu.L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper begins with a survey of recently obtained results in the statistical theory of open systems, including quantum open systems. Then the definition of the thermal flux in the kinetic theory is considered, further the collision nature of the Landau damping. Finally the Lamb shift and Bethe's formula are analyzed. (orig.)

  8. The kinetically dominated quasar 3C 418

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punsly, Brian; Kharb, Preeti

    2017-06-01

    The existence of quasars that are kinetically dominated, where the jet kinetic luminosity, Q, is larger than the total (infrared to X-ray) thermal luminosity of the accretion flow, Lbol, provides a strong constraint on the fundamental physics of relativistic jet formation. Since quasars have high values of Lbol by definition, only ˜10 kinetically dominated quasars (with \\overline{Q}/L_{bol}>1) have been found, where \\overline{Q} is the long-term time-averaged jet power. We use low-frequency (151 MHz-1.66 GHz) observations of the quasar 3C 418 to determine \\overline{Q}≈ 5.5 ± 1.3 × 10^{46} {erg s^{-1}}. Analysis of the rest-frame ultraviolet spectrum indicates that this equates to 0.57 ± 0.28 times the Eddington luminosity of the central supermassive black hole and \\overline{Q}/L_{bol} ≈ 4.8 ± 3.1, making 3C 418 one of the most kinetically dominated quasars found to date. It is shown that this maximal \\overline{Q}/L_{bol} is consistent with models of magnetically arrested accretion of jet production in which the jet production reproduces the observed trend of a decrement in the extreme ultraviolet continuum as the jet power increases. This maximal condition corresponds to an almost complete saturation of the inner accretion flow with vertical large-scale magnetic flux (maximum saturation).

  9. KINETICS AND MECHANISM OF REACTION OF ACIDIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of two phenoxazine dyes namely Nile blue (7-amino-3-diethylamino-8,9-benzo phenoxazine chloride, NB+) and Meldola\\'s blue (3- dimethylamino-8,9-benzo phenoxazine chloride, MB+) with acidic chlorite and hypochlorous acid have been investigated using a UV-visible and a ...

  10. Development and Application of Kinetic Spectrophotometric Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop an improved kinetic-spectrophotometric procedure for the determination of metronidazole (MNZ) in pharmaceutical formulations. Methods: The method is based on oxidation reaction of MNZ by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of Fe(II) ions at pH 4.5 (acetate buffer). The reaction was monitored ...

  11. Kinetics of carbon dioxide during cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiklund, L; Söderberg, D; Henneberg, S

    1986-01-01

    CO2 kinetics during CPR was investigated in 15 anesthetized piglets. BP, blood gases, and acid-base balance were monitored through catheters in the carotid artery and a central vein, as well as in cerebrospinal fluid. Cardiac arrest was induced by a transthoracic direct current shock. CPR was beg...

  12. Antioxidant Capacity, Radical Scavenging Kinetics and Phenolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antioxidant Capacity, Radical Scavenging Kinetics and Phenolic Profile of Methanol Extracts of Wild Plants of Southern Sonora, Mexico. EF Moran-Palacio, LA Zamora-Álvarez, NA Stephens-Camacho, GA Yáñez- Farías, A Virgen-Ortiz, O Martínez-Cruz, JA Rosas-Rodríguez ...

  13. Flash pyrolysis kinetics of pine wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, B.M.; Prins, W.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1993-01-01

    The kinetics of sawdust pyrolysis in the temperature range from 300 to 600 °C has been measured. A thermogravimetric analyser was applied for the temperature range from 300 to 450 °C while for measurements in the temperature range from 450 to 600 °C, an entrained flow reactor has been used. The

  14. Production of a sterile species: Quantum kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyanovsky, D.; Ho, C. M.

    2007-10-01

    Production of a sterile species is studied within an effective model of active-sterile neutrino mixing in a medium in thermal equilibrium. The quantum kinetic equations for the distribution functions and coherences are obtained from two independent methods: the effective action and the quantum master equation. The decoherence time scale for active-sterile oscillations is τdec=2/Γaa, but the evolution of the distribution functions is determined by the two different time scales associated with the damping rates of the quasiparticle modes in the medium: Γ1=Γaacos⁡2θm; Γ2=Γaasin⁡2θm where Γaa is the interaction rate of the active species in the absence of mixing and θm the mixing angle in the medium. These two time scales are widely different away from Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein resonances and preclude the kinetic description of active-sterile production in terms of a simple rate equation. We give the complete set of quantum kinetic equations for the active and sterile populations and coherences and discuss in detail the various approximations. A generalization of the active-sterile transition probability in a medium is provided via the quantum master equation. We derive explicitly the usual quantum kinetic equations in terms of the “polarization vector” and show their equivalence to those obtained from the quantum master equation and effective action.

  15. Reaction kinetics of polybutylene terephthalate polycondensation reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darda, P. J.; Hogendoorn, J. A.; Versteeg, G. F.; Souren, F.

    2005-01-01

    The kinetics of the forward polycondensation reaction of polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) has been investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). PBT - prepolymer with an initial degree of polymerization of 5.5 was used as starting material. The PBT prepolymer was prepared from dimethyl

  16. Lithium hydride hydrolysis: experimental and kinetic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charton, S.; Maupoix, C.; Brevet, A.; Delaunay, F.; Heintz, O.; Saviot, L.

    2006-01-01

    In this work has been studied the contribution of various analyses techniques in the framework, on the one hand of revealing the mechanisms implied in lithium hydride hydrolysis, and on the other hand of studying the kinetics of hydrogen production. Among the methods recently investigated, Raman spectroscopy, XPS and SIMS seem to be particularly attractive. (O.M.)

  17. Platelet kinetics: the state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyns, A. duP

    1984-01-01

    In this paper an overview of the state of the art of platelet kinetics 1982 is presented. The subjects considered include a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of some of the many radionuclide platelet labels, viz 51 Cr, 111 In, focussing briefly on models for analysis of platelets survival. (Auth.)

  18. A MODEL FOR POSTRADIATION STEM CELL KINETICS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    In polycythemic rats observed for 17 days postradiation (300 R, 250 KVP X-rays) it was noted that stem cell release diminished to 8 percent of the...correlate these findings with a kinetic model of erythropoiesis. It was suggested that the initial depression in stem cell release might be due to cellular

  19. Enzyme kinetic characterization of protein tyrosine phosphatases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Günther H.J.; Branner, S.; Møller, K. B.

    2003-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) play a central role in cellular signaling processes, resulting in an increased interest in modulating the activities of PTPs. We therefore decided to undertake a detailed enzyme kinetic evaluation of various transmembrane and cytosolic PTPs (PTPalpha, PTPbeta...

  20. Genesis and kinetics of peritoneal macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wacker, H.H.

    1982-01-01

    The author intended to develop an experimental model for investigations of the proliferation kinetics of tissue macrophages, using the example of peritoneal macrophages. To get a suitable cell population, a blood cell population was labelled with 3 H-thymidine and transferred in a parabiotic test. (orig./MG) [de

  1. Kinetics of infrared stimulated luminescence from feldspars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank; Sohbati, Reza; Guralnik, Benny

    2015-01-01

    thermal and optical, of the infrared stimulated luminescence signal from feldspar. Based on the application of this model, it is concluded that different infra-red stimulated luminescence emissions (UV, blue, yellow and far-red) follow the same kinetics, and, therefore, involve participation of the same...

  2. Norepinephrine kinetics during insulin-induced hypoglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Christensen, N J; Larsen, S

    1985-01-01

    Norepinephrine (NE) kinetics (plasma appearance rate, clearance, and forearm extraction) were measured during insulin-induced hypoglycemia in six healthy subjects. NE clearance did not change during hypoglycemia, indicating that the increase in plasma NE during hypoglycemia is due to an increased...

  3. Aircraft Measurements of Atmospheric Kinetic Energy Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Lilly, D. K.

    1983-01-01

    Wind velocity data obtained from a jet airliner are used to construct kinetic energy spectra over the range of wavelengths from 2.5 to 2500 km. The spectra exhibit an approximate -5/3 slope for wavelengths of less than about 150 km, steepening to about -2.2 at larger scales. These results support...

  4. Thermodynamic and kinetic modelling: creep resistant materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, John; Korcakova, L.; Danielsen, Hilmar Kjartansson

    2008-01-01

    The use of thermodynamic and kinetic modelling of microstructure evolution in materials exposed to high temperatures in power plants is demonstrated with two examples. Precipitate stability in martensitic 9–12%Cr steels is modelled including equilibrium phase stability, growth of Laves phase part...

  5. KINETICS OF THE OXIDATION OF VITAMIN C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitti Rahmawati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C or ascorbic acid is needed by the human body but it is already damaged by the rise in temperature due to be oxidized to L-dehydroascorbic acid. This research aims to determine the kinetics of oxidation of ascorbic acid due to an increase if temperature (40-80 °C and to design an ascorbic acid oxidation reaction laboratory module to be applied in the senior high school reaction kinetics curriculum. The determination of the kinetics of the oxidation of ascorbic acid applies the integral and half-change time methods, while the concentration of the remained ascorbic acid in sixty minute intervals is determined by iodimetric titration method. Decomposition of ascorbic acid was measured at 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 °C. The results of this research indicate that at 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 °C the kinetics of the oxidation of ascorbic acid is a first-order reaction with rate constants of 4.55 x 10-4, 5.85 x 10-4, 8.4 x 10-4, 1.1 x 10-3 and 1.015 x 10-3 min-1, respectively. Pre-exponential factor or the frequency of collisions is a factor which is a measure of the collision rate. The activation energy and the pre-exponential factor for the oxidation of ascorbic acid were found to be 20.73 kJ.mol-1 and 1.372 min-1. The procedure used in this study was modified into a laboratory module will be applied in the teaching of reaction kinetics at the senior high school level.

  6. Reflected kinetics model for nuclear space reactor kinetics and control scoping calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, K.E.

    1986-05-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a model that offers an alternative to the point kinetics (PK) modelling approach in the analysis of space reactor kinetics and control studies. Modelling effort will focus on the explicit treatment of control drums as reactivity input devices so that the transition to automatic control can be smoothly done. The proposed model is developed for the specific integration of automatic control and the solution of the servo mechanism problem. The integration of the kinetics model with an automatic controller will provide a useful tool for performing space reactor scoping studies for different designs and configurations. Such a tool should prove to be invaluable in the design phase of a space nuclear system from the point of view of kinetics and control limitations.

  7. Reflected kinetics model for nuclear space reactor kinetics and control scoping calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington, K.E.

    1986-05-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a model that offers an alternative to the point kinetics (PK) modelling approach in the analysis of space reactor kinetics and control studies. Modelling effort will focus on the explicit treatment of control drums as reactivity input devices so that the transition to automatic control can be smoothly done. The proposed model is developed for the specific integration of automatic control and the solution of the servo mechanism problem. The integration of the kinetics model with an automatic controller will provide a useful tool for performing space reactor scoping studies for different designs and configurations. Such a tool should prove to be invaluable in the design phase of a space nuclear system from the point of view of kinetics and control limitations

  8. Fluorescence kinetics and positron annihilation kinetics investigations in cadmium sulfide crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grillot, E; Bancie-Grillot, M; Egee, M [Reims Univ., 51 (France)

    1976-03-01

    Fluorescence kinetics and positrons annihilation kinetics investigations on CdS crystals, either very pure or with increasing contents of Ag-ions, led to similar and complementary results. Ag-ions mainly fill the cadmium vacancies of the lattice, building red emission luminogene centres, while green 'edge-emission' ones are destroyed. These latter, which involve an excited level active for high energy series fluorescence, seems actually related to cadmium vacancies.

  9. New Methods for Processing and Quantifying VO2 Kinetics to Steady State: VO2 Onset Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig R. McNulty

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Current methods of oxygen uptake (VO2 kinetics data handling may be too simplistic for the complex physiology involved in the underlying physiological processes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify the VO2 kinetics to steady state across the full range of sub-ventilatory threshold work rates, with a particular focus on the VO2 onset kinetics. Ten healthy, moderately trained males participated in five bouts of cycling. Each bout involved 10 min at a percentage of the subject's ventilation threshold (30, 45, 60, 75, 90% from unloaded cycling. The VO2 kinetics was quantified using the conventional mono-exponential time constant (tau, τ, as well as the new methods for VO2 onset kinetics. Compared to linear modeling, non-linear modeling caused a deterioration of goodness of fit (main effect, p < 0.001 across all exercise intensities. Remainder kinetics were also improved using a modified application of the mono-exponential model (main effect, p < 0.001. Interestingly, the slope from the linear regression of the onset kinetics data is similar across all subjects and absolute exercise intensities, and thereby independent of subject fitness and τ. This could indicate that there are no functional limitations between subjects during this onset phase, with limitations occurring for the latter transition to steady state. Finally, the continuing use of mono-exponential modeling could mask important underlying physiology of more instantaneous VO2 responses to steady state. Consequently, further research should be conducted on this new approach to VO2 onset kinetics.

  10. Kinetic modelling of the Maillard reaction between proteins and sugars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, C.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: Maillard reaction, sugar isomerisation, kinetics, multiresponse modelling, brown colour formation, lysine damage, mutagenicity, casein, monosaccharides, disaccharides, aldoses, ketoses

    The aim of this thesis was to determine the kinetics of the Maillard reaction between

  11. Relativistic thermodynamics and kinetic theory, with applications to cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.M.

    1973-01-01

    The discussion of relativistic thermodynamics and kinetic theory with applications to cosmology also covers the fundamentals and nonequilibrium relativistic kinetic theory and applications to cosmology and astrophysics. (U.S.)

  12. Alkylation of Chlorobenzene. An Experiment Illustrating Kinetic versus Thermodynamic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Kenneth; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an experiment which illustrates the kinetic versus thermodynamic control of chemical reactions for organic chemistry students. Considers the laboratory procedures including the isolation of both the kinetic and thermodynamic products. (CW)

  13. Kinetics of molybdenite oxidizing leaching in alkali medium by ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, A.S.; Sokratova, N.B.; Litman, I.V.; Zelikman, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    On the basis of investigation of the process kinetics proposed is a model of oxidizing leaching of molybdenite in alkali medium while ozonization of the solution by ozoneair mixture. A kinetic equation is derived, that describes experimental data satisfactorily

  14. Kinetic simulations in plasmas: a general view and some applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Maria Virginia [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Plasma]. E-mail: alves@plasma.inpe.br

    1999-07-01

    In these lecture notes we talk about kinetic simulations plasma physics. We present a general view of the different approach that can be given to kinetic plasmas depending on the physical problem to be investigated. Some applications of kinetic simulations to space plasma phenomena and Pierce electrodes are introduced. (author)

  15. Kinetic simulations in plasmas: a general view and some applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Maria Virginia

    1999-01-01

    In these lecture notes we talk about kinetic simulations plasma physics. We present a general view of the different approach that can be given to kinetic plasmas depending on the physical problem to be investigated. Some applications of kinetic simulations to space plasma phenomena and Pierce electrodes are introduced. (author)

  16. Kinetics of Pressurized Water Reactors with Hot or Cold Moderators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norinder, O

    1960-11-15

    The set of neutron kinetic equations developed in this report permits the use of long integration steps during stepwise integration. Thermal relations which describe the transfer of heat from fuel to coolant are derived. The influence upon the kinetic behavior of the reactor of a number of parameters is studied. A comparison of the kinetic properties of the hot and cold moderators is given.

  17. Stochastic optimization-based study of dimerization kinetics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To this end, we study dimerization kinetics of protein as a model system. We follow the dimerization kinetics using a stochastic simulation algorithm and ... optimization; dimerization kinetics; sensitivity analysis; stochastic simulation ... tion in large molecules and clusters, or the design ..... An unbiased strategy of allocating.

  18. Kinetic aspects of the Maillard reaction: a critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2001-01-01

    The literature concerning the kinetics of the Maillard reaction was critically discussed according to the initial, intermediate and advanced stages, as this is the way the Maillard reaction is traditionally analysed. For each stage, a division is made between simple kinetics and complex kinetics.

  19. Energy transfer and kinetics in mechanochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiliang; Lu, Shengyong; Mao, Qiongjing; Buekens, Alfons; Wang, Yuting; Yan, Jianhua

    2017-11-01

    Mechanochemistry (MC) exerts extraordinary degradation and decomposition effects on many chlorinated, brominated, and even fluorinated persistent organic pollutants (POPs). However, its application is still limited by inadequate study of its reaction kinetic aspects. In the present work, the ball motion and energy transfer in planetary ball mill are investigated in some detail. Almost all milling parameters are summarised in a single factor-total effective impact energy. Furthermore, the MC kinetic between calcium oxide/Al and hexachlorobenzene is well established and modelled. The results indicate that total effective impact energy and reagent ratio are the two factors sufficient for describing the MC degradation degree of POPs. The reaction rate constant only depends on the chemical properties of reactants, so it could be used as an important index to appraise the quality of MC additives. This model successfully predicts the reaction rate for different operating conditions, indicating that it could be suitably applied for conducting MC reactions in other reactors.

  20. Processes of aggression described by kinetic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristov, V. V.; Ilyin, O.

    2014-12-01

    In the last decades many investigations have been devoted to theoretical models in new areas concerning description of different biological, sociological and historical processes. In the present paper we suggest a model of the Nazi Germany invasion of Poland, France and USSR based on the kinetic theory. We model this process with the Cauchy boundary problem for the two-element kinetic equations with spatial initial conditions. The solution of the problem is given in the form of traveling wave. The propagation velocity of a frontline depends on the quotient between initial forces concentrations. Moreover it is obtained that the general solution of the model can be expressed in terms of quadratures and elementary functions. Finally it is shown that the frontline velocities are complied with the historical data.