WorldWideScience

Sample records for taxes allocation devoted

  1. The taxes allocation devoted to the sustainable development (energy conservation, renewable energies)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document aims to bring a better knowledge of the sustainable energy equipment which benefit of tax allocation. It presents the expenditure concerned by this law, the buildings where the expenditure are allowed, the expenditure amount and the administrative procedure to benefit of this decree. (A.L.B.)

  2. The taxes allocation devoted to the sustainable development (energy conservation, renewable energies); Le credit d'impot dedie au developpement durable (economies d'energie, energies renouvelables)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document aims to bring a better knowledge of the sustainable energy equipment which benefit of tax allocation. It presents the expenditure concerned by this law, the buildings where the expenditure are allowed, the expenditure amount and the administrative procedure to benefit of this decree. (A.L.B.)

  3. The tax credit devoted to the sustainable development (energy conservation, renewable energies). DGEMP-DIDEME

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The finances law of 2005 created a tax credit devoted to the sustainable development and the energy conservation. This tax credit aims to favor the diffusion of the sustainable energy equipments to reach the french objectives of energy conservation and renewable energies. All the concerned equipment for the individual house are detailed: heating systems, insulating materials, heating control appliances, appliances using the renewable energies, the heat pumps, equipment for the connection to heat networks, supplying by renewable energies or cogeneration. (A.L.B.)

  4. Freedom of Establishment and the Balanced Allocation of Tax Jurisdiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    in order to present a (more) coherent approach to evaluating national anti-abuse legislation. It is submitted that the justification ground of “balanced allocation of tax jurisdiction” and the arm’s length principle for allocation of income should form an important basis under EU law for the evaluation...

  5. 26 CFR 1.904-6 - Allocation and apportionment of taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Income from Sources Without the United States § 1.904-6 Allocation and... applies such principles in determining the income or earnings and profits for United States tax purposes... income that does not constitute income under United States tax principles, that tax shall be treated as...

  6. 75 FR 52393 - Proposed Data Collection; Comment Request: New Markets Tax Credit (NMTC) Program-Allocation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... Collection; Comment Request: New Markets Tax Credit (NMTC) Program--Allocation Application ACTION: Notice and... toll free number. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: New Markets Tax Credit (NMTC) Program--Allocation... provides an incentive to investors in the form of tax credits over seven years that stimulates private...

  7. 47 CFR 32.22 - Comprehensive interperiod tax allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Companies that receive the tax benefits from the filing of a consolidated income tax return by the parent... of the gross deferred income tax expense debits or credits during any calendar year over the life of... Taxes; 4110, Net Current Deferred Nonoperating Income Taxes; 4340, Net Noncurrent Deferred Operating...

  8. 18 CFR 367.17 - Comprehensive inter-period income tax allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... such transactions are to be recognized in the periods in which the differences between book accounting...-period income tax allocation. 367.17 Section 367.17 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... NATURAL GAS ACT General Instructions § 367.17 Comprehensive inter-period income tax allocation. (a) Where...

  9. 76 FR 40448 - 2010 Tax Information for Use in the Revenue Shortfall Allocation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... Surface Transportation Board 2010 Tax Information for Use in the Revenue Shortfall Allocation Method... Allocation Method (RSAM). DATES: Comments are due by August 8, 2011. If any comment opposing AAR's... Shortfall Allocation Method, EP 646 (Sub-No. 2) (STB served Nov. 21, 2008). RSAM is intended to measure the...

  10. 78 FR 34427 - 2012 Tax Information for Use In The Revenue Shortfall Allocation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... Surface Transportation Board 2012 Tax Information for Use In The Revenue Shortfall Allocation Method... Shortfall Allocation Method (RSAM). DATES: Comments are due by July 9, 2013. If any comment opposing AAR's... Revenue Shortfall Allocation Method, EP 646 (Sub-No. 2) (STB served Nov. 21, 2008). RSAM is intended to...

  11. 78 FR 76889 - Proposed Addendum to the Interagency Policy Statement on Income Tax Allocation in a Holding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... Interagency Policy Statement on Income Tax Allocation in a Holding Company Structure AGENCY: Board of... ``Interagency Policy Statement on Income Tax Allocation in a Holding Company Structure'' (63 FR 64757, Nov. 23... Policy Statement on Income Tax Allocation in a Holding Company Structure'' by any of the following...

  12. 75 FR 8817 - Annual Submission of Tax Information for Use in the Revenue Shortfall Allocation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... Shortfall Allocation Method ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Surface Transportation Board (Board) is... Allocation Method (RSAM). RSAM is one of three benchmarks that together are used to determine the... Method, STB Ex Parte No. 646 (Sub-No. 2) (STB served May 11, 2009) (RSAM Taxes). Specifically, that...

  13. Optimal Tax-Timing and Asset Allocation when Tax Rebates on Capital Losses are Limited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marekwica, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    This article studies the portfolio problem with realization-based capital gain taxation when limited amounts of losses qualify for tax rebate payments, as is the case under current US tax law. When the tax rate applicable to realized losses exceeds that on realized capital gains, it can be optimal...... to realize capital gains immediately and pay capital gain taxes to regain the option to use potential future losses against a higher tax rate. This incentive adds an entirely new and as yet unstudied dimension to the portfolio problem. It causes risk averse investors to hold more equity and attain higher...

  14. The tax credit devoted to the sustainable development (energy conservation, renewable energies). DGEMP-DIDEME; Le credit d'impot dedie au developpement durable (economies d'energie, energies renouvelables). DGEMP-DIDEME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    The finances law of 2005 created a tax credit devoted to the sustainable development and the energy conservation. This tax credit aims to favor the diffusion of the sustainable energy equipments to reach the french objectives of energy conservation and renewable energies. All the concerned equipment for the individual house are detailed: heating systems, insulating materials, heating control appliances, appliances using the renewable energies, the heat pumps, equipment for the connection to heat networks, supplying by renewable energies or cogeneration. (A.L.B.)

  15. Life Cycle Asset Allocation in the Presence of Housing and Tax-Deferred Investing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marekwica, Marcel; Schaefer, Alexander; Sebastian, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    We study the dynamic consumption-portfolio problem over the life cycle, with respect to tax-deferred investing for investors who acquire housing services by either renting or owning a home. The joint existence of these two investment vehicles creates potential for tax arbitrage. Specifically...

  16. Mongolians’ Devotion to Gurus /Traditional and Contemporary/

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burnee Dorjsuren

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available From ancient times, Mongolians traditionally devoted themselves to their teachers. Could Mongolians still keep this tradition until today? Do they devote themselves to their teachers? If not, what are the causes and factors? This article aims to respond to these questions within the frame of sutras and books. This article is divided into two parts: the first part tells in detail about the guru devotion using the proverbs on guru devotion, one Mongolian folk oral monument, and other written monuments whereas the other one narrates how the process of today’s globalization affects the tradition of Mongolians’ devotion to gurus.

  17. 26 CFR 1.1446-6 - Special rules to reduce a partnership's 1446 tax with respect to a foreign partner's allocable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... submit with a Form 8813, “Partnership Withholding Tax Payment Voucher (Section 1446),” and Form 8805... Payment Voucher (Section 1446),” filed for the first installment period. Under paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(B) of...(b)(2)(i) for computation requirements for installment payments of 1446 tax when a partnership...

  18. [Janusz Korczak: an example of unlimited devotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdaneta Carruyo, Eliéxer; Dairy Salcedo, Roxani

    2014-12-01

    Janusz Korczak was a prominent educator and humanist of the twentieth century. His ideas for reforming the education of children inspired generations of teachers and still remain valid. His main contribution was to introduce the pedagogical principle of autonomy, in order that the child be starring in their actions and accountable for their decisions, and in turn, he was respected as a person by their teachers. His heroic and touching life was a song of hope and love to abandoned children and his memory will live on as an example of devotion without limit.

  19. Provision of community benefits by tax-exempt U.S. hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Gary J; Chou, Chia-Hung; Alexander, Jeffrey; Lee, Shoou-Yih Daniel; Raver, Eli

    2013-04-18

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires tax-exempt hospitals to conduct assessments of community needs and address identified needs. Most tax-exempt hospitals will need to meet this requirement by the end of 2013. We conducted a national study of the level and pattern of community benefits that tax-exempt hospitals provide. The study comprised more than 1800 tax-exempt hospitals, approximately two thirds of all such institutions. We used reports that hospitals filed with the Internal Revenue Service for fiscal year 2009 that provide expenditures for seven types of community benefits. We combined these reports with other data to examine whether institutional, community, and market characteristics are associated with the provision of community benefits by hospitals. Tax-exempt hospitals spent 7.5% of their operating expenses on community benefits during fiscal year 2009. More than 85% of these expenditures were devoted to charity care and other patient care services. Of the remaining community-benefit expenditures, approximately 5% were devoted to community health improvements that hospitals undertook directly. The rest went to education in health professions, research, and contributions to community groups. The level of benefits provided varied widely among the hospitals (hospitals in the top decile devoted approximately 20% of operating expenses to community benefits; hospitals in the bottom decile devoted approximately 1%). This variation was not accounted for by indicators of community need. In 2009, tax-exempt hospitals varied markedly in the level of community benefits provided, with most of their benefit-related expenditures allocated to patient care services. Little was spent on community health improvement.

  20. Nanoparticles monitoring in workplaces devoted to nanotechnologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manodori, Laura; Benedetti, Alvise

    2009-05-01

    The impact of engineered nanoparticles (ENP) on human and environmental health is largely unknown at the moment, although their applications involve a wide range of fields from electronics, medicine, environmental remediation, packaging, etc. and their use are becoming very common. Currently the best way to estimate the human exposure to ENP is by monitoring the workplaces, which are the first environment involved in their involuntary release. This study has been carried out in the research laboratories of the CIVEN Association, devoted to the promotion of research and training activities in different fields of nanotechnology. Its aim is to evaluate the emission of particles in the full range from 5 nm to 20 μm from two different deposition processes of thin film (plasma enhanced chemical and physical vapour deposition, PECVD and PVD respectively) and from the compounding of polymers with nanofillers by means of twin screw extruder. The results show very different scenarios of emissions. In particular a significant increase of particles concentration has been detected at the opening of the PECVD vacuum chamber and during nanocomposite compounding. In the first case it rises to 3 000 particles cm-3, while in the second one the emissions are two orders of magnitude larger, reaching more than 1.5 × 105 particles cm-3.

  1. Nanoparticles monitoring in workplaces devoted to nanotechnologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manodori, Laura; Benedetti, Alvise

    2009-01-01

    The impact of engineered nanoparticles (ENP) on human and environmental health is largely unknown at the moment, although their applications involve a wide range of fields from electronics, medicine, environmental remediation, packaging, etc. and their use are becoming very common. Currently the best way to estimate the human exposure to ENP is by monitoring the workplaces, which are the first environment involved in their involuntary release. This study has been carried out in the research laboratories of the CIVEN Association, devoted to the promotion of research and training activities in different fields of nanotechnology. Its aim is to evaluate the emission of particles in the full range from 5 nm to 20 μm from two different deposition processes of thin film (plasma enhanced chemical and physical vapour deposition, PECVD and PVD respectively) and from the compounding of polymers with nanofillers by means of twin screw extruder. The results show very different scenarios of emissions. In particular a significant increase of particles concentration has been detected at the opening of the PECVD vacuum chamber and during nanocomposite compounding. In the first case it rises to 3 000 particles cm -3 , while in the second one the emissions are two orders of magnitude larger, reaching more than 1.5 x 10 5 particles cm -3 .

  2. Case X v. Staatssecretaris van Financiën: Fractional Allocation of Personal and Family Tax Benefits for EU Resident Individuals with Multi-State Income

    OpenAIRE

    Niesten, Hannelore

    2017-01-01

    According to the well-established principles of the Schumacker-doctrine, a source state does not have to grant personal and family tax benefits, applicable for its own residents, unless (1) the non-resident earns ‘all or almost all’ his family income in the working state, and (2) the income in the residence state is insufficient to take into account the personal and family circumstances. This article critically analyses the judgment of the Court of Justice in the X-case, where the Court had t...

  3. MODELING COMBINING TAX REGIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prishchenko E. A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the combination of tax regimes as a result of separation from the operating business of the revenues and costs for system of a united tax on imputed income (UTII with the analysis of the tax consequences of such allocation. Three models of taxation were built: both variants of the simplified system of taxation from UTII and common system of taxation with UTII. We propose a rapid method of the most preferred system of taxation for small businesses’ selection depending material to labor costs ratio. All these results could be implemented in the case when the company starts a new type of activity under the rules UTII, and solves the problem in the framework of the tax regime to conduct this activity - UTII applied or not, based on the criterion of tax savings. Using the relations describing the tax burden when combined tax regimes, we can determine what the yield should have a new business line and what cost structure should it have to reduce the tax burden. The main result is proposed approach that can be used as a tool of tax planning activities of small businesses.

  4. Do Dividend Taxes Affect Corporate Investment?

    OpenAIRE

    Annette Alstadsæter; Martin Jacob; Roni Michaely

    2014-01-01

    We test whether dividend taxes affect corporate investments. We exploit Sweden’s 2006 dividend tax cut of 10 percentage points for closely held corporations and five percentage points for widely held corporations. Using rich administrative panel data and triple-difference estimators, we find that this dividend tax cut affects allocation of corporate investment. Cash-constrained firms increase investment after the dividend tax cut relative to cash-rich firms. Reallocation is stronger among c...

  5. An analysis of Malaysia's corporate income tax expenditures and negative income tax expenditures using accounting standards as the benchmark tax base

    OpenAIRE

    Yussof, Salwa Hana

    2017-01-01

    Tax expenditures are government indirect spending, hidden in the tax system, often used to support government’s social and economic objectives. Instead of directly allocating money for a particular objective, the government forgoes tax revenues from those who undertake activities that could achieve the objective. Therefore, tax expenditures should be analysed as government spending programs. Tax expenditure reporting and analysis has been a regular practice among many countries in the worl...

  6. Tax policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    This report contains information on the effects of additional tax incentives for the petroleum production industry. It considers the effects of additional incentives on petroleum production and federal revenues, the federal tax burden on new domestic petroleum production investments under current law, and the comparative tax treatment of petroleum production investments in the United States and other nations

  7. The Logic and Issues of International Regional Tax Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Kudryashova, Ekaterina

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the issues of international regional tax integration. The international economic integration has two mainstreams: global and regional economic integration. The global tax integration is concerned only with double taxation matters while the regional tax integration aims at procuring of four fundamental freedoms of common market and goes far beyond the elimination of double taxation. The legal solution for both global and regional international tax integration can not ...

  8. The Nature of Journalism Courses Devoted to Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Felecia Jones; Patton, Jamila P.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the courses devoted entirely to sensitizing or educating students about the media's relationship with groups that have experienced long-term discrimination and oppression: women; non-white racial groups; gays/lesbians; and the disabled. Examines the nature, strengths and weaknesses of the courses and assesses the extent to which…

  9. 26 CFR 1.42-6 - Buildings qualifying for carryover allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Buildings qualifying for carryover allocations. 1... INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.42-6 Buildings qualifying for carryover allocations. (a) Carryover... carryover allocation may only be made with respect to a qualified building. A qualified building is any...

  10. Environmental taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekins, P.; Andersen, Mikael Skou; Vos, H.

    include those on sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in Sweden, on toxic waste in Germany, on water pollution in The Netherlands, and the tax differentials on leaded fuel and 'cleaner' diesel fuel in Sweden.3.Taxes as such have potential negative impacts on competitiveness and on employment, Most barriers...

  11. WAYS TO DEVELOP TAX SYSTEMS IN AGRICULTURAL FORMS OF ECONOMIC MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Yu. Pelevin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Following article devoted to consideration of possible ways to develop tax system in agricultural forms of economic management. Principles of tax reforming for agricultural sector are presented, in addition initial analysis has been done for single agricultural and land tax. The article represents verification of essential support of generality principles for taxation of agrarian firms. Methodology of calculation of tax basis for single agricultural tax has been offered.

  12. Taxing energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deacon, R.; DeCanio, S.; Frech, H.E. III; Johnson, M.B.

    1990-01-01

    In this book, the authors have produced an analysis of state energy taxation. Their factual findings are of particular relevance to California and other states in their consideration of severance taxes on oil production. It turns out, for example, that while California's tax burden on oil producers is slightly below average among the states, the combined revenues from taxes and royalties (expressed as a percent of the value of production) indicate that California is not easy on oil producers. In fact, California's oil tax system appears to be particularly well suited to its oil industry. Much of the production in the state is relatively high-cost and economically marginal. The state must tread carefully in taxing this production, lest it force it to be curtailed

  13. Carbon taxes and India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher-Vanden, K.A.; Pitcher, H.M.; Edmonds, J.A.; Kim, S.H.; Shukla, P.R.

    1994-07-01

    Using the Indian module of the Second Generation Model 9SGM, we explore a reference case and three scenarios in which greenhouse gas emissions were controlled. Two alternative policy instruments (carbon taxes and tradable permits) were analyzed to determine comparative costs of stabilizing emissions at (1) 1990 levels (the 1 X case), (2) two times the 1990 levels (the 2X case), and (3) three times the 1990 levels (the 3X case). The analysis takes into account India's rapidly growing population and the abundance of coal and biomass relative to other fuels. We also explore the impacts of a global tradable permits market to stabilize global carbon emissions on the Indian economy under the following two emissions allowance allocation methods: (1) open-quotes Grandfathered emissionsclose quotes: emissions allowances are allocated based on 1990 emissions. (2) open-quotes Equal per capita emissionsclose quotes: emissions allowances are allocated based on share of global population. Tradable permits represent a lower cost method to stabilize Indian emissions than carbon taxes, i.e., global action would benefit India more than independent actions

  14. Carbon taxes and India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher-Vanden, K.A.; Pitcher, H.M.; Edmonds, J.A.; Kim, S.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Shukla, P.R. [Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad (India)

    1994-07-01

    Using the Indian module of the Second Generation Model 9SGM, we explore a reference case and three scenarios in which greenhouse gas emissions were controlled. Two alternative policy instruments (carbon taxes and tradable permits) were analyzed to determine comparative costs of stabilizing emissions at (1) 1990 levels (the 1 X case), (2) two times the 1990 levels (the 2X case), and (3) three times the 1990 levels (the 3X case). The analysis takes into account India`s rapidly growing population and the abundance of coal and biomass relative to other fuels. We also explore the impacts of a global tradable permits market to stabilize global carbon emissions on the Indian economy under the following two emissions allowance allocation methods: (1) {open_quotes}Grandfathered emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on 1990 emissions. (2) {open_quotes}Equal per capita emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on share of global population. Tradable permits represent a lower cost method to stabilize Indian emissions than carbon taxes, i.e., global action would benefit India more than independent actions.

  15. Tax asymmetries and corporate income tax reform

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Stewart C.; Majd, Saman.

    1986-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of tax asymmetries (the lack of full loss offsets) under current corporate income tax law and a stylized tax reform proposal. The government's tax claim on the firm's pretax cash flows is modelled as a series of path-dependent call options and valued by option pricing procedures and Monte Carlo simulation.The tax reform investigated reduces the statutory tax rate, eliminates the investment tax credit and sets tax depreciation approximately equal to economic ...

  16. Tax Culture as Tax Administration Staff Phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Viktor Synchak

    2013-01-01

    The concept of the tax culture has been grounded. Various approaches to the tax culture have been highlighted. The ambiguous aspects of the tax culture approaches and interpretation have been pointed out. The authors have also given the definition of the tax body officials' culture. The tax culture has been defined as a special kind of tax service employee's culture. The necessity of the tax culture phenomenon to be familiarized with by every tax official prior to their employment has been pr...

  17. ESG Allocations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the Emergency Solutions Grants (ESG), formerly Emergency Shelter Grants, allocation by jurisdiction. The website allows users to look at...

  18. Pollution taxes and international competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birch Soerensen, P.

    1994-01-01

    Throughout the industrialized world policy makers are becoming increasingly aware of the potential gains in economic efficiency and environmental quality to be reaped in certain areas of pollution control by switching from direct regulation to market-oriented policy instruments such as pollution taxes. However, concern about the impact on the international competitiveness of domestic producers seems to make governments in many countries hesitant to introduce pollution taxes. As a result, several observers have called for international agreements on harmonized pollution taxes among larger groups of countries such as the member states of the European Community. This paper argues that policy makers should be less concerned about the effects of pollution taxes on international competitiveness and more conscious about their effects on economic efficiency and equity. If pollution taxes improve the allocation of resources, it would be possible to compensate those citizens who might lose from their introduction and still leave the rest of society better off. The openness of the economy only means that a given improvement of environmental quality can be achieved through a lower level of pollution tax rates than would be necessary in a closed economy, because a given pollution tax rate will cause a greater contraction of output in polluting industries, the more these industries are exposed to foreign competition. (EG)

  19. Settlement of Tax Disputes in the Russian Federation and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasiya Alexandrovna Konyukhova

    2015-01-01

    This article is devoted to the settlement of tax disputes in the Russian Federation and the Federal Republic of Germany. The features of the conflict settlement mechanism are both shown in the stage of administrative and judicial review. In accordance with German law, the administrative stage of dispute resolution, carried out by the tax authority, always precedes the filing of a complaint to a court. Consequently, the taxpayer submits his first application in writing to the tax authority tha...

  20. Interdisciplinary research center devoted to molecular environmental science opens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, David J.

    In October, a new research center opened at the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom. The center is the product of over a decade of ground-breaking interdisciplinary research in the Earth and related biological and chemical sciences at the university The center also responds to the British governments policy of investing in research infrastructure at key universities.The Williamson Research Centre, the first of its kind in Britain and among the first worldwide, is devoted to the emerging field of molecular environmental science. This field also aims to bring about a revolution in understanding of our environment. Though it may be a less violent revolution than some, perhaps, its potential is high for developments that could affect us all.

  1. Tax policy, housing and the labour market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Svend Erik Hougaard; Nielsen, Søren Bo; Pedersen, Lars Haagen

    1996-01-01

    This paper develops an intertemporal simulation model designed to analyse tax policies in a small open economy. Within a finite horizon, overlapping generations framework, we introduce imperfect competition in the labour market, consumption and construction of durables in the form of housing units......, and a public pension system. We simulate the model to illustrate some macroeconomic, allocative and distributional effects of a policy experiment involving a 10% cut in the capital income tax rate...

  2. Cost segregation of assets offers tax benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, D A

    2001-04-01

    A cost-segregation study is an asset-reclassification strategy that accelerates tax-depreciation deductions. By using this strategy, healthcare facility owners can lower their current income-tax liability and increase current cash flow. Simply put, certain real estate is reclassified from long-lived real property to shorter-lived personal property for depreciation purposes. Depreciation deductions for the personal property then can be greatly accelerated, thereby producing greater present-value tax savings. An analysis of costs can be conducted from either detailed construction records, when such records are available, or by using qualified appraisers, architects, or engineers to perform the allocation analysis.

  3. Financing Public Education: Tax Equity and Equality of Educational Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Milton David

    1972-01-01

    A study of Colorado tax allocation examined the feasibility of replacing the present system for financing education with a state income tax system. Further study is recommended, but indications are that an equitable distribution of financial assistance would result in better educational opportunities for economically disadvantaged counties.…

  4. Tax compliance under tax regime changes

    OpenAIRE

    Heinemann, Friedrich; Kocher, Martin G.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the compliance effects of tax regime changes. According to the economic model of tax evasion, a tax reform should affect compliance through its impact on tax rates and incentives. Our findings demonstrate the importance of at least two further effects not covered by the traditional model: First, reform losers tend to evade more taxes after the reform. Second, a reform from a proportionate to a progressive system decreases compliance compared to a switch in the revers...

  5. Are we taxing ourselves?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    2011-01-01

    We let consumers vote on tax regimes in experimental markets. We test if taxes on sellers are more popular than taxes on consumers, i.e. on voters themselves, even if taxes on sellers are inefficiently high. Taxes on sellers are more popular if voters underestimate the extent of tax......-shifting in the market. We show that inexperienced voters are prone to such a tax-shifting bias, that experience is an effective de-biasing mechanism, but that pre-vote deliberation about tax regimes makes initially held opinions more extreme rather than correct. Our results suggest that voting on taxes is prone to bias...

  6. ‘Sharing the Pie’: Taxing multinationals in a global market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. de Wilde (Maarten)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The current international corporate tax regime for taxing the business proceeds of firms operates arbitrarily. The aggregates of the nation states’ international corporate tax systems seem to distort a global efficient allocation of resources. The current model of

  7. Tax Incentives in Kosovo Tax System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedri Peci

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze and find out the major issue of tax incentives in Kosovo tax law. In this analysis we have used the research method of case study. The results of research show that Balkan countries in their tax systems have applied various mitigating measures that in tax theory are known as tax incentives. Taking into account that Kosovo regarding the application of tax incentives of CIT, compared with other countries is the last, designers by using the experiences of other countries should apply more tax incentives in order that tax policy to be more in function economic development. The study is of particular relevance to scholars, tax practitioners, expatriates who work and invest in Kosovo, etc.

  8. School Facilities and Tax Credit Bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Frederick S.

    2009-01-01

    The tax credit portion of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (also known as the economic stimulus package or ARRA) has three different entities that can be used for various school construction including new, modernization, renovation and acquisition of sites for school projects. The bond rule notice and allocations have been issued…

  9. 75 FR 66419 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Object of Devotion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7217] Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Object of Devotion: Medieval English Alabaster Sculpture From the Victoria and Albert Museum... Devotion: Medieval English Alabaster Sculpture from the Victoria and Albert Museum,'' imported from abroad...

  10. Measuring Tax Efficiency: A Tax Optimality Index

    OpenAIRE

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces an index of tax optimality that measures the distance of some current tax structure from the optimal tax structure in the presence of public goods. In doing so, we derive a [0, 1] number that reveals immediately how far the current tax configuration is from the optimal one and, thereby, the degree of efficiency of a tax system. We call this number the Tax Optimality Index. We show how the basic method can be altered in order to derive a revenue equivale...

  11. Tax Incentives in Kosovo Tax System

    OpenAIRE

    Bedri Peci

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to analyze and find out the major issue of tax incentives in Kosovo tax law. In this analysis we have used the research method of case study. The results of research show that Balkan countries in their tax systems have applied various mitigating measures that in tax theory are known as tax incentives. Taking into account that Kosovo regarding the application of tax incentives of CIT, compared with other countries is the last, designers by using the expe...

  12. Post Implementation of Goods and Services Tax (GST in Malaysia: Tax Agents’ Perceptions on Clients’ Compliance Behaviour and Tax Agents’ Roles in Promoting Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Izlawanie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Malaysian government introduced the Goods and Services Tax (GST starting from 1 April 2015 to enhance the revenue collections and mitigate the transfer pricing manipulation. Tax agents play a significant role to help businesses to comply with GST law and regulations. After one year of GST implementation, it is vital to understand tax agents’ perceptions on clients’ compliance behaviour and tax agents’ roles in influencing compliance. A total of 30 registered tax agents completed a survey questionnaire. The analysis shows that tax agents devote their time to provide advice to their clients on meeting their GST requirements, and recording and reporting of GST transactions. Tax agents assert that clients pass on their GST responsibilities to tax agents to some extent. Tax agents also perceive that clients’ compliance level is low because clients occasionally submit GST03 after the deadline, compromise the accuracy of GST03 in order to get it done on time and intentionally make errors in their records. In terms of tax agents’ role in promoting compliance, the tax agents strongly agree that it is important for them to act as trusted advisors for their clients. After one year of GST implementation, this is the first study that explores tax agents’ perceptions on clients’ compliance and tax agents’ roles in promoting compliance. The findings benefit the Royal Malaysian Customs Department (RMCD in assisting tax agents and the public for future compliance. Similar study should be adopted by countries that have recently implemented GST (for example, India and it should be conducted to other GST players (i.e. taxpayers and RMCD officers on annual basis to analyse the behavioural trends and identify weaknesses in GST administration.

  13. Collecting Taxes Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Collecting Taxes Database contains performance and structural indicators about national tax systems. The database contains quantitative revenue performance...

  14. From tax evasion to tax planning

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgain, Arnaud; Pieretti, Patrice; Zanaj, Skerdilajda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze within a simple model how a re- moval of bank secrecy can impact tax revenues and banks' profitability assuming that offshore centers are able to offer sophisticated but legal or not easily detectable tax planning. Two alternative regimes are considered. A first in which there is strict bank secrecy and a second where there is international information exchange for tax purposes. We show in particular that sharing tax information with onshore coun- tries can...

  15. Residency Allocation Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Residency Allocation Database is used to determine allocation of funds for residency programs offered by Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). Information...

  16. Student Time Allocation and Educational Production Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Massimiliano BRATTI; Stefano STAFFOLANI

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the effect of lecture attendance and self-study on undergraduate students' academic performance. We first introduce a simple theoretical model in which students decide the optimal allocation of their time between lecture attendance, self-study and leisure. Under some assumptions, we find a positive relationship between lecture attendance and time devoted to self-study in each course, from which we infer that estimates of the elasticity of student performance with ...

  17. Dynamic Tax Depreciation Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    The tax depreciation decision potentially has significant impact on the prof- itability of firms and projects. Indeed, the depreciation method chosen for tax purposes affects the timing of tax payments, and, as a consequence, it also affects the after-tax net present value of investment projects.

  18. Dynamic tax depreciation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    The tax depreciation decision potentially has significant impact on the profitability of firms and projects. Indeed, the depreciation method chosen for tax purposes affects the timing of tax payments, and, as a consequence, it also affects the after-tax net present value of investment projects.

  19. Refundable Tax Credits

    OpenAIRE

    Congressional Budget Office

    2013-01-01

    In 1975, the first refundable tax credit—the earned income tax credit (EITC)—took effect. Since then, the number and cost of refundable tax credits—credits that can result in net payments from the government—have grown considerably. Those credits will cost $149 billion in 2013, CBO estimates, mostly for the EITC and the child tax credit.

  20. European tax law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terra, B.J.M.; Wattel, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    This book is intended as a reference book for tax law and EC law pratitioners, tax administrators, academics, the judiciary and tax or Community law policy makers. For students, an abridged student edition textbook is available. The book offers a systematic survey of the tax implications of the EC

  1. Tax Overpayments, Tax Evasion, and Book-Tax Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Laszlo Goerke

    2008-01-01

    A strictly risk-averse manager makes joint decisions on a firm's tax payments and book profit declarations according to accounting standards. It is analysed how the incentives to overpay or evade taxes and to inflate book profits are influenced by (1) the composition of the manager's remuneration, (2) the ability to control the manager's actions, (3) the costs of making untruthful profit declarations, and (4) the tax rate. If the firm's owner or the government takes into account these effects...

  2. House Prices and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedsted Nielsen, Mads

    of only 31%. We use 2007 municipal reform in Denmark in which 256 municipalities changed tax rates, as an exogenous shock to taxes. The exogeneity of the shock to taxes and the size of the data set is an improvement over earlier studies. Our findings significantly downward adjust the degree of tax......This paper is the first to consider a large scale natural experiment to estimate the effect of taxes on house prices. We find that a 1 percentage-point increase in income tax rates lead to a drop in house prices of at most 2.2%. This corresponds to a tax capitalization for the average household...... capitalization from earlier studies. Furthermore, we find no effect of property taxes on house prices. We attribute this to the low levels of Danish municipal property tax rates compared to income tax rates....

  3. Tax penalties in SME tax compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Swistak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Small business tax compliance requires special attention. On the one hand small businesses are often incapable of rigorously fulfilling their tax obligations, more vulnerable to external risks and tempted to exploit opportunities to be non-compliant. On the other hand, unlike larger businesses, they are usually sole proprietors or owner-operated businesses, hence highly responsive to personal, social, cognitive and emotional factors. These attributes pave the way to a better use of measures designed to influence their behavior and choices. This paper discusses the role and effectiveness of tax penalties in enhancing tax compliance in small businesses. It argues that tax penalties, although indispensable for tax enforcement, may not be a first-choice tool in ensuring tax compliance. Too punitive a tax regime is an important barrier to business formalization and increasing severity of tax penalties does not produce the intended results. To be effective, tax penalties should deter and motivate taxpayers rather than exert repressive measures against them.

  4. Hospitals face loss of federal tax-exempt status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauert, R C; Sanborn, A B; MacKelvie, C F; Harvitt, J L

    1988-09-01

    Because of governmental challenges, not-for-profit hospitals can no longer take for granted their right to be tax exempt. The Internal Revenue Service is auditing nearly 1,500 tax-exempt healthcare organizations to determine how accurately they are reporting unrelated business income. At greatest risk are those hospital systems that have become overly acquisitive or have strayed from the charitable mission that originally entitled them to tax exemption. To protect their tax-exempt status, currently exempt healthcare institutions must be careful that any activities, such as joint ventures and affiliate corporations, conform to their charitable mission. In the face of tougher legislation and Federal scrutiny, hospitals must make sure they are devoted to and performing a charitable purpose if they want to keep their tax-exempt status.

  5. THE TRADITION OF MAY DEVOTIONS TO THE VIRGIN MARY IN LATGALE (LATVIA: FROM THE PAST TO THE PRESENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AIGARS LIELBĀRDIS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An important role has been allocated to the Virgin Mary since the very beginnings of Christianity. According to the calendar of the Roman Catholic Church, May is dedicated to honouring the Virgin Mary. Due to her human origins, she has become an intermediary between people and God, capable of influencing the decisions of her son Jesus Christ, and providing assistance to people of her own accord. Together with God and Jesus Christ, she is considered to have extraordinary, saintly qualities in Latvian Catholic communities. At the beginning of the 19th century, the tradition of May devotions began to spread widely in Catholic territories in Latvia. Currently the services are usually performed by womenfolk in the rural environment. Every evening or on weekends in May, people gather to pray and sing in churches, cemeteries, at crossroads, or in the centre or the edge of villages where crucifixes are located

  6. Refunded emission taxes: A resolution to the cap-versus-tax dilemma for greenhouse gas regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Kenneth C.

    2007-01-01

    Regulatory instruments for greenhouse gas control present a policy dilemma: Market-based instruments such as cap and trade function to reduce regulatory costs; but because they provide no guarantee that costs will be reduced to acceptable levels it is infeasible to set caps at sustainable levels. Emission taxes provide cost certainty, but their comparatively high cost makes it infeasible to set tax rates at levels commensurate with sustainability goals. However, there is a straightforward solution to this dilemma: Just as cap and trade uses free allowance allocation to minimize regulatory costs, an emission tax's cost can be mitigated by refunding tax revenue in such a way that emission reduction becomes profitable. A refunded tax, like cap and trade with free allocation, would be revenue-neutral within the regulated industry. Marginal competitive incentives for commercializing emission-reducing technologies would not be diminished by the refund, and the refund could actually make it politically and economically feasible to increase the incentives by an order of magnitude. Whereas cap and trade merely caps emissions at an unsustainable level while subjecting the economy to extreme price volatility, refunded emission taxes could create a stable investment environment with sustained incentives for emission reduction over a long-term investment horizon

  7. OPTIMIZATION OF TAX REGIME USING THE INSTRUMENT OF GAME THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Yu. Pelevin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to one of one possible mechanism of taxation optimization of agricultural enterprises where used the game theory. Use of this mechanism allows to apply the most optimal type of taxation that would benefit both a taxpayer and the government. In the article offered the definition of the tax storage and its possible applications.

  8. Efficient Metropolitan Resource Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Arnott

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 30 years Calgary has doubled in size, from a population of 640,645 in 1985 to 1,230,915 in 2015. During that time the City has had five different mayors, hosted the Winter Olympics, and expanded the C-Train from 25 platforms to 45. Calgary’s Metropolitan Area has grown too, with Airdrie, Chestermere, Okotoks and Cochrane growing into full-fledged cities, ripe with inter-urban commuters.* And with changes to provincial legislation in the mid-’90s, rural Rocky View County and the Municipal District of Foothills are now real competitors for residential, commercial and industrial development that in the past would have been considered urban. In this metropolitan system, where people live, their household structure, and their place of work informs the services they need to conduct their daily lives, and directly impacts the spatial character of the City and the broader region. In sum, Metropolitan Calgary is increasingly complex. Calgary and the broader metropolitan area will continue to grow, even with the current economic slowdown. Frictions within Calgary, between the various municipalities in the metropolitan area, and the priorities of other local authorities (such as the School Boards and Alberta Health Services will continue to impact the agendas of local politicians and their ability to answer to the needs of their residents. How resources – whether it is hard infrastructure, affordable housing, classrooms, or hospital beds – are allocated over space and how these resources are funded, directly impacts these relationships. This technical paper provides my perspective as an urban economist on the efficient allocation of resources within a metropolitan system in general, with reference to Calgary where appropriate, and serves as a companion to the previously released “Reflections on Calgary’s Spatial Structure: An Urban Economists Critique of Municipal Planning in Calgary.” It is hoped that the concepts reviewed

  9. The Danish Pesticide Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Branth; Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2015-01-01

    This case study analyses the effects of the Danish pesticide tax (1996-2013) on agriculture which was introduced as an ad valorem tax in 1996, doubled in 1998, and redesigned in 2013 as a tax based on the toxicity of the pesticides. The Danish pesticide taxes probably represent the world’s highest...... pesticide taxes on agriculture, which makes it interesting to analyze how effective they have been. Here the effects of the ad valorem tax (1996-2013) are analyzed. The case study demonstrates the challenges of choosing an optimal tax design in a complex political setting where, additionally, not all...... individuals in the target group necessarily react to the economic incentives as predicted by economic modeling. It also demonstrates that a small first green-tax-step over time might develop into a better tax design....

  10. Integrating ICT Skills and Tax Software in Tax Education: A Survey of Malaysian Tax Practitioners' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Lai Ming; Nawawi, Nurul Hidayah Ahamad

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the ICT skills needed by a fresh accounting graduate when first joining a tax firm; to find out usage of electronic tax (e-tax) applications in tax practice; to assess the rating of senior tax practitioners on fresh graduates' ICT and e-tax applications skills; and to solicit tax practitioners' opinion regarding…

  11. 75 FR 22614 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tax Credit Bonds for Bureau of Indian Affairs-Funded...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... Tax Credit Bonds for Bureau of Indian Affairs-Funded Schools; Comment Request AGENCY: Bureau of Indian... information collection to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for renewal: ``Tax Credit Bonds for Bureau... applications for allocations of the $400,000,000 in Tax Credit Bonding Authority granted to the Secretary as a...

  12. Tax Morality and Progressive Wage Tax

    OpenAIRE

    Andras Simonovits

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the impact of tax morality on progressive income (wage) taxation. We assume that transfers (cash-back) and public expenditures are financed from linear wage taxes. We derive the reported wages from individual utility maximization, when individuals obtain partial satisfaction from reporting wages (depending on their tax morality), and cannot be excluded from the use of public services. The government maximizes a utilitarian social welfare function, also taking into account the utili...

  13. Does More Progressive Tax Make Tax Discipline Weaker?

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Damjanovic

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between the disparity in tax base and tax collection. I address the tax collection problem with traditional industrial organization approach. Thus, I model the "tax minimization" industry where the supplier helps taxpayers to avoid their tax liability. I find that lower income inequality as well as a less progressive tax code may result in a smaller number of tax payers committing to their tax duties. Finally, I question the reduction in the highest ta...

  14. NM Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  15. Environmental taxes in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report briefly presents and comments the amount of environmental taxes which have been collected in France in 2008. These taxes comprise energy taxes (nearly 68 per cent), transport taxes (nearly 28 per cent) and pollution and resource taxes (less than 5 per cent), and represent 2 per cent of the French GDP and 5 per cent of mandatory contributions. The share of environmental taxes is compared among the European Union countries. This shows that France is close to the average. It also appears that these taxes evolve slower than the GDP. An indicator is built up and commented: it relates the rate between energy taxes and the GDP on the one hand, and energy consumption on the other hand. This indicator displays a slow but significant decrease since the end of the last century

  16. Tax policy, housing and the labour market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Svend Erik Hougaard; Nielsen, Søren Bo; Pedersen, Lars Haagen

    1996-01-01

    This paper develops an intertemporal simulation model designed to analyse tax policies in a small open economy. Within a finite horizon, overlapping generations framework, we introduce imperfect competition in the labour market, consumption and construction of durables in the form of housing unit......, and a public pension system. We simulate the model to illustrate some macroeconomic, allocative and distributional effects of a policy experiment involving a 10% cut in the capital income tax rate......This paper develops an intertemporal simulation model designed to analyse tax policies in a small open economy. Within a finite horizon, overlapping generations framework, we introduce imperfect competition in the labour market, consumption and construction of durables in the form of housing units...

  17. Tax Incentives and Borrowing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alan, Sule; Leth-Petersen, Søren; Munk-Nielsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We estimate the effect of a Danish 1987 tax reform, which reduced the tax rate applied to interest deductions from 73% to 50% for households with high incomes, but less for households with middle or low incomes. Using high quality panel data we find that households responded to the reduced tax...... subsidy by lowering interest payments and we find that the responsiveness to the tax subsidy varies by the initial level of interest payments....

  18. UK Tax Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deakin, John F.

    1998-07-01

    The presentation deals with the North Sea fiscal regime, a modern system for corporation tax payments, transfer pricing, general anti-avoidance rule for direct taxes, treaty refunds, deductibility of interest for corporation tax, UK/US double taxation convention, and plain and simple tax legislation. Part of the background for the presentation was the fact that in England a new Labour Government had replaced the Conservatives and the new Chancellor had announced a review of the North Sea fiscal regime.

  19. Tax Evasion and Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstadsæter, Annette; Johannesen, Niels; Zucman, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    markedly, highlighting the need to move beyond tax data to capture income and wealth at the top, even in countries where tax compliance is generally high. We also find that after reducing tax evasion—by using tax amnesties—tax evaders do not legally avoid taxes more. This result suggests that fighting tax......This paper attempts to estimate the size and distribution of tax evasion in rich countries. We combine random audits—the key source used to study tax evasion so far—with new micro-data leaked from large offshore financial institutions—HSBC Switzerland (“Swiss leaks”) and Mossack Fonseca (“Panama.......01% of the wealth distribution, a group that includes households with more than $45 million in net wealth. A simple model of the supply of tax evasion services can explain why evasion rises steeply with wealth. Taking tax evasion into account increases the rise in inequality seen in tax data since the 1970s...

  20. Thinking about Tax Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskin, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    Providing pre-college teachers with an analysis of tax reform is the primary goal of this publication. The present tax system is both inefficient and inequitable. Three goals of tax reform proposals are detailed: (1) fairness--the dimensions of horizontal equity, or equal treatment of equals however defined, and vertical equity, reflecting the…

  1. Small Business Tax Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, Fatih; Coolidge, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Simplified tax regimes for micro and small enterprises in developing countries are intended to facilitate voluntary tax compliance. However, survey evidence suggests that small business taxation based on simplified bookkeeping or turnover is sometimes perceived as too complex for microenterprises in countries with high illiteracy levels. Very simple fixed tax regimes not requiring any book...

  2. 26 CFR 1.312-10 - Allocation of earnings in certain corporate separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... worth of the controlled corporation. (For this purpose the term net worth means the sum of the basis of... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Effects on Corporation § 1.312-10 Allocation of earnings in certain corporate separations. (a) If one corporation transfers part of its assets constituting an active...

  3. Dual Income Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    This paper discusses the principles and practices of dual income taxation in the Nordic countries. The first part of the paper explains the rationale and the historical background for the introduction of the dual income tax and describes the current Nordic tax practices. The second part...... of the paper focuses on the problems of taxing income from small businesses and the issue of corporate-personal tax integration under the dual income tax, considering alternative ways of dealing with these challenges. In the third and final part of the paper, I briefly discuss whether introducing a dual income...

  4. Tax Luxury or Necessity

    OpenAIRE

    Chia-Hui Lu

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the optimal taxation between luxury and necessity goods. We set up a three-production-sector neoclassical growth model with inelastic labor supply, and analyze the tax incidence. We find that the two consumption taxes are neutral to economic growth and that the welfare maximization optimal tax mix involves levying the same rate on those two goods. In reality, the tax rate levied on the luxury good is usually higher, so that the government should reduce the tax rate on the l...

  5. Tax Strategy Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Christian Plesner

    2013-01-01

    environment. Moreover, the paper extends existing contingency-based theory on MCS by illustrating the role of inter-organisational network collaboration across MNE transfer pricing tax experts. This collaboration, caused by a widely dispersed tax knowledge base, fuels the formal interactive control system......This paper examines how a functional tax strategy impacts the management control system (MCS) in a multinational enterprise (MNE) facing transfer pricing tax risks. Based on case study findings it is argued that the MCS in a multinational setting is contingent upon the MNE's response to its tax...

  6. Deciding on Tax Evasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    2015-01-01

    fieldwork conducted in the Central Customs and Tax Administration. Findings – The paper shows that the tax inspectors reason about tax evasion in a casuistic manner. They pay attention to similar cases and to particular circumstances of the individual cases. In deciding on tax evasion, the inspectors do...... not just administer the laws; they also enact a policy of fair-mindedness. Doing this they are constrained by time and man-powers, but also enabled by various organizational devices. Research limitations/implications – The tax inspectors that the author followed were carefully chosen and acted...

  7. [A series of radio broadcasts of the French School Radio devoted to Pharmacy in 1966].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Thierry

    2015-03-01

    In December 1966, the French School Radio devoted three of its emissions to Pharmacy. Found in the archives of the National Center for Educational Documentation (CNDP), those short programs resumed life.

  8. Tax reform in the Lula government: continuity and fiscal injustice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrine Brami-Celentano

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The tax reform proposed by the Lula government in 2003, quickly approved by Congress, remained at the limits of the proposals of the previous government of President Fernando Henrique Cardoso and his Social Democratic party (PSDB, inspired by neoliberal ideology. The small advances in reducing regressivity, such as exemptions for basic consumer products, have not altered the role of the tax structure in the concentration of wealth, with a predominance of indirect taxes and their regressive effects. Taxation has deserved little attention in the broad debate about social policies in Brazil, which concentrates on the allocation of public expenses and the efficiency of spending, without proper attention to the role of the tax structure in the concentration of income and wealth in the country. The article presents the regressive profile of the Brazilian tax structure, preserved by the reform of 2003 and discusses the neoliberal agenda that guides the initiatives of the Lula government in this field.

  9. Collaborative Tax Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This article shows a new form of regulation within a tax administration where tax administrators abate tax evasion by nudging and motivating consumers to only purchase services from tax compliant businesses. This indirectly closes or forces tax evading businesses to change their practices, because...... their customer bases decline to commercially non-viable levels. The analysis is framed by public governance literature and argues that the regulation is an example of collaborative or interactive governance, because the tax administrators do not regulate non-compliance directly, but activate external...... stakeholders, i.e. the consumers, in the regulatory craft. The study is based on a qualitative methodology and draws on a unique case of regulation in the cleaning sector. This sector is at high risk of tax evasion and human exploitation of vulnerable workers operating in the informal economy. The article has...

  10. THE TAX ADVANTAGES OF INCOME TAX PAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU GHEORGHE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the cost of financing through financial and operational leasing due to the deductibility of depreciation and interest. The shareholders of any company aim to obtain profit and to increase their ownership equity. In order for this to happen, the company must have profit, for which a corporate tax must be paid. A good management translates into choosing the most advantageous means of financing, which will lead to paying a lower corporate tax. Leasing and the non-taxation of reinvested profits are two means through which companies can obtain significant fiscal advantages, by increasing the deductible expenses, or by paying lower taxes.

  11. GOODS AND SERVICE TAX ONE NATION ONE TAX IN INDIA.

    OpenAIRE

    Shuchi Sharma; Rupendra Prakash Yadav.

    2018-01-01

    Goods and Service Tax is a significant and logical step towards a comprehensive Indirect tax reform in India. This paper analyses the concept of Goods Service Tax and further discusses their impact on the various sectors in India. Brief description is given on Goods Service Tax background and Goods and Service Tax models helps to reduce tax burden. It aims at creating a single and unified market benefiting both corporate and economy because this is the only Indirect tax that directly affects ...

  12. Tax Structure and Government Expenditures under Tax Equity Norms

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias Koenig; Andreas Wagener

    2010-01-01

    We augment a standard tax model by concerns about tax equity: people get upset when labour is taxed more heavily than capital. Even the slightest concern for tax equity invalidates the common recommendation for small open economies that capital should remain tax-exempt. This holds for exogenous as well as for endogenous government expenditures and irrespective of whether concerns with tax equity only cause emotional discomfort or also impact on work incentives. If concerns with tax equity get...

  13. Tax structure and corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić-Popov Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article an analysis of the impact of corruption, both administrative and state capture, on the tax structure is carried out. The authors established a negative correlation between the degree of corruption and the height of the effective tax burden, while isolating a simultaneous directly proportional impact of the nominal tax burden (which could reflect state intervention - the main corruption factor on the scope of corruption. The effects of corruption on the decrease of individual taxes' share in GDP are diversified, with impact on direct taxes as a whole being more observable. The mode of tax assessment significantly determines exposure of certain tax to the administrative corruption: it is generally larger in case of taxes assessed by the decision of the competent tax officials who are carrying out both assessment and audit, while in the case of self-assessment and withholding they just perform audits implying limited exposure to corruption. Corruptive state capture is present in the case of taxes which are important for influential corruptors. That is why in Serbia laws preventing taxation of capital gains or heavier taxation of dividends and other income paid to non-residents located in the tax havens were adopted, while by-laws which should have enabled implementation of prescribed lump sum taxation based on external signs of wealth have not been enacted. The authors concluded that the anti-corruption strategy should rely on the increasing role of self-assessment, which could reduce the room for administrative corruption. Unclear and imprecise formulations of the tax norms facilitate corruption, because they create room for arbitrariness in interpretation and implementation of the laws and by-laws. It is therefore necessary to surprises discretion, simplify tax procedure and diminish the number of tax relief's.

  14. Collective Labour Supply, Taxes, and Intrahousehold Allocation: An Empirical Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, H.G.

    2017-01-01

    Most empirical studies of the impact of labour income taxation on the labour supply behaviour of households use a unitary modelling approach. In this paper we empirically analyze income taxation and the choice of working hours by combining the collective approach for household behaviour and the

  15. Oil sands tax expenditures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketchum, K; Lavigne, R.; Plummer, R.

    2001-01-01

    The oil sands are a strategic Canadian resource for which federal and provincial governments provide financial incentives to develop and exploit. This report describes the Oil Sands Tax Expenditure Model (OSTEM) developed to estimate the size of the federal income tax expenditure attributed to the oil sands industry. Tax expenditures are tax concessions which are used as alternatives to direct government spending for achieving government policy objectives. The OSTEM was developed within the business Income Tax Division of Canada's Department of Finance. Data inputs for the model were obtained from oil sands developers and Natural Resources Canada. OSTEM calculates annual revenues, royalties and federal taxes at project levels using project-level projections of capital investment, operating expenses and production. OSTEM calculates tax expenditures by comparing taxes paid under different tax regimes. The model also estimates the foregone revenue as a percentage of capital investment. Total tax expenditures associated with investment in the oil sands are projected to total $820 million for the period from 1986 to 2030, representing 4.6 per cent of the total investment. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  16. THE TAX CONTROL AS A COMPONENT OF TAX ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Zhuk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the features of tax control in the system of taxes administration were investigated. The basic approaches to the determination of tax control were defined. Principles of tax control that must be kept were defined and it will ensure efficiency and effectiveness of tax control. Basic forms of tax control were characterized. An advantages of horizontal monitoring that is one of the form of tax controls were directed. Key words: tax control, tax control forms, horizontal monitoring, documentaries, desk and actual checks.

  17. An overview on network cost allocation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Delberis A. [PUC - Pontificia University Catholic, Department of Electrical Engineering, Rua Marques de Sao Vicente, 225, 22453-900 Gavea - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Padilha-Feltrin, Antonio [UNESP - State University of Sao Paulo, Department of Electrical Engineering, Campus of Ilha Solteira, 15385-000, Ilha Solteira, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Contreras, Javier [UCLM - Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Campus Universitario s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    This work is devoted to study and discuss the main methods to solve the network cost allocation problem both for generators and demands. From the presented, compared and discussed methods, the first one is based on power injections, the second deals with proportional sharing factors, the third is based upon Equivalent Bilateral Exchanges, the fourth analyzes the power flow sensitivity in relation to the power injected, and the last one is based on Z{sub bus} network matrix. All the methods are initially illustrated using a 4-bus system. In addition, the IEEE 24-bus RTS system is presented for further comparisons and analysis. Appropriate conclusions are finally drawn. (author)

  18. An overview on network cost allocation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Delberis A.; Padilha-Feltrin, Antonio; Contreras, Javier

    2009-01-01

    This work is devoted to study and discuss the main methods to solve the network cost allocation problem both for generators and demands. From the presented, compared and discussed methods, the first one is based on power injections, the second deals with proportional sharing factors, the third is based upon Equivalent Bilateral Exchanges, the fourth analyzes the power flow sensitivity in relation to the power injected, and the last one is based on Z bus network matrix. All the methods are initially illustrated using a 4-bus system. In addition, the IEEE 24-bus RTS system is presented for further comparisons and analysis. Appropriate conclusions are finally drawn. (author)

  19. Tax Compliance Inventory: TAX-I Voluntary tax compliance, enforced tax compliance, tax avoidance, and tax evasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchler, Erich; Wahl, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Surveys on tax compliance and non-compliance often rely on ad hoc formulated items which lack standardization and empirical validation. We present an inventory to assess tax compliance and distinguish between different forms of compliance and non-compliance: voluntary versus enforced compliance, tax avoidance, and tax evasion. First, items to measure voluntary and enforced compliance, avoidance, and evasion were drawn up (collected from past research and newly developed), and tested empirically with the aim of producing four validated scales with a clear factorial structure. Second, findings from the first analyses were replicated and extended to validation on the basis of motivational postures. A standardized inventory is provided which can be used in surveys in order to collect data which are comparable across research focusing on self-reports. The inventory can be used in either of two ways: either in its entirety, or by applying the single scales independently, allowing an economical and fast assessment of different facets of tax compliance. PMID:20502612

  20. Why Taxing Consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    are controversial while the invocation of efficiency is actually grounded in an underlying view of social cooperation. Secondly, this chapter advances the idea that an ultimate justification for the choice of specific tax base (consumption, income and wealth) expresses such an underlying view. In other words......, the choice of a specific tax base is not totally instrumental, it has some intrinsic moral value too. In this respect, the chapter ends with a comparison between taxing income and taxing consumption. It is shown that a tax on consumption raises questions that should be answered by political philosophers.......Robert Frank is famous for proposing an incremental tax on consumption. His proposition is motivated by the control of positional externalities, i.e. the costs that individuals impose on each other when they consume goods for securing or acquiring social status. A close analysis of Frank...

  1. Legal issues of tax rates

    OpenAIRE

    Sadílek, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Tax rate problems The subject of the graduation thesis is legal problems of tax rate. The aim of this thesis is description and estimation of the flat tax rate and states, where is established. First of all I define the basic kinds of tax systems - the tax system with one tax rate, the progressive tax system and the flat tax system. Further I deal with the principles and elements of the flat tax rate as interpreted by American economists Robert E. Hall and Alvin Rabushka who are generally ack...

  2. Measuring Tax Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2004-01-01

    , thereby, the degree of efficiency of a taxsystem. We call this number the Tax Optimality Index. We show howthe basic method can be altered in order to derive a revenue equivalentuniform tax, which measures the size of the public sector. A numericalexample is used to illustrate the method developed.......JEL Code: H21, H41.Keywords: Tax optimality index, excess burden, distance function.Authors Affiliations: Raimondos-Møller: Copenhagen Business School, CEPR,CESifo, and EPRU. Woodland: University of Sydney....

  3. Whither the Marriage Tax?

    OpenAIRE

    James Alm; J. Sebastian Leguizamon

    2015-01-01

    We use household data from the Current Population Survey to calculate how the real value of the so-called "marriage tax" or "marriage subsidy" in the federal individual income tax has changed over the period 1969 to 2009. We examine three issues: the magnitude of the marriage tax/subsidy and its evolution over time, its effects on the distribution of income (including the effects of different demographic characteristics on the magnitudes and trends), and the causal factors in its evolution (e...

  4. Settlement of Tax Disputes in the Russian Federation and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Alexandrovna Konyukhova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the settlement of tax disputes in the Russian Federation and the Federal Republic of Germany. The features of the conflict settlement mechanism are both shown in the stage of administrative and judicial review. In accordance with German law, the administrative stage of dispute resolution, carried out by the tax authority, always precedes the filing of a complaint to a court. Consequently, the taxpayer submits his first application in writing to the tax authority that issued the tax act, though in some cases to a higher tax authority. This obligatory procedure was borrowed by the Russian tax system. The trial stage of tax dispute settlement in Germany is carried out by specialized courts, forming a two-level system for legal proceedings. Thus, the tax dispute submitted to the Court is settled first by the financial lands courts and then by the higher Federal Financial Court. However, the Federal Financial Court takes into consideration only certain categories of actions listed in the Act (the Regulations of finance courts (Finanzgerichtordnung. In Russia appeals of administrative review of tax conflicts, unlike in the German system, are handled by arbitration and general jurisdiction courts. The Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation is the supreme judicial body for settling economic disputes and other cases considered by arbitration courts in implementing federal procedural judicial supervision over their activities and provides explanations regarding judicial practices. Arbitration courts established at the level of the Federation to resolve disputes involving commercial entities, e.g. enterprises and entrepreneurs, resolve the bulk of tax disputes. These courts are composed of specially created panels of judges known as bars, i.e. groups of judges who specialize in reviewing taxation cases.

  5. [The influence of the devotion movement on the health care in North Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young-In; Kim, Soo-Youn; Hwang, Sang-Ik

    2006-06-01

    Since the early 1960s, North Korea has conducted 'devotion movement' under the directorship of Kim Il Sung across the nation. As a matter of fact, the movement was not a novel invention at all. When North Korean Temporary People's Polity was established in 1946, North Korea emphasized the importance of the devoted care of health personnel. It meant to reform the people's thought and mind along with complementing the lack of human and material resources. Thought reform was not a peculiar phenomenon observed in North Korea only. It was particularly stressed out among communist countries, including the Soviet Union. However any other communist country stresses the importance of thought reform. Devotion movement should be viewed as part of this process. As shown in many cases, the extent and degree of devotion movement and care are beyond our imagination, which does not intend to mean that North Korean health personnel's attitude towards patients is superior to the counterparts in South Korea. Indeed human being's behavior cannot be understood without taking account of society in general. The question can be raised as to whether or not North Korean health personnel's devoted care is really voluntary. To put aside the testimony that the most powerless group in a society can fall prey to victims, if social environment, whether directly or indirectly, is action on the people's thought and mind even in a subtle way and thus influence one's decision power, it is hard to highly evaluate the devoted care in North Korea. Moreover it seems like that the internal conflict exists surrounding devotion. In conclusion, I think that North Korean devotion movement has enforced health personnel to reform their thought and mind to adapt to North Korean regime and has played an important role to accomplish the purpose of North Korean Labor Party to realize essential constituents of its health system, in such a situation in which essential medical supplies are severely lacking. But it

  6. Effective Tax Rate of Corporate Income Tax in the Post-Crisis Period: The Case of Non-Financial Companies Listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodorescu Mihaela

    2017-01-01

    The first part of the paper presents the main causes for the divergence between the statutory and effective rate of the corporate income tax, based on the provisions of the Romanian Fiscal Code. The differences between the gross income and the taxable profit, which form the basis for calculating the income tax, are highlighted. The second part is devoted to the methodology for calculating the effective income tax rate and its analysis, based on data from the financial statements published in the post-crisis period by Romanian companies listed on BVB.

  7. Patient flow based allocation of hospital resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissers, J M

    1995-01-01

    The current practice of allocating resources within a hospital introduces peaks and troughs in the workloads of departments and leads therefore to loss of capacity. This happens when requirements for capacity coordination are not adequately taken into account in the decision making process of allocating resources to specialties. The first part of this research involved an analysis of the hospital's production system on dependencies between resources, resulting in a number of capacity coordination requirements that need to be fulfilled for optimized resource utilization. The second, modelling, part of the study involved the development of a framework for resource management decision making, of a set of computer models to support hospital managerial decision making on resource allocation issues in various parts of the hospital, and of an implementation strategy for the application of the models to concrete hospital settings. The third part of the study was devoted to a number of case-studies, illustrating the use of the models when applied in various resource management projects, such as a reorganization of an operating theatre timetable, or the development of a master plan for activities of a group of general surgeons serving two locations of a merged hospital system. The paper summarizes the main findings of the study and concludes with a discussion of results obtained with the new allocation procedure and with recommendations for future research.

  8. Dynamic Channel Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    21 9. Beowulf Ethernet Channel Bonding.................................................22 F. SUMMARY...on demand, hybrid channel allocation in wireless networks, and 3 Beowulf Ethernet channel bonding. The background information presented in this...channels are available for dynamic allocation [Ref 32]. 9. Beowulf Ethernet Channel Bonding A by-product of using older computers in a NASA research lab

  9. Efficiency of tax bodies' performance

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorovskaya, M.

    2011-01-01

    The problems of assessment of tax bodies' activities efficiency which tax administration faces are touched upon. Suggestions made provide an opportunity for bodies of legislative and executive power to take specific measures aimed at enhancing the system of tax administration in the country. Suggested criteria for assessing tax bodies' performance can be put into practice by tax authorities. A new approach to aspects of solving tasks of control over tax compliance, preventing and excluding ta...

  10. Tax Law System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsindeliani, Imeda A.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with consideration of the actual theoretic problems of the subject and system of tax law in Russia. The theoretical approaches to determination of the nature of separate institutes of tax law are represented. The existence of pandect system intax law building as financial law sub-branch of Russia is substantiated. The goal of the…

  11. Taxes and gender equity

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Brenda Battisti

    questions through an analysis of personal income and consumption taxes in eight countries at different levels of ... Implicit gender biases are also found in consumption taxes, given that males and females have different expenditure patterns. ... and Social Protection in Developing Countries.” The project profile is available at.

  12. Tax Reform & University Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, John Holt

    This brochure discusses the implications of the Tax Reform Act of 1969 for university and college development officers charged with the responsibility for solicitation of gifts, bequests and grants from foundations. The solicitation of deferred gifts, bequests and grants from foundations is discussed in chapter one in relation to tax reform and…

  13. Life After Tax Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clotfelter, Charles T.

    1987-01-01

    The impact of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 on higher education is discussed. Background on the tax reform movement and the specific provisions of the 1986 law are examined. The law will reduce private donations, raise the cost of college, and raise the cost of operating institutions. (MLW)

  14. Waiting for tax credits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheinkopf, K.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the effect of tax credits and related legislation under consideration by Congress on the economics of the renewable energy industry. The topics discussed in the article include conflicting industry opinion on financial incentives, the effectiveness of current incentives, and alternative approaches. The article also includes a sidebar on tax incentives offered by state programs

  15. Income Tax Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Darryl Lee

    2006-01-01

    Every year at this time millions of Americans scramble to file or extend their income tax returns. This article explores some of the Internal Revenue Code (IRC) sections that might affect (or relate to) the taxation of parents of disabled or special healthcare needs children. Many of these tax provisions also apply to parents with adult children…

  16. Proceedings of scientific, practical and methodical conference devoted to 30-years anniversary of the institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulazhanova, K.S.

    1996-01-01

    Collection consists of materials of scientific, practical and methodological conference devoted to 30-year anniversary of the Almaty Technological Inst., which considered following items: actual problems of food and light industry, equipment of food and grain-processing productions, chemistry of foodstuffs and materials etc. (author)

  17. Josephine's journey: Gender-based violence and Marian devotion in urban Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermkens, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with how, in the urban setting of Madang, Papua New Guinea, Marian devotion is deployed in response to domestic and gender-based violence. While providing insight into the lived religious experiences of Catholic women living in Madang, this article shows how Mary empowers her

  18. Josephine’s journey: Gender-based violence and Marian devotion in urban Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermkens, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with how, in the urban setting of Madang, Papua New Guinea, Marian devotion is deployed in response to domestic and gender-based violence. While providing insight into the lived religious experiences of Catholic women living in Madang, this article shows how Mary empowers her

  19. Introduction : Faithful to the Cross in a Moving World: Late Medieval Carthusians as Devotional Reformers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Mathilde; van Aelst, José; Gaens, Tom

    2016-01-01

    This is the introduction to the thematic issue Faithful to the Cross in a Moving World: Late Medieval Carthusians as Devotional Reformers. The editors discuss how the Carthusian order expanded in the Late Middle Ages and how, in contrast to the first Carthusians, new charterhouses were created in or

  20. Capital Income Tax Coordination and the Income Tax Mix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huizinga, Harry; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2005-01-01

    Europe has seen several proposals for tax coordination only in the area of capital income taxation, leaving countries free to adjust their labor taxes. The expectation is that highercapital income tax revenues would cause countries to reduce their labor taxes. This paper shows that such changes...... in the mix of capital and labor taxes brought on by capital income tax coordination can potentially be welfare reducing. This reflects that in a non-cooperative equilibrium capital income taxes may be more distorting from an international perspective than are labor income taxes. Simulations with a simple...... model calibrated to EU public finance data suggest that countries indeed lower their labor taxes in response to higher coordinated capital income taxes. The overall welfare effects of capital income tax coordination, however, are estimated to remain positive.JEL Classification: F20, H87...

  1. THE WORLD OF TAx DEDUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei V. Dujov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article a study and methodological foundations of the structure of taxes and fees. Disclosed the concept of elements of tax and duty. Focuses on the nature of the concept of «tax deduction». Provides legal and the author’s interpretation of the term «tax deduction». Examples of application of a tax deduction in the value-added tax and the tax to incomes of physical persons. the conclusions about the multilateral nature of the tax deduction.

  2. Tax Morale and Optimal Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Güth, Werner; Sausgruber, Rupert

    2004-01-01

    We study experimentally how taxpayers choose between two tax regimes to fund a public good. The first-best tax regime imposes a general, distortion-free income tax. However, this tax cannot be enforced. The second-best alternative supplements the income tax by a specific commodity tax. This tax cannot be evaded but distorts optimal consumption choices, instead. The result is that a large majority of subjects prefer the general income tax regime. The bulk of votes is consistent with actual pay...

  3. An Investigation of Devotion to Democratic Values and Conflict Resolution Abilities: A Case of Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Mediha; Sari, Sezen; Otunc, Mine Suat

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate devotion to democratic values and conflict resolution abilities of elementary school students. In the direction of this general purpose, the level of the students' devotion to democratic values and conflict resolution abilities were investigated by the Devotion to Democratic Values Scale (DDVS) and…

  4. IS THE VALUE ADDED TAX A SUPERIOR SALES TAX IN ALL SALES TAXES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUSTAFA ALİ SARILI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Value Added Tax (VAT is a tax imposed on the value added to a product at each stage of the production and distribution process. Value added is never taxed twice under VAT and thus cascading (tax on tax effects do not occur. It is a single tax on goods and services but the tax is collected multiple stages. At each of these stages, the amount of tax payable is computed by subtracting the tax previously paid on purchases from the tax charged on sales by the traders for each taxation period. In last three decades, VAT, a relatively new and better commodity taxation, has been introduced in many countries. It has replaced different types of sales taxes in such countries. This article attempts to evaluate VAT by comparing with other sales taxes.

  5. Factors affecting pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in community pharmacy: A structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitadpakorn, Sujin; Farris, Karen B; Kittisopee, Tanattha

    2017-01-01

    The concept of customer engagement and devotion has been applied in various service businesses to keep the customers with business However, a limited number of studies were performed to examine the context of customer engagement and devotion in pharmacy business which focus on the impact of customer perceptions about pharmacists, perceived quality of pharmacy structure, medication price strategy on pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in a pharmacy providing pharmaceutical care to the customers. This study aimed to assess a conceptual model depicting the relationships among customer perceptions about pharmacists, pharmacy quality structure, medication price, customer engagement, and customer devotion. And also aimed to assess and measure if there is a direct or indirect relationship between these factors. A quantitative study was conducted by using self-administered questionnaires. Two hundred and fifty three customers who regularly visited the pharmacy were randomly recruited from a purposively selected 30 community pharmacies in Bangkok. The survey was completed during February to April 2016. A structural equation model (SEM) was used to assess the direct and indirect relationships between constructs. A total of 253/300 questionnaires were returned for analysis, and the response rate was 84%. Only perceptions about pharmacist in customers receiving professional pharmacy services was statically significant regarding relationship with pharmacy engagement (beta=0.45). Concurrently, the model from empirical data fit with the hypothetical model (p-value = 0.06, adjusted chi-square (CMIN/DF)=1.16, Goodness of Fit Index (GFI)=0.93, Comparatively Fit Index (CFI)=0.99, and Root Mean Square Error Approximation (RMSEA)=0.03). The study confirmed the indirect positive influence of customer perceptions about pharmacist on pharmacy customer devotion in providing pharmacy services via pharmacy engagement It was customer perceptions about pharmacist that influenced

  6. Spent fuel acceptance scenarios devoted to shutdown reactors: A preliminary analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, T.W.; Plummer, A.M.; Dippold, D.G.; Short, S.M. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA); Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (USA). Office of Transportation Systems and Planning; Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1989-10-01

    Spent fuel acceptance schedules and the allocation of federal acceptance capacity among commercial nuclear power reactors have important operational and cost consequences for reactor operators. Alternative allocation schemes were investigated to some extent in DOE's MRS Systems Study. The current study supplements these analyses for a class of acceptance schemes in which the acceptance capacity of the federal radioactive waste management system is allocated principally to shutdown commercial power reactors, and extends the scope of analysis to include considerations of at-reactor cask loading rates. The operational consequences of these schemes for power reactors, as measured in terms of quantity of spent fuel storage requirement above storage pool capacities and number of years of pool operations after last discharge, are estimated, as are the associated utility costs. This study does not attempt to examine the inter-utility equity considerations involved in departures from the current oldest-fuel-first (OFF) allocation rule as specified in the Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste.'' In the sense that the alternative allocations are more economically efficient than OFF, however, they approximate the allocations that could result from free exchange of acceptance rights among utilities. Such a process would result in the preservation of inter-utility equity. 13 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. China’s Emerging Tax Regime: Local Tax Farming and Central Tax Bureaucracy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Z.; Krug, B.

    2005-01-01

    textabstractChina like other transition economies needs to establish a tax system compatible with a market economy, in particular, an efficient tax administration system with capable tax bureaucrats. The paper singles out the general and China-specific features by which central government attempts to accompany economic transformation via tax farming to tax bureaucratisation in tax administration. Based on empirical study in two provinces this paper shows that without including local governmen...

  8. Time allocation of disabled individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán, Ricardo

    2013-05-01

    Although some studies have analysed the disability phenomenon and its effect on, for example, labour force participation, wages, job satisfaction, or the use of disability pension, the empirical evidence on how disability steals time (e.g. hours of work) from individuals is very scarce. This article examines how disabled individuals allocate their time to daily activities as compared to their non-disabled counterparts. Using time diary information from the Spanish Time Use Survey (last quarter of 2002 and the first three quarters of 2003), we estimate the determinants of time (minutes per day) spent on four aggregate categories (market work, household production, tertiary activities and leisure) for a sample of 27,687 non-disabled and 5250 disabled individuals and decompose the observed time differential by using the Oaxaca-Blinder methodology. The results show that disabled individuals devote less time to market work (especially females), and more time to household production (e.g. cooking, cleaning, child care), tertiary activities (e.g., sleeping, personal care, medical treatment) and leisure activities. We also find a significant effect of age on the time spent on daily activities and important differences by gender and disability status. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that disability steals time, and reiterate the fact that more public policies are needed to balance working life and health concerns among disabled individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Who pays the most cigarette tax in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önder, Zeynep; Yürekli, Ayda A

    2016-01-01

    the most from increases in excise taxes; from a budgetary perspective, as they reduce their smoking consumption significantly, the share of their excise payment in total household expenditures declines. From a health perspective, they are likely to have more health benefits as their consumption reduces. Government revenues are also predicted to increase with increased excise taxes, and the government can allocate a part of these revenue increases on implementing and enforcing other tobacco control measures including cessation support and smoke-free environments. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. System of National Accounts as an Information Base for Tax Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Lyapin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to those aspects of the system of national accounts, which together perform the role of information base of tax statistics. In our time, the tax system is one of the main subjects of the discussions about the methods and directions of its reform.Taxes are one of the main factors of regulation of the economy and act as an incentive for its development. Analysis of tax revenues to the budgets of different levels will enable to collect taxes and perform tax burden for various industries. From the amount of tax revenue it is possible to judge scales of reproductive processes in the country. It should be noted that taxes in the SNA are special. As mentioned earlier, in the SNA, taxes on products are treated in the form of income. At the same time, most economists prefer, their consideration in the form of consumption taxes, and taxes on various financial transactions (for example: taxes on the purchase/sale of securities are treated as taxes on production, including in cases when there are no services. It would be rational to revise and amend the SNA associated with the interpretation of all taxes and subsidies, to ensure better understanding and compliance with user needs.Taxes are an integral part of any state and an indispensable element of economic relations of any society. In turn, taxes and the budget are inextricably linked, as these relations have a clearly expressed, objective bilateral character. Taxes are the main groups of budget revenues, which makes it possible to finance all the government agencies and expenditure items, as well as the implementation of institutional subsidy units that make up the SNA sector “non-financial corporations”.The second side story is that taxes – a part of the money that is taken from producers and households. The total mass of taxes depends on the composition of taxes, tax rates, tax base and scope of benefits. The bulk of tax revenues also depends on possible changes in

  11. Energy taxes -- Some critical remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirl, F.

    1994-01-01

    The familiar concept of Pigouvian taxes has finally caught the interest of politicians as the various proposals for a pollution tax, often simplified to an energy tax, document. This paper reviews these proposals critically and points at some wrong presumptions. The suggestion to make the polluter liable for all damages is in general inefficient. In order to sell new taxes, politicians argue that Pigouvian taxes would not lower disposable income, because the associated revenues allow one to reduce other taxes (in particular, income taxes) correspondingly. However, strategic, noncompetitive energy producers may themselves attempt to internalize the external costs rather than to leave these tax revenues to the treasuries of the consuming countries. Moreover, the revenues from a commodity tax are potentially volatile. Finally, the conservation impact from Pigouvian energy taxes may fall short of expectations, in particular, if the tax is too low

  12. New Leverage for Increasing Tax Revenues in Turkey: Traditional Tax Applications Supported by Electronic Tax Audits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Onkan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is examined for the period 2000- 2015 in Turkey that increasing the electronic applications regarding tax audits had the effects on the required amount of tax levied as a result of tax audits. Tax Inspectors reach strategic information without uneasiness by means of electronic applications developed by some institutions such as Electronic Risk Analysis that Tax Inspection Board founded in 2011 and Revenue Administration as institutions designated by law for auditing tax in Turkey. Thus, this leads to an increase the tax revenues obtained in the course of tax audits compared to the times when there is not electronic applications.

  13. THE METHODICAL APPROACH TO THE ESTIMATION OF THE IMPORTANCE OF TAXES IN FORMING OF INCOMES OF BUDGETARY SYSTEM OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE BELGOROD REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina F. Tarasova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted questions of formation of tax incomes of budgetary system of the Russian Federation. Approaches of a regional tax policy are proved by granting of tax privileges. The system of factors allowing quantitatively to estimate value of tax payments in formation own and aggregate prots of the budget is offered; approbation on an example of the budget of the Belgorod region is spent.

  14. Tax tips for forest landowners for the 2008 tax year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Wang; John L. Greene

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes key federal income tax provisions for forestland owners, foresters, loggers, forest product businesses, and tax practioners, and is current as of October 1, 2008.  Consult your tax and legal professionals for advice on your particular tax situation.

  15. Tax tips for forest landowners for the 2009 tax year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Wang; John Greene

    2010-01-01

    This bulletin summarizes federal income tax information useful to woodland owners in preparing their 2009 tax returns. It is current as of October 1, 2009, and supersedes Management Bulletin R8-MB 132. It should not be sonstrued as legal or accounting advice: consult your legal and tax professionals for advice on your particular tax situation.

  16. Use of accounting for tax search conducted by tax administrator

    OpenAIRE

    Novotná, Markéta

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is to describe the use of accounting and financial statements for tax search conducted by tax administrator. Besides various methods and ways of using accounting, this paper focuses on principles, criteria and phases of tax search. The final chapter describes possibility of making electronic tax search, which is based on accounting and other data in electronic form.

  17. 76 FR 66181 - Disregarded Entities; Excise Taxes and Employment Taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ...)(C) Example (i) and (ii) of this section. If LLCB does not pay the tax on its sale of coal under... Disregarded Entities; Excise Taxes and Employment Taxes AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury... regulations relating to disregarded entities and excise taxes. These regulations also make conforming changes...

  18. New taxes are late

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.

    2007-01-01

    A special tax for monopolies is not the only new tax the cabinet of Robert Fico is yet to introduce. As of the beginning of the year, new excise taxes prescribed by Brussels should have entered into force in Slovakia. According to the new arrangements, we should pay for energy consumed and for the coal and natural gas used to produce heat. And so the energy prices for companies should have already increased. Although the deadline set by the European Commission has already passed, the cabinet has still not completed the final version of the relevant legislation. Work stopped after the elections. The Ministry is very careful when it comes to making statements related to the excise tax. 'We do not wish to talk about details. There are still some minor issues that require fine tuning,' said Adrian Belanik, General Director of the Tax and Customs Section. Companies will have to get ready for the new costs related to the new excise taxes. The only thing that is clear is that the new taxes will be paid on the electricity and fuel used for heat production. (authors)

  19. Tax competition and tax harmonization in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuše Nerudová

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of tax competition and harmonization within the European Union. It reveals the single difficulties connected with harmonization, identifies the problems arising from tax competition and points out the harmful tax competition as well. Single compulsory harmonized tax base in connection with prevailing tax competition in the area of tax rates is the suggested solution in the scope of direct taxation. As the solution in the area of indirect taxation could serve the introduction of “principle of origin”. This would cause remarkable administrative costs decrease not only for economic subjects but for tax authorities as well.

  20. Excise Tax Avoidance: The Case of State Cigarette Taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCicca, Philip; Kenkel, Donald; Liu, Feng

    2013-01-01

    We conduct an applied welfare economics analysis of cigarette tax avoidance. We develop an extension of the standard formula for the optimal Pigouvian corrective tax to incorporate the possibility that consumers avoid the tax by making purchases in nearby lower-tax jurisdictions. To provide a key parameter for our formula, we estimate a structural endogenous switching regression model of border-crossing and cigarette prices. In illustrative calculations, we find that for many states, after taking into account tax avoidance the optimal tax is at least 20 percent smaller than the standard Pigouvian tax that simply internalizes external costs. Our empirical estimate that tax avoidance strongly responds to the price differential is the main reason for this result. We also use our results to examine the benefits of replacing avoidable state excise taxes with a harder-to-avoid federal excise tax on cigarettes. PMID:24140760

  1. Mapping Tax Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    2014-01-01

    compliance is constructed, challenges the explanatory reaches of today's social science approaches, arguing that an alternative approach to understanding tax compliance is worthwhile exploring. This other choice of approach, inspired by actor–network theory (ANT), adopts a more practice-oriented focus...... that studies tax compliance where it takes place as well as what it is made of. Consequently, this article argues that tax compliance is a socio-material assemblage and that complying is a distributed action. The article concludes by highlighting how an ANT approach contributes to the further theoretical...

  2. CPD Allocations and Awards

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The CPD Allocation and Award database provides filterable on-screen and exportable reports on select programs, such as the Community Development Block Grant Program,...

  3. Bureaucratic Tax-Seeking: The Danish Waste Tax

    OpenAIRE

    Christoffersen, Henrik; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2000-01-01

    Two main results in traditional tax theory states the following. First, general taxes minimize the welfare loss from changed relative prices. Second, because the total public budget tends to exceed the optimal size, a leader (here named 'troop leader') is needed in the budget process to prevent over-taxation. Nevertheless, differentiated taxes initiated by individual ministries generate a still larger proportion of total tax revenue, in particular under cover of taxing externalities such as e...

  4. International capital tax evasion and the foreign tax credit puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Kimberley Scharf

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the role of international tax evasion for the choice of an optimal foreign tax credit by a capital exporting region. Since a foreign tax credit raises the opportunity cost of concealing foreign source income, it can be employed to discourage evasion activity. The existence of international tax evasion possibilities could thus help rationalize a choice of tax credit in excess of a deduction-equivalent credit level. Our analysis shows that, in general the optimal credit will...

  5. Birth of a devotion. The case of “Santa Maria dei miracoli” in Lonigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Marcheluzzo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the events that took place in the year 1486, in a small town in northern Italy, Lonigo and the subsequent birth of a Marian devotion. According to some direct and indirect evidence, after a crime was committed, the image of the Virgin painted on the wall of a ruined chapel changed her position to defend herself from the sacrilegious attack of a murderer. A few days after the event, many miraculous healings strengthened and enhanced the faith in the Madonna di Lonigo, as evidenced by a rich collection of votive offerings. The new devotion led to changes in the architecture of the church of Lonigo and in the popular consideration of the nature of the image, as shown by numerous reproductions, which finally resulted in the loss of the originalmeaning of the painting in question.

  6. What is like to be a devoted doctor? An analysis of book reports on

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Hwang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to see what medical students think about the role of spouse of a devoted medical doctor through the book reports of The Painted Veil (1925. Methods: The 53 medical students were asked to read Maugham’s The Painted Veil and to have a discussion. In their book reports, following questions were asked to be included: What it is like to be married a devoted medical doctor? Do you think that patients realize, value, and respect the importance of doctor’s work? In the outbreak of highly infectious and fatal disease, can you carry out a heroic fight to control it? Results: Among the 53 respondents, seven students (13% answered that they would be happy if they marry a devoted doctor and scientist and 34 (64% unhappy. The remaining 12 (23% could not make a decision. The six students (11% answered that doctor is valued and respected by patients while 46 (87% answered doctor is neither valued nor respected. The remaining one (2% could not decide. The 20 students (38% answered that they would fight for the infectious disease and the remaining 30 (57% answered that they would not. The remaining three (5% could not determine their mind. Conclusion: The Painted Veil induced a virtue of “life of balance and harmony” and “attitude of doctor who give superiority to responsibility and duty over prestige and wealth” from the medical students. It could be a good teaching material for medical humanity.

  7. Globalization, Tax Competition and Tax Burden İn Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veli KARGI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available 1990’s world was quite different from the world of 1950’s. Especially in the last twenty years, the increasing involvement of Japan in the world economy since the 1990s, in addition to the dominance of globalization and market economy throughout the world, the rapid spread of information resulting from the developments in IT-technology and the international competition emerging in the field of technology have all led to some significant developments in the world economy. Reduction of high mobility income and corporate tax rates due to tax competition may cause an unjust distribution of the tax burden. The fact that indirect taxation constitutes about 70% of the tax revenues obtained in Turkey can be taken as an indication of the unfairness in the distribution of tax burden in Turkey. In this study, following a definition of globalization and tax competition, classification of tax competition, reasons for increasing tax competition, benefits and losses of tax competition are explained, and changes introduced by various countries in their tax systems due to tax competition, the distribution of tax burden resulting from tax competition in Turkey and the effectiveness of the new income tax law in Turkey in terms of tax competition are analyzed.

  8. Fiscal and regulatory capacity of excise tax in the case of the taxation of tobacco products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Світлана Петрівна Карпенко

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to assessing the fiscal and regulatory effects of excise tax in the context of its impact on the production and consumption of tobacco products. The assessments of the volume of tobacco production, consumption, excise tax on their needs, the volume of smuggling were given. The foreign experience in excise taxation of tobacco products was analyzed. The prospects for implementation of the fiscal and regulatory capacities of excise tax in the context of the taxation of tobacco products were proved

  9. Tax Salience, Voting, and Deliberation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    Tax incentives can be more or less salient, i.e. noticeable or cognitively easy to process. Our hypothesis is that taxes on consumers are more salient to consumers than equivalent taxes on sellers because consumers underestimate the extent of tax shifting in the market. We show that tax salience...... biases consumers' voting on tax regimes, and that experience is an effective de-biasing mechanism in the experimental laboratory. Pre-vote deliberation makes initially held opinions more extreme rather than correct and does not eliminate the bias in the typical committee. Yet, if voters can discuss...... their experience with the tax regimes they are less likely to be biased....

  10. Real Property Tax - 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This data represents all of the County’s residential real estate properties and all of the associated tax charges and credits with that property processed at the...

  11. Real Property Tax - 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This data represents all of the County’s residential real estate properties and all of the associated tax charges and credits with that property processed at the...

  12. Gross Sales Tax Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This data is captured directly from the MS Department of Revenue and specific to the City of Jackson. It is compiled from Gross Sales Tax reported by taxpayers each...

  13. Governance, Trust and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Guri; Joensen, E. Juanna Schröter

    This paper examines the role of social capital (trust) vis-à-vis the propensity of a country to be a tax haven. The empirical analysis corroborates that better governed countries have a higher ceteris paribus probability to be tax havens. However, social capital counteracts the effect of governance...... quality. This effect is so strong that the partial effect of governance quality is reversed for countries with the trust index in the top quartile – making these high trust countries less likely to be tax havens – even as governance quality is increased. Thus it is crucial to consider the interaction...... between institutions and social capital, since the same governance institutions have a different impact on the tax haven propensity for countries with different social capital....

  14. Real Property Tax Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Levy Year 2012 real property tax rate dataset reflects all the rates per $100 set each year by the County Council. These rates are applied to the assessed value...

  15. Factors affecting pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in community pharmacy: A structural equation modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitadpakorn, Sujin; Kittisopee, Tanattha

    2017-01-01

    Background: The concept of customer engagement and devotion has been applied in various service businesses to keep the customers with business However, a limited number of studies were performed to examine the context of customer engagement and devotion in pharmacy business which focus on the impact of customer perceptions about pharmacists, perceived quality of pharmacy structure, medication price strategy on pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in a pharmacy providing pharmaceutical care to the customers. Objective: This study aimed to assess a conceptual model depicting the relationships among customer perceptions about pharmacists, pharmacy quality structure, medication price, customer engagement, and customer devotion. And also aimed to assess and measure if there is a direct or indirect relationship between these factors. Methods: A quantitative study was conducted by using self-administered questionnaires. Two hundred and fifty three customers who regularly visited the pharmacy were randomly recruited from a purposively selected 30 community pharmacies in Bangkok. The survey was completed during February to April 2016. A structural equation model (SEM) was used to assess the direct and indirect relationships between constructs. Results: A total of 253/300 questionnaires were returned for analysis, and the response rate was 84%. Only perceptions about pharmacist in customers receiving professional pharmacy services was statically significant regarding relationship with pharmacy engagement (beta=0.45). Concurrently, the model from empirical data fit with the hypothetical model (p-value = 0.06, adjusted chi-square (CMIN/DF)=1.16, Goodness of Fit Index (GFI)=0.93, Comparatively Fit Index (CFI)=0.99, and Root Mean Square Error Approximation (RMSEA)=0.03). Conclusion: The study confirmed the indirect positive influence of customer perceptions about pharmacist on pharmacy customer devotion in providing pharmacy services via pharmacy engagement It was

  16. Factors affecting pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in community pharmacy: A structural equation modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitadpakorn S

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The concept of customer engagement and devotion has been applied in various service businesses to keep the customers with business However, a limited number of studies were performed to examine the context of customer engagement and devotion in pharmacy business which focus on the impact of customer perceptions about pharmacists, perceived quality of pharmacy structure, medication price strategy on pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in a pharmacy providing pharmaceutical care to the customers. Objective: This study aimed to assess a conceptual model depicting the relationships among customer perceptions about pharmacists, pharmacy quality structure, medication price, customer engagement, and customer devotion. And also aimed to assess and measure if there is a direct or indirect relationship between these factors. Methods: A quantitative study was conducted by using self-administered questionnaires. Two hundred and fifty three customers who regularly visited the pharmacy were randomly recruited from a purposively selected 30 community pharmacies in Bangkok. The survey was completed during February to April 2016. A structural equation model (SEM was used to assess the direct and indirect relationships between constructs. Results: A total of 253/300 questionnaires were returned for analysis, and the response rate was 84%. Only perceptions about pharmacist in customers receiving professional pharmacy services was statically significant regarding relationship with pharmacy engagement (beta=0.45. Concurrently, the model from empirical data fit with the hypothetical model (p-value = 0.06, adjusted chi-square (CMIN/DF=1.16, Goodness of Fit Index (GFI=0.93, Comparatively Fit Index (CFI=0.99, and Root Mean Square Error Approximation (RMSEA=0.03. Conclusion: The study confirmed the indirect positive influence of customer perceptions about pharmacist on pharmacy customer devotion in providing pharmacy services via pharmacy

  17. Socially Improving Tax Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Duclos, Jean-Yves; Makdissi, Paul; Wodon, Quentin

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes graphical methods to determine whether commodity-tax changes are "socially improving", in the sense of improving social welfare or decreasing poverty for large classes of social welfare and poverty indices. It also derives estimators of critical poverty lines and economic efficiency ratios which can be used to characterize socially-improving tax reforms. The statistical properties of the various estimators are derived in order to make the method implementable using survey ...

  18. Timing Tax Evasion

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Niepelt

    2004-01-01

    Standard models of tax evasion implicitly assume that evasion is either fully detected, or not detected at all. Empirically, this is not the case, casting into doubt the traditional rationales for interior evasion choices. I propose two alternative, dynamic explanations for interior tax evasion rates: Fines depending on the duration of an evasion spell, and different vintages of income sources subject to aggregate risk and fixed costs when switched between evasion states. The dynamic approach...

  19. Excise Taxes with Multiproduct Transactions

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen F. Hamilton

    2009-01-01

    I examine excise taxes levied on multiproduct retailers. Excise taxes reduce equilibrium output and decrease equilibrium product variety in the short run, but taxes can raise output per product in the long run and induce entry. Excise taxes are overshifted into prices in a wide range of cases, including under linear and concave demand conditions, and excise taxes shift less than one-for-one into prices only when demand is highly convex. Multiproduct transactions substantively alter the effici...

  20. Investment Taxes and Equity Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens Sialm

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates whether investors are compensated for the tax burden of equity securities. Effective tax rates on equity securities vary due to frequent tax reforms and due to persistent differences in propensities to pay dividends. The paper finds an economically and statistically significant relationship between risk-adjusted stock returns and effective personal tax rates using a new data set covering tax burdens on a cross-section of equity securities between 1927 and 2004. Consist...

  1. Distributional consequences of environmental taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinge Jacobsen, H.; Birr-Pedersen, K.; Wier, M.

    2001-11-01

    Environmental taxes imposed on households have been introduced in many countries. However, few countries have reached the level of environmental taxation that is seen in Denmark today, although many are considering shifting the tax burden towards the consumption that is harming the environment. The total tax burden imposed on households in Denmark in the form of taxes on energy use of all kinds, water consumption and waste production, etc., is considerable. This paper analyses the individual taxes as well as the combination of all these taxes and duties related to environmental concerns, including taxes on heating, transport fuels, electricity, water, waste, plastic bags, registration of cars, annual car use, pesticides, etc. The distributional effect of taxes is examined in relation to household income, socio-economic class, residential location and family status. The shifting of the tax structure from high marginal income tax to consumption-based taxes, especially environmental taxes, might have distributional impacts amongst income groups which have not been considered part of the tax policy. The taxes are compared with respect to distributional impact. Do the effects of the different taxes vary to such an extent that this should be considered when designing tax policies? The hypothesis is that some environmental taxes associated with luxury income are less regressive than the average environmental tax. The results suggest that in Denmark taxes on petrol and registration duties for cars are progressive, whereas most other environmental taxes are regressive, especially the green taxes on water, retail containers and CO 2 . The distributional impacts are illustrated using household consumption survey data and data covering household expenditures on energy. The energy taxes and the more recently introduced green taxes are compared. The project is combining the direct and the indirect effect of taxes. The direct effect considers the taxes imposed directly on

  2. Environmental taxes and subsidies 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    The statistics presents statements of environmental taxes for the period 1970 - 2002 and statements of environmentally related subsidies for the years 1996 - 2002. Environmental taxes are a concept for pollution, energy, transportation, and resource related taxes. The State's revenue from environmental taxes have increased from 4,0 billions DKK in 1970 to 65,7 billions DKK in 2002. The environmental taxes' part of the GNP has increased from 3,2 % in 1970 to 4,8 % in 2002. The part of the environmental taxes of the total taxes and tariffs has increased from 8,2 % in 1970 to 9,8 % in 2002. >From 2001 to 2002 the environmental taxes increased with 5,6 %, primarily because the taxes in the transportation sector increased with 13,5 % due to more new cars. The pollution taxes increased with 6 % while the environmental taxes for energy increased with only 0,8 %. In 2002 the energy related taxes amounted to 54 %, the transport related taxes to 39 %, and pollution and resource related taxes amounted to 7 % of the total environmental taxes. The public environmentally related subsidies to companies and households has been on a stable level of a little more than 10 billions DKK through the latest years. The energy related subsidies have, however, been transferred to transport related subsidies, i.e. primarily subsidies to the public transport. (ln)

  3. TAX OPTIMIZATION, TAX AVOIDANCE OR TAX EVASION? CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE OFFSHORE COMPANIES’ LEGAL BACKGROUND

    OpenAIRE

    Eva ERDÕS

    2010-01-01

    Is it a legal or illegal activity to give money to establish offshore firms? What is the offshore practice is it a method of tax optimization, tax minimization or is it a harmful activity, which means tax avoidance or tax evasion. This question is very important in the European Union’s tax law system, because the EU tax law is against the harmful tax competition. Some member states’ legal system is permitted to use offshore companies’ rules, but in the European Union it is prohibited to estab...

  4. A taxing environment: evaluating the multiple objectives of environmental taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Hale, Brack W

    2002-12-15

    Environmental taxes have attracted attention in recent years as a tool to internalize environmental externalities. This paper evaluates Sweden's experience with environmental taxes in the energy sector by examining how environmental taxes compare with estimated environmental externalities associated with the use of oil, coal, natural gas, and forest residue fuels. We also analyze how environmental taxes influence fuel choices in the energy sector by comparing the production, environmental, and tax costs for the same fuels. We find that (i) the Swedish environmental taxes correspond imperfectly with environmental costs; (ii) the Swedish tax and subsidy system introduces changes in fuel choice decisions; (iii) the energy users are responding to the incentives created by the tax and subsidy systems in ways that are consistent with economic theory; and (iv) the Swedish experience with environmental taxes and subsidies bears directly on wider evaluations of energy policy approaches internationally.

  5. Public opinion regarding earmarked cigarette tax in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chung-Lin

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette taxation has been perceived by academics and policy-makers as one of the most effective ways of reducing the use of cigarettes. On January 1 2002, the Taiwan government imposed a New Taiwan (NT $5 per pack tax earmarked for the purpose of tobacco control. This study uses a survey collected prior to taxation to assess public attitudes toward cigarette taxation, public beliefs about the effectiveness of cigarette taxation at reducing cigarette use and public opinions about the allocation of this tax revenue. Methods Data were drawn from a national face-to-face interview on cigarette consumption in 2000. A total of 3,279 adults were aged 18 to 64 years; 49.9% of whom were male and 50.1% female, and with a smoking prevalence of 49.1% and 4.1%, respectively. The attitudes toward cigarette tax were analysed using multi-logit regressions. We analysed by logistic regression the potential changes in smoking behaviour that smokers might make in response to the five NT (New Taiwan dollar earmarked tax on cigarettes per pack. We summarized public opinions about the allocation of earmarked tax revenue using descriptive statistics. Results Current smokers (OR = 0.34 and former smokers (OR = 0.68 were less likely to support the cigarette tax than non-smokers. A favourable attitude toward the tax was positively associated with personal monthly income, especially among females. Among male smokers, the possibility of reducing/quitting smoking in response to the five-NT-dollar tax was negatively associated with the monthly expense for smoking. The two most frequently-suggested areas to receive money from the revenue collected from the earmarked tax were health education and cancer subsidy. Conclusions Smoking status and economic factors determine the attitude and potential responses of people toward the cigarette tax. Taiwan's five NT-dollar earmarked tax for cigarettes may have only a limited effect upon the reduction in cigarette

  6. Growth in Means-Tested Programs and Tax Credits for Low-Income Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, William; Dahl, Molly; Falk, Justin

    2013-01-01

    The federal government devotes roughly one-sixth of its spending to 10 major means-tested programs and tax credits, which provide cash payments or assistance in obtaining health care, food, housing, or education to people with relatively low income or few assets. Those programs and credits consist of the following: (1) Medicaid; (2) the low-income…

  7. Risk capital allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    Risk capital allocation problems have been widely discussed in the academic literature. We consider a company with multiple subunits having individual portfolios. Hence, when portfolios of subunits are merged, a diversification benefit arises: the risk of the company as a whole is smaller than th...... of new axioms related directly to the problem of risk capital allocation and show that the Lorenz set satisfies these new axioms in contrast to other well-known coherent methods. Finally, we discuss how to deal with non-uniqueness of the Lorenz set.......Risk capital allocation problems have been widely discussed in the academic literature. We consider a company with multiple subunits having individual portfolios. Hence, when portfolios of subunits are merged, a diversification benefit arises: the risk of the company as a whole is smaller than...... the sum of the risks of the individual sub-units. The question is how to allocate the risk capital of the company among the subunits in a fair way. In this paper we propose to use the Lorenz set as an allocation method. We show that the Lorenz set is operational and coherent. Moreover, we propose a set...

  8. Tax Potential vs. Tax Effort; A Cross-Country Analysis of Armenia's Stubbornly Low Tax Collection

    OpenAIRE

    David A. Grigorian; Hamid R Davoodi

    2007-01-01

    Despite recording double digit growth since 2000, Armenia's tax-to-GDP ratio has been fairly stable at about 14½ percent. This paper catalogues a range of factors that may account for Armenia's stubbornly for tax collection by benchmarking Armenia's tax-to-GDP against some comparator countries and conducting an extensive econometric study of the main determinants of tax collection. We find empirical support for the hypothesis that the persistence of Armenia's low tax-GDP ratio can be traced t...

  9. Transnational Energy Companies' Investment Allocation Decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, Petter; Emhjellen, Magne; Halleraker, Morten

    2001-10-01

    When making international capital budgeting decisions, energy companies are often faced with capital and organisational constraints. The constraints may be real or management imposed. In addition, when entering into a new country or region the companies will incur fixed new area costs that must be considered before investment approval. The decision problem is therefore not a linear problem where the standard net present value rule applies, but a non-linear problem of selecting the combination of projects with the maximum aggregate net present value. New project investments will therefore be selected based on the size of the net present value (often referred to as financial volume or materiality) compared to the projects' use of capital and scarce personnel and organisational capacity. Consequently, projects with a positive net present value, but with low materiality, may not be approved. The portfolio choice has a parallel to the company's choice of core areas. Instead of complex portfolio models, the companies often apply simpler allocation mechanisms, e.g., combinations of fixed investment budgets and materiality requirements. Analysing petroleum cases, we compare the allocations decisions generated by portfolio models and simpler mechanisms. We also discuss the implications of this capital allocation pattern for governments' design of tax systems and license conditions. (author)

  10. Object and subject of evasion of taxes and other compulsory payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koval L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to such topical issue of Criminal Law as Object and Subject of Evasion of Taxes and Other Compulsory Payments. There are analyzed researched crime determination problems, which are connected with subject and object of tax and other compulsory payments evasion. In the course of the research, the author has made the conclusions that the object of the evasion of taxes and other compulsory payments group is the national economic interests. The direct object is the national economic interests in the sphere of state revenues or the national fiscal interests. While analyzing the law and regulations it is concluded that the subject of the evasion of taxes and other compulsory payments is the tax base (income, property, expenses and consumption, taxes, state and local government fees, as well as other payments determined by the State. The author has also concluded that the subject of the evasion of taxes and other compulsory payments does not include increase in the tax principal debt, fine and late charge, which are covered by the financial responsibility. The subject of the evasion of taxes and other compulsory payments may not include also income from illegal activity or proceeds resulting from criminal offences.

  11. Birth of a devotion. The case of “Santa Maria dei miracoli” in Lonigo

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Marcheluzzo

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the events that took place in the year 1486, in a small town in northern Italy, Lonigo and the subsequent birth of a Marian devotion. According to some direct and indirect evidence, after a crime was committed, the image of the Virgin painted on the wall of a ruined chapel changed her position to defend herself from the sacrilegious attack of a murderer. A few days after the event, many miraculous healings strengthened and enhanced the faith in the Madonna di Lonigo, as...

  12. Homosexuality: representing the devil or a spiritual gift? Two opposing views in the same Marian devotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Judith; Notermans, Catrien; Jansen, Willy

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes opposing discourses on homosexuality forwarded by two different Catholic social actors. These are linked to the messages of the Lady of All Nations, a Marian apparition site in Amsterdam. These different actors are understood as competing moral communities ( Hunt, 2009 ), especially about the issue of what constitute European values. Both discourses can be seen as examples of the minoritizing yet universalizing view on homosexuality ( Kosofsky Sedgwick, 1990 , p. 85). The devotion to the Lady of All Nations serves as a site for promoting competing discourses ( Hermkens, Jansen, & Notermans, 2009 ).

  13. CO2 taxes as economic tool for energy efficiency analysis of CO2 tax impact on energy efficiency projects in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumberga, D.; Blumberga, M.; Veidenbergs, I.

    2005-01-01

    The intended purpose of the carbon tax is to reduce CO 2 emissions. This tax can play a significant role in the implementation of energy saving projects. The paper evaluates three market mechanisms for reducing greenhouse gas emissions: joint implementation, emissions trading and CO 2 taxes. The first market mechanism - pilot phase of joint implementation (Activities Implemented Jointly) opened the minds of specialists to the GHG emission reduction potential of energy efficiency projects. The second mechanism was implemented after Latvia had accepted the National Allocation Plan to start emission trading. The third mechanism is based on the introduction of a carbon tax, which will come into force in Latvia in July 2005. This paper describes the potential impact of this tax that could promote development of energy efficiency projects. The authors worked out an evaluation methodology to calculate the impact of CO 2 taxes on emissions levels and the potential value of such taxes. The proposed methodology is applicable to district heating companies and governmental institutions, defining links between the energy efficiency and CO 2 taxes and showing ways of justifying these taxes both economically and environmentally. (authors)

  14. Creating a tax-effective asset transaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brussa, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    The advantages, disadvantages, opportunities and dangers involved in structuring an oil and gas property acquisition were discussed. The tax consequences of a property purchase and sale were compared to those of an acquisition of a corporation. To understand the tax consequences of a property acquisition or disposition, and the issues which arise in the context of price allocation, the concept of the various 'pools', the type of cost included in them, and the treatment of negative and positive balances in the pool were explained. The pool of costs relating to oil and gas exploration is called the Canadian Exploration Expense (CEE). The CEE consists of: (1) geological, geochemical or geophysical costs incurred for oil and gas exploration, (2) the cost of drilling wells which discover a new accumulation of hydrocarbons, and (3) the cost of drilling wells which are abandoned prior to production. For oil and gas operations, the Canadian Development Expense (CDE) consists of the cost of drilling wells and the cost of activities which relate to wells which have previously been put into production. COGPE, or Canadian Oil and Gas Property Expense refers to the cost of pool for acquisitions of Canadian resource properties which are prospective for petroleum or natural gas. The tax treatment of these costs, and some strategies for innovative acquisitions and divestitures are discussed in some detail

  15. Tax Efficiency vs. Tax Equity – Points of View regarding Tax Optimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Aurelia Toader

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Starting from the idea that tax equity requirements, administration costs and the tendency towards tax evasion determine the design of tax systems, it is important to identify a satisfactory efficiency/equity deal in order to build a tax system as close to optimum requirements as possible. Prior Work Previous studies proved that an optimum tax system is that through which it will be collected a level of tax revenues which will satisfy budgetary demands, while losing only a minimum ‘amount’ of welfare. In what degree the Romanian tax system meets these requirements? Approach We envisage analyzing the possibilities of improving Romanian tax system as to come nearest to optimum requirements. Results We can conclude fiscal system can uphold important improvements in what assuring tax equity is concerned, resulting in raising the degree of free conformation in the field of tax payment and, implicitly, the degree of tax efficiency. Implications Knowing to what extent it can be acted upon in the direction of finding that satisfactory efficiency/equity deal may allow oneself to identify the blueprint of a tax system in which the loss of welfare is kept down to minimum. Value For the Romanian institutions empowered to impose taxes, the knowledge of the possibilities of making the tax system more efficient can be important while aiming at reducing the level of evasion phenomenon.

  16. Tax Tips for Forest Landowners for the 2013 Tax Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Wang; John Greene

    2013-01-01

    This annual bulletin provides federal income tax reporting tips to assist forest landowners and their advisers in filing their 2013 income tax returns. The information presented here is current as of Sept. 15, 2013.

  17. Tax havens: Features, operations and solving tax evasion problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović-Ćuk Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tax haven offers minimal or no tax liability to foreign individuals and enterprises in economically and politically stable environment, where little or no financial information is shared with foreign tax authorities. The aim of this research is to create a comprehensive overview of the characteristics and operations of tax havens, as well as to point out to the ways to overcome the problem of tax evasion. The methodology used in the work is characteristic of social science research: analysis, synthesis and discussion, comparative, inductive and historical analysis, together with the usage of relevant national and international sources. This paper describes the basic features of tax havens, as well as specific business models applied in them. A separate chapter deals with overcoming the problem of tax evasion, which is the main adverse effect of doing business through tax havens.

  18. Tax Reforms in Nigeria: Case for Value Added Tax (VAT)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    VAT), yearly contributions of value .... an optimum tax rate that both encourages savings, investment and labour supply, and at the same time ... (VAT and CED) contribution to total revenue and economic growth glucoses more than direct tax.

  19. Link Monotonic Allocation Schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.

    1999-01-01

    A network is a graph where the nodes represent players and the links represent bilateral interaction between the players. A reward game assigns a value to every network on a fixed set of players. An allocation scheme specifies how to distribute the worth of every network among the players. This

  20. The Minnesota income tax compliance experiment: State tax results

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Stephen

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the Minnesota Income Tax Compliance Experiment conducted by the Minnesota Department of Revenue in 1995. The experiment tested alternative strategies to improve voluntary compliance with the state income tax. These strategies included: increased examination and auditing of tax returns with prior notice to taxpayers, enhanced services to taxpayers, information messages in letters sent to taxpayers, and a new M-1 tax form. About 47,000 taxpayers participated in the experim...

  1. Tax morale : theory and empirical analysis of tax compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Torgler, Benno

    2003-01-01

    Tax morale is puzzling in our society. Observations show that tax compliance cannot be satisfactorily explained by the level of enforcement. Other factors may well be relevant. This paper contains a short survey of important theoretical and empirical findings in the tax morale literature, focussing on personal income tax morale. The following three key topics are discussed: moral sentiments, fairness and the relationship between taxpayer and government. The survey stresses the ...

  2. Cambodian Tax Revenue and Non Tax Revenue : Issues & Proposals

    OpenAIRE

    Sang, Sinavith

    2006-01-01

    Taxation is an important instrument of economic policy in a country. Tax reform deals with wide range of issues of economic policy as well as specific problems of tax structure, design and administration. In the process of improving and drawing tax policies that encounter the requirements of a fast changing economy, society, and polity, tax revenue in Cambodia increased dramatically after the democratic coalition government formed in 1993. Similar to other developing countries Cambodia began ...

  3. Transaction Taxes, Capital Gains Taxes and House Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole Aregger; Martin Brown; Enzo Rossi

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the search for instruments to contain future housing bubbles, we examine the impact of transaction taxes and capital gains taxes on residential house price growth. We exploit the variation in taxation across Swiss cantons, as well as within-canton changes in taxation over time. We relate these taxes to house price growth observed for 92 regions of the country during the period 1985 - 2009. Our results suggest that higher taxes on capital gains exacerbate house price dynamics whil...

  4. Tax Tips for Forest Landowners for the 2012 Tax Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Wang; John L. Greene

    2012-01-01

    Federal income tax law contains provisions to encourage stewardship and management of private forest land. The primary goal of this bulletin is to assist forest landowners and their advisors with timber tax information they can use to file their 2012 in-come tax returns. The information presented here is current as of Sept. 15, 2012.

  5. Tax Tips for Forest Landowners for the 2006 Tax Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Wang; John L. Greene

    2006-01-01

    This bulletin summarizes key federal income tax provisions related to owning and managing forest land. It is current as of December 1, 2006, and supercedes Management Bulletin R8-MB 126. But it is only an introduction. Consult the references for more complete information on the topics, and consult your tax and legal advisers for advice on your particular tax situation...

  6. Why Property Tax Limitations Won't Limit Everyone's Taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picus, Larry

    Property tax limitation measures passed in 1978 by voters in California and Idaho contain provisions that apparently will reduce the equity of the property tax system in both states. Changes in assessment practices mandated by the new laws will shift the property tax burden away from business and commercial property and toward residential property…

  7. Effects of carbon tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelini, M.

    1992-01-01

    At the recent United Nations Conference held in Rio de Janeiro, a proposal was made by Italy to have surcharges be applied by OECD member countries on fossil fuels (carbon tax), primarily to fund pollution abatement technology transfer to developing countries and promote pollution abatement, energy conservation and the use of renewable energy sources in industrialized countries. This paper assesses how the application of the proposed carbon tax might be successfully combined with additional fiscal policies favouring coal gasification and reforestation so as to provide energy policy strategists of oil-importing countries with a long term economically and environmentally viable alternative to petroleum imports

  8. Sick of Taxes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    I estimate a price elasticity of sickness absence. Sick leave is an intensive margin of labor supply where individuals are free to adjust. I exploit variation in tax rates over two decades, which provide thousands of differential incentives across time and space, to estimate the price responsiven...... of sick leave, -0.7, with respect to the net of tax rate. Though large relative to traditional labor supply elasticities, Swedes are half as price elastic as bike messengers, and just as elastic as stadium vendors on the margin which they can adjust freely....

  9. New Mexico Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  10. Who Pays the Gasoline Tax?

    OpenAIRE

    Chernick, Howard; Reschovsky, Andrew

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes panel data over 11 years (both backward from 1982 and forward from 1982) to determine the average gasoline tax burden. Considers links between economic mobility, gasoline consumption, and excise tax increases.

  11. Do Taxes Produce Better Wine?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    2011-01-01

    Theory predicts that unit taxes increase the quality consumed in a market, since unit taxes reduce the relative price of high quality goods. Ad valorem taxes, on the other hand, have no effect on relative prices, and should not affect product quality. The hypothesis is tested empirically in the U...... wine market. I find that the market share of high quality wine is significantly increased by unit taxes, and that there is no significant effect of ad valorem taxes, in accordance with the hypothesis and previous empirical studies.......Theory predicts that unit taxes increase the quality consumed in a market, since unit taxes reduce the relative price of high quality goods. Ad valorem taxes, on the other hand, have no effect on relative prices, and should not affect product quality. The hypothesis is tested empirically in the US...

  12. Tax Expenditures: A Theoretical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjekoslav Bratić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Tax expenditures are an instrument frequently used when a government wishes to achieve certain economic and social effects. But because of the increasing number and scope of tax expenditures, their proper use, quality of administration and record-keeping have become a major challenge for the tax authorities and the whole of the government. The article considers and explains very diverse forms of tax expenditure such as reliefs, tax deductions, tax allowances, tax exceptions and special rates of taxation and the ways in which they are defined and calculated. The key problems in the analysis are the absence of a single definition and of methodology for the calculations; these ultimately make it impossible to compare tax expenditures between or among countries.

  13. Economic Effects Real Estate Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadić Milan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The real estate tax is usually a fiscal instrument which performs the property tax. When it comes to real property or immovable this term include: apartments, houses, land, cottages, excess housing landscape and more. The real estate tax as a form of the fiscal charges ownership or use of certain forms of real estate, and the revenue from this tax is levied on the area where the property is located regardless of the place of residence of its owner. The tax base for the calculation of this tax usually consists of the market, estimated or annuity value of certain real estate. This form of taxation in the Republic of Serbian applies from 1.1.2012., and its introduction has been replaced by former property taxes. The differences between the two concepts mentioned taxes are numerous and significant. Among the more important are: subject to taxation under the new concept of the real estate rather than law, a taxpayer is any property owner rather than the holder of rights to immovable property tax base is the market value of real estate which is replaced by the payment of taxes per square meter of usable area, the rate of property tax is determined local government, which can not be lower than 0.05% of the estimated value of the real estate nor higher than 0.5% of the appraised value of real estate. The last change, ie. The new law on Property Tax from 5.11.2015. was determined by the tax rate to 20%. The fact that local governments each of them determines the tax rate on real estate which range from high to low rates of multiple, makes this tax is progressive. Progression is particularly expressed in the distinction applied tax rates of developed and undeveloped municipalities, where we have a case that less developed tolerate a higher tax burden, which leads to negative economic effects. However, real estate tax has its own economic and social characteristics which must be aligned with the objectives of tax policy. This means that the real estate tax

  14. Impact Of Proposed Commodity Transaction Tax On Futures Trading In India

    OpenAIRE

    Pravakar Sahoo; Rajiv Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Trading in commodity derivatives on exchange platforms is an instrument to achieve price discovery, better price risk management, besides helping macro-economy with better resource allocation. Since the inception (2003) of national online trading on multi-commodity exchange platforms, the trade volumes have grown exponentially. In the union budget 2008-09, the government has proposed to impose a commodity transaction tax (CTT) of 0.017%. Though the stated rationale for imposing higher taxes i...

  15. Multinational Firms' Heterogeneity in Tax Responsiveness: the Role of Transfer Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Céline Azémar; Paolo Gregory Corcos

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we show that the ability of multinational firms to manipulate transfer prices affects the tax sensitivity of foreign direct investment (FDI). We offer a model of international capital allocation where firms are heterogeneous in their ability to manipulate transfer prices. Perhaps paradoxically, we show that the ability to shift profits can make parent companies' investment more sensitive to host-country tax rates, as long as investors expect fiscal authorities to use price and p...

  16. Considerations for the Tax Mix

    OpenAIRE

    BOB HAMILTON; CHUN-YAN KUO; SATYA PODDAR

    1988-01-01

    The paper reviews changes in the tax mix in Canada and several developed countries over the past two decades and outlines the key factors that influence it. The tax mix in Canada is largely similar to other OECD countries with two major exceptions. The first is a larger percentage share of excise and other taxes in Canada than other OECD countries. The second is Canada social security tax share well below the OECD average.

  17. Petroleum tax and financial decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stensland, G.; Sunnevaag, K.

    1993-03-01

    The work presented in this report focuses on tax motivated financial incentives in the Norwegian petroleum tax system. Of particular concern is the effects of the reserve fund requirement in the Joint Stock Companies Act. Our prime concern is the Norwegian petroleum tax system as applicable from January 1992, but for the sake of comparison, we have also examined the ''old'' Norwegian petroleum tax system. The findings presented in this report can be divided in two parts. Based on an overview over the development in debt and equity for the major part of companies operating on the Norwegian continental shelf it seems reasonable to divide the companies in three groups. The first group is companies which is not in a tax paying position, both ''foreign'' and domestic. These companies seem to use debt as their most important capital source. The second group is Norwegian companies in a tax paying position. These companies also seem to use debt as the most important capital source. The last group is ''foreign'' companies in a tax paying position. This is a group of companies that mainly use equity to finance their investments in the offshore sector. The second part of the report tries to explain these observations. In the report we compare the incentive effects in the new petroleum tax system to the old tax system. The incentives to finance investments with debt is stronger in the new tax system. Several explanations emerge. Firstly, in the old tax system the investor got an effective tax deduction of 12.8% for dividends. This is removed in the new system. Secondly, in the new system 78% tax is included in the financial statements after tax profit calculation and the maximum dividend calculation, while in the old tax system the withholding tax was excluded. 31 refs., 13 figs. 2 tabs

  18. Occupational exposures in two industrial plants devoted to the production of ammonium phosphate fertilisers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolívar, J P; Mosqueda, F; Gázquez, M J; López-Coto, I; Vaca, F; García-Tenorio, R; Adame, J A

    2013-01-01

    In order to fill a gap in the open literature, occupational exposures and activity concentrations have been assessed in two NORM industrial plants, located in the south-west of Spain, devoted to the production of mono-ammonium phosphate (MAP) and di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) fertilisers. The annual effective doses received by the workers from these plants are clearly below 1 mSv yr −1 and the contribution due to external radiation is similar to that due to inhalation. The contribution to the maximum effective doses due to inhalation of particulate matter has been estimated to be about 0.12 mSv yr −1 , while the 222 Rn concentrations inside the plants are of no concern. Consequently, no additional actions or radiological protection measures need to be taken to decrease the natural radiation received by the workers in these facilities. (paper)

  19. Tax Reform and Environmental Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert E. Metcalf

    2005-01-01

    I measure the industry impacts of an environmental tax reform where a carbon tax is used to finance full or partial corporate tax integration. I find that the industry impacts of such a reform are likely to be modest (in the sense of impacts on returns on equity).

  20. 27 CFR 19.21 - Tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax. 19.21 Section 19.21 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Taxes Gallonage Taxes § 19.21 Tax. (a) A tax is imposed by 26 U.S...

  1. Formation of tax culture in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halikova Je.A.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the mechanism of the formation of tax culture in Russia, moral and ethical principles, on which based the work of the tax authorities, given the author's idea of the formation of tax culture. We consider the institution of tax advice, its interaction with the tax authorities and its impact on the formation of tax culture.

  2. Formation of tax culture in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Halikova Je.A.; Ginijatullina D.R.

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the mechanism of the formation of tax culture in Russia, moral and ethical principles, on which based the work of the tax authorities, given the author's idea of the formation of tax culture. We consider the institution of tax advice, its interaction with the tax authorities and its impact on the formation of tax culture.

  3. Tax Culture: A Basic Concept for Tax Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Nerré, Birger

    2008-01-01

    I have suggested not to limit tax-cultural considerations to the side of taxpayers, but to widen its understanding by using an embeddedness approach considering the history of taxation and by that means explicating national tax-cultural diversity (e.g. Nerré 2001b, 2002b, 2006a). In the course of continuing globalization two different kinds of disturbances of tax culture have been identified: tax culture shocks and tax culture lags. Both are due to ignorant and/or ethnocentric policy measures...

  4. Motor Fuel Excise Taxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    A new report from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) explores the role of alternative fuels and energy efficient vehicles in motor fuel taxes. Throughout the United States, it is common practice for federal, state, and local governments to tax motor fuels on a per gallon basis to fund construction and maintenance of our transportation infrastructure. In recent years, however, expenses have outpaced revenues creating substantial funding shortfalls that have required supplemental funding sources. While rising infrastructure costs and the decreasing purchasing power of the gas tax are significant factors contributing to the shortfall, the increased use of alternative fuels and more stringent fuel economy standards are also exacerbating revenue shortfalls. The current dynamic places vehicle efficiency and petroleum use reduction polices at direct odds with policies promoting robust transportation infrastructure. Understanding the energy, transportation, and environmental tradeoffs of motor fuel tax policies can be complicated, but recent experiences at the state level are helping policymakers align their energy and environmental priorities with highway funding requirements.

  5. Taxing market power

    OpenAIRE

    Jaskold Gabszewicz, Jean; Grazzini, Lisa

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the effectiveness of tax and transfer policies in correcting market distortions when the economy is imperfectly competitive. We perform this analysis in the context of an exchange model representing a bilateral oligopoly situation, which constitutes a particular example of a Shapley-Shubik strategic market game.

  6. Earned Income Tax Credit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. van Oers; R.A. de Mooij (Ruud)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractIn recent policy discussions in the Netherlands, the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) has been put forward as an effective instrument to reduce the unemployment rate among low-skilled workers. Using the MIMIC model, this article shows that a targeted EITC at low incomes indeed seems

  7. Economic and tax issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steverson O. Moffat; John L. Greene

    2002-01-01

    Economic conditions and tax policies affect land use decisions everywhere, but their effects on the rate of change in land use are particularly large in the wildland-urban interface. We begin this chapter with a brief economic history of the South and a description of the macroeconomic trends and conditions that affect microeconomics at the wildlandurban interface....

  8. Taxing Feedlots in Alberta: Lethbridge County's Tax on Confined Feeding Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bev Dahlby

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lethbridge County introduced a new business tax on confined feeding operations (CFO, notably feedlots, in 2016. It was expected to bring in $2.5 million for county road maintenance in 2017. However, the tax could have a detrimental impact on feedlot owners and is not the fairest way to amass revenue for road repairs. Four criteria can be used to evaluate a particular form of taxation. They are fairness, efficient resource allocation, compliance and administration costs, and revenue stability. This paper examines the potential impacts of the tax and proposes three alternative methods for financing Lethbridge County road maintenance that meet those criteria. These alternatives create less of an impact on feedlot owners and share the tax burden more equitably. They also reduce the potentially negative ripple effects that the CFO levy may have on feed producers, cattle producers, meat packers and consumers. The current tax is based on livestock storage capacity, rather than on production volume. It’s counter-productive in the long run because the feedlot’s fixed costs of production are increased, while its variable costs remain unaffected. This permanent increase in fixed costs, estimated to be as high as 20 per cent of the average operating margin per head of cattle, lowers the return on feedlot investments. Thus, the new tax could result in some feedlots being closed for lack of a high enough return on investment.A more equitable revenue source for road maintenance would be user fees imposed on the trucking industry. This system is already in use in Oregon and New Zealand. It uses GPS technology to track trucks on the roads and then charges the trucking companies a fee based on road use. It would certainly be worthwhile for the province to initiate a pilot program to test the system’s efficacy on Alberta roads. Lethbridge County could also implement a usage levy that would be based on how much it spends on roads, combined with a feedlot

  9. THE IMPLICATIONS OF TAX MORALE ON TAX COMPLIANCE BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichita Ramona-Anca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on the analysis of tax compliance behavior from the tax morale standpoint. We grounded our research on the idea that empirical studies constantly invalidating the assumptions of theoretical models of tax evasion show there are more factors influencing compliance than just the economic ones (e.g., audit probability, fine, tax rate, income. Giving the fact that audit probabilities are generally very low and that tax evasion is not as high as one could expect, tax morale might have to do with the high degrees of tax compliance registered around the world. In a stream of articles on taxation published beginning with the late 60n#8217;s, tax morale defined as the intrinsic motivation to comply or n#8220;internalised obligation to pay taxn#8221; (Braithwaite and Ahmed 2005 has been found to positively relate to tax compliance and negatively relate to shadow economy. This paper attempts to offer a broader view on the influence of tax morale on compliance behavior, covering articles ranging from national and cross-cultural surveys to experimental games. Moreover, the aim of the article is to emphasize the policy implications of tax morale research and the changes governments could make in order to raise the amount of public levies.

  10. Applied cost allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with empirical computation of Aumann–Shapley cost shares for joint production. We show that if one uses a mathematical programing approach with its non-parametric estimation of the cost function there may be observations in the data set for which we have multiple Aumann–Shapley p...... of assumptions concerning firm behavior. These assumptions enable us to connect inefficient with efficient production and thereby provide consistent ways of allocating the costs arising from inefficiency....

  11. Bureaucratic Tax-Seeking: The Danish Waste Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Henrik; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2000-01-01

    Two main results in traditional tax theory states the following. First, general taxes minimize the welfare loss from changed relative prices. Second, because the total public budget tends to exceed the optimal size, a leader (here named 'troop leader') is needed in the budget process to prevent...... over-taxation. Nevertheless, differentiated taxes initiated by individual ministries generate a still larger proportion of total tax revenue, in particular under cover of taxing externalities such as environmental pollution. We suggest that this situation leads to over-taxation for two reasons. First......, the absence of a strong and fully informed troop leader prevents rational coordination of collective action. Second, budget maximization leads to overwhelming fiscal pressure because bureaucracies are competing about resources just like fishermen or hunters (here named 'bureaucratic tax-seeking'). Taxing...

  12. CONTRIBUTION OF INDIRECT TAXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The work is based on the fact that at any time and in any society, taxation is regarded as undesirable for all taxpayers. The existence and it's manifestation is justified, because the operation of any company involves costs that must be covered by sufficient resources. Since ancient times, each state has adopted its own tax system, more or less perfected, as the state has experienced a greater or lesser economic and military power At the base of this work stays the fact that tax systems are a key factor influencing the overall efficiency of the economy. They determine the size tendency to save, invest and work, influencing the increase in production and employment, which is essential sights integral economic strategy, making tax reform an important component of economic reform. This paper aims to analyze the indirect taxes and their contribution to the public revenues in Romania, the purpose paper contains an analysis based on statistical series as indirect taxation is where tax harmonization was possible. Through analyzes, the paper aims to provide answers to the problem of the contradiction between the growing need for budgetary revenues, which entails a continuous amplification and diversification of taxation, on the one hand, and the need to stimulate economic development, on the other hand. The harmonization of indirect taxation had been achieved since this touches the free movement of goods and the freedom to supply services, not being able to say the same thing about direct taxation, which is why the European Community Treaty does not specify expressly the alignment of direct taxation, considering that direct taxation is a matter of Internal Policies that, for a country free option.

  13. Credits and Exemptions for Children. Tax Facts from the Tax Policy Center. Tax Notes[R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    The Earned Income Tax Credit, Child Tax Credit (CTC), Additional Child Tax Credit (ACTC), and the dependent exemption all provide benefits to families with children. In 2009, a single mom (or dad) with two children can receive benefits ranging from $0 to about $7,500--depending on her income, age of the children, and where the children live. While…

  14. The Tax Base And The Tax Bill. Tax Implications of Development: A Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighton, Deb; Northup, Jim

    The property tax base in Vermont's towns are overburdened as property taxes are usually the only funding method available to finance schools, police departments, highway work, recreation programs, and government in general. Attempting to offer their citizens a balanced program of services without exorbitant taxes, local officials are striving to…

  15. China’s Emerging Tax Regime: Local Tax Farming and Central Tax Bureaucracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Zhu (Ze); B. Krug (Barbara)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractChina like other transition economies needs to establish a tax system compatible with a market economy, in particular, an efficient tax administration system with capable tax bureaucrats. The paper singles out the general and China-specific features by which central government attempts

  16. Do Taxes Produce Better Wine?

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Ljunge

    2011-01-01

    Theory predicts that unit taxes increase the quality consumed in a market since unit taxes reduce the relative price of high quality goods. Ad valorem taxes, on the other hand, have no effect on relative prices and should not affect product quality. The hypothesis is tested empirically in the US wine market. I find that the market share of high quality wine is significantly increased by unit taxes and that there is no significant effect of ad valorem taxes, in accordance with the hypothesis a...

  17. Do Taxes Produce Better Wine?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    2011-01-01

    Theory predicts that unit taxes increase the quality consumed in a market, since unit taxes reduce the relative price of high quality goods. Ad valorem taxes, on the other hand, have no effect on relative prices, and should not affect product quality. The hypothesis is tested empirically in the US...... wine market. I find that the market share of high quality wine is significantly increased by unit taxes, and that there is no significant effect of ad valorem taxes, in accordance with the hypothesis and previous empirical studies....

  18. Do Taxes Produce Better Wine?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    Theory predicts that unit taxes increase the quality consumed in a market since unit taxes reduce the relative price of high quality goods. Ad valorem taxes, on the other hand, have no effect on relative prices and should not affect product quality. The hypothesis is tested empirically in the US...... wine market. I find that the market share of high quality wine is significantly increased by unit taxes and that there is no significant effect of ad valorem taxes, in accordance with the hypothesis and previous empirical studies....

  19. Bribes and Business Tax Evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joulfaian, David

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of governance, in particular bribes to tax officials, in shaping business tax compliance behavior in transition economies. The empirical results show that business noncompliance rises with the frequency of tax related bribes. More specifically, the findings from 27 economies suggest that tax evasion thrives when bribes to tax officials are commonplace. These findings are robust to a number of specifications that control for firm and country attributes as well as address the potential endogeneity of bribes.

  20. Product Tax Modelling in INFORGE

    OpenAIRE

    Mönnig, Anke

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the application of INFORGE as an analyzing tool for fiscal policy shocks is introduced by using the example of taxes on products. In recent times, variations of tax rates on product taxes have become rather popular because it is a simple method to consolidate state budget. A detailed modelling of taxes on products is important for further two reasons: (i) they are an important component for the transition from demand at purchasers’ prices to demand at basic prices. (ii) Taxes o...

  1. Export Taxes under Bertrand Duopoly

    OpenAIRE

    David Collie; Roger Clarke

    2006-01-01

    This article analyses export taxes in a Bertrand duopoly with product differentiation, where a home and a foreign firm both export to a third-country market. It is shown that the maximum-revenue export tax always exceeds the optimum-welfare export tax. In a Nash equilibrium in export taxes, the country with the low cost firm imposes the largest export tax. The results under Bertrand duopoly are compared with those under Cournot duopoly. It is shown that the absolute value of the export subsid...

  2. Cost allocation with limited information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tind, Jørgen

    This article investigates progressive development of Aumann-Shapley cost allocation in a multilevel organizational or production structure. In particular, we study a linear parametric programming setup utilizing the Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition procedure. Typically cost allocation takes place after...... all activities have been performed, for example by finishing all outputs. Here the allocation is made progressively with suggestions for activities. I other words cost allocation is performed in parallel for example with a production planning process. This development does not require detailed...

  3. Two prototype tools for assessing good environmental/ecological status (GES) in aquatic ecosystems – DEVOTES and WATERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Ciarán; Carstensen, Jacob; Andersen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    for sub-division of sectors and habitat types into hierarchical structures. The DEVOTES tool weights indicator results from different sectors according to their geographical extent and/or assigned quantitative value scores. The DEVOTES tool allows the assessment to be targeted to a particular ecosystem......We present two prototype tools for assessment of GES (good ecological status and good environmental status) in aquatic ecosystems: the DEVOTES biodiversity assessment tool (for the MSFD) and the WATERS ecological status assessment tool (for the WFD). Both tools are multi-metric indicator...

  4. Advanced training of tax consultants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adigamova Farida F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to review and analyze the data on the necessity to provide an educational environment for training and advanced training of tax consultants in Russia. The article considers the types of tax consulting, the historical background of training financiers in Russia, as well as identifies conditions determining the significance of tax consulting. The research establishes the connection between the negative attitude to tax payment and tax evasion. The advanced training of tax consultants should be a continuous process as they need to take into account both external and internal taxpayers risks associated with the development of law and law-enforcement practice. Obviously, the training of tax consultants should take into account the experience of developed foreign countries, such as Germany, Austria, Czech Republic, Slovakia and other European countries as well. In Russia, it is necessary to open educational institutions, which will not only be involved in the certification of tax consultants, but also provide training courses. These courses should contribute to constant increase of tax consultants knowledge, consider the tax treatment of economic activities, as well changes in the legislation, economics, finance, accounting, manufacturing processes, which will improve the quality of services provided by tax consultants.

  5. Responsible Investment: Taxes and Paradoxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knuutinen Reijo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxes have become an issue of corporate social responsibility (CSR, but the role of taxation is to some extent an ambiguous and controversial issue in the CSR framework. Similarly, another unclear question is what role investors who are committed to sustainable and responsible investment (SRI see taxes as having on their environmental, social, and governance (ESG agenda. Corporate taxes have an inverse relationship with the return of the investors: taxes paid directly affect what is left on the bottom line, reducing the return of investors. However, investors are now more aware of tax-related risks, which can include different forms of reputation risk. Corporate tax planning may increase the returns, but those increased returns are riskier. This study focuses particularly on the relationship between SRI and taxation. We find that tax matters are considered to be on the ESG agenda, but their role and significance in the ESG analysis is unclear.

  6. Legal and Illegal Tax Evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Suvelea

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the economic and social plan, tax evasion is a reality seen in various forms, such as the keeping of not realistic accounting books; willful destruction of documents that might lead to the discovery of real product deliveries, adopted prices, fees received or paid, establishing false customs declarations for the goods import or export, preparing false tax declarations, while knowingly not mentioning but a portion of the incomes. The largest tax evasion - 60% - is generated from VAT, while social contributions generate approximately 24% of the total fiscal evasion, mainly through the phenomenon of “illegal work” (employees in the underground economy. For this purpose it is necessary a deep reform of the taxes administration, mainly in the direction of increasing the degree of tax collection. The phenomenon as a whole is very difficult to control and to quantify and to this contribute also the tax laws’ peculiarities, tax policies, corruption and the standard of living

  7. Tax Responses in Platform Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kind, Hans Jarle; Köthenbürger, Marko; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    Two-sided platform firms serve distinct customer groups that are connected through interdependent demand, and include major businesses such as the media industry, banking, and the software industry. A well known result of tax incidence is that consumers of a more heavily taxed good pay a higher...... price and thus buy less of the good. The present paper shows that this result need not hold in a two-sided market. On the contrary, a higher ad valorem tax may lower end-user prices and spur sales. Thus, two-sided platform firms may not at all engage in tax shifting via price increases. We further show...... that a higher ad valorem tax may undermine a firm's incentive to differentiate its product from that of its competitors. Finally, we demonstrate that the effects of increasing specific taxes may be the opposite of those of increasing value added taxes....

  8. Businessmen´s tax evasions

    OpenAIRE

    Karásková, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this bachelor thesis is categorize businessmen's tax evasions at personal income tax and find out their portion on total tax evasions. In the first chapter I focus on tax avoidance and tax evasion, causes of tax evasion and his measurement. Next parts of this thesis focus on businessmen's tax evasion at personal income tax. In the second part I describe some very frequented cases of tax evasions revealed by revenue authorities. In the last part I analyse these tax evasions, c...

  9. Environmental taxes and transaction costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollebergh, Herman R.J.

    1994-06-01

    A well-known tax policy principle in the case of environmental bads holds that optimality would apply to a special class of environmental taxes, the so called Pigovian or effluent taxes (or fees or charges). However, an interesting paradox arises here for effluent taxes are seldom chosen in practical policies by governments. An explanation for this discrepancy is that effluent taxes are generally supposed to bring about the highest amount of transaction costs in order to enforce this kind of tax. This would be caused by the fact that usually large numbers of agents are involved if effluents are taken as the principal tax base. Unfortunately this explanation seems to boomerang for it brings about an impossibility result: effluent taxes can never be first best taxes if transaction costs are allowed. Up till now theoretical economics has not paid much attention to this problem. In contrast this essay offers an explanation for the discrepancy and it shows why the impossibility theorem is a paradox. As soon as one allows for transaction costs in welfare analysis, one not only has to acknowledge that such costs are attached to the internalization device but also to the initial status quo. Moreover, the amount of transaction costs is not independent of the tax contracts themselves, neither are the benefits of regulation through taxation. Accordingly a more general welfare assessment of questions where it is optimal to levy environmental taxes shows that first best Pigovian taxes need not be effluent taxes (even if abatement is possible), although in some cases effluent taxes might still be the best policy option from an economic perspective. 31 refs

  10. Externalities and carbon taxes: Status and impacts on coal use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    More than half of the Nation's public utility commissions have developed, are developing, or are seriously considering the use of environmental externalities in the selection of new electric power generation. Most externality-based resource planning approaches heavily penalize carbon dioxide emissions and therefore the externality issue is linked closely to the issue of carbon taxes. Several foreign countries have instituted carbon taxes and many state and federal legislators and policy makers favor carbon taxes as a means of reducing carbon dioxide emissions which are believed to play a major role in future global warming. Both externalities and carbon taxes will have a disproportionate and a significant impact on future coal use because of the relatively higher proportion of carbon in coal compared to other fossil fuels and the absence of carbon in other means of electricity generation. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to report on the status of carbon taxes and externality-based electric utility resource allocation requirements around the world with an emphasis on the US, and (2) to present a review of the literature dealing with estimated impacts of these policies on coal use, in general, and the deployment of specific coal-using technologies in particular

  11. Earmarking Tobacco Taxes for Health Purposes via Median Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Igoumenidis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal policies are an especially promising lever for reducing the burden of non-communicable diseases and injuries (1. On World No Tobacco Day 2014, World Health Organization (WHO repeated with greater intensity its well-known proposal (2 on raising tobacco taxes to encourage users to stop or reduce consumption, and to prevent potential users from taking up smoking. Evidence as to why this is an effective strategy abounds (3. Despite concerns over manufacturers’ political influence, technical problems such as tax manipulation, and increased smuggling considerations, it is hoped that governments shall be scaling their efforts toward this direction in the next few years, by enforcing increases in specific excise taxes. A 2011 review of more than 100 econometric studies estimates that doubling inflation-adjusted prices should reduce consumption by about one third (4. In terms of revenue, WHO estimates that raising specific excise taxes on tobacco to double prices would raise about 100 billion US dollars per year worldwide, in addition to the approximately 300 billion US dollars that governments already collect on tobacco (5. Each country enforcing such taxes must decide how to allocate their share of this prospective additional revenue in advance. Careful consideration is particularly important; this is a chance for tobacco to atone, partly at least, for the damage it has inflicted throughout the years of its uncontrollable use.

  12. Imperfect tax competition for profits, asymmetric equilibrium and beneficial tax havens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    We present a model of tax competition for real investment and profits and show that the presence of tax havens in some cases increases the tax revenue of countries. In the first part of the paper, we argue that tax competition for profits is likely to be imperfect in the sense that the jurisdiction......-tax countries. In the second part of the paper, we introduce tax havens. Starting from a symmetric equilibrium, tax havens unambiguously reduce the tax revenue of countries due to a ‘leakage effect' - tax havens attract tax base from countries - and a 'competition effect' - the optimal response to the increased...... tax sensitivity of tax bases involves a reduction of tax rates. Starting from an asymmetric equilibrium, however, tax havens also raise the tax revenue of countries through a 'crowding effect' - tax havens make it less attractive to compete for profits and thus induce low-tax countries to become high...

  13. TAX RESEARCH Financial Accounting versus Tax Accounting - Tax Rules’ Impact on Investment Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Skender Ahmeti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides guidance for all those interested in research related to tax. In the study are included three main areas dealing with taxes and about taxes: (1 the role of information in corporation tax expenditures under the rules and laws of the country against financial statements according to international accounting standards, (2 case study PTK; how much effective tax and tax on extra profit has it paid (3 the impact of tax rules on investment decisions - the reasons and profits of the company and the host country. We will try to summarize here the three areas of study and come to some conclusions on how to deal with fiscal policy in Kosovo. In addition, we will offer our opinion on some interesting and important questions for future research.

  14. INTERPRETATION OF TAX TREATIES

    OpenAIRE

    Uzeltürk, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Nations benefit economically when their companies work abroad and develop their strength in international markets. Economic power also brings international political power and prestige. When dealing with international business, taxation is one o f the most important problems. Double taxation, which is to tax the same profit by two or more countries, is a serious obstacle that confronts international enterprises. Unless double taxation is avoided it will be difficult for enterprises to conduct...

  15. Energy prices and taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Energy Prices and Taxes contains a major international compilation of energy prices at all market levels: import prices, industry prices and consumer prices. The statistics cover main petroleum products, gas, coal and electricity, giving for imported products an average price both for importing country and country of origin. Every issue includes full notes on sources and methods and a description of price mechanisms in each country

  16. Confidentiality versus transparency in contemporary tax law

    OpenAIRE

    Anđelković, Mileva

    2017-01-01

    Dilemma with regard to defining limit between tax confidentiality and tax transparency is particulary expressed in contemporary tax law. International tax relations indicate that countries tend towards fostering tax transparency with the expect of better collection of taxes and fair distribution of tax burden. The right to secrecy and confidentiality of personal data, as one of the basic rights, guarantees taxpayers that data collected about them shall be used only for the purpose of taxation...

  17. Ecological tax reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  18. Ecological tax reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  19. TAX RISK MANAGEMENT IN THE MODEL TAX CONTROL INUNIVERSITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Evloeva M.M.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the features of tax risks in educational institutions. Purpose: To prevent violations of tax laws, reducing the likelihood oftax risks. Methodology: the creation of institutions of higher education in the department of internal fiscal control and the introduction of the method of tax risk management. Results: of the study clarified and systematized the purpose and objectives of fiscal control of higher education institutions have been identified and classified riskoobra...

  20. Optimal allocation of sensors for state estimation of distributed parameter systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunahara, Yoshifumi; Ohsumi, Akira; Mogami, Yoshio.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a method for finding the optimal allocation of sensors for state estimation of linear distributed parameter systems. This method is based on the criterion that the error covariance associated with the state estimate becomes minimal with respect to the allocation of the sensors. A theorem is established, giving the sufficient condition for optimizing the allocation of sensors to make minimal the error covariance approximated by a modal expansion. The remainder of this paper is devoted to illustrate important phases of the general theory of the optimal measurement allocation problem. To do this, several examples are demonstrated, including extensive discussions on the mutual relation between the optimal allocation and the dynamics of sensors. (author)

  1. A tax proposal for a cash flow corporate tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Jerez Barroso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Due to its advantages in terms of neutrality and simplicity, the aim of this paper is to design a tax base for corporation cash flows, as well as to develop its practical implementation.Design/Methodology: The conceptual aspects and the background of tax on corporation tax flows are reviewed and a tax base that levies a charge on the corporation’s economical activities’ cash flow is then proposed. In order to carry this out, a methodological procedure is developed on the basis of the accounting documents that companies must present and through which the stock variables and the accounting documents’ work flow is transformed into cash flow.Findings: An implementation on the basis of the accounting documents that Spanish companies must present. Practical Implications: This paper defines the procedure to follow in order to determine the tax base of a cash flow corporate income tax on the basis of its accounts, which would allow an estimation of this tax figure’s revenue impact.Originality/ Value: The design of a tax base of cash flows for companies. The accounting approximation carried out to determine the cash flows justifies the fact that the tax base proposal is technically possible.

  2. A tax proposal for a cash flow corporate tax

    OpenAIRE

    Lourdes Jerez Barroso; Joaquín Texeira Quirós

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Due to its advantages in terms of neutrality and simplicity, the aim of this paper is to design a tax base for corporation cash flows, as well as to develop its practical implementation.Design/Methodology: The conceptual aspects and the background of tax on corporation tax flows are reviewed and a tax base that levies a charge on the corporation’s economical activities’ cash flow is then proposed. In order to carry this out, a methodological procedure is developed on the basis of the...

  3. Bureaucratic Tax-Seeking: The Danish Waste Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Henrik; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2002-01-01

    model. These suggestions are confirmed by the case of the Danish waste tax with its fixed price approach and perverse incentives compared to that of achieving environmental target levels in a cost-minimising way. Thus, we recommend that bureaucratic institutions should coordinate their tax...... fishermen or hunters (here named "bureaucratic tax-seeking"). Second, the absence of a strong and fully informed troop leader prevents rational coordination of collective action. Taxing citizens or firms is then like harvesting rents from a natural resource and therefore we apply a common-pool resource...

  4. Children prenatally exposed to maternal anxiety devote more attentional resources to neutral pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Marion I; Henrichs, Jens; Donkers, Franc C L; Van den Bergh, Bea R H

    2017-10-22

    Maternal anxiety during pregnancy can negatively affect fetal neurodevelopment, predisposing the offspring to a higher risk of behavioral and emotional problems later in life. The current study investigates the association between maternal anxiety during pregnancy and child affective picture processing using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Mothers reported anxiety during the second trimester using the anxiety subscale of the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90). At age 4 years, child affective picture processing (N = 86) was measured by recording ERPs during viewing of neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant pictures selected from the International Affective Pictures System. The late positive potential (LPP)-an ERP component reflecting individual differences in affective processing-was used as child outcome. The expected positive association between maternal anxiety and LPP amplitude for unpleasant pictures was not found. Nevertheless, we found a positive association between maternal anxiety during pregnancy and LPP amplitudes for neutral pictures in the middle and late time window at anterior locations (all p age at birth and after FDR correction for multiple comparisons. Our study provides neurophysiological evidence that children prenatally exposed to higher maternal anxiety devote more attentional resources to neutral pictures, but not to unpleasant pictures. Possibly, these children show enhanced vigilance for threat when viewing neutral pictures. Although useful in dangerous environments, this enhanced vigilance may predispose children prenatally exposed to higher maternal anxiety to developing behavioral and/or emotional problems later in life. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kEzYi6IS2HA. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The chemo and the mona: inhalants, devotion and street youth in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigengack, Roy

    2014-01-01

    This paper understands inhalant use--the deliberate inhalation of volatile solvents or glues with intentions of intoxication--as a socially and culturally constituted practice. It describes the inhalant use of young street people in Mexico City from their perspective ("the vicioso or inhalant fiend's point of view"). Even if inhalant use is globally associated with economic inequality and deprivation, there is a marked lack of ethnography. Incomprehension and indignation have blocked our understanding of inhalant use as a form of marginalised drug use. The current explanation models reduce inhalant consumption to universal factors and individual motives; separating the practice from its context, these models tend to overlook gustatory meanings and experiences. The paper is informed by long-term, on-going fieldwork with young street people in Mexico City. Fieldwork was done from 1990 through 2010, in regular periods of fieldwork and shorter visits, often with Mexican colleagues. We created extensive sets of fieldnotes, which were read and re-read. "Normalcy" is a striking feature of inhalant use in Mexico City. Street-wise inhabitants of popular neighbourhoods have knowledge about inhalants and inhalant users, and act accordingly. Subsequently, Mexico City's elaborate street culture of sniffing is discussed, that is, the range of inhalants used, how users classify the substances, and their techniques for sniffing. The paper also distinguishes three patterns of inhalant use, which more or less correlate with age. These patterns indicate embodiments of street culture: the formation within users of gusto, that is, an acquired appetite for inhalants, and of vicio, the inhalant fiends' devotion to inhalants. What emerges from the ethnographic findings is an elaborate street culture of sniffing, a complex configuration of shared perspectives and embodied practices, which are shaped by and shaping social exclusion. These findings are relevant to appreciate and address the

  6. Slovenian income taxes and analysis of their tax expenditure in 2006-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Klun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tax expenditure analyses have been an important element in the supervision of reform processes linked to implementing different kinds of tax incentive and the management of a correct tax policy. The paper provides an evaluation of tax expenditure in Slovenia relating to personal income tax and corporate income tax. Four consecutive tax years were selected for the calculation of the tax expenditure on personal income tax (2006-09, while three consecutive years were selected for the corporate income tax calculation (2008-10. The tax expenditure calculated for personal income tax was highest in 2006 and reached 5.2% of GDP. After several changes in personal income tax, expenditures decreased to around 3% of GDP in the following three years. The tax expenditure calculated for corporate income tax was much lower as compared to GDP than for personal income tax, reaching around 0.2% of GDP.

  7. Alcohol Taxes and Birth Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationships between alcohol taxation, drinking during pregnancy, and infant health. Merged data from the US Natality Detailed Files, as well as the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (1985–2002, data regarding state taxes on beer, wine, and liquor, a state- and year-fixed-effect reduced-form regression were used. Results indicate that a one-cent ($0.01 increase in beer taxes decreased the incidence of low-birth-weight by about 1–2 percentage points. The binge drinking participation tax elasticity is −2.5 for beer and wine taxes and −9 for liquor taxes. These results demonstrate the potential intergenerational impact of increasing alcohol taxes.

  8. Ireland unveils petroleum tax measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Ireland's government has introduced detailed petroleum tax legislation designed to boost offshore exploration and development. The petroleum tax measures, published last week and included in the government's omnibus finance bill for 1992, will provide Ireland for the first time a comprehensive petroleum tax regime. They include elements which, in tax terms, will make Ireland a most attractive location for oil and gas exploration and development, the Irish Energy Minister Robert Molloy. He the, Exploration companies will now have the benefit of the certainty of a detailed tax framework and attractive tax rates. Debate on the finance bill has begun in the Irish Dail (parliament). Under Ireland's constitution, the budget bill must be approved and signed by the president by the end of May. Failure to approve a budget bill within that time would mean the current government's collapse

  9. Tax Havens in the Offshore World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu-Bogdan Constantin

    2016-01-01

    Through taxation governments get money to fulfil their role in society. It plays a major role ininvestment decisions and can be also an innoportunity for taxpayers. Tax havens are tax free areasthat have the status of states and function legally. Their main business is to attract money bycreating taxpayers friendly environments and by total secrecy. Panama is the biggest USinfluencedtax haven. Tax evasion through tax havens is illegal and is the evading of declaringand paying taxes. Tax avoidance through tax havens is the legally avoiding of declaring andpaying taxes. Tax havens are not illegal but are immoral because vast amounts of money drainfrom the states around the world to them.

  10. 7 CFR 1925.3 - Servicing taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... each borrower to pay taxes promptly in order to avoid any penalties. Normally, this can be accomplished... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Servicing taxes. 1925.3 Section 1925.3 Agriculture... TAXES Real Estate Tax Servicing § 1925.3 Servicing taxes. (a) The County Supervisor will be responsible...

  11. Waste Tax 1987-1996

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. S.; Dengsøe, N.; Brendstrup, S.

    The report gives an ex-post evaluation of the Danish waste tax from 1987 to 1996. The evaluation shows that the waste tax has had a significant impact on the reductions in taxable waste. The tax has been decisive for the reduction in construction and demolition waste, while for the heavier...... fractions under 'household waste', it has provided an important incentive for separate collection....

  12. Corporate income taxes and entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Block, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    Corporate income taxation influences the quantity and type of entrepreneurship, which in turn affects economic development. Empirical evidence shows that higher corporate income tax rates reduce business density and entrepreneurship entry rates and increase the capital size of new firms. The progressivity of tax rates increases entrepreneurship entry rates, whereas highly complex tax codes reduce them. Policymakers should understand the effects and underlying mechanisms that determine how cor...

  13. The 1990 utility tax conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This article reports on the Sixth Annual Utility Tax Conference held in Washington, D.C. in October. Topics of the conference concerned tax issues associated with depreciable assets, employee benefits plans, valuation on utility property, pollution control, and restructuring and reorganization. Also discussed briefly were the tax changes being considered at that time as part of the negotiation of the details of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act

  14. SSC accelerator availability allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, K.T.; Franciscovich, J.

    1991-03-01

    Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) operational availability is an area of major concern, judged by the Central Design Group to present such risk that use of modern engineering tools would be essential to program success. Experience has shown that as accelerator beam availability falls below about 80%, efficiency of physics experiments degrades rapidly due to inability to maintain adequate coincident accelerator and detector operation. For this reason, the SSC availability goal has been set at 80%, even though the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory accelerator, with a fraction of the SSC's complexity, has only recently approached that level. This paper describes the allocation of the top-level goal to part-level reliability and maintainability requirements, and it gives the results of parameter sensitivity studies designed to help identify the best approach to achieve the needed system availability within funding and schedule constraints. 1 ref., 12 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Trade Effects of Export Taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Solleder

    2013-01-01

    Export taxes usage has recently risen. They are widely presumed to affect trade, but the lack of data has prevented a systematic evaluation of their trade effects. Based on a new dataset of tax rates at the product level, this paper estimates the distortionary trade effects of export taxes. The results, which are based on theory-consistent estimation of a structural gravity model, indicate that the elasticity of trade quantities to tax is -1.8 on average, rising to -5.5 for extractive sectors...

  16. Taxes and Bribes in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagger, Pamela; Shively, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Using data from 433 firms operating along Uganda’s charcoal and timber supply chains we investigate patterns of bribe payment and tax collection between supply chain actors and government officials responsible for collecting taxes and fees. We examine the factors associated with the presence and magnitude of bribe and tax payments using a series of bivariate probit and Tobit regression models. We find empirical support for a number of hypotheses related to payments, highlighting the role of queuing, capital-at-risk, favouritism, networks, and role in the supply chain. We also find that taxes crowd-in bribery in the charcoal market. PMID:27274568

  17. Green tax reform in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1994-01-01

    Energy, transport and fuel taxes in Denmark have, since the late 1970s, been among the highest in the OECD, and raise already more than 30 billion DKK annually to cover 10-12 per cent of the state household: a share that will be increased over the next five years with new green taxes. Furthermore......, Denmark is currently the only country within the European Union which has introduced a tax on CO2; although Germany and the Netherlands are also considering doing so, the Danish CO2 tax has been effective since 1 January 1993....

  18. MUNICIPAL TAX HARMONIZATION; ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belsy Tortolero

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This research work is a desk study to establish the technical and economic criteria that help to minimize double taxation at the municipal level of this tax in Venezuela, specifically for: industrial taxpayer, the taxpayer eventual merchant and / or walking, and to taxpayer service providers and implementers works on Hence the choice of the Tax Harmonisation Law of Municipal Public power in Article 162 of the Code, and the business tax. The methodology is based on the quantitative paradigm, with documentary research design, descriptive level - explanatory. Concluding that the criteria depend on the connecting factors set forth in the Law, and they are the same governing tax under study.

  19. Property Taxes and Elderly Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Hui

    2010-03-01

    The 2000-05 housing market boom in the U.S. has caused sharp increases in residential property taxes. Housing-rich but income-poor elderly homeowners often complain about rising tax burdens, and anecdotal evidence suggests that some move to reduce their tax burden. There has been little systematic analysis, however, of the link between property tax levels and the mobility rate of elderly homeowners. This paper investigates this link using household-level panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and a newly collected data set on state-provided property tax relief programs. These relief programs generate variation in effective property tax burdens that is not due solely to arguably endogenous local community choices about taxes and expenditure programs. The findings provide evidence suggesting that higher property taxes raise mobility among elderly homeowners. The point estimates from instrumental variable estimation using relief programs to generate instruments suggest that a $100 increase in annual property taxes is associated with a 0.73 percentage point increase in the two-year mobility rate for homeowners over the age of 50. This is an eight percent increase from the baseline two-year mobility rate of nine percent. These results are robust to alternative specifications.

  20. Taxes and Bribes in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagger, Pamela; Shively, Gerald

    Using data from 433 firms operating along Uganda's charcoal and timber supply chains we investigate patterns of bribe payment and tax collection between supply chain actors and government officials responsible for collecting taxes and fees. We examine the factors associated with the presence and magnitude of bribe and tax payments using a series of bivariate probit and Tobit regression models. We find empirical support for a number of hypotheses related to payments, highlighting the role of queuing, capital-at-risk, favouritism, networks, and role in the supply chain. We also find that taxes crowd-in bribery in the charcoal market.

  1. Enhancing the Alberta Tax Advantage with a Harmonized Sales Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Bazel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Alberta enjoys a reputation as a fiercely competitive jurisdiction when it comes to tax rates. But the reality is that the province can do better with a tax mix that has greater emphasis on consumption, rather than income tax levies. While Alberta has a personal tax advantage compared to other Canadian jurisdictions — but not the United States — it relies most heavily on income taxes and non-resource revenues that impinges on investment and saving. Taxes on new investment in Alberta’s non-resource sectors are no better than average, compared to other countries in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, or OECD, so it is not exceptionally attractive to many different kinds of investors. And Alberta’s corporate income tax rate is not much more competitive than the world average for manufacturing and service companies. By introducing the Harmonized Sales Tax with a provincial rate of 8 per cent (in addition to the federal 5 per cent rate, Alberta has the ability to make its tax system more competitive. An HST would even allow the province to entirely eliminate income tax for the majority of families. And because the HST would be easily administered using the same collection mechanisms that already exist for the GST, implementing a new Alberta HST could be done relatively smoothly and with minimal additional administration costs. Adopting an Alberta HST is the simplest, most efficient and fairest way to reform the provincial tax system, and will deliver noticeable benefits to Albertans, most visibly in the form of significant income tax relief. It would enable the province to raise the income-tax exemption from $17,593 to $57,250, making it possible for couples to earn up to $114,500 free of any provincial income taxes. In addition, the province could lower income tax rates for income over that amount from 10 to nine per cent. And with the revenue from the HST, Alberta would have the capacity to lower its general corporate

  2. 26 CFR 53.6651-1 - Failure to file tax return or to pay tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Failure to file tax return or to pay tax. 53... Administration § 53.6651-1 Failure to file tax return or to pay tax. (a) General rules. For general rules relating to the failure to file tax return or to pay tax, see the regulations under section 6651 contained...

  3. 26 CFR 1.641(a)-1 - Imposition of tax; application of tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Imposition of tax; application of tax. 1.641(a... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.641(a)-1 Imposition of tax; application of tax. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1970, section 641 prescribes...

  4. Importance measures and resource allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guey, C.N.; Morgan, T.; Hughes, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses various importance measures and their practical relevance to allocating resources. The characteristics of importance measures are illustrated through simple examples. Important factors associated with effectively allocating resources to improve plant system performance or to prevent system degradation are discussed. It is concluded that importance measures are only indicative of and not equal to the risk significance of a component, system, or event. A decision framework is suggested to provide a comprehensive basis for resource allocation

  5. Optimal Tax Depreciation under a Progressive Tax System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielhouwer, J.L.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Kort, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the effect of a progressive tax system on optimal tax depreciation. By using dynamic optimization we show that an optimal strategy exists, and we provide an analytical expression for the optimal depreciation charges. Depreciation charges initially decrease over time,

  6. Bureaucratic Tax-Seeking: The Danish Waste Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Henrik; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2002-01-01

    model. These suggestions are confirmed by the case of the Danish waste tax with its fixed price approach and perverse incentives compared to that of achieving environmental target levels in a cost-minimising way. Thus, we recommend that bureaucratic institutions should coordinate their tax...

  7. Willingness to Pay for Tourist Tax in Destinations: Empirical Evidence from Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurel Cetin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Revenue generated from tourism taxes constitutes an important financial resource for local governments and tourism authorities to both ensure tourism sustainability and enhance the quality of tourist experiences. In order for tourism policy makers to create an efficient and fair tax system in tourism destinations, it is crucial to understand travelers’ perceptions concerning willingness to pay (WTP, tax rates, and their optimal allocation. The objectives of this paper, therefore, are to evaluate tourism taxes as a compensation tool to cover the costs of tourism and to measure tourists’ WTP. The paper also suggests a fair allocation of tax revenues based on tourists’ perceptions. A qualitative approach was used and data were collected through semi-structured in-depth interviews with international travelers to Istanbul, Turkey. The findings suggest that tourists are more likely to pay an additional amount of tax when this is earmarked for improvements in their experiences, but they are reluctant to take on liability concerning matters relating to destination sustainability. Based on the travelers’ perceptions, the paper also identified areas that need investment to improve tourist experiences. An interesting highlight of this paper is that the majority of surveyed respondents reported that their travel decisions would not be negatively affected even if the total cost of their vacation increased by one third. The findings are expected to offer fresh and much-needed insights into tourist taxation for tourism policy makers and stakeholders.

  8. The Effect of the Amendments to the Tax Laws of Financial Leasing on Capital Budgeting Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Bal

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available With an amendment to the Tax Law in 2003 in Turkey, there have emerged some important tax implementations in financial leasing operations. Before the amendment, the whole financial leasing payment was regarded expense in terms of the leasing firm, on the other hand, the lease-holder was not able to allocate amortization since the property of the goods does not belong to the lease holder. Along with the amendment in the Tax Law, the lease-holder is now able to allocate amortization for the goods leased and not able to charge the goods leased as expense, only the interest fees are regarded as expense naturally, this affects the decision of the capital budgeting for the firms. The main objective of this study is to examine the extent to which this affects the capital budgeting decisions. In this paper, we examine the effect of before and after the amendment of the tax procedural law on the capital budgeting decisions, using the free cash flow to equity, to what extent this affect the net present value of the project with a sample investment project. The results obtained suggest that the net present value of a Project to be financed through financial leasing before the amendment to the tax laws might be lower after the amendment to the tax law.

  9. Tax-tariff reform with costs of tax administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Knud Jørgen

    As is broadly recognized, the straightforward application of the Diamond-Mirrlees (1971) production efficiency theorem implies that when lump-sum taxation is not available, then it is optimal for the government in a small open economy to rely on taxes on the net demand of ouseholds rather than...... on border taxes to finance its resource requirements. However, the theorem does not hold when taxation is associated with administrative costs. The present paper explores the implications of taking into account the costs of tax administration for optimal taxation and for desirable directions of tax......-tariff reform in countries at different levels of economic development. The paper clarifies the reasons for, and lends support to, the criticism by Stiglitz (2003) of the IMF and the World Bank's recommendation to developing countries to adopt VAT to replace border taxes....

  10. Deferred Tax Assets and Deferred Tax Expense Against Tax Planning Profit Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warsono

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the probability of earnings management performed by Property and Real Estate companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange (BEI in the period 2011-2015. How to do the management to influence the accounting numbers can be either profit management through deferred tax assets, deferred tax expense and tax planning in the financial statements. This paper examines the effect of deferred tax assets deferred tax burden, and tax planning to earnings management conducted by the company. Data of the research is to use secondary data from company financial statements that were downloaded from the official website of Indonesia Stock Exchange. Using sampling technique is performed by purposive sampling. The study population is the Property and Real Estate companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange in the period 2011-2015. The study take sample as many as 34 companies Property and Real Estate in the Stock Exchange in 2011-2015. Hypothesis testing uses multiple regressions with SPSS software version 22. The result shows that the Deferred Tax Assets positive and significant effect on earnings management; while deferred tax expense and tax planning significant negative effect on earnings management.

  11. DEVOTIONAL OBJECTS IN A PERIFERICAL COLONIAL CITY (SANTIAGO DE CHILE 1598 – 1610; 1692 – 1710: AN INITIAL RESEARCH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Schenke

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper sketches in a programmatic manner the main lines of an ongoing PHD research that tries to find out which images and objects of devotion existed, were in use or vanished in Santiago de Chile during two specific periods: 1598–1610/ 1692–1710. The research relates the variation in the presence of these objects to the devotional, social and urban contexts to which they belong. Grounded in a quantitative research of notarial and ecclesiastical sources, it aims to find every single object around which some special religious practice revolves: sculptures, prints, canvas boards, relics, medallions, rosaries and crosses. An estimate of the proportion in which each of this kinds of devotional elements occurs should afford us a better understanding of their organic combinations and their shared meanings. This paper faces the multiple aspects involved in this field of inquiry, as well as its status quaestionis and the methodological approaches of this research.

  12. Typology of taxpayers and tax policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niesiobedzka Malgorzata

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The issue how to reduce of tax evasion is widely discussed in the literature. A public authority may affect the behavior of taxpayers, not only through economic factors, but also by strengthen fiscal discipline. In this process especially role play such issues as tax morale, tax mentality and perceived tax justice. The purpose of the study was to identify groups of taxpayers with similar attitudes towards taxes and similar tax behaviors. Cluster analysis elicited four types of tax payers: Intrinsic Tax Payer, External Tax Payer, Intrinsic Tax Evader, External Tax Evader. In the study the most common were the first two types of taxpayers. Elicited types correspond with motivational tax postures identified by Braithwaite(2001, 2003 and Torgler (2003. The conclusions sum up the key issues discussed, policy implications and the limitation of the analysis.

  13. Symmetric tax competition under formula apportionment

    OpenAIRE

    Eggert, Wolfgang; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2003-01-01

    This paper compares property taxation to a corporate income tax based on formula apportionment in a model where identical countries compete to attract capital. We find that if countries can pair a residence-based capital tax with a property tax (source tax on capital) the tax equilibrium is efficient. In contrast, the use of a 2-factor FA scheme based on sales and capital combined with a residence-based capital tax leads to an inefficient outcome.

  14. An Analysis of Tax Buoyancy Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq Rasheed

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available By using econometric techniques for estimating tax elasticities, this paper findssignificant but low tax buoyancy rates for GDP, M0 and volume of trade. Surprisingly,the theoretically important factor of tax evasion (SFTR was found to be ineffective. Thisindicates that SFTR is not an adequate measure of tax evasion. There is no significantassociation between tax revenue growth and investment, credit, public debt and inflation.This illustrates the weakness of the tax regime in Pakistan.

  15. Two prototype tools for assessing good environmental/ecological status (GES) in aquatic ecosystems – DEVOTES and WATERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Ciarán; Carstensen, Jacob; Andersen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    We present two prototype tools for assessment of GES (good ecological status and good environmental status) in aquatic ecosystems: the DEVOTES biodiversity assessment tool (for the MSFD) and the WATERS ecological status assessment tool (for the WFD). Both tools are multi-metric indicator......-based tools, which classify ecological/environmental status in two classes (good or not good) and five classes (High, Good, Moderate, Poor or Bad) by comparing observed indicator values with specified status classification boundaries. Assessments are made for geographical entities (“sectors” in DEVOTES...

  16. ‘Guru’ devotion in India: Socio-cultural perspectives and current trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Gavankar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ‘Guru’ devotion in India: Socio-cultural perspectives and current trends Though the academic study of religion is considered nascent in India, eminent scholars speak of Hindu restoration and the evolution of a guru. In a highly dynamic and pluralistic India, various sociological perspectives stand valid even today, for a better understanding into the spurt of the new movements – religious, spiritual and charismatic. These offer several insights into the evolution of the ‘guru phenomenon’ in the country. We have come a long way from the traditional guru to the contemporary godman (godwoman. The ‘Guru’ in India has today entered the realm of religion. Despite having access to a wide pantheon of divine entities, what makes a people of a nation in current civilized and better literate times, cut across all barriers of caste and religion (also class and surrender one’s all to that one ultimate authority called a ‘guru’? What makes him ‘god’? This paper attempts to comprehend, appreciate and study the evolution and progression of the ‘guru’ tradition in India - with an understanding of some sociological perspectives, the need for a ‘Guru’, role in Indian society, related psychoanalysis, and finally current trends. As we do so, this would only be the beginning of a journey in discovering the numerous traditions and movements that come to be associated with this phenomenon, each enshrined with its own trends, plentiful stories and abundant miracles – taking it to a new level, altogether.   Zjawisko guru w Indiach. Perspektywy społeczno-kulturowe i aktualne kierunki Chociaż akademickie studia nad religią nadal postrzegane są w Indiach jako nowość, to wybitni uczeni mówią o hinduskim odnowieniu i ewolucji „guru”. W dynamicznych i pluralistycznych Indiach wciąż pojawiają się różnorodne koncepcje socjologiczne mające pomóc w lepszym zrozumieniu wzrostu liczby nowych ruchów religijnych, duchowych i

  17. Tax incentives in fiscal federalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelders, Christian; Köthenbürger, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Models of fiscal federalism rarely account for the efficiency implications of intergovernmental fiscal ties for federal tax policy. This paper shows that fiscal institutions such that federal tax deductibility, vertical revenue-sharing, and fiscal equalization (being common features of existing...

  18. Tax rates as strategic substitutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Vrijburg (Hendrik); R.A. de Mooij (Ruud)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analytically derives conditions under which the slope of the tax-reaction function is negative in a classical tax competition model. If countries maximize welfare, a negative slope (reflecting strategic substitutability) occurs under relatively mild conditions. The strategic

  19. Local Tax Reform in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, William T.

    This report reviews local tax reform and describes an approach to simulating the effects of proposed tax reform on local school districts in Pennsylvania. The microcomputer spreadsheet simulation led to the development of a model able to meet the feasibility criteria established for such a simulation model. The model was designed to input…

  20. Fund Raising After Tax Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, Mike

    1987-01-01

    Major implications for fund raising in higher education due to the Tax Reform Act of 1986 are discussed. A list of fund- raising resolutions includes: going back to basics and working harder; consequences of last year's donation rush; and answering questions on the new alternative minimum tax. (MLW)

  1. The Sugar Tax in Holland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ajjaji, Fadoua

    2016-01-01

    This inquiry supports the theory of a sugar tax has a positive influence on the sugar consumption of Dutch individuals. Once a tax is implemented, the sugar consumption declines. Furthermore, this study supported the hypothesis claiming that children have a positive influence on their parental sugar

  2. A choice experiment on tax: Are income and consumption taxes equivalent?

    OpenAIRE

    Kurokawa, Hirofumi; Mori, Tomoharu; Ohtake, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    We test the equivalence of income and consumption taxes through a choice experiment. Under a given set of income and consumption parameters, subjects were asked to choose among an income tax of 20%, a consumption tax of 25% (which is an equivalent tax burden), a consumption tax of 22%, and a consumption tax of 20%. Our results showed that subjects prefer income tax to consumption tax when the nominal consumption tax rate is higher than the nominal income tax rate. However, subjects tend to pr...

  3. Tax wedge on labour income in Croatia and the European Union : Preface to the special issue of Financial Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Urban

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is a preface to a special issue of Financial Theory and Practice, which is devoted to the comparison of tax wedge on labour income in Croatia and other EU countries. The articles in this issue have arisen from the students’ research project, undertaken in 2015. This Preface outlines the motivation behind the research project, explains the most important methodological issues, and reviews the literature on the measurement of tax wedge in Croatia.

  4. The tax credit in favor of the renewable energies and the energy savings bear fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document presents in the first part the positive economical results obtained by the implementing in January 2005, of a tax credit majored of 40% in favor of equipments using a renewable energy source. The second part is devoted to other financial incentives in the domain of energy saving and renewable energies uses. Specifications concerning the equipments and legal aspects are presented. (A.L.B.)

  5. Electronic Commerce: A Taxing Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven John Simon

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last five years, remote selling-led by online organizations - has surged. The resulting growth has created concern among both traditional and remote sellers as they jockey for improved competitive position and governmental entities, in particular US states, over the erosion of their tax revenues as sales are diverted to remote sellers. This paper explores the issues and potential solutions surrounding the e-commerce tax dilemma. It provides a current assessment of the taxation environment for individuals and organizations impacted by the tax debate. Those individuals and organizations might include online business customers, remote sellers both traditional (mail order and online, tax equity organizations, and governmental bodies. Current tax obligations are explored based on landmark legal decisions. Potential short and long -term solutions are assessed.

  6. Tax me if you can

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Catrine; Piovesan, Marco

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we test whether increased salience of a tax charge increases dishonesty using a version of the die-under-cup paradigm. Participants earn money in proportion to the outcome reported and, thus, have an incentive to over-report. We find a significant increase in high outcomes in the p......In this paper, we test whether increased salience of a tax charge increases dishonesty using a version of the die-under-cup paradigm. Participants earn money in proportion to the outcome reported and, thus, have an incentive to over-report. We find a significant increase in high outcomes...... in the presence of a tax frame suggesting that participants use the tax as an excuse to rationalize their dishonest act. In addition, we tested whether adding an explanation for the adoption of the tax would increase honesty. We find evidence for reversed dishonesty with participants reporting significantly more...

  7. Energy taxes in practice. Energy tax - electricity tax - biofuel quota - energy tax compliance. 3. upd. and rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, Roland M.; Thoms, Anahita

    2016-01-01

    You need a quick and easy overview of the legal provisions of the energy tax law? You would like to understand the relationship between the European and national regulations and their impact on the daily practice? This manual prepares the energy tax, electricity tax and biofuel quota law for you clearly on and illustrated by examples, what to look in practice in order to avoid pitfalls. It picks up especially contentious issues and problems, discusses the relevant case law and the relevant regulations and finally gives precise recommendations for daily practice. Based on practice notes, examples and diagrams you can easily identify how to transfer the legal requirements on the own workspaces or optionally can use tax breaks. This includes information on both simplified - and thus less subject to error - methods and to tax exemptions and credits. The manual is complemented by forms, extracts from the Combined Nomenclature and an online material collection with regulatory and legal texts. [de

  8. Tax me if you can

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Catrine; Piovesan, Marco

    In this paper, we test whether increased salience of a tax charge increases dishonesty using a version of the die-under-cup paradigm. Participants earn money in proportion to the outcome reported and, thus, have an incentive to over-report. We find a significant increase in high outcomes in the p......In this paper, we test whether increased salience of a tax charge increases dishonesty using a version of the die-under-cup paradigm. Participants earn money in proportion to the outcome reported and, thus, have an incentive to over-report. We find a significant increase in high outcomes...... in the presence of a tax frame suggesting that participants use the tax as an excuse to rationalize their dishonest act. In addition, we tested whether adding an explanation for the adoption of the tax would increase honesty. We find evidence for reversed dishonesty with participants reporting significantly more...

  9. Risk allocation under liquidity constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Csóka, P.; Herings, P.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Risk allocation games are cooperative games that are used to attribute the risk of a financial entity to its divisions. In this paper, we extend the literature on risk allocation games by incorporating liquidity considerations. A liquidity policy specifies state-dependent liquidity requirements that

  10. 26 CFR 20.0-2 - General description of tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Introduction § 20.0-2 General description of tax. (a) Nature of tax. The Federal estate tax is neither a property tax nor an inheritance tax... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General description of tax. 20.0-2 Section 20.0...

  11. The efficiency of energy taxes - the view of practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeberlin, A.

    1994-01-01

    From the discussion regarding the policy of environment and climate protection, the slogan 'ecological rearrangement of the tax system' is not more unthinkable. The centre of the different proposals is the introduction of annually increasing general energy taxes. The tax charge is to be compensated by a reduction of the employer's contribution for social insurance in the producing trade and by the disbursement of a - however defined - ecological bonus in the area of private households (for example the German institute for economic research (DIW): Ecological tax reform also solo) with a superficial consideration, the thesis based on the ecological rearrangement has absolutely charme: Through the scheduled increase in price regarding energy sources, stimulations for energy saving and CO 2 reductions are created. If this model, however, results in positive allocation effects in the final analysis with regard to the overall economcy and if dismissals can be avoided, reality depend on very complex relations of activity. Therefore, in the following it is attempted to present and to assess elementary relations of activity regarding an energy taxation based on empirical experiences. (orig./UA) [de

  12. Financial sector taxation: Financial activities tax or financial transaction tax?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuše Nerudová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent financial crises has revealed the need to improve and ensure the stability of the financial sector to reduce negative externalities, to ensure fair and substantial contribution of the financial sector to the public finances and the need to consolidate public finance. All those needs represent substantial arguments for the discussion about the introduction of financial sector taxation. There are discussed in the paper two possible schemes of financial sector taxation – financial transaction tax and financial activities tax. The aim of the paper is to research the possibility of the introduction of financial sector taxation, to discuss the pros and cons of two major candidates on financial sector taxation – financial transaction tax and financial activities tax and to suggest the possible candidate suitable for the implementation on the EU level. Financial transaction tax represents the tool suitable mainly on global level, for only in that case enables generate sufficient financial resources. From EU point of view is considered as less suitable, for it bears the risk of reallocation. Therefore the introduction of financial activities tax on EU level is considered as a better solution for the financial sector taxation in the EU, for financial sector is exempted from value added tax. With respect to the fact, that the implementation would represent the innovative approach to the financial sector taxation, there are no empirical proves and therefore this could be the subject of further research.

  13. Energy taxes, resource taxes and quantity rationing for climate protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenack, Klaus [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Kalkuhl, Matthias [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung e.V., Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Economic sectors react strategically to climate policy, aiming at a re-distribution of rents. Established analysis suggests a Pigouvian emission tax as efficient instrument, but also recommends factor input or output taxes under specific conditions. However, existing studies leave it open whether output taxes, input taxes or input rationing perform better, and at best only touch their distributional consequences. When emissions correspond to extracted ressources, it is questionable whether taxes are effective at all. We determine the effectiveness, efficiency and functional income distribution for these instruments in the energy and resource sector, based on a game theoretic growth model with explicit factor markets and policy instruments. Market equilibrium depends on a government that acts as a Stackelberg leader with a climate protection goal. We find that resource taxes and cumulative resource quantity rationing achieve this objective efficiently. Energy taxation is only second best. Mitigation generates a substantial ''climate rent'' in the resource sector that can be converted to transfer incomes by taxes. (orig.)

  14. HEALTH CARE SPENDING GROWTH AND THE FUTURE OF U.S. TAX RATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baicker, Katherine; Skinner, Jonathan S.

    2011-01-01

    The fraction of GDP devoted to health care in the United States is the highest in the world and rising rapidly. Recent economic studies have highlighted the growing value of health improvements, but less attention has been paid to the efficiency costs of tax-financed spending to pay for such improvements. This paper uses a life cycle model of labor supply, saving, and longevity improvement to measure the balanced-budget impact of continued growth in the Medicare and Medicaid programs. The model predicts that top marginal tax rates could rise to 70 percent by 2060, depending on the progressivity of future tax changes. The deadweight loss of the tax system is greater when the financing is more progressive. If the share of taxes paid by high-income taxpayers remains the same, the efficiency cost of raising the revenue needed to finance the additional health spending is $1.48 per dollar of revenue collected, and GDP declines (relative to trend) by 11 percent. A proportional payroll tax has a lower efficiency cost (41 cents per dollar of revenue averaged over all tax hikes, a 5 percent drop in GDP) but more than doubles the share of the tax burden borne by lower income taxpayers. Empirical support for the model comes from analysis of OECD country data showing that countries facing higher tax burdens in 1979 experienced slower health care spending growth in subsequent decades. The rising burden imposed by the public financing of health care expenditures may therefore serve as a brake on health care spending growth. PMID:21608156

  15. Introduction. Faithful to the cross in a Moving World : Late Mediëval Carthusians as Devotional Reformers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aelst, J.J.; van Dijk, Mathilde; Gaens, Tom

    2016-01-01

    This is the introduction to the thematic issue Faithful to the Cross in a Moving World: Late Medieval Carthusians as Devotional Reformers. The editors discuss how the Carthusian order expanded in the Late Middle Ages and how, in contrast to the first Carthusians, new charterhouses were created in or

  16. A Review of Factors for Tax Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta BARBUTA-MISU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify the variables of tax compliance analysed by researchers from various countries and adapting them to the Romanian conditions to create a model to include factors that influence decision of tax compliance. Tax compliance has been studied in economics by analysing the individual decision of a representative person between paying taxes and evading taxes. In the research of tax compliance have been done many empirical studies that emphasized the impact of a wide variety of potential determinants of voluntary compliance with individual income/profit tax filing and reporting obligations. The most important determinants identified are: economic factors as the level of income, audit probabilities, tax audit, tax rate, tax benefits, penalties, fines and other non-economic factors as attitudes toward taxes, personal, social and national norms, perceived fairness etc.

  17. Accumulation of Tax-Loss Carryforwards: The Role of Book-Tax Non-Conformity

    OpenAIRE

    Kohlhase, Saskia

    2016-01-01

    Using confidential corporate income tax return data, this paper investigates the association between book-tax non-conformity (measured as book-tax differences) and tax-loss carryforwards (TLCFs). I find that TLCFs are positively associated with temporary and permanent book-tax differences. Only firms with positive pre-tax book income and negative taxable income (double-picture firms) drive the positive association between TLCFs and temporary book-tax differences. Conversely, the positive asso...

  18. CONFLICTS IN THE INTERNATIONAL TAX LAW AND ANSWERS OF THE EUROPEAN TAX LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Éva ERDÕS

    2011-01-01

    This study tries to show the essence of the international tax law, and gives a definition of it, as the origine of the international tax conflicts, but secondly the international tax law solved the international tax conflicts. One device of the solving method of the international tax law is the international treaties between the Member States about the avoidance of the double taxation. We should give a definition to the European tax law, as the result of the European tax harmonisation, but th...

  19. Powerful subjects of tax law enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Dementyev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 342.6The subject. Competence of government bodies and their officials in the sphere of application of the tax law is considered in the article.The purpose of research is to determine the ratio of tax enforcement and application of the tax law, as well as the relationship between the concepts “party of tax enforcement” and “participant of tax legal relations”.Main results and scope of their application. The circle of participants of tax legal relations is broader than the circle of parties of tax law enforcement. The participants of tax legal relations are simultaneously the subjects of tax law, because they realize their tax status when enter into the tax relationships. The tax and customs authorities are the undoubted parties of the tax law enforcement.Although the financial authorities at all levels of government are not mentioned by article 9 of the Tax Code of the Russian Federation as participants of tax relations, they are parties of tax enforcement, because they make the agreement for deferment or installment payment of regional and local taxes.Scope of application. Clarification of participants of tax legal relations and determination of their mutual responsibility is essential to effective law enforcement.Conclusion. It was concluded that the scope tax law enforcement is tax proceedings, not administrative proceedings, civil (arbitration proceedings or enforcement proceedings.The application of the tax law is carried out not only in the form of tax relations, but also in relations of other branches of law.

  20. Faktor-Faktor yang Menyebabkan Wajib Pajak Melakukan Tax Offenses, Tax Fraud, dan Tax Evasion (Studi Empiris di KPP Pratama Medan-Polonia)

    OpenAIRE

    Amalia, Gita

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to analyze the influence of tax fairness, tax compliance, tax knowledge, tax system, and discrimination against taxpayer perception about the ethical of tax offenses, tax fraud, and tax evasion. This research was conducted at the tax service office Pratama MedanPolonia, with a sampling technique is convenience sampling and distributing the questionnaires until fifty questionnaires. All of the questionnaires given to the taxpayer who listed on tax service office Pratama Meda...

  1. Interbudgetary Distribution of Taxes in Russia: Concentration of Power or Management Decentralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aleksandrovna Pechenskaya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For Russia as a democratic federal state, federal relations are basic for the whole social development of the country. In this regard, it is particularly important to strike a balance between centripetal and centrifugal forces. The analysis of budget indicators presented in the article revealed the growing process of centralization, which enabled to conclude the low efficiency of the modern mechanism of tax allocation and its non-compliance to the principles of fiscal federalism. The growing budget crisis of the regions and the long-felt need of the structural reforming of Russian tax system require speedy implementation of internal reserves. Among these provisions, Russian scientists including the Institute of Socio-Economic Development of Territories of the Russian Academy of Sciences see the urgent need of the structural reform of the tax system in the Russian Federation. The results of the scientific search for answers to the questions of how and what it is expedient to amend, supplement, and delete in the Russian tax system are presented. In order to create incentives for the territorial authorities to increase the income, the algorithm of the distribution of tax revenue between the federal and regional budgets is developed on the basis of the estimations of the ratio of the volume of tax revenues collected in the region and received by the federal budget. Experimental calculations on the example of 83 subjects of the Russian Federation have identified the existing provisions of tax revenue growth in 36 subjects that could increase revenues by 2 –12 %. The authors have proposed a set of key measures for optimizing the tax incentive policies, involving the development of selective and differential principles of tax incentives, the introduction of compensatory forms of the loss of income as a result of benefits. The main measures to enhance the collection of regional and local property taxes are systematized.

  2. The specifics of applying value added tax for local authorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Grásgruber

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available If local authorities units carry out an economic activity, are considered to be taxable under Act No. 235/2004 Coll., On Value Added Tax as amended. Adjustment of VAT in all countries of the European Union is based on Council Directive 2006/112/EC of 28 November 2006 on the common system of value added tax as amended. The application of this directive is binding for all EU member states and national treatment of VAT may diverge from the Directive only in cases where the Directive permits. Decisions of the European Court of Justice are of considerable importance during the interpretation of the Czech VAT Act.For the municipalities and regions article defines the activities that are considered to be an economic activity and activities that are deemed to exercise of public administration and are not therefore subject to VAT. Further the paper defines the concept of turnover of local authorities. At paper there are evaluating the impact of the application of VAT on municipalities and regions in the provision of the individual fulfillment. Great attention must municipalities and region devote to the problem of correct application of claim to tax deduction if they carry out the exercise of public administration, taxable activities and fulfillments exempt from VAT.

  3. The Tax Regulation as a Component of Social Development of Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitishin Andriy О.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic essence of the contemporary tax regulation as part of the social development of society has been disclosed, and its importance in the strategy of socio-economic development of society has been demonstrated. Directions, typical instruments and elements of the national tax regulation of the social sphere have been allocated. The main financial instruments for family support in the European Union Member States are presented and systematized, their multidirectedness and absence of a unified approach have been identified. It has been found that the result of tax reforms in the OECD countries in the early XXIst century is reducing the average rates of income tax on individuals and the social security contributions for employees and employers. Methodical and practical recommendations have been developed to assess the effectiveness of implementation of the social content of tax and budget policy on the basis of the maximum potential social tax quota in the current institutional conditions that will facilitate the enhancement of their role, synchronicity of implementation, and synergistic effects in the social development of society. An analysis of the indicators of implementation of the social content of tax policy in Ukraine in 2014-2016 has been carried out, its main tendencies have been defined.

  4. 78 FR 72451 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Withdrawal of... the amount of tax has been reported and calculated correctly. The likely respondents are owners of... administration of any internal revenue law. Generally, tax returns and tax return information are confidential...

  5. Montana fuel tax refunds : draft final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    "The primary source of funding for transportation infrastructure is the taxes that are imposed on motor fuels. One aspect of fuel tax collections is the process that requires consumers to apply for refunds of taxes paid on fuels used for tax-exempt p...

  6. Estimating Border Tax Evasion in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Van Dunem, Joao Ernesto

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between border tax rates and evasion is examined for Mozambique using the methodology developed by Fisman and Wei (2004). We find that high tax rates are associated with high levels of under-reporting of import values and that tax rates have a strong and positive effect on tax...

  7. 27 CFR 46.223 - Tax credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax credit. 46.223 Section... for Sale on April 1, 2009 Tax Liability Calculation § 46.223 Tax credit. The dealer is allowed a credit of up to $500 against the total floor stocks tax. However, controlled groups are eligible for only...

  8. Labor tax reform, unemployment, and search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijdra, Ben J.; Ligthart, Jenny E.

    A key obstacle to reducing payroll taxes in many industrialized and transition countries is the direct revenue loss to the government that it implies. This paper studies a simple and practical labor tax reform of reducing a payroll tax and increasing a progressive wage tax that keeps the marginal

  9. Tax compliance depends on voice of taxpayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casal, Sandro; Kogler, C.; Mittone, Luigi; Kirchler, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Reducing the social distance between taxpayers and tax authorities boosts taxpayers' acceptance of tax load and tax compliance. In the present experiment participants had the opportunity to pay their tax due either as one single compliance decision or as separate compliance decisions for each type

  10. TAX EVASION BETWEEN FRAUD AND OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Cornelia STOICA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tax optimization, often called legal tax evasion is the use of methods and techniques that are within the law, in order to reduce or even cancel the tax liability. To achieve such an approach, the taxpayer or his advisers must know in depth the tax law - and by extension, the financial and administrative law - and, moreover, must be functional tax jurisdictions which allow the use of appropriate assemblies. The recent leasks, as WikiLeaks, LuxLeaks, SwissLeaks, Panama Papers etc. on financial flows to tax havens highlight the far-reaching unprecedented evasion and tax fraud, both in the amounts involved - trillions of dollars - and sophisticated assemblies used primarily by multinational companies to the detriment of the public finances of Member territory headquarters and branches which are located and, therefore, detrimental economic and social life of those countries. Tax evasion is based on legal mechanisms which, combined together in the montages of increasingly complex, allowing operators, mostly multinational legal entities to circumvent national tax law and not pay the taxes due. The border between tax optimization, tax evasion and fraud is very thin, optimization using various legal methods to reduce the tax owed, whereas tax evasion using illegal means, which covered crime. Tax evasion reveals either optimize or fraud. There is a significant international dimension of tax evasion because it is favored by multinational corporations operating conditions.

  11. 17 CFR 256.409 - Income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... income statement to meet the actual liability for such taxes. As the exact amount of taxes become known... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Income taxes. 256.409 Section... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Income and Expense Accounts § 256.409 Income taxes. (a) This account shall include the...

  12. 27 CFR 70.96 - Failure to file tax return or to pay tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... or to pay tax. 70.96 Section 70.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Assessable Penalties § 70.96 Failure to file tax return or to pay tax. (a) Addition to the tax—(1) Failure to...) of this section. (2) Failure to pay tax shown on return. In case of failure to pay the amount shown...

  13. 76 FR 53818 - Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... of taxes paid for purposes of the foreign tax credit. These regulations address certain highly structured arrangements that produce inappropriate foreign tax credit results. The regulations affect...

  14. 26 CFR 1.164-5 - Certain retail sales taxes and gasoline taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain retail sales taxes and gasoline taxes. 1....164-5 Certain retail sales taxes and gasoline taxes. For taxable years beginning before January 1...) and tax on the sale of gasoline, diesel fuel or other motor fuel paid by the consumer (other than in...

  15. Accumulation of Tax-Loss Carryforwards : The Role of Book-Tax Non-Conformity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Kohlhase (Saskia)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractUsing confidential corporate income tax return data, this paper investigates the association between book-tax non-conformity (measured as book-tax differences) and tax-loss carryforwards (TLCFs). I find that TLCFs are positively associated with temporary and permanent book-tax

  16. Tax reform for low-wage workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seipel, M M

    2000-01-01

    As a result of the recent implementation of work-oriented antipoverty programs, more welfare recipients can be expected to be working in low-wage jobs. With these jobs there is little hope that these workers' incomes will rise above the poverty level. One way to help support these low-wage workers is through tax reform. Although low-wage workers pay little or no federal tax, they still pay high payroll and local taxes. To help such workers keep more of their earnings, refundable taxes like earned income tax credit and child refund taxes should be expanded, and sales taxes on food should be eliminated.

  17. Fast discriminative latent Dirichlet allocation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the code for fast discriminative latent Dirichlet allocation, which is an algorithm for topic modeling and text classification. The related paper is at...

  18. FY12 CPD Formula Allocation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 budget for the Department of Housing and Urban Development has been enacted. This spreadsheet provide full-year allocations for the Office...

  19. International Development Aid Allocation Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Tapas Mishra; Bazoumana Ouattara; Mamata Parhi

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the factors explaining aid allocation by bilateral and multilateral donors. We use data for 146 aid recipient countries over the period 1990-2007 and employ Bayesian Averaging of Classical Estimates Approach (BACE) approach and find that both the recipient need and donor interest motives are `significant' determinants of bilateral and multilateral aid allocation process. Our results also indicate that the measures for recipient need and donor interests vary from bilate...

  20. Application of an allocation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngblood, R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a method for allocating resources to elements of a system for the purpose of achieving prescribed levels of defense-in-depth at minimal cost. The method makes extensive use of logic modelling. An analysis of a simplified high-level waste repository is used as an illustrative application of the method. It is shown that it is possible to allocate quality control costs (or demonstrate performance) in an optimal way over elements of a conceptual design

  1. Ad valorem versus unit taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Sørensen, Allan

    2010-01-01

    Real-world industries are composed from heterogeneous firms and substantial intra-industry reallocations take place, i.e. high productivity firms squeeze out low productivity firms. Previous tax-tool comparisons have not included these central forces of industry structure. This paper examines...... taxes distort relative prices, which in turn reduces average industry productivity through reallocations (the survival and increased market share of lower productivity firms). Importantly, numerical solutions of the model reveal that the relative welfare loss from using the unit tax increases...... a general equilibrium monopolistic competition model with heterogeneous firms and intra-industry reallocations. We show that the welfare superiority of ad valorem over unit taxes under imperfect competition is not only preserved but amplified. The additional difference between the tools arises because unit...

  2. Phantom taxes: The big payback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    This article is a discussion of Accumulated Deferred Federal Income Taxes (AFDITs) associated with the stranded investments in nuclear facilities. The amounts are in the tens of billions of dollars and may rival the sum of recoverable stranded costs. The example is given of LILCO's Shoreham Nuclear Power Plant. Prior to cancellation, LILCO had capitalized the cost of the project for rate purposes and had generated income for rate purposes. For tax purposes, however, their accounting system produced a substantial loss, resulting in the collection of more than $1B in federal tax-expense reimbursements over and above actual tax expenses. These additional monies were retained by LILCO. The author argues that these monies should be used to offset standed recoverable costs

  3. Tax systems and tax reforms in south and East Asia: Overview of the tax systems and main policy tax issues

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardi, Luigi; Fumagalli, Laura; Gandullia, Luca

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses the main aspects of taxation in South and East Asia. Particolar attention is given to the main issues which emerge from the tax systems of China, India, Japan, Malysia, South Korea and Thailand

  4. Nuclear fuel tax in court

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leidinger, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Besides the 'Nuclear Energy Moratorium' (temporary shutdown of eight nuclear power plants after the Fukushima incident) and the legally decreed 'Nuclear Energy Phase-Out' (by the 13th AtG-amendment), also the legality of the nuclear fuel tax is being challenged in court. After receiving urgent legal proposals from 5 nuclear power plant operators, the Hamburg fiscal court (4V 154/13) temporarily obliged on 14 April 2014 respective main customs offices through 27 decisions to reimburse 2.2 b. Euro nuclear fuel tax to the operating companies. In all respects a remarkable process. It is not in favour of cleverness to impose a political target even accepting immense constitutional and union law risks. Taxation 'at any price' is neither a statement of state sovereignty nor one for a sound fiscal policy. Early and serious warnings of constitutional experts and specialists in the field of tax law with regard to the nuclear fuel tax were not lacking. (orig.)

  5. Tax Policy Formulation in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Rob Heferen; Nicole Mitchell; Ian Amalo

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the tax policy making process in Australia. It outlines the role of key agencies in this process and highlights some of the key developments in governance and consultation arrangements that have occurred over the past decade.

  6. Green tax reforms and habits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, Carlos de; Manzano, Baltasar [Universidad de Vigo and Rede, Lagoas-Marcosende, s/n, 36200 Vigo (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    Using a dynamic general equilibrium model, we explore the role of habit formation when analyzing green tax reforms under the double dividend hypothesis. We assume increases in energy taxes and adjust capital taxation in a revenue-neutral framework to evaluate the effects on welfare. Since the existence of an environmental dividend is uncontroversial, we mainly focus on the efficiency dividend. Our findings show that, when taxes on household energy consumption increase, habits and transitional dynamics alter household decisions, and change the efficiency dividend. However, when the tax increase is on energy used as an input, reform always induces a welfare cost in terms of efficiency. In this case, habits play a less important role. (author)

  7. Multifamily Tax Subsidy Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Multifamily Tax Subsidy Projects (MTSP) Income Limits were developed to meet the requirements established by the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008 (Public...

  8. Tax_Units_2011_Final

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Statewide GIS Tax Unit boundary file was created through a collaborative partnership between the State of Kansas Department of Revenue Property Valuation...

  9. EQUITY AND INCOME TAX REDISTRIBUTION

    OpenAIRE

    PALTINEAN LUMINITA; SCHIAU LAURA LIANA; MOGA AURA CARMEN; TULAI CONSTANTIN

    2010-01-01

    Two issues are covered by this study: 1) critical analysis and systematization of equity controversies and 2) attempts of finding technical solutions for measuring fiscal inequality, closely related to the redistributive role of income tax.

  10. The School Property Tax Reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Thomas

    1978-01-01

    The error of school finance reform has been to tie educational equity and efficiency considerations to equalization of the local tax base. An alternative strategy would center on the cost and quality of each district's program. (Author/IRT)

  11. Output-based allocations and revenue recycling: Implications for the New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennox, James A.; Nieuwkoop, Renger van

    2010-01-01

    The New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme (NZ ETS) is more comprehensive in its coverage of emissions than schemes introduced or proposed to date in any other country in that it includes agricultural greenhouse gases, which account for half of New Zealand's total emissions. But, motivated by concerns for the international competitiveness of emissions-intensive, trade-exposed industrial and agricultural activities, current legislation provides for substantial ongoing free allocations to such activities, linked to their output. Here we use a computable general equilibrium model to analyse the impacts of output-based allocation, given the possibility of recycling net revenues to reduce prior distorting taxes. Unlike previous modelling studies of alternative NZ ETS designs, we allow for a more realistic modelling both of capital and labour supply. We find that, as suggested by theoretical results, interactions between the ETS and existing taxes are important. Given any level of output-based allocation, the negative macroeconomic impacts can be reduced by recycling net revenues as efficiently as possible. Less obviously, we find that there may be an optimal non-zero level of output-based allocation. This optimal level increases as the carbon price and/or factor supply elasticities increase, but decreases if revenues are recycled with greater efficiency. - Research highlights: →The current New Zealand emissions trading scheme could be made less costly. →Recycling revenues to reduce distorting income taxes reduces macroeconomic costs. →With high (exogenous) carbon prices, output-based allocation may also reduce costs. →Efficient revenue recycling lowers optimal rates of output-based allocation. →Optimal rates are parameter-dependent, but are much lower than legislated levels.

  12. How should INGOs allocate resources?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Wisor

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available International Non-governmental Organizations (INGOs face difficult choices when choosing to allocate resources. Given that the resources made available to INGOs fall far short of what is needed to reduce massive human rights deficits, any chosen scheme of resource allocation requires failing to reach other individuals in great need. Facing these moral opportunity costs, what moral reasons should guide INGO resource allocation? Two reasons that clearly matter, and are recognized by philosophers and development practitioners, are the consequences (or benefit or harm reduction of any given resource allocation and the need (or priority of individual beneficiaries. If accepted, these reasons should lead INGOs to allocate resources to a limited number of countries where the most prioritarian weighted harm reduction will be achieved. I make three critiques against this view. First, on grounds the consequentialist accepts, I argue that INGOs ought to maintain a reasonably wide distribution of resources. Second, I argue that even if one is a consequentialist, consequentialism ought not act as an action guiding principle for INGOs. Third, I argue that additional moral reasons should influence decision making about INGO resource allocation. Namely, INGO decision making should attend to relational reasons, desert, respect for agency, concern for equity, and the importance of expressing a view of moral wrongs.

  13. Generalized multidimensional dynamic allocation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebowitsch, Jonathan; Ge, Yan; Young, Benjamin; Hu, Feifang

    2012-12-10

    Dynamic allocation has received considerable attention since it was first proposed in the 1970s as an alternative means of allocating treatments in clinical trials which helps to secure the balance of prognostic factors across treatment groups. The purpose of this paper is to present a generalized multidimensional dynamic allocation method that simultaneously balances treatment assignments at three key levels: within the overall study, within each level of each prognostic factor, and within each stratum, that is, combination of levels of different factors Further it offers capabilities for unbalanced and adaptive designs for trials. The treatment balancing performance of the proposed method is investigated through simulations which compare multidimensional dynamic allocation with traditional stratified block randomization and the Pocock-Simon method. On the basis of these results, we conclude that this generalized multidimensional dynamic allocation method is an improvement over conventional dynamic allocation methods and is flexible enough to be applied for most trial settings including Phases I, II and III trials. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Socially-Efficient Tax Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Duclos, Jean-Yves; Makdissi, Paul; Wodon, Quentin

    2002-01-01

    We propose graphical methods to determine whether commodity-tax changes are "socially efficient", in the sense of improving social welfare or decreasing poverty for large classes of social welfare and poverty indices. We also derive estimators of critical poverty lines and economic efficiency ratios which can be used to characterize socially-efficient tax reforms. The statistical properties of the various estimators are derived in order to make the method implementable using survey data. The ...

  15. Tax Exportability in Tourism Market

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mohebi; Khalid A. Rahim; Lee Chin; Khairil W. Awang

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Tax incidence is a basic topic in public economics as the tourism industry is an increasingly major contributor to government revenue. Generally, government taxation objectives are for the purpose of financing programs that improve peoples lives and economic prosperity, accelerate economic growth and allow for access to sustainable development. In the first view, tax policy decisions by government are based on their effects on the distribution of economi...

  16. Health Insurance and Tax Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Karsten Jeske; Sagiri Kitao

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. tax policy on health insurance favors only those offered group insurance through their employers, and is highly regressive since the subsidy takes the form of deductions from the progressive income tax system. The paper investigates alternatives to the current policy. We find that a complete removal of the subsidy results in a significant reduction in the insurance coverage and serious welfare deterioration. There is, however, room for improving welfare and raising the coverage, by e...

  17. MOTOR FUEL TAXES AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Ptak

    2011-01-01

    Motor fuel taxes are primarily revenue-raising taxes. However, due to high fuel consumption these taxes can be quite an efficient source of general budget revenue in many countries. It seems that the taxes on motor fuels may also be useful instruments for environmental policy or climate change policy. Environmental objectives can be achieved through change of behavior of drivers. The paper presents theoretical basis for taxes levied on motor fuels. Attention is paid to the problem of external...

  18. Mental Accounting Effects of Income Tax Shifting

    OpenAIRE

    Naomi E. Feldman

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes a 1992 decrease in U.S. federal income tax withholding that shifted the timing of income tax payments while leaving ultimate tax burdens unchanged. Consequently income typically received as a lump-sum refund on filing a tax return was shifted into the previous year's monthly income. This paper considers the impact of the withholding change in the context of mental accounting and finds a decrease in the probability that households contributed to a tax-preferred retirement a...

  19. TAX HARMONIZATION VERSUS FISCAL COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Alexandru MACSIM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have brought into discussion once again subjects like tax harmonization and fiscal competition. Every time the European Union tends to take a step forward critics enter the scene and give contrary arguments to European integration. Through this article we have offered our readers a compelling view over the “battle” between tax harmonization and fiscal competition. While tax harmonization has key advantages as less costs regarding public revenues, leads to higher degree of integration and allows the usage of fiscal transfers between regions, fiscal competition is no less and presents key advantages as high reductions in tax rates and opens a large path for new investments, especially FDI. Choosing tax harmonization or fiscal competition depends on a multitude of variables, of circumstances, the decision of choosing one path or the other being ultimately influenced by the view of central and local authorities. Our analysis indicates that if we refer to a group of countries that are a part of a monetary union or that form a federation, tax harmonization seems to be the best path to choose. Moving the analysis to a group of regions that aren’t taking any kind of correlated actions or that have not signed any major treaties regarding monetary or fiscal policies, the optimal solution is fiscal competition.

  20. Income Tax in France

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FI Departments and the Legal Service concerning the new internal taxation provisions of the Staff Rules and Regulations, the annual internal taxation certificate for 2007 and the declaration of income for 2007. I - New provisions of the Staff Rules and Regulations concerning internal taxation Following the revision of the Staff Rules and Regulations (see CERN Bulletin Nos. 16 and 17 of 16 and 23 April 2007), the provisions relating to internal taxation are now set out in Articles S V 2.01 of the Staff Rules and in Articles R V 2.01 to R V 2.05 of the Staff Regulations, in force since 1st January 2007 (11th edition). Pursuant to Article S V 2.01 of the Staff Rules, each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel. The Finance Committee has laid down the provisions governing the application of internal taxation in the Staff Regulations (see Articles R V 2.01 to R V 2.05). ...

  1. Income Tax in France

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FP Departments and the Legal Service concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2008 You are reminded that each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that members of the personnel are thus exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. This memorandum is intended to provide members of the personnel residing in France with information on how salaries and emoluments paid by CERN should be indicated in the 2008 income declaration form. For any other income, they are invited to comply with the instructions attached to the form. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2008 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2008, issued by the FP Department, has been available since 1st March 2009 (see Bulletin No. 11-12/2009). It is int...

  2. Income tax in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FP Departments and the Legal Service concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2008 You are reminded that each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that members of the personnel are thus exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. This memorandum is intended to provide members of the personnel residing in France with information on how salaries and emoluments paid by CERN should be indicated in the 2008 income declaration form. For any other income, they are invited to comply with the instructions attached to the form. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2008 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2008, issued by the FP Department, has been available since 1st March 2009 (see Bulletin No. 11-12/2009). It is int...

  3. 26 CFR 31.3221-1 - Measure of employer tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Measure of employer tax. 31.3221-1 Section 31... TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Railroad Retirement Tax Act (Chapter 22, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) Tax on Employers § 31.3221-1...

  4. 26 CFR 31.3221-4 - Exception from supplemental tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exception from supplemental tax. 31.3221-4...) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Railroad Retirement Tax Act (Chapter 22, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) Tax on Employers § 31.3221...

  5. 26 CFR 31.3201-1 - Measure of employee tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Measure of employee tax. 31.3201-1 Section 31... TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Railroad Retirement Tax Act (Chapter 22, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) Tax on Employees § 31.3201-1...

  6. 26 CFR 31.3211-3 - Employee representative supplemental tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employee representative supplemental tax. 31... (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Railroad Retirement Tax Act (Chapter 22, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) Tax on Employee...

  7. Some remarks with regard to international tax planning, tax risk management and tax strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    The recent state aid investigations may be an incentive for the corporate boards and senior management of companies to have a closer look at their tax strategy and its implementation in the company's business and organization to avoid unexpected outcomes.

  8. 26 CFR 521.115 - Credit against United States tax liability for Danish tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... liability for Danish tax. For the purpose of avoidance of double taxation, Article XV provides that, on the... (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS DENMARK General Income Tax Taxation of Nonresident Aliens Who...

  9. The Tax System in India; Could Reform Spur Growth?

    OpenAIRE

    Helene Poirson Ward

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses the effects of India's tax system on growth, through the level and productivity of private investment. Comparison of India's indicators of effective tax rates and tax revenue productivity with other countries shows that the Indian tax system is characterized by: (1) a high dependence on indirect taxes, (2) low average effective tax rates and tax productivity, and (3) high marginal effective tax rates and large tax-induced distortions on investment and financing decisions. ...

  10. Searching for Structure in the Federal Excise Tax System: An Excise Tax Expenditure Budget

    OpenAIRE

    Oldenski, Lindsay

    2004-01-01

    This paper was originally presented as part of a 2004 National Tax Association Spring Symposium panel honoring Bruce Davie. It builds off of an article that Davie wrote for the National Tax Journal in 1994 in which he developed a typology for classifying excise taxes and identifying tax expenditures in the federal excise tax system. This paper continues where Davie left off, updating his model, adjusting for new trends in taxation, and producing an excise tax expenditure budget consistent wit...

  11. Tax Sparing, FDI, and Foreign Aid: Evidence from Territorial Tax Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Azémar, Céline; Dharmapala, Dhammika

    2016-01-01

    The governments of many developing countries seek to attract inbound foreign direct investment (FDI) through the use of tax incentives for multinational corporations (MNCs). The effectiveness of these tax incentives depends crucially on MNCs’ residence country tax regime, especially where the residence country imposes worldwide taxation on foreign income. Tax sparing provisions are included in many bilateral tax treaties to prevent host country tax incentives being nullified by residence coun...

  12. Property Tax Reform in China : Optional property tax proposals and the effects on residence price

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yiyi

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives some theoretical instructions of China’s property tax reform which include the reform of land lease system, the design of tax base, tax rates and tax relief, and also provides some interesting property tax proposals for Shanghai and estimates the effects of property tax reform on residence price.This paper selects a case study of Shanghai which can provide useful methods or findings to other cases characterized by similar traits and situations. Through observation and analysi...

  13. Environmental and wider implications of political impediments to environmental tax reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinch, J. Peter; Dunne, Louise; Dresner, Simon

    2006-01-01

    The most common notion of environmental tax reform (ETR) is the use of the revenue from environmental taxes to reduce distortionary labour taxes. The PETRAS project has shown that there are a number of social and political impediments to implementing such reform. This paper firstly outlines some of the environmental and economic implications of environmental taxes generally. It goes on to explore three broad approaches to ETR, based on the allocation of the tax revenues, and explores the environmental and economic implications of each approach and the likelihood of political and social acceptance. Particular attention is paid to reducing regressive impacts and impacts on competitiveness. It is concluded that some combination of earmarking a proportion of revenues to environmental projects and diverting rest to reduce labour taxes is probably the best approach in light of the results of the project. The balance should depend upon local labour market and macroeconomic conditions, the extent to which environmental projects are already funded and the extent of government failure, i.e., the problems of resource allocation that occur as a result of government intervention in markets. Funding should only be provided to environmental projects if it can be shown that, in themselves, they are economically efficient. In addition, it is most important that a proportion of the funds be used to ameliorate any regressive impacts. It is also important to bear in mind that hypothecation or recycling of revenue is not the same as a tax shift, which is a reform of the entire system, so some of these approaches may take away from the integrity of ETR. The paper concludes with some of the initiatives that are likely to be necessary to facilitate social and political acceptance of this approach to ETR

  14. Telecommunications Tax Design: The Role of A Preexisting Labor Tax Distortion

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Fitzroy A.

    2002-01-01

    The paper assesses the effects of a preexisting labor tax on the relative efficiency of a capital tax and a sales tax on the telecommunications sector. Public finance theory predicts that the efficiency costs of a sales tax increase when there is a preexisting labor tax, but the theory is ambiguous as to the effect of the preexisting labor tax on the efficiency costs of a capital tax. Using a numerical general equilibrium model I show that the efficiency costs of both taxes are of the same or...

  15. Importance of the Recurrent Tax on Immovable Property in the Tax Systems of EU Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Břetislav Andrlík; Lucie Formanová

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the issue of the recurrent tax on immovable property and its significance in the tax systems of the EU Member States. The recurrent tax on immovable property is classified as property taxes, also according to the international methodology of the classification of taxes. This tax is imposed on the owners (in some cases on the lessee or user) of the immovable property in the various tax jurisdictions and belong to the taxes that the taxpayer cannot avoid and from this pers...

  16. Cost allocation in distribution planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engevall, S.

    1996-12-31

    This thesis concerns cost allocation problems in distribution planning. The cost allocation problems we study are illustrated using the distribution planning situation at the Logistics department of Norsk Hydro Olje AB. The planning situation is modeled as a Traveling Salesman Problem and a Vehicle Routing Problem with an inhomogeneous fleet. The cost allocation problems are the problems of how to divide the transportation costs among the customers served in each problem. The cost allocation problems are formulated as cooperative games, in characteristic function form, where the customers are defined to be the players. The games contain five and 21 players respectively. Game theoretical solution concepts such as the core, the nucleolus, the Shapley value and the {tau}-value are discussed. From the empirical results we can, among other things, conclude that the core of the Traveling Salesman Game is large, and that the core of the Vehicle Routing Game is empty. In the accounting of Norsk Hydro the cost per m{sup 3} can be found for each tour. We conclude that for a certain definition of the characteristic function, a cost allocation according to this principle will not be included in the core of the Traveling Salesman Game. The models and methods presented in this thesis can be applied to transportation problems similar to that of Norsk Hydro, independent of the type of products that are delivered. 96 refs, 11 figs, 26 tabs

  17. Cost allocation in distribution planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engevall, S.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis concerns cost allocation problems in distribution planning. The cost allocation problems we study are illustrated using the distribution planning situation at the Logistics department of Norsk Hydro Olje AB. The planning situation is modeled as a Traveling Salesman Problem and a Vehicle Routing Problem with an inhomogeneous fleet. The cost allocation problems are the problems of how to divide the transportation costs among the customers served in each problem. The cost allocation problems are formulated as cooperative games, in characteristic function form, where the customers are defined to be the players. The games contain five and 21 players respectively. Game theoretical solution concepts such as the core, the nucleolus, the Shapley value and the τ-value are discussed. From the empirical results we can, among other things, conclude that the core of the Traveling Salesman Game is large, and that the core of the Vehicle Routing Game is empty. In the accounting of Norsk Hydro the cost per m 3 can be found for each tour. We conclude that for a certain definition of the characteristic function, a cost allocation according to this principle will not be included in the core of the Traveling Salesman Game. The models and methods presented in this thesis can be applied to transportation problems similar to that of Norsk Hydro, independent of the type of products that are delivered. 96 refs, 11 figs, 26 tabs

  18. Transnational Energy Companies' Investment Allocation Decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmundsen, Petter; Emhjellen, Magne; Halleraker, Morten

    2001-10-01

    When making international capital budgeting decisions, energy companies are often faced with capital and organisational constraints. The constraints may be real or management imposed. In addition, when entering into a new country or region the companies will incur fixed new area costs that must be considered before investment approval. The decision problem is therefore not a linear problem where the standard net present value rule applies, but a non-linear problem of selecting the combination of projects with the maximum aggregate net present value. New project investments will therefore be selected based on the size of the net present value (often referred to as financial volume or materiality) compared to the projects' use of capital and scarce personnel and organisational capacity. Consequently, projects with a positive net present value, but with low materiality, may not be approved. The portfolio choice has a parallel to the company's choice of core areas. Instead of complex portfolio models, the companies often apply simpler allocation mechanisms, e.g., combinations of fixed investment budgets and materiality requirements. Analysing petroleum cases, we compare the allocations decisions generated by portfolio models and simpler mechanisms. We also discuss the implications of this capital allocation pattern for governments' design of tax systems and license conditions. (author)

  19. Specific Features of Functioning of the Corporate Tax Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachyk Lesya P.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article identifies and reveals the essence of functional elements of corporate tax management, which are tax planning, tax analysis, tax accounting and reporting, tax control and tax monitoring. The article builds a functional model of corporate tax management that reflects interaction of its functional elements in the process of realisation of tax activity of economic subjects. Pursuant to this model, the corporate tax management is conducted in several stages, namely: development of alternative variants of tax activity, analysis of alternative variants of tax activity, selection of the optimal variant of tax activity, realisation of tax activity, control over realisation of tax activity and development of measures of increase of efficiency of tax management. Application of the functional model of corporate tax management, which envisages use of all instruments, allows optimisation of tax payments of economic subjects.

  20. Centralized Allocation in Multiple Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monte, Daniel; Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    The problem of allocating indivisible objects to different agents, where each indi vidual is assigned at most one object, has been widely studied. Pápai (2000) shows that the set of strategy-proof, nonbossy, Pareto optimal and reallocation-proof rules are hierarchical exchange rules | generalizat......The problem of allocating indivisible objects to different agents, where each indi vidual is assigned at most one object, has been widely studied. Pápai (2000) shows that the set of strategy-proof, nonbossy, Pareto optimal and reallocation-proof rules are hierarchical exchange rules...... | generalizations of Gale's Top Trading Cycles mechanism. We study the centralized allocation that takes place in multiple markets. For example, the assignment of multiple types of indivisible objects; or the assignment of objects in successive periods. We show that the set of strategy-proof, Pareto efficient...

  1. 26 CFR 1.1446-1 - Withholding tax on foreign partners' share of effectively connected taxable income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... partnership must generally pay 1446 tax on ECTI allocable to a foreign corporate partner that has made an... classification (e.g., corporate or non-corporate), by obtaining a withholding certificate from the partner that... recognized under this section to ascertain the identity of its partners, provided such form is consistent...

  2. Prospects of Single Tax Payers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tofan Ivan M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article speaks about problem aspects of taxation, which were set by the state for the single tax administering due to permanent and system changes in the tax legislation. It shows the necessity of search for alternative methods of administering in the process of taxation of single tax payers by fiscal services. The goal of the article is the study of prospects of further taxation of entrepreneurs – single tax payers on the basis of analysis of conditions and principles created by the state for the business. The article used methods of system analysis, comparison, forecasting and modelling. It analyses the process of evolution of the simplified taxation system, accounting and reporting from the moment of its adoption until today. The article presents the structure of the quantitative composition of single tax payers depending on the selected groups. It marks out and characterises administrative and fiscal factors that do not facilitate further development of entrepreneurship in Ukraine. In the result of the conducted studies the article outlines problem aspects of organisation of taxation of the small business and offers specific and real ways of their overcoming or partial solution.

  3. Preserving the allocation ratio at every allocation with biased coin randomization and minimization in studies with unequal allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Olga M; Tymofyeyev, Yevgen

    2012-04-13

    The demand for unequal allocation in clinical trials is growing. Most commonly, the unequal allocation is achieved through permuted block randomization. However, other allocation procedures might be required to better approximate the allocation ratio in small samples, reduce the selection bias in open-label studies, or balance on baseline covariates. When these allocation procedures are generalized to unequal allocation, special care is to be taken to preserve the allocation ratio at every allocation step. This paper offers a way to expand the biased coin randomization to unequal allocation that preserves the allocation ratio at every allocation. The suggested expansion works with biased coin randomization that balances only on treatment group totals and with covariate-adaptive procedures that use a random biased coin element at every allocation. Balancing properties of the allocation ratio preserving biased coin randomization and minimization are described through simulations. It is demonstrated that these procedures are asymptotically protected against the shift in the rerandomization distribution identified for some examples of minimization with 1:2 allocation. The asymptotic shift in the rerandomization distribution of the difference in treatment means for an arbitrary unequal allocation procedure is explicitly derived in the paper. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Can Soft Drink Taxes Reduce Population Weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jason M; Frisvold, David; Tefft, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    Soft drink consumption has been hypothesized as one of the major factors in the growing rates of obesity in the US. Nearly two-thirds of all states currently tax soft drinks using excise taxes, sales taxes, or special exemptions to food exemptions from sales taxes to reduce consumption of this product, raise revenue, and improve public health. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of changes in state soft drink taxes on body mass index (BMI), obesity, and overweight. Our results suggest that soft drink taxes influence BMI, but that the impact is small in magnitude.

  5. The Danish tax on saturated fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild; Holm, Lotte; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2015-01-01

    arguments and themes involved in the debates surrounding the introduction and the repeal. SUBJECTS/METHODS: An analysis of parliamentary debates, expert reports and media coverage; key informant interviews; and a review of studies about the effects of the tax on consumer behaviour. RESULTS: A tax...... that it harmed the economy and had no positive influence on health, rather the contrary. Few policy actors defended the tax. Public health had a prominent role in the politicians’ arguments for introducing the tax but was barely mentioned in the debate about the repeal. Shortly after the repeal of the tax...... indicates that the tax was effective in changing consumer behaviour....

  6. Can Soft Drink Taxes Reduce Population Weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jason M.; Frisvold, David

    2009-01-01

    Soft drink consumption has been hypothesized as one of the major factors in the growing rates of obesity in the US. Nearly two-thirds of all states currently tax soft drinks using excise taxes, sales taxes, or special exemptions to food exemptions from sales taxes to reduce consumption of this product, raise revenue, and improve public health. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of changes in state soft drink taxes on body mass index (BMI), obesity, and overweight. Our results suggest that soft drink taxes influence BMI, but that the impact is small in magnitude. PMID:20657817

  7. Tax Evasion and Swiss Bank Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    Bank deposits in jurisdictions with banking secrecy constitute an effective tool to evade taxes on interest income. A recent EU reform reduces the scope for this type of tax evasion by introducing a source tax on interest income earned by EU residents in Switzerland and several other jurisdictions...... with banking secrecy. In this paper, we estimate the impact of the source tax on Swiss bank deposits held by EU residents while using that non-EU residents were not subject to the tax to apply a natural experiment methodology. We find that the 15% source tax caused Swiss bank deposits of EU residents to drop...

  8. General Consideration on Legal Tax Evasion vs. Tax Fraud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavia-Daniela Steriopol

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is a brief overview of tax evasion as a complex social and economicphenomenon, of utmost importance, that today’s states confront with; its consequences seek to limitas much as possible, by legal and fiscal means, the eradication, which, at this point, is virtuallyimpossible. Tax evasion can be analysed from two points of view, the legal and the illegal aspect ofthe phenomenon or the fiscal fraud. The “fiscal paradises” had a very important role in the last years’activity.

  9. Tax Incentives Culture: An Analysis of Corporate Disclosures in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Gomes dos Reis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The disclosure of tax incentives Culture is essential for external users to make full analysis of the benefits generated by them. In this sense, the aim of this study was to verify the consistency and form of disclosure of the information disclosed by the Corporation Publicly Traded in southern Brazil, from the perspective of reducing the tax burden and the amount allocated to the Culture. The sample consisted of 27 Corporate Capital Open in southern Brazil and analyzed its financial statements, accompanying notes and supplementary reports through pre-established keywords, characterizing the research as descriptive, with a qualitative approach. The results showed the importance of the Notes, the Management Report and additional reports as Social and Sustainability Report. These reports had relevant information and helpful research. However, many of them did not have clear information about the tax incentives for culture. Some companies released the tax incentive culture along with other incentives, such as the Workers Food Program - PAT, which did not allow detailed analysis of the data. We found cases of disagreement between the Ministry of Culture and information disclosed statements. In some cases, were observed lack of information about the tax incentives in the statements and supplementary reports. It was concluded that the disclosure is lower than necessary, because only four out of a total of twenty seven companies analyzed, reported consistent, complete and appropriate on tax incentives for culture.

  10. Minimizing Tax Avoidance by Using Conservatism Accounting through Book Tax Differences. Case Study in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heni PURWANTINI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The research’s first purpose is to analyze directly conservatism accounting influence towards book tax differences and tax avoidance. The second pusrpose is to analyze indirect influence of towards tax avoidance through book tax differences. The research is conducted to companies enlisted in Indonesian Stock Exchange and belongs to LQ45 during 2013 to 2015. The number of companies sample taken by purposive sampling is 23 corporations, therefore total observation is 69 observations. The acquired data analysed by path analysis. This research conclude that conservatism accounting practice significantly influence book tax difference practice but did not influence tax avoidance. Conservatism accounting practice is also has no influence towards tax avoidance committed by book tax differences. This book tax difference is only significantly influential to commit tax avoidance. This research can contribute in taxation field as input in tax planning formulation.

  11. Allocation Problems and Market Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    The thesis contains six independent papers with a common theme: Allocation problems and market design. The first paper is concerned with fair allocation of risk capital where independent autonomous subunits have risky activities and together constitute the entity's total risk, whose associated risk......-to-one matching model by including a set of objects, such that a matching consists of two agents from disjoint sets, and an object. Agents' preference lists consist of all possible pairs of objects and agents from the other set, and thus contain important information about agent-object tradeoffs. The notion...

  12. A comparative analysis of energy and CO2 taxes on the primary energy mix for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorspools, Kris; Peersman, Inneke; D'haeseleer, William

    2005-01-01

    In many countries, economies are moving towards internalization of external costs of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. This can best be achieved by either imposing additional taxes or by using an emission-permit-trading scheme. The electricity sector is under scrutiny in the allocation of emission-reduction objectives, not only because it is a large homogeneous target, but also because of the obvious emission-reduction potential by decreasing power generation based on carbon-intensive fuels. In this paper, we discuss the impact of a primary-energy tax and a CO 2 tax on the dispatching strategy in power generation. In a case study for the Belgian power-generating context, several tax levels are investigated and the impact on the optimal dispatch is simulated. The impact of the taxes on the power demand or on the investment strategies is not considered. As a conclusion, we find that a CO 2 tax is more effective than a primary-energy tax. Both taxes accomplish an increased generation efficiency in the form of a promotion of combined-cycle gas-fired units over coal-fired units. The CO 2 tax adds an incentive for fuel switching which can be achieved by altering the merit order of power plants or by switching to a fuel with a lower carbon content within a plant. For the CO 2 tax, 13 euros/ton CO 2 is withheld as the optimal value which results in an emission reduction of 13% of the electricity-related GHG emissions in the Belgian power context of 2000. A tax higher than 13 euros/ton CO 2 does not contribute to the further reduction of GHGs. (Author)

  13. Tax avoidance: Definition and prevention issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Mileva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of resolving issues pertaining to tax avoidance, and particularly its aggressive forms, has been the focal point of discussion among tax scholars which is increasingly gaining attention of politicians alike. As opposed to tax evasion (which is illegal, the phenomenon of tax avoidance calls for careful consideration of state fiscal interests and a highly precise demarcation of the thin line between the acceptable and unacceptable conduct. In many contemporary states, tax avoidance (which implies a formal behaviour of tax payers within the limits of tax legislation but contrary to the tax regulation objectives is declared to be illegitimate. State authorities do not want to tolerate such activity, which results in tax payers' reduction or avoidance of tax liabilities. We should also bear in mind that all tax payers have the tax planning option at their disposal, by means of which they make sure that they do not pay more tax than they are legally obliged to. However, in case they skilfully use the tax regulation flaws and loopholes for the sole purpose of tax evasion, and/or resort to misrepresentation and deceptive constructs, they are considered to be exceeding the limits of acceptable tax behaviour. In comparison to the specific anti-abuse measures which have been built into some national tax legislations, there is a growing number of states that introduce the general anti-abuse legislations, which is based on judicial doctrines or statutory legislation. Yet, there is a notable difference among the envisaged anti-abuse measures depending on whether the national legislation is based on the Anglo-American or European-Continental legal system. The efficiency of applying these general anti-abuse rules in taxation largely rests on their interpretation as well as on their relationship with the principle of legality.

  14. Trade implications of environmental taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepper, G.

    1994-01-01

    The general equilibrium impact of environmental taxes does not consist simply consist in a reduction of international trade. This rather depends on the particular circumstances in which the tax is imposed. The trade impacts of environmental regulation which have been measured empirically are almost negligable. Even simulation studies predict strong effects only for very few sectors of the economy. Since the environmental taxes are imposed in order to induce a reallocation of the economy away from the polluting towards the less polluting activities, one can not expect that the polluting industries will not need to shrink or need to introduce abatement measures. This internal reallocation will necessarily be accompanied by a restructuring of trade between economies. Hence, mitigating these trade effects is about as meaningful as mitigating the internal restructuring of the economy. (orig./UA)

  15. Corrigendum - Income tax in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FI Departments and the Legal Service concerning the 2007 income tax declaration Since the French tax authorities have modified the tax declaration form, we recommend that you write your statement "Membre du personnel du CERN assujetti à l’impôt interne du CERN et, à ce titre, exonéré d’impôt sur les traitements et émoluments versés par le CERN" (member of the CERN personnel subject to internal CERN taxation and therefore exempt from taxation on the salary and emoluments paid by CERN) in section E "Renseignements complémentaires" rather than in the final section "Autres renseignements" as previously advised (cf. Bulletin CERN No.18 and 19 – 28 April and 5 May 2008). HR Department Contact: 73903

  16. CORRIGENDUM - INCOME TAX IN FRANCE

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FI Departments and the Legal Service concerning the 2007 income tax declaration Since the French tax authorities have modified the tax declaration form, we recommend that you write your statement "Membre du personnel du CERN assujetti à l’impôt interne du CERN et, à ce titre, exonéré d’impôt sur les traitements et émoluments versés par le CERN" (member of the CERN personnel subject to internal CERN taxation and therefore exempt from taxation on the salary and emoluments paid by CERN) in section E "Renseignements complémentaires" rather than in the final section "Autres renseignements" as previously advised (cf. Bulletin CERN No. 18 and 19 – 28 April and 5 May 2008). HR Department Contact: 73903

  17. Effects of IFRS adoption on tax avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Nogueira Braga

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study investigates the association between mandatory International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS adoption and corporate tax avoidance. In this study, tax avoidance is defined as a reduction in the effective corporate income tax rate through tax planning activities, whether these are legal, questionable, or even illegal. Three measures of tax avoidance are used and factors at the country and firm level (that have already been associated with tax avoidance in prior research are controlled. Using samples that range from 9,389 to 15,423 publicly-traded companies from 35 countries, covering 1999 to 2014, it is found that IFRS adoption is associated with higher levels of corporate tax avoidance, even when the level of book-tax conformity required in the countries and the volume of accruals are controlled, both of which are considered potential determinants of this relationship. Furthermore, the results suggest that after IFRS adoption, firms in higher book-tax conformity environments engage more in tax avoidance than firms in lower book-tax conformity environments. It is also identified that engagement in tax avoidance after IFRS adoption derives not only from accruals management, but also from practices that do not involve accruals. The main conclusion is that companies engage more in tax avoidance after mandatory IFRS adoption.

  18. INTERMEDIATE RESULTS AND LIMITS OF HARMONIZATION OF DIRECT TAXES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Ponomareva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 347.9The article is devoted to analysis of tax harmonization in the area of direct taxation in the European Union. Questions of positive and negative integration, common market and tax harmonization are analyzed.The author mentions the following benchmarks of the European tax integration: these are tax harmonization in the area of direct taxation, prohibition of discrimination and of unfair competition, leading role of fundamental freedoms in field of European integration.The direct effect of EU law is brought into light. The international treaty is a special source of law of Member States and it used in cases which can't be regulated by national legislation or by acts of integration law.Directives and regulations as sources of EU secondary law are described in the article. Their special features are also brought into light.International EU agreements and acts of cooperation in the area of taxation are also brought into light. The special role of soft law is also mentioned in the article.The special role of the European Court of Justice in forming of EU tax law is emphasized.The conclusion of the article is in the statement of importance of taxation in the forming of internal market in integration community.The expected results are important both from theoretical and practical points of view and include:working out the legal framework of direct taxation and finding out actual problems of integration tax law mentioning modern trends of cross-border taxation;recommendations of improving of harmonization mechanisms in the EAEU and improving of the Russian Tax Code.

  19. ''La Grande Galerie de l'Evolution'' of Paris: The only museum in the world entirely devoted to biological evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raulin Cerceau, F.

    1995-01-01

    The new building called ''Grande Galerie de l'Evolution'' of the national Museum of natural History, in Paris-France, is the first museum in the world exclusively devoted to biological evolution. The Museum is divided in 3 parts (named ''Acts''): The aim of Act 1 is to sensibilize the visitor to the results of 4 billions years of biological evolution. This act shows some examples of biological diversity through few terrestrial and marine environments (deserts, tropical forests, polar habitats, abyssal zones ...). Act 2 is the principal part of the Museum explaining the main processes of evolution. This part shows also the story of life from the first living cells to man. Act 3, the last part offers to visitors a vision of the interactions between man and nature, and of their consequences along millions of years. A special Gallery is entirely devoted to vanished and threatened species, as a nefast consequence of human interaction on biological diversity particularly since the beginning of this century. (Abstract only)

  20. The relationship between alcohol taxes and binge drinking: evaluating new tax measures incorporating multiple tax and beverage types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Ziming; Chaloupka, Frank J; Blanchette, Jason G; Nguyen, Thien H; Heeren, Timothy C; Nelson, Toben F; Naimi, Timothy S

    2015-03-01

    U.S. studies contribute heavily to the literature about the tax elasticity of demand for alcohol, and most U.S. studies have relied upon specific excise (volume-based) taxes for beer as a proxy for alcohol taxes. The purpose of this paper was to compare this conventional alcohol tax measure with more comprehensive tax measures (incorporating multiple tax and beverage types) in analyses of the relationship between alcohol taxes and adult binge drinking prevalence in U.S. states. Data on U.S. state excise, ad valorem and sales taxes from 2001 to 2010 were obtained from the Alcohol Policy Information System and other sources. For 510 state-year strata, we developed a series of weighted tax-per-drink measures that incorporated various combinations of tax and beverage types, and related these measures to state-level adult binge drinking prevalence data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys. In analyses pooled across all years, models using the combined tax measure explained approximately 20% of state binge drinking prevalence, and documented more negative tax elasticity (-0.09, P = 0.02 versus -0.005, P = 0.63) and price elasticity (-1.40, P elasticity and price elasticity predicting adult binge drinking prevalence in U.S. states. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Regulating nutrient allocation in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric

    2014-12-09

    The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.

  2. Operational risk economic capital allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikonov, Oleg I.; Vlasov, Vladimir E.; Medvedeva, Marina A.

    2013-10-01

    In the paper we describe a model of operational risk of economic capital estimation and allocation based on Loss Distribution Approach (LDA). Bank's total losses are modeled through Monte-Carlo simulations of its business units' losses. It allows to fairly distributing the corresponding capital between business units in order to assess and manage their risk adjusted performance.

  3. Planning and Resource Allocation Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jack W.

    1986-01-01

    Modern scientific management techniques provide college administrators with valuable planning and resource allocation insights and enhances the decision process. The planning model should incorporate assessment, strategic planning, dynamic and long-term budgeting, operational planning, and feedback and control for actual operations. (MSE)

  4. Designing for dynamic task allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, C.J.G. van; Maanen, P.P. van

    2005-01-01

    Future platforms are envisioned in which human-machine teams are able to share and trade tasks as demands in situations change. It seems that human-machine coordination has not received the attention it deserves by past and present approaches to task allocation. In this paper a simple way to make

  5. Governance and Foreign Aid Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    In addition, this chapter develops a microeconomic model to explore donors’ aid allocation decisions and their potential impact on aid effectiveness...the promotion of market-based principles to restructure macroeconomic policies in developing countries. The greater focus on...be explained by successful development 29 efforts of number of countries in the region, such as Republic of Korea, Malaysia , Singapore, and Peoples

  6. Tax Reforms in Nigeria: Case against Tax Incentives | Omesi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper revealed that huge sums of tax revenue are being lost annually by the Nigerian Customs service due to under assessment of payable duties, unauthorized transfer of funds, abuse of waivers, concessions, exemptions and non-remittance of government revenue. Based on these revelations, the paper suggests ...

  7. Tax incentives and enhanced oil recovery techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stathis, J.S.

    1991-05-01

    Tax expenditures-reductions in income tax liability resulting from a special tax provision-are often used to achieve economic and social objectives. The arguments for petroleum production tax incentives usually encompass some combination of enhancing energy security, rewarding risk, or generating additional investment in new technologies. Generally, however, some portion of any tax expenditure is spend on activities that would have occurred anyway. This paper is a review of tax incentives for petroleum production found two to be of questionable merit. Others, including tax preferences for enhanced oil recovery methods, which offered the potential for better returns on the tax dollar. Increased use of enhanced oil recovery techniques could lead to additional environmental costs, however, and these need to be factored into any cost-benefit calculation

  8. NM Property Tax Rates - September 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  9. NM Property Tax Districts November 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  10. TAX-REFORM - DREAMING ABOUT TOUGH REALITIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEKAM, F

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses four papers concerned with tax reform. It is concluded that tax reform has had a rather limited impact on behaviour so far but that governments should press ahead with gradual improvement and not expect dramatic results.

  11. Tax Anti-avoidance Through Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Christian Plesner; Riise Johansen, Thomas; Pearson, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the case of Starbucks’ UK branch, which became subject to massive public criticism over alleged tax avoidance. Despite Starbucks arguing that its transfer pricing practices were in full compliance with regulatory requirements, public pressure for higher corporate tax payments...... led Starbucks to increase its UK tax payment on transfer pricing income beyond regulatory requirements. This case study suggests that MNE tax behavior on international transfer pricing is not strictly a matter of compliance with formal tax regulation. We demonstrate the way an MNE attempts to re......-driven discipline to be dealt with by accounting and tax experts. Instead, MNEs face the task of establishing a complex fit with their environment beyond the typical stakeholders with transfer pricing, i.e. tax authorities. These include government officials, tax activists, and consumers who voice...

  12. NM Property Tax Districts December 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  13. Organization of Tax Control in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamaslo Olha T.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article researches the essence and characteristics of tax control as an important element of the State regulation of economy. The main directions and modalities of tax control are considered in detail. The main tendencies and problem points of tax control in Ukraine have been studied. Efficiency of the controlling bodies has been analyzed, the main directions of their activities in the sphere of tax enforcement have been provided. Directions for improving the organization of tax control in the context of overcoming the existing deficiencies in the controlling and inspecting activities of the tax authorities have been determined. It has been concluded that the improvement of tax control is one of the key directions of reforming the Ukrainian tax system.

  14. Questionnaire on Corporate Income Tax Subjects - Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Hansen, Søren; Nielsen, Jacob Graff

    fundamental idea: while companies limited by shares and limited liability companies should be subject to corporate income tax (CIT), partnerships should be considered fully or partly transparent for tax purposes. This general statement is nevertheless an oversimplification of reality. Comparative law indeed......In terms of tax policy, tax harmonization or coordination of corporate taxation in the EU is usually considered from two complementary points of view: tax base and tax rate. These two perspectives structure the debate whether EU Member States, and more broadly States belonging to the same economic...... area, should harmonize or coordinate their policies in tax matters. However, little attention has been paid so far to a more basic question: who are corporate taxpayers? Are they defined in the same way over Europe? This may be explained by the fact that the vast majority of tax systems accept the same...

  15. Distributional Effects of Environmental Taxes in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Poltimäe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the distributional effects of Estonian environmental taxes in 2000-2007 and recent reforms in 2008 using Estonian Household Budget Survey data and a microsimulation model. The results show that the share of environmental taxes in consumption expenditures is about 1-1.5%. Environmental taxes in 2000- 2007 were progressive due to the progressivity of motor fuel excises, which was the largest component of the environmental taxes until 2007. Since 2008, the taxes are less progressive, because of the new electricity excise and increased taxes on gas and other inputs used for distance domestic heating. To minimize the disproportionate effect of future ecological tax reform on low-income households, close monitoring of tax developments is required and necessary compensatory policies need to be implemented

  16. [VOCs tax policy on China's economy development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Xin; Wang, Yu-Fei; Wang, Hai-Lin; Hao, Zheng-Ping; Wang, Zheng

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, environmental tax was designed to control volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was used to explore the impacts of environmental tax (in forms of indirect tax) on the macro-economy development at both national and sector levels. Different levels of tax were simulated to find out the proper tax rate. It is found out that imposing environmental tax on high emission sectors can cause the emission decreased immediately and can lead to negative impacts on macro-economy indicators, such as GDP (gross domestic products), total investment, total product and the whole consumption etc. However, only the government income increased. In addition, the higher the tax rate is, the more pollutants can be reduced and the worse economic effects can be caused. Consequently, it is suggested that, the main controlling policies of VOCs abatement should be mandatory orders, and low environmental tax can be implemented as a supplementary.

  17. Environmental tax reform: the Swedish experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterner, T.

    1994-01-01

    As part of a general tax reform taxes on energy and transport were increased heavily around 1991. The following year industry succeeded in repealing a number of the taxes on energy. This reform was financed by further increasing the energy taxes for the household and transport sectors. Generally it appears that the energy tax and the carbon tax are successful as revenue raisers while their environmental effect will only be seen in the long run. On the other hand such taxes as on sulphur and the tax differentiation on leaded fuel, as well as the differentiation between different qualities of diesel and fuel oil, have been very successful in an environmental sense, but have not given any substantial revenue contributions. (author)

  18. Indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Mirian da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to estimate the indirect tax burden on food for ten income classes, based on income and household total expenditure in southern Brazil. Thus it can be seen as indirect taxes on foods affect the monetary income and consumption pattern of households. To reach the objectives proposed, will be used the Pintos-Payeras (2008 model. The database iscomposed by microdata from the Household Budgeting Survey (POF 2008-2009 and the tax regulations of the country and the southern states of Brazil. The results show that indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil is regressive when based on income and expenditure of household , ie , the poorest people pay proportionately more taxes and have their consumption pattern highest taxed ICMS (Brazilian value added tax is the tax that contributes most to the regressivity.

  19. Examining corporate governance and corporate tax management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Surya Mulyadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Taxation play an essential role both in a country and in a corporation. For a country it is one of the primary income source, while for the corporation taxes will reduce corporate net income. To minimize the tax payment, corporation conduct a corporate tax management. According to some of previous research, there is a correlation between corporate governance and corporate tax management. While there are many corporate governance proxies could be used in corporate governance research, in this research we are focusing on three: number of board, number of independent board and board compensation. We measure corporate tax management by using effective tax rate (GAAP ETR and current ETR are used in this research. By using several other control variables, we run the regression and conduct the statistical analysis to examine the correlation between corporate governance and corporate tax management. Our result show that corporate governance have a significant correlation to corporate tax management.

  20. Should the average tax rate be marginalized?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feldman, N. E.; Katuščák, Peter

    -, č. 304 (2006), s. 1-65 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : tax * labor supply * average tax Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp304.pdf

  1. Do Individuals Perceive Income Tax Rates Correctly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gideon, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This article uses data from survey questions fielded on the 2011 wave of the Cognitive Economics Study to uncover systematic errors in perceptions of income tax rates. First, when asked about the marginal tax rates (MTRs) for households in the top tax bracket, respondents underestimate the top MTR on wages and salary income, overestimate the MTR on dividend income, and therefore significantly underestimate the currently tax-advantaged status of dividend income. Second, when analyzing the relationship between respondents' self-reported average tax rates (ATRs) and MTRs, many people do not understand the progressive nature of the federal income tax system. Third, when comparing self-reported tax rates with those computed from self-reported income, respondents systematically overestimate their ATR while reported MTR are accurate at the mean, the responses are consistent with underestimation of tax schedule progressivity.

  2. The Propensity to Tax Competition: The Case of Implementation Local Tax Policy by Polish Local Governments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Walasik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study is dedicated to identify the main factors determining the propensity of local authorities to compete for the access to the limited as well as mobile sources of local tax revenue. The success of such an activity should be discussed in relation to the stabilization of local budget revenues; hence it seems that the barriers of leaving tax jurisdiction could be better index to evaluate of the efficiency of local tax policy. The theoretical approach is based on the assumption that, if central government provides limitations of the right to improve local tax policy means (the scope of local tax jurisdiction, the local governments should focus on both the efficient acquiring the sources of tax revenues, and the stabilization of tax revenues in the future, in particular by the implementation of the barriers of leaving tax jurisdiction. The paper suggests studying a propensity to tax competition. The article formulates desideratum of the efficiency of spending on acquiring the sources of tax revenue, in particular, the need to identify the barriers to leave tax jurisdiction is suggested. The first and foremost way to build the barrier to leave tax jurisdiction could be reducing tax liabilities by local tax authorities, in particular by introducing local tax reliefs and local tax exemptions, as well as lowering local tax rates. Hence, the model of local authorities’ competition for local tax resources could be proposed. The empirical studies are dedicated to identify the actual propensity of Polish local government to execute the legal ability to impose tax policy instruments. The inquiry is based on comparing the fiscal consequences of implementing local tax policy within two groups of local authorities: small towns and countries (gminas and medium-size towns and big cities (cities with powiat status. The period under investigation contains 14 fiscal years, started 2000 and finished in 2013. The method is based on the analysis of the

  3. How would a flat tax affect small businesses?

    OpenAIRE

    John E. Golob

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Congress is considering several strategies to reform the federal income tax system. The most widely discussed strategy, a flat tax, would tax income received by businesses and individuals at the same low, flat rate. Flat tax proposals would eliminate most tax deductions and tax credits but would increase the personal exemption for individual taxpayers. While the debate continues over whether a flat tax would be fair to individual taxpayers, assessing the effect of a flat tax on econo...

  4. The consequences of different strategies for measuring tax evasion behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ghavam Ahmadi; Ali Bayat; Homa Doroudi

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a study to investigate the effect of tax strategy on tax evasion in province of Zanjan, Iran. The study selects two randomly selected populations of 100 people from Tax organization and the people who file income tax with revenue agency. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale to study the effects of five variables namely; promote tax culture, lack of belief in tax payment consequences, filing false tax statement, tax exemption and general culture community as in...

  5. Administrative costs of property tax in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Břetislav Andrlík

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the efficiency of property taxes in the tax system of the Czech Republic, focusing on the administrative costs of taxation on the timeline 2005 to 2008. It contains a theoretical definition of tax efficiency, and describes the types of costs connected with taxes. From this perspective it focuses on quantifying the direct administrative costs of inheritance tax, gift tax, property transfer tax and property tax. Direct measurement of administrative costs is done by using th...

  6. Work performance and tax compliance in flat and progressive tax systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantya, Jozsef; Kovacs, Judit; Kogler, C.; Kirchler, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Different tax systems, and their impact on work motivation and tax compliance are significant issues in contemporary political and economic debates. The proportional feature of a flat tax system is assumed to lead to higher performance, while the fairness of the redistributive progressive tax system

  7. 76 FR 42038 - Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... contains final regulations providing guidance relating to the determination of the amount of taxes paid for purposes of the foreign tax credit. These regulations address certain highly structured transactions that...

  8. 76 FR 42076 - Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... temporary regulations that provide guidance relating to the determination of the amount of taxes paid for purposes of the foreign tax credit. These regulations address certain highly structured arrangements that...

  9. 78 FR 54391 - Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... contains final regulations providing guidance relating to the determination of the amount of taxes paid for purposes of the foreign tax credit. These regulations address certain highly structured arrangements that...

  10. 76 FR 53819 - Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service..., July 18, 2011, providing guidance relating to the determination of the amount of taxes paid for purposes of the foreign tax credit. These regulations address certain highly structured arrangements that...

  11. 76 FR 42036 - Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... temporary regulations providing guidance relating to the determination of the amount of taxes paid for purposes of the foreign tax credit. These regulations address certain highly structured arrangements that...

  12. 76 FR 22611 - Specified Tax Return Preparers Required To File Individual Income Tax Returns Using Magnetic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... Specified Tax Return Preparers Required To File Individual Income Tax Returns Using Magnetic Media... Register on Wednesday, March 30, 2011 (76 FR 17521) providing guidance to specified tax return preparers who prepare and file individual income tax returns using magnetic media pursuant to section 6011(e)(3...

  13. The Tax Compliance Demand Curve: A Diagrammatical Approach to Income Tax Evasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaniv, Gideon

    2009-01-01

    One of the most interesting results in the tax evasion literature is that an increase in the income tax rate would increase tax compliance. Despite its peculiarity, this result has gained acceptance as a cornerstone for further developments of the rational tax evasion model. However, because of the mathematical format by which it is conveyed, this…

  14. 26 CFR 1.903-1 - Taxes in lieu of income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of a hotel, is subject to the generally imposed income tax. A comparison between the tax burden of... to a gross income tax on income from country X that is not attributable to a trade or business... required by country X law to withhold the gross income tax from payments they make to nonresidents, and to...

  15. Analyzing macroeconomic indicators of the tax system from a tax-cultural perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Levišauskaitė, Kristina; Šinkūnienė, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    The article includes the concept of tax culture, the overview of its evolution and determinative factors, the main possibilities of tax culture expression and measurement options for tax macroeconomic indicators, as well as the definition, analysis and assessment of macroeconomic indicators reflecting tax culture in terms of the attitude and behaviour.

  16. Tax Breaks for College: Current and Proposed Tax Provisions That Help Families Meet College Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptman, Arthur M.; Gladieux, Lawrence E.

    The nature and scope of tax policies that affect higher education are sketched, concentrating on the provisions of the tax code that directly help families finance college costs. Attention is directed to: proposals to expand the range of tax benefits for higher education, the merits of existing and proposed tax schemes in times of reduced federal…

  17. Analysis of behavior of sales tax due to implementation of national consumption tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Fernanda Corredor-López

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on analyzing the taxation behavior in terms of taxpayers, tax collection and economic activities, both in sales tax for the fiscal periods 2012 and 2013, and in the national tax to the consumption during the fiscal period 2013. This analysis centers on knowing the effects of the taxation reform in 2012 regarding these two taxes.

  18. Income tax considerations for forest landowners in the South: a case study on tax planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip D. Bailey; Harry L. Jr. Haney; Debra S. Callihan; John L. Greene

    1999-01-01

    Federal and state income taxes are calculated for hypothetical owners of nonindustrial private forests (NIPF) across 14 southern states to illustrate the effects of differential state tax treatment. The income tax liability is calculated in a year in which the timber owners harvest $200,000 worth of timber. After-tax land expectation values for a forest landowner are...

  19. Genre Analysis of Tax Computation Letters: How and Why Tax Accountants Write the Way They Do

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowerdew, John; Wan, Alina

    2006-01-01

    This study is a genre analysis which explores the specific discourse community of tax accountants. Tax computation letters from one international accounting firm in Hong Kong were analyzed and compared. To probe deeper into the tax accounting discourse community, a group of tax accountants from the same firm was observed and questioned. The texts…

  20. Tax Equity in the Fifty States. The CAPE Measure. Taxes: How the States Measure Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Diane; Rabin, Steve A.

    This study identifies the features of state tax systems that contribute to tax equity. It also identifies states that have come closest to achieving those features and ranks the states accordingly. Thus, the greater the conformity, the more equitable the tax system, and the higher the state's ranking. The study looks at the four major tax areas of…

  1. Income taxes and the composition of pay

    OpenAIRE

    Brunello, Giorgio; Comi, Simona; Sonedda, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    According to the standard principal-agent model, the optimal composition of pay should balance the provision of incentives with the individual demand for insurance. Do income taxes alter this balance? We show that the relative share of PRP on total pay is reduced by higher average taxes, and is affected in a complex way by higher marginal tax rates. Empirical evidence based on the British Household Panel Survey, which exploits the UK 1999 Tax Reform, supports the theoretical predictions of th...

  2. PENGARUH BOOK TAX DIFFERENCES TERHADAP MANAJEMEN LABA

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Deni Purnama; Purwaningsih, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to determine the effect of the tax book differences on earnings management. The population in this study were the manufacturing companies listed at the Stock Exchange at the observation period of 2009 to 2011. The samples in this study consisted of 140 samples obtained through the purposive sampling technique. The independent variable of this study was the book tax differences. Book tax differences in this study were presented by the large positive book tax differences (LPBTD)...

  3. Audit fees and book-tax differences

    OpenAIRE

    Hanlon, Michelle; Krishnan, Gopal V.; Mills, Lillian F.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate whether book-tax differences are associated with higher audit fees, a proxy for auditor risk assessments and auditor effort. Our evidence suggests that there is a significantly positive relation. Further, this association is larger for firms that appear to have managed earnings (i.e., have high accruals) relative to those that are tax avoiders (i.e., have low cash effective tax rates). Our evidence is consistent with large book-tax differences representing an observable proxy f...

  4. Evolution of tax revenue in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Mihaela Florea

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to analyze the dynamics of tax revenues in Romania in the period 2008 - 2013, following the installation of austerity caused by the global economic crisis. There are highlighted the earned revenues at the general consolidated budget by revenue category, according to the annual budget execution. The article deals mainly with the evolution of profit tax, income and salaries tax, value added tax and excise. .

  5. Fiscal Policy under Indeterminacy and Tax Evasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busato, Francesco; Chiarini, Bruno; Marchetti, Enrico

    This paper shows under indeterminacy and tax evasion, an increase in corporate,labor or income tax rates pushes the economy into an expansionary pattern.These effects are reversed when the steady state is saddle-path stable.......This paper shows under indeterminacy and tax evasion, an increase in corporate,labor or income tax rates pushes the economy into an expansionary pattern.These effects are reversed when the steady state is saddle-path stable....

  6. Environmental Consideration in Tax Policy Design

    OpenAIRE

    John Whalley

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses how environmental considerations will affect tax policy in the decades ahead. It argues that in the future, interactions between tax and environmental policy are likely to go well beyond recent discussion of double dividend issues and internalization of environmental externalities via tax policy will be the goal, which inevitably will involve the particular rather than the general. As a result, notions of neutrality which dominate current thinking on tax design will come ...

  7. Regional features of the individual income tax

    OpenAIRE

    L. V. Demina; V. A. Semenova

    2016-01-01

    Tax on income of physical persons according to the method of establishing refers to federal taxes, however, is the establishment of a regional peculiarities. Currently, in accordance with the distribution of taxes between the budgets of the order, the share of this tax in the regional budgets is directly dependent on the level and income level received by the population, to carry on activity in a particular area of the country. The article discusses the possibility of impact on the taxation o...

  8. A Comparison of Alternative Tax Bases

    OpenAIRE

    John Freebairn

    2005-01-01

    The revenue, efficiency, equity and operating costs properties of alternative tax bases or taxable sums are compared and contrasted. Initially the assessment is made for generic, comprehensive tax bases on income and consumption flows, wealth stocks, and on transactions. On the criteria of efficiency and equity, there are unresolved conceptual and empirical arguments in choosing between income, consumption and wealth tax bases, but general revenue raising transaction taxes are inferior. In pr...

  9. BEPS Action Plan: Global Tax Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei Shelepov

    2016-01-01

    Given the dynamics of economic and financial globalization, national tax authorities often do not have adequate tools to effectively combat tax avoidance practices that exploit gaps in the existing tax rules. To address the global problem of tax base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the Group of 20 (G20) have consolidated their efforts on an equal footing. Their joint BEPS Action Plan allowed to involve more than 100 cou...

  10. Tax holidays in a BEPS-perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerkestuen, Hilde Mæhlum; Wille, Hans Georg

    2015-01-01

    This is the accepted and refereed manuscript to the article. Available at http://www.kluwerlawonline.com/ A tax holiday is a time-limited exemption from taxation and one of the most commonly employed tax incentives in developing countries. The main objective behind tax holidays is to attract foreign direct investment (FDI), as this is believed to stimulate economic growth and development. An exemption from taxation under a tax holiday could encourage investors to invest in developing...

  11. 19 CFR 4.20 - Tonnage taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., tonnage tax shall be collected at the higher rate. (b) The tonnage year shall be computed from the date of... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tonnage taxes. 4.20 Section 4.20 Customs Duties U... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Tonnage Tax and Light Money § 4.20 Tonnage taxes. (a) Except as...

  12. TAX REFORM AND BEEF COW REPLACEMENT STRATEGY

    OpenAIRE

    Innes, Robert; Carman, Hoy F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper models optimal beef cow replacement strategy in a stochastic environment under U.S. income tax rules effective before and after the Tax Reform Act of 1986. Under each tax regime, the producer's buy versus raise decision and optimal culling age choice are analyzed. Per-cow profit levels are also calculated. Results of the numerical analysis indicate that tax law changes, particularly the loss of the capital gains exclusion and restrictions on preproduction expensing, will have signi...

  13. A new strategic plan for a carbon tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stram, Bruce Nels

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new Green House Gas policy building upon general consensus in scientific, political and economic communities including: 1.Concern too little progress is being made toward an integrated global approach to controlling CO 2 emissions. 2.Recommendation of a carbon tax. 3.Need for increased R and D for alternative energy sources. 4.Substantially increased research and development expenditures are relatively inexpensive. Here,these elements are woven into a coherent strategy that should be farmore politically acceptable by global governments than currentalternatives. Here are its elements: 1.A small carbon tax whose proceeds are tied exclusively to energy research and development in a dedicated trust fund. 2.Deployment of the fund to demonstrate benefits of the approach and its incentives for other countries to join. 3.The establishment of a commonality of interest among participating nations. 4.Clear incentives for additional nations to participate. The ultimate goal, energy services at lower cost than today with fossil fuels, is appropriately ambitious. The proposed approach is functional, timely and will produce benefits going well beyond simply stemming global warming. It would also tend to obviate the need for implementation policy: economic choice would lead to transition to such new technologies. - Highlights: • International Green House Gas negotiations have foundered on the need to allocate caps. • A small carbon tax is a more achievable policy than the global cooperation needed for caps. • A small carbon tax among cooperating nations can fund much more energy research and development. • Access to advanced technology creates a relatively low cost incentive to cooperate. • Lower cost energy services, if achieved, would improve human welfare

  14. LEVIATHAN, TAXES AND THE GEESE: (WHY DO WE NEED A TAX CONSTITUTION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coskun Can Aktan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The taxing power of the government was misused by rulers throughout the history everywhere. Tax rates, tax bases and tax related decisions were changed frequently, and those changes brought new burdens on individuals. Taxplotation is a phenomenon caused by Leviathan (unlimited excessive government power. How can individuals be protected from tax exploitation? How can tax abuse of the governments be stopped? How can arbitrary and discretionary power of the politicians be limited in modern democracies? What effective measures can be taken against tax abuse? Those are the main questions that we aim to explore, analyze and answer

  15. Nice Guys Finish Last: Are People with Higher Tax Morale Taxed More Heavily?

    OpenAIRE

    Doerrenberg, Philipp; Duncan, Denvil; Fuest, Clemens; Peichl, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    This paper is the first to provide evidence of efficient taxation of groups with heterogeneous levels of 'tax morale'. We set up an optimal income tax model where high tax morale implies a high subjective cost of evading taxes. The model predicts that 'nice guys finish last': groups with higher tax morale will be taxed more heavily, simply because taxing them is less costly. Based on unique cross-country micro data and an IV approach to rule out reverse causality, we find empirical support fo...

  16. Taxing junk food: applying the logic of the Henry tax review to food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Molly E; Williams, Michael J; Crammond, Brad; Loff, Bebe

    2010-10-18

    The recent review of taxation in Australia - the Henry tax review - has recommended that the federal government increase the taxes already levied on tobacco and alcohol. Tobacco and alcohol taxes are put forward as the best way of reducing the social harms caused by the use and misuse of these substances. Junk foods have the same pattern of misuse and the same social costs as tobacco and alcohol. The Henry tax review rejects the idea of taxing fatty foods, and to date the government has not implemented a tax on junk food. We propose that a tax on junk food be implemented as a tool to reduce consumption and address the obesity epidemic.

  17. 47 CFR 32.7400 - Nonoperating taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... computing book depreciation on the property with respect to which the tax credits relate. (c) This account... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonoperating taxes. 32.7400 Section 32.7400... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions For Other Income Accounts § 32.7400 Nonoperating taxes...

  18. Tax policy and labor market performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.L. Bovenberg (Lans)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn exploring the impact of tax policy on labor-market performance, the paper first investigates how tax reform impacts labor supply and equilibrium unemployment in representative agent models. The impact of tax policy on labor market performance depends importantly on various other

  19. Taxes; Business Education: 6463.02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksa, Cecelia

    This course explores questions of why we have taxes and how they benefit people. Various other taxes (local, State and Federal, property, income, excise, and inheritance taxes) are dealt with. There is no specific prerequisite for this course, but it is recommended that students enroll in other consumer economics and business mathematics courses…

  20. 7 CFR 1436.14 - Taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Taxes. The borrower must pay, when due, all real and personal property taxes that may affect CCC's security interest in all collateral or land securing the note evidencing the loan. To protect its interests, CCC may pay any unpaid taxes with respect to the collateral or land securing a loan made in accordance...

  1. Does tax competition really promote growth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köthenbürger, Marko; Lockwood, Ben

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the relationship between tax competition and growth in an endogenous growth model where there are stochastic shocks to productivity, and capital taxes fund a public good which may be for final consumption or an infrastructure input. Absent stochastic shocks, decentralized tax...

  2. 16 CFR 460.22 - Tax claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tax claims. 460.22 Section 460.22 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.22 Tax claims. Do not say or imply that your product qualifies for a tax benefit unless it is true. ...

  3. Addressing inequality and poverty with tax instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđelović Saša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a consensus, in both academia and economic policy circles, that the reform of the personal income tax system in Serbia is necessary one. Two frequently discussed reform scenarios are East European style flat tax and the comprehensive income tax model of Western Europe. Most Central and Eastern European (CEE countries have recently reformed their income tax systems by introducing some form of flat tax scheme, while in numerous countries of Western Europe the possibility of flat tax reform is also seriously considered. Opponents of the reform usually stress the adverse distributional effects of flat tax schemes. The aim of our paper is to contribute to the empirical literature on the distributional effects of alternative tax reform scenarios. The analysis is based on the tax and benefit micro-simulation model for Serbia (SRMOD. The results suggest that redesigning the existing income tax system so as to introduce a uniform tax rate and increase the basic allowance would somewhat reduce inequality and improve vertical inequity in taxation. On the other hand, in the case of the introduction of comprehensive income tax, considerably larger equalizing and progressivity effects would be achieved. At the same time, since in both cases redistribution will not affect the bottom decile group, no significant effects (in either cases on poverty reduction will be achieved.

  4. 48 CFR 1632.607 - Tax credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Tax credit. 1632.607... 1632.607 Tax credit. FAR 32.607 has no practical application to FEHBP contracts. The statutory... may not offset debts to the Fund by a tax credit which is solely a Government obligation. ...

  5. 48 CFR 2132.607 - Tax credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Tax credit. 2132.607... Contract Debts 2132.607 Tax credit. FAR 32.607 has no practical application to FEGLI Program contracts. The... Government, contractors may not offset debts to the Fund by a tax credit that is solely a Government...

  6. 27 CFR 19.905 - Taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... may be withdrawn free of tax from the premises of an alcohol fuel plant exclusively for fuel use in... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxes. 19.905 Section 19.905 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  7. Pension saving responses to anticipated tax changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Leth-Petersen, Søren; Skov, Peer

    2017-01-01

    A Danish tax reform, passed in May 2009 and taking effect from the beginning of 2010, lowered the marginal tax rate on top bracket taxable income from 63% to 56%. Because contributions to pension accounts are tax deductible, the reform provided an incentive to increase pension contributions before...

  8. Tax reform Ukraine: implementation mechanisms and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Lebedzevіch

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the main shortcomings of the existing domestic tax systems, which were the main reasons for the need for its reform in the context of integration into the European Community. Determined the first stage of reforming tax systems Ukraine, which is associated with the adoption of the Law of Ukraine «On Amendments to the Tax Code of Ukraine and laws of Ukraine». The main provisions of this legal act, revealing the essence of the mechanism for implementing tax reform. Analyzed the mechanism of implementation of tax reform by analyzing the major innovations of the Tax Code of Ukraine and their comparison with the tax «standards» that operated the implementation of tax reform 2015. Thesis there is determined a number of tax loopholes and nedoopratsyuvan conducted tax reform and their implications for payers of taxes and duties, and the need for further research and improvement. The experience of European countries towards the introduction of electronic filing and processing of tax returns.

  9. Income Tax Reform and Agriculture: A Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Five papers are provided from a symposium organized to present several economic studies relating to income tax structure and reform in agriculture. "Toward an Optimal Income Tax Policy for Southern and U.S. Agriculture" (Harold F. Breimyer) is a structured argument for comprehensive tax reform that increases the equity of the income tax…

  10. Environmental tax reform and endogenous growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenberg, A.L.; de Mooij, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper explores the effects of an environmental tax reform on pollution, economic growth and welfare in an endogenous growth model with pre-existing tax distortions. We find that a shift in the tax mix away from output towards pollution may raise economic growth through two channels. The first

  11. TAX SMOOTHING: TESTS ON INDONESIAN DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Kurniawan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the literature of public debt management by testing for tax smoothing behaviour in Indonesia. Tax smoothing means that the government smooths the tax rate across all future time periods to minimize the distortionary costs of taxation over time for a given path of government spending. In a stochastic economy with an incomplete bond market, tax smoothing implies that the tax rate approximates a random walk and changes in the tax rate are nearly unpredictable. For that purpose, two tests were performed. First, random walk behaviour of the tax rate was examined by undertaking unit root tests. The null hypothesis of unit root cannot be rejected, indicating that the tax rate is nonstationary and, hence, it follows a random walk. Second, the predictability of the tax rate was examined by regressing changes in the tax rate on its own lagged values and also on lagged values of changes in the goverment expenditure ratio, and growth of real output. They are found to be not significant in predicting changes in the tax rate. Taken together, the present evidence seems to be consistent with the tax smoothing, therefore provides support to this theory.

  12. CORRUPTION AND TAX EVASION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA TRANDAFIR

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Tax evasion has become a ubiquitous phenomenon in economic and social. Extent it has taken a tax evasion is worrying because the lack of control measures may close in the future stability of national economy. To combat tax evasion is not necessary to impose some severe penalties, but should be made an effective fiscal control, a viable legal system.

  13. 48 CFR 31.205-41 - Taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.205-41 Taxes... accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. Fines and penalties are not considered taxes. (2... Government. The term exemption means freedom from taxation in whole or in part and includes a tax abatement...

  14. Direct Marketers and the Virginia Sales Tax

    OpenAIRE

    Whittle, Bill; Groover, Gordon Eugene, 1956-

    2009-01-01

    When farmers sell retail or to the end-user, they must collect sales tax on the gross sales price of all retail sales. For the purpose of sales tax rules, farmers making direct sales are treated like all retail merchants and are obligated to collect and remit the sales tax on all retail sales to each customer.ï_ 

  15. Income Tax Policy and Charitable Giving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Arthur C.

    2007-01-01

    Many studies over the past 20 years have looked at the response of charitable donations to tax incentives--the tax price elasticity of giving. Generally, authors have assumed this elasticity is constant across all types of giving. Using the 2001 Panel Study of Income Dynamics data on charitable giving, this paper estimates the tax price elasticity…

  16. Achieving sustainable development through tax harmonization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using Nigeria as a case study, this article examines the efficacy of tax harmonization as an option for the achievement of two objectives: the integration of a developing country with other economies, and its sustainable development. It highlights the nexus between tax harmonization – a tax policy option – and sustainable ...

  17. International tax planning & prevention of abuse under domestic tax law, tax treaties & EC-law

    OpenAIRE

    De Broe, Luc

    2007-01-01

    PART ONE:THE USE OF CONDUIT & BASE COMPANIES IN INTERNATIONAL TAX PLANNING 1 1. CONDUIT COMPANIES 1 1.1. Treaty shopping 1 1.1.1. Description of the term “Treaty shopping” in relation to conduit companies 1 1.1.2. Basic features of “Treaty Shopping” in relation to conduit companies 6 1.1.2.1. Form of the conduit: company or partnership ? 6 1.1.2.2. Tax considerations in setting up the conduit 8 1.2. Directive shopping 11 1.2.1. Description of the term ...

  18. THE IMPORTANCE OF TAX AMNESTY POLICY IN EFFORTS TO OVERCOME TAX EVASION IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imas Sholihah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental problems of taxation in Indonesia is a low tax ratio and management of the tax systemhas not been well ordered, especially the handling of the tax evaders. Tax amnesty policy is presentas one of the solutions of the problems of taxation and is part of the tax reform. There are pros andcons to this policy as it pertains to the settings in the Tax Forgiveness Act is considered less sense offairness and legal certainty and are vulnerable to abuse of authority. This policy became importantalthough it is less sense of fairness if the review facilities subject to tax amnesty even though thestate would get the revenue the state in large numbers in a short period of short-term benefits, butif managed by the management and human resources professionals, socialization, and optimizedcontrol, a long-term positive impact to minimize state income tax evasion. Keywords: tax amnesty, policy, tax evation (avoidance

  19. 78 FR 75471 - Section 3504 Agent Employment Tax Liability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... employers and their designated agents who pay wages for home care services, which are subject to taxes under... agent under section 3504 to report, file, and pay income tax withholding, tax under the FICA, or tax... that is authorized to report, file, and pay income tax withholding or FICA tax for an employer who is...

  20. 26 CFR 31.3101-1 - Measure of employee tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Measure of employee tax. 31.3101-1 Section 31... TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Federal Insurance Contributions Act (Chapter 21, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) Tax on Employees § 31.3101...

  1. 26 CFR 31.3301-1 - Persons liable for tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Persons liable for tax. 31.3301-1 Section 31... TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Federal Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3301-1 Persons liable for...

  2. 26 CFR 31.3111-1 - Measure of employer tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Measure of employer tax. 31.3111-1 Section 31... TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Federal Insurance Contributions Act (Chapter 21, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) Tax on Employers § 31.3111...

  3. 26 CFR 31.3111-4 - Liability for employer tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liability for employer tax. 31.3111-4 Section...) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Federal Insurance Contributions Act (Chapter 21, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) Tax on Employers...

  4. 26 CFR 1.1502-2 - Computation of tax liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computation of tax liability. 1.1502-2 Section... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Consolidated Tax Liability § 1.1502-2 Computation of tax liability. The... the computation of consolidated taxable income); (b) The tax imposed by section 541 on the...

  5. 26 CFR 1.1502-4 - Consolidated foreign tax credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consolidated foreign tax credit. 1.1502-4... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Consolidated Tax Liability § 1.1502-4 Consolidated foreign tax credit. (a) In general. The credit under section 901 for taxes paid or accrued to any foreign country or...

  6. 26 CFR 26.2641-1 - Applicable rate of tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... GIFT TAXES GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1986 § 26.2641-1 Applicable rate of tax. The rate of tax applicable to any GST (applicable rate) is determined by multiplying... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicable rate of tax. 26.2641-1 Section 26...

  7. 26 CFR 1.1-2 - Limitation on tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... as defined by section 1348, the tax imposed by section 1, as amended by the Tax Reform Act of 1969... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Limitation on tax. 1.1-2 Section 1.1-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Normal Taxes and...

  8. Tax Reform Implications for Rural Communities and Farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, Ron L.; Reeder, Richard J.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses indirect and long-term rural implications of tax reform: elimination of local sales tax deduction, limits on local bond issues. Summarizes major tax changes affecting agriculture: individual income taxes, corporate tax rates, tax treatment of capital, capital gains, land deductions, cash accounting, development costs, passive losses and…

  9. Environmental tax reform: an assessment of social responses in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinch, J. Peter; Dunne, Louise

    2006-01-01

    Environmental tax reform (ETR) is widely accepted to be a policy with desirable environmental, and other economic effects. The question arises then as to why its implementation has been so patchy. There is a broad literature on the economic impact of ETR, however, there have been very few research efforts devoted to understanding the roles and imperatives of the public, policy makers, businesses and other stakeholders who are addressed by ETR. This paper examines the impediments to ETR in Ireland. Focus groups were formed comprising of members of the general public and these provided a forum for detailed reactions to the ETR concept. Interviews were conducted with policy makers and key business people in an attempt to identify both the patterns of thinking behind ETR and the main obstacles to its introduction. Having presented the results, a theory of the main impediments to ETR is developed. The opinions of the members of the public, the business community and the policy makers highlight a number of issues that need to be addressed in the future design of ETR in Ireland. The principal potential impediments to ETR include: mistrust of the government, implausibility of the policy, means of hypothecation, information asymmetries, the political system, the structure of government, the macroeconomic environment, the impact on competitiveness, inequity between sectors, regressivity, elasticities and the level of the tax, terminology, and the marketing of ETR

  10. Short-run allocation of emissions allowances and long-term goals for climate policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetterberg, Lars; Wråke, Markus; Sterner, Thomas; Fischer, Carolyn; Burtraw, Dallas

    2012-01-01

    We use economic analysis to evaluate grandfathering, auctioning, and benchmarking approaches for allocation of emissions allowances and then discuss practical experience from European and American schemes. In principle, auctions are superior from the viewpoints of efficiency, fairness, transparency, and simplicity. In practice, auctions have been opposed by important sectors of industry, which argue that carbon pricing without compensation would harm international competitiveness. In the European Union's Emissions Trading System, this concern led to grandfathering that is updated at various intervals. Unfortunately, updating gives industry an incentive to change behavior to influence future allocation. Furthermore, the wealth transferred to incumbent firms can be significantly larger than the extra costs incurred, leading to windfall profits. Meanwhile, potential auction revenues are not available to reduce other taxes. By circumscribing free allocation, benchmarking can target competitiveness concerns, incur less wealth transfer, and provide a strategy consistent with transitioning to auctions in the long run.

  11. Recalls and unemployment insurance taxes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 10 (2004), s. 651-656 ISSN 1350-4851 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : recalls * unemployment insurance taxes Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.135, year: 2004 http://search. ebscohost .com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=14132347&site=ehost-live

  12. The nuclear tax and you

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, Mike

    1990-01-01

    Area Electricity Boards in the United Kingdom are required to contract for a specified amount of non-fossil fuel electricity. This is known as the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO). The Boards are able to recoup the additional costs of such purchases by charging the difference to their customers on a pro rata basis. Although the tax is raised for all non-fossil fuel sources, which includes most renewable energy schemes the majority of it will be used to support nuclear power. Initially the total non-nuclear component is expected to be 300 MW, rising to 800 MW by 1998 as more renewables come on stream. This compares to an initial total for nuclear power of 8,548 MW, decreasing to 7714 MW in 1998 as older capacity gets taken off. This clearly shows that the tax is nuclear based and justifies the epithet the Nuclear Tax. Friends of the Earth is launching a campaign to ensure that everyone who pays the Nuclear Tax is aware how much it is, and what it is going to support, and to show why this money is being wasted, when it should be directed to the fuller support of renewables or to the promotion of energy efficiency and energy conservation. (author)

  13. Brownfields New Markets Tax Credits

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Brownfi elds Solutions factsheet is intended for brownfields stakeholders interested in how the U.S. Department of the Treasury’s New Markets Tax Credit (NMTC) Program can be used as a financing mechanism in brownfields cleanup and redevelopment.

  14. Tax Breaks for Law Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Alan L.

    1981-01-01

    A guide to federal income tax law as it affects law students is presented. Some costs that may constitute valuable above-the-line deductions are identified: moving expenses, educational expenses, job-seeking expenses, and income averaging. Available from Washington and Lee University School of Law, Lexington, VA 24450, $5.50 sc) (MLW)

  15. Tax evasion under behavioral structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela S. Pantoja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the strategic interactions between the fiscal authority and the taxpayer regarding tax evasion and auditing. We fit this interaction into a Bayesian game and introduce the concept of behavioral consistency, which helps reducing the number of available strategies and models the stylized fact according to which the choice to evade is subject to behavioral patterns.

  16. The Netherlands : A tax haven?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemmeren, Eric; Kuijer, Martin; Werner, Wouter

    2017-01-01

    The taxation of multinational enterprises is currently subject to intensive international and national debates. In these debates the Netherlands has sometimes been labelled as a ‘tax haven’. This term has a strong negative connotation. In any case, a country’s reputation is at stake if it is

  17. Efficiency of road tax in the tax system of the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Břetislav Andrlík

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with the efficiency of road tax in the tax system of the Czech Republic, focusing on the administrative costs of taxation on the timeline 2005 to 2009. It contains a theoretical definition of tax efficiency, and describes the types of costs connected with taxes. From this perspective it focuses on quantifying the direct administrative costs of road tax. Direct measurement of administrative costs is done by using the method called the method of recounted worker which classifies...

  18. Factors of Formation of the tax Potential of the Securities Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumenniy Anatoliy A.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of identification of factors that influence volumes and dynamics of the tax potential of the securities market. The goal of the article is detection and systematisation of factors of formation and realisation of the tax potential of the securities market. In the result of the conducted study it systemises factors of formation and realisation of the tax potential of the securities market by two groups: economic and legislatory organisational. The main of the economic factors are: state of economic development, degree of the shadow economy, level of savings of the population, level of trust of the population and level of inflation. The article justifies interconnection that exist between the said factors and volumes of the tax potential of the securities market. In particular, it proves that increase of volumes of the shadow economy facilitates reduction of the tax potential of the securities market, since it facilitates outflow of capital from the official sector of economy. Growth of unorganised savings of the population, the volume of which grows proportionally to the growth of the level of distrust of the population to the securities market, has a negative impact on formation of the tax potential of the securities market. Degree of the negative impact of the said factors grows in the event of deterioration of the state of the macro-economic situation and growth of inflation. The legislatory organisational factors are: object, base, rates of taxation of securities trading and the securities market infrastructure. The article proves that low level of infrastructure development could significantly reduce the tax potential of the securities market. The proposed approach to the study of factors of formation of the tax potential gives a possibility to mark out, apart from de-shadowing of operations and expansion of the taxation base, one more direction on increase of the tax potential of the securities market

  19. 26 CFR 26.2632-1 - Allocation of GST exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AND GIFT TAXES GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1986 § 26.2632... from the date of the transfer through the date for filing the individual's Federal estate tax return (including any extensions for filing that have been actually granted). If no estate tax return is required to...

  20. Shady Car Dealings and Taxing Work Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The empirical focus of this article is a ten-month ethnography of a tax audit process led by the Danish Tax and Customs Administration. The tax audit concerns a number of shady car dealings from which taxable income is not reported. This article focuses on the process whereby the tax administration...... succeeds in making some of these car dealings visible. This article draws inspiration from interpretative tax studies that consider taxation as an organisational, institutional, social and cultural phenomenon. Complementing those studies’ approaches, the present study draws both on Latour’s concept...

  1. Health reform through tax reform: a primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Tax incentives for employer-sponsored insurance and other medical spending cost about $200 billion annually and have pervasive effects on coverage and costs. This paper surveys a range of proposals to reform health care, either by adding new tax incentives or by limiting or replacing the existing tax incentives. Replacing the current tax preference for insurance with an income-related, refundable tax credit has the potential to expand coverage and reduce inefficient spending at no net federal cost. But such an approach by itself would entail substantial risks, so complementary reforms to the insurance market are essential to ensure success.

  2. Taxonomy of energy taxes. [By states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    This report provides the US DOE with a taxonomy of the direct Federal, state, and local taxes that differentially affect energy markets, including features of general taxes that affect energy differentially; and describes some of the important analytical questions associated with the taxes included in the taxonomy. First, the report discusses energy taxation within the broad context of energy production and use. The second part includes the formal taxonomy and a detailed breakdown of energy taxes by taxing authority and suggests the important issues that are likely to arise in an analysis of energy taxation.

  3. Post-BEPS Tax Advisory and Tax Structuring from a Tax Practitioner’s View

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Lankhorst (Paul); H. van Dam (Harmen)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe international tax landscape is changing and it is changing fast. The political perception is that taxation of multinational enterprises is not aligned with the ‘economic activity’ that produces their profits (i.e. not aligned with ‘value creation’). The perception links ‘value

  4. The Economic and Philosophical Aspects of the Socialization of Tax Redistribution of the Population’s Income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubkovskyi Serhii A.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at a theoretical substantiation of possibilities and prospects of socialization of the tax redistribution of incomes of population as a direction of harmonization of its fiscal and regulatory functions, on the one hand, as well as private and public interests, on the other. The interrelation of social and tax policy in the mentioned sphere was explored for possibilities and potential of expansion of functional purpose of the tax redistribution of incomes of individuals in the direction of its socialization. The author has proposed and substantiated the introduction to the scientific apparatus of the terms of «socialization of the tax redistribution of incomes of individuals», «socialization of tax policy» in general, as well as «socialization of tax policy in the sphere of income taxation of individuals». In addition, the need to allocate the function of socialization together with the principle of socialization of the income taxation of individuals have been proved. It has been proposed to move from the proportional to the progressive income taxation of individuals with emphasis on the need to take into account the socio-economic situation of the payer, its inclination and sustainability to both socio-economic and fiscal risks, as well as the mandatory targeting of the tax redistribution of population incomes in order to solve the key problems of social development.

  5. Introducing carbon taxes in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, Theresa; Arndt, Channing; Davies, Rob; Hartley, Faaiqa; Makrelov, Konstantin; Thurlow, James; Ubogu, Dumebi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • South Africa is considering introducing a carbon tax to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. • A phased-in tax of US$30 per ton can achieve national emissions reductions targets set for 2025. • Ignoring all potential benefits, the tax reduces national welfare by about 1.2 percent in 2025. • Border carbon adjustments reduce welfare losses while maintaining emissions reductions. • The mode for recycling carbon tax revenues strongly influences distributional outcomes. - Abstract: South Africa is considering introducing a carbon tax to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Following a discussion of the motivations for considering a carbon tax, we evaluate potential impacts using a dynamic economywide model linked to an energy sector model including a detailed evaluation of border carbon adjustments. Results indicate that a phased-in carbon tax of US$30 per ton of CO 2 can achieve national emissions reductions targets set for 2025. Relative to a baseline with free disposal of CO 2 , constant world prices and no change in trading partner behavior, the preferred tax scenario reduces national welfare and employment by about 1.2 and 0.6 percent, respectively. However, if trading partners unilaterally impose a carbon consumption tax on South African exports, then welfare/employment losses exceed those from a domestic carbon tax. South Africa can lessen welfare/employment losses by introducing its own border carbon adjustments. The mode for recycling carbon tax revenues strongly influences distributional outcomes, with tradeoffs between growth and equity

  6. Non-conventional fuel tax credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeoet, P.M.

    1988-01-01

    Coal-seam methane, along with certain other non-conventional fuels, is eligible for a tax credit. This production tax credit allowed coal-seam methane producers to receive $0.7526 per million Btu of gas sold during 1986. In 1987, this credit rose to $0.78 per million Btu. The tax credit is a very significant element of the economic analysis of current coal-seam methane projects. In today's spot market, gas prices are around $1.50 per million Btu. Allowing for costs of production, the gas producer will net more income from the tax credit than from the sale of the gas. The Crude Oil Windfall Profit Tax Act of 1980 is the source of this tax credit. There were some minor changes made by subsequent legislation, but most of the tax credit has remained intact. Wells must be drilled by 1990 to qualify for the tax credit but the production from such wells is eligible for the tax credit until 2001. Projections have been made, showing that the tax credit should increase to $0.91 per million Btu for production in 1990 and $1.34 per million Btu in 2000. Variables which may decrease the tax credit from these projections are dramatically lower oil prices or general economic price deflation

  7. Parking taxes : evaluating options and impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litman, T.A.

    2006-01-01

    In addition to encouraging the use of alternative modes of transport, parking taxes can help to reduce congestion, air pollution, and urban sprawl. Various types of parking taxes were evaluated in this paper, as well as their impacts on parking supply, prices and travel patterns. Examples of various parking tax programs in major cities in Canada, Europe, the United States and Australia were presented. Parking tax programs were divided into 2 main categories: (1) per-space parking levies which distribute cost burdens and encourage property owners to manage parking supply more efficiently and (2) commercial parking taxes on parking rental transactions which discourage the pricing of parking and concentrate impacts in limited areas. Worksite parking levies were discussed, as well stormwater fees and employee parking as a taxable benefit. Typical parking facility financial costs were reviewed and best practices for structuring and implementing parking taxes to increase public acceptability were outlined. It was suggested that the tax base should be broad and well-defined. Local governments should increase parking prices to market rates before imposing special parking taxes, and taxes and fees should be structured to avoid undesirable land use. Parking tax reforms should be part of an overall parking and mobility management program. Stakeholders should be consulted to insure that regulations, administrative procedures and enforcement policies are efficient and fair. The establishment of an evaluation program to determine tax impacts on parking supply and pricing, economic activity, traffic and spillover problems was also recommended. 42 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  8. Russia vows to end oil export tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Russia will eliminate its oil export tax by 1994 and until then will allow some exemptions, Russian officials have assured a group of US tax specialists. They stopped short of saying it would be repealed by the end of the year, the Ken Crawford, a member of a Tax Foundation delegation visiting Russia and managing partner of KPMG Peat Marwick's Moscow office. The export tax was one of several tax related Russian economic issues on which the US experts and Russian officials exchanged views early this month. The 15 member delegation was in Moscow on invitation from Russia's Ministry of Finance and State Committee on Taxation to help develop guidelines for laws governing Russia's taxation of foreign investment. The US group was sponsored by the Tax Foundation, Washington, DC, a nonprofit, nonpartisan tax and fiscal policy research and public education group

  9. Tax evasion and Swiss bank deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Bank deposits in offshore financial centers may be used to evade taxes on interest income. A recent EU reform limits the scope for this type of tax evasion by introducing a withholding tax on interest income earned by EU households in Switzerland and several other offshore centers. This paper...... estimates the impact of the withholding tax on Swiss bank deposits held by EU residents while using non-EU residents who were not subject to the tax as a comparison group. We present evidence that Swiss bank deposits owned by EU residents declined by 30–40% relative to other Swiss bank deposits in two...... quarters immediately before and after the tax was introduced. We also present evidence suggesting that the drop in Swiss bank deposits was driven by behavioral responses aiming to escape the tax - such as the transfer of funds to bank accounts in other offshore centers and the transfer of formal ownership...

  10. Cigarette taxes and smoking during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringel, J S; Evans, W N

    2001-11-01

    This study sought to estimate how changes in state cigarette excise taxes affect the smoking behavior of pregnant women. Detailed information about mothers and their pregnancy was used to examine the impact of taxes on the propensity of pregnant women to smoke. The 1989 to 1995 Natality Detail Files were used in conducting analyses to assess the impact of taxes on smoking among different subpopulations. Higher cigarette excise taxes reduced smoking rates among pregnant women. A tax hike of $0.55 per pack would reduce maternal smoking by about 22%. Overall, a 10% increase in price would reduce smoking rates by 7%. Estimates for subpopulations suggested that nearly all would be very responsive to tax changes, including the subpopulations with the highest smoking rates. Smoking rates among pregnant women are responsive to tax hikes.

  11. Tax responses in platform industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kind, Hans Jarle; Köthenbürger, Marko; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2010-01-01

    Two-sided platform firms serve distinct customer groups that are connected through interdependent demand, and include major businesses such as the media industry, banking, and the software industry. A well known result of tax incidence is that consumers of a more heavily taxed good pay a higher...... price and thus buy less of the good. The present paper shows that this result need not hold in a two-sided market. On the contrary, a higher ad valorem tax may lower end-user prices and spur sales. Thus, two-sided platform firms may not at all engage in tax shifting via price increases. We further show...... that a higher ad valorem tax may undermine a firm's incentive to differentiate its product from that of its competitors. Finally, we demonstrate that the effects of increasing specific taxes may be the opposite of those of increasing value added taxes....

  12. Transfer pricing and the Czech tax policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Solilová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Czech Republic as a small open economy with an extensive network of the international tax treaties for the avoidance of the double taxation prevents from shifting the tax base of the associated enterprises to countries with preferential tax regime through transfer pricing rules. Transfer pricing as one of the important areas of international taxes determines how the profits of the multinational enterprises are split between the jurisdictions in which they operate and which countries get to tax those profits. This situation may affect the global budget of the multinational enterprises and the tax reve­nues of the jurisdictions. This paper is focused on the transfer pricing rules used in the Czech Republic and makes recommendations for the Czech tax policy in this area based on the analysis of the transfer pricing rules in the EU Member States.

  13. Must losing taxes on saving be harmful?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huizinga, Harry; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2004-01-01

    are financed by taxes on savingand investment. There is international cross-ownership of firms, and countries areassumed to be unable to tax away pure profits. Countries then face an incentiveto impose a rather high investment tax also borne by foreigners. In this setting,the loss of the saving tax instrument...... on account of international tax evasion mayprevent the overall saving-investment tax wedge from becoming too high, and hencemay be beneficial for moderate preferences for public goods. A world with 'high-spending' governments, in contrast, is made worse off by the loss of saving taxes,and hence stands...... to gain from international cooperation to restore saving taxation.JEL-Classifcation: H87, H21Keywords: Capital income taxation, cross-ownership, coordination...

  14. The consequences of different strategies for measuring tax evasion behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghavam Ahmadi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study to investigate the effect of tax strategy on tax evasion in province of Zanjan, Iran. The study selects two randomly selected populations of 100 people from Tax organization and the people who file income tax with revenue agency. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale to study the effects of five variables namely; promote tax culture, lack of belief in tax payment consequences, filing false tax statement, tax exemption and general culture community as independent variables on tax evasion behavior. Using regression technique, the study has determined positive and meaningful relationships between tax evasion and independent variables.

  15. Integer Programming Models for Sales Resource Allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Andris A. Zoltners; Prabhakant Sinha

    1980-01-01

    A practical conceptual framework for sales resource allocation modeling is presented in this paper. A literature review of sales resource allocation models is described in terms of this framework. The conceptual framework also lends itself to several integer programming models which may be used to address the variety of sales resource allocation decisions faced by every sales organization. A general model for sales resource allocation is developed which incorporates multiple sales resources, ...

  16. Tax expenditures and the efficiency of Croatian value added tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Sopek

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to provide a systematic overview of value added taxation in Croatia along with main changes in relevant legislation and to estimate total amount of tax expenditures. Results show that the proportion of tax expenditures in GDP in Croatia in 2010 amounted to less than 4%, a proportion lower than in any of the EU new member states, as well as almost twice as low as the EU-27 average. It can be concluded that the Croatian value added taxation system is efficient in this way, as was additionally shown by an analysis according to which Croatia in 2010 had better efficiency indicators than all the observed EU member states. The Croatian VAT system is mainly harmonized with EU directives, but abolition of the zero rate is still expected; this will increase government revenue by approximately 0.4-0.8% of GDP, depending on a chosen scenario. It has been suggested that a detailed analysis of the overall value added taxation system should be initiated, with the aim of optimizing cost-benefits. The main focus should be placed on the determination of the optimal VAT registration threshold, the costs and benefits of the introduced reliefs and exemptions in the tax system and the potential effects of the repeal of the zero rate.

  17. Reforming the Tax Mix in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bev Dahlby

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Periodically, tax systems need major reforms to remove the “barnacles” that accumulate under the short-term pressures of political expediency and to adapt to the long-term forces of technological and economic change. The current fiscal and economic problems that confront the provinces require an assessment of much-needed reforms. Raising tax revenue imposes large costs on our society, not only because of the administration and compliance costs of collecting taxes, but because taxes distort economic decisions in the private sector. This is especially true of provincial corporate income taxes. Taxing highly mobile corporate capital and corporate profits encourages firms to shift their investments and profits across provincial and international boundaries. The provinces would enjoy significant boosts to economic growth and efficiency gains by enacting a revenue-neutral switch from corporate to sales or personal income taxes. For Alberta, such a shift would yield up to $40 per dollar of tax revenue shifted from corporate to personal income taxes; for fiscal year 2011-12, this would amount to a percapita welfare gain of roughly $19,000. Other options for tax reform are also discussed in this paper, including the adoption of a penny tax to the GST to fund infrastructure spending by municipalities. However, we think this would saddle the private sector with significant compliance costs and create major economic distortions between neighbouring municipalities by creating an incentive to shop where the penny tax proposal was not adopted. In surveying the most pressing tax reform issues facing Canada, we offer policymakers a firm basis for coming to grips with them, so they can treat tax dollars with the care and foresight Canadians expect.

  18. DOES PERCEIVED GOVERNMENTAL EFFICIENCY IN MANAGING TAX MONEY DRIVE COMPLIANCE? EVIDENCE FROM A TAX GAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂTRÂNCEA LARISSA-MARGARETA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tax compliance, i.e. citizens’ disposition to pay taxes either voluntary or enforced, is an extremely importanttopic at any moment, but mostly when governments have to finance public goods with few tax money. In the light ofthese realities, governments have to find ways of providing public goods by boosting tax compliance. In order toachieve this goal, various factors influencing compliance have to be considered among which the efficiency of thegovernment in managing tax money. In an experimental tax game preceded by a self-reported tax complianceattitudes questionnaire, we show that the information concerning government’s efficiency significantly influencestax payments. Moreover, tax compliance attitudes act as a mediator between the independent variable scenario (i.e.,information about government efficiency and the dependent variable tax payments.

  19. Integration of Tax Administration to Curb Import and Domestic Tax Evasions in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Adu Kwame

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of the Government of Ghana’s plans to maximize tax mobilization, it recently integrated its Regional Collection Agencies (RCA namely; the Internal Revenue Service (IRS, Customs Excise and Preventive service (CEPS and the Value Added Tax (VAT Services into the Ghana Revenue Authority (GRA. This research aims to find out whether Ghana’s tax administration reform of integrating the RCA into GRA has dealt with the inefficiencies in tax administration with respect to personal income tax, company tax, value added tax (VAT, import duties and self employed tax collection. To that end, questionnaires, interviews, observation and the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning’s (MoFEP data on tax revenues were analyzed to establish whether there has been some level of efficiency in the mobilization of these taxes. From the field observation, it was discovered that many taxpayers in Ghana are not being issued receipts which could ensure proper accounting. Surprisingly, tax collectors from the RCAs were aware of this but refuse to act. Even though most of the taxes were not being collected, analysis of data from MoFEP showed an increase in revenue collection in the last four years and this has been attributed to the tax administration integration. The effect of tax evasion on the Ghanaian economy has also been thoroughly discussed

  20. Pollution tax heuristics: An empirical study of willingness to pay higher gasoline taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, S.-L.; Walters, Joshua; Purgas, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Economists widely agree that in concept, pollution taxes are the most cost-effective means of reducing pollution. With the advent of monitoring and enforcement technologies, the case for pollution taxation is generally getting stronger on the merits. Despite widespread agreement among economists, however, pollution taxes remain unpopular, especially in North America. Some oppose pollution taxes because of a suspicion that government would misspend the tax proceeds, while others oppose pollution taxes because they would impose economic hardships upon certain individuals, groups, or industries. And there is no pollution tax more pathologically hated as the gasoline tax. This is unfortunate from an economic perspective, as a gasoline tax is easy to implement, and is a reasonable Pigouvian tax, scaling proportionately with the harms of consumption. Surprisingly, there is a dearth of theory explaining this cleave between economists and virtually everybody else. Drawing on behavioralist literatures, this paper introduces several theories as to why people and governments so vehemently oppose pollution taxes. Using the example of gasoline taxes, we provide some empirical evidence for these theories. We also show that 'revenue recycling,' the use of tax proceeds to reduce other taxes, is an effective means of reducing opposition to gasoline taxes