Madson, Michael D.
Phase III of the Los Angeles International Airport Runway Incursion Studies was conducted, under an agreement with HNTB Corporation, at the NASA Ames FutureFlight Central (FFC) facility in June 2003. The objective of the study was the evaluation of a new center-taxiway concept at LAX. This study is an extension of the Phase I and Phase II studies previously conducted at FFC. This report presents results from Phase III of the study, in which a center-taxiway concept between runways 25L and 25R was simulated and evaluated. Phase III data were compared objectively against the Baseline data. Subjective evaluations by participating LAX controllers were obtained with regard to workload, efficiency, and safety criteria. To facilitate a valid comparison between Baseline and Phase III data, the same scenarios were used for Phase III that were tested during Phases I and II. This required briefing participating controllers on differences in airport and airline operations between 2001 and today.
runway edge lights that were recently installed as part of the West Runway rehabilitation would be removed and reinstalled. Whiskey. New taxiway edge...disposal of infectious and pathological wastes. No active landfills are on JBA, and most solid waste from the Base is transported to off-base landfills ...location lights, and runway edge lights that were recently installed as part of the West Runway rehabilitation would be removed and reinstalled. Whiskey
R. Haryo Triharso Seno
Full Text Available Fasilitas sisi udara merupakan fasilitas pergerakan pesawat. Fasilitas ini harus memenuhi kekuatan struktur untuk melayani pergerakan pesawat-pesawat yang beroperasi sesuai dengan perencanaan. Tujuan dari penyusunan makalah ini adalah untuk menganalisis apakah perkerasan fasilitas sisi udara di Bandar Udara Juanda saat ini sudah memenuhi batas PCN yang dipersyaratkan atau belum. Analisis dilakukan dengan cara mengevaluasi kekuatan perkerasan runway, taxiway, dan apron eksisting menggunakan metode perbandingan PCN–ACN yang didapat dari pabrik pembuat pesawat, perhitungan dengan software COMFAA dan perhitungan dari Canadian Department of Transportation. Data yang digunakan adalah data pergerakan pesawat termasuk jumlah pergerakan tahunan dan tipe pesawat. Data kekuatan perkerasan sisi udara diperlukan untuk proses analisis. Hasil dari evaluasi menunjukkan B773 memiliki nilai ACN yang melebihi nilai PCN sebesar 50% untuk apron dan 25% untuk runway/taxiway. Besar kelebihan nilai ACN ini tidak mempengaruhi kekuatan struktural karena frekuensi pergerakan yang hanya 45 pergerakan per tahun. Dampak lain adalah pada fungsional perkerasan yang menunjukkan berkurangnya kekesatan runway dari hasil sand patch test.
the runway with 1800 ft. radius and no specified runout distance, was developed circa 1958 and standardized in the 19609. A considerable nur, ber of...cornerinl) . Even wi th eaync);e wheel steering, the small fraction of total weight on thle nose whoel prevents tricycle airplaines from being very...would provide more runout but would require greater clearance travel distances at both Fnds. Z2 The results of reference (a) indicated that
Haff, K.W.; Tompkins, J.A.
The history of the radioluminescent light program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is from the earliest use of radium through strontium-90, carbon-14, and krypton-85 to the present work with tritium. Field testing of radioluminescent lights and safety and quality control are discussed
is land that has a combination of physical and chemical characteristics that make it good for food, feed, forage, fiber , and oilseed crops. Farmland...swales, or basalt flow depression pools in unplowed grasslands. The fairy shrimp has been collected from early December to early May. It can mature...types where the species has been found include Northern Hardpan, Northern Claypan, Northern Volcanic Mud Flow, and Northern Basalt Flow vernal pools
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... removal equipment. Emergency radio system upgrade. PFC administrative fees. Decision Date: November 1... Use: Taxiway A pavement analysis and soil test. Taxiway A pavement rehabilitation. Runway 17/35 rehabilitation design. Taxiway/apron/fuel road pavement replacement. Taxiway/apron/fuel road pavement replacement...
... extension north--construction/tunnel construction. Electrical vault. Taxiway H construction. Storm water update. Gulfstream Road/tunnel design. Airfield electrical vault design. Taxiway A design. Taxiway H.... Runway 15R/33L flight kitchen demolition. Runway 15L/33R runway safety area improvements. Future taxiway...
are made of unconsolidated sand, gravel, silt, clay , and organic materials that overlay bedrock. The surficial geologic deposits range in thickness from...10 to 20 feet and include irregularly bedded cobbles, gravel, and fine sand that are mixed with silt and clay . Surface formations at JBA have largely...systems on JBA (e.g., natural gas, sanitary sewer, potable water) would be unaffected by the proposed action. 3.6.2 Environmental Consequences
WIND (PRIMARY) INDICATOR; SECURITY FENCING HOLBROOK 02 $22,766 CONDUCT MASTER PLAN UPDATE HOLBROOK MUNICIPAL (GENERAL AVIATION) KAYENTA 03 $1,238,484...CONSTRUCT RUNWAY, TAXIWAY, APRON AND KAYENTA ACCESS ROAD; INSTALL RUNWAY AND TAXIWAY (GENERAL AVIATION) LIGHTING SYSTEM, VISUAL APPROACH INDICATOR
PREPARATION); GRAND CANYON NATIONAL PARK ACQUIRE LAND FOR APPROACHES; INSTALL (PRIMARY) FENCING KAYENTA 02 $561,695 CONSTRUCT NEW RUNWAY, TAXIWAY AND...APRON KAYENTA (SITE PREPARATION) (GENERAL AVIATION) KINGMAN 04 $138,411 INSTALL RUNWAY LIGHTING, TAXIWAY MOHAVE COUNTY GUIDANCE SIGNS AND VISUAL APPROACH
...), has proposed the extension of Taxiway ``H'' and the development of an approximate thirty-eight (38... and allow for the extension of Taxiway ``H'' and future development, 0.610 +/- acres of Old Churchman... for review, by appointment, at the Airport Manager's office: Stephen Williams, Airport Executive...
... Firefighting Station. Runway 18r/34l Overlay/Rehabilitation. Pavement Management Plan. Security Enhancement... maintain runway 16/34 pavement. PFC administration. Repair and maintain runway 03/21 pavement. Repair and maintain taxiway A pavement. Repair and maintain taxiway B pavement. [[Page 33377
White pavement paint marking on airport runways was being discolored by rust-like staining. Discoloration is a critical safety : problem because white paint indicates runways and yellow paint is used for taxiways and aircraft parking. When the white ...
Anderton, Gary L; Berney, IV, Ernest S; Mann, Travis A; Newman, J. K; Baylot, E. A; Miller, Daniel K; Mason, Quint
...) unsurfaced runway and two 45,480-ft2 (4,225-m2) aircraft parking aprons with associated connector taxiways, all using JRAC technologies focused on rapid construction with reduced logistics and increased system reliability...
... Collection and Use: Relocate runway 3 localizer. Pavement management program--rehabilitate taxiway F. Runway... share. Runway 21 extension--phase 2, pave construct runway only. Pavement management program--mill...
the airfield. • Phase 1–September 2015 to October 2016: Replace or rehabilitate storm drain pipes between the West Runway and Taxiway Whiskey...activities, landfills , and other support and training operations have affected groundwater and surface waters at JBA with metals, volatile organic...the airfield. Phase 1: September 2015 to October 2016: Replace or rehabilitate storm drain pipes between the West Runway and Taxiway Whiskey
... established after December 30, 1987, will be expended by it for the capital or operating costs of the airport... structures (such as runways, taxiways, aprons, terminal buildings, hangars, and roads), including all... the Airport and Airway Trust Fund. * * * * * Issued in Washington, DC on April 10, 2012. Benito De...
... AGENCY: Tri State Airport Authority, Huntington, West Virginia. APPLICATION NUMBER: 12-07-C-00-HTS... equipment. Install perimeter fencing. Rehabilitate terminal building. Rehabilitate taxiway A (west). Access.... Passenger loading bridges. Security exit lane equipment. PFC consulting fees. Brief Description of...
...: Regional intermodal transportation center. Determination: Partially approved. The FAA determined that... Approved for Collection and Use at a $3.00 PFC Level: Public information display kiosks. Wildlife hazard assessment study. Interactive employee training module. Blast fence extension--taxiway D. Aircraft rescue and...
Faturechi, Reza; Levenberg, Eyal; Miller-Hooks, Elise
levels taking into account operational, budgetary, time, space, and physical resource limitations. Details, such as aircraft size impacts, reductions in capacity due to joint takeoff and landing maneuvers on common runways or bidirectional flows on taxiways, potential for outsourcing repair work...
0) RUNLWAYMLhy>, FRIEDMAN MEMORIA :. ACCESLS WAY :fHppjV’EMO;:tr, * (COMMERCIAL, HAIILEY U.. 43t, 1% ISCELLAINiAUS SA!L: :v -YT;;:- FRIEDMAN MEMORIA ...airport no. funds Description of work K= 5 0 I S (CONTINUED) CHAMPAIGN/ URBANA 02 $ 423,364 TAXIWAY IMPROVEMEN’:’S; A’WVESS WAY UNIVERSITY OF CONSTRUCTION
fiberglass mat ( FFM ) survived medium-speed braking events and was deemed suitable for use on taxiways and aprons. 2. The current USAF FFM system failed...braking events due to failure of the connector bushings. After replacement with more robust connector bushings from the FFM system, the FRP system...withstood the high-speed taxi events that caused the FFM to fail. ERDC/GSL TR-15-27 2 4. AM2 aluminum matting was successfully tested as a suitable
K. G. Kamalov
Full Text Available Abstract:Purpose. The examination of the comparative aspect of the physical parameters of the boys in the pre - and puberty in different ecological zones (EZ of the Republic of Dagestan (RD: mountain, foothills and plains of the taxiway.Materials and Methods. The study in 3 eco-geographic zones of the Republic of Dagestan in 2641 a boy aged 11 to 17 years. Inclusion criteria were: age of onset of puberty and the completion of 11-17 years, male gender and residence in the territory (extragenital diseases. We compared the following anthropometric indicators: height, weight, body mass index.Results and conclusions. The analysing of the physical parameters of development in different areas of extragenital diseases RD identifies the following pattern: the lowest height and weight were boys living in the foothills of the taxiway. Their peers living in highland and lowland extragenital diseases taxiway growth were similar and statistically significant differences were found statistically significant differences are particularly evident with 13-14 years in boys from foothills of RD, especially when compared with their peers plain COPIES. Thus, the overall physical development of boys RD closes to those boys Russia, although the tendency to reduce them was determined. Comparative physical development of boys in various extragenital diseases RD, the worst performance demonstrated teenagers from foothill extragenital diseases.
Full Text Available Bandar Udara Ahmad Yani akan memiliki terminal yang lebih luas di sebelah Utara runway, lahan parkir yang luas, apron seluas 61.344 m2 serta dua buah taxiway. Pengembangan tahap II akan menjadikan Bandar Udara Ahmad Yani memiliki apron seluas 72.522 m2 dan 10 buah taxiway serta 1 buah parallel taxiway. Studi ini akan mengevaluasi kebutuhan apron Bandar Udara internasional Ahmad Yani Semarang saat ini dan 20 tahun kedepan. Pada evaluasi ini akan diprediksi jumlah pergerakan pesawat pada tahun rencana yang kemudian akan dikonversi menjadi jumlah pesawat pada jam sibuk. Hasil prediksi jumlah pesawat ini akan dianalisis terhadap kebutuhan apron Bandar Udara Ahmad Yani di tahun rencana. Dengan adanya pengembangan apron diharapkan dapat memenuhi kebutuhan lalu lintas udara. Untuk perencanaan perkerasan apron menggunakan rigid pavement dengan metode FAA dengan software FAARFIELD. Dari hasil perhitungan didapatkan, kebutuhan total jumlah gerbang landas parkir untuk tahun rencana (2035 adalah 51 pesawat, yang terdiri dari 35 kelas C dan 16 kelas D. Selanjutnya didapatkan dimensi gerbang landas parkir pada tahun rencana (2035 adalah untuk kelas C dengan panjang 2096,50 m dan lebar 98,37 m sedangkan untuk kelas D dengan panjang 1547,20 m dan 104,78 m. Tebal perkerasan landas parkir ini adalah 670 mm. Dalam penulangan perkerasan landas parkir tahun rencana (2035 dibutuhkan wiremesh dengan D14-100 dan Dowel dengan diameter 50 mm, panjang 610 mm, dan jarak 460 mm.
temporary site at ground GM1-1l RO-2 Surfac level in ramp area. 6 Apr 60 Located approx 200 ft from corner Same RO-2A 13 ft of old rnwy 33 taxiway and...USAF STAC . 0-14-S( OL A) ............ . . .T... ..O . PORN ... 17- GLCPAL CLIMATOLOGY 9RANCH ArETAC CEILING VERSUS VISIBILITY Alq WEATHEk SERVICL/4AC S...13.1 i ?6 6.. 5918 USAFETAC PORN 0.9.5 (OL.-) PFVIOUS EDITIONS OF TnIS FORM AIRE ORSOLTE Jut 64 GLCRAL CLIMAT0L.i Y 1 ANCH AFE T AC SKYCO E A>4 4ATHER
4W K x K K K K K -408 K K x 6 zaw . ZIN. a 2a 7 aimb Z770 2197W a LAPSED 9W CaC Fiur 5-12 CAS 11 AGRNGIAE N * a a UUUV4PLOTS 5-12 5.5 CASE 16, NORFOLK...sequent climb, and the minimzm range of 0.1 mile suggests an aircraft on a taxiway near the runway. B-43 TMDR x TUN 146 1200 46 - LAP6O TIM CSErcs 3-44 m
Full Text Available Rescue and firefighting service is an important and essential part at the Václav Havel Airport Prague and it has to follow the requirements stated in Commission regulations (EU, regulations and laws of Czech Republic. Construction of parallel runway 06R/24L influences runway and taxiway system significantly. Consequences of these construction changes are changes of access routes and new places of potential interventions originates. Safety risks of inaccessible areas at the airport and inability to follow response time come with operations of the new runway. These risks are assessed and mitigated if necessary.
Figure 2.3, all of the taxiways were laid out in a dispersal pattern so as to minimize any direct hits on aircraft which were parked (See aerial...photograph in Appendix A, page A-i). Fueling areas were also dispersed as is indicated on Figure 2.3. During the winter of 1945 to 1946, the mission of...Middendorf Cross-bedded sands with lenses of sandy to (Tuscaloosa) 182 1,457 silty kaolin clays. Clays mottled from dark yellowish-orange to red and light
Coupe, William Jeremy
It is well known that airport surface traffic congestion at major airports is responsible for increased taxi-out times, fuel burn and excess emissions and there is potential to mitigate these negative consequences through optimizing airport surface traffic operations. Due to a highly congested voice communication channel between pilots and air traffic controllers and a data communication channel that is used only for limited functions, one of the most viable near-term strategies for improvement of the surface traffic is issuing a push back advisory to each departing aircraft. This dissertation focuses on the optimization of a push back time window for each departing aircraft. The optimization takes into account both spatial and temporal uncertainties of ramp area aircraft trajectories. The uncertainties are described by a stochastic kinematic model of aircraft trajectories, which is used to infer distributions of combinations of push back times that lead to conflict among trajectories from different gates. The model is validated and the distributions are included in the push back time window optimization. Under the assumption of a fixed taxiway spot schedule, the computed push back time windows can be integrated with a higher level taxiway scheduler to optimize the flow of traffic from the gate to the departure runway queue. To enable real-time decision making the computational time of the push back time window optimization is critical and is analyzed throughout.
Mathon-Dufour, V.; Allard, M.; Leblanc, A.; L'Hérault, E.; Oldenborger, G. A.; Sladen, W. E.
Formerly, characterization of permafrost conditions was minimal before the construction of infrastructures. It was assumed that the permafrost would forever remain a solid substrate. Before global warming, transportation infrastructures were not designed, especially in terms of materials and dimensions, to withstand without damage an increased input of heat in the soil. Iqaluit airport, the hub of the eastern Canadian Arctic, is currently affected by thawing permafrost. In fact, the runway, taxiways and apron are affected by differential settlements resulting from the presence of localized ice-rich soils. This study uses a GIS approach that makes up for the absence of appropriate characterization before the construction of the airport during WWII and in the 1950s. Mapping of surficial geology, hydrography and landforms indicative of the presence of ground ice (e.g. tundra polygons) was produced by interpreting aerial photographs dating back from the initial phases of construction (1948) and photographs taken at intervals since then, to the most recent high-resolution satellite images. Subsequent map analysis shows that the original terrain conditions prevailing before the construction of the airport have a significant impact on the current stability of the infrastructure. Data integration allowed us to summarize the main problems affecting the Iqaluit airport which are: 1) Differential settlements associated with pre-construction drainage network 2) Cracking due to thermal contraction, 3) Linear depressions associated with ice wedge degradation and 4) Sink holes. Most of the sectors affected by differential settlements and instabilities are perfectly coincident with the original streams and lakes network that has been filled to increase the size of the runway, taxiways and the apron. In addition, the runway is affected by intense frost cracking. Similarities with nearby natural terrain suggest that the network pattern of the cracks follows pre-existing ice wedges
Full Text Available Airport runways and taxiways are commonly comprised of a flexible pavement with an asphalt surface. Marshall-designed asphalt with sawn grooves is the most frequent airport asphalt surface material. However, some airports have adopted alternate asphalt mixtures for improved resistance to shear stress and for increased surface texture, allowing grooving to be avoided. Of the alternate asphalt mixtures, stone mastic asphalt is the most commonly reported. Resistance to shear stress is a critical performance requirement for airport surface asphalt. Shear stress resistance minimises the risk of rutting, shoving and groove closure. However, fracture resistance must not be ignored when developing even more shear resistance asphalt mixtures. Significant distress in airport asphalt surfaces, compliant with the traditional prescriptive specification, has increased interest in a performance-based airport asphalt specification. Commonly reported distresses include groove closure in slow moving aircraft areas and shearing in heavy aircraft braking zones. Development of reliable performance-indicative test methods is expected in the future and will enable warranted performance-based asphalt mixture design for airport surfaces. Keywords: Airport, Pavement, Asphalt, Surface
Full Text Available It is known that when the aircraft is moving the pressure on the runway and taxiway surfaces does not remain con- stant. One of the factors influencing starting aircraft rolling-off the runway is the low friction coefficient. The article anal- yses theoretical and experimental ways of defining the friction coefficient and it suggests a mathematical model taking into account the main factors influencing its magnitude. The wheel hydroplaning is the most unfavorable case of aircraft landing that takes place on wet and slush covered runways with longitudinal and lateral adherence decreasing practically to zero. It was discovered in the research that the dynamic wheel hydroplaning is mostly affected by the following factors: the depth of the slush, its density, pressure in the wheels, degree of protector wear as well as the structure of runway surface. When modeling it is important to get to a true description of pneumatics as increase of damping speed reveals relaxation rubber properties where deformation changing is lagging behind load changing (it is necessary to take into account the non-liner and hysteresis properties. The article offers a method of assessing of the above mentioned phenomena on the basis of stud- ying the interaction of undercarriage pneumatics with the runway surface with the help of using the system of mathematical modeling of aircraft flight dynamics. The article suggests methods of analytic describing aircraft moving on landing on the runway covered with slush.
Full Text Available Framework Archaeology is a Joint Venture agreement between Oxford Archaeology (OA and Wessex Archaeology (WA to provide archaeological services to BAA (formerly British Airports Authority, now Heathrow Airport Holdings Ltd. Given the potential scale of some of BAA's projects, the joint venture enables Framework Archaeology to draw on the full resources of both OA and WA, including site staff, specialist managers, administrative support, and technical facilities. In 1993, BAA plc and Heathrow Airport Limited submitted a joint planning application to develop an additional passenger terminal complex (Terminal 5, together with the provision of aircraft aprons and taxiways, and include the realignment of rivers and landscaping. The resulting archaeological excavations were undertaken as three main phases of work. Excavations in 1996 by the Museum of London Archaeology Service of approximately 4 ha of sludge stockpile areas (site code POK96. Between 1999-2000 Framework Archaeology excavated approximately 21 ha in the Perry Oaks sludge works and adjacent areas (WPR98. Framework Archaeology also undertook excavations between 2002-2007 as part of the construction of Terminal 5 (PSH02, TEC05 covering a further 50 hectares. Importantly the aim of the Terminal 5 archaeological programme was to move beyond the description and recovery of archaeological remains and to arrive at an understanding of the history of human inhabitation and the practical ways in which people established their presence in the material, social and political conditions of their day.
Camasso, M J; Jagannathan, R
This study employed stated preference (SP) models to determine why general aviation pilots choose to base and operate their aircraft at some airports and not others. Thirteen decision variables identified in pilot focus groups and in the general aviation literature were incorporated into a series of hypothetical choice tasks or scenarios. The scenarios were offered within a fractional factorial design to establish orthogonality and to preclude dominance in any combination of variables. Data from 113 pilots were analyzed for individual differences across pilots using conditional logit regression with and without controls. The results demonstrate that some airport attributes (e.g., full-range hospitality services, paved parallel taxiway, and specific types of runway lighting and landing aids) increase pilot utility. Heavy airport congestion and airport landing fees, on the other hand, decrease pilot utility. The importance of SP methodology as a vehicle for modeling choice behavior and as an input into the planning and prioritization process is discussed. Actual or potential applications include the development of structured decision-making instruments in the behavioral sciences and in human service programs.
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to improve the methods of determining unimpeded (nominal taxiing time, which is the reference time used for estimating taxiing delay, a widely accepted performance indicator of airport surface movement. After reviewing existing methods used widely by different air navigation service providers (ANSP, new methods relying on computer software and statistical tools, and econometrics regression models are proposed. Regression models are highly recommended because they require less detailed data and can serve the needs of general performance analysis of airport surface operations. The proposed econometrics model outperforms existing ones by introducing more explanatory variables, especially taking aircraft passing and over-passing into the considering of queue length calculation and including runway configuration, ground delay program, and weather factors. The length of the aircraft queue in the taxiway system and the interaction between queues are major contributors to long taxi-out times. The proposed method provides a consistent and more accurate method of calculating taxiing delay and it can be used for ATM-related performance analysis and international comparison.
Soriguera Marti, F.; Martinez-Diaz, M.; Perez Perez, I.
This article presents an algorithm and a structured methodology to address the issue of the optimisation of resources when clearing snow from stretches of the manoeuvring area of an airport. This overall issue is how to best utilise limited resources to remove snow from taxiways and runways so as to leave surfaces in an acceptable state for aircraft operations. To achieve this the airfield is divided into subsets of significant stretches for the purpose of operations and target times are set at which these are to be open to aircraft traffic. The manoeuvring area is also divided into zones, with the condition that the subsets of significant stretches lie within just one of these zones. The mathematical model contains operating restrictions with regard to the fulfilment of partial operational targets applied to the subsets of significant stretches, and also concerning the snow-clearing machines. The problem is solved by an iterative optimisation process based on linear programming applied successively to the zones that make up the manoeuvring area during each iteration. The method is particularised for the case of the manoeuvring area of Adolfo Suarez Madrid - Barajas Airport. (Author)
Connell, Linda J.; Hubener, Simone
Increasing numbers of aircraft are operating on the surface of airports throughout the world. Airport operations are forecast to grow by more that 50%, by the year 2005. Airport surface movement traffic would therefore be expected to become increasingly congested. Safety of these surface operations will become a focus as airport capacity planning efforts proceed toward the future. Several past events highlight the prevailing risks experienced while moving aircraft during ground operations on runways, taxiways, and other areas at terminal, gates, and ramps. The 1994 St. Louis accident between a taxiing Cessna crossing an active runway and colliding with a landing MD-80 emphasizes the importance of a fail-safe system for airport operations. The following study explores reports of incidents occurring on an airport surface that did not escalate to an accident event. The Aviation Safety Reporting System has collected data on surface movement incidents since 1976. This study sampled the reporting data from June, 1993 through June, 1994. The coding of the data was accomplished in several categories. The categories include location of airport, phase of ground operation, weather /lighting conditions, ground conflicts, flight crew characteristics, human factor considerations, and airport environment. These comparisons and distributions of variables contributing to surface movement incidents can be invaluable to future airport planning, accident prevention efforts, and system-wide improvements.
Müller, Andreas; Petru, Raluca; Angerer, Peter
Apron controllers (ACs) determine the taxiways for aircraft entering the apron area until they reach their parking positions and vice versa. The aims of this study were to identify age-sensitive job requirements of apron control (Study 1), and to investigate the relationship between age of ACs and their workload (Study 2). Study 1: There were 14 experienced ACs who assessed the job requirements of apron control with the Fleishman-Job Analyses Survey. Additionally, during one shift, the number of parallel processed traffic data sets (indicating memory-load) and the number of delivered radio messages (indicating processing speed requirements) were assessed. Study 2: There were 30 ACs (age: 23-51 yr) who volunteered for trials during late shifts at an international airport. ACs assessed their subjective workload (NASA-Task Load Index) at four times during the shift and carried out an attention test (d2) before and after the shift. Moreover, their heart rate was assessed during the shift and in a reference period. Study 1: Results indicate that apron control requires especially high levels of memory-load and processing speed. Study 2: Hierarchical regression analyses revealed a u-shaped relationship between age and subjective workload (beta = 0.59) as well as heart rate (beta = 0.33). Up to the age of about 35-37 yr, workload and heart rate decreased with age, but afterwards the relationship became positive. There was no association between chronological age and attention performance. There is a need for age adequate job design in apron control that should especially aim at the reduction of memory-load and processing speed.
Jones, Denise R.; Chartrand, Ryan C.; Wilson, Sara R.; Commo, Sean A.; Ballard, Kathryn M.; Otero, Sharon D.; Barker, Glover D.
Two conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) algorithms for the terminal maneuvering area (TMA) were evaluated in a fast-time batch simulation study at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center. One CD&R algorithm, developed at NASA, was designed to enhance surface situation awareness and provide cockpit alerts of potential conflicts during runway, taxi, and low altitude air-to-air operations. The second algorithm, Enhanced Traffic Situation Awareness on the Airport Surface with Indications and Alerts (SURF IA), was designed to increase flight crew awareness of the runway environment and facilitate an appropriate and timely response to potential conflict situations. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the performance of the aircraft-based CD&R algorithms during various runway, taxiway, and low altitude scenarios, multiple levels of CD&R system equipage, and various levels of horizontal position accuracy. Algorithm performance was assessed through various metrics including the collision rate, nuisance and missed alert rate, and alert toggling rate. The data suggests that, in general, alert toggling, nuisance and missed alerts, and unnecessary maneuvering occurred more frequently as the position accuracy was reduced. Collision avoidance was more effective when all of the aircraft were equipped with CD&R and maneuvered to avoid a collision after an alert was issued. In order to reduce the number of unwanted (nuisance) alerts when taxiing across a runway, a buffer is needed between the hold line and the alerting zone so alerts are not generated when an aircraft is behind the hold line. All of the results support RTCA horizontal position accuracy requirements for performing a CD&R function to reduce the likelihood and severity of runway incursions and collisions.
Full Text Available Mobile light detection and ranging (LiDAR sensors used in car navigation and robotics, such as the Velodyne’s VLP-16 and HDL-32E, allow for sensing the surroundings of the platform with high temporal resolution to detect obstacles, tracking objects and support path planning. This study investigates the feasibility of using LiDAR sensors for tracking taxiing or landing aircraft close to the ground to improve airport safety. A prototype system was developed and installed at an airfield to capture point clouds to monitor aircraft operations. One of the challenges of accurate object tracking using the Velodyne sensors is the relatively small vertical field of view (30°, 41.3° and angular resolution (1.33°, 2°, resulting in a small number of points of the tracked object. The point density decreases with the object–sensor distance, and is already sparse at a moderate range of 30–40 m. The paper introduces our model-based tracking algorithms, including volume minimization and cube trajectories, to address the optimal estimation of object motion and tracking based on sparse point clouds. Using a network of sensors, multiple tests were conducted at an airport to assess the performance of the demonstration system and the algorithms developed. The investigation was focused on monitoring small aircraft moving on runways and taxiways, and the results indicate less than 0.7 m/s and 17 cm velocity and positioning accuracy achieved, respectively. Overall, based on our findings, this technology is promising not only for aircraft monitoring but for airport applications.
Stough, H. Paul, III
Atmospheric effects on aviation are described by Mahapatra (1999) as including (1) atmospheric phenomena involving air motion - wind shear and turbulence; (2) hydrometeorological phenomena - rain, snow and hail; (3) aircraft icing; (4) low visibility; and (5) atmospheric electrical phenomena. Aircraft Weather Mitigation includes aircraft systems (e.g. airframe, propulsion, avionics, controls) that can be enacted (by a pilot, automation or hybrid systems) to suppress and/or prepare for the effects of encountered or unavoidable weather or to facilitate a crew operational decision-making process relative to weather. Aircraft weather mitigation can be thought of as a continuum (Figure 1) with the need to avoid all adverse weather at one extreme and the ability to safely operate in all weather conditions at the other extreme. Realistic aircraft capabilities fall somewhere between these two extremes. The capabilities of small general aviation aircraft would be expected to fall closer to the "Avoid All Adverse Weather" point, and the capabilities of large commercial jet transports would fall closer to the "Operate in All Weather Conditions" point. The ability to safely operate in adverse weather conditions is dependent upon the pilot s capabilities (training, total experience and recent experience), the airspace in which the operation is taking place (terrain, navigational aids, traffic separation), the capabilities of the airport (approach guidance, runway and taxiway lighting, availability of air traffic control), as well as the capabilities of the airplane. The level of mitigation may vary depending upon the type of adverse weather. For example, a small general aviation airplane may be equipped to operate "in the clouds" without outside visual references, but not be equipped to prevent airframe ice that could be accreted in those clouds.
Full Text Available Facilities in an airport requires maintenance activity in order to achieve excellent quality level and able to support activities at the airport to avoid negative impacts, which is the declining quality of the facility that can lead to lower levels of the productivity carried out in an airport. Maintenance facilities at Bali's Ngurah Rai airport need the maintenance costs planning. To get proper maintenance actions, the maintenance costs early stages of planning phase needs to develop a model of facility maintenance costs that can provide the maintenance costs estimates quickly and accurately. To produce a maintenance costs model we should identify the maintenance activities that exist at Ngurah Rai airport. Maintenance costs data used is within the last 5 years (2007-2011. Using the Cost Significant Model methode and the linear regression equation it showed that several of the facility maintenace significantly affect the facility maintenance costs in the Ngurah Rai Airport which is the cost of passenger terminal building maintenance (X6, the cost of runway maintenance (X1, the cost of taxiway maintenance (X2, the cost of air conditioning installation maintenance (X14, the cost of road maintenance (X4, the cost of vehicle parking maintenance (X5, and the cost of navigation and communication equipment maintenance (X10. There is 3 linear regression equation model which is 1 Y = 11873745878,77 + 0,993 X1 + 0,826 X2 + 0,334 X4 + 1,181 X6, 2 Y = -698840481,94 + 1,327 X1 + 1,716 X2 + 5,516 X5+ 3,060 X14, and 3 Y = 82110363478,07 + 1,013 X1 - 17,223X5 + 22,406 X10 - 12,035 X14. After doing the Cost Model Factor (CMF test to the three linear regression equation, the most accurate equation is linear regression equation Y = 82110363478,07 + 1,013 X1 - 17,223X5 + 22,406 X10 - 12,035 X14 that has the average ratio 0.006% of the actual cost, so it is the best facility maintenance cost model at Bali's Ngurah Rai Airport.
Ringgaard, Jørgen; Wisén, Roger
has contributed to aninternational collaboration between several countries about preparation of guidelines for application of GPR on roads, the Mara Nord Project. Our 3D system is used for various types of surveys. In airports mapping has been performed both on runways, taxiways and aprons with the aim of mapping layer thicknesses and delamination for planning of maintenance work. Acquisition has also been done on roads for control of asphalt works and mapping of the road bed. On bridges mapping of rebars and structure has been performed. The 3D system is also used for determination of space behind frost insulation walls in tunnels in Norway. This work is based on a pilot project made by SINTEF in Norway. This abstract is a contribution to COST Action TU1208.
Bolender, Michael Alan
Two problems relating to the departure problem in air traffic control automation are examined. The first problem that is addressed is the scheduling of aircraft for departure. The departure operations at a major US hub airport are analyzed, and a discrete event simulation of the departure operations is constructed. Specifically, the case where there is a single departure runway is considered. The runway is fed by two queues of aircraft. Each queue, in turn, is fed by a single taxiway. Two salient areas regarding scheduling are addressed. The first is the construction of optimal departure sequences for the aircraft that are queued. Several greedy search algorithms are designed to minimize the total time to depart a set of queued aircraft. Each algorithm has a different set of heuristic rules to resolve situations within the search space whenever two branches of the search tree with equal edge costs are encountered. These algorithms are then compared and contrasted with a genetic search algorithm in order to assess the performance of the heuristics. This is done in the context of a static departure problem where the length of the departure queue is fixed. A greedy algorithm which deepens the search whenever two branches of the search tree with non-unique costs are encountered is shown to outperform the other heuristic algorithms. This search strategy is then implemented in the discrete event simulation. A baseline performance level is established, and a sensitivity analysis is performed by implementing changes in traffic mix, routing, and miles-in-trail restrictions for comparison. It is concluded that to minimize the average time spent in the queue for different traffic conditions, a queue assignment algorithm is needed to maintain an even balance of aircraft in the queues. A necessary consideration is to base queue assignment upon traffic management restrictions such as miles-in-trail constraints. The second problem addresses the technical challenges associated
Chung, William W.; Ingram, Carla D.; Ahlquist, Douglas Kurt; Chachad, Girish H.
unique airport attributes (e.g., runway, taxiway, terminal, and gate configurations and tenants), and combined statistics from past data and live data based on a specific set of ATM concept-of-operations (ConOps) and operational parameters via systems analysis using an analytic network learning model. The IGTM tool will then bound the uncertainties that arise from nominal and off-nominal operational conditions with direct assessment of the gate turnaround status and the impact of a certain operational decision on the NAS performance, and provide a set of recommended actions to optimize the NAS performance by allowing stakeholders to take mitigation actions to reduce uncertainty and time deviation of planned operational events. An IGTM prototype was developed at NASA Ames Simulation Laboratories (SimLabs) to demonstrate the benefits and applicability of the concept. A data network, using the System Wide Information Management (SWIM)-like messaging application using the ActiveMQ message service, was connected to the simulated data warehouse, scheduled flight plans, a fast-time airport simulator, and a graphic UI. A fast-time simulation was integrated with the data warehouse or Big Data/Analytics (BAI), scheduled flight plans from Aeronautical Operational Control AOC, IGTM Controller, and a UI via a SWIM-like data messaging network using the ActiveMQ message service, illustrated in Figure 1, to demonstrate selected use-cases showing the benefits of the IGTM concept on the NAS performance.
Jones, Sue; Hoon, Stephen R.; Richardson, Nigel; Bennett, Michael
The significant increase in global air travel which has occurred during the last fifty years has generated growing concern regarding the potential impacts associated with increasing emissions of particulate matter (PM) from aviation activity on health and the environment. PM within the airport environment, in particular, may be derived from a wide range of potential sources including aircraft; vehicles; ground support equipment and buildings. In order to investigate and remediate potential problem sources, it is important to be able to identify characteristic particulate 'fingerprints' which would allow source attribution, particularly respirable particulates. To date the identification of such 'fingerprints' has remained elusive but remains a key research priority for the aviation industry (Webb et al, 2008). In previous PM studies, environmental magnetism has been used as a successful technique for discriminating between different emission types and particulate sources in both urban and industrial environments (e.g. Hunt et al 1984; Lecoanet et al 2003, Jones et al 2015). Environmental magnetism is a non-destructive and relatively rapid technique involving the use of non-directional, rock magnetic measurements to characterise the mineral magnetic properties of natural and anthropogenic materials. In other studies scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has also been used as an effective characterisation technique for the investigation of grain size and morphology of PM derived from vehicle emissions (e.g. Bucko et al 2010) and fossil fuel combustion sources (Kim et al 2009). In this study, environmental magnetic measurements and SEM/EDAX have been used to characterise dusts from specific aircraft sources including engines, brakes and tyres. Furthermore, these methods have also been applied to runway (both hard and grass covered surfaces), taxiway and apron dusts collected during extensive environmental sampling at Manchester International Airport, UK in order to