WorldWideScience

Sample records for taxonomy distribution ecology

  1. The Distributed Wind Cost Taxonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, Trudy; Jimenez, Tony [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Preus, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegan, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baring-Gould, Ian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-03-28

    To date, there has been no standard method or tool to analyze the installed and operational costs for distributed wind turbine systems. This report describes the development of a classification system, or taxonomy, for distributed wind turbine project costs. The taxonomy establishes a framework to help collect, sort, and compare distributed wind cost data that mirrors how the industry categorizes information. The taxonomy organizes costs so they can be aggregated from installers, developers, vendors, and other sources without losing cost details. Developing a peer-reviewed taxonomy is valuable to industry stakeholders because a common understanding the details of distributed wind turbine costs and balance of station costs is a first step to identifying potential high-value cost reduction opportunities. Addressing cost reduction potential can help increase distributed wind's competitiveness and propel the U.S. distributed wind industry forward. The taxonomy can also be used to perform cost comparisons between technologies and track trends for distributed wind industry costs in the future. As an initial application and piloting of the taxonomy, preliminary cost data were collected for projects of different sizes and from different regions across the contiguous United States. Following the methods described in this report, these data are placed into the established cost categories.

  2. The Crotonia fauna of New Zealand revisited (Acari: Oribatida): taxonomy, phylogeny, ecological distribution and biogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colloff, Matthew J

    2015-04-14

    New Zealand contains 13 of the 69 species of Crotonia described globally and is the only place where all three genera of the Crotoniinae-Crotonia, Austronothrus and Holonothrus-have been recorded. Due to the pioneering work of Hammer (1966) and Luxton (1982) it also has the highest number of distribution records of Crotonia spp. anywhere. In the present study I build upon previous work to re-examine the Crotonia fauna of New Zealand in the light of recent taxonomic and biogeographical research. A new species is described, C. ramsayi sp. nov., a member of the Unguifera species group, and supplementary descriptions are provided for C. brachyrostrum (Hammer 1966), C. caudalis (Hammer, 1966), C. cophinaria (Michael, 1908), and C. unguifera (Michael 1908), as well as a key to species. Crotonia spp. from New Zealand occur predominantly in localities with relatively low mean annual temperature and high water balance, reflecting a requirement for cool, moist conditions. In New Zealand Crotonia spp. occur in an extremely wide variety of vegetation communities compared with other regions in its range (Australia, Africa and South America), and this is indicative that water balance requirements are met, regardless of vegetation type. Some elements of the New Zealand Crotonia fauna, notably the Cophinaria species group, are common to Australia, Africa and South America, indicating a shared evolutionary history pre-dating the separation of Africa from Gondwana 110 mya. The high proportion of species that occur west of the Alpine Fault is consistent with a relictual distribution of Gondwanan elements on the Australian Plate. However, it is unclear whether uplift of the Southern Alps formed a barrier to dispersal. A high representation of the morphologically closely-related Obtecta, Flagellata and Unguifera groups, shared only with South America (and, for Unguifera, with Oceania) represents a dramatically different faunal composition compared with other former Gondwanan landmasses

  3. DISTRIBUTION OF ANOPLOSEFALYATS (FAUNA, TAXONOMY AND BIOLOGY IN DOMESTIC RUMINANTS ANIMALS OF AZERBAIJAN AND THEIR ECOLOGICAL-GEOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Ismailov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anoplotsefalyats (Moniezia expansa, M. benedeni, M.autumnalia, Avitellina centripunctata, Thyzaniezia giardi are common in farm ruminants of Azerbaijan. There are no strict zoning in their distribution and no specificity for the hosts. It was established that in Azerbaijan there are 27 species of oribatid mites that are involved in the life cycle of monieziozis out of which 20 species recorded to be new to our fauna, as their intermediate hosts. Infection of the final (sheep, goats, cattle, buffalo and intermediate hosts (oribatid mites happens all the year round. Maximum infection occurs in early spring and late autumn.

  4. Morphology, taxonomy and ecology of Thraustochytrids and Labyrinthulids, the marine counterparts of zoosporic fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RaghuKumar, S.

    zoosporic fungi, one could still repeat his statement that these organisms are swimming in an ocean of benign neglect. The present article will concentrate on the morphology, taxonomy and ecology of the members of the Labyrinthulomycota....

  5. Query processing in distributed, taxonomy-based information sources

    CERN Document Server

    Meghini, Carlo; Coltella, Veronica; Analyti, Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    We address the problem of answering queries over a distributed information system, storing objects indexed by terms organized in a taxonomy. The taxonomy consists of subsumption relationships between negation-free DNF formulas on terms and negation-free conjunctions of terms. In the first part of the paper, we consider the centralized case, deriving a hypergraph-based algorithm that is efficient in data complexity. In the second part of the paper, we consider the distributed case, presenting alternative ways implementing the centralized algorithm. These ways descend from two basic criteria: direct vs. query re-writing evaluation, and centralized vs. distributed data or taxonomy allocation. Combinations of these criteria allow to cover a wide spectrum of architectures, ranging from client-server to peer-to-peer. We evaluate the performance of the various architectures by simulation on a network with O(10^4) nodes, and derive final results. An extensive review of the relevant literature is finally included.

  6. Studies on taxonomy and distribution of Acridoidea (Orthoptera of Bihar, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K. Usmani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Thirty seven species of locusts and grasshoppers representing 26 genera, four tribes and 12 subfamilies belonging to the families Pyrgomorphidae, Catantopidae and Acrididae are reported from different localities of Bihar. Their distinguishing characters and bio-ecological data are provided along with keys to tribes and subfamilies. This paper comprising of distribution and field observation along with taxonomy of Acridoid fauna is the first of its kind from the state.

  7. Taxonomy, ecology and fishery of Lake Victoria haplochromine trophic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, F.; Oijen, van M.J.P

    1990-01-01

    Based on ecological and morphological features, the 300 or more haplochromine cichlid species of Lake Victoria are classified into fifteen (sub)trophic groups. A key to the trophic groups, mainly based on external morphological characters, is presented. Of each trophic group a description is given c

  8. Orobanche lutea Baumg. (Orobanchaceae in Poland: revised distribution, taxonomy, phytocoenological and host relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piwowarczyk Renata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents current distribution of Orobanche lutea Baumg. in Poland based on a critical revision of herbarium and literature data as well as results of field investigations conducted between 1999-2014. Majority of localities are centred around the Silesia-Cracow, Małopolska and Lublin-Lviv Uplands. The greatest density of sites with probably the most abundant populations in Europe is in the central part of Silesia-Cracow Upland, which, by several hundred years, was heavily exploited for calamine mining (rich in zinc, lead and silver. This resulted in the formation of large areas of gangue containing toxic heavy metals. Since limestone, dolomite, marl and postglacial calcareous clay and sands occur there in most places, the soil is often strongly calcareous. Populations of O. lutea contain here many thousands of shoots. The distribution of the species in Poland is mapped. The taxonomy, biology, ecology and threats are also discussed.

  9. A Taxonomy of Data Management Models in Distributed and Grid Environments

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    Farrukh Nadeem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The distributed environments vary largely in their architectures, from tightly coupled cluster environment to loosely coupled Grid environment and completely uncoupled peer-to-peer environment, and thus differ in their working environments as well as performance. To meet the specific needs of these environments for data organization, replication, transfer, scheduling etc. the data management systems implement different data management models. In this paper, major data management tasks in distributed environments are identified and a taxonomy of the data management models in these environments is presented. The taxonomy is used to highlight the specific data management requirements of each environment and highlight the strengths and weakness of the implemented data management models. The taxonomy is followed by a survey of different distributed and Grid environments and the data management models they implement. The taxonomy and the survey results are used to identify the issues and challenges of data management for future exploration.

  10. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in the dog: taxonomy, diagnostics, ecology, epidemiology and pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannoehr, Jeanette; Guardabassi, Luca

    2012-08-01

    The dog is the natural host of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. Many research efforts are currently being undertaken to expand our knowledge and understanding of this important canine commensal and opportunistic pathogen. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the species, including the latest research outcomes, with emphasis on taxonomy, diagnostics, ecology, epidemiology and pathogenicity. Despite the important taxonomic changes that have occurred over the past few years, the risk of misidentification in canine specimens is low and does not have serious consequences for clinical practice. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius carriage in the dog is more frequent and genetically heterogeneous compared with that of Staphylococcus aureus in man. It appears that these staphylococcal species have evolved separately through adaptation to their respective natural hosts and differ with regard to various aspects concerning ecology, population structure and evolution of antibiotic resistance. Further understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of S. pseudintermedius is hampered by the lack of a standard method for rapid and discriminatory typing and by the limited data available on longitudinal carriage and population structure of meticillin-susceptible strains. With regard to pathogenicity, it is only now that we are starting to explore the virulence potential of S. pseudintermedius based on genomic and proteomic approaches, and more research is needed to assess the importance of individual virulence factors and the possible existence of hypervirulent strains.

  11. [Distribution and taxonomy of Pyrgophorus platyrachis (Caenogastropoda: Hydrobiidae) in the Sistema de Maracaibo, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Mario; Severeyn, Héctor; Machado, Nakary

    2011-09-01

    The presence of a microgastropod identified as Potamopyrgus sp. was detected previously in the Maracaibo System; nevertheless, a detailed morphological analysis identified this snail in other genera. The objective of this work is to update the distribution and taxonomy of Pyrgophorus platyrachis in the Maracaibo System, Venezuela in samples obtained between 2001 and 2009. The presence of hundreds of individuals of P. platyrachis were observed in the estuary, indeed in the localities of the Gran Eneal lagoon (4 111 snails), Peonías lagoon (229 snails), Punta Capitán Chico (758 snails), San Francisco (2 517 snails), Curarire (240 snails), Apon River mouth (173 snails), Ojeda City (240 snails), Bachaquero (128 snails) and Tomoporo de Agua (385 snails). We performed a taxonomical analysis, and emphasized in ecological aspects, such as the distribution of the species and habitat features, as near vegetation and type of associated sediment. We found three morphotypes of the species, one smooth, another with spiral striations and the other with spines. Smooth morphotype was exclusive of the Gran Eneal lagoon, Peonías lagoon, Punta Capitan Chico and Apon River mouth localities, whereas the other two morphotypes were found together in the remaining localities. According to our detailed anatomical and taxonomical analysis we propose a synonymy between P. platyrachis and the other species described like Pyrgophorus parvulus and Pyrgophorus spinosus.

  12. Orobanche elatior and O. kochii (Orobanchaceae in Poland: distribution, taxonomy, plant communities and seed micromorphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Piwowarczyk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Orobanche (Orobanchaceae, parasitic on Centaurea in Central Europe, were previously considered to belong to the O. elatior group. At present, the taxon is differentiated into two species, O. elatior Sutton and O. kochii F.W. Schultz. The paper presents for the first time the distribution of O. elatior and O. kochii in Poland based on a critical revision of herbarium and the literature data, as well as the results of field studies conducted between 1999 and 2014. The majority of the species’ localities are in south Poland: Silesia-Cracow, Małopolska and the Lublin Uplands. The distribution of both species in Poland is mapped and chronologically organized, and is thus the most recent in Europe. The taxonomy, host preferences, and ecology are also discussed. Seeds of both species were also investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy, which resulted in the designation of diagnostic features. The new color form of O. kochii f. citrina is described and illustrated. An account of all revised herbarium specimens collected from Poland, deposited in Poland and neighboring countries, is presented.

  13. Integrative taxonomy of the fly orchid group: insights from chemical ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffard, Nina; Buatois, Bruno; Schatz, Bertrand

    2016-10-01

    Several authors have recently stressed the need to develop an integrative approach in taxonomy, but studies applying such an approach to Mediterranean orchids are scarce. In sexually deceptive orchids from the taxonomically difficult genus Ophrys, pollination is specific and performed by male insects attracted to the flowers by sex pheromone-mimicking floral scents. Floral compounds are therefore of primary importance for reproductive isolation and species delimitations in this genus. In the fly orchid group, molecular, morphological, and ecological characters have been extensively studied, but a comprehensive survey of floral scents is still lacking. In the present study, the blends of floral compounds of its three members, Ophrys insectifera, Ophrys aymoninii, and Ophrys subinsectifera, were extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 107 compounds were found, with a majority of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Significant differentiation, both qualitative and quantitative, was found among the three taxa. This result, pooled with those from the literature, forms a comprehensive and congruent dataset that allows us to elucidate the taxonomic rank of the three members of the fly orchid group.

  14. DNA-Based Taxonomy in Ecologically Versatile Microalgae: A Re-Evaluation of the Species Concept within the Coccoid Green Algal Genus Coccomyxa (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavasi, Veronica; Škaloud, Pavel; Rindi, Fabio; Tempesta, Sabrina; Paoletti, Michela; Pasqualetti, Marcella

    2016-01-01

    Coccomyxa is a genus of unicellular green algae of the class Trebouxiophyceae, well known for its cosmopolitan distribution and great ecological amplitude. The taxonomy of this genus has long been problematic, due to reliance on badly-defined and environmentally variable morphological characters. In this study, based on the discovery of a new species from an extreme habitat, we reassess species circumscription in Coccomyxa, a unicellular genus of the class Trebouxiophyceae, using a combination of ecological and DNA sequence data (analyzed with three different methods of algorithmic species delineation). Our results are compared with those of a recent integrative study of Darienko and colleagues that reassessed the taxonomy of Coccomyxa, recognizing 7 species in the genus. Expanding the dataset from 43 to 61 sequences (SSU + ITS rDNA) resulted in a different delimitation, supporting the recognition of a higher number of species (24 to 27 depending on the analysis used, with the 27-species scenario receiving the strongest support). Among these, C. melkonianii sp. nov. is described from material isolated from a river highly polluted by heavy metals (Rio Irvi, Sardinia, Italy). Analyses performed on ecological characters detected a significant phylogenetic signal in six different characters. We conclude that the 27-species scenario is presently the most realistic for Coccomyxa and we suggest that well-supported lineages distinguishable by ecological preferences should be recognized as different species in this genus. We also recommend that for microbial lineages in which the overall diversity is unknown and taxon sampling is sparse, as is often the case for green microalgae, the results of analyses for algorithmic DNA-based species delimitation should be interpreted with extreme caution.

  15. An improved Greengenes taxonomy with explicit ranks for ecological and evolutionary analyses of bacteria and archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Daniel; Price, Morgan N; Goodrich, Julia; Nawrocki, Eric P; DeSantis, Todd Z; Probst, Alexander; Andersen, Gary L; Knight, Rob; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2012-03-01

    Reference phylogenies are crucial for providing a taxonomic framework for interpretation of marker gene and metagenomic surveys, which continue to reveal novel species at a remarkable rate. Greengenes is a dedicated full-length 16S rRNA gene database that provides users with a curated taxonomy based on de novo tree inference. We developed a 'taxonomy to tree' approach for transferring group names from an existing taxonomy to a tree topology, and used it to apply the Greengenes, National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and cyanoDB (Cyanobacteria only) taxonomies to a de novo tree comprising 408,315 sequences. We also incorporated explicit rank information provided by the NCBI taxonomy to group names (by prefixing rank designations) for better user orientation and classification consistency. The resulting merged taxonomy improved the classification of 75% of the sequences by one or more ranks relative to the original NCBI taxonomy with the most pronounced improvements occurring in under-classified environmental sequences. We also assessed candidate phyla (divisions) currently defined by NCBI and present recommendations for consolidation of 34 redundantly named groups. All intermediate results from the pipeline, which includes tree inference, jackknifing and transfer of a donor taxonomy to a recipient tree (tax2tree) are available for download. The improved Greengenes taxonomy should provide important infrastructure for a wide range of megasequencing projects studying ecosystems on scales ranging from our own bodies (the Human Microbiome Project) to the entire planet (the Earth Microbiome Project). The implementation of the software can be obtained from http://sourceforge.net/projects/tax2tree/.

  16. A Taxonomy of Performance Prediction Systems in the Parallel and Distributed Computing Grids

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    As Grids are loosely-coupled congregations of geographically distributed heterogeneous resources, the efficient utilization of the resources requires the support of a sound Performance Prediction System (PPS). The performance prediction of grid resources is helpful for both Resource Management Systems and grid users to make optimized resource usage decisions. There have been many PPS projects that span over several grid resources in several dimensions. In this paper the taxonomy for describin...

  17. Phylogenetic biogeography and taxonomy of disjunctly distributed bryophytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jochen HEINRICHS; J(o)rn HENTSCHEL; Kathrin FELDBERG; Andrea BOMBOSCH; Harald SCHNEIDER

    2009-01-01

    More than 200 research papers on the molecular phylogeny and phylogenetic biogeography of bryophytes have been published since the beginning of this millenium. These papers corroborated assumptions of a complex ge-netic structure of morphologically circumscribed bryophytes, and raised reservations against many morphologically justified species concepts, especially within the mosses. However, many molecular studies allowed for corrections and modifications of morphological classification schemes. Several studies reported that the phylogenetic structure of disjunctly distributed bryophyte species reflects their geographical ranges rather than morphological disparities. Molecular data led to new appraisals of distribution ranges and allowed for the reconstruction of refugia and migra-tion routes. Intercontinental ranges of bryophytes are often caused by dispersal rather than geographical vicariance. Many distribution patterns of disjunct bryophytes are likely formed by processes such as short distance dispersal, rare long distance dispersal events, extinction, recolonization and diversification.

  18. Taxonomy and distribution pattern of the African rain forest butterfly genus Euphaedra Hübner sensu stricto with the description of three new subspecies of Euphaedra cyparissa (Cramer and one of E. sarcoptera (Butler (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Limenitidinae, Adoliadini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Pyrcz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Updated data on the distribution, ecology and taxonomy of Euphaedra cyparissa (Cramer and Euphaedra sarcoptera (Butler are presented. Three new subspecies of E. cyparissa and one of E. sarcoptera are described and their geographic distribution is presented. The monophyly of the genus Euphaedra sensu Hecq is assessed based on morphological, in particular male and female genitalia, and behavioural traits. Possible evolutionary reasons for the convergence of colour pattern between the sympatric subspecies of E. cyparissa and E. sarcoptera are discussed.

  19. [Research perspectives and achievements in taxonomy and distribution of bats in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Xiao; Zhang, You-Xiang; Zhang, Li-Biao

    2013-12-01

    Chinese chiropterologists have made significant improvements into research on bat taxonomy and distribution. Overall, scholars recorded 6 new species of bats, alongside 11 species recorded species in the Chinese Mainland and 4 new bat species of Murina in Taiwan. Chinese chiropterologists intensively cooperated with the international experts on bats, and adopted several new, multidisciplinary methods to carry out their studies. Likewise, in China, an increased awareness of bat conservation has been growing. While publications on Chiroptera are continuing to increase increased in China, the methodology of these studies remains to be further developed in hopes of revealing the new and cryptic bat species. Considering the vast territory of China and the migrational habit of bats, we expect that with more refined methodology, more new species of bats and their distributions may be uncovered in the near future. Concurrently, it is important to reexamine the known species by the new taxonomic methods and fauna analysis through which the distribution and subdivision of bats can be updated. Additionally, an international platform for exchanging information of bats needs to be established to enhance the academic cooperation for bat researches. It is highly possible that China will soon become an important research center on taxonomy, distribution, phylogenetics and diversity evolution of Chiroptera, especially as Chinese researchers continues create new knowledge for bats at the α, β and γ taxonomic levels.

  20. The Herpetofauna of Iran:Checklist of Taxonomy, Distribution and Conservation Status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barbod SAFAEI-MAHROO; Reza NASRABADI; Mehdi RAJABIZADEH; Meysam MASHAYEKHI; Alireza MOTESHAREI; Alireza NADERI; Seyed Mahdi KAZEMI; Hanyeh GHAFFARI; Hadi FAHIMI; Siamak BROOMAND; Mahtab YAZDANIAN; Elnaz NAJAFI MAJD; Elham REZAZADEH; Mahboubeh Sadat HOSSEINZADEH

    2015-01-01

    We present an annotated checklist for a total 241 reptiles and 22 amphibians including 5 frogs, 9 toads, 7 newts and salamanders, 1 crocodile, 1 worm lizard, 148 lizards, 79 snakes and 12 turtles and tortoises, includes the most scientific literature up to August 2014 and also based on several field surveys conducted in different Provinces of Iran from 2009 to 2014. We present an up-to-dated checklist of reptiles and amphibians in Iran. We provide a comprehensive listing of taxonomy, names, distribution and conservation status of all amphibians and reptiles of Iran. This checklist includes all recognized named taxa, English names for classes, orders, families, species, subspecies along with Persian names for species, including indication of native and introduced species. For the first time we report two non-native introduced reptiles from natural habitats of Iran. Of the total 22 species of amphibians in Iran, 6 (27.2%) are endemic and of the total 241 species of reptiles, 55 (22.8%) are endemic. Of the 22 amphibians species in Iran, 3 (13%) are Critically Endangered, 2 (9%) are Vulnerable and of the 241 reptile species 3 (1.2%) are Critically Endangered, 4 (1.6%) are Endangered and 10 (4.1%) are Vulnerable. Accordingly, this paper combines significant aspects of taxonomy, common names, conservation status and distribution of the Iranian herpetofauna.

  1. The reminiscence bump for public events: A review of its prevalence and taxonomy of alternative age distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppel, Jonathan Mark

    2013-01-01

    , with a number of alternative age distributions seen in the literature. Therefore, I present a taxonomy of these alternative age distributions. Lastly, I discuss the implications of the existing literature regarding the mechanisms underlying the bump and offer suggestions for future research....

  2. Social Media Ecology in Distributed Workplaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giuffrida, Rosalba; Dittrich, Yvonne

    2011-01-01

    In this position paper, we discuss about methods currently adopted for research- ing the use of social media in distributed workplace. We have extensively reviewed previ- ous empirical studies through an ongoing Systematic Mapping Study focused on the use of social media in distributed teams; from...... the review, we realized that research is mainly per- formed through a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods and that each study usually fo- cuses on one specific kind social media at a time. We believe that the social media ecology should be researched as a whole and in relationship with the physical...

  3. The necessity of DNA taxonomy to reveal cryptic diversity and spatial distribution of meiofauna, with a focus on Nemertea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leasi, Francesca; Norenburg, Jon L

    2014-01-01

    distributed, in contrast to what traditional taxonomy would suggest for the recognized morphotypes.

  4. The necessity of DNA taxonomy to reveal cryptic diversity and spatial distribution of meiofauna, with a focus on Nemertea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Leasi

    to be widely distributed, in contrast to what traditional taxonomy would suggest for the recognized morphotypes.

  5. Taxonomy, phylogeny and molecular epidemiology of Echinococcus multilocularis: From fundamental knowledge to health ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Jenny; Gottstein, Bruno; Saarma, Urmas; Millon, Laurence

    2015-10-30

    Alveolar echinococcosis, caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, is one of the most severe parasitic diseases in humans and represents one of the 17 neglected diseases prioritised by the World Health Organisation (WHO) in 2012. Considering the major medical and veterinary importance of this parasite, the phylogeny of the genus Echinococcus is of considerable importance; yet, despite numerous efforts with both mitochondrial and nuclear data, it has remained unresolved. The genus is clearly complex, and this is one of the reasons for the incomplete understanding of its taxonomy. Although taxonomic studies have recognised E. multilocularis as a separate entity from the Echinococcus granulosus complex and other members of the genus, it would be premature to draw firm conclusions about the taxonomy of the genus before the phylogeny of the whole genus is fully resolved. The recent sequencing of E. multilocularis and E. granulosus genomes opens new possibilities for performing in-depth phylogenetic analyses. In addition, whole genome data provide the possibility of inferring phylogenies based on a large number of functional genes, i.e. genes that trace the evolutionary history of adaptation in E. multilocularis and other members of the genus. Moreover, genomic data open new avenues for studying the molecular epidemiology of E. multilocularis: genotyping studies with larger panels of genetic markers allow the genetic diversity and spatial dynamics of parasites to be evaluated with greater precision. There is an urgent need for international coordination of genotyping of E. multilocularis isolates from animals and human patients. This could be fundamental for a better understanding of the transmission of alveolar echinococcosis and for designing efficient healthcare strategies.

  6. Bioactivity of fungal endophytes as a function of endophyte taxonomy and the taxonomy and distribution of their host plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Higginbotham

    Full Text Available Fungal endophytes--fungi that grow within plant tissues without causing immediate signs of disease--are abundant and diverse producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. Endophytes associated with leaves of tropical plants are an especially exciting and relatively untapped source of novel compounds. However, one major challenge in drug discovery lies in developing strategies to efficiently recover highly bioactive strains. As part of a 15-year drug discovery project, foliar endophytes were isolated from 3198 plant samples (51 orders, 105 families and at least 232 genera of angiosperms and ferns collected in nine geographically distinct regions of Panama. Extracts from culture supernatants of >2700 isolates were tested for bioactivity (in vitro percent inhibition of growth, % IG against a human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7 and the causative agents of malaria, leishmaniasis, and Chagas' disease. Overall, 32.7% of endophyte isolates were highly active in at least one bioassay, including representatives of diverse fungal lineages, host lineages, and collection sites. Up to 17% of isolates tested per assay were highly active. Most bioactive strains were active in only one assay. Fungal lineages differed in the incidence and degree of bioactivity, as did fungi from particular plant taxa, and greater bioactivity was observed in endophytes isolated from plants in cloud forests vs. lowland forests. Our results suggest that using host taxonomy and forest type to tailor plant collections, and selecting endophytes from specific orders or families for cultivation, will markedly increase the efficiency and efficacy of discovering bioactive metabolites for particular pharmaceutical targets.

  7. Bioactivity of fungal endophytes as a function of endophyte taxonomy and the taxonomy and distribution of their host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, Sarah J; Arnold, A Elizabeth; Ibañez, Alicia; Spadafora, Carmenza; Coley, Phyllis D; Kursar, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    Fungal endophytes--fungi that grow within plant tissues without causing immediate signs of disease--are abundant and diverse producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. Endophytes associated with leaves of tropical plants are an especially exciting and relatively untapped source of novel compounds. However, one major challenge in drug discovery lies in developing strategies to efficiently recover highly bioactive strains. As part of a 15-year drug discovery project, foliar endophytes were isolated from 3198 plant samples (51 orders, 105 families and at least 232 genera of angiosperms and ferns) collected in nine geographically distinct regions of Panama. Extracts from culture supernatants of >2700 isolates were tested for bioactivity (in vitro percent inhibition of growth, % IG) against a human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and the causative agents of malaria, leishmaniasis, and Chagas' disease. Overall, 32.7% of endophyte isolates were highly active in at least one bioassay, including representatives of diverse fungal lineages, host lineages, and collection sites. Up to 17% of isolates tested per assay were highly active. Most bioactive strains were active in only one assay. Fungal lineages differed in the incidence and degree of bioactivity, as did fungi from particular plant taxa, and greater bioactivity was observed in endophytes isolated from plants in cloud forests vs. lowland forests. Our results suggest that using host taxonomy and forest type to tailor plant collections, and selecting endophytes from specific orders or families for cultivation, will markedly increase the efficiency and efficacy of discovering bioactive metabolites for particular pharmaceutical targets.

  8. [Recent progress in protist virology--molecular ecology, taxonomy, molecular evolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasaki, Keizo; Tomaru, Yuji

    2009-06-01

    At present, more than 40 protist-infecting viruses have been isolated and characterized. From the viewpoints of molecular ecology, taxomony and molecular evolution, several new discoveries were made within the last five years. In this minireview, three topics of interest on protist-infecting viruses are introduced: 1) molecular ecological relationships between a bloom-forming dinoflagellate Heterocapsa circularisquama and its ssRNA virus (HcRNAV); 2) findings of new ssRNA- and ssDNA-virus groups infecting diatoms; 3) establishment of a hypothesis concerning the evolution of picornaviruses. The potential of aquatic virus studies is far-reaching and inestimable.

  9. On the taxonomy of optimization problems under estimation of distribution algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echegoyen, Carlos; Mendiburu, Alexander; Santana, Roberto; Lozano, Jose A

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between a search algorithm and the space of problems is a fundamental issue in the optimization field. In this paper, we lay the foundations to elaborate taxonomies of problems under estimation of distribution algorithms (EDAs). By using an infinite population model and assuming that the selection operator is based on the rank of the solutions, we group optimization problems according to the behavior of the EDA. Throughout the definition of an equivalence relation between functions it is possible to partition the space of problems in equivalence classes in which the algorithm has the same behavior. We show that only the probabilistic model is able to generate different partitions of the set of possible problems and hence, it predetermines the number of different behaviors that the algorithm can exhibit. As a natural consequence of our definitions, all the objective functions are in the same equivalence class when the algorithm does not impose restrictions to the probabilistic model. The taxonomy of problems, which is also valid for finite populations, is studied in depth for a simple EDA that considers independence among the variables of the problem. We provide the sufficient and necessary condition to decide the equivalence between functions and then we develop the operators to describe and count the members of a class. In addition, we show the intrinsic relation between univariate EDAs and the neighborhood system induced by the Hamming distance by proving that all the functions in the same class have the same number of local optima and that they are in the same ranking positions. Finally, we carry out numerical simulations in order to analyze the different behaviors that the algorithm can exhibit for the functions defined over the search space [Formula: see text].

  10. The Geomyces fungi: ecology and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a devastating disease affecting hibernating bats, first documented in winter 2006 in eastern North America. Over 5.5 million bats of several species may have died as a result of this disease. The fungus Geomyces destructans is now considered the causal agent of WNS, and this species may have been recently introduced into North American bat hibernation habitats. This overview summarizes the ecology and distribution of Geomyces fungi. Species in this genus are common in the soils of temperate and high-latitude ecosystems and are capable of withstanding and thriving in cold, low-nutrient polar environments. These species are dispersed by wind, groundwater, arthropods, birds, and mammals and are carried by humans, their clothing, and their equipment. These characteristics present significant challenges to biologists, managers, and others charged with controlling the spread of WNS and G. destructans in other parts of North America and the biosphere.

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mphii_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cycas+rumphii&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Cycas+rumphii&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cycas+rumphii&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cycas+rumphii&t=NS ...

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon

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    Full Text Available iosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Stegosaurus+stenops&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon....cgi?i=Stegosaurus+stenops&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=S...tegosaurus+stenops&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Stegosaurus+stenops&t=NS ...

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ltithorax_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brachiosaurus+altithorax&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ico...n/icon.cgi?i=Brachiosaurus+altithorax&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ico...n/icon.cgi?i=Brachiosaurus+altithorax&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brachiosaurus+altithorax&t=NS ...

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon

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    Full Text Available p://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Triceratops+horridus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Triceratops+horridus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon....cgi?i=Triceratops+horridus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Triceratops+horridus&t=NS ...

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available la_trichopoda_S.png Amborella_trichopoda_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Amborella+t...richopoda&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Amborella+trichopoda&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Amborella+trichopoda&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Amborella+trichopoda&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=13 ...

  16. Asteroid taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholen, David J.; Barucci, M. Antonietta

    1989-01-01

    The spectral reflectivity of asteroid surfaces over the wavelength range of 0.3 to 1.1 micron can be used to classify these objects into several broad groups with similar spectral characteristics. The three most recently developed taxonomies group the asteroids into 9, 11, or 14 different clases, depending on the technique used to perform the analysis. The distribution of the taxonomic classes shows that darker and redder objects become more dominant at larger heliocentric distances, while the rare asteroid types are found more frequently among the small objects of the planet-crossing population.

  17. Forty years of carabid beetle research in Europe – from taxonomy, biology, ecology and population studies to bioindication, habitat assessment and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Johan Kotze

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available ‘Carabidologists do it all’ (Niemelä 1996a is a phrase with which most European carabidologists are familiar. Indeed, during the last half a century, professional and amateur entomologists have contributed enormously to our understanding of the basic biology of carabid beetles. The success of the field is in no small part due to regular European Carabidologists’ Meetings, which started in 1969 in Wijster, the Netherlands, with the 14th meeting again held in the Netherlands in 2009, celebrating the 40th anniversary of the first meeting and 50 years of long-term research in the Dwingelderveld. This paper offers a subjective summary of some of the major developments in carabidology since the 1960s. Taxonomy of the family Carabidae is now reasonably established, and the application of modern taxonomic tools has brought up several surprises like elsewhere in the animal kingdom. Progress has been made on the ultimate and proximate factors of seasonality and timing of reproduction, which only exceptionally show non-seasonality. Triggers can be linked to evolutionary events and plausibly explained by the “taxon cycle” theory. Fairly little is still known about certain feeding preferences, including granivory and ants, as well as unique life history strategies, such as ectoparasitism and predation on higher taxa. The study of carabids has been instrumental in developing metapopulation theory (even if it was termed differently. Dispersal is one of the areas intensively studied, and results show an intricate interaction between walking and flying as the major mechanisms. The ecological study of carabids is still hampered by some unresolved questions about sampling and data evaluation. It is recognised that knowledge is uneven, especially concerning larvae and species in tropical areas. By their abundance and wide distribution, carabid beetles can be useful in population studies, bioindication, conservation biology and landscape ecology. Indeed

  18. Forty years of carabid beetle research in Europe - from taxonomy, biology, ecology and population studies to bioindication, habitat assessment and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotze, D Johan; Brandmayr, Pietro; Casale, Achille; Dauffy-Richard, Emmanuelle; Dekoninck, Wouter; Koivula, Matti J; Lövei, Gábor L; Mossakowski, Dietrich; Noordijk, Jinze; Paarmann, Wilfried; Pizzolotto, Roberto; Saska, Pavel; Schwerk, Axel; Serrano, José; Szyszko, Jan; Taboada, Angela; Turin, Hans; Venn, Stephen; Vermeulen, Rikjan; Zetto, Tullia

    2011-01-01

    'Carabidologists do it all' (Niemelä 1996a) is a phrase with which most European carabidologists are familiar. Indeed, during the last half a century, professional and amateur entomologists have contributed enormously to our understanding of the basic biology of carabid beetles. The success of the field is in no small part due to regular European Carabidologists' Meetings, which started in 1969 in Wijster, the Netherlands, with the 14th meeting again held in the Netherlands in 2009, celebrating the 40th anniversary of the first meeting and 50 years of long-term research in the Dwingelderveld. This paper offers a subjective summary of some of the major developments in carabidology since the 1960s. Taxonomy of the family Carabidae is now reasonably established, and the application of modern taxonomic tools has brought up several surprises like elsewhere in the animal kingdom. Progress has been made on the ultimate and proximate factors of seasonality and timing of reproduction, which only exceptionally show non-seasonality. Triggers can be linked to evolutionary events and plausibly explained by the "taxon cycle" theory. Fairly little is still known about certain feeding preferences, including granivory and ants, as well as unique life history strategies, such as ectoparasitism and predation on higher taxa. The study of carabids has been instrumental in developing metapopulation theory (even if it was termed differently). Dispersal is one of the areas intensively studied, and results show an intricate interaction between walking and flying as the major mechanisms. The ecological study of carabids is still hampered by some unresolved questions about sampling and data evaluation. It is recognised that knowledge is uneven, especially concerning larvae and species in tropical areas. By their abundance and wide distribution, carabid beetles can be useful in population studies, bioindication, conservation biology and landscape ecology. Indeed, 40 years of carabidological

  19. Distribution of Bathyarchaeota Communities Across Different Terrestrial Settings and Their Potential Ecological Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xing; Wang, Ruicheng; Wang, Hongmei; Gong, Linfeng; Man, Baiying; Xu, Ying

    2017-03-01

    High abundance and widespread distribution of the archaeal phylum Bathyarchaeota in marine environment have been recognized recently, but knowledge about Bathyarchaeota in terrestrial settings and their correlation with environmental parameters is fairly limited. Here we reported the abundance of Bathyarchaeota members across different ecosystems and their correlation with environmental factors by constructing 16S rRNA clone libraries of peat from the Dajiuhu Peatland, coupling with bioinformatics analysis of 16S rRNA data available to date in NCBI database. In total, 1456 Bathyarchaeota sequences from 28 sites were subjected to UniFrac analysis based on phylogenetic distance and multivariate regression tree analysis of taxonomy. Both phylogenetic and taxon-based approaches showed that salinity, total organic carbon and temperature significantly influenced the distribution of Bathyarchaeota across different terrestrial habitats. By applying the ecological concept of ‘indicator species’, we identify 9 indicator groups among the 6 habitats with the most in the estuary sediments. Network analysis showed that members of Bathyarchaeota formed the “backbone” of archaeal community and often co-occurred with Methanomicrobia. These results suggest that Bathyarchaeota may play an important ecological role within archaeal communities via a potential symbiotic association with Methanomicrobia. Our results shed light on understanding of the biogeography, potential functions of Bathyarchaeota and environment conditions that influence Bathyarchaea distribution in terrestrial settings.

  20. Host range, host ecology, and distribution of more than 11800 fish parasite species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strona, Giovanni; Palomares, Maria Lourdes D.; Bailly, Nicholas; Galli, Paolo; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Our data set includes 38 008 fish parasite records (for Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Monogenea, Nematoda, Trematoda) compiled from the scientific literature, Internet databases, and museum collections paired to the corresponding host ecological, biogeographical, and phylogenetic traits (maximum length, growth rate, life span, age at maturity, trophic level, habitat preference, geographical range size, taxonomy). The data focus on host features, because specific parasite traits are not consistently available across records. For this reason, the data set is intended as a flexible resource able to extend the principles of ecological niche modeling to the host–parasite system, providing researchers with the data to model parasite niches based on their distribution in host species and the associated host features. In this sense, the database offers a framework for testing general ecological, biogeographical, and phylogenetic hypotheses based on the identification of hosts as parasite habitat. Potential applications of the data set are, for example, the investigation of species–area relationships or the taxonomic distribution of host-specificity. The provided host–parasite list is that currently used by Fish Parasite Ecology Software Tool (FishPEST, http://purl.oclc.org/fishpest), which is a website that allows researchers to model several aspects of the relationships between fish parasites and their hosts. The database is intended for researchers who wish to have more freedom to analyze the database than currently possible with FishPEST. However, for readers who have not seen FishPEST, we recommend using this as a starting point for interacting with the database.

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Hydra magnipapillata Cnidaria Hydra_magnipapillata_L.png Hydra_magnipapillata_NL.png Hydra_magnipapill...ata_S.png Hydra_magnipapillata_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hydra+magnipapill...ata&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hydra+magnipapillata&t=NL http://bio...sciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hydra+magnipapillata&t=S http://bioscience...dbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hydra+magnipapillata&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=159 ...

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _NL.png Caenorhabditis_elegans_S.png Caenorhabditis_elegans_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Caenorhabditis+elegans&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Caenorhabditis+elegans&t...=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Caenorhabditis+elegans&t=S h...ttp://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Caenorhabditis+elegans&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=94 ...

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Trichoplax adhaerens Placozoa Trichoplax_adhaerens_L.png Trichoplax_adhaerens_NL.pn...g Trichoplax_adhaerens_S.png Trichoplax_adhaerens_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tr...ichoplax+adhaerens&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Trichoplax+adhaerens&t=NL http://bio...sciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Trichoplax+adhaerens&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Trichoplax+adhaerens&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=95 ...

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aurus_rex_L.png Tyrannosaurus_rex_NL.png Tyrannosaurus_rex_S.png Tyrannosaurus_rex_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Tyrannosaurus+rex&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tyrann...osaurus+rex&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tyrannosaurus+r...ex&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tyrannosaurus+rex&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=109 ...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Phaeodactylum tricornutum Phaeodactylum_tricornutum_L.png Phaeodactylum_tricornutum..._NL.png Phaeodactylum_tricornutum_S.png Phaeodactylum_tricornutum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Phaeodactylum+tricornutum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Phaeodactylum+trico...rnutum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Phaeodactylum+trico...rnutum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Phaeodactylum+tricornutum&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=213 ...

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni Platyhelminthes Schistosoma_mansoni_L.png Schistosoma_mansoni_NL.png Schistosoma..._mansoni_S.png Schistosoma_mansoni_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schistosoma...+mansoni&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schistosoma+mansoni&t=NL http://bio...sciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schistosoma+mansoni&t=S http://bioscienced...bc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schistosoma+mansoni&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=185 ...

  7. New data on distribution, morphology and ecology of Oedogonium capillare Kützing ex Hirn (Oedogoniales, Chlorophyta in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Pikosz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Algological investigations were focused on taxonomy, chorology and ecology of threatened filamentous green alga species in Poland. Studies on Oedogonium capillare Kützing ex Hirn growing in large quantities in association with Cladophora rivularis (Linnaeus Hoek in pond were conducted. The aim of these studies was to describe the distribution, ecology and morphology of O. capillare as part of a more comprehensive study of this filamentous green alga. It is the eighth record in Poland for O. capillare. Filaments of O. capillare were grown over a wide pH range (7.3-9.6 and in high variability of nutrients. Vegetative cells, oogonia and antheridia were observed, which allowed taxonomic identification. O. capillare occurs in eutrophic waters which requires protection of its habitat.

  8. Advances in taxonomy, ecology, and biogeography of Dirivultidae (copepoda associated with chemosynthetic environments in the deep sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Gollner

    Full Text Available Copepoda is one of the most prominent higher taxa with almost 80 described species at deep-sea hydrothermal vents. The unique copepod family Dirivultidae with currently 50 described species is the most species rich invertebrate family at hydrothermal vents.We reviewed the literature of Dirivultidae and provide a complete key to species, and map geographical and habitat specific distribution. In addition we discuss the ecology and origin of this family.Dirivultidae are only present at deep-sea hydrothermal vents and along the axial summit trough of midocean ridges, with the exception of Dirivultus dentaneus found associated with Lamellibrachia species at 1125 m depth off southern California. To our current knowledge Dirivultidae are unknown from shallow-water vents, seeps, whale falls, and wood falls. They are a prominent part of all communities at vents and in certain habitat types (like sulfide chimneys colonized by pompei worms they are the most abundant animals. They are free-living on hard substrate, mostly found in aggregations of various foundation species (e.g. alvinellids, vestimentiferans, and bivalves. Most dirivultid species colonize more than one habitat type. Dirivultids have a world-wide distribution, but most genera and species are endemic to a single biogeographic region. Their origin is unclear yet, but immigration from other deep-sea chemosynthetic habitats (stepping stone hypothesis or from the deep-sea sediments seems unlikely, since Dirivultidae are unknown from these environments. Dirivultidae is the most species rich family and thus can be considered the most successful taxon at deep-sea vents.

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon

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    Full Text Available nomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pteranodon+longiceps&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon.../icon.cgi?i=Pteranodon+longiceps&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon....cgi?i=Pteranodon+longiceps&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pteranodon+longiceps&t=NS ... ...nodon_longiceps_L.png Pteranodon_longiceps_NL.png Pteranodon_longiceps_S.png Pteranodon_longiceps_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxo

  10. A Theory of Taxonomy

    CERN Document Server

    D'Amico, Guido; Kleban, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    A taxonomy is a standardized framework to classify and organize items into categories. Hierarchical taxonomies are ubiquitous, ranging from the classification of organisms to the file system on a computer. Characterizing the typical distribution of items within taxonomic categories is an important question with applications in many disciplines. Ecologists have long sought to account for the patterns observed in species-abundance distributions (the number of individuals per species found in some sample), and computer scientists study the distribution of files per directory. Is there a universal statistical distribution describing how many items are typically found in each category in large taxonomies? Here, we analyze a wide array of large, real-world datasets -- including items lost and found on the New York City transit system, library books, and a bacterial microbiome -- and discover such an underlying commonality. A simple, non-parametric branching model that randomly categorizes items and takes as input o...

  11. Hydroids from French Polynesia with notes on distribution and ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, W.; Vasseur, P.

    1977-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Distribution and ecology of hydroids from coral reefs of high islands and atolls of French Polynesia so far have received little attention. Redier (1967, 1971) published a preliminary list of 14 species from Salvat's collections, sampled during several trips to Tahiti, Tuamoto (Mururoa,

  12. Notes on the geographic distribution and subspecific taxonomy of Sais rosalia (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Ithomiini, including the first records in Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio D. Ríos Díaz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Notes on the geographic distribution and subspecific taxonomy of Sais rosalia (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Ithomiini, including the first records in Paraguay. This paper provides comments on the subspecific taxonomy and geographic distribution of Sais rosalia (Cramer, 1779 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Ithomiini, as well as an up-to-date distributional map, complemented with unpublished distributional data based on specimens deposited in the Coleção Entomológica Pe. Jesus S. Moure, Curitiba, Brazil and the Museo de Historia Natural, Lima, Peru. The following synonyms are proposed: Sais rosalia camariensis Haensch, 1905 syn. rev. as junior subjective synonym of Papilio rosalia Cramer, 1779 and Sais rosalia brasiliensis Talbot, 1928 syn. rev. as junior subjective synonym of Sais rosalia rosalinde Weymer, 1890. Additionally, the first country records of Sais rosalia in Paraguay, including the southernmost record of the species, are documented.

  13. Ecological niche and geographic distribution of human monkeypox in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca S Levine

    Full Text Available Monkeypox virus, a zoonotic member of the genus Orthopoxviridae, can cause a severe, smallpox-like illness in humans. Monkeypox virus is thought to be endemic to forested areas of western and Central Africa. Considerably more is known about human monkeypox disease occurrence than about natural sylvatic cycles of this virus in non-human animal hosts. We use human monkeypox case data from Africa for 1970-2003 in an ecological niche modeling framework to construct predictive models of the ecological requirements and geographic distribution of monkeypox virus across West and Central Africa. Tests of internal predictive ability using different subsets of input data show the model to be highly robust and suggest that the distinct phylogenetic lineages of monkeypox in West Africa and Central Africa occupy similar ecological niches. High mean annual precipitation and low elevations were shown to be highly correlated with human monkeypox disease occurrence. The synthetic picture of the potential geographic distribution of human monkeypox in Africa resulting from this study should support ongoing epidemiologic and ecological studies, as well as help to guide public health intervention strategies to areas at highest risk for human monkeypox.

  14. Botany, Taxonomy and Cytology of Crocus sativus series

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, R. B.

    2010-01-01

    Saffron is produced from the dried styles of Crocus sativus L. (Iridaceae) which is unknown as wild plant, representing a sterile triploid. These belong to subgenus Crocus series Crocus sativus – series are closely related species; and are difficult to be separated taxonomically and have a complex cytology. Botany of C. sativus – series, taxonomy of their species and their infraspecific taxa are presented, and their distribution, ecology and phenology; full description and chromosome counts a...

  15. First detection of African Swine Fever Virus in Ornithodoros porcinus in Madagascar and new insights into tick distribution and taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albina Emmanuel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African Swine Fever Virus has devastated more than the half of the domestic pig population in Madagascar since its introduction, probably in 1997-1998. One of the hypotheses to explain its persistence on the island is its establishment in local Ornithodoros soft ticks, whose presence has been reported in the past from the north-western coast to the Central Highlands. The aim of the present study was to verify such hypothesis by conducting tick examinations in three distinct zones of pig production in Madagascar where African Swine Fever outbreaks have been regularly reported over the past decade and then to improve our knowledge on the tick distribution and taxonomy. Results Ornithodoros ticks were only found in one pig farm in the village of Mahitsy, north-west of Antananarivo in the Central Highlands, whereas the tick seemed to be absent from the two other study zones near Ambatondrazaka and Marovoay. Using 16SrDNA PCR amplification and sequencing, it was confirmed that the collected ticks belonged to the O. porcinus species and is closely related to the O. p. domesticus sub-species Walton, 1962. ASFV was detected in 7.14% (13/182 of the field ticks through the amplification of part of the viral VP72 gene, and their ability to maintain long-term infections was confirmed since all the ticks came from a pig building where no pigs or any other potential vertebrate hosts had been introduced for at least four years. Conclusions Considering these results, O. porcinus is a reservoir for ASFV and most likely acts as vector for ASFV in Madagascar, but its apparent restricted distribution may limit its role in the epidemiology of the disease in domestic pigs.

  16. Developing a Taxonomy of Characteristics and Features of Collaboration Tools for Teams in Distributed Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    what they are doing greatly improves the effectiveness of communication . The use of emoticons allows users to express a simple form of nonverbal...different times. The tools need to facilitate collaboration by making communication among distributed participants as easy and efficient as possible...To organize them, we partition the meeting process into six stages: starting meeting, communication , presentation, interaction, administration, and

  17. On the taxonomy of Latonigena auricomis (Araneae, Gnaphosidae, with notes of geographical distribution and natural history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Jorge

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The male of Latonigena auricomis Simon, 1893 is described for the first time and the female is redescribed. New records are provided for Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Notes on the natural history and a potential distribution model of the species are presented in the Neotropical Region.

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: Australian echidna [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available us_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tachyglossus+aculeatus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Tachyglossus+aculeatus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Tachyglossus+aculeatus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tachyglossus+aculeatus&t=NS ...

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: barley [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _S.png Hordeum_vulgare_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hordeum+vulgare&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Hordeum+vulgare&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?...i=Hordeum+vulgare&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hordeum+vulgare&t=NS ...

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: Arabian camel [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic...on/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=NS ...

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: dog [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Canis+lupus+familiaris&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Canis+lupus+familiaris&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Canis+lupus+familiaris&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Canis+lupus+familiaris&t=NS ...

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: oat [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tiva_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Avena+sativa&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Avena+sativa&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Avena+sativa&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Avena+sativa&t=NS ...

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: onion [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available a_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Allium+cepa&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i...con/icon.cgi?i=Allium+cepa&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Allium+cepa&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Allium+cepa&t=NS ...

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: valencia orange [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _sinensis_S.png Citrus_sinensis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Citrus+sinensis&t=L ...http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Citrus+sinensis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/...icon.cgi?i=Citrus+sinensis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Citrus+sinensis&t=NS ...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: rabbit [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryctolagus+cuniculus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryctolagus+cuniculus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ico...n/icon.cgi?i=Oryctolagus+cuniculus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryctolagus+cuniculus&t=NS ...

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: white rhinoceros [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ceratotherium+simum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_...icon/icon.cgi?i=Ceratotherium+simum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ic...on.cgi?i=Ceratotherium+simum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ceratotherium+simum&t=NS ...

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese serow [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capricornis+crispus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Capricornis+crispus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i...con/icon.cgi?i=Capricornis+crispus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capricornis+crispus&t=NS ...

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: sorghum [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available r_S.png Sorghum_bicolor_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sorghum+bicolor&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Sorghum+bicolor&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi...?i=Sorghum+bicolor&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sorghum+bicolor&t=NS ...

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: rape [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Brassica_napus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+napus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+napus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassic...a+napus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+napus&t=NS ...

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: rice [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ativa_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryza+sativa&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryza+sativa&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryza+sativa&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryza+sativa&t=NS ...

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: giraffe [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pardalis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Giraffa+camelopardalis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Giraffa+camelopardalis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Giraffa+camelopardalis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Giraffa+camelopardalis&t=NS ...

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: field mustard [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available S.png Brassica_rapa_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+rapa&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+rapa&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brass...ica+rapa&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+rapa&t=NS ...

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: domestic cat [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tris_catus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Felis+silvestris+catus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Felis+silvestris+catus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Felis+silvestris+catus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Felis+silvestris+catus&t=NS ...

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: cabbage [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _oleracea_S.png Brassica_oleracea_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+oleracea&...t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+oleracea&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+oleracea&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+oleracea&t=NS ...

  15. Chaetognatha of the Namibian upwelling region: taxonomy, distribution and trophic position.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Bohata

    Full Text Available In October 2010, the vertical distribution, biodiversity and maturity stages of Chaetognatha species were investigated at four stations located off Walvis Bay, Namibia. Seventeen species were detected and classified as pelagic, shallow-mesopelagic, deep-mesopelagic and bathypelagic species based upon the weighted mean depth derived from their average vertical distribution. High abundances of Chaetognatha were found in the upper 100 m at all stations of the Walvis Bay transect with a maximum value of 20837 ind. 1000 m(-3 at the outer shelf station near the surface. The community was dominated by species of the Serratodentata group. Furthermore, the distribution of Chaetognatha did not seem to be influenced by low oxygen concentrations. Stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen in Chaetognatha were determined for seven different areas located off northern Namibia. The values of δ(15N ranged from 6.05 ‰ to 11.39 ‰, while the δ(13C values varied between -23.89 ‰ and -17.03 ‰. The highest values for δ(15N were observed at the Walvis Bay shelf break station. The lowest δ(13C values were found at the Rocky Point offshore station, which was statistically different from all other areas. Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were determined for four taxa (Sagitta minima, Planctonis group, Sagitta enflata, Sagitta decipiens. In this case, the δ(15N values ranged from 6.17 ‰ to 10.38 ‰, whereas the δ(13C values varied from -22.70 ‰ to -21.56 ‰. The lowest δ(15N values were found for S. minima. The C- and N-content revealed maximum C-values for S. decipiens and maximum N-values for the Planctonis group. The C:N ratio of Chaetognatha ranged between 5.25 and 6.20. Overall, Chaetognatha are a diverse group in the pelagic food web of the Benguela Upwelling System and act as competitors of fish larvae and jelly fish by preying on copepods.

  16. Biotic Interactions Shape the Ecological Distributions of Staphylococcus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik K. Kastman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Many metagenomic sequencing studies have observed the presence of closely related bacterial species or genotypes in the same microbiome. Previous attempts to explain these patterns of microdiversity have focused on the abiotic environment, but few have considered how biotic interactions could drive patterns of microbiome diversity. We dissected the patterns, processes, and mechanisms shaping the ecological distributions of three closely related Staphylococcus species in cheese rind biofilms. Paradoxically, the most abundant species (S. equorum is the slowest colonizer and weakest competitor based on growth and competition assays in the laboratory. Through in vitro community reconstructions, we determined that biotic interactions with neighboring fungi help resolve this paradox. Species-specific stimulation of the poor competitor by fungi of the genus Scopulariopsis allows S. equorum to dominate communities in vitro as it does in situ. Results of comparative genomic and transcriptomic experiments indicate that iron utilization pathways, including a homolog of the S. aureus staphyloferrin B siderophore operon pathway, are potential molecular mechanisms underlying Staphylococcus-Scopulariopsis interactions. Our integrated approach demonstrates that fungi can structure the ecological distributions of closely related bacterial species, and the data highlight the importance of bacterium-fungus interactions in attempts to design and manipulate microbiomes.

  17. The scarab beetle tribe Pentodontini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) of Colombia: taxonomy, natural history, and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-García, Margarita M; Gasca-Álvarez, Héctor J; Amat-García, Germán

    2015-11-27

    Pentodontini is the most diverse tribe of Dynastinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), and most of the genera are restricted to a single biogeographic region. In this work, the taxonomic composition of the Pentodontini in Colombia was determined, and genera and species were diagnosed based on external morphology and male genitalia. Records of 1,580 specimens from 31 departments and 398 localities in Colombia were obtained from 24 species in the genera Bothynus Hope, Denhezia Dechambre, Euetheola Bates, Hylobothynus Ohaus, Oxyligyrus Arrow, Parapucaya Prell, Pucaya Ohaus, and Tomarus Erichson. Oxyligyrus cayennensis Endrödi, Tomarus cicatricosus (Prell), and T. pullus (Prell) are reported for the first time from Colombia. Pucaya punctata Endrödi is reduced to synonymy with Pucaya pulchra Arrow. Possible changes in the classification of Denhezia Dechambre are discussed. Dichotomous keys are provided for Colombian genera and species. Taxonomic descriptions and distribution maps are included for all species.

  18. Taxonomy and distribution of some katydids (OrthopteraTettigoniidae) from tropical Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Results of the study of specimens collected in tropical Africa and preserved in different European collections and museums are reported and extensively illustrated. The following three new species are described: Horatosphaga aethiopica sp. n., Dapanera occulta sp. n. and Cestromoecha laeglae sp. n. In addition, new diagnostic characters or distributional data for Ruspolia differens (Serville, 1838), Thyridorhoptrum senegalense Krauss, 1877, Horatosphaga leggei (Kirby, 1909), Horatosphaga linearis (Rehn, 1910), Preussia lobatipes Karsch, 1890 and Dapanera eidmanni Ebner, 1943 are reported. Finally, Symmetropleura plana (Walker, 1869) is proposed to be transferred to the genus Symmetrokarschia Massa, 2015, Conocephalus carbonarius (Redtenbacher, 1891) to the genus Thyridorhoptrum Rehn & Hebard, 1915; the genus Gonatoxia Karsch, 1889 is proposed to be synonymized with Dapanera Karsch, 1889.

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: koji mold [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ergillus_oryzae_S.png Aspergillus_oryzae_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aspergillus...+oryzae&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aspergillus+oryzae&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Aspergillus+oryzae&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Aspergillus+oryzae&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=63 ...

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: Guillardia theta [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available illardia_theta_S.png Guillardia_theta_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Guillardia+the...ta&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Guillardia+theta&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Guillardia+theta&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Guillardia+theta&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=60 ...

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: Danio rerio [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available io_NL.png Danio_rerio_S.png Danio_rerio_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Danio+rerio&...t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Danio+rerio&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/...icon.cgi?i=Danio+rerio&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Danio...+rerio&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=92 ...

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: Planaria [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available L.png Dugesia_japonica_S.png Dugesia_japonica_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Dugesi...a+japonica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Dugesia+japonica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Dugesia+japonica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_...icon/icon.cgi?i=Dugesia+japonica&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=124 ...

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: Grey heron [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _NL.png Ardea_cinerea_S.png Ardea_cinerea_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ardea+cine...rea&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ardea+cinerea&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Ardea+cinerea&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi...?i=Ardea+cinerea&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=2 ...

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: Common mormon [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ng Papilio_polytes_S.png Papilio_polytes_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+pol...ytes&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+polytes&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+polytes&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Papilio+polytes&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=80 ...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: Asian Swallowtail [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available png Papilio_xuthus_S.png Papilio_xuthus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+xuth...us&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+xuthus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+xuthus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cg...i?i=Papilio+xuthus&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=123 ...

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: Ramazzottius [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ttius_S.png Ramazzottius_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ramazzottius&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Ramazzottius&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ra...mazzottius&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ramazzottius&t=NS... http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=203 ...

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: Bacillus subtilis [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g Bacillus_subtilis_S.png Bacillus_subtilis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Bacillus...+subtilis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Bacillus+subtilis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Bacillus+subtilis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Bacillus+subtilis&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=214 ...

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: mallard [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available latyrhynchos_NL.png Anas_platyrhynchos_S.png Anas_platyrhynchos_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon.../icon.cgi?i=Anas+platyrhynchos&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Anas+platyrhynchos&t=NL ...http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Anas+platyrhynchos&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Anas+platyrhynchos&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=180 ...

  9. The Dusky Large Blue – Maculinea nausithous kijevensis (Sheljuzhko, 1928) in the Transylvanian basin: New data on taxonomy and ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rákosy, Laszló; Tartally, András; Goia, Marin;

    2010-01-01

    Maculinea nausithous (Bergsträsser, 1779) was recently discovered in two parts of the Transylvanian basin. External characters of these populations completely agree with the original description of Maculinea nausithous kijevensis (Sheljuzhko, 1928) and show some small but constant differences aga...... collected in northeastern Romania, in Kazakhstan and in the western part of the Altai Mts. Therefore we believe that this subspecies has a wider Euro-Siberian distribution....

  10. Skeletonema potamos (Bacillariophyta in Patos Lagoon, southern Brazil: Taxonomy and distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lezilda Carvalho Torgan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the morphogical features of the centric diatom Skeletonema potamos (Weber Hasle from Patos Lagoon, southern Brazil, using light and scanning electron microscopy. We discuss the abundance and dis- tribution of the species along the salinity gradient in the lagoon. Samples from the water surface were taken monthly at eight stations along the longitudinal axis of the lagoon, from December 1987 to December 1988. The species were counted by the Utermöhl method, and the density (cells.mL-1 was estimated based on live cells. The morphology of the specimens agrees with the type, from the Little Miami River, Ohio, U.S.A., except for the convexity and the pattern of granules on the valve face. Skeletonema potamos was found in the winter and spring, and was distributed in the limnetic, oligohaline and mesohaline zones of the lagoon. The cell con- centration appeared to be controlled by the salinity, with a significant negative correlation observed. Light and competition probably also influence the development of S. potamos populations in the Patos Lagoon.

  11. On the distribution and intraspecific taxonomy of Scrophularia olympica Boiss. (Scrophulariaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Sheludyakova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the distribution and intraspecific systematics of Scrophularia olympica Boiss., one of taxonomically problematic species of figworts. The special attention is given to the record of thisspecies from the Crimea from where it had been reported based on the single herbarium specimen collected “infra Baidara” by F. J. Ruprecht in 1861. This collection was previously regarded as made near the village of Orlinoye (former Baydary in the vicinity of Sevastopol. Actually, the locality “infra Baidara” should be referred to the river Baydara in Georgia, and S. olympica should be excludedboth from the floras of the Crimea and Europe as a whole. Six varieties are recognized within the species; a key to their identification is proposed. Lectotypes of S. olympica var. integrifolia Freyn et Sint., S. olympica var. macrophylla Freyn et Sint., S. olympica var. pinnatifida Trautv. ex Grossh. and S. olympica var. platyloma Grossh. are designated. A new name, S. olympica var. bordzilowskii Sheludyakova, nom. nov. ≡ S. olympica var. integrifoliaBordz., non Freyn et Sint., is proposed.

  12. Ecology of the Nevada Test Site. I. Geographic and ecologic distributions of the vascular flora (annotated checklist)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatley, J C

    1965-04-01

    A checklist of vascular plants of the Nevada Test Site is presented for use in studies of plant ecology. Data on the occurrence and distribution of plant species are included. Collections were made from both undisturbed and disturbed sites.

  13. Generic status of Quisqualis (Combretaceae, with notes on the taxonomy and distribution of Q. parviflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jordaan

    2011-12-01

    . These homoplasious similarities in floral morphology are at the root of the difficulties experienced to demarcate genera. An alternative classification is provided for those preferring to include the southern African Quisqualis parviflora under Combretum s. l. For this purpose, a new combination and name, Combretum sylvicola O.Maurin is provided. Quisqualis parviflora is confined to the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal coastal regions and does not extend beyond this area as has been claimed by some. A comparative table to differentiate among four groups in Quisqualis and Combretum in Africa, as well as a photo of a herbarium specimen and a distribution map of Quisqualis parviflora, are provided.

  14. Ecology and Taxonomy of Water Canyon, Canadian County, Oklahoma, Master's Thesis, University of Oklahoma 1961 [Revised 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance E. Taylor

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous canyons have been cut into the Rush Springs Sandstone of Permian age in West Central Oklahoma and subsequently refilled. Some of these canyons have been partly exposed by erosion of the sediment fill. Fossils collected indicate the canyon fill is sub-Pleistocene to geologically recent. The microclimate of these canyons is more mesic compared to the dryer prairie uplands. Sugar maple (Acer saccharum persists there, far west of its other locations in very eastern Oklahoma. Beginning in 1932 several of these sediment-filled canyons began a process of rapid erosion, exposing the rock walls of the canyons. This study is a comparison of Water Canyon and two of its branches: Water Branch Canyon, a stable canyon wooded with mature vegetation including sugar maple and Activity Branch Canyon, a newly excavated canyon branch that began eroding after excessive rainfall in 1932. This study was completed in 1960. Six transects are used to show the distribution of the 233 plant species found in the Water Canyon complex. Herbaceous species generally were unique to each canyon type.

  15. When taxonomy meets genomics: lessons from a common songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifjeld, Jan T

    2015-06-01

    Taxonomy is being increasingly informed by genomics. Traditionally, taxonomy has relied extensively on phenotypic traits for the identification and delimitation of species, though with a growing influence from molecular phylogenetics in recent decades. Now, genomics opens up new and more powerful tools for analysing the evolutionary history and relatedness among species, as well as understanding the genetic basis for phenotypic traits and their role in reproductive isolation. New insights gained from genomics will therefore have major effects on taxonomic classifications and species delimitation. How a genomics approach can inform a flawed taxonomy is nicely exemplified by Mason & Taylor () in this issue of Molecular Ecology. They studied redpolls, which comprise a genus (Acanthis) of fringillid finches with a wide distribution in the Holarctic region, and whose species taxonomy has been a matter of much controversy for decades (Fig. ). Current authoritative checklists classify them into one, two or three species, and five or six subspecies, based largely on geographical differences in phenotypic traits. Previous studies, including a recent one of the subspecies on Iceland (Amouret et al. ), have found no evidence of differentiation between these taxa in conventional molecular markers. The lack of genetic structure has been interpreted as incomplete lineage sorting among rapidly evolving lineages. Now Mason & Taylor (), using a large data set of genomewide SNPs, verify that they all belong to a single gene pool with a common evolutionary history, and with little or no geographical structuring. They also show that phenotypic traits used in taxonomic classifications (plumage and bill morphology) are closely associated with polygenic patterns of gene expression, presumably driven by ecological selection on a few regulatory genes. Several lessons can be learned from this study. Perhaps the most important one for taxonomy is the risk of taxonomic inflation resulting

  16. A PRELIMINARY ANNOTATED CHECKLIST OF THE PAPILIONIDAE OF LAOS WITH NOTES ON TAXONOMY, PHENOLOGY, DISTRIBUTION AND VARIATION (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Cotton

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available 63 Papilionid taxa of Laos are reported representing 60 biological species. Of these, the occurrence of Papilio elephenor is unproven, and that of Papilio krishna is refuted, leaving 58 species confirmed for Laos. Notes on their taxonomy, distribution, phenology and variation are given. The following synonymies or changes of status are herewith listed:Graphium antiphates itamputi is regarded as a separate subspecies from pompilius stat. rev.Papilio tamerlanus timur Ney, 1911 is a synonym of Papilio alebion mullah Alphéraky, 1897, syn. nov. The following combinations are therefore proposed for the collective species: Graphium mullah mullah (Alphéraky, 1897 comb. nov. applies to the Sichuan population; Graphium mullah chungianus (Murayama, 1961 comb. nov., for the Taiwanese subspecies; and Graphium mullah kooichii (Morita, 1996 comb. nov. for the Lao subspecies.The true type of Papilio arycles sphinx Fruhstorfer, 1899 is identified, and arycleoides Fruhstorfer, 1902 placed in synonymy, syn. nov.Teinopalpus imperialis bhumipoli Nakano & Sukkit, 1985, T. i. gerritesi Nakano, 1995, T. i. gillesi Turlin, 1991, and T. i. hakkaorum Schäffler 2004 are shown to be synonyms of Teinopalpus imperialis imperatrix de Nicéville, 1899, syn. nov.Atrophaneura varuna liziensis Zhao, 1997 is synonymized with A. varuna astorion (Westwood, 1842 syn. nov.The names elegans Chou et al., 2000, pulcher Chou et al., 2000 and longimacula Wang & Niu, 2002 are sunk as synonyms of Papilio bianor bianor syn. nov.Papilio bianor significans Fruhstorfer, 1902 is regarded as a valid subspecies (stat. rev. and the ranges of Papilio bianor gladiator Fruhstorfer, [1902] and ganesa Doubleday, 1842 are clarified.Papilio noblei de Nicéville, [1889] is shown to be monotypic, and haynei Tytler, 1926 is sunk as a synonym syn. nov.Papilio hipponous siamensis Godfrey, 1916 is synonymized with pitmani Elwes & de Nicéville, [1887] syn. nov.The taxon imitata Monastyrskii & Devyatkin, 2003

  17. Ecology and equity in global fisheries: Modelling policy options using theoretical distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rammelt, C.F.; van Schie, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Global fisheries present a typical case of political ecology or environmental injustice, i.e. a problem of distribution of resources within ecological limits. We built a stock-flow model to visualize this challenge and its dynamics, with both an ecological and a social dimension. We incorporated the

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: Aquilegia formosa [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Aquilegia formosa Aquilegia formosa Aquilegia_formosa_L.png Aquilegia_formosa_NL.png Aquilegia..._formosa_S.png Aquilegia_formosa_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aquilegia...+formosa&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aquilegia+formosa&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.j...p/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aquilegia+formosa&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aquilegia+formosa&t=NS ...

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: Peanut [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gaea_S.png Arachis_hypogaea_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Arachis+hypogaea&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxo...nomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Arachis+hypogaea&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ic...on.cgi?i=Arachis+hypogaea&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ar...achis+hypogaea&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=207 ...

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: sea urchin [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rotus_lividus_NL.png Paracentrotus_lividus_S.png Paracentrotus_lividus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Paracentrotus+lividus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Paracentrotus+...lividus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Paracentrotus+livid...us&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Paracentrotus+lividus&t=NS ...

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: Guinea baboon [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available o_papio_L.png Papio_papio_NL.png Papio_papio_S.png Papio_papio_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/...icon.cgi?i=Papio+papio&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papio&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papio&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papio&t=NS ...

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: Comb jelly [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cucumis_S.png Beroe_cucumis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Beroe+cucumis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Beroe+cucumis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi...?i=Beroe+cucumis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Beroe+cucum...is&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=30 ...

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: turkey [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gris_gallopavo_NL.png Meleagris_gallopavo_S.png Meleagris_gallopavo_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_...icon/icon.cgi?i=Meleagris+gallopavo&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Meleagris+gallopavo...&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Meleagris+gallopavo&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Meleagris+gallopavo&t=NS ...

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: Escherichia coli [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cherichia_coli_S.png Escherichia_coli_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Escherichia+co...li&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Escherichia+coli&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Escherichia+coli&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Escherichia+coli&t=NS ...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: thale cress [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .png Arabidopsis_thaliana_S.png Arabidopsis_thaliana_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i...=Arabidopsis+thaliana&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Arabidopsis+thaliana&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Arabidopsis+thaliana&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Arabidopsis+thaliana&t=NS ...

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: reindeer [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available a Rangifer_tarandus_L.png Rangifer_tarandus_NL.png Rangifer_tarandus_S.png Rangifer_tarandus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Rangifer+tarandus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cg...i?i=Rangifer+tarandus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Rangi...fer+tarandus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Rangifer+tarandus&t=NS ...

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: chimpanzee [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _troglodytes_L.png Pan_troglodytes_NL.png Pan_troglodytes_S.png Pan_troglodytes_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Pan+troglodytes&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pan+troglod...ytes&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pan+troglodytes&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pan+troglodytes&t=NS ...

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: llama [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ma_L.png Lama_glama_NL.png Lama_glama_S.png Lama_glama_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi...?i=Lama+glama&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lama+glama&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Lama+glama&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lama+glama&t=NS ...

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: wapiti [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Cervus_canadensis_L.png Cervus_canadensis_NL.png Cervus_canadensis_S.png Cervus_canadensis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Cervus+canadensis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?...i=Cervus+canadensis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cervus+...canadensis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cervus+canadensis&t=NS ...

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: Atlantic salmon [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _salar_NL.png Salmo_salar_S.png Salmo_salar_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Salmo+sa...lar&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Salmo+salar&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i...con/icon.cgi?i=Salmo+salar&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Salmo+salar&t=NS ...

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: Atlantic hagfish [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available L.png Myxine_glutinosa_NL.png Myxine_glutinosa_S.png Myxine_glutinosa_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Myxine+glutinosa&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Myxine+glutinosa&t=N...L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Myxine+glutinosa&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Myxine+glutinosa&t=NS ...

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: quaking aspen [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available png Populus_tremuloides_S.png Populus_tremuloides_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Po...pulus+tremuloides&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Populus+tremuloides&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Populus+tremuloides&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Populus+tremuloides&t=NS ...

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese macaque [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e Macaca_fuscata_L.png Macaca_fuscata_NL.png Macaca_fuscata_S.png Macaca_fuscata_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fuscata&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fusc...ata&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fuscata&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fuscata&t=NS ...

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: fathead minnow [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available las_L.png Pimephales_promelas_NL.png Pimephales_promelas_S.png Pimephales_promelas_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Pimephales+promelas&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pime...phales+promelas&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pimephales+...promelas&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pimephales+promelas&t=NS ...

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: emperor penguin [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available L.png Aptenodytes_forsteri_NL.png Aptenodytes_forsteri_S.png Aptenodytes_forsteri_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Aptenodytes+forsteri&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apte...nodytes+forsteri&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aptenodyte...s+forsteri&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aptenodytes+forsteri&t=NS ...

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: rat [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available egicus_L.png Rattus_norvegicus_NL.png Rattus_norvegicus_S.png Rattus_norvegicus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Rattus+norvegicus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Rattus+no...rvegicus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Rattus+norvegicus&...t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Rattus+norvegicus&t=NS ...

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese squirrel [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available urus_lis_L.png Sciurus_lis_NL.png Sciurus_lis_S.png Sciurus_lis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon.../icon.cgi?i=Sciurus+lis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sciurus+lis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Sciurus+lis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sciurus+lis&t=NS ...

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: mandrill [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available drillus_sphinx_L.png Mandrillus_sphinx_NL.png Mandrillus_sphinx_S.png Mandrillus_sphinx_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Mandrillus+sphinx&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=M...andrillus+sphinx&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mandrillus...+sphinx&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mandrillus+sphinx&t=NS ...

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: tuatara [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available png Sphenodon_punctatus_NL.png Sphenodon_punctatus_S.png Sphenodon_punctatus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Sphenodon+punctatus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sphenodon+...punctatus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sphenodon+punctat...us&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sphenodon+punctatus&t=NS ...

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: Sea anemone [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nia_equina_S.png Actinia_equina_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Actinia+equina&t=L h...ttp://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Actinia+equina&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ic...on.cgi?i=Actinia+equina&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Actinia+equina&t=NS ...

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: tiger [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ra_tigris_L.png Panthera_tigris_NL.png Panthera_tigris_S.png Panthera_tigris_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Panthera+tigris&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Panthera+tigri...s&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Panthera+tigris&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Panthera+tigris&t=NS ...

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese weasel [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ra Mustela_itatsi_L.png Mustela_itatsi_NL.png Mustela_itatsi_S.png Mustela_itatsi_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Mustela+itatsi&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mustela+it...atsi&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mustela+itatsi&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mustela+itatsi&t=NS ...

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: ostrich [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available amelus_NL.png Struthio_camelus_S.png Struthio_camelus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?...i=Struthio+camelus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Struthio+camelus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Struthio+camelus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Struthio+camelus&t=NS ...

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: wild radish [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _NL.png Raphanus_raphanistrum_S.png Raphanus_raphanistrum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon....cgi?i=Raphanus+raphanistrum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Raphanus+raphanistrum&t=NL ...http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Raphanus+raphanistrum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Raphanus+raphanistrum&t=NS ...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: wild goat [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Capra_aegagrus_L.png Capra_aegagrus_NL.png Capra_aegagrus_S.png Capra_aegagrus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Capra+aegagrus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capra+aegagru...s&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capra+aegagrus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capra+aegagrus&t=NS ...

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: emu [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g Dromaius_novaehollandiae_NL.png Dromaius_novaehollandiae_S.png Dromaius_novaehollandiae_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Dromaius+novaehollandiae&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Dromaius+novaehollandiae&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon....cgi?i=Dromaius+novaehollandiae&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Dromaius+novaehollandiae&t=NS ...

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: oriental silverfish [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available olepisma_villosa_NL.png Ctenolepisma_villosa_S.png Ctenolepisma_villosa_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Ctenolepisma+villosa&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ctenolepisma+v...illosa&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ctenolepisma+villosa...&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ctenolepisma+villosa&t=NS ...

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: brown bear [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s_arctos_L.png Ursus_arctos_NL.png Ursus_arctos_S.png Ursus_arctos_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i...con/icon.cgi?i=Ursus+arctos&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ursus+arctos&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Ursus+arctos&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ursus+arctos&t=NS ...

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: moose [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lces_L.png Alces_alces_NL.png Alces_alces_S.png Alces_alces_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Alces+alces&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Alces+alces&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Alces+alces&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Alces+alces&t=NS ...

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: Bornean orangutan [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available te Pongo_pygmaeus_L.png Pongo_pygmaeus_NL.png Pongo_pygmaeus_S.png Pongo_pygmaeus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Pongo+pygmaeus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pongo+pygm...aeus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pongo+pygmaeus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pongo+pygmaeus&t=NS ...

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: tomato [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Solanum_lycopersicum_S.png Solanum_lycopersicum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sola...num+lycopersicum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+lycopersicum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+lycopersicum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+lycopersicum&t=NS ...

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: lemon damsel [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pomacentrus+moluccensis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Pomacentrus+moluccensis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i...con/icon.cgi?i=Pomacentrus+moluccensis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pomacentrus+moluccensis&t=NS ... ...luccensis_L.png Pomacentrus_moluccensis_NL.png Pomacentrus_moluccensis_S.png Pomacentrus_moluccensis_NS.png

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: water bears [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ng Echiniscus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Echiniscus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Echiniscus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Echiniscus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Echiniscus&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=58 ...

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: chicken [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .png Gallus_gallus_S.png Gallus_gallus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gallus+gallus...&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gallus+gallus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic...on/icon.cgi?i=Gallus+gallus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gallus+gallus&t=NS ...

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: potato [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available potato Solanum tuberosum Solanum_tuberosum_L.png Solanum_tuberosum_NL.png Solanum_tuber...osum_S.png Solanum_tuberosum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t...=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_...icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t=NS ...

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: black cottonwood [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available black cottonwood Populus trichocarpa Populus_trichocarpa_L.png Populus_trichocarpa_...NL.png Populus_trichocarpa_S.png Populus_trichocarpa_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i...=Populus+trichocarpa&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Populus+trichocarpa&t=NL http://bi...osciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Populus+trichocarpa&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Populus+trichocarpa&t=NS ...

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: tobacco [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tobacco Nicotiana tabacum Nicotiana_tabacum_L.png Nicotiana_tabacum_NL.png Nicotiana_tabacum_S.png Nico...tiana_tabacum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Nicotiana+tabacum&...t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Nicotiana+tabacum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Nico...tiana+tabacum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Nicotiana+tabacum&t=NS ...

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: raccoon dog [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/C...reutes_procyonoides_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Nyctereutes+procyonoides&t=L htt...p://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Nyctereutes+procyonoides&t=NL http:...//biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Nyctereutes+procyonoides&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Nyctereutes+procyonoides&t=NS ...

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: upland cotton [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available upland cotton Gossypium hirsutum Gossypium_hirsutum_L.png Gossypium_hirsutum_NL.png... Gossypium_hirsutum_S.png Gossypium_hirsutum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gossypi...um+hirsutum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gossypium+hirsutum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Gossypium+hirsutum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gossypium+hirsutum&t=NS ...

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: Dictyostelium discoideum [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Dictyostelium discoideum Dictyostelium discoideum Dictyostelium_discoideum_L.png Dictyostelium_disco...ideum_NL.png Dictyostelium_discoideum_S.png Dictyostelium_discoideum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ico...n/icon.cgi?i=Dictyostelium+discoideum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Dictyostelium+disco...ideum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Dictyostelium+disco...ideum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Dictyostelium+discoideum&t=N

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: Sitka spruce [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Sitka spruce Picea sitchensis Picea_sitchensis_L.png Picea_sitchensis_NL.png Picea_sitchensi...s_S.png Picea_sitchensis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Picea+sitchensis&t...=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Picea+sitchensis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Picea+si...tchensis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Picea+sitchensis&t=NS ...

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: Acytostelium subglobosum [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Acytostelium subglobosum Acytostelium subglobosum Acytostelium_subglobosum_L.png Acytostelium_sub...globosum_NL.png Acytostelium_subglobosum_S.png Acytostelium_subglobosum_NS.png http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Acytostelium+subglobosum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Acytostelium+sub...globosum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Acytostelium+sub...globosum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Acytostelium+subglobosum&t=N

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: apple [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available apple Malus pumila Malus_pumila_L.png Malus_pumila_NL.png Malus_pumila_S.png Malus_...pumila_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Malus+pumila&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Malu...s+pumila&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Malus+pumila&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Malus+pumila&t=NS ...

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: radish [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available radish Raphanus sativus Raphanus_sativus_L.png Raphanus_sativus_NL.png Raphanus_sativus..._S.png Raphanus_sativus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Raphanus+sativus&t=L htt...p://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Raphanus+sativus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Raphanus+sativus...&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Raphanus+sativus&t=NS ...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: Polysphondylium pallidum [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Polysphondylium pallidum Polysphondylium pallidum Polysphondylium_pallidum_L.png Polysphondylium_pall...idum_NL.png Polysphondylium_pallidum_S.png Polysphondylium_pallidum_NS.png http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Polysphondylium+pallidum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Polysphondylium+pall...idum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Polysphondylium+pall...idum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Polysphondylium+pallidum&t=N

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: Cryptococcus neoformans [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans Filobasidiella neoformans Filobasidiella_neoformans_L.png Filobasidiella_neoforman...s_NL.png Filobasidiella_neoformans_S.png Filobasidiella_neoformans_NS.png http://bios...ciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Filobasidiella+neoformans&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ic...on.cgi?i=Filobasidiella+neoformans&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Filobasidiella+neoformans&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Filobasidiella+neoforman

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: pea aphid [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum Arthropoda Acyrthosiphon_pisum_L.png Acyrthosiphon_pisum_NL.png Acyrthosiph...on_pisum_S.png Acyrthosiphon_pisum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Acyrthosiph...on+pisum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Acyrthosiphon+pisum&t=NL http:...//biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Acyrthosiphon+pisum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Acyrthosiphon+pisum&t=NS ...

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: soybean [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available soybean Glycine max Glycine_max_L.png Glycine_max_NL.png Glycine_max_S.png Glycine_max..._NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glycine+max&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Glycine+max&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glycine+max&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glycine+max&t=NS ...

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: honey bee [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _mellifera_S.png Apis_mellifera_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apis+mellifera&t=L h...ttp://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apis+mellifera&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ic...on.cgi?i=Apis+mellifera&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apis+mellifera&t=NS ...

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: phylum Xenoturbellida [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available phylum Xenoturbellida Xenoturbella bocki Xenoturbellida Xenoturbella_bocki_L.png Xenoturbell...a_bocki_NL.png Xenoturbella_bocki_S.png Xenoturbella_bocki_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_...icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenoturbella+bocki&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenoturbella+bocki&t...=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenoturbella+bocki&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenoturbella+bocki&t=NS ...

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: mummichog [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available us_L.png Fundulus_heteroclitus_NL.png Fundulus_heteroclitus_S.png Fundulus_heteroclitus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Fundulus+heteroclitus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi...?i=Fundulus+heteroclitus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Fu...ndulus+heteroclitus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Fundulus+heteroclitus&t=NS ...

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: rhesus monkey [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available acaca_mulatta_L.png Macaca_mulatta_NL.png Macaca_mulatta_S.png Macaca_mulatta_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+mulatta&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+mulatta...&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+mulatta&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+mulatta&t=NS ...

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: fruit fly [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available la_melanogaster_NL.png Drosophila_melanogaster_S.png Drosophila_melanogaster_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosophila+melanogaster&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosop...hila+melanogaster&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosophil...a+melanogaster&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosophila+melanogaster&t=NS ...

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: Chile pepper [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available annuum_S.png Capsicum_annuum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capsicum+annuum&t=L htt...p://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capsicum+annuum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Capsicum+annuum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capsicum+annuum&t=NS ...

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: Aardvark [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available opus_afer_L.png Orycteropus_afer_NL.png Orycteropus_afer_S.png Orycteropus_afer_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Orycteropus+afer&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Orycteropu...s+afer&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Orycteropus+afer&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Orycteropus+afer&t=NS ...

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: barrel medic [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ng Medicago_truncatula_S.png Medicago_truncatula_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Med...icago+truncatula&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Medicago+truncatula&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Medicago+truncatula&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Medicago+truncatula&t=NS ...

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: Lotus japonicus [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Lotus japonicus Lotus japonicus Lotus_japonicus_L.png Lotus_japonicus_NL.png Lotus_japonicus_S.png Lotus_jap...onicus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+japonicus&t=L ...http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+japonicus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+japon...icus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+japonicus&t=NS ...

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: Lotus corniculatus [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Lotus corniculatus Lotus corniculatus Lotus_corniculatus_L.png Lotus_corniculatus_NL.png Lotus_corn...iculatus_S.png Lotus_corniculatus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+corn...iculatus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+corniculatus&t=NL http://bioscie...ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+corniculatus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+corniculatus&t=NS ...

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: white spruce [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available white spruce Picea glauca Picea_glauca_L.png Picea_glauca_NL.png Picea_glauca_S.png Picea_glau...ca_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Picea+glauca&t=L http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Picea+glauca&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Picea+glauca&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Picea+glauca&t=NS ...

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: loblolly pine [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nus_taeda_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pinus+taeda&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pinus+taeda&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pinus+taeda&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pinus+taeda&t=NS ...

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: peach [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g Prunus_persica_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Prunus+persica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Prunus+persica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Prunus...+persica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Prunus+persica&t=NS ...

  2. Phaeohelotium undulatum comb. nov. and Phaeoh. succineoguttulatum sp.nov., two segregates of the Discinella terrestris aggregate found under Eucalyptus in Spain:taxonomy, molecular biology, ecology and distribution%西班牙桉树林下土小平盘菌复合群中两个独立的种——暗柔膜菌属一新组合及一新种:分类、分子生物学、生态与分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hans-Otto BARAL; Ricardo GAL(A)N; Gonzalo PLATAS; Raúl TENA

    2013-01-01

    Two terricolous species of the Australasian Discinella terrestris aggregate are reported from Mediterranean eucalypt plantations on the Iberian Peninsula.The two species were recorded in Spain since 1996-97,but were possibly imported several decades earlier,perhaps already during the mid-eighteenth century.Their obvious restriction to Eucalyptus,presumably by mycorrhiza,is discussed.One of them (here named Phaeohelotium undulatum) possesses a yellow-ochraceous hymenium and amyloid asci,whereas the other (Phaeoh.succineoguttulatum) deviates by an ochre-brown hymenium due to abundant,refractive,yellowish-brown vacuolar guttules in the paraphyses,and by consistently inamyloid asci.Both species have asci arising from simple septa,a Hymenoscyphus-type of apical ring,ascospores that turn brown when overmature,and a gelatinized ectal excipulum of prismatic to hyphoid cells.Ecologically the two taxa are very similar,though Phaeoh.succineoguttulatum is adapted to a little cooler and more humid climate,following its occurrence in the north and northwest of Spain,though both species were sometimes recorded at the same site in the centre and south of Spain.Our molecular analysis revealed that these two species and a specimen from New Zealand,here accepted as Phaeohelotium confusum,form a clade with Phaeoh.monticola (which is currently believed to be conspecific with the type of Phaeohelotium,Phaeoh.flavum),whereas a sequence gained by us from Discinella boudieri (type of Discinella) is quite distant from D.terrestris,clustering instead with Pezoloma ciliifera,a typical species of Pezoloma.The problematic generic limits around Hymenoscyphus,Cudoniella and Phaeohelotium are discussed.The Discinella terrestris aggregate is here transferred to Phaeohelotium,though this genus is apparently paraphyletic.Altematively,Cudoniella or Hymenoscyphus could be extended to include the species of the Phaeohelotium clade.Based on morphological features as well as DNA sequences,we conclude that

  3. An annotated catalogue and bibliography of the taxonomy, synonymy and distribution of the Recent Vetigastropoda of South Africa (Mollusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, David G

    2015-11-30

    A complete inventory of the known Recent vetigastropod fauna of South Africa is provided. Bibliographic citations to works discussing the taxonomy, synonymy and distribution of the species in a southern African or south-western Indian Ocean context are provided. Additional explanatory notes are given where pertinent. New genus records for South Africa: Acremodontina B.A. Marshall, 1995; Choristella Bush, 1879; Cocculinella Thiele, 1909; Conjectura Finlay, 1926; Crosseola Iredale, 1924; Falsimargarita Powell, 1951; Lepetella Verrill, 1880; Profundisepta McLean & Geiger, 1998; Stomatella Lamarck, 1816; Stomatia Helbling, 1779; Stomatolina Iredale, 1937; Synaptocochlea Pilsbry, 1890; Tibatrochus Nomura, 1940; Visayaseguenzia Poppe, Tagaro & Dekker, 2006; Zetela Finlay, 1926. New species records for South Africa: Acremodontina aff. carinata Powell, 1940; Anatoma finlayi (Powell, 1937); Anatoma munieri (P. Fischer, 1862); Calliotropis acherontis B.A. Marshall, 1979; Calliotropis bucina Vilvens, 2006; Cocculinella minutissima (E.A. Smith, 1904); Diodora ruppellii (G.B. Sowerby (I), 1835); Emarginula costulata Deshayes, 1863; Emarginula decorata Deshayes, 1863; Jujubinus hubrechti Poppe, Tagaro & Dekker, 2006; Lepetella sp.; Seguenzia orientalis Thiele, 1925; Stomatella auricula Lamarck, 1816; Stomatia phymotis Helbling, 1779; Stomatolina angulata (A. Adams, 1850); Stomatolina cf. calliostoma (A. Adams, 1850); Stomatolina aff. danblumi Singer & Mienis, 1999; Stomatolina cf. rubra (Lamarck, 1822); Stomatolina sp.; Synaptocochlea concinna (Gould, 1845); Tectus mauritianus (Gmelin, 1791); Tibatrochus cf. incertus (Schepman, 1908); Turbo imperialis Gmelin, 1791; Turbo tursicus Reeve, 1848; Visayaseguenzia compsa (Melvill, 1904).New species: Spectamen martensi, replacement name for Spectamen semisculptum sensu Herbert (1987) (non Martens, 1904). New name: Oxystele antoni is proposed as a new name for Trochus (Turbo) variegatus (non Gmelin, 1791 =Heliacus) Anton, 1838. Revised

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: cattle [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rus_L.png Bos_taurus_NL.png Bos_taurus_S.png Bos_taurus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cg...i?i=Bos+taurus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Bos+taurus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Bos+taurus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Bos+taurus&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=28 ...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: Schistosoma japonicum [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .png Schistosoma_japonicum_NL.png Schistosoma_japonicum_S.png Schistosoma_japonicum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Schistosoma+japonicum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=S...chistosoma+japonicum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schist...osoma+japonicum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schistosoma+japonicum&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=132 ...

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: house mouse [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ulus_L.png Mus_musculus_NL.png Mus_musculus_S.png Mus_musculus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/...icon.cgi?i=Mus+musculus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mus+musculus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Mus+musculus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Mus+musculus&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=146 ...

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: fission yeast [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aromyces_pombe_NL.png Schizosaccharomyces_pombe_S.png Schizosaccharomyces_pombe_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Schizosaccharomyces+pombe&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=S...chizosaccharomyces+pombe&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sc...hizosaccharomyces+pombe&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schizosaccharomyces+pombe&t=NS ...http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=219 ...

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: Human [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s_L.png Homo_sapiens_NL.png Homo_sapiens_S.png Homo_sapiens_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Homo+sapiens&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Homo+sapiens&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Homo+sapiens&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Homo+sapiens&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=157 ...

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: spotted seal [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available oca_largha_L.png Phoca_largha_NL.png Phoca_largha_S.png Phoca_largha_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Phoca+largha&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Phoca+largha&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Phoca+largha&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Phoca+largha&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=66 ...

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: sheep [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available es_L.png Ovis_aries_NL.png Ovis_aries_S.png Ovis_aries_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi...?i=Ovis+aries&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ovis+aries&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Ovis+aries&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon....cgi?i=Ovis+aries&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=156 ...

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: hamadryas baboon [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available te Papio_hamadryas_L.png Papio_hamadryas_NL.png Papio_hamadryas_S.png Papio_hamadryas_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+hamadryas&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio...+hamadryas&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+hamadryas&...t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+hamadryas&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=186 ...

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: choanoflagellate [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis Monosiga_brevicollis_L.png Monosiga_brevicollis..._NL.png Monosiga_brevicollis_S.png Monosiga_brevicollis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Monosiga+brevicolli...s&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Monosiga+brevicollis&t=NL ht...tp://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Monosiga+brevicollis&t=S http://bi...osciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Monosiga+brevicollis&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=220 ...

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: Haliclona permollis [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Haliclona permollis Haliclona permollis Porifera Haliclona_permollis_L.png Haliclona_permollis_NL.png Hali...clona_permollis_S.png Haliclona_permollis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hali...clona+permollis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Haliclona+permollis&t=...NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Haliclona+permollis&t=S http:...//biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Haliclona+permollis&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=194 ...

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese Ratsnake [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese Ratsnake Elaphe climacophora Chordata/Vertebrata/Reptilia/etc Elaphe_climacophora_L.png Elaphe_clim...acophora_NL.png Elaphe_climacophora_S.png Elaphe_climacophora_NS.png http://bioscie...ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elaphe+climacophora&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elaphe+clima...cophora&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elaphe+clima...cophora&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elaphe+climacophora&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=3 ...

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: Diplazium hachijoense [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Diplazium hachijoense Diplazium hachijoense Diplazium_hachijoense_L.png Diplazium_hachijoe...nse_NL.png Diplazium_hachijoense_S.png Diplazium_hachijoense_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_...icon/icon.cgi?i=Diplazium+hachijoense&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Diplazium+hachijoe...nse&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Diplazium+hachijoense&...t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Diplazium+hachijoense&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=84 ...

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: Toxoplasma gondii [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii Toxoplasma gondii Toxoplasma_gondii_L.png Toxoplasma_gondii_NL.png Toxoplasma..._gondii_S.png Toxoplasma_gondii_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Toxoplasma...+gondii&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Toxoplasma+gondii&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.j...p/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Toxoplasma+gondii&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Toxoplasma+gondii&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=113 ...

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: Beetles [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available oilus_inclinatus_NL.png Prosopocoilus_inclinatus_S.png Prosopocoilus_inclinatus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Prosopocoilus+inclinatus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pr...osopocoilus+inclinatus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pros...opocoilus+inclinatus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Prosopocoilus+inclinatus&t=NS http...://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=139 ...

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese hare [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pus_brachyurus_L.png Lepus_brachyurus_NL.png Lepus_brachyurus_S.png Lepus_brachyurus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Lepus+brachyurus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lepus...+brachyurus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lepus+brachyuru...s&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lepus+brachyurus&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=138 ...

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: Trypanosoma brucei [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma brucei Trypanosoma brucei Trypanosoma_brucei_L.png Trypanosoma_brucei_NL.png Trypanosoma_bruce...i_S.png Trypanosoma_brucei_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Trypanosoma+bruce...i&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Trypanosoma+brucei&t=NL http://bioscie...ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Trypanosoma+brucei&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp.../taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Trypanosoma+brucei&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=121 ...

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: Anopheles stephensi [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Anopheles stephensi Anopheles stephensi Arthropoda Anopheles_stephensi_L.png Anopheles_steph...ensi_NL.png Anopheles_stephensi_S.png Anopheles_stephensi_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Anoph...eles+stephensi&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Anopheles+stephensi&...t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Anopheles+stephensi&t=S htt...p://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Anopheles+stephensi&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=149 ...

  1. The Genus Cladophora Kützing (Ulvophyceae) as a Globally Distributed Ecological Engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifly, Shahrizim B; Graham, James M; Young, Erica B; Mayer, Robert J; Piotrowski, Michael J; Smith, Izak; Graham, Linda E

    2013-02-01

    The green algal genus Cladophora forms conspicuous nearshore populations in marine and freshwaters worldwide, commonly dominating peri-phyton communities. As the result of human activities, including the nutrient pollution of nearshore waters, Cladophora-dominated periphyton can form nuisance blooms. On the other hand, Cladophora has ecological functions that are beneficial, but less well appreciated. For example, Cladophora has previously been characterized as an ecological engineer because its complex structure fosters functional and taxonomic diversity of benthic microfauna. Here, we review classic and recent literature concerning taxonomy, cell biology, morphology, reproductive biology, and ecology of the genus Cladophora, to examine how this alga functions to modify habitats and influence littoral biogeochemistry. We review the evidence that Cladophora supports large, diverse populations of microalgal and bacterial epiphytes that influence the cycling of carbon and other key elements, and that the high production of cellulose and hydrocarbons by Cladophora-dominated periphyton has the potential for diverse technological applications, including wastewater remediation coupled to renewable biofuel production. We postulate that well-known aspects of Cladophora morphology, hydrodynamically stable and perennial holdfasts, distinctively branched architecture, unusually large cell and sporangial size and robust cell wall construction, are major factors contributing to the multiple roles of this organism as an ecological engineer.

  2. Infra-specific folk taxonomy in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench in Ethiopia: folk nomenclature, classification, and criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mekbib Firew

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sorghum is one of the main staple food crops for the poorest and most food insecure people of the world. As Ethiopia is the centre of origin and diversity for sorghum, the crop has been cultivated for many thousands of years. Hence, indigenous knowledge based sorghum classification and naming has a long tradition. Methods In order to assess folk taxonomy, various research methods were employed, including, focus group interviews with 360 farmers, direct on-farm participatory monitoring with 120 farmers, key informant interviews with 60 farmers and development agents and semi-structured interviews with 250 farmers. In addition, diversity fairs were conducted with over 1200 farmers. Assessment of folk taxonomy consistency was assessed by 30 farmers' evaluation of 44 folk species. Results Farmers have been growing sorghum for at least 500 years (20 generations. Sorghum is named as Mishinga in the region. Farmers used twenty five morphological, sixty biotic and abiotic and twelve use-related traits in folk taxonomy of sorghum. Farmers classified their gene-pool by hierarchical classifications into parts that represented distinguishable groups of accessions. Folk taxonomy trees were generated in the highland, intermediate and lowland sorghum ecologies. Over 78 folk species have been identified. The folk species were named after morphological, use-related and breeding methodology used. Relative distribution of folk species over the region, folk taxonomy consistency, and comparison of folk and formal taxonomy are described. Conclusion New folk taxonomy descriptors have been identified and suggested to be used as formal taxonomy descriptors. It is concluded that integrated folk-formal taxonomy has to be used for enhanced collection, characterisation and utilization of on farm genetic resources.

  3. Using potential distributions to explore environmental correlates of bat species richness in southern Africa: Effects of model selection and taxonomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Corrie SCHOEMAN; F.P.D.(Woody) COTTERILL; Peter J.TAYLOR; Ara MONADJEM

    2013-01-01

    We tested the prediction that at coarse spatial scales,variables associated with climate,energy,and productivity hypotheses should be better predictor(s) of bat species richness than those associated with environmental heterogeneity.Distribution ranges of 64 bat species were estimated with niche-based models informed by 3629 verified museum specimens.The influence of environmental correlates on bat richness was assessed using ordinary least squares regression (OLS),simultaneous autoregressive models (SAR),conditional autoregressive models (CAR),spatial eigenvector-based filtering models (SEVM),and Classification and Regression Trees (CART).To test the assumption of stationarity,Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) was used.Bat species richness was highest in the eastern parts of southern Africa,particularly in central Zimbabwe and along the western border of Mozambique.We found support for the predictions of both the habitat heterogeneity and climate/productivity/energy hypotheses,and as we expected,support varied among bat families and model selection.Richness patterns and predictors of Miniopteridae and Pteropodidae clearly differed from those of other bat families.Altitude range was the only independent variable that was significant in all models and it was most often the best predictor of bat richness.Standard coefficients of SAR and CAR models were similar to those of OLS models,while those of SEVM models differed.Although GWR indicated that the assumption of stationarity was violated,the CART analysis corroborated the findings of the curve-fitting models.Our results identify where additional data on current species ranges,and future conservation action and ecological work are needed [Current Zoology 59 (3):279-293,2013].

  4. Using potential distributions to explore environmental correlates of bat species richness in southern Africa: Effects of model selection and taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Corrie SCHOEMAN, F. P. D. (Woody COTTERILL, Peter J. TAYLOR, Ara MONADJEM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We tested the prediction that at coarse spatial scales, variables associated with climate, energy, and productivity hypotheses should be better predictor(s of bat species richness than those associated with environmental heterogeneity. Distribution ranges of 64 bat species were estimated with niche-based models informed by 3629 verified museum specimens. The influence of environmental correlates on bat richness was assessed using ordinary least squares regression (OLS, simultaneous autoregressive models (SAR, conditional autoregressive models (CAR, spatial eigenvector-based filtering models (SEVM, and Classification and Regression Trees (CART. To test the assumption of stationarity, Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR was used. Bat species richness was highest in the eastern parts of southern Africa, particularly in central Zimbabwe and along the western border of Mozambique. We found support for the predictions of both the habitat heterogeneity and climate/productivity/ energy hypotheses, and as we expected, support varied among bat families and model selection. Richness patterns and predictors of Miniopteridae and Pteropodidae clearly differed from those of other bat families. Altitude range was the only independent variable that was sig­nificant in all models and it was most often the best predictor of bat richness. Standard coefficients of SAR and CAR models were similar to those of OLS models, while those of SEVM models differed. Although GWR indicated that the assumption of stationa­rity was violated, the CART analysis corroborated the findings of the curve-fitting models. Our results identify where additional data on current species ranges, and future conservation action and ecological work are needed [Current Zoology 59 (3: 279–293, 2013].

  5. Checklist of the lizards of Togo (West Africa), with comments on systematics, distribution, ecology, and conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Hoinsoude Segniagbeto, G.; Trape, Jean-François; Afiademanyo, K. M.; Rodel, M. O.; Ohler, A.; Dubois, A.; David, P.; Meirte, D.; Glitho, I. A.; Petrozzi, F.; L. Luiselli

    2015-01-01

    The lizard fauna of Togo, a country situated within a natural gap in the rainforest zone of West Africa, is reviewed and updated. In this article, we summarize all available data on the distribution, ecology, and conservation status of the 43 lizard species of Togo. Species richness is uneven between vegetation zones. The submontane forest (ecological zone IV), despite being the smallest, houses the greatest number of species (n = 27), followed by dry forest (ecological zone II, n = 21). Curr...

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: saddleback dolphin [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Delphinus+delphis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ic...on.cgi?i=Delphinus+delphis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=...Delphinus+delphis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Delphinus+delphis&t=NS ... ...etacea Delphinus_delphis_L.png Delphinus_delphis_NL.png Delphinus_delphis_S.png Delphinus_delphis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxo

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: maize [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available maize Zea mays Zea_mays_L.png Zea_mays_NL.png Zea_mays_S.png Zea_mays_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Zea+mays&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Zea...+mays&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Zea+mays&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Zea+mays&t=NS ...

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: red fox [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _vulpes_L.png Vulpes_vulpes_NL.png Vulpes_vulpes_S.png Vulpes_vulpes_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Vulpes+vulpes&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Vulpes+vulpes&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxono...my_icon/icon.cgi?i=Vulpes+vulpes&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Vulpes+vulpes&t=NS ...

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: Aegilops speltoides [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available es_NL.png Aegilops_speltoides_S.png Aegilops_speltoides_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cg...i?i=Aegilops+speltoides&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aegilops+speltoides&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aegilops+speltoides&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aegilops+speltoides&t=NS ...

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: pygmy chimpanzee [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pan_paniscus_L.png Pan_paniscus_NL.png Pan_paniscus_S.png Pan_paniscus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Pan+paniscus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pan+paniscus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxono...my_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pan+paniscus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pan+paniscus&t=NS ...

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: Sympetrum frequens [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _frequens_NL.png Sympetrum_frequens_S.png Sympetrum_frequens_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ic...on.cgi?i=Sympetrum+frequens&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sympetrum+frequens&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxo...nomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sympetrum+frequens&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sympetrum+frequens&t=NS ...

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: Clementine [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Clementine Citrus clementina Citrus_clementina_L.png Citrus_clementina_NL.png Citrus_clementi...na_S.png Citrus_clementina_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Citrus+clementi...na&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Citrus+clementina&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxon...omy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Citrus+clementina&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Citrus+clementina&t=NS ...

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: bread wheat [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available bread wheat Triticum aestivum Triticum_aestivum_L.png Triticum_aestivum_NL.png Triticum_aes...tivum_S.png Triticum_aestivum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Triticum+aesti...vum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Triticum+aestivum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxo...nomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Triticum+aestivum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Triticum+aestivum&t=NS ...

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: rainbow trout [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ss_L.png Oncorhynchus_mykiss_NL.png Oncorhynchus_mykiss_S.png Oncorhynchus_mykiss_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oncorhynchus+mykiss&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oncor...hynchus+mykiss&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oncorhynchus...+mykiss&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oncorhynchus+mykiss&t=NS ...

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: white shark [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available harias_L.png Carcharodon_carcharias_NL.png Carcharodon_carcharias_S.png Carcharodon_carcharias_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carcharodon+carcharias&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/...icon.cgi?i=Carcharodon+carcharias&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon....cgi?i=Carcharodon+carcharias&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carcharodon+carcharias&t=NS ...

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: sika deer [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ervus_nippon_L.png Cervus_nippon_NL.png Cervus_nippon_S.png Cervus_nippon_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cervus+nippon&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cervus+nippon&t=NL ...http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cervus+nippon&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cervus+nippon&t=NS ...

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: wine grape [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _S.png Vitis_vinifera_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Vitis+vinifera&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Vitis+vinifera&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=V...itis+vinifera&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Vitis+vinifera&t=NS ...

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: sunflower [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available thus_annuus_S.png Helianthus_annuus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Helianthus+annuu...s&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Helianthus+annuus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxono...my_icon/icon.cgi?i=Helianthus+annuus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Helianthus+annuus&t=NS ...

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: zebra finch [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Taeniopygia_guttata_NL.png Taeniopygia_guttata_S.png Taeniopygia_guttata_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxo...nomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Taeniopygia+guttata&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Taeniopygia+gu...ttata&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Taeniopygia+guttata&t...=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Taeniopygia+guttata&t=NS ...

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: tiger puffer [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available png Takifugu_rubripes_NL.png Takifugu_rubripes_S.png Takifugu_rubripes_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxono...my_icon/icon.cgi?i=Takifugu+rubripes&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Takifugu+rubripes&...t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Takifugu+rubripes&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Takifugu+rubripes&t=NS ...

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: Magellanic penguin [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Magellanic penguin Spheniscus magellanicus Chordata/Vertebrata/Aves Spheniscus_magel...lanicus_L.png Spheniscus_magellanicus_NL.png Spheniscus_magellanicus_S.png Spheniscus_magellanicus_NS.png h...ttp://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Spheniscus+magellanicus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Spheniscus+magellanicus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic...on/icon.cgi?i=Spheniscus+magellanicus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Spheniscus+magell

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: platypus [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available platypus Ornithorhynchus anatinus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Prototheria Ornithorhynchu...s_anatinus_L.png Ornithorhynchus_anatinus_NL.png Ornithorhynchus_anatinus_S.png Ornithorhynchus_anatin...us_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ornithorhynchus+anatinus&t=L http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ornithorhynchus+anatinus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.j...p/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ornithorhynchus+anatinus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ornithorhynchus+anatinus&t=NS ...

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: slipper animalcule [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available slipper animalcule Paramecium tetraurelia Paramecium_tetraurelia_L.png Paramecium_tetraurelia..._NL.png Paramecium_tetraurelia_S.png Paramecium_tetraurelia_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Paramecium+tetraurelia&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Paramecium+tetraurelia...&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Paramecium+tetraurelia...&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Paramecium+tetraurelia&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=204 ...

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: coelacanth [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Latimeria_chalumnae_L.png Latime...ria_chalumnae_NL.png Latimeria_chalumnae_S.png Latimeria_chalumnae_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.j...p/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Latimeria+chalumnae&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Latimeri...a+chalumnae&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Latimeria+chalu...mnae&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Latimeria+chalumnae&t=NS ...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: lion [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lion Panthera leo Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Carnivora Panthera_leo_L.png Panthera..._leo_NL.png Panthera_leo_S.png Panthera_leo_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Panthera...+leo&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Panthera+leo&t=NL http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Panthera+leo&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Panthera+leo&t=NS ...

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: horse [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available horse Equus caballus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Equus_caballus_L.png Equus_caba...llus_NL.png Equus_caballus_S.png Equus_caballus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Equus+caba...llus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Equus+caballus&t=NL http:...//biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Equus+caballus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Equus+caballus&t=NS ...

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: Budding yeast [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Saccharomyces_cerevisiae_L.png Saccharomyces_cerevisiae_NL.png Saccha...romyces_cerevisiae_S.png Saccharomyces_cerevisiae_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/ta...xonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Saccharomyces+cerevisiae&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Saccharomyces...+cerevisiae&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Saccharomyces...+cerevisiae&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Saccharomyces+cerevisiae&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=216 ...

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: Oryzias javanicus [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oryzias javanicus Oryzias javanicus Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Oryzias_javanicus_L.png Oryzias_java...nicus_NL.png Oryzias_javanicus_S.png Oryzias_javanicus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/t...axonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryzias+javanicus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryzias+javan...icus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryzias+javanicus&t=S ...http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryzias+javanicus&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=77 ...

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: domestic pigeon [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available domestic pigeon Columba livia Chordata/Vertebrata/Aves Columba_livia_L.png Columba_livia_NL.png Columba..._livia_S.png Columba_livia_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Columba...+livia&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Columba+livia&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Col...umba+livia&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Columba+livia&t=NS ...

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: crested porcupine [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available crested porcupine Hystrix cristata Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Hystrix_cristata..._L.png Hystrix_cristata_NL.png Hystrix_cristata_S.png Hystrix_cristata_NS.png http://biosc...iencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hystrix+cristata&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hystrix+cristata...&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hystrix+cristata...&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hystrix+cristata&t=NS ...

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: Asiatic tapir [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Asiatic tapir Tapirus indicus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Tapirus_indicus_L.png Tapi...rus_indicus_NL.png Tapirus_indicus_S.png Tapirus_indicus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tapirus+indicus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tapirus+ind...icus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tapirus+indicus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tapirus+indicus&t=NS ...

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: Nile crocodile [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Nile crocodile Crocodylus niloticus Chordata/Vertebrata/Reptilia/etc Crocodylus_niloticus_L.png Croco...dylus_niloticus_NL.png Crocodylus_niloticus_S.png Crocodylus_niloticus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ico...n/icon.cgi?i=Crocodylus+niloticus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Croco...dylus+niloticus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Croco...dylus+niloticus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Crocodylus+niloticus&t=NS ...

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: sperm whale [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Cet...acea Physeter_macrocephalus_L.png Physeter_macrocephalus_NL.png Physeter_macrocephalus_S.png Physeter_macrocephalu...s_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physeter+macrocephalus&t=L http://bioscience...dbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physeter+macrocephalus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physeter+macrocephalus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physeter+macrocephalus&t=NS ...

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: dugong [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available dugong Dugong dugon Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Dugong_dugon_L.png Dugong..._dugon_NL.png Dugong_dugon_S.png Dugong_dugon_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Dugong...+dugon&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Dugong+dugon&t=NL http://bioscienced...bc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Dugong+dugon&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Dugong+dugon&t=NS ...

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: okapi [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available okapi Okapia johnstoni Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Artiodactyla Okapia_john...stoni_L.png Okapia_johnstoni_NL.png Okapia_johnstoni_S.png Okapia_johnstoni_NS.png http://bioscienc...edbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Okapia+johnstoni&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Okapia+john...stoni&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Okapia+johnston...i&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Okapia+johnstoni&t=NS ...

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: southern cassowary [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available southern cassowary Casuarius casuarius Chordata/Vertebrata/Aves Casuarius_casuarius_L.png Casuarius_cas...uarius_NL.png Casuarius_casuarius_S.png Casuarius_casuarius_NS.png http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Casuarius+casuarius&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Casuarius+cas...uarius&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Casuarius+casu...arius&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Casuarius+casuarius&t=NS ...

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: giant panda [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Carnivora Ailuropoda..._melanoleuca_L.png Ailuropoda_melanoleuca_NL.png Ailuropoda_melanoleuca_S.png Ailuropoda_me...lanoleuca_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=L http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=NL http://biosciencedb...c.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=NS ...

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: purple urchin [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available purple urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus Echinodermata Strongylocentrotus_purpuratus_L.png Strongylocentr...otus_purpuratus_NL.png Strongylocentrotus_purpuratus_S.png Strongylocentrotus_purpu...ratus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Strongylocentrotus+purpuratus&t=L http://biosc...iencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Strongylocentrotus+purpuratus&t=NL http://bi...osciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Strongylocentrotus+purpuratus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Strongylocentrotus+purpuratus&t=NS ...

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: saddled bichir [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available saddled bichir Polypterus endlicheri Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Polypterus_endlicheri_L.png Polypteru...s_endlicheri_NL.png Polypterus_endlicheri_S.png Polypterus_endlicheri_NS.png http://b...iosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Polypterus+endlicheri&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Polypteru...s+endlicheri&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Polypteru...s+endlicheri&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Polypterus+endlicheri&t=NS ...

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: pig [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pig Sus scrofa domestica Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Artiodactyla Sus_scrofa_domestic...a_L.png Sus_scrofa_domestica_NL.png Sus_scrofa_domestica_S.png Sus_scrofa_domestica_NS.pn...g http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sus+scrofa+domestica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Sus+scrofa+domestica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sus+scrofa+dom...estica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sus+scrofa+domestica&t=

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: Chinchilla [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Chinchilla Chinchilla lanigera Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Chinchill...a_lanigera_L.png Chinchilla_lanigera_NL.png Chinchilla_lanigera_S.png Chinchilla_lanigera_NS.png http...://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Chinchilla+lanigera&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Chinchill...a+lanigera&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Chinchill...a+lanigera&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Chinchilla+lanigera&t=NS ...

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: Eastern Gorilla [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Eastern Gorilla Gorilla beringei Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Gorill...a_beringei_L.png Gorilla_beringei_NL.png Gorilla_beringei_S.png Gorilla_beringei_NS.png http://bios...ciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gorilla+beringei&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gorill...a+beringei&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gorilla+be...ringei&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gorilla+beringei&t=NS ...

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: Asiatic elephant [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Asiatic elephant Elephas maximus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Elephas_maximus..._L.png Elephas_maximus_NL.png Elephas_maximus_S.png Elephas_maximus_NS.png http://bioscienced...bc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elephas+maximus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elephas+maximus...&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elephas+maximus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elephas+maximus&t=NS ...

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: chinese pangolin [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Manis+pentadactyla&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/i...con.cgi?i=Manis+pentadactyla&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?...i=Manis+pentadactyla&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Manis+pentadactyla&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=190 ... ...c. Manis_pentadactyla_L.png Manis_pentadactyla_NL.png Manis_pentadactyla_S.png Manis_pentadactyla_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxo

  5. Taxonomies of Educational Objective Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Eman Ghanem Nayef; Nik Rosila Nik Yaacob; Hairul Nizam Ismail

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights an effort to study the educational objective domain taxonomies including Bloom’s taxonomy, Lorin Anderson’s taxonomy, and Wilson’s taxonomy. In this study a comparison among these three taxonomies have been done. Results show that Bloom’s taxonomy is more suitable as an analysis tool to Educational Objective domain.

  6. Predicting geographic and ecological distributions of triatomine species in the southern Mexican state of Puebla using ecological niche modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Ruiz, C A; Zumaquero-Rios, J L; Rojas-Soto, O R

    2008-05-01

    We analyzed the geographic distribution using ecological niche modeling of three species of triatomines distributed in the Mexican state of Puebla. Punctual records were gathered for a period of 5 yr of fieldwork sampling. We used the genetic algorithm for rule-set production (GARP) to achieve the potential distribution of the ecological niche of triatomines. The models showed that Triatoma barberi and Meccus pallidipennis are sympatric and widely distributed in the central-southern part of the state, whereas T. dimidata is restricted to the northern mountains of the state with no overlapping among other species, M. bassolsae was not modeled because of the scarce number of locality records. We highlighted the warm and dry conditions in southern Puebla as important potential areas for triatomine presence. Finally, we correlated the species potential presence with the human population at risk of acquiring Chagas disease by vector-borne transmission; it is showed that M. pallidipennis presents the highest values of both ecological and poverty risk scenarios representing the main potential vector in the state.

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: blue whale [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Balaenoptera+musculus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Balaenoptera+musculus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxon...omy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Balaenoptera+musculus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Balaenoptera+musculus&t=NS ...

  8. [Spatial distribution and landscape ecological impact degree assessment of quarry in Zhuhai City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhifeng; Wang, Jizeng; Zhuo, Muning; Wan, Hongfu

    2004-02-01

    Artificial erosion is one of the typical artificial landscape degradation. Based on the support of GIS and RS and combined with field investigation data, the spatial distribution characteristics and landscape ecological impact degree of quarry were analyzed. There were 235 quarries in Zhuhai city, which concentrated on Sanzao town and Jingan town. According to buffer analysis, the quarries distribution had a obviously logarithm relationship with its distances from roads. 152 quarries with the area of more than 5000 m2 were assessed by landscape ecological impact degree (LEI) index. The results indicated that 9 quarries belonged to great influence level and 19 quarries belonged to strong influence on ecological environment.

  9. Taxonomy, distribution, and natural history of flying foxes (Chiroptera, Pteropodidae) in the Mortlock Islands and Chuuk State, Caroline Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buden, Donald W; Helgen, Kristofer M; Wiles, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    The taxonomy, biology, and population status of flying foxes (Pteropus spp.) remain little investigated in the Caroline Islands, Micronesia, where multiple endemic taxa occur. Our study evaluated the taxonomic relationships between the flying foxes of the Mortlock Islands (a subgroup of the Carolines) and two closely related taxa from elsewhere in the region, and involved the first ever field study of the Mortlock population. Through a review of historical literature, the name Pteropus pelagicus Kittlitz, 1836 is resurrected to replace the prevailing but younger name Pteropus phaeocephalus Thomas, 1882 for the flying fox of the Mortlocks. On the basis of cranial and external morphological comparisons, Pteropus pelagicus is united taxonomically with Pteropus insularis "Hombron and Jacquinot, 1842" (with authority herein emended to Jacquinot and Pucheran 1853), and the two formerly monotypic species are now treated as subspecies - Pteropus pelagicus pelagicus in the Mortlocks, and Pteropus phaeocephalus insularis on the islands of Chuuk Lagoon and Namonuito Atoll. The closest relative of Pteropus pelagicus is Pteropus tokudae Tate, 1934, of Guam, which is best regarded as a distinct species. Pteropus pelagicus pelagicus is the only known resident bat in the Mortlock Islands, a chain of more than 100 atoll islands with a total land area of sea level rise associated with global climate change, which has the potential to submerge or reduce the size of atolls in the Mortlocks. Occasional severe typhoons probably temporarily reduce populations on heavily damaged atolls, but hunting and ongoing habitat loss are not current problems for the subspecies.

  10. Ecological drivers of shark distributions along a tropical coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Peter M; Heupel, Michelle R; Tobin, Andrew J; Simpfendorfer, Colin A

    2015-01-01

    As coastal species experience increasing anthropogenic pressures there is a growing need to characterise the ecological drivers of their abundance and habitat use, and understand how they may respond to changes in their environment. Accordingly, fishery-independent surveys were undertaken to investigate shark abundance along approximately 400 km of the tropical east coast of Australia. Generalised linear models were used to identify ecological drivers of the abundance of immature blacktip Carcharhinus tilstoni/Carcharhinus limbatus, pigeye Carcharhinus amboinensis, and scalloped hammerhead Sphyrna lewini sharks. Results indicated general and species-specific patterns in abundance that were characterised by a range of abiotic and biotic variables. Relationships with turbidity and salinity were similar across multiple species, highlighting the importance of these variables in the functioning of communal shark nurseries. In particular, turbid environments were especially important for all species at typical oceanic salinities. Mangrove proximity, depth, and water temperature were also important; however, their influence varied between species. Ecological drivers may promote spatial diversity in habitat use along environmentally heterogeneous coastlines and may therefore have important implications for population resilience.

  11. Fungi associated with rocks of the Atacama Desert: taxonomy, distribution, diversity, ecology and bioprospection for bioactive compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study assessed the diversity of fungi living in rocks from different altitudes in the Atacama Desert, Chile. Eighty-one fungal isolates obtained were identified as 21 species of 12 genera from Ascomycota using molecular techniques. Cladosporium halotolerans, Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicill...

  12. Fungi associated with rocks of the Atacama Desert: taxonomy, distribution, diversity, ecology and bioprospection for bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Vívian N; Cantrell, Charles L; Wedge, David E; Ferreira, Mariana C; Soares, Marco Aurélio; Jacob, Melissa R; Oliveira, Fabio S; Galante, Douglas; Rodrigues, Fabio; Alves, Tânia M A; Zani, Carlos L; Junior, Policarpo A S; Murta, Silvane; Romanha, Alvaro J; Barbosa, Emerson C; Kroon, Erna G; Oliveira, Jaquelline G; Gomez-Silva, Benito; Galetovic, Alexandra; Rosa, Carlos A; Rosa, Luiz H

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the diversity of cultivable rock-associated fungi from Atacama Desert. A total of 81 fungal isolates obtained were identified as 29 Ascomycota taxa by sequencing different regions of DNA. Cladosporium halotolerans, Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium cf. citrinum were the most frequent species, which occur at least in four different altitudes. The diversity and similarity indices ranged in the fungal communities across the latitudinal gradient. The Fisher-α index displayed the higher values for the fungal communities obtained from the siltstone and fine matrix of pyroclastic rocks with finer grain size, which are more degraded. A total of 23 fungal extracts displayed activity against the different targets screened. The extract of P. chrysogenum afforded the compounds α-linolenic acid and ergosterol endoperoxide, which were active against Cryptococcus neoformans and methicillin-resistance Staphylococcus aureus respectively. Our study represents the first report of a new habitat of fungi associated with rocks of the Atacama Desert and indicated the presence of interesting fungal community, including species related with saprobes, parasite/pathogen and mycotoxigenic taxa. The geological characteristics of the rocks, associated with the presence of rich resident/resilient fungal communities suggests that the rocks may provide a favourable microenvironment fungal colonization, survival and dispersal in extreme conditions.

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: moss [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available moss Physcomitrella patens subsp. patens. Physcomitrella_patens_subsp_patens_L.png Physcomitrella_patens..._subsp_patens_NL.png Physcomitrella_patens_subsp_patens_S.png Physcomitrella_patens_subsp_patens..._NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physcomitrella+patens+subsp%2e+patens%2e&t...=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physcomitrella+patens+subsp%2e+patens...%2e&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physcomitrella+patens+subsp%2e+patens%2e&t

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: pronghorn [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pronghorn Antilocapra americana Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Artiodactyla Antilocapra..._americana_L.png Antilocapra_americana_NL.png Antilocapra_americana_S.png Antilocapra_amer...icana_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Antilocapra+americana&t=L http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Antilocapra+americana&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/t...axonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Antilocapra+americana&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Antilocapra+americana&t=NS ...

  15. Geographic distribution and ecological niche of plague in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neerinckx, Simon B; Peterson, Andrew T; Gulinck, Hubert

    2008-01-01

    Background Plague is a rapidly progressing, serious illness in humans that is likely to be fatal if not treated. It remains a public health threat, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In spite of plague's highly focal nature, a thorough ecological understanding of the general distribution pattern...... of plague across sub-Saharan Africa has not been established to date. In this study, we used human plague data from sub-Saharan Africa for 1970-2007 in an ecological niche modeling framework to explore the potential geographic distribution of plague and its ecological requirements across Africa. Results We...... predict a broad potential distributional area of plague occurrences across sub-Saharan Africa. General tests of model's transferability suggest that our model can anticipate the potential distribution of plague occurrences in Madagascar and northern Africa. However, generality and predictive ability tests...

  16. Taxonomy, distribution, and natural history of flying foxes (Chiroptera, Pteropodidae in the Mortlock Islands and Chuuk State, Caroline Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don Buden

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy, biology, and population status of flying foxes (Pteropus spp. remain little investigated in the Caroline Islands, Micronesia, where multiple endemic taxa occur. Our study evaluated the taxonomic relationships between the flying foxes of the Mortlock Islands (a subgroup of the Carolines and two closely related taxa from elsewhere in the region, and involved the first ever field study of the Mortlock population. Through a review of historical literature, the name Pteropus pelagicus Kittlitz, 1836 is resurrected to replace the prevailing but younger name P. phaeocephalus Thomas, 1882 for the flying fox of the Mortlocks. On the basis of cranial and external morphological comparisons, Pteropus pelagicus is united taxonomically with P. insularis “Hombron and Jacquinot, 1842” (with authority herein emended to Jacquinot and Pucheran, 1853, and the two formerly monotypic species are now treated as subspecies—P. pelagicus pelagicus in the Mortlocks, and P. p. insularis on the islands of Chuuk Lagoon and Namonuito Atoll. The closest relative of P. pelagicus is P. tokudae Tate, 1934, of Guam, which is best regarded as a distinct species. Pteropus p. pelagicus is the only known resident bat in the Mortlock Islands, a chain of more than 100 atoll islands with a total land area of <12 km2. Based on field observations in 2004, we estimated a population size of 925–1,200 bats, most of which occurred on Satawan and Lukunor Atolls, the two largest and southernmost atolls in the chain. Bats were absent on Nama Island and possibly extirpated from Losap Atoll in the northern Mortlocks. Resident Mortlockese indicated bats were more common in the past, but that the population generally has remained stable in recent years. Most P. p. pelagicus roosted alone or in groups of 5–10 bats; a roost of 27 was the largest noted. Diet is comprised of at least eight plant species, with breadfruit (Artocarpus spp. being a preferred food. Records of females

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: Sugarcane [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Sugarcane Saccharum officinarum Saccharum_officinarum_L.png Saccharum_officinarum_NL.png Saccharum_officinarum_S.png Saccharum_officinarum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cg

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: alpaca [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gna_pacos_L.png Vicugna_pacos_NL.png Vicugna_pacos_S.png Vicugna_pacos_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxono...my_icon/icon.cgi?i=Vicugna+pacos&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Vicugna+pacos&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Vicugna+pacos&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Vicugna+pacos&t=NS ...

  19. Octaviania asterosperma (hypogeous Basidiomycota. Recent data to ecology and distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Mleczko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic analyses place Octaviania asterosperma in the Boletales, with Leccinum being the closest relative. Results of the structural investigation of O. asterosperma ectomycorrhiza with Fagus sylvatica confirm this systematic position. In Europe the species is an ectomycorrhizal partner of broad-leaved trees, such as Carpinus, Corylus, Fagus, Quercus and Tilia. This paper aims at presenting the new data to the distribution of O. asterosperma in Central Europe. The description of the basidiocarps discovered in Poland in the recent years is also given, together with evidence for the parasitic relationship of Sepedonium laevigatum with O. asterosperma. We also present the information concerning all known localities of the species in Poland and its distribution map. Data on the ecologz, distribution and status O. asterosperma in Europe, and some structural aspects of basidiocarps and spores, are also summarized.

  20. Taxonomy of Payments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedman, Jonas; Tan, Felix B.; Holst, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    . The approach draws heavily on organizational systematics to better understand payers’ choice of payment instruments. Findings: A four-category taxonomy of payments was developed. The authors refer to the taxonomy as the 4Ps: the purchase, the payer, the payment instrument, and the physical technology......) there are over 12,000 startups in the payment arena. For them, the taxonomy can function as a template for the design of payment instruments, as well as understanding the various factors that influence payer choice of payment instruments. Originality/value: The main contribution of this paper is the 4Ps taxonomy...

  1. Predicting fish species distribution in estuaries: Influence of species' ecology in model accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Susana; Cabral, Henrique N.

    2016-10-01

    Current threats to biodiversity, combined with limited data availability, have made for species distribution models (SDMs) to be increasingly used due to their ability to predict species' potential distribution, by relating species occurrence with environmental estimates. Often used in ecology, conservation biology and environmental management, SDMs have been informing conservation strategies, and thus it is becoming crucial to understand how trustworthy their predictions are. Uncertainty in model predictions is expected, but knowing the origin of prediction errors may help reducing it. Indeed, uncertainty may be related not only with data quality and the modelling algorithm used, but also with species ecological characteristics. To investigate whether the performance of SDM's may vary with species' ecological characteristics, distribution models for 21 fish species occurring in estuaries from the Portuguese coast were examined. These models were built at two distinct spatial resolutions and seven environmental explanatory variables were used as predictors. SDMs' accuracy was assessed with the area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristics (ROC) plots, sensitivity and specificity. Relationships between each measure of accuracy and species ecological characteristics were then examined. SDMs of the fish species presented small differences between the considered scales, and predictors as latitude, temperature and salinity were often selected at both scales. Measures of model accuracy presented differences between species and scales, but generally higher accuracy was obtained at smaller spatial scales. Among the ecological traits tested, species feeding mode and estuarine use functional groups were the most influential on the performance of distribution models. Habitat tolerance (number of habitat types frequented), species abundance, body size and spawning period also showed some effect. This analyses will contribute to distinguish, based on species

  2. Local distribution and thermal ecology of two intertidal fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulgar, Jose M; Bozinovic, Francisco; Ojeda, F Patricio

    2005-02-01

    Geographic variability in the physiological attributes of widely distributed species can be a result of phenotypic plasticity or can reflect evolutionary responses to a particular habitat. In the field, we assessed thermal variability in low and high intertidal pools and the distribution of resident fish species Scartichthys viridis and transitory Girella laevifrons along this vertical intertidal gradient at three localities along the Chilean coast: Antofagasta (the northernmost and warmest habitat), Carrizal Bajo (central coast) and Las Cruces (the southernmost and coldest habitat). In the laboratory, we evaluated the thermal sensitivity of fish captured from each locality. The response to temperature was estimated as the frequency of opercular movements and as thermal selectivity in a gradient; the former being a indirect indicator of energy costs in a particular environment and the latter revealing differential occupation of habitat. Seawater temperature in intertidal pools was greatest at Antofagasta, and within each site was greatest in high intertidal pools. The two intertidal fish species showed opposite patterns of local distribution, with S. viridis primarily inhabiting the lower sectors of the intertidal zone, and G. laevifrons occupying the higher sectors of the intertidal zone. This pattern was consistent for all three localities. Locality was found to be a very important factor determining the frequency of opercular movement and thermal selectivity of both S. viridis and G. laevifrons. Our results suggest that S. viridis and G. laevifrons respond according to: (1) the thermal history of the habitat from which they came, and (2) the immediate physical conditions of their habitat. These results suggest local adaptation rather than plasticity in thermoregulatory and energetic mechanisms.

  3. Spatial paradigms of lotic diatom distribution: A landscape ecology perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passy, S.I.

    2001-01-01

    Spatial distributional patterns of benthic diatoms and their relation to current velocity were investigated in an unshaded cobble-bottom reach of White Creek (Washington County, NY). On 27 August 1999, diatoms were sampled and current velocity and depth were measured on a regular square sampling grid with a grain size of 0.01 m2, interval of 0.5 m, and extent of 16 m2. The relative abundance of the 18 common diatom species enumerated in the 81 samples was subjected to detrended correspondence analysis (DCA). The first axis (DCA1) explained 51% of the variance in diatom data and separated the samples according to current regimes. The spatial autocorrelation of DCA1 sample scores in deposition and erosion regions of White Creek was determined by Moran's I statistic to indicate patch size. In White Creek the patch length of all diatom communities was more than 3.1 m, whereas the patch width was 1 m in the deposition region and 0.5 m in the erosion region. There were 5 dominant diatom taxa, Achnanthes minutissima Ku??tz. et vars, Fragilaria capucina Dezmazie??res et vars, F. crotonensis Kitt., Diatoma vulgaris Bory, and Synedra ulna (Nitz.) Ehr. et vars. The patch length of the dominant species varied from 1 to more than 4.1 m, whereas the patch width, if defined, was 0.5 m. Achnanthes minutissima and F. capucina, the two diatom species with the highest relative abundance, displayed spatially structured patches of low abundance and comparatively random patches of high abundance, suggesting broad scale abiotic control of species performance in low abundance regions and finer scale biotic control of high abundance areas. Another objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that higher current velocities, which generally impede immigration, would increase randomness and complexity (i.e. homogeneity of diatom distributional patterns). The spatial complexity in low versus high velocity transects was determined by calculating the respective fractal dimension (D) of DCA

  4. Ecological Distribution Of The Genus Crotalaria In Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odewo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Geographical distribution and morphological features of the genus Crotalaria were studied. Methods follow conventional practice as reported by previous studies. Thirty six species of the genus Crotalaria were shown to be distributed in Nigeria. The genera were allopathic in nature. The species such as C. bongensis C. atrorubens C. cleomifolia C. anthyllopsis C. cuspidata C. bamendul C. calycina C. hyssopifolia C. incana C. graminicola and C. macrocalyx were prominent in savannah zones while C. acervata C. cylindrical C. cephalotes C. comosa C. retusa C.doniana C. glauca C. falcata C. goreensis among others were common in cultivated areas in forest zone of Nigeria. Qualitative leaf morphological features of selected crotalaria species in Nigeria were also revealed. It shows that the leaf margin leaf surface and leaf base are similar in features except in leaf shape that vary from lanceolate C. comosa and C. bongensis oblanceolate C. retusa C. goreensis C. ononoidea and C. lachnosema to obovate C. mucronata and C. naragutensis. This implies that most of the genus Crotalaria displays similar characteristic and the features among them shows overlap.

  5. Nothofagus, key genus of plant geography, in time and space, living and fossil, ecology and phylogeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1971-01-01

    Data are given on the taxonomy and ecology of the genus. Some New Caledonian species grow in or descend to the lowland. Details are provided on the distribution within New Guinea. For dominance of Nothofagus, and Fagaceae in general, it is suggested that possibly symbionts may contribute to this. So

  6. Geographical ecology of the palms (Arecaceae): determinants of diversity and distributions across spatial scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Svenning, J.-C.; Kissling, W. Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Background The palm family occurs in all tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Palms are of high ecological and economical importance, and display complex spatial patterns of species distributions and diversity. Scope This review summarizes empirical evidence for factors that determine ...

  7. Behavioural ecology, distribution and conservation of the Javan Hawk-eagle Spizaetus bartelsi Stresemann, 1924

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sözer, Resit; Nijman, Vincent

    1995-01-01

    In the period December 1993 – January 1995 research on the behavioural ecology, distribution and conservation of the Javan Hawk-eagle Spizaetus bartelsi was carried out by R. Sözer and V. Nijman, under supervision of BirdLife International / PHPA – Indonesia Programme. This research was part of the

  8. Species abundance distributions: moving beyond single prediction theories to integration within an ecological framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGill, B.J.; Etienne, R.S.; Gray, J.S.; Alonso, D.; Anderson, M.J.; Benecha, H.K.

    2007-01-01

    Species abundance distributions (SADs) follow one of ecology's oldest and most universal laws ¿ every community shows a hollow curve or hyperbolic shape on a histogram with many rare species and just a few common species. Here, we review theoretical, empirical and statistical developments in the stu

  9. The NCBI Taxonomy database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federhen, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The NCBI Taxonomy database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/taxonomy) is the standard nomenclature and classification repository for the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC), comprising the GenBank, ENA (EMBL) and DDBJ databases. It includes organism names and taxonomic lineages for each of the sequences represented in the INSDC's nucleotide and protein sequence databases. The taxonomy database is manually curated by a small group of scientists at the NCBI who use the current taxonomic literature to maintain a phylogenetic taxonomy for the source organisms represented in the sequence databases. The taxonomy database is a central organizing hub for many of the resources at the NCBI, and provides a means for clustering elements within other domains of NCBI web site, for internal linking between domains of the Entrez system and for linking out to taxon-specific external resources on the web. Our primary purpose is to index the domain of sequences as conveniently as possible for our user community.

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: crab-eating macaque [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fascicularis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fascicularis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i...con/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fascicularis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fascicularis&t=NS ...

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: gray slender loris [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Loris+lydekkerianus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Loris+lydekkerianus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic...on/icon.cgi?i=Loris+lydekkerianus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Loris+lydekkerianus&t=NS ...

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: North Pacific right whale [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available a_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Eubalaena+japonica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Eubalaena+japonica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic...on/icon.cgi?i=Eubalaena+japonica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Eubalaena+japonica&t=NS ...

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: African savanna elephant [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Loxodonta+africana&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Loxodonta+africana&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/i...con.cgi?i=Loxodonta+africana&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Loxodonta+africana&t=NS ...

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: northern fur seal [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Callorhinus+ursinus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Callorhinus+ursinus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i...con/icon.cgi?i=Callorhinus+ursinus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Callorhinus+ursinus&t=NS ...

  15. Reconstructing ecological niches and geographic distributions of caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) and red deer ( Cervus elaphus) during the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, William E.; d'Errico, Francesco; Peterson, A. Townsend; Kageyama, Masa; Colombeau, Guillaume

    2008-12-01

    A variety of approaches have been used to reconstruct glacial distributions of species, identify their environmental characteristics, and understand their influence on subsequent population expansions. Traditional methods, however, provide only rough estimates of past distributions, and are often unable to identify the ecological and geographic processes that shaped them. Recently, ecological niche modeling (ENM) methodologies have been applied to these questions in an effort to overcome such limitations. We apply ENM to the European faunal record of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to reconstruct ecological niches and potential ranges for caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) and red deer ( Cervus elaphus), and evaluate whether their LGM distributions resulted from tracking the geographic footprint of their ecological niches (niche conservatism) or if ecological niche shifts between the LGM and present might be implicated. Results indicate that the LGM geographic ranges of both species represent distributions characterized by niche conservatism, expressed through geographic contraction of the geographic footprints of their respective ecological niches.

  16. Distribution and ecological consequences of ploidy variation in Artemisia sieberi in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, Adel; Rabie, Mina; Azarnivand, Hossein; Hodgson, John G.; Arzani, Hossein; Jamzad, Ziba; Asri, Younes; Hamzehee, Behnam; Ghasemi, Farzaneh; Hesamzadeh Hejazi, S. M.; Abbas-Azimi, R.

    2013-11-01

    Because of their high proportion in the plant kingdom polyploid taxa are considered to have had evolutionary advantages over their diploid ancestors. These advantages may have included new characteristics that enable polyploids to occupy a broader range of habitats. In this context, we assess the ecological range of Artemisia sieberi, a canopy dominant within an important vegetation type in Iran. We assess the extent to which ploidy covaries with geographical and ecological distribution and look for ecologically-significant differences in the functional characteristics of diploids and polyploids. Populations of A. sieberi were sampled widely in Iran and soil characteristics, climate and anatomical and phytochemical plant attributes were measured. Also, in parallel, an independent genetic assessment of populations was carried out using genetic fingerprinting. Two ploidy levels were identified: 75% of the 34 populations of A. sieberi populations sampled were tetraploid (2n = 4x = 36) with the remainder diploid (2n = 2x = 18). Plants of differing ploidy also differed anatomically, genetically and chemically. Tetraploid populations had larger cells and lower stomatal densities and a different essential oil composition. They also appear ecologically distinct, occupying more fertile, mesic habitats than diploids. Genetic fingerprinting revealed the existence of two genetically differentiated subgroups independent of ploidy but with some geographic and ecological pattern. We conclude that diploids and tetraploids have a different ecological distribution and that the absence of mixed diploid-tetraploid populations is a reflection of differing fitness in different habitats. We suspect that a key ecological difference between diploids and tetraploids is the increased stomatal size of tetraploids, possibly resulting from the increased genome and hence cell size following polyploidisation. Polyploid-formation may be constrained in arid habitats by problems of water

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: Halocynthia roretzi (Sea squirt) [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Halocynthia+roretzi&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Halocynthia+roretzi&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon.../icon.cgi?i=Halocynthia+roretzi&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Halocynthia+roretzi&t=N...S http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=183 ...

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: common brandling worm [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available L.png Eisenia_fetida_S.png Eisenia_fetida_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Eisenia+fe...tida&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Eisenia+fetida&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Eisenia+fetida&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon....cgi?i=Eisenia+fetida&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=73 ...

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: Kuroda's sea hare [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .png Aplysia_kurodai_S.png Aplysia_kurodai_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aplysia+k...urodai&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aplysia+kurodai&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Aplysia+kurodai&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/i...con.cgi?i=Aplysia+kurodai&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=14 ...

  20. The Taxonomy of Intervention Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Malone, Amelia S.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the Taxonomy of Intervention Intensity, which articulates 7 dimensions for evaluating and building intervention intensity. We explain the Taxonomy's dimensions of intensity. In explaining the Taxonomy, we rely on a case study to illustrate how the Taxonomy can systematize the process by which special…

  1. A Taxonomy for Conceptualizing Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seda, E. Elliott

    This paper details the development of a taxonomy for conceptualizing teaching. This taxonomy is presented as a means to help educators understand and interpret what it is they do and continue in the process of searching and understanding. The purpose of developing a taxonomy, the basis for the dimensions--or subject matter--for the taxonomy, and…

  2. Taxonomy, distribution and prevalence of parasites of tigerfish, Hydrocynus vittatus (Castelnau, 1861) in the Sanyati basin, Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabika, Nyasha; Barson, Maxwell; Van Dyk, Cobus; Avenant-Oldewage, Annemariè

    2016-09-01

    Parasites of the tigerfish (Hydrocynus vittatus) were investigated in the period October 2014 to July 2015 in the Sanyati Basin, Lake Kariba. The fish were collected using seine netting and also during the annual Kariba International Tiger Fishing Tournament. A total of 80 fish specimens (24 males and 56 females) were collected and were infected with the following seven parasite taxa: Monogenea (Annulotrema sp.1 from the gills and Annulotrema sp.2 from the skin), Nematoda (Contracaecum larvae), Cestoda (bothriocephalid, larval cyclophyllid), Copepoda (Lamproglena hemprichii), pentastomid, Myxosporea (Myxobolus sp.,) and unicellular ciliate parasites (Trichodina sp., Tetrahymena sp., and unidentified). Annulotrema sp. 1 was observed in all fish and had the highest prevalence, mean intensity and abundance. The fish organs infected were gills, skin, fin, body cavity, stomach, intestines, mesentery, liver, kidney, brain cavity and swim bladder. No parasites were observed in the muscle, eyes and blood. The distribution of the parasites was highest in the gills and lowest in the brain cavity and swimbladder. Bothriocephalids, pentastomes and Trichodina sp. were not observed in male fish. Sex was not related to the intensity of parasites. The results of the study showed that H. vittatus has a richer parasite community than other previous investigated alestids. Pentastomes, Myxobolus sp., Trichodina sp., Tetrahymena sp. and bothriocephalid cestodes are new records for H. vittatus in Zimbabwe.

  3. Public health workforce taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Matthew L; Beck, Angela J; Coronado, Fátima; Merrill, Jacqueline A; Friedman, Charles P; Stamas, George D; Tyus, Nadra; Sellers, Katie; Moore, Jean; Tilson, Hugh H; Leep, Carolyn J

    2014-11-01

    Thoroughly characterizing and continuously monitoring the public health workforce is necessary for ensuring capacity to deliver public health services. A prerequisite for this is to develop a standardized methodology for classifying public health workers, permitting valid comparisons across agencies and over time, which does not exist for the public health workforce. An expert working group, all of whom are authors on this paper, was convened during 2012-2014 to develop a public health workforce taxonomy. The purpose of the taxonomy is to facilitate the systematic characterization of all public health workers while delineating a set of minimum data elements to be used in workforce surveys. The taxonomy will improve the comparability across surveys, assist with estimating duplicate counting of workers, provide a framework for describing the size and composition of the workforce, and address other challenges to workforce enumeration. The taxonomy consists of 12 axes, with each axis describing a key characteristic of public health workers. Within each axis are multiple categories, and sometimes subcategories, that further define that worker characteristic. The workforce taxonomy axes are occupation, workplace setting, employer, education, licensure, certification, job tasks, program area, public health specialization area, funding source, condition of employment, and demographics. The taxonomy is not intended to serve as a replacement for occupational classifications but rather is a tool for systematically categorizing worker characteristics. The taxonomy will continue to evolve as organizations implement it and recommend ways to improve this tool for more accurate workforce data collection.

  4. Ecological and methodological drivers of species' distribution and phenology responses to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher J; O'Connor, Mary I; Poloczanska, Elvira S; Schoeman, David S; Buckley, Lauren B; Burrows, Michael T; Duarte, Carlos M; Halpern, Benjamin S; Pandolfi, John M; Parmesan, Camille; Richardson, Anthony J

    2016-04-01

    Climate change is shifting species' distribution and phenology. Ecological traits, such as mobility or reproductive mode, explain variation in observed rates of shift for some taxa. However, estimates of relationships between traits and climate responses could be influenced by how responses are measured. We compiled a global data set of 651 published marine species' responses to climate change, from 47 papers on distribution shifts and 32 papers on phenology change. We assessed the relative importance of two classes of predictors of the rate of change, ecological traits of the responding taxa and methodological approaches for quantifying biological responses. Methodological differences explained 22% of the variation in range shifts, more than the 7.8% of the variation explained by ecological traits. For phenology change, methodological approaches accounted for 4% of the variation in measurements, whereas 8% of the variation was explained by ecological traits. Our ability to predict responses from traits was hindered by poor representation of species from the tropics, where temperature isotherms are moving most rapidly. Thus, the mean rate of distribution change may be underestimated by this and other global syntheses. Our analyses indicate that methodological approaches should be explicitly considered when designing, analysing and comparing results among studies. To improve climate impact studies, we recommend that (1) reanalyses of existing time series state how the existing data sets may limit the inferences about possible climate responses; (2) qualitative comparisons of species' responses across different studies be limited to studies with similar methodological approaches; (3) meta-analyses of climate responses include methodological attributes as covariates; and (4) that new time series be designed to include the detection of early warnings of change or ecologically relevant change. Greater consideration of methodological attributes will improve the accuracy

  5. Ecological and methodological drivers of species’ distribution and phenology responses to climate change

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, Christopher J.

    2015-12-10

    Climate change is shifting species’ distribution and phenology. Ecological traits, such as mobility or reproductive mode, explain variation in observed rates of shift for some taxa. However, estimates of relationships between traits and climate responses could be influenced by how responses are measured. We compiled a global dataset of 651 published marine species’ responses to climate change, from 47 papers on distribution shifts and 32 papers on phenology change. We assessed the relative importance of two classes of predictors of the rate of change, ecological traits of the responding taxa and methodological approaches for quantifying biological responses. Methodological differences explained 22% of the variation in range shifts, more than the 7.8% of the variation explained by ecological traits. For phenology change, methodological approaches accounted for 4% of the variation in measurements, whereas 8% of the variation was explained by ecological traits. Our ability to predict responses from traits was hindered by poor representation of species from the tropics, where temperature isotherms are moving most rapidly. Thus, the mean rate of distribution change may be underestimated by this and other global syntheses. Our analyses indicate that methodological approaches should be explicitly considered when designing, analysing and comparing results among studies. To improve climate impact studies, we recommend that: (1) re-analyses of existing time-series state how the existing datasets may limit the inferences about possible climate responses; (2) qualitative comparisons of species’ responses across different studies be limited to studies with similar methodological approaches; (3) meta-analyses of climate responses include methodological attributes as covariates and; (4) that new time series be designed to include detection of early warnings of change or ecologically relevant change. Greater consideration of methodological attributes will improve the

  6. Society's nature: Ecological economics and the combined challenge of environment and distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2010-01-01

    The paper introduces the emerging field of ecological economics and evaluates its potential for addressing some of the concerns within development studies. It takes as its point of departure the study of the relationship between nature and society that emerged in the wake of the environmental...... discourse in the 1960s. In the first section, a new perspective in the study of the interaction between society and nature is briefly outlined. Thereafter, the field of ecological economics is discussed as a specific example of this new perspective, followed by its potential link to the development debate......, in particular the combination of the environmental and distributional issues and the challenges therein. Finally, the paper reflects on the persuasive potential of ecological economics in relation to politics....

  7. Historical freshwater fish ecology: a long-term view of distribution changes and biological invasions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Clavero

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Past processes and events may have an important influence on contemporaneous ecological patterns, including current human impacts on landscapes and organisms. In spite of that, most of the ecological knowledge has been built upon short-term studies, which very rarely exceed one decade. Ecology and Conservation Biology have an important lack of historical approaches, a deficiency that may become a hindrance for the management of natural systems. In this talk I will present examples of how historical information on the distribution of freshwater fish and other aquatic organisms can be used to address ecological questions. Most analyses are based on two important Spanish historical written sources: the Relaciones de Felipe II (16th century and the Madoz Dictionary (19th century. The examples considered include the European eel (Anguilla anguilla, the brown trout (Salmo trutta, the common carp (Cyprinus carpio and the white clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius italicus, among other species, as well as questions related to biological invasions, habitat loss and the impacts of global warming. The outputs of ecological research based on historical data often become useful tools for present-day biodiversity conservation planning and actions.

  8. Distribution and ecology of lesser pouched rat, Beamys hindei, in Tanzanian coastal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabuni, Christopher A; Sluydts, Vincent; Mulungu, Loth S; Maganga, Samwel L S; Makundi, Rhodes H; Leirs, Herwig

    2015-11-01

    The lesser pouched rat, Beamys hindei, is a small rodent that is patchily distributed in the Eastern Arc Mountains and coastal forests in East Africa. The ecology of this species and its current distribution in coastal forests is not well known. Therefore, we conducted a study in selected coastal forests to assess the current distribution of the species and to investigate the population ecology in terms of abundance fluctuations and demographic patterns. Assessments of the species distribution were conducted in 5 forests through trapping with Sherman live traps. Data on ecology were obtained from monthly capture-mark-recapture studies conducted for 5 consecutive nights per month in two 1 ha grids set in Zaraninge Forest over a 2-year period. The results indicate the presence of B. hindei in 3 forests where it was not previously recorded. The population abundance estimates ranged from 1 to 40 animals per month, with high numbers recorded during rainy seasons. Reproduction patterns and sex ratios did not differ between months. Survival estimates were not influenced by season, and recruitment was low, with growth rate estimates of 1 animal per month. These estimates suggest a stable population of B. hindei in Zaraninge Forest. Further studies are recommended to establish the home range, diet and burrowing behavior of the species in coastal forests in East Africa.

  9. EPA Web Taxonomy

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA's Web Taxonomy is a faceted hierarchical vocabulary used to tag web pages with terms from a controlled vocabulary. Tagging enables search and discovery of EPA's...

  10. [Concepts of rational taxonomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlinov, I Ia

    2011-01-01

    The problems are discussed related to development of concepts of rational taxonomy and rational classifications (taxonomic systems) in biology. Rational taxonomy is based on the assumption that the key characteristic of rationality is deductive inference of certain partial judgments about reality under study from other judgments taken as more general and a priory true. Respectively, two forms of rationality are discriminated--ontological and epistemological ones. The former implies inference of classifications properties from general (essential) properties of the reality being investigated. The latter implies inference of the partial rules of judgments about classifications from more general (formal) rules. The following principal concepts of ontologically rational biological taxonomy are considered: "crystallographic" approach, inference of the orderliness of organismal diversity from general laws of Nature, inference of the above orderliness from the orderliness of ontogenetic development programs, based on the concept of natural kind and Cassirer's series theory, based on the systemic concept, based on the idea of periodic systems. Various concepts of ontologically rational taxonomy can be generalized by an idea of the causal taxonomy, according to which any biologically sound classification is founded on a contentwise model of biological diversity that includes explicit indication of general causes responsible for that diversity. It is asserted that each category of general causation and respective background model may serve as a basis for a particular ontologically rational taxonomy as a distinctive research program. Concepts of epistemologically rational taxonomy and classifications (taxonomic systems) can be interpreted in terms of application of certain epistemological criteria of substantiation of scientific status of taxonomy in general and of taxonomic systems in particular. These concepts include: consideration of taxonomy consistency from the

  11. Ecological Niche Modeling for the Prediction of the Geographic Distribution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalghaf, Bilel; Chlif, Sadok; Mayala, Benjamin; Ghawar, Wissem; Bettaieb, Jihène; Harrabi, Myriam; Benie, Goze Bertin; Michael, Edwin; Salah, Afif Ben

    2016-04-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a very complex disease involving multiple factors that limit its emergence and spatial distribution. Prediction of cutaneous leishmaniasis epidemics in Tunisia remains difficult because most of the epidemiological tools used so far are descriptive in nature and mainly focus on a time dimension. The purpose of this work is to predict the potential geographic distribution of Phlebotomus papatasi and zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major in Tunisia using Grinnellian ecological niche modeling. We attempted to assess the importance of environmental factors influencing the potential distribution of P. papatasi and cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. major. Vectors were trapped in central Tunisia during the transmission season using CDC light traps (John W. Hock Co., Gainesville, FL). A global positioning system was used to record the geographical coordinates of vector occurrence points and households tested positive for cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. major. Nine environmental layers were used as predictor variables to model the P. papatasi geographical distribution and five variables were used to model the L. major potential distribution. Ecological niche modeling was used to relate known species' occurrence points to values of environmental factors for these same points to predict the presence of the species in unsampled regions based on the value of the predictor variables. Rainfall and temperature contributed the most as predictors for sand flies and human case distributions. Ecological niche modeling anticipated the current distribution of P. papatasi with the highest suitability for species occurrence in the central and southeastern part of Tunisian. Furthermore, our study demonstrated that governorates of Gafsa, Sidi Bouzid, and Kairouan are at highest epidemic risk.

  12. Potential Distribution of Chagas Disease Vectors (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) in Colombia, Based on Ecological Niche Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Escudero, Laura C.; González-Caro, Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    Ecological niche modeling of Triatominae bugs allow us to establish the local risk of transmission of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes Chagas disease. This information could help to guide health authority recommendations on infection monitoring, prevention, and control. In this study, we estimated the geographic distribution of triatomine species in Colombia and identified the relationship between landscape structure and climatic factors influencing their occurrence. A total of 2451 records of 4 triatomine species (Panstrongylus geniculatus, Rhodnius pallescens, R. prolixus, and Triatoma maculata) were analyzed. The variables that provided more information to explain the ecologic niche of these vectors were related to precipitation, altitude, and temperature. We found that the species with the broadest potential geographic distribution were P. geniculatus, R. pallescens, and R. prolixus. In general, the models predicted the highest occurrence probability of these vectors in the eastern slope of the Eastern Cordillera, the southern region of the Magdalena valley, and the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta. PMID:28115946

  13. Geographic Distribution and Ecology of Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Henao, Gabriel; Angulo, Víctor Manuel; Osorio, Lisardo; Jaramillo-O, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    Triatoma dimidiata Latreille is the second most important vector of Chagas' disease in Colombia and is found in urban and periurban areas. From January 2007 to June 2008, we performed field work in 8 departments, 18 municipalities, and 44 rural villages, covering most of its known distribution and all of its ecological zones in the country. The goal was to determine the geographical distribution, the ecology, and house infestation indices of T. dimidiata over its range and hence the Chagas' disease transmission risk. In Colombia, T. dimidiata occupies a wide variety of ecosystems, from transformed ecosystems in the Andean biome with shrub and xerofitic vegetation to very dense forests in the humid tropical forests in the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta. According to genetic and ecological criteria, at least two T. dimidiata forms of this species are present: populations from the northwest of the country (Caribbean plains) are restricted to palm tree habitats, and domestic involvement is limited to sporadic visits because of attraction by light; and populations of the east region (Andean mountains) presenting a complex distributional pattern including sylvatic, peridomestic, and domiciliated ecotopes, and occupying a great variety of life zones. The latter population is of epidemiological importance due to the demonstrated migration and genetical flow of individuals among the different habitats. Control, therefore, must take into account its diversity of habitats.

  14. Geographic distributions and ecology of ornamental Curcuma (Zingiberaceae) in Northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumkratok, Sutthira; Boongtiang, Kriangsuk; Chutichudet, Prasit; Pramaul, Pairot

    2012-10-01

    The genus Curcuma is a very important economic plant. Members of this genus were used as food, medicine and ornament plants. The objectives of this study were to examine the geographic distributions and ecological conditions in the natural habitats of Curcuma in Northeastern Thailand. Species diversity was examined using the line transect method. Ecological conditions of the species were examined using a sampling plot of 20 x 20 m. A total of five species were found including Curcuma angustifolia Roxb., C. alismatifolia Gagnep., C. gracillima Gagnep., C. parviflora Wall. and C. rhabdota. These species were in an altitudinal range between 290 m and 831 m above sea level. Four species (C. angustifolia, C. alismatifolia, C. gracillima and C. rhabdota) were distributed in open gaps in dry dipterocarp forest. One species, C. parviflora was found in the contact zone between dry dipterocarp and bamboo (Gigantochloa sp.) forest. C. rhabdota was found only in a habitat with high humidity and shading along the Thailand-Lao PDR border. Significant ecological conditions of the natural habitats of these Curcuma species were identified. Altitude is the most important factor when determining the geographic distributions of these Curcuma species in Northeastern Thailand.

  15. [Distribution and potential ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in sediments of Zhalong Wetland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hua-Xiang; Zang, Shu-Ying; Zhang, Li-Juan; Zhang, Yu-Hong

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the concentrations of heavy metals in the sediments of the Zhalong Wetland using ICP-MS, analyzed their spatial distributions, evaluated the potential ecological risk, and explored the pollution sources and environmental influencing factors. The results can be summarized as the followings: (1) The concentrations of Hg, Cd, As, Cu, Pb, Zn and Cr were 0.065, 0.155, 10.26, 18.20, 21.35, 52.08 and 46.47 mg x kg(-1), respectively, which were all above the soil background values of the Songnen Plain. Their spatial distributions were distinctly different. The concentration of heavy metals in the north was higher than that in the south, and the east was higher than the west. Particularly in the eastern region, the concentrations of Hg and Cd were 20.8 and 32.4 times the minimum values of the whole area. And in the core zone, the concentration was relatively low. (2) The sequence of the potential ecological risk posed by the metals was Hg > Cd > As > Pb > Cu > Cr > Zn. The average potential ecological risk index (RI) of the Zhalong Wetland was 171.9 (ranged from 76.9-473.5), suggesting a moderate ecological risk. However, the potential ecological risk was extremely high in the east which should be treated as the major heavy metal pollution prevention site in the future. (3) Except for Hg and Pb, the concentrations of all heavy metals were significantly correlated to each other, indicating that those heavy metals had homology. (4) Organic matter was the major environmental influencing factor. However, the trend of land salinization in the Zhalong Wetland has been intensified, indicating a higher risk of heavy metal releasing from the sediments, to which the local authorities should pay enough attention.

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: wild Bactrian camel [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available odactyla Camelus_ferus_L.png Camelus_ferus_NL.png Camelus_ferus_S.png Camelus_ferus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+ferus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+f...erus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+ferus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+ferus&t=NS ...

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: Formosan subterranean termite [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nus_L.png Coptotermes_formosanus_NL.png Coptotermes_formosanus_S.png Coptotermes_formosanus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Coptotermes+formosanus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Coptotermes+formosanus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cg...i?i=Coptotermes+formosanus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Coptotermes+formosanus&t=NS ...

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese giant salamander [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ponicus_L.png Andrias_japonicus_NL.png Andrias_japonicus_S.png Andrias_japonicus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Andrias+japonicus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Andrias+...japonicus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Andrias+japonicus...&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Andrias+japonicus&t=NS ...

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: Ciona intestinalis (Sea squirt) [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ttp://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ciona+intestinalis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon.../icon.cgi?i=Ciona+intestinalis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cg...i?i=Ciona+intestinalis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ciona+intestinalis&t=NS ... ...data Ciona_intestinalis_L.png Ciona_intestinalis_NL.png Ciona_intestinalis_S.png Ciona_intestinalis_NS.png h

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: Striped bark scorpion [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Centruroides_vittatus_NL.png Centruroides_vittatus_S.png Centruroides_vittatus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Centruroides+vittatus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Centru...roides+vittatus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Centruroide...s+vittatus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Centruroides+vittatus&t=NS ...

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: Gossypium raimondii Ulbr. [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aimondii_NL.png Gossypium_raimondii_S.png Gossypium_raimondii_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/i...con.cgi?i=Gossypium+raimondii&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gossypium+raimondii&t=NL ...http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gossypium+raimondii&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gossypium+raimondii&t=NS ...

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: cape rock hyrax [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Procavia_capensis_L.png Procavia_capensis_NL.png Procavia_capensis_S.png Procavia_capensis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Procavia+capensis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi...?i=Procavia+capensis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Procav...ia+capensis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Procavia+capensis&t=NS ...

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: yellow fever mosquito [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti Arthropoda Aedes_aegypti_L.png Aedes_aegypti_NL.png Aedes_aegypt...i_S.png Aedes_aegypti_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aedes+aegypti...&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aedes+aegypti&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aedes+aegyp...ti&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aedes+aegypti&t=NS ...

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: red flour beetle [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum Arthropoda Tribolium_castaneum_L.png Tribolium_castane...um_NL.png Tribolium_castaneum_S.png Tribolium_castaneum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon.../icon.cgi?i=Tribolium+castaneum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tribolium+castaneum&t=N...L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tribolium+castaneum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tribolium+castaneum&t=NS ...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: hemichordates (Acorn worm) [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hemichordates (Acorn worm) Glandiceps hacksi Hemichordata Glandiceps_hacksi_L.png G...landiceps_hacksi_NL.png Glandiceps_hacksi_S.png Glandiceps_hacksi_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Glandiceps+hacksi&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glandiceps+hacksi&t=NL ...http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glandiceps+hacksi&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glandiceps+hacksi&t=NS ...

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: common water flea [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available common water flea Daphnia pulex Arthropoda Daphnia_pulex_L.png Daphnia_pulex_NL.png... Daphnia_pulex_S.png Daphnia_pulex_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Daphnia+pulex&t=L... http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Daphnia+pulex&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Daphnia+pulex&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Daphnia+pulex&t=NS ...

  7. The distributional ecology of the maned sloth: environmental influences on its distribution and gaps in knowledge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle de Oliveira Moreira

    Full Text Available The maned sloth Bradypus torquatus (Pilosa, Bradypodidae is endemic to a small area in the Atlantic Forest of coastal Brazil. It has been listed as a threatened species because of its restricted geographic range, habitat loss and fragmentation, and declining populations. The major objectives of this study were to estimate its potential geographic distribution, the climatic conditions across its distributional range, and to identify suitable areas and potential species strongholds. We developed a model of habitat suitability for the maned sloth using two methods, Maxent and Mahalanobis Distance, based on 42 occurrence points. We evaluated environmental variable importance and the predictive ability of the generated distribution models. Our results suggest that the species distribution could be strongly influenced by environmental factors, mainly temperature seasonality. The modeled distribution of the maned sloth included known areas of occurrence in the Atlantic Forest (Sergipe, Bahia, Espírito Santo, and Rio de Janeiro, but did not match the observed distributional gaps in northern Rio de Janeiro, northern Espírito Santo or southern Bahia. Rather, the model showed that these areas are climatically suitable for the maned sloth, and thus suggests that factors other than climate might be responsible for the absence of species. Suitable areas for maned sloth were located mainly in the mountainous region of central Rio de Janeiro throughout Espírito Santo and to the coastal region of southern Bahia. We indicate 17 stronghold areas and recommended survey areas for the maned sloth. In addition, we highlight specific areas for conservation, including the current network protected areas. Our results can be applied for novel surveys and discovery of unknown populations, and help the selection of priority areas for management and conservation planning, especially of rare and relatively cryptic species directed associated with forested habitats.

  8. The distributional ecology of the maned sloth: environmental influences on its distribution and gaps in knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Danielle de Oliveira; Leite, Gustavo Rocha; Ferreira de Siqueira, Marinez; Coutinho, Bruno Rocha; Zanon, Mariana Santos; Mendes, Sérgio Lucena

    2014-01-01

    The maned sloth Bradypus torquatus (Pilosa, Bradypodidae) is endemic to a small area in the Atlantic Forest of coastal Brazil. It has been listed as a threatened species because of its restricted geographic range, habitat loss and fragmentation, and declining populations. The major objectives of this study were to estimate its potential geographic distribution, the climatic conditions across its distributional range, and to identify suitable areas and potential species strongholds. We developed a model of habitat suitability for the maned sloth using two methods, Maxent and Mahalanobis Distance, based on 42 occurrence points. We evaluated environmental variable importance and the predictive ability of the generated distribution models. Our results suggest that the species distribution could be strongly influenced by environmental factors, mainly temperature seasonality. The modeled distribution of the maned sloth included known areas of occurrence in the Atlantic Forest (Sergipe, Bahia, Espírito Santo, and Rio de Janeiro), but did not match the observed distributional gaps in northern Rio de Janeiro, northern Espírito Santo or southern Bahia. Rather, the model showed that these areas are climatically suitable for the maned sloth, and thus suggests that factors other than climate might be responsible for the absence of species. Suitable areas for maned sloth were located mainly in the mountainous region of central Rio de Janeiro throughout Espírito Santo and to the coastal region of southern Bahia. We indicate 17 stronghold areas and recommended survey areas for the maned sloth. In addition, we highlight specific areas for conservation, including the current network protected areas. Our results can be applied for novel surveys and discovery of unknown populations, and help the selection of priority areas for management and conservation planning, especially of rare and relatively cryptic species directed associated with forested habitats.

  9. Development of a taxonomy of keywords for engineering education research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finelli, Cynthia J.; Borrego, Maura; Rasoulifar, Golnoosh

    2016-05-01

    The diversity of engineering education research provides an opportunity for cross-fertilisation of ideas and creativity, but it also can result in fragmentation of the field and duplication of effort. One solution is to establish a standardised taxonomy of engineering education terms to map the field and communicate and connect research initiatives. This report describes the process for developing such a taxonomy, the EER Taxonomy. Although the taxonomy focuses on engineering education research in the United States, inclusive efforts have engaged 266 individuals from 149 cities in 30 countries during one multiday workshop, 7 conference sessions, and several other virtual and in-person activities. The resulting taxonomy comprises 455 terms arranged in 14 branches and 6 levels. This taxonomy was found to satisfy four criteria for validity and reliability: (1) keywords assigned to a set of abstracts were reproducible by multiple researchers, (2) the taxonomy comprised terms that could be selected as keywords to fully describe 243 articles in 3 journals, (3) the keywords for those 243 articles were evenly distributed across the branches of the taxonomy, and (4) the authors of 31 conference papers agreed with 90% of researcher-assigned keywords. This report also describes guidelines developed to help authors consistently assign keywords for their articles by encouraging them to choose terms from three categories: (1) context/focus/topic, (2) purpose/target/motivation, and (3) research approach.

  10. Company Taxonomy development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Haakon; Ørnager, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore theoretically and empirically the understanding and implementation of an information taxonomy in the UN organization World Food Programme (WFP) by analysing users’ information behaviour and by establishing a minimum set of cross-silo metadata...... analyses of search log-files from WFP intranet portal (WFPgo) from September to November 2013, the results were applied and a suggested taxonomy tested at workshops conducted for the staff in headquarters. Findings – The results reveal an organization with a high demand for easier access to information...... research carried out on current taxonomy projects in corporate environments and international emergency response organizations and few has touched on how knowledge organization systems can enhance or constrain staff’s ability to access online content....

  11. Roles of thermal adaptation and chemical ecology in Liriomyza distribution and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Le; Chen, Bing; Wei, Jia-Ning; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2009-01-01

    Many Liriomyza species are pests of agricultural and ornamental plants. In the past two decades, the occurrence and distribution of certain Liriomyza species have changed dramatically, leading to an extensive body of research papers. First, we review the association of thermal tolerance with population dynamics, geographic distribution, and species displacement. Differences in thermal tolerances between species result in their differential geographic locations and overwintering ranges. Displacements among Liriomyza species are associated with their temperature adaptation. We examine the chemical linkage of plants, Liriomyza, and their parasitoids. Chemical compounds from host and nonhost plants mediate the behavior of Liriomyza and their parasitoids. Liriomyza and their parasitoids use chemical cues to locate their hosts. Induced compounds can be used as attractants of parasitoids or repellents of Liriomyza. Thus, understanding the thermal tolerances and chemical ecology of Liriomyza may enable researchers to predict geographic distribution and to develop novel control strategies.

  12. Teaching Taxonomy: How Many Kingdoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Emily

    2008-01-01

    Taxonomy, the identification, naming, and classification of living things, is an indispensable unit in any biology curriculum and indeed, an integral part of biological science. Taxonomy catalogues life's diversity and is an essential tool for communication. Textbook discussions of taxonomy range anywhere from three to eight domains of kingdoms.…

  13. Proposal of fifteen new species of Parasynechococcus based on genomic, physiological and ecological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, F H; Dutilh, B E; Thompson, C C; Thompson, F L

    2016-12-01

    Members of the recently proposed genus Parasynechococcus (Cyanobacteria) are extremely abundant throughout the global ocean and contribute significantly to global primary productivity. However, the taxonomy of these organisms remains poorly characterized. The aim of this study was to propose a new taxonomic framework for Parasynechococcus based on a genomic taxonomy approach that incorporates genomic, physiological and ecological data. Through in silico DNA-DNA hybridization, average amino acid identity, dinucleotide signatures and phylogenetic reconstruction, a total of 15 species of Parasynechococcus could be delineated. Each species was then described on the basis of their gene content, light and nutrient utilization strategies, geographical distribution patterns throughout the oceans and response to environmental parameters.

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: Western clawed frog [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis Chordata/Vertebrata/Amphibia Xenopus_tropicalis_L.png Xenopus..._tropicalis_NL.png Xenopus_tropicalis_S.png Xenopus_tropicalis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenopus+tropicalis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenopus+...tropicalis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenopus+tropical...is&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenopus+tropicalis&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=137 ...

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: African clawed frog [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g Xenopus_laevis_NL.png Xenopus_laevis_S.png Xenopus_laevis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Xenopus+laevis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenopus+laevis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenopus+laevis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenopus+laevis&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=11 ...

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese tree frog [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available yla_japonica_NL.png Hyla_japonica_S.png Hyla_japonica_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?...i=Hyla+japonica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+japonica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+japonica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i...con/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+japonica&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=12 ...

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: Old world swallowtail [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aon_NL.png Papilio_machaon_S.png Papilio_machaon_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pap...ilio+machaon&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+machaon&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+machaon&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_...icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+machaon&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=47 ...

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese Bush Warbler [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Cettia_diphone_NL.png Cettia_diphone_S.png Cettia_diphone_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon....cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=26 ...

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: malaria parasite P. falciparum [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available malaria parasite P. falciparum Plasmodium falciparum Plasmodium_falciparum_L.png Plasmodium_falci...parum_NL.png Plasmodium_falciparum_S.png Plasmodium_falciparum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/...taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Plasmodium+falciparum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Plasmodium+falci...parum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Plasmodium+falci...parum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Plasmodium+falciparum&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=218 ...

  20. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simmonds, Peter; Becher, Paul; Bukh, Jens

    2017-01-01

    The Flaviviridae is a family of small enveloped viruses with RNA genomes of 9000-13 000 bases. Most infect mammals and birds. Many flaviviruses are host-specific and pathogenic, such as hepatitis C virus in the genus Hepacivirus. The majority of known members in the genus Flavivirus are arthropod...... borne, and many are important human and veterinary pathogens (e.g. yellow fever virus, dengue virus). This is a summary of the current International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) report on the taxonomy of the Flaviviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/flaviviridae....

  1. Vascular plants of the Nevada Test Site and Central-Southern Nevada: ecologic and geographic distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatley, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    The physical environment of the Nevada Test Site and surrounding area is described with regard to physiography, geology, soils, and climate. A discussion of plant associations is given for the Mojave Desert, Transition Desert, and Great Basin Desert. The vegetation of disturbed sites is discussed with regard to introduced species as well as endangered and threatened species. Collections of vascular plants were made during 1959 to 1975. The plants, belonging to 1093 taxa and 98 families are listed together with information concerning ecologic and geographic distributions. Indexes to families, genera, and species are included. (HLW)

  2. Constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spotila, J.R.

    1992-11-01

    The constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms were quantified. During this project we conducted studies: to determine the role of incubation temperature on the post-hatching growth rate of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina; to establish the rate of energy expenditure of the slider turtle, Trachemys scripta, in the field; to determine the field metabolic rates, body temperatures and selected microclimates of the box turtle, Terrapene carolina, and to measure the effect of diet type on the consumption rate, digestion rate and digestive efficiency of adult T. scripta. We also completed our research on the three-dimensional bioenergetic climate space for freshwater turtles.

  3. Inferences from the historical distribution of wild and domesticated maize provide ecological and evolutionary insight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B Hufford

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The species Zea mays includes both domesticated maize (ssp. mays and its closest wild relatives known as the teosintes. While genetic and archaeological studies have provided a well-established history of Z. mays evolution, there is currently minimal description of its current and past distribution. Here, we implemented species distribution modeling using paleoclimatic models of the last interglacial (LI; ∼135,000 BP and the last glacial maximum (LGM; ∼21,000 BP to hindcast the distribution of Zea mays subspecies over time and to revisit current knowledge of its phylogeography and evolutionary history. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a large occurrence data set and the distribution modeling MaxEnt algorithm, we obtained robust present and past species distributions of the two widely distributed teosinte subspecies (ssps. parviglumis and mexicana revealing almost perfect complementarity, stable through time, of their occupied distributions. We also investigated the present distributions of primitive maize landraces, which overlapped but were broader than those of the teosintes. Our data reinforced the idea that little historical gene flow has occurred between teosinte subspecies, but maize has served as a genetic bridge between them. We observed an expansion of teosinte habitat from the LI, consistent with population genetic data. Finally, we identified locations potentially serving as refugia for the teosintes throughout epochs of climate change and sites that should be targeted in future collections. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The restricted and highly contrasting ecological niches of the wild teosintes differ substantially from domesticated maize. Variables determining the distributions of these taxa can inform future considerations of local adaptation and the impacts of climate change. Our assessment of the changing distributions of Zea mays taxa over time offers a unique glimpse into the history of maize, highlighting a

  4. Fauna characteristics and ecological distribution of Carnivora and Artiodactyla in Niubeiliang National Nature Reserve,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Zhigao; SONG Yanling; MA Yingtai; WANG Xifeng; WU Xuntao; XIE Zhenfeng; SHAO Jianbin; LI Chunning

    2007-01-01

    Niubeiliang National Nature Reserve (NNR,108°45'-109°04'E,33°47'-33°56'N)is located on the eastern range of the Qinling Mountains in Shannxi Province,China and spans the southern and northern slopes of Mt.Qiuling.A transect survey and investigation were carried out in NNR to determine the fauna characteristics and ecological distribution of carnivora and artiodactyla from May 2003 to August 2004.The NNR has 18 mammals (carnivore and artiodactyl),two of which belong to the first class and seven to the second class of state key protected wildlife in China.The results of this study indicated that ungulates were abundant in the NNR,as all ungulates that were distributed within bit.Qiuling could be found within the reserve.However,only45.5%of the carnivores distributed within Mt.Qinling were detected within the NNR.Among the mammals,there were 12 oriental species (66.7%),1 palearctic specie (5.5%)and 5 widely-distributed species (27.8%).The NNR is a crossing area of palearctic species and oriental species on the zoogeographical regions,and it is a transitional area from the oriental realm to the palearctic realm.The results of the analysis on the ecological distribution of carnivore and artiodactyl in the area showed that their elevation ranges had large differences.The species whose elevation ranges above 1300 m,about 1000 m,and in 450-700 m occupied one third respectively.The results also indicated that species richness for the mammals in the NNR peaked at a middle elevation (rising at first,then descending with the increase in elevation).Not only on the southern slope,but also on the northern slope of Mt.Qinling,the number of species distributed in the area at 1800-2200 m a.s.l.was the largest (more than 80%),while the number of species distributed in the area above 2 600 m a.s.l.was the smallest (about 50%).Elevation gradients of species richness for the mammals in the NNR also embodied the mammal distributions among the vegetation types.The number of species

  5. Distribution and habitat ecology of the sorediate species of Menegazzia (Parmeliaceae, lichenized Ascomycota in Chile Distribución y ecología de las especies sorediosas de Menegazzia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota liquenizado en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JARLE W BJERKE

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The taxonomy and ecology of the sorediate species of Menegazzia from the southernmost regions of Chile and Argentina and the South Atlantic Islands was recently published, only with sporadic reports from the more northern regions. In the present work the distribution patterns and habitat ecology of the sorediate species are discussed, with emphasis on the area north of 48º S. Eleven species are treated. Menegazzia subpertusa, an epiphyte of sclerophyll scrubs, is recorded from South America for the first time (Chile and Argentina. Menegazzia neozelandica has a disjunct distribution in Chile, with occurrences in Fray Jorge (Fourth Region of Chile and on Islas Juan Fernández, and along the coast south of latitude 38º S. Menegazzia kawesqarica and M. tenuis are most common in the southernmost part of Chile, but are also found at high altitudes at lower latitudes. Additional treated species are M. chrysogaster, M. fumarprotocetrarica, M. globulifera, M. magellanica, M. norsorediata, M. sanguinascens and M. wandae. Several of the sorediate species are early colonisers of newly developed substrates. They show variable occurrences along light and humidity gradients. Distribution maps and a revised key are presented.Recientemente se han publicado datos sobre la taxonomía y ecología de las especies sorediosas de Menegazzia representadas en las regiones más australes de Chile y Argentina e islas del Atlántico Sur, además de registros esporádicos en zonas ubicadas más al norte en Chile. En este trabajo se discuten los patrones de distribución y la ecología del hábitat de 11 especies sorediosas, con especial enfásis en aquellas que se desarrollan al norte de los 48º S. Menegazzia subpertusa, un epífito de arbustos esclerófilos, se registra por primera vez en América (Chile y Argentina. Menegazzia neozelandica tiene una distribución discontinua en Chile; ha sido recolectada en Fray Jorge (Cuarta Región de Chile, Islas Juan Fern

  6. Ecological niche model to predict the potential distribution of phytoplankton in the Aguamilpa Dam, Nayarit. Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Macias-Cuellar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton species are an important basis of the food web for various systems such as pelagic, coastal and lake. Due to their photosynthetic capacity, this community is sensitive to changes in light availability, temperature, nutrient concentrations, herbivores consumption, parasitism and competition. Therefore, they show a high spatial and temporal variability related to environmental changes both natural and anthropogenic. However, as any taxonomic group, phytoplankton species have environmental thresholds, ecological niches that define their distribution. This study was located in Aguamilpa Dam, an artificial aquatic reservoir which started operations in 1994 for electric energy production. In this system the potential distribution of the phytoplankton was evaluated, where the highest species richness and restricted distribution areas were identified. Potential distribution models based on ecological niche definition were generated using ArcMap 9.2® with Maxent (Maximun Entropy Method. The development of distribution maps was carried out using Digital Elevation Models in cells of 100 m x 100 m (1 ha, based on nine physico-chemical and biological water parameters monitored in the reservoir. The highest species richness areas were found in the Huaynamota river tributary and at the station called La Confluencia, while the less abundance areas were found in the Santiago river tributary during warm and cold dry seasons with a great abundance of cyanophyta. During the rainfall season, the Huaynamota river tributary diversity areas were extended and the presence of some dominant species of cyanophyta were indentified. These species can be associated with trophic processes related to anthropogenic pollutants in the reservoir. This study illustrates the potential application of niche modeling approach in aquatic ecosystems.

  7. Spatial correlations of population and ecological factors with distribution of visceral leishmaniasis cases in southwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin Ghatee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Leishmaniasis as a dynamic disease may be markedly influenced by demographic and ecological factors. A geospatial information system study was developed to determine the distribution of visceral leishmaniasis (VL cases in relation to population, climatic and environmental factors in Fars province, southwest of Iran. Methods: The dwelling addresses of 217 VL patients were obtained from hospital files. A hazard map produced by unifying buffers (5 km around nomads travel routes (NTR was developed to survey the effect of close proximity to NTR on the distribution of VL. Mean annual rainfall (MAR, mean annual temperature (MAT, four months temperature mean (T4, elevation, slope and landcover were climatic and environmental factors that have been analysed. Finally, data of dwelling foci were extracted from maps and analysed using logistic regression models. Results: Close proximity to NTR was the most important factor influenced on the disease distribution. Climatic factors were in second rank. Among them, temperature especially T4 is the most effective variable and rainfall was also shown to be another effective climatic agent. Most cases of VL were reported from temperate and semiarid areas in western and central regions while arid condition was a confined factor. The environmental factor of landcovers including urban, dry farm and thin forest regions was revealed as the third rank effective factor. Altitude importance was only shown when its effect was studied independently from other factors. Interpretation & conclusion: These findings present the distribution of VL in Fars province is influenced by combination of ecological and nomads demographical variables although closeness to NTR and nomads role in distribution and continuance of kala-azar are the most important factors.

  8. Taxonomy of Indonesian giant clams (Cardiidae, Tridacninae)

    OpenAIRE

    UDHI EKO HERNAWAN

    2012-01-01

    Hernawan E. 2012. Taxonomy of Indonesian giant clams (Cardiidae, Tridacninae). Biodiversitas 13: 118-123. A taxonomic study was conducted on the giant clam’s specimens deposited in Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense (MZB), Cibinong Indonesia. Taxonomic overviews of the examined specimens are given with diagnostic characters, remarks, habitat and distribution. Discussion is focused on specific characters distinguishing each species. From seven species known to distribute in Indonesian waters, there ...

  9. Ticks as vectors: taxonomy, biology and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Peña, A

    2015-04-01

    Ticks are prominent parasites and competent vectors of pathogens that affect both humans and animals. This review outlines and illustrates the main features of the morphology of ticks of the families Ixodidae and Argasidae, and summarises the basic components of their life cycles. It focuses mainly on development processes and mortality among tick populations so as to provide an overview of how they are regulated in nature and how pathogens can be transmitted under such a framework. The effects of the weather on these life cycles are reviewed. The author also examines how landscape structure and biotic factors, such as the presence and abundance of hosts, may shape the density of tick populations. The uncertainty inherent in dealing with the transmission of pathogens by ticks is highlighted; this results from the sometimes complex relationships among the vectors, the climate and the presence and density of host populations. The need to obtain reliable field estimations of such relationships before drawing conclusions about the effects of the isolated components of the system is stressed. A section is devoted to addressing the expected (and not yet totally understood) effects of trends in climate on the spread of ticks, and how these can be analysed and tracked.

  10. Comment: 2 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available bottlenosed dolphin Tursiops truncatus Tursiops_truncatus_L.png 2.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Cen...ter for Life Science licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan サンプルの投稿です ttamura 2008/10/29 11:43:57 ...

  11. Comment: 13 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Life Science licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan ヒトアイコンの別候補を作成してみました。 ttamura 2008/11/06 17:14:44 ... ...Human Homo sapiens Homo_sapiens_L.png 13.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for

  12. Taxonomy in Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Jerry P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines a theoretical paradigm for distinguishing thinking, knowing and believing. A new taxonomy is presented for categorizing levels of knowing and outlines a structure of justification for each level. The paper discusses and explains the importance of such distinctions in decision making and thinking in general.

  13. Comment: 215 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 215.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Science licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan アイコン:電子顕微鏡バージョン bando 2010/02/15 15:30:03 2010/02/15 15:30:03 ...

  14. Comment: 61 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Science licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan イメージを差し替えました(添付は旧イメージ) ttamura 2009/04/21 12:50:03 ...

  15. Root Ecological Niche Index and Root Distribution Characteristics of Artificial Phytocommunities in Rehabilitated Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Jianzhong; Zhen Jiali; Shen Jingyu

    2006-01-01

    In the implementation phase of the Conversion of Cropland to Forest and Grassland (CCFG) project in China,it is important,from a scientific point of view,to recognize phytocommunities' characteristics,species compatibility,and ecological function.The ecological niche that roots occupy,their abundance and distribution,and the factors that affect them must be acknowledged.Following the methodology of community ecology,the total root mass of a phytocommunity is measured as cubic volume.Root biomass,length,and the number of roots in every diameter class,for each soil layer and for each plant species,are regarded as observation variables.In the first instance therefore,a new method to calculate the root ecological niche index (REND is proposed,embracing the entire phytocommunity of plantations.Using the new method,the roots of pbytocommunities in Datong County,Qinghai Province (one of the counties selected for the national CCFG experiment),are dealt with in this paper.The results show that most of the vertical distributions of plant roots belong to the type wherein the roots are concentrated in the topsoil layer (0-20 cm),far more than those in the lower soil layers.The RENI of pbytocommunities is higher than that of pure stands or monocultures.The distribution of RENI by root diameter can be divided into four types:J-type,inverse J-type,recumbent S-type,and U-type.RENI is positively correlated with the wet biomass of aboveground level stems,branches,and plant leaves,and with the species richness of phytocommunities.Although the RENIs of plantations in rehabilitated fields are a little lower than those of natural forests,they are higher than those of cultivated crops.The RENIs of three community types (Picea crassifolia+Hippophae rhamnoides ssp.sinensis,H.rhamnoides ssp.sinensis,and P.crassifolia) in rehabilitated fields benefit greatly from the restoration project.The implementation of the CCFG project is important for the increase in RENI and the multiple functions of

  16. An alternative to soil taxonomy for describing key soil characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duniway, Michael C.; Miller, Mark E.; Brown, Joel R.; Toevs, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    We are pleased to see the letter by Schimel and Chadwick (Front Ecol Environ 2013; 11[8]: 405–06), highlighting the importance of soil characterization in ecological and biogeochemical research and explaining the value of soil taxonomy, and we agree with the authors that reporting soil

  17. Species composition,distribution patterns and ecological functions of biological soil crusts in the Gurbantunggut Desert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As one of the most important biological factors that maintain the stability of the largest fixed and semi-fixed desert in China,the Gurbantunggut Desert,the biological soil crusts (BSCs) develop well and play critical ecological roles in the desert ecosystem. In this paper,we briefly summarize our research findings since 2002 including species composition,distribution pattern and ecological functions of BSCs in the desert. Our results indicate abundant species diversity of BSCs in the Gurbantunggut Desert in comparison to other deserts in China. At the scales of sand dune or whole desert,the distribution patterns of BSCs are location-specific. The existence of BSCs in this desert could:(1) accelerate the formation of desert soil and the weathering of minerals; (2) accumulate organic matter in surface soil through related species in soil crusts; (3) enhance the abilities of sand surface to resist wind erosion; (4) influence seed germination of vascular plants; and (5) enhance the production of dew deposition on sandy soil surface.

  18. The distribution characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus in the ecological system of Mt. Beigu wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yanyou; LI Pingping; HAO Jianchao; WU Chundu; FU Weiguo

    2009-01-01

    The Mt. Beigu wetland, which has undergone periodical changes in water level, lies by the Yangtze River, and its dominant plants are Phragmites communis, Phalaris arundinacea and Polygonum lapathifolium. In order to study the distribution characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus in the ecological system of the Mt. Beigu wetland, the authors measured the contents of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in Phragmites communis, Phalaris arundinacea and Polygonum lapathifolium, and the contents of nitrogen and phosphorus in the wetland soils with different plant species. In addition the authors investigated the influence of various plants on the spatial and seasonal (spring/autumn) distributions of nitrogen and phosphorus in the wetland soil. The contents of nitrogen and phosphoms in Phalaris arundinacea are significantly higher than those of the other two plant species in the same part. Secondary pollution of phosphorus in the wetland results mainly from Phalaris arundinacea. Phragmites com-munis effectively carries away nitrogen and phosphorus in the wetland soil in the wet season. The capacity of Poly-gonum lapathifolium to remove nitrogen is lowest among the 3 species of plants. These findings offer a theoretical foundation for the selection of plant species to restore the ecological environment and for the selection of time and depth for purging silt on the riverside wetland.

  19. Nacellidae limpets of the southern end of South America: taxonomy and distribution Lapas Nacellidae del extremo sur de Sudamérica: taxonomía y distribución

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIO VALDOVINOS

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomically, the Mollusca of the southern end of South America are moderately well known, but the literature is scattered, there is little information on their habitats, and distributional records are scarce for the Chilean archipelago lying between Chiloé Island (42° S and Tierra del Fuego (55° S. Although much is known about the biology and ecology of of some species of Nacellidae, the taxonomy of the group have been partially neglected, particularly in remote areas of the world such as the Chilean fjords. Therefore, this study aims to clarify the nomenclatural status, and establish the morphological characteristics and distribution of the Chilean Nacellidae. Especially, the following three objectives are pursued: (i to clarify the correct identity of existing species; (ii to describe of morphological details, highlighting the clear diagnostic characters of each species, and (iii to delimitate and discuss their geographical range in Chile. The examination of the Nacellidae of the Chilean fiords has resulted in the recognition of one species of Nacella (Nacella and seven species of Nacella (Patinigera, wherein the principal specific differences are in the shell (shape, thickness and color and in radular teeth morphology. The genus Nacella and its subgenus Patinigera are cold-water limpets, and are exclusively inhabitants of Subantarctic and Antarctic waters. The greater part of their range being subantarctic, but extending to the Antarctic by way of the Scotia Arc, and also ranging northward up the Chilean coast to at least Valparaiso at 33° S (only N. (P. clypeater. They apparently have their centre of distribution in the Magellanic Province of southern South America, corresponding to an area with a high degree of diversification (N. (N. mytilina, N. (P. chiloensis, N. (P. deaurata, N. (P. delicatissima, N. (P. flammea, N. (P. magellanica, N. (P. venosa, wherefrom the species tends to spread eastward, with a larval transport probably

  20. Potential distribution of Mexican primates: modeling the ecological niche with the maximum entropy algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-García, Francisca; Serio-Silva, Juan Carlos

    2011-07-01

    We developed a potential distribution model for the tropical rain forest species of primates of southern Mexico: the black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra), the mantled howler monkey (Alouatta palliata), and the spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi). To do so, we applied the maximum entropy algorithm from the ecological niche modeling program MaxEnt. For each species, we used occurrence records from scientific collections, and published and unpublished sources, and we also used the 19 environmental coverage variables related to precipitation and temperature from WorldClim to develop the models. The predicted distribution of A. pigra was strongly associated with the mean temperature of the warmest quarter (23.6%), whereas the potential distributions of A. palliata and A. geoffroyi were strongly associated with precipitation during the coldest quarter (52.2 and 34.3% respectively). The potential distribution of A. geoffroyi is broader than that of the Alouatta spp. The areas with the greatest probability of presence of A. pigra and A. palliata are strongly associated with riparian vegetation, whereas the presence of A. geoffroyi is more strongly associated with the presence of rain forest. Our most significant contribution is the identification of areas with a high probability of the presence of these primate species, which is information that can be applied to planning future studies and then establishing criteria for the creation of areas to primate conservation in Mexico.

  1. Spatial Distribution of Elephants versus Human and Ecological Variables in Western Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Danquah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An elephant survey was conducted in the Bia-Goaso Forest Block in western Ghana during the wet season month of November 2012 to determine the distribution of elephants and assess the human and ecological variables that affect them. One hundred and thirty 1-kilometre transects were systematically distributed in three strata (high, medium, and low density based on elephant dung pile density recorded in an initial reconnaissance. Elephant activity was concentrated in southern and mid-Bia Conservation Area, the southern tip of Bia North Forest Reserve, and eastern Mpameso Forest Reserve towards the adjoining Bia Shelter belt, indicating a clumped distribution. Secondary forest, water availability, poaching activity, and proximity to roads and settlements explained a high proportion of variance in elephant distribution. Given that the Bia-Goaso Forest Block forms an important biogeographic corridor between Ghana and Cote d’Ivoire, more effort should be directed at mitigating the problems such as poaching activity, vehicular traffic, and impacts of settlements that hinder seasonal movements of forest elephants between western Ghana and eastern Cote d’Ivoire.

  2. Using the negative binomial distribution to model overdispersion in ecological count data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindén, Andreas; Mäntyniemi, Samu

    2011-07-01

    A Poisson process is a commonly used starting point for modeling stochastic variation of ecological count data around a theoretical expectation. However, data typically show more variation than implied by the Poisson distribution. Such overdispersion is often accounted for by using models with different assumptions about how the variance changes with the expectation. The choice of these assumptions can naturally have apparent consequences for statistical inference. We propose a parameterization of the negative binomial distribution, where two overdispersion parameters are introduced to allow for various quadratic mean-variance relationships, including the ones assumed in the most commonly used approaches. Using bird migration as an example, we present hypothetical scenarios on how overdispersion can arise due to sampling, flocking behavior or aggregation, environmental variability, or combinations of these factors. For all considered scenarios, mean-variance relationships can be appropriately described by the negative binomial distribution with two overdispersion parameters. To illustrate, we apply the model to empirical migration data with a high level of overdispersion, gaining clearly different model fits with different assumptions about mean-variance relationships. The proposed framework can be a useful approximation for modeling marginal distributions of independent count data in likelihood-based analyses.

  3. Diversity, distribution and ecology of benthic molluscan communities on the Portuguese continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, R.; Sampaio, L.; Quintino, V.; Rodrigues, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    The diversity, ecology and distribution patterns of the Portuguese continental shelf malacofauna and its relationship with abiotic factors were studied from samples covering the western and the southern coast. A total of 2544 specimens were identified corresponding to 169 taxa, mostly bivalves (62% of the total taxa). Abra alba was the most abundant and the most frequent species. The alpha diversity ranged from one species to 21 spp. 0.1 m- 2. The highest abundance and diversity were obtained in coarser sediments. Multivariate analysis based on the abundance data identified five major malacological groups: (a) Angulus pygmaeus and Thracia villosiuscula in the coarser sediments of the western inner and mid shelf; (b) Calyptraea chinensis and Leptochiton cancellatus in the heterogeneous and organically enriched sediments of the southern shelf; (c) Angulus fabula, Spisula subtruncata and Pharus legumen in the near shore exposed fine sands; (d) A. alba in muddy fine sands, mainly in the northwestern shelf and (e) Saccella commutata in the southwestern deeper shelf. The malacofauna could be used as a proxy for the major benthic communities known to occur in this area, except in muddy patches, where molluscs were absent or low abundant. Median grain-size, gravel content, depth and hydrodynamic regime were the environmental factors best related to the malacofauna spatial distribution patterns. This study sets the first record of Astarte borealis, Leptochiton asellus, Mercenaria mercenaria and Montacuta phascolionis in the Portuguese shelf and the most northern limit for Anadara polii, Glycymeris nummaria, and Leptochiton algesirensis along the northwestern shelf. This study also gives new ecological insights for several species, in terms of bathymetric range distribution, as well as habitat type and highlighted the transitional characteristics of the molluscan communities from this particular northeastern Atlantic area where boreal, temperate and subtropical faunas can

  4. [Ecological distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in alpine grasslands of Tibet Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiao-bu; Peng, Yue-lin; Gai, Jing-ping

    2010-10-01

    Seventy soil samples with the roots of 37 dominant or common plant species on the grasslands in south and north Tibet Plateau were collected to study the ecological distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the investigation area. A total of 35 AM fungi species belonging to 5 genera were isolated, among which, 18 species belonged to Glomus, 9 species belonged to Acaulospora, 6 species belonged to Scutellospora, 1 species belonged to Entrophospora, and 1 species belonged to Paraglomus. There were 23 AM fungi species belonging to 4 genera isolated from south Tibet, and 22 species belonging to 4 genera from north Tibet. The Shannon diversity index of AM fungi in south and north Tibet Plateau was 2.31 and 2.75, respectively, and the spore density and species richness were significantly higher in north Tibet than in south Tibet. In different ecological zones, lesser AM fungi common species were found, species distribution was more site-specific, and different dominant species were observed. In alpine grassland, mountain meadow, and alpine meadow, the Shannon index of AM fungi was 1.91, 1.83, and 1.80, respectively; while in severely degraded temperate grassland, this index was only 1.64. The highest species richness of AM fungi occurred at the altitude of 4000-4600 m, but the highest Shannon index and species evenness occurred at the altitude of 4600-5220 m, with the values being 2.42 and 0.79, respectively. At all altitudes, Glomus was the dominant genus, and its relative abundance was higher when the altitude was below 4000 m. Acaulospora was mainly observed at the altitudes higher than 4000 m, Scutellospora was mainly distributed at the altitude 3500-5220 m, Paraglomus mainly occurred in the north alpine meadow with an altitude of 4000-5220 m and occasionally in the alpine steppe, whereas Entrophospora was only found in the south temperate grassland with an altitude of 3500-3700 m.

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: aye-aye [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aye-aye Daubentonia madagascariensis Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/P...rimate Daubentonia_madagascariensis_L.png Daubentonia_madagascariensis_NL.png Daubentonia_madagascariensis_S....png Daubentonia_madagascariensis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Daubentonia+madagascar...iensis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Daubentonia+madagascar...iensis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Daubentonia+madagascariensis&t=S http://bi

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: Ptychodera flava Eschscholtz (Acorn worm) [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available flava_L.png Ptychodera_flava_NL.png Ptychodera_flava_S.png Ptychodera_flava_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+flava&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+fla...va&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+flava&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxo...nomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+flava&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=161 ...

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: Javan tree shrew [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Javan tree shrew Tupaia javanica Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Tupaia_java...nica_L.png Tupaia_javanica_NL.png Tupaia_javanica_S.png Tupaia_javanica_NS.png http://bioscienced...bc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tupaia+javanica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tupaia+java...nica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tupaia+javanica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tupaia+javanica&t=NS ...

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: Pacific electric ray [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pacific electric ray Torpedo californica Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Torpedo_californica_L.png Torpedo..._californica_NL.png Torpedo_californica_S.png Torpedo_californica_NS.png http://biosc...iencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Torpedo+californica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Torpedo...+californica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Torpedo...+californica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Torpedo+californica&t=NS ...

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: gold crucian carp [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gold crucian carp Carassius auratus auratus Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Carassius_auratus_aura...tus_L.png Carassius_auratus_auratus_NL.png Carassius_auratus_auratus_S.png Carassius_auratus_aura...tus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=L http://bioscie...ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=NL http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=NS ...

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: white-tufted-ear marmoset [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available white-tufted-ear marmoset Callithrix jacchus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Call...ithrix_jacchus_L.png Callithrix_jacchus_NL.png Callithrix_jacchus_S.png Callithrix_jacchu...s_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Callithrix+jacchus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cal...lithrix+jacchus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Call...ithrix+jacchus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Callithrix+jacchus&t=NS ...

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: Reeve's pond turtle [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Reeve's pond turtle Chinemys reevesii Chordata/Vertebrata/Reptilia/etc Chinemys_reevesii_L.png Chinemys_reev...esii_NL.png Chinemys_reevesii_S.png Chinemys_reevesii_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.j...p/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Chinemys+reevesii&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Chinemys+reeve...sii&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Chinemys+reevesii&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Chinemys+reevesii&t=NS ...

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: Florida lancelet (amphioxus) [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Florida lancelet (amphioxus) Branchiostoma floridae Chordata/Urochordata,Cephalochorda...ta Branchiostoma_floridae_L.png Branchiostoma_floridae_NL.png Branchiostoma_floridae_S.png Branchiostoma_florida...e_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Branchiostoma+floridae&t=L http://bioscienc...edbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Branchiostoma+floridae&t=NL http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Branchiostoma+floridae&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Branchiostoma+florida

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: Southern elephant seal [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Carnivora Mirounga_leon...ina_L.png Mirounga_leonina_NL.png Mirounga_leonina_S.png Mirounga_leonina_NS.png ht...tp://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mirounga+leonina&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mirounga+leon...ina&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mirounga+leon...ina&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mirounga+leonina&t=NS ...

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: gray short-tailed opossum [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gray short-tailed opossum Monodelphis domestica Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria.../Metatheria Monodelphis_domestica_L.png Monodelphis_domestica_NL.png Monodelphis_domestica_S.png Monodelphis_domestic...a_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Monodelphis+domestica&t=L http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Monodelphis+domestica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Monodelphis+domestica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Monodelphis+domestica&t=NS ...

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: California sea lion [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available California sea lion Zalophus californianus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Euth...eria/Carnivora Zalophus_californianus_L.png Zalophus_californianus_NL.png Zalophus_californianus_S.png Zalophus_california...nus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Zalophus+californianus&t=L http://...biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Zalophus+californianus&t=NL http://bios...ciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Zalophus+californianus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Zalophus+californianus&t=NS ...

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: Diplazium tomitaroanum Masam [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Diplazium tomitaroanum Masam Diplazium tomitaroanum Masam Diplazium_tomitaroanum_Masa...m_L.png Diplazium_tomitaroanum_Masam_NL.png Diplazium_tomitaroanum_Masam_S.png Diplazium_tomitaroanum_Masa...m_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Diplazium+tomitaroanum+Masam&t=L http://bioscience...dbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Diplazium+tomitaroanum+Masam&t=NL http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Diplazium+tomitaroanum+Masam&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Diplazium+tomitaroanum+Masam&t=NS ...

  17. Company Taxonomy development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Haakon; Ørnager, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    and knowledge, greater internal collaborations and stronger links with various sources of knowledge. Staff participating in the various workshops pointed out that work processes as well as the human resources component cannot be left out of a solution development. Originality/value – There has been little......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore theoretically and empirically the understanding and implementation of an information taxonomy in the UN organization World Food Programme (WFP) by analysing users’ information behaviour and by establishing a minimum set of cross-silo metadata...... (taxonomy). Design/methodology/approach – The study implies the use of both qualitative and quantitative methods. This includes desk review of key documents and interviews with information architecture staff from various WFP units; data collection carried out as semi-structured staff interviews in WFP; log...

  18. Speciation, distribution, and potential ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in Xiamen Bay surface sediment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Cai; LIU Yang; LI Wenquan; SUN Xiuwu; JI Weidong

    2014-01-01

    Based on the survey of surface sediment in Xiamen Bay in October 2011, the speciation, distribution, and potential ecological risk assessment of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr) in this area were studied us-ing the sequential extraction method and ecological risk assessment method. The results indicated:(1) the total concentrations of these heavy metals were influenced by runoff, industrial wastewater, and sewage, and were all higher in the coastal area than the offshore area while the highest area of Pb was a little far-ther away from the coastal water due to atmosphere deposition;(2) sequential extractions suggested that Cu was mainly composed with residual and Fe/Mn-oxide bound fractions, Pb was bound to Fe/Mn-oxide, Zn and Cr were dominated by residual, and Cd bound to exchangeable and carbonate fractions; (3) the order of migration and transformation sequence was Cd>Pb>Cu>Zn>Cr and the degree of pollution was Cd>Pb>Cu>Zn>Cr;and (4) the ratios of the secondary and primary phases showed that Zn and Cr were both clean, Cu may be polluted, Pb was moderately polluted, while Cd was heavily polluted.

  19. Comment: 219 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese medaka Oryzias latipes Oryzias_latipes_L.png 219.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Sci...ence licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan アイコン:メダカ HNI-Ⅱ系統バージョン bando 2010/02/15 15:31:07 2010/02/16 09:53:27 ...

  20. Composition and ecological distribution of forest soil animal in Confucian graveyard of Qufu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Soil animal communities of Secondary forest, Platycladus forest and Quercus acutissima forest in Confucian graveyard of Qufu were investigated. 3583 specimens were collected, belonging separately to 5 Phylums, 11 Classes and 23 Orders. Two dominant groups and 9 common groups account for 94.45% of the total numbers. The soil animals in these three forest habitats differ in composition, ecological distribution and important indices. The dominant groups of soil animals in the three forests were the same, but other groups differ more greatly. Diversity index (H') and evenness index (E) of soil animal in Secondary forest are the highest, and yet dominance index (C) in Quercus acutissima foerst is the highest. Most soil animals in each forest habitats congregate to the surface soil layer. Their sorts and individual numbers are all layer Ⅰ>Ⅱ>Ⅲ. It is very similar for composition of soil animals in the three forests.

  1. Ecological factors governing the distribution of soil microfungi in some forest soils of Pachmarhi Hills, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Chauhan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An ecological study of the microfungi occurring in the various forest soils of Pachmarhi Hills, India has been carried-out by the soil plate technique. Soil samples from 5 different forest communities viz., moist deciduous forest dominated by tree ferns, Diospyros forest, Terminalia forest, Shorea forest and scrub forest dominated by Acacia and Dalbergia sp. were collected during October, 1983. Some physico-chemical characteristics of the soil were analysed and their role in distribution of fungi in 5 soil types was studied and discussed. 43 fungal species were isolated, of which Asperigillus niger I and Penicillium janthinellum occurred in all the 5 soil types. Statistically, none of the edaphic factors showed positive significant correlation with the number of fungi.

  2. Spatial distribution and ecological risk assessment of metals in sediments of Baiyangdian wetland ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Liya; Liu, Jingling; Christensen, Per

    2011-01-01

    is the biggest wetland in Northeast China. We apply three methodologies. The first is literature analysis comparing total concentrations of heavy metals with other water bodies around world. The second is Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (EQSS), National Environmental Protection Agency of China......Although there are many studies of heavy metal contaminations of sediments, attention has seldom been paid to the problem in developing countries. The purpose of this article is to find the distribution and ecological risk of As, Hg, Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn in surface sediment of Baiyangdian which...... 1995, and the third is Soil and Aquatic Sediment Guidelines and Standards issued by New York Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC). The results show that compared to other water bodies around the world, the seven heavy metals are low. However, Cd was found in the most polluting level...

  3. [Ecological distribution and diversity of medical Ferula species produced in Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Li, Xiao-Jin; Sun, Li; Guo, Shun-xing; Chen, Juan

    2015-01-01

    To study the ecological distribution and diversity of endophytic fungi associated with Ferula of medicinal plants in Xinjiang. The endophytic fungi were isolated from roots, stems and leaves of Ferula by microbiology research methods and technology. The endophytic fungi were identified using ITS rDNA sequence analysis and morphology analysis. The composition, diversity and preference of endophytic fungal community were analyzed with Shannon-Wiener biodiversity index (H') and Sorensen coefficient (Cs). A total of 337 strains endophytic fungi were isolated and classified into 38 genera, Alternaria, Aureobasidium and Fusarium were the dominant genera. Among the 337 isolates, the endophytic fungi of F. sinkiangensis were the most, The Shannon-Wiener biodiversity index (H') associated with roots of F. fukanensis was the highest, reached 1.85. The highest Sorensen coefficient ( Cs) was between leaf of F. sinkiangensis and leaf of F. ovina, reached 0.75. From the result, endophytic fungi were widely distributed in six Ferula, there are some notable differences between distribution and composition of the endophytic fungi isolated from different issues and different species of Ferula, show a certain degree of species and tissue preference. The results obtained in this study will provide realistic basis and theoretical basis for further study the secondary metabolites of endophytic fungi associated with Ferula, and the relationship between endophytic fungi and their host plants.

  4. Reflection and teaching: a taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Vos, Henk; Cowan, John

    2009-01-01

    A major problem in teaching reflection is that educational objectives for reflection in terms of student behaviour are lacking. Therefore a taxonomy of reflection has been developed based on Bloom’s taxonomy. Reflective assignments can then be better focused on any chosen educational objectives. The act of reflection has been analysed and abstracted from goal, content, context, means, and moment of reflecting. Reflection was operationalised as answering reflective questions. Bloom’s taxonomy ...

  5. Macrophyte distribution and ecological status of the Turiec River (Slovakia: Changes after seven years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrivnák R.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of diversity, abundance, distribution, and ecological status of aquatic macrophytes were observed in 2000 and 2007 on a circa 4.5 km long section of the Turiec River using Kohler's method. In comparison to 2000, the total number of macrophytes in 2007 increased markedly (from 25 to 35, although only the numbers of amphi­phytes and helophytes were changed substantially. The number of hydrophytes increased from 11 to 12; an invasive, Elodea canadenis, was the only new species. The relative plant mass of hydrophytes represents the bulk of all recorded species (95 and 80% in 2000 and 2007, respectively, and it was changed for most hydrophytes. The most significant changes were detected for Myriophyllum spicatum (decrease, filamentous algae (decrease, and Potamogeton crispus (increase. In 2007, the mean mass total (MMT sum of hydrophytes decreased from 16.46 to 14.5. On the other hand, the MMTsum of amphiphytes and helophytes doubled in value (7.4 and 14.1 in 2000 and 2007, respectively. Within hydrophytes, Batrachium species (including B. aquatile and B. trichophyllum, Myriophyllum spicatum, and Potamogeton crispus were ubiquitous (distribution ratio d > 0.5 in 2000, whereas in 2007 only Batrachium species and Potamogeton crispus were ubiquitous. At all times, Batrachium species were the most frequent species in the study area, and their abundance was relatively high (MMT> 2.5. A poor ecological status (MMP = 0.378 and MMP = 0.333 in 2000 and 2007, respectively of the surveyed river section was found in both years, but a slight decline of quality as determined on the basis of aquatic plants was observed after 7 years.

  6. Redefining the Australian Anthrax Belt: Modeling the Ecological Niche and Predicting the Geographic Distribution of Bacillus anthracis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alassane S Barro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The ecology and distribution of B. anthracis in Australia is not well understood, despite the continued occurrence of anthrax outbreaks in the eastern states of the country. Efforts to estimate the spatial extent of the risk of disease have been limited to a qualitative definition of an anthrax belt extending from southeast Queensland through the centre of New South Wales and into northern Victoria. This definition of the anthrax belt does not consider the role of environmental conditions in the distribution of B. anthracis. Here, we used the genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction model system (GARP, historical anthrax outbreaks and environmental data to model the ecological niche of B. anthracis and predict its potential geographic distribution in Australia. Our models reveal the niche of B. anthracis in Australia is characterized by a narrow range of ecological conditions concentrated in two disjunct corridors. The most dominant corridor, used to redefine a new anthrax belt, parallels the Eastern Highlands and runs from north Victoria to central east Queensland through the centre of New South Wales. This study has redefined the anthrax belt in eastern Australia and provides insights about the ecological factors that limit the distribution of B. anthracis at the continental scale for Australia. The geographic distributions identified can help inform anthrax surveillance strategies by public and veterinary health agencies.

  7. Richness, geographic distribution and ecological aspects of the fern community within the Murici Ecological Station in the state of Alagoas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Flora de Novaes Pereira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a floristic survey of ferns within the Murici Ecological Station (remnant of the northeastern Atlantic Forest, located near the municipalities of Messias and Murici, in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. To increase knowledge of the ferns of Alagoas, we evaluated the species occurring in the study area in terms of richness, composition, geographic distribution, similarities with species in other Brazilian biomes, regional conservation status and ecological aspects. Data were obtained from field work conducted between March 2009 and September 2010. We identified 107 species of ferns, of which 19 represent new records for Alagoas. The richest families were Pteridaceae (29 species and Polypodiaceae (22 species. The richest genera were Adiantum (15 species and Thelypteris (9 species. Most of the species sampled are widely distributed throughout Brazil and the Americas. Within the context of the northeastern Atlantic Forest, 12 species were considered endangered. Concerning the ecological aspects, 88.8% of the species identified were herbaceous, 57.9% were terrestrial and 70.0% occurred in the forest interior.

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: Synechocystis sp.PCC 6803 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Synechocystis_sp_PCC_6803_NL.png Synechocystis_sp_PCC_6803_S.png Synechocystis_sp_PCC_6803_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Synechocystis+sp%2ePCC+6803&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ico...n/icon.cgi?i=Synechocystis+sp%2ePCC+6803&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic...on/icon.cgi?i=Synechocystis+sp%2ePCC+6803&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Synechocystis...+sp%2ePCC+6803&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=69 ...

  9. Distribution and Conservation of Davilla (Dilleniaceae in Brazilian Atlantic Forest Using Ecological Niche Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Martins Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have modeled the ecological niche for 12 plant species belonging to the genus Davilla (Dilleniaceae which occur in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. This group includes endemic species lianas threatened by extinction and is therefore a useful indicator for forest areas requiring conservation. The aims are to compare the distribution and richness of species within the protected areas, assessing the degree of protection and gap analysis of reserves for this group. We used the Maxent algorithm with environmental and occurrence data, and produced geographic distribution maps. The results show that high species richness occurs in forest and coastal forest of Espírito Santo to Bahia states. The endemic species comprise D. flexuosa, D. macrocarpa, D. flexuosa, D. grandifolia, and D. sessilifolia. In the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil, the following endemic species occur: D. tintinnabulata and D. glaziovii, with this latter species being included in the “red list” due habitat loss and predatory extractivism. The indicators of species richness in the coastal region of Bahia correspond with floristic inventories that point to this area having a high biodiversity. Although this region has several protected areas, there are gaps in reserves, which, combined with anthropogenic threats and fragmentation, have caused several problems for biodiversity.

  10. Spatial distribution of psychotic disorders in an urban area of France: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignon, Baptiste; Schürhoff, Franck; Baudin, Grégoire; Ferchiou, Aziz; Richard, Jean-Romain; Saba, Ghassen; Leboyer, Marion; Kirkbride, James B; Szöke, Andrei

    2016-05-18

    Previous analyses of neighbourhood variations of non-affective psychotic disorders (NAPD) have focused mainly on incidence. However, prevalence studies provide important insights on factors associated with disease evolution as well as for healthcare resource allocation. This study aimed to investigate the distribution of prevalent NAPD cases in an urban area in France. The number of cases in each neighbourhood was modelled as a function of potential confounders and ecological variables, namely: migrant density, economic deprivation and social fragmentation. This was modelled using statistical models of increasing complexity: frequentist models (using Poisson and negative binomial regressions), and several Bayesian models. For each model, assumptions validity were checked and compared as to how this fitted to the data, in order to test for possible spatial variation in prevalence. Data showed significant overdispersion (invalidating the Poisson regression model) and residual autocorrelation (suggesting the need to use Bayesian models). The best Bayesian model was Leroux's model (i.e. a model with both strong correlation between neighbouring areas and weaker correlation between areas further apart), with economic deprivation as an explanatory variable (OR = 1.13, 95% CI [1.02-1.25]). In comparison with frequentist methods, the Bayesian model showed a better fit. The number of cases showed non-random spatial distribution and was linked to economic deprivation.

  11. Software Vulnerability Taxonomy Consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polepeddi, Sriram S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2004-12-07

    In today's environment, computers and networks are increasing exposed to a number of software vulnerabilities. Information about these vulnerabilities is collected and disseminated via various large publicly available databases such as BugTraq, OSVDB and ICAT. Each of these databases, individually, do not cover all aspects of a vulnerability and lack a standard format among them, making it difficult for end-users to easily compare various vulnerabilities. A central database of vulnerabilities has not been available until today for a number of reasons, such as the non-uniform methods by which current vulnerability database providers receive information, disagreement over which features of a particular vulnerability are important and how best to present them, and the non-utility of the information presented in many databases. The goal of this software vulnerability taxonomy consolidation project is to address the need for a universally accepted vulnerability taxonomy that classifies vulnerabilities in an unambiguous manner. A consolidated vulnerability database (CVDB) was implemented that coalesces and organizes vulnerability data from disparate data sources. Based on the work done in this paper, there is strong evidence that a consolidated taxonomy encompassing and organizing all relevant data can be achieved. However, three primary obstacles remain: lack of referencing a common ''primary key'', un-structured and free-form descriptions of necessary vulnerability data, and lack of data on all aspects of a vulnerability. This work has only considered data that can be unambiguously extracted from various data sources by straightforward parsers. It is felt that even with the use of more advanced, information mining tools, which can wade through the sea of unstructured vulnerability data, this current integration methodology would still provide repeatable, unambiguous, and exhaustive results. Though the goal of coalescing all available data

  12. Faceted Taxonomy-Based Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzitzikas, Yannis

    The objective of this chapter is to explain the underlying mathematical structure of faceted taxonomy-based sources and to provide some common notions and notations that are used in some parts of the book. Subsequently, and on the basis of the introduced formalism, this chapter describes the interaction between a user and an information source that supports dynamic taxonomies and faceted search.

  13. Reflection and teaching: a taxonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Henk; Cowan, John

    2009-01-01

    A major problem in teaching reflection is that educational objectives for reflection in terms of student behaviour are lacking. Therefore a taxonomy of reflection has been developed based on Bloom’s taxonomy. Reflective assignments can then be better focused on any chosen educational objectives. The

  14. Distribution of phytoplankton functional types in high-nitrate low-chlorophyll waters in a new diagnostic ecological indicator model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacz, Artur; St. John, Michael; Brevin, R.J.W.

    2013-01-01

    and temporal distribution of phyto-PFTs. We apply an innovative ecological indicator approach to modeling PFTs, and focus on resolving the question of diatom-coccolithophore co-existence in the subpolar high-nitrate and low-chlorophyll regions. We choose an artificial neural network as our modeling framework...

  15. Contribution of topographically based landslide hazard modelling to the analysis of the spatial distribution and ecology of kauri

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, L.F.G.; Verburg, P.H.; Schoorl, J.M.; Veldkamp, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the use of topographical attributes for the analysis of the spatial distribution and ecological cycle of kauri (Agathis australis), a canopy emergent conifer tree from northern New Zealand, is studied. Several primary and secondary topographical attributes are derived from a Digital El

  16. Larval description of Drusus bosnicus Klapálek 1899 (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae), with distributional, molecular and ecological features

    Science.gov (United States)

    KUČINIĆ, MLADEN; PREVIŠIĆ, ANA; GRAF, WOLFRAM; MIHOCI, IVA; ŠOUFEK, MARIN; STANIĆ-KOŠTROMAN, SVJETLANA; LELO, SUVAD; VITECEK, SIMON; WARINGER, JOHANN

    2016-01-01

    In this study we present morphological, molecular and ecological features of the last instar larvae of Drusus bosnicus with data about distribution of this species in Bosnia and Herzegovina. We also included are the most important diagnostic features enabling separation of larvae of D. bosnicus from larvae of the other European Drusinae and Trichoptera species. PMID:26249056

  17. Ecological and spatial modeling : mapping ecosystems, landscape changes, and plant species distribution in Llanos del Orinoco, Venezuela

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno, E.J.C.

    2007-01-01

    The transformation of Llanos del Orinoco, focused on the flooding savanna, is evaluated in terms of the change and replacement of the savanna ecosystem and the plant species distribution under a Landscape Ecological approach. This research is carried out at three spatial scales: sub-continental, reg

  18. Distribution of phytoplankton functional types in high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll waters in a new diagnostic ecological indicator model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Palacz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Modeling and monitoring plankton functional types (PFTs is challenged by the insufficient amount of field measurements of ground truths in both plankton models and bio-optical algorithms. In this study, we combine remote sensing data and a dynamic plankton model to simulate an ecologically sound spatial and temporal distribution of phyto-PFTs. We apply an innovative ecological indicator approach to modeling PFTs and focus on resolving the question of diatom–coccolithophore coexistence in the subpolar high-nitrate and low-chlorophyll regions. We choose an artificial neural network as our modeling framework because it has the potential to interpret complex nonlinear interactions governing complex adaptive systems, of which marine ecosystems are a prime example. Using ecological indicators that fulfill the criteria of measurability, sensitivity and specificity, we demonstrate that our diagnostic model correctly interprets some basic ecological rules similar to ones emerging from dynamic models. Our time series highlight a dynamic phyto-PFT community composition in all high-latitude areas and indicate seasonal coexistence of diatoms and coccolithophores. This observation, though consistent with in situ and remote sensing measurements, has so far not been captured by state-of-the-art dynamic models, which struggle to resolve this "paradox of the plankton". We conclude that an ecological indicator approach is useful for ecological modeling of phytoplankton and potentially higher trophic levels. Finally, we speculate that it could serve as a powerful tool in advancing ecosystem-based management of marine resources.

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: Philippine flying lemur [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Philippine flying lemur Cynocephalus volans Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Cynocephalu...s_volans_L.png Cynocephalus_volans_NL.png Cynocephalus_volans_S.png Cynocephalus_volan...s_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cynocephalus+volans&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/ta...xonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cynocephalus+volans&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_...icon/icon.cgi?i=Cynocephalus+volans&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cynocephalus+volans&t=NS ...

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: southern two-toed sloth [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available southern two-toed sloth Choloepus didactylus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Choloe...pus_didactylus_L.png Choloepus_didactylus_NL.png Choloepus_didactylus_S.png Choloepus_dida...ctylus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Choloepus+didactylus&t=L http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Choloepus+didactylus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/ta...xonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Choloepus+didactylus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Choloepus+didactylus&t=NS ...

  1. Predicting geographic distributions of Phacellodomus species (Aves: Furnariidae in South America based on ecological niche modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Salete Gurgel Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Phacellodomus Reichenbach, 1853, comprises nine species of Furnariids that occur in South America in open and generally dry areas. This study estimated the geographic distributions of Phacellodomus species in South America by ecological niche modeling. Applying maximum entropy method, models were produced for eight species based on six climatic variables and 949 occurrence records. Since highest climatic suitability for Phacellodomus species has been estimated in open and dry areas, the Amazon rainforest areas are not very suitable for these species. Annual precipitation and minimum temperature of the coldest month are the variables that most influence the models. Phacellodomus species occurred in 35 ecoregions of South America. Chaco and Uruguayan savannas were the ecoregions with the highest number of species. Despite the overall connection of Phacellodomus species with dry areas, species such as P. ruber, P. rufifrons, P. ferrugineigula and P. erythrophthalmus occurred in wet forests and wetland ecoregions.

  2. Spatial distribution and ecological risk assessment of metals in sediments of Baiyangdian wetland ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Liya; Liu, Jingling; Christensen, Per

    2011-07-01

    Although there are many studies of heavy metal contaminations of sediments, attention has seldom been paid to the problem in developing countries. The purpose of this article is to find the distribution and ecological risk of As, Hg, Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn in surface sediment of Baiyangdian which is the biggest wetland in Northeast China. We apply three methodologies. The first is literature analysis comparing total concentrations of heavy metals with other water bodies around world. The second is Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (EQSS), National Environmental Protection Agency of China 1995, and the third is Soil and Aquatic Sediment Guidelines and Standards issued by New York Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC). The results show that compared to other water bodies around the world, the seven heavy metals are low. However, Cd was found in the most polluting level of EQSS near a village and was second grade some distance from it. The village was also the most polluted site of Zn, which was in the second grade. When assessed by NYSDEC, Cu, Cr, and As contaminated the sediment and with moderate impacts on benthic life while Pb, Hg, and Zn were found at tolerable levels throughout Baiyangdian. The centre of Cu and Cr contamination was also near the village. As is the most polluting heavy metals with a major occurrence in the middle of the wetland. There were no heavy metals creating severe disturbance to the benthic communities. Based on the assessment, this article proposes different options for more sustainable management.

  3. Ecology and distribution ofof Euseius finlandicus (Parasitiformes, Phytoseiidae in garden phytocenoses of Transcarpathian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Shtymak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the ecology and distribution of the species Eu. finlandicus Oudemans, 1915 (Parasitiformes, Phytoseiidae in the garden phytocenoses of Transcarpathian region. In Ukraine, such studies were conducted for the Forest-Steppe zone. The mites were collected during the period of 2012–2014. In total, nine settlements of Transcarpathian region were studied. On the researched territory Eu. finlandicus inhabits at least 26 species of plants. For the first time, the status of the species Eu. finlandicus is determined in acaro-complexes of the family Phytoseiidae in garden phytocenoses of Transcarpathian region. The indices of occurrence and dominance for this species are calculated. Species of plants on which Eu. finlandicus is present in garden phytocenoses of Transcarpathian region are described. Results of the study suggest that Eu. finlandicus is a common species in garden phytocenoses of Transcarpathian region. The results can become the theoretical basis for development of schemes aimed at enhancing the protective function of useful mites in phytocenoses of the Uzhgorod district.

  4. Prevalence and distribution of ocular onchocerciasis in three ecological zones in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeh, R E; Mahmoud, A O; Hagan, M; Wilson, M; Okoye, O I; Asana, U; Biritwum, R; Ogbu-Pearce, P; Elhassan, E; Yaméogo, L; Braideo, E I; Seketeli, A

    2010-12-01

    The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) sponsored a baseline study in Nigeria between 1998 and 1999 on the prevalence and distribution of Onchocerciasis. The randomly selected 1,064 subjects in the baseline study underwent detailed eye examination in Cross River (rain forest), Taraba (savanna) and Kogi (forest-savanna) States. This paper compares and contrasts the public health significance of ocular onchocerciasis in these ecological zones. A blindness prevalence of 2.4% was recorded in the study, onchocerciasis being responsible for 30.2% of the bilaterally blind subjects. Onchocerciasis-induced blindness prevalence was relatively high in the rain forest and forest savanna zones of Cross River and Kogi States, Cross River having the highest site-specific prevalence (50.0%), followed by Kogi (41.7%). Taraba recorded only 27.3%. Other conditions identified included glaucoma, optic nerve disease and cataract rates of which were also found to be high among the population (6.9%, 6.5 % and 8.9% respectively). Anterior segment onchocercal lesions, punctate and sclerosing keratitis were the predominant features of the infection in the savanna zone (14.1% and 6.3% respectively), while posterior segment lesions were much more common in the forest zone. The need to sustain the present efforts to control onchocerciasis through mass ivermectin treatment is recommended.

  5. Ecology and Distribution of Thaumarchaea in the Deep Hypolimnion of Lake Maggiore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Coci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA play an important role in the oxidation of ammonia in terrestrial, marine, and geothermal habitats, as confirmed by a number of studies specifically focused on those environments. Much less is known about the ecological role of AOA in freshwaters. In order to reach a high resolution at the Thaumarchaea community level, the probe MGI-535 was specifically designed for this study and applied to fluorescence in situ hybridization and catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD-FISH analysis. We then applied it to a fine analysis of diversity and relative abundance of AOA in the deepest layers of the oligotrophic Lake Maggiore, confirming previous published results of AOA presence, but showing differences in abundance and distribution within the water column without significant seasonal trends with respect to Bacteria. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of AOA clone libraries from deep lake water and from a lake tributary, River Maggia, suggested the riverine origin of AOA of the deep hypolimnion of the lake.

  6. Microbial taxonomy in the post-genomic era: rebuilding from scratch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cristiane C; Amaral, Gilda R; Campeão, Mariana; Edwards, Robert A; Polz, Martin F; Dutilh, Bas E; Ussery, David W; Sawabe, Tomoo; Swings, Jean; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2015-04-01

    Microbial taxonomy should provide adequate descriptions of bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic microbial diversity in ecological, clinical, and industrial environments. Its cornerstone, the prokaryote species has been re-evaluated twice. It is time to revisit polyphasic taxonomy, its principles, and its practice, including its underlying pragmatic species concept. Ultimately, we will be able to realize an old dream of our predecessor taxonomists and build a genomic-based microbial taxonomy, using standardized and automated curation of high-quality complete genome sequences as the new gold standard.

  7. A topographic feature taxonomy for a U.S. national topographic mapping ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia E.

    2013-01-01

    Using legacy feature lists from the U.S. National Topographic Mapping Program of the twentieth century, a taxonomy of features is presented for purposes of developing a national topographic feature ontology for geographic mapping and analysis. After reviewing published taxonomic classifications, six basic classes are suggested; terrain, surface water, ecological regimes, built-up areas, divisions, and events. Aspects of ontology development are suggested as the taxonomy is described.

  8. Development and validation of a taxonomy of adverse handover events in hospital settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Boje; Siemsen, Inger Margrete D.; Petersen, Lene Funck

    2015-01-01

    -rater reliability and distribution of types of handover failures and causal factors. The taxonomy contains five types of failures and seven types of main causal factors. The taxonomy was validated against 432 adverse handover event descriptions contained in incident reports (stratified random sample from the Danish...

  9. Ecological Relationships of Meso-Scale Distribution in 25 Neotropical Vertebrate Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Lincoln José; Norris, Darren; de Oliveira, Tadeu Gomes; Michalski, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Vertebrates are a vital ecological component of Amazon forest biodiversity. Although vertebrates are a functionally important part of various ecosystem services they continue to be threatened by anthropogenic impacts throughout the Amazon. Here we use a standardized, regularly spaced arrangement of camera traps within 25km2 to provide a baseline assessment of vertebrate species diversity in a sustainable use protected area in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. We examined seasonal differences in the per species encounter rates (number of photos per camera trap and number of cameras with photos). Generalized linear models (GLMs) were then used to examine the influence of five variables (altitude, canopy cover, basal area, distance to nearest river and distance to nearest large river) on the number of photos per species and on functional groups. GLMs were also used to examine the relationships between large predators [Jaguar (Panthera onca) and Puma (Puma concolor)] and their prey. A total of 649 independent photos of 25 species were obtained from 1,800 camera trap days (900 each during wet and dry seasons). Only ungulates and rodents showed significant seasonal differences in the number of photos per camera. The number of photos differed between seasons for only three species (Mazama americana, Dasyprocta leporina and Myoprocta acouchy) all of which were photographed more (3 to 10 fold increase) during the wet season. Mazama americana was the only species where a significant difference was found in occupancy, with more photos in more cameras during the wet season. For most groups and species variation in the number of photos per camera was only explained weakly by the GLMs (deviance explained ranging from 10.3 to 54.4%). Terrestrial birds (Crax alector, Psophia crepitans and Tinamus major) and rodents (Cuniculus paca, Dasyprocta leporina and M. acouchy) were the notable exceptions, with our GLMs significantly explaining variation in the distribution of all species

  10. Ecological relationships of meso-scale distribution in 25 neotropical vertebrate species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln José Michalski

    Full Text Available Vertebrates are a vital ecological component of Amazon forest biodiversity. Although vertebrates are a functionally important part of various ecosystem services they continue to be threatened by anthropogenic impacts throughout the Amazon. Here we use a standardized, regularly spaced arrangement of camera traps within 25km2 to provide a baseline assessment of vertebrate species diversity in a sustainable use protected area in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. We examined seasonal differences in the per species encounter rates (number of photos per camera trap and number of cameras with photos. Generalized linear models (GLMs were then used to examine the influence of five variables (altitude, canopy cover, basal area, distance to nearest river and distance to nearest large river on the number of photos per species and on functional groups. GLMs were also used to examine the relationships between large predators [Jaguar (Panthera onca and Puma (Puma concolor] and their prey. A total of 649 independent photos of 25 species were obtained from 1,800 camera trap days (900 each during wet and dry seasons. Only ungulates and rodents showed significant seasonal differences in the number of photos per camera. The number of photos differed between seasons for only three species (Mazama americana, Dasyprocta leporina and Myoprocta acouchy all of which were photographed more (3 to 10 fold increase during the wet season. Mazama americana was the only species where a significant difference was found in occupancy, with more photos in more cameras during the wet season. For most groups and species variation in the number of photos per camera was only explained weakly by the GLMs (deviance explained ranging from 10.3 to 54.4%. Terrestrial birds (Crax alector, Psophia crepitans and Tinamus major and rodents (Cuniculus paca, Dasyprocta leporina and M. acouchy were the notable exceptions, with our GLMs significantly explaining variation in the distribution of all

  11. Ecological relationships of meso-scale distribution in 25 neotropical vertebrate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Lincoln José; Norris, Darren; de Oliveira, Tadeu Gomes; Michalski, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Vertebrates are a vital ecological component of Amazon forest biodiversity. Although vertebrates are a functionally important part of various ecosystem services they continue to be threatened by anthropogenic impacts throughout the Amazon. Here we use a standardized, regularly spaced arrangement of camera traps within 25km2 to provide a baseline assessment of vertebrate species diversity in a sustainable use protected area in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. We examined seasonal differences in the per species encounter rates (number of photos per camera trap and number of cameras with photos). Generalized linear models (GLMs) were then used to examine the influence of five variables (altitude, canopy cover, basal area, distance to nearest river and distance to nearest large river) on the number of photos per species and on functional groups. GLMs were also used to examine the relationships between large predators [Jaguar (Panthera onca) and Puma (Puma concolor)] and their prey. A total of 649 independent photos of 25 species were obtained from 1,800 camera trap days (900 each during wet and dry seasons). Only ungulates and rodents showed significant seasonal differences in the number of photos per camera. The number of photos differed between seasons for only three species (Mazama americana, Dasyprocta leporina and Myoprocta acouchy) all of which were photographed more (3 to 10 fold increase) during the wet season. Mazama americana was the only species where a significant difference was found in occupancy, with more photos in more cameras during the wet season. For most groups and species variation in the number of photos per camera was only explained weakly by the GLMs (deviance explained ranging from 10.3 to 54.4%). Terrestrial birds (Crax alector, Psophia crepitans and Tinamus major) and rodents (Cuniculus paca, Dasyprocta leporina and M. acouchy) were the notable exceptions, with our GLMs significantly explaining variation in the distribution of all species

  12. Genomic taxonomy of vibrios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iida Tetsuya

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vibrio taxonomy has been based on a polyphasic approach. In this study, we retrieve useful taxonomic information (i.e. data that can be used to distinguish different taxonomic levels, such as species and genera from 32 genome sequences of different vibrio species. We use a variety of tools to explore the taxonomic relationship between the sequenced genomes, including Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA, supertrees, Average Amino Acid Identity (AAI, genomic signatures, and Genome BLAST atlases. Our aim is to analyse the usefulness of these tools for species identification in vibrios. Results We have generated four new genome sequences of three Vibrio species, i.e., V. alginolyticus 40B, V. harveyi-like 1DA3, and V. mimicus strains VM573 and VM603, and present a broad analyses of these genomes along with other sequenced Vibrio species. The genome atlas and pangenome plots provide a tantalizing image of the genomic differences that occur between closely related sister species, e.g. V. cholerae and V. mimicus. The vibrio pangenome contains around 26504 genes. The V. cholerae core genome and pangenome consist of 1520 and 6923 genes, respectively. Pangenomes might allow different strains of V. cholerae to occupy different niches. MLSA and supertree analyses resulted in a similar phylogenetic picture, with a clear distinction of four groups (Vibrio core group, V. cholerae-V. mimicus, Aliivibrio spp., and Photobacterium spp.. A Vibrio species is defined as a group of strains that share > 95% DNA identity in MLSA and supertree analysis, > 96% AAI, ≤ 10 genome signature dissimilarity, and > 61% proteome identity. Strains of the same species and species of the same genus will form monophyletic groups on the basis of MLSA and supertree. Conclusion The combination of different analytical and bioinformatics tools will enable the most accurate species identification through genomic computational analysis. This endeavour will culminate in

  13. Overview of the taxonomy of zooxanthellate Scleractinia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veron, John

    2013-11-01

    Coral taxonomy has entered a historical phase where nomenclatorial uncertainty is rapidly increasing. The fundamental cause is mandatory adherence to historical monographs that lack essential information of all sorts, and also to type specimens, if they exist at all, that are commonly unrecognizable fragments or are uncharacteristic of the species they are believed to represent. Historical problems, including incorrect subsequent type species designations, also create uncertainty for many well-established genera. The advent of in situ studies in the 1970s revealed these issues; now molecular technology is again changing the taxonomic landscape. The competing methodologies involved must be seen in context if they are to avoid becoming an additional basis for continuing nomenclatorial instability. To prevent this happening, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) will need to focus on rules that consolidate well-established nomenclature and allow for the designation of new type specimens that are unambiguous, and which include both skeletal material and soft tissue for molecular study. Taxonomic and biogeographic findings have now become linked, with molecular methodologies providing the capacity to re-visit past taxonomic decisions, and to extend both taxonomy and biogeography into the realm of evolutionary theory. It is proposed that most species will ultimately be seen as operational taxonomic units that are human rather than natural constructs, which in consequence will always have fuzzy morphological, genetic, and distribution boundaries. The pathway ahead calls for the integration of morphological and molecular taxonomies, and for website delivery of information that crosses current discipline boundaries.

  14. Taxonomy of the extrasolar planet

    OpenAIRE

    Plávalová, E.

    2011-01-01

    When a star is described as a spectral class G2V, we know that the star is similar to our Sun. We know its approximate mass, temperature, age, and size. When working with an extra-solar planet database, it is very useful to have a taxonomy scale (classification) such as, for example, the Harvard classification for stars. The taxonomy has to be easily interpreted and present the most relevant information about extra-solar planets. I propose the following the extra-solar planet taxonomy scale w...

  15. An overview of the taxonomy of Attalea (Arecaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Pintaud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Attalea (Arecaceae is distributed in continental habitats of the Neotropical region and in some Caribbean islands. Life forms of Attalea species vary from small acaulescent palms to tall and massive palms, always solitary. The ecological range of the genus encompasses most of the Neotropical ecosystems, from coastal sand dunes to sub-Andean forests up to 1600 m in elevation, lowland wet to dry forests, savannas, swamps, etc. The taxonomy of the genus has been poorly understood due to conflicting genus and species concepts that exist since the last decades. Taxonomical problems have been caused by the lack of adequate material, especially species of large size, loss of many types and difficulties in interpreting hybrids. In this article, I review the most recent taxonomic literature on Attalea. The number of species in Attalea varies from 29 to 67 depending on different authors, with a maximum estimate of 73 species when combining the revised publications. There is a consensus for the validity of 20 species among modern palm taxonomists. The most conflicting species or group of species are discussed in detail as well as the taxonomic significance of some characters such as the pattern of insertion of staminate flowers on rachillae, insertion of pinnae on rachis, and arrangement of fibrous strands in the endocarp.

  16. Spatial distribution, source apportionment and ecological risk assessment of residual organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Ningombam Linthoingambi; Yadav, Ishwar Chandra; Raha, Priyankar; Shihua, Qi; Dan, Yang

    2015-12-01

    The Indian Himalayan Region (IHR) is one of the important mountain ecosystems among the global mountain system which support wide variety of flora, fauna, human communities and cultural diversities. Surface soil samples collected from IHR were analysed for 23 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The concentration of ∑OCPs ranged from 0.28 to 2143.96 ng/g (mean 221.54 ng/g) and was mostly dominated by DDTs. The concentration of ∑DDTs ranged from 0.28 to 2126.94 ng/g (mean 216.65 ng/g). Other OCPs such as HCHs, endosulfan and heptachlor, Aldrin and dieldrin were detected in lower concentration in IHR. Their concentrations in soil samples ranged from ND to 2.79 ng/g for HCHs, ND to 2.83 ng/g for endosulfans, NDto 1.46 ng/g for heptachlor, ND to 2.12 ng/g for Aldrin and ND to 1.81 ng/g for dieldrin. Spatial distribution of OCPs suggested prevalence of DDTs and HCHs at Guwahati and Itanagar, respectively. The close relationship between total organic carbon (TOC) and part of OCP compounds (especially α- and γ-HCH) indicated the important role of TOC in accumulation, binding and persistence of OCP in soil. Diagnostic ratio of DDT metabolites and HCH isomers showed DDT contamination is due to recent application of technical DDT and dicofol, and HCH contamination was due to mixture of technical HCH and lindane source. This was further confirmed by principal component analysis. Ecological risk analysis of OCP residues in soil samples concluded the moderate to severe contamination of soil.

  17. A taxonomy of inductive problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Charles; Jern, Alan

    2014-02-01

    Inductive inferences about objects, features, categories, and relations have been studied for many years, but there are few attempts to chart the range of inductive problems that humans are able to solve. We present a taxonomy of inductive problems that helps to clarify the relationships between familiar inductive problems such as generalization, categorization, and identification, and that introduces new inductive problems for psychological investigation. Our taxonomy is founded on the idea that semantic knowledge is organized into systems of objects, features, categories, and relations, and we attempt to characterize all of the inductive problems that can arise when these systems are partially observed. Recent studies have begun to address some of the new problems in our taxonomy, and future work should aim to develop unified theories of inductive reasoning that explain how people solve all of the problems in the taxonomy.

  18. Further Verification of Bloom's Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Nancy

    1976-01-01

    Tests a curriculum designed to teach fifth and sixth grade students system dynamics thinking, an orientation that is congruent with the fourth and fifth levels of Bloom's "Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Cognitive Domain".

  19. [Parasitism and ecological parasitology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashov, Iu S

    2011-01-01

    Parasitism as one of the life modes is a general biological phenomenon and is a characteristic of all viruses, many taxa of bacteria, fungi, protists, metaphytes, and metazoans. Zooparasitology is focused on studies of parasitic animals, particularly, on their taxonomy, anatomy, life cycles, host-parasite relations, biocoenotic connections, and evolution. Ecological parasitology is a component of ecology, as the scientific study of the relation of living organisms with each other and their surroundings. In the present paper, critical analysis of the problems, main postulates, and terminology of the modern ecological parasitology is given.

  20. Taxonomy Working Group Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Vickie S.; Beil, Robert J.; Terrone, Mark; Barth, Timothy S.; Panontin, Tina L.; Wales, Roxana; Rackley, Michael W.; Milne, James S.; McPherson, John W.; Dutra, Jayne E.; Shaw, Larry C.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the Taxonomy Working Group was to develop a proposal for a common taxonomy to be used by all NASA projects in the classifying of nonconformances, anomalies, and problems. Specifically, the group developed a recommended list of data elements along with general suggestions for the development of a problem reporting system to better serve NASA's need for managing, reporting, and trending project aberrant events. The Group's recommendations are reported in this document.

  1. Taxonomy of stock market indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Giovanni; Vandewalle, Nicolas; Mantegna, Rosario N.

    2000-12-01

    We investigate sets of financial nonredundant and nonsynchronously recorded time series. The sets are composed by a number of stock market indices located all over the world in five continents. By properly selecting the time horizon of returns and by using a reference currency we find a meaningful taxonomy. The detection of such a taxonomy proves that interpretable information can be stored in a set of nonsynchronously recorded time series.

  2. Ecology and the ratchet of events: climate variability, niche dimensions, and species distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Stephen T; Betancourt, Julio L; Booth, Robert K; Gray, Stephen T

    2009-11-17

    Climate change in the coming centuries will be characterized by interannual, decadal, and multidecadal fluctuations superimposed on anthropogenic trends. Predicting ecological and biogeographic responses to these changes constitutes an immense challenge for ecologists. Perspectives from climatic and ecological history indicate that responses will be laden with contingencies, resulting from episodic climatic events interacting with demographic and colonization events. This effect is compounded by the dependency of environmental sensitivity upon life-stage for many species. Climate variables often used in empirical niche models may become decoupled from the proximal variables that directly influence individuals and populations. Greater predictive capacity, and more-fundamental ecological and biogeographic understanding, will come from integration of correlational niche modeling with mechanistic niche modeling, dynamic ecological modeling, targeted experiments, and systematic observations of past and present patterns and dynamics.

  3. Distribution, ecology and reproductive biology of wild tomatoes and related nightshades from the Atacama Desert region of northern Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Chetelat, Roger T.; Pertuzé, Ricardo A.; Faúndez, Luis; Graham, Elaine B.; Jones, Carl M.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, several expeditions were made to northern Chile to collect populations of wild tomatoes (Solanum chilense, S. peruvianum) and allied nightshades (S. lycopersicoides, S. sitiens), and obtain information about their geographic distribution, ecology and reproductive biology. Restricted mainly to drainages of the Andean and the coastal cordillera, populations are geographically fragmented. The two nightshade species are rare and threatened by human activities. Adaptation t...

  4. [Relationships between distribution of soil-born bryophytes in urban area of Hangzhou and related ecological factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Cao, Tong; Wang, Jian; Cao, Yang

    2008-04-01

    At the 21 sampling sites in urban area of Hangzhou, 47 species of soil-born bryophytes belonging to 31 genera and 22 families were recorded. Based on the ecological importance value of these species and the data of ecological factors at the sampling sites, the relationships between the distribution of the bryophytes species in urban area of Hangzhou and related ecological factors were studied by canonical correspondence analysis. The results showed that human disturbance and soil pH were the most important factors determining the distribution of the bryophytes. In urban parks and green lands where human disturbance was greater, soil pH was alkali, and the species were mainly belonging to the genera of Haplocladium and Bryum and the family of Pottiaceae. In hilly area where human disturbance was lesser, soil pH turned to acidic, and the bryophytes were more, with pleurocarpous mosses and liverworts being relatively rich. The niche width of the 47 bryophytes was calculated, which revealed that most of them had very narrow niche width (<0.1). The Pseudotaxiphyllum pohliaecarpum widely distributed in the hilly area of southwest Xihu Lake had the widest niche width (0.3510), followed by Trichostomum planifolium (0.2239) and Haplocladium microphyllum (0.2185), the commonest species in the parks and greenlands in urban area of Hangzhou.

  5. Nematode taxonomy: from morphology to metabarcoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M.; Sapp, M.; Prior, T.; Karssen, G.; Back, M.

    2015-11-01

    Nematodes represent a species rich and morphologically diverse group of metazoans inhabiting both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Their role as biological indicators and as key players in nutrient cycling has been well documented. Some groups of nematodes are also known to cause significant losses to crop production. In spite of this, knowledge of their diversity is still limited due to the difficulty in achieving species identification using morphological characters. Molecular methodology has provided very useful means of circumventing the numerous limitations associated with classical morphology based identification. We discuss herein the history and the progress made within the field of nematode systematics, the limitations of classical taxonomy and how the advent of high throughput sequencing is facilitating advanced ecological and molecular studies.

  6. Taxonomy and distribution of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid-producing Pseudomonas spp. in the dryland agroecosystem of the Inland Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five distinct phenazine-producing Pseudomonas species were found, two of which were provisionally ascribed as new species. Agroclimatic zone and the soil silt content were found to affect the distribution of the different species. This study clarifies the classification of these important plant bene...

  7. Predicting the current and future potential distributions of lymphatic filariasis in Africa using maximum entropy ecological niche modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Hannah; Michael, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    Modelling the spatial distributions of human parasite species is crucial to understanding the environmental determinants of infection as well as for guiding the planning of control programmes. Here, we use ecological niche modelling to map the current potential distribution of the macroparasitic disease, lymphatic filariasis (LF), in Africa, and to estimate how future changes in climate and population could affect its spread and burden across the continent. We used 508 community-specific infection presence data collated from the published literature in conjunction with five predictive environmental/climatic and demographic variables, and a maximum entropy niche modelling method to construct the first ecological niche maps describing potential distribution and burden of LF in Africa. We also ran the best-fit model against climate projections made by the HADCM3 and CCCMA models for 2050 under A2a and B2a scenarios to simulate the likely distribution of LF under future climate and population changes. We predict a broad geographic distribution of LF in Africa extending from the west to the east across the middle region of the continent, with high probabilities of occurrence in the Western Africa compared to large areas of medium probability interspersed with smaller areas of high probability in Central and Eastern Africa and in Madagascar. We uncovered complex relationships between predictor ecological niche variables and the probability of LF occurrence. We show for the first time that predicted climate change and population growth will expand both the range and risk of LF infection (and ultimately disease) in an endemic region. We estimate that populations at risk to LF may range from 543 and 804 million currently, and that this could rise to between 1.65 to 1.86 billion in the future depending on the climate scenario used and thresholds applied to signify infection presence.

  8. Predicting the current and future potential distributions of lymphatic filariasis in Africa using maximum entropy ecological niche modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Slater

    Full Text Available Modelling the spatial distributions of human parasite species is crucial to understanding the environmental determinants of infection as well as for guiding the planning of control programmes. Here, we use ecological niche modelling to map the current potential distribution of the macroparasitic disease, lymphatic filariasis (LF, in Africa, and to estimate how future changes in climate and population could affect its spread and burden across the continent. We used 508 community-specific infection presence data collated from the published literature in conjunction with five predictive environmental/climatic and demographic variables, and a maximum entropy niche modelling method to construct the first ecological niche maps describing potential distribution and burden of LF in Africa. We also ran the best-fit model against climate projections made by the HADCM3 and CCCMA models for 2050 under A2a and B2a scenarios to simulate the likely distribution of LF under future climate and population changes. We predict a broad geographic distribution of LF in Africa extending from the west to the east across the middle region of the continent, with high probabilities of occurrence in the Western Africa compared to large areas of medium probability interspersed with smaller areas of high probability in Central and Eastern Africa and in Madagascar. We uncovered complex relationships between predictor ecological niche variables and the probability of LF occurrence. We show for the first time that predicted climate change and population growth will expand both the range and risk of LF infection (and ultimately disease in an endemic region. We estimate that populations at risk to LF may range from 543 and 804 million currently, and that this could rise to between 1.65 to 1.86 billion in the future depending on the climate scenario used and thresholds applied to signify infection presence.

  9. Distribution, sources, and ecological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from the Nantong Coast, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Li, Xian; Zhang, Daolai; Liu, Qiang; Xiang, Lihui; Liu, Ke; Yan, Dongyun; Li, Yue

    2017-01-15

    The distribution, sources, and ecological risk assessment of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments from the Nantong coast in China were investigated. The results indicated that the total concentrations of the 16 PAHs in the surface sediments from the study area ranged from 1.4 to 87.1ngg(-1) dw (mean value 19.9ngg(-1) dw), which were generally low compared to the adjacent offshore area and other coastal zones around the world. The selected PAH ratios and the principal components analysis for each site showed that petroleum combustion and petrogenic pollution (mainly caused by petroleum spills) were the dominant PAHs sources in the surface sediments of the coast. The ecological risk assessment indicated that most of the individual PAHs had few negative effects in this area.

  10. Ecological characteristics contribute to sponge distribution and tool use in bottlenose dolphins Tursiops sp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tyne, Julian A.; Loneragan, Neil R.; Kopps, Anna M.; Allen, Simon J.; Kruetzen, Michael; Bejder, Lars

    2012-01-01

    In Shark Bay, Western Australia, bottlenose dolphins Tursiops sp. carry conical sponges Echinodictyum mesenterinum on their rostra in the only documented cetacean foraging behaviour using a tool ('sponging'). In this study, we examined the influence of various ecological factors on live sponge distr

  11. Biological and ecological characteristics of soft ticks (Ixodida: Argasidae and their impact for predicting tick and associated disease distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vial L.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available As evidence of global changes is accumulating, scientists are challenged to detect distribution changes of vectors, reservoirs and pathogens caused by anthropogenic and/or environmental changes. Statistical and mathematical distribution models are emerging for ixodid hard ticks whereas no prediction has ever been developed for argasid ones. These last organisms remain unknown and under-reported; they differ from hard ticks by many structural, biological and ecological properties, which complicate direct adaptation of hard tick models. However, investigations on bibliographic resources concerning these ticks suggest that distribution modelling based on natural niche concept and using environmental factors especially climate is also possible, bearing in mind the scale of prediction and their specificities including their nidicolous lifestyle, an indiscriminate host feeding and a short bloodmeal duration, as well as a flexible development cycle through diapause periods.

  12. Constructing a Business Model Taxonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Pernille; Nielsen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: The paper proposes a research design recipe capable of leading to future business model taxonomies and discusses the potential benefits and implications of achieving this goal. Design/Methodology/Approach: The paper provides a review of relevant scholarly literature about business...... models to clarify the subject as well as highlighting the importance of past studies of business model classifications. In addition it reviews the scholarly literature on relevant methodological approaches, such as cluster analysis and latent class analysis, for constructing a business model taxonomy....... The two literature streams combined to form the basis for the suggested recipe. Findings: The paper highlights the need for further large-scale empirical studies leading to a potential business model taxonomy, a topic that is currently under-exposed even though its merits are highlighted continuously...

  13. Taxonomy, distribution and population structure of invasive Corbiculidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia in the Suquía River basin, Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola B. Reyna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Invasive species are one of the most significant causes of biodiversity loss and changes in ecosystem services, which underlines the importance of their detection and their study. The Asian clams (Corbiculidae are invasive organisms that accidentally entered the La Plata River, Argentina, presumably in the 1960s. The objectives of the present study were to identify the corbiculid species and to determine their distribution at several locations along the Suquía River basin, an extended area in central Argentina. In addition, population structure was evaluated monthly during one year, at a site in the city of Córdoba that is characterized by high human influence. The presence of Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774 and Corbicula largillierti (Philippi, 1844 in the Suquía River basin is reported for the first time. The former species was found only in a lentic environment (San Roque reservoir, while the latter was also found along the tributary rivers and brooks of the basin. Corbicula largillierti showed variations in average density between the different sites and also in biomass and size classes throughout the study period at the site at Córdoba city. The relative composition of the sediments, flow fluctuation and human pollution may be responsible for the observed differences.

  14. Evaluating a Bayesian approach to improve accuracy of individual photographic identification methods using ecological distribution data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Stafford

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Photographic identification of individual organisms can be possible from natural body markings. Data from photo-ID can be used to estimate important ecological and conservation metrics such as population sizes, home ranges or territories. However, poor quality photographs or less well-studied individuals can result in a non-unique ID, potentially confounding several similar looking individuals. Here we present a Bayesian approach that uses known data about previous sightings of individuals at specific sites as priors to help assess the problems of obtaining a non-unique ID. Using a simulation of individuals with different confidence of correct ID we evaluate the accuracy of Bayesian modified (posterior probabilities. However, in most cases, the accuracy of identification decreases. Although this technique is unsuccessful, it does demonstrate the importance of computer simulations in testing such hypotheses in ecology.

  15. Constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms. Final report, 1 September 1988--30 June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spotila, J.R.

    1992-11-01

    The constraints of bioenergetics on the ecology and distribution of vertebrate ectotherms were quantified. During this project we conducted studies: to determine the role of incubation temperature on the post-hatching growth rate of the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina; to establish the rate of energy expenditure of the slider turtle, Trachemys scripta, in the field; to determine the field metabolic rates, body temperatures and selected microclimates of the box turtle, Terrapene carolina, and to measure the effect of diet type on the consumption rate, digestion rate and digestive efficiency of adult T. scripta. We also completed our research on the three-dimensional bioenergetic climate space for freshwater turtles.

  16. The ecology and distribution of alcyonaceans at Mandapam (Palk Bay, Gulf of Mannar), South India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayasree, V.; Parulekar, A.H.

    New distribution records for 27 species of Alcyonaceans are given. These include major genera Sinularia (12 spp.), Lobophytum (7 spp.), Sarcophyton (6 spp.), Dampia (1 sp.) and Nephthya (1 sp.). The factors that influence the distribution of corals...

  17. Leishmaniasis transmission: distribution and coarse-resolution ecology of two vectors and two parasites in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah M. Samy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In past decades, leishmaniasis burden has been low across Egypt; however, changing environment and land use has placed several parts of the country at risk. As a consequence, leishmaniasis has become a particularly difficult health problem, both for local inhabitants and for multinational military personnel. Methods: To evaluate coarse-resolution aspects of the ecology of leishmaniasis transmission, collection records for sandflies and Leishmania species were obtained from diverse sources. To characterize environmental variation across the country, we used multitemporal Land Surface Temperature (LST and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS for 2005-2011. Ecological niche models were generated using MaxEnt, and results were analyzed using background similarity tests to assess whether associations among vectors and parasites (i.e., niche similarity can be detected across broad geographic regions. Results: We found niche similarity only between one vector species and its corresponding parasite species (i.e., Phlebotomus papatasi with Leishmania major, suggesting that geographic ranges of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis and its potential vector may overlap, but under distinct environmental associations. Other associations (e.g., P. sergenti with L. major were not supported. Mapping suitable areas for each species suggested that northeastern Egypt is particularly at risk because both parasites have potential to circulate. Conclusions: Ecological niche modeling approaches can be used as a first-pass assessment of vector-parasite interactions, offering useful insights into constraints on the geography of transmission patterns of leishmaniasis.

  18. [Distribution Characteristics and Potential Ecological Hazards Assessment of Soil Heavy Metals in Typical Soil Profiles in Southeast Suburb of Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Ma, Lin; Liu, Yi-fei; He, Jiang-tao; Li, Guang-he

    2016-05-15

    To investigate the distribution characteristics and the potential ecology risk of different types of heavy metals, soil samples were collected from various stratigraphic sections in the southeastern suburb of Beijing, where soil heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Cr, As) contents were measured and analyzed using multivariate statistical analysis and the potential ecological risk index method. The results showed that the concentrations of the four heavy metals followed the order of Cr > Cu > As > Pb with variable coefficients ranging from 59.60% to 159.33% at 3-6 m stratum, which all displayed a high degree of variability. The concentrations of Cu and Pb were positively correlated with soil organic matter (SOM), cation exchange capacity (CEC), etc, with higher eigenvalues in Factor 1 and 2, demonstrating the impact of organic colloid on the occurrence of heavy metals. The risk level of the specific heavy metal followed the order of As > Cu > Pb > Cr, where As already showed a medium potential ecological risk in the studied area.

  19. Modeling the Spatial Distribution of Eshnan (seidlitzia Rosmarinus) Shrubs to Exploring Their Ecological Interactions in Drylands of Central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfanifard, Y.; Khosravi, E.

    2015-12-01

    Evaluating the interactions of woody plants has been a major research topic of ecological investigations in arid ecosystems. Plant-plant interactions can shift from positive (facilitation) to negative (competition) depending on levels of environmental stress and determine the spatial pattern of plants. The spatial distribution analysis of plants via different summary statistics can reveal the interactions of plants and how they influence one another. An aggregated distribution indicates facilitative interactions among plants, while dispersion of species reflects their competition for scarce resources. This study was aimed to explore the intraspecific interactions of eshnan (Seidlitzia rosmarinus) shrubs in arid lands, central Iran, using different summary statistics (i.e., pair correlation function g(r), O-ring function O(r), nearest neighbour distribution function D(r), spherical contact distribution function Hs(r)). The observed pattern of shrubs showed significant spatial heterogeneity as compared to inhomogeneous Poisson process (α=0.05). The results of g(r) and O(r) revealed the significant aggregation of eshnan shrubs up to scale of 3 m (α=0.05). The results of D(r) and Hs(r) also showed that maximum distance to nearest shrub was 6 m and the distribution of the sizes of gaps was significantly different from random distribution up to this spatial scale. In general, it was concluded that there were positive interactions between eshnan shrubs at small scales and they were aggregated due to their intraspecific facilitation effects in the study area.

  20. [GIS Spatial Distribution and Ecological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Surface Sediments of Shallow Lakes in Jiangsu Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-jie; Zhang, Lie-yu; Wu, Yi-wen; Li, Cao-le; Yang, Tian-xue; Tang, Jun

    2016-04-15

    To understand pollution of heavy metals in surface sediments of shallow lakes, surface sediments samples of 11 lakes in Jiangsu province were collected to determine the content of six heavy metals including As, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn and Ni. GIS was used to analyze the spatial distribution of heavy metals, and geological accumulation index (Igeo), modified contamination index (mCd) pollution load index (PLI) and potential ecological risk index (RI) were used to evaluate heavy metal contamination in the sediments. The results showed that: in the lakes' surface sediments, the average content of As, Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni in multiples of soil background of Jiangsu province were 1.74-3.85, 0.65-2.66, 0.48-3.56, 0.43-1.52, 0.02-1.49 and 0.12-1.42. According to the evaluation results of Igeo and RI, As, which had high degree of enrichment and great potential ecological risk, was the main pollutant, followed by Cu, and pollution of the rest of heavy metals was relatively light. Combining the results of several evaluation methods, in surface sediments of Sanjiu Lake, Gaoyou Lake and Shaobo Lake, these heavy metals had the most serious pollution, the maximum pollution loading and moderate potential ecological risk; in surface sediments of Gehu Lake, Baima Lake and Hongze Lake, some regions were polluted by certain metals, the overall trend of pollution was aggravating, the pollution loading was large, and the potential ecological risk reached moderate; in the other 5 lakes, the risk of sediments polluted by heavy metals, as well as the pollution loading, was small, and the overall was not polluted.

  1. Taxonomy of the genus Passerina (Thymelaeaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Bredenkamp

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Passerina L. is mainly a southern African genus, comprising 20 species and four subspecies. A few species occur along the Great Escarpment, two extend into Zimbabwe and Mozambique, but most are concentrated in the Cape Floristic Region. Palynological. macromorphological and anatomical evidence was used in the delimitation of the genus and its infrageneric taxa. A cladistic study supports Passerina as a monophyletic genus. A genus treatment, key to species and a full species treatment are given. Each species treatment includes a taxonomic diagnosis, description and notes on taxonomy, etymology, economic value and distribution. Illustrations of representative species are provided and distribution maps are included for each species.  P. esterhuyseniae Bredenk. & A.E.van Wyk is newly described. A list of excluded species names highlights the previous cosmopolitan taxonomic interpretation of Passerina. as many names are now in synony my under other genera of the Thymelaeaceae.

  2. Taxonomy of Indonesian giant clams (Cardiidae, Tridacninae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UDHI EKO HERNAWAN

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Hernawan E. 2012. Taxonomy of Indonesian giant clams (Cardiidae, Tridacninae. Biodiversitas 13: 118-123. A taxonomic study was conducted on the giant clam’s specimens deposited in Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense (MZB, Cibinong Indonesia. Taxonomic overviews of the examined specimens are given with diagnostic characters, remarks, habitat and distribution. Discussion is focused on specific characters distinguishing each species. From seven species known to distribute in Indonesian waters, there are six species, Tridacna squamosa Lamarck, 1819; T. gigas Linnaeus, 1758; T. derasa Roding, 1798; T. crocea Lamarck, 1819; T. maxima Roding,1798; and Hippopus hippopus Linnaeus, 1758. This study suggests the need for collecting specimen of H. porcellanus Rosewater, 1982. Important characters to distinguish species among Tridacninae are interlocking teeth on byssal orifice, life habits, presence of scales and inhalant siphon tentacles.

  3. Amerind taxonomy and testable hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichardo, M

    1998-06-01

    The acceptance of a 30,000 yr B.P. age for Valsequillo sets new parameters for hypotheses of Paleoindian entry into America. A review of Amerind taxonomy defines the early groups as Otamid-Sundadonts. Isolation in America led to an adaptive radiation that has implications for the origin and dispersal of Pithecanthropus.

  4. Distributed Self-regulation Induced by Negative Feedbacks in Ecological and Economic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gafiychuk, V V; Ulanowicz, R E; Ulanowicz, Robert E.

    1998-01-01

    We consider an ecological system governed by Lotka-Volterra dynamics and an example of an economic system as a mesomarket with perfect competition. We propose a mechanism for cooperative self-regulation that enables the system under consideration to respond properly to changes in the environment. This mechanism is based on (1) active individual behavior of the system elements at each hierarchical level and (2) self-processing of information caused by the hierarchical organization. It is shown how the proposed mechanism suppresses nonlocal interaction of elements belonging to a particular level as mediated by higher levels.

  5. Changing distributions of larger ungulates in the Kruger National Park from ecological aerial survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George J. Chirima

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Documenting current species distribution patterns and their association with habitat types is important as a basis for assessing future range shifts in response to climate change or other influences. We used the adaptive local convex hull (a-LoCoH method to map distribution ranges of 12 ungulate species within the Kruger National Park (KNP based on locations recorded during aerial surveys (1980–1993. We used log-linear models to identify changes in regional distribution patterns and chi-square tests to determine shifts in habitat occupation over this period. We compared observed patterns with earlier, more subjectively derived distribution maps for these species. Zebra, wildebeest and giraffe distributions shifted towards the far northern section of the KNP, whilst buffalo and kudu showed proportional declines in the north. Sable antelope distribution contracted most in the north, whilst tsessebe, eland and roan antelope distributions showed no shifts. Warthog and waterbuck contracted in the central and northern regions, respectively. The distribution of impala did not change. Compared with earlier distributions, impala, zebra, buffalo, warthog and waterbuck had become less strongly concentrated along rivers. Wildebeest, zebra, sable antelope and tsessebe had become less prevalent in localities west of the central region. Concerning habitat occupation, the majority of grazers showed a concentration on basaltic substrates, whilst sable antelope favoured mopane-dominated woodland and sour bushveld on granite. Buffalo showed no strong preference for any habitats and waterbuck were concentrated along rivers. Although widespread, impala were absent from sections of mopane shrubveld and sandveld. Kudu and giraffe were widespread through most habitats, but with a lesser prevalence in northern mopane-dominated habitats. Documented distribution shifts appeared to be related to the completion of the western boundary fence and widened provision of

  6. Capacity for DNA-barcode based taxonomy in support of Great Lakes biological monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enumerating organisms collected via nets and sediment grabs is a mainstay of aquatic ecology. Since morphological taxonomy can require considerable resources and expertise, DNA barcode-based identification of mixed-organism samples offers a valuable tool in support of biological...

  7. Biology, ecology and conservation of the Mobulidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, L I E; Marshall, A D; Jaine, F R A; Kashiwagi, T; Pierce, S J; Townsend, K A; Weeks, S J; Bennett, M B; Richardson, A J

    2012-04-01

    The Mobulidae are zooplanktivorous elasmobranchs comprising two recognized species of manta rays (Manta spp.) and nine recognized species of devil rays (Mobula spp.). They are found circumglobally in tropical, subtropical and temperate coastal waters. Although mobulids have been recorded for over 400 years, critical knowledge gaps still compromise the ability to assess the status of these species. On the basis of a review of 263 publications, a comparative synthesis of the biology and ecology of mobulids was conducted to examine their evolution, taxonomy, distribution, population trends, movements and aggregation, reproduction, growth and longevity, feeding, natural mortality and direct and indirect anthropogenic threats. There has been a marked increase in the number of published studies on mobulids since c. 1990, particularly for the genus Manta, although the genus Mobula remains poorly understood. Mobulid species have many common biological characteristics although their ecologies appear to be species-specific, and sometimes region-specific. Movement studies suggest that mobulids are highly mobile and have the potential to rapidly travel large distances. Fishing pressure is the major threat to many mobulid populations, with current levels of exploitation in target fisheries unlikely to be sustainable. Advances in the fields of population genetics, acoustic and satellite tracking, and stable-isotope and fatty-acid analyses will provide new insights into the biology and ecology of these species. Future research should focus on the uncertain taxonomy of mobulid species, the degree of overlap between their large-scale movement and human activities such as fisheries and pollution, and the need for management of inter-jurisdictional fisheries in developing nations to ensure their long-term sustainability. Closer collaboration among researchers worldwide is necessary to ensure standardized sampling and modelling methodologies to underpin global population estimates and

  8. Unveiling the factors shaping the distribution of widely distributed alpine vertebrates, using multi-scale ecological niche modelling of the bat Plecotus macrobullaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberdi, Antton; Aizpurua, Ostaizka; Aihartza, Joxerra; Garin, Inazio

    2014-01-01

    Several alpine vertebrates share a distribution pattern that extends across the South-western Palearctic but is limited to the main mountain massifs. Although they are usually regarded as cold-adapted species, the range of many alpine vertebrates also includes relatively warm areas, suggesting that factors beyond climatic conditions may be driving their distribution. In this work we first recognize the species belonging to the mentioned biogeographic group and, based on the environmental niche analysis of Plecotus macrobullaris, we identify and characterize the environmental factors constraining their ranges. Distribution overlap analysis of 504 European vertebrates was done using the Sorensen Similarity Index, and we identified four birds and one mammal that share the distribution with P. macrobullaris. We generated 135 environmental niche models including different variable combinations and regularization values for P. macrobullaris at two different scales and resolutions. After selecting the best models, we observed that topographic variables outperformed climatic predictors, and the abruptness of the landscape showed better predictive ability than elevation. The best explanatory climatic variable was mean summer temperature, which showed that P. macrobullaris is able to cope with mean temperature ranges spanning up to 16°C. The models showed that the distribution of P. macrobullaris is mainly shaped by topographic factors that provide rock-abundant and open-space habitats rather than climatic determinants, and that the species is not a cold-adapted, but rather a cold-tolerant eurithermic organism. P. macrobullaris shares its distribution pattern as well as several ecological features with five other alpine vertebrates, suggesting that the conclusions obtained from this study might be extensible to them. We concluded that rock-dwelling and open-space foraging vertebrates with broad temperature tolerance are the best candidates to show wide alpine distribution

  9. Pinnularia (Bacillariophyta do curso inferior do rio Negro, Amazonas, Brasil: taxonomia e distribuição temporal Pinnularia (Bacillariophyta from the lower course of Negro river (Amazon, Brazil: taxonomy and temporal distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Cavalcante Pereira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo relata a taxonomia e distribuição temporal do gênero Pinnularia ocorrente no curso inferior do rio Negro (03º02'46,5"S e 60º15'13,1"W ao longo de um ciclo anual. O trabalho foi conduzido a partir da análise de amostras coletadas na coluna d'água, em escala mensal, entre os meses de outubro de 2002 a setembro de 2003. As espécies foram descritas e comentadas com base na sua morfologia e morfometria. Onze espécies e quatro variedades foram identificadas, ilustradas e incluídas em chave taxonômica. Dois táxons registrados neste estudo, P. sterrenburgii var. sterrenburgii Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot e P. subgibba var. capitata Metzeltin & Krammer, constituem primeira citação de ocorrência para o rio Negro. Temporalmente, a maior riqueza de espécies ocorreu entre os meses de outubro a dezembro de 2002, período de águas baixas, quando houve provavelmente maior interação entre água e sedimento possibilitando aporte de indivíduos da região bentônica. Considerando a ocorrência dos táxons ao longo do estudo, somente P. confirma foi considerada frequente, estando presente em mais de 50% das amostras analisadas.This study reports the taxonomy and temporal distribution of the Pinnularia genus occurring in the lower course Negro river (03º02'46,5"S e 60º15'13,1"W along an annual cycle. Samples were collected in the water column monthly, from October 2002 to September 2003. The species were described and commented based on their morphology and morphometry. Eleven species and four varieties are registered, illustrated and incorporated in a taxonomic key. P. sterrenburgii var. sterrenburgii Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot and P. subgibba var. capitata Metzeltin & Krammer are the first references to Negro river. Temporally, the highest species richness occurred from October and December 2002, low water period, when happened more interaction between water and sediment, and the contribution of the benthos individuals. On base in

  10. Query Evaluation in P2P Systems of Taxonomy-based Sources: Algorithms, Complexity, and Optimizations

    CERN Document Server

    Meghini, Carlo; Analyti, Anastasia

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we address the problem of answering queries over a peer-to-peer system of taxonomy-based sources. A taxonomy states subsumption relationships between negation-free DNF formulas on terms and negation-free conjunctions of terms. To the end of laying the foundations of our study, we first consider the centralized case, deriving the complexity of the decision problem and of query evaluation. We conclude by presenting an algorithm that is efficient in data complexity and is based on hypergraphs. More expressive forms of taxonomies are also investigated, which however lead to intractability. We then move to the distributed case, and introduce a logical model of a network of taxonomy-based sources. On such network, a distributed version of the centralized algorithm is then presented, based on a message passing paradigm, and its correctness is proved. We finally discuss optimization issues, and relate our work to the literature.

  11. Ecological composition and distribution of the diatoms from the Laguna Superior, Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Ruiz, José Luis; Tapia-Garcia, Margarito; Licea, Sergio; Figueroa-Torres, María Guadalupe; Esquivel, Alfonso; Herrera-Galindo, Jorge Eduardo; González-Fernández, José Manuel; González-Macias, Maria Del Carmen

    2011-07-01

    A taxonomic study of diatoms was carried out in a tropical coastal lagoon. Material for this study consists of water samples obtained from February-March 1992 to November-December 2000. Qualitative and quantitative analyses showed the presence of 373 taxa of which the families Bacillariaceae (67 species) and Chaetocerotaceae (37 species) were the most abundant groups. The species Skeletonema costatum, Chaetoceros curvisetus, Coscinodiscus radiatus var. radiatus, Ditylum brightwellii, Thalassiosira eccentrica and Entomoneis alata were found associated with moderate water quality and forming blooms. In addition, a regional comparison between Mexico and South America of the identified species is given. For practical handling, indicative values obtained from their ecological composition are incorporated as well as a code of the floristic list. Achecklist of the species and their occurrence are given.

  12. Wild common bean in the Central Valley of Costa Rica: ecological distribution and molecular characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa In\\u00E9s Gonz\\u00E1lez Torres

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Frijol silvestre en el Valle Central de Costa Rica: distribución ecológica y caracterización molecular. Este trabajo presenta una actualización sobre la distribución de las formas silvestres de fríjol común en Costa Rica, su ecología y su caracterización molecular. Ala fecha 22 poblaciones fueron encontradas en cuatro cuencas alrededor del Valle Central, generalmente en vegetaciones ruderales (frecuentemente bordes de cafetales, con estatuto de conservación variable (desde protegido a amenazado. Su caracterización molecular indica su pertenencia al acervo genético mesoamericano. Varios marcadores indican una variabilidad aumentada en las formas silvestres y permiten inferir la presencia de un fenómeno de flujo genético e introgresión desde materiales cultivados.

  13. Changes in abundance and spatial distribution of geese molting near Teshekpuk Lake, Alaska: Interspecific competition or ecological change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, P.L.; Mallek, E.J.; King, R.J.; Schmutz, J.A.; Bollinger, K.S.; Derksen, D.V.

    2008-01-01

    Goose populations molting in the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area of the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska have changed in size and distribution over the past 30 years. Black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) are relatively stable in numbers but are shifting from large, inland lakes to salt marshes. Concurrently, populations of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) have increased seven fold. Populations of Canada geese (Branta canadensis and/or B. hutchinsii) are stable with little indication of distributional shifts. The lesser snow goose (Anser caerulescens caerulescens) population is proportionally small, but increasing rapidly. Coastline erosion of the Beaufort Sea has altered tundra habitats by allowing saltwater intrusion, which has resulted in shifts in composition of forage plant species. We propose two alternative hypotheses for the observed shift in black brant distribution. Ecological change may have altered optimal foraging habitats for molting birds, or alternatively, interspecific competition between black brant and greater white-fronted geese may be excluding black brant from preferred habitats. Regardless of the causative mechanism, the observed shifts in species distributions are an important consideration for future resource planning. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  14. Spatial distribution and ecological risk assessment of trace metals in urban soils in Wuhan, central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chutian; Yang, Yong; Li, Weidong; Zhang, Chuanrong; Zhang, Ruoxi; Mei, Yang; Liao, Xiangsen; Liu, Yingying

    2015-09-01

    Surface soil samples from 467 sample sites were collected in urban area of Wuhan City in 2013, and total concentrations of five trace metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, and Cd) were measured. Multivariate and geostatistical analyses showed that concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cu are higher along Yangtze River in the northern area of Wuhan, gradually decrease from city center to suburbs, and are mainly controlled by anthropogenic activities, while those of Cr and Cd are relatively spatially homogenous and mainly controlled by soil parent materials. Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd have generally higher concentrations in roadsides, industrial areas, and residential areas than in school areas, greenbelts, and agricultural areas. Areas with higher road and population densities and longer urban construction history usually have higher trace metal concentrations. According to estimated results of the potential ecological risk index and Nemero synthesis pollution index, almost the whole urban area of Wuhan is facing considerable potential ecological risk caused by soil trace metals. These results reveal obvious trends of trace metal pollution, and an important impact of anthropogenic activities on the accumulation of trace metals in soil in Wuhan. Vehicular emission, industrial activities, and household wastes may be the three main sources for trace metal accumulation. Increasing vegetation cover may reduce this threat. It should be pointed out that Cd, which is strongly accumulated in soil, could be the largest soil pollution factor in Wuhan. Effective measures should be taken as soon as possible to deal with Cd enrichment, and other trace metals in soil should also be reduced, so as to protect human health in this important large city.

  15. Macroinvertebrate distribution and aquatic ecology in the Ruoergai (Zoige) Wetland, the Yellow River source region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Xu, Mengzhen; Li, Zhiwei; Wang, Zhaoyin; Zhou, Hanmi

    2016-12-01

    The Ruoergai (Zoige) Wetland, the largest plateau peatland in the world, is located in the Yellow River source region. The discharge of the Yellow River increases greatly after flowing through the Ruoergai Wetland. The aquatic ecosystem of the Ruoergai Wetland is crucial to the whole Yellow River basin. The Ruoergai wetland has three main kinds of water bodies: rivers, oxbow lakes, and marsh wetlands. In this study, macroinvertebrates were used as indicators to assess the aquatic ecological status because their assemblage structures indicate long-term changes in environments with high sensitivity. Field investigations were conducted in July, 2012 and in July, 2013. A total of 72 taxa of macroinvertebrates belonging to 35 families and 67 genera were sampled and identified. Insecta was the dominant group in the Ruoergai Basin. The alpha diversity of macroinvertebrates at any single sampling site was low, while the alpha diversity on a basin-wide scale was much higher. Macroinvertebrate assemblages in rivers, oxbow lakes, and marsh wetlands differ markedly. Hydrological connectivity was a primary factor causing the variance of the bio-community. The river channels had the highest alpha diversity of macroinvertebrates, followed by marsh wetlands and oxbow lakes. The density and biomass of Gastropoda, collector filterers, and scrapers increased from rivers to oxbow lakes and then to marsh wetlands. The river ecology was particular in the Ruoergai Wetland with the high beta diversity of macroinvertebrates, the low alpha diversity of macroinvertebrates, and the low taxa richness, density, and biomass of EPT (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera). To maintain high alpha diversity of macroinvertebrates macroinvertebrates in the Ruoergai Wetland, moderate connectivity of oxbow lakes and marsh wetlands with rivers and measures to control headwater erosion are both crucial.

  16. Ecology and Distribution of Copepods from the Salt Pan Ecosystems of Mumbai, West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Stephen, R.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; NaveenKumar, K.R.; Nair, V.R.

    and Mesochra sp. The species distribution showed pulses and peaks with harpacticoids dominating in extreme environmental conditions. The diversity and seasonal variations of species were considered in relation to environmental conditions. The study contemplates...

  17. Distribution and ecology of Biatoridium monasteriense J. Lahm ex Körb in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Łubek

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A new site of Biatoridium monasteriense was discovered during a lichenological investigation in Białowieża National Park. The paper presents information on the distribution of this species in Poland.

  18. [Ecological affinity and current distribution of primates (Cebidae) in Campeche, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Fernández, Eloísa; Pozo de la Tijera, Carmen; Escobedo Cabrera, Enrique

    2003-06-01

    We carried out surveys realized field work from March to September 2000 to get the current distribution of Cebids in the state of Campeche, Mexico. Based on interviews and direct observations. We defined the distribution of Ateles geoffroyi yucatanensis and Alouatta pigra and we documented the first time localities where Allouata palliata is found in the state. We made distributional maps of each species using vegetation overlays from Inventario Nacional Forestal (Inv For) and each point documented during fieldwork. We presented the distribution of species according to confiability of the verified or expected data. Using the attributes table of Inv For, we calculated the areas of distribution which were 22,735 km2 for Alouatta sp. and 18,501 km2 for A. g. yucatanensis. We also presented the area occupied by each species according to vegetation types and the relative proportion of these vegetation types in the state. We confirmed the ability of Alouatta sp. to survive in disturbed environments produced by habitat fragmentation, and the affinity of A. g. yucatanesis to well preserved habitats.

  19. Diversity, ecological distribution and biotechnological potential of Actinobacteria inhabiting seamounts and non-seamounts in the Tyrrhenian Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Ettoumi, Besma

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, the ecological distribution of marine Actinobacteria isolated from seamount and non-seamount stations in the Tyrrhenian Sea was investigated. A collection of 110 isolates was analyzed by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of representatives for each ARISA haplotype (n = 49). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences showed a wide diversity of marine isolates and clustered the strains into 11 different genera, Janibacter, Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter, Kocuria, Dietzia, Curtobacterium, Micrococcus, Citricoccus, Brevibacterium, Brachybacterium and Nocardioides. Interestingly, Janibacter limosus was the most encountered species particularly in seamounts stations, suggesting that it represents an endemic species of this particular ecosystem. The application of BOX-PCR fingerprinting on J. limosus sub-collection (n = 22), allowed their separation into seven distinct BOX-genotypes suggesting a high intraspecific microdiversity among the collection. Furthermore, by screening the biotechnological potential of selected actinobacterial strains, J. limosus was shown to exhibit the most important biosurfactant activity. Our overall data indicates that Janibacter is a major and active component of seamounts in the Tyrrhenian Sea adapted to low nutrient ecological niche.

  20. Taxonomy Icon Images (PNG format) - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ...se Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Taxonomy Icon Images (PNG format) - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive ...

  1. Distribution and ecology of deep-water benthic foraminifera in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poag, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    Bathyal and abyssal foraminifera in the Gulf of Mexico are distributed among thirteen generic predominance facies. Five predominance facies nearly encircle the Gulf basin along the slope and rise; a sixth predominance facies blankets the Sigsbee Plain, and a seventh is restricted to the Mississippi Fan. The remaining eight predominance facies have more restricted distributions. The areal patterns of these predominance facies can be related chiefly to water mass and substrate characteristics; modifications are brought about by calcite dissolution, upwelling, and sill depth. Analysis of ancient generic predominance facies is useful in predicting relative paleobathymetry and other paleoenvironmental properties. ?? 1984.

  2. Taxonomy of the extrasolar planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plávalová, Eva

    2012-04-01

    When a star is described as a spectral class G2V, we know that the star is similar to our Sun. We know its approximate mass, temperature, age, and size. When working with an extrasolar planet database, it is very useful to have a taxonomy scale (classification) such as, for example, the Harvard classification for stars. The taxonomy has to be easily interpreted and present the most relevant information about extrasolar planets. I propose an extrasolar planet taxonomy scale with four parameters. The first parameter concerns the mass of an extrasolar planet in the form of units of the mass of other known planets, where M represents the mass of Mercury, E that of Earth, N Neptune, and J Jupiter. The second parameter is the planet's distance from its parent star (semimajor axis) described in a logarithm with base 10. The third parameter is the mean Dyson temperature of the extrasolar planet, for which I established four main temperature classes: F represents the Freezing class, W the Water class, G the Gaseous class, and R the Roasters class. I devised one additional class, however: P, the Pulsar class, which concerns extrasolar planets orbiting pulsar stars. The fourth parameter is eccentricity. If the attributes of the surface of the extrasolar planet are known, we are able to establish this additional parameter where t represents a terrestrial planet, g a gaseous planet, and i an ice planet. According to this taxonomy scale, for example, Earth is 1E0W0t, Neptune is 1N1.5F0i, and extrasolar planet 55 Cnc e is 9E-1.8R1.

  3. Distributive Characteristics of Metallic Nano-particlcs in China's Urban Water Bodies and their Ecological Risks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yang; LUO Zhuanxi; XIA Jun

    2012-01-01

    Engineering nano-materials & their impact on human health or environmental security constitute a newly emerging R&D hot spot and a key problem now urgently waiting for its solution in supporting the sustainability of China's nano-science and related technology development. At present, water bodies in Chinese cities have been seriously polluted by metallic nano-particles (MNPs) while related monitoring data are found woefully lacking throughout the country. Based on the above understanding, this article gives a round-up explanation on distributive characteristics of MNPs in the river mouths or water bodies of Chinese cities, their ecological hazards as well as our research in this regard, providing some inspiring ideas and data for control over this scourge. In addition, our exploration probes the discharge traits of MNPs themselves and the mechanism underlying its impact on water pollution.

  4. Spatial distribution and ecological risk assessment of heavy metal on surface sediment in west part of Java Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effendi, Hefni; Wardiatno, Yusli; Kawaroe, Mujizat; Mursalin; Fauzia Lestari, Dea

    2017-01-01

    The surface sediments were identified from west part of Java Sea to evaluate spatial distribution and ecological risk potential of heavy metals (Hg, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn and Ni). The samples were taken from surface sediment (Hg>Pb>Ni>Cu>As>Zn>Cr. Furthermore, the result of multivariate statistical analysis shows that correlation among heavy metals (As/Ni, Cd/Ni, and Cu/Zn) and heavy metals with Risk Index (Cd/Ri and Ni/Ri) had positive correlation in significance level p1). On the cluster analysis, Cd, Ni, Pb were identified as fairly high contaminations level (cluster 1), Hg as moderate contamination level (cluster 2) and Cu, Zn, Cr with lower contamination level (cluster 3).

  5. A taxonomy fuzzy filtering approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrettos S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Our work proposes the use of topic taxonomies as part of a filtering language. Given a taxonomy, a classifier is trained for each one of its topics. The user is able to formulate logical rules combining the available topics, e.g. (Topic1 AND Topic2 OR Topic3, in order to filter related documents in a stream. Using the trained classifiers, every document in the stream is assigned a belief value of belonging to the topics of the filter. These belief values are then aggregated using logical operators to yield the belief to the filter. In our study, Support Vector Machines and Naïve Bayes classifiers were used to provide topic probabilities. Aggregation of topic probabilities based on fuzzy logic operators was found to improve filtering performance on the Renters text corpus, as compared to the use of their Boolean counterparts. Finally, we deployed a filtering system on the web using a sample taxonomy of the Open Directory Project.

  6. LEADERSHIP BEHAVIORAL TAXONOMIES IN UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaz Ahmed Mangi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was intended to recognize and replicate the Yukl’s (1989-2004 behavioral taxonomies in the university settings in Sindh. A comprehensive questionnaire based on the items in taxonomies was developed, face validity of the questionnaire was test and found suitable. A total of 90 university Deans and head of Departments were randomly selected from public and private universities of Sindh. Categorical reliability of the data was checked and found highly reliable. The majority of the respondents were male, post graduate, above 50 years of age, married and had more than 15 years of experience. The statistical analysis describes the typical Sindhi culture among the respondents. A large number of university leadership focused on the relation as compared to task and change at the universities. This research also supports partial replication of three dimensions i.e., Relation, Task and Change as Yukl’s behavioral taxonomies with first order factor analysis. Relation factor was replicated completely, while other two were replicated in two different facets each i.e., Change was replicated in two facets – Improvement and Process and Task was also replicated in two facets – Improvement and Process. Making a second order factor analysis assured these two factors were replicated completely.

  7. Aspen Ecology in Rocky Mountain National Park: Age Distribution, Genetics, and the Effects of Elk Herbivory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Yin, Tongming [ORNL

    2008-10-01

    Lack of aspen (Populus tremuloides) recruitment and canopy replacement of aspen stands that grow on the edges of grasslands on the low-elevation elk (Cervus elaphus) winter range of Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) in Colorado has been a cause of concern for more than 70 years (Packard, 1942; Olmsted, 1979; Stevens, 1980; Hess, 1993; R.J. Monello, T.L. Johnson, and R.G. Wright, Rocky Mountain National Park, 2006, written commun.). These aspen stands are a significant resource since they are located close to the park's road system and thus are highly visible to park visitors. Aspen communities are integral to the ecological structure of montane and subalpine landscapes because they contain high native species richness of plants, birds, and butterflies (Chong and others, 2001; Simonson and others, 2001; Chong and Stohlgren, 2007). These low-elevation, winter range stands also represent a unique component of the park's plant community diversity since most (more than 95 percent) of the park's aspen stands grow in coniferous forest, often on sheltered slopes and at higher elevations, while these winter range stands are situated on the low-elevation ecotone between the winter range grasslands and some of the park's drier coniferous forests.

  8. Breast cancer pathology: the impact of molecular taxonomy on morphological taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Shinobu

    2012-05-01

    The concept of having an 'intrinsic subtype,' or a molecular taxonomy, lets us clearly recognize that breast cancers have characteristically different patterns of gene expression, thus giving newfound significance to morphological taxonomy. In this review, the concept of the 'intrinsic subtype' is discussed, research questions are introduced to refine the significance of morphological taxonomy, and a corresponding example is presented between microarray analysis and 'immunohistochemical subtype,' or histological taxonomy.

  9. Distribution, abundance and ecological relevance of pelagic fishes in the Lazarev Sea, Southern Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florentino De Souza Silva, A.P.; Putte, van de A.P.; Siegel, V.; Pakhomov, E.A.; Franeker, van J.A.; Meesters, H.W.G.; Colckaert, F.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The distribution and abundance of larval and postlarval fishes was investigated in the Lazarev Sea, Southern Ocean, in March and April 2004. The upper 200 m of the water column were sampled with an 8 m2 rectangular midwater trawl at 93 stations. The larval species community clustered in a diverse co

  10. Distribution, abundance and ecological relevance of pelagic fishes in the Lazarev Sea, Southern Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores, Hauke; de Putte, Anton P. Van; Siegel, Volker; Pakhomov, Evgeny A.; Van Franeker, Jan A.; Meesters, Hugo W. G.; Volckaert, Filip A. M.

    2008-01-01

    The distribution and abundance of larval and postlarval fishes was investigated in the Lazarev Sea, Southern Ocean, in March and April 2004. The upper 200 m of the water column were sampled with an 8 m(2) rectangular midwater trawl at 93 stations. The larval species community clustered in a diverse

  11. Ecological aspects of the distribution of reef corals in the Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bak, Rolf P.M.

    1975-01-01

    The vertical and horizontal patterns of the distribution of corals and coral reefs (to a depth of 90 m) are discussed in relation to the environmental factors: geomorphology of the bottom, available substrate, light, turbidity, sedimentation, water movement and temperature. There is a general patter

  12. [Distribution and Potential Ecological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Surface Sediments of Inflow Rivers to Northeastern Lake Tanganyika].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cheng; Chen, Shuang; Zhang, Lu

    2016-02-15

    As the second deepest lake in Africa, Lake Tanganyika plays an important role in supplying fish protein for citizens in the catchment. However, the lake is increasingly threatened by environmental pollution with the development of social economy and expanding of population. In order to reveal the external source of heavy metals in Lake Tanganyika, 16 surface sediment samples from the rivers which flow into the northeast of the lake were collected and analyzed. Besides the contents, the potential ecological risk indices (RI) of each heavy metal were also analyzed. Furthermore, the relationship, between land use and the spatial distribution of heavy metals was also discussed. The average contents of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Hg were 18. 4, 21.2, 0.05, 6.6 mg x kg(-1) and 8.4 ng x g(-1), respectively, with the maximum values of Zn, Pb and Cd located in Bujumbura urban rivers. The data indicated that all the inflow rivers were at low potential ecological risk. RI of heavy metals ranked as the following order: Cd > Hg > Cu > Pb > Zn, as Cd being the key element contributing to the risk. The relationship between land use and heavy metals showed that the contents of heavy metals were highest in urban areas, followed by estuarine wetlands, and woodlands were least polluted by heavy metals. This distribution type implied that human activities could cause the heavy metal accumulation in the surface sediments of nearby rivers. The urban areas and estuarine wetlands need to be concerned in the further study.

  13. Diversity and Taxonomy in Cultural Heritage

    OpenAIRE

    Myridis, N. E.

    2012-01-01

    The discipline of Cultural Heritage is nowadays developing very well. Moreover, the field of Cultural Heritage Preservation is also developing well. The necessity of well-organized taxonomy and classification now seems to be an outstanding significant topic. The scope of this paper regards such taxonomy; more precisely, it proposes this kind of taxonomy. The final products of this paper are the Diagram of Cultural Heritage & its Preservation and the Universal Cultural Heritage & Preservation ...

  14. Species Distribution Models and Ecological Suitability Analysis for Potential Tick Vectors of Lyme Disease in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Illoldi-Rangel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Species distribution models were constructed for ten Ixodes species and Amblyomma cajennense for a region including Mexico and Texas. The model was based on a maximum entropy algorithm that used environmental layers to predict the relative probability of presence for each taxon. For Mexico, species geographic ranges were predicted by restricting the models to cells which have a higher probability than the lowest probability of the cells in which a presence record was located. There was spatial nonconcordance between the distributions of Amblyomma cajennense and the Ixodes group with the former restricted to lowlands and mainly the eastern coast of Mexico and the latter to montane regions with lower temperature. The risk of Lyme disease is, therefore, mainly present in the highlands where some Ixodes species are known vectors; if Amblyomma cajennense turns out to be a competent vector, the area of risk also extends to the lowlands and the east coast.

  15. The potential distribution of Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Libya based on ecological niche model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Dayem, M S; Annajar, B B; Hanafi, H A; Obenauer, P J

    2012-05-01

    The increased cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis vectored by Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) in Libya have driven considerable effort to develop a predictive model for the potential geographical distribution of this disease. We collected adult P. papatasi from 17 sites in Musrata and Yefern regions of Libya using four different attraction traps. Our trap results and literature records describing the distribution of P. papatasi were incorporated into a MaxEnt algorithm prediction model that used 22 environmental variables. The model showed a high performance (AUC = 0.992 and 0.990 for training and test data, respectively). High suitability for P. papatasi was predicted to be largely confined to the coast at altitudes Libya may find this information useful in their efforts to control zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis. Existing records are strongly biased toward a few geographical regions, and therefore, further sand fly collections are warranted that should include documentation of such factors as soil texture and humidity, land cover, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data to increase the model's predictive power.

  16. Population ecology of Paepalanthus polyanthus (Bong. Kunth: temporal variation in the pattern of spatial distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Tarabini Castellani

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The temporal variation in density and pattern of spatial distribution of Paepalanthus polyanthus (BONG. Kunth (Eriocaulaceae were evaluated at a determinate sand dune. This study was carried out over a period of five years, at three permanent plots of 25m2 in a sand dune slack at Joaquina Beach, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. There were strong density fluctuations throughout these years. In areas 1, 2 and 3, the densities changed from 10.4, 2.2 and 1.8 plants/m2 in December 1986 to 75.8, 11.4 and 45.6 plants/m2 in December 1991. Area 3, situated on an elevated site, presented greater variation in density, with no live plants in December 1989 and 102.2 plants/m2 at the recruitment observed in May 1990. Despite these density fluctuations, the pattern of spatial distribution was always aggregated (Id>1, P<0.05. The greatest Id values occurred in periods of low density and not in those of high density, associated with seedling recruitment. Factors such as high seed production with low dispersal, massive germination in moit years and a comparatively high death rate of seedlings at sites more subject to flooding or more distant from the water table proved themselves able to promote this aggregate pattern and increase it during plant development.

  17. DISTRIBUTION AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HYALOMMA IXODID TICKS IN THE ECOSYSTEMS OF THE STAVROPOL REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Trukhachev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the characteristics of the modern dissemination, distribution and seasonal activity of Hyalomma ixodid ticks in the Stavropol region.Methods. The study of the spread of Ixodes Hyalomma ticks was conducted in all administrative districts of the Stavropol Territory in the period of 2000-2015. Collection of ixodid ticks in natural habitats, home to wild mammals and birds, was carried out according to conventional techniques.Results. Hyalomma marginatum is a two-host tick. In the region, H. marginatum of an adult stage becomes active in early spring (late March - early April; appearance of the larvae is observed in early July; the nymphs in the third decade of July. The peculiarity of biological development of H. scupense is the activation of adult species in the cold season (winter; development is only of one-host cycle. The peak number of ticks of an adult stage in cattle falls on the last days of January and February.Conclusion. Hyalomma ixodid ticks in the Stavropol region are distributed mosaicly, with the dominance of some species depending on climatic and landscape-geographical features of the territories they inhabit. The dominant species are H. marginatum and H. scupense, but H. anatolicum tick species occur sporadically in the east region.

  18. Introduction to Distribution and Ecology of Sterile Conks of Inonotus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Woong; Hur, Hyeon; Chang, Kwang-Choon; Lee, Tae-Soo; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Jankovsky, L

    2008-12-01

    Inonotus obliquus is a fungus that causes white heart rot on several broad-leaved species. This fungus forms typical charcoal-black, sterile conks (chaga) or cinder conks on infected stems of the birche (Betula spp). The dark brown pulp of the sterile conk is formed by a pure mycelial mass of fungus. Chaga are a folk remedy in Russia, reflecting the circumboreal distribution of I. obliquus in boreal forest ecosystems on Betula spp. and in meridional mountain forests on beech (Fagus spp.) in Russia, Scandinavia, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe. Distribution at lower latitudes in Western and Southern Europe, Northern America, Asia, Japan, and Korea is rare. Infected trees grow for many years without several symptoms of decline. The infection can penetrate through stem injuries with exterior sterile conks developing later. In the Czech Republic, cinder conk is found on birches inhabiting peat bogs and in mountain areas with a colder and more humid climate, although it is widespread in other broad leaved species over the Czech Republic. The most common hosts are B. pendula, B. pubescens, B. carpatica, and F. sylvatica. Less frequent hosts include Acer campestre, Acer pseudoplatanus, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus cerris, Q. petraea, Q. robur, Q. delachampii, and Ulmus sp.

  19. Ecological factors related to the widespread distribution of sylvatic Rhodnius ecuadoriensis populations in southern Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grijalva Mario J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chagas disease transmission risk is a function of the presence of triatomines in domestic habitats. Rhodnius ecuadoriensis is one of the main vectors implicated in transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in Ecuador. This triatomine species is present in domestic, peridomestic and sylvatic habitats in the country. To determine the distribution of sylvatic populations of R. ecuadoriensis and the factors related to this distribution, triatomine searches were conducted between 2005 and 2009 in southern Ecuador. Methods Manual triatomine searches were conducted by skilled bug collectors in 23 communities. Sylvatic searched sites were selected by a directed sampling, where microhabitats were selected by the searchers and b random sampling, where sampling points where randomly generated. Domiciliary triatomine searches were conducted using the one man-hour method. Natural trypanosome infection was determined by microscopic examination and PCR. Generalized linear models were used to test the effect of environmental factors on the presence of sylvatic triatomines. Results In total, 1,923 sylvatic individuals were collected representing a sampling effort of 751 man-hours. Collected sylvatic triatomines were associated with mammal and bird nests. The 1,219 sampled nests presented an infestation index of 11.9%, a crowding of 13 bugs per infested nest, and a colonization of 80% of the nests. Triatomine abundance was significantly higher in squirrel (Sciurus stramineus nests located above five meters from ground level and close to the houses. In addition, 8.5% of the 820 examined houses in the same localities were infested with triatomines. There was a significant correlation between R. ecuadoriensis infestation rates found in sylvatic and synanthropic environments within communities (p = 0.012. Parasitological analysis revealed that 64.7% and 15.7% of the sylvatic bugs examined (n = 300 were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and T. rangeli

  20. Distribution and ecology of bees on the Polish Baltic coast (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Apiformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banaszak Józef

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides data on the distribution of 128 bee species on the Polish Baltic coast. This brings the total number of species of Apiformes in this region to 164, including those that I reported earlier. The bee fauna of the Polish coast is characterized by a very high proportion of bumblebees and cuckoo bees (locally up to 70-80% of the total catch, and the dominant proportion of Megachilidae, especially Megachile species. The species diversity and dominance structure of the Apiformes differ between the western coast (a very high proportion of bumblebees and the eastern coast (a large number of dominant species. These results confirm my earlier hypothesis regarding the maritime-continental gradient of bumblebee abundance, indicating that the densities of these insects are higher in NW Poland. This study is the first to assess bee densities on coastal dunes in Poland.

  1. Integrating evolution into geographical ecology: a phylogenetic perspective on palm distributions and community composition across scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Svenning, J.-C.; Kissling, W. Daniel;

    Species distributions, assemblage composition, and species richness depend on both current environment and the diversification of lineages in past environments. On broad scales, processes that constrain diversifying lineages to certain regions or environments are particularly important. Through...... species pool effects, those processes also affect local community composition and richness. In addition, evolution directly affects local communities directly via niche-based assembly. We studied these effects with palms (Arecaceae) as a model group, using a) a dataset including >340,000 palm individuals...... in 430 transects in the Western Amazon, b) a set of range maps for all American palms (550 spp.), and c) global country-level presence/ absence data of all (>2400) palm species. These data were analysed with novel phylogenetic community structure and turnover methods. Globally, the phylogenetic structure...

  2. Ecological distribution of harmful epiphytic Oscillatoriales in Alexandria coast, Egypt, with special reference to DNA identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amany Abdel Hamid Ismael; Eman Abdel Razak Mohamed; Mostafa Mohamed El-Sheikh; Wafaa Hassan Hegazy

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the potentially harmful epiphytic Oscillatoriales species and follow up their distribution along Alexandria coast. Methods: Samples were collected bimonthly from April 2009 to February 2010 at three sites along Alexandria coast. Both morphological and molecular analyses were used for identifying the dominant species.Results:Five species belonging to two families were identified; Oscillatoria acutissima, Oscillatoria nigroviridis, Oscillatoria sp., Lyngbya majuscule and Phormidium formosum. Their cell density ranged from 103 to 126X103 filament g-1 fresh weight macroalgae. The morphological study of the dominant species, Oscillatoria sp. (Oscillatoria sp. W1) showed much similarity withPlanktothrix agardhii with no heterocysts and akinetes, while molecular ananlysis (16S rDNA) clustered the species in the same group with Anabaena sp.Conclusions:The 16S rDNA genes are not suitable for identifying Oscillatoriales during the present study and another molecular method should be used instead.

  3. Cognitive ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Edwin

    2010-10-01

    Cognitive ecology is the study of cognitive phenomena in context. In particular, it points to the web of mutual dependence among the elements of a cognitive ecosystem. At least three fields were taking a deeply ecological approach to cognition 30 years ago: Gibson's ecological psychology, Bateson's ecology of mind, and Soviet cultural-historical activity theory. The ideas developed in those projects have now found a place in modern views of embodied, situated, distributed cognition. As cognitive theory continues to shift from units of analysis defined by inherent properties of the elements to units defined in terms of dynamic patterns of correlation across elements, the study of cognitive ecosystems will become an increasingly important part of cognitive science.

  4. [Taxonomy and typology: are they really synonymous?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgès Da Silva, Roxane

    2013-01-01

    Typology and taxonomy constructions are increasingly used as a method of analysis in health services and public health research. Although taxonomy and typology have different definitions in the dictionary, these terms are often used synonymously. The objective of this paper is to propose a theoretical framework derived from organizational theory in which the concepts of taxonomy and typology are clearly defined. The configurational approach emerged in the 1980s. It is designed to analyse the elements constituting an entity under study as a whole and not in isolation. In this approach, conceptually developed configurations are defined as typologies, while empirically derived configurations are defined as taxonomies. Based on this theoretical framework, taxonomies are used much more often than typologies in the scientific literature in the field of public health. Taxonomies can process large sets of multidimensional variables by generating relatively homogeneous groups that take into account interactions between variables. Taxonomies are usually built from classification methods or factor analyses combined with a classification. In conclusion, this paper proposes a theoretical framework to differentiate typologies from taxonomies to provide public health stakeholders with a common language in relation to classifications. This article provides the basis for discussion of theoretical frameworks underlying the definition of these concepts.

  5. Taxonomy for Assessing Evaluation Competencies in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Michelle S.; Hillaker, Barbara D.; Haas, Bruce E.; Peters, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of public service programming is becoming increasingly important with current funding realities. The taxonomy of evaluation competencies compiled by Ghere et al. (2006) provided the starting place for Taxonomy for Assessing Evaluation Competencies in Extension. The Michigan State University Extension case study described here presents a…

  6. In the Cells of the 'Bloom Taxonomy'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    The Bloom Taxonomy of Educational Objectives is criticized because its distinctions between cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains are invalid; its categories are ill-defined and do not denote homogenous types of objectives; its structural base is inconsistent; and it is debatable whether it is a true taxonomy. (IS)

  7. Cryptic sexual populations account for genetic diversity and ecological success in a widely distributed, asexual fungus-growing ant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabeling, Christian; Gonzales, Omar; Schultz, Ted R; Bacci, Maurício; Garcia, Marcos V B; Verhaagh, Manfred; Ishak, Heather D; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2011-07-26

    Sex and recombination are central processes in life generating genetic diversity. Organisms that rely on asexual propagation risk extinction due to the loss of genetic diversity and the inability to adapt to changing environmental conditions. The fungus-growing ant species Mycocepurus smithii was thought to be obligately asexual because only parthenogenetic populations have been collected from widely separated geographic localities. Nonetheless, M. smithii is ecologically successful, with the most extensive distribution and the highest population densities of any fungus-growing ant. Here we report that M. smithii actually consists of a mosaic of asexual and sexual populations that are nonrandomly distributed geographically. The sexual populations cluster along the Rio Amazonas and the Rio Negro and appear to be the source of independently evolved and widely distributed asexual lineages, or clones. Either apomixis or automixis with central fusion and low recombination rates is inferred to be the cytogenetic mechanism underlying parthenogenesis in M. smithii. Males appear to be entirely absent from asexual populations, but their existence in sexual populations is indicated by the presence of sperm in the reproductive tracts of queens. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus suggests that M. smithii is monophyletic, rendering a hybrid origin of asexuality unlikely. Instead, a mitochondrial phylogeny of sexual and asexual populations suggests multiple independent origins of asexual reproduction, and a divergence-dating analysis indicates that M. smithii evolved 0.5-1.65 million years ago. Understanding the evolutionary origin and maintenance of asexual reproduction in this species contributes to a general understanding of the adaptive significance of sex.

  8. Eliciting the Functional Taxonomy from protein annotations and taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falda, Marco; Lavezzo, Enrico; Fontana, Paolo; Bianco, Luca; Berselli, Michele; Formentin, Elide; Toppo, Stefano

    2016-08-18

    The advances of omics technologies have triggered the production of an enormous volume of data coming from thousands of species. Meanwhile, joint international efforts like the Gene Ontology (GO) consortium have worked to provide functional information for a vast amount of proteins. With these data available, we have developed FunTaxIS, a tool that is the first attempt to infer functional taxonomy (i.e. how functions are distributed over taxa) combining functional and taxonomic information. FunTaxIS is able to define a taxon specific functional space by exploiting annotation frequencies in order to establish if a function can or cannot be used to annotate a certain species. The tool generates constraints between GO terms and taxa and then propagates these relations over the taxonomic tree and the GO graph. Since these constraints nearly cover the whole taxonomy, it is possible to obtain the mapping of a function over the taxonomy. FunTaxIS can be used to make functional comparative analyses among taxa, to detect improper associations between taxa and functions, and to discover how functional knowledge is either distributed or missing. A benchmark test set based on six different model species has been devised to get useful insights on the generated taxonomic rules.

  9. The Western Amazonian Boundary for Avifauna Determined by Species Distribution Patterns and Geographical and Ecological Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Nores

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In northern South America, an extensive tropical lowland runs 5,000 km from the Atlantic coast to the foot of the Andes. The slope is gentle until about 500 m where the eastern Andes rise abruptly. The lowland supports Amazonia, which is the most extensive tract of tropical rainforest on the planet. Most of its boundaries are well defined, but the boundary between Amazonia and the forest of the eastern slopes of the Andes has not been clearly defined. To determine for avifauna whether Amazonia is restricted to the lowland of northern South America or whether it also extends up into the eastern slopes of the Andes, different types of data were used. The results indicate that Amazonia may be restricted to the lowland that extends from the Atlantic coast to the foot of the Andes, up to about 500 m. Consequently, the number of bird species strictly endemic to Amazonia would be 290. Comparison with the distribution of vegetation on the eastern slopes of the Andes also suggests that Amazonia as a biome may be restricted to the lowland that extends from the Atlantic coast to the foot of the Andes, up to about 500 m.

  10. TAXONOMIES OF PHYSICS PROBLEMS IN PHYSICS EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Hanáková

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomies of physics problems serve as useful tools to define and analyze the requirements of pupils and students in solving physics problems and tasks. The connection between taxonomies of educational objectives is important, and these were considered in selecting taxonomies of physics problems. Different approaches to classification are briefly described in this article, as well as the importance of a balance of physics problems in instruction, according to the selected taxonomy. Two taxonomies of physics problems were chosen according to our criteria and then analyzed and described in detail. A strength, weakness, opportunity, and threat SWOT analysis was performed on the tools as well as an example of the use of the tools on a particular physics problem.

  11. Distribution and ecology of Dormice (Myoxidae in Sicily: a preliminary account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Sarà

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Three dormouse species are recorded in Sicily: Myoxus glis, Muscardinus avellanarius and Eliomys quercinus. Their distribution is mapped according to the 10 x 10 km squares of the UTM grid. Data were collected until May 1993, mostly coming from pellet analysis, and direct records (vocalization listening, museum specimens, field observations, literature, etc.. The Fat dormouse (5.3% of 10 x 10 km squares and the Hazel dormouse (2.1% are mainly localized within deciduous wooded areas like the beech forests and the hazel groves mixed with oaks and chestnuts of Nebrodi and Madonie. The Fat dormouse is also present in south-eastern Sicily (Monti Iblei and on in Eolian island (Salina. The Garden dormouse shows the widest distribution (21.2%, ranging from sea level to the beech forests (1600 m a.s.1.. Dormice are rarely preyed upon by Owls in Sicily, generally forming less than 1.5% of the total prey, with the exception the Fat dormouse (5.3%. Other occasional predators, so far recorded, are the Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes and the Lanner (Falco biarmicus. Hibernation regularly occurs at high altitudes, but seems to be absent or curtailed in the warm habitats below 500 m a.s.1. Riassunto Distribuzione ed ecologia dei Mioxidi in Sicilia: dati preliminari - Tre specie di Mioxidi vivono in Sicilia (Myoxus glis, Muscardinus avellanarius, Eliomys quercinus. Storicamente (1850 essi erano presenti nelle principali aree boscate (Nebrodi, Madonie, Etna, solo nella metà di questo secolo, il Ghiro ed il Quercino furono scoperti alle isole Eolie (Salina e Lipari. Si riporta la carta di distribuzione di ogni specie (griglia UTM, 100 kmq ricavata dall'analisi della dieta di predatori, osservazioni dirette, trappolamenti ed esemplari citati in bibliografia o conservati nei musei. Il Ghiro (5,3% ed il Moscardino (2,1% sono localizzati nei

  12. Taxonomical and ecological characteristics of the desmids placoderms in reservoir: analyzing the spatial and temporal distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirlene Aparecida Felisberto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the influence of river-dam axis and abiotic factors on the composition of Closteriaceae, Gonatozygaceae, Mesotaeniaceae and Peniaceae in a tropical reservoir METHODS: Water samples for physical, chemical and periphyton analysis were collected in April and August 2002 in different regions along the axis of the river-dam of Rosana Reservoir, River Basin Paranapanema. The substrates collected, always in the litoranea region, were petioles of Eichhornia azurea (Swartz Kunth. To examine the relationship of abiotic variables with reservoir zones and between the floristic composition of desmids, we used principal component analysis (PCA and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA RESULTS: The results of the PCA explained 81.3% of the total variability in the first two axes. In the first axis, the variables of conductivity, water temperature and the pH were related to the sampling regions of April with higher values, while for the month of August, nitrate, total phosphorus and dissolved oxygen showed higher values. We identified 20 taxa, distributed in the genera Closterium (14, Gonatozygon (4, Netrium (1 and Penium (1. Spatially, the higher taxa were recorded in the lacustrine region for both collection periods. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA summarized 62.2% of total data variability of taxa in the first two axes, and in August, Closterium incurvum Brébisson, C. cornu Ehrenberg ex Ralfs and Gonatozygon monotaenium De Bary, were related to higher values of turbidity and nitrate to the lacustrine and intermediate regions CONCLUSION: Thus, the formation of groups was due to the regions along the longitudinal axis, then the seasonal period, which must be related to the low current velocity, the higher values of temperature and the water transparency, especially in late summer

  13. Distribution Modeling of three screwworm species in the ecologically diverse landscape of North West Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Farrah; Fatima, Syeda Hira; Khisroon, Muhammad; Gul, Ayesha

    2016-10-01

    North West Pakistan (NWP) is characterized by four eco-zones: Northern Montane Region, North Western Hills, Submontane Region and Indus Plains. Present study identified 1037 cases of traumatic myiasis in the region during 2012-2015. Screw worm larvae were classified as 12 species: Chrysomya bezziana (Villeneuve), Chryomya megacephala (Fabricius), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Lucilia illustris (Meigen), Lucilia porphyrina (Walker), Hemipyrellia ligguriens (Wiedemann), Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy), Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner), Sarcophaga crassipalpalis (Macquart), Sarchophaga species. Among these C. bezziana, L. cuprina and W. magnifica with approximately 882 case reports were the principal agents of traumatic myiasis. The species W. magnifica is a first report from Pakistan. In order to investigate spatial distribution of these dominant species we used MaxEnt niche model. Our results revealed a well-established occurrence of C. bezziana and L. cuprina in the four eco-regions while W. magnifica is currently contained in the Submontane Region. Several hot spot areas of infestation were detected all characterized by high human population density showing synanthropic nature of these species. Wohlfahrtia magnifica was excluded from Northern Montane Region with severe winters and Southern Indus Plains with harsh summers revealing that invasive species are initially sensitive to extreme of temperatures. Presence of L. cuprina in the wet areas of North Humid Belt (Maximum annual precipitation: 1641mm) depicted a moisture preference of the species. In perspective of changing climate and future predictions of severe events such as droughts and flooding in NWP, W. magnifica can potentially alter the species composition. Considering these findings in an eco-geographically dynamic region of Pakistan we predict that two factors (1) Growing human population (2) Climatic conditions, equally contribute to range

  14. Determinations of Urban Political Ecology: The Distribution Pattern Canopy Cover of Tree and Spatial inequality in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Karami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended abstract1-IntroductionInequality of green space distribution is a type of social production which by creating uneven ecological conditions in a feedback cycle plays its role on the quality of environment and intensification of imbalances inside the urban living environment. Most of the studies conducted so far have focused on the development or distribution of public green space but the truth is that public green spaces have not been the only source of urban metabolism (from the viewpoint of green space function and a great part of the role of urban green space is undertaken by private green spaces. “What effect do private greeneries located in residential areas have on the quality of citizens’ life or what kind of reality is asserted by their development and distribution pattern in the urban life of today’s modern society” were issues of less attention. Thus, considering the interconnection of green space production and distribution pattern (public and private with the rest of natural, social, economic and fabric conditions, the present research benefits from NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index as a dependent variable which has been influenced by ecological, social, fabric and economic variables and has analyzed them to identify effective factors in Tehran inequality urban green space. The present article theoretically makes use of urban political ecology approach and is considered a correlational research. The required data have been prepared and analyzed by some types of software such as ArcGIS, ArcView, IDRISI, ERDAS Imagine, and SPSS. In conducting this research some techniques have been used such as; “Average Distance to Nearest Neighbor”, “Square Analysis”, “Correlational Analysis and Factor Analysis”. 2-Theoretical basis The present study is theoretically based on an urban political ecology approach. Urban components including green space from urban political ecological perspective are considered a

  15. GEM Building Taxonomy (Version 2.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzev, S.; Scawthorn, C.; Charleson, A.W.; Allen, L.; Greene, M.; Jaiswal, Kishor; Silva, V.

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the development and applications of the Building Taxonomy for the Global Earthquake Model (GEM). The purpose of the GEM Building Taxonomy is to describe and classify buildings in a uniform manner as a key step towards assessing their seismic risk, Criteria for development of the GEM Building Taxonomy were that the Taxonomy be relevant to seismic performance of different construction types; be comprehensive yet simple; be collapsible; adhere to principles that are familiar to the range of users; and ultimately be extensible to non-buildings and other hazards. The taxonomy was developed in conjunction with other GEM researchers and builds on the knowledge base from other taxonomies, including the EERI and IAEE World Housing Encyclopedia, PAGER-STR, and HAZUS. The taxonomy is organized as a series of expandable tables, which contain information pertaining to various building attributes. Each attribute describes a specific characteristic of an individual building or a class of buildings that could potentially affect their seismic performance. The following 13 attributes have been included in the GEM Building Taxonomy Version 2.0 (v2.0): 1.) direction, 2.)material of the lateral load-resisting system, 3.) lateral load-resisting system, 4.) height, 5.) date of construction of retrofit, 6.) occupancy, 7.) building position within a block, 8.) shape of the building plan, 9.) structural irregularity, 10.) exterior walls, 11.) roof, 12.) floor, 13.) foundation system. The report illustrates the pratical use of the GEM Building Taxonomy by discussing example case studies, in which the building-specific characteristics are mapped directly using GEM taxonomic attributes and the corresponding taxonomic string is constructed for that building, with "/" slash marks separating attributes. For example, for the building shown to the right, the GEM Taxonomy string is: DX1/MUR+CLBRS+MOCL2/LWAL3/

  16. Generalized metamaterials: Definitions and taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Noori; Yoon, Yong-Jin; Allen, Jont B

    2016-06-01

    This article reviews the development of metamaterials (MM), starting from Newton's discovery of the wave equation, and ends with a discussion of the need for a technical taxonomy (classification) of these materials, along with a better defined definition of metamaterials. It is intended to be a technical definition of metamaterials, based on a historical perspective. The evolution of MMs began with the discovery of the wave equation, traceable back to Newton's calculation of the speed of sound. The theory of sound evolved to include quasi-statics (Helmholtz) and the circuit equations of Kirchhoff's circuit laws, leading to the ultimate development of Maxwell's equations and the equation for the speed of light. Be it light, or sound, the speed of the wave-front travel defines the wavelength, and thus the quasi-static (QS) approximation. But there is much more at stake than QSs. Taxonomy requires a proper statement of the laws of physics, which includes at least the six basic network postulates: (P1) causality (non-causal/acausal), (P2) linearity (non-linear), (P3) real (complex) time response, (P4) passive (active), (P5) time-invariant (time varying), and (P6) reciprocal (non-reciprocal). These six postulates are extended to include MMs.

  17. Revision of the characters of Centrolenidae (Amphibia : Anura : Athesphatanura), with comments on its taxonomy and the description of new taxa of glassfrogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros-Heredia, D.F.; McDiarmid, Roy W.

    2007-01-01

    Anurans of the family Centrolenidae are a diverse clade of arboreal frogs distributed across tropical America. Knowledge of their taxonomy, systematics, ecology, behavior, morphology, and other evolutionary aspects of their biology is deficient. Relationships among centrolenid species remain largely unresolved, with no satisfactory phylogenetic hypothesis, and none of the current genera has compelling evidence of monophyly. Further, understanding the phylogeny of glassfrogs is constrained by species-level taxonomic problems, including incorrect description of characters, incomplete analyses of intraspecific variation, and lack of appreciation of species diversity. Herein, we define and analyze the 23 characters that are useful, in combination, in diagnosing centrolenid species, and thereby provide a reference for the use of future workers. We propose revised classifications for the parietal and visceral peritoneal pigmentation, liver form and coloration of its associated hepatic peritoneum, nuptial excrescences, and hand ornamentation. We comment on the generic and species-level taxonomy of Centrolenidae, proposing the recognition of a new genus and describing a new species from Ecuador. We treat Hyla ocellifera Boulenger as a synonym of Centrolene prosoblepon (Boettger), Hyalinobatrachium cardiacalyptum McCranie & Wilson as a synonym of Hyalinobatrachium chirripoi (Taylor), and Hyalinobatrachium crybetes McCranie and Wilson as a synonym of Hyalinobatrachium colymbiphyllum (Taylor). We also present an annotated list of the species of glassfrogs from the Republic of Ecuador with some distributional remarks.

  18. Use of ecological niche modeling as a tool for predicting the potential distribution of Microcystis sp (cyanobacteria in the Aguamilpa Dam, Nayarit, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Martinez-Meyer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ecological niche modeling is an important tool to evaluate the spatial distribution of terrestrial species, however, its applicability has been little explored in the aquatic environment. Microcystis sp., a species of cyanobacteria, is widely recognized for its ability to produce a group of toxins known as microcystins, which can cause death of animals as fish, birds and mammals depending on the amount of toxin absorbed. Like any taxonomic group, cyanobacteria has environmental thresholds, therefore, a suitable ecological niche will define their distribution. This study was conducted in Aguamilpa Hydroelectric Reservoir, an artificial ecosystem that started operations in 1994. In this system we evaluated the potential distribution of Microcystis sp., by generating a prediction model based on the concept of ecological niche MAXENT, using a Digital Elevation Model in cells of 100 m x 100 m (1 ha spatial resolution and monitoring eleven physicochemical and biological variables and nutrients in water. The distribution maps were developed using ArcMap 9.2®. The results indicated that Microcystis sp., is distributed mainly in the upper tributary basin (Huaynamota basin during the dry season. There was less chance to find cyanobacteria in the entire system during the cold dry season, while during the warm dry season cyanobacteria was recognized at the confluence of two rivers. During the rainfall season there were no reports of cyanobacteria presence. This species is often associated with arising trophic processes of anthropogenic origin; therefore, attention is required in specific areas that have been identified in this work to improve Aguamilpa’s watershed management and restoration. It was also recognized the importance of phosphorus and nitrogen interaction, which determines the distribution of Microcystis sp., in the Aguamilpa Reservoir. The results of this study demonstrated that ecological niche modeling was a suitable tool to assess the

  19. Environmental Variables and Ecological Distribution of Ichthyofauna Assemblages in the Calabar River, Nigeria: Present and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andem Andem Bassey

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on environmental variables and ecological distribution of ichthyofauna assemblages were conducted in the Calabar River. Surface water and ichthyofauna were sampled in order to provide baseline or reference data on the Calabar River at present as regard its future prospects. Seasonal variation shows significant differences in surface water temperature, pH, DO, BOD, conductivity, TDS and TSS between sampling stations and insignificant differences in heavy metals such as cadmium, chromium, iron and copper between sampling stations. Twenty six species of fish fauna were identified belonging to twenty two families. Mugilidae, Clariidae, Cichlidae, Gobiidae and Sciaenidae were the most abundant for both wet and dry season, while Clupeidae, Bathyclupeidae, Carangidae and Sphyraenidae were low in the wet season but high in the dry season. Chromium, copper, surface water temperature, DO correlate significantly with the presence of E. fimbriata, B. soporator, M. sebae, C. gariepinus, M. loennbergii, C. guentheri and P. babarus. The overall values of biotic diversity indices ranged from 0.0504-0.0745 for Simpson’s Index, 2.770-3.095 for Shannon Index, 2.821-3.105 for Margalef’s Index and 0.8606-0.9498 for equitability. However, the presence of certain fish fauna in polluted and non-polluted parts of the river indicates that they could be used as potential bioindicators in assessment and biomonitoring of the river. The methods used in identifying fish diversity proved their applicability for future studies.

  20. Marine ecology conditions at Weda Bay, North Maluku based on statistical analysis on distribution of recent foraminifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniasih Anis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of foraminifera in geology,usually being used to find the age of rocks/ sediments and depositional environment. In this study, recent foraminifera was used not only to determinethe sedimentary environment,but also to estimate the ecological condition of the water through a statistical approach.Analysis was performed quantitatively in 10 surface seabed sediment samples in Weda Bay North Maluku. The analysis includes dominance (Sympson Index, diversity and evenness (Shannon Index, and the ratio of planktonic -benthic. The results were shown in the plotting diagram of M-R-T (Miliolid-Rotalid-Textularid to determine the depositional environment. Quantitative analysis was performed using Past software (paleontological version Statistic 1:29.The analysis result showed there was no domination of certain taxon with a moderate degree of evenness and stable communities and considerably a moderate diversity. The results of this analysis indicated that research area had a stable water conditions with the optimum level of carbonate content, oxygen supply, salinity, and temperature. The ratio of planktonic and benthic indicate the relative depth, which was deeper the water increased the percentage of planktonic foraminifera. Based on M-R-T diagram showed the distribution of sediment deposited on exposed carbonate (carbonate platform environment with normal saline.

  1. Geographical distribution and ecological features of the great gerbil subspecies in the main zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis foci in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Reza Abai; Mohammad Ali Oshaghi; Leila Tajedin; Yavar Rassi; Amir Ahmad Akhavan

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To reveal subspecies composition ofRhombomy opimus (R. opimus) in Iran. Methods: In this study, field specimens of the gerbil were collected from all its geographical rang in northeast and central parts of Iran and identified on basis of morphological characteristics.Results: Results revealed presence of two subspecies ofR. opimus sodalis andR. opimussargadensisin the country. The first subspecies with brown to hazel-nut color and a size bigger than a typicalR. opimuswas found only in Golestan province, an isolated colony which is located in plains of north slopes of Alborz Chain Mountains of the country, connected with the Turkmenistan. The subspecies ofR. opimussargadensiswith a yellowish color and similar size as a typicalR. opimus was found in all other areas of the great gerbil distribution in Iran. There was a distinct topographic difference but similar ectoparasites between colonies of the two subspecies in the study area.Conclusions: Further ecological and genetic investigations are required for more detailed description of theR. opimus subspecies range and structure. TheR. opimus-Phlebotomus papatasi-Leishmaniamajor association and theZCL severity and outcome in hosts are discussed.

  2. Ecological distribution and population structure of Acantholobulus schmitti (Rathbun, 1930 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Xanthoidea on the southeastern Brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Fransozo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This investigation analyzed the ecological distribution and population structure of A. schmitti on the southeastern coast of Brazil. Crabs were sampled monthly from January 1998 to December 1999 at the following bays: Ubatumirim (UBM, Ubatuba (UBA and Mar Virado (MV. Water and sediment samples were also collected from all sampling sites for an analysis of environmental factors. Acantholobus schmitti was most abundant at UBM (224, followed by UBA (154 and MV (23 but its abundance showed no association with the environmental factors analyzed. The low abundance of these crabs in MV may be due to the high wave action that moved biodetritic material accumulated on the bottom and frequently removed small crabs from their sheltered positions among the shell fragments. The individuals captured included 269 males and 132 females, of which only 4 specimens were brooding females. Juvenile recruitment occurred throughout the year, but was less intense in the spring. The major abundance of individuals as well as of ovigerous females occurred during 1999, when the entrance of the South Atlantic Central Waters (SACW was stronger than in previous year. This environmental influence could be the main factor modulating this population.

  3. Distribution and ecological risk of antibiotics in a typical effluent-receiving river (Wangyang River) in north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yonghai; Li, Mingxiao; Guo, Changsheng; An, Da; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Yuan; Xi, Beidou

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the occurrence and distribution of sixteen antibiotics belonging to four groups in surface water, sediment and groundwater samples from the Wangyang River (WYR), a typical river receiving sewage discharges were investigated. Laboratory analyses revealed that antibiotics were widely distributed in the studied area. The aqueous samples were unavoidably contaminated with antibiotics, and the target antibiotics present in high levels were oxytetracycline, tetracycline, chlortetracycline, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim, with maximum concentrations of the individual contaminant at 3.6×10(5), 9.7×10(3), 6.9×10(4), 1.2×10(4), 4.8×10(3), and 1.1×10(3) ng L(-1), respectively. Oxytetracycline, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and roxithromycin were the most frequently detected compounds in sediment samples, with maximum concentrations of the individual contaminant at 1.6×10(5), 1.7×10(4), 2.1×10(3) and 2.5×10(3) ng g(-1), respectively. The results also revealed that the high intensity of aquaculture activities could contribute to the increasing levels of antibiotics in the area. According to the ratios of measured environmental concentration (MEC) to predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC), chlortetracycline, tetracycline, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin-H2O and sulfamethoxazole may present possible environmental risk to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Synechococcus leopoliensis and M. aeruginosa. Attention should be given to the long-term ecological effects caused by the continuous discharge of antibiotics in the WYR area.

  4. Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    subdivision of Proteobacteria, dog pathogen Ehrlichia canis and thf. human pathogen but belongs to subgroup 2 and is specifically related to Rickettsia...fever group rickettsia ? tu res: similarities to the growth cycle of Ehrlichia canis . from humans in Japan. J. Infect. Dis. 159:1122-1126. Infect. Immun...fever oroup; genotypes; Rickettsiae; Ehrlichia ; Proteobacteria; Chlamydiae; serologic relat’i’onships; bacteriology; -, " -I" taxon; phylogeny

  5. Spatial distribution of Brucella antibodies with reference to indigenous cattle populations among contrasting agro-ecological zones of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabi, Fredrick; Muwanika, Vincent; Masembe, Charles

    2015-09-01

    Indigenous cattle populations exhibit various degrees of agro-ecological fitness and provide desirable opportunities for investments to improve sustainable production for better rural small-scale farmers' incomes globally. However, they could be a source of infection to their attendants and other susceptible livestock if their brucellosis status remains unknown. This study investigated the spatial distribution of Brucella antibodies among indigenous cattle populations in Uganda. Sera from a total of 925 indigenous cattle (410 Ankole Bos taurus indicus, 50 Nganda and 465 East African Shorthorn Zebu (EASZ) - B. indicus) obtained randomly from 209 herds spread throughout Uganda were sequentially analysed for Brucella antibodies using the indirect (I) and competitive (C) enzyme linked Immuno-sorbent assays (ELISA). Recent incidences of abortion within the previous 12 months and routine hygienic practices during parturition were explored for public health risks. Brucella antibodies occurred in approximately 8.64% (80/925) and 28.70% (95% CI: 22.52, 34.89) of the sampled individual cattle and herds, respectively. Findings have shown that Ankole and EASZ cattle had similar seroprevalences. Indigenous cattle from the different study agro-ecological zones (AEZs) exhibited varying seroprevalences ranging from approximately 1.78% (95% CI: 0, 5.29) to 19.67% (95% CI: 8.99, 30.35) in the Lake Victoria Crescent (LVC) and North Eastern Drylands (NED) respectively. Significantly higher odds for Brucella antibodies occurred in the NED (OR: 3.40, 95% CI: 1.34, 8.57, p=0.01) inhabited by EASZ cattle compared to the KP (reference category) AEZ. Recent incidences of abortions within the previous 12 months were significantly (p<0.001) associated with seropositive herds. These findings add critical evidence to existing information on the widespread occurrence of brucellosis among indigenous cattle populations in Uganda and could guide allocation of meagre resources for awareness creation

  6. Building a taxonomy of GI knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arleth, Mette

    2004-01-01

    of this project is to investigate how and how well non-professional users actually understand GI. For that purpose a taxonomy of GI knowledge is built, drawing on Bloom`s taxonomy. The elements of this taxonomy are described after a presentation of the main research question of the study, the applications chosen...... for the study and the definition of the non-professional user group. Finally considerations are made concerning the difference between this study and a traditional usability study as well as the further implications of the outcome of the study....

  7. Organising knowledge taxonomies, knowledge and organisational effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Lambe, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Taxonomies are often thought to play a niche role within content-oriented knowledge management projects. They are thought to be 'nice to have' but not essential. In this ground-breaking book, Patrick Lambe shows how they play an integral role in helping organizations coordinate and communicate effectively. Through a series of case studies, he demonstrates the range of ways in which taxonomies can help organizations to leverage and articulate their knowledge. A step-by-step guide in the book to running a taxonomy project is full of practical advice for knowledge managers and business owners ali

  8. Distribution and abundance of key vectors of Rift Valley fever and other arboviruses in two ecologically distinct counties in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Rosemary; Arum, Samwel; Chepkorir, Edith; Mosomtai, Gladys; Tigoi, Caroline; Sigei, Faith; Lwande, Olivia Wesula; Landmann, Tobias; Affognon, Hippolyte; Ahlm, Clas; Evander, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Background Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis of ruminants and humans that causes outbreaks in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula with significant public health and economic consequences. Humans become infected through mosquito bites and contact with infected livestock. The virus is maintained between outbreaks through vertically infected eggs of the primary vectors of Aedes species which emerge following rains with extensive flooding. Infected female mosquitoes initiate transmission among nearby animals, which amplifies virus, thereby infecting more mosquitoes and moving the virus beyond the initial point of emergence. With each successive outbreak, RVF has been found to expand its geographic distribution to new areas, possibly driven by available vectors. The aim of the present study was to determine if RVF virus (RVFV) transmission risk in two different ecological zones in Kenya could be assessed by looking at the species composition, abundance and distribution of key primary and secondary vector species and the level of virus activity. Methodology Mosquitoes were trapped during short and long rainy seasons in 2014 and 2015 using CO2 baited CDC light traps in two counties which differ in RVF epidemic risk levels(high risk Tana-River and low risk Isiolo),cryo-preserved in liquid nitrogen, transported to the laboratory, and identified to species. Mosquito pools were analyzed for virus infection using cell culture screening and molecular analysis. Findings Over 69,000 mosquitoes were sampled and identified as 40 different species belonging to 6 genera (Aedes, Anopheles, Mansonia, Culex, Aedeomyia, Coquillettidia). The presence and abundance of Aedes mcintoshi and Aedes ochraceus, the primary mosquito vectors associated with RVFV transmission in outbreaks, varied significantly between Tana-River and Isiolo. Ae. mcintoshi was abundant in Tana-River and Isiolo but notably, Aedes ochraceus found in relatively high numbers in Tana-River (n = 1

  9. Peruvian Children's Folk Taxonomy of Marine Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pizarro-Neyra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Free listing was used to obtain names of marine animals from 234 Peruvian children with families involved in fishing activities. They live in the fishing towns of Vila-vila, Morro Sama and Ilo, located in Southern Peru. Fishes, birds and the category “other marine animal” were used for the classification of marine fauna by children. The group of 6-8 year-olds shows a mean frequency of 19.7 names per child, while the group of 9-11 year-olds shows a mean frequency of 25.7 names per child. Folk species of fish is the most frequently recorded category with a predominance of coastal species and with a mean frequency of 7.56 and 11.51 names per child for the groups of 6-8 year-olds and 9-11 year-olds, respectively. In contrast, bird names are less frequently recorded in the lists. Some bird and mollusc names have lexical under-differentiation at a generic level and apparently have lower cultural significance than fish. Children’s classification in different levels of organization is evidence of a folk biology. The folk taxonomy of marine animals could be influenced by the lesser cognitive development of younger children and the ecological salience of some species. Some species with coastal habitat exhibit a high dominance index of folk names. Cultural transmission of knowledge about birds could be failing due to the recent occupancy of the study sites by migratory people and the sexual division of work in the children’s families.

  10. The genus Weissella: taxonomy, ecology and biotechnological potential

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenzina eFusco; Grazia Marina Quero; Gyu-Sung eCho; Jan Kabisch eKabisch; Diana Meske eMeske; Horst eNeve; Wilhelm eBockelmann; Franz, Charles M. A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria assigned to the genus Weissella are Gram-positive, catalase-negative, non-endospore forming cells with coccoid or rod-shaped morphology (Collins et al., 1993; Björkroth et al., 2009, 2014) and belong to the group of bacteria generally known as lactic acid bacteria. Phylogenetically, the Weissella belong to the Firmicutes, class Bacilli, order Lactobacillales and family Leuconostocaceae (Collins et al., 1993). They are obligately heterofermentative, producing CO2 from carbohydrate met...

  11. The genus Weissella: taxonomy, ecology and biotechnological potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Vincenzina; Quero, Grazia M; Cho, Gyu-Sung; Kabisch, Jan; Meske, Diana; Neve, Horst; Bockelmann, Wilhelm; Franz, Charles M A P

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria assigned to the genus Weissella are Gram-positive, catalase-negative, non-endospore forming cells with coccoid or rod-shaped morphology (Collins et al., 1993; Björkroth et al., 2009, 2014) and belong to the group of bacteria generally known as lactic acid bacteria. Phylogenetically, the Weissella belong to the Firmicutes, class Bacilli, order Lactobacillales and family Leuconostocaceae (Collins et al., 1993). They are obligately heterofermentative, producing CO2 from carbohydrate metabolism with either d(-)-, or a mixture of d(-)- and l(+)- lactic acid and acetic acid as major end products from sugar metabolism. To date, there are 19 validly described Weissella species known. Weissella spp. have been isolated from and occur in a wide range of habitats, e.g., on the skin and in the milk and feces of animals, from saliva, breast milk, feces and vagina of humans, from plants and vegetables, as well as from a variety of fermented foods such as European sourdoughs and Asian and African traditional fermented foods. Thus, apart from a perceived technical role of certain Weissella species involved in such traditional fermentations, specific Weissella strains are also receiving attention as potential probiotics, and strain development of particularly W. cibaria strains is receiving attention because of their high probiotic potential for controlling periodontal disease. Moreover, W. confusa and W. cibaria strains are known to produce copius amounts of novel, non-digestible oligosaccharides and extracellular polysaccharides, mainly dextran. These polymers are receiving increased attention for their potential application as prebiotics and for a wide range of industrial applications, predominantly for bakeries and for the production of cereal-based fermented functional beverages. On the detrimental side, strains of certain Weissella species, e.g., of W. viridescens, W. cibaria and W. confusa, are known as opportunistic pathogens involved in human infections while strains of W. ceti have been recently recongnized as etiological agent of "weissellosis," which is a disease affecting farmed rainbow trouts. Bacteria belonging to this species thus are important both from a technological, as well as from a medical point of view, and both aspects should be taken into account in any envisaged biotechnological applications.

  12. The Aplacophora: History, Taxonomy, Phylogeny, Biogeography, and Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    871-882. Field, K. G., G. J. Olsen, D. J. Lane, S. J. Giovannoni, M. T. Ghiselin, E. C. Raff, N. R. Pace and R. A. Raff. 1988. Molecular phylogeny of...Laboratory, Beaufort, North Carolina. 9. Harbor Branch Laboratory, FL Pierce, Florida. 10. Dives 492. 563, 752-754, 849, 1072. 11. Intituto de Biologia ...University (1965) Stns 351, 2361, 2732. and 3417 (14 specimens): and from the Inslituto de Biologia . Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (9 specimens). 52

  13. The Genus Weissella: Taxonomy, Ecology and Biotechnological Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzina eFusco

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria assigned to the genus Weissella are Gram-positive, catalase-negative, non-endospore forming cells with coccoid or rod-shaped morphology (Collins et al., 1993, Björkroth et al., 2009, 2014 and belong to the group of bacteria generally known as lactic acid bacteria. Phylogenetically, the Weissella belong to the Firmicutes, class Bacilli, order Lactobacillales and family Leuconostocaceae (Collins et al., 1993. They are obligately heterofermentative, producing CO2 from carbohydrate metabolism with either d(--, or a mixture of D(-- and L(+- lactic acid and acetic acid as major end products from sugar metabolism.To date, there are 19 validly described Weissella species known. Weissella spp. have been isolated from and occur in a wide range of habitats e.g. on the skin and in the milk and feces of animals, from saliva, breast milk, feces and vagina of humans, from plants and vegetables, as well as from a variety of fermented foods such as European sourdoughs and Asian and African traditional fermented foods. Thus, apart from a perceived technical role of certain Weissella species involved in such traditional fermentations, specific Weissella strains are also receiving attention as potential probiotics, and strain development of particularly W. cibaria strains is receiving attention because of their high probiotic potential for controlling periodontal disease. Moreover, W. confusa and W. cibaria strains are known to produce copius amounts of novel, non-digestible oligosaccharides and extracellular polysaccharides, mainly dextran. These polymers are receiving increased attention for their potential application as prebiotics and for a wide range of industrial applications, predominantly for bakeries and for the production of cereal-based fermented functional beverages. On the detrimental side, strains of certain Weissella species, e.g. of W. viridescens, W. cibaria and W. confusa, are known as opportunistic pathogens involved in human infections while strains of

  14. Morphology, evolution and taxonomy of Wachendorfia (Haemodoraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Helme

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Wachendorfia Burm. is a small genus endemic to the Cape Floral Region. Pour species are recognised in this study. Two species were originally described by Burman in 1757 and these were followed by numerous other descriptions of what is essentially one very variable species  (W. paniculaia Burm.. This variation is discussed and reasons are given as to why the recognition of formal infraspecific taxa is inappropriate. Formal taxonomic descriptions, distribution maps and a key to the species are provided. Rhizome morphology, leaf anatomy and pollen and seed coat structures were investigated and illustrations are provided. A cladogram was inferred and this is consistent with an ecological speciation model for the genus. The two species with the most restricted distribution (W. brachyandra W.F. Barker and W. pamfiora W.F. Barker are considered to be the most recently evolved. Features of systematic and ecological interest (e.g. floral enantiomorphy are discussed.

  15. NOTE ON THE TAXONOMY OF TESTATE AMOEBAE AND THEIR APPLICATIONS IN ECOLOGY AND PALAEOECOLOGY OF CHINA,WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO GENUS Argynnia Vucetich,1974%中国有壳变形虫Argynnia(Vucetich,1974)属的修订及若干环境重建问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦养民; 张文静; 李鸿凯; Edward A. D. Mitchell; Enrique Lara; 张千帆; 朱荣; 顾延生

    2011-01-01

    Testate amoebae are unicellular protists that build a test( shell) ,in which a single amoeboid cell is enclosed. They occur worldwide in a range of terrestrial, wetland, freshwater and even marine habitats, and have proven to be excellent paleoenvironmental proxies in peats and lakes. In protist diversity, testate amoebae occupy a special position due to their particularly conspicuous shell morphology and their important role in nutrient cycling and energy fluxes within microbial food webs. Although most testate amoebae species are generally supposed to have a cosmopolitan distribution, some species are classical examples of local endemism in free-living protozoa and this question is thus debated. Previous morphological and molecular studies justified that genus Argynnia Vucetich,1974 is different from genus Nebela Leidy,1874. However,genus Argynnia is still included in genus Nebela in Chinese testate amoeba taxonomy. Our first goal is to draw attention of Chinese testate amoeba researchers in the current taxonomy of this group, in which the genus Argynnia is separated from genus Nebela combining previous morphological and molecular studies.In China and even in Asia, research on testate amoebae in peatland ecosystems have only began in recent years. Two species belonging to this genus have been observed in China; Argynnia caudata ( Leidy 1876) and A. Dentistoma ( Penard 1890). Possible problems in environmental reconstructions using testate amoeba based transfer functions as well as estimates of global testate amoeba biodiversity caused by taxonomic inconsistency are also discussed, illustrating the necessity for a major taxonomic effort for this group toward a high bioindicator value.%有壳变形虫是一类具外壳的陆相淡水根足纲(Rhizopoda)原生动物,广泛栖息于湖泊、泥炭、沼泽、土壤等各种淡水潮湿环境,由于其壳体具有很好的抗腐蚀性而在沉积物中保存下来,近年来广泛应用于泥炭和湖泊湿地的古

  16. Veligers of the invasive Asian clam Corbicula fluminea in the Columbia River Basin: Broadscale distribution, abundance, and ecological associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, Whitney; Bollens, Stephen M.; Counihan, Timothy D.; Rollwagen-Bollens, Gretchen; Zimmerman, Julie; Emerson, Joshua E.

    2017-01-01

    The invasive Asian clam Corbicula fluminea was introduced to North America in the 1930s and now inhabits most regions of the conterminous United States; however, the distribution and ecology of C. fluminea in the Columbia River Basin is poorly understood. During 2013 and 2014, 5 Columbia-Snake River reservoirs were sampled monthly from May through September, along with 23 additional lakes and reservoirs sampled once each summer. Associations among C. fluminea veligers, other components of the plankton, and environmental variables were analyzed using non-metric multidimensional scaling and canonical correspondence analysis. Corbicula fluminea veligers were found in high abundances in all mainstem Columbia-Snake River reservoirs, with an annual mean abundance of 71.2 individuals per cubic meter (inds./m3). Only 3 of 23 lakes and (non-mainstem) reservoirs contained C. fluminea, with abundances considerably lower (maximum = 21.2 inds./m3) than in the mainstem reservoirs. A diatom-dominated community preceded the spawning of C. fluminea in early summer at all sites. Corbicula fluminea veligers characterized the plankton community in late summer and were associated with cyanobacteria and high water temperatures. A third community, characterized by cyanobacteria, was apparent in non-mainstem sites in July and August. Our analyses describe the relationship of C. fluminea to the plankton community and environment, which contributes to our understanding of the possible effects of C. fluminea infestations and which waterbodies in the Columbia River Basin are at risk for infestation. Understanding the effects and environmental determinants of invasive mollusks will be increasingly important in the future with the possible arrival of zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) or quagga (D. bugensis) mussels to the region.

  17. A psychologically-based taxonomy of misdirection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Gustav; Caffaratti, Hugo A; Teszka, Robert; Rensink, Ronald A

    2014-01-01

    Magicians use misdirection to prevent you from realizing the methods used to create a magical effect, thereby allowing you to experience an apparently impossible event. Magicians have acquired much knowledge about misdirection, and have suggested several taxonomies of misdirection. These describe many of the fundamental principles in misdirection, focusing on how misdirection is achieved by magicians. In this article we review the strengths and weaknesses of past taxonomies, and argue that a more natural way of making sense of misdirection is to focus on the perceptual and cognitive mechanisms involved. Our psychologically-based taxonomy has three basic categories, corresponding to the types of psychological mechanisms affected: perception, memory, and reasoning. Each of these categories is then divided into subcategories based on the mechanisms that control these effects. This new taxonomy can help organize magicians' knowledge of misdirection in a meaningful way, and facilitate the dialog between magicians and scientists.

  18. A Psychologically-based taxonomy of misdirection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav eKuhn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Magicians use misdirection to prevent you from realizing the methods used to create a magical effect, thereby allowing you to experience an apparently impossible event. Magicians have acquired much knowledge about misdirection, and have suggested several taxonomies of misdirection. These describe many of the fundamental principles in misdirection, focusing on how misdirection is achieved by magicians. In this article we review the strengths and weaknesses of past taxonomies, and argue that a more natural way of making sense of misdirection is to focus on the perceptual and cognitive mechanisms involved. Our psychologically-based taxonomy has three basic categories, corresponding to the types of psychological mechanisms affected: perception, memory, and reasoning. Each of these categories is then divided into subcategories based on the mechanisms that control these effects. This new taxonomy can help organize the magicians’ knowledge of misdirection in a meaningful way, and facilitate the dialogue between magicians and scientists.

  19. Toward a cognitive taxonomy of medical errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiajie; Patel, Vimla L; Johnson, Todd R; Shortliffe, Edward H

    2002-01-01

    One critical step in addressing and resolving the problems associated with human errors is the development of a cognitive taxonomy of such errors. In the case of errors, such a taxonomy may be developed (1) to categorize all types of errors along cognitive dimensions, (2) to associate each type of error with a specific underlying cognitive mechanism, (3) to explain why, and even predict when and where, a specific error will occur, and (4) to generate intervention strategies for each type of error. Based on Reason's (1992) definition of human errors and Norman's (1986) cognitive theory of human action, we have developed a preliminary action-based cognitive taxonomy of errors that largely satisfies these four criteria in the domain of medicine. We discuss initial steps for applying this taxonomy to develop an online medical error reporting system that not only categorizes errors but also identifies problems and generates solutions.

  20. Assessing clustering results with reference taxonomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    The comparative analysis of phylogenies obtained using different phylogenetic methods or different gene sequences for a given set of species, is usually done by computing some quantitative measure of similarity between the phylogenetic trees. Such a quantitative approach provides little insight into the actual similarities and differences between the alternative phylogenies. In this paper, we present a method for the qualitative assessment of a phylogenetic tree against a reference taxonomy, based on highlighting their common clusters. Our algorithms build a reference taxonomy for the taxa present in a given phylogenetic tree and produce a dendogram for the input phylogenetic tree, with branches in those clusters common to the reference taxonomy highlighted. Our implementation of the algorithms produces publication-quality graphics. For unrooted phylogenies, the method produces a radial cladogram for the input phylogenetic tree, with branches in common clusters to the reference taxonomy highlighted.

  1. Ecological epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilvitis, Holly J; Alvarez, Mariano; Foust, Christy M; Schrey, Aaron W; Robertson, Marta; Richards, Christina L

    2014-01-01

    Biologists have assumed that heritable variation due to DNA sequence differences (i.e., genetic variation) allows populations of organisms to be both robust and adaptable to extreme environmental conditions. Natural selection acts on the variation among different genotypes and ultimately changes the genetic composition of the population. While there is compelling evidence about the importance of genetic polymorphisms, evidence is accumulating that epigenetic mechanisms (e.g., chromatin modifications, DNA methylation) can affect ecologically important traits, even in the absence of genetic variation. In this chapter, we review this evidence and discuss the consequences of epigenetic variation in natural populations. We begin by defining the term epigenetics, providing a brief overview of various epigenetic mechanisms, and noting the potential importance of epigenetics in the study of ecology. We continue with a review of the ecological epigenetics literature to demonstrate what is currently known about the amount and distribution of epigenetic variation in natural populations. Then, we consider the various ecological contexts in which epigenetics has proven particularly insightful and discuss the potential evolutionary consequences of epigenetic variation. Finally, we conclude with suggestions for future directions of ecological epigenetics research.

  2. Taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales: update 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, C.L.; Kurath, Gael; 82 Additional Authors,

    2016-01-01

    In 2016, the order Mononegavirales was emended through the addition of two new families (Mymonaviridae and Sunviridae), the elevation of the paramyxoviral subfamily Pneumovirinae to family status (Pneumoviridae), the addition of five free-floating genera (Anphevirus, Arlivirus, Chengtivirus, Crustavirus, and Wastrivirus), and several other changes at the genus and species levels. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales as now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV).

  3. Toward a cognitive taxonomy of medical errors.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jiajie; Patel, Vimla L.; Johnson, Todd R.; Shortliffe, Edward H.

    2002-01-01

    One critical step in addressing and resolving the problems associated with human errors is the development of a cognitive taxonomy of such errors. In the case of errors, such a taxonomy may be developed (1) to categorize all types of errors along cognitive dimensions, (2) to associate each type of error with a specific underlying cognitive mechanism, (3) to explain why, and even predict when and where, a specific error will occur, and (4) to generate intervention strategies for each type of e...

  4. Bloom's taxonomy of cognitive learning objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Nancy E

    2015-07-01

    Information professionals who train or instruct others can use Bloom's taxonomy to write learning objectives that describe the skills and abilities that they desire their learners to master and demonstrate. Bloom's taxonomy differentiates between cognitive skill levels and calls attention to learning objectives that require higher levels of cognitive skills and, therefore, lead to deeper learning and transfer of knowledge and skills to a greater variety of tasks and contexts.

  5. Is Bloom's Taxonomy Appropriate for Computer Science?

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Colin G.; Fuller, Ursula

    2007-01-01

    Bloom's taxonomy attempts to provide a set of levels of cognitive engagement with material being learned. It is usually presented as a generic framework. In this paper we outline some studies which examine whether the taxonomy is appropriate for computing, and how its application in computing might differ from its application elsewhere. We place this in the context of ongoing debates concerning graduateness and attempts to benchmark the content of a computing degree.

  6. Past, present, and future of arenavirus taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoshitzky, Sheli R; Bào, Yīmíng; Buchmeier, Michael J; Charrel, Rémi N; Clawson, Anna N; Clegg, Christopher S; DeRisi, Joseph L; Emonet, Sébastien; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Kuhn, Jens H; Lukashevich, Igor S; Peters, Clarence J; Romanowski, Victor; Salvato, Maria S; Stenglein, Mark D; de la Torre, Juan Carlos

    2015-07-01

    Until recently, members of the monogeneric family Arenaviridae (arenaviruses) have been known to infect only muroid rodents and, in one case, possibly phyllostomid bats. The paradigm of arenaviruses exclusively infecting small mammals shifted dramatically when several groups independently published the detection and isolation of a divergent group of arenaviruses in captive alethinophidian snakes. Preliminary phylogenetic analyses suggest that these reptilian arenaviruses constitute a sister clade to mammalian arenaviruses. Here, the members of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Arenaviridae Study Group, together with other experts, outline the taxonomic reorganization of the family Arenaviridae to accommodate reptilian arenaviruses and other recently discovered mammalian arenaviruses and to improve compliance with the Rules of the International Code of Virus Classification and Nomenclature (ICVCN). PAirwise Sequence Comparison (PASC) of arenavirus genomes and NP amino acid pairwise distances support the modification of the present classification. As a result, the current genus Arenavirus is replaced by two genera, Mammarenavirus and Reptarenavirus, which are established to accommodate mammalian and reptilian arenaviruses, respectively, in the same family. The current species landscape among mammalian arenaviruses is upheld, with two new species added for Lunk and Merino Walk viruses and minor corrections to the spelling of some names. The published snake arenaviruses are distributed among three new separate reptarenavirus species. Finally, a non-Latinized binomial species name scheme is adopted for all arenavirus species. In addition, the current virus abbreviations have been evaluated, and some changes are introduced to unequivocally identify each virus in electronic databases, manuscripts, and oral proceedings.

  7. [Spatial Distribution and Potential Ecological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soils and Sediments in Shunde Waterway, Southern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yi-min; Chen, Wei-ping; Peng, Chi; Wang, Tie-yu; Xiao, Rong-bo

    2016-05-15

    Environmental quality of soils and sediments around water source area can influence the safety of potable water of rivers. In order to study the pollution characteristics, the sources and ecological risks of heavy metals Zn, Cr, Pb, Cu, Ni and Cd in water source area, surface soils around the waterway and sediments in the estuary of main tributaries were collected in Shunde, and ecological risks of heavy metals were assessed by two methods of potential ecological risk assessment. The mean contents of Zn, Cr, Pb, Cu, Ni and Cd in the surface soils were 186.80, 65.88, 54.56, 32.47, 22.65 and 0.86 mg · kg⁻¹ respectively, and they were higher than their soil background values except those of Cu and Ni. The mean concentrations of Zn, Cr, Pb, Cu, Ni and Cd in the sediments were 312.11, 111.41, 97.87, 92.32, 29.89 and 1.72 mg · kg⁻¹ respectively, and they were higher than their soil background values except that of Ni. The results of principal component analysis illustrated that the main source of Cr and Ni in soils was soil parent materials, and Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd in soils mainly came from wastewater discharge of local manufacturing industry. The six heavy metals in sediments mainly originated from industry emissions around the Shunde waterway. The results of potential ecological risk assessment integrating environmental bioavailability of heavy metals showed that Zn, Cu, Pb and Ni had a slight potential ecological risk. Cd had a slight potential ecological risk in surface soils, but a moderate potential ecological risk in surfaces sediments. Because the potential ecological risk assessment integrating environmental bioavailability of heavy metals took the soil properties and heavy metal forms into account, its results of risks were lower than those of Hakanson methods, and it could avoid overestimating the potential risks of heavy metals.

  8. Ecological distribution and propagative technique research of Glycyrrhiza resources in China%中国甘草资源的生态分布及其繁殖技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学斌; 陈林; 李国旗; 安慧

    2013-01-01

    Glycyrrhiza is a kind of raw goods that can be used for food, forage and light industry. Glycyrrhiza has the special morphological characteristics, color and luster, quality, and taste, especially the effective use by the traditional methods in China, which enjoys a high reputation in the world market. From taxonomy and biological characteristics, the paper summarizes the natural characteristic Glycyrrhiza resources in China. There are about 29 species and 6 varietas of Glycyrrhiza in china, and only the Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Glycyrrhiza inflate and Glycyrrhiza Glabra lists in China National Pharmacopoeia. Glycyrrhiza is deep-rooting plant, mainly through underground horizontal rhizomes to reproduce, and because of the high Seed hard-seed percentage, it is rarely in sexual reproduction in natural state. From the chorology characteristic, zoning characteristics and production characteristics, the ecological characteristic of Glycyrrhiza is being expounded. As one of the natural resources in the arid areas, Glycyrrhiza has wide ecological amplitude, wide distribution. Its distribution centre is the Old and arid plateau in central Asia, and mainly in Sinkiang, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Gansu. Additionally, from the seed propagation, rhizomes asexual reproduction, seed micro-propagation, the paper analysis the development of propagative technique about Glycyrrhiza in recent years. Meanwhile, after anglicizing the trend, the paper consider the Cultivation technique system of form a complete set as fundamental way to the sustainable development Glycyrrhiza Resources exploration.%  甘草(Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.)是一种重要的食用、饲用及轻工业用原料商品。中国甘草以其独特的形、色、质、味及传统的有效运用,在世界市场享有盛誉。从甘草分类学、生物学特征概述了中国甘草资源的自然特性:在中国,甘草属植物约有29种6个变种,其中只有乌拉尔甘草、胀果甘草和光

  9. A Taxonomy of Daemons in Self-stabilization

    CERN Document Server

    Dubois, Swan

    2011-01-01

    We survey existing scheduling hypotheses made in the literature in self-stabilization, commonly referred to under the notion of daemon. We show that four main characteristics (distribution, fairness, boundedness, and enabledness) are enough to encapsulate the various differences presented in existing work. Our naming scheme makes it easy to compare daemons of particular classes, and to extend existing possibility or impossibility results to new daemons. We further examine existing daemon transformer schemes and provide the exact transformed characteristics of those transformers in our taxonomy.

  10. The taxobook principles and practices of building taxonomies

    CERN Document Server

    Hlava, Marjorie

    2014-01-01

    This book outlines the basic principles of creation and maintenance of taxonomies and thesauri. It also provides step by step instructions for building a taxonomy or thesaurus and discusses the various ways to get started on a taxonomy construction project.Often, the first step is to get management and budgetary approval, so I start this book with a discussion of reasons to embark on the taxonomy journey. From there I move on to a discussion of metadata and how taxonomies and metadata are related, and then consider how, where, and why taxonomies are used.Information architecture has its corner

  11. The perceptual domain: a taxonomy for allied health educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, E Z

    1981-08-01

    A taxonomy of the perceptual domain was proposed over a decade ago. It is hierarchical, as are the taxonomies in the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains. Perception involves extraction of information from presenting stimuli, and there is progression of information extraction as the hierarchy is ascended. Perceptual performance at the higher levels of the taxonomy assumes perceptual abilities at the lower levels. A modified version of the perceptual taxonomy applicable to allied health education is presented. Methods concerning application of the taxonomy are suggested. Use of the taxonomy of the perceptual domain would help allied health educators plan instruction and evaluate teaching.

  12. A tempo-spatial-distributed multi-objective decision-making model for ecological restoration management of water-deficient rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sen; He, Li; Lu, Hongwei

    2016-11-01

    Worldwide, many rivers experience water deficiency to such an extent that artificial water recharge is the only option for their ecological restoration. In this contribution, a framework was proposed for scenario-based, integrated decision-making, and evaluation of spatial and temporal multi-objectives for the ecological restoration of water-deficient rivers. Firstly, water-deficient rivers are divided into different regions using a GIS tool according to their spatial distribution characteristics. Secondly, decision objectives and variables are chosen, and scenarios are established for different regions over both spatial and temporal scales. Thirdly, the improved principal component projection (IPCP) method is applied to evaluate the different scenarios. Finally, coupled with the output data, scenarios for whole rivers are then optimally combined. Accordingly, decision-makers can then choose satisfactory scenarios as decision schemes. The framework is then tested through a case study in support of decision-making for the ecological restoration of the Yongding River using artificially recharged and recycled water. The case study demonstrates that the proposed framework was practical and effective for Yongding river ecological restoration with artificial recharge. It is also capable of identifying optimal restoration scenarios from a range of scenarios generated by the newly developed decision-support system.

  13. [Ecology and ecologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Ecology (from the Greek words οιχοσ, "house" and λογια "study of") is the science of the "house", since it studies the environments where we live. There are three main ways of thinking about Ecology: Ecology as the study of interactions (between humans and the environment, between humans and living beings, between all living beings, etc.), Ecology as the statistical study of interactions, Ecology as a faith, or rather as a science that requires a metaphysical view. The history of Ecology shows us how this view was released by the label of "folk sense" to gain the epistemological status of science, a science that strives to be interdisciplinary. So, the aim of Ecology is to study, through a scientific methodology, the whole natural world, answering to very different questions, that arise from several fields (Economics, Biology, Sociology, Philosophy, etc.). The plurality of issues that Ecology has to face led, during the Twentieth-century, to branch off in several different "ecologies". As a result, each one of these new approaches chose as its own field a more limited and specific portion of reality.

  14. An Evaluation of E-Learning on the Basis of Bloom's Taxonomy: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halawi, Leila A.; McCarthy, Richard V.; Pires, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    Universities have rushed to expand their delivery of courses through e-learning environments. But is e-learning effective? The authors conducted an exploratory study to evaluate e-learning through WebCT on the basis of Bloom's taxonomy. The authors distributed 75 questionnaires to investigate whether individual or instructional factors play an…

  15. Distribution, potential sources and ecological risks of two persistent organic pollutants in the intertidal sediment at the Shuangtaizi Estuary, Bohai Sea of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiutang; Yang, Xiaolong; Zhang, Anguo; Ma, Xindong; Gao, Hui; Na, Guangshui; Zong, Humin; Liu, Guize; Sun, Yongguang

    2017-01-15

    Spatial distribution, source apportionment, and potential ecological risks of sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and seven endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in the intertidal sediment at the Shuangtaizi Estuary, Bohai Sea of China were analyzed. Results showed that the total PAH concentrations ranged from 28.79ngg(-1) dw to 281.97ngg(-1) dw (mean: 115.92ngg(-1) dw) and the total EDC concentrations from 0.52ngg(-1) dw to 126.73ngg(-1) dw (mean: 37.49ngg(-1) dw). The distribution pattern for the PAHs was generally different from that of the EDCs possibly due to their distinct sources and n-octanol-/water partition coefficients (KOW). Qualitative and quantitative analytical results showed that PAH sources were mainly from a mixture of pyrogenic and petrogenic contributions. The higher levels at the southeast of Geligang indicated that the EDC pollutants may have mainly originated from the plastic industry and other chemical plants located along the Liao River. Ecological risk assessment revealed that PAHs exhibited low ecotoxicological effects, whereas EDCs, especially 4-tert-octylphenol and bisphenol A, had high ecological hazard to the estuarine biota.

  16. Ecological factors affecting the distribution of the zooplankton community in the Tigris River at Baghdad region, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayma Abdulwahab

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity of zooplankton in the Tigris River running in Baghdad City, central Iraq, was investigated. Fourteen physical and chemical parameters, were analyzed, these parameters include water and air temperature, pH, EC, turbidity, TDS, DO, BOD5, total hardness, Ca+2, Mg+2, chloride, nitrate and reactive phosphate. Most of these values were within of the Iraqi and international standard limits. In all, 106 taxonomy units of zooplankton were identified, including 65 taxa belonging to rotifers, 25 taxa to copepod and 16 taxa to Cladocera. Values of species richness index of rotifers varied from 1.051 to 12.98, for Cladocera from 1.285 to 3.41 and for copepod from 1.5 to 7.2. The Shannon–Weiner index of Rotifera varied from 0.67 to 3, 0.50–1.72 for Cladocera and from 0.91 to 2.51 for Copepoda. The uniformity index of zooplankton varied from 0.41 to 0.93 for rotifer, 0.33–1 for Cladocera and 0.36–1 for Copepoda. According to statistical analysis, temperature, EC, TDS and dissolved oxygen were observed as major factors which restrict the abundance and diversity of the zooplankton communities in the Tigris River.

  17. Ecology, distribution, and predictive occurrence modeling of Palmers chipmunk (Tamias palmeri): a high-elevation small mammal endemic to the Spring Mountains in southern Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrey, Chris E.; Longshore, Kathleen; Riddle, Brett R.; Mantooth, Stacy

    2016-01-01

    Although montane sky islands surrounded by desert scrub and shrub steppe comprise a large part of the biological diversity of the Basin and Range Province of southwestern North America, comprehensive ecological and population demographic studies for high-elevation small mammals within these areas are rare. Here, we examine the ecology and population parameters of the Palmer’s chipmunk (Tamias palmeri) in the Spring Mountains of southern Nevada, and present a predictive GIS-based distribution and probability of occurrence model at both home range and geographic spatial scales. Logistic regression analyses and Akaike Information Criterion model selection found variables of forest type, slope, and distance to water sources as predictive of chipmunk occurrence at the geographic scale. At the home range scale, increasing population density, decreasing overstory canopy cover, and decreasing understory canopy cover contributed to increased survival rates.

  18. Distribution and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments of a typical restored mangrove-aquaculture wetland in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianxiang; Zhu, Xiaoshan; Wu, Hao; Ning, Cunxin; Lin, Guanghui

    2017-01-07

    The restoration of wetlands has attracted the attention in different countries. Restored coastal wetlands, especially urban wetlands, are sensitive to external pressures. Thus, it is necessary to evaluate the efficiency of the restoration of coastal wetlands, which benefits their management and functional maintenance. In this study, a restored mangrove-aquaculture system in Waterlands Resort at Shenzhen was selected for analysis. The distribution and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments were investigated. The results showed that restoration could effectively decrease the heavy metal concentrations in the sediment, while the restored mangrove posed a moderate ecological risk. Most of the heavy metal concentrations were higher during the dry season compared with the wet season. In addition, during the whole investigation, the sediment quality remained failed to achieve the marine sediment criteria required for aquaculture in China.

  19. Fractionation distribution and preliminary ecological risk assessment of As, Hg and Cd in ornithogenic sediments from the Ross Sea region, East Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Chuangneng; Liu, Xiaodong; Nie, Yaguang; Emslie, Steven D

    2015-12-15

    To evaluate mobility of toxic elements and their potential ecological risk caused by seabird biovectors, the fractionation distributions of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) were investigated in three ornithogenic sediment profiles from the Ross Sea region, East Antarctica. The results show residual As holds a dominant position, and Hg mainly derives from residual, organic matter-bound and humic acid-bound fractions, indicating weak mobility of As and Hg. However, exchangeable Cd occupies a considerable proportion in studied samples, suggesting Cd has strong mobility. The preliminary evaluation of Sediment Quality Guidelines (SGQs) shows adverse biological effects may occur occasionally for As and Cd, and rarely for Hg. Using Risk Assessment Code (RAC), the ecological risk is assessed at moderate, low and very high for As, Hg and Cd pollution, respectively. Organic matter derived from guano is the main factor controlling the mobility of Hg and Cd through adsorption and complexation.

  20. Taxonomies of networks from community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Fenn, Daniel J; Reid, Stephen; Porter, Mason A; Mucha, Peter J; Fricker, Mark D; Jones, Nick S

    2012-09-01

    The study of networks has become a substantial interdisciplinary endeavor that encompasses myriad disciplines in the natural, social, and information sciences. Here we introduce a framework for constructing taxonomies of networks based on their structural similarities. These networks can arise from any of numerous sources: They can be empirical or synthetic, they can arise from multiple realizations of a single process (either empirical or synthetic), they can represent entirely different systems in different disciplines, etc. Because mesoscopic properties of networks are hypothesized to be important for network function, we base our comparisons on summaries of network community structures. Although we use a specific method for uncovering network communities, much of the introduced framework is independent of that choice. After introducing the framework, we apply it to construct a taxonomy for 746 networks and demonstrate that our approach usefully identifies similar networks. We also construct taxonomies within individual categories of networks, and we thereby expose nontrivial structure. For example, we create taxonomies for similarity networks constructed from both political voting data and financial data. We also construct network taxonomies to compare the social structures of 100 Facebook networks and the growth structures produced by different types of fungi.