WorldWideScience

Sample records for tax reforms designed

  1. Tax reforms - taxes without tax laws

    OpenAIRE

    Varma, Vijaya Krushna Varma

    2009-01-01

    All Direct and Indirect taxes accompanied by tax laws, accounting, auditing and tax returns, can be abolished if a new tax system called "TOP Tax system" is adopted and implemented by all nations. Ultimate economic reforms will relieve 7 billion people of the world from the cobweb of ambiguous and complex tax structures, plethora of tax laws, mandatory and cumbersome accounting, auditing, tax returns and consequent quagmire of all tax related cases. Taxation, tax collection, tax enforce...

  2. Thoughts on a comprehensive tax reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wanfu

    2015-01-01

    "The Decision on Several Major Issues Regarding the Deepening of Reform" adopted by the Third Plenum of the Eighteenth Session of the CPC Central Committee gave a new position to the next round of tax reform,and proposed its objectives,tone,mission,and core tasks.The new round of tax reform should cover a wide range of issues,including state governance,tax legislation,economic reform and development,social management,globalization,ecological and environmental protection,improvement of tax collection,as well as other related issues.Particular attention should be paid to replacing business tax with VAT,completing legislation on VAT,adjusting the scope,collection mechanisms,and rates of consumption tax;strengthening regulation and control,implementing a personal income tax system that considers both aggregate income and income by source,promoting real estate tax legislation,expanding the ad valorem natural resource tax,accelerating the gradual replacement of fees with taxes,and introducing legislation on environmental protection taxes.

  3. Tax reform Ukraine: implementation mechanisms and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Lebedzevіch

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the main shortcomings of the existing domestic tax systems, which were the main reasons for the need for its reform in the context of integration into the European Community. Determined the first stage of reforming tax systems Ukraine, which is associated with the adoption of the Law of Ukraine «On Amendments to the Tax Code of Ukraine and laws of Ukraine». The main provisions of this legal act, revealing the essence of the mechanism for implementing tax reform. Analyzed the mechanism of implementation of tax reform by analyzing the major innovations of the Tax Code of Ukraine and their comparison with the tax «standards» that operated the implementation of tax reform 2015. Thesis there is determined a number of tax loopholes and nedoopratsyuvan conducted tax reform and their implications for payers of taxes and duties, and the need for further research and improvement. The experience of European countries towards the introduction of electronic filing and processing of tax returns.

  4. Aspects of financial history in Romania. Reform and reformers. The financial tax reform accomplished BY Nicolae Titulescu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciobanu, R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a brief history of the financial reform designed by Nicolae Titulescu at the beginning of the 1920’s. His tax reform law was formulated after thorough research of other European tax systems. He tried to implement it while he was Minister of Finance. Even though the law was adopted, it was never enacted. It met a certain amount of controversy in the Assembly of Deputies. The analysis made also tries to explain the cedular tax system.

  5. Republic of Kazakhstan Tax Administration Reform and Modernization : Volume 2. Tax Strategy Paper

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on the tax system for non-subsurface users in Kazakhstan. It takes as given the tax reform package that the authorities and stakeholders are designing, but proposes a number of additional steps to be taken over the next 2-3 years aimed at maximizing the benefits of tax neutrality on competitiveness. The first volume of this report mainly focuses on tax policy: taxes on l...

  6. The impact of tax reforms designed to encourage healthier grain consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we simulate the effects of tax reforms aimed at encouraging healthier grain consumption. We use a rich data set on household grain consumption in 2003 from the market research institute GfK Sweden, combined with information on the nutritional content of the consumption.We estimate...... behavioral parameters, which are used to simulate the impact on the average household of tax reforms entailing either a subsidy on commodities particularly rich in fiber or a subsidy of the fiber density in grain products. Our results suggest that to direct the fiber intake towards nutritional...... recommendations, reforms with a substantial impact on consumer prices are required. Regardless of the type of subsidy implemented, the increase in the intake of fiber is accompanied by unwanted increases in nutrients that are often overconsumed: fat, salt and sugar. Funding the subsidies by taxing these nutrients...

  7. The impact of tax reforms designed to encourage healthier grain consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we simulate the effects of tax reforms aimed at encouraging healthier grain consumption. We use a rich data set on household grain consumption in 2003 from the market research institute GfK Sweden, combined with information on the nutritional content of the consumption. We estimate...... behavioral parameters, which are used to simulate the impact on the average household of tax reforms entailing either a subsidy on commodities particularly rich in fiber or a subsidy of the fiber density in grain products. Our results suggest that to direct the fiber intake towards nutritional...... recommendations, reforms with a substantial impact on consumer prices are required. Regardless of the type of subsidy implemented, the increase in the intake of fiber is accompanied by unwanted increases in nutrients that are often overconsumed: fat, salt and sugar. Funding the subsidies by taxing these nutrients...

  8. Tariff-Tax Reforms and Market Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreickemeier, Udo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis

    2006-01-01

    Reducing tariffs and increasing consumption taxes is a standard IMF advice to countries that want to open up their economy without hurting government finances. Indeed, theoretical analysis of such a tariff-tax reform shows an unambiguous increase in welfare and government revenues. The present pa...... efficient proposal to follow both as far as it concerns market access and welfare.JEL code: F13, H20.Keywords: Market access; tariff reform, consumption tax reform....

  9. Reforming the Tax Mix in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bev Dahlby

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Periodically, tax systems need major reforms to remove the “barnacles” that accumulate under the short-term pressures of political expediency and to adapt to the long-term forces of technological and economic change. The current fiscal and economic problems that confront the provinces require an assessment of much-needed reforms. Raising tax revenue imposes large costs on our society, not only because of the administration and compliance costs of collecting taxes, but because taxes distort economic decisions in the private sector. This is especially true of provincial corporate income taxes. Taxing highly mobile corporate capital and corporate profits encourages firms to shift their investments and profits across provincial and international boundaries. The provinces would enjoy significant boosts to economic growth and efficiency gains by enacting a revenue-neutral switch from corporate to sales or personal income taxes. For Alberta, such a shift would yield up to $40 per dollar of tax revenue shifted from corporate to personal income taxes; for fiscal year 2011-12, this would amount to a percapita welfare gain of roughly $19,000. Other options for tax reform are also discussed in this paper, including the adoption of a penny tax to the GST to fund infrastructure spending by municipalities. However, we think this would saddle the private sector with significant compliance costs and create major economic distortions between neighbouring municipalities by creating an incentive to shop where the penny tax proposal was not adopted. In surveying the most pressing tax reform issues facing Canada, we offer policymakers a firm basis for coming to grips with them, so they can treat tax dollars with the care and foresight Canadians expect.

  10. TAX-REFORM - DREAMING ABOUT TOUGH REALITIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEKAM, F

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses four papers concerned with tax reform. It is concluded that tax reform has had a rather limited impact on behaviour so far but that governments should press ahead with gradual improvement and not expect dramatic results.

  11. Optimal green tax reforms yielding double dividend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Esther; Perez, Rafaela; Ruiz, Jesus

    2011-01-01

    In an stylized endogenous growth economy with a negative externality created by CO2 emissions and in which abatement activities are made by private firms, we find a wide range of dynamically feasible green tax reforms yielding the double dividend without any need to assume a complex production structure or tax system, or a variety of externalities in production. As a remarkable finding, we obtain certain scenarios in which increasing the emissions tax up to the Pigouvian level and removing completely the income tax is dynamically feasible and, also, it is the second-best reform. Hence, as a difference to previous literature, in these scenarios the first-best tax mix is implementable, allowing for the elimination of both environmental and non-environmental inefficiencies. Our result arises because of the consideration of public debt issuing and the management of the government budget balance with an intertemporal perspective. The result is obtained for an intermediate range of environmental bearing in preferences, the valid range being contingent on the pre-existing income tax rate. The type of tax reform that we propose could also be implemented for different energy taxes. - Highlights: → We use an endogenous growth model with a negative externality from CO2 emissions. → Abatement activities are made by private firms to reduce payment of emissions taxes. → We find dynamically feasible green tax reforms yielding the double dividend result. → Our result arises thanks to the inclusion of public debt issuing as a financing device. → The type of tax reform proposed can be implemented for other energy taxes.

  12. A study of the Indonesian's income tax reforms and the development of income tax revenues

    OpenAIRE

    Putra, Eureka

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the Indonesian's income tax reforms and the development of Indonesian's income tax revenues in the period of 1983-2011. It points out two key features of the Indonesian's income tax reforms: 1) the tax reforms have embraced tax rates cutting and tax bases broadening apcomprehensive income tax system toward the schedular tax system. Then, regarding tax revenues, data shows that the Indonesian's nominal income tax revenues have increased considerably during that period; howev...

  13. Income responses to tax changes : evidence from the Norwegian tax reform

    OpenAIRE

    Thoresen, Thor Olav; Aarbu, Karl Ove

    1999-01-01

    Several studies, conducted on U.S. data, have found rather strong income responses to changes in marginal tax rates, when treating tax reforms as "natural experiments" and applying the differences-of-differences estimator on individual income data. The Norwegian tax reform of 1992 implied substantial increases in the net-of-tax rate (1 minus the change in the marginal tax rate) for high-income earners, and this paper provides measures of the elasticity of taxable income with respect to these ...

  14. NAFTA and Mexico's Tax Policy Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Martinez-Vazquez; Duanje Chen

    2001-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has had a significant effect on Mexico’s economy and institutions. The ongoing consideration of tax reform in Mexico requires an evaluation of the role of NAFTA in Mexico’s economy, including its tax structure; it also requires an assessment of the impact of the Mexico’s tax system on the trade and capital flows between Mexico and its NAFTA partners, the United States and Canada. Clearly, no good tax reform in Mexico can ignore the role of NAFTA...

  15. The Reform and Design of Commodity Taxes in the Presence of Tax Evasion with Illustrative Evidence from India

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, R.

    1994-01-01

    The literature on tax evasion and its implication for optimal tax theory has concentrated on income tax evasion. The issue of commodity tax evasion has received relatively little attention even though it is important in many cases, especially in developing countries. This paper proposes a theory of marginal reform of indirect taxes that recognises the presence of commodity tax evasion. Illustrative evidence from Indian data confirm the sensitivity of the Pareto improving direction of marginal...

  16. The Economic Effects of Comprehensive Tax Reform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    .... This Congressional Budget Office (CBO) study analyzes the major economic effects of several tax reform plans and finds that much uncertainty surrounds the likelihood and magnitude of the economic gains from tax reform...

  17. TAX REFORM AND NONCOMPLIANCE IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Iswahyudi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of Indonesia’s tax reforms of 2000 and 2008/2009 on taxpayers’ noncompliance. Noncompliance is defined as the difference between the Value Added Tax (VAT liability and the actual revenue. Data are mainly collected from the World Input-Output Database and Indonesia’s Central Board of Statistics. The methodology uses one of the ‘top-down’ approaches, in which national accounts figures are employed to arrive at an estimation of the VAT liability. It is found that compliance deteriorated when reform efforts were incomplete – that is when the reforms suffered from decelerations, setbacks or reversals. This paper contributes to the literature by providing a framework for analyzing the impact of tax reform on taxpayer’s compliance behavior.

  18. Tax Reform in Brazil: a Public Choice Theory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Silveira dos Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze tax reform necessity and the barriers to the implementation of tax reform at the light of public choice theory. The research identifies the arguments that provides the explanation for the tax reform does not occur in Brazil. The question that the article searches to answer is: what are the justifications for the Brazil not have done tax reform? The literature review addresses the failures of government, public choice theory and the theory of optimal taxation. The evidence and studies show that there are reasons to think about a tax system more consistent with the Brazilian reality, indicating the existence of "government failures" that may be the probable cause of impairment of the tax reform.

  19. Tax Mobilization in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Impact of Tax and Business Law Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Bertinelli, Luisito; Bourgain, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to measuring the influence of business (and tax) law reforms on sub-Saharan African countries tax mobilization ability. Relying on a new business law reform indicator, our results validate the significant impact of corporate law modernization on governmental revenue, and unearth a complementary effect between business and tax law reforms.

  20. Labor tax reform, unemployment, and search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijdra, Ben J.; Ligthart, Jenny E.

    A key obstacle to reducing payroll taxes in many industrialized and transition countries is the direct revenue loss to the government that it implies. This paper studies a simple and practical labor tax reform of reducing a payroll tax and increasing a progressive wage tax that keeps the marginal

  1. Value Added Tax Revisited: Toward a Reasonable Consumption Tax Reform in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Yukinobu Kitamura

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores a reasonable consumption tax (VAT) reform in Japan, after passing the tax reform bill in the Diet in August 2012. First, the macro (SNA) data indicates that tax revenue increases by about 12 trillion yen if the VAT rate is raised from 5% to 10%. Secondly, the VAT revenue function reveals the revenue elasticity with respect to 1% consumption increase is 0.96. This is very efficient. Thirdly, remaining tax administration issues are discussed. Fourthly the empirical consumer ...

  2. Ecological tax reform - an optimal solution?. Critical remarks on the DIW study ''Economic effects of an ecological tax reform''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehringer, C.; Fahl, H.; Voss, A.

    1994-01-01

    Through the latest expertise of the German institute for economic research (DIW) regarding an ecological tax reform, the discussion about a tax system considering the shortage of the ressource environment and a deficiency of demand regarding the ressource work is newly provoked. The focus of this article is a critical dealing with the methodical procedure of the German institute for economic reserarch when analyzing the national economic effect of a concretely formulated ecological tax law scenario. When assessing the overall economic consequences of a tax reform, it is recommended to use an analysis instrument, which is farly more consistent compared to the instruments by DIW, and which is more problem adequate through the increased resort to financial knowledge. Based on the obvious weakness of the DIW study, a more extensive comprehension for an ecological tax reform is pleaded for, standing out for an application of taxes based on division of labour and oriented to the objective. (orig./UA) [de

  3. Ecological tax reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  4. Ecological tax reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  5. Ecological tax reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  6. Increasing excise taxes in the presence of an illegal cigarette market: the 2011 Brazil tobacco tax reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Magno Iglesias

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Brazilian cigarette excise tax reform of 2011 increased tax rates significantly in the presence of a high proportion of illegal and cheap cigarettes contributing to total consumption. Prior to 2011, tobacco tax policy in Brazil had reduced excise tax share on consumer prices, for fear of smuggling. This report examines two hypotheses explaining why tax authorities changed direction. The first is related to lack of concern regarding smuggling in tobacco industry pricing behavior before 2011 (rather than reducing prices following tax reduction, legal companies increased net of tax prices above inflation and key costs. The second hypothesis regards inconsistent industry assessments of the size of the illicit market, which ultimately undermined the credibility of the industry with tax authorities. The author concludes that the 2011 reform was designed to revert the weakness of previous policies, and did indeed succeed. The post-2011 experience in Brazil indicates that increased cigarette excise taxes can increase government revenues and reduce smoking prevalence and consumption despite widespread smuggling of tobacco products.

  7. Regional environmental tax reform in a fiscal federalism setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. CIASCHINI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing attention to climate changes have led national Governments to design environmental tax policies able to face environmental problems and their associated economic consequences as a negative change of GDP. The environmental taxation in particular is considered a powerful instrument of pollution control. More important, it provides public revenue that can be recycled both at State level and Local level in order to attain the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and the regional double dividend. In this respect, we use a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE model with imperfect labour market, to assess the regional effects of an environmental fiscal reform designed with the aim of reducing the CO2 emissions in a fiscal federalism setting. In particular, we introduce a local green tax on commodities output with a progressive structure. The tax burden depends on the commodity polluting power and the tax revenue is collected by the Local Government. According to the fiscal federalism principles the Central Government reduces the transfers to the Local Government by the same amount of the tax revenue and compensates the transfer reduction with a cut in Households income tax. The application is done on a bi-regional Social Accounting Matrix for Italy and the results highlights the distributional effects of the reform on macroeconomic variables into the bi-regional income circular flow.

  8. Prospects for tax reform in China following the 18th CPC National Congress

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    After the 18th National Congress, the Chinese government should speed up tax reform and tax reduction. Tax structure should switch to direct tax. Consumption tax reform of lower tax burden could start within a short time. Replacing business tax by value-added tax should be quickly completed. Personal income tax reform should move toward comprehension. Uneven resource distribution should be taken into consideration in resource tax reform. Property tax should be included in the local financing ...

  9. The impact of resource tax reform on China's coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Huihui; Chen, ZhanMing; Wang, Jianliang; Fan, Jihong

    2017-01-01

    Contributing to approximately two-thirds of primary energy consumption, coal usage is the focus of China's energy policies. To regulate the resource taxation system and reduce the burden of coal enterprises, the Chinese government launched a reform of its resource tax system in 2014 for coal, introducing the ad valorem system to replace the volume-based system that had been in place for the preceding thirty years. To assess the impact of the tax reform, this paper constructs two-stage dynamic game models by taking the coal and coal-fired power industries as the players. The market situations of shortage and oversupply are investigated separately. Empirical data are collected to estimate the model parameters for numerical simulations. The model results suggest that the tax reform will reduce both coal prices and the coal industry profitability if the tax levied on each ton of coal is maintained at the same level as before the reform, regardless of whether the market is in a shortage or an oversupply situation. However, the increased buyer's power will amplify the effect of the tax reform. The numerical simulations also provide an estimation of the tax rate of the ad valorem system that maintains the profit of the coal industry. Considering the demand and supply situations in China's coal market, policy recommendations are provided to guide further reform of China's resource tax system. - Highlights: • The paper examines the influence of resource tax reform on China's coal industry. • We construct two-stage game models between coal and coal-fired power industries. • Market situations of shortage and oversupply are studied in two taxation systems. • Coal price will decrease if maintaining the tax levied on each ton of coal the same. • To achieve the reform objective, the ad valorem tax rate should not be set too high.

  10. The voluntary fulfillment of the taxes payment as reformative institution of Venezuelan tax system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Guillermo Garcia

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A consensus between the reformers of the public administration exists on a matter that changes are not decreed, but that these require, for their effective fulfillment of certain conditions, like stimulation of actors affected by the reforms, to recognize the new scenario like favorable and therefore, to act in its name. Under this premise, this paper analyzes the voluntary fulfillment of the taxes payment as reformative institution of the Venezuelan tax system, which has implied the development of a formal incentives structure promoting the initiative of conscious tax payment.

  11. Tax reforms and investment in Nigeria: an empirical examination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is informed by the quest to examine the investment implication of the series of tax reforms in Nigeria, particularly the tax reforms of 2003 and National tax policy of 2012. Annual time series data spanning the years (1981-2012) were utilized. Preliminary diagnostic test was conducted to examine whether the ...

  12. Trends and prospects of tax reforms in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Ho Lim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the reform trends in Chinese tax systems with emphasis on the structural tax reduction policy that has been enforced in China’s socialist market economy system for the past 10 years. This study also intends to draw the implications of such tax reforms by identifying the relationship between China’s socialist and capitalist market economy systems along with other related tax systems and describing the tax policy trends for the last 10 years. A comparison and analysis of the differences in viewpoints on taxation between these market economy systems is also conducted. The core and specific contents of this study on structural tax reduction policy that has been enforced in China over the past decade are arranged.

  13. GST IN INDIA: A KEY TAX REFORM AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Prashant Patil

    2018-01-01

    GST is one of the most crucial tax reforms in India which has been long waiting. It was hypothetical to be implemented from April 2010, but due to political issues and contradictory interests of various stakeholders it was still awaiting The Good and services tax (GST) is the prime and significant indirect tax reform since independence. The main idea of GST is to replace existing taxes like value-added tax, excise duty, service tax and sales tax. It is levied on manufacture sale and consumpti...

  14. Nuclear power enterprise tax planning strategy in the background of reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yimin

    2012-01-01

    The success of tax planning can be converted into enterprise's productivity, tax planning strategy can maximize the desired effects and bring out its full play to tax planning. Taking new round of tax reform in 12th five-year-plan and the reformation of professional groups as the background, the author detailedly conceived a frame of corporate tax planning strategy for nuclear power enterprises of China National Nuclear Corporation at the forefront of reformation from an all-round comprehensive view and multi-angle stand. (author)

  15. Tax-tariff reform with costs of tax administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Knud Jørgen

    on border taxes to finance its resource requirements. However, the theorem does not hold when taxation is associated with administrative costs. The present paper explores the implications of taking into account the costs of tax administration for optimal taxation and for desirable directions of tax......As is broadly recognized, the straightforward application of the Diamond-Mirrlees (1971) production efficiency theorem implies that when lump-sum taxation is not available, then it is optimal for the government in a small open economy to rely on taxes on the net demand of ouseholds rather than......-tariff reform in countries at different levels of economic development. The paper clarifies the reasons for, and lends support to, the criticism by Stiglitz (2003) of the IMF and the World Bank's recommendation to developing countries to adopt VAT to replace border taxes....

  16. Shaping the tax agenda: Public engagement, lobbying and tax reform in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Fjeldstad, Odd-Helge; Ngowi, Prosper; Rakner, Lise

    2015-01-01

    Tax reforms are no longer the exclusive domain of the International Monetary Fund, external experts, and the Ministry of Finance. Increasingly, interest groups across Africa shape the tax agenda. Business associations and other lobbying groups join in alliance with multinational companies to get tax exemptions even though they admit that tax incentives are not of major importance for their decision to invest or not.A high occurrence of tax exemptions reduces the tax base, creates room for bri...

  17. Redistributive Effects of Income Tax Rates and Tax Base 1984-2009: Evidence from Japanese Tax Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Miyazaki, Takeshi; Kitamura, Yukinobu

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to examine how and to what extent changes in income tax rates and income tax deductions affect income inequality from longitudinal perspectives, by using microdata from Japanese individuals and households. The findings of this paper could shed light on the effects of tax rates and tax deduction on tax progressivity. First, redistributive effects of the Japanese income tax are likely to decline for the period 1984-2009. Second, the income tax reforms, i.e...

  18. Estimating Taxable Income Responses using Danish Tax Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Schultz, Esben Anton

    : (i ) Labor income elasticities are modest overall, around 0.05 for wage earners and 0.10 for self-employed individuals. (ii ) Capital income elasticities are about 2-3 times larger than labor income elasticities. (iii) Behavioral elasticities are much larger when estimated from large tax reform......This paper presents evidence on taxable income responses using administrative data that link tax return information to detailed socioeconomic information for the entire Danish population over 25 years. The identifying variation is provided by a series of tax reforms that create large tax variation...... across individuals, income forms, and over time. It is argued that the unique tax variation and data in Denmark makes it possible to control for the biases from non-tax changes in the income distribution and mean reversion that plague much of the existing literature. Our main findings are the following...

  19. Perspectives of tax reforms in Croatia: expert opinion survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Šimović

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to shape tax reform it is necessary objectively to assess the current stateof-the-art of and of the outlook for the tax system. After having reviewed all previous reforms in the light of the consumption-based (interest-adjusted concept of direct taxation, which was almost systematically implemented in Croatia in 1994, we present the results of a broad expert opinion survey about the Croatian tax system. The most interesting results suggest the maintenance/(reintroduction of different tax incentives and reduced VAT rates, rejection of a flat tax as well as decrease of tax brackets, an increase in alcohol and tobacco duties, the introduction of a financial activities tax, a further shift from income to consumption, a decrease of the tax share in GDP and a belief in the behavioral responsiveness of tax decreases/exemptions, as well as a firm commitment to the principle of equity. The last three economic views/values are important predictors of other tax attitudes.

  20. Is an inequality-neutral flat tax reform really neutral?

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Prieto Rodríguez; Juan Gabriel Rodríguez; Rafael Salas

    2004-01-01

    . Let us assume a revenue- and inequality-neutral flat tax reform shifting from a graduated-rate tax. Is this reform really neutral in terms of the income distribution? Traditionally, there has been a bias toward the inequality analysis, forgetting other relevant aspects of the income distribution. This kind of reforms implies a set of composite transfers, both progressive and regressive, even though inequality remains unchanged. This paper shows that polarization is a useful tool for charact...

  1. The impact of NAFTA and options for tax reform in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez-Vazquez, Jorge; Chen, Duanjie

    2001-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has had a profound impact on Mexico's economy and institutions. Clearly, no consideration of tax reform can ignore its role. The thinking about tax reform in Mexico requires evaluating NAFTA's effect on Mexico's economy, including its tax structure, and the effects of its tax system on trade and capital flows between Mexico and its NAFTA part...

  2. Design optimization of real estate tax and effect analysis in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjiuan Guo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this research is to reform the current real estate tax system and establish the real estate tax system suitable for China’s national conditions.Design/methodology: Based on the necessity of the real estate tax reform, the paper studies the system optimization and its effects analysis of the real estate tax. At last, the paper uses the system dynamics to demonstrate the feasibility of the real estate tax from an empirical point.Findings: With the system dynamics, we can establish the causal relationship of the influence factors and forecast the impact on the future real estate prices. It can also provide some suggestions for China’s real estate tax reform.Research limitations/implications: The establishment of the model might not be very mature, so we need the further study and improvement.Originality/value: This study was the first to use system dynamics to analyze the impact of real estate taxes on real estate prices, and we hope to provide some suggestions for China’s real estate tax reform.

  3. Trade liberalization and tax reform strategies: The case of the Korean oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Kieun; Jung, Yonghun

    2012-01-01

    The decline in government revenues due to tariff reductions has become a major concern for most developing countries, including Korea. This paper focuses on the Korean oil industry to examine which post-trade liberalization tax reform strategy is optimal, depending on the government's priority between social welfare and government revenue. We find that the important factors for choosing an optimal tax reform policy are price elasticity of demand and market competition. Based on a price-inelastic demand and the low competitive market for Korea's oil industry, if the goal of a tax reform policy is to increase social welfare, the recommended strategy is to raise the consumption tax by a scale of less than the sum of tariff cuts times the crude oil price and oil import tax cuts. This strategy would also reduce inflation, but it could be detrimental to government revenue. However, if the policy's goal is the preservation of government revenue, the recommended strategy is to raise the consumption tax by a scale equal to the sum of tariff cuts times the crude oil price at the pre-tax reform and oil import tax cuts. This strategy does not change either government revenue or social welfare. - Highlights: ▶ Which post-trade liberalization tax reform is optimal for Korea's oil industry? ▶ Both final and intermediate markets are modeled under imperfect competition. ▶ Both price elasticity and market competition are important for an optimal tax reform. ▶ The optimal tax reform depends on the priority between welfare and government revenue.

  4. Tax reforms in EU Member States - Tax policy challenges for economic growth and fiscal sustainability – 2012 Report

    OpenAIRE

    European Commission

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 edition of the report ‘Tax reforms in EU Member States’ intends to contribute to the tax policy debate in the EU. Following the successful 2011 edition, the report consists of two parts: i) a short analysis of tax revenue data and an overview of recent tax reforms in Member States, and ii) a discussion of selected up-to-date tax policy topics in the form of two analytical chapters. The first analytical chapter focuses on the economic implications and policy challenges of the EU VAT s...

  5. Measuring Labour Supply Responses to Tax Changes by Use of Exogenous Tax Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Ebbe Krogh

    1996-01-01

    This paper estimates average labour supply responses to tax changes for women in Denmark using the tax reform in 1987 as a natural experiment to identify the responsiveness to tax changes. Both changes in the participation rate and in worki ng hous are considered. A nonparametric difference......-in-difference (DID) estimator and a suitable modified parametric DID estimator are used to estimate the labour supply responses and calculate labour supply elasticities with respect to marg inal tax rates and wage rates net of taxes. Finally, we simulate the effect of the fully implemented Danish 1994/1998 tax...

  6. Performing an Environmental Tax Reform in a regional Economy. A Computable General Equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andre, F.J.; Cardenete, M.A.; Velazquez, E.

    2003-01-01

    We use a Computable General Equilibrium model to simulate the effects of an Environmental Tax Reform in a regional economy (Andalusia, Spain).The reform involves imposing a tax on CO2 or SO2 emissions and reducing either the Income Tax or the payroll tax of employers to Social Security, and

  7. Green tax reform, marginal revenue of wage income taxes, and the wage curve. A brief note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziesemer, T.

    2002-01-01

    It has been shown elsewhere (Schneider, 1997) that the success of a green tax reform depends crucially on a small slope of the wage curve of an efficiency wage model in which production occurs using a second factor E, energy or emissions. Also elsewhere (Scholz, 1998) it was revealed that there is a second necessary condition that the marginal revenue of the wage income tax is negative. In this note we show that (1) these two conditions are not independent, but rather depend both on the slope of the wage curve; and (2) if Schneider's condition of a sufficiently flat wage curve is fulfilled, marginal revenue of wage income taxes must be negative. By implication, both the green tax reform and the sign of the marginal revenue of wage income taxes depend on the slope of the wage curve which allows to distinguish three cases of a tax reform: (a) a double dividend for a very small slope of the wage curve (Schneider's case); (b) failure of unemployment reduction (Scholz' case) for a very steep wage curve; (c) failure of emission reduction for an intermediate case of a wage curve slope

  8. The Impact of Uruguay’s 2007 Tax Reform on Equity and Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Martorano

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the Uruguayan government implemented a new tax reform which introduced a new progressive labour income tax, a flat capital income tax, and reduced some indirect taxes, with the objective of improving fiscal balance, income distribution and economic growth. This paper presents an evaluation of the impact of such tax reform on equity and efficiency on the basis of data derived from the Encuesta Continua de Hogares (ECH) for the years 2006 and 2009. Using a Difference-in-Differences tec...

  9. An ecological tax reform in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, L.; Bleijenberg, A.N.

    1992-01-01

    This study, being a part of the large research program 'External Effects of Energy Procurement' and coordinated by PROGNOS, concerns the distributional and macro-economic effects of the internalization of the external effects of the energy supply by means of an ecological tax reform. The PROGNOS study is focused on the costs and effects of energy production, procurement and consumption (in Germany), that are not taken care of by the market. Here a rough estimate is given of the macro-economic consequence and the distributional effects for the industrial sector and households in (West) Germany of an energy tax of which the revenues are 'reinjected' into the economy, mainly by lowering the financial burden on labour. First a description is given of the starting points of the study and the form of the energy tax. Subsequently attention is paid to the macro-economic effects, the sectoral effects, and the effects on the distribution of incomes for households. The model calculations for Western Germany and the Netherlands confirm the expectation that an ecological tax reform leads to the combined realization of employment and environmental objectives. Shifts in the sectoral structure may occur. Energy intensive branches of industry will have to give up a part of their market share in favour of labour-intensive sectors. The results also illustrate that there are several possibilities to prevent a change in the collective burden of regular expenses as a result of a tax or levy on energy, and that the effects of a fuel tax on the income distribution can be corrected. 5 figs., 19 tabs., 5 apps., 15 refs

  10. Vehicle type choice under the influence of a tax reform and rising fuel prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabit, Stefan Lindhard

    2014-01-01

    change in new vehicle purchases toward more diesel vehicles and more fuel-efficient vehicles. The paper analyses to what extent a vehicle tax reform similar to the Danish 2007 reform may explain changes in purchasing behaviour. The paper investigates the effects of a tax reform, fuel price changes......, and technological development on vehicle type choice using a mixed logit model. The model allows a simulation of the effect of car price changes that resemble those induced by the tax reform. This effect is compared to the effects of fuel price changes and technology improvements. The simulations show...... that the effect of the tax reform on fuel efficiency is similar to the effect of rising fuel prices while the effect of technological development is much larger. The conclusion is that while the tax reform appeared in the same year as a large increase in fuel efficiency, it seems likely that it only explains...

  11. Labor tax reform and equilibrium unemployment : a search and matching approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijdra, Ben J.; Ligthart, Jenny E.

    2004-01-01

    The paper studies simple strategies of labor tax reform in a search and matching model of the labor market featuring endogenous labor supply. Changing the composition of the tax wedge---that is, reducing a payroll tax and increasing a progressive wage tax such that the marginal tax wedge remains

  12. Labor Tax Reform and Equilibrium Unemployment : A Search and Matching Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijdra, B.J.; Ligthart, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The paper studies simple strategies of labor tax reform in a search and matching model of the labor market featuring endogenous labor supply.Changing the composition of the tax wedge|that is, reducing a payroll tax and increasing a progressive wage tax such that the marginal tax wedge remains

  13. Energy policies in the European Union. Germany's ecological tax reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welfens, P.J.J.; Jungmittag, A.; Meyer, B.; Jasinski, P.

    2001-01-01

    The chapters discuss the following aspects: 1. Energy policy as a strategic element of economic policy in dynamic open economies. 2. Phasing out nuclear energy and core elements of sustainable energy strategy. 3. Ecological tax reform: Theory, modified double dividend and international aspects. 4. The policy framework in Europe and Germany. 5. Optimal ecological tax reform: Options and recommendations for an EU-action plan. 6. Conclusions. (orig./CB)

  14. The impact of tax reform on new car purchases in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennessy, Hugh; Tol, Richard S.J.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the impact of recent tax reforms in Ireland on private car transport and its greenhouse gas emissions. A carbon tax was introduced on fuels, and purchase (vehicle registration) and ownership (motor) taxes were switched from engine size to potential emissions. We use a demographic model of the car stock (by age, size, and fuel) and a car purchase model that reflects the heterogeneous distribution of mileage and usage costs across various engine sizes. The model shows a dramatic shift from petrol to diesel cars, particularly for large engines. The same pattern is observed in the latest data on car sales. This has a substantial impact on tax revenue as car owners shift to the lower tax rates. The tax burden has shifted from car ownership to car use, and that the overall tax burden on private car transport falls. As diesel engines are more fuel efficient than petrol engines, carbon dioxide emissions fall modestly or, if we consider the rebound effect of travel costs on mileage, minimally. From the perspective of the revenue, the costs per tonne of carbon dioxide avoided are (very) high. - Highlights: → Ireland has reform fuel and car taxes to inventivize emission reduction. → These tax reforms are likely to cause a large shift from petrol to diesel cars. → Carbon dioxide emissions will fall as a result. → Tax revenues will fall too. → The exchequer cost per tonne of CO 2 avoided is very high.

  15. Effects of the petroleum tax reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stensland, G.; Sunnevaag, K.; Tennfjord, B.S.

    1992-04-01

    The report evaluates the effects of the petroleum taxation in Norway. In connection with the general reform of the Norwegian industry taxation, changes are proposed in the petroleum tax law. The report gives a survey of the development in the Norwegian petroleum taxation, and analyses the effects of changing the tax revenue both for the Government and for the companies concerned. The effects of incentives caused by changing the taxation are looked upon. In the appendix the depreciation rules in connection with petroleum taxation are discussed. 18 refs., 17 figs

  16. Who pulled the strings? A comparative study of Indonesian and Vietnamese tax reform

    OpenAIRE

    Heij, Gitte

    2007-01-01

    Many countries overhaul their tax systems from time to time. In the Asian region countries like Indonesia, China, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Vietnam and Thailand have all undergone drastic tax reforms in the last 20 years. The need to fill the government coffers, attract foreign investment and make the tax system more equitable are among the factors instigating these tax reforms. Leading politicians, key institutions, external advisers, lobby groups and parliamentarians are just a ...

  17. Corporate Tax Reform : Statement of the Financial Economists Roundtable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.; Logue, D.; Spatt, C.

    2017-01-01

    Corporate tax reform has been a controversial issue in the U.S. for several years, particularly as U.S. companies have accumulated cash in lower‐tax overseas subsidiaries, while some have used “inversions” to establish overseas corporate domiciles. Two features of U.S. corporate taxation stand out:

  18. Tax reform in the Lula government: continuity and fiscal injustice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrine Brami-Celentano

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The tax reform proposed by the Lula government in 2003, quickly approved by Congress, remained at the limits of the proposals of the previous government of President Fernando Henrique Cardoso and his Social Democratic party (PSDB, inspired by neoliberal ideology. The small advances in reducing regressivity, such as exemptions for basic consumer products, have not altered the role of the tax structure in the concentration of wealth, with a predominance of indirect taxes and their regressive effects. Taxation has deserved little attention in the broad debate about social policies in Brazil, which concentrates on the allocation of public expenses and the efficiency of spending, without proper attention to the role of the tax structure in the concentration of income and wealth in the country. The article presents the regressive profile of the Brazilian tax structure, preserved by the reform of 2003 and discusses the neoliberal agenda that guides the initiatives of the Lula government in this field.

  19. Yu Kilchun’s Concept of Reform of the Tax System in the Korean Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinah Yang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Yu Kilchun in “Semubu (Tax Department” criticizes the trend of the tax system, in which the authority to impose and collect taxes had been taken away from the local magistrates and the isŏ class (composed of hyangni, local functionaries, and sŏri, petty clerks during the Kabo Reform was once again returned to them. Yu Kilchun devised a concept of tax system reform on the premise of the reorganization of the administrative districts into the chu-kun-hyang-ri (state-county-district-village system. Yu’s idea was to make myŏn (hyang, district a governing administrative unit, placed under direct government control. To fund the operation of local governments, Yu proposed to create local taxes, chu taxes and hyang. Tax amounts were to be determined by local assemblies, chuhoe and hyanghoe, which were given the authority to deliberate on budget. The authority to review tax sources, levy and collect taxes was given to hyang, a small unit of administrative division. By imbuing this authority to hyang, Yu Kilchun planned to exclude local magistrates and the isŏ class in the tax collection process. Since “Semubu” discusses the reorganization of administrative divisions and local tax administration, as well as local tax system reform, the discovery of this text is significant, as it expands the range of the reform ideas proposed by Yu Kilchun, and furthermore the Enlightenment Party.

  20. The Impact of Tax Reform on New Car Purchases in Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennessy, H.; Tol, R.S.J.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the impact of recent tax reforms in Ireland on private car transport and its greenhouse gas emissions. A carbon tax was introduced on fuels, and purchase (vehicle registration) and ownership (motor) taxes were switched from engine size to potential emissions. We use a demographic model of

  1. The Ralph review - tax reform and the Australian gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horden, P.; Kellock, I.

    1999-01-01

    The impact of the Federal Government's tax reform package on the Australian gas industry will be generally negative, particularly in terms of infrastructure investment, according to Pricewaterhouse Coopers' Peter Hordern and Ian Kellock. This article examines the critical aspects of the package. Overall, the impact of the tax reform package (consisting of the Ralph committee's report and the Government's initial response) on the Australian gas industry would appear to be negative. The removal of accelerated depreciation and the potential for severe limitations on leasing arrangements is particularly bad news. While the proposed reduction in the company tax rate may appear positive, this is unlikely to provide significant benefit to the industry. The reality is existing gas infrastructure investors are generally in tax losses and will derive no immediate benefit from the rate change. For new investors, the reduction in rate will not offset the loss of accelerated depreciation deductions

  2. Two decades of tax-sharing system reform in China: a comparative study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Yanfeng; Wang Kai

    2015-01-01

    Two decades have passed since the Tax-sharing System Reform began in China.We discuss deep-seated problems in the financial management system.We contend that from the point of fiscal relations among different levels of government,the marked decline of the central government's fiscal revenue as a share of the national total indicates that the macroeconomic regulation and control function of the central government has weakened;from the point of the form of fiscal revenue,the constant downward trend of the proportion of the tax revenue indicates that the old problem of excessive types of fiscal revenue forms have reappeared;from the perspective of tax structure,although the proportion of direct taxes has grown,turnover tax continues to account for the majority of tax revenue and the unbalanced dual-subject tax system has changed little,which indicates China's tax structure has brought about stagnation.We believe that China's tax reform should be incorporated into the medium-term fiscal planning in order to solve deep-seated problems in operation of the financial management system.

  3. Foreign investment, international mergers and the 1993 capital income tax reform in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Hannu Piekkola

    1995-01-01

    Foreign direct investment in Finland and the 1993 Finnish Capital Income Tax Reform are examined in this article. Under territorial taxation, the most common form of international double taxation relief; the tax reform will encourage new capital investment. New capital investment from the US, which applies worldwide taxation, would be mildly discouraged, and FDI in the form of mergers and acquisitions largely discouraged. In the UK and Japan, the worldwide principle only covers tax rates. Thu...

  4. The Compliance Cost of the U.S. Individual Income Tax System: A Second Look After Tax Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Blumenthal, Marsha; Slemrod, Joel

    1992-01-01

    Attempts to answer whether or not TRA'86 simplified or complicated taxes by comparing data from surveys of compliance costs conducted in 1982 and 1989. Concludes that tax reform did not reverse the growth in compliance costs in the 1980's.

  5. Tax Arbitrage in the Netherlands : evaluation of the capital income tax reform of January 1, 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.J. Brys

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis evaluates the Dutch reform of capital income taxation of January 1, 2001. The Dutch capital-income-tax system before the reform distorted the choice between the investment’s sources of finance and uses of earnings, the businesses’ legal form, and the households’ (either

  6. Investment Incentives in Closely Held Corporations and Finland's 2005 Tax Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Seppo Kari; Hietala; Harri

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the effects of the recent Finnish income tax reform on the behaviour of a closely held corporation (CHC) and its owners. The main elements of the reform are cuts in corporate and capital income tax rates and the replacement of the current full imputation system by a partial double taxation of distributed profits. Considerable exemptions are applied to relieve the taxation of dividends from CHCs. The analysis indicates that the change in the CHC?s cost of capital depends on...

  7. Change-over within little scope: On the decision neutrality of recent tax reform proposals

    OpenAIRE

    Siemers, Lars-H. R.; Zöller, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Political economy aspects make progressive income taxation and taxation of capital income imperative in practise. International tax competition and profit shifting, in turn, put pressure on corporate and capital taxes. Hence, the scope for a politically feasible change-over to a status of improved taxation is little. We provide an extended dynamic general equilibrium model and analyze politically feasible recent reform proposals referring neutrality. We then propose an alternative tax reform ...

  8. An assessment of Japanese carbon tax reform using the E3MG econometric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soocheol; Pollitt, Hector; Ueta, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the potential economic and environmental effects of carbon taxation in Japan using the E3MG model, a global macroeconometric model constructed by the University of Cambridge and Cambridge Econometrics. The paper approaches the issues by considering first the impacts of the carbon tax in Japan introduced in 2012 and then the measures necessary to reduce Japan's emissions in line with its Copenhagen pledge of -25% compared to 1990 levels. The results from the model suggest that FY2012 Tax Reform has only a small impact on emission levels and no significant impact on GDP and employment. The potential costs of reducing emissions to meet the 25% reduction target for 2020 are quite modest, but noticeable. GDP falls by around 1.2% compared to the baseline and employment by 0.4% compared to the baseline. But this could be offset, with some potential economic benefits, if revenues are recycled efficiently. This paper considers two revenue recycling scenarios. The most positive outcome is if revenues are used both to reduce income tax rates and to increase investment in energy efficiency. This paper shows there could be double dividend effects, if Carbon Tax Reform is properly designed.

  9. Investment Incentives in Closely Held Corporations and Finland's 2005 Tax Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Hietala, Harri; Kari, Seppo

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the effects of the recent Finnish income tax reform on the behaviour of a closely held corporation (CHC) and its owners. The main elements of the reform are cuts in corporate and capital income tax rates and the replacement of the full imputation system by a partial double taxation of distributed profits. Considerable exemptions are applied to relieve the taxation of dividends from CHCs. The analysis indicates that the change in the CHC’s cost of capital depends on the mar...

  10. Ecological Tax Reform in Denmark: history and social acceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klok, Jacob; Larsen, Anders; Hansen, Kirsten; Dahl, Anja

    2006-01-01

    Despite the long-term and positive experience with Ecological Tax Reform (ETR), the PETRAS study indicates that awareness about the principles behind ETR is low among both businesses and the general public in Denmark. As well as the lack of awareness of ETR, attitudes towards environmental taxation appear negative. When explaining the political intentions behind ETR, attitudes seem to improve somewhat, but they still remain overall sceptical. Based on the history and the results of the PETRAS project the article will describe some of the main impediments for further development of environmental tax and ETR policies in Denmark. The article concludes that the main reason why the ETR policy has been met with such apparently low social acceptability in Denmark is that the 'green' of the 'green' tax reform has been somewhat oversold. On this basis it recommends the pursuit of a courageous government strategy of, openly and repeatedly, stressing the revenue purposes of environmentally related taxes over the environmental purposes in an effort to redirect public discussions towards relevant issues like the pros and cons of environmentally related taxation compared with other types of taxation and the connection between the overall tax burden and demands for government spending. Such a bold government 'confession' to the obvious revenue purposes of the environmentally related taxes could make them, if not popular, then at least a bit more acceptable to businesses and the general public. (author)

  11. Reform of Kosovo Tax System after independence and its key functions

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Sc. Bedri Peci

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we have analyzed the initial circumstances which characterize tax system in Kosovo after independence. After the Declaration of Independence, it is of the paramount importance that Kosovo has undergone through a reform of policy and tax system by exploring more seriously the economic functions. However, policy and tax system of Kosovo should be more in function of economic development by achieving equilibrium between direct and indirect taxes, increasing efficiency of public ...

  12. Uganda tax policy reforms: A case study of Uganda revenue authority URA

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Simon Kagambirwe

    2014-01-01

    In this study I examined the implementation of tax policy reforms at Uganda Revenue Authority. In particular, I examined the impact of the tax policy reforms implemented since the restructuring of Uganda Revenue Authority in 2005. Although Uganda's taxation system is a vital area of study, it has not gotten enough attention from researchers. This is because, in the Ugandan and generally African developing countries context, taxation involves vital and, to a large ex...

  13. The Consequences of Tax Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Hohenthal, Michael

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, I examine the effects of tax reforms for an economy in a welfare state. I do this by a macroeconomic model, which includes not only households, firms and a government but also a monopoly labour union. The households are of two types, workers and entrepreneurs. The workers are employed by the firms, which are owned by the entrepreneurs. This paper shows that decreasing labour taxation and increasing consumption taxation would have a number of positive effects. These include incr...

  14. The Land Value Tax in Jamaica:An Analysis and Options for Reform

    OpenAIRE

    David L. Sjoquist

    2004-01-01

    This Working Paper on the property tax contains an Executive Summary and four chapters. In Chapter One we describe how the Jamaican property tax functions. In Chapter Two we present an analysis of various problems and issues that surround of the property tax. Chapter Three, which was co-authored with Ki-Whan Choi, presents an analysis of a land value tax versus a capital value tax. Finally, in Chapter Four we present options for reform.

  15. The mechanism of tax administration and the priorities of tax reform in the context of business environment improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsadanyan T.S.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available in the XXIst century the role of tax administration is becoming more and more important in the increasingly stiff competition and economic reforms in the World Economy. The article has studied the human factor regarding it as an inseparable part of tax administration. The article also investigates the following issues tax administration faces: provision of new tax privileges for imported goods, provision of favorable tax incentives for local goods in case of joining the Eurasian Economic Union, repression of tax/GDP correlation, etc. Imperfections was identified in each field and the ways for their solution have been suggested.

  16. Environmental and wider implications of political impediments to environmental tax reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinch, J. Peter; Dunne, Louise; Dresner, Simon

    2006-01-01

    The most common notion of environmental tax reform (ETR) is the use of the revenue from environmental taxes to reduce distortionary labour taxes. The PETRAS project has shown that there are a number of social and political impediments to implementing such reform. This paper firstly outlines some of the environmental and economic implications of environmental taxes generally. It goes on to explore three broad approaches to ETR, based on the allocation of the tax revenues, and explores the environmental and economic implications of each approach and the likelihood of political and social acceptance. Particular attention is paid to reducing regressive impacts and impacts on competitiveness. It is concluded that some combination of earmarking a proportion of revenues to environmental projects and diverting rest to reduce labour taxes is probably the best approach in light of the results of the project. The balance should depend upon local labour market and macroeconomic conditions, the extent to which environmental projects are already funded and the extent of government failure, i.e., the problems of resource allocation that occur as a result of government intervention in markets. Funding should only be provided to environmental projects if it can be shown that, in themselves, they are economically efficient. In addition, it is most important that a proportion of the funds be used to ameliorate any regressive impacts. It is also important to bear in mind that hypothecation or recycling of revenue is not the same as a tax shift, which is a reform of the entire system, so some of these approaches may take away from the integrity of ETR. The paper concludes with some of the initiatives that are likely to be necessary to facilitate social and political acceptance of this approach to ETR

  17. Impact of Tax Reform Act of 1986 on IRA's Investment Value

    OpenAIRE

    William Reichenstein; Mark L. Cross

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present an economic analysis of the tax advantages of deductible and nondeductible IRAs under the 1986 Tax Reform Act. These advantages are compared to those offered by other pension plans. The results show that the tax advantages of deductible IRAs allow for substantially higher values than the value of a similar investment held outside a pension account. The nondeductible IRA does not provide tax advantages over non-IRA investments if investors expect to with...

  18. An Assessment of Japanese Carbon Tax Reform Using the E3MG Econometric Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soocheol Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the potential economic and environmental effects of carbon taxation in Japan using the E3MG model, a global macroeconometric model constructed by the University of Cambridge and Cambridge Econometrics. The paper approaches the issues by considering first the impacts of the carbon tax in Japan introduced in 2012 and then the measures necessary to reduce Japan’s emissions in line with its Copenhagen pledge of −25% compared to 1990 levels. The results from the model suggest that FY2012 Tax Reform has only a small impact on emission levels and no significant impact on GDP and employment. The potential costs of reducing emissions to meet the 25% reduction target for 2020 are quite modest, but noticeable. GDP falls by around 1.2% compared to the baseline and employment by 0.4% compared to the baseline. But this could be offset, with some potential economic benefits, if revenues are recycled efficiently. This paper considers two revenue recycling scenarios. The most positive outcome is if revenues are used both to reduce income tax rates and to increase investment in energy efficiency. This paper shows there could be double dividend effects, if Carbon Tax Reform is properly designed.

  19. An Assessment of Japanese Carbon Tax Reform Using the E3MG Econometric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soocheol; Pollitt, Hector; Ueta, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the potential economic and environmental effects of carbon taxation in Japan using the E3MG model, a global macroeconometric model constructed by the University of Cambridge and Cambridge Econometrics. The paper approaches the issues by considering first the impacts of the carbon tax in Japan introduced in 2012 and then the measures necessary to reduce Japan's emissions in line with its Copenhagen pledge of −25% compared to 1990 levels. The results from the model suggest that FY2012 Tax Reform has only a small impact on emission levels and no significant impact on GDP and employment. The potential costs of reducing emissions to meet the 25% reduction target for 2020 are quite modest, but noticeable. GDP falls by around 1.2% compared to the baseline and employment by 0.4% compared to the baseline. But this could be offset, with some potential economic benefits, if revenues are recycled efficiently. This paper considers two revenue recycling scenarios. The most positive outcome is if revenues are used both to reduce income tax rates and to increase investment in energy efficiency. This paper shows there could be double dividend effects, if Carbon Tax Reform is properly designed. PMID:23365531

  20. On the structural tax reform that is needed in Colombia. Reflections and proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Espitia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the characteristics of an equitable and structural tax reform. Taxation does not only determine revenue, but it also affects the productive apparatus and equitability. In Colombia, tax pressure is very low and resources are insufficient to provide essential public goods. The duty system should contribute to the consolidation of a “new economy”, as it is called by the government, which boosts industry, agriculture, and tourism, and which is less dependent on fossil fuels. Taxes should favor equitability, and so direct taxation should increase in a progressive manner, with a rate which rises as income increases. The recently passed tax reform improves revenue, but favor neither the new economy nor equitability, since it gave too much weight to V.A.T. and very little weight to income or wealth tax.

  1. The Effect of Tax Reforms and Tax Compliance on the Economic Development of Developing Countries: A Case Study of Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Ajani, Olawumi Funso

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Since 1980s’ the awareness of the effect of tax reforms and tax compliance on economic development has increased significantly. The positive and effective use of tax revenues influences how taxpayers comply with tax laws. In particular, taxpayers tend to adhere to tax laws and fulfil their obligations when it is evident that the taxes paid are put into proper use by providing the essential public goods and services needed by the citizens. Compliance increases when it is believed t...

  2. The 2014 Global Tax Competitiveness Report: A Proposed Business Tax Reform Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duanjie Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Canada is losing its edge in the competition for global capital. After a decade of remarkable progress in reducing the tax burden on business investment — moving from one of the least tax-competitive jurisdictions among its industrialized peers in 2000, to ranking in the middle of the pack by 2011 — Canada has slipped by largely standing still. As other countries in our peer group have continued to reform their business-tax regimes, they have surpassed Canada, which has slid from having the 19th-highest tax burden on investments by medium-sized and large corporations in 2012, to the 14th-highest among 34 OECD countries in 2014. Even more worrying is that Canada’s political currents are running the wrong way, with a few provinces having increased taxes on capital in recent years and a number of politicians today floating the possibility of even higher business taxes to help address budgetary strains. But the right approach to raising tax revenue and improving the economy is quite the opposite: lowering rates and broadening the tax base by making Canadian jurisdictions even more attractive to corporate investment. An important step towards that would be for federal and provincial governments to reduce targeted tax assistance and to level the tax field for all industries and sizes of businesses, ending the preferential treatment of favoured industries and small enterprises. In addition, those provinces that have yet to harmonize their sales tax with the federal GST should do so, or at least consider adopting a quasi-refund system that would relieve the provincial sales tax on capital inputs. Alberta, with no sales tax, could become more competitive by adopting an HST and using the proceeds to reduce personal and corporate taxes. Finally, Canada would do much better to mandate a uniform corporate tax rate, with an 11 per cent federal rate and a nine per cent average provincial rate. This would encourage capital investment and attract corporate

  3. Changes in direct and indirect taxation in the process of the EU tax system reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miletić Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proceeding from the changes in direct and indirect taxation in the process of the EU tax system reform and the fact that new trends bring about vital social changes, the research in this area could add to the understanding of economic development of these countries. In the EU with its decentralized tax policy, changes in direct and indirect taxation are permanently implemented in the process of tax system reform. Harmonization of direct and indirect taxation in the EU is conducted by means of the adopted community law regulations. In the harmonization of direct taxation there is a tendency towards an increase of the level of fiscal coordination and elimination of barriers to the common market. Thus direct taxation reforms are limited to achieving higher level of coordination and preventing evasion and double taxation. The current policy is the result of the principle according to which fiscal competition has positive effects on reducing consumption and on the EU economic development. In the harmonization process the systems of indirect taxation are aligned particularly with excise duty and value added tax. Fiscal strategies in the reform process are mostly aimed at fiscal coordination, modernization, informative cooperation, evasion reduction and elimination of malpractices in fulfilling a VAT payment liability. Within the excise tax system minimal excise rates are determined and an environmentally-friendly policy is pursued. The main priorities of taxation changes within the harmonization process are in respect of evasion reduction and irrational fiscal competition on the EU market. A study of direct and indirect taxation changes in the process of the tax system reform is highly significant both from the aspect of efficient tax-system functioning, which results in achieving EU macroeconomic goals, and from the aspect of single states' interests in the process of transition and accession.

  4. Serious reform starts with a systemic risk tax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.

    2010-01-01

    The recent IMF report to the G20 states that fiscal reforms are essential to recover the costs of the crisis, as well as to contain future risk creation. This column argues that progress on controlling future risk requires a direct tax on systemic risk. This would restore confidence in the ability

  5. ANALYSIS ON CONFLICTS OF CHINA’S COAL TAX REFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the conflicts which are resulted from coal tax reform in China from economic and public policy perspectives. An analytical framework involving actors, values, interests and institution has been applied. China’s central government eagers to achieve fiscal revenue increase, environmental protection and energy conversation goals by a good governance of coal system. As a traditional and feasible policy instrument, taxation is regarded for dealing with energy issues in politics and governance. However, coal tax reform proposal has induced many controversies in China. The causes of that include value conflicts of all actors, competing interests of all parties and institutional barriers of economic, politics and legislation. Therefore, the government cannot regulate coal issues only through taxation. The case reveals that good governance on coal cannot be achieved only by economic tools as coal system contains so high stake and involves so many players.

  6. The Aggregate and Distributional Effects of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 on Firm Valuation.

    OpenAIRE

    Givoly, Dan; Hayn, Carla

    1991-01-01

    The authors examine the aggregate and distributional effects of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 on equity values of publicly traded corporations. The results show that the effect of the act on the aggregate equity value of corporations was consistent with the present value of the projected added tax collection from the corporate sector. The cross-sectional variation in the magnitude and direction of the stock price response to the Tax Reform Act of 1986 was a function of both the direct and indire...

  7. An evaluation of the 2003 tax reform effort in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werneck Rogério L. F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an assessment of the tax-reform effort launched by the newly elected Lula government in 2003. It analyzes how the envisaged reform had to be changed and scaled down, in the wake of strong political resistance, after a failed attempt to develop a consensual proposal, fully supported by state-governors. The main effective changes are then evaluated. Challenges ahead are discussed at the end.

  8. Evaluation of four tax reforms in the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eissa, Nada; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    2008-01-01

    approach accounts for the observed heterogeneity in the microdata, but is simple to implement because we do not need to specify utility functions and estimate utility parameters. We find that each of the four tax acts created substantial welfare gains, and that the gains were concentrated almost......An emerging consensus is that labor force participation is more responsive to taxes and transfers than hours worked. To understand the implications of participation responses for the welfare analysis of tax reform, this paper embeds this margin of labor supply in an explicit welfare theoretic...... framework. We apply the framework to examine the welfare effects on single mothers in the United States following four tax acts passed in 1986, 1990, 1993, and 2001. We propose a simulation method combining features of fully structural microsimulation studies and simple deadweight loss calculations. Our...

  9. Hay condiciones propicias para reforma tributaria estructural (A positive time for a tax reform)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitrago Diaz, E.

    2015-01-01

    This publication deals with local taxes in Colombia, in particular the trade tax (a direct tax on income). The analysis focuses on the reforms proposed by the OECD and the impact of the current laws on trade taxation at the municipal level, ending in internal double and multiple taxation.

  10. Tax reform options: promoting retirement security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDerhei, Jack

    2011-11-01

    TAX PROPOSALS: Currently, the combination of worker and employer contributions in a defined contribution plan is capped by the federal tax code at the lesser of $49,000 per year or 100 percent of a worker's compensation (participants over age 50 can make additional "catch-up" contributions). As part of the effort to lower the federal deficit and reduce federal "tax expenditures," two major reform proposals have surfaced that would change current tax policy toward retirement savings: A plan that would end the existing tax deductions for 401(k) contributions and replace them with a flat-rate refundable credit that serves as a matching contribution into a retirement savings account. The so-called "20/20 cap," included by the National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform in their December 2010 report, "The Moment of Truth," which would limit the sum of employer and worker annual contributions to the lower of $20,000 or 20 percent of income, the so-called "20/20 cap." IMPACT OF PERMANENTLY MODIFYING THE EXCLUSION OF EMPLOYEE CONTRIBUTIONS FOR RETIREMENT SAVINGS PLANS FROM TAXABLE INCOME: If the current exclusion of worker contributions for retirement savings plans were ended in 2012 and the total match remains constant, the average reductions in 401(k) accounts at Social Security normal retirement age would range from a low of 11.2 percent for workers currently ages 26-35 in the highest-income groups, to a high of 24.2 percent for workers in that age range in the lowest-income group. IMPACT OF "20/20 CAP": Earlier EBRI analysis of enacting the 20/20 cap starting in 2012 showed it would, as expected, most affect those with high income. However, EBRI also found the cap would cause a significant reduction in retirement savings by the lowest-income workers as well, and younger cohorts would experience larger reductions given their increased exposure to the proposal. IMPORTANCE OF EMPLOYER-SPONSORED RETIREMENT PLANS AND AUTO-ENROLLMENT: A key factor in future

  11. The Role of the Unit of Analysis in Tax Policy Reform Evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    John Creedy; Rosanna Scutella

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the implications, for overall social welfare and inequality comparisons, of using different definitions of the unit of analysis - the income recipient - in computing summary measures. Comparisons are made using the Melbourne Institute Tax and Transfer Simulator (MITTS), a simulation model of the Australian direct tax and benefit system, of the effects of flattening the marginal tax rate structure. The reform was found to reduce inequality in all cases. However, it was not ...

  12. Canada’s Tax Competitiveness After a Decade of Reforms: Still an Unfinished Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duanjie Chen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, Canada has undertaken extensive business tax reform, with sharply lower corporate income tax rates, better capital cost allowances, sales tax harmonization, and the virtual elimination of capital tax on non-financial businesses. Further changes are in store by 2012 that will put Canada in the middle of the pack of a broad group of 80 countries. Over the past several years, however, Canada has lost some standing. In 2005, it was the fourth-highest-taxed country, and by 2007 it had improved to thirteenth highest; by 2009, though, it had worsened to tenth highest. Still, in that year, taking into account the reforms that had taken place, Canada’s business tax structure was better than that of the United States. Canada’s tax competitiveness among the Group-of-7 major industrialized countries has also improved, but still lags that of most other members of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD. Additional reductions of business taxes by 2013 — particularly sales tax harmonization in Ontario and British Columbia and planned federal and provincial corporate tax rate reductions — will further improve Canada’s business tax competitiveness, crucially with respect to the emerging economies of Brazil, Russia, India, and China. Yet federal opposition parties are urging an end to further planned reductions of federal and provincial corporate income tax rates. Such a move would be seriously misguided. Not only would it put Canada’s tax competitiveness at a disadvantage among OECD countries, impairing productivity; it would also harm government revenues as businesses shifted their profits out of high-tax jurisdictions and into lower-tax one abroad.

  13. The environmental tax reforms in Europe: mitigation, compensation, and CO2-stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. S.; Speck, S.

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that carbon-energy taxes would need to be increased to a level of 20-30 ?/tonne CO2 in 2020 in order to accomplish a stabilisation target for greenhouse gas concentrations. While increases of carbon-energy taxes inevitably raise questions about the negative impacts on economic...... growth and competitiveness, the European experience shows that governments as part of already agreed environmental tax reforms (ETR) have in fact implicit carbon-energy taxes with a nominal level that in many cases exceeds this level. Still, European governments have exempt especially the energy...

  14. Who pulled the strings? A comparative study of Indonesian and Vietnamese tax reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heij, Gitte

    2007-01-01

    Many countries overhaul their tax systems from time to time. In the Asian region countries like Indonesia, China, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Vietnam and Thailand have all undergone drastic tax reforms in the last 20 years. The need to fill the government coffers, attract foreign

  15. Tax justice of the reform of higher education: tuition fees or tax relief?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Semerád

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the current reform of higher education which is now being discussed in the Czech Republic. The Government and the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports propose a tuition fee for students at universities but there is still no clear concept of it. University leaders and students are against the tuition fee because of their fear of getting into debt during their study. The aim of this paper is to show an alternative way of funding higher education without tuition fee loans and from the point of view of tax justice. According to the concept of horizontal justice (Mankiw, 1999 taxpayers should pay taxes at the same rate, but it does not work this way. The result of research is that changes in Act 586/1992 Coll., on income tax and in Act 117/1995 Coll., on state social welfare are required. Abolition of tax relief is proposed where discrimination against other taxpayers and groups of students could occur. By abolition of tax relief for a student and tax relief for a dependent child the amounts of 4,020 CZK and 13,404 CZK respectively could be saved. Changes in legislation could be politically more acceptable than the tuition fee. The solution could also lead to simplification for taxpayers. The target should be equal access to higher education for all students.

  16. The Tax Reform of Romania Since the Transition to Market Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Tudor LAZĂR

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is trying to analyze the financial and fiscal reforms in Romania since 1989. The study is based on the necessity to be built a new fiscal system that meets the market economy’s requirements. The main concentration is focused on the debate of choosing tax policy. There are presented the two models of variation of income tax policy followed by Eastern European countries: flat income tax – a simple, efficient, but inequitable system (Estonia, Russia, Romania, etc. and progressive income tax – a complex, inefficient, but equitable system (Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovenia, etc. At the end of this article are presented, also the main advantages and disadvantages of this these tax policies based on national statistics and other countries experiences.

  17. Tax reform in emerging transition: Is Kosovo’s Government and NGOs mathematical economics rational?

    OpenAIRE

    Mulaj, Isa

    2009-01-01

    Tax reform in small emerging democracies is difficult to measure what effects is likely to produce due to countries’ aggregate political and economic vulnerabilities. If both are taken as remaining relatively stable, then it is easier to discuss what impact the reform introduced may have in the economy and her stakeholders. In absence of a monetary policy, the Government of Kosovo in mid-2008 adopted the changes in tax rates taking effect from January 2009, with the aim to foster economic gro...

  18. Tax Reform Act of 1986: implications and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R F

    1988-10-01

    The Tax Reform Act of 1986 contains several changes that substantially reduce economic flexibility for not-for-profit hospitals and healthcare systems. These changes, involving limited partnerships, investment tax credit, depreciation, and income deferral plans, among other items, carry several implications. Tax-motivated joint ventures will no longer be attractive to physician investors, donations to hospitals are expected to decline by up to 15 percent, and flexibility in attracting and retaining high-caliber employees is reduced. Efforts to reduce the federal budget deficit and renewed scrutiny of unrelated business income further jeopardize economic flexibility. Another threat is intensified Internal Revenue Service scrutiny of Form 990, which is filed by all not-for-profit organizations with $25,000 or more in annual gross receipts, and Form 990T, which is used to report unrelated business income. Measures to protect facilities' economic flexibility include careful return preparation, alternative recruitment tactics, objective opinions, refusal of high-risk deals, and outside appraisals.

  19. Tax reform in Georgia and the size of the shadow economy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Torosyan, K.; Filer, Randall K.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2014), s. 179-210 ISSN 0967-0750 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : hidden/shadow economy * tax reform * consumer behaviour Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.423, year: 2014

  20. Fixing the system: An analysis of alternative proposals for the reform of international tax

    OpenAIRE

    Grubert, Harry; Altshuler, Rosanne

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate proposals for the reform of the U.S. system of taxing cross-border income including dividend exemption, full current inclusion, a Japanese type version of dividend exemption with an effective tax rate test subject to an exception for an active business, dividend exemption combined with a minimum tax, and repeal of check-the-box. We consider two versions of dividend exemption with a minimum tax: one in which the minimum tax is imposed on a country by country basis and another in wh...

  1. The reform of the European energy tax directive: Exploring potential economic impacts in the EU27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocchi, Paola; Serrano, Mònica; Roca, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the effect that the Energy Tax Directive reform proposed in 2011 would have, if implemented, on the level of prices in the different sectors of the 27 countries of the European Union. We apply a multiregional and multisectoral model of trade flows that takes into account all the intersectoral and intercountry interdependences in the production processes. Using the World Input–Output Database we perform two different simulations. The first one considers the tax changes proposed by the reform; the second one shows the impact the reform would have entailed if it were applied also to sectors belonging to the European Trade System. The main finding of the first simulation shows that the new energy tax regime would have had a low economic cost in terms of impact on prices (less than 1% in all the countries). So, the concerns about competitiveness do not find empirical support in our results, suggesting the need for further analyses to find out the reasons that caused the failure of a reform that was an important step to introduce a taxation explicitly linked to CO 2 emissions. The second simulation, however, leads to strongly different results, pointing out the relevance of maintaining significant economic incentives to reduce carbon emissions for the European Trade System sectors, by improving the emission market performance or by applying carbon taxation also to these sectors. - Highlights: • We analyze the reform of the European energy tax proposed in 2011, rejected in 2012. • We simulate what potential economic effect this reform would have if implemented. • We find that this reform would have weak effects on prices in all 27 EU countries. • We study the effect of the reform if applied to European emission market sectors. • In this second scenario, the economic impacts would have been much stronger

  2. Measuring the impact of marginal tax rate reform on the revenue base of South Africa using a microsimulation tax model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolande Jordaan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is primarily concerned with the revenue and tax efficiency effects of adjustments to marginal tax rates on individual income as an instrument of possible tax reform. The hypothesis is that changes to marginal rates affect not only the revenue base, but also tax efficiency and the optimum level of taxes that supports economic growth. Using an optimal revenue-maximising rate (based on Laffer analysis, the elasticity of taxable income is derived with respect to marginal tax rates for each taxable-income category. These elasticities are then used to quantify the impact of changes in marginal rates on the revenue base and tax efficiency using a microsimulation (MS tax model. In this first paper on the research results, much attention is paid to the structure of the model and the way in which the database has been compiled. The model allows for the dissemination of individual taxpayers by income groups, gender, educational level, age group, etc. Simulations include a scenario with higher marginal rates which is also more progressive (as in the 1998/1999 fiscal year, in which case tax revenue increases but the increase is overshadowed by a more than proportional decrease in tax efficiency as measured by its deadweight loss. On the other hand, a lowering of marginal rates (to bring South Africa’s marginal rates more in line with those of its peers improves tax efficiency but also results in a substantial revenue loss. The estimated optimal individual tax to gross domestic product (GDP ratio in order to maximise economic growth (6.7 per cent shows a strong response to changes in marginal rates, and the results from this research indicate that a lowering of marginal rates would also move the actual ratio closer to its optimum level. Thus, the trade-off between revenue collected and tax efficiency should be carefully monitored when personal income tax reform is being considered.

  3. Analyzing female labor supply - evidence from a Dutch tax reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, N.; van der Klaauw, B.

    2012-01-01

    Among OECD countries, the Netherlands has an average female labor force participation, but by far the highest rate of part-time work. This paper investigates the extent to which married women respond to financial incentives. We exploit exogenous variation caused by a substantial Dutch tax reform in

  4. Effects of the 2011 energy tax reform to the Finnish national economy; Vuoden 2011 energiaverouudistuksen kansantaloudelliset vaikutukset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honkatukia, J.; Tamminen, S.

    2013-05-15

    In this report, we use a dynamic AGE model to study the effects of the energy tax reform that took place in 2011 and is to be completed by 2015. We construct a counterfactual baseline which evaluates, how the economy would develop had the reform not been implemented. We find that the reform curbs domestic consumption and pushes domestic wages down compared to the baseline, improving the country's external balance. We also study the effects of the 2009 removal of a part of the employers' social security contributions, which the energy tax reform was intended to finance. The 2009 reform increased overall labour demand, resulting in higher wages and higher domestic demand, which had the opposite effects on external balance. (orig.)

  5. 26 CFR 1.170-3 - Contributions or gifts by corporations (before amendment by Tax Reform Act of 1969).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Tax Reform Act of 1969). (a) In general. The deduction by a corporation in any taxable year for... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contributions or gifts by corporations (before amendment by Tax Reform Act of 1969). 1.170-3 Section 1.170-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...

  6. Reviewing tax system and its reform plan for the fuel market in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.-K.

    2005-01-01

    After a long period of government intervention in the energy market, the Korean government has realized that the costs of its intervention are greater than the benefit as the economy got more complicated and more integrated into the world economy. The objective of the energy tax reform is to establish a transparent set of taxing principles, in order to internalize externalities from energy consumption. The expected effects of the reform is to motivate energy conservation and to promote R and D on energy conservation technologies which will ultimately result in the strengthening of industrial competitiveness and the reduction of urban air pollution

  7. Reviewing tax system and its reform plan for the fuel market in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung-Kyoon Lee

    2005-01-01

    After a long period of government intervention in the energy market, the Korean government has realized that the costs of its intervention are greater than the benefit as the economy got more complicated and more integrated into the world economy. The objective of the energy tax reform is to establish a transparent set of taxing principles, in order to internalize externalities from energy consumption. The expected effects of the reform is to motivate energy conservation and to promote R and D on energy conservation technologies which will ultimately result in the strengthening of industrial competitiveness and the reduction of urban air pollution. (author)

  8. Corporate taxes in the world economy: reforming the taxation of cross-border income

    OpenAIRE

    Grubert, Harry; Altshuler, Rosanne

    2006-01-01

    Proposals for the reform of the taxation of cross-border income are evaluated within the general context of the corporate tax in an open economy. We focus on the various behavioral decisions that can be affected such as the location of income and its repatriation. The two income tax proposals considered are: (1) dividend exemption and (2) burden neutral worldwide taxation in which all foreign subsidiary income is included currently in the U.S. worldwide tax base, and at the same time the corp...

  9. Using Machine Learning in Environmental Tax Reform Assessment for Sustainable Development: A Case Study of Hubei Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinger Zheng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available During the past 30 year of economic growth, China has also accumulated a huge environmental pollution debt. China’s government attempts to use a variety of means, including tax instruments to control environmental pollution. After nine years of repeated debates, the State Council Legislative Affairs Office released the Environmental Protection Tax Law (Draft in June 2015. As China’s first environmental tax law, whether this conservative “Environmental Fee to Tax (EFT” reform could improve the environment has generated controversy. In this paper, we seek insights to this controversial issue using the machine learning approach, a powerful tool for environmental policy assessment. We take Hubei Province, the first pilot area as a case of EFT, and analyze the institutional incentive, behavior transformation and emission intensity reduction performance. Twelve pilot cities located in Hubei Province were selected to estimate the effect of the reform by using synthetic control and a rapid developing machine learning method for policy evaluation. We find that the EFT reform can promote emission intensity reduction. Especially, relative to comparable synthetic cities in the absence of the reform, the average annual emission intensity of Sulfur Dioxide (SO2 in the pilot cities dropped by 0.13 ton/million Yuan with a reduction rate of 10%–32%. Our findings also show that the impact of environmental tax reform varies across cities due to the administrative level and economic development. The results of our study are also supported by enterprise interviews. The EFT improves the overall environmental costs, and encourages enterprises to reduce emissions pollution. These results provide valuable experience and policy implications for the implementation of China’s Environmental Protection Tax Law.

  10. The impact of the 2009 value added tax reform on enterprise investment and employment ‐ Empirical analysis based on Chinese tax survey data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses the "National Tax Survey" enterprise data to assess the impact of China's nationwide VAT reform of 2009 on enterprise fixed-asset investment and employment. The main finding of our research is that the reform significantly increased business investment in fixed assets, but had no

  11. The Spanish income tax reform of 2015: analysis of the effects on poverty and redistribution using microsimulation tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Badenes-Plá

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we analyze the effects of the 2015 reform of the Spanish personal income tax (PIT on tax revenue, liquidity, redistribution, progressivity, and poverty, using microdata. Tax reform has increased the redistributive effect. The applicable legislation in 2016 is almost 6.3% more redistributive than that in 2011, as measured by the Reynolds-Smolensky index. This is a remarkable achievement since greater redistribution has been attained through significantly lower tax revenue. The 2016 legislation has produced 4.4% lower tax revenue, but progressivity, as measured by Kakwani index, has increased by 12.2% from the 2011 legislation. The redistributive and progressivity analysis has been conducted with the use of microsimulation tools developed in the Instituto de Estudios Fiscales (IEF, in Spain. The poverty analysis is made using EUROMOD, a tax-benefit microsimulation model for the European Union.

  12. Increasing carbon and material productivity through environmental tax reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekins, Paul; Pollitt, Hector; Summerton, Philip; Chewpreecha, Unnada

    2012-01-01

    Environmental tax reform (ETR), a shift in taxation towards environmental taxes, has been implemented on a small scale in a number of European countries. This paper first gives a short review of the literature about ETR. An Appendix briefly describes the model used for a modelling exercise to explore, through scenarios with low and high international energy prices, the implications of a large-scale ETR in the European Union, sufficient to reach the EU's emission reduction targets for 2020. The paper then reports the results of the exercise. The ETR results in increased carbon and materials, but reduced labour, productivity, with the emission reductions distributed across all sectors as a reduction in the demand for all fossil fuels. There are also small GDP increases for most, but not all, EU countries for all the scenarios, and for the EU as a whole. Both the environmental and macroeconomic outcomes are better with low than with high energy prices, because the former both increases the scale of the ETR required to reach the targets, and reduces the outflow of foreign exchange to pay for energy imports. ETR emerges from the exercise as an attractive and cost-effective policy for environmental improvement. - Highlights: ► European experience with environmental tax reform (ETR) is reviewed. ► Scenarios which meet EU carbon emission targets are modelled. ► The ETR results in increased carbon and materials, but reduced labour, productivity. ► There are small GDP increases for most, but not all, EU countries. ► ETR emerges as an attractive and cost-effective environmental policy.

  13. Analysis on Conflicts of China’s Coal Tax Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dong

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the conflicts which are resulted from coal tax reform in China from economic and public policy perspectives. An analytical framework involving actors, values, interests and institution has been applied. China’s central government eagers to achieve fiscal revenue increase, environmental protection and energy conversation goals by a good governance of coal system. As a traditional and feasible policy instrument, taxation is regarded for dealing with energy issues in poli...

  14. Federal-Provincial Business Tax Reforms: A Growth Agenda with Competitive Rates and a Neutral Treatment of Business Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duanjie Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As the federal and provincial governments look to create jobs and attract business investment, productivity-enhanced business tax structures are in high order. Tax structures that combine internationally competitive tax rates on neutral tax bases foster long-term economic growth and generate sustainable tax revenue. This report examines tax policy in Canada over the past few years, specifically its impact on capital investment, labour and the cost of doing business across provinces and industries. Suggestions for tax reform are provided.

  15. The potential role of a carbon tax in U.S. fiscal reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKibbin, Warwick [Australian National Univ. (Australia); The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (United States); Morris, Adele [The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (United States); Wilcoxen, Peter [Syracuse University, NY (United States); The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (United States); Cai, Yiyong [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Australian National Univ. (Australia)

    2012-07-24

    This paper examines fiscal reform options in the United States with an intertemporal computable general equilibrium model of the world economy called G-Cubed. Six policy scenarios explore two overarching issues: (1) the effects of a carbon tax under alternative assumptions about the use of the resulting revenue, and (2) the effects of alternative measures that could be used to reduce the budget deficit. We examine a simple excise tax on the carbon content of fossil fuels in the U.S. energy sector starting immediately at $15 per metric ton of carbon dioxide (CO2) and rising at 4 percent above inflation each year through 2050. We investigate policies that allow the revenue from the illustrative carbon tax to reduce the long run federal budget deficit or the marginal tax rates on labor and capital income. We also compare the carbon tax to other means of reducing the deficit by the same amount. We find that the carbon tax will raise considerable revenue: $80 billion at the outset, rising to $170 billion in 2030 and $310 billion by 2050. It also significantly reduces U.S. CO2 emissions by an amount that is largely independent of the use of the revenue. By 2050, annual CO2 emissions fall by 2.5 billion metric tons (BMT), or 34 percent, relative to baseline, and cumulative emissions fall by 40 BMT through 2050. The use of the revenue affects both broad economic impacts and the composition of GDP across consumption, investment and net exports. In most scenarios, the carbon tax lowers GDP slightly, reduces investment and exports, and increases imports. The effect on consumption varies across policies and can be positive if households receive the revenue as a lump sum transfer. Using the revenue for a capital tax cut, however, is significantly different than the other policies. In that case, investment booms, employment rises, consumption declines slightly, imports increase, and overall GDP rises significantly relative to baseline through about 2040. Thus, a tax reform that

  16. Social and political responses to ecological tax reform in Europe: an introduction to the special issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, Simon; Dunne, Louise; Clinch, Peter; Beuermann, Christiane

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the special issue on the Policies for Ecological Tax Reform: Assessment of Social Responses (PETRAS) project about responses to ecological tax reform (ETR) in Europe. Although ETR is widely accepted to be a policy with desirable effects, its implementation has been limited by problems of political acceptability. The project aimed to address the question of how to make such a policy more acceptable. It is the first study to examine in depth the thinking of members of the general public about the ETR policies and is also the first international comparative study of the thinking of ordinary business people about ETR policies. The PETRAS project methodology was based around the use of interviews and focus groups to inform the assessment of social responses to ETR policies and the development of improved designs for them. A number of issues emerged relating to awareness, trust, understanding of the purpose, visibility, incentives, regressivity, levels of taxation, terminology, communication about ETR and the use of alternative instruments. Together with these similarities, a pattern of differences between the countries can also be seen. The final section of this paper introduces the national studies described in the following papers. (author)

  17. 中国税制改革与发展的新认识%New Understanding of China's Reform and Development Tax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马海涛; 李升

    2014-01-01

    Since the reform of the tax system after several plays an important role in all aspects , but there are defects in the tax structure , the tax function needs to be improved, vertical division of unreasonable taxes and other issues.On this basis, combined with the current economic and so-cial development of the new situation , the paper argues that tax reform should be stable future tax burden , tax structure and function optimization , optimization of the tax system.As a general idea, we further propose the direction of tax reform.%我国税制历经多次改革至今,在各个方面发挥着重要的作用,但存在着税制结构缺陷、税制功能有待提升,纵向税收划分不合理等问题。在此基础上,结合当前经济社会发展新形势,认为未来税制改革应当稳定税负、优化税制结构和功能、优化税收体制,以此为总体思路进一步提出税制改革的方向。

  18. The economic impacts of federal tax reform for investments in short-rotation forest plantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    In discussing the potential contributions of short-rotation forest plantations to the fuel wood supply, a number of economic factors have been considered and analyzed. Very little, however, has been written on the income tax aspects of the subject. The tax treatment of such plantings is an extremely important factor. The federal income tax, in particular, can have a significant impact on production costs and is a major factor in determining the economic feasibility of this type of investment. The major federal Income tax provisions of significance are those that deal with capital expenditures, currently deductible costs and sale receipts. Several alternative tax approaches were available prior to passage of the 1986 Tax Reform Act. The new act's provisions, however, have completely changed the federal income tax treatment of timber income and expenditures, including those associated with short-rotation plantations. This paper analyzes the changes and discusses their economic implications for fuel wood culture

  19. 26 CFR 1.162-10T - Questions and answers relating to the deduction of employee benefits under the Tax Reform Act of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of employee benefits under the Tax Reform Act of 1984; certain limits on amounts deductible... and Corporations § 1.162-10T Questions and answers relating to the deduction of employee benefits... amendment of section 404(b) by the Tax Reform Act of 1984 affect the deduction of employee benefits under...

  20. Decomposing Revenue Effects of Tax Evasion, Base Broadening and Tax Rate Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Ira N. Gang; Arindam Das-Gupta

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for evaluating the impact of tax reform on tax revenues and the distribution of the tax burden. The technique consists of decomposing actual revenue relative to potential revenue into components attributable to (i) changes in the tax rate structure (ii) deductions and (iii) tax evasion. If the standard reform package is successful, revenue loss from deductions should be curtailed by base broadening. Furthermore, revenues lost by lowering tax rates should be more t...

  1. 26 CFR 1.269-7 - Relationship of section 269 to sections 382 and 383 after the Tax Reform Act of 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the principal purpose of an acquisition is the evasion or avoidance of Federal income tax. [T.D. 8388... 383 after the Tax Reform Act of 1986. 1.269-7 Section 1.269-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Items Not Deductible...

  2. Environmental tax reform: an assessment of social responses in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinch, J. Peter; Dunne, Louise

    2006-01-01

    Environmental tax reform (ETR) is widely accepted to be a policy with desirable environmental, and other economic effects. The question arises then as to why its implementation has been so patchy. There is a broad literature on the economic impact of ETR, however, there have been very few research efforts devoted to understanding the roles and imperatives of the public, policy makers, businesses and other stakeholders who are addressed by ETR. This paper examines the impediments to ETR in Ireland. Focus groups were formed comprising of members of the general public and these provided a forum for detailed reactions to the ETR concept. Interviews were conducted with policy makers and key business people in an attempt to identify both the patterns of thinking behind ETR and the main obstacles to its introduction. Having presented the results, a theory of the main impediments to ETR is developed. The opinions of the members of the public, the business community and the policy makers highlight a number of issues that need to be addressed in the future design of ETR in Ireland. The principal potential impediments to ETR include: mistrust of the government, implausibility of the policy, means of hypothecation, information asymmetries, the political system, the structure of government, the macroeconomic environment, the impact on competitiveness, inequity between sectors, regressivity, elasticities and the level of the tax, terminology, and the marketing of ETR

  3. Environmental tax reform: an assessment of social responses in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clinch, J. Peter; Dunne, Louise [Department of Environmental Studies/Urban Institute of Ireland, University College Dublin, Richview, Clonskeagh, Dublin 14 (Ireland)

    2006-05-15

    Environmental tax reform (ETR) is widely accepted to be a policy with desirable environmental, and other economic effects. The question arises then as to why its implementation has been so patchy. There is a broad literature on the economic impact of ETR, however, there have been very few research efforts devoted to understanding the roles and imperatives of the public, policy makers, businesses and other stakeholders who are addressed by ETR. This paper examines the impediments to ETR in Ireland. Focus groups were formed comprising of members of the general public and these provided a forum for detailed reactions to the ETR concept. Interviews were conducted with policy makers and key business people in an attempt to identify both the patterns of thinking behind ETR and the main obstacles to its introduction. Having presented the results, a theory of the main impediments to ETR is developed. The opinions of the members of the public, the business community and the policy makers highlight a number of issues that need to be addressed in the future design of ETR in Ireland. The principal potential impediments to ETR include: mistrust of the government, implausibility of the policy, means of hypothecation, information asymmetries, the political system, the structure of government, the macroeconomic environment, the impact on competitiveness, inequity between sectors, regressivity, elasticities and the level of the tax, terminology, and the marketing of ETR. (author)

  4. Russian petroleum tax policy – Continuous maneuvering in rocky waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fjaertoft, Daniel; Lunden, Lars Petter

    2015-01-01

    This article maps and analyses petroleum taxation policy in Russia to investigate the extent to which it reaches the goal of maximizing government revenue from new petroleum field developments. Expected cash flows from four real-world fields in Russia are modeled in four real-world tax regimes in an attempt to determine whether the so-called ‘tax maneuver’ of December 2014 helps the government to reach its goal. Russia's tax policy is further analyzed in terms of the desirable tax system design features of simplicity, flexibility, stability and competitiveness. The article concludes that the changes to the tax system introduced additional incentives for field developments but failed both to improve tax system design per se and to maximize government tax revenue. - Highlights: • Petroleum tax revenue is the Russian government’s largest single source of revenue. • Tax legislation has not maximized government revenue from the petroleum industry. • The December 2014 tax reform is just one in a long line of reforms and amendments. • Russian petroleum taxation is set to change perpetually.

  5. PROBLEMS AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF REFORMING TAXES FOR USE OF NATURAL RESOURCES IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru BACAL

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is carried out a comprehensive analysis of the implementation of taxes for use of natural resources in the Republic of Moldova. There have been identified the main methodological gaps, especially the neglect of geographical and ecological component, problems of administrations of those taxes. The main objectives of this study are: 1 knowledge and application of international experience in the implementation and improvement of fees for use of natural resources; 2 diagnostic analysis of the calculation and application methodology of taxes for use of natural resources; 3 identifying the gaps and problematic situations of implementing taxes for use of natural resources; 4 assessment of fiscal, economic and environmental impacts of the application of these taxes; 5 elaboration of recommendations for reforming the taxes for use of natural resources.

  6. The Reform and Design of Commodity Taxes in the Presence of Tax Evasion with Illustrative Evidence from India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray, R.

    1994-01-01

    The literature on tax evasion and its implication for optimal tax theory has concentrated on income tax evasion. The issue of commodity tax evasion has received relatively little attention even though it is important in many cases, especially in developing countries. This paper proposes a theory of

  7. Addressing inequality and poverty with tax instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđelović Saša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a consensus, in both academia and economic policy circles, that the reform of the personal income tax system in Serbia is necessary one. Two frequently discussed reform scenarios are East European style flat tax and the comprehensive income tax model of Western Europe. Most Central and Eastern European (CEE countries have recently reformed their income tax systems by introducing some form of flat tax scheme, while in numerous countries of Western Europe the possibility of flat tax reform is also seriously considered. Opponents of the reform usually stress the adverse distributional effects of flat tax schemes. The aim of our paper is to contribute to the empirical literature on the distributional effects of alternative tax reform scenarios. The analysis is based on the tax and benefit micro-simulation model for Serbia (SRMOD. The results suggest that redesigning the existing income tax system so as to introduce a uniform tax rate and increase the basic allowance would somewhat reduce inequality and improve vertical inequity in taxation. On the other hand, in the case of the introduction of comprehensive income tax, considerably larger equalizing and progressivity effects would be achieved. At the same time, since in both cases redistribution will not affect the bottom decile group, no significant effects (in either cases on poverty reduction will be achieved.

  8. Consumer demand system estimation and value added tax reforms in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janský, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 3 (2014), s. 246-273 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TD010033 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : consumer behavior * Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System * tax reforms Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.420, year: 2014 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1301_jansky.pdf

  9. Ecological tax reform in Germany: handling two hot potatoes at the same time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuermann, Christiane; Santarius, Tilman

    2006-01-01

    Combining environmental with employment objectives, ecological tax reform (ETR) envisages a double dividend. While research has mainly focused on the socio-economic and environmental impacts of ETR, there is less literature on the social responses. This paper gives an overview and history of German ETR as well as investigating the understanding of perceptions and attitudes towards ETR of those being 'subject to tax'. The research is based on qualitative social research methods. As with the other PETRAS papers, interviews were conducted with policy-makers and business leaders and focus groups were formed with lay persons. The results show that responses of policy-makers and business leaders are modest. Although some criticisms about the specific design of the German ETR remain, complaints towards ETR are settled. Attitudes appear influenced by more fundamental convictions such as economic interest or altruistic views. In contrast, ETR appears to politicise common people. Attitudes are influenced by the overall comprehension of the ETR concept, the expected impacts, perceived information deficits, as well as a general distrust in politics. Our data show that the linking of environmental and employment objectives is not understood and not welcomed. In order to increase social acceptance, the paper discusses refocusing ETR on environmental objectives, modestly increasing the share of ETR revenue spent for environmental purposes, removing inconsistencies in the ETR design, and improving information policy

  10. Tax policy to combat global warming: On designing a carbon tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poterba, J.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter is divided into five sections. The first describes the basic structure of the carbon tax, focusing on the policies already in place in Europe as well as proposed taxes for the US. The second section considers the distributional burden of carbon taxes across income groups. The third section examines the production and consumption distortions from a carbon tax, using a simple partial-equilibrium model of the energy market. These estimates do not correspond to the net efficiency cost of carbon taxes because they neglect the reduction in negative externalities associated with these taxes, but they indicate the cost that must be balanced against potential efficiency gains from the externality channel. The fourth section discusses the short- and long-run macroeconomic effects of adopting a carbon tax, drawing on previous empirical studies of the relationship between tax rates and real output growth. A central issue in this regard is the disposition of carbon tax revenues. The fifth section considers several design issues relating to carbon taxes, such as harmonization with other greenhouse taxes and the difficulty of taxing fossil-fuel use in imported intermediate goods. There is a brief concluding section that discusses broader issues of policy design

  11. Reform of Kosovo Tax System after independence and its key functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Bedri Peci

    2013-12-01

    However, policy and tax system of Kosovo should be more in function of economic development by achieving equilibrium between direct and indirect taxes, increasing efficiency of public expenditures and to offer more tax incentives. Designers’ preliminary requirement is to analyze fiscal, economic, etc., effects of each tax form which aims to apply in accordance with tax policy objectives and to analyze the role and effects of tax incentives to each tax form. Taking into account that Kosovo regarding the application of tax incentives of CIT, compared with other countries is the last, designers by using the experiences of other countries should apply more tax incentives in order that tax policy to be more in function for economic development

  12. A 2017 Update of Taxation of Oil Investments in Canada and the United States: How U.S. Tax Reform Could Affect Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Crisan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Canada could be about to lose its tax competitive advantage it currently enjoys in attracting investment to its oil sector: its low corporate tax and royalty rates compared to the U.S. While we will start to know better the details of a U.S. tax reform package in the next month or so, two reform plans provide a basis to analyze potential impacts: the tax-reform “Blueprint” put forward last year by the Republican-controlled House of Representatives, and President Donald Trump’s own reform proposals. Either one, or even a hybrid version of the two, would make tax and royalty effective tax rates on new investment in the U.S. oil industry significantly more attractive to investors. Combined with the lack of any plans for a U.S. carbon tax and the lightening U.S. regulatory environment, investing in American oil might soon look more compelling than investing in Canadian oil. And when the price of oil eventually rises again, the attractiveness of Canada to international investors will diminish even more. As an investment destination, Canada’s popularity has already been fading. One key index, measuring foreign-direct-investment confidence, shows the U.S. at the top, while Canada has slid from third place to fifth place, behind even Britain, despite so much Brexit uncertainty. Amid Canada’s rising tax burden and its growing regulatory load, however, oil-producing provinces have nevertheless managed to retain a competitive advantage against oil-producing U.S. states in attracting international capital. That is primarily due to a lower corporate tax rate in Canada, as well as competitive royalty regimes and, in most oil-producing provinces, the absence of a retail sales tax on capital equipment. Alberta, for example, which currently offers the lowest marginal effective tax and royalty rate (METRR on conventional oil investments of all the Canadian provinces based on a $50 per barrel West Texas Intermediate price, also offers a lower METRR than

  13. A Study of Japanese Consumption Tax System : Mainly on Multiple Tax Rates and Input Tax Credit Methods

    OpenAIRE

    栗原, 克文

    2007-01-01

    One of the most important discussions on Japanese tax system reform includes how consumption tax (Value-added tax) system ought to be. Facing issues like depopulation, aging society and large budget deficit, consumption tax can be an effective source of revenue to secure social security. This article mainly focuses on multiple tax rates and input tax credit methods of Japanese consumption tax system. Because of regressive nature of consumption tax, tax rate reduction, exemption on foodstuffs ...

  14. BEPS Action Plan: Global Tax Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Shelepov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the dynamics of economic and financial globalization, national tax authorities often do not have adequate tools to effectively combat tax avoidance practices that exploit gaps in the existing tax rules. To address the global problem of tax base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD and the Group of 20 (G20 have consolidated their efforts on an equal footing. Their joint BEPS Action Plan allowed to involve more than 100 countries, both developing and advanced, in designing and implementing rules aimed at aligning the generation of profits and their taxation and increasing the predictability, transparency and flexibility of the international tax environment for business. This article examines the history of the BEPS project, emphasizing the mode of OECD-G20 engagement in global tax governance, describes the key recommendations made by international institutions to tackle BEPS and forecasts further developments in the area. The author pays special attention to the mechanisms designed to stimulate participation by non-OECD and non-G20 members in the BEPS project and the stance of business on the proposed reforms. He concludes that the work on BEPS is far from finished. Different interpretations of standards, risks of strengthening tax competition between countries and potentially excessive tax burdens on businesses should be addressed. In this regard, OECD and G20 should strengthen their efforts to ensure the participation of developing countries and the private sector, which would stimulate other reforms in international taxation to support global growth and development.

  15. Harnessing the Tax Code to Promote College Affordability: Options for Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Joe; Bergeron, David; Baylor, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The United States tax code is full of provisions designed to encourage or reward specific behaviors, such as owning a home or saving for retirement. Tax benefits for higher education are no exception: Contributions to some college savings accounts grow tax-free, college tuition is often tax deductible, and some student-loan borrowers are able to…

  16. Lessons from the polder. Energy tax design in The Netherlands from a climate change perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollebergh, Herman R.J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper evaluates energy tax reform in The Netherlands between 1988 and 2002 from a climate change perspective. In particular, the introduction of two (indirect) taxes on energy products is now responsible for a considerable amount of tax revenue from a green tax base. The paper discusses the energy tax base and rate structure from a modern Pigovian tax perspective and illustrates the practical difficulties involved in the indirect and non-uniform taxation of emissions. Also further improvements of the energy tax structure are discussed, such as a better targeting of the energy tax base and tax rate to fuel characteristics. (author)

  17. Green tax reform in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1994-01-01

    Energy, transport and fuel taxes in Denmark have, since the late 1970s, been among the highest in the OECD, and raise already more than 30 billion DKK annually to cover 10-12 per cent of the state household: a share that will be increased over the next five years with new green taxes. Furthermore......, Denmark is currently the only country within the European Union which has introduced a tax on CO2; although Germany and the Netherlands are also considering doing so, the Danish CO2 tax has been effective since 1 January 1993....

  18. A Qualitative Approach to Examining Knowledge Sharing in Iran Tax Administration Reform Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Shami Zanjanie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to examine knowledge sharing infrastructure of "Iran Tax Administration Reform Program". The qualitative approach by using case study method was applied in this research. In order to meet the research goal, four infrastructural dimensions of knowledge sharing were studied: leadership & strategy, culture, structure, and information technology. To the authors’ knowledge, this was maybe the first paper which examined knowledge sharing infrastructure in programs environment

  19. Reevaluating the first and the second dividends of environmental tax reforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimenez, Eduardo L.; Rodriguez, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing global interest in market-based climate change policies following the last elections in the United States. In this context an Exxon Mobil chief executive came out in favour of a carbon tax. This paper is concerned with the welfare analysis of Environmental Tax Reforms (ETR), and takes up the claims for the need of an unambiguous and operative definition of the double dividend both for empirical purposes and political advisement. In this paper, we contest the usual definition of the second dividend and its assimilation to an 'efficiency dividend'. We propose alternative definitions by suggesting a different splitting of the total welfare variation between the first and the second dividend in order to isolate the efficiency effects of the ETR. The new definitions become clearly understandable and easy for economic and policy interpretation. Concepts like 'weak' and 'strong' double dividend turn out to be unnecessary. Finally, we analyze ETR for the US economy to illustrate the advantages of the proposed definitions for policy implementation.

  20. The rise and fall of French Ecological Tax Reform: social acceptability versus political feasibility in the energy tax implementation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deroubaix, Jose-Frederic; Leveque, Francois

    2006-01-01

    The French government has a 10-year history of negotiations with industry, resulting in voluntary agreements on energy consumption. When implemented, these voluntary agreements produced very few results in terms of global reduction of greenhouse emissions (Politiques et Management Public 11(4) (1993) 47), hence the idea of an energy tax became increasingly attractive for many French decision-makers. Ecological/Environmental Tax Reform (ETR) should have been one of the major political decisions and successes of the past leftwing coalition government. Instead it became one of its major failures as the Constitutional Court decided to terminate the energy tax project in December 2000. Through insights gleaned from focus groups and interviews with business-people and decision-makers, an attempt is made to understand the failure of the energy tax project. Firstly, decision-makers lacked crucial information about public and business opinions and secondly, there were conflicts between the relevant administrations. The fuel revolts of 2000 ended any hope of resolving the conflicts and implementing ETR, which was ultimately found unconstitutional. This paper examines the political controversies raised by the ETR project and the reasons for its eventual collapse, in the hope of contributing new understanding to the body of knowledge on the political difficulties of introducing environmental policy instruments. (author)

  1. Review of Tax Policy and Reform Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhail-Wilcox, Bettye

    1982-01-01

    Summarizes the activities of the 97th Congress on taxes. Reviews 1981 enactments and 1982 proposals regarding tax cuts, tax increases, indexing of tax brackets, interest earnings, depreciation, and business incentives. Examines tax administration problems and flat-rate tax proposals and discusses the progressive income tax. (Author/RW)

  2. GOODS AND SERVICE TAX ONE NATION ONE TAX IN INDIA.

    OpenAIRE

    Shuchi Sharma; Rupendra Prakash Yadav.

    2018-01-01

    Goods and Service Tax is a significant and logical step towards a comprehensive Indirect tax reform in India. This paper analyses the concept of Goods Service Tax and further discusses their impact on the various sectors in India. Brief description is given on Goods Service Tax background and Goods and Service Tax models helps to reduce tax burden. It aims at creating a single and unified market benefiting both corporate and economy because this is the only Indirect tax that directly affects ...

  3. Pension saving responses to anticipated tax changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Leth-Petersen, Søren; Skov, Peer

    2017-01-01

    A Danish tax reform, passed in May 2009 and taking effect from the beginning of 2010, lowered the marginal tax rate on top bracket taxable income from 63% to 56%. Because contributions to pension accounts are tax deductible, the reform provided an incentive to increase pension contributions before...

  4. The welfare gain from replacing the health insurance tax exclusion with lump-sum tax credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liqun; Rettenmaier, Andrew J; Saving, Thomas R

    2011-06-01

    This paper analyzes the welfare gain from replacing the tax exclusion of employer-provided health insurance with a lump-sum tax credit. It differs from earlier studies in that we look at the welfare cost of health insurance tax exclusion as coming directly from excessive health insurance rather than from overconsumption of medical care and that we account for the labor market effect of the tax exclusion on welfare. Both differences work to produce a smaller tax reform welfare gain. For a set of mid-range parameter values, the welfare gain is about 21% of current health insurance tax expenditures. In addition, government tax expenditures would fall by 38%, and health insurance spending would fall by 77% after the reform.

  5. Can French environmental taxes really turn into green taxes? Current status and conditions of acceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiroleu-Assouline, Mireille

    2015-01-01

    French environmental taxes are not really ecologically oriented. Their main aim is to raise revenues. Clear signs of this inappropriate direction are given by the large share of the energy taxes and by the low level of most tax rates, which for the most part, are only implicit tax rates on the polluting goods. An ecological tax reform would imply a global green tax shift with tax rates proportionate to the marginal damages. The success and the acceptation of such a reform by the taxpayers rely on the chosen recycling mechanism for the tax revenues, on government's efforts in information and pedagogy, on transparency about the policy choices but also, somehow paradoxically, on audacity of actions. Initially published in 'Revue de l'OFCE', No. 139

  6. Macroeconomic effects of zero corporate income tax on retained earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Jaan Masso; Jaanika Meriküll

    2011-01-01

    International tax competition had led to a lowering of corporate tax rates worldwide. Estonia was the first country to reduce the tax rate on retained earnings to zero, while distributed profits remained taxed at the pre-reform level. This paper seeks to analyse the effects of this unique tax reform implemented in year 2000. We apply a neoclassical exogenous growth general equilibrium model with an extension for endogenous corporate finance. Our findings indicate that the reform had a strong ...

  7. The Distributional Impact of Tobacco Tax Increases in Ukraine on Tobacco Use and Spending: Estimates from Survey Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelle P Dauchy

    2017-05-01

    We show that tobacco tax policy reforms in Ukraine since 2007 had mixed impacts on prevalence and health outcomes depending on income and age groups, while the impact on tax revenue were lower than predicted. We further discuss the most recent reforms and provide recommendations for future changes in tobacco excise taxation and design.

  8. Can targeted food taxes and subsidies improve the diet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses distributional effects of revenue-neutral tax reforms aimed at improving dietary quality and encouraging healthier grain consumption. Using data on household grain purchases, we analyse both the impact on dietary quality and the tax incidence among income groups of VAT reforms...... of the VAT reforms is therefore difficult to evaluate. With the exception of the lowest income group, the excise duty reforms seem to have a positive health effect across all other income groups, with increases in the intake of fibre and reductions in the intake of saturated fat, sugar and added sugar...... and the excise duty reforms appear to be progressive. The lowest income group pays less food taxes and generally faces a lower overall post-reform price level. The income group that increases its tax payments most is the one with the highest income. This is also the income group that faces the largest increase...

  9. Capital Market Effects of Taxes and Corporate Tax Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Tassius, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This thesis consists of four essays: The first essay entitled “Tax Effects on Asset Pricing – New Evidence from Tax Reform Announcements in Germany”, co-authored with Michael Overesch, Chair of Business Taxation at the University of Cologne, not only presents price effects for German shares given rumors about lowering the German corporate tax rate but also shows price effects for bonds following a substantial cut in the German personal interest tax rate. The second essay “Capital Inco...

  10. The 2009 Health Confidence Survey: public opinion on health reform varies; strong support for insurance market reform and public plan option, mixed response to tax cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronstin, Paul; Helman, Ruth

    2009-07-01

    PUBLIC SUPPORT FOR HEALTH REFORM: Findings from the 2009 Health Confidence Survey--the 12th annual HCS--indicate that Americans have already formed strong opinions regarding various aspects of health reform, even before details have been released regarding various key factors. These issues include health insurance market reform, the availability of a public plan option, mandates on employers and individuals, subsidized coverage for the low-income population, changes to the tax treatment of job-based health benefits, and regulatory oversight of health care. These opinions may change as details surface, especially as they concern financing options. In the absence of such details, the 2009 HCS finds generally strong support for the concepts of health reform options that are currently on the table. U.S. HEALTH SYSTEM GETS POOR MARKS, BUT SO DOES A MAJOR OVERHAUL: A majority rate the nation's health care system as fair (30 percent) or poor (29 percent). Only a small minority rate it excellent (6 percent) or very good (10 percent). While 14 percent of Americans think the health care system needs a major overhaul, 51 percent agree with the statement "there are some good things about our health care system, but major changes are needed." NATIONAL HEALTH PLAN ELEMENTS RATED HIGHLY: Between 68 percent and 88 percent of Americans either strongly or somewhat support health reform ideas such as national health plans, a public plan option, guaranteed issue, expansion of Medicare and Medicaid, and employer and individual mandates. MIXED REACTION TO HEALTH BENEFITS TAX CAP: Reaction to capping the current tax exclusion of employment-based health benefits is mixed. Nearly one-half of Americans (47 percent) would switch to a lower-cost plan if the tax exclusion were capped, 38 percent would stay on their current plan and pay the additional taxes, and 9 percent don't know. CONTINUED FAITH IN EMPLOYMENT-BASED BENEFITS, BUT DOUBTS ON AFFORDABILITY: Individuals with employment

  11. Questions and Answers Explaining the New Tax Rules Applicable to Tax-Sheltered Annuities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David E.; Spuehler, Donald R.

    1991-01-01

    The Tax Reform Act of 1986 and subsequent legislation have radically altered the rules needed to maintain favorable tax status of tax-sheltered annuity plans for college employees. Application of the new rules is complex. Critical questions facing institutions and organizations are answered, and potential liabilities facing educational employers…

  12. Competitiveness effects of environmental tax reforms (COMETR). Final report to the European Commission, DG Research and DG TAXUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skou Andersen, M.; Speck, S. (Univ. of Aarhus, National Environmental Research Institute, Dept. of Policy Analysis (Denmark)); Barker, T.; Junankar, S.; Pollitt, H. (Cambridge Econometrics (United Kingdom)); Fitz Gerald, J.; Scott, S. (Economic and Social Research Institute (Ireland)); Jilkova, J. (Univ. of Economics Prague, Institute for Economic and Environmental Policy (Czech Republic)); Salmons, R.; Ekins, P. (Policy Studies Institute (United Kingdom)); Christie, E.; Michael Landesmann, M. (Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies (Austria))

    2007-12-15

    COMETR provides an ex-post assessment of experiences and competitiveness impacts of using carbon-energy taxes as an instrument of an Environmental Tax Reform (ETR), which shifts the tax burden and helps reduce the carbon emissions that cause global warming. COMETR: reviews the experience in ETR in seven EU Member States (Denmark, Germany, Netherlands, Finland, Slovenia, Sweden and UK); analyses world market conditions for a set of energy-intensive sectors, as a framework for considering competitiveness effects; analyses the effects of ETR on sector-specific energy usage and carbon emissions in Member States with carbon-energy taxes introduced on industry; presents a macroeconomic analysis of the competitiveness effects of ETR for individual Member States as well as for the EU as a whole; provides ex-post figures for environmental decoupling and assesses carbon leakage; reviews mitigation and compensation mechanisms for energy-intensive industries. (au)

  13. Distributional Effects of Environmental Taxes in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Poltimäe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the distributional effects of Estonian environmental taxes in 2000-2007 and recent reforms in 2008 using Estonian Household Budget Survey data and a microsimulation model. The results show that the share of environmental taxes in consumption expenditures is about 1-1.5%. Environmental taxes in 2000- 2007 were progressive due to the progressivity of motor fuel excises, which was the largest component of the environmental taxes until 2007. Since 2008, the taxes are less progressive, because of the new electricity excise and increased taxes on gas and other inputs used for distance domestic heating. To minimize the disproportionate effect of future ecological tax reform on low-income households, close monitoring of tax developments is required and necessary compensatory policies need to be implemented

  14. Pakistan – A Globalized Tax World: An Analysis of Its International Tax Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Geerten M. M. Michielse

    2008-01-01

    The Government of Pakistan is considering an extensive tax and administrative reform by 2009 and asked the World Bank to provide a discussion paper on several technical issues. This report is dealing with the international aspects of the tax system: (a) the double tax agreements, and (b) the trade agreements.

  15. The Measurement of Tax Elasticity in India: A Time Series Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Acharya, Hem

    2011-01-01

    Revenue generation is an important goal of tax reform. The built-in responsiveness of revenues to changes in income, tax elasticity, provides very critical information for tax policy formulation. This paper utilises a time series approach to empirically estimate tax elasticities for India for the period 1991-2010. Tax elasticities are computed for income, turnover, excise, import and total taxes for the post-reform period. The elasticity coefficients reveal a low responsiveness of taxes to i...

  16. Fiscal consequences of greater openness: from tax avoidance and tax arbitrage to revenue growth

    OpenAIRE

    Jouko Ylä-Liedenpohja

    2008-01-01

    Revenue from corporation tax and taxes on capital income, net of revenue loss from deductibility of interest, as a percentage of the GDP has tripled in Finland over the past two decades. This is argued to result from greater openness of the economy as well as from simultaneous tax reforms towards neutrality of capital income taxation by combining tax-base broadening with tax-rate reductions. They implied improved efficiency of real investments, elimination of tax avoidance in entrepreneurial ...

  17. Do international tax relations impede a shift towards expenditure taxation?

    OpenAIRE

    Genser, Bernd

    1990-01-01

    The paper questions the view that international tax relations had a decisive impact on the dismissal of expenditure tax scenarios as guidelines for recent national tax reforms in industrialized countries. It is argued that the introduction of consumption-type value-added tax systems must be regarded a step towards expenditure taxation favoured by international agreements and that double taxation treaties should not be regarded as a specific obstacle against a reform of national enterprise tax...

  18. The Economic Effects of Comprehensive Tax Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-01

    and household level in a coordi- investment takes place but also the mix of investment nated manner. A separate corporate income tax ap- in different...have studied the effects of assets. As another example, allowances for deprecia- the corporate income tax have concluded that it carries tion do not...types equal to over one-half of the tax revenues collected of investments more quickly than others. The result of from the corporate income tax .4 current

  19. 2017 Tax Competitiveness Report: The Calm Before the Storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Bazel

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Canada stands to lose a major competitive edge unless it responds to the challenges of the 2018 U.S. tax reforms by instituting reforms of its own. At 20.9 per cent, Canada’s tax burden on new investment (measured by the marginal effective tax rate or METR, is competitive when compared to countries in the Americas and Asia-Oceania, and it’s the second lowest among the G7 countries. However, the rules of the game are about to change with U.S. tax reform. Among the reforms the U.S. is bringing in are a drop in the federal corporate income tax rate from 35 per cent to 21 per cent, a ten-year window for full and partial expensing machinery and equipment, and other various rules that will incent companies to push profits into the U.S. and interest and other expenses into foreign jurisdictions. The result of this and other reforms will be a sharp drop in the U.S. METR by almost half – from 34. 6 per cent to 18.8 per cent. This means Canada will have a higher tax burden on capital than the U.S. Put simply, Canada and other countries will face a drop in revenue while the U.S. gains revenue. Alarm bells should be ringing among public policy-makers in Canada and elsewhere, since research shows that taxes are a significant factor in multinationals’ decisions on where to invest globally and how to finance it. The dramatic U.S. reforms will put Canada at a distinct disadvantage, dragged down further by its small market size, energy levies and regulatory burden. This paper examines the corporate tax-rate situation in 92 countries, with many either having reduced their rates recently or are planning to in the next few years. In Canada, the only movement has been in several provinces, entailing a small increase in British Columbia and small decreases in Saskatchewan and Quebec. And while the average METR among OECD countries has dropped in the past few years, Canada’s in 2017 was approximately the same as it was in 2010, climbing upward from a nadir

  20. Reforming Individual Income Tax Is the Crucial Factor in Stabilizing the Budgetary System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Povarova Anna Ivanovna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The reason for writing this article was a statement of the First Deputy Finance Minister Tatyana Nesterenko who claimed that in 2017 the government would run out of money to pay salaries to budgetary sphere employees [3]. Indeed, the reserves accumulated in the fat years are running out. The Government of the Russian Federation finds the following sources to cover the growing budget deficit: first, privatization of the remnants of state property, which will create a momentary effect and will not become a stable channel for filling the treasury; and second, major cuts on spending that on the eve of the electoral cycle can aggravate protest moods of Russians caused by a sharp deterioration of the standard of living. The majority of representatives of the expert and scientific community, including ISEDT RAS employees, consider the urgent need to reform the system for taxation of individual income tax by introducing a progressive tax scale as one of the main solutions to the growing imbalance of the budgetary system. This scale is applied successfully in all the countries of the OECD, G20 and BRICS. The goal of the present paper is to substantiate the need for reformation of individual income tax as a driving force of sustainable mobilization of budget funds. As a hypothesis, an assumption is made concerning the existence of a direct link between the redistribution of income through progressive taxation and an increase in the resource potential of the budgetary system. Research findings presented in the paper confirm that the current mechanisms for taxation of people’s incomes do not correspond to the constitutional principles of equality, social orientation and economic viability. As a result, judging by the most important indicators of socioeconomic development, Russia lags behind developed countries and some comparable developing countries. Excessive income polarization brings to the fore the issue concerning individual income tax modification

  1. Who participates in tax avoidance?

    OpenAIRE

    Alstadsæter, Annette; Jacob, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the sources of heterogeneity in legal tax avoidance strategies across individuals. Three conditions are required for a taxpayer to participate in tax avoidance: incentive, access, and awareness. Using rich Swedish administrative panel data with a unique link between corporate and individual tax returns, we analyze individual participation in legal tax planning around the 2006 Swedish tax reform. Our results suggest that closely held corporations are utilized to facilitate ...

  2. Tax Incentives and Borrowing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alan, Sule; Leth-Petersen, Søren; Munk-Nielsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We estimate the effect of a Danish 1987 tax reform, which reduced the tax rate applied to interest deductions from 73% to 50% for households with high incomes, but less for households with middle or low incomes. Using high quality panel data we find that households responded to the reduced tax su...... subsidy by lowering interest payments and we find that the responsiveness to the tax subsidy varies by the initial level of interest payments....

  3. THE IMPORTANCE OF TAX AMNESTY POLICY IN EFFORTS TO OVERCOME TAX EVASION IN INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Imas Sholihah

    2017-01-01

    Fundamental problems of taxation in Indonesia is a low tax ratio and management of the tax systemhas not been well ordered, especially the handling of the tax evaders. Tax amnesty policy is presentas one of the solutions of the problems of taxation and is part of the tax reform. There are pros andcons to this policy as it pertains to the settings in the Tax Forgiveness Act is considered less sense offairness and legal certainty and are vulnerable to abuse of authority. This policy became impo...

  4. Tax policy and labor market performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.L. Bovenberg (Lans)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn exploring the impact of tax policy on labor-market performance, the paper first investigates how tax reform impacts labor supply and equilibrium unemployment in representative agent models. The impact of tax policy on labor market performance depends importantly on various other

  5. The Tax System in India; Could Reform Spur Growth?

    OpenAIRE

    Helene Poirson Ward

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses the effects of India's tax system on growth, through the level and productivity of private investment. Comparison of India's indicators of effective tax rates and tax revenue productivity with other countries shows that the Indian tax system is characterized by: (1) a high dependence on indirect taxes, (2) low average effective tax rates and tax productivity, and (3) high marginal effective tax rates and large tax-induced distortions on investment and financing decisions. ...

  6. Progressive Taxes and Firm Births

    OpenAIRE

    Hans Ulrich Bacher; Marius Brülhart

    2013-01-01

    Tax reform proposals in the spirit of the 'flat tax' model typically aim to reduce three parameters: the average tax burden, the progressivity of the tax schedule, and the complexity of the tax code. We explore the implications of changes in these three parameters on entrepreneurial activity, measured by counts of firm births. The Swiss fiscal system offers sufficient intra-national variation in tax codes to allow us to estimate these effects with considerable precision. We find that high ave...

  7. Tax Policy Trends: Republicans Reveal Proposed Tax Overhaul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Bazel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available REPUBLICANS REVEAL PROPOSED TAX OVERHAUL The White House and Congressional Republicans have revealed their much-anticipated proposal for reform of the U.S. personal and corporate tax systems. The proposal titled, “UNIFIED FRAMEWORK FOR FIXING OUR BROKEN TAX CODE” outlines a number of central policy changes, which will significantly alter the U.S. corporate tax system. The proposal includes a top federal marginal rate reduction for the sole proprietorships, partnerships and S corporation—small business equivalents— from 39.6% to 25% (state income tax rates would no longer be deductible. Large corporations would also see a meaningful federal rate reduction given the proposed drop in the federal corporate income tax rate from 35% to 20%. Additionally, the proposal includes a generous temporary measure intended to stimulate investment, full capital expensing for machinery with a partial limitation of interest deductions.

  8. Slovenian income taxes and analysis of their tax expenditure in 2006-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Klun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tax expenditure analyses have been an important element in the supervision of reform processes linked to implementing different kinds of tax incentive and the management of a correct tax policy. The paper provides an evaluation of tax expenditure in Slovenia relating to personal income tax and corporate income tax. Four consecutive tax years were selected for the calculation of the tax expenditure on personal income tax (2006-09, while three consecutive years were selected for the corporate income tax calculation (2008-10. The tax expenditure calculated for personal income tax was highest in 2006 and reached 5.2% of GDP. After several changes in personal income tax, expenditures decreased to around 3% of GDP in the following three years. The tax expenditure calculated for corporate income tax was much lower as compared to GDP than for personal income tax, reaching around 0.2% of GDP.

  9. Designing an electricity tax system in presence of international regulations and multiple public goals: An empirical assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjertnaes, Geir H.; Faehn, Taran; Aasness, Jorgen

    2008-01-01

    The European competition rules restrict governments' opportunity to differentiate terms of energy accessibility among firms and industries. This easily runs counter with regional and industrial goals of national energy policies. Norway levies a tax on use of electricity, but exempts main industrial usages. This analysis assesses alternative, internationally legal, designs of the system in terms of their effects on efficiency and distribution, including industrial objectives. Among the reforms we explore, removing the exemptions would be the most effective way of raising revenue, but it would be politically costly by deteriorating the competitiveness of today's favoured industries. An entire abolishment of the electricity tax, and replacing revenue by increased VAT, would generate a more equal distribution of standard of living and, at the same time, avoid the trade-off between efficiency and competitiveness

  10. Energy taxes in Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilhjalmsson, A.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed survey, including data, of energy taxation, and related reforms and plans for reforms, in Iceland is presented. The current energy tax system here is mostly connected with consumption. There is as yet no taxation on air pollutants from fuel combustion. (AB)

  11. Tax Policy and Labor Market Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenberg, A.L.

    2003-01-01

    In exploring the impact of tax policy on labor-market performance, the paper first investigates how tax reform impacts labor supply and equilibrium unemployment in representative agent models.The impact of tax policy on labor market performance depends importantly on various other labor-market

  12. Integration of Tax Administration to Curb Import and Domestic Tax Evasions in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    John Adu Kwame; Eric Tutu Tchao; Kwasi Poku

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Government of Ghana’s plans to maximize tax mobilization, it recently integrated its Regional Collection Agencies (RCA) namely; the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Customs Excise and Preventive service (CEPS) and the Value Added Tax (VAT) Services into the Ghana Revenue Authority (GRA). This research aims to find out whether Ghana’s tax administration reform of integrating the RCA into GRA has dealt with the inefficiencies in tax administration with respect to personal income t...

  13. On cost benefit rules for green taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronsson, T.

    1999-01-01

    This paper concerns the welfare effects of a green tax reform in a dynamic general equilibrium model with preexisting taxes on labor income and capital income. In comparison with previous studies on green taxes in dynamic models, which have focused their main attention on long run effects of such reforms, I derive cost benefit rules for a change in the tax mix by using the properties of the value function in optimal control theory. This enables me to relate the welfare effect of a change in the tax mic to responses in employment, the capital stock, (flow) emissions and the stock of pollution along the whole general equilibrium path. Another contribution of the paper is to examine under what conditions an emission tax, which is set permanently below the marginal damage of pollution, is welfare superior to an emission tax path that fully internalizes the external effect. 22 refs

  14. The Corporate Income Tax in Canada: Does its Past Foretell its Future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Bird

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate tax reform has long been a contentious issue in Canada. Official commissions, academics and others have often proposed changes in the way we tax corporations. During the last 30 years, perhaps largely owing to concerns about international competitiveness, the corporate tax rate has been substantially reduced. Since revenues did not decline as a result, those concerned by increased inequality who believe that corporate taxes are paid mainly by the rich have suggested that corporate rates should be increased. Others, more persuaded by the increasing evidence that much of the burden of the corporate tax ultimately falls on workers and wages and that even to the extent it falls on capital the economic price paid in terms of reduced output and productivity for each corporate tax dollar collected is high have taken the opposite tack and argued that, if anything, corporate tax reform should be aimed at reducing even further the effective tax rate on corporate capital. Both the technical and the political aspects of corporate taxation are thus at play in the current discussion of possible corporate tax reform. After a brief review of the history, we consider what is now known about the relation between corporate rates and revenue, the surprisingly complex question of who ultimately pays the tax, and the largely undesirable economic effects of corporate income taxes. If all voters were economists and familiar with the evidence, it is unlikely any would favour big increases in corporate taxes. However, even economists who have read all the studies mentioned here (and more do not agree about the best way to reform the corporate income tax. We sketch three recent major reform proposals Canadian experts have recently put forward (1 replace the existing corporate tax by a tax on ‘rents’ (above-normal returns on capital, (2 replace both it and the current personal income tax by a ‘dual income tax’ with a flat rate on all capital income

  15. Tax Evasion and Swiss Bank Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    Bank deposits in jurisdictions with banking secrecy constitute an effective tool to evade taxes on interest income. A recent EU reform reduces the scope for this type of tax evasion by introducing a source tax on interest income earned by EU residents in Switzerland and several other jurisdictions...

  16. Carbon Taxes. A Review of Experience and Policy Design Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumner, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Hillary [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-12-01

    State and local governments in the United States are evaluating a wide range of policies to reduce carbon emissions, including, in some instances, carbon taxes, which have existed internationally for nearly 20 years. This report reviews existing carbon tax policies both internationally and in the United States. It also analyzes carbon policy design and effectiveness. Design considerations include which sectors to tax, where to set the tax rate, how to use tax revenues, what the impact will be on consumers, and how to ensure emissions reduction goals are achieved. Emission reductions that are due to carbon taxes can be difficult to measure, though some jurisdictions have quantified reductions in overall emissions and other jurisdictions have examined impacts that are due to programs funded by carbon tax revenues.

  17. Carbon Taxes: A Review of Experience and Policy Design Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumner, J.; Bird, L.; Smith, H.

    2009-12-01

    State and local governments in the United States are evaluating a wide range of policies to reduce carbon emissions, including, in some instances, carbon taxes, which have existed internationally for nearly 20 years. This report reviews existing carbon tax policies both internationally and in the United States. It also analyzes carbon policy design and effectiveness. Design considerations include which sectors to tax, where to set the tax rate, how to use tax revenues, what the impact will be on consumers, and how to ensure emissions reduction goals are achieved. Emission reductions that are due to carbon taxes can be difficult to measure, though some jurisdictions have quantified reductions in overall emissions and other jurisdictions have examined impacts that are due to programs funded by carbon tax revenues.

  18. Lithuanian corporate tax accounting improvement solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Bružauskas, Valentinas; Stončiuvienė, Neringa

    2012-01-01

    The article sets out the research results of existing Corporate Tax accounting in Lithuania. There is disclosed the link between financial and Corporate Tax accounting, and their coordination improvement. The authors think that, the closer link between financial and tax accounting is obligatory. The provisions of Corporate Tax calculation should be adjusted with requirements of financial accounting. Also there is specified the methods of Corporate Tax reform and their feasibility. In the arti...

  19. The replacement of payroll tax by a tax on revenues: A study of sectorial impacts on the Brazilian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilton Bernardino da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A topic of current research in discussion about the Brazilian economy is the exemption from payroll taxes, which aims to stimulate competitiveness of the firms, boosting economic growth. This topic was introduced in Brazil by new laws that proposed replacing the payroll tax with a new tax on revenues. The payroll tax rate of 20% was replaced by a tax rate of 1% or 2% on revenue. This change has been applied primarily in labor-intensive economic sectors. In this paper, a neoclassical model was used to evaluate some sectoral impacts of these tax changes. The results show positive effects of this reform, among them, the increase in aggregate consumption and capital stock. Employment also grows in the labor-intensive sector. However, under a government revenue neutral scenario, these effects are almost completely lost, which shows some evidence about the low efficiency of these reforms.

  20. Tax reform for ecologic reasons: The basic legal situation in Germany. Expert opinion; Steuerreform unter oekologischen Aspekten: Rechtliche Rahmenbedingungen. Gutachterliche Stellungnahme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birk, D.; Eckhoff, R. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Steuerrecht

    1999-04-01

    A model simulating the outcome of an ecologic tax reform in Germany is presented and discussed. The model was elaborated by Deutsches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW) and Finanzwissenschaftliches Forschungsinstitut (Fifo) of Cologne University. The model sets out the framework and scope of such a tax reform, as well as individual policy instruments, such as introduction of tax on energy consumption, an increase of the mineral oil tax, introduction of a road-use tax, introduction of new and increase of existing charges for waste management, a modification and increase of the sewage levy, and in the long run, introduction of a tax on land consumption by built environments. An analysis of the redistributional effects of the theoretical tax on energy consumption together with the increased mineral oil tax revealed that the prorated expenses for energy in relation to total incomes and revenues are declining with rising income. Especially the prorated expense for automotive fuels shows a particularly steep rise, which is calculated by the model to decline again only within the group of households with a very high income. The financial burden effect of the energy tax in relation to the available income and revenues is described by a regressive curve similar to the energy expenses curve, other than with the tax burden curve due to the increased mineral oil tax, which is calculated to have a regressive effect only at higher income levels, i.e. from a private household net income of DM 4000. Considering however the tax burden effects resulting from both the energy tax and the increased mineral oil tax, for all private hoseholds, a regressive effect is expected to set in as from a household income of DM 1000. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Das vom Deutschen Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW) und vom Finanzwissenschaftlichen Forschungsinstitut der Universitaet zu Koeln (Fifo) entworfene Modell einer oekologischen Steuerreform sieht die Einfuehrung einer Energiesteuer, eine

  1. Energy taxes, environment and competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munksgaard, J.; Gaern Hansen, L.; Bech-Ravn, C.; Ramskov, J.L.

    2006-11-01

    Economic theory about foreign trade and competition as well as empirical studies of relevance are not making evident that industries in general should pay lower environmental taxes than other kind of consumers. Consequently, economic theory cannot justify the present Danish energy tax regime where households are required to pay high energy taxes whereas industries are allowed to pay low energy taxes. On the contrary, it is more likely that reduced industry taxes will result in reduced welfare to society, lower income and lower employment as compared to a scenario of equal energy taxes. Theory can justify, however, a stepwise introduction of green taxes in order to make industries and markets adapt to the new regulatory framework. Moreover, some theoretical contributions argue that under certain circumstances one could point to a need for protecting certain kinds of industries (e.g. industries employing unskilled labour), but an exclusive tax reduction given to all industries is not supported by economic theory. By using the GTAP model we have calculated the welfare effect of levelling Danish energy taxes so households and industries have to pay equal energy taxes. The GTAP model has a good and international reputation for being designed to analyse international trade and competitiveness. We find that levelling the Danish energy taxes will increase welfare in Denmark by 1.3% equivalent to DKK 8 billion. The Danish energy tax reform, however, will cause an increase in CO 2 emissions in neighbouring countries. The calculation does not consider the influence of the EU market for tradable CO 2 permits introduced as from January 2005. (au)

  2. Tax Incentives as Viewed by Economists and Lawyers

    OpenAIRE

    Fiekowsky, Seymour

    1991-01-01

    States that tax economists' and lawyers' views on tax incentives are flawed in ways that have contributed to their assent to unnecessary and counterproductive complication of the tax laws in the name of tax reform and to their complicity in growth of the fiscal burden in the form of inefficient tax incentives that are either unaccounted for or understated.

  3. Going all in on Digital Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rasmus Corlin; Roussel, Benoît; Law, Tim

    2018-01-01

    If the Juncker Commission wanted to be political, today’s proposal on taxing the digital economy shows it certainly can be. But it takes the risk of causing serious international tensions. And will the reform ever see the light of day?......If the Juncker Commission wanted to be political, today’s proposal on taxing the digital economy shows it certainly can be. But it takes the risk of causing serious international tensions. And will the reform ever see the light of day?...

  4. 房产税调节收入分配的机理、条件与改革方向%Mechanism,Condition and Reform Direction of the Regulation of Property Tax for Income Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄潇

    2014-01-01

    房产税在影响居民收入和财富的同时,还通过转移支付来改善中低收入群体的住房和公共服务,具有调节收入分配的功能。房产税收入用于转移支付、税制设计与住房供应体系形成良性耦合、税基宽泛、税率合适、计税依据合理以及法律保障等是房产税有效发挥调节收入分配功能的条件。调节收入分配是我国房产税改革的重要目标。虽然从沪、渝房产税试点改革实践看,房产税整体上尚不能有效调节收入分配,但不能以此否定房产税所具备的调节收入分配的功能。目前,税基过窄、计税依据不合理、房产估价等配套措施不成熟是制约我国房产税有效调节收入分配的主要因素,也是房产税进一步改革的方向。要积极推进房产税扩围改革,并尽快实现以房屋市场价值作为计税依据,不断增强房产税调节收入分配的功能。%Property tax has the function to adjust income distribution by affecting the income and wealth of Chinese residents and by using transfer payment to improve the housing and public service of the residents with middle and low income.The condition for property tax can effectively play a role in the adjustment of income distribution by applying property tax to transfer payment,by virtuously coupling between tax system design and housing supply system,by extensive tax basis,by proper tax rate,by rational taxation laws,and by legal protection and so on. The adjustment of income distribution is an important goal of China’s reform of property tax,although property tax as a whole can still not effectively regulate income distribution based on the pilot property tax reform practice in Shanghai and Chongqing,the function for property tax to regulate income distribution can not be denied.Currently, the main factors to restrict effective regulation function of income distribution by China’s property tax emanate from immature measures

  5. Welfare Effects of Tax and Price Changes and the CES-UT Utility Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Knud Jørgen

    Dixit's 1975 paper "Welfare Effects of Tax and Price Changes" constitutes a seminal contribution to the theory of tax reform within a second-best general equilibrium framework. The present paper clarifies ambiguities with respect to normalisation which has led to misinterpretation of some of Dixit......'s analytical results. It proves that a marginal tax reform starting from a proportional tax system will improve social welfare if it increases the supply of labour, whatever the rule of normalisation adopted. In models which impose additive separability between consumption and leisure in household preferences...... elasticities can be derived from the parameters of the CES-UT and how it may be used for applied tax reform analysis...

  6. Tax war in Brazil: aspects and trends; Competicao fiscal no Brasil: aspectos e tendencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resende, Fabio Martins; Oliveira, David Brandao de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper issue aspects of tax war since the origin in Brazil until your apply after the tax reform with destiny principle. This work introduce with historical of tax system in Brazil. Besides approach the tax war with the game theory and practical examples to explain the advantage and disadvantage under fiscal responsibility law. Finally, we will discuss if will be continue the tax war developed in possible scenario the tax reform charging on the destiny state (author)

  7. Departures From Neutrality in Canada’s Goods and Services Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Smart

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available With recent accessions to the federal-provincial Harmonized Sales Tax, provinces with valueadded taxes (VATs now comprise over two-thirds of the national economy. While Canadian VATs are economically superior to the taxes they replaced, they are not as well designed as in other countries. An efficient VAT is a uniform tax on all consumer (but not business purchases. Although the OECD has reported that Canada’s VAT is one of the most efficient in the world, that assessment was based on data shown here to be misleading. In reality, Canada’s VATs have large exemptions, rebates and rate preferences that reduce revenues and hamper productivity. If all these tax preferences were eliminated, government VAT revenues would increase by as much as $39 billion, or more than 50 percent. Moreover, taxing consumer commodities at a single rate reduces opportunities for tax evasion, simplifies tax compliance, and in most cases increases economic productivity. Given the fiscal and productivity challenges currently facing Canadian governments, a new look at VAT design is clearly warranted. This paper offers a detailed assessment of the effects of the tax on the economy, and it proposes a number of specific, feasible reforms to the GST-HST system.

  8. New Mexican taxes to transform Pemex capital spending strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Mexico's government this year will introduce petroleum tax reforms that will transform how its state owned petroleum company approaches capital spending. Effective Jan. 1, 1994, the Mexican government began to implement a revamped tax regime designed to accompany the breakup of Petroleos Mexicanos into four new operating subsidiaries. Each of the four new companies -- Pemex Exploration and Production, Pemex Refining, Pemex Natural Gas and Basic Petrochemicals, and Pemex Secondary Petrochemicals -- will be responsible for paying a new income tax. Levies on E and P will be tied to a ring-fence mechanism tailored after the scheme employed by the U.K. and Norwegian governments in the North Sea. The paper discusses the affected investment rationale, the North Sea ring-fence model, other tax changes, and shifting the burden

  9. Global progress and backsliding on gasoline taxes and subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael L.; Hazlett, Chad; Mahdavi, Paasha

    2017-01-01

    To reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the coming decades, many governments will have to reform their energy policies. These policies are difficult to measure with any precision. As a result, it is unclear whether progress has been made towards important energy policy reforms, such as reducing fossil fuel subsidies. We use new data to measure net taxes and subsidies for gasoline in almost all countries at the monthly level and find evidence of both progress and backsliding. From 2003 to 2015, gasoline taxes rose in 83 states but fell in 46 states. During the same period, the global mean gasoline tax fell by 13.3% due to faster consumption growth in countries with lower taxes. Our results suggest that global progress towards fossil fuel price reform has been mixed, and that many governments are failing to exploit one of the most cost-effective policy tools for limiting greenhouse gas emissions.

  10. The 1986 Act: Tax Reform's Finest Hour or Death Throes of the Income Tax?

    OpenAIRE

    McLure, Charles E. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Indicates why income tax is inevitably complicated and discusses why the 1986 Act is both more and less complicated than an income tax with a definition of taxable income even closer to the ideal of real economic income. Describes an alternative consumption-based direct tax.

  11. Reforming taxes on wine and other alcoholic beverage consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Kym Anderson

    2010-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive review of AustraliaÂ’s tax system, the taxes on alcoholic beverages recently came under scrutiny. In its initial response to the review in May 2010, the government chose to not change those taxes, even though the review recommended the wine tax switch from an ad valorem to a volumetric basis and that all beverages be taxed to the same extent per litre of alcohol. This paper introduces a mini-symposium of three other papers aimed at contributing to what will be an on...

  12. Welfare Effects of Tax and Price Changes Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Knud Jørgen

    Dixit's 1975 paper "Welfare Effects of Tax and Price Changes" constitutes a seminal contribution to the theory of tax reform analysis within a second-best general equilibrium framework. The present paper clarifies ambiguities with respect to normalisation which have led to misinterpretation of some...... of Dixit's analytical results. It proves that a marginal tax reform starting from a proportional tax system will improve social welfare if it increases the supply of labour, whatever the rule of normalisation adopted, and shows that this result provides the key to understanding what determines the optimal...... commodities the insight that the optimal tax system is determined as a trade-off between two objectives: 1) to encourage the supply of labour to the market, and 2), to limit the distortion of the pattern of consumption of produced commodities. This insight cannot be illustrated by simulation studies using...

  13. Trends and future directions in tax policy reform: a Latin American perspective Tendencias y orientaciones futuras en la reforma a la política tributaria: perspectiva latinoamericana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shome Parthasarathi

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines experiences in tax reform and the evolution of income in Latin America during the 1980s, and identifies the areas of reform to be debated in the 1990s. The reforms of the 1980s removed the progressive rates applicable to income and assets and the focus shifted to indirect taxes such as Value-Added Tax, leaving direct taxation in second place. During the 1990s, the importan
    ce of direct taxation will be raised again, Businesses will be
    taxed in new ways, to ensure that all pay some tax, possibly based on their gross assets. Attempts will be made to tax the financial sector, or the use of financial services. Property will again be taxed. Pollution will be taxes. The system of withholdings will be more widespread, and their will be efforts to harmonize taxation systems in Latin America, especially in the area of capital yields, double taxation of personal income, customs duties and value-added taxes.
    En este trabajo se examina la experiencia de reforma tributaria y la evolución de los ingresos de los países latinoamericanos durante los años ochenta y se identifican con los temas de la reforma tributaria que se debatirán en la década de los noventa. Con las reformas tributarias de los ochenta se derrumbaron las estructuras progresivas a los impuestos de renta y propiedad, y se dio énfasis a los impuestos indirectos, como el Iva, con lo cual perdieron importancia los ingresos por impuestos directos. De modo que en los noventa se reconsiderará el papel de este tipo de impuestos. Se utilizarán distintas formas de gravar a las empresas, tratando de que todas paguen por lo menos un impuesto mínimo, posiblemente sobre sus activos brutos; se intentará gravar el sector financiero o al uso de los servicios financieros; se volverá a gravar la propiedad; se impondrán impuestos a la contaminación ambiental; se difundirá el sistema de retenciones y se verán esfuerzos de armonización tributaria entre los pa

  14. MACROECONMIC TENDENCIES OF ENVIRONMENTAL TAXES IN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristea Anca

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Reforms of environmental taxes in EU member states began to consolidate a strategic conceptual basis since the early '90s, when it was launched the idea of changing the tax burden from the tax factor of production, work to the environmental factors and use of environmental unfriendly activities and goods. The theoretical support of this view is represented by the corrective taxes Pigou situation justifying the optimal level of activity of producing goods and services from a social perspective, the collection of taxes imposed by the state of polluters, depending on the amount of damage and damage to third parties, the principle of 'polluter pays'. Despite the green fees start reforms of the EU member countries and their levels are not increased in recent years as a share of GDP. In the EU-27, 2008, revenues from environmental taxes represented a rate of about 2.8% of GDP and 6.1% of total revenues compared to 2.9% and 7.0% record share of GDP in 1999. Effects of environmental taxes on eco-efficiency must be seen not only in terms of their size or budget as income tax to GDP ratio, but also as a positive economic and social impact generated by larger beneficial effects of reducing pollution and preserving the quality natural resources and environmental factors.

  15. Green taxes: economic theory and empirical evidence from Scandinavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braennlund, Runar; Gren, Ing-Marie

    1999-01-01

    The prospect of simultaneously achieving a 'greener' environment, increased tax revenues and lower levels of unemployment has made ecological taxes an increasingly popular proposition. This volume examines the possibility of ecological tax reform in the Nordic countries of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. (Author)

  16. Abolishing the Tax-Free Threshold in Australia: Simulating Alternative Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    John Creedy; Nicolas Hérault; Guyonne Kalb

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the role of the tax-free income tax threshold in a complex tax and transfer system consisting of a range of taxes and benefits, each with their own taper rates and thresholds. Considering a tax and benefit system with benefit taper rates whereby some benefits are received by income groups other than those at the bottom of the distribution, it is suggested that a tax-free threshold is not a necessary requirement to achieve redistribution. Four alternative policy changes, ea...

  17. The Economic Discourse of the Current Reform Aimed at Business Optimization in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purdenko Olena A.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the strengths and weaknesses of the current reforms and provide appropriate recommendations and proposals to improve the regulatory and economic business environment. The article analyzes the introduced reforms in the aspect of the regulatory field and the active current system of taxation with the detailing of the type and content of the basic implemented measures. There have been justified the advantages and disadvantages of the introduced system of taxation with respect to the main budget forming taxes, such as the enterprise income taxes, value added tax, individual income tax considering changes in the administering of unified social tax (UST and war tax, excise duty. On the basis of the results of the study it has been found that the introduced reforms only partially improved the tax administration system and in no way reduced the announced tax burden, the time spending of business for preparing the current report was not significantly reduced.

  18. 36 CFR 65.2 - Effects of designation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... administered as a planning tool. Federal agencies undertaking a project having an effect on a listed or... 2124 of the Tax Reform Act of 1976, the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 and the Tax Treatment... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effects of designation. 65.2...

  19. The competitiveness through taxes in the Central and Eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pîrvu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, many countries Central and Eastern European countrieshave reduced their corporate income tax rates with the purpose of attractingmultinational companies. Various studies indicate the fact that the level of the corporateincome tax represents an important advantage that drives the decisions to place foreigndirect investments. Many European Union member states have initiated corporateincome tax reforms, in order to generate the increase in the competitiveness of nationaleconomies. In the case of the Central and Eastern European countries, where thedecrease in the corporate income taxes was higher, these reforms brought profoundchanges in the economic environment.

  20. THE IMPORTANCE OF TAX AMNESTY POLICY IN EFFORTS TO OVERCOME TAX EVASION IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imas Sholihah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental problems of taxation in Indonesia is a low tax ratio and management of the tax systemhas not been well ordered, especially the handling of the tax evaders. Tax amnesty policy is presentas one of the solutions of the problems of taxation and is part of the tax reform. There are pros andcons to this policy as it pertains to the settings in the Tax Forgiveness Act is considered less sense offairness and legal certainty and are vulnerable to abuse of authority. This policy became importantalthough it is less sense of fairness if the review facilities subject to tax amnesty even though thestate would get the revenue the state in large numbers in a short period of short-term benefits, butif managed by the management and human resources professionals, socialization, and optimizedcontrol, a long-term positive impact to minimize state income tax evasion. Keywords: tax amnesty, policy, tax evation (avoidance

  1. Problems of the tax reform implementation in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Lepekha

    2017-03-01

    According to the author, there is a strong need to review approaches to complex tax issues, to develop tax legislation that will correspond with the long-term development strategies and will stimulate the respective processes of economic growth.

  2. Organization of Tax Control in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamaslo Olha T.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article researches the essence and characteristics of tax control as an important element of the State regulation of economy. The main directions and modalities of tax control are considered in detail. The main tendencies and problem points of tax control in Ukraine have been studied. Efficiency of the controlling bodies has been analyzed, the main directions of their activities in the sphere of tax enforcement have been provided. Directions for improving the organization of tax control in the context of overcoming the existing deficiencies in the controlling and inspecting activities of the tax authorities have been determined. It has been concluded that the improvement of tax control is one of the key directions of reforming the Ukrainian tax system.

  3. Arizona Education Tax Credit and Hidden Considerations of Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele S. Moses

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The current debate over market-based ideas for educational reform is examined, focusing specifically on the recent movement toward education tax credits. Viewing the Arizona education tax credit law as a voucher plan in sheep's clothing, I argue that the concept of justice underlying the law is a crucial issue largely missing from the school choice debate. I question the libertarian conception of justice assumed by voucher and tax credit advocates, and argue instead that a contemporary liberal democratic conception of justice ought to undergird attempts at school reform. A call for educators and policymakers to concentrate energies on efforts to help needy students rather than on efforts to channel tax dollars toward self- interested ends concludes the article.

  4. From taxes to permits? The Norwegian climate policy debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretteville, Camilla; Soefting, Guri Bang

    2000-09-01

    Taxation as an instrument for environmental policy (green taxes) has been a topic of heated debate in Norway for almost 30 years. The subject of environmental taxes has time after time inflamed both policy makers and scholars alike. The suitability of green taxes as a policy instrument was first discussed in the 1970s. The 1980s introduced the idea that income from green taxes would make reductions in other taxes possible: a green tax reform. In the 1990s, the tax discussion boiled down to whether or not all polluters should face the same carbon tax. Lately, however, the discussion around the Kyoto Protocol has led to increased interest around the alternative of introducing a system of tradable emission quotas. Environmental taxation might thus be a declining policy instrument in Norway. This is contrary to recent developments in several other European countries such as the United Kingdom, Germany, and the Netherlands. This paper explores why the idea of a green tax reform never got off the ground in Norway by providing an overview of Norwegian environmental policy in the period from 1972 to early 2000. (author)

  5. Philippines - Revenue Administration Reform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Millennium Challenge Account-Philippines' (MCA-P) implementation of the Revenue Administration Reform Project (RARP) is expected to improve tax administration,...

  6. Dual income tax: An option for the reform of personal income tax in Serbia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđelović Saša

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary tax theory and practice provides two fundamental concepts for taxation of personal income: scheduler and global. Several systems have been derived from these basic models, including combined, flat, dual and negative income tax. Dual income tax, the subject of this paper, requires progressive taxation of income from employment and proportional taxation of income from capital. However, strict application of this system significantly violates the principle of equitability of taxation, both horizontally and vertically.

  7. Opening the Schoolhouse Doors: Tax Credits and Educational Access in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Dick M., II.; Erickson, Angela C.

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, Alabama adopted the Alabama Accountability Act, an education reform measure that includes two new school choice programs that extend a lifeline to Alabama students trapped in failing public schools. One program offers a tax credit to help offset the cost of tuition for families who move their children from public schools designated as…

  8. Taxing energy to improve the environment. Efficiency and distributional effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijdra, B.J.; Van der Horst, A.

    1998-02-01

    The effects of environmental tax policy in a dynamic overlapping-generations model of a small open economy with environmental quality incorporated as a durable consumption good have been studied. Raising the energy tax may deliver an efficiency gain if agents care enough about the environment. The benefits are unevenly distributed across generations since capital ownership, and the capital loss induced by a tax increase, rises with age. A suitable egalitarian bond policy can be employed in order to ensure everybody gains to the same extent. With this additional instrument the optimal energy tax can be computed. The authors further considered a tax reform that simultaneously lowers labour taxation and raises the energy tax. This policy delivers qualitatively similar consequences as the first scenario, though all changes are less pronounced. A double dividend may appear soon after the reform but vanishes in the course of the transition. 22 refs

  9. Taxing energy to improve the environment. Efficiency and distributional effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heijdra, B.J.; Van der Horst, A. [Faculty of Economics and Econometrics, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1998-02-01

    The effects of environmental tax policy in a dynamic overlapping-generations model of a small open economy with environmental quality incorporated as a durable consumption good have been studied. Raising the energy tax may deliver an efficiency gain if agents care enough about the environment. The benefits are unevenly distributed across generations since capital ownership, and the capital loss induced by a tax increase, rises with age. A suitable egalitarian bond policy can be employed in order to ensure everybody gains to the same extent. With this additional instrument the optimal energy tax can be computed. The authors further considered a tax reform that simultaneously lowers labour taxation and raises the energy tax. This policy delivers qualitatively similar consequences as the first scenario, though all changes are less pronounced. A double dividend may appear soon after the reform but vanishes in the course of the transition. 22 refs.

  10. Tax Reforms in Nigeria: Case for Value Added Tax (VAT)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    amended based on destination principle to impose VAT on imported services rendered ... It was the view of Popoola (2009) that Nigeria tax administration and practice be structured ..... have low VAT rates, e.g. Nigeria, India and Malaysia.

  11. Taxing Electricity Sector Carbon Emissions at Social Cost

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Anthony; Beasley, Blair; Palmer, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about budget deficits, tax reform, and climate change are fueling discussions about taxing carbon emissions to generate revenue and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Imposing a carbon tax on electricity production based on the social cost of carbon (SCC) could generate between $21 and $82 billion in revenues in 2020 and would have important effects on electricity markets. The sources of emissions reductions in the sector depend on the level of the tax. A carbon tax based on lower SCC ...

  12. A new carbon tax in Portugal: A missed opportunity to achieve the triple dividend?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Alfredo M.; Pereira, Rui M.; Rodrigues, Pedro G.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, the Portuguese government appointed a Commission for Environmental Tax Reform that formulated a carbon-tax proposal designed to achieve three dividends: to help Portugal meet the European Union's target for emissions reductions by 2030, to boost long-term employment and GDP above their pre-carbon-tax levels, and to strengthen public finances by lowering public indebtedness. A key feature of this proposal was a judicious set of mixed strategies to recycle all carbon-tax revenues back into the economy. In this note, we show how the carbon tax that the Portuguese Parliament eventually approved deviated from such guidelines, and ultimately failed to achieve the triple dividend. We argue that authorities need to quickly amend the existing legislation to avoid this misguided attempt turning into a missed opportunity to improve environmental, macroeconomic, and fiscal outcomes. - Highlights: •In a general-equilibrium model, we simulate the effects of a carbon tax in Portugal. •A carbon tax is needed for Portugal to meet its 2030 target in emissions reductions. •In the long run, it's possible to design a carbon tax to achieve the triple dividend. •The Portuguese parliament ultimately approved an unsatisfactory carbon-tax package. •Carbon-tax revenues must be recycled into lower taxes and promote energy efficiency.

  13. Ethics and performance: Understanding the psychological contract of the taxation from the view of the employee tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrawati Yuhertiana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a phenomenon related to the dysfunctional behavior of unscrupulous tax officials and the reluctant of taxpayers to pay the tax. This study aims to explore the evidence of psychological tax contract in a tax official perspective. It proposes modeling the effect of Indonesia tax reform process for determining the ethics as the important variable that affects the tax officials’ performance. It also examines the effect of organizational commitment, culture, and tax reform on tax ethics. There were 128 tax officials working in three cities of East Java that were selected as the respondents. The questionnaires were distributed directly to the respondents. Partial Least Square was used to test the hypotheses. It was found that organizational commitment, organizational culture, and tax reform have a direct contribution to tax official ethics. However, understanding the ethics of taxation was not proved to be the moderating variable for the relationship between the organizational commitment and organizational change and the policies of rotation system explain why ethics failed as moderating variable.

  14. Designing Green Taxes in a Political Context: From Optimal to Feasible Environmental Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    How should green taxation be designed? We argue that to design green taxes which are high enough to have the desired incentive effects, tax revenues must be reimbursed, either by earmarking them for environmental subsidies or by reducing other taxes directed at industry. If green tax schemes can ...... financial resources within industry and thus create winners and losers. Still, we demonstrate how green taxation can be used in heterogeneous industries which can be created by operating separate tax schemes for each branch of industry....

  15. Distributional effects of a carbon tax in broader U.S. fiscal reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Aparna; Morris, Adele C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the distributional implications of an illustrative $15 carbon tax imposed in 2010 on carbon in fossil fuels. We analyze its incidence across income classes and regions, both in isolation and when combined with measures that apply the carbon tax revenue to lowering other distortionary taxes in the economy. Consistent with earlier findings, we find that a carbon tax is regressive. Using tax swap simulations, we then subtract the burden of other taxes the carbon tax revenue could displace, and compute the net effect on households under three assumptions about how capital and labor income might be distributed. - Highlights: • Shows that a carbon tax by itself is regressive. • Burden of a carbon tax may be offset partly with a corporate tax swap. • Higher income households face negative tax rates under corporate tax swap. • Corporate tax swap results in wider regional variations in burden than labor tax swaps. • Adding sources side incidence of carbon tax makes tax less regressive

  16. Designing green taxes in a political context: From optimal to feasible environmental regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugbjerg, C.; Tinggaard Svendsen, G.

    2001-01-01

    How should green taxation be designed so that it accommodates producer interests? We argue that to design green taxes which are high enough to have the desired incentive effects, tax revenues must be reimbursed, either by earmarking them for environmental subsidies or by reducing other taxes directed at industry. If green tax schemes can be designed this way, industry will have little incentive to mobilise strong opposition to green taxation. However, in practice, the requirement of reimbursement may be difficult to fulfil because, with few exceptions, polluting industries are not homogeneous. This means that reimbursement will redistribute financial resources within industry and thus create winners and losers. Still, green taxes can be used in heterogeneous industries which can be created by operating separate tax schemes for each branch of industry. The Danish case of pesticide taxation demonstrates that relatively high tax levels can be implemented if an equal relationship between the tax object and the object determining the level of refunds exists throughout the sector. This means that revenues can be reimbursed without creating redistribution within producer communities. (au)

  17. Designing green taxes in a political context: From optimal to feasible environmental regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugbjerg, C; Tinggaard Svendsen, G

    2001-07-01

    How should green taxation be designed so that it accommodates producer interests? We argue that to design green taxes which are high enough to have the desired incentive effects, tax revenues must be reimbursed, either by earmarking them for environmental subsidies or by reducing other taxes directed at industry. If green tax schemes can be designed this way, industry will have little incentive to mobilise strong opposition to green taxation. However, in practice, the requirement of reimbursement may be difficult to fulfil because, with few exceptions, polluting industries are not homogeneous. This means that reimbursement will redistribute financial resources within industry and thus create winners and losers. Still, green taxes can be used in heterogeneous industries which can be created by operating separate tax schemes for each branch of industry. The Danish case of pesticide taxation demonstrates that relatively high tax levels can be implemented if an equal relationship between the tax object and the object determining the level of refunds exists throughout the sector. This means that revenues can be reimbursed without creating redistribution within producer communities. (au)

  18. Budget reform in Ukraine and the OECD countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puchko Anna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the fiscal reforms in Ukraine and the OECD countries. It has been proved that the main areas which should undergo changes are the tax reform, regulatory reform and restructuring policies to encourage entrepreneurship, reform of social protection and social security, reform of social sphere constituents, administrative reform, reform of the army and law enforcement, administrative and territorial reform. According to the analysis results, there has been drawn the conclusion about the need to introduce in Ukraine the successful experience of the OECD countries in implementing budget reforms.

  19. Use green taxes and market instruments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, G.; Rheaume, G.; Coad, L.

    2008-01-01

    This briefing is part of the Conference Board of Canada's CanCompete program, which was designed to help leading decision makers advance Canada on a path of national competitiveness. Many members of the scientific community have concluded that anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are responsible for the current pace of global warming. It is widely believed that the changing climate will have a negative impact on the economy and the environment. This briefing considered a set of reforms to the Canadian tax system designed to ensure sustainable growth within a changing climate. The briefing was prepared in response to an earlier paper calling for a market-based policy on climate change. Tax incentives were examined, as well as price signalling systems to ensure successful climate change adjustment for Canadian businesses. It was concluded that a combination of efficient regulations, market forces, and tax measures will be needed to set accurate and effective prices for GHGs. Green taxes and tax credits will also be necessary in order to accelerate technological adaptation to a carbon pricing system, along with a complementary cap and trade system. 1 fig

  20. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON INDIRECT TAXES AT EU LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARALAMBIE GEORGE ALIN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic downturn, affecting lately the states all over the world, imposed their governments to take measures in fiscal and budget plan in order to reduce the budget deficit, by reducing spending and increasing the revenue mobilized to the budget, especially tax revenues, by increasing the tax burden both for the individuals and legal entities. Reforming the tax system at European level involved widening the tax base both for the income earned by individual taxpayers and those made by companies to the detriment of effective tax rates increase. The share in GDP of mandatory levies is uneven across the EU. In the year 2012, it range from 30% in Lithuania with 50% to Denmark. Fiscal consolidation in the member states aimed reforms in the field of indirect taxation (by increasing VAT- 1% for the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Italy, Poland and Finland to 7% in Hungary with 5%, Romania, 4%, excise duties and environmental taxes and a downward trend in the rate of taxation in the case of direct taxes through progressive taxation of personal income, which led to increased revenue due compulsory levies in most countries of the European Union. 13 EU countries have acted to increase the VAT rate between 2010-2014.

  1. Integration of Tax Administration to Curb Import and Domestic Tax Evasions in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Adu Kwame

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of the Government of Ghana’s plans to maximize tax mobilization, it recently integrated its Regional Collection Agencies (RCA namely; the Internal Revenue Service (IRS, Customs Excise and Preventive service (CEPS and the Value Added Tax (VAT Services into the Ghana Revenue Authority (GRA. This research aims to find out whether Ghana’s tax administration reform of integrating the RCA into GRA has dealt with the inefficiencies in tax administration with respect to personal income tax, company tax, value added tax (VAT, import duties and self employed tax collection. To that end, questionnaires, interviews, observation and the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning’s (MoFEP data on tax revenues were analyzed to establish whether there has been some level of efficiency in the mobilization of these taxes. From the field observation, it was discovered that many taxpayers in Ghana are not being issued receipts which could ensure proper accounting. Surprisingly, tax collectors from the RCAs were aware of this but refuse to act. Even though most of the taxes were not being collected, analysis of data from MoFEP showed an increase in revenue collection in the last four years and this has been attributed to the tax administration integration. The effect of tax evasion on the Ghanaian economy has also been thoroughly discussed

  2. Designing Green Taxes in a Political Context: From Optimal to Feasible Environmental Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    How should green taxation be designed? We argue that to design green taxes which are high enough to have the desired incentive effects, tax revenues must be reimbursed, either by earmarking them for environmental subsidies or by reducing other taxes directed at industry. If green tax schemes can...... be designed this way, industry will have little incentive to mobilise strong opposition to green taxation. However, in practice, the requirement of reimbursement may be difficult to fulfil because, with few exceptions, polluting industries are not homogeneous. This means that reimbursement will redistribute...... financial resources within industry and thus create winners and losers. Still, we demonstrate how green taxation can be used in heterogeneous industries which can be created by operating separate tax schemes for each branch of industry....

  3. Green tax reforms and double dividend - what have we learned from 10 years of research?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haakonsen, Lars

    2001-01-01

    This article deals with some selected main characteristics of the literature on green tax reforms and double dividend. The double dividend concept was introduced in the 1990s and raised a lot of interest among researchers and politicians. It may be a problem, however, that double dividend is a concept with double, triple or multiple meaning; several different definitions of what the double dividend consists of exist. If ''the first dividend'' is defined as improved environmental quality, then ''the second dividend'' might be, for instance, reduced unemployment, improved welfare exclusive of environmental quality, or reduced loss of efficiency. All these alternative definitions are discussed. The literature is extensive. The article does not aim to cover it fully, but rather aims to point to some essential issues

  4. U.S. tax policies distorting economics of exploration, development ventures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, C.G.

    1991-01-01

    Since the Tax Reform Act of 1986, crude oil production in the United States has declined over 1.5 million b/d despite interim price increases of over 100%. Exploration and development in the U.S., measured by the drilling rig count, footage drilled, reserves replaced, and seismic crew activity, remain near record lows. Two major factors determine the level of U.S. crude oil production: the price of crude oil and the expected return on investments to find and produce new reserves. This article discusses the impact of the U.S. take (tax and fiscal) system generally, and the alternative minimum tax (AMT) system specifically on new investments to find and produce crude oil in the U.S. Over the last 20 years, important policy concerns have motivated U.S. tax reform. Yet its impact on the petroleum resource base of the country was never fully anticipated. The U.S. tax reform movement dramatically and adversely changed the time within which new oil and gas investments can be recovered. In the process, America's new capital recovery policies have produced both regressive and anticompetitive impacts. The charts presented in this article demonstrate these impacts as crude oil prices, revenues, or profitability decline and as the costs of production increase

  5. The use of tax expenditures in times of fiscal consolidation

    OpenAIRE

    Lovise Bauger

    2014-01-01

    Against the background of recovering growth and remaining fiscal consolidation needs, reforming tax expenditures may offer a promising avenue to raise revenue and, at the same time, improve efficiency of the tax systems. The workshop, held by DG ECFIN on 23 October 2013, addressed the economic and budgetary aspects of tax expenditures, including reporting practices, and discussed the rationale for business tax incentives and the distributional effects of tax reliefs in personal income taxatio...

  6. The Burden and Disincentive Effects of Hungarian Personal Taxes 1988-96

    OpenAIRE

    Newbery, David M G; Revesz, Tamas

    1997-01-01

    The paper analyses the revenue-raising, distributional and incentive effects of the personal tax system in Hungary from the start of the transitional tax reforms of 1988, and develops methods for estimating marginal indirect taxes. It evaluates the distributional impact of revenue-neutral equivalent indirect tax changes that have occurred since 1988, and shows them to have been regressive.

  7. Tax Policy Design and the Role of a Tax-Free Threshold

    OpenAIRE

    John Creedy; Nicolas Hérault; Guyonne Kalb

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the role of the tax-free income tax threshold in a complex tax and transfer system consisting of a range of taxes and benefits, each with their own taper rates and thresholds. Considering a range of tax and benefit systems, particularly those having benefit taper rates whereby some benefits are received by income groups other than those at the bottom of the distribution, it is suggested that a tax-free threshold is not a necessary requirement to achieve redistribution. A p...

  8. Corporate tax in an international environment – Problems and possible remedies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Seppo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problems of corporate taxation in a globalized world. It first considers recent trends in international practices and then reviews the literature on the effects of corporate taxes in closed and open economies. The paper emphasizes the severity of the problems caused by current international tax rules. It compares various national and international policy alternatives and considers two recent Nordic tax reform proposals as examples of national-level solutions. The problems of current international corporate taxation are fundamental. Introducing increasingly tight antiavoidance measures could serve as a medium-term approach but does not provide any promising long-term solution. There should be more research concerning initiatives that would reform the fundamental principles of the international tax system.

  9. Can Capital Income Taxes Survive? And Should They?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    The paper surveys some main results in the theory of capital income taxation in the open economy; reviews recent trends in international taxation, and discusses alternative blueprints for fundamental capital income tax reform from the perspective of an open economy faced with growing mobility...... of capital income tax bases...

  10. Advantages and Disadvantages of Exempting Municipal Bonds from the Federal Income Tax: The U.S. Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban G. DALEHITE

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Romania and other Eastern European countries have undergone dramatic reforms as they have sought to democratize political institutions, develop their economies, rely on private markets for the provision of goods and services, and pursue a course of economic integration with Western European nations (Lazar, 2005. Of course, these reforms have included the complete overhaul of tax and revenue systems (Lazar, 2005. As these tax reforms mature and are adapted to the differing realities of each country, it might be useful to reflect on the experiences and mistakes of countries whose tax systems they have used as blueprint for their own reforms. This is the spirit in which this analysis is written. The article presents a synthesis of the American experience with tax-exempt municipal bonds, and the advantages and disadvantages associated with this tax exemption. The exemption represents a subsidy from the federal government to states and local governments, and as such, it has powerful incentives with implications from the economic and redistributive standpoints. This article explains these implications and how they have been addressed in the U.S.

  11. Fiscal Schemes for Inclusive Development (FSID) : Evaluating Tax ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to help governments in Brazil, Chile, Guatemala, Mexico and Uruguay deliver better and fairer public goods and services by providing them with a tax benefit micro-simulation platform called LATINMOD. The platform will be capable of simulating most proposed reforms in personal taxes and social benefits, ...

  12. Paying for individual health insurance through tax-sheltered cafeteria plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mark A; Monahan, Amy B

    2010-01-01

    When employees without group health insurance buy individual coverage, they do so using after-tax income--costing them from 20% to 50% more than others pay for equivalent coverage. Prior to the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), several states promoted a potential solution that would allow employees to buy individual insurance through tax-sheltered payroll deduction. This technical but creative approach would allow insurers to combine what is known as "list-billing" with a Section 125 "cafeteria plan." However, these state-level reform attempts have failed to gain significant traction because state small-group reform laws and federal restrictions on medical underwriting cloud the legality of tax-sheltered list-billing. Several authorities have taken the position that insurance paid for through a cafeteria plan must meet the nondiscrimination requirements of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act with respect to eligibility, premiums, and benefits. The recently enacted Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act addresses some of the legal uncertainty in this area, but much remains. For health reform to have its greatest effect, federal regulators must clarify whether individual health insurance can be purchased on a pre-tax basis through a cafeteria plan.

  13. Deferred Compensation for Personnel of Tax-Exempt Universities: Effective Use of Section 403(b) Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, John L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Under the Tax Reform Act of 1986 many university employees are no longer able to make tax deductible contributions to an IRA. Several alternative plans of action are discussed including tax-deferred annuities. Tax planning strategies are offered. (MLW)

  14. CONTRIBUTION OF INDIRECT TAXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The work is based on the fact that at any time and in any society, taxation is regarded as undesirable for all taxpayers. The existence and it's manifestation is justified, because the operation of any company involves costs that must be covered by sufficient resources. Since ancient times, each state has adopted its own tax system, more or less perfected, as the state has experienced a greater or lesser economic and military power At the base of this work stays the fact that tax systems are a key factor influencing the overall efficiency of the economy. They determine the size tendency to save, invest and work, influencing the increase in production and employment, which is essential sights integral economic strategy, making tax reform an important component of economic reform. This paper aims to analyze the indirect taxes and their contribution to the public revenues in Romania, the purpose paper contains an analysis based on statistical series as indirect taxation is where tax harmonization was possible. Through analyzes, the paper aims to provide answers to the problem of the contradiction between the growing need for budgetary revenues, which entails a continuous amplification and diversification of taxation, on the one hand, and the need to stimulate economic development, on the other hand. The harmonization of indirect taxation had been achieved since this touches the free movement of goods and the freedom to supply services, not being able to say the same thing about direct taxation, which is why the European Community Treaty does not specify expressly the alignment of direct taxation, considering that direct taxation is a matter of Internal Policies that, for a country free option.

  15. Problems and Recommendations over Tax Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin ONER

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tax policy is a tool that state uses on economic, social and financial fields. Funding public expenditure is its financial goal, providing economic stability and development is its economic goal and contributing to fair distribution of income and wealth is its social goal. In result of high debt load, rupture between taxes and economic goals, being not established a document and registration order and lacking in management of administration and control functions, significantly increasing tax loss and evasion and factors such as unfair competition that it leads to show that our tax system is ineffective and have a negative influence in economic life. In order to succeed in tax policies, “taxes should be minimalistic, should consider the ability to pay with respect to income level, should prevent the luxurious consumption and waste, should decrease tax evasion and loss, should tax informal economy, should encourage export, employment and development, should be reformed in a permanent way and implementing tax consciousness into whole society” is inevitable.

  16. Reforming the Canadian Sales Tax System: A Regional General Equilibrium Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    CHUN-YAN KUO; BOB HAMILTON

    1991-01-01

    The paper develops a regional general equilibrium model of the Canadian economy to analyze the sectoral and regional impacts of the major changes to the Canadian sales tax system. The results indicate that replacing the federal sales tax with the goods and service tax increases real output in Canada in the long run by 1.4 percent. If the provincial sales taxes are also integrated, real output increases by a further 0.8 percent.

  17. Mexico: An Evaluation of the Main Features of the Tax System

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Martinez-Vazquez

    2001-01-01

    Mexico's tax system is a paradox. The tax policy and tax administration reforms of the late 1980s and early 1990s delivered a tax structure that is in many ways comparable, if not superior, to that in many OECD countries. However, Mexico's tax system continues to perform in some fundamental ways, in particular in its ability to raise adequate revenues, worse than the tax system of many developing countries. The basic objective of this evaluation is to try to explain this paradox. In doing tha...

  18. Tax evasion and Swiss bank deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    quarters immediately before and after the tax was introduced. We also present evidence suggesting that the drop in Swiss bank deposits was driven by behavioral responses aiming to escape the tax - such as the transfer of funds to bank accounts in other offshore centers and the transfer of formal ownership......Bank deposits in offshore financial centers may be used to evade taxes on interest income. A recent EU reform limits the scope for this type of tax evasion by introducing a withholding tax on interest income earned by EU households in Switzerland and several other offshore centers. This paper...... estimates the impact of the withholding tax on Swiss bank deposits held by EU residents while using non-EU residents who were not subject to the tax as a comparison group. We present evidence that Swiss bank deposits owned by EU residents declined by 30–40% relative to other Swiss bank deposits in two...

  19. PERSONAL INCOME TAX POLICY ANALYSIS: ALBANIA VS. UNITED STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agim Binaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal income tax has become an important part of the Albania’s revenue system. Revenue from personal income tax was more than 27.9 billion ALL for the year of 2011 which makes up a 3% increase when compared to the previous year. This paper compares and contrasts Albanian and American income tax systems by describing many similarities as well as distinctive characteristics that were found. Professor Agim Binaj of Agricultural University of Tirana highlights the need for a fair personal income tax reform in Albania. This paper concludes with recommendations and an agenda for future research on tax policy using lessons from the United States tax system.

  20. TAX COSTS AND CORPORATION DIVIDEND POLICY: Evidence from the 1986 U.S. Tax Reform Acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharta Utama

    2003-02-01

    shareholders with long investment horizons because the tax cost saved from decreasing dividend payout ratios is an increasing function of shareholders’ investment horizon. The empirical tests support the hypothesis and show a negative relationship between the change in incremental tax costs and the change in dividend payout ratios for firms with long average investment horizons.

  1. Structural higher education reform - design and evaluation: synthesis report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    File, Jonathan M.; Huisman, Jeroen; de Boer, Harry F.; Seeber, Marco; Vukasovic, Martina; Westerheijden, Donald F.

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses how different types of system-level (or ‘landscape’) structural reforms in higher education have been designed and implemented in selected higher education systems. In the 12 case studies that form the core of the project, the researchers examine reforms aimed at: - Increasing

  2. MOLDOVAN TAX ADMINISTRATION: 25 YEARS OF EXPERIENCE AND FUTURE CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana CRICLIVAIA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Moldova, since independence, decided to consolidate its place among the democratic nations and open to reform economy in order to integrate it in european and international circuit. Reform of national economy was oriented towards substitution of an old, outdated and almost collapsed socioeconomic system by one capable to ensure the continued progress in society. Thus this reform could be done mainly through fiscal legitimacy and enforcement of tax administration, which may best be achieved through establishing clear, transparent, and predictable rules and procedures, especially in the administrative aspects of the tax system. With this paper we aim to examine the tax authority changes for last 25 years. Research methodology is based on the dialectic-conflictual model, whose approaches helped to bring the essence of the debate by applying methods of induction, deduction, observation, analysis and synthesis. The analysis are based on either qualitative or quantitative indicators. Results reveal the weaknesses of Moldovan tax administration system in order to understand its areas of strength. The research can be used by: taxation and regulatory authorities for elaboration of new legislation and improvement of the existing legislation; investors for evaluation of taxation efficiency in investment projects; didactic personnel in teaching specialty disciplines at economy universities.

  3. Estimating the impact of investment tax credits on aircraft demand

    OpenAIRE

    Mackay, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses exogenous price changes from the shifting tax policies of the 1980’s to identify the parameters of a nested-logit discrete choice model of the aircraft market. The federal Investment Tax Credit (ITC) was a tax credit of 6-10% of a firm's new capital investment that was removed by the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (TRA86). Such tax credits continue to be proposed as tools to spur investment, and they are still utlized in many states and select industries. This research adds to the ...

  4. SWOC ANALYSIS OF GOODS AND SERVICES TAX (GST): IMPLEMENTATION IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Raghavendra Holla

    2016-01-01

    Goods and Services Tax (GST) is a type of indirect tax and it is one of biggest reform in Indian tax structure. The Goods and Service Tax Bill or GST Bill, officially known as The Constitution (One Hundred and Twenty-Second Amendment) Bill, 2014. 16 years wait is almost finished when Rajya Sabha and Lokh Sabha passed ’The Goods and Service Tax Bill’ in the month of August, 2017. Good and Service tax is also known as ‘National Value Added Tax’. India is a developing country; the main source fo...

  5. Distributional and regional economic impact of energy taxes in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandyck, Toon; Van Regemorter, Denise

    2014-01-01

    We analyse the macroeconomic and distributional effects of increased oil excises in Belgium by combining a regional Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model with a microsimulation framework that exploits the rich detail of household-level data. The link between the CGE model and the microlevel is top–down, feeding changes in commodity prices, factor returns and employment by sector into a microsimulation model. The results suggest that policymakers face an equity-efficiency trade-off driven by the choice of revenue recycling options. When the additional revenue is used to raise welfare transfers to households, the reform is beneficial for lower income groups, but output levels decrease in all regions. However, when the energy tax revenue is used to lower distortionary labour taxes, the tax shift is slightly regressive. In this case, national GDP is hardly affected but regional production levels diverge. The impact of the environmental tax reform on income distribution depends strongly on changes in factor prices and welfare payments, whereas sector composition is an important determinant for regional impact variation. - Highlights: • We study the impact of oil excises across regions and households in Belgium. • Lower income groups gain if the revenue is used to raise welfare payments. • If labour taxes are reduced, the reform is only slightly regressive. • The differential impact across households is driven by factor price changes. • Sector composition is a crucial determinant for impact variation across regions

  6. The financial lease after the tax reform in the Slovak republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Derco

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the calculations of leasing economics, derived from recently valid laws, mainly the income tax law. According to § 19 paragraph 3 letter a of the income tax law /ZDP/, the tax expenses represent a depreciation charge of tangible and intangible properties. The new law about the income tax allowed in precisely determined cases to claim depreciation charge not only to tax-payer, having the proprietorship or the administration right (if it relates to the state, village or the higher regional unit, but also to tax-payers who do not have this right if they count this property, incl. they count their property being rented by the form of financial leasing (§24 paragraph 1 letter. e. ZDP. The lessee by this way has the right the leasing object amortizes; despite he is not its owner. This represents a very advantageous, so-called leasing form of depreciation, when the lessees depreciates the property much earlier than using the balanced or accelerated depreciation.

  7. Green taxes in EU and Denmark; Groenne skatter og afgifter i EU og Danmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyck-Madsen, S.

    2000-12-01

    One of the most essential means to reach an increased sustainability in the world is to increase the use of economical means and hereby extend the polluter-pay-principle. The EU-commission, OECD and other governments in the EU-countries recommend an increased use of green taxes. This book takes as its starting point the implementation of a green tax reform, where the taxation is moved from tax on manpower to tax on resource consumption and pollution. Hereby both the environmental effort and the economic development are strengthened. The book briefly examines the different definitions of sustainability and outlines the principles for a green tax reform. The elaboration of green taxes, the reversing entry to environmental aims or to the Exchequer, the relation to the social distribution, the financing of the welfare state, the development of the green taxes in the EU countries, removal of environmentally damaging subsidies and the positive effect of the existing green taxes are subjects treated in the book. Finally the book presents a proposal for some Danish possibilities to increase existing green taxes or to introduce new Danish green taxes. (EHS)

  8. Energy taxes in the Netherlands. What are the dividends?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komen, M.H.C.; Peerlings, J.H.M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the environmental and economic effects of the introduction of a unilateral energy tax in the Netherlands are analysed using an applied general equilibrium (AGE) model. The effects of a small user energy tax and a general energy tax are compared, while taking into account different tax recycling mechanisms. The model contains a great level of detail with respect to emissions and environmental indicators (greenhouse effect, acidification, eutrophication and waste), which is helpful for assessing environmental quality. The results show that the introduction of a small environmental tax reform not only improves the environment but also raises non-environmental welfare, which is due to an improvement of the efficiency of the tax structure. 24 refs

  9. Taxpayers’ Competency Level in Governing Goods Services Tax (GST) Compliance: Malaysia Scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Hambali Siti Syaqilah; Kamaluddin Amrizah

    2017-01-01

    GST implementation in Malaysia in April 2015 is part of the tax reformation with the goal of having a more efficient and effective taxation system. A successful tax reformation requires a high acceptance from taxpayers. In order to aid in the acceptance of GST implementation, taxpayers need to have a good competency level reflected through proper knowledge and awareness of the GST system, also known as GST literacy. Thus, the main objective of this study is to assess the level of GST literacy...

  10. Sources of Funding for Education Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Allan

    1986-01-01

    Outlines the trends in educational funding patterns needed to enact educational reform. Local property taxes, state revenues, and federal aid continue to provide the bulk of financing. Includes two tables. (MD)

  11. TAX OPTIMIZATION AS A DECISIVE FACTOR OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (THE CASE OF POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Andriyash

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to compare the system of taxation and tax optimization in Poland with solutions in the selected EU Member States and its influence on economic development. The paper presents the system of taxation in Poland compared with fiscal solutions in selected EU countries. It also discusses the typology of tax solutions referring to tax optimization in Europe. Methodology. The author used the primary and secondary data from the Central Statistics Office (GUS, Pricewaterhouse Coopers’ research and the Eurostat. The research methods used for the purpose of data analysis included economic analysis of legal acts, descriptive statistics, and comparative analysis. Results showed that the level of tax loading in Poland is more moderate than in other developed countries of the world while the mechanism of administration of taxes and collections is much more successful. The share of receipts collected by the decentralized administration has been increasing steadily since the major administrative reform of 1999 and the local finance law enacted in 2004. Eliminating the category of special sections of industrial production and inclusion of revenues/income to the proposed form of income tax would be very desirable. This would indicate the practical implementation of Smith’s tax principles concerning tax equity and an ability of taxpayer to pay levies. Practical implications. Tax optimization is to balance the tax loading level through offering benefits and preferences which would stimulate the economy of the country and will not cause aggravation of the problem of relocating tax loading from one tax payer to another. Many national states, noticing the phenomena of tax evasion and tax avoidance are implementing or going to implement specific reforms which help to improve the system of tax control with the aim of creating conditions which make tax and collections evasion impossible. Value/originality. The results of the conducted

  12. Limited take-up of health coverage tax credits: a challenge to future tax credit design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Stan; Varon, Janet; Pervez, Fouad

    2005-10-01

    The Trade Act of 2002 created federal tax credits to subsidize health coverage for certain early retirees and workers displaced by international trade. Though small, this program offers the opportunity to learn how to design future tax credits for larger groups of uninsured. During September 2004, the most recent month for which there are data about all forms of Trade Act credits, roughly 22 percent of eligible individuals received credits. The authors find that health insurance tax credits are more likely to reach their target populations if such credits: 1) limit premium costs for the low-income uninsured and do not require full premium payments while applications are pending; 2) provide access to coverage that beneficiaries value, including care for preexisting conditions; 3) are combined with outreach that uses easily understandable, multilingual materials and proactive enrollment efforts; and 4) feature a simple application process involving one form filed with one agency.

  13. Analysis of Communes’ Potential Fall in Revenue Following Introduction of Ad Valorem Property Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnat Sebastian

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The property tax reform is the subject of numerous discussions and multi-aspect analyses. One of the conclusions from the analyses is an argument referring to the risk of a substantial rise in financial charges imposed on objects of taxation. The replacement of property tax with ad valorem property tax is seen as a potential source of increased revenue for communes. However, some of the communes may experience the opposite effect, i.e. the risk of a revenue loss. Should the tax reform come into force, it will result in protests among the affected local governments. The paper presents the results of a study into the situation of an exemplary commune, where specific conditions that could lead to lowering the commune’s revenue due to the introduction of the ad valorem property tax may occur.

  14. European Union definitely introduces common taxes on energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenweisner, R.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper taxes of the European Union on energy are reviewed. European Union Ministers of environment Council definitely ratified new common system of minimal energy taxes in last week. Council introduces par excellence minimal all-European size of an electricity, coal and natural gas consumption tax. New directive according to European Commission will improve operation of internal market and eliminate deformation of competitive environment among individual members as well as among mineral oils and the other energy sources. Slovak Republic taxes all motor fuel types by higher charge as is minimal level demanded by EU according to new directive after rising of consumable tax from mineral oils in August 2003. According to Minister of Finances Slovak Republic demanded European Union for a temporary 10-year period for utilizing electricity, coal, coke, and natural gas consumption tax. According to Ministry, Utilizing new taxes and rising of tax load is not in interest of started tax reform in Slovak Republic

  15. The optimal level of tax burden on payroll: estimation and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudryakov Eldar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines citizens’ income taxation and institutional framework for charging a unified social tax as well as prospects for their development as a result of tax system reform in Ukraine. The study determines the optimal level of tax burden on the payroll to enable both maximizing budget revenues and reducing shadow income level. It also reveals the relationship between excessive taxation of payroll and the high level of the shadow economy resulted from inefficiency of existing tax rates and charging a unified social tax.

  16. Why public health services? Experiences from profit-driven health care reforms in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, Göran

    2014-01-01

    Market-oriented health care reforms have been implemented in the tax-financed Swedish health care system from 1990 to 2013. The first phase of these reforms was the introduction of new public management systems, where public health centers and public hospitals were to act as private firms in an internal health care market. A second phase saw an increase of tax-financed private for-profit providers. A third phase can now be envisaged with increased private financing of essential health services. The main evidence-based effects of these markets and profit-driven reforms can be summarized as follows: efficiency is typically reduced but rarely increased; profit and tax evasion are a drain on resources for health care; geographical and social inequities are widened while the number of tax-financed providers increases; patients with major multi-health problems are often given lower priority than patients with minor health problems; opportunities to control the quality of care are reduced; tax-financed private for-profit providers facilitate increased private financing; and market forces and commercial interests undermine the power of democratic institutions. Policy options to promote further development of a nonprofit health care system are highlighted.

  17. Carbon Based Energy Taxes in Developing Countries. Feasibility and effects of a tax restructuring in China, Brazil, India, Indonesia and Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This report is part of a study of the effects of converting the existing energy tax structure to one based on the carbon content of the fuel. The countries considered are China, Brazil, India, Indonesia and Russia. They contribute 28% of the worlds energy related carbon emission and are expected to have the greatest increase in carbon emissions over the next decades. Restructuring the energy taxes could play a role in reducing global carbon emissions. But this is difficult to achieve in non-OECD countries because of existing energy market distortions and policy barriers. The report first maps the present tax structure of the energy, power, and transport sectors, then redistributes the tax burden among the fuels based on their carbon content. Three scenarios are then studied, confining the tax structure to: (1) the industrial sector, (2) the industrial and power sectors, (3) industrial, power and transport sectors. Some important conclusions are: (1) reduced energy prices are the result of subsidies rather than of reduced taxes, (2) moving towards a carbon-based tax system requires major changes in the overall structure of energy pricing and government policy, (3) substantial institutional barriers exist to any reform of energy taxes, (4) among the fuel types, coal would have by far the largest price increase as it is now subsidized, (5) confining the carbon tax restructuring to the industry and power sectors would have minor effects, (6) including the transport sector with the other two does impact carbon emissions. Reducing the energy subsidies is probably the most urgent issue in reforming the energy sector and would bring substantial benefits in terms of reduced carbon emissions and improved overall energy efficiency of the economy. 25 refs., 20 figs., 41 tabs.

  18. An investigation into the future of discretionary trusts in South Africa: An income tax perspective: Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia M. Brink

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trusts have long been used as an estate planning mechanism, including the avoidance of estate duty and donations tax. In the 2016 National Budget the Minister of Finance indicated that Government was proposing several legislative measures during 2016/2017 to prevent individuals from using a trust to avoid estate duty (and donations tax to a certain extent. Unexpectedly, the 2016 draft Taxation Laws Amendment Bill and the final Amendment Bill did not give effect to any of these proposals, but introduced other less drastic measures to control the abuse of trusts for tax purposes, albeit with the same stated purpose. Aim: The main aim of the study was to clarify the reform proposals (albeit unclear and consequently based on certain assumptions and to compare the reform proposals with the final amendments. This comparison will shed some light on the fairness and appropriateness of the final amendments and, more importantly, on the possibility that the reform proposals published by National Treasury in February 2016 not included in the final amendments will be enacted in the future. This investigation will assist tax practitioners and taxpayers in effective tax and estate planning, given that the reform proposals and final amendments have a possible impact on the future of discretionary trusts in South Africa. Setting: This article examines existing literature in a South African income tax environment. Methods: In order to meet this objective a qualitative approach based on a literature study of pure theoretical aspects was used. Results and conclusion: It was found that should the reform proposals become law, many trusts would become ineffective from a tax-planning perspective and these changes might erode other benefits trusts offer, jeopardising the future of discretionary trusts in South Africa.

  19. Changes in the demand for private medical insurance following a shift in tax incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Marisol; Stoyanova, Alexandrina

    2008-02-01

    The 1998 Spanish reform of the Personal Income Tax eliminated the 15% deduction for private medical expenditures including payments on private health insurance (PHI) policies. To avoid an undesired increase in the demand for publicly funded health care, tax incentives to buy PHI were not completely removed but basically shifted from individual to group employer-paid policies. In a unique fiscal experiment, at the same time that the tax relief for individually purchased policies was abolished, the government provided for tax allowances on policies taken out through employment. Using a bivariate probit model on data from National Health Surveys, we estimate the impact of said reform on the demand for PHI and the changes occurred within it. Our findings indicate that the total probability of buying PHI was not significantly affected by the reform. Indeed, the fall in the demand for individual policies (by 10% between 1997 and 2001) was offset by an increase in the demand for group employer-paid ones. We also briefly discuss the welfare effects on the state budget, the industry and society at large.

  20. 浅议我国现行个人所得税制改革%On the Reform of the Current Personal Income Tax System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦小虹

    2011-01-01

    Personal Income Tax Income Distribution as a major taxes, plays a vital role in our countries' economic life. Personal income tax adjustment is directly related to people's pocketbook, for that it is on forcus about the situation in the hot inflation. As China's economic growth, disposable income is increasing year by year, but as the income gap between rich and poor regulation, "personal income tax" the tax lever lags behind changes in our economy, these problems not only seriously affected the economy, tax regulation function, but also unfavorable for social stability. This paper clarifies the existed personal income tax reform issues that after the proposed targeted policy recommendations related to academics.%个人所得税作为调节居民收入分配的一个重要税种,在我国经济生活中起着至关重要的作用.个税调整直接关系百姓钱袋子,在通胀形势下成为关注热点.随着我国经济的增长,居民可支配收入也在逐年增多,但是作为调节贫富收入差距的“个人所得税”这一税收杠杆却滞后于我们经济的变化,这些问题不仅严重影响了税收调节经济的功能,而且对社会稳定也极为不利.本文在阐明了我国个人所得税制改革中存在的相关问题后,有针对性的提出了相关学者的政策建议.

  1. Energy wealth and tax reform in Russia and Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinthal, E.; Luong, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    Resource-rich states throughout the developing world are prone to rent-seeking, excessive borrowing, wasteful spending, and unbalanced growth as well as states with weak institutions and authoritarian regimes. Are the five energy-rich Soviet successor states necessarily doomed to repeat this experience, often referred to as the 'resource curse'? This paper advances and tests the hypothesis that Russia and Kazakhstan are more likely to avoid the 'resource curse' than Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Azerbaijan because they privatized their energy sectors. Specifically, we find that privatization offers a potential path out of the 'resource curse' when it involves a transfer of ownership to domestic actors. Although Kazakhstan initially appeared to be developing a viable tax regime in response to foreign investors, over the long term Kazakhstan's tax regime has become increasingly volatile and dependent upon these foreign investors. In contrast, domestic oil companies are helping to foster the development of an increasingly viable tax regime in Russia. (author)

  2. From Progressive to Flat: How Tax Reform would Affect the Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    problem that would be eliminated with the Hall and Rabushka’s flat tax rate proposal is double taxation of people who own shares in corporations...corporations would pay a 19 percent tax rate and income from dividends would not be taxed as personal income. This way, double taxation for...Rabushka’s method of counting all income as wages or salary regardless of the source significantly impacts Ashton. After Ashton deducts the allowances

  3. Will a radical transport pricing reform jeopardize the ambitious EU climate change objectives?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proost, Stef; Delhaye, Eef; Nijs, Wouter; Van Regemorter, Denise

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of replacing current fuel taxes by a system of taxes that account better for all the different external costs of the different transport modes. One of the important implications of this reform is that current fuel taxes are decreased to a level of 80 euro/ton of CO 2 but that the mileage related taxes on car and truck use increase. Using the TREMOVE model for the transport sector of 31 European countries, one finds that the volume of transport will decrease because current taxes on transport are too low compared to overall external costs. Overall CO 2 emissions will decrease slightly. Using the MARKAL-TIMES model for the Belgian energy sector, putting all sectors and technologies on equal footing shows that a fuel tax reform makes that it is not cost efficient to require large CO 2 emission reductions in the transport sector and that traditional car technologies will continue to dominate the car market in 2020-2030.

  4. Fiscal Federalism, Tax Reforms And Productivity: A Case For Direct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of all sources of revenue to government, taxation is the most important. Owing to the inherent power of the government to impose taxes, the government is assured at all times of its tax revenue no matter the circumstances. With modifications as a result of different manifestos of opposing political parties, the government's ...

  5. Tax penalties in SME tax compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Swistak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Small business tax compliance requires special attention. On the one hand small businesses are often incapable of rigorously fulfilling their tax obligations, more vulnerable to external risks and tempted to exploit opportunities to be non-compliant. On the other hand, unlike larger businesses, they are usually sole proprietors or owner-operated businesses, hence highly responsive to personal, social, cognitive and emotional factors. These attributes pave the way to a better use of measures designed to influence their behavior and choices. This paper discusses the role and effectiveness of tax penalties in enhancing tax compliance in small businesses. It argues that tax penalties, although indispensable for tax enforcement, may not be a first-choice tool in ensuring tax compliance. Too punitive a tax regime is an important barrier to business formalization and increasing severity of tax penalties does not produce the intended results. To be effective, tax penalties should deter and motivate taxpayers rather than exert repressive measures against them.

  6. Design of a nuclear steam reforming plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malherbe, J.

    1980-01-01

    The design of a plant for the steam reforming of methane using a High Temperature Reactor has been studied by CEA in connection with the G.E.G.N. This group of companies (CEA, GAZ DE FRANCE, CHARBONNAGES DE FRANCE, CREUSOT-LOIRE, NOVATOME) is in charge of studying the feasibility of the coal gasification process by using a nuclear reactor. The process is based on the hydrogenation of the coal in liquid phase with hydrogen produced by a methane steam reformer. The reformer plant is fed by a pipe of natural gas or SNG. The produced hydrogen feeds the gasification plant which could not be located on the same site. An intermediate hydrogen storage between the two plants could make the coupling more flexible. The gasification plant does not need a great deal of heat and this heat can be satisfied mostly by internal heat exchanges

  7. 76 FR 77053 - Proposed Collection; Income, Excise, and Estate and Gift Taxes Effective Dates, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... Reform Act of 1984. The regulations affect qualified employee benefit plans, welfare benefit funds, and... gift taxes; effective dates and other issues arising under the employee benefit provisions of the tax..., Excise, and Estate and Gift Taxes Effective Dates and Other Issues Arising Under the Employee Benefit...

  8. Payroll tax reduction in Brazil : Effects on employment and wages

    OpenAIRE

    Scherer, Clóvis

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis paper evaluates the effects of the elimination of a payroll tax on employment and wages in four manufacturing and service sectors in Brazil in early 2012. This tax, which accounted for 20 percent of the wage bill, was levied on employers and financed social security programmes. This study is based on administrative records from the Brazilian Ministry of Labour which contained information on formal employment contracts. Exploring the fact that the tax reform only covered firms...

  9. A tax proposal for a cash flow corporate tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Jerez Barroso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Due to its advantages in terms of neutrality and simplicity, the aim of this paper is to design a tax base for corporation cash flows, as well as to develop its practical implementation.Design/Methodology: The conceptual aspects and the background of tax on corporation tax flows are reviewed and a tax base that levies a charge on the corporation’s economical activities’ cash flow is then proposed. In order to carry this out, a methodological procedure is developed on the basis of the accounting documents that companies must present and through which the stock variables and the accounting documents’ work flow is transformed into cash flow.Findings: An implementation on the basis of the accounting documents that Spanish companies must present. Practical Implications: This paper defines the procedure to follow in order to determine the tax base of a cash flow corporate income tax on the basis of its accounts, which would allow an estimation of this tax figure’s revenue impact.Originality/ Value: The design of a tax base of cash flows for companies. The accounting approximation carried out to determine the cash flows justifies the fact that the tax base proposal is technically possible.

  10. Research on reform plan of civil engineering adult education graduation design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhibin; Sun, Shengnan; Cui, Shicai

    2017-12-01

    As for civil engineering adult education graduation design, reform program is put forward combined with our school. The main points of reform include the following aspects. New pattern of graduation design which is consisted of basic training of engineering design, technical application and engineering innovation training is formed. Integration model of graduation design and employment is carried out. Multiple professional guidance graduation design pattern is put forward. Subject of graduation design is chosen based on the school actual circumstance. A “three stage” quality monitoring system is established. Performance evaluation pattern that concludes two oral examinations of the dissertation is strictly carried out.

  11. AN ACUTE QUEENING MOVE FOR CHINA'S TAXATION LEGAL REFORM: ISSUES AND PROPOSALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Tianlong

    2016-01-01

    China's fiscal and taxation law reform is at a critical stage since Chinese economy development needs to consider compromising interests and conflicts from all sources,such as the social benefit network,real estate industry avidity,internationalizing currencies,fostering a philanthropic culture,and growing as a leader in the world market.These undertakings all demand a modern,handy fiscal and taxation law system.On the other hand,after two decades of implementation of the 1994 tax sharing system,the original initiative of strengthening centralized control might not keep pace with the needs of balancing decentralization and local financing demands,in addition to the troublesome taxpayers' protection,tax judicature reform,and worsening environmental irregularities.Admittedly,China's fiscal and taxation law reform faces new challenges and incentives.Rigorous international tax frameworks and multi-jurisdictional cooperation drive China to respond as an international trade giant and a responsible game player.Such international tax policy orientations create another layer of incentives and necessity for China to fme-tune its domestic fiscal and taxation legal framework,ranging from promotion of free trade zones,global sourcing practice and supply chain management,renegotiation of outdated tax treaty articles,more active participation in consequential overseas investments,to WTO Protocol compliance review,and international tax dispute resolution.Therefore,this article argues that,no matter the extent to which feasible,plausible or pragmatic proposals are presented,a top level architecting and a serious pursuit to upgrade citizens' livelihood must be prioritized in earnest.

  12. TAX REFORMS AND INVESTMENT IN NIGERIA: AN EMPIRICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    Tax generated revenues are used to finance public utilities, perform social responsibilities and grease the ..... Capital Theory and Investment Behaviours, The American Review,. 53:247-257. ... ESUT Journal of Accounting, 5(2). December ...

  13. Taxation of Multinational Enterprises in a Global Market: Moving to Corporate Tax 2.0?

    OpenAIRE

    Wilde, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    textabstractHow countries tax the profits of multinational enterprises has become hopelessly outdated. The recent OECD/G20 Base Erosion and Profit Shifting Project has left the existing international corporate taxation framework essentially intact. Perhaps it is time to consider a truly fundamental reform of corporate tax systems, i.e. Corporate Tax 2.0.

  14. How does petty corruption affect tax morale in Sub-Saharan Africa? An empirical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jahnke, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa economies introduced extensive reforms of their tax systems in the last two decades. In most of these countries taxes are now remitted through the self-assessment system that relies on quasi voluntary compliance and audit selection by risk. However, the revenues from direct taxes remained fairly stable and tax/GDP ratios lack behind the industrialized world. Several scholars argue that corruption is one of the major obstacles to increase tax revenues but focus on perceived ...

  15. Agora Energiewende (2017). New pricing models for energy. Fundamentals of a reform of fees, taxes, levies and charges on electricity and fossil fuels; Agora Energiewende (2017). Neue Preismodelle fuer Energie. Grundlagen einer Reform der Entgelte, Steuern, Abgaben und Umlagen auf Strom und fossile Energietraeger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praetorius, Barbara; Lenck, Thorsten [Agora Energiewende, Berlin (Germany); Lietz, Franziska [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Energie Forschungszentrum; Buechner, Jens; Nikogosian, Vigen [E-Bridge Consulting GmbH, Bonn (Germany); Schober, Dominik [Zentrum fuer Europaeische Wirtschaftsforschung GmbH (ZEW), Mannheim (Germany); Mannheim Univ. (Germany); Weyer, Hartmut [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Woll, Oliver [Zentrum fuer Europaeische Wirtschaftsforschung GmbH (ZEW), Mannheim (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    In the ideal electricity market, electricity prices give the signal that supply and demand are balanced in real time, flexibility is offered and cost and energy efficiency are achieved. When electricity is scarce, high prices mobilise the operation of storage facilities, load management and generation plants. If electricity is available in surplus, the low prices attract additional customers. Ideally, prices also stimulate the right investments for a reliable, efficient and climate-friendly electricity system - even at the borders of the electricity, heating and transport sectors. In reality, 75 to 80 percent of the electricity price for most consumers consists of government-regulated, regulated price components. Energy taxes, grid charges, taxes and levies total around 55 billion euros per year and fulfil important functions in the financing of the electricity system and energy turnaround. However, they often almost completely overlap the coordinating price signal in wholesale. Offering flexibility is hardly worthwhile because taxes, fees, levies and charges are due immediately. The price signals are also not right at the sector borders: heating oil and natural gas, diesel and petrol are taxed according to other criteria than electricity; there are misguided incentives in the choice of energy sources and climate protection. The reform of the tax, remuneration, levy and levy system is therefore urgently needed, but it is a complex undertaking. Agora Energiewende, with the support of E-Bridge, ZEW and TU Clausthal, has carried out an analysis of the current price structure and explored the scope for a fundamental reform of the existing system. In this way, we want to lay a foundation for the development of concrete reform proposals, which will be worked out in a further study. [German] Im idealen Strommarkt geben Strompreise das Signal dafuer, dass sich Angebot und Nachfrage in Echtzeit ausgleichen, Flexibilitaet angeboten wird und Kosten und Energieeffizienz

  16. Modern aspects of tax regulation of investment activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Podakov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the tax regulation of investment activity in modern conditions. Scientists studied different views about the impact of tax regulations on the investment activity in the country. The author determines that the tax regulation of investment activity involves the use of state mechanisms taxation of certain measures to improve investment conditions. The subject is the state tax regulations, and the object is the investment activity of individual and institutional investors of any form of ownership including organizational and legal forms. Such regulation is performed by using complex special tools. The possible methods of tax stimulation of investment processes are described. The article deals with the current results of tax reform in Ukraine and predicts its possible consequences for agricultural producers. The rating positions of Ukraine according to international organizations are showed. The systematic analysis has been carried out and the impact of differential tax rates, tax exemption for a specified period, reducing the tax base, elimination of double taxation on investment activity in certain areas have been researched. The special instruments of investment activity tax regulation are considered. The options for improving investment activity by introducing effective tax regulation are determined.

  17. A tax proposal for a cash flow corporate tax

    OpenAIRE

    Lourdes Jerez Barroso; Joaquín Texeira Quirós

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Due to its advantages in terms of neutrality and simplicity, the aim of this paper is to design a tax base for corporation cash flows, as well as to develop its practical implementation.Design/Methodology: The conceptual aspects and the background of tax on corporation tax flows are reviewed and a tax base that levies a charge on the corporation’s economical activities’ cash flow is then proposed. In order to carry this out, a methodological procedure is developed on the basis of the...

  18. An Evaluation of the Tax-Transfer Treatment of Married Couples in European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immervoll, Herwig; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    negatively on the earnings of the spouse. This stands in contrast to the previous literature on this question, which has focused on a specific form of positive jointness. The presence of negative jointness is driven by family-based and means-tested transfer programs combined with tax systems that usually...... feature very little jointness. Second, we consider the labor supply distortion on secondary earners relative to primary earners implied by the current tax-transfer systems, and study the welfare effects of small reforms that change the relative taxation of spouses. By adopting a small-reform methodology...

  19. An Evaluation of the Tax-Transfer Treatment of Married Couples in European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immervoll, Herwig; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    2009-01-01

    negatively on the earnings of the spouse. This stands in contrast to the previous literature on this question, which has focused on a specific form of positive jointness. The presence of negative jointness is driven by family-based and means-tested transfer programs combined with tax systems that usually...... feature very little jointness. Second, we consider the labour supply distortion on secondary earners relative to primary earners implied by the current tax-transfer systems, and study the welfare effects of small reforms that change the relative taxation of spouses. By adopting a small-reform methodology...

  20. A Study on the establishment of environmental friendly taxation system II - concentrated on calculation of environmental friendly subsidy and taxation reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sang Hwan; Lim, Hyun Jung [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Establishing an environmental friendly taxation system, designing to have a sustainable development and environmental conservation simultaneously, is an important problem to be solved. Following the study on calculation of water and energy subsidy in previous year, the amount of environmental unfriendly subsidy in transportation and agriculture was calculated. Based on the introduction plan of new environmental tax, such as carbon tax and product share, a scheme of environmental friendly taxation reform was proposed. 48 refs., 5 figs., 88 tabs.

  1. Enhancing the Alberta Tax Advantage with a Harmonized Sales Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Bazel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Alberta enjoys a reputation as a fiercely competitive jurisdiction when it comes to tax rates. But the reality is that the province can do better with a tax mix that has greater emphasis on consumption, rather than income tax levies. While Alberta has a personal tax advantage compared to other Canadian jurisdictions — but not the United States — it relies most heavily on income taxes and non-resource revenues that impinges on investment and saving. Taxes on new investment in Alberta’s non-resource sectors are no better than average, compared to other countries in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, or OECD, so it is not exceptionally attractive to many different kinds of investors. And Alberta’s corporate income tax rate is not much more competitive than the world average for manufacturing and service companies. By introducing the Harmonized Sales Tax with a provincial rate of 8 per cent (in addition to the federal 5 per cent rate, Alberta has the ability to make its tax system more competitive. An HST would even allow the province to entirely eliminate income tax for the majority of families. And because the HST would be easily administered using the same collection mechanisms that already exist for the GST, implementing a new Alberta HST could be done relatively smoothly and with minimal additional administration costs. Adopting an Alberta HST is the simplest, most efficient and fairest way to reform the provincial tax system, and will deliver noticeable benefits to Albertans, most visibly in the form of significant income tax relief. It would enable the province to raise the income-tax exemption from $17,593 to $57,250, making it possible for couples to earn up to $114,500 free of any provincial income taxes. In addition, the province could lower income tax rates for income over that amount from 10 to nine per cent. And with the revenue from the HST, Alberta would have the capacity to lower its general corporate

  2. Transfer pricing as tax avoidance under different legislative schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Holzmann, Carolin Maria

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates transfer pricing as tax avoidance before and after reforms of anti-avoidance legislation. The reforms introduced and tightened obligatory documentation requirements for transfer prices to enforce that multinational enterprises (MNEs) set internal transfer prices at an arm’s-length. Linking data from the Microdatabase Statistics on International Trade in Services that comprehends prices of MNEs’ international service transactions to the Microdatabase Direct Investment, ...

  3. On the record: Benefits of a progressive consumption tax: a conversation with Alan D. Viard

    OpenAIRE

    anonymous

    2012-01-01

    Alan D. Viard, a resident scholar at the American Enterprise Institute, reviews the budget outlook, the need for tax reform and the benefits of moving to a progressive consumption tax. He also discusses his forthcoming book, Progressive Consumption Taxation: The X Tax Revisited, which he coauthored with Robert Carroll of Ernst & Young.

  4. Tax design-tax evasion relationship in Serbia: New empirical approach to standard theoretical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđelović Saša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides evidence on the impact of the change in income tax rates and the degree of its progressivity on the scale of labour taxes evasion in Serbia, using the tax-benefit microsimulation model and econometric methods, on 2007 Living Standard Measurement Survey data. The empirical analysis is based on novel assumption that individual's tax evasion decision depends on a change in disposable income, which is captured by the variation in their Effective Marginal Tax Rates (EMTR, rather than on a change in after-tax income. The results suggest that the elasticity of tax evasion to EMTR equals -0.3, confirming the Yitzhaki's theory, while the propensity to evade is decreasing in the level of wages and increasing in the level of self-employment income. The results also show that introduction of revenue-neutral, progressive taxation of labour income would lead to increase in labour tax evasion by 1 percentage point.

  5. Modern money theory and ecological tax reform: A functional finance approach to energy conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Scott L. B.

    This dissertation contributes to heterodox economics by developing a theoretical and policy-relevant link that will promote the conservation of energy while driving the value of the domestic currency. The analysis relies upon the theoretical foundation of modern money theory and functional finance, which states that "taxes-drive-money" where the value of a sovereign nation's currency is imputed through the acceptance by the sovereign nation of the currency in payment of taxation. This theoretical perspective lends itself to various public policy prescriptions, such as government employment policies or the employer of last resort (ELR), which has been discussed at length elsewhere (Wray 1998; Tcherneva 2007, Forstater 2003). This research contributes to this overall program by arguing that the basis for taxation under modern money theory allows public policy makers various alternatives regarding the make-up of the tax system in place. In particular, following functional finance, taxes do not have the sole purpose of paying for government spending, but rather drive the value of the currency and may be designed to perform other functions as well, such as penalizing socially undesirable behavior. The focus in this dissertation is on the amelioration of pollution and increasing energy conservation. The research question for this dissertation is this: what federally implemented tax would best serve the multiple criteria of 1) driving the value of the currency, 2) promoting energy conservation and 3) ameliorating income and wealth disparities inherent in a monetary production economy? This dissertation provides a suggestion for such a tax that would be part of a much larger overall policy program based upon the tenets of modern money theory and functional finance. Additionally, this research seeks to provide an important theoretical contribution to the emerging Post Keynesian and ecological economics dialog.

  6. Ways of radical change of the image of tax and customs officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arutiunian V. L.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available the article discusses the problem concerning some changes in image of tax and customs officers. Tax and customs system is a multifunctional structure, therefore, in order to ensure unified application of the legislation, professional training of staff should be organized by means of guidelines, workshop discussions, qualification trainings and other instruments, which should be attended by the employees of territorial and regional tax and customs authorities. Along with implementation of legislative reforms and application of advanced technologies for increase of confidence in tax system and expansion of capabilities, the role of a professional tax officer is of high importance.

  7. Coordinated Tax-Tariff Reforms, Informality, and Welfare Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, J.E.; van der Meijden, G.C.

    2010-01-01

    The paper studies the revenue, efficiency, and distributional implications of a simple strategy of offsetting tariff reductions with increases in destination-based consumption taxes so as to leave consumer prices unchanged. We employ a dynamic micro-founded macroeconomic model of a small open

  8. Social and political barriers to green tax reform. The case of CO{sub 2} taxes in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasa, Sjur

    1999-06-29

    This paper presents the story of several attempts to tax Norwegian mainland emission intensive industries during the 1990s. These industries, mainly made up of aluminium and ferro-alloy producers located in the Norwegian countryside and a series of planned gas powered power stations along the coast, have enjoyed full exemption form CO{sub 2} taxes during a period in which relatively high CO{sub 2} taxes have been imposed on Norwegian consumers and some other industries. The various sources of the emission intensive industries are explored, included their ability to amass broad support for ``pro-industrial`` social norms among politicians, media and the bureaucracy. Theoretically these capabilities are described in terms of the policy network approach developed in British political science. 34 refs.

  9. Tax Efficiency vs. Tax Equity – Points of View regarding Tax Optimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Aurelia Toader

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Starting from the idea that tax equity requirements, administration costs and the tendency towards tax evasion determine the design of tax systems, it is important to identify a satisfactory efficiency/equity deal in order to build a tax system as close to optimum requirements as possible. Prior Work Previous studies proved that an optimum tax system is that through which it will be collected a level of tax revenues which will satisfy budgetary demands, while losing only a minimum ‘amount’ of welfare. In what degree the Romanian tax system meets these requirements? Approach We envisage analyzing the possibilities of improving Romanian tax system as to come nearest to optimum requirements. Results We can conclude fiscal system can uphold important improvements in what assuring tax equity is concerned, resulting in raising the degree of free conformation in the field of tax payment and, implicitly, the degree of tax efficiency. Implications Knowing to what extent it can be acted upon in the direction of finding that satisfactory efficiency/equity deal may allow oneself to identify the blueprint of a tax system in which the loss of welfare is kept down to minimum. Value For the Romanian institutions empowered to impose taxes, the knowledge of the possibilities of making the tax system more efficient can be important while aiming at reducing the level of evasion phenomenon.

  10. New Leverage for Increasing Tax Revenues in Turkey: Traditional Tax Applications Supported by Electronic Tax Audits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Onkan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is examined for the period 2000- 2015 in Turkey that increasing the electronic applications regarding tax audits had the effects on the required amount of tax levied as a result of tax audits. Tax Inspectors reach strategic information without uneasiness by means of electronic applications developed by some institutions such as Electronic Risk Analysis that Tax Inspection Board founded in 2011 and Revenue Administration as institutions designated by law for auditing tax in Turkey. Thus, this leads to an increase the tax revenues obtained in the course of tax audits compared to the times when there is not electronic applications.

  11. Parking taxes : evaluating options and impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litman, T.A.

    2006-01-01

    In addition to encouraging the use of alternative modes of transport, parking taxes can help to reduce congestion, air pollution, and urban sprawl. Various types of parking taxes were evaluated in this paper, as well as their impacts on parking supply, prices and travel patterns. Examples of various parking tax programs in major cities in Canada, Europe, the United States and Australia were presented. Parking tax programs were divided into 2 main categories: (1) per-space parking levies which distribute cost burdens and encourage property owners to manage parking supply more efficiently and (2) commercial parking taxes on parking rental transactions which discourage the pricing of parking and concentrate impacts in limited areas. Worksite parking levies were discussed, as well stormwater fees and employee parking as a taxable benefit. Typical parking facility financial costs were reviewed and best practices for structuring and implementing parking taxes to increase public acceptability were outlined. It was suggested that the tax base should be broad and well-defined. Local governments should increase parking prices to market rates before imposing special parking taxes, and taxes and fees should be structured to avoid undesirable land use. Parking tax reforms should be part of an overall parking and mobility management program. Stakeholders should be consulted to insure that regulations, administrative procedures and enforcement policies are efficient and fair. The establishment of an evaluation program to determine tax impacts on parking supply and pricing, economic activity, traffic and spillover problems was also recommended. 42 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  12. Simulating the impact of inflation on the progressivity of personal income tax in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Levy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Income tax reform in Brazil has mainly stressed changes in rates, aiming at increasing its progressivity. One aspect frequently overlooked is that, in the absence of adjustments of the tax rules to inflation, the level and distribution of the income tax burden can be substantially affected. We use a microsimulation model to simulate the potential revenue and distributive effects of inflation on the income tax in Brazil. Our findings suggest that if the income tax is not adjusted for inflation, progressivity would decrease but redistribution would increase due to a larger tax burden, but income inequality would not substantially change.

  13. Green taxes and uncertain timing of technological change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronsson, T.

    2001-01-01

    This paper concerns the role of environmental taxation in a model with endogenous technological change, where the latter implies that natural inputs become more productive. The timing of technological change is, in turn, uncertain and the likelihood of discovering the new technology is related to the amount of resources spent on R and D. The analysis is based on a dynamic general equilibrium model. One purpose of the paper is to design a policy so as to internalize the external effects arising from pollution and R and D. Another is to develop cost benefit rules for green tax reforms, when the initial equilibrium is suboptimal

  14. Preliminary design of steam reformer in out-pile demonstration test facility for HTTR heat utilization system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haga, Katsuhiro; Hino, Ryutaro; Inagaki, Yosiyuki; Hata, Kazuhiko; Aita, Hideki; Sekita, Kenji; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Sudo, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Yamada, Seiya

    1996-11-01

    One of the key objectives of HTTR is to demonstrate effectiveness of high-temperature nuclear heat utilization system. Prior to connecting a heat utilization system to HTTR, an out-pile demonstration test is indispensable for the development of experimental apparatuses, operational control and safety technology, and verification of the analysis code of safety assessment. For the first heat utilization system of HTTR, design of the hydrogen production system by steam reforming is going on. We have proposed the out-pile demonstration test plan of the heat utilization system and conducted preliminary design of the test facility. In this report, design of the steam reformer, which is the principal component of the test facility, is described. In the course of the design, two types of reformers are considered. The one reformer contains three reactor tubes and the other contains one reactor tube to reduce the construction cost of the test facility. We have selected the steam reformer operational conditions and structural specifications by analyzing the steam reforming characteristics and component structural strength for each type of reformer. (author)

  15. Design of the steam reformer for the HTR-10 high temperature process heat application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Huaiming; Xu Yuanhui; Jia Haijun

    2000-01-01

    The 10 MW High Temperature Reactor Test Module (HTR-10) is being constructed now and planned to be operational in 2000. One of the objectives is to develop the high temperature process heat application. The methane steam reformer is one of the key-facilities for the nuclear process heat application system. The paper describes the conceptual design of the HTR-10 Steam Reformer with He heating, and the design optimization computer code. It can be used to perform sensitivity analysis for parameters, and to improve the design. Principal parameters and construction features of the HTR-10 reformer heated by He are introduced. (author)

  16. Can capital income taxes survive? And should they?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    2007-01-01

    The article surveys some main results in the theory of capital income taxation in the open economy; reviews recent trends in international taxation and discusses alternative blueprints for fundamental capital income tax reform from the perspective of an open economy faced with growing mobility of...

  17. Work disincentive effects of taxes among Danish married men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Ebbe Krogh

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the labour supply for Danish married men and women are estimated, using the piecewise linear Hausman model approach to account for non-linearities in taxes. The model takes the joint decision of participation and hours into account as well as measurement errors and unobserved...... of a backward bending labour supply curve. The inclusion of nonparticipants in the estimations increases the labour supply elasticities considerably. Finally, we simulate the labour supply responses of a few recently proposed tax reforms, among these an earned-income-tax-credit (EITC)....

  18. Interbudgetary Distribution of Taxes in Russia: Concentration of Power or Management Decentralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aleksandrovna Pechenskaya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For Russia as a democratic federal state, federal relations are basic for the whole social development of the country. In this regard, it is particularly important to strike a balance between centripetal and centrifugal forces. The analysis of budget indicators presented in the article revealed the growing process of centralization, which enabled to conclude the low efficiency of the modern mechanism of tax allocation and its non-compliance to the principles of fiscal federalism. The growing budget crisis of the regions and the long-felt need of the structural reforming of Russian tax system require speedy implementation of internal reserves. Among these provisions, Russian scientists including the Institute of Socio-Economic Development of Territories of the Russian Academy of Sciences see the urgent need of the structural reform of the tax system in the Russian Federation. The results of the scientific search for answers to the questions of how and what it is expedient to amend, supplement, and delete in the Russian tax system are presented. In order to create incentives for the territorial authorities to increase the income, the algorithm of the distribution of tax revenue between the federal and regional budgets is developed on the basis of the estimations of the ratio of the volume of tax revenues collected in the region and received by the federal budget. Experimental calculations on the example of 83 subjects of the Russian Federation have identified the existing provisions of tax revenue growth in 36 subjects that could increase revenues by 2 –12 %. The authors have proposed a set of key measures for optimizing the tax incentive policies, involving the development of selective and differential principles of tax incentives, the introduction of compensatory forms of the loss of income as a result of benefits. The main measures to enhance the collection of regional and local property taxes are systematized.

  19. Problems and prospects of the development of the personal income tax in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaburova Dinara Vladimirovna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the personal income tax in Russia, its distinguishing features, advantages and disadvantages. Tax burden on wages in Russia is compared with the tax burden on wages in USA. The comparison is made by the parameters like the type of scale (progressive and proportional taxes, amount of contributions to the social funds and amount of deductions. As a result the conclusion is that the personal income tax in Russia needs the reformation. In a consequence of that formation, improvement of both social and demographic spheres can be achieved.

  20. A multilateral tax treaty : designing an instrument to modernise international tax law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuijsen, D.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this book, the author addresses the legal and political aspects of a multilateral tax treaty that fundamentally transforms the way states cooperate in the field of international taxation. Working from a normative and pragmatic view on international tax relations, he proposes a management-focused

  1. Final report of the National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission: will we get the health care governance reform we need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoelwinder, Johannes U

    2009-10-05

    The National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission (NHHRC) has recommended that Australia develop a "single health system", governed by the federal government. Steps to achieving this include: a "Healthy Australia Accord" to agree on the reform framework; the progressive takeover of funding of public hospitals by the federal government; and the possible implementation of a consumer-choice health funding model, called "Medicare Select". These proposals face significant implementation issues, and the final solution needs to deal with both financial and political sustainability. If the federal and state governments cannot agree on a reform plan, the Prime Minister may need to go to the electorate for a mandate, which may be shaped by other economic issues such as tax reform and intergenerational challenges.

  2. Environmental Fiscal Reform and the Double Dividend: Evidence from a Dynamic General Equilibrium Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Freire-González

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An environmental fiscal reform (EFR represents a transition of a taxation system toward one based in environmental taxation, rather than on taxation of capital, labor, or consumption. It differs from an environmental tax reform (ETR in that an EFR also includes a reform of subsidies which counteract environmental policy. This research details different ways in which an EFR is not only possible but also a good option that provides economic and environmental benefits. We have developed a detailed dynamic CGE model examining 101 industries and commodities in Spain, with an energy and an environmental extension comprising 31 pollutant emissions, in order to simulate the economic and environmental effects of an EFR. The reform focuses on 39 industries related to the energy, water, transport and waste sectors. We simulate an increase in taxes and a reduction on subsidies for these industries and at the same time we use new revenues to reduce labor, capital and consumption taxes. All revenue recycling options provide both economic and environmental benefits, suggesting that the “double dividend” hypothesis can be achieved. After three to four years after implementing an EFR, GDP is higher than the base case, hydrocarbons consumption declines and all analyzed pollutants show a reduction.

  3. he Distributional Impact Of A Carbon Tax Policy In Indonesia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Laos, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines ... Environmental Policy: The Case of Carbon Tax and Energy Pricing Reform in Indonesia", by Dr. Arief ... i.e., the burden is borne more by lower income .... privileged members of society.

  4. Canada’s 2010 Tax Competitiveness Ranking: Moving to the Average but Biased Against Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duanjie Chen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available For the first time since 1975 (the year Canada’s marginal effective tax rates were first measured, Canada has become the most tax-competitive country among G-7 states with respect to taxation of capital investment. Even more remarkably, Canada accomplished this feat within a mere six years, having previously been the least taxcompetitive G-7 member. Even in comparison to strongly growing emerging economies, Canada’s 2010 marginal effective tax rate on capital is still above average. The planned reductions in federal and provincial corporate taxes by 2013 will reduce Canada’s effective tax rate on new investments to 18.4 percent, below the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD 2010 average and close to the average of the 50 non-OECD countries studied. This remarkable change in Canada’s tax competitiveness must be maintained in the coming years, as countries are continually reducing their business taxation despite the recent fiscal pressures arising from the 2008-9 downturn in the world economy. Many countries have forged ahead with significant reforms designed to increase tax competitiveness and improve tax neutrality including Greece, Israel, Japan, New Zealand, Taiwan and the United Kingdom. The continuing bias in Canada’s corporate income tax structure favouring manufacturing and processing business warrants close scrutiny. Measured by the difference between the marginal effective tax rate on capital between manufacturing and the broad range of service sectors, Canada has the greatest gap in tax burdens between manufacturing and services among OECD countries. Surprisingly, preferential tax treatment (such as fast write-off and investment tax credits favouring only manufacturing and processing activities has become the norm in Canada, although it does not exist in most developed economies.

  5. Taxation and distribution of income in Brazil: new evidence from personal income tax data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SÉRGIO WULFF GOBETTI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT able This paper presents a critical analysis of income and profit taxes in Brazil, arguing that measures adopted in the 1980s and 1990s, as a result of mainstream recommendations, hindered the redistributive role of taxes. An examination of tax data reveals a high degree of top income concentration, low tax progressivity and violations of the principles of horizontal and vertical equity. The main reason for these distortions is the complete tax exemption of dividends, a benefit that is very rarely seen in developed countries. We propose a return to a progressivity-focused tax reform plan, a theme that has returned as a focus of debates with (Piketty, 2014.

  6. Capping the tax exclusion for employment-based health coverage: implications for employers and workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronstin, Paul

    2009-01-01

    HEALTH CARE TAX CAP: With health reform a major priority of the new 111th Congress and President Barack Obama, this Issue Briefexamines the administrative and implementation issues that arise from one of the major reform proposals: Capping the exclusion of employment-based health coverage from workers' taxable income. The amount that employers contribute toward workers' health coverage is generally excluded, without limit, from workers' taxable income. In addition, workers whose employers sponsor flexible spending accounts are able to pay out-of-pocket expenses with pretax dollars. Employers can also make available a premium conversion arrangement, which allows workers to pay their share of the premium for employment-based coverage with pretax dollars. In 2005, a presidential advisory board concluded that limiting the amount of tax-preferred health coverage could lower overall private-sector health spending. The panel recommended a cap on the amount of employment-based health coverage individuals can exclude from their income tax, as a way to reduce health spending. In his 2008 "Call to Action" for health care reform, Sen. Max Baucus (D-MT), chairman of the Senate Finance Committee, states that "Congress should explore ways to restructure the current tax incentives to encourage more efficient spending on health and to target our tax dollars more effectively and fairly." While a tax cap on health coverage sounds simple, for many employers, it could be difficult to administer and results would vary by employer based on the type of health benefit plan, the size and demographics of their work force, and even where the workers live. The change would be especially difficult for self-insured employers that do not pay insurance premiums, since they would have to set the "premium equivalent" for each worker. This would not only be costly for employers, depending upon the requirements set out by law, but could also create fairness and tax issues for many affected workers

  7. The State of Connecticut: The Report of the Governor's Commission on Tax Reform. Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governor's Commission on Tax Reform, Hartford, CT.

    The Commission evaluated a wide variety of alternative tax sources and examined the existing structure in Connecticut. It specifically evaluated inequities resulting from Connecticut taxes as they affect various classes of citizens and examined the impact of the Connecticut tax structure on business with a view to encouraging economic expansion.…

  8. Tax and green transport plans: a survey of UK experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, S.; Smith, M.; Rye, T.

    1999-01-01

    The widespread adoption of Green Transport Plans (GTPs) by employer has become an important aim of the UK government transport policy as it tries to find ways of reducing transport demand. However, the tax treatment of employee benefits that form part of many GTPs has been identified by the government and others as a potential barrier to their adoption. Based on telephone interviews with employers and meetings with tax and transport experts, this paper confirms this perception. It also explains precisely how tax forms a barrier to GTP implementation, reviews the approaches taken to this problem in three other countries and makes outline proposals for reform and further research. (Author)

  9. The birth of tax as a legal discipline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribnau, Hans; Vording, H.

    2017-01-01

    Adam Smith’s taxation maxims found fertile ground in the Netherlands in the early nineteenth century—a time of national tax reform. But as the century drew to an end, progressive liberal thinking parted from its British inspiration. John Stuart Mill’s ‘equality of sacrifice’ was rejected by Nicolaas

  10. A flat tax reform in an economy with occupational choice and financial frictions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boháček, R.; Zubrický, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 565 (2012), s. 1313-1345 ISSN 0013-0133 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : dynamic optimal tax ation * income tax ation * entrepreneurship Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.118, year: 2012

  11. The effect of the German and British environmental taxation reforms. A simple assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnolucci, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    This article implements a simple econometric approach to assess the effect of the environmental tax reforms introduced in Germany and the UK. Despite the very simple econometric approach adopted in this paper, in the case of the energy demand, our results do not differ markedly from those obtained from complicated multi-sectoral econometric models. In the case of the labour demand, our results differ from the estimates obtained from econometric models where the employment level is not directly influenced by the energy price. On the other hand, our results are more similar to those obtained from models where the level of employment is directly influenced by the energy price. Confirming the findings of Bosquet [2000. Environmental tax reform: does it work? A survey of the empirical evidence. Ecological Economics 34, 19-32] and OECD [2004. Environment and Employment: An Assessment Working Party on National Environmental Policy OECD, Paris], we conclude that environmental tax reforms can deliver substantial reductions in energy consumption while having small effects on the level of employment, effect which can be positive, depending on the size of the reduction in the labour costs and the value of cross-price elasticities. (author)

  12. The effect of the German and British environmental taxation reforms. A simple assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnolucci, Paolo [The Cambridge Centre for Climate Change Mitigation Research, Department of Land Economy, Cambridge University, 19 Silver Street, Cambridge CB3 9EP (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-15

    This article implements a simple econometric approach to assess the effect of the environmental tax reforms introduced in Germany and the UK. Despite the very simple econometric approach adopted in this paper, in the case of the energy demand, our results do not differ markedly from those obtained from complicated multi-sectoral econometric models. In the case of the labour demand, our results differ from the estimates obtained from econometric models where the employment level is not directly influenced by the energy price. On the other hand, our results are more similar to those obtained from models where the level of employment is directly influenced by the energy price. Confirming the findings of Bosquet [2000. Environmental tax reform: does it work? A survey of the empirical evidence. Ecological Economics 34, 19-32] and OECD [2004. Environment and Employment: An Assessment Working Party on National Environmental Policy OECD, Paris], we conclude that environmental tax reforms can deliver substantial reductions in energy consumption while having small effects on the level of employment, effect which can be positive, depending on the size of the reduction in the labour costs and the value of cross-price elasticities. (author)

  13. The Spanish tobacco tax loopholes and their consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Nicolás, Ángel; Cobacho, María Belén; Fernández, Esteve

    2013-05-01

    The Spanish government has strengthened tobacco control policies since 2005, including changes in tobacco taxes. Because these changes have targeted cigarettes mainly, the tobacco industry has marketed cheaper alternative tobacco products, offering smokers the possibility to downtrade. This paper traces the evolution of patterns of demand for cigarettes and other tobacco products in Spain over the period 2005-2011 in order to assess the impact of such tax loopholes. The authors use data on tobacco products prices and sales as well as changes in the structure and levels of tobacco taxes to relate tax changes to price changes and subsequent market share changes. Tax reforms have lifted the bottom end of the cigarette price distribution, but the industry has been successful in marketing fine-cut tobacco at cheap prices. There have been partial attempts to correct this asymmetric tax treatment, but these have not avoided a remarkable increase in the market share of fine-cut tobacco. The absence of a minimum tax on quantity for the rest of tobacco products allows the industry to place them as potential future downtrading vehicles. In order to address public health objectives, tax policies should aim to equalise the cost of smoking across different tobacco products. Otherwise the tobacco industry can exploit tax loopholes to market cheap alternatives to cigarettes. This requires all tobacco products to bear a minimum tax on quantity, whose levels need to be adjusted in order to reflect the equivalence between different forms of smoking.

  14. Safety concerns and suggested design approaches to the HTGR Reformer process concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, R.C.

    1981-09-01

    This report is a safety review of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer Application Study prepared by Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates (GCRA) of La Jolla, California. The objective of this review was to identify safety concerns and suggests design approaches to minimize risk in the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer (HTGR-R) process concept.

  15. Safety concerns and suggested design approaches to the HTGR Reformer process concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, R.C.

    1981-09-01

    This report is a safety review of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer Application Study prepared by Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates (GCRA) of La Jolla, California. The objective of this review was to identify safety concerns and suggests design approaches to minimize risk in the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer (HTGR-R) process concept

  16. History and social responses to environmental tax reform in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, Simon; Jackson, Tim; Gilbert, Nigel

    2006-01-01

    This paper gives a short history of fuel taxation and the Climate Change Levy in the UK. The research described was based around the use of interviews and focus groups to inform the assessment of social responses to ETR policies and the development of improved designs for them. Interviews were conducted with selected policy makers and companies. Focus groups were conducted with quota samples of the general public. The research shows that the problem that ETR faces in terms of public acceptance is not so much outright hostility to environmental taxation as conceptual problems with the design. Similar conceptual problems were also found in the interviews with business people. These can be summarised as lack of trust about use of the revenues, difficulty in understanding the purpose of a tax shift and a desire for incentives for good behaviour as well as perceived 'penalties' for bad behaviour

  17. Determinants of Attitude toward Proposed Good and Services Tax among Business Communities in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Bidin, Zainol; Marimuthu, Munusamy; Derashid, Chek; Idris, Kamil Md; Ahmad, Norsiah

    2016-01-01

    Goods and Services Tax (GST) is an indirect tax reform. The decision to implement GST was made on 1 April 2015. The Malaysian business communities are concerned that Goods and Service Tax (GST) would affect their business. In order to comply with the new system, GST, Malaysian citizen need to have a positive attitude toward the GST. The rational is that taxpayers need to be positive in attitude for voluntarily compliance. By determining what factors could possibly influence attitude towards ...

  18. METHOD OF TAX AUDIT OF CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF TAXPAYERS BY STATE FISCAL SERVICE OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohdan Kostiuk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tax audit is an important part of tax control. It’s aimed to control the observance of tax legislation on taxes and fees. The purpose of the research is to generalize the method of performance of tax audits of individual taxpayers by State Fiscal Service of Ukraine. The subject of research is the methods of audit by State Fiscal Service of Ukraine. Methods. It was used general and specific methods of research, including: analysis and synthesis, system and process approaches, induction and deduction, etc. Results. The problem of tax auditing process in Ukraine is the absence of integrated and systematic approach for its implementation. Unfortunately, the practice of the tax audit is not yet examined clearly. Today the basic principles of tax audit are considered by the scientists only in theory. Apart from the existence of guidelines on verification of a particular type of taxes, other obligatory payments that are designed fiscal service, the formation of evidence, procedure for using certain methods and techniques for auditing, information sources are ignored legislators and scientists. Apart from the existence of guidelines on verification of a particular type of taxes, other obligatory payments which are designed by fiscal service, the formation of evidence base, procedure of usage of certain methods and techniques for audit, information sources and other issues are ignored by legislators and scientists. Despite this, today the tax audit is a tool to fully examine and reduce the tax risks of the organization. Another problem of tax audit is that legislation doesn’t fix the notion of tax audit so there is no exact interpretation of it. Tax audit engages more efficient flow of taxes and fees to the state budget. Although there is increase of the efficiency of the national tax auditing mechanism now, but there are some problems which need be resolved in order to ensure rational tax revenues in the budget under the present conditions of socio

  19. The two-child limit for Universal Credit and Child Tax Credit

    OpenAIRE

    MACHIN, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Richard Machin explores the background to, and likely impact of, the two-child limit on the child element in Universal Credit and the Child Tax Credit, which was introduced by the Welfare Reform and Work Act 2016

  20. Education Tax Credits: Refundability Critical to Making Credits Helpful to Low-Income Students and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Katherine; Lower-Basch, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Half of all non-loan federal student aid is now offered as tax benefits for educational costs in the form of credits, deductions, and college savings accounts. These benefits help students and families offset the costs of their postsecondary education with tax savings. Yet, as explained in the 2013 report, "Reforming Student Aid: How to…

  1. The Role of Designated Driver Programs in the Prevention of Alcohol-Impaired Driving: A Critical Reassessment [and] Designated Driver Programs: A Commentary on the DeJong and Wallack Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, William; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Focus on the designated driver strategy by broadcasters and the alcohol industry deflects attention from other alcohol-related problems and the factors influencing underage alcohol consumption. Strategies should emphasize sobriety checkpoints, no sales to minors, advertising reform, and excise taxes on alcohol. (SK)

  2. Tuition Tax Credits. Issuegram 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augenblick, John; McGuire, Kent

    Approaches for using the federal income tax system to aid families of pupils attending private schools include: tax credits, tax deductions, tax deferrals, and education savings incentives. Tax credit structures can be made refundable and made sensitive to taxpayers' income levels, the level of education expenditures, and designated costs.…

  3. A flat tax reform in an economy with occupational choice and financial frictions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boháček, Radim; Zubrický, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 565 (2012), s. 1313-1345 ISSN 0013-0133 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA700850602 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : dynamic optimal tax ation * income tax ation * entrepreneurship Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.118, year: 2012

  4. 26 CFR 54.4981A-1T - Tax on excess distributions and excess accumulations (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Revenue Code of 1986, as added by section 1133 of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (Pub. L. 99-514) (TRA '86...) Determine the value of the individual's adjusted account balance on the next valuation date by adding (or... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax on excess distributions and excess...

  5. Taxing carbon in fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Rob

    2000-01-01

    It is argued that both the Climate Change Levy and the fuel duty tax are outdated even before they are implemented. Apparently, the real problems are not in the bringing of road fuels into the scope of the Climate Change Levy but in introducing reforms to improve integration of greenhouse gases and taxation. Both fuel duty and the Levy are aimed at maximising efficiency and reducing air pollution. The system as it stands does not take into account the development of a market where the management and trading of carbon and greenhouse gases may jeopardise the competitiveness of UK businesses. It is argued that an overhaul of climate and emissions-related law is necessary. The paper is presented under the sub-headings of (i) a fixation on energy; (ii) no focus on CO 2 ; (iii) carbon markets - beyond the levy and (iv) tax structure. (UK)

  6. System design study of a membrane reforming hydrogen production plant using a small sized sodium cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikazawa, Y.; Konomura, M.; Hori, T.; Sato, H.; Uchida, S.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a membrane reforming hydrogen production plant using a small sized sodium cooled reactor was designed as one of promising concepts. In the membrane reformer, methane and steam are reformed into carbon dioxide and hydrogen with sodium heat at a temperature 500 deg-C. In the equilibrium condition, steam reforming proceeds with catalyst at a temperature more than 800 deg-C. Using membrane reformers, the steam reforming temperature can be decreased from 800 to 500 deg-C because the hydrogen separation membrane removes hydrogen selectively from catalyst area and the partial pressure of hydrogen is kept much lower than equilibrium condition. In this study, a hydrogen and electric co-production plant has been designed. The reactor thermal output is 375 MW and 25% of the thermal output is used for hydrogen production (70000 Nm 3 /h). The hydrogen production cost is estimated to 21 yen/Nm 3 but it is still higher than the economical goal (17 yen/Nm 3 ). The major reason of the high cost comes from the large size of hydrogen separation reformers because of the limit of hydrogen separation efficiency of palladium membrane. A new highly efficient hydrogen separation membrane is needed to reduce the cost of hydrogen production using membrane reformers. There is possibility of multi-tube failure in the membrane reformers. In future study, a design of measures against tube failure and elemental experiments of reaction between sodium and reforming gas will be needed. (authors)

  7. A multilateral tax treaty: designing an instrument to modernise international tax law

    OpenAIRE

    Broekhuijsen, D.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this book, the author addresses the legal and political aspects of a multilateral tax treaty that fundamentally transforms the way states cooperate in the field of international taxation. Working from a normative and pragmatic view on international tax relations, he proposes a management-focused approach to multilateral cooperation in international taxation. The resulting managerial framework treaty is drawn up on the basis of insights from political science and legal philosophy and is ill...

  8. Energy subsidies: lessons learned in assessing their impact and designing policy reforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moltke, A. von; McKee, C.; Morgan, T.

    2004-02-01

    This book, which is based on the work carried out by the International Energy Agency and UNEP, explores the potential impacts of energy subsidies and provides guidelines for policy makers on how to implement reform of energy subsides. The background on energy subsidies is traced and an analytical framework is presented covering defining and measuring energy subsidies, the size of the subsidies, and analysis of the impact of subsidies and their reform. Energy subsidies in OECD countries, Czech and Slovak Republics, Russia, India, Indonesia, Korea, Iran and Senegal are examined along with the impact of removing energy subsidies in Chile, the findings of country case studies, and the design and implementation of energy subsidies reforms. Methodological approaches to analysing the economic, environmental and social effects of energy subsidy reform are considered in the Annex

  9. Designing Efficient College and Tax Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Findeisen, Sebastian; Sachs, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    The total social benefits of college education exceed the private benefits because the government receives a share of the monetary returns in the form of income taxes. We study the policy implications of this fiscal externality in an optimal dynamic tax framework. Using a variational approach we derive a formula for the revenue effect of an increase in college education subsidies and for the excess burden of income taxation caused by the college margin. We also show how the optimal nonlinear ...

  10. Will carbon motivated border tax adjustments function as a threat?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Aijun; Zhang Aizhen

    2012-01-01

    Due to large incremental carbon emissions, China might become an important target country of CBTA (carbon motivated border tax adjustments). To levy CBTA could reduce China’s emissions. Meanwhile, China’s emissions reduction could also be achieved by China’s climate policies (termed as CBTA-emissions-equivalent policies). This paper contributes to the discussion on CBTA by comparing the potential regional effects of CBTA and CBTA-emissions-equivalent policies. The main findings are as follows: (1) CBTA and CBTA-emissions-equivalent policies would result in relocations of outputs across regions and countries, affect the structure of economy and contribute to world’s emissions reduction. (2) There would be significant differences in the regional effects between CBTA and CBTA-emissions-equivalent policies. (3) Compared to carbon tax, CBTA would be a costly and inefficient policy instrument to reduce emissions, but could function as an effective coercion strategy. (4) These policies would result in competitiveness issue and rebound effects, wherein different countries would be affected differently. China is a large economy and energy consumer with high openness to international trade. Looking ahead, the Chinese government should consider the potential interactions between China and other economies when designing tax reforms. - Highlights: ►We compare regional effects of CBTA (carbon motivated border tax adjustments) and CBTA-emissions-equivalent policies. ► We explore the interactions between China and other economies. ► We investigate the potential international externalities and their effects across countries.

  11. Deciding on Tax Evasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse everyday reasoning in public administration. This is done by focusing on front line tax inspectors’ decisions about tax evasion. Design/methodology/approach – The paper presents ethnography of bureaucracy and field audits. The material stems from...... fieldwork conducted in the Central Customs and Tax Administration. Findings – The paper shows that the tax inspectors reason about tax evasion in a casuistic manner. They pay attention to similar cases and to particular circumstances of the individual cases. In deciding on tax evasion, the inspectors do...

  12. Taxman vs Pacquiao hits need for Philippines reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juego, Bonn

    2013-01-01

    'Business in Asia Today' Filipino boxing icon Manny Pacquiao's latest contest pitches him against the country's tax commissioner, Kim Henares, who has entered the ring with a US$50 million payment demand. The dispute sheds light on much deeper issues and the need for economic reform in the Philip...

  13. Tax Policy in a Model of Search with Training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; de Mooij, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper develops a model of search on the labour market with training. The model reveals how the tax system can restore the social optimum if the Hosios condition is not satisfied in the private equilibrium. Furthermore, the effects are explored of a second-best reform from average to marginal

  14. Income tax consequences of individuals for income citizens in modern Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiran Suvdaa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Government of Mongolia has a policy to improve the standard of living and employment, as well as to increase employment at the macroeconomic level. In today's world, the personal income tax is an instrument of regulation of family and personal consumption, savings, employment, marriage, and population growth, as well as the redistribution of income. Over the last 20 years, the country's membership in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD for creation of a safe environment increase investments and carry out tax reform in order to maintain employment and financial competition. The author considers the practice of income tax in different countries and examines the practice of the personal income tax in Mongolia, identifies problem areas and suggests solutions. Also, there are assessed the objectives of the Government of Mongolia to the changes in the tax on personal income

  15. Profit shifting and 'aggressive' tax planning by multinational firms: Issues and options for reform

    OpenAIRE

    Fuest, Clemens; Spengel, Christoph; Finke, Katharina; Heckemeyer, Jost; Nusser, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the issue of profit shifting and ‘aggressive’ tax planning by multinational firms. The paper makes two contributions. Firstly, we provide some background information to the debate by giving a brief overview over existing empirical studies on profit shifting and by describing arrangements for IP-based profit shifting which are used by the companies currently accused of avoiding taxes. We then show that preventing this type of tax avoidance is, in principle, straightforward...

  16. Tax Administration Systems and Tax Consciousness of Income Tax and Consumption Tax

    OpenAIRE

    横山, 直子

    2015-01-01

    Tax compliance costs of consumption tax are relatively high. Tax compliance costs for self-assessment taxpayers are high, and for withholding income taxpayers, the compliance costs are small. That is to say, characteristics of tax compliance costs for income tax and consumption tax are various. And also characteristics of tax consciousness for income tax and consumption tax are many and various. The features of this paper are to clarify characteristics of tax compliance costs and tax consciou...

  17. Carbon Taxes and Joint Implementation. An Applied General Equilibrium Analysis for Germany and India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehringer, C.; Loeschel, A. [Centre for European Economic Research ZEW, Mannheim (Germany); Conrad, K. [Department of Economics, Mannheim University, Mannheim (Germany)

    2003-01-01

    Germany has committed itself to reducing its carbon emissions by 25% in 2005 as compared to 1990 emission levels. To achieve this goal, the government has recently launched an environmental tax reform which entails a continuous increase in energy taxes in conjunction with a revenue-neutral cut in non-wage labor costs. This policy is supposed to yield a double dividend, reducing both, the problem of global warming and high unemployment rates. In addition to domestic actions, international treaties on climate protection allow for the supplementary use of flexible instruments to exploit cheaper emission reduction possibilities elsewhere. One concrete option for Germany would be to enter joint implementation (JI) with developing countries such as India where Germany pays emission reduction abroad rather than meeting its reduction target solely by domestic action. In this paper, we investigate whether an environmental tax reform cum JI provides employment and overall efficiency gains as compared to an environmental tax reform stand-alone. We address this question in the framework of a large-scale general equilibrium model for Germany and India where Germany may undertake JI with the Indian electricity sector. Our main finding is that JI offsets largely the adverse effects of carbon emission constraints on the German economy. JI significantly lowers the level of carbon taxes and thus reduces the total costs of abatement as well as negative effects on labor demand. In addition, JI triggers direct investment demand for energy efficient power plants produced in Germany. This provides positive employment effects and additional income for Germany. For India, joint implementation equips its electricity industry with scarce capital goods leading to a more efficient power production with lower electricity prices for the economy and substantial welfare gains.

  18. Design of a steam reforming system to be connected to the HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hada, K.; Nishihara, T.; Shibata, T.; Shiozawa, S.

    1996-01-01

    Top priority objective for developing the first heat utilization system to be connected to the HTTR is to demonstrate technical feasibility of a nuclear process heat utilization system for production of hydrogen for the first time in the world. Major issues to be resolved for coupling the heat utilization system to the HTTR are 1)to develop safety philosophy for reasonably and reliably ensuring safety of the nuclear reactor, 2)to develop control design concept for the total system of the nuclear reactor and heat utilization system because thermal dynamics of endothermic chemical reactor to be heated by nuclear heat is much different from the nuclear reactor, 3)to develop helium-heated components and 4)to develop enhanced hydrogen production technologies for achieving competitiveness to a fossil-fired plant. A steam reforming hydrogen production system was studied as one of the first priority candidates for an HTTR-heat utilization system due to matured technology in fossil-fired plants and since technical solutions demonstrated by the coupling of the steam reforming system to the HTTR will contribute to all other hydrogen production systems. Basic design philosophy for the HTTR-steam reforming system is that the steam reforming plant downstream of an intermediate secondary helium loop is designed at the same safety level as fossil-fired plants and therefore the secondary helium loop was selected as a safety barrier to the HTTR nuclear reactor. (J.P.N.)

  19. Tax Revenue in Sub-Saharan Africa; Effects of Economic Policies and Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Dhaneshwar Ghura

    1998-01-01

    An analysis of data for 39 sub-Saharan African countries during 1985–96 indicates that the variations in tax revenue-GDP ratios within this group are influenced by economic policies and the level of corruption. Namely, these ratios rise with declining inflation, implementation of structural reforms, rising human capital (a proxy for the provision of public services by the government), and declining corruption. The paper confirms that the tax revenue ratio rises with income, and that elements ...

  20. Green fiscal reform and employment. A survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majocchi, A.

    1996-01-01

    In the European debate an increase in employment is generally regarded as an important extra-dividend - in addition to improved environmental quality - from environmental taxes. The scope of this paper is to evaluate, going through the existing empirical literature, if - and to what degree - this result could be achieved through a green fiscal reform. A further goal of this paper is to assess which taxes are more efficient in terms of employment-creation when they are utilized for recycling back to the economy the revenue flowing from environmental taxes. This kind of exercise is largely different from the theoretical analysis of the double dividend issue. A large quantity of literature has grown during the recent years according to this approach, but this version of the double dividend theory will be disregarded in this paper. 8 tabs., 38 refs

  1. The Danish Pesticide Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Branth; Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2015-01-01

    pesticide taxes on agriculture, which makes it interesting to analyze how effective they have been. Here the effects of the ad valorem tax (1996-2013) are analyzed. The case study demonstrates the challenges of choosing an optimal tax design in a complex political setting where, additionally, not all...

  2. Investor Valuations of Japan's Adoption of a Territorial Tax Regime: Quantifying the Direct and Competitive Effects of International Tax Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Estelle P. Dauchy; Sebastien Bradley; Makoto Hasegawa

    2014-01-01

    Despite an extensive literature on the normative implications of different international tax regimes and an empirical literature addressing individual specific predictions, there exists little evidence encompassing the broad range of effects of taxing corporations' foreign-source income on a worldwide or territorial basis. This paper takes a more comprehensive quantitative approach by examining stock market reactions surrounding three events over the course of which Japan's 2009 adoption of a...

  3. The relationship between alcohol taxes and binge drinking: evaluating new tax measures incorporating multiple tax and beverage types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Ziming; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Blanchette, Jason G.; Nguyen, Thien H.; Heeren, Timothy C.; Nelson, Toben F.; Naimi, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    Aims U.S. studies contribute heavily to the literature about the tax elasticity of demand for alcohol, and most U.S. studies have relied upon specific excise (volume-based) taxes for beer as a proxy for alcohol taxes. The purpose of this paper was to compare this conventional alcohol tax measure with more comprehensive tax measures (incorporating multiple tax and beverage types) in analyses of the relationship between alcohol taxes and adult binge drinking prevalence in U.S. states. Design Data on U.S. state excise, ad valorem and sales taxes from 2001 to 2010 were obtained from the Alcohol Policy Information System and other sources. For 510 state-year strata, we developed a series of weighted tax-per-drink measures that incorporated various combinations of tax and beverage types, and related these measures to state-level adult binge drinking prevalence data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys. Findings In analyses pooled across all years, models using the combined tax measure explained approximately 20% of state binge drinking prevalence, and documented more negative tax elasticity (−0.09, P=0.02 versus −0.005, P=0.63) and price elasticity (−1.40, Ptax. In analyses stratified by year, the R-squares for models using the beer combined tax measure were stable across the study period (P=0.11), while the R-squares for models rely only on volume-based tax declined (Ptax measures, combined tax measures (i.e. those incorporating volume-based tax and value-based taxes) yield substantial improvement in model fit and find more negative tax elasticity and price elasticity predicting adult binge drinking prevalence in U.S. states. PMID:25428795

  4. Carbon tax effects on the poor: a SAM-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa, Joana; Ortega, Araceli

    2017-09-01

    A SAM-based price model for Mexico is developed in order to assess the effects of the carbon tax, which was part of the fiscal reform approved in 2014. The model is formulated based on a social accounting matrix (SAM) that distinguishes households by the official poverty condition and geographical area. The main results are that the sector that includes coke, refined petroleum and nuclear fuel shows the highest price increase due to the direct impact of the carbon tax; in addition, air transport and inland transport are the most affected sectors, in an indirect manner, because both employ inputs from the former sector. Also, it is found that welfare diminishes more in the rural strata than in the urban one. In the urban area, the carbon tax is regressive: the negative impact of carbon tax on family welfare is greater on the poorest families.

  5. TAX AMNESTY : SEBUAH HARAPAN TERHADAP CAPITAL INFLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanik Sisharini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Taxation policy reforms has been done by the government with the issuance of Law No. 11 year 2016 about Tax Amnesty. The background of the issuance of this law : a there is still treasure the community both in the country and foreign who have not yet fully reported in the Annual Tax Income, b to increase state revenues and economic growth as well as awareness and compliance community in the implementation of tax obligations . Although the government wants tax amnesty� to secure tax revenue, but in general they wants it for the repatriation of capital. The goal is to increase the liquidity is getting tighter, so eventually bank deposits can be cheaper, bank lending rates fell and investment will� increase. In addition, the quality of economic growth will increase by decreasing of unemployment, inequality, and poverty. To obtain a Tax Amnesty, the tax payer must disclose truthfully how the property owned which have not paid or partially paid taxes in the Letter of Statement and pay the ransom that provisions stipulated in the Act, and not subject to administrative sanctions taxation and criminal sanctions in the area of taxation. The ransom money to be paid in full to the state treasury through the Bank Perception (Bank elected to hold funds Tax Amnesty. Institution Tax Amnesty container fund is 19 Banks, 19 securities firms, and 18 of the Investment Manager. Tax payers who intend to bring �funds owned to Indonesian territory, at least to invest of 3 years commencing from the funds transferred by the tax payer to the Special Account through the Bank Perception. Investment instruments include in the form of government securities of the Republic of Indonesia, the bonds of State BUMN, bond financing institution owned by the government, financial investments in the Bank's perception, bonds private companies whose trade is supervised by the Financial Services Authority, infrastructure investment through government cooperation with corporate

  6. Family labor supply and proposed tax reforms in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, A.H.O.; Das, J.W.M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a discrete choice static neo-classical labor supply model for married or cohabiting couples in the Netherlands. The model simultaneously explains the participation decision and the desired number of hours worked. Due to its discrete nature, institutional details of the tax system

  7. Win-Win transportation solutions price reforms with multiple benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litman, T.

    2001-01-01

    Reform strategies in the transportation market, such as the Win-Win Transportation Solutions, can provide several economic, social and environmental benefits. The strategies are cost effective, technically feasible reforms based on market principles which help create a more equitable and efficient transportation system that supports sustainable economic development. The benefits they provide include reduced traffic congestion, road and parking facility savings, consumer savings, equity, safety and environmental protection. They also increase economic productivity. If fully implemented, they could reduce motor vehicle impacts by 15 to 30 per cent and could help achieve the Kyoto emission reduction targets. Examples of Win-Win strategies at the federal level include: (1) removal of subsidies to oil production and internalized costs, and (2) tax exempt employer provided transfer benefits. Examples of Win-Win strategies at the state/provincial level include: (1) distance-based vehicle insurance and registration fees, (2) least-coast transportation planning and funding, (3) revenue-neutral tax shifting, (4) road pricing, (5) reform motor carrier regulations for competition and efficiency, (6) local and regional transportation demand management programs, (7) more efficient land use, (8) more flexible zoning requirements, (9) parking cash out, (10) transportation management associations, (11) location-efficient housing and mortgages, (12) school and campus trip management, (13) car sharing, (14) non-motorized transport improvements, and (15) traffic calming. It was noted that any market reform that leads to more efficient use of existing transportation systems can provide better economic development benefits. 9 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  8. Tax subsidization of personal assistance services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, Steven; Myhill, William N; Morris, Michael

    2012-04-01

    Personal assistance services (PAS) is the term used to describe the range of assistance, services, and supports many people with disabilities and older Americans need to remain in their homes and communities. The Americans with Disabilities Act requires that people with disabilities receive essential services in the communities of their choice rather than in institutional settings. PAS availability often determines whether persons with disabilities become institutionalized or remain in their communities. PAS, however, are not inexpensive or broadly available. Strategies are needed to improve their availability to people with disabilities and the elderly. We sought to analyze 8 provisions of the Internal Revenue Code for their utility to make PAS more affordable and available. The authors conducted a legal analysis of 8 statutory provisions, as interpreted by regulations, court decisions, and other authoritative sources. Each of the tax provisions analyzed covers some PAS expenses incurred by an individual or family. Favorable tax treatment is impacted by the nature and amount of expenses and by the location and conditions of services. The current limitations and complexities of legal interpretations and the fact that many individuals with disabilities are uninformed about these tax provisions present challenges and opportunities. As the need for PAS grows, reform of tax policy is an important complement to health care and long-term services and supports for people with disabilities. To increase utilization of current beneficial tax provisions that subsidize the cost of PAS, individuals with disabilities and tax preparers must become better informed about using these provisions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 1977 guidebook to California taxes with special emphasis on relationship to Federal taxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, R.S.

    1977-01-01

    This book is designed to be a quick reference work on California State taxes. With this in mind, the amount of detail is kept to a minimum by assuming that the reader has some knowledge of Federal taxes that are generally similar to the major California taxes (or that he has access to the wealth of information about Federal taxes that is readily available). The book explains the four major California taxes (personal income tax, tax on corporate income, inheritance tax, and gift tax), whenever possible, in terms of the comparable Federal taxes. Differences between the two laws are pointed out, and cross-references make it possible to trace from a given provision in one law to a comparable provision in the other. Special attention is given to subjects peculiar to the California law. In addition to the major State taxes, the book provides general information about other taxes levied by the State. Property taxes are also discussed briefly, because of their statewide impact, although they are imposed by local governmental units.

  10. Hydrocarbon reforming catalysts and new reactor designs for compact hydrogen generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, A.; Schwab, E.; Urtel, H. [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Farrauto, R. [BASF Catalysts LLC, Iselin, NJ (United States)

    2010-12-30

    A hydrogen based future energy scenario will use fuel cells for the conversion of chemically stored energy into electricity. Depending upon the type of fuel cell, different specifications will apply for the feedstock which is converted in the cell, ranging from very clean hydrogen for PEM-FC's to desulfurized methane for SOFC and MCFC technology. For the foreseeable future, hydrogen will be supplied by conventional reforming, however operated in compact and dynamic reformer designs. This requires that known catalyst formulations are offered in specific geometries, giving flexibility for novel reactor design options. These specific geometries can be special tablet shapes as well as monolith structures. Finally, also nonhydrocarbon feedstock might be used in special applications, e.g. bio-based methanol and ethanol. BASF offers catalysts for the full process chain starting from feedstock desulfurization via reforming, high temperature shift, low temperature shift to CO fine polishing either via selective oxidation or selective methanation. Depending upon the customer's design, most stages can be served either with precious metal based monolith solutions or base metal tablet solutions. For the former, we have taken the automobile catalyst monolith support and extended its application to the fuel cell hydrogen generation. Washcoats of precious metal supported catalysts can for example be deposited on ceramic monoliths and/or metal heat exchangers for efficient generation of hydrogen. Major advantages are high through puts due to more efficient heat transfer for catalysts on metal heat exchangers, lower pressure drop with greater catalyst mechanical and thermal stability compared to particulate catalysts. Base metal tablet catalysts on the other hand can have intrinsic cost advantages, larger fractions of the reactor can be filled with active mass, and if produced in unconventional shape, again novel reactor designs are made possible. Finally, if it comes to

  11. A fundamental tax reform in Norway : a comparison of the allowance for corporate equity system and the comprehensive business income tax system in a Norwegian setting

    OpenAIRE

    Riskjell, Ole Kristian

    2014-01-01

    This thesis seeks to answer what are the main distortions in the Norwegian tax system and to determine which of the ACE or CBIT systems that best could replace the current system. First, the thesis considers the current distortions in the Norwegian tax system. I find that the current tax system is distortive with regards to the tax-treatment of debt versus equity, as only cost of debt is deductible for tax purposes, while cost of equity is not. Moreover, the current system is d...

  12. Analysis on Operating Parameter Design to Steam Methane Reforming in Heat Application RDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibyo, Sukmanto; Sunaryo, Geni Rina; Bakhri, Syaiful; Zuhair; Irianto, Ign. Djoko

    2018-02-01

    The high temperature reactor has been developed with various power capacities and can produce electricity and heat application. One of heat application is used for hydrogen production. Most hydrogen production occurs by steam reforming that operated at high temperature. This study aims to analyze the feasibility of heat application design of RDE reactor in the steam methane reforming for hydrogen production using the ChemCAD software. The outlet temperature of cogeneration heat exchanger is analyzed to be applied as a feed of steam reformer. Furthermore, the additional heater and calculating amount of fuel usage are described. Results show that at a low mass flow rate of feed, its can produce a temperature up to 480°C. To achieve the temperature of steam methane reforming of 850°C the additional fired heater was required. By the fired heater, an amount of fuel usage is required depending on the Reformer feed temperature produced from the heat exchanger of the cogeneration system.

  13. Launching Curricular Reform in First-Year Composition: Navigating the Terrain between Buy-in and Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    One of the most taxing duties of a writing program administrator (WPA), and one that is likely to cause the most burnout, is initiating curricular reform, an initiative often met with pushback and resistance. Within the literature on curriculum reform in first-year composition, this resistance seems to arise from a complex web of issues related to…

  14. Religious Challenges to School Voucher and Tax Benefit/Scholarship Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Martha

    2016-01-01

    A key component of current school reform efforts focuses on increasing parental choice through voucher systems and programs that provide tax benefits for contributions to scholarship programs for private school tuition. Indeed, proposals to adopt such programs have been or currently are being considered in four-fifths of the states, and about half…

  15. The underground economy in the U.S.A.: preliminary new evidence on the impact of income tax rates (and other factors on aggregate tax evasion 1975-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Cebula

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This empirical study seeks to identify determinants of the underground economy in the U.S. in the form of aggregate federal personal income tax evasion over the period 1975-2008, with a specific focus upon the impact of higher federal income tax rates on tax evasion. In this study, we use the most recent data available on aggregate personal income tax evasion, data that are derived from the General Currency Ratio Model and measured in the form of the ratio of unreported AGI to reported AGI. Most other studies of federal income tax evasion for the U.S. do not use data this current. It is found that the impact of increases in the federal income tax rate on aggregate personal income tax evasion may, on balance, be ambiguous, possibly suggesting that the income effect is negative and outweighs the positive substitution effect for the representative taxpayer. It is also found that the degree of aggregate personal income tax evasion may be an increasing function of the percentage of federal personal income tax returns characterized by itemized deductions and a decreasing function of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (during the first two years of implementation, the ratio of the tax free interest rate yield on high grade municipals to the interest rate yield on ten year Treasury notes, and higher audit rates of filed federal income tax returns (as a measure of risk from tax evasion by IRS personnel. Finally, unpopular wars may provide a secondary benefit for and therefore act as an inducement for greater tax evasion.

  16. Tax incentives as a solution to the uninsured: evidence from the self-employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, Gulcin; Regan, Tracy L

    2013-11-01

    Between 1996 and 2003, a series of amendments were made to the Tax Reform Act of 1986 that gradually increased the tax deduction for health insurance purchases by the self-employed (SE) from 25 to 100 percent. We study how these changes have influenced the likelihood that a SE person has health insurance coverage as the policyholder. The Current Population Survey is used to construct a data set corresponding to 1995-2005. Both the difference-in-differences and price elasticity of demand estimates suggest that the series of tax deductions did not provide sufficient incentives for the SE to obtain health insurance coverage. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Integrated Curriculum Design Reform of Civil Engineering Management Discipline Based on Inter-disciplinary Professional Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yidong, Xu; Ping, Wu; Jian, Chen; Jiansheng, Shen

    2018-05-01

    In view of the shortcomings of the current civil engineering management discipline, this paper investigates the necessity of the course design reform. Based on the analysis of basic occupation requirements of civil engineering management discipline, the basic ideas and implementation strategies of the integrated reform of curriculum design system are proposed, which can not only improve the students’ overall understanding of knowledge and skills, but also enhance the system of student learning.

  18. The user cost of energy resource and its reasonable tax rate-A case of oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifan, Liu

    2017-12-01

    The development and use of natural resources bring about the externality of resources depletion, especially for non-renewable resources. This paper takes oil as an example to analyze the user cost of energy resource with EI Serafy User cost method, and discusses the rationality of the resource tax. Meanwhile, this paper determines oil resource tax rate in consideration of resource sustainable development. The results show that, the user cost of oil isn’t compensated fully, it is too low to make compensation to the environment and the profit of future generation, and the resource tax is a little low. At last of the paper, some conclusions and policy suggestions on resource tax reform are given.

  19. News Media Coverage of Corporate Tax Avoidance and Corporate Tax Reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Soojin

    2015-01-01

    Drawing upon media agenda-setting theory and previous studies in organizational impression management, this paper empirically investigates the influence of tax avoidance news on corporate tax reporting. This study is based on the pronounced discontinuity in the amount of news articles related to tax avoidance in the United Kingdom over two periods (2010-2011 and 2012-2013). A difference-in-differences design is employed in order to enable a comparison of the media effects on those firms that ...

  20. Taxation, pollution, unemployment and growth: Could there be a 'triple dividend' from a green tax reform?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birch Soerensen, P.; Haagen Pedersen, L.; Nielsen, S.B.

    1994-01-01

    The paper develops a model of endogenous economic growth, where sustainable growth is driven by private capital accumulation and productive government spending on education and pollution abatement. The economy is distorted by pollution externalitities in production and consumption; by taxes and transfers, and by union monopoly power creating involuntary unemployment. within this framework we analyse the effects of various 'green' tax policies on pollution, unemployment, growth, and consumer welfare. Among other things, we highlight the differences between pollution taxes which are levied for general revenue purposes and pollution taxes which are 'earmarked' for financing expenditures on pollution abatement. We also investigate the effects of a switch in the policy regime from quantity control of pollution combined with 'grandfathering' of pollution rights to regulation via emission charges. We find that such a regime shift has the potential to raise employment, growth and welfare without damaging the environment, because emission charges improve the efficiency of the tax system by serving as an indirect method of taxing away pure profits. (au) 13 refs

  1. The impact of slow economic growth on health sector reform: a cross-national perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltman, Richard B

    2018-01-24

    This paper assesses recent health sector reform strategies across Europe adopted since the onset of the 2008 financial crisis. It begins with a brief overview of the continued economic pressure on public funding for health care services, particularly in tax-funded Northern European health care systems. While economic growth rates across Europe have risen a bit in the last year, they remain below the level necessary to provide the needed expansion of public health sector revenues. This continued public revenue shortage has become the central challenge that policymakers in these health systems confront, and increasingly constrains their potential range of policy options. The paper then examines the types of targeted reforms that various European governments have introduced in response to this increased fiscal stringency. Particularly in tax-funded health systems, these efforts have been focused on two types of changes on the production side of their health systems: consolidating and/or centralizing administrative authority over public hospitals, and revamping secondary and primary health services as well as social services to reduce the volume, cost and less-than-optimal outcomes of existing public elderly care programs. While revamping elderly care services also was pursued in the social health insurance (SHI) system in the Netherlands, both the Dutch and the German health systems also made important changes on the financing side of their health systems. Both types of targeted reforms are illustrated through short country case studies. Each of these country assessments flags up new mechanisms that have been introduced and which potentially could be reshaped and applied in other national health sector contexts. Reflecting the tax-funded structure of the Canadian health system, the preponderance of cases discussed focus on tax-funded countries (Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, England, Ireland), with additional brief assessments of recent changes in the SHI

  2. Regulatory and legal support of taxes-and-duties liabilities accounting and audit under the conditions of financial and economic crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Kupalova, G.; Matvienko, T.

    2010-01-01

    Actual problems of legislative control of tax transactions accounting and audit in Ukraine under the conditions of financial crisis are investigated. Priority directions of their solving with the view of the legislative, methodical and organization problems and taking into consideration tax system reformation and International Financial Reporting Standards introduction are defined.

  3. Transforming the Organic Chemistry Lab Experience: Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of Reformed Experimental Activities--REActivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, Christina G.; Kim, Thomas; Cody, Jeremy; Anderson, Jason; Edelbach, Brian; Marmor, William; Kipsang, Rodgers; Ayotte, Charles; Saviola, Daniel; Niziol, Justin

    2018-01-01

    Reformed experimental activities (REActivities) are an innovative approach to the delivery of the traditional material in an undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory. A description of the design and implementation of REActivities at both a four- and two-year institution is discussed. The results obtained using a reformed teaching observational…

  4. Improvement of Tax Incentives of Small Innovative Business in Russia and Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Valeryevna Nikulina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions activity of small innovative business, as the most flexible component of the innovation economy of the country is particularly important. However, due to the specifics of their activities small innovative business needs state support, including in the field of a tax policy. In this connection, consideration of tax incentives for small innovative business activity is relevant and timely. The purpose of this study is to identify the main directions of improvement of tax incentives for small innovative business in Russia through the use of foreign experience. The study used data analysis and comparisons to identify features of the tax incentives of small innovative business in Russia and abroad. In determining the main directions of improving, the study used the method of forecasting on the basis of the results of the analysis and comparison. The article described the basic instruments of tax incentives for activities of small innovation business in Russia. The article analyzed foreign experience of application of tax privileges and preferences. The article developed and substantiated recommendations on the improvement of the Russian system of tax incentives of activity of small innovative business. The authors make conclusion that the Russian system of tax incentives is ineffective and needs to be reformed by increasing the number of tax benefits, and the development of a special tax regime through the use of foreign experience.

  5. Research on Equity Effect of Enhancing Tax System%关于增强税制公平效应的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖

    2012-01-01

    Following Chinag socio - economic situation development, the existing tax structure issue that the indirect tax is the main tax is not able to fully play the role of balancing income distribution. Tax fairness should be the guidance principle of the tax system construction and optimization. Based on the necessity of enhancing taxes equity effect, with breaking through the main influencing factors of applying the principle of tax fairness, we point out the development direction of the tax fairness reform in the future, further more propose one concrete embodiment of equity effect oriented tax system reform path : optimize the structure of tax system in China, decrease the proportion of indirect tax and increase the direct tax proportion, properly enhance indirect taxes equity effect, give full play to the equity effect of direct taxes.%我国目前以间接税为主的税制结构对于缩小收入分配差距的作用不显著,随着我国社会经济形势的发展变化,增强税制公平效应有其必要性,税收公平应该成为税制建设和优化的指导性原则。通过对影响税制公平效应主要因素的分析,指出今后税制公平改革的发展方向,并提出增强公平效应的税制改革路径,即优化税制结构增强税制公平效应、适度增强间接税的公平效应以及充分发挥直接税的公平效应。

  6. Method of accounting and approaches to tax optimization of income tax of entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Sokolovska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the organization and methodology of income tax accounting. It describes the documented operations related to the calculation and payment of income tax and it suggests the standard form of the original document to reduce the time for calculation of tax and facilitation in filling in the tax return. The author describes the accounts system designed for income tax cost accounting, and gives their analytical sections. The article discloses the need of management reports for this tax and suggests to implement the standard form of report for an enterprise for the efficiency of management of revenues, costs, and as a result, income tax. The author singles out the methods of tax optimization of income tax calculation base in the following four areas: the methods related to the fixed assets of the enterprise, inventory, accounts receivable, and the employee's salary. The algorithm of the tax optimization in enterprises is developed. This algorithm, due to the simplicity of its shape, will help management personnel and an accountant of an enterprise to identify possible ways of reducing the amounts payable for income tax under the current legislation.

  7. The Tax Regulation as a Component of Social Development of Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitishin Andriy О.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic essence of the contemporary tax regulation as part of the social development of society has been disclosed, and its importance in the strategy of socio-economic development of society has been demonstrated. Directions, typical instruments and elements of the national tax regulation of the social sphere have been allocated. The main financial instruments for family support in the European Union Member States are presented and systematized, their multidirectedness and absence of a unified approach have been identified. It has been found that the result of tax reforms in the OECD countries in the early XXIst century is reducing the average rates of income tax on individuals and the social security contributions for employees and employers. Methodical and practical recommendations have been developed to assess the effectiveness of implementation of the social content of tax and budget policy on the basis of the maximum potential social tax quota in the current institutional conditions that will facilitate the enhancement of their role, synchronicity of implementation, and synergistic effects in the social development of society. An analysis of the indicators of implementation of the social content of tax policy in Ukraine in 2014-2016 has been carried out, its main tendencies have been defined.

  8. Reform Proposals for Replenishing Retirement Savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack M. Mintz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The 2008-2009 economic crisis dealt a serious blow to Canadians’ retirement savings. While markets have since partially recovered, the ratio of Canadians’ household net-worth relative to disposable income still remains below where it was in 2007. So much wealth that workers had accumulated to prepare for retirement has been wiped away, while the years since 2008 that might have otherwise been spent compounding retirement savings have been spent, instead, on trying to recover losses in a low-interest-rate environment that has limited returns. With large waves of older workers approaching retirement age, and these future retirees projected to live longer than previous cohorts, Canada now faces the very realistic scenario that a significant number of people will reach retirement age without the funds they will need to provide a comfortable post-working-life income. Canadian policy-makers may not have the ability to restore that destroyed wealth. And with most governments already struggling to resolve serious deficits, the situation is not likely to be ameliorated with anything that requires additional spending, or that could reduce tax revenues. But there are policy reforms available that can help at least in better preparing the coming waves of retirees for a financially secure retirement. The reforms need not be far-reaching to have a meaningful impact. And they need not be costly, either. They can include a modest expansion of the Canada Pension Plan (CPP to allow larger contributions — shared by employers and employees, or covered entirely by employees — that would, in turn, allow retiring workers to draw a larger maximum pension, rather than having to rely on the guaranteed income supplement (GIS. CPP contributions could also be made deductible from taxable income, like RRSP investments, to encourage workers to maximize contributions. To minimize an increase in payroll taxes, the eligibility age for CPP benefits could be increased to

  9. STUDY CONCERNING THE IMPACT OF PROFIT TAX ON THE COMPANIES’ ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Isai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the fiscal reform in Romania, the harmonization of the law regarding the profit tax with the community one prompted deep alterations aimed namely at: the scope (the taxation of the foreign legal people and of the incomes from external sources, the non-deductible and fiscally deductible amounts, the facilities granted to the taxpayers, the way of covering the fiscal losses etc. This harmonization was intended to avoid the double taxation of the incomes made from activities carried out by economical agents in several states of the European Union space. This means finding encouraging solutions to the cross border activities by renouncing the discriminatory fiscal rules by which the incomes are taxed twice, with the later return of the taxes in one of the states.

  10. Stamp duties in Indian states - a case for reform

    OpenAIRE

    Alm, James; Annez, Patricia; Modi, Arbind

    2004-01-01

    The authors review the options for reform of stamp duties on immovable property transfers collected by Indian state governments. After briefly reviewing some of the many administrative difficulties experienced with the tax, they turn to an examination of its economic impacts. A review of stamp duties internationally indicates that Indian rates are exceptionally high, at rates often above 1...

  11. Optimal tax rate and economic growth. Evidence from Nigeria and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi Muibi SAIBU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent economic crisis had made developing countries to look inward for financial resources to finance development. The readily alternative is the tax revenues however, the possible adverse direct and indirect effects of tax on productivity and work efforts as well as on aggregate consumption had make some African countries (especially Nigeria and South Africa reluctant in implementing far reaching tax policy reform. This paper examines optimal tax burden and real output growth Nigeria and South Africa, two of the top four economies in Africa. The paper empirically determined what should be the optimal tax rate for Nigeria and South Africa-the two leading economies in Africa. The paper found that nonlinearity hypothesis in the effects of tax in the case of South Africa is rejected while a significant nonlinear relationship is found in the case of Nigeria. The results suggest that the growth-maximizing tax rate is about 15% of per capita GDP for South Africa and 30% for Nigeria. At that tax rate, the economic growth rate would be around 6% and 8% instead of the actual mean growth rate of 2.84% and 4.51% for South Africa and Nigeria respectively. The paper concluded the current tax burden in the two countries may be sub-optimal and may hurt long term sustainable growth process in the two countries

  12. Incorporating the Tuning Approach in Higher Education curricular reforms and course design in Tanzania for enhancing graduates’ competencies: stakeholders’ views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Muchunguzi Ishengoma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Available documentary and research evidences reveal that the majority of Tanzania universities’ graduates (public and private universities lack competencies or technical skills (employability skills required for the job market and by potential employers, despite massive curricular reforms implemented in the public higher education sector since the early 1990s. Lack of employability skills which consequently leads to graduate unemployment or un-employability is attributable to the fact that curricular reforms and design in Tanzania public universities undertaken by lecturers and professors do not incorporate basic Tuning principles of competence-based teaching and learning which puts emphasis on competencies and skills by identifying generic and specific competencies during course design or curriculum reform. This study using the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM’s School of Education sought to: (1 explore faculty and students’ views on the application of the Tuning approach in curricular reforms and degree/course design as a mitigation of university graduates’ unemployment and un-employability, (2 solicit stakeholders’(academic staff and students perceptions of Tuning approach and its relevance in higher education curriculum reforms and design to make higher education more competence-based, and (3 find out students perceived causes of graduate unemployment and un-employability and whether the application of Tuning approach in curriculum reforms and design in universities can be a solution to graduate unemployment. Findings from the study reveal that both faculty and students concur that application of Tuning approach in higher education reforms and curricular design could enhance graduates competences and skills and reduce graduate unemployment.First published online: 30 November 2017

  13. 有效税制视角:对税收“纠偏性”的再认识%A Reunderstanding on Correctiveness of Taxation from the Perspective of Tax System Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文静

    2011-01-01

    Tax system reform during the 12th Five-Year-plan period plays an important role in economic and social development,while there is a lot of attention upon corrective and inductive function of taxation.In this paper,I focus on the theory that where the tax exists,there always exists distortion,and discuss the real effects of some corrective and inductive taxes.It is necessary to reduce the indirect taxes and improve direct tax system.Meanwhile,the government should promote the democratic system of taxation.%2011年我国进入"十二五"发展时期,财税改革担当重任,税收的纠偏调节功能被政府寄予厚望。经济学理论表明,税收虽然具有纠偏性功能,但是同时存在扭曲效应,本文对当前我国某些税收的纠偏效果提出质疑,并针对"十二五"时期的税制改革进程,提出开征新税应慎重、破除"沉税"要有力的观点。"十二五"税制改革应以减税为核心,适当减少间接税种类,逐步完善直接税体系,并且坚持深化税收民主制度建设。

  14. How do government reforms influence the establishment of private limited companies in Sweden?

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Ibrahim; Thörn, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study focuses on three reforms which the Swedish government have performed: The abolishment of the audit requirement, the reduction of the legal capital requirement, and the reduction of the employment taxes. What effect have they had on the establishment of private limited companies? Purpose: The purpose of this dissertation is to explain the influence government reforms have on the establishment and re-establishment of private limited companies inSweden. Method: An explanat...

  15. Pending reforms: challenges to governabilty in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Fleury

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available After President Lula’s two terms of office, the election of Dilma Rousseff generated all kinds of different expectations, whether because of the candidate’s lack of a political career within the Workers’ Party (PT, or because of her rather uncharismatic personality and poor propensity towards political negotiations with the allied parties that favoured the governability of the previous term of office. The country she has inherited is in a much better situation than the one inherited by the first PT government, with a stabilised economy and inflation under control. The sustainable policies for reducing poverty have generated conditions that encourage the enlargement of the middle class which, together with the creation of popular credit mechanisms, have served to halt the effects of the world crisis and have generated enormous expectations of social mobility. This scenario, together with the country’s increasingly recognised presence as an important international actor, provides unprecedented possibilities for the advancement of the “development with social inclusion” project. Nevertheless, certain reforms still need to be implemented that could threaten governability: political reform, federative agreement and tax reform, as well as social reforms.

  16. Tax management in strengthening financial independence of local government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badida M.P.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the directions of tax management in the context of budgetary decentralization. The paper aims to research tax management in the system of forming local budgets in the conditions of financial resources decentralization and analyze the current tools of tax management on the local level. In spite of a great number of researches, the issue of tax management in strengthening financial independence of local budgets is not enough studied; therefore, to reach financial independence of local communities it is necessary to adopt new normative and legal acts concerning decentralization of financial resources taking into account tax potential of each territorial community. The lack of financial resources causes the problem of optimal redistribution of power among central and local authorities. The author proposes the new mechanisms of solving the current problems on the example of local budget of the city of Uzgorod to contribute budgetary decentralization. The principal idea while conducting the reform of the budgetary process must be the adoption of certain changes in budgetary legislation which have to shift the mechanisms of budgetary financing and equating local budgets. The author concludes that the progressive vector of well-being increasing completely depends on the developed concept of regional economic policy. The article pays attention to the importance of taking into account the tax potential of a territory and characterizes the directions of strengthening financial independence of local government.

  17. National health insurance reform in South Africa: estimating the implications for demand for private health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okorafor, Okore Apia

    2012-05-01

    A recent health reform proposal in South Africa proposes universal access to a comprehensive package of healthcare services in the public sector, through the implementation of a national health insurance (NHI) scheme. Implementation of the scheme is likely to involve the introduction of a payroll tax. It is implied that the introduction of the payroll tax will significantly reduce the size of the private health insurance market. The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of an NHI payroll tax on the demand for private health insurance in South Africa, and to explore the broader implications for health policy. The study applies probit regression analysis on household survey data to estimate the change in demand for private health insurance as a result of income shocks arising from the proposed NHI. The introduction of payroll taxes for the proposed NHI was estimated to result in a reduction to private health insurance membership of 0.73%. This suggests inelasticity in the demand for private health insurance. In the literature on the subject, this inelasticity is usually due to quality differences between alternatives. In the South African context, there may be other factors at play. An NHI tax may have a very small impact on the demand for private health insurance. Although additional financial resources will be raised through a payroll tax under the proposed NHI reform, systemic problems within the South African health system can adversely affect the ability of the NHI to translate additional finances into better quality healthcare. If these systemic challenges are not adequately addressed, the introduction of a payroll tax could introduce inefficiencies within the South African health system.

  18. Design of a surface alloy catalyst for steam reforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Besenbacher, F.; Chorkendorff, Ib; Clausen, B.S.

    1998-01-01

    Detailed studies of elementary chemical processes on well-characterized single crystal surfaces have contributed substantially to the understanding of heterogeneous catalysis. insight into the structure of surface alloys combined with an understanding of the relation between the surface compositi...... and reactivity is shown to lead directly to new ideas for catalyst design, The feasibility of such an approach is illustrated by the synthesis, characterization, and tests of a high-surface area gold-nickel catalyst for steam reforming....

  19. Study on assessing the environmental fiscal reform potential for the EU28

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogg, Dominic; Elliott, Timothy; Elliott, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    and consumption taxes”. The AGS set out three pillars that it foresaw as underpinning the EU’s economic and social policy for 2015:  A coordinated response to boosting investment;  A renewed commitment to structural reforms; and  The pursuit of fiscal responsibility. Environmental taxes (together......, and the expressed desire to promote more efficient use of both energy and other resources, point towards a role for environmental fiscal reform (EFR) as a means to set the European economy on a trajectory of growth with a strong shade of green....

  20. Taxpayers’ Competency Level in Governing Goods Services Tax (GST Compliance: Malaysia Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hambali Siti Syaqilah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available GST implementation in Malaysia in April 2015 is part of the tax reformation with the goal of having a more efficient and effective taxation system. A successful tax reformation requires a high acceptance from taxpayers. In order to aid in the acceptance of GST implementation, taxpayers need to have a good competency level reflected through proper knowledge and awareness of the GST system, also known as GST literacy. Thus, the main objective of this study is to assess the level of GST literacy of taxpayers. Secondly, the current study aims to identify the relationship between GST literacy level with the GST acceptance of the taxpayers. Questionnaires were distributed to 150 secondary school teachers in Johor, one of the states in Malaysia. The finding indicates that the respondents’ literacy rate towards the GST implementation in Malaysia is fair. The results imply that secondary school teachers have a moderate knowledge level and high awareness level on GST implementation in Malaysia. The study proves statistically that there is a positive significant relationship between GST literacy with GST acceptance.

  1. Designing a food tax to impact food-related non-communicable diseases: the case of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Juan Carlos; Smith-Taillie, Lindsey; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry

    2018-01-01

    in household purchases of sodium, added sugar, saturated fat and calorie purchases. Chile is unique in currently having instituted a small current SSB tax as well as marketing controls and front-of-package labeling of unhealthy foods and beverages. The design of a larger, more comprehensive tax to enhance the overall effect of these policies on healthier diets is a next critical step. This study shows that a large tax on the same foods and beverages already delineated as unhealthy by the marketing controls and front-of-pack labeling should prove to be more effective for promoting a healthier diet. PMID:29375180

  2. Designing a food tax to impact food-related non-communicable diseases: the case of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Juan Carlos; Smith-Taillie, Lindsey; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry

    2017-08-01

    household purchases of sodium, added sugar, saturated fat and calorie purchases. Chile is unique in currently having instituted a small current SSB tax as well as marketing controls and front-of-package labeling of unhealthy foods and beverages. The design of a larger, more comprehensive tax to enhance the overall effect of these policies on healthier diets is a next critical step. This study shows that a large tax on the same foods and beverages already delineated as unhealthy by the marketing controls and front-of-pack labeling should prove to be more effective for promoting a healthier diet.

  3. Would Tax Evasion and Tax Avoidance Undermine a National Retail Sales Tax?

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Matthew N.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that shifting to an indirect tax system (a national sales tax) will not necessarily reduce tax avoidance and tax evasion behavior by businesses and individuals, particularly if the tax rate is set high to maintain revenue neutrality. Lack of experience in administering a high-rate, indirect tax system precludes definitive statements regarding the likely extent of tax base erosion under a national sales tax.

  4. Tax avoidance, tax evasion, and tax flight: Do legal differences matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Friedrich; Kirchler, Erich; Maciejovsky, Boris

    2001-01-01

    Although from an economic point of view, legal considerations apart, tax avoidance, tax evasion and tax flight have similar effects, namely a reduction of revenue yields, and are based on the same desire to reduce the tax burden, it is likely that individuals perceive them as different and as unequally fair. Overall, 252 fiscal officers, business students, business lawyers, and entrepreneurs produced spontaneous associations to a scenario either describing tax avoidance, tax evasion, or tax f...

  5. Tax Compliance Inventory: TAX-I Voluntary tax compliance, enforced tax compliance, tax avoidance, and tax evasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchler, Erich; Wahl, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Surveys on tax compliance and non-compliance often rely on ad hoc formulated items which lack standardization and empirical validation. We present an inventory to assess tax compliance and distinguish between different forms of compliance and non-compliance: voluntary versus enforced compliance, tax avoidance, and tax evasion. First, items to measure voluntary and enforced compliance, avoidance, and evasion were drawn up (collected from past research and newly developed), and tested empirically with the aim of producing four validated scales with a clear factorial structure. Second, findings from the first analyses were replicated and extended to validation on the basis of motivational postures. A standardized inventory is provided which can be used in surveys in order to collect data which are comparable across research focusing on self-reports. The inventory can be used in either of two ways: either in its entirety, or by applying the single scales independently, allowing an economical and fast assessment of different facets of tax compliance. PMID:20502612

  6. Tax Compliance Inventory: TAX-I Voluntary tax compliance, enforced tax compliance, tax avoidance, and tax evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchler, Erich; Wahl, Ingrid

    2010-06-01

    Surveys on tax compliance and non-compliance often rely on ad hoc formulated items which lack standardization and empirical validation. We present an inventory to assess tax compliance and distinguish between different forms of compliance and non-compliance: voluntary versus enforced compliance, tax avoidance, and tax evasion. First, items to measure voluntary and enforced compliance, avoidance, and evasion were drawn up (collected from past research and newly developed), and tested empirically with the aim of producing four validated scales with a clear factorial structure. Second, findings from the first analyses were replicated and extended to validation on the basis of motivational postures. A standardized inventory is provided which can be used in surveys in order to collect data which are comparable across research focusing on self-reports. The inventory can be used in either of two ways: either in its entirety, or by applying the single scales independently, allowing an economical and fast assessment of different facets of tax compliance.

  7. Pre elementary design of primary reformer for hydrogen plant coupled with HTGR type NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedy Priambodo; Erlan Dewita; Sudi Ariyanto

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen has a high potent for new energy, because of it availability. Steam reforming is a fully developed commercial technology and is the most economical method for production of hydrogen. Steam reforming uses an external source of hot gas to heat tubes in which a catalytic reaction takes place that converts steam and lighter hydrocarbons such as natural gas (methane) or refinery feedstock into hydrogen and carbon monoxide (syngas) at high temperature on primary reformer (800-900°C). Utilization of helium from HTGR as heating medium for primary reformer has consequence to type and shape of its reactor. The main goal of this paper is to determine type/shape and pre elementary design of chemical reactor for the cogeneration system of Hydrogen Plant and HTGR The primary reformer for this system is Fixed Bed Multitube reactor with specification tube: NPS 3,5 Sch 40 ST 40S, 0.281 in thickness, number of tube 849 pieces and ASTM HH 30 for tube material. Tube arrangement is 'triangular pitch' on shell Split-Ring Floating Head from Steel Alloy SA 301 Grade B equipted with 8 baffles. (author)

  8. Andorra: exchange of information and new tax system in the context of the OECD's and EU's initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Vega García, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Andorra, a microstate located in the Pyrenees, between France and Spain, used to be characterized by strict bank secrecy and the absence of direct taxes on income. However, given the pressure exerted by the European Union and, especially, by the OECD, Andorra finally committed in 2009 to exchanging tax information upon request according to the OECD standards. Since then, Andorra has introduced important legal reforms following these standards, in a process which is still evolving and which ma...

  9. Adjusting export tax rebates to reduce the environmental impacts of trade: Lessons from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peng; Mao, Xianqiang; Corsetti, Gabriel

    2015-09-15

    Export tax rebates are an important policy instrument for stimulating exports, which many developing countries make use of. However, excessive export tax rebates and inappropriate structural arrangements can lead to over-production in highly polluting industries and cause the environment to deteriorate. This paper, taking China as the study case, tests and verifies the statistical significance of the causal relationship between export tax rebates and pollution emissions. With a computable general equilibrium modeling, the current study further analyzes the effectiveness of export tax rebate adjustments aimed at alleviating environmental pressure for different time periods. It is found that before 2003, export tax rebates primarily promoted exports and boosted foreign exchange reserves, and highly polluting sectors enjoyed above-average export tax rebates, which led to increased pollution emissions. Between 2003 and 2010, the export tax rebate system was reformed to reduce support for the highly polluting export sectors, which led to decreases in emissions. Canceling export tax rebates for highly polluting sectors is shown to be the most favorable policy choice for improving the environmental performance of China's international trade. This study can serve as reference for other developing countries which similarly rely on export tax rebates, so that they can adjust their policies so as to combine economic growth with pollution control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ireland unveils petroleum tax measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Ireland's government has introduced detailed petroleum tax legislation designed to boost offshore exploration and development. The petroleum tax measures, published last week and included in the government's omnibus finance bill for 1992, will provide Ireland for the first time a comprehensive petroleum tax regime. They include elements which, in tax terms, will make Ireland a most attractive location for oil and gas exploration and development, the Irish Energy Minister Robert Molloy. He the, Exploration companies will now have the benefit of the certainty of a detailed tax framework and attractive tax rates. Debate on the finance bill has begun in the Irish Dail (parliament). Under Ireland's constitution, the budget bill must be approved and signed by the president by the end of May. Failure to approve a budget bill within that time would mean the current government's collapse

  11. Qualitative analysis of the dynamics of policy design and implementation in hospital funding reform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen S Palmer

    Full Text Available As in many health care systems, some Canadian jurisdictions have begun shifting away from global hospital budgets. Payment for episodes of care has begun to be implemented. Starting in 2012, the Province of Ontario implemented hospital funding reforms comprising three elements: Global Budgets; Health Based Allocation Method (HBAM; and Quality-Based Procedures (QBP. This evaluation focuses on implementation of QBPs, a procedure/diagnosis-specific funding approach involving a pre-set price per episode of care coupled with best practice clinical pathways. We examined whether or not there was consensus in understanding of the program theory underpinning QBPs and how this may have influenced full and effective implementation of this innovative funding model.We undertook a formative evaluation of QBP implementation. We used an embedded case study method and in-depth, one-on-one, semi-structured, telephone interviews with key informants at three levels of the health care system: Designers (those who designed the QBP policy; Adoption Supporters (organizations and individuals supporting adoption of QBPs; and Hospital Implementers (those responsible for QBP implementation in hospitals. Thematic analysis involved an inductive approach, incorporating Framework analysis to generate descriptive and explanatory themes that emerged from the data.Five main findings emerged from our research: (1 Unbeknownst to most key informants, there was neither consistency nor clarity over time among QBP designers in their understanding of the original goal(s for hospital funding reform; (2 Prior to implementation, the intended hospital funding mechanism transitioned from ABF to QBPs, but most key informants were either unaware of the transition or believe it was intentional; (3 Perception of the primary goal(s of the policy reform continues to vary within and across all levels of key informants; (4 Four years into implementation, the QBP funding mechanism remains

  12. Qualitative analysis of the dynamics of policy design and implementation in hospital funding reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Karen S; Brown, Adalsteinn D; Evans, Jenna M; Marani, Husayn; Russell, Kirstie K; Martin, Danielle; Ivers, Noah M

    2018-01-01

    As in many health care systems, some Canadian jurisdictions have begun shifting away from global hospital budgets. Payment for episodes of care has begun to be implemented. Starting in 2012, the Province of Ontario implemented hospital funding reforms comprising three elements: Global Budgets; Health Based Allocation Method (HBAM); and Quality-Based Procedures (QBP). This evaluation focuses on implementation of QBPs, a procedure/diagnosis-specific funding approach involving a pre-set price per episode of care coupled with best practice clinical pathways. We examined whether or not there was consensus in understanding of the program theory underpinning QBPs and how this may have influenced full and effective implementation of this innovative funding model. We undertook a formative evaluation of QBP implementation. We used an embedded case study method and in-depth, one-on-one, semi-structured, telephone interviews with key informants at three levels of the health care system: Designers (those who designed the QBP policy); Adoption Supporters (organizations and individuals supporting adoption of QBPs); and Hospital Implementers (those responsible for QBP implementation in hospitals). Thematic analysis involved an inductive approach, incorporating Framework analysis to generate descriptive and explanatory themes that emerged from the data. Five main findings emerged from our research: (1) Unbeknownst to most key informants, there was neither consistency nor clarity over time among QBP designers in their understanding of the original goal(s) for hospital funding reform; (2) Prior to implementation, the intended hospital funding mechanism transitioned from ABF to QBPs, but most key informants were either unaware of the transition or believe it was intentional; (3) Perception of the primary goal(s) of the policy reform continues to vary within and across all levels of key informants; (4) Four years into implementation, the QBP funding mechanism remains misunderstood; and

  13. Distributional consequences of environmental taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinge Jacobsen, H.; Birr-Pedersen, K.; Wier, M.

    2001-11-01

    Environmental taxes imposed on households have been introduced in many countries. However, few countries have reached the level of environmental taxation that is seen in Denmark today, although many are considering shifting the tax burden towards the consumption that is harming the environment. The total tax burden imposed on households in Denmark in the form of taxes on energy use of all kinds, water consumption and waste production, etc., is considerable. This paper analyses the individual taxes as well as the combination of all these taxes and duties related to environmental concerns, including taxes on heating, transport fuels, electricity, water, waste, plastic bags, registration of cars, annual car use, pesticides, etc. The distributional effect of taxes is examined in relation to household income, socio-economic class, residential location and family status. The shifting of the tax structure from high marginal income tax to consumption-based taxes, especially environmental taxes, might have distributional impacts amongst income groups which have not been considered part of the tax policy. The taxes are compared with respect to distributional impact. Do the effects of the different taxes vary to such an extent that this should be considered when designing tax policies? The hypothesis is that some environmental taxes associated with luxury income are less regressive than the average environmental tax. The results suggest that in Denmark taxes on petrol and registration duties for cars are progressive, whereas most other environmental taxes are regressive, especially the green taxes on water, retail containers and CO 2 . The distributional impacts are illustrated using household consumption survey data and data covering household expenditures on energy. The energy taxes and the more recently introduced green taxes are compared. The project is combining the direct and the indirect effect of taxes. The direct effect considers the taxes imposed directly on

  14. Advanced design of fast reactor-membrane reformer (FR-MR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashimo, M.; Hori, I.; Yasuda, I.; Shirasaki, Y.; Kobayashi, K.

    2004-01-01

    A new plant concept of nuclear-produced hydrogen is being studied using a Fast Reactor-Membrane Reformer (FR-MR). The conventional steam methane reforming (SMR) system is a three-stage process. The first stage includes the reforming, the second contains a shift reaction and the third is the separation process. The reforming process requires high temperatures of 800 ∼ 900 deg C. The shift process generates heat and is performed at around 200 deg C. The membrane reforming has only one process stage under a nonequilibrium condition by removing H2 selectively through a membrane tube. The steam reforming temperature can be decreased from 800 deg C to 550 deg C, which is a remarkable benefit offered by the non-equilibrium condition. With this new technology, the reactor type can be changed from a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) to a Fast Reactor (FR). A Fast Reactor-Membrane Reformer (FR-MR) is composed of a nuclear plant and a hydrogen plant. The nuclear plant is a sodium-cooled Fast Reactor with mixed oxide fuel and with a power of 240 MWt. The heat transport system contains two circuits, the primary circuit and the secondary circuit. The membrane reformer units are set in the secondary circuit. The heat, supplied by the sodium, can produce 200 000 Nm 3 /h by 2 units. There are two types of membranes. One is made of Pd another one (advanced) is made of, for example V, or Nb. The technology for the Pd membrane is already established in a small scale. The non-Pd type is expected to improve the performance. (author)

  15. Defining the road ahead: thinking strategically in the new era of health care reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudlowski, Edward M

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the implications of the new health care reform legislation, including those provisions that do not take effect for several years, will be critical in developing a successful strategic plan under the new environment of health care reform and avoiding unintended consequences of decisions made without the benefit of long-term thinking. Although this article is not a comprehensive assessment of the challenges and opportunities that exist under health care reform, nor a layout of all of the issues, it looks at some of the key areas in order to demonstrate why employers need to identify critical pathways and the associated risks and benefits of each decision. Key health care reform areas include insurance market reforms, grandfather rules, provisions that have the potential to influence the underlying cost of health care, the individual mandate, the employer mandate (including the free-choice voucher program) and the excise tax on high-cost plans.

  16. IS THE VALUE ADDED TAX A SUPERIOR SALES TAX IN ALL SALES TAXES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUSTAFA ALİ SARILI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Value Added Tax (VAT is a tax imposed on the value added to a product at each stage of the production and distribution process. Value added is never taxed twice under VAT and thus cascading (tax on tax effects do not occur. It is a single tax on goods and services but the tax is collected multiple stages. At each of these stages, the amount of tax payable is computed by subtracting the tax previously paid on purchases from the tax charged on sales by the traders for each taxation period. In last three decades, VAT, a relatively new and better commodity taxation, has been introduced in many countries. It has replaced different types of sales taxes in such countries. This article attempts to evaluate VAT by comparing with other sales taxes.

  17. The Fiscal Stimuli for the Implementing Ukraine’s Energy Policy and Reforming Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Synyutka Nataliya G.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to revise the issue of the State regulation of the macroeconomic processes associated with the economic, energy, fiscal, and educational reforms that are being carried out in Ukraine. In order to implement the State energy policy, fiscal approaches have been emphasized. The use of the fiscal stimulus of «carbon tax» can be seen as an effective measure for implementation of the existing State energy strategy. A review of introduction of such a tax in the developed countries confirms the expediency of applying fiscal mechanism in order to encourage investment in energy-efficient technologies. Prospects for introduction of this tax in Ukraine were considered. To this end, actual CO2 emissions have been generalized and prediction calculations for the energy sector have been accomplished. The calculated estimates of possible tax revenues have been provided. For further studies on the outlined topic, there is an impelling need to detalize the financial statistics of the ecologic tax revenues in terms of sources.

  18. What social workers need to know about the earned income tax credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beverly, Sondra G

    2002-07-01

    Over the past decade, the federal earned income tax credit (EITC) has become the largest antipoverty program in the United States. For the 2002 tax year, working families with children can receive as much as $4,140 in EITC benefits. Although families may arrange to receive benefits throughout the year (through their paychecks), most receive a lump sum after filing federal income taxes. Research suggests that many families use the credit to purchase big-ticket items, to move, to pay for educational expenses, or to set aside savings. Thus, the credit may promote long-term household development as well as help families with basic expenses. Research also suggests that EITC encourages work among single-parent families, an outcome that is consistent with one goal of welfare reform. Social workers can be involved in outreach efforts that help low-income workers claim EITC benefits and inform them about advance-payment options. Social workers can also support efforts to increase EITC benefits for larger families and link tax refunds to saving programs.

  19. The fiscal reformation: quandaries and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Mariano

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The  present  article  describes  the  evolution  of  the  Brazilian  State tax  structure  as  well as  the  main  pressure  poles  in  terms  of  accomplishing  a  broad  reformation.  It  shows  the  changes  occurred in the institutional order and the unfolded  results  in  the increase  of  the  tax  reformulation  scope of the State, as well as the impacts caused  in the Brazilian community. This study was done  through  the  revision  of  the  national  economic  literature and was based on statistical information  obtained from Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia  e  Estatística  (IBGE  and from  National  Treasury  Agency of the Brazilian Treasury Ministry.

  20. The Problem with the Low-Tax Backlash: Rethinking Corporate Tax Policies to Adjust for Uneven Reputational Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack M. Mintz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available When a major corporation is found to be paying little or no taxes, public backlash and media furor over the issue may ensue. Some governments may well be just fine with it, while others like U.S. may take steps to ensure companies pay more tax. Sometimes, companies being in a non-taxpaying position properly reflects appropriate tax policy. That explanation, however, does not sell lattés, which is why in 2012, after the British public grew outraged over the discovery that Starbucks was paying no corporate taxes in the U.K., the coffee retailer actually volunteered to just write a cheque to the government. The reputational damage to Starbucks’ brand, the company calculated, was not worth the money it was saving in avoiding taxes, even if it was doing so perfectly legally. The fear of this kind of reputational damage can foil the very taxation policies that governments design specifically as a means to tax corporations fairly, efficiently and competitively. It may be good tax policy to allow corporations various deductions, or the ability to carry forward or carry back losses, but it can be politically vexatious. U.S. President Barack Obama demonstrated that explicitly when he suggested certain American companies using so-called tax inversions to relocate their headquarters to low-tax jurisdictions, were failing in their “economic patriotism.” Yet more multinationals than ever are legally and quite appropriately using tax strategies to minimize their taxes in various jurisdictions to the point where they are paying little to no corporate tax. For some corporations, the risk of public backlash is greater than it is for others: Starbucks and Facebook, being consumer-facing companies with a great deal of brand goodwill, have a lot more at risk than do Pfizer and Oracle. This risk makes the playing field for taxation less level, jeopardizing the fundamental tax principle of horizontal equity — that those of similar means should pay similar

  1. An alternative policy evaluation of the British Columbia carbon tax: broadening the application of Elinor Ostrom's design principles for managing common-pool resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Lacroix

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is putting infrastructure, food supply, water resources, ecosystems, and human health at risk. These risks will be exacerbated depending on the degree of additional greenhouse gas emissions. Urgent action is needed to limit the severity of impacts associated with further warming. British Columbia (BC has taken action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from carbon-based fuels by introducing a carbon tax in 2008. As an innovative approach to climate change mitigation, especially in North America, studies evaluating its effectiveness are valuable. We assessed the long-term viability potential of the BC carbon tax using common pool resource design principles, a novel application of the design principles to environmental policy. We found that the design principles can be applied productively to environmental policy and larger scale air pollution problems. With regard to the BC carbon tax, our findings suggest that closer monitoring of user behavior, further increases of the tax over time, and pursuing efforts for a more elaborate system of nested enterprises and interjurisdictional cooperation could increase the long-term success of the BC carbon tax. We also found that the design principles allowed us to more comprehensively reach conclusions regarding the broader effectiveness of the tax when compared to existing policy analysis. Traditionally, climate policy evaluation has focused on the end goal without considering broader constraints and issues of resource allocation. We suggest that common pool resource theory, which is based on strong theoretical principles and encourages reflexivity, will be able to address those limitations.

  2. Professional Development in a Reform Context: Understanding the Design and Enactment of Learning Experiences Created by Teacher Leaders for Science Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Laura

    Teacher in-service learning about education reforms like NGSS often begin with professional development (PD) as a foundational component (Supovitz & Turner, 2000). Teacher Leaders, who are early implementers of education reform, are positioned to play a contributing role to the design of PD. As early implementers of reforms, Teacher Leaders are responsible for interpreting the purposes of reform, enacting reforms with fidelity to meet those intended goals, and are positioned to share their expertise with others. However, Teacher Leader knowledge is rarely accessed as a resource for the design of professional development programs. This study is unique in that I analyze the knowledge Teacher Leaders, who are positioned as developers of PD, bring to the design of PD around science education reform. I use the extended interconnected model of professional growth (Clarke & Hollingsworth, 2002; Coenders & Terlouw, 2015) to analyze the knowledge pathways Teacher Leaders' access as PD developers. I found that Teacher Leaders accessed knowledge pathways that cycled through their personal domain, domain of practice and domain of consequence. Additionally the findings indicated when Teacher Leaders did not have access to these knowledge domains they were unwilling to continue with PD design. These findings point to how Teacher Leaders prioritize their classroom experience to ground PD design and use their perceptions of student learning outcomes as an indicator of the success of the reform. Because professional development (PD) is viewed as an important resource for influencing teachers' knowledge and beliefs around the implementation of education reform efforts (Garet, et al., 2001; Suppovitz & Turner, 2000), I offer that Teacher Leaders, who are early implementers of reform measures, can contribute to the professional development system. The second part of this dissertation documents the instantiation of the knowledge of Teacher Leaders, who are positioned as designers and

  3. The GST/HST: Creating an Integrated Sales Tax in a Federal Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Bird

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Canada is not a country with a reputation for bold experimentation. However, decades of federal-provincial compromises have successfully disproved the belief that an invoice-credit, destination-based value-added tax (VAT is unworkable at the subnational level. Canada’s experiences with the GST, as well as with subordinate VATs like the HST and independent vats like the QST, have three important and interlinked consequences for future tax reform in Canada. First, the exact shape of provincial-level taxes is largely irrelevant to the smooth functioning of a federal VAT — although lack of provincial-federal coordination inevitably raises administrative costs. Second, the nature of a subordinate sales tax is extremely important at the provincial level. As the furor over British Columbia’s HST demonstrates, governments can’t ignore voters’ views and must retain the freedom to tailor provincial-level taxes to meet them, even when public opinion leads to suboptimal outcomes. And third, the best way Ottawa can avoid such outcomes is to provide the provinces with critical support and encouragement in the form of administrative and economic assistance. Since the federal government controls Canada’s borders, over which imports and exports flow, and administers its own sales tax, there is plenty of scope for cooperation. This paper traces the history of federal sales taxation, from the first turnover tax in 1920 right up the present-day GST, along with comprehensive examinations of regional sales tax issues in every corner of Canada, making it one of the best available summary treatments of the GST.

  4. Tax Havens: International Tax Avoidance and Evasion

    OpenAIRE

    Gravelle, Jane G.

    2009-01-01

    The federal government loses both individual and corporate income tax revenue from the shifting of profits and income into low-tax countries, often referred to as tax havens. Tax havens are located around the world with concentrations in the Caribbean and Europe. Corporate profit shifting may cost up to $60 billion in revenue and remedies are likely to involve tax law changes. Individual income tax losses more often arise from tax evasion, and are facilitated by the lack of information report...

  5. Professional Development in a Reform Context: Understanding the Design and Enactment of Learning Experiences Created by Teacher Leaders for Science Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Teacher in-service learning about education reforms like NGSS often begin with professional development (PD) as a foundational component (Supovitz & Turner, 2000). Teacher Leaders, who are early implementers of education reform, are positioned to play a contributing role to the design of PD. As early implementers of reforms, Teacher Leaders…

  6. The Timing and Direction of Statutory Tax Rate Changes by the Canadian Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergete Ferede

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Tax rate changes are some of the most significant and far-reaching decisions a government can take. A good understanding of the odds of any such changes is essential for any business debating the timing and location of investments. This paper investigates the factors that affect the timing of statutory tax rate changes by Canadian provincial governments. The authors develop a simple theoretical model to explain the “stickiness” of tax rates — the factors that lead a province to decide against tinkering with the tax system — based on the presence of fixed costs of adjusting tax rates. The results indicate that if the current rate falls within a range of tax rates bracketing the optimal rate, then the government will not adjust its tax rate because the cost of the reform outweighs the potential benefits. To build up a body of evidence, this paper employs a multinomial logit model to examine the likelihood of changes to personal income tax (PIT, corporate income tax (CIT, and provincial sales tax (PST rates by provincial governments over the period 1973-2010. Regression results indicate that provincial governments that start with higher tax rates are more likely to cut, and less likely to raise, their tax rates. A higher provincial budget deficit reduces the probability of a CIT rate cut and raises the probability of a PST rate increase. Party ideology seems to matter. Provinces with leftleaning governments are less likely to cut PIT and PST rates, and more likely to raise PIT rates compared to non-left-leaning governments. The authors also find that a federal PIT rate cut raises the probability of a provincial PIT rate increase, whereas a federal CIT rate cut raises the probability of a provincial CIT rate reduction.

  7. Carbon pricing in the EU: Evaluation of different EU ETS reform options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brink, Corjan; Vollebergh, Herman R.J.; Werf, Edwin van der

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies various options to support allowance prices in the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS), such as adjusting the cap, an auction reserve price, and fixed and variable carbon taxes in addition to the EU ETS. We use a dynamic computable general equilibrium model that explicitly allows for allowance banking and for a detailed cost-effectiveness analysis at the EU Member State level. We find that tightening the cap provides an ad hoc solution to the fundamental issue of the robustness of the effective carbon price, while introducing a price component to the ETS brings structural carbon price support in times of negative demand shocks for emission allowances. These price-based policies still benefit from the intertemporal flexibility through the banking provision in the EU ETS by re-allocating emissions over time with stronger emission reductions in early years and emission increases in later years. A higher emission price has a larger negative impact on the new Member States' economies than on other Member States. Furthermore, introducing a carbon tax in addition to the EU ETS decreases the price of allowances, resulting in welfare gains for net buyers of allowances while net sellers are worse off. - Highlights: • We analyse reform options for European Union Emission Trading System (EU ETS) with a CGE model. • Variable carbon tax and auction reserve price support carbon price at least cost. • Price-based reforms decrease early emissions but increase later emissions through banking. • New Member States' economies are affected more than others by higher CO_2 prices. • Lower allowance prices due to a carbon tax are unfavourable to net sellers of allowances.

  8. TAX RESEARCH Financial Accounting versus Tax Accounting - Tax Rules’ Impact on Investment Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Sc. Skender Ahmeti; Dr.Sc. Muhamet Aliu; MSc. Alban Elshani; Yllka Ahmeti

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides guidance for all those interested in research related to tax. In the study are included three main areas dealing with taxes and about taxes: (1) the role of information in corporation tax expenditures under the rules and laws of the country against financial statements according to international accounting standards, (2) case study PTK; how much effective tax and tax on extra profit has it paid (3) the impact of tax rules on investment decisions - the reasons and profits o...

  9. MUNICIPAL TAX HARMONIZATION; ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belsy Tortolero

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This research work is a desk study to establish the technical and economic criteria that help to minimize double taxation at the municipal level of this tax in Venezuela, specifically for: industrial taxpayer, the taxpayer eventual merchant and / or walking, and to taxpayer service providers and implementers works on Hence the choice of the Tax Harmonisation Law of Municipal Public power in Article 162 of the Code, and the business tax. The methodology is based on the quantitative paradigm, with documentary research design, descriptive level - explanatory. Concluding that the criteria depend on the connecting factors set forth in the Law, and they are the same governing tax under study.

  10. ESTIMATION OF TAX BASE IN PERSONAL INCOME TAX AS A FORM OF SUPPORT FOR AGRICULTURE IN GERMANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata BUDLEWSKA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Taxes in most EU countries are designed to financially support farms through lower tax rates. The preferential tax allowances and exemptions motivate farmers to undertake specific activities, in accordance with the main objectives of the agricultural policy. As a result of such activities, the agricultural sector receives additional support, which officially is not subject to public control, at the same time contributing to a considerable burden of EU budgets. The aim of the article is to evaluate the selected tax expenditures addressed to farmers, contained in the German personal income tax. The paper is an attempt to answer the question, whether the method for estimating income from agricultural production used in the German personal income tax law has an impact on reducing tax burdens of farm owners and what the consequences are for the agricultural sector, especially in the area of changes in the area structure of farms.

  11. Concept of Tax Advising Within Tax Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Svitlana Bychkova; Makarova Nadiya

    2013-01-01

    Tax advising is strictly individual service requiring knowledge in the fields of law, tax and accounting. Tax advising includes not only advising on taxation models depending on the economic entity type of activity, but it also deals with issues of tax optimization. In the article the authors have offered their views on the concept of tax consulting in the area of tax optimization (tax planning). The subject matter has been a set of the most rational and important settings that allow you to u...

  12. The three hurdles of tax planning: How business context, aims of tax planning, and tax manager power affect tax

    OpenAIRE

    Feller, Anna; Schanz, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    The question of why some companies pay more taxes than others is a widely investigated topic of interest. One of the famous suspect explanations is a phenomenon called tax avoidance. We develop a holistic theoretical concept of influences on corporate tax planning through a series of 19 in-depth German tax expert interviews. Our findings show that three distinct hurdles in the tax planning process can explain different levels of tax expense across companies. Those three hurdles are which tax ...

  13. THE FLAT TAX - A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE EXISTING MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiau (Macavei Laura - Liana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the two last decades the flat tax systems have spread all around the globe from East and Central Europe to Asia and Central America. Many specialists consider this phenomenon a real fiscal revolution, but others see it as a mistake as long as the new systems are just a feint of the true flat tax designed by the famous Stanford University professors Robert Hall and Alvin Rabushka. In this context this paper tries to determine which of the existing flat tax systems resemble the true flat tax model by comparing and contrasting their main characteristics with the features of the model proposed by Hall and Rabushka. The research also underlines the common features and the differences between the existing models. The idea of this kind of study is not really new, others have done it but the comparison was limited to one country. For example Emil Kalchev from New Bulgarian University has asses the Bulgarian income system, by comparing it with the flat tax and concluding that taxation in Bulgaria is not simple, neutral and non-distortive. Our research is based on several case studies and on compare and contrast qualitative and quantitative methods. The study starts form the fiscal design drawn by the two American professors in the book The Flat Tax. Four main characteristics of the flat tax system were chosen in order to build the comparison: fiscal design, simplicity, avoidance of double taxation and uniformity of the tax rates. The jurisdictions chosen for the case study are countries all around the globe with fiscal systems which are considered flat tax systems. The results obtained show that the fiscal design of Hong Kong is the only flat tax model which is built following an economic logic and not a legal sense, being in the same time a simple and transparent system. Others countries as Slovakia, Albania, Macedonia in Central and Eastern Europe fulfill the requirement regarding the uniformity of taxation. Other jurisdictions avoid the double

  14. Cost-benefit analysis of reforming Israel's electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tishler, A.; Newman, J.; Spekterman, I.; Woo, C.K.

    2006-01-01

    In June 2003, the Israeli government decided to reform the Israeli electricity industry, which is currently dominated by Israel electric corporation (IEC), a government-owned vertically integrated electric utility. The first step of the planned reform will be taken in 2006, when IEC will be functionally separated into generation, transmission, local distribution, and customer services. Immediately thereafter will be the second step, which by 2012 will result in the deregulation and privatization of the wholesale generation and customer services. Transmission and distribution (T and D) services will remain regulated but will be available to all T and D users under mandatory open access. This paper summarizes a cost-benefit analysis of the government's reform plan. Relative to a regulated regime, the government's plan, even if carried out flawlessly, may only yield a small net benefit. However, it entails a large increase in electricity producer profit and government tax receipt, at the expense of electricity consumers. A less-than-perfect transition to competition can easily wipe out the potential gain of the government plan. Market reform experience to date shows that electricity market reform can easily fail, and the factors for success do not exist in Israel. Since the outcome of a failing reform can be disastrous, it will be imprudent to implement the government's plan in 2006, when the current electricity law expires. Hence, we recommend performance-based regulation for the period of 2006-2010. Subject to an updated cost-benefit analysis, possible decentralization, privatization and competition may follow

  15. 26 CFR 1.6851-1 - Termination assessments of income tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Additions to the Tax, Additional Amounts, and Assessable Penalties § 1... designs to do an act which would tend to prejudice proceedings to collect the income tax for such year or... compliance or to present any other evidence of compliance with income tax obligations. However, for the rules...

  16. Does More Progressive Tax Make Tax Discipline Weaker?

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Damjanovic

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between the disparity in tax base and tax collection. I address the tax collection problem with traditional industrial organization approach. Thus, I model the "tax minimization" industry where the supplier helps taxpayers to avoid their tax liability. I find that lower income inequality as well as a less progressive tax code may result in a smaller number of tax payers committing to their tax duties. Finally, I question the reduction in the highest ta...

  17. A Place Called Home: Educational Reform in a Concord, Massachusetts School, 1897-1914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morice, Linda C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the role of place in the reform efforts of two teachers who established Miss White's Home School in Concord, Massachusetts (USA). Flora and Mary White rebelled against the prevailing industrial model of instruction in tax-supported schools where they taught. As a solution, they moved to Concord--a nonconformist town with a…

  18. Status of a reformer design for a modular HTGR in an in-line configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluck, R.; Whitling, W.H.; Lipps, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    For the past several years the General Electric Company has had the technical lead on advanced concept studies for the Modular High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) programs sponsored by the United States Department of Energy. The focus of the Modular Reactor System (MRS) effort is the development of a generic nuclear heat source capable of supplying heat to either a steam generator/electric cycle or a high temperature steam /methane reforming cycle. Some early ground rules for this study were that the reactor be designed for 950 deg. C direct cycle reforming and that the core be of the prismatic type. Since the prismatic core required control rods near the center of the core, the vertical in-line concept was selected to promote natural circulation cooling of the core for all potential transients except the depressurized core heatup transient. Although the requirement for a prismatic core has been eliminated for recent cost reduction studies, the vertical in-line configuration has been retained for its potential as the lowest cost configuration. This paper presents the results of recent design and analytical studies conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using a steam/methane reformer in a Vertical In-Line (VIL) arrangement with the generic nuclear heat source

  19. Teaching Reform of Course Group Regarding Theory and Design of Mechanisms Based on MATLAB Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yi; Yuan, Mingxin; Wang, Mingqiang

    2013-01-01

    Considering that the course group regarding theory and design of mechanisms is characterized by strong engineering application background and the students generally feel very boring and tedious during the learning process, some teaching reforms for the theory and design of mechanisms are carried out to improve the teaching effectiveness in this…

  20. The redistributive effects of personal taxes and social benefits in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đinđić Srđan M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we measure the influence of the instruments of Serbia’s fiscal system - personal taxes (personal income tax and social security contributions and social benefits (means tested and nonmeans tested - on income redistribution, using the latest data from the Household Budget Survey 2012. We analyse the redistributive effects of the fiscal system for the year 2013 and of the fiscal system that has been functioning since 1st January 2014. We find that the redistributive effect reduces income inequality by about 50% in both observed years. Social benefits create 98% of vertical redistribution (2013, whereas personal taxes initiate 2% (2013. State pensions, means-tested social benefits, and social security contributions are most important in reducing inequality in Serbia (2013. The partial fiscal reform (2014 has not changed the rank of the focused fiscal instruments.

  1. 24 CFR 599.507 - Tax incentives utilization plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax incentives utilization plan....507 Tax incentives utilization plan. (a) Preliminary plan. Within six months of designation, the CoRA must prepare and submit to HUD a preliminary tax incentives utilization plan for achieving the State...

  2. Car ownership and use taxes as pollution correcting instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabit, Stefan Lindhard; Mulalic, Ismir

    There have been many attempts to alter the taxation of private vehicles to obtain more energy-efficient car transport. The last significant reform in Denmark was completed in 2007. The most important objective was to improve fuel efficiency and consequently to reduce emissions related to car tran...... a change in car taxes. Based on a simple theoretical framework we use a large sample of detailed Danish data to estimate the joint demand for vehicles and kilometres. The empirical results point at effects that have important implications....

  3. Tax Incentives for Retirement Savings: Macro and Welfare Effects in an OLG-GE Model with Liquidity Constraints and Heterogeneous Consumers.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Cifuentes

    2003-01-01

    This paper uses an Overlapping Generations-General Equilibrium model to study the impact of the introduction of tax incentives to voluntary savings for retirement in Chile. The paper analyzes the macro impact of the reform, driven mainly by its effect on savings and capital accumulation, and its effect on welfare. A setting with heterogeneous consumers is considered where agents differ in their income levels, and therefore on the relevance that tax-incentives have for them. Both the transitio...

  4. Is the "alcopops" tax working? Probably yes but there is a bigger picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skov, Steven J; Chikritzhs, Tanya N; Kypri, Kypros; Miller, Peter G; Hall, Wayne D; Daube, Michael M; Moodie, A Rob

    2011-07-18

    The Australian Government's decision to raise taxes on ready-to-drink spirit-based beverages (RTDs; "alcopops") in 2008 caused great controversy. Interest groups have selectively cited evidence to support their points of view. The alcohol industry cited Victorian data from the Australian Secondary Students' Alcohol and Drug Survey (ASSADS) as evidence that the tax had failed, but closer examination of the data suggests that fewer students are drinking, and fewer are drinking at risky or high-risk levels. Excise data from the first full year after the tax came into effect showed a more than 30% reduction in RTD sales and a 1.5% reduction in total pure alcohol sold in Australia. Although understanding the impact of the alcopops tax will require critical analysis of a range of evidence, sales and ASSADS data suggest that the tax has resulted in reduced consumption of RTDs and total alcohol. The most effective and cost-effective measures for reducing consumption and harm are a comprehensive graduated volumetric alcohol taxation system, a minimum price per standard drink, and special measures for particular products that may cause disproportionate harm. While welcoming the alcopops tax, public health advocates have consistently argued for a comprehensive package of reform that covers pricing, availability and promotion of alcohol, as well as education and treatment services.

  5. Deferred Tax Assets and Deferred Tax Expense Against Tax Planning Profit Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warsono

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the probability of earnings management performed by Property and Real Estate companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange (BEI in the period 2011-2015. How to do the management to influence the accounting numbers can be either profit management through deferred tax assets, deferred tax expense and tax planning in the financial statements. This paper examines the effect of deferred tax assets deferred tax burden, and tax planning to earnings management conducted by the company. Data of the research is to use secondary data from company financial statements that were downloaded from the official website of Indonesia Stock Exchange. Using sampling technique is performed by purposive sampling. The study population is the Property and Real Estate companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange in the period 2011-2015. The study take sample as many as 34 companies Property and Real Estate in the Stock Exchange in 2011-2015. Hypothesis testing uses multiple regressions with SPSS software version 22. The result shows that the Deferred Tax Assets positive and significant effect on earnings management; while deferred tax expense and tax planning significant negative effect on earnings management.

  6. Was there significant tax evasion after the 1999 50 cent per pack cigarette tax increase in California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, S; White, M; Gilpin, E; Pierce, J

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Several states, including California, have implemented large cigarette excise tax increases, which may encourage smokers to purchase their cigarettes in other lower taxed states, or from other lower or non-taxed sources. Such tax evasion thwarts tobacco control objectives and may cost the state substantial tax revenues. Thus, this study investigates the extent of tax evasion in the 6–12 months after the implementation of California's $0.50/pack excise tax increase. Design and setting: Retrospective data analysis from the 1999 California Tobacco Surveys (CTS), a random digit dialled telephone survey of California households. Main outcome measures: Sources of cigarettes, average daily cigarette consumption, and reported price paid. Results: Very few (5.1 (0.7)% (±95% confidence limits)) of California smokers avoided the excise tax by usually purchasing cigarettes from non- or lower taxed sources, such as out-of-state outlets, military commissaries, or the internet. The vast majority of smokers purchased their cigarettes from the most convenient and expensive sources: convenience stores/gas (petrol) stations (45.0 (1.9)%), liquor/drug stores (16.4 (1.6)%), and supermarkets (8.8 (1.2)%). Conclusions: Despite the potential savings, tax evasion by individual smokers does not appear to pose a serious threat to California's excise tax revenues or its tobacco control objectives. PMID:12035006

  7. TAX OPTIMIZATION, TAX AVOIDANCE OR TAX EVASION? CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE OFFSHORE COMPANIES’ LEGAL BACKGROUND

    OpenAIRE

    Eva ERDÕS

    2010-01-01

    Is it a legal or illegal activity to give money to establish offshore firms? What is the offshore practice is it a method of tax optimization, tax minimization or is it a harmful activity, which means tax avoidance or tax evasion. This question is very important in the European Union’s tax law system, because the EU tax law is against the harmful tax competition. Some member states’ legal system is permitted to use offshore companies’ rules, but in the European Union it is prohibited to estab...

  8. [VOCs tax policy on China's economy development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Xin; Wang, Yu-Fei; Wang, Hai-Lin; Hao, Zheng-Ping; Wang, Zheng

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, environmental tax was designed to control volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was used to explore the impacts of environmental tax (in forms of indirect tax) on the macro-economy development at both national and sector levels. Different levels of tax were simulated to find out the proper tax rate. It is found out that imposing environmental tax on high emission sectors can cause the emission decreased immediately and can lead to negative impacts on macro-economy indicators, such as GDP (gross domestic products), total investment, total product and the whole consumption etc. However, only the government income increased. In addition, the higher the tax rate is, the more pollutants can be reduced and the worse economic effects can be caused. Consequently, it is suggested that, the main controlling policies of VOCs abatement should be mandatory orders, and low environmental tax can be implemented as a supplementary.

  9. Goods and Services Tax (GST: The Importance of Comprehension Towards Achieving the Desired Awareness Among Malaysian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Rani Diana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In line with the implementation of value added tax (VAT by 160 countries, Malaysia has taken its own path with the introduction of goods and services tax (GST starting from 1 April 2015 to replace its previous tax system. This new tax system has been announced on 25 October 2013, which has given about 17 months for businesses and people in Malaysia to make a complete preparation for GST. GST is proven to be the fairer tax system to overcome the previous one which was not only limited in scope, but also came with a number of inherent weaknesses. Therefore, in order to achieve the desired awareness regarding GST, it is essential that all Malaysians have the required level of understanding in terms of its concepts, scopes, charges and mechanisms. This paper discusses the benefits of GST for the nation in the long run as well as the negative perceptions from the public. This should reveal the additional steps to be taken by the regulators in ensuring a better comprehension of this new tax system among the citizens as a support for the government’s tax reform, which has been programmed for Malaysia to move towards a high-income nation.

  10. TOP TAX SYSTEM - A common tax system for all nations

    OpenAIRE

    VIJAYA KRUSHNA VARMA

    2011-01-01

    TOP Tax system is a new tax system which can be used as a common tax system for all nations. This new tax system will be without present tax system’s all Direct and Indirect taxes accompanied by tax laws, tax exemptions, multiple tax collection departments to relieve 7 billion people of the world from the cobweb of ambiguous and complex tax structures, plethora of tax laws, mandatory and cumbersome accounting, auditing, tax returns and consequent quagmire of all tax related cases. Taxation, t...

  11. Environmental Tax Policy in Romania in the Context of the EU: Double Dividend Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Radulescu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, environment protection gained much more significance in designing the economic policies in the European Union (EU countries. There are many economic and policy differences between the European countries, despite of the harmonization process inside the EU area. The path of implementation of the environmental tax reforms in the EU countries differs greatly from one country to another and the effects of such taxation in the economic and environmental areas are manifold. The authors of this paper have agreed to undertake the task of testing the double dividend hypothesis of the environmental taxation in Romania (an energy-intensive country versus the EU area as a whole, using Vector Error Correction Model (VECM techniques and Ordinary Least Squares (OLS estimations. Our findings show that this hypothesis is validated neither in Romania (in the economic growth area nor in the EU area as a whole (in the unemployment area. Therefore, Romania cannot increase the level of the environmental tax for supporting economic growth, but it can grant environmental subsidies for decreasing the emissions and supporting the economic growth. This could be achieved by expanding the tax labor base and by collecting higher budgetary revenues to sustain such environmental subsidies. As far as the EU area is concerned, it is a necessary measure to continue the descending trend for the labor taxation to achieve the goal of improving the employment rate.

  12. Designing HIGH-COST medicine: hospital surveys, health planning, and the paradox of progressive reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Barbara Bridgman

    2010-02-01

    Inspired by social medicine, some progressive US health reforms have paradoxically reinforced a business model of high-cost medical delivery that does not match social needs. In analyzing the financial status of their areas' hospitals, for example, city-wide hospital surveys of the 1910s through 1930s sought to direct capital investments and, in so doing, control competition and markets. The 2 national health planning programs that ran from the mid-1960s to the mid-1980s continued similar strategies of economic organization and management, as did the so-called market reforms that followed. Consequently, these reforms promoted large, extremely specialized, capital-intensive institutions and systems at the expense of less complex (and less costly) primary and chronic care. The current capital crisis may expose the lack of sustainability of such a model and open up new ideas and new ways to build health care designed to meet people's health needs.

  13. The consequences of different strategies for measuring tax evasion behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghavam Ahmadi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study to investigate the effect of tax strategy on tax evasion in province of Zanjan, Iran. The study selects two randomly selected populations of 100 people from Tax organization and the people who file income tax with revenue agency. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale to study the effects of five variables namely; promote tax culture, lack of belief in tax payment consequences, filing false tax statement, tax exemption and general culture community as independent variables on tax evasion behavior. Using regression technique, the study has determined positive and meaningful relationships between tax evasion and independent variables.

  14. Design, validation, and use of an evaluation instrument for monitoring systemic reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantlebury, Kathryn; Boone, William; Butler Kahle, Jane; Fraser, Barry J.

    2001-08-01

    Over the past decade, state and national policymakers have promoted systemic reform as a way to achieve high-quality science education for all students. However, few instruments are available to measure changes in key dimensions relevant to systemic reform such as teaching practices, student attitudes, or home and peer support. Furthermore, Rasch methods of analysis are needed to permit valid comparison of different cohorts of students during different years of a reform effort. This article describes the design, development, validation, and use of an instrument that measures student attitudes and several environment dimensions (standards-based teaching, home support, and peer support) using a three-step process that incorporated expert opinion, factor analysis, and item response theory. The instrument was validated with over 8,000 science and mathematics students, taught by more than 1,000 teachers in over 200 schools as part of a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of Ohio's systemic reform initiative. When the new four-factor, 20-item questionnaire was used to explore the relative influence of the class, home, and peer environment on student achievement and attitudes, findings were remarkably consistent across 3 years and different units and methods of analysis. All three environments accounted for unique variance in student attitudes, but only the environment of the class accounted for unique variance in student achievement. However, the class environment (standards-based teaching practices) was the strongest independent predictor of both achievement and attitude, and appreciable amounts of the total variance in attitudes were common to the three environments.

  15. Integrating environmental taxes on local air pollutants with fiscal reform in Hungary: simulations with a computable general equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Glenn E.; Revesz, Tamas; Zalai, Ernoe; Fucsko, Jozsef

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the Fiscal Environmental Integration Model (FEIM) and its use to examine the merits of introducing a set of air pollutant emission taxes and stringent abatement requirements based on best commonly available control technology. These environmental protection strategies are examined both independently and in combination. In addition, Hungary has very high VAT, employment, and income tax rates and therefore might receive more than the usual advantage from using environmental tax revenues to reduce other taxes. We therefore also examine the economic and environmental implications of different uses of the revenues generated by the air pollutant emissions taxes. FEIM is a CGE model of the Hungarian economy that includes sectoral air pollution control costs functions and execution options that allow examination of the key policy choices involved. We developed and ran a baseline and seven scenarios with FEIM. The scenarios centered on introduction of environmental load fees (ELF) on emissions of SO 2 , NO x , and particulates and emission abatement requirements (EAR) for these pollutants. (Author)

  16. A note on the neutrality of profit taxes with tax evasion and tax avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Che-chiang Huang; Horn-in Kuo

    2014-01-01

    Traditional literature exploring the relationship between production and tax evasion ignores the impact of other activities on these two decisions. This paper incorporates firms' tax avoidance activities into the model of tax evasion. In contrast to conventional results, we find that profit tax is not necessarily neutral. In addition, the independency or separability of tax evasion and production decisions may not hold either whenever tax avoidance is present.

  17. EFFECT OF TAXATION ON PRODUCTION COST, ON ROTATION AND ON REFORM OF Eucalyptus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Pereira de Rezende

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This work was designed to determine the influence of tributes on the optimum economical age of harvestingEucalyptus spp. stands, to determine the number of cuttings between the reform of Eucalyptus spp. stands, to determine and analyzethe contribution of tributes to the wood production costs. Many tributes are due on the forest sector. In this study, the tributesconsidered are the ones falling on the production of forest on products and services (TMS, income tax on businessoperation (ITJP, social raw material, not including, therefore, those which are due on industrialization. They are: forestrate (FR, cadastrum and registration rate (CRR, chainsaw record rate (MRR, chainsaw ownership tax (MPT, landownership tax (RTT, commercialization tax contribution on profit (SCP, contribution for financing of social security(CFSS, Contribution for the National Institute of Social Security (CNISS, contribution for the social integration program(CSIP, rural syndicate contribution (RSH. The criterion utilized to determine economic rotation and to determine theoptimum moment to renew the stand was the Net Present Value (NPV, considering an infinite planning horizon. The resultsobtained allowed to identify the ratio of the tributes in the total wood production cost.. It was found that the optimumharvesting time, not considering the tributes, occurred at 7 years o age; considering all the tributes, the optimum age occurredat 8 years. By not considering tributes would cause to unduly anticipate the optimum harvesting age. The optimum momentto make the renewal of the stand, not considering the tributes, occurred at 21 years, after the third cutting. However,taking into account the tributes, it would occur at 32 years (after the fourth cutting. By not considering the effect oftributation would cause one to unduly antecipate the optimum time to renew the stand. Tributation stands for 37.78% ofwood production cost, i.e., taxes contribute with 3.8%, imposts with 25

  18. Design Thinking: A Process for Developing and Implementing Lasting District Reform. Knowledge Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, challenges such as how to sustain district reform, how to build a leadership pipeline, how to create an integrated project, or how to best intervene with struggling students would be resolved with a team of "experts" developing a solution in isolation of the stakeholders involved. By contrast, design thinking centers on the…

  19. THE TAX CONTROL AS A COMPONENT OF TAX ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Zhuk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the features of tax control in the system of taxes administration were investigated. The basic approaches to the determination of tax control were defined. Principles of tax control that must be kept were defined and it will ensure efficiency and effectiveness of tax control. Basic forms of tax control were characterized. An advantages of horizontal monitoring that is one of the form of tax controls were directed. Key words: tax control, tax control forms, horizontal monitoring, documentaries, desk and actual checks.

  20. Green taxes, blue taxes: A comparative study of the use of fiscal policy to promote environmental quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    Central governments are facing increasingly stringent demands to lead the clean-up of public resources. Historically, governments have chosen legislation and regulation to address these concerns and achieved mixed results, but another tool of public policy holds significant promise and is gaining ground in the policy debate: 'green' taxes. The potential of a tax system is to mitigate environmental externalities is explored. The theory of pollution tax is reviewed and a comparison of two country cases where taxes have been designed explicitly to reduce industrial effluents and improve the quality of fresh water resources is presented. If structures to approximate social costs are federally mandated and regionally implemented, a comprehensive tax system can constitute an integral part of an effective response to private spoliation of the commons. (author). 17 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  1. Intertemporal properties of an international carbon tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoel, M.

    1993-01-01

    For national environmental problems appropriately designed emission taxes lead to efficient outcomes. The paper gives an analysis of the properties of an international tax on CO 2 emissions. A uniform CO 2 tax for all countries does not necessarily give the first best social optimum. In practice, however, a uniform tax at an appropriate level will give an allocation of emissions which is very close to the allocation in the first-best optimum. CO 2 emissions affect the climate through cumulative emissions. In a dynamic game of CO 2 emissions, it is shown that the tax giving a Pareto optimal solution is the same for the open loop and the perfect equilibrium in spite of the fact that these two equilibria differ in the absence of a CO 2 tax. 10 refs., 3 figs

  2. Bureaucratic Tax-Seeking: The Danish Waste Tax

    OpenAIRE

    Christoffersen, Henrik; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2000-01-01

    Two main results in traditional tax theory states the following. First, general taxes minimize the welfare loss from changed relative prices. Second, because the total public budget tends to exceed the optimal size, a leader (here named 'troop leader') is needed in the budget process to prevent over-taxation. Nevertheless, differentiated taxes initiated by individual ministries generate a still larger proportion of total tax revenue, in particular under cover of taxing externalities such as e...

  3. Integrating ICT Skills and Tax Software in Tax Education: A Survey of Malaysian Tax Practitioners' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Lai Ming; Nawawi, Nurul Hidayah Ahamad

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the ICT skills needed by a fresh accounting graduate when first joining a tax firm; to find out usage of electronic tax (e-tax) applications in tax practice; to assess the rating of senior tax practitioners on fresh graduates' ICT and e-tax applications skills; and to solicit tax practitioners' opinion regarding…

  4. Bureaucratic Tax-Seeking: The Danish Waste Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Henrik; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2000-01-01

    Two main results in traditional tax theory states the following. First, general taxes minimize the welfare loss from changed relative prices. Second, because the total public budget tends to exceed the optimal size, a leader (here named 'troop leader') is needed in the budget process to prevent...... over-taxation. Nevertheless, differentiated taxes initiated by individual ministries generate a still larger proportion of total tax revenue, in particular under cover of taxing externalities such as environmental pollution. We suggest that this situation leads to over-taxation for two reasons. First......, the absence of a strong and fully informed troop leader prevents rational coordination of collective action. Second, budget maximization leads to overwhelming fiscal pressure because bureaucracies are competing about resources just like fishermen or hunters (here named 'bureaucratic tax-seeking'). Taxing...

  5. Taxing Consumption or Income: Du Pareil Au Même?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijbren Cnossen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Income and consumption comprise the two main tax bases in most countries, leaving many governments with the perennial dilemma of deciding which ought to be the focus of fiscal policy. However, in Canada the situation is much less ambiguous; the existing Canadian tax regime disproportionately favours direct, income-based taxation, deriving over two-thirds [this includes property tax revenue] of tax revenues from this stream. This paper argues that Canada’s narrow focus on direct taxation leads governments to miss out on the revenuestabilizing effects that a greater emphasis on consumption taxes would bring. Tilting the balance toward indirect consumption taxes like the GST would benefit public revenues because: i demand fluctuates less than income; ii consumption is largely local, reducing tax avoidance; and iii the GST is less amenable to being co-opted for market-distorting political purposes. As income and consumption taxes are broadly similar in their effects, a shift from the former to the latter would have few consequences for Canadian employment, investment and saving. The author provides a summary of income and consumption tax structures in several Western countries with consumption-oriented tax structures to contend that it’s time Canadian governments embraced meaningful tax reform. L’impôt sur le revenu et les taxes à la consommation constituent les deux principales assiettes fiscales dans la plupart des pays, si bien que de nombreux gouvernements sont confrontés en permanence au dilemme de déterminer sur laquelle de ces deux solutions concentrer leurs politiques fiscales. Toutefois, au Canada, la situation est beaucoup moins floue; le régime fiscal canadien favorise de façon disproportionnée l’impôt direct sur le revenu et tire de cette source plus des deux tiers de ses recettes fiscales (cela comprend les impôts fonciers. On soutient ici que le Canada fonde une trop grande part de ces recettes sur l’impôt direct et

  6. Globalization, Tax Competition and Tax Burden İn Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veli KARGI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available 1990’s world was quite different from the world of 1950’s. Especially in the last twenty years, the increasing involvement of Japan in the world economy since the 1990s, in addition to the dominance of globalization and market economy throughout the world, the rapid spread of information resulting from the developments in IT-technology and the international competition emerging in the field of technology have all led to some significant developments in the world economy. Reduction of high mobility income and corporate tax rates due to tax competition may cause an unjust distribution of the tax burden. The fact that indirect taxation constitutes about 70% of the tax revenues obtained in Turkey can be taken as an indication of the unfairness in the distribution of tax burden in Turkey. In this study, following a definition of globalization and tax competition, classification of tax competition, reasons for increasing tax competition, benefits and losses of tax competition are explained, and changes introduced by various countries in their tax systems due to tax competition, the distribution of tax burden resulting from tax competition in Turkey and the effectiveness of the new income tax law in Turkey in terms of tax competition are analyzed.

  7. TAX RESEARCH Financial Accounting versus Tax Accounting - Tax Rules’ Impact on Investment Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Skender Ahmeti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides guidance for all those interested in research related to tax. In the study are included three main areas dealing with taxes and about taxes: (1 the role of information in corporation tax expenditures under the rules and laws of the country against financial statements according to international accounting standards, (2 case study PTK; how much effective tax and tax on extra profit has it paid (3 the impact of tax rules on investment decisions - the reasons and profits of the company and the host country. We will try to summarize here the three areas of study and come to some conclusions on how to deal with fiscal policy in Kosovo. In addition, we will offer our opinion on some interesting and important questions for future research.

  8. Capital Income Tax Coordination and the Income Tax Mix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huizinga, Harry; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2005-01-01

    in the mix of capital and labor taxes brought on by capital income tax coordination can potentially be welfare reducing. This reflects that in a non-cooperative equilibrium capital income taxes may be more distorting from an international perspective than are labor income taxes. Simulations with a simple...... model calibrated to EU public finance data suggest that countries indeed lower their labor taxes in response to higher coordinated capital income taxes. The overall welfare effects of capital income tax coordination, however, are estimated to remain positive.JEL Classification: F20, H87......Europe has seen several proposals for tax coordination only in the area of capital income taxation, leaving countries free to adjust their labor taxes. The expectation is that highercapital income tax revenues would cause countries to reduce their labor taxes. This paper shows that such changes...

  9. The effect of business characteristics on tax compliance costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popi Fauziati

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Compliance fee is the cost incurred by the taxpayers in fulfilling the taxation requirements imposed on the taxpayers by the law and the authority of the country. The company expects to incur the minimum tax costs associated with fulfilling its tax obligations. Research on the influence of business characteristics to tax compliance cost is still scanty. This research examined the effect of business characteristics (age, size, sector and risk management on tax compliance costs. The research design adopted in this study is survey design. The questionnaires were distributed to the members of De-partment of Cooperatives and Micro Small-Medium Enterprises in Padang City. The non-probability sampling was used as the sampling method and 92 respondents participated in this re-search. The data obtained were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. The research findings indicate that age, size and sector have no effect on tax compliance costs while risk management has an effect on tax compliance costs.

  10. Health care evaluation, utilitarianism and distortionary taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcott, P

    2000-09-01

    Cost Utility Analysis (CUA) and Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) are methods to evaluate allocations of health care resources. Problems are raised for both methods when income taxes do not meet the first best optimum. This paper explores the implications of three ways that taxes may fall short of this ideal. First, taxes may be distortionary. Second, they may be designed and administered without reference to information that is used by providers of health care. Finally, the share of tax revenue that is devoted to health care may be suboptimal. The two methods are amended to account for these factors.

  11. Tax Policy of Estonia in the framework of the EU Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kuldkepp

    2005-01-01

    textabstractTax policy is formulated through a political process. The institutional framework is important for the formulation of tax policy. The domestic situation as well as the international aspects influences the design of tax policy. Estonian tax policy choices are very closely connected to

  12. ¿Pueden considerarse significativas las reformas fiscales de México? // Can the Tax Reforms in Mexico be Considered Significant?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Lagunas Puls

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Se establece como objetivo general, analizar la significancia estadística de cambios en la recaudación del Impuesto Sobre la Renta (ISR y del Impuesto al Valor Agregado (IVA, a partir del año 2000 y hasta el segundo trimestre del 2015, para afirmar o no la variación en la recaudación. Para lograrlo se aplican métodos clásicos con valor crítico significante a 0,05 de alfa, pero complementándolo parámetro delta para establecer el nivel de cambio en poco significante, medianamente significante o de gran significancia. En las conclusiones se deja antecedente que a pesar de lo que parecieran como impactantes cambios en materia fiscal que pudieron haber incidido positiva o negativamente en el pago del ISR e IVA, tales como el acotamiento del régimen de consolidación fiscal, gravámenes complementarios, hasta llegar a la homologación del IVA a tasa 16% para todo el país, en la mayoría de los casos, no se obtuvo evidencia para argumentar eficiencia en la recaudación nacional. ------------------------------------ It is the purpose of this work to analyze the significance of changes in average for the collection of value-added (VAT and income taxes from year 2000 and up to the second quarter of 2015. To accomplish that, classic methods of significance will be applied, but contrasted with tests for the typified difference of the average, fundamental parameters of the meta-analysis Cohen's Delta. The main conclusions are that although there have been relevant changes in the tax collection process such as limits in the tax consolidation regime, complementary taxes e.g., flat rate business tax, substitute tax credit to wages, tax on cash deposits and the standardization of the VAT to 16%, there is no strong evidence to state an efficient national tax collection system.

  13. Different Tax Systems among Nations and International Tax Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    栗原, 克文

    2008-01-01

    As economic globalization proceeds, tax policies of one nation influence others more and greater pressures are imposed on tax systems and tax administrations.The possibility of tax avoidance will expand if cross-border transactions are abused.Specifically, tax system differentials among countries increase the opportunity for tax avoidance.Under some tax avoidance schemes, foreign entities which have no or little economic substance are used to create artificial losses, so that they can minimiz...

  14. System of National Accounts as an Information Base for Tax Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Lyapin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to those aspects of the system of national accounts, which together perform the role of information base of tax statistics. In our time, the tax system is one of the main subjects of the discussions about the methods and directions of its reform.Taxes are one of the main factors of regulation of the economy and act as an incentive for its development. Analysis of tax revenues to the budgets of different levels will enable to collect taxes and perform tax burden for various industries. From the amount of tax revenue it is possible to judge scales of reproductive processes in the country. It should be noted that taxes in the SNA are special. As mentioned earlier, in the SNA, taxes on products are treated in the form of income. At the same time, most economists prefer, their consideration in the form of consumption taxes, and taxes on various financial transactions (for example: taxes on the purchase/sale of securities are treated as taxes on production, including in cases when there are no services. It would be rational to revise and amend the SNA associated with the interpretation of all taxes and subsidies, to ensure better understanding and compliance with user needs.Taxes are an integral part of any state and an indispensable element of economic relations of any society. In turn, taxes and the budget are inextricably linked, as these relations have a clearly expressed, objective bilateral character. Taxes are the main groups of budget revenues, which makes it possible to finance all the government agencies and expenditure items, as well as the implementation of institutional subsidy units that make up the SNA sector “non-financial corporations”.The second side story is that taxes – a part of the money that is taken from producers and households. The total mass of taxes depends on the composition of taxes, tax rates, tax base and scope of benefits. The bulk of tax revenues also depends on possible changes in

  15. New tax law hobbles tax-exempt hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldblatt, S J

    1982-03-01

    The Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 left tax-exempt hospitals at a significant disadvantage in the competition for capital. Although the new law's accelerated depreciation schedules and liberalized investment tax credits contain some marginal benefits for tax-exempt hospitals, these benefits are probably more than offset by the impact of the law on charitable giving.

  16. Looking Under the Hood of the Cadillac Tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glied, Sherry; Striar, Adam

    2016-06-01

    One effect of the Affordable Care Act's "Cadillac tax" (now delayed until 2020) is to undo part of the existing federal tax preference for employer-sponsored insurance. The specific features of this tax on high-cost health plans--notably, the inclusion of tax-favored savings vehicles such as health savings accounts (HSAs) in the formula for determining who is subject to the tax--are designed primarily to maximize revenue and minimize coverage disruptions, not to reduce health spending. Thus, at least initially, these savings accounts, rather than enrollee cost-sharing or other plan features, are likely to be affected most by the tax as employers act to limit their HSA contributions. Because high earners are the ones benefiting most from tax-preferred accounts, the high-cost plan tax will probably be more progressive than prior analyses have suggested, while having only a modest impact on total health spending.

  17. An "All-American" health reform proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, U E

    1993-01-01

    Reforming the U.S. health care system is frequently thought of in absolutist terms: managed competition versus rate regulation; federal versus state administration; and business mandates versus individual insurance purchases. While these choices must be resolved over the long run, the transition to a new health care system will take several years and require more flexible solutions. The "All-American" Deal offers just that. It requires individual households to be insured and allows businesses to voluntarily offer health insurance; relies on the federal income tax system to collect income-based premiums and transfer funds to states through risk-adjusted payments; and lets states manage the disbursement of funds for uninsured residents.

  18. Transfer Pricing - between Optimization and International Tax Evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin SAVA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Each enterprise in the private sector aims to increase financial return, which is achieved by obtaining a the higher net profit by increasing revenue and reducing expenditure. In this endeavor, compliance with tax obligations occupy a very important role because handling taxes may lead to an increase in revenue and / or a reduction of spending, and this action is called tax optimization. In the case of multinational companies, the main tool that can be used to lower the tax burden and increasing, sometimes in sizeable benefits in net, is the transfer prices or the prices they registered entities in the group transactions between them, along with another instrument with great impact, ie tax havens. Tax evasion, designating evading payment obligations of a company according to the national tax system, may be legal in the sense that tax optimization does not violate the rules, but exploiting loopholes that are in them. But when legal tax rules are violated, we deal with tax fraud, which will be subject to punitive measures by public authorities as it affects the whole population.

  19. From tax evasion to tax planning

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgain, Arnaud; Pieretti, Patrice; Zanaj, Skerdilajda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze within a simple model how a re- moval of bank secrecy can impact tax revenues and banks' profitability assuming that offshore centers are able to offer sophisticated but legal or not easily detectable tax planning. Two alternative regimes are considered. A first in which there is strict bank secrecy and a second where there is international information exchange for tax purposes. We show in particular that sharing tax information with onshore coun- tries can...

  20. Health-financing reforms in southeast Asia: challenges in achieving universal coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Ir, Por; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Mukti, Ali Ghufron; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Banzon, Eduardo; Huong, Dang Boi; Thabrany, Hasbullah; Mills, Anne

    2011-03-05

    In this sixth paper of the Series, we review health-financing reforms in seven countries in southeast Asia that have sought to reduce dependence on out-of-pocket payments, increase pooled health finance, and expand service use as steps towards universal coverage. Laos and Cambodia, both resource-poor countries, have mostly relied on donor-supported health equity funds to reach the poor, and reliable funding and appropriate identification of the eligible poor are two major challenges for nationwide expansion. For Thailand, the Philippines, Indonesia, and Vietnam, social health insurance financed by payroll tax is commonly used for formal sector employees (excluding Malaysia), with varying outcomes in terms of financial protection. Alternative payment methods have different implications for provider behaviour and financial protection. Two alternative approaches for financial protection of the non-poor outside the formal sector have emerged-contributory arrangements and tax-financed schemes-with different abilities to achieve high population coverage rapidly. Fiscal space and mobilisation of payroll contributions are both important in accelerating financial protection. Expanding coverage of good-quality services and ensuring adequate human resources are also important to achieve universal coverage. As health-financing reform is complex, institutional capacity to generate evidence and inform policy is essential and should be strengthened. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Review on the Research of China’s Implementation of the“BT Reforms to VAT”Effect and Countermeasure%我国实施“营业税改增值税”试点后的相关研究评述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官波; 刘春花; 陈珍珍

    2016-01-01

    The reform of “BT reforms to VAT” is the important content of tax system reform in our country, and is the important measures to eliminate the obstacle of economic development effectively step by step under the law system of parallel, improve the problem of double taxation, the tax collection and management system, the efficiency of tax collection and administration, and to integrate with international tax system. After our country implemented a pilot reform of the “BT reforms to VAT”, the scholars have do a lot of work on the impact and countermeasures of the reform. The paper summarize and review the study of the influence and countermeasures of the reform on the relationship of the central finance and local finance, the tax burden of the enterprise, accounting and accounting statements, and the fiscal and taxation economic and so on , and think that the research of scholars in the affirmation of the positive effects of the reform of the “ BT reforms to VAT ”at the same time, analyzes the reform of the negative effects and countermeasures emphatically, and this paper analyzes the deficiency existing in the research. This Article put forward further research field of vision, think that after the fully implementing of change the business tax into the value-added tax, it should be extended to the real estate industry, finance industry and consumer services industry like tourism industry, and aspects of the construction of the tax collection and administration system how to guarantee a smooth transition to the police of the “ BT reforms to VAT ”, value-added tax legislative issues and so on, and focus on empirical research and dynamic analysis on the research methods.%“营改增”是我国税制改革的重要内容,是有效逐步消除两税并行体制下经济发展障碍、改善重复征税问题、完善税收征管体系、提高税收征管效率,与国际税制接轨的重要举措。我国实

  2. Tax Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaper, Marcel; Hage, Jaap; Waltermann, Antonia; Akkermans, Bram

    2017-01-01

    Taxes are compulsory, unrequited payments to government. This chapter discusses the goals of taxation and provides an introduction to the most important taxes: taxes on income, taxes on goods and services, and taxes on property. Furthermore, the chapter offers insights to procedural issues of

  3. http://www.revistadestatistica.ro/index.php/effective-management-of-resources-for-environmental-protection-using-taxes-in-the-environmental-policy/

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia CĂPĂŢÎNĂ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of environmental taxes, called green taxes or eco-taxes, are ways to internalize the environmental costs in the prices of goods or services, causing producers and consumers to use resources more efficiently and sustainably. Green taxes or Pigovian taxes, named after their inventor, Arthur Pigou are known as sin taxes and when are applied to the “sin” of pollution they may be called environmental taxes or eco-taxes. Sustainable development can not be sustained without the existence of adequate measures and effective for protection of the environment. The polluter pays principle is a principle embraced by all countries from the desire do not deplete environmental resources, some of which being non-renewable resources, to be used by future generations. Polluters are both individuals and legal entities who must to respond in one way or another for their irresponsible actions, compensating damages, protecting the environment and paying damages for any casualties. Green taxes can generate a tax reform. Any responsible person will try to manage in another way the resources when has to bear consequences. In this regard, the environment can be protected more effectively and more cost effective for citizens. The effects of irresponsible actions of some of us not only affect the environment but also all animals and vegetable bodies inclusive people.

  4. The Disability Tax Credit: Why it Fails and How to Fix It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Simpson

    2016-06-01

    credit, a refundable credit would now see a majority, 56.4 per cent, receiving benefits. We estimate that this would mean added costs to the federal program of a modest $72 million, or a 17 per cent increase. A similar reform at the provincial level would cost an additional $31 million. An even more effective option for ensuring better outcomes for this policy, however, would be to both make the tax credit refundable and enhance it to triple its value. This would ensure that virtually every family with a disabled person below the low income cut-off, would benefit from the credit and this enhancement would raise their incomes a far more consequential 27 per cent. The costs of this enhanced refundable disability tax credit would be, of course, notably higher, estimated at $516 million federally and $240 million provincially, but it would actually achieve the outcomes that this policy ostensibly intends. The current program may be cheaper, but the value it delivers is trifling and the money, therefore, is arguably heavily wasted. For years there have been calls to make this tax credit work better through refundability. We now have evidence that an enhanced refundable disability tax credit would make the significant difference in the lives of lowincome Canadians with disabilities that the policy was designed to do, but has so far largely failed to do.

  5. Do Employer Pension Contributions Reflect Employee Preferences? Evidence from a Retirement Savings Reform in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadlon, Itzik; Laird, Jessica; Nielsen, Torben Heien

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies how firms set contributions to employer provided 401(k)-type pension plans. Using a reform that decreased the subsidy to contributions to capital pension accounts for Danish workers in the top income tax bracket, we provide strong evidence that employers' contributions are based...... on their employees' savings preferences. We find an immediate decrease in employer contributions to capital accounts, whose magnitude increased in the share of employees directly affected by the reform. This response was large relative to average employee responses within private IRA-type plans and was accompanied...... by a similar magnitude shift of employer contributions to annuity accounts....

  6. The Tax Exclusion for Employer-Sponsored Insurance Is Not Regressive-But What Is It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joseph

    2017-08-01

    Conventional wisdom says that the tax exclusion for employer-sponsored health insurance (ESI) is "regressive and therefore unfair." Yet, by the standard definition of regressive tax policy, the conventional view is almost certainly false. It confuses the absolute size of the tax exclusion with its proportional effect on income. The error results from paying attention only to the marginal tax rate applied to ESI benefits as a portion of income and ignoring the fact that benefits are normally a much larger share of income for people with lower wages. This article explains the difference and then considers other distributional effects of ESI. It suggests that ESI-for those who receive it-further redistributes toward those with lesser means or greater need. The most evident effect is by need, favoring employees with families over those without. Yet there is good reason to believe there is also a redistribution by income, with the package of wages plus benefits being less unequal than wages alone would be. Therefore reformers should be much more careful before criticizing either ESI or its subsidy through the tax code as "unfair," especially as the likelihood of enacting something better in the United States seems quite low. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  7. An Empirical Study of the Impact of China’s Export Tax Rebates on RMB Appreciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degong Ma

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available While the issue of RMB (Renminbi, Chinese Yuan revaluation became the focus of world attention in 2003, the reform of the RMB exchange rate regime in 2005 didn't fundamentally solve the RMB appreciation problem, and even in 2008 the global financial crisis made RMB appreciation face new challenges and risks. It appears that the rise in RMB value is caused by supply exceeding demand in China's foreign exchange market; however, intrinsically it is due to the asymmetry iWhile the issue of RMB (Renminbi, Chinese Yuan revaluation became the focus of world attention in 2003, the reform of the RMB exchange rate regime in 2005 didn't fundamentally solve the RMB appreciation problem, and even in 2008 the global financial crisis made RMB appreciation face new challenges and risks. It appears that the rise in RMB value is caused by supply exceeding demand in China's foreign exchange market; however, intrinsically it is due to the asymmetry in RMB exchange rate formation mechanism. The export tax rebates policy implemented by Chinese government is one of the leading causes of the asymmetry. This study constructs a transmission model between export tax rebates and foreign exchange rates, and applies the Granger Test to validate the causality between kernel variables based on correlative data from 1994-2011, and uses the error correction method to analyze the quantified relations of kernel variables, and finally gets the contribution rate of export tax rebates to RMB appreciation.

  8. Excise Tax Avoidance: The Case of State Cigarette Taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCicca, Philip; Kenkel, Donald; Liu, Feng

    2013-01-01

    We conduct an applied welfare economics analysis of cigarette tax avoidance. We develop an extension of the standard formula for the optimal Pigouvian corrective tax to incorporate the possibility that consumers avoid the tax by making purchases in nearby lower-tax jurisdictions. To provide a key parameter for our formula, we estimate a structural endogenous switching regression model of border-crossing and cigarette prices. In illustrative calculations, we find that for many states, after taking into account tax avoidance the optimal tax is at least 20 percent smaller than the standard Pigouvian tax that simply internalizes external costs. Our empirical estimate that tax avoidance strongly responds to the price differential is the main reason for this result. We also use our results to examine the benefits of replacing avoidable state excise taxes with a harder-to-avoid federal excise tax on cigarettes. PMID:24140760

  9. Excise tax avoidance: the case of state cigarette taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCicca, Philip; Kenkel, Donald; Liu, Feng

    2013-12-01

    We conduct an applied welfare economics analysis of cigarette tax avoidance. We develop an extension of the standard formula for the optimal Pigouvian corrective tax to incorporate the possibility that consumers avoid the tax by making purchases in nearby lower tax jurisdictions. To provide a key parameter for our formula, we estimate a structural endogenous switching regression model of border-crossing and cigarette prices. In illustrative calculations, we find that for many states, after taking into account tax avoidance the optimal tax is at least 20% smaller than the standard Pigouvian tax that simply internalizes external costs. Our empirical estimate that tax avoidance strongly responds to the price differential is the main reason for this result. We also use our results to examine the benefits of replacing avoidable state excise taxes with a harder-to-avoid federal excise tax on cigarettes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Does an Uncertain Tax System Encourage "Aggressive Tax Planning"?

    OpenAIRE

    James Alm

    2014-01-01

    "Aggressive tax planning" (ATP) is typically characterized as a tax scheme that reduces the effective tax rate of a particular type of income to a level below the one sought by fiscal policy for this income. One motivation often suggested for its use is the uncertainty in tax liabilities introduced by a complicated and ever changing tax system. In this paper, I examine the impact of an uncertainty on the use of such tax schemes; by implication, I also examine how a simpler and more stable tax...

  11. Tax Arbitrage by Colleges and Universities. A CBO Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congressional Budget Office, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Colleges and universities enjoy a variety of federal tax preferences that are designed to support a broader public purpose--the advancement of higher education and research. Not only are institutions of higher learning exempt from paying federal income taxes, they also are eligible to receive tax deductible charitable contributions and allowed to…

  12. Dividends and Taxes: Evidence on Tax-Reduction Strategies.

    OpenAIRE

    Chaplinsky, Susan; Seyhun, H Nejat

    1990-01-01

    This article investigates two aspects of dividend tax avoidance not addressed by prior research. First, it examines the aggregate dividend tax savings provided to individuals through tax-exempt and tax-deferred accumulators. Using the Internal Revenue Service Individual Income Tax Model, it then proceeds to determine whether specific provisions of the Internal Revenue Code, such as the preferential treatment of capital gains, the investment-interest limitation, and the $100 dividend exclusion...

  13. Gasoline tax best path to reduced emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinner, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Lowering gasoline consumption is the quickest way to increase energy security and reduce emissions. Three policy initiatives designed to meet such goals are current contenders in Washington, DC: higher gasoline taxes; higher CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) standards; and an auto registration fee scheme with gas-guzzler taxes and gas-sipper subsidies. Any of these options will give us a more fuel-efficient auto fleet. The author feels, however, the gasoline tax holds several advantages: it is fair, flexible, smart, and honest. But he notes that he is proposing a substantial increase in the federal gasoline tax. Real commitment would translate into an additional 50 cents a gallon at the pump. While the concept of increasing taxes at the federal level is unpopular with voters and, thus, with elected officials, there are attractive ways to recycle the $50 billion in annual revenues that higher gas taxes would produce

  14. Health responses to a wealth shock: Evidence from a Swedish tax reform

    OpenAIRE

    Erixson, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    This essay contributes in two ways to the literature on the effects of economic circumstances on health. First, it deals with reverse causality and omitted variable bias by exploiting exogenous variation in inherited wealth generated by the unexpected repeal of the Swedish inheritance tax. Second, it analyzes responses in health outcomes from administrative registers. The results show that increased wealth has limited impacts on objective adult health over a period of six years. This is in li...

  15. An Empirical Study on Effective Tax Rate and CEO Promotion: Evidence from Local SOEs in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of effective tax payment on the CEO promotion in local State Owned Enterprise (SOE in China. Based on the analysis of listed local SOEs in China from 2004 to 2010, this paper tests the relationship between CEO promotion and tax payment. In addition, the moderating effect of pyramid layer is tested. This paper finds that there is a significant positive relationship between Effective Tax Rate (ETR and CEO promotion, which suggests that CEOs may be aggressive in tax payment to please the local governments, who ultimately own the local SOEs. The current paper also finds that the relationship between ETR and CEO promotion is weakened as pyramid layers increase. Our conclusions enrich the literature on CEO turnover and the role of pyramid structure. The conclusions are also helpful for the SOEs’ reform in China and other developing countries. First, this paper is among the first to investigate the relationship between ETR and CEO turnover. Second, this paper highlights the function of pyramid structure in mitigating government intervention. Third, this paper also adds to the research on effective tax.

  16. CEO Power, Corporate Tax Avoidance and Tax Aggressiveness

    OpenAIRE

    GATOT SOEPRIYANTO

    2017-01-01

    My thesis investigates the association between CEO power, corporate tax avoidance and tax aggressiveness, using two organizational theory perspectives: self-interest and stewardship. I find that a powerful CEO engages in less corporate tax avoidance activities, which lends credence to the risk minimization motive of the stewardship perspective. My findings on the association between CEO power and tax aggressiveness show that powerful CEOs avoid risky tax avoidance strategies that expose a fir...

  17. The effects of CO2-differentiated vehicle tax systems on car choice, CO2 emissions and tax revenues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses the impacts of a CO2-differentiated tax policy designed to influence car purchasing trends towards lower CO2 emitting vehicles in the Netherlands. Since 2009, gasoline and diesel cars up to 110 and 95 gram CO2 per km are exempted from the vehicle registration tax (VRT). In

  18. Tax Planning Implementation on Income Tax, Article 23 as A Legal Effort To Minimize Tax Expense Payable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Daengs GS

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An effort to minimize tax burden can be done in various ways start from inside the scope of taxation regulation to violate the taxation regulation. This research focuses on related Laws with the efforts to minimize Income tax. In general tax planning referred to engineered the business process and tax payer transaction. The aim is tax payable in minimal number but under taxation regulation scope. The outline of this study focus on planning effort of Tax Income Article 23 to minimize tax expense payable run in PT. TRIPERKASA AMININDAH Surabaya. Tax planning that done in this company refer to provision  in accordance with  Directorate General of Tax Decision Number : Kep-305/PJ/2001 on the estimates of nett income. Tax planning had done by this company in addition to refer the regulation also based on the condition of this company which experiencing poor performance. Then the aim that will be reached from that tax planning to reach minimal expense over the Income Tax Article 23 it can be done with gross up method. From the analysis result on the alternative it can draw a conclusion that PT. TRIPERKASA AMININDAH  Surabaya  has made adjustments on the regulation above, calculation of Income Tax Article 23 with gross up method in fact be able to saving the tax then suitable with the tax planning aim that is effort to minimize tax expense payable.

  19. Principles of taxation as a means of implementing fiscal function of the tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К. О. Гетьман

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Problem setting. problems of the principles of taxation, as a means of implementing fiscal functions of tax for a long time did not go beyond scientific publications and was not even trying to solve them in tax legislation of Ukraine. Reform legislation, including in taxation, conducted before, even in terms of staging did not address the question of the principles of taxation. This approach did not promote cohesion of financial system, for a certain time did not allow to systematize financial legislation, part of which is tax legislation. The need for more detailed and comprehensive definition of common fundamental principles of development of financial systems and legal forms of action and ways to ensure the unity of the financial system relevant institutions and associations finance and financial law on these principles can be established only through comprehensive research system of taxation principles as a means of implementing fiscal function of the tax. Recent research and publications analysis. until today, the analysis of legal principles of taxation fixing occurred only in individual scientific articles and books devoted to the study of common problems of tax law. In this area next scientists showed their interests: A. V. Bryzgalin, L. K. Voronov, A. N.Gorbunov, N. V.Karasev, A. M. Kozyrina, M. P.Kucheryavenko, P. S.Patsurkivskoho, S. G.Pepeliaev, M. I.Piskotina, G. P.Tolstopyatenko, N. I. Himichevoyi, D. G.Chernika and others, which considered very general questions of legal regulation of taxes and fees, certain aspects of the content and classification principles of tax law. In the study of major problems dissertation widely used for foreign scientists E. Bradley, R. Dernberha, M. Janis, R. Kay, J. Stiglitz. Paper objective. The goal is to deepen scientific knowledge of the legal nature of the principles of taxation as a means of implementing fiscal functions of tax by developing a holistic and comprehensive scientific understanding

  20. Taxing food: implications for public health nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraher, Martin; Cowburn, Gill

    2005-12-01

    To set out a policy analysis of food taxes as a way of influencing food consumption and behaviour. The study draws on examples of food taxes from the developed world imposed at national and local levels. Studies were identified from a systemised search in six databases with criteria designed to identity articles of policy relevance. The dominant approach identified from the literature was the imposition of food taxes on food to raise general revenue, such as Value Added Tax in the European Union. Food taxes can be applied in various ways, ranging from attempts to directly influence behaviour to those which collect taxes for identified campaigns on healthy eating through to those applied within closed settings such as schools. There is a case for combining taxes of unhealthy foods with subsidies of healthy foods. The evidence from the literature concerning the use and impact of food taxes on food behaviour is not clear and those cases identified are mainly retrospective descriptions of the process. Many food taxes have been withdrawn after short periods of time due to industry lobbying. CONCLUSIONS FOR POLICY: Small taxes with the clear purpose of promoting the health of key groups, e.g. children, are more likely to receive public support. The focus of many tax initiatives is unclear; although they are generally aimed at consumers, another focus could be food manufacturers, using taxes and subsidies to encourage the production of healthier foods, which could have an effect at a population level. Further consideration needs to be given to this aspect of food taxes. Taxing food (and subsidies) can influence food behaviour within closed systems such as schools and the workplace.

  1. Environmental tax shifting in Canada : theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, A.; Hornung, R.; Cairns, S.

    2003-03-01

    Canada's leading energy and resource companies along with the Pembina Institute for Appropriate Development have collaborated in the Triple E Tax Shift Research Collaborative which examines the use of environmental tax shifting in Canada. The objective is to design, evaluate and advance federal and provincial environmental tax shifts that will influence individual behaviour and decisions to improve ecological integrity through measurable reductions in materials and energy throughput, and to maintain or increase economic competitiveness through the creation of a tax framework that would encourage businesses to improve energy efficiency. Another objective is to increase employment and social benefits through more employment opportunities and improved quality of life. Environmental tax shifting means shifting a portion of a government's tax base onto goods, services and activities associated with harmful environmental impacts that add to societal costs. Tax shifting can be implemented by offering rebates to consumers of environmental significant goods, or by adjustments to existing taxes so that environmentally sensitive goods are taxed at a lower rate than environmentally harmful goods and services. Environmental tax shifting can also be implemented by reducing existing environmental taxes and introducing a carbon dioxide emissions tax. This report is the first product of the collaboration and is intended to promote public dialogue on the subject and identify ways to implement environmental tax shifting. tabs., figs

  2. The relationship between alcohol taxes and binge drinking: evaluating new tax measures incorporating multiple tax and beverage types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Ziming; Chaloupka, Frank J; Blanchette, Jason G; Nguyen, Thien H; Heeren, Timothy C; Nelson, Toben F; Naimi, Timothy S

    2015-03-01

    U.S. studies contribute heavily to the literature about the tax elasticity of demand for alcohol, and most U.S. studies have relied upon specific excise (volume-based) taxes for beer as a proxy for alcohol taxes. The purpose of this paper was to compare this conventional alcohol tax measure with more comprehensive tax measures (incorporating multiple tax and beverage types) in analyses of the relationship between alcohol taxes and adult binge drinking prevalence in U.S. states. Data on U.S. state excise, ad valorem and sales taxes from 2001 to 2010 were obtained from the Alcohol Policy Information System and other sources. For 510 state-year strata, we developed a series of weighted tax-per-drink measures that incorporated various combinations of tax and beverage types, and related these measures to state-level adult binge drinking prevalence data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys. In analyses pooled across all years, models using the combined tax measure explained approximately 20% of state binge drinking prevalence, and documented more negative tax elasticity (-0.09, P = 0.02 versus -0.005, P = 0.63) and price elasticity (-1.40, P tax. In analyses stratified by year, the R-squares for models using the beer combined tax measure were stable across the study period (P = 0.11), while the R-squares for models rely only on volume-based tax declined (P tax measures, combined tax measures (i.e. those incorporating volume-based tax and value-based taxes) yield substantial improvement in model fit and find more negative tax elasticity and price elasticity predicting adult binge drinking prevalence in U.S. states. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Tax policy and tax protest in 20 rich democracies, 1980-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Martin, Isaac; Gabay, Nadav

    2017-08-12

    Why are some policies protested more than others? New data on protest against eight categories of taxation in twenty rich democracies from 1980 to 2010 reveal that economically and socially concentrated taxes are protested most, whereas taxes that confer entitlement to benefits are protested least. Other features of policy design often thought to affect the salience or visibility of costs are unimportant for explaining the frequency of protest. These findings overturn a folk theory that political sociology has inherited from classical political economy; clarify the conditions under which policy threats provoke protest; and shed light on how welfare states persist. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  4. A choice experiment on tax: Are income and consumption taxes equivalent?

    OpenAIRE

    Kurokawa, Hirofumi; Mori, Tomoharu; Ohtake, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    We test the equivalence of income and consumption taxes through a choice experiment. Under a given set of income and consumption parameters, subjects were asked to choose among an income tax of 20%, a consumption tax of 25% (which is an equivalent tax burden), a consumption tax of 22%, and a consumption tax of 20%. Our results showed that subjects prefer income tax to consumption tax when the nominal consumption tax rate is higher than the nominal income tax rate. However, subjects tend to pr...

  5. Sugli obiettivi di una riforma tributaria in Italia. (The aims of a taxation reform in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. COSCIANI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The drawbacks and deficiencies of the Italian fiscal system have become such and so many that a structural revision is urgent both concerning legislation and the organisation of the tax system. The first aim of a reform must be to make the system clear and simple. Secondly, the progressiveness of the system must be announced. Third, the fiscal system should become an instrument of economic planning. The paper puts forward a reform proposal and draws a set of priorities for the reorganisation of fiscal structures and jurisdictions in Italy.JEL: E62, H21, H30

  6. Design of a real-time tax-data monitoring intelligent card system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yajun; Bi, Guotang; Chen, Liwei; Wang, Zhiyuan

    2009-07-01

    To solve the current problem of low efficiency of domestic Oil Station's information management, Oil Station's realtime tax data monitoring system has been developed to automatically access tax data of Oil pumping machines, realizing Oil-pumping machines' real-time automatic data collection, displaying and saving. The monitoring system uses the noncontact intelligent card or network to directly collect data which can not be artificially modified and so seals the loopholes and improves the tax collection's automatic level. It can perform real-time collection and management of the Oil Station information, and find the problem promptly, achieves the automatic management for the entire process covering Oil sales accounting and reporting. It can also perform remote query to the Oil Station's operation data. This system has broad application future and economic value.

  7. Tax competition and tax harmonization in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuše Nerudová

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of tax competition and harmonization within the European Union. It reveals the single difficulties connected with harmonization, identifies the problems arising from tax competition and points out the harmful tax competition as well. Single compulsory harmonized tax base in connection with prevailing tax competition in the area of tax rates is the suggested solution in the scope of direct taxation. As the solution in the area of indirect taxation could serve the introduction of “principle of origin”. This would cause remarkable administrative costs decrease not only for economic subjects but for tax authorities as well.

  8. Taxing Stock Options: Efficiency, Fairness and Revenue Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack M. Mintz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The federal Liberals and the NDP are right about this much: There is a more sensible way to tax the stock options that are granted as compensation by corporations than the approach the federal government takes now. But both parties are wrong about how much revenue an appropriate change in current tax policy will add to the treasury. Far from the half-billion dollars or more that both parties claim they will raise in federal tax revenue by changing the taxation of stock options, the appropriate reform will virtually raise no revenue. It could actually result in marginally lower tax revenue. As it stands, stock options are treated differently than salary and other forms of cash compensation when it comes to taxing an employee or director, in that they are subject to only half taxation, similar to capital gains. They are also treated differently than cash compensation for the corporation granting the options, in that they cannot be deducted from corporate income tax. The federal NDP and Liberals have both accepted the growing criticism, which only intensified in the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis, that the lower tax rate is an unfair tax break for those employees who receive stock options. Both parties have proposed to change that, leaving an exemption for startup companies only, with the NDP proposing full personal taxation for all stock options except for start-up companies and the Liberals proposing it for options-based compensation exceeding $100,000. Treating stock options the same as cash compensation would indeed be more tax efficient, reducing the distortionary effect that can influence company compensation packages to give more weight to stock options and less to cash than they might otherwise. But the only way to ensure that efficiency is by treating both the personal tax side of the benefit, and the corporate tax side of the benefit, in the same way as other employee compensation. That is, applying full taxation to the recipient

  9. THE IMPLICATIONS OF TAX MORALE ON TAX COMPLIANCE BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichita Ramona-Anca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on the analysis of tax compliance behavior from the tax morale standpoint. We grounded our research on the idea that empirical studies constantly invalidating the assumptions of theoretical models of tax evasion show there are more factors influencing compliance than just the economic ones (e.g., audit probability, fine, tax rate, income. Giving the fact that audit probabilities are generally very low and that tax evasion is not as high as one could expect, tax morale might have to do with the high degrees of tax compliance registered around the world. In a stream of articles on taxation published beginning with the late 60n#8217;s, tax morale defined as the intrinsic motivation to comply or n#8220;internalised obligation to pay taxn#8221; (Braithwaite and Ahmed 2005 has been found to positively relate to tax compliance and negatively relate to shadow economy. This paper attempts to offer a broader view on the influence of tax morale on compliance behavior, covering articles ranging from national and cross-cultural surveys to experimental games. Moreover, the aim of the article is to emphasize the policy implications of tax morale research and the changes governments could make in order to raise the amount of public levies.

  10. MEMS-Based Fuel Reformer with Suspended Membrane Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kuei-Sung; Tanaka, Shuji; Esashi, Masayoshi

    We report a MEMS-based fuel reformer for supplying hydrogen to micro-fuel cells for portable applications. A combustor and a reforming chamber are fabricated at either side of a suspended membrane structure. This design is used to improve the overall thermal efficiency, which is a critical issue to realize a micro-fuel reformer. The suspended membrane structure design provided good thermal isolation. The micro-heaters consumed 0.97W to maintain the reaction zone of the MEMS-based fuel reformer at 200°C, but further power saving is necessary by improving design and fabrication. The conversion rate of methanol to hydrogen was about 19% at 180°C by using evaporated copper as a reforming catalyst. The catalytic combustion of hydrogen started without any assistance of micro-heaters. By feeding the fuel mixture of an equivalence ratio of 0.35, the temperature of the suspended membrane structure was maintained stable at 100°C with a combustion efficiency of 30%. In future works, we will test a micro-fuel reformer by using a micro-combustor to supply heat.

  11. Aggressive Tax Strategies and Corporate Tax Governance: An Institutional Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Garbarino, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the impact of tax-aggressive strategies on corporate governance by adopting an agency perspective of the firm and discusses how certain corporate tax governance measures may limit these kinds of managerial actions. We first clarify a few basic concepts such as tax minimization, effective tax planning, tax avoidance, and tax evasion, which are important to understand in the discussion about aggressive tax behaviour. We further define the regulative concept of effective ta...

  12. Professional Opinions And Attitudes On Tax Policy In Bosnia And Herzegovina With A Special Focus On The Federation Of Bosnia And Herzegovina1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazović-Pita Lejla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is based on tax policy opinion survey data collected in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H among tax experts. A special focus of the survey was to investigate the consequences of the different institutional environments that exist between the two entities of the country. After having reviewed all previous tax reforms in B&H, the most interesting results suggest that respondents agree on the introduction of a progressive personal income tax (PIT and excise duty on luxury products, the maintenance of personal and family allowances and the maintenance of the current value added tax (VAT and corporate income tax (CIT rates. However, differences exist in the respondents’ perceptions about the introduction of reduced VAT rates, the regressivity of the VAT, and giving priority to the equity principle over the efficiency principle in taxation. Probability modelling highlighted these differences and indicated inconsistencies in the definition of the PIT tax base, namely the comprehensiveness of the PIT base under the S-H-S definition of income.

  13. Tax havens: Features, operations and solving tax evasion problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović-Ćuk Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tax haven offers minimal or no tax liability to foreign individuals and enterprises in economically and politically stable environment, where little or no financial information is shared with foreign tax authorities. The aim of this research is to create a comprehensive overview of the characteristics and operations of tax havens, as well as to point out to the ways to overcome the problem of tax evasion. The methodology used in the work is characteristic of social science research: analysis, synthesis and discussion, comparative, inductive and historical analysis, together with the usage of relevant national and international sources. This paper describes the basic features of tax havens, as well as specific business models applied in them. A separate chapter deals with overcoming the problem of tax evasion, which is the main adverse effect of doing business through tax havens.

  14. The Dual Benefits of Tax Credits: Taxpayer Income Generation and Economy Stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Robin; Tiggeman, Theresa; Edmond, Tracie

    2010-01-01

    Two important provisions of the Internal Revenue Code were the creation of the Earned Income Tax Credit and Child Tax Credit. Each of these credits were designed to reduce the amount of tax owed, thereby offsetting some of the increases in living expenses and federal income tax. For many this results in a smaller a tax liability. For others with…

  15. Transfer Pricing – Between Optimization and International Tax Evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin SAVA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Each enterprise in the private sector aims to increase financial return, which is achieved by obtaining the higher net profit by increasing revenue and reducing expenditure. In this endeavor, compliance with tax obligations occupy a very important role because handling taxes may lead to an increase in revenue and / or a reduction of spending, and this action is called tax optimization. In the case of multinational companies, the main tool that can be used to lower the tax burden and increasing, sometimes in sizeable benefits in net, is the transfer prices or the prices they registered entities in the group transactions between them, along with another instrument with great impact, ie tax havens. Tax evasion, designating evading payment obligations of a company according to the national tax system, may be legal in the sense that tax optimization does not violate the rules, but exploiting loopholes that are in them. But when legal tax rules are violated, we deal with tax fraud, which will be subject to punitive measures by public authorities as it affects the whole population.

  16. IMPLEMENTATION OF MODERN FOREIGN APPROACHES TO UKRAINIAN PENSION SYSTEM REFORMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Khemii

    2017-11-01

    reduce the nominal size of pensions, but some countries introduce automatic adjustment of their size depending on the growth of life expectancy, incomes and expenditures of the pension system. In recent years, a number of countries, despite budgetary problems, have introduced tax incentives or co-financing voluntary savings to increase the proportion of citizens taking part in them. Others used nonfinancial incentives to expand coverage. The article outlines the main directions of reforming the pension system in Ukraine, namely, the expansion of the tax base for the working population, the introduction of the second pillar of the pension system, and the popularization of individual funded programs. Practical significance. The necessity of changes in the pension system of Ukraine on the basis of the effects of the reform of pension systems of the leading countries of the world. This made the cardinal changes in the systems in the countries of the world: the transition from financing pensions from current receipts to the system of individual accounts and savings, raising the retirement age, reviewing tariffs and requirements for risk management in pension funds, etc. Importance/ originality: conducted a sample of reforms in pension insurance of foreign countries and offered the possibility of implementing only the part that can be adapted and applied in the light of the individual characteristics of the Ukrainian state.

  17. Imperfect tax competition for profits, asymmetric equilibrium and beneficial tax havens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    We present a model of tax competition for real investment and profits and show that the presence of tax havens in some cases increases the tax revenue of countries. In the first part of the paper, we argue that tax competition for profits is likely to be imperfect in the sense that the jurisdicti...... countries. We demonstrate that the latter effect may dominate the former effects so that countries, on balance, benefit from the presence of tax havens.......We present a model of tax competition for real investment and profits and show that the presence of tax havens in some cases increases the tax revenue of countries. In the first part of the paper, we argue that tax competition for profits is likely to be imperfect in the sense that the jurisdiction...... countries. In the second part of the paper, we introduce tax havens. Starting from a symmetric equilibrium, tax havens unambiguously reduce the tax revenue of countries due to a ‘leakage effect' - tax havens attract tax base from countries - and a 'competition effect' - the optimal response to the increased...

  18. Tax Potential vs. Tax Effort; A Cross-Country Analysis of Armenia's Stubbornly Low Tax Collection

    OpenAIRE

    David A. Grigorian; Hamid R Davoodi

    2007-01-01

    Despite recording double digit growth since 2000, Armenia's tax-to-GDP ratio has been fairly stable at about 14½ percent. This paper catalogues a range of factors that may account for Armenia's stubbornly for tax collection by benchmarking Armenia's tax-to-GDP against some comparator countries and conducting an extensive econometric study of the main determinants of tax collection. We find empirical support for the hypothesis that the persistence of Armenia's low tax-GDP ratio can be traced t...

  19. AGRICULTURAL TAX SYSTEM IN POLAND AND DIRECTIONS OF THE CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Malewska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A research problem taken in the article is a question, whether legal solutions applied in the Polish system of the taxation of agriculture have an appropriate shape and whether this system is optimal? If not, what are possible options of changes and whether the in-come tax is good for agricultural activities. A method of analysis of secondary sources was used in order to solve the research problem. Required data was taken from the base of the Główny Urząd Statystyczny and scientific publications of the publishing universi-ty. In the article were formulated the following hypotheses: 1.\tThe system of the taxation of agriculture is different than other existing Polish law and it is regarded as unfair in relation to other social groups. 2.\tChanging the tax system in agriculture is necessary and would lead to positive chang-es in the structure of agriculture. 3.\tThe reform of the taxation system of agricultural production is in many aspects neces-sary and beneficial, but it should nevertheless take into account the specificities of the agricultural activity. 4.\tThe introduction of the income tax has its bad side and carries the disadvantages for both farmers and municipalities.

  20. Reform towards National Health Insurance in Malaysia: the equity implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chai Ping; Whynes, David K; Sach, Tracey H

    2011-05-01

    This paper assesses the potential equity impact of Malaysia's projected reform of its current tax financed system towards National Health Insurance (NHI). The Kakwani's progressivity index was used to assess the equity consequences of the new NHI system (with flat rate NHI scheme) compared to the current tax financed system. It was also used to model a proposed system (with a progressive NHI scheme) that can generate the same amount of funding more equitably. The new NHI system would be less equitable than the current tax financed system, as evident from the reduction of Kakwani's index to 0.168 from 0.217. The new flat rate NHI scheme, if implemented, would reduce the progressivity of the health finance system because it is a less progressive finance source than that of general government revenue. We proposed a system with a progressive NHI scheme that generates the same amount of funding whilst preserving the equity at the Kakwani's progressivity index of 0.213. A NHI system with a progressive NHI scheme is proposed to be implemented to raise health funding whilst preserving the equity in health care financing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.