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Sample records for tax reforms cometr

  1. Competitiveness effects of environmental tax reforms (COMETR). Final report to the European Commission, DG Research and DG TAXUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skou Andersen, M.; Speck, S. (Univ. of Aarhus, National Environmental Research Institute, Dept. of Policy Analysis (Denmark)); Barker, T.; Junankar, S.; Pollitt, H. (Cambridge Econometrics (United Kingdom)); Fitz Gerald, J.; Scott, S. (Economic and Social Research Institute (Ireland)); Jilkova, J. (Univ. of Economics Prague, Institute for Economic and Environmental Policy (Czech Republic)); Salmons, R.; Ekins, P. (Policy Studies Institute (United Kingdom)); Christie, E.; Michael Landesmann, M. (Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies (Austria))

    2007-12-15

    COMETR provides an ex-post assessment of experiences and competitiveness impacts of using carbon-energy taxes as an instrument of an Environmental Tax Reform (ETR), which shifts the tax burden and helps reduce the carbon emissions that cause global warming. COMETR: reviews the experience in ETR in seven EU Member States (Denmark, Germany, Netherlands, Finland, Slovenia, Sweden and UK); analyses world market conditions for a set of energy-intensive sectors, as a framework for considering competitiveness effects; analyses the effects of ETR on sector-specific energy usage and carbon emissions in Member States with carbon-energy taxes introduced on industry; presents a macroeconomic analysis of the competitiveness effects of ETR for individual Member States as well as for the EU as a whole; provides ex-post figures for environmental decoupling and assesses carbon leakage; reviews mitigation and compensation mechanisms for energy-intensive industries. (au)

  2. Thinking about Tax Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskin, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    Providing pre-college teachers with an analysis of tax reform is the primary goal of this publication. The present tax system is both inefficient and inequitable. Three goals of tax reform proposals are detailed: (1) fairness--the dimensions of horizontal equity, or equal treatment of equals however defined, and vertical equity, reflecting the…

  3. Tax Reform & University Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, John Holt

    This brochure discusses the implications of the Tax Reform Act of 1969 for university and college development officers charged with the responsibility for solicitation of gifts, bequests and grants from foundations. The solicitation of deferred gifts, bequests and grants from foundations is discussed in chapter one in relation to tax reform and…

  4. Life After Tax Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clotfelter, Charles T.

    1987-01-01

    The impact of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 on higher education is discussed. Background on the tax reform movement and the specific provisions of the 1986 law are examined. The law will reduce private donations, raise the cost of college, and raise the cost of operating institutions. (MLW)

  5. Tax asymmetries and corporate income tax reform

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Stewart C.; Majd, Saman.

    1986-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of tax asymmetries (the lack of full loss offsets) under current corporate income tax law and a stylized tax reform proposal. The government's tax claim on the firm's pretax cash flows is modelled as a series of path-dependent call options and valued by option pricing procedures and Monte Carlo simulation.The tax reform investigated reduces the statutory tax rate, eliminates the investment tax credit and sets tax depreciation approximately equal to economic ...

  6. Socially Improving Tax Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Duclos, Jean-Yves; Makdissi, Paul; Wodon, Quentin

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes graphical methods to determine whether commodity-tax changes are "socially improving", in the sense of improving social welfare or decreasing poverty for large classes of social welfare and poverty indices. It also derives estimators of critical poverty lines and economic efficiency ratios which can be used to characterize socially-improving tax reforms. The statistical properties of the various estimators are derived in order to make the method implementable using survey ...

  7. Tax Reform and Environmental Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert E. Metcalf

    2005-01-01

    I measure the industry impacts of an environmental tax reform where a carbon tax is used to finance full or partial corporate tax integration. I find that the industry impacts of such a reform are likely to be modest (in the sense of impacts on returns on equity).

  8. Health reform through tax reform: a primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Tax incentives for employer-sponsored insurance and other medical spending cost about $200 billion annually and have pervasive effects on coverage and costs. This paper surveys a range of proposals to reform health care, either by adding new tax incentives or by limiting or replacing the existing tax incentives. Replacing the current tax preference for insurance with an income-related, refundable tax credit has the potential to expand coverage and reduce inefficient spending at no net federal cost. But such an approach by itself would entail substantial risks, so complementary reforms to the insurance market are essential to ensure success.

  9. Ecological tax reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  10. Ecological tax reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  11. Local Tax Reform in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, William T.

    This report reviews local tax reform and describes an approach to simulating the effects of proposed tax reform on local school districts in Pennsylvania. The microcomputer spreadsheet simulation led to the development of a model able to meet the feasibility criteria established for such a simulation model. The model was designed to input…

  12. Fund Raising After Tax Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, Mike

    1987-01-01

    Major implications for fund raising in higher education due to the Tax Reform Act of 1986 are discussed. A list of fund- raising resolutions includes: going back to basics and working harder; consequences of last year's donation rush; and answering questions on the new alternative minimum tax. (MLW)

  13. Green tax reforms and habits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, Carlos de; Manzano, Baltasar [Universidad de Vigo and Rede, Lagoas-Marcosende, s/n, 36200 Vigo (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    Using a dynamic general equilibrium model, we explore the role of habit formation when analyzing green tax reforms under the double dividend hypothesis. We assume increases in energy taxes and adjust capital taxation in a revenue-neutral framework to evaluate the effects on welfare. Since the existence of an environmental dividend is uncontroversial, we mainly focus on the efficiency dividend. Our findings show that, when taxes on household energy consumption increase, habits and transitional dynamics alter household decisions, and change the efficiency dividend. However, when the tax increase is on energy used as an input, reform always induces a welfare cost in terms of efficiency. In this case, habits play a less important role. (author)

  14. Socially-Efficient Tax Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Duclos, Jean-Yves; Makdissi, Paul; Wodon, Quentin

    2002-01-01

    We propose graphical methods to determine whether commodity-tax changes are "socially efficient", in the sense of improving social welfare or decreasing poverty for large classes of social welfare and poverty indices. We also derive estimators of critical poverty lines and economic efficiency ratios which can be used to characterize socially-efficient tax reforms. The statistical properties of the various estimators are derived in order to make the method implementable using survey data. The ...

  15. TAX-REFORM - DREAMING ABOUT TOUGH REALITIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEKAM, F

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses four papers concerned with tax reform. It is concluded that tax reform has had a rather limited impact on behaviour so far but that governments should press ahead with gradual improvement and not expect dramatic results.

  16. Income Tax Reform and Agriculture: A Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Five papers are provided from a symposium organized to present several economic studies relating to income tax structure and reform in agriculture. "Toward an Optimal Income Tax Policy for Southern and U.S. Agriculture" (Harold F. Breimyer) is a structured argument for comprehensive tax reform that increases the equity of the income tax…

  17. Labor tax reform, unemployment, and search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijdra, Ben J.; Ligthart, Jenny E.

    A key obstacle to reducing payroll taxes in many industrialized and transition countries is the direct revenue loss to the government that it implies. This paper studies a simple and practical labor tax reform of reducing a payroll tax and increasing a progressive wage tax that keeps the marginal

  18. Tax reform Ukraine: implementation mechanisms and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Lebedzevіch

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the main shortcomings of the existing domestic tax systems, which were the main reasons for the need for its reform in the context of integration into the European Community. Determined the first stage of reforming tax systems Ukraine, which is associated with the adoption of the Law of Ukraine «On Amendments to the Tax Code of Ukraine and laws of Ukraine». The main provisions of this legal act, revealing the essence of the mechanism for implementing tax reform. Analyzed the mechanism of implementation of tax reform by analyzing the major innovations of the Tax Code of Ukraine and their comparison with the tax «standards» that operated the implementation of tax reform 2015. Thesis there is determined a number of tax loopholes and nedoopratsyuvan conducted tax reform and their implications for payers of taxes and duties, and the need for further research and improvement. The experience of European countries towards the introduction of electronic filing and processing of tax returns.

  19. School Finance and Tax Reform in Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Glen W.; Sears, Thomas A.

    Nevada is simultaneously undergoing tax reforms and attempts to achieve educational equity in school finance. This paper gives the background and history of Nevada's school finance system and assesses the impact of recent tax reforms. The authors first review Nevada's population, enrollment, and conditions of school finance before tracing the…

  20. Tax reform for low-wage workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seipel, M M

    2000-01-01

    As a result of the recent implementation of work-oriented antipoverty programs, more welfare recipients can be expected to be working in low-wage jobs. With these jobs there is little hope that these workers' incomes will rise above the poverty level. One way to help support these low-wage workers is through tax reform. Although low-wage workers pay little or no federal tax, they still pay high payroll and local taxes. To help such workers keep more of their earnings, refundable taxes like earned income tax credit and child refund taxes should be expanded, and sales taxes on food should be eliminated.

  1. Tariff-Tax Reforms and Market Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreickemeier, Udo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis

    2006-01-01

    paper examines whether the country that implements such a reform ends up opening up its markets to international trade, i.e. whether its market access improves. It is shown that this is not necessarily so. We also show that, comparing to the reform of only tariffs, the tariff-tax reform is a less......Reducing tariffs and increasing consumption taxes is a standard IMF advice to countries that want to open up their economy without hurting government finances. Indeed, theoretical analysis of such a tariff-tax reform shows an unambiguous increase in welfare and government revenues. The present...... efficient proposal to follow both as far as it concerns market access and welfare.JEL code: F13, H20.Keywords: Market access; tariff reform, consumption tax reform....

  2. Environmental tax reform and endogenous growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenberg, A.L.; de Mooij, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper explores the effects of an environmental tax reform on pollution, economic growth and welfare in an endogenous growth model with pre-existing tax distortions. We find that a shift in the tax mix away from output towards pollution may raise economic growth through two channels. The first

  3. Environmental tax reform: the Swedish experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterner, T.

    1994-01-01

    As part of a general tax reform taxes on energy and transport were increased heavily around 1991. The following year industry succeeded in repealing a number of the taxes on energy. This reform was financed by further increasing the energy taxes for the household and transport sectors. Generally it appears that the energy tax and the carbon tax are successful as revenue raisers while their environmental effect will only be seen in the long run. On the other hand such taxes as on sulphur and the tax differentiation on leaded fuel, as well as the differentiation between different qualities of diesel and fuel oil, have been very successful in an environmental sense, but have not given any substantial revenue contributions. (author)

  4. TAX REFORM AND BEEF COW REPLACEMENT STRATEGY

    OpenAIRE

    Innes, Robert; Carman, Hoy F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper models optimal beef cow replacement strategy in a stochastic environment under U.S. income tax rules effective before and after the Tax Reform Act of 1986. Under each tax regime, the producer's buy versus raise decision and optimal culling age choice are analyzed. Per-cow profit levels are also calculated. Results of the numerical analysis indicate that tax law changes, particularly the loss of the capital gains exclusion and restrictions on preproduction expensing, will have signi...

  5. TAX REFORMS AND INVESTMENT IN NIGERIA: AN EMPIRICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    examines the impact of tax reform on revenue productivity in Ghana. The study concluded that tax reforms impacts on productivity positively and significantly. In Nigeria, there are only a handful of studies on the impact of tax reforms on investment, as myriads of the study on tax reform focus on economic growth. Adereti,.

  6. Reforming the Tax Mix in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bev Dahlby

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Periodically, tax systems need major reforms to remove the “barnacles” that accumulate under the short-term pressures of political expediency and to adapt to the long-term forces of technological and economic change. The current fiscal and economic problems that confront the provinces require an assessment of much-needed reforms. Raising tax revenue imposes large costs on our society, not only because of the administration and compliance costs of collecting taxes, but because taxes distort economic decisions in the private sector. This is especially true of provincial corporate income taxes. Taxing highly mobile corporate capital and corporate profits encourages firms to shift their investments and profits across provincial and international boundaries. The provinces would enjoy significant boosts to economic growth and efficiency gains by enacting a revenue-neutral switch from corporate to sales or personal income taxes. For Alberta, such a shift would yield up to $40 per dollar of tax revenue shifted from corporate to personal income taxes; for fiscal year 2011-12, this would amount to a percapita welfare gain of roughly $19,000. Other options for tax reform are also discussed in this paper, including the adoption of a penny tax to the GST to fund infrastructure spending by municipalities. However, we think this would saddle the private sector with significant compliance costs and create major economic distortions between neighbouring municipalities by creating an incentive to shop where the penny tax proposal was not adopted. In surveying the most pressing tax reform issues facing Canada, we offer policymakers a firm basis for coming to grips with them, so they can treat tax dollars with the care and foresight Canadians expect.

  7. Equity Effects of the Tax Reform Act of 1986

    OpenAIRE

    Jane G. Gravelle

    1992-01-01

    The major goals of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 included an increase in the equity of the tax system. We will consider the effects of the tax reform on vertical equity, horizontal equity, and intergenerational equity.

  8. Optimal green tax reforms yielding double dividend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Esther; Perez, Rafaela; Ruiz, Jesus

    2011-01-01

    In an stylized endogenous growth economy with a negative externality created by CO2 emissions and in which abatement activities are made by private firms, we find a wide range of dynamically feasible green tax reforms yielding the double dividend without any need to assume a complex production structure or tax system, or a variety of externalities in production. As a remarkable finding, we obtain certain scenarios in which increasing the emissions tax up to the Pigouvian level and removing completely the income tax is dynamically feasible and, also, it is the second-best reform. Hence, as a difference to previous literature, in these scenarios the first-best tax mix is implementable, allowing for the elimination of both environmental and non-environmental inefficiencies. Our result arises because of the consideration of public debt issuing and the management of the government budget balance with an intertemporal perspective. The result is obtained for an intermediate range of environmental bearing in preferences, the valid range being contingent on the pre-existing income tax rate. The type of tax reform that we propose could also be implemented for different energy taxes. - Highlights: → We use an endogenous growth model with a negative externality from CO2 emissions. → Abatement activities are made by private firms to reduce payment of emissions taxes. → We find dynamically feasible green tax reforms yielding the double dividend result. → Our result arises thanks to the inclusion of public debt issuing as a financing device. → The type of tax reform proposed can be implemented for other energy taxes.

  9. Optimal green tax reforms yielding double dividend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Esther; Perez, Rafaela [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); ICAE (Spain); Ruiz, Jesus, E-mail: jruizand@ccee.ucm.es [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); ICAE (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    In an stylized endogenous growth economy with a negative externality created by CO2 emissions and in which abatement activities are made by private firms, we find a wide range of dynamically feasible green tax reforms yielding the double dividend without any need to assume a complex production structure or tax system, or a variety of externalities in production. As a remarkable finding, we obtain certain scenarios in which increasing the emissions tax up to the Pigouvian level and removing completely the income tax is dynamically feasible and, also, it is the second-best reform. Hence, as a difference to previous literature, in these scenarios the first-best tax mix is implementable, allowing for the elimination of both environmental and non-environmental inefficiencies. Our result arises because of the consideration of public debt issuing and the management of the government budget balance with an intertemporal perspective. The result is obtained for an intermediate range of environmental bearing in preferences, the valid range being contingent on the pre-existing income tax rate. The type of tax reform that we propose could also be implemented for different energy taxes. - Highlights: > We use an endogenous growth model with a negative externality from CO2 emissions. > Abatement activities are made by private firms to reduce payment of emissions taxes. > We find dynamically feasible green tax reforms yielding the double dividend result. > Our result arises thanks to the inclusion of public debt issuing as a financing device. > The type of tax reform proposed can be implemented for other energy taxes.

  10. Washington. Will Tax Reform Affect Giving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, John Holt

    1974-01-01

    Examines considerations of tax reform and their impact on the ability of colleges and universities to attract private giving, frequently making the difference between institutional death and survival. (Author/PG)

  11. Sales Tax on Services: Revenue or Reform?

    OpenAIRE

    Quick, Perry D.; McKee, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the issues surrounding extension of sales taxes to services. Examines some of the problems that would face a reform effort: Nexus, the treatment of financial services, and an insufficiency of revenue.

  12. Tax Reform and the Bond Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, David C.

    1987-01-01

    The tax exempt bond market continues to be unsettled, but many issues have been resolved by the Tax Reform Act of 1986. These range from very narrow technical adjustments to sweeping new limits applicable to all issuers, with some restrictions aimed directly at colleges and universities. (Author/MSE)

  13. TAX REFORM AND NONCOMPLIANCE IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Iswahyudi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of Indonesia’s tax reforms of 2000 and 2008/2009 on taxpayers’ noncompliance. Noncompliance is defined as the difference between the Value Added Tax (VAT liability and the actual revenue. Data are mainly collected from the World Input-Output Database and Indonesia’s Central Board of Statistics. The methodology uses one of the ‘top-down’ approaches, in which national accounts figures are employed to arrive at an estimation of the VAT liability. It is found that compliance deteriorated when reform efforts were incomplete – that is when the reforms suffered from decelerations, setbacks or reversals. This paper contributes to the literature by providing a framework for analyzing the impact of tax reform on taxpayer’s compliance behavior.

  14. GST IN INDIA: A KEY TAX REFORM

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Sehrawat; Upasana Dhanda

    2017-01-01

    GST is one of the most crucial tax reforms in India which has been long pending. It was supposed to be implemented from April 2010, but due to political issues and conflicting interests of various stakeholders it is still pending. It is a comprehensive tax system that will subsume all indirect taxes of states and central governments and unified economy into a seamless national market. It is expected to iron out wrinkles of existing indirect tax system and play a vital role in growth of India....

  15. Green tax reform in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1994-01-01

    Energy, transport and fuel taxes in Denmark have, since the late 1970s, been among the highest in the OECD, and raise already more than 30 billion DKK annually to cover 10-12 per cent of the state household: a share that will be increased over the next five years with new green taxes. Furthermore......, Denmark is currently the only country within the European Union which has introduced a tax on CO2; although Germany and the Netherlands are also considering doing so, the Danish CO2 tax has been effective since 1 January 1993....

  16. Tax-tariff reform with costs of tax administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Knud Jørgen

    As is broadly recognized, the straightforward application of the Diamond-Mirrlees (1971) production efficiency theorem implies that when lump-sum taxation is not available, then it is optimal for the government in a small open economy to rely on taxes on the net demand of ouseholds rather than...... on border taxes to finance its resource requirements. However, the theorem does not hold when taxation is associated with administrative costs. The present paper explores the implications of taking into account the costs of tax administration for optimal taxation and for desirable directions of tax......-tariff reform in countries at different levels of economic development. The paper clarifies the reasons for, and lends support to, the criticism by Stiglitz (2003) of the IMF and the World Bank's recommendation to developing countries to adopt VAT to replace border taxes....

  17. Tax Reform Implications for Rural Communities and Farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, Ron L.; Reeder, Richard J.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses indirect and long-term rural implications of tax reform: elimination of local sales tax deduction, limits on local bond issues. Summarizes major tax changes affecting agriculture: individual income taxes, corporate tax rates, tax treatment of capital, capital gains, land deductions, cash accounting, development costs, passive losses and…

  18. Property Tax Reform in China : Optional property tax proposals and the effects on residence price

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yiyi

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives some theoretical instructions of China’s property tax reform which include the reform of land lease system, the design of tax base, tax rates and tax relief, and also provides some interesting property tax proposals for Shanghai and estimates the effects of property tax reform on residence price.This paper selects a case study of Shanghai which can provide useful methods or findings to other cases characterized by similar traits and situations. Through observation and analysi...

  19. Prospects for tax reform in China following the 18th CPC National Congress

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    After the 18th National Congress, the Chinese government should speed up tax reform and tax reduction. Tax structure should switch to direct tax. Consumption tax reform of lower tax burden could start within a short time. Replacing business tax by value-added tax should be quickly completed. Personal income tax reform should move toward comprehension. Uneven resource distribution should be taken into consideration in resource tax reform. Property tax should be included in the local financing ...

  20. Effects of the petroleum tax reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stensland, G.; Sunnevaag, K.; Tennfjord, B.S.

    1992-04-01

    The report evaluates the effects of the petroleum taxation in Norway. In connection with the general reform of the Norwegian industry taxation, changes are proposed in the petroleum tax law. The report gives a survey of the development in the Norwegian petroleum taxation, and analyses the effects of changing the tax revenue both for the Government and for the companies concerned. The effects of incentives caused by changing the taxation are looked upon. In the appendix the depreciation rules in connection with petroleum taxation are discussed. 18 refs., 17 figs

  1. Tax reforms and investment in Nigeria: an empirical examination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is informed by the quest to examine the investment implication of the series of tax reforms in Nigeria, particularly the tax reforms of 2003 and National tax policy of 2012. Annual time series data spanning the years (1981-2012) were utilized. Preliminary diagnostic test was conducted to examine whether the ...

  2. An ecological tax reform in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, L.; Bleijenberg, A.N.

    1992-01-01

    This study, being a part of the large research program 'External Effects of Energy Procurement' and coordinated by PROGNOS, concerns the distributional and macro-economic effects of the internalization of the external effects of the energy supply by means of an ecological tax reform. The PROGNOS study is focused on the costs and effects of energy production, procurement and consumption (in Germany), that are not taken care of by the market. Here a rough estimate is given of the macro-economic consequence and the distributional effects for the industrial sector and households in (West) Germany of an energy tax of which the revenues are 'reinjected' into the economy, mainly by lowering the financial burden on labour. First a description is given of the starting points of the study and the form of the energy tax. Subsequently attention is paid to the macro-economic effects, the sectoral effects, and the effects on the distribution of incomes for households. The model calculations for Western Germany and the Netherlands confirm the expectation that an ecological tax reform leads to the combined realization of employment and environmental objectives. Shifts in the sectoral structure may occur. Energy intensive branches of industry will have to give up a part of their market share in favour of labour-intensive sectors. The results also illustrate that there are several possibilities to prevent a change in the collective burden of regular expenses as a result of a tax or levy on energy, and that the effects of a fuel tax on the income distribution can be corrected. 5 figs., 19 tabs., 5 apps., 15 refs

  3. Tax Reform and Individual Giving to Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auten, Gerald E.; Rudney, Gabriel G.

    1986-01-01

    Higher education benefits from several United States tax law provisions, including deductibility of charitable contributions. Recent tax reform proposals could increase would-be donors' net cost by reducing tax incentives. This paper links lower tax rates to a significant future reduction in educational philanthropy. (18 references) (MLH)

  4. The Tax Reform Act of 1986: How Faculty Fared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, Ruth Ann; Chapman, Margaret L.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of college faculty revealed that the Tax Reform Act of 1986, designed to make taxes simpler and more equitable, has increased the taxes of over half the respondents and decreased the tax liability of only 9%. Results also suggest that faculty bear a significant portion of the expenses associated with their profession. (MSE)

  5. 26 CFR 1.9006 - Statutory provisions; Tax Reform Act of 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statutory provisions; Tax Reform Act of 1969. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax Reform Act of 1969 § 1.9006 Statutory provisions; Tax Reform Act of 1969. Section 946 of the Tax Reform Act of 1969 (83 Stat. 729) provides as follows: Sec. 946...

  6. Tax Reform in Brazil: a Public Choice Theory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Silveira dos Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze tax reform necessity and the barriers to the implementation of tax reform at the light of public choice theory. The research identifies the arguments that provides the explanation for the tax reform does not occur in Brazil. The question that the article searches to answer is: what are the justifications for the Brazil not have done tax reform? The literature review addresses the failures of government, public choice theory and the theory of optimal taxation. The evidence and studies show that there are reasons to think about a tax system more consistent with the Brazilian reality, indicating the existence of "government failures" that may be the probable cause of impairment of the tax reform.

  7. School Finance after the Tax Reform Act of 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittle, Edgar H.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews provisions of the Tax Reform Act (1986) affecting schools that issue bonds, notes, or warrants. While interest on school financing will remain tax-exempt, school officials will need to master new concepts involving private agency bonds and arbitrage restrictions. Further erosion of schools' tax-exempt status is likely. (MLH)

  8. Measuring Labour Supply Responses to Tax Changes by Use of Exogenous Tax Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Ebbe Krogh

    1996-01-01

    This paper estimates average labour supply responses to tax changes for women in Denmark using the tax reform in 1987 as a natural experiment to identify the responsiveness to tax changes. Both changes in the participation rate and in worki ng hous are considered. A nonparametric difference......-in-difference (DID) estimator and a suitable modified parametric DID estimator are used to estimate the labour supply responses and calculate labour supply elasticities with respect to marg inal tax rates and wage rates net of taxes. Finally, we simulate the effect of the fully implemented Danish 1994/1998 tax...... reform....

  9. Tax reform options: promoting retirement security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDerhei, Jack

    2011-11-01

    TAX PROPOSALS: Currently, the combination of worker and employer contributions in a defined contribution plan is capped by the federal tax code at the lesser of $49,000 per year or 100 percent of a worker's compensation (participants over age 50 can make additional "catch-up" contributions). As part of the effort to lower the federal deficit and reduce federal "tax expenditures," two major reform proposals have surfaced that would change current tax policy toward retirement savings: A plan that would end the existing tax deductions for 401(k) contributions and replace them with a flat-rate refundable credit that serves as a matching contribution into a retirement savings account. The so-called "20/20 cap," included by the National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform in their December 2010 report, "The Moment of Truth," which would limit the sum of employer and worker annual contributions to the lower of $20,000 or 20 percent of income, the so-called "20/20 cap." IMPACT OF PERMANENTLY MODIFYING THE EXCLUSION OF EMPLOYEE CONTRIBUTIONS FOR RETIREMENT SAVINGS PLANS FROM TAXABLE INCOME: If the current exclusion of worker contributions for retirement savings plans were ended in 2012 and the total match remains constant, the average reductions in 401(k) accounts at Social Security normal retirement age would range from a low of 11.2 percent for workers currently ages 26-35 in the highest-income groups, to a high of 24.2 percent for workers in that age range in the lowest-income group. IMPACT OF "20/20 CAP": Earlier EBRI analysis of enacting the 20/20 cap starting in 2012 showed it would, as expected, most affect those with high income. However, EBRI also found the cap would cause a significant reduction in retirement savings by the lowest-income workers as well, and younger cohorts would experience larger reductions given their increased exposure to the proposal. IMPORTANCE OF EMPLOYER-SPONSORED RETIREMENT PLANS AND AUTO-ENROLLMENT: A key factor in future

  10. Growth effects of a revenue neutral environmental tax reform

    OpenAIRE

    Hettich, Frank

    1997-01-01

    This paper analyses tax policy measures within a two sector endogenously growing economy with elastic labour supply. Pollution is modelled as a side product of physical capital stock used as a primary production factor in the final good sector. The framework allows to analyse consequences of isolated tax changes or of a revenue neutral environmental tax reform for economic growth. Although pollution does not affect directly production processes, it can be shown that a higher pollution tax or ...

  11. The Impact on Foundations of the 1969 Tax Reform Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Stewart F.

    1981-01-01

    Although the Tax Reform Act of 1969 changed the way in which many foundations operated and brought the foundation community closer together, it did not have the devastating effect that many foundation officials feared. (Author)

  12. Energy policies in the European Union. Germany's ecological tax reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welfens, P.J.J.; Jungmittag, A.; Meyer, B.; Jasinski, P.

    2001-01-01

    The chapters discuss the following aspects: 1. Energy policy as a strategic element of economic policy in dynamic open economies. 2. Phasing out nuclear energy and core elements of sustainable energy strategy. 3. Ecological tax reform: Theory, modified double dividend and international aspects. 4. The policy framework in Europe and Germany. 5. Optimal ecological tax reform: Options and recommendations for an EU-action plan. 6. Conclusions. (orig./CB)

  13. Tax Reforms in Nigeria: Case for Value Added Tax (VAT)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    VAT), yearly contributions of value .... an optimum tax rate that both encourages savings, investment and labour supply, and at the same time ... (VAT and CED) contribution to total revenue and economic growth glucoses more than direct tax.

  14. Trends and prospects of tax reforms in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Ho Lim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the reform trends in Chinese tax systems with emphasis on the structural tax reduction policy that has been enforced in China’s socialist market economy system for the past 10 years. This study also intends to draw the implications of such tax reforms by identifying the relationship between China’s socialist and capitalist market economy systems along with other related tax systems and describing the tax policy trends for the last 10 years. A comparison and analysis of the differences in viewpoints on taxation between these market economy systems is also conducted. The core and specific contents of this study on structural tax reduction policy that has been enforced in China over the past decade are arranged.

  15. Interactive Tax Reform: Simulating Impacts of Legislative Proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Roger H.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Pennsylvania's mathematical modeling technique to evaluate tax reform proposals requires the following data: personal income at the local level and measures of the breakdown of property tax payment by land use classification. The simulation technique could be readily adapted in reorganizing educational finance systems. (MLF)

  16. Evaluating the incidence of indirect tax reforms in Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between 1983 and 1996, income inequality moved from 0.49 to 0.44 and subsequently to 0.41 in 2001. The indirect tax structure has a role to play in inequality reduction policies. Using the 1983/84, 1996 and the 2001 Cameroon household surveys, this study reveals that the indirect tax reforms of 1994 and 1999 have been ...

  17. The voluntary fulfillment of the taxes payment as reformative institution of Venezuelan tax system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Guillermo Garcia

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A consensus between the reformers of the public administration exists on a matter that changes are not decreed, but that these require, for their effective fulfillment of certain conditions, like stimulation of actors affected by the reforms, to recognize the new scenario like favorable and therefore, to act in its name. Under this premise, this paper analyzes the voluntary fulfillment of the taxes payment as reformative institution of the Venezuelan tax system, which has implied the development of a formal incentives structure promoting the initiative of conscious tax payment.

  18. Perspectives of tax reforms in Croatia: expert opinion survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Šimović

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to shape tax reform it is necessary objectively to assess the current stateof-the-art of and of the outlook for the tax system. After having reviewed all previous reforms in the light of the consumption-based (interest-adjusted concept of direct taxation, which was almost systematically implemented in Croatia in 1994, we present the results of a broad expert opinion survey about the Croatian tax system. The most interesting results suggest the maintenance/(reintroduction of different tax incentives and reduced VAT rates, rejection of a flat tax as well as decrease of tax brackets, an increase in alcohol and tobacco duties, the introduction of a financial activities tax, a further shift from income to consumption, a decrease of the tax share in GDP and a belief in the behavioral responsiveness of tax decreases/exemptions, as well as a firm commitment to the principle of equity. The last three economic views/values are important predictors of other tax attitudes.

  19. Tax reform in the Lula government: continuity and fiscal injustice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrine Brami-Celentano

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The tax reform proposed by the Lula government in 2003, quickly approved by Congress, remained at the limits of the proposals of the previous government of President Fernando Henrique Cardoso and his Social Democratic party (PSDB, inspired by neoliberal ideology. The small advances in reducing regressivity, such as exemptions for basic consumer products, have not altered the role of the tax structure in the concentration of wealth, with a predominance of indirect taxes and their regressive effects. Taxation has deserved little attention in the broad debate about social policies in Brazil, which concentrates on the allocation of public expenses and the efficiency of spending, without proper attention to the role of the tax structure in the concentration of income and wealth in the country. The article presents the regressive profile of the Brazilian tax structure, preserved by the reform of 2003 and discusses the neoliberal agenda that guides the initiatives of the Lula government in this field.

  20. 26 CFR 1.615-9 - Notification under Tax Reform Act of 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Notification under Tax Reform Act of 1969. 1.615...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.615-9 Notification under Tax Reform... whom the taxpayer's income tax return is required to be filed. If the election is made within the time...

  1. Shortsighted Tax Policy: Senate and House Tax Reform Bills Would Increase Burdens on Universities and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Matthew A.

    2017-01-01

    If there is one area of common ground between the Republican leadership in the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives, it is that the time has finally come for those entities that are not currently paying their fair share of taxes to step forward and be held accountable. Both the Senate and House tax reform bills propose that these…

  2. Tax Arbitrage in the Netherlands : evaluation of the capital income tax reform of January 1, 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.J. Brys

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis evaluates the Dutch reform of capital income taxation of January 1, 2001. The Dutch capital-income-tax system before the reform distorted the choice between the investment’s sources of finance and uses of earnings, the businesses’ legal form, and the households’ (either

  3. An evaluation of the 2003 tax reform effort in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werneck Rogério L. F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an assessment of the tax-reform effort launched by the newly elected Lula government in 2003. It analyzes how the envisaged reform had to be changed and scaled down, in the wake of strong political resistance, after a failed attempt to develop a consensual proposal, fully supported by state-governors. The main effective changes are then evaluated. Challenges ahead are discussed at the end.

  4. REFORMATION OF THE TAX SYSTEM IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila Grigorevna Oleynikova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available For some time the tax policy has been changing the vector of influence on the economy development towards granting a wide range of tax remissions by branch and territorial factors or periodically towards their restriction related to the requirements of international financial organizations. Lobbying of own interests by influential business structures known in developed countries has become customary and resulted in uneven tax loads not only for industries, but, sometimes, for economic entities. In its turn, it has resulted in reduction of public revenues and caused the desire of taxpayers to avoid excessive pressure on businesses by minimizing their tax liabilities or evading them completely. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-56

  5. Tax Reforms in Nigeria: Case against Tax Incentives | Omesi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper revealed that huge sums of tax revenue are being lost annually by the Nigerian Customs service due to under assessment of payable duties, unauthorized transfer of funds, abuse of waivers, concessions, exemptions and non-remittance of government revenue. Based on these revelations, the paper suggests ...

  6. 26 CFR 301.9100-12T - Various elections under the Tax Reform Act of 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Various elections under the Tax Reform Act of... Internal Revenue Laws § 301.9100-12T Various elections under the Tax Reform Act of 1976. (a) Elections covered by temporary rules. The sections of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, or of the Tax Reform Act of...

  7. Exempt Organizations and Real Estate Syndications After the Tax Reform Act of 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Susan L.

    1985-01-01

    The Tax Reform Act of 1984 has sharply limited the tax advantages for private investors to enter into real estate sales/leaseback agreements with exempt organizations. The impact the Tax Reform Act of 1984 has on sales/leaseback agreements involving tax-exempt organizations is examined. (Author/MLW)

  8. Performing an Environmental Tax Reform in a regional Economy. A Computable General Equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andre, F.J.; Cardenete, M.A.; Velazquez, E.

    2003-01-01

    We use a Computable General Equilibrium model to simulate the effects of an Environmental Tax Reform in a regional economy (Andalusia, Spain).The reform involves imposing a tax on CO2 or SO2 emissions and reducing either the Income Tax or the payroll tax of employers to Social Security, and

  9. The Consortium for Higher Education Tax Reform Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Postsecondary and Economic Success, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This White Paper presents the work of the Consortium for Higher Education Tax Reform, a partnership funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation as part of the second phase of its Reimagining Aid Design and Delivery (RADD) initiative. Consortium partners are the Center for Postsecondary and Economic Success at CLASP, the Education Trust, New…

  10. Serious reform starts with a systemic risk tax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.

    2010-01-01

    The recent IMF report to the G20 states that fiscal reforms are essential to recover the costs of the crisis, as well as to contain future risk creation. This column argues that progress on controlling future risk requires a direct tax on systemic risk. This would restore confidence in the ability

  11. Aspects of financial history in Romania. Reform and reformers. The financial tax reform accomplished BY Nicolae Titulescu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciobanu, R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a brief history of the financial reform designed by Nicolae Titulescu at the beginning of the 1920’s. His tax reform law was formulated after thorough research of other European tax systems. He tried to implement it while he was Minister of Finance. Even though the law was adopted, it was never enacted. It met a certain amount of controversy in the Assembly of Deputies. The analysis made also tries to explain the cedular tax system.

  12. Reform of labour taxes in Latvia 2011-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilmārs Šņucins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the motives for and results of the labour tax reforms undertaken by the Latvian government in 2011-2013 with a special focus on the lowwage sector. The reforms were developed with the goal of overcoming negative effects on the labour market caused by the deep economic crisis in 2008-2010 as well as of coping with an increase in labour tax burdens during consolidation. In 2008-2010, Latvia was seriously affected by the global economic crisis and during these years real gross domestic product (GDP declined by 21 percent. Labour market conditions became worse rapidly and at the beginning of 2010, the unemployment rate reached 21.5 per cent of the economically active population. For the period of 2011-2016, the reforms provide for a reduction in the rates of personal income tax (PIT and social security contributions (SSC as well as for an increase in PIT allowances. Taking into account the changes made in labour tax laws, we employed forecasts of average wages and applied the Eurostat methodology to calculate the tax wedge for different groups of employees depending on income level and on the number of their dependants. The results show that the impact of the reform varies greatly and it is more beneficial for employees with dependants and for low-wage earners. The findings of the paper contribute to policy discussions and decisions on the tax wedge, especially in the Euro area. In the period covered by the paper, about half of the Euro area member states (including Latvia received a country-specific recommendation to address this issue in the context of the European Semester.

  13. Ecological Tax Reform in Denmark: history and social acceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klok, Jacob; Larsen, Anders; Hansen, Kirsten; Dahl, Anja

    2006-01-01

    Despite the long-term and positive experience with Ecological Tax Reform (ETR), the PETRAS study indicates that awareness about the principles behind ETR is low among both businesses and the general public in Denmark. As well as the lack of awareness of ETR, attitudes towards environmental taxation appear negative. When explaining the political intentions behind ETR, attitudes seem to improve somewhat, but they still remain overall sceptical. Based on the history and the results of the PETRAS project the article will describe some of the main impediments for further development of environmental tax and ETR policies in Denmark. The article concludes that the main reason why the ETR policy has been met with such apparently low social acceptability in Denmark is that the 'green' of the 'green' tax reform has been somewhat oversold. On this basis it recommends the pursuit of a courageous government strategy of, openly and repeatedly, stressing the revenue purposes of environmentally related taxes over the environmental purposes in an effort to redirect public discussions towards relevant issues like the pros and cons of environmentally related taxation compared with other types of taxation and the connection between the overall tax burden and demands for government spending. Such a bold government 'confession' to the obvious revenue purposes of the environmentally related taxes could make them, if not popular, then at least a bit more acceptable to businesses and the general public. (author)

  14. Regional environmental tax reform in a fiscal federalism setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. CIASCHINI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing attention to climate changes have led national Governments to design environmental tax policies able to face environmental problems and their associated economic consequences as a negative change of GDP. The environmental taxation in particular is considered a powerful instrument of pollution control. More important, it provides public revenue that can be recycled both at State level and Local level in order to attain the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and the regional double dividend. In this respect, we use a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE model with imperfect labour market, to assess the regional effects of an environmental fiscal reform designed with the aim of reducing the CO2 emissions in a fiscal federalism setting. In particular, we introduce a local green tax on commodities output with a progressive structure. The tax burden depends on the commodity polluting power and the tax revenue is collected by the Local Government. According to the fiscal federalism principles the Central Government reduces the transfers to the Local Government by the same amount of the tax revenue and compensates the transfer reduction with a cut in Households income tax. The application is done on a bi-regional Social Accounting Matrix for Italy and the results highlights the distributional effects of the reform on macroeconomic variables into the bi-regional income circular flow.

  15. Green tax reform, marginal revenue of wage income taxes, and the wage curve. A brief note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziesemer, T.

    2002-01-01

    It has been shown elsewhere (Schneider, 1997) that the success of a green tax reform depends crucially on a small slope of the wage curve of an efficiency wage model in which production occurs using a second factor E, energy or emissions. Also elsewhere (Scholz, 1998) it was revealed that there is a second necessary condition that the marginal revenue of the wage income tax is negative. In this note we show that (1) these two conditions are not independent, but rather depend both on the slope of the wage curve; and (2) if Schneider's condition of a sufficiently flat wage curve is fulfilled, marginal revenue of wage income taxes must be negative. By implication, both the green tax reform and the sign of the marginal revenue of wage income taxes depend on the slope of the wage curve which allows to distinguish three cases of a tax reform: (a) a double dividend for a very small slope of the wage curve (Schneider's case); (b) failure of unemployment reduction (Scholz' case) for a very steep wage curve; (c) failure of emission reduction for an intermediate case of a wage curve slope

  16. Labor Tax Reform and Equilibrium Unemployment : A Search and Matching Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijdra, B.J.; Ligthart, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The paper studies simple strategies of labor tax reform in a search and matching model of the labor market featuring endogenous labor supply.Changing the composition of the tax wedge|that is, reducing a payroll tax and increasing a progressive wage tax such that the marginal tax wedge remains

  17. Labor tax reform and equilibrium unemployment : a search and matching approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijdra, Ben J.; Ligthart, Jenny E.

    2004-01-01

    The paper studies simple strategies of labor tax reform in a search and matching model of the labor market featuring endogenous labor supply. Changing the composition of the tax wedge---that is, reducing a payroll tax and increasing a progressive wage tax such that the marginal tax wedge remains

  18. Massachusetts reform plus President Bush's tax credits: a national model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etheredge, Lynn M

    2006-01-01

    The Massachusetts health reform offers an important opportunity for a new federal-state strategy to cover the uninsured. President George Bush's proposed health insurance tax credits could be added to the Massachusetts health reform. The combined plan would include Medicaid expansions; offer workers affordable coverage through competitive insurance markets; and provide federal, state, employer, and individual financing. Many other states might be interested in similar federal-state partnerships for the forty-five million uninsured Americans. Ending the national impasse on coverage needs this kind of bold initiative.

  19. ANALYSIS ON CONFLICTS OF CHINA’S COAL TAX REFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the conflicts which are resulted from coal tax reform in China from economic and public policy perspectives. An analytical framework involving actors, values, interests and institution has been applied. China’s central government eagers to achieve fiscal revenue increase, environmental protection and energy conversation goals by a good governance of coal system. As a traditional and feasible policy instrument, taxation is regarded for dealing with energy issues in politics and governance. However, coal tax reform proposal has induced many controversies in China. The causes of that include value conflicts of all actors, competing interests of all parties and institutional barriers of economic, politics and legislation. Therefore, the government cannot regulate coal issues only through taxation. The case reveals that good governance on coal cannot be achieved only by economic tools as coal system contains so high stake and involves so many players.

  20. Analysis on Conflicts of China’s Coal Tax Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dong

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the conflicts which are resulted from coal tax reform in China from economic and public policy perspectives. An analytical framework involving actors, values, interests and institution has been applied. China’s central government eagers to achieve fiscal revenue increase, environmental protection and energy conversation goals by a good governance of coal system. As a traditional and feasible policy instrument, taxation is regarded for dealing with energy issues in poli...

  1. The 2014 Global Tax Competitiveness Report: A Proposed Business Tax Reform Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duanjie Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Canada is losing its edge in the competition for global capital. After a decade of remarkable progress in reducing the tax burden on business investment — moving from one of the least tax-competitive jurisdictions among its industrialized peers in 2000, to ranking in the middle of the pack by 2011 — Canada has slipped by largely standing still. As other countries in our peer group have continued to reform their business-tax regimes, they have surpassed Canada, which has slid from having the 19th-highest tax burden on investments by medium-sized and large corporations in 2012, to the 14th-highest among 34 OECD countries in 2014. Even more worrying is that Canada’s political currents are running the wrong way, with a few provinces having increased taxes on capital in recent years and a number of politicians today floating the possibility of even higher business taxes to help address budgetary strains. But the right approach to raising tax revenue and improving the economy is quite the opposite: lowering rates and broadening the tax base by making Canadian jurisdictions even more attractive to corporate investment. An important step towards that would be for federal and provincial governments to reduce targeted tax assistance and to level the tax field for all industries and sizes of businesses, ending the preferential treatment of favoured industries and small enterprises. In addition, those provinces that have yet to harmonize their sales tax with the federal GST should do so, or at least consider adopting a quasi-refund system that would relieve the provincial sales tax on capital inputs. Alberta, with no sales tax, could become more competitive by adopting an HST and using the proceeds to reduce personal and corporate taxes. Finally, Canada would do much better to mandate a uniform corporate tax rate, with an 11 per cent federal rate and a nine per cent average provincial rate. This would encourage capital investment and attract corporate

  2. The mechanism of tax administration and the priorities of tax reform in the context of business environment improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsadanyan T.S.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available in the XXIst century the role of tax administration is becoming more and more important in the increasingly stiff competition and economic reforms in the World Economy. The article has studied the human factor regarding it as an inseparable part of tax administration. The article also investigates the following issues tax administration faces: provision of new tax privileges for imported goods, provision of favorable tax incentives for local goods in case of joining the Eurasian Economic Union, repression of tax/GDP correlation, etc. Imperfections was identified in each field and the ways for their solution have been suggested.

  3. Trade liberalization and tax reform strategies: The case of the Korean oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Kieun; Jung, Yonghun

    2012-01-01

    The decline in government revenues due to tariff reductions has become a major concern for most developing countries, including Korea. This paper focuses on the Korean oil industry to examine which post-trade liberalization tax reform strategy is optimal, depending on the government's priority between social welfare and government revenue. We find that the important factors for choosing an optimal tax reform policy are price elasticity of demand and market competition. Based on a price-inelastic demand and the low competitive market for Korea's oil industry, if the goal of a tax reform policy is to increase social welfare, the recommended strategy is to raise the consumption tax by a scale of less than the sum of tariff cuts times the crude oil price and oil import tax cuts. This strategy would also reduce inflation, but it could be detrimental to government revenue. However, if the policy's goal is the preservation of government revenue, the recommended strategy is to raise the consumption tax by a scale equal to the sum of tariff cuts times the crude oil price at the pre-tax reform and oil import tax cuts. This strategy does not change either government revenue or social welfare. - Highlights: ▶ Which post-trade liberalization tax reform is optimal for Korea's oil industry? ▶ Both final and intermediate markets are modeled under imperfect competition. ▶ Both price elasticity and market competition are important for an optimal tax reform. ▶ The optimal tax reform depends on the priority between welfare and government revenue.

  4. Tax justice of the reform of higher education: tuition fees or tax relief?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Semerád

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the current reform of higher education which is now being discussed in the Czech Republic. The Government and the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports propose a tuition fee for students at universities but there is still no clear concept of it. University leaders and students are against the tuition fee because of their fear of getting into debt during their study. The aim of this paper is to show an alternative way of funding higher education without tuition fee loans and from the point of view of tax justice. According to the concept of horizontal justice (Mankiw, 1999 taxpayers should pay taxes at the same rate, but it does not work this way. The result of research is that changes in Act 586/1992 Coll., on income tax and in Act 117/1995 Coll., on state social welfare are required. Abolition of tax relief is proposed where discrimination against other taxpayers and groups of students could occur. By abolition of tax relief for a student and tax relief for a dependent child the amounts of 4,020 CZK and 13,404 CZK respectively could be saved. Changes in legislation could be politically more acceptable than the tuition fee. The solution could also lead to simplification for taxpayers. The target should be equal access to higher education for all students.

  5. Nuclear power enterprise tax planning strategy in the background of reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yimin

    2012-01-01

    The success of tax planning can be converted into enterprise's productivity, tax planning strategy can maximize the desired effects and bring out its full play to tax planning. Taking new round of tax reform in 12th five-year-plan and the reformation of professional groups as the background, the author detailedly conceived a frame of corporate tax planning strategy for nuclear power enterprises of China National Nuclear Corporation at the forefront of reformation from an all-round comprehensive view and multi-angle stand. (author)

  6. Differential effects of green tax reform over economies: A case of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Heon

    2011-12-01

    It is controversial whether or not green tax reform through a carbon tax has double dividend feature. The economic effects of green tax reform vary according to economies due to different preexisting conditions. Recent studies about the economic impacts of a carbon tax have noted the role of preexisting factor taxes in the second best world. The present study, however, explores the role of existing taxes on energy products in introducing a carbon tax, by employing a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for Korea, a country that has high existing taxes on petroleum products. Above all, I find that a carbon tax is the most efficient policy instrument among three alternative taxes---an energy tax, a carbon tax and an ad valorem tax---to reduce carbon emissions in Korea under both lump-sum tax replacement and labor tax replacement. The carbon tax, however, brings about welfare and GDP loss. The economic costs can be reduced, but cannot be completely removed by revenue recycling. Second, this study explores how existing taxes on petroleum products affect the economic cost of introducing a carbon tax, by manipulating existing taxes on petroleum products. I find that the existing taxes raise the economic costs of introducing a carbon tax. Third, this study shows that the economic costs of a carbon tax can be reduced when its revenue is returned to cut preexisting taxes on petroleum products. Thus, restructuring existing taxes on energy products plays a crucial role in introducing a carbon tax. From the specific case of the Korean economy, the present study indicates that existing taxes on not only factors but also energy products are one of the main sources of economic costs in introducing a carbon tax.

  7. Vehicle type choice under the influence of a tax reform and rising fuel prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabit, Stefan Lindhard

    2014-01-01

    change in new vehicle purchases toward more diesel vehicles and more fuel-efficient vehicles. The paper analyses to what extent a vehicle tax reform similar to the Danish 2007 reform may explain changes in purchasing behaviour. The paper investigates the effects of a tax reform, fuel price changes......, and technological development on vehicle type choice using a mixed logit model. The model allows a simulation of the effect of car price changes that resemble those induced by the tax reform. This effect is compared to the effects of fuel price changes and technology improvements. The simulations show...... that the effect of the tax reform on fuel efficiency is similar to the effect of rising fuel prices while the effect of technological development is much larger. The conclusion is that while the tax reform appeared in the same year as a large increase in fuel efficiency, it seems likely that it only explains...

  8. The Land Value Tax in Jamaica:An Analysis and Options for Reform

    OpenAIRE

    David L. Sjoquist

    2004-01-01

    This Working Paper on the property tax contains an Executive Summary and four chapters. In Chapter One we describe how the Jamaican property tax functions. In Chapter Two we present an analysis of various problems and issues that surround of the property tax. Chapter Three, which was co-authored with Ki-Whan Choi, presents an analysis of a land value tax versus a capital value tax. Finally, in Chapter Four we present options for reform.

  9. Tax Reform Act of 1986: implications and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R F

    1988-10-01

    The Tax Reform Act of 1986 contains several changes that substantially reduce economic flexibility for not-for-profit hospitals and healthcare systems. These changes, involving limited partnerships, investment tax credit, depreciation, and income deferral plans, among other items, carry several implications. Tax-motivated joint ventures will no longer be attractive to physician investors, donations to hospitals are expected to decline by up to 15 percent, and flexibility in attracting and retaining high-caliber employees is reduced. Efforts to reduce the federal budget deficit and renewed scrutiny of unrelated business income further jeopardize economic flexibility. Another threat is intensified Internal Revenue Service scrutiny of Form 990, which is filed by all not-for-profit organizations with $25,000 or more in annual gross receipts, and Form 990T, which is used to report unrelated business income. Measures to protect facilities' economic flexibility include careful return preparation, alternative recruitment tactics, objective opinions, refusal of high-risk deals, and outside appraisals.

  10. The Tax System in India; Could Reform Spur Growth?

    OpenAIRE

    Helene Poirson Ward

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses the effects of India's tax system on growth, through the level and productivity of private investment. Comparison of India's indicators of effective tax rates and tax revenue productivity with other countries shows that the Indian tax system is characterized by: (1) a high dependence on indirect taxes, (2) low average effective tax rates and tax productivity, and (3) high marginal effective tax rates and large tax-induced distortions on investment and financing decisions. ...

  11. Foreign investment, international mergers and the 1993 capital income tax reform in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Hannu Piekkola

    1995-01-01

    Foreign direct investment in Finland and the 1993 Finnish Capital Income Tax Reform are examined in this article. Under territorial taxation, the most common form of international double taxation relief; the tax reform will encourage new capital investment. New capital investment from the US, which applies worldwide taxation, would be mildly discouraged, and FDI in the form of mergers and acquisitions largely discouraged. In the UK and Japan, the worldwide principle only covers tax rates. Thu...

  12. Hay condiciones propicias para reforma tributaria estructural (A positive time for a tax reform)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitrago Diaz, E.

    2015-01-01

    This publication deals with local taxes in Colombia, in particular the trade tax (a direct tax on income). The analysis focuses on the reforms proposed by the OECD and the impact of the current laws on trade taxation at the municipal level, ending in internal double and multiple taxation.

  13. The Impact of Tax Reform on New Car Purchases in Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennessy, H.; Tol, R.S.J.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the impact of recent tax reforms in Ireland on private car transport and its greenhouse gas emissions. A carbon tax was introduced on fuels, and purchase (vehicle registration) and ownership (motor) taxes were switched from engine size to potential emissions. We use a demographic model of

  14. 26 CFR 1.673(b)-1 - Income payable to charitable beneficiaries before amendment by Tax Reform Act of 1969).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... before amendment by Tax Reform Act of 1969). 1.673(b)-1 Section 1.673(b)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Grantors and... amendment by Tax Reform Act of 1969). (a) Pursuant to section 673(b) a grantor is not treated as an owner of...

  15. 26 CFR 1.269-6 - Relationship of section 269 to section 382 before the Tax Reform Act of 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... before the Tax Reform Act of 1986. 1.269-6 Section 1.269-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Items Not Deductible § 1.269-6 Relationship of section 269 to section 382 before the Tax Reform Act of 1986. Section 269 and §§ 1.269-1...

  16. 26 CFR 1.706-2T - Temporary regulations; question and answer under the Tax Reform Act of 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the Tax Reform Act of 1984. 1.706-2T Section 1.706-2T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Partners and Partnerships § 1.706-2T Temporary regulations; question and answer under the Tax Reform Act of 1984. Question 1: For...

  17. Measuring the impact of marginal tax rate reform on the revenue base of South Africa using a microsimulation tax model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolande Jordaan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is primarily concerned with the revenue and tax efficiency effects of adjustments to marginal tax rates on individual income as an instrument of possible tax reform. The hypothesis is that changes to marginal rates affect not only the revenue base, but also tax efficiency and the optimum level of taxes that supports economic growth. Using an optimal revenue-maximising rate (based on Laffer analysis, the elasticity of taxable income is derived with respect to marginal tax rates for each taxable-income category. These elasticities are then used to quantify the impact of changes in marginal rates on the revenue base and tax efficiency using a microsimulation (MS tax model. In this first paper on the research results, much attention is paid to the structure of the model and the way in which the database has been compiled. The model allows for the dissemination of individual taxpayers by income groups, gender, educational level, age group, etc. Simulations include a scenario with higher marginal rates which is also more progressive (as in the 1998/1999 fiscal year, in which case tax revenue increases but the increase is overshadowed by a more than proportional decrease in tax efficiency as measured by its deadweight loss. On the other hand, a lowering of marginal rates (to bring South Africa’s marginal rates more in line with those of its peers improves tax efficiency but also results in a substantial revenue loss. The estimated optimal individual tax to gross domestic product (GDP ratio in order to maximise economic growth (6.7 per cent shows a strong response to changes in marginal rates, and the results from this research indicate that a lowering of marginal rates would also move the actual ratio closer to its optimum level. Thus, the trade-off between revenue collected and tax efficiency should be carefully monitored when personal income tax reform is being considered.

  18. Impact of Tax Reform Act of 1986 on IRA's Investment Value

    OpenAIRE

    William Reichenstein; Mark L. Cross

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present an economic analysis of the tax advantages of deductible and nondeductible IRAs under the 1986 Tax Reform Act. These advantages are compared to those offered by other pension plans. The results show that the tax advantages of deductible IRAs allow for substantially higher values than the value of a similar investment held outside a pension account. The nondeductible IRA does not provide tax advantages over non-IRA investments if investors expect to with...

  19. Environmental tax reform: an assessment of social responses in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinch, J. Peter; Dunne, Louise

    2006-01-01

    Environmental tax reform (ETR) is widely accepted to be a policy with desirable environmental, and other economic effects. The question arises then as to why its implementation has been so patchy. There is a broad literature on the economic impact of ETR, however, there have been very few research efforts devoted to understanding the roles and imperatives of the public, policy makers, businesses and other stakeholders who are addressed by ETR. This paper examines the impediments to ETR in Ireland. Focus groups were formed comprising of members of the general public and these provided a forum for detailed reactions to the ETR concept. Interviews were conducted with policy makers and key business people in an attempt to identify both the patterns of thinking behind ETR and the main obstacles to its introduction. Having presented the results, a theory of the main impediments to ETR is developed. The opinions of the members of the public, the business community and the policy makers highlight a number of issues that need to be addressed in the future design of ETR in Ireland. The principal potential impediments to ETR include: mistrust of the government, implausibility of the policy, means of hypothecation, information asymmetries, the political system, the structure of government, the macroeconomic environment, the impact on competitiveness, inequity between sectors, regressivity, elasticities and the level of the tax, terminology, and the marketing of ETR

  20. The impact of resource tax reform on China's coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Huihui; Chen, ZhanMing; Wang, Jianliang; Fan, Jihong

    2017-01-01

    Contributing to approximately two-thirds of primary energy consumption, coal usage is the focus of China's energy policies. To regulate the resource taxation system and reduce the burden of coal enterprises, the Chinese government launched a reform of its resource tax system in 2014 for coal, introducing the ad valorem system to replace the volume-based system that had been in place for the preceding thirty years. To assess the impact of the tax reform, this paper constructs two-stage dynamic game models by taking the coal and coal-fired power industries as the players. The market situations of shortage and oversupply are investigated separately. Empirical data are collected to estimate the model parameters for numerical simulations. The model results suggest that the tax reform will reduce both coal prices and the coal industry profitability if the tax levied on each ton of coal is maintained at the same level as before the reform, regardless of whether the market is in a shortage or an oversupply situation. However, the increased buyer's power will amplify the effect of the tax reform. The numerical simulations also provide an estimation of the tax rate of the ad valorem system that maintains the profit of the coal industry. Considering the demand and supply situations in China's coal market, policy recommendations are provided to guide further reform of China's resource tax system. - Highlights: • The paper examines the influence of resource tax reform on China's coal industry. • We construct two-stage game models between coal and coal-fired power industries. • Market situations of shortage and oversupply are studied in two taxation systems. • Coal price will decrease if maintaining the tax levied on each ton of coal the same. • To achieve the reform objective, the ad valorem tax rate should not be set too high.

  1. Increasing excise taxes in the presence of an illegal cigarette market: the 2011 Brazil tobacco tax reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Roberto Magno

    2016-10-01

    The Brazilian cigarette excise tax reform of 2011 increased tax rates significantly in the presence of a high proportion of illegal and cheap cigarettes contributing to total consumption. Prior to 2011, tobacco tax policy in Brazil had reduced excise tax share on consumer prices, for fear of smuggling. This report examines two hypotheses explaining why tax authorities changed direction. The first is related to lack of concern regarding smuggling in tobacco industry pricing behavior before 2011 (rather than reducing prices following tax reduction, legal companies increased net of tax prices above inflation and key costs). The second hypothesis regards inconsistent industry assessments of the size of the illicit market, which ultimately undermined the credibility of the industry with tax authorities. The author concludes that the 2011 reform was designed to revert the weakness of previous policies, and did indeed succeed. The post-2011 experience in Brazil indicates that increased cigarette excise taxes can increase government revenues and reduce smoking prevalence and consumption despite widespread smuggling of tobacco products.

  2. Increasing excise taxes in the presence of an illegal cigarette market: the 2011 Brazil tobacco tax reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Magno Iglesias

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Brazilian cigarette excise tax reform of 2011 increased tax rates significantly in the presence of a high proportion of illegal and cheap cigarettes contributing to total consumption. Prior to 2011, tobacco tax policy in Brazil had reduced excise tax share on consumer prices, for fear of smuggling. This report examines two hypotheses explaining why tax authorities changed direction. The first is related to lack of concern regarding smuggling in tobacco industry pricing behavior before 2011 (rather than reducing prices following tax reduction, legal companies increased net of tax prices above inflation and key costs. The second hypothesis regards inconsistent industry assessments of the size of the illicit market, which ultimately undermined the credibility of the industry with tax authorities. The author concludes that the 2011 reform was designed to revert the weakness of previous policies, and did indeed succeed. The post-2011 experience in Brazil indicates that increased cigarette excise taxes can increase government revenues and reduce smoking prevalence and consumption despite widespread smuggling of tobacco products.

  3. 26 CFR 7.48-3 - Election to apply the amendments made by sections 804 (a) and (b) of the Tax Reform Act of 1976...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... sections 804 (a) and (b) of the Tax Reform Act of 1976 to property described in section 50(a) of the Code... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1976 § 7.48-3 Election to apply the amendments made by sections 804 (a) and (b) of the Tax Reform Act of 1976 to property...

  4. Tax systems and tax reforms in south and East Asia: Overview of the tax systems and main policy tax issues

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardi, Luigi; Fumagalli, Laura; Gandullia, Luca

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses the main aspects of taxation in South and East Asia. Particolar attention is given to the main issues which emerge from the tax systems of China, India, Japan, Malysia, South Korea and Thailand

  5. Tax Reform and Fiscal Sustainability in Central and Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isadora LAZĂR

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, as response to the economic crises, most European Union member states resorted to tax reforms in order to support the financial sector, to sustain demand and reduce internal balances. Considering the even more challenging context of Central and East European countries we aim at determining the effects of tax reform on fiscal sustainability, with the purpose of bringing light, and therefore solutions, regarding future developments. This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of fiscal sustainability and tax reform implemented in some Central and Eastern European countries that are also the most recent members that adhered to the European Union (Romania, Bulgaria and Croatia. Based on the results of the analysis, we conclude on the influence of tax reform on fiscal sustainability, one of the most stringent issued faced by most countries.

  6. The effect of the 2006 tax reform on the companies' capital structure

    OpenAIRE

    Voinea, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the interrelationship between leverage and ownership concentration in the case of Norwegian non-listed firms while considering the effects of the 2006 Norwegian tax reform. This paper finds that the tax reform had a negative impact on leverage and a positive impact on ownership concentration. In addition, there is a bidirectional positive relationship between leverage and ownership concentration and the effect of leverage on ownership concentration is bigger than the e...

  7. The impact of tax reform on new car purchases in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennessy, Hugh; Tol, Richard S.J.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the impact of recent tax reforms in Ireland on private car transport and its greenhouse gas emissions. A carbon tax was introduced on fuels, and purchase (vehicle registration) and ownership (motor) taxes were switched from engine size to potential emissions. We use a demographic model of the car stock (by age, size, and fuel) and a car purchase model that reflects the heterogeneous distribution of mileage and usage costs across various engine sizes. The model shows a dramatic shift from petrol to diesel cars, particularly for large engines. The same pattern is observed in the latest data on car sales. This has a substantial impact on tax revenue as car owners shift to the lower tax rates. The tax burden has shifted from car ownership to car use, and that the overall tax burden on private car transport falls. As diesel engines are more fuel efficient than petrol engines, carbon dioxide emissions fall modestly or, if we consider the rebound effect of travel costs on mileage, minimally. From the perspective of the revenue, the costs per tonne of carbon dioxide avoided are (very) high. - Highlights: → Ireland has reform fuel and car taxes to inventivize emission reduction. → These tax reforms are likely to cause a large shift from petrol to diesel cars. → Carbon dioxide emissions will fall as a result. → Tax revenues will fall too. → The exchequer cost per tonne of CO 2 avoided is very high.

  8. The Impact of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 on Legal Education and Law Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Christopher R.

    1986-01-01

    The Tax Reform Act of 1986 changed the tax laws that affect how law schools raise revenue and how law faculty make expenditures. All law faculty should become familiar with the changes so as to minimize the potentially adverse consequences to themselves and their institutions. (MSE)

  9. Who pulled the strings? A comparative study of Indonesian and Vietnamese tax reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heij, Gitte

    2007-01-01

    Many countries overhaul their tax systems from time to time. In the Asian region countries like Indonesia, China, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Vietnam and Thailand have all undergone drastic tax reforms in the last 20 years. The need to fill the government coffers, attract foreign

  10. Tax-Based Educational Equity: A New Approach to School Finance Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bruce S.; And Others

    A new argument is made for school finance equalization, based not on "equal protection" or "equal educational opportunity," but on constitutional requirements for tax equity in New Hampshire. Since inequalities in school finance are a taxation problem, they call for tax reform. The analyses rest on four points: (1) that…

  11. The Recent Corporate Income Tax Reform Proposals in Canada and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Grady, Patrick

    1986-01-01

    In May 1985, Canada's Minister of Finance and the President of the United States each put forward a proposal for reforming his country's corporate income tax system. Both proposals called for a broadening of the tax base and the elimination of investment tax credits. The U. S. proposal also included indexation of depreciation allowances and inventory cost. The study reported in this article examines these two proposals, focussing on their significance for Canada. The study uses the concept of...

  12. Effects of the 1994 Tax Reform on Intraprovincial Inequalities in Financing Basic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tingjin

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the influence of the 1994 tax reform on intraprovincial inequality in financing basic education. The empirical analysis finds that the reform has decreased inequality in general, suggesting that the center may attain its policy goal through centralizing its relative fiscal capability and increasing the intergovernmental…

  13. The Aggregate and Distributional Effects of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 on Firm Valuation.

    OpenAIRE

    Givoly, Dan; Hayn, Carla

    1991-01-01

    The authors examine the aggregate and distributional effects of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 on equity values of publicly traded corporations. The results show that the effect of the act on the aggregate equity value of corporations was consistent with the present value of the projected added tax collection from the corporate sector. The cross-sectional variation in the magnitude and direction of the stock price response to the Tax Reform Act of 1986 was a function of both the direct and indire...

  14. Tax Sparing, FDI, and Foreign Aid: Evidence from Territorial Tax Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Azémar, Céline; Dharmapala, Dhammika

    2016-01-01

    The governments of many developing countries seek to attract inbound foreign direct investment (FDI) through the use of tax incentives for multinational corporations (MNCs). The effectiveness of these tax incentives depends crucially on MNCs’ residence country tax regime, especially where the residence country imposes worldwide taxation on foreign income. Tax sparing provisions are included in many bilateral tax treaties to prevent host country tax incentives being nullified by residence coun...

  15. Problems of the tax reform implementation in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Lepekha

    2017-03-01

    According to the author, there is a strong need to review approaches to complex tax issues, to develop tax legislation that will correspond with the long-term development strategies and will stimulate the respective processes of economic growth.

  16. The economic impacts of federal tax reform for investments in short-rotation forest plantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    In discussing the potential contributions of short-rotation forest plantations to the fuel wood supply, a number of economic factors have been considered and analyzed. Very little, however, has been written on the income tax aspects of the subject. The tax treatment of such plantings is an extremely important factor. The federal income tax, in particular, can have a significant impact on production costs and is a major factor in determining the economic feasibility of this type of investment. The major federal Income tax provisions of significance are those that deal with capital expenditures, currently deductible costs and sale receipts. Several alternative tax approaches were available prior to passage of the 1986 Tax Reform Act. The new act's provisions, however, have completely changed the federal income tax treatment of timber income and expenditures, including those associated with short-rotation plantations. This paper analyzes the changes and discusses their economic implications for fuel wood culture

  17. On the structural tax reform that is needed in Colombia. Reflections and proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Espitia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the characteristics of an equitable and structural tax reform. Taxation does not only determine revenue, but it also affects the productive apparatus and equitability. In Colombia, tax pressure is very low and resources are insufficient to provide essential public goods. The duty system should contribute to the consolidation of a “new economy”, as it is called by the government, which boosts industry, agriculture, and tourism, and which is less dependent on fossil fuels. Taxes should favor equitability, and so direct taxation should increase in a progressive manner, with a rate which rises as income increases. The recently passed tax reform improves revenue, but favor neither the new economy nor equitability, since it gave too much weight to V.A.T. and very little weight to income or wealth tax.

  18. Distributive effects of the 2010 tax reform in Mexico: A microsimulation analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Absalón, Carlos; Urzúa, Carlos M.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter starts with a description of the main features of the current Mexican tax system and of a (minor) tax reform that took place in 2010, when the government tried to correct for a drastic fall in its revenues because of the economic collapse in 2009. It then describes in a detailed way a microsimulation model, which is made of three modules: for direct taxes, for indirect taxes, and for welfare indexes. Subsequently, it exemplifies the use of the model by examining the welfare and r...

  19. PROBLEMS AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF REFORMING TAXES FOR USE OF NATURAL RESOURCES IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru BACAL

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is carried out a comprehensive analysis of the implementation of taxes for use of natural resources in the Republic of Moldova. There have been identified the main methodological gaps, especially the neglect of geographical and ecological component, problems of administrations of those taxes. The main objectives of this study are: 1 knowledge and application of international experience in the implementation and improvement of fees for use of natural resources; 2 diagnostic analysis of the calculation and application methodology of taxes for use of natural resources; 3 identifying the gaps and problematic situations of implementing taxes for use of natural resources; 4 assessment of fiscal, economic and environmental impacts of the application of these taxes; 5 elaboration of recommendations for reforming the taxes for use of natural resources.

  20. Fiscal Federalism, Tax Reforms And Productivity: A Case For Direct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of all sources of revenue to government, taxation is the most important. Owing to the inherent power of the government to impose taxes, the government is assured at all times of its tax revenue no matter the circumstances. With modifications as a result of different manifestos of opposing political parties, the government's ...

  1. Estimating Taxable Income Responses using Danish Tax Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Schultz, Esben Anton

    across individuals, income forms, and over time. It is argued that the unique tax variation and data in Denmark makes it possible to control for the biases from non-tax changes in the income distribution and mean reversion that plague much of the existing literature. Our main findings are the following...

  2. Changes in direct and indirect taxation in the process of the EU tax system reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miletić Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proceeding from the changes in direct and indirect taxation in the process of the EU tax system reform and the fact that new trends bring about vital social changes, the research in this area could add to the understanding of economic development of these countries. In the EU with its decentralized tax policy, changes in direct and indirect taxation are permanently implemented in the process of tax system reform. Harmonization of direct and indirect taxation in the EU is conducted by means of the adopted community law regulations. In the harmonization of direct taxation there is a tendency towards an increase of the level of fiscal coordination and elimination of barriers to the common market. Thus direct taxation reforms are limited to achieving higher level of coordination and preventing evasion and double taxation. The current policy is the result of the principle according to which fiscal competition has positive effects on reducing consumption and on the EU economic development. In the harmonization process the systems of indirect taxation are aligned particularly with excise duty and value added tax. Fiscal strategies in the reform process are mostly aimed at fiscal coordination, modernization, informative cooperation, evasion reduction and elimination of malpractices in fulfilling a VAT payment liability. Within the excise tax system minimal excise rates are determined and an environmentally-friendly policy is pursued. The main priorities of taxation changes within the harmonization process are in respect of evasion reduction and irrational fiscal competition on the EU market. A study of direct and indirect taxation changes in the process of the tax system reform is highly significant both from the aspect of efficient tax-system functioning, which results in achieving EU macroeconomic goals, and from the aspect of single states' interests in the process of transition and accession.

  3. The 1986 Act: Tax Reform's Finest Hour or Death Throes of the Income Tax?

    OpenAIRE

    McLure, Charles E. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Indicates why income tax is inevitably complicated and discusses why the 1986 Act is both more and less complicated than an income tax with a definition of taxable income even closer to the ideal of real economic income. Describes an alternative consumption-based direct tax.

  4. The impact of tax reforms designed to encourage healthier grain consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    2009-01-01

    behavioral parameters, which are used to simulate the impact on the average household of tax reforms entailing either a subsidy on commodities particularly rich in fiber or a subsidy of the fiber density in grain products. Our results suggest that to direct the fiber intake towards nutritional...... recommendations, reforms with a substantial impact on consumer prices are required. Regardless of the type of subsidy implemented, the increase in the intake of fiber is accompanied by unwanted increases in nutrients that are often overconsumed: fat, salt and sugar. Funding the subsidies by taxing these nutrients...

  5. Reviewing tax system and its reform plan for the fuel market in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung-Kyoon Lee

    2005-01-01

    After a long period of government intervention in the energy market, the Korean government has realized that the costs of its intervention are greater than the benefit as the economy got more complicated and more integrated into the world economy. The objective of the energy tax reform is to establish a transparent set of taxing principles, in order to internalize externalities from energy consumption. The expected effects of the reform is to motivate energy conservation and to promote R and D on energy conservation technologies which will ultimately result in the strengthening of industrial competitiveness and the reduction of urban air pollution. (author)

  6. Reviewing tax system and its reform plan for the fuel market in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.-K.

    2005-01-01

    After a long period of government intervention in the energy market, the Korean government has realized that the costs of its intervention are greater than the benefit as the economy got more complicated and more integrated into the world economy. The objective of the energy tax reform is to establish a transparent set of taxing principles, in order to internalize externalities from energy consumption. The expected effects of the reform is to motivate energy conservation and to promote R and D on energy conservation technologies which will ultimately result in the strengthening of industrial competitiveness and the reduction of urban air pollution

  7. 26 CFR 1.170-3 - Contributions or gifts by corporations (before amendment by Tax Reform Act of 1969).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Tax Reform Act of 1969). (a) In general. The deduction by a corporation in any taxable year for... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contributions or gifts by corporations (before amendment by Tax Reform Act of 1969). 1.170-3 Section 1.170-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...

  8. The reform of the European energy tax directive: Exploring potential economic impacts in the EU27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocchi, Paola; Serrano, Mònica; Roca, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the effect that the Energy Tax Directive reform proposed in 2011 would have, if implemented, on the level of prices in the different sectors of the 27 countries of the European Union. We apply a multiregional and multisectoral model of trade flows that takes into account all the intersectoral and intercountry interdependences in the production processes. Using the World Input–Output Database we perform two different simulations. The first one considers the tax changes proposed by the reform; the second one shows the impact the reform would have entailed if it were applied also to sectors belonging to the European Trade System. The main finding of the first simulation shows that the new energy tax regime would have had a low economic cost in terms of impact on prices (less than 1% in all the countries). So, the concerns about competitiveness do not find empirical support in our results, suggesting the need for further analyses to find out the reasons that caused the failure of a reform that was an important step to introduce a taxation explicitly linked to CO 2 emissions. The second simulation, however, leads to strongly different results, pointing out the relevance of maintaining significant economic incentives to reduce carbon emissions for the European Trade System sectors, by improving the emission market performance or by applying carbon taxation also to these sectors. - Highlights: • We analyze the reform of the European energy tax proposed in 2011, rejected in 2012. • We simulate what potential economic effect this reform would have if implemented. • We find that this reform would have weak effects on prices in all 27 EU countries. • We study the effect of the reform if applied to European emission market sectors. • In this second scenario, the economic impacts would have been much stronger

  9. REFORMS IN TAX-BENEFIT SYSTEMS IN ORDER TO INCREASE EMPLOYMENT INCENTIVES IN THE EU

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Carone; Aino Salomaki

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the role of tax and benefit systems in the context of the functioning of the labour markets and review recent progress made by EU Member States in reforming tax and benefit systems with a view to increasing economic incentives for higher employment and job creation. On the basis of the most recent comparable data and indicators, we try to assess whether concrete measures are being taken by Member States to alleviate the tax pressure on labour and especially on the low...

  10. Federal-Provincial Business Tax Reforms: A Growth Agenda with Competitive Rates and a Neutral Treatment of Business Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duanjie Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As the federal and provincial governments look to create jobs and attract business investment, productivity-enhanced business tax structures are in high order. Tax structures that combine internationally competitive tax rates on neutral tax bases foster long-term economic growth and generate sustainable tax revenue. This report examines tax policy in Canada over the past few years, specifically its impact on capital investment, labour and the cost of doing business across provinces and industries. Suggestions for tax reform are provided.

  11. The Tax Reform of Romania Since the Transition to Market Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Tudor LAZĂR

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is trying to analyze the financial and fiscal reforms in Romania since 1989. The study is based on the necessity to be built a new fiscal system that meets the market economy’s requirements. The main concentration is focused on the debate of choosing tax policy. There are presented the two models of variation of income tax policy followed by Eastern European countries: flat income tax – a simple, efficient, but inequitable system (Estonia, Russia, Romania, etc. and progressive income tax – a complex, inefficient, but equitable system (Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovenia, etc. At the end of this article are presented, also the main advantages and disadvantages of this these tax policies based on national statistics and other countries experiences.

  12. 26 CFR 1.267(a)-2T - Temporary regulations; questions and answers arising under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... arising under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary). 1.267(a)-2T Section 1.267(a)-2T Internal Revenue... Not Deductible § 1.267(a)-2T Temporary regulations; questions and answers arising under the Tax Reform...) take into account changes made to section 267(b) by section 174 of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (without...

  13. Dual income tax: An option for the reform of personal income tax in Serbia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđelović Saša

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary tax theory and practice provides two fundamental concepts for taxation of personal income: scheduler and global. Several systems have been derived from these basic models, including combined, flat, dual and negative income tax. Dual income tax, the subject of this paper, requires progressive taxation of income from employment and proportional taxation of income from capital. However, strict application of this system significantly violates the principle of equitability of taxation, both horizontally and vertically.

  14. Does Tax Policy Affect Executive Compensation? Evidence from Postwar Tax Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Carola Frydman; Raven S. Molloy

    2011-01-01

    The trends in executive pay and labor income tax rates since the 1940s suggest a high elasticity of taxable income with respect to tax policy. By contrast, the level and structure of executive compensation have been largely unresponsive to tax incentives since the 1980s. However, the relative tax advantage of different forms of pay was small during this period. Using a sample of top executives in large firms from 1946 to 2005, we also find a small short run response of salaries, qualified sto...

  15. 26 CFR 1.269-7 - Relationship of section 269 to sections 382 and 383 after the Tax Reform Act of 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 383 after the Tax Reform Act of 1986. 1.269-7 Section 1.269-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Items Not Deductible § 1.269-7 Relationship of section 269 to sections 382 and 383 after the Tax Reform Act of 1986...

  16. 26 CFR 1.382-2T - Definition of ownership change under section 382, as amended by the Tax Reform Act of 1986...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., as amended by the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (temporary). 1.382-2T Section 1.382-2T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES... in the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (the “Act”), but taking into account section 621(f)(2) of the Act. (22...

  17. Tax reform in Georgia and the size of the shadow economy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Torosyan, K.; Filer, Randall K.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2014), s. 179-210 ISSN 0967-0750 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : hidden/shadow economy * tax reform * consumer behaviour Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.423, year: 2014

  18. The impact of tax reforms designed to encourage healthier grain consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    2009-01-01

    recommendations, reforms with a substantial impact on consumer prices are required. Regardless of the type of subsidy implemented, the increase in the intake of fiber is accompanied by unwanted increases in nutrients that are often overconsumed: fat, salt and sugar. Funding the subsidies by taxing these nutrients...

  19. Consumer demand system estimation and value added tax reforms in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janský, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 3 (2014), s. 246-273 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TD010033 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : consumer behavior * Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System * tax reforms Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.420, year: 2014 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1301_jansky.pdf

  20. The role of personal income tax reforms in the transition to a democratic and egalitarian Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monal A. Abdel-Baki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of the 2005-Personal Income Tax (PIT reform in enhancing the macroeconomic performance in Egypt is tested using a structural vector autoregressive model. The results reveal that PIT reforms have successfully generated jobs and accelerated GDP growth. The reforms may cause mild inflation in the short-run, but their long-term effects are non-inflationary. This is the first effort to assess the PIT reforms in Egypt, with the aim of helping the new government to assess preceding policies and pursue the successful ones. The research is also an important lesson for the leaders of emerging economies encountering similar circumstances to enact reforms and to perpetuate economic growth and sociopolitical stability.

  1. Energy wealth and tax reform in Russia and Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinthal, E.; Luong, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    Resource-rich states throughout the developing world are prone to rent-seeking, excessive borrowing, wasteful spending, and unbalanced growth as well as states with weak institutions and authoritarian regimes. Are the five energy-rich Soviet successor states necessarily doomed to repeat this experience, often referred to as the 'resource curse'? This paper advances and tests the hypothesis that Russia and Kazakhstan are more likely to avoid the 'resource curse' than Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Azerbaijan because they privatized their energy sectors. Specifically, we find that privatization offers a potential path out of the 'resource curse' when it involves a transfer of ownership to domestic actors. Although Kazakhstan initially appeared to be developing a viable tax regime in response to foreign investors, over the long term Kazakhstan's tax regime has become increasingly volatile and dependent upon these foreign investors. In contrast, domestic oil companies are helping to foster the development of an increasingly viable tax regime in Russia. (author)

  2. TAX COSTS AND CORPORATION DIVIDEND POLICY: Evidence from the 1986 U.S. Tax Reform Acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharta Utama

    2003-02-01

    shareholders with long investment horizons because the tax cost saved from decreasing dividend payout ratios is an increasing function of shareholders’ investment horizon. The empirical tests support the hypothesis and show a negative relationship between the change in incremental tax costs and the change in dividend payout ratios for firms with long average investment horizons.

  3. Evaluation of four tax reforms in the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eissa, Nada; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    2008-01-01

    framework. We apply the framework to examine the welfare effects on single mothers in the United States following four tax acts passed in 1986, 1990, 1993, and 2001. We propose a simulation method combining features of fully structural microsimulation studies and simple deadweight loss calculations. Our...

  4. Tax Reform Jeopardizes Tax-Exempt Status of School Bonds: The Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibilities Act of 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Sam; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibilities Act (1982) (TEFRA) was designed to increase federal government revenues by closing certain tax loopholes. This article explains the law's requirements, effects on local government (via bearer and other bonds), legal challenges, and implications for school districts. Includes 22 footnotes. (MLH)

  5. Environmental and wider implications of political impediments to environmental tax reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinch, J. Peter; Dunne, Louise; Dresner, Simon

    2006-01-01

    The most common notion of environmental tax reform (ETR) is the use of the revenue from environmental taxes to reduce distortionary labour taxes. The PETRAS project has shown that there are a number of social and political impediments to implementing such reform. This paper firstly outlines some of the environmental and economic implications of environmental taxes generally. It goes on to explore three broad approaches to ETR, based on the allocation of the tax revenues, and explores the environmental and economic implications of each approach and the likelihood of political and social acceptance. Particular attention is paid to reducing regressive impacts and impacts on competitiveness. It is concluded that some combination of earmarking a proportion of revenues to environmental projects and diverting rest to reduce labour taxes is probably the best approach in light of the results of the project. The balance should depend upon local labour market and macroeconomic conditions, the extent to which environmental projects are already funded and the extent of government failure, i.e., the problems of resource allocation that occur as a result of government intervention in markets. Funding should only be provided to environmental projects if it can be shown that, in themselves, they are economically efficient. In addition, it is most important that a proportion of the funds be used to ameliorate any regressive impacts. It is also important to bear in mind that hypothecation or recycling of revenue is not the same as a tax shift, which is a reform of the entire system, so some of these approaches may take away from the integrity of ETR. The paper concludes with some of the initiatives that are likely to be necessary to facilitate social and political acceptance of this approach to ETR

  6. The environmental tax reforms in Europe: mitigation, compensation, and CO2-stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. S.; Speck, S.

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that carbon-energy taxes would need to be increased to a level of 20-30 ?/tonne CO2 in 2020 in order to accomplish a stabilisation target for greenhouse gas concentrations. While increases of carbon-energy taxes inevitably raise questions about the negative impacts on economic...... growth and competitiveness, the European experience shows that governments as part of already agreed environmental tax reforms (ETR) have in fact implicit carbon-energy taxes with a nominal level that in many cases exceeds this level. Still, European governments have exempt especially the energy......-intensive industries and so to some extent for the biggest polluters the incentives to improve energy efficiency and shift towards low-carbon fuels have been weaker than the nominal rates would suggest. In view of the need to increase the real level of carbon-energy taxation, while retaining the competitiveness...

  7. The impact of the 2009 value added tax reform on enterprise investment and employment ‐ Empirical analysis based on Chinese tax survey data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses the "National Tax Survey" enterprise data to assess the impact of China's nationwide VAT reform of 2009 on enterprise fixed-asset investment and employment. The main finding of our research is that the reform significantly increased business investment in fixed assets, but had no

  8. The rise and fall of French Ecological Tax Reform: social acceptability versus political feasibility in the energy tax implementation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deroubaix, Jose-Frederic; Leveque, Francois

    2006-01-01

    The French government has a 10-year history of negotiations with industry, resulting in voluntary agreements on energy consumption. When implemented, these voluntary agreements produced very few results in terms of global reduction of greenhouse emissions (Politiques et Management Public 11(4) (1993) 47), hence the idea of an energy tax became increasingly attractive for many French decision-makers. Ecological/Environmental Tax Reform (ETR) should have been one of the major political decisions and successes of the past leftwing coalition government. Instead it became one of its major failures as the Constitutional Court decided to terminate the energy tax project in December 2000. Through insights gleaned from focus groups and interviews with business-people and decision-makers, an attempt is made to understand the failure of the energy tax project. Firstly, decision-makers lacked crucial information about public and business opinions and secondly, there were conflicts between the relevant administrations. The fuel revolts of 2000 ended any hope of resolving the conflicts and implementing ETR, which was ultimately found unconstitutional. This paper examines the political controversies raised by the ETR project and the reasons for its eventual collapse, in the hope of contributing new understanding to the body of knowledge on the political difficulties of introducing environmental policy instruments

  9. Act of 7 December 1988 reforming the income tax and modifying the stamp taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Among other things, this Belgian Act does the following with respect to taxation of the family: 1) introduces a tax deduction of 80% of child care costs up to a certain maximum amount; 2) integrates more fully into the tax code the system of "decumulation," whereby spouses who each earn a professional income can each benefit from a minimum tax exemption; and 3) introduces income splitting, whereby a spouse who does not work can have up to 30% of the other spouse's income attributed to him or her with a resulting minimum tax exemption. Royal Order of 17 January 1989 (Moniteur belge, 1 February 1989, p. 1954) sets the maximum deductible amount of care per child at 345 francs/day.

  10. The potential role of a carbon tax in U.S. fiscal reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKibbin, Warwick [Australian National Univ. (Australia); The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (United States); Morris, Adele [The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (United States); Wilcoxen, Peter [Syracuse University, NY (United States); The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (United States); Cai, Yiyong [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Australian National Univ. (Australia)

    2012-07-24

    This paper examines fiscal reform options in the United States with an intertemporal computable general equilibrium model of the world economy called G-Cubed. Six policy scenarios explore two overarching issues: (1) the effects of a carbon tax under alternative assumptions about the use of the resulting revenue, and (2) the effects of alternative measures that could be used to reduce the budget deficit. We examine a simple excise tax on the carbon content of fossil fuels in the U.S. energy sector starting immediately at $15 per metric ton of carbon dioxide (CO2) and rising at 4 percent above inflation each year through 2050. We investigate policies that allow the revenue from the illustrative carbon tax to reduce the long run federal budget deficit or the marginal tax rates on labor and capital income. We also compare the carbon tax to other means of reducing the deficit by the same amount. We find that the carbon tax will raise considerable revenue: $80 billion at the outset, rising to $170 billion in 2030 and $310 billion by 2050. It also significantly reduces U.S. CO2 emissions by an amount that is largely independent of the use of the revenue. By 2050, annual CO2 emissions fall by 2.5 billion metric tons (BMT), or 34 percent, relative to baseline, and cumulative emissions fall by 40 BMT through 2050. The use of the revenue affects both broad economic impacts and the composition of GDP across consumption, investment and net exports. In most scenarios, the carbon tax lowers GDP slightly, reduces investment and exports, and increases imports. The effect on consumption varies across policies and can be positive if households receive the revenue as a lump sum transfer. Using the revenue for a capital tax cut, however, is significantly different than the other policies. In that case, investment booms, employment rises, consumption declines slightly, imports increase, and overall GDP rises significantly relative to baseline through about 2040. Thus, a tax reform that

  11. A Qualitative Approach to Examining Knowledge Sharing in Iran Tax Administration Reform Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Shami Zanjanie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to examine knowledge sharing infrastructure of "Iran Tax Administration Reform Program". The qualitative approach by using case study method was applied in this research. In order to meet the research goal, four infrastructural dimensions of knowledge sharing were studied: leadership & strategy, culture, structure, and information technology. To the authors’ knowledge, this was maybe the first paper which examined knowledge sharing infrastructure in programs environment

  12. The Spanish income tax reform of 2015: analysis of the effects on poverty and redistribution using microsimulation tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Badenes-Plá

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we analyze the effects of the 2015 reform of the Spanish personal income tax (PIT on tax revenue, liquidity, redistribution, progressivity, and poverty, using microdata. Tax reform has increased the redistributive effect. The applicable legislation in 2016 is almost 6.3% more redistributive than that in 2011, as measured by the Reynolds-Smolensky index. This is a remarkable achievement since greater redistribution has been attained through significantly lower tax revenue. The 2016 legislation has produced 4.4% lower tax revenue, but progressivity, as measured by Kakwani index, has increased by 12.2% from the 2011 legislation. The redistributive and progressivity analysis has been conducted with the use of microsimulation tools developed in the Instituto de Estudios Fiscales (IEF, in Spain. The poverty analysis is made using EUROMOD, a tax-benefit microsimulation model for the European Union.

  13. An Assessment of Japanese Carbon Tax Reform Using the E3MG Econometric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soocheol; Pollitt, Hector; Ueta, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the potential economic and environmental effects of carbon taxation in Japan using the E3MG model, a global macroeconometric model constructed by the University of Cambridge and Cambridge Econometrics. The paper approaches the issues by considering first the impacts of the carbon tax in Japan introduced in 2012 and then the measures necessary to reduce Japan's emissions in line with its Copenhagen pledge of −25% compared to 1990 levels. The results from the model suggest that FY2012 Tax Reform has only a small impact on emission levels and no significant impact on GDP and employment. The potential costs of reducing emissions to meet the 25% reduction target for 2020 are quite modest, but noticeable. GDP falls by around 1.2% compared to the baseline and employment by 0.4% compared to the baseline. But this could be offset, with some potential economic benefits, if revenues are recycled efficiently. This paper considers two revenue recycling scenarios. The most positive outcome is if revenues are used both to reduce income tax rates and to increase investment in energy efficiency. This paper shows there could be double dividend effects, if Carbon Tax Reform is properly designed. PMID:23365531

  14. An assessment of Japanese carbon tax reform using the E3MG econometric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soocheol; Pollitt, Hector; Ueta, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the potential economic and environmental effects of carbon taxation in Japan using the E3MG model, a global macroeconometric model constructed by the University of Cambridge and Cambridge Econometrics. The paper approaches the issues by considering first the impacts of the carbon tax in Japan introduced in 2012 and then the measures necessary to reduce Japan's emissions in line with its Copenhagen pledge of -25% compared to 1990 levels. The results from the model suggest that FY2012 Tax Reform has only a small impact on emission levels and no significant impact on GDP and employment. The potential costs of reducing emissions to meet the 25% reduction target for 2020 are quite modest, but noticeable. GDP falls by around 1.2% compared to the baseline and employment by 0.4% compared to the baseline. But this could be offset, with some potential economic benefits, if revenues are recycled efficiently. This paper considers two revenue recycling scenarios. The most positive outcome is if revenues are used both to reduce income tax rates and to increase investment in energy efficiency. This paper shows there could be double dividend effects, if Carbon Tax Reform is properly designed.

  15. An Assessment of Japanese Carbon Tax Reform Using the E3MG Econometric Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soocheol Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the potential economic and environmental effects of carbon taxation in Japan using the E3MG model, a global macroeconometric model constructed by the University of Cambridge and Cambridge Econometrics. The paper approaches the issues by considering first the impacts of the carbon tax in Japan introduced in 2012 and then the measures necessary to reduce Japan’s emissions in line with its Copenhagen pledge of −25% compared to 1990 levels. The results from the model suggest that FY2012 Tax Reform has only a small impact on emission levels and no significant impact on GDP and employment. The potential costs of reducing emissions to meet the 25% reduction target for 2020 are quite modest, but noticeable. GDP falls by around 1.2% compared to the baseline and employment by 0.4% compared to the baseline. But this could be offset, with some potential economic benefits, if revenues are recycled efficiently. This paper considers two revenue recycling scenarios. The most positive outcome is if revenues are used both to reduce income tax rates and to increase investment in energy efficiency. This paper shows there could be double dividend effects, if Carbon Tax Reform is properly designed.

  16. Effects of the 2011 energy tax reform to the Finnish national economy; Vuoden 2011 energiaverouudistuksen kansantaloudelliset vaikutukset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honkatukia, J.; Tamminen, S.

    2013-05-15

    In this report, we use a dynamic AGE model to study the effects of the energy tax reform that took place in 2011 and is to be completed by 2015. We construct a counterfactual baseline which evaluates, how the economy would develop had the reform not been implemented. We find that the reform curbs domestic consumption and pushes domestic wages down compared to the baseline, improving the country's external balance. We also study the effects of the 2009 removal of a part of the employers' social security contributions, which the energy tax reform was intended to finance. The 2009 reform increased overall labour demand, resulting in higher wages and higher domestic demand, which had the opposite effects on external balance. (orig.)

  17. Social and political responses to ecological tax reform in Europe: an introduction to the special issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, Simon; Dunne, Louise; Clinch, Peter; Beuermann, Christiane

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the special issue on the Policies for Ecological Tax Reform: Assessment of Social Responses (PETRAS) project about responses to ecological tax reform (ETR) in Europe. Although ETR is widely accepted to be a policy with desirable effects, its implementation has been limited by problems of political acceptability. The project aimed to address the question of how to make such a policy more acceptable. It is the first study to examine in depth the thinking of members of the general public about the ETR policies and is also the first international comparative study of the thinking of ordinary business people about ETR policies. The PETRAS project methodology was based around the use of interviews and focus groups to inform the assessment of social responses to ETR policies and the development of improved designs for them. A number of issues emerged relating to awareness, trust, understanding of the purpose, visibility, incentives, regressivity, levels of taxation, terminology, communication about ETR and the use of alternative instruments. Together with these similarities, a pattern of differences between the countries can also be seen. The final section of this paper introduces the national studies described in the following papers. (author)

  18. The Reform and Design of Commodity Taxes in the Presence of Tax Evasion with Illustrative Evidence from India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray, R.

    1994-01-01

    The literature on tax evasion and its implication for optimal tax theory has concentrated on income tax evasion. The issue of commodity tax evasion has received relatively little attention even though it is important in many cases, especially in developing countries. This paper proposes a theory of

  19. 26 CFR 1.162-10T - Questions and answers relating to the deduction of employee benefits under the Tax Reform Act of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of employee benefits under the Tax Reform Act of 1984; certain limits on amounts deductible... and Corporations § 1.162-10T Questions and answers relating to the deduction of employee benefits... amendment of section 404(b) by the Tax Reform Act of 1984 affect the deduction of employee benefits under...

  20. Using Machine Learning in Environmental Tax Reform Assessment for Sustainable Development: A Case Study of Hubei Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinger Zheng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available During the past 30 year of economic growth, China has also accumulated a huge environmental pollution debt. China’s government attempts to use a variety of means, including tax instruments to control environmental pollution. After nine years of repeated debates, the State Council Legislative Affairs Office released the Environmental Protection Tax Law (Draft in June 2015. As China’s first environmental tax law, whether this conservative “Environmental Fee to Tax (EFT” reform could improve the environment has generated controversy. In this paper, we seek insights to this controversial issue using the machine learning approach, a powerful tool for environmental policy assessment. We take Hubei Province, the first pilot area as a case of EFT, and analyze the institutional incentive, behavior transformation and emission intensity reduction performance. Twelve pilot cities located in Hubei Province were selected to estimate the effect of the reform by using synthetic control and a rapid developing machine learning method for policy evaluation. We find that the EFT reform can promote emission intensity reduction. Especially, relative to comparable synthetic cities in the absence of the reform, the average annual emission intensity of Sulfur Dioxide (SO2 in the pilot cities dropped by 0.13 ton/million Yuan with a reduction rate of 10%–32%. Our findings also show that the impact of environmental tax reform varies across cities due to the administrative level and economic development. The results of our study are also supported by enterprise interviews. The EFT improves the overall environmental costs, and encourages enterprises to reduce emissions pollution. These results provide valuable experience and policy implications for the implementation of China’s Environmental Protection Tax Law.

  1. Reforming Individual Income Tax Is the Crucial Factor in Stabilizing the Budgetary System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Povarova Anna Ivanovna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The reason for writing this article was a statement of the First Deputy Finance Minister Tatyana Nesterenko who claimed that in 2017 the government would run out of money to pay salaries to budgetary sphere employees [3]. Indeed, the reserves accumulated in the fat years are running out. The Government of the Russian Federation finds the following sources to cover the growing budget deficit: first, privatization of the remnants of state property, which will create a momentary effect and will not become a stable channel for filling the treasury; and second, major cuts on spending that on the eve of the electoral cycle can aggravate protest moods of Russians caused by a sharp deterioration of the standard of living. The majority of representatives of the expert and scientific community, including ISEDT RAS employees, consider the urgent need to reform the system for taxation of individual income tax by introducing a progressive tax scale as one of the main solutions to the growing imbalance of the budgetary system. This scale is applied successfully in all the countries of the OECD, G20 and BRICS. The goal of the present paper is to substantiate the need for reformation of individual income tax as a driving force of sustainable mobilization of budget funds. As a hypothesis, an assumption is made concerning the existence of a direct link between the redistribution of income through progressive taxation and an increase in the resource potential of the budgetary system. Research findings presented in the paper confirm that the current mechanisms for taxation of people’s incomes do not correspond to the constitutional principles of equality, social orientation and economic viability. As a result, judging by the most important indicators of socioeconomic development, Russia lags behind developed countries and some comparable developing countries. Excessive income polarization brings to the fore the issue concerning individual income tax modification

  2. Green tax reforms and double dividend - what have we learned from 10 years of research?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haakonsen, Lars

    2001-01-01

    This article deals with some selected main characteristics of the literature on green tax reforms and double dividend. The double dividend concept was introduced in the 1990s and raised a lot of interest among researchers and politicians. It may be a problem, however, that double dividend is a concept with double, triple or multiple meaning; several different definitions of what the double dividend consists of exist. If ''the first dividend'' is defined as improved environmental quality, then ''the second dividend'' might be, for instance, reduced unemployment, improved welfare exclusive of environmental quality, or reduced loss of efficiency. All these alternative definitions are discussed. The literature is extensive. The article does not aim to cover it fully, but rather aims to point to some essential issues

  3. Reevaluating the first and the second dividends of environmental tax reforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimenez, Eduardo L.; Rodriguez, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing global interest in market-based climate change policies following the last elections in the United States. In this context an Exxon Mobil chief executive came out in favour of a carbon tax. This paper is concerned with the welfare analysis of Environmental Tax Reforms (ETR), and takes up the claims for the need of an unambiguous and operative definition of the double dividend both for empirical purposes and political advisement. In this paper, we contest the usual definition of the second dividend and its assimilation to an 'efficiency dividend'. We propose alternative definitions by suggesting a different splitting of the total welfare variation between the first and the second dividend in order to isolate the efficiency effects of the ETR. The new definitions become clearly understandable and easy for economic and policy interpretation. Concepts like 'weak' and 'strong' double dividend turn out to be unnecessary. Finally, we analyze ETR for the US economy to illustrate the advantages of the proposed definitions for policy implementation. (author)

  4. Ecological tax reform in Germany: handling two hot potatoes at the same time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuermann, Christiane; Santarius, Tilman

    2006-01-01

    Combining environmental with employment objectives, ecological tax reform (ETR) envisages a double dividend. While research has mainly focused on the socio-economic and environmental impacts of ETR, there is less literature on the social responses. This paper gives an overview and history of German ETR as well as investigating the understanding of perceptions and attitudes towards ETR of those being 'subject to tax'. The research is based on qualitative social research methods. As with the other PETRAS papers, interviews were conducted with policy-makers and business leaders and focus groups were formed with lay persons. The results show that responses of policy-makers and business leaders are modest. Although some criticisms about the specific design of the German ETR remain, complaints towards ETR are settled. Attitudes appear influenced by more fundamental convictions such as economic interest or altruistic views. In contrast, ETR appears to politicise common people. Attitudes are influenced by the overall comprehension of the ETR concept, the expected impacts, perceived information deficits, as well as a general distrust in politics. Our data show that the linking of environmental and employment objectives is not understood and not welcomed. In order to increase social acceptance, the paper discusses refocusing ETR on environmental objectives, modestly increasing the share of ETR revenue spent for environmental purposes, removing inconsistencies in the ETR design, and improving information policy

  5. Reevaluating the first and the second dividends of environmental tax reforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimenez, Eduardo L. [Departamento de Fundamentos da Analise Economica e Historia e Institucions Economicas and rede, Universidade de Vigo (Spain); Rodriguez, Miguel [Departamento de Economia Aplicada and rede, Universidade de Vigo (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    There is increasing global interest in market-based climate change policies following the last elections in the United States. In this context an Exxon Mobil chief executive came out in favour of a carbon tax. This paper is concerned with the welfare analysis of Environmental Tax Reforms (ETR), and takes up the claims for the need of an unambiguous and operative definition of the double dividend both for empirical purposes and political advisement. In this paper, we contest the usual definition of the second dividend and its assimilation to an 'efficiency dividend'. We propose alternative definitions by suggesting a different splitting of the total welfare variation between the first and the second dividend in order to isolate the efficiency effects of the ETR. The new definitions become clearly understandable and easy for economic and policy interpretation. Concepts like 'weak' and 'strong' double dividend turn out to be unnecessary. Finally, we analyze ETR for the US economy to illustrate the advantages of the proposed definitions for policy implementation. (author)

  6. Tax compliance under tax regime changes

    OpenAIRE

    Heinemann, Friedrich; Kocher, Martin G.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the compliance effects of tax regime changes. According to the economic model of tax evasion, a tax reform should affect compliance through its impact on tax rates and incentives. Our findings demonstrate the importance of at least two further effects not covered by the traditional model: First, reform losers tend to evade more taxes after the reform. Second, a reform from a proportionate to a progressive system decreases compliance compared to a switch in the revers...

  7. Harnessing the Tax Code to Promote College Affordability: Options for Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Joe; Bergeron, David; Baylor, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The United States tax code is full of provisions designed to encourage or reward specific behaviors, such as owning a home or saving for retirement. Tax benefits for higher education are no exception: Contributions to some college savings accounts grow tax-free, college tuition is often tax deductible, and some student-loan borrowers are able to…

  8. Reforming Business Taxes : What is the Effect on Private Sector Development?

    OpenAIRE

    Bruhn, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    Tax rates and the administrative costs of tax compliance are key concerns of business. Studies within and across countries suggest that lowering corporate tax rates can increase investment, reduce tax evasion by formal firms, promote the creation of formal firms, and ultimately raise sales and Gross Domestic Product (GDP). These benefits, however, need to be balanced against other objectiv...

  9. Reform of Kosovo Tax System after independence and its key functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Bedri Peci

    2013-12-01

    However, policy and tax system of Kosovo should be more in function of economic development by achieving equilibrium between direct and indirect taxes, increasing efficiency of public expenditures and to offer more tax incentives. Designers’ preliminary requirement is to analyze fiscal, economic, etc., effects of each tax form which aims to apply in accordance with tax policy objectives and to analyze the role and effects of tax incentives to each tax form. Taking into account that Kosovo regarding the application of tax incentives of CIT, compared with other countries is the last, designers by using the experiences of other countries should apply more tax incentives in order that tax policy to be more in function for economic development

  10. Social and political barriers to green tax reform. The case of CO{sub 2} taxes in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasa, Sjur

    1999-06-29

    This paper presents the story of several attempts to tax Norwegian mainland emission intensive industries during the 1990s. These industries, mainly made up of aluminium and ferro-alloy producers located in the Norwegian countryside and a series of planned gas powered power stations along the coast, have enjoyed full exemption form CO{sub 2} taxes during a period in which relatively high CO{sub 2} taxes have been imposed on Norwegian consumers and some other industries. The various sources of the emission intensive industries are explored, included their ability to amass broad support for ``pro-industrial`` social norms among politicians, media and the bureaucracy. Theoretically these capabilities are described in terms of the policy network approach developed in British political science. 34 refs.

  11. The State of Connecticut: The Report of the Governor's Commission on Tax Reform. Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governor's Commission on Tax Reform, Hartford, CT.

    The Commission evaluated a wide variety of alternative tax sources and examined the existing structure in Connecticut. It specifically evaluated inequities resulting from Connecticut taxes as they affect various classes of citizens and examined the impact of the Connecticut tax structure on business with a view to encouraging economic expansion.…

  12. Saying yes to taxes: the politics of tax reform campaigns in three northwestern states, 1965-1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    This article analyzes factors shaping popular support for new taxes by examining variation in the outcomes of votes in nine American states during the 1960s and early 1970s. New taxes were endorsed in five states but rejected in four. Using comparative and historical methods focused on the cases of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, the author argues that the sequence of policy making shapes popular vetoes through three mechanisms: the mobilization of interest groups, the information available to voters about a policy, and how the costs and benefits of a policy appear to voters. The findings demonstrate that voter perceptions of the potential gains and losses of a new policy are sociologically mobilized through the policy process. Controlling when popular veto points appear in a policy process is an understudied strategy that is employed by American state builders to overcome ambivalence toward the fiscal imperatives of the activist state.

  13. The 2009 Health Confidence Survey: public opinion on health reform varies; strong support for insurance market reform and public plan option, mixed response to tax cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronstin, Paul; Helman, Ruth

    2009-07-01

    PUBLIC SUPPORT FOR HEALTH REFORM: Findings from the 2009 Health Confidence Survey--the 12th annual HCS--indicate that Americans have already formed strong opinions regarding various aspects of health reform, even before details have been released regarding various key factors. These issues include health insurance market reform, the availability of a public plan option, mandates on employers and individuals, subsidized coverage for the low-income population, changes to the tax treatment of job-based health benefits, and regulatory oversight of health care. These opinions may change as details surface, especially as they concern financing options. In the absence of such details, the 2009 HCS finds generally strong support for the concepts of health reform options that are currently on the table. U.S. HEALTH SYSTEM GETS POOR MARKS, BUT SO DOES A MAJOR OVERHAUL: A majority rate the nation's health care system as fair (30 percent) or poor (29 percent). Only a small minority rate it excellent (6 percent) or very good (10 percent). While 14 percent of Americans think the health care system needs a major overhaul, 51 percent agree with the statement "there are some good things about our health care system, but major changes are needed." NATIONAL HEALTH PLAN ELEMENTS RATED HIGHLY: Between 68 percent and 88 percent of Americans either strongly or somewhat support health reform ideas such as national health plans, a public plan option, guaranteed issue, expansion of Medicare and Medicaid, and employer and individual mandates. MIXED REACTION TO HEALTH BENEFITS TAX CAP: Reaction to capping the current tax exclusion of employment-based health benefits is mixed. Nearly one-half of Americans (47 percent) would switch to a lower-cost plan if the tax exclusion were capped, 38 percent would stay on their current plan and pay the additional taxes, and 9 percent don't know. CONTINUED FAITH IN EMPLOYMENT-BASED BENEFITS, BUT DOUBTS ON AFFORDABILITY: Individuals with employment

  14. From Progressive to Flat: How Tax Reform would Affect the Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    high tariffs and excise taxes that were so heavily opposed in previous years were accepted without resistance by a people that wanted to show their...resented it afterwards. The war time taxes were eventually repealed and in the late 1890’s the government returned to its reliance on tariffs and...implemented in 1966. The next big change in our tax system came in the 1980s during the administration of Republican President Ronald Reagan . Reagan

  15. Expanding access and choice for health care consumers through tax reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, S; Kendall, D B

    1999-01-01

    A refundable tax credit for the uninsured would complement the existing job-based health insurance system while letting people keep their job-based coverage if they wish. Among the wide variety of design options for a tax credit, policy and political analysis does not reveal an obvious choice, but a tax credit based on a percentage of spending may have a slight advantage. Congress should give states maximum flexibility to use existing funding sources to supplement the value of a federal tax credit and encourage the use of techniques to create stable insurance pools.

  16. A flat tax reform in an economy with occupational choice and financial frictions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boháček, Radim; Zubrický, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 565 (2012), s. 1313-1345 ISSN 0013-0133 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA700850602 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : dynamic optimal tax ation * income tax ation * entrepreneurship Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.118, year: 2012

  17. A flat tax reform in an economy with occupational choice and financial frictions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boháček, R.; Zubrický, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 565 (2012), s. 1313-1345 ISSN 0013-0133 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : dynamic optimal tax ation * income tax ation * entrepreneurship Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.118, year: 2012

  18. Ecological tax reform. How taxation policy may reconcile environmental protection and the free market system; Oekologische Steuerreform. Wie die Steuerpolitik Umwelt und Marktwirtschaft versoehnen kann

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, S.; Kohlhaas, M.; Seidel, B. [Deutsches Inst. fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Germany); Linscheid, B.; Truger, A. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Finanzwissenschaftliches Forschungsinstitut

    1999-07-01

    The document contains a compact version intended for the general public, of an exhaustive expert opinion published by the German federal environment office (UBA), explaining the major elements and impacts of an ecological tax reform. The expert opinion analyses the demand for, potentials and effects of a reform of the tax laws from the angles of conventional tax policy and environmental policy. The authors examine the technological capabilities available to trade and industry for adjusting to changes in the tax structure, as well as the legal aspects of an extensive, sustainability-oriented ecological tax reform, of which the first phase has already been publicised by the Federal Government, phases 2 and 3 being planned. (orig./CB) [German] Dieses Buch ist eine fuer die breite Oeffentlichkeit gedachte Kurzfassung eines umfangreichen Gutachtens, das das Umweltbundesamt zur oekologischen Steuerreform veroeffentlicht hat. In dieser Veroeffentlichung werden Bedarf, Moeglichkeiten und Auswirkungen einer Reform des Steuersystems sowohl unter traditionellen steuerpolitischen Gesichtspunkten als auch aus umweltpolitischer Sicht umfassend analysiert. Die Autoren untersuchen die technologischen Anpassungsmoeglichkeiten von Unternehmen auf Umweltabgaben sowie die juristischen Aspekte einer umfassenden, an der Nachhaltigkeit orientierten oekologischen Steuerreform, deren 1. Stufe bereits offiziell verkuendet ist. Die weiteren Stufen 2 und 3 stehen noch aus. (orig./CB)

  19. The politics of paying for health reform: zombies, payroll taxes, and the holy grail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlander, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the politics of paying for health care reform. It surveys the political strengths and weaknesses of major options to fund universal coverage and explores obstacles to changing how the United States finances health care. Finding a politically viable means to finance universal coverage remains a central barrier to enacting health reform.

  20. Taxation, pollution, unemployment and growth: Could there be a 'triple dividend' from a green tax reform?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birch Soerensen, P.; Haagen Pedersen, L.; Nielsen, S.B.

    1994-01-01

    The paper develops a model of endogenous economic growth, where sustainable growth is driven by private capital accumulation and productive government spending on education and pollution abatement. The economy is distorted by pollution externalitities in production and consumption; by taxes and transfers, and by union monopoly power creating involuntary unemployment. within this framework we analyse the effects of various 'green' tax policies on pollution, unemployment, growth, and consumer welfare. Among other things, we highlight the differences between pollution taxes which are levied for general revenue purposes and pollution taxes which are 'earmarked' for financing expenditures on pollution abatement. We also investigate the effects of a switch in the policy regime from quantity control of pollution combined with 'grandfathering' of pollution rights to regulation via emission charges. We find that such a regime shift has the potential to raise employment, growth and welfare without damaging the environment, because emission charges improve the efficiency of the tax system by serving as an indirect method of taxing away pure profits. (au) 13 refs

  1. The financial lease after the tax reform in the Slovak republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Derco

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the calculations of leasing economics, derived from recently valid laws, mainly the income tax law. According to § 19 paragraph 3 letter a of the income tax law /ZDP/, the tax expenses represent a depreciation charge of tangible and intangible properties. The new law about the income tax allowed in precisely determined cases to claim depreciation charge not only to tax-payer, having the proprietorship or the administration right (if it relates to the state, village or the higher regional unit, but also to tax-payers who do not have this right if they count this property, incl. they count their property being rented by the form of financial leasing (§24 paragraph 1 letter. e. ZDP. The lessee by this way has the right the leasing object amortizes; despite he is not its owner. This represents a very advantageous, so-called leasing form of depreciation, when the lessees depreciates the property much earlier than using the balanced or accelerated depreciation.

  2. School Finance Reform: The Equity and Efficiency Implications of Capitalization and Tax-Price Changes in Connecticut. Real Estate Report: No. 22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, William A.

    The author argues that the effect of tax capitalization on the value of property has been neglected in the judicial and legislative discussion of school finance reform, even though this phenomena may weigh heavily on an equitable solution to the current funding dilemma. He examines theoretical and empirical support for the thesis that if, because…

  3. Modern money theory and ecological tax reform: A functional finance approach to energy conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Scott L. B.

    This dissertation contributes to heterodox economics by developing a theoretical and policy-relevant link that will promote the conservation of energy while driving the value of the domestic currency. The analysis relies upon the theoretical foundation of modern money theory and functional finance, which states that "taxes-drive-money" where the value of a sovereign nation's currency is imputed through the acceptance by the sovereign nation of the currency in payment of taxation. This theoretical perspective lends itself to various public policy prescriptions, such as government employment policies or the employer of last resort (ELR), which has been discussed at length elsewhere (Wray 1998; Tcherneva 2007, Forstater 2003). This research contributes to this overall program by arguing that the basis for taxation under modern money theory allows public policy makers various alternatives regarding the make-up of the tax system in place. In particular, following functional finance, taxes do not have the sole purpose of paying for government spending, but rather drive the value of the currency and may be designed to perform other functions as well, such as penalizing socially undesirable behavior. The focus in this dissertation is on the amelioration of pollution and increasing energy conservation. The research question for this dissertation is this: what federally implemented tax would best serve the multiple criteria of 1) driving the value of the currency, 2) promoting energy conservation and 3) ameliorating income and wealth disparities inherent in a monetary production economy? This dissertation provides a suggestion for such a tax that would be part of a much larger overall policy program based upon the tenets of modern money theory and functional finance. Additionally, this research seeks to provide an important theoretical contribution to the emerging Post Keynesian and ecological economics dialog.

  4. Health responses to a wealth shock : evidence from a Swedish tax reform

    OpenAIRE

    Erixson, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    This essay contributes in two ways to the literature on the effects of economic circumstances on health. First, it deals with reverse causality and omitted variable bias by exploiting exogenous variation in inherited wealth generated by the unexpected repeal of the Swedish inheritance tax. Second, it analyzes responses in health outcomes from administrative registers. The results show that increased wealth has limited impacts on objective adult health over a period of six years. This is in li...

  5. Trends and future directions in tax policy reform: a Latin American perspective Tendencias y orientaciones futuras en la reforma a la política tributaria: perspectiva latinoamericana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shome Parthasarathi

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines experiences in tax reform and the evolution of income in Latin America during the 1980s, and identifies the areas of reform to be debated in the 1990s. The reforms of the 1980s removed the progressive rates applicable to income and assets and the focus shifted to indirect taxes such as Value-Added Tax, leaving direct taxation in second place. During the 1990s, the importan
    ce of direct taxation will be raised again, Businesses will be
    taxed in new ways, to ensure that all pay some tax, possibly based on their gross assets. Attempts will be made to tax the financial sector, or the use of financial services. Property will again be taxed. Pollution will be taxes. The system of withholdings will be more widespread, and their will be efforts to harmonize taxation systems in Latin America, especially in the area of capital yields, double taxation of personal income, customs duties and value-added taxes.
    En este trabajo se examina la experiencia de reforma tributaria y la evolución de los ingresos de los países latinoamericanos durante los años ochenta y se identifican con los temas de la reforma tributaria que se debatirán en la década de los noventa. Con las reformas tributarias de los ochenta se derrumbaron las estructuras progresivas a los impuestos de renta y propiedad, y se dio énfasis a los impuestos indirectos, como el Iva, con lo cual perdieron importancia los ingresos por impuestos directos. De modo que en los noventa se reconsiderará el papel de este tipo de impuestos. Se utilizarán distintas formas de gravar a las empresas, tratando de que todas paguen por lo menos un impuesto mínimo, posiblemente sobre sus activos brutos; se intentará gravar el sector financiero o al uso de los servicios financieros; se volverá a gravar la propiedad; se impondrán impuestos a la contaminación ambiental; se difundirá el sistema de retenciones y se verán esfuerzos de armonización tributaria entre los pa

  6. History and social responses to environmental tax reform in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, Simon; Jackson, Tim; Gilbert, Nigel

    2006-01-01

    This paper gives a short history of fuel taxation and the Climate Change Levy in the UK. The research described was based around the use of interviews and focus groups to inform the assessment of social responses to ETR policies and the development of improved designs for them. Interviews were conducted with selected policy makers and companies. Focus groups were conducted with quota samples of the general public. The research shows that the problem that ETR faces in terms of public acceptance is not so much outright hostility to environmental taxation as conceptual problems with the design. Similar conceptual problems were also found in the interviews with business people. These can be summarised as lack of trust about use of the revenues, difficulty in understanding the purpose of a tax shift and a desire for incentives for good behaviour as well as perceived 'penalties' for bad behaviour. (author)

  7. Tax reform for ecologic reasons: The basic legal situation in Germany. Expert opinion; Steuerreform unter oekologischen Aspekten: Rechtliche Rahmenbedingungen. Gutachterliche Stellungnahme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birk, D.; Eckhoff, R. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Steuerrecht

    1999-04-01

    A model simulating the outcome of an ecologic tax reform in Germany is presented and discussed. The model was elaborated by Deutsches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW) and Finanzwissenschaftliches Forschungsinstitut (Fifo) of Cologne University. The model sets out the framework and scope of such a tax reform, as well as individual policy instruments, such as introduction of tax on energy consumption, an increase of the mineral oil tax, introduction of a road-use tax, introduction of new and increase of existing charges for waste management, a modification and increase of the sewage levy, and in the long run, introduction of a tax on land consumption by built environments. An analysis of the redistributional effects of the theoretical tax on energy consumption together with the increased mineral oil tax revealed that the prorated expenses for energy in relation to total incomes and revenues are declining with rising income. Especially the prorated expense for automotive fuels shows a particularly steep rise, which is calculated by the model to decline again only within the group of households with a very high income. The financial burden effect of the energy tax in relation to the available income and revenues is described by a regressive curve similar to the energy expenses curve, other than with the tax burden curve due to the increased mineral oil tax, which is calculated to have a regressive effect only at higher income levels, i.e. from a private household net income of DM 4000. Considering however the tax burden effects resulting from both the energy tax and the increased mineral oil tax, for all private hoseholds, a regressive effect is expected to set in as from a household income of DM 1000. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Das vom Deutschen Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW) und vom Finanzwissenschaftlichen Forschungsinstitut der Universitaet zu Koeln (Fifo) entworfene Modell einer oekologischen Steuerreform sieht die Einfuehrung einer Energiesteuer, eine

  8. GOODS AND SERVICE TAX ONE NATION ONE TAX IN INDIA.

    OpenAIRE

    Shuchi Sharma; Rupendra Prakash Yadav.

    2018-01-01

    Goods and Service Tax is a significant and logical step towards a comprehensive Indirect tax reform in India. This paper analyses the concept of Goods Service Tax and further discusses their impact on the various sectors in India. Brief description is given on Goods Service Tax background and Goods and Service Tax models helps to reduce tax burden. It aims at creating a single and unified market benefiting both corporate and economy because this is the only Indirect tax that directly affects ...

  9. La riforma tributaria Italiana del 1973-74: un successo parziale con molti problemi. (The 1973-74 tax reform in Italy: a partial success with many shortcomings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. PEDONE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Il presente articolo richiama l'attenzione su una serie di risultati della riforma fiscale italiana 1973-1974 , al fine di fornire informazioni utili per quanto riguarda il dibattito sull'attuale tassazione. L'autore affronta i fondamentali cambiamenti nel livello e la composizione delle imposte negli anni post -riforma in Italia con riferimento alla situazione prima e a quella che esisteva nei paesi comparabili. Si suggerisce che l'innegabile successo della riforma per aumentare il gettito fiscale è in realtà la fonte delle attuali difficoltà del sistema fiscale . I principali problemi in sospeso , alla luce della recente esperienza sono toccati , nonché quali prospettive ci sono per una soluzione - per quanto difficile da trovare e di breve durata questo può essere .The present article draws attention to a number of results of the Italian 1973-74 tax reform in order to offer useful information regarding the present taxation debate.  The author deals with the fundamental changes in the level and the composition of taxation in the post-reform years in Italy with reference to the earlier situation and to that obtaining in comparable countries. It is suggested that the undeniable success of the reform in increasing the tax yield is actually the source of the present difficulties of the tax system. The most important outstanding problems in the light of the recent experience are touched on as well as what prospects there are for a solution - however hard to find and short-lived this may be.JEL: H21

  10. Philippines - Revenue Administration Reform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Millennium Challenge Account-Philippines' (MCA-P) implementation of the Revenue Administration Reform Project (RARP) is expected to improve tax administration,...

  11. A Distributional Difference-in-Difference Evaluation of the Response of School Expenditures to Reforms and Tax Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, Daniel P.; Singell, Larry D., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Prior work uses a parametric approach to study the distributional effects of school finance reform and finds evidence that reform yields greater equality of school expenditures by lowering spending in high-spending districts (leveling down) or increasing spending in low-spending districts (leveling up). We develop a kernel density…

  12. Tax Incentives and Borrowing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alan, Sule; Leth-Petersen, Søren; Munk-Nielsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We estimate the effect of a Danish 1987 tax reform, which reduced the tax rate applied to interest deductions from 73% to 50% for households with high incomes, but less for households with middle or low incomes. Using high quality panel data we find that households responded to the reduced tax...... subsidy by lowering interest payments and we find that the responsiveness to the tax subsidy varies by the initial level of interest payments....

  13. House Prices and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedsted Nielsen, Mads

    of only 31%. We use 2007 municipal reform in Denmark in which 256 municipalities changed tax rates, as an exogenous shock to taxes. The exogeneity of the shock to taxes and the size of the data set is an improvement over earlier studies. Our findings significantly downward adjust the degree of tax......This paper is the first to consider a large scale natural experiment to estimate the effect of taxes on house prices. We find that a 1 percentage-point increase in income tax rates lead to a drop in house prices of at most 2.2%. This corresponds to a tax capitalization for the average household...... capitalization from earlier studies. Furthermore, we find no effect of property taxes on house prices. We attribute this to the low levels of Danish municipal property tax rates compared to income tax rates....

  14. Integrating environmental taxes on local air pollutants with fiscal reform in Hungary: simulations with a computable general equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Glenn E.; Revesz, Tamas; Zalai, Ernoe; Fucsko, Jozsef

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the Fiscal Environmental Integration Model (FEIM) and its use to examine the merits of introducing a set of air pollutant emission taxes and stringent abatement requirements based on best commonly available control technology. These environmental protection strategies are examined both independently and in combination. In addition, Hungary has very high VAT, employment, and income tax rates and therefore might receive more than the usual advantage from using environmental tax revenues to reduce other taxes. We therefore also examine the economic and environmental implications of different uses of the revenues generated by the air pollutant emissions taxes. FEIM is a CGE model of the Hungarian economy that includes sectoral air pollution control costs functions and execution options that allow examination of the key policy choices involved. We developed and ran a baseline and seven scenarios with FEIM. The scenarios centered on introduction of environmental load fees (ELF) on emissions of SO 2 , NO x , and particulates and emission abatement requirements (EAR) for these pollutants. (Author)

  15. Subjects of, or Subject to, Policy Reform? A Foucauldian Discourse Analysis of Regulation and Resistance in UK Narratives of Educational Impacts of Welfare Cuts: The Case of the "Bedroom Tax"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Erica; Greenstein, Anat; Bragg, Jo; Hanley, Terry; Kalambouka, Afroditi; Lupton, Ruth; McCoy, Lauren; Sapin, Kate; Winter, Laura

    2017-01-01

    This paper draws on material generated from a qualitative study of educational impacts of a British welfare reform affecting housing rent subsidy, size and location commonly known as "the bedroom tax" (Bragg et al., 2015), which was partly taken as a topic for study specifically because of its iconic status as a controversial and…

  16. Investment Taxes and Equity Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens Sialm

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates whether investors are compensated for the tax burden of equity securities. Effective tax rates on equity securities vary due to frequent tax reforms and due to persistent differences in propensities to pay dividends. The paper finds an economically and statistically significant relationship between risk-adjusted stock returns and effective personal tax rates using a new data set covering tax burdens on a cross-section of equity securities between 1927 and 2004. Consist...

  17. Reforming Student Aid: How to Simplify Tax Aid and Use Performance Metrics to Improve College Choices and Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimherr, Patrick; Harmon, Tim; Strawn, Julie; Choitz, Vickie

    2013-01-01

    Any reform of federal student aid must address the twin challenges of college affordability and completion, which are inextricably linked. Here, CLASP has proposed ways to redirect existing federal student aid spending toward the low- and modest income families who need it most. These are the students for whom federal aid makes a difference in…

  18. Poor relief, taxes and the first Universal Pension Reform: the origin of the Swedish welfare state reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edebalk, Per Gunnar; Olsson, Mats

    2010-01-01

    In the year 1900, Sweden probably had the oldest population in the contemporary world. It was also the first nation to implement a universal pension system in 1913. The universal character in early social legislation has certainly been decisive for the development of the Swedish welfare state. This alternative has not been self-evident. Why did the reforms turn universal, when the continental model, the Bismarck social security system, was exclusively directed at industrial workers? Research has concentrated on demographic factors and growing demands for social security, or on the fact that Sweden was still a predominantly rural society with about 2,400 local authorities. This article examines the development of social legislation in the light of local government expenditures and incomes, and suggests an overlooked possibility: the formulation of the first universal national social security reform was a redistributional response to uneven distribution of incomes and general expenditures among the rural districts in Sweden.

  19. Pension saving responses to anticipated tax changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Leth-Petersen, Søren; Skov, Peer

    2017-01-01

    A Danish tax reform, passed in May 2009 and taking effect from the beginning of 2010, lowered the marginal tax rate on top bracket taxable income from 63% to 56%. Because contributions to pension accounts are tax deductible, the reform provided an incentive to increase pension contributions before...

  20. 26 CFR 26.2641-1 - Applicable rate of tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... GIFT TAXES GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1986 § 26.2641-1 Applicable rate of tax. The rate of tax applicable to any GST (applicable rate) is determined by multiplying... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicable rate of tax. 26.2641-1 Section 26...

  1. 26 CFR 1.1-2 - Limitation on tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... as defined by section 1348, the tax imposed by section 1, as amended by the Tax Reform Act of 1969... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Limitation on tax. 1.1-2 Section 1.1-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Normal Taxes and...

  2. Expanding insurance coverage through tax credits, consumer choice, and market enhancements: the American Medical Association proposal for health insurance reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Donald J; Emmons, David W; Wozniak, Gregory D

    2004-05-12

    Recent reports showing an increase in the number of uninsured individuals in the United States have given heightened attention to increasing health insurance coverage. The American Medical Association (AMA) has proposed a system of tax credits for the purchase of individually owned health insurance and enhancements to individual and group health insurance markets as a means of expanding coverage. Individually owned insurance would enable people to maintain coverage without disruption to existing patient-physician relationships, regardless of changes in employers or in work status. The AMA's plan would empower individuals to choose their health plan and give patients and their physicians more control over health care choices. Employers could continue to offer employment-based coverage, but employees would not be limited to the health plans offered by their employer. With a tax credit large enough to make coverage affordable and the ability to choose their own coverage, consumers would dramatically transform the individual and group health insurance markets. Health insurers would respond to the demands of individual consumers and be more cautious about increasing premiums. Insurers would also tailor benefit packages and develop new forms of coverage to better match the preferences of individuals and families. The AMA supports the development of new health insurance markets through legislative and regulatory changes to foster a wider array of high-quality, affordable plans.

  3. Slovenian income taxes and analysis of their tax expenditure in 2006-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Klun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tax expenditure analyses have been an important element in the supervision of reform processes linked to implementing different kinds of tax incentive and the management of a correct tax policy. The paper provides an evaluation of tax expenditure in Slovenia relating to personal income tax and corporate income tax. Four consecutive tax years were selected for the calculation of the tax expenditure on personal income tax (2006-09, while three consecutive years were selected for the corporate income tax calculation (2008-10. The tax expenditure calculated for personal income tax was highest in 2006 and reached 5.2% of GDP. After several changes in personal income tax, expenditures decreased to around 3% of GDP in the following three years. The tax expenditure calculated for corporate income tax was much lower as compared to GDP than for personal income tax, reaching around 0.2% of GDP.

  4. Cambodian Tax Revenue and Non Tax Revenue : Issues & Proposals

    OpenAIRE

    Sang, Sinavith

    2006-01-01

    Taxation is an important instrument of economic policy in a country. Tax reform deals with wide range of issues of economic policy as well as specific problems of tax structure, design and administration. In the process of improving and drawing tax policies that encounter the requirements of a fast changing economy, society, and polity, tax revenue in Cambodia increased dramatically after the democratic coalition government formed in 1993. Similar to other developing countries Cambodia began ...

  5. How would a flat tax affect small businesses?

    OpenAIRE

    John E. Golob

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Congress is considering several strategies to reform the federal income tax system. The most widely discussed strategy, a flat tax, would tax income received by businesses and individuals at the same low, flat rate. Flat tax proposals would eliminate most tax deductions and tax credits but would increase the personal exemption for individual taxpayers. While the debate continues over whether a flat tax would be fair to individual taxpayers, assessing the effect of a flat tax on econo...

  6. LA LIMITACIÓN DE LAS BASES IMPONIBLES DEL IBI RÚSTICO PARA LAS COOPERATIVAS AGRARIAS EN EL RÉGIMEN FISCAL DE COOPERATIVAS Y SU NECESARIA REFORMA / LIMITATION OF THE TAX BASE ON THE LAND TAX FOR AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES IN THE COOPERATIVE TAX SYSTEM, AND IT’S NECESSARY REFORM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO MARÍ VIDAL

    2011-01-01

    problem for the performance thereof by the agricultural cooperatives to continue to enjoy special protection. In this sense we will show how cadastral values (which determine the tax base of the Land Tax have been updated annually, with their consequent increase and therefore it becomes necessary to reform this limit in CTS.

  7. Addressing inequality and poverty with tax instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđelović Saša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a consensus, in both academia and economic policy circles, that the reform of the personal income tax system in Serbia is necessary one. Two frequently discussed reform scenarios are East European style flat tax and the comprehensive income tax model of Western Europe. Most Central and Eastern European (CEE countries have recently reformed their income tax systems by introducing some form of flat tax scheme, while in numerous countries of Western Europe the possibility of flat tax reform is also seriously considered. Opponents of the reform usually stress the adverse distributional effects of flat tax schemes. The aim of our paper is to contribute to the empirical literature on the distributional effects of alternative tax reform scenarios. The analysis is based on the tax and benefit micro-simulation model for Serbia (SRMOD. The results suggest that redesigning the existing income tax system so as to introduce a uniform tax rate and increase the basic allowance would somewhat reduce inequality and improve vertical inequity in taxation. On the other hand, in the case of the introduction of comprehensive income tax, considerably larger equalizing and progressivity effects would be achieved. At the same time, since in both cases redistribution will not affect the bottom decile group, no significant effects (in either cases on poverty reduction will be achieved.

  8. Analysis of behavior of sales tax due to implementation of national consumption tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Fernanda Corredor-López

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on analyzing the taxation behavior in terms of taxpayers, tax collection and economic activities, both in sales tax for the fiscal periods 2012 and 2013, and in the national tax to the consumption during the fiscal period 2013. This analysis centers on knowing the effects of the taxation reform in 2012 regarding these two taxes.

  9. 26 CFR 1.1-1 - Income tax on individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... section 1(a) as amended by the Tax Reform Act of 1969. For other rates of tax on individuals, see section... Code as amended by the Tax Reform Act of 1969) Single individual Sec. 1(a)(1) Sec. 1(a)(2) Sec. 1(c... indicated in such table. (4) The provisions of section 1 of the Code, as amended by the Tax Reform Act of...

  10. The School Property Tax Reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Thomas

    1978-01-01

    The error of school finance reform has been to tie educational equity and efficiency considerations to equalization of the local tax base. An alternative strategy would center on the cost and quality of each district's program. (Author/IRT)

  11. The Measurement of Tax Elasticity in India: A Time Series Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Acharya, Hem

    2011-01-01

    Revenue generation is an important goal of tax reform. The built-in responsiveness of revenues to changes in income, tax elasticity, provides very critical information for tax policy formulation. This paper utilises a time series approach to empirically estimate tax elasticities for India for the period 1991-2010. Tax elasticities are computed for income, turnover, excise, import and total taxes for the post-reform period. The elasticity coefficients reveal a low responsiveness of taxes to i...

  12. Philippines - Revenue Administration Reform Project (RARP) Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Millennium Challenge Account-Philippines' (MCA-P) implementation of the Revenue Administration Reform Project (RARP) is expected to improve tax administration,...

  13. Consumption Taxes and Economic Efficiency with Idiosyncratic Wage Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Shinichi; Smetters, Kent

    2005-01-01

    Fundamental tax reform is examined in an overlapping-generations model in which heterogeneous agents face idiosyncratic wage shocks and longevity uncertainty. A progressive income tax is replaced with a flat consumption tax. If idiosyncratic wage shocks are insurable (i.e., no risk), this reform improves (interim) efficiency, a result consistent…

  14. Can targeted food taxes and subsidies improve the diet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    2011-01-01

    and the excise duty reforms appear to be progressive. The lowest income group pays less food taxes and generally faces a lower overall post-reform price level. The income group that increases its tax payments most is the one with the highest income. This is also the income group that faces the largest increase...... in the overall post-reform price level....

  15. Tax policy and labor market performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.L. Bovenberg (Lans)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn exploring the impact of tax policy on labor-market performance, the paper first investigates how tax reform impacts labor supply and equilibrium unemployment in representative agent models. The impact of tax policy on labor market performance depends importantly on various other

  16. 26 CFR 1.1374-1A - Tax imposed on certain capital gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Section 1374 Before the Tax Reform Act of 1986 § 1.1374-1A Tax imposed on... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Tax imposed on certain capital gains. 1.1374-1A... 1374 imposes a tax (computed under paragraph (b) of this section) on the income of such corporation...

  17. 26 CFR 26.7701-1 - Tax return preparer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAXES GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1986 § 26.7701-1 Tax return preparer. (a) In general. For the definition of a tax return preparer, see § 301.7701-15 of this... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax return preparer. 26.7701-1 Section 26.7701...

  18. Legal and Illegal Tax Evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Suvelea

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the economic and social plan, tax evasion is a reality seen in various forms, such as the keeping of not realistic accounting books; willful destruction of documents that might lead to the discovery of real product deliveries, adopted prices, fees received or paid, establishing false customs declarations for the goods import or export, preparing false tax declarations, while knowingly not mentioning but a portion of the incomes. The largest tax evasion - 60% - is generated from VAT, while social contributions generate approximately 24% of the total fiscal evasion, mainly through the phenomenon of “illegal work” (employees in the underground economy. For this purpose it is necessary a deep reform of the taxes administration, mainly in the direction of increasing the degree of tax collection. The phenomenon as a whole is very difficult to control and to quantify and to this contribute also the tax laws’ peculiarities, tax policies, corruption and the standard of living

  19. 26 CFR 143.5 - Taxes on self-dealing; indirect transactions by a private foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1969 § 143.5 Taxes on self-dealing; indirect transactions by a private... 101(b) of the Tax Reform Act of 1969 (83 Stat. 500) provides that the term “self-dealing” includes any... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxes on self-dealing; indirect transactions by...

  20. Distributional Effects of Environmental Taxes in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Poltimäe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the distributional effects of Estonian environmental taxes in 2000-2007 and recent reforms in 2008 using Estonian Household Budget Survey data and a microsimulation model. The results show that the share of environmental taxes in consumption expenditures is about 1-1.5%. Environmental taxes in 2000- 2007 were progressive due to the progressivity of motor fuel excises, which was the largest component of the environmental taxes until 2007. Since 2008, the taxes are less progressive, because of the new electricity excise and increased taxes on gas and other inputs used for distance domestic heating. To minimize the disproportionate effect of future ecological tax reform on low-income households, close monitoring of tax developments is required and necessary compensatory policies need to be implemented

  1. Tax war in Brazil: aspects and trends; Competicao fiscal no Brasil: aspectos e tendencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resende, Fabio Martins; Oliveira, David Brandao de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper issue aspects of tax war since the origin in Brazil until your apply after the tax reform with destiny principle. This work introduce with historical of tax system in Brazil. Besides approach the tax war with the game theory and practical examples to explain the advantage and disadvantage under fiscal responsibility law. Finally, we will discuss if will be continue the tax war developed in possible scenario the tax reform charging on the destiny state (author)

  2. The Multiple Dividends of Abolishing Statutory Tax Exemptions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper shows that the need to increase tax revenue in Tanzania is obvious and that this can be done through a base - broadening, marginal rate-reduction and simplification of tax reform. It argues that minimizing statutory exemptions shall, not only broaden the tax base, but also simplify the tax system, improve ...

  3. Income taxes and the composition of pay

    OpenAIRE

    Brunello, Giorgio; Comi, Simona; Sonedda, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    According to the standard principal-agent model, the optimal composition of pay should balance the provision of incentives with the individual demand for insurance. Do income taxes alter this balance? We show that the relative share of PRP on total pay is reduced by higher average taxes, and is affected in a complex way by higher marginal tax rates. Empirical evidence based on the British Household Panel Survey, which exploits the UK 1999 Tax Reform, supports the theoretical predictions of th...

  4. Vehicle type choice and differentiated registration taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabit, Stefan Lindhard

    to what extent the 2007 vehicle tax reform may explain these changes in purchasing behaviour using a discrete choice model. The model allows us to simulate the effect of price changes that resemble those induced by the tax reform. The analysis shows that the reform only changes purchase patterns slightly....... The changes in fuel prices during the year induce a similar minor effect in our simulation. We conclude that while the tax reform appeared in the same year as a large increase in fuel efficiency, it only explains a small part of the shift in fuel efficiency that happened.......Differentiated vehicle taxes are considered as a useful tool for promoting environmental friendly vehicles. Such a tax was introduced in Denmark in 2007. During 2007, the pattern in new vehicle purchases in Denmark changed toward more diesel vehicles and more fuel-efficient vehicles. We analyse...

  5. Tax Evasion and Swiss Bank Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    Bank deposits in jurisdictions with banking secrecy constitute an effective tool to evade taxes on interest income. A recent EU reform reduces the scope for this type of tax evasion by introducing a source tax on interest income earned by EU residents in Switzerland and several other jurisdictions...... with banking secrecy. In this paper, we estimate the impact of the source tax on Swiss bank deposits held by EU residents while using that non-EU residents were not subject to the tax to apply a natural experiment methodology. We find that the 15% source tax caused Swiss bank deposits of EU residents to drop...

  6. ¿Pueden considerarse significativas las reformas fiscales de México? // Can the Tax Reforms in Mexico be Considered Significant?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Lagunas Puls

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Se establece como objetivo general, analizar la significancia estadística de cambios en la recaudación del Impuesto Sobre la Renta (ISR y del Impuesto al Valor Agregado (IVA, a partir del año 2000 y hasta el segundo trimestre del 2015, para afirmar o no la variación en la recaudación. Para lograrlo se aplican métodos clásicos con valor crítico significante a 0,05 de alfa, pero complementándolo parámetro delta para establecer el nivel de cambio en poco significante, medianamente significante o de gran significancia. En las conclusiones se deja antecedente que a pesar de lo que parecieran como impactantes cambios en materia fiscal que pudieron haber incidido positiva o negativamente en el pago del ISR e IVA, tales como el acotamiento del régimen de consolidación fiscal, gravámenes complementarios, hasta llegar a la homologación del IVA a tasa 16% para todo el país, en la mayoría de los casos, no se obtuvo evidencia para argumentar eficiencia en la recaudación nacional. ------------------------------------ It is the purpose of this work to analyze the significance of changes in average for the collection of value-added (VAT and income taxes from year 2000 and up to the second quarter of 2015. To accomplish that, classic methods of significance will be applied, but contrasted with tests for the typified difference of the average, fundamental parameters of the meta-analysis Cohen's Delta. The main conclusions are that although there have been relevant changes in the tax collection process such as limits in the tax consolidation regime, complementary taxes e.g., flat rate business tax, substitute tax credit to wages, tax on cash deposits and the standardization of the VAT to 16%, there is no strong evidence to state an efficient national tax collection system.

  7. A green reform is not always green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Jensen, Thomas Christian

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses a tax reform, explicitly conceived by policy makers to be climate-friendly, that partly replaces a high vehicle registration tax by road user charging and allows for differentiation of the remaining registration tax by fuel efficiency. A microeconomic framework is proposed...... to analyse such a reform. For the case of Denmark, the analysis shows that the reform is likely to yield a significant and robust welfare gain. However, it seems not unlikely that CO2 emissions from passenger cars may increase as a result of the reform....

  8. Agora Energiewende (2017). New pricing models for energy. Fundamentals of a reform of fees, taxes, levies and charges on electricity and fossil fuels; Agora Energiewende (2017). Neue Preismodelle fuer Energie. Grundlagen einer Reform der Entgelte, Steuern, Abgaben und Umlagen auf Strom und fossile Energietraeger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praetorius, Barbara; Lenck, Thorsten [Agora Energiewende, Berlin (Germany); Lietz, Franziska [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Energie Forschungszentrum; Buechner, Jens; Nikogosian, Vigen [E-Bridge Consulting GmbH, Bonn (Germany); Schober, Dominik [Zentrum fuer Europaeische Wirtschaftsforschung GmbH (ZEW), Mannheim (Germany); Mannheim Univ. (Germany); Weyer, Hartmut [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Woll, Oliver [Zentrum fuer Europaeische Wirtschaftsforschung GmbH (ZEW), Mannheim (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    In the ideal electricity market, electricity prices give the signal that supply and demand are balanced in real time, flexibility is offered and cost and energy efficiency are achieved. When electricity is scarce, high prices mobilise the operation of storage facilities, load management and generation plants. If electricity is available in surplus, the low prices attract additional customers. Ideally, prices also stimulate the right investments for a reliable, efficient and climate-friendly electricity system - even at the borders of the electricity, heating and transport sectors. In reality, 75 to 80 percent of the electricity price for most consumers consists of government-regulated, regulated price components. Energy taxes, grid charges, taxes and levies total around 55 billion euros per year and fulfil important functions in the financing of the electricity system and energy turnaround. However, they often almost completely overlap the coordinating price signal in wholesale. Offering flexibility is hardly worthwhile because taxes, fees, levies and charges are due immediately. The price signals are also not right at the sector borders: heating oil and natural gas, diesel and petrol are taxed according to other criteria than electricity; there are misguided incentives in the choice of energy sources and climate protection. The reform of the tax, remuneration, levy and levy system is therefore urgently needed, but it is a complex undertaking. Agora Energiewende, with the support of E-Bridge, ZEW and TU Clausthal, has carried out an analysis of the current price structure and explored the scope for a fundamental reform of the existing system. In this way, we want to lay a foundation for the development of concrete reform proposals, which will be worked out in a further study. [German] Im idealen Strommarkt geben Strompreise das Signal dafuer, dass sich Angebot und Nachfrage in Echtzeit ausgleichen, Flexibilitaet angeboten wird und Kosten und Energieeffizienz

  9. Can French environmental taxes really turn into green taxes? Current status and conditions of acceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiroleu-Assouline, Mireille

    2015-01-01

    French environmental taxes are not really ecologically oriented. Their main aim is to raise revenues. Clear signs of this inappropriate direction are given by the large share of the energy taxes and by the low level of most tax rates, which for the most part, are only implicit tax rates on the polluting goods. An ecological tax reform would imply a global green tax shift with tax rates proportionate to the marginal damages. The success and the acceptation of such a reform by the taxpayers rely on the chosen recycling mechanism for the tax revenues, on government's efforts in information and pedagogy, on transparency about the policy choices but also, somehow paradoxically, on audacity of actions. Initially published in 'Revue de l'OFCE', No. 139

  10. 26 CFR 26.2663-1 - Recapture tax under section 2032A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AND GIFT TAXES GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1986 § 26.2663-1 Recapture tax under section 2032A. See § 26.2642-4(a)(4) for rules relating to the recomputation... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recapture tax under section 2032A. 26.2663-1...

  11. 26 CFR 26.6696-1 - Claims for credit or refund by tax return preparers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1986 § 26.6696-1 Claims for credit or refund by tax return preparers. (a) In general. For rules for... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claims for credit or refund by tax return...

  12. 26 CFR 26.6060-1 - Reporting requirements for tax return preparers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1986 § 26.6060-1 Reporting requirements for tax return preparers. (a) In general. A person that employs... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting requirements for tax return preparers...

  13. 26 CFR 26.2662-1 - Generation-skipping transfer tax return requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1986 § 26.2662-1 Generation-skipping transfer tax return requirements. (a) In general. Chapter 13... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Generation-skipping transfer tax return...

  14. 26 CFR 26.6694-1 - Section 6694 penalties applicable to tax return preparer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1986 § 26.6694-1 Section 6694 penalties applicable to tax return preparer. (a) In general. For general... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Section 6694 penalties applicable to tax return...

  15. THE IMPORTANCE OF TAX AMNESTY POLICY IN EFFORTS TO OVERCOME TAX EVASION IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imas Sholihah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental problems of taxation in Indonesia is a low tax ratio and management of the tax systemhas not been well ordered, especially the handling of the tax evaders. Tax amnesty policy is presentas one of the solutions of the problems of taxation and is part of the tax reform. There are pros andcons to this policy as it pertains to the settings in the Tax Forgiveness Act is considered less sense offairness and legal certainty and are vulnerable to abuse of authority. This policy became importantalthough it is less sense of fairness if the review facilities subject to tax amnesty even though thestate would get the revenue the state in large numbers in a short period of short-term benefits, butif managed by the management and human resources professionals, socialization, and optimizedcontrol, a long-term positive impact to minimize state income tax evasion. Keywords: tax amnesty, policy, tax evation (avoidance

  16. 26 CFR 143.2 - Taxes on self-dealing; scholarship and fellowship grants by private foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1969 § 143.2 Taxes on self-dealing; scholarship and fellowship grants... added by section 101(b) of the Tax Reform Act of 1969 (83 Stat. 500) provides that the term “self... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxes on self-dealing; scholarship and...

  17. Taxing Electricity Sector Carbon Emissions at Social Cost

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Anthony; Beasley, Blair; Palmer, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about budget deficits, tax reform, and climate change are fueling discussions about taxing carbon emissions to generate revenue and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Imposing a carbon tax on electricity production based on the social cost of carbon (SCC) could generate between $21 and $82 billion in revenues in 2020 and would have important effects on electricity markets. The sources of emissions reductions in the sector depend on the level of the tax. A carbon tax based on lower SCC ...

  18. Effects of the ecological tax reform on the national economy. Vol. II of the final report of the project 'Quantification of the effects of the ecological tax reform on the environment, the labour market, and innovation'; Gesamtwirtschaftliche Effekte der oekologischen Steuerreform. Bd. II des Endberichts fuer das Vorhaben: ''Quantifizierung der Effekte der Oekologischen Steuerreform auf Umwelt, Beschaeftigung und Innovation''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlhaas, Michael

    2005-08-15

    The economic effects of the ecological tax reform were investigated using the empirical equilibrium model LEAN2000. The calculations are an update of the analysis made by Bach et al. (2001). They were necessary as the earlier investigation was based on the laws prevailing in 2000 and boundary conditions were changed dramatically by the law on ecological tax reform of 23 December 2002. The investigation was based on the data calculated in part I of this project and using LEAN, a sequential-dynamic general equilibrium model comprising 13 sectors and (in the version used in the project) two regions (Germany and the remaining EU15). The electricity sector defines six different power generation technologies (coal, lignite, petroleum, gas, nuclear power, renewable energy sources). The model simulations mostly confirm the results of Bach et al. (2001): The ecological tax reform will help reduce CO2 emissions in Germany without negative effects on economic development. Additional jobs could be created at the same time by reducing old age insurance. The success of this measure will depend on wage demands, i.e. their reaction to changes in the job situation. It was also investigated how ecological tax models will affect the national economy. According to the model calculations, the effects are in the right direction but very low. This may be due to the fact that some industries may find it more favourable not to use energy efficiently but to make use of surplus settlement regulations. [German] In dieser Untersuchung werden Modellrechnungen zu den gesamtwirtschaftlichen Auswirkungen der oekologischen Steuerreform (OeSR) mit dem empirischen Gleichgewichtsmodell LEAN2000 durchgefuehrt. Diese Berechnungen stellen eine Aktualisierung der Analyse von Bach et al. (2001) dar. Die Neuberechnungen wurden notwendig, da die fruehere Untersuchung den Gesetzesstand im Jahr 2000 zu Grunde gelegt hat. Mit dem Gesetz zur Fortentwicklung der oekologischen Steuerreform vom 23.12.2002 wurden

  19. Perché le riforme negli anni sessanta hanno avuto scarso successo: il caso della riforma tributaria. (Why reforms had limited success in the sixties: the case of the tax reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pedone

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a portrait of Paolo Sylos Labini as a reformer, inspired by the aim to change society through gradual “structural reforms” that reduce inequalities and enlarge freedom.Text of the speech given at the conference "Paolo Sylos Labini e la politica delle riforme", held at Sapienza University of Rome on 04 December 2015, organized by the Accademia dei Lincei with Economia Civile. JEL Codes: H20, B31, N34

  20. The welfare gain from replacing the health insurance tax exclusion with lump-sum tax credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liqun; Rettenmaier, Andrew J; Saving, Thomas R

    2011-06-01

    This paper analyzes the welfare gain from replacing the tax exclusion of employer-provided health insurance with a lump-sum tax credit. It differs from earlier studies in that we look at the welfare cost of health insurance tax exclusion as coming directly from excessive health insurance rather than from overconsumption of medical care and that we account for the labor market effect of the tax exclusion on welfare. Both differences work to produce a smaller tax reform welfare gain. For a set of mid-range parameter values, the welfare gain is about 21% of current health insurance tax expenditures. In addition, government tax expenditures would fall by 38%, and health insurance spending would fall by 77% after the reform.

  1. Organization of Tax Control in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamaslo Olha T.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article researches the essence and characteristics of tax control as an important element of the State regulation of economy. The main directions and modalities of tax control are considered in detail. The main tendencies and problem points of tax control in Ukraine have been studied. Efficiency of the controlling bodies has been analyzed, the main directions of their activities in the sphere of tax enforcement have been provided. Directions for improving the organization of tax control in the context of overcoming the existing deficiencies in the controlling and inspecting activities of the tax authorities have been determined. It has been concluded that the improvement of tax control is one of the key directions of reforming the Ukrainian tax system.

  2. Budget reform in Ukraine and the OECD countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puchko Anna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the fiscal reforms in Ukraine and the OECD countries. It has been proved that the main areas which should undergo changes are the tax reform, regulatory reform and restructuring policies to encourage entrepreneurship, reform of social protection and social security, reform of social sphere constituents, administrative reform, reform of the army and law enforcement, administrative and territorial reform. According to the analysis results, there has been drawn the conclusion about the need to introduce in Ukraine the successful experience of the OECD countries in implementing budget reforms.

  3. Tax policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    This report contains information on the effects of additional tax incentives for the petroleum production industry. It considers the effects of additional incentives on petroleum production and federal revenues, the federal tax burden on new domestic petroleum production investments under current law, and the comparative tax treatment of petroleum production investments in the United States and other nations

  4. CONTRIBUTION OF INDIRECT TAXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The work is based on the fact that at any time and in any society, taxation is regarded as undesirable for all taxpayers. The existence and it's manifestation is justified, because the operation of any company involves costs that must be covered by sufficient resources. Since ancient times, each state has adopted its own tax system, more or less perfected, as the state has experienced a greater or lesser economic and military power At the base of this work stays the fact that tax systems are a key factor influencing the overall efficiency of the economy. They determine the size tendency to save, invest and work, influencing the increase in production and employment, which is essential sights integral economic strategy, making tax reform an important component of economic reform. This paper aims to analyze the indirect taxes and their contribution to the public revenues in Romania, the purpose paper contains an analysis based on statistical series as indirect taxation is where tax harmonization was possible. Through analyzes, the paper aims to provide answers to the problem of the contradiction between the growing need for budgetary revenues, which entails a continuous amplification and diversification of taxation, on the one hand, and the need to stimulate economic development, on the other hand. The harmonization of indirect taxation had been achieved since this touches the free movement of goods and the freedom to supply services, not being able to say the same thing about direct taxation, which is why the European Community Treaty does not specify expressly the alignment of direct taxation, considering that direct taxation is a matter of Internal Policies that, for a country free option.

  5. 26 CFR 26.6109-1 - Tax return preparers furnishing identifying numbers for returns or claims for refund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1986 § 26.6109-1 Tax return preparers furnishing identifying numbers... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax return preparers furnishing identifying...

  6. Tax evasion and Swiss bank deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Bank deposits in offshore financial centers may be used to evade taxes on interest income. A recent EU reform limits the scope for this type of tax evasion by introducing a withholding tax on interest income earned by EU households in Switzerland and several other offshore centers. This paper...... estimates the impact of the withholding tax on Swiss bank deposits held by EU residents while using non-EU residents who were not subject to the tax as a comparison group. We present evidence that Swiss bank deposits owned by EU residents declined by 30–40% relative to other Swiss bank deposits in two...... quarters immediately before and after the tax was introduced. We also present evidence suggesting that the drop in Swiss bank deposits was driven by behavioral responses aiming to escape the tax - such as the transfer of funds to bank accounts in other offshore centers and the transfer of formal ownership...

  7. Lessons from the polder. Energy tax design in The Netherlands from a climate change perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollebergh, Herman R.J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper evaluates energy tax reform in The Netherlands between 1988 and 2002 from a climate change perspective. In particular, the introduction of two (indirect) taxes on energy products is now responsible for a considerable amount of tax revenue from a green tax base. The paper discusses the energy tax base and rate structure from a modern Pigovian tax perspective and illustrates the practical difficulties involved in the indirect and non-uniform taxation of emissions. Also further improvements of the energy tax structure are discussed, such as a better targeting of the energy tax base and tax rate to fuel characteristics. (author)

  8. Integration of Tax Administration to Curb Import and Domestic Tax Evasions in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Adu Kwame

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of the Government of Ghana’s plans to maximize tax mobilization, it recently integrated its Regional Collection Agencies (RCA namely; the Internal Revenue Service (IRS, Customs Excise and Preventive service (CEPS and the Value Added Tax (VAT Services into the Ghana Revenue Authority (GRA. This research aims to find out whether Ghana’s tax administration reform of integrating the RCA into GRA has dealt with the inefficiencies in tax administration with respect to personal income tax, company tax, value added tax (VAT, import duties and self employed tax collection. To that end, questionnaires, interviews, observation and the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning’s (MoFEP data on tax revenues were analyzed to establish whether there has been some level of efficiency in the mobilization of these taxes. From the field observation, it was discovered that many taxpayers in Ghana are not being issued receipts which could ensure proper accounting. Surprisingly, tax collectors from the RCAs were aware of this but refuse to act. Even though most of the taxes were not being collected, analysis of data from MoFEP showed an increase in revenue collection in the last four years and this has been attributed to the tax administration integration. The effect of tax evasion on the Ghanaian economy has also been thoroughly discussed

  9. PERSONAL INCOME TAX POLICY ANALYSIS: ALBANIA VS. UNITED STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agim Binaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal income tax has become an important part of the Albania’s revenue system. Revenue from personal income tax was more than 27.9 billion ALL for the year of 2011 which makes up a 3% increase when compared to the previous year. This paper compares and contrasts Albanian and American income tax systems by describing many similarities as well as distinctive characteristics that were found. Professor Agim Binaj of Agricultural University of Tirana highlights the need for a fair personal income tax reform in Albania. This paper concludes with recommendations and an agenda for future research on tax policy using lessons from the United States tax system.

  10. Fiscal Policy Reforms and Dynamic Laffer Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oudheusden, P.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the impact of fiscal policy reforms on the long-run government budget balance in a one-sector model of endogenous growth with factor income taxes, a tax on consumption, non-productive public goods expenditures, and a labour-leisure trade-off. In addition, we allow for different structures

  11. Environmental taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekins, P.; Andersen, Mikael Skou; Vos, H.

    include those on sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in Sweden, on toxic waste in Germany, on water pollution in The Netherlands, and the tax differentials on leaded fuel and 'cleaner' diesel fuel in Sweden.3.Taxes as such have potential negative impacts on competitiveness and on employment, Most barriers...

  12. Taxing energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deacon, R.; DeCanio, S.; Frech, H.E. III; Johnson, M.B.

    1990-01-01

    In this book, the authors have produced an analysis of state energy taxation. Their factual findings are of particular relevance to California and other states in their consideration of severance taxes on oil production. It turns out, for example, that while California's tax burden on oil producers is slightly below average among the states, the combined revenues from taxes and royalties (expressed as a percent of the value of production) indicate that California is not easy on oil producers. In fact, California's oil tax system appears to be particularly well suited to its oil industry. Much of the production in the state is relatively high-cost and economically marginal. The state must tread carefully in taxing this production, lest it force it to be curtailed

  13. Tax Culture as Tax Administration Staff Phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Viktor Synchak

    2013-01-01

    The concept of the tax culture has been grounded. Various approaches to the tax culture have been highlighted. The ambiguous aspects of the tax culture approaches and interpretation have been pointed out. The authors have also given the definition of the tax body officials' culture. The tax culture has been defined as a special kind of tax service employee's culture. The necessity of the tax culture phenomenon to be familiarized with by every tax official prior to their employment has been pr...

  14. Parking taxes : evaluating options and impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litman, T.A.

    2006-01-01

    In addition to encouraging the use of alternative modes of transport, parking taxes can help to reduce congestion, air pollution, and urban sprawl. Various types of parking taxes were evaluated in this paper, as well as their impacts on parking supply, prices and travel patterns. Examples of various parking tax programs in major cities in Canada, Europe, the United States and Australia were presented. Parking tax programs were divided into 2 main categories: (1) per-space parking levies which distribute cost burdens and encourage property owners to manage parking supply more efficiently and (2) commercial parking taxes on parking rental transactions which discourage the pricing of parking and concentrate impacts in limited areas. Worksite parking levies were discussed, as well stormwater fees and employee parking as a taxable benefit. Typical parking facility financial costs were reviewed and best practices for structuring and implementing parking taxes to increase public acceptability were outlined. It was suggested that the tax base should be broad and well-defined. Local governments should increase parking prices to market rates before imposing special parking taxes, and taxes and fees should be structured to avoid undesirable land use. Parking tax reforms should be part of an overall parking and mobility management program. Stakeholders should be consulted to insure that regulations, administrative procedures and enforcement policies are efficient and fair. The establishment of an evaluation program to determine tax impacts on parking supply and pricing, economic activity, traffic and spillover problems was also recommended. 42 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  15. Enhancing the Alberta Tax Advantage with a Harmonized Sales Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Bazel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Alberta enjoys a reputation as a fiercely competitive jurisdiction when it comes to tax rates. But the reality is that the province can do better with a tax mix that has greater emphasis on consumption, rather than income tax levies. While Alberta has a personal tax advantage compared to other Canadian jurisdictions — but not the United States — it relies most heavily on income taxes and non-resource revenues that impinges on investment and saving. Taxes on new investment in Alberta’s non-resource sectors are no better than average, compared to other countries in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, or OECD, so it is not exceptionally attractive to many different kinds of investors. And Alberta’s corporate income tax rate is not much more competitive than the world average for manufacturing and service companies. By introducing the Harmonized Sales Tax with a provincial rate of 8 per cent (in addition to the federal 5 per cent rate, Alberta has the ability to make its tax system more competitive. An HST would even allow the province to entirely eliminate income tax for the majority of families. And because the HST would be easily administered using the same collection mechanisms that already exist for the GST, implementing a new Alberta HST could be done relatively smoothly and with minimal additional administration costs. Adopting an Alberta HST is the simplest, most efficient and fairest way to reform the provincial tax system, and will deliver noticeable benefits to Albertans, most visibly in the form of significant income tax relief. It would enable the province to raise the income-tax exemption from $17,593 to $57,250, making it possible for couples to earn up to $114,500 free of any provincial income taxes. In addition, the province could lower income tax rates for income over that amount from 10 to nine per cent. And with the revenue from the HST, Alberta would have the capacity to lower its general corporate

  16. European Union definitely introduces common taxes on energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenweisner, R.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper taxes of the European Union on energy are reviewed. European Union Ministers of environment Council definitely ratified new common system of minimal energy taxes in last week. Council introduces par excellence minimal all-European size of an electricity, coal and natural gas consumption tax. New directive according to European Commission will improve operation of internal market and eliminate deformation of competitive environment among individual members as well as among mineral oils and the other energy sources. Slovak Republic taxes all motor fuel types by higher charge as is minimal level demanded by EU according to new directive after rising of consumable tax from mineral oils in August 2003. According to Minister of Finances Slovak Republic demanded European Union for a temporary 10-year period for utilizing electricity, coal, coke, and natural gas consumption tax. According to Ministry, Utilizing new taxes and rising of tax load is not in interest of started tax reform in Slovak Republic

  17. 26 CFR 26.6107-1 - Tax return preparer must furnish copy of return to taxpayer and must retain a copy or record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1986 § 26.6107-1 Tax return preparer must furnish copy of... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax return preparer must furnish copy of return...

  18. MACROECONMIC TENDENCIES OF ENVIRONMENTAL TAXES IN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristea Anca

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Reforms of environmental taxes in EU member states began to consolidate a strategic conceptual basis since the early '90s, when it was launched the idea of changing the tax burden from the tax factor of production, work to the environmental factors and use of environmental unfriendly activities and goods. The theoretical support of this view is represented by the corrective taxes Pigou situation justifying the optimal level of activity of producing goods and services from a social perspective, the collection of taxes imposed by the state of polluters, depending on the amount of damage and damage to third parties, the principle of 'polluter pays'. Despite the green fees start reforms of the EU member countries and their levels are not increased in recent years as a share of GDP. In the EU-27, 2008, revenues from environmental taxes represented a rate of about 2.8% of GDP and 6.1% of total revenues compared to 2.9% and 7.0% record share of GDP in 1999. Effects of environmental taxes on eco-efficiency must be seen not only in terms of their size or budget as income tax to GDP ratio, but also as a positive economic and social impact generated by larger beneficial effects of reducing pollution and preserving the quality natural resources and environmental factors.

  19. WAYS TO DEVELOP TAX SYSTEMS IN AGRICULTURAL FORMS OF ECONOMIC MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Yu. Pelevin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Following article devoted to consideration of possible ways to develop tax system in agricultural forms of economic management. Principles of tax reforming for agricultural sector are presented, in addition initial analysis has been done for single agricultural and land tax. The article represents verification of essential support of generality principles for taxation of agrarian firms. Methodology of calculation of tax basis for single agricultural tax has been offered.

  20. How does petty corruption affect tax morale in Sub-Saharan Africa? An empirical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jahnke, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa economies introduced extensive reforms of their tax systems in the last two decades. In most of these countries taxes are now remitted through the self-assessment system that relies on quasi voluntary compliance and audit selection by risk. However, the revenues from direct taxes remained fairly stable and tax/GDP ratios lack behind the industrialized world. Several scholars argue that corruption is one of the major obstacles to increase tax revenues but focus on perceived ...

  1. Taxing energy to improve the environment. Efficiency and distributional effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijdra, B.J.; Van der Horst, A.

    1998-02-01

    The effects of environmental tax policy in a dynamic overlapping-generations model of a small open economy with environmental quality incorporated as a durable consumption good have been studied. Raising the energy tax may deliver an efficiency gain if agents care enough about the environment. The benefits are unevenly distributed across generations since capital ownership, and the capital loss induced by a tax increase, rises with age. A suitable egalitarian bond policy can be employed in order to ensure everybody gains to the same extent. With this additional instrument the optimal energy tax can be computed. The authors further considered a tax reform that simultaneously lowers labour taxation and raises the energy tax. This policy delivers qualitatively similar consequences as the first scenario, though all changes are less pronounced. A double dividend may appear soon after the reform but vanishes in the course of the transition. 22 refs

  2. Taxes: Who Should Pay and Why? 1985 National Issues Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumtra, Jeff; Melville, Keith

    Appropriate for secondary school social studies or community programs, this publication considers the issue of taxation in America. The first of five sections, "Taxing Matters," considers the growing perception that the present tax code is unfair and in need of drastic reform. Alternative solutions to the problem are considered. "The Loophole…

  3. Can capital income taxes survive? And should they?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    2007-01-01

    The article surveys some main results in the theory of capital income taxation in the open economy; reviews recent trends in international taxation and discusses alternative blueprints for fundamental capital income tax reform from the perspective of an open economy faced with growing mobility...... of capital income tax bases...

  4. Welfare Effects of Tax and Price Changes Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Knud Jørgen

    Dixit's 1975 paper "Welfare Effects of Tax and Price Changes" constitutes a seminal contribution to the theory of tax reform analysis within a second-best general equilibrium framework. The present paper clarifies ambiguities with respect to normalisation which have led to misinterpretation of so...... and leisure. This functional form is used to provide a quantitative illustration of the trade-off which defines the optimal tax system and thus desirable directions of tax reform.......Dixit's 1975 paper "Welfare Effects of Tax and Price Changes" constitutes a seminal contribution to the theory of tax reform analysis within a second-best general equilibrium framework. The present paper clarifies ambiguities with respect to normalisation which have led to misinterpretation of some...... of Dixit's analytical results. It proves that a marginal tax reform starting from a proportional tax system will improve social welfare if it increases the supply of labour, whatever the rule of normalisation adopted, and shows that this result provides the key to understanding what determines the optimal...

  5. The replacement of payroll tax by a tax on revenues: A study of sectorial impacts on the Brazilian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilton Bernardino da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A topic of current research in discussion about the Brazilian economy is the exemption from payroll taxes, which aims to stimulate competitiveness of the firms, boosting economic growth. This topic was introduced in Brazil by new laws that proposed replacing the payroll tax with a new tax on revenues. The payroll tax rate of 20% was replaced by a tax rate of 1% or 2% on revenue. This change has been applied primarily in labor-intensive economic sectors. In this paper, a neoclassical model was used to evaluate some sectoral impacts of these tax changes. The results show positive effects of this reform, among them, the increase in aggregate consumption and capital stock. Employment also grows in the labor-intensive sector. However, under a government revenue neutral scenario, these effects are almost completely lost, which shows some evidence about the low efficiency of these reforms.

  6. Tax Incentives and Business Investment: New Evidence from Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez Verdugo, Arturo

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides new evidence on the response of business investment to tax incentives. I use the variation provided by recent reforms to the Mexican corporate tax system, including the elimination and reintroduction of accelerated depreciation allowances applicable to investment undertaken outside the three main Mexican metropolitan areas. I show that investment is very sensitive to changes in tax variables and interest rates, with an estimated elasticity of investment with respect to the...

  7. Problems and Recommendations over Tax Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin ONER

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tax policy is a tool that state uses on economic, social and financial fields. Funding public expenditure is its financial goal, providing economic stability and development is its economic goal and contributing to fair distribution of income and wealth is its social goal. In result of high debt load, rupture between taxes and economic goals, being not established a document and registration order and lacking in management of administration and control functions, significantly increasing tax loss and evasion and factors such as unfair competition that it leads to show that our tax system is ineffective and have a negative influence in economic life. In order to succeed in tax policies, “taxes should be minimalistic, should consider the ability to pay with respect to income level, should prevent the luxurious consumption and waste, should decrease tax evasion and loss, should tax informal economy, should encourage export, employment and development, should be reformed in a permanent way and implementing tax consciousness into whole society” is inevitable.

  8. Health reform redux: learning from experience and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Johnathon S

    2009-05-01

    The 2008 presidential campaign season featured health care reform proposals. I discuss 3 approaches to health care reform and the tools for bringing about reform, such as insurance market reforms, tax credits, subsidies, individual and employer mandates, and public program expansions. I also discuss the politics of past and current health care reform efforts. Market-based reforms and mandates have been less successful than public program expansions at expanding coverage and controlling costs. New divisions among special interest groups increase the likelihood that reform efforts will succeed. Federal support for state efforts may be necessary to achieve national health care reform. History suggests that state-level success precedes national reform. History also suggests that an organized social movement for reform is necessary to overcome opposition from special interest groups.

  9. The Economic Discourse of the Current Reform Aimed at Business Optimization in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purdenko Olena A.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the strengths and weaknesses of the current reforms and provide appropriate recommendations and proposals to improve the regulatory and economic business environment. The article analyzes the introduced reforms in the aspect of the regulatory field and the active current system of taxation with the detailing of the type and content of the basic implemented measures. There have been justified the advantages and disadvantages of the introduced system of taxation with respect to the main budget forming taxes, such as the enterprise income taxes, value added tax, individual income tax considering changes in the administering of unified social tax (UST and war tax, excise duty. On the basis of the results of the study it has been found that the introduced reforms only partially improved the tax administration system and in no way reduced the announced tax burden, the time spending of business for preparing the current report was not significantly reduced.

  10. Global progress and backsliding on gasoline taxes and subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael L.; Hazlett, Chad; Mahdavi, Paasha

    2017-01-01

    To reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the coming decades, many governments will have to reform their energy policies. These policies are difficult to measure with any precision. As a result, it is unclear whether progress has been made towards important energy policy reforms, such as reducing fossil fuel subsidies. We use new data to measure net taxes and subsidies for gasoline in almost all countries at the monthly level and find evidence of both progress and backsliding. From 2003 to 2015, gasoline taxes rose in 83 states but fell in 46 states. During the same period, the global mean gasoline tax fell by 13.3% due to faster consumption growth in countries with lower taxes. Our results suggest that global progress towards fossil fuel price reform has been mixed, and that many governments are failing to exploit one of the most cost-effective policy tools for limiting greenhouse gas emissions.

  11. An applied analysis of ACE and CBIT reforms in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. de Mooij (Ruud); M.P. Devereux (Michael )

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWe assess the quantitative impact of two reforms to corporation tax, which would eliminate the differential treatment of debt and equity: the allowance for corporate equity (ACE) and the comprehensive business income tax (CBIT). We explore the impact of these reforms on various decision

  12. The determinants of opting for the German group taxation regime with regard to taxes on corporate profits

    OpenAIRE

    Oestreicher, Andreas; Koch, Reinald

    2009-01-01

    Forming a tax group for corporate and trade tax purposes in Germany has its advantages in terms of tax savings for the companies concerned. Depending on the profit situation, for certain companies these benefits were extended by the 2001 German corporate tax reform. However, setting up a tax group in Germany is also accompanied by certain disadvantages for the consolidated companies, resulting especially from the assumption of increased liability for subsidiaries’ losses. The objective of thi...

  13. Europe's experience with carbon-energy taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2010-01-01

    The COMETR project is a comprehensive attempt to account ex-post for the implications of carbon-energy taxation, taking into account differences in sectoral tax burdens and within a suitable macro-economic framework capable of providing an overall assessment, the E3ME model of Cambridge...... Econometrics. The results indicate reductions in greenhouse gas emissions for six member states as a result of carbon-energy taxation under revenue-neutral environmental tax reform (ETR). These effects are mirrored by reductions in total fuel consumption, with the largest reductions occurring in countries...... with the highest tax rates. Accordingly, the European environmental tax reforms had by 2004 caused reductions in greenhouse gas emissions of 3.1% on average for the six member countries examined, with the largest fall recorded for Finland (5.9%). E3ME-results also suggest that ETR-countries did not experience...

  14. Are we taxing ourselves?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    2011-01-01

    We let consumers vote on tax regimes in experimental markets. We test if taxes on sellers are more popular than taxes on consumers, i.e. on voters themselves, even if taxes on sellers are inefficiently high. Taxes on sellers are more popular if voters underestimate the extent of tax......-shifting in the market. We show that inexperienced voters are prone to such a tax-shifting bias, that experience is an effective de-biasing mechanism, but that pre-vote deliberation about tax regimes makes initially held opinions more extreme rather than correct. Our results suggest that voting on taxes is prone to bias...

  15. Tax Incentives in Kosovo Tax System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedri Peci

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze and find out the major issue of tax incentives in Kosovo tax law. In this analysis we have used the research method of case study. The results of research show that Balkan countries in their tax systems have applied various mitigating measures that in tax theory are known as tax incentives. Taking into account that Kosovo regarding the application of tax incentives of CIT, compared with other countries is the last, designers by using the experiences of other countries should apply more tax incentives in order that tax policy to be more in function economic development. The study is of particular relevance to scholars, tax practitioners, expatriates who work and invest in Kosovo, etc.

  16. The Distributional Impact of Tobacco Tax Increases in Ukraine on Tobacco Use and Spending: Estimates from Survey Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelle P Dauchy

    2017-05-01

    We show that tobacco tax policy reforms in Ukraine since 2007 had mixed impacts on prevalence and health outcomes depending on income and age groups, while the impact on tax revenue were lower than predicted. We further discuss the most recent reforms and provide recommendations for future changes in tobacco excise taxation and design.

  17. Measuring Tax Efficiency: A Tax Optimality Index

    OpenAIRE

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces an index of tax optimality that measures the distance of some current tax structure from the optimal tax structure in the presence of public goods. In doing so, we derive a [0, 1] number that reveals immediately how far the current tax configuration is from the optimal one and, thereby, the degree of efficiency of a tax system. We call this number the Tax Optimality Index. We show how the basic method can be altered in order to derive a revenue equivale...

  18. Tax Incentives in Kosovo Tax System

    OpenAIRE

    Bedri Peci

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to analyze and find out the major issue of tax incentives in Kosovo tax law. In this analysis we have used the research method of case study. The results of research show that Balkan countries in their tax systems have applied various mitigating measures that in tax theory are known as tax incentives. Taking into account that Kosovo regarding the application of tax incentives of CIT, compared with other countries is the last, designers by using the expe...

  19. Simulating the impact of inflation on the progressivity of personal income tax in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Levy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Income tax reform in Brazil has mainly stressed changes in rates, aiming at increasing its progressivity. One aspect frequently overlooked is that, in the absence of adjustments of the tax rules to inflation, the level and distribution of the income tax burden can be substantially affected. We use a microsimulation model to simulate the potential revenue and distributive effects of inflation on the income tax in Brazil. Our findings suggest that if the income tax is not adjusted for inflation, progressivity would decrease but redistribution would increase due to a larger tax burden, but income inequality would not substantially change.

  20. Mexico: An Evaluation of the Main Features of the Tax System

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Martinez-Vazquez

    2001-01-01

    Mexico's tax system is a paradox. The tax policy and tax administration reforms of the late 1980s and early 1990s delivered a tax structure that is in many ways comparable, if not superior, to that in many OECD countries. However, Mexico's tax system continues to perform in some fundamental ways, in particular in its ability to raise adequate revenues, worse than the tax system of many developing countries. The basic objective of this evaluation is to try to explain this paradox. In doing tha...

  1. BEPS Action Plan: Global Tax Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Shelepov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the dynamics of economic and financial globalization, national tax authorities often do not have adequate tools to effectively combat tax avoidance practices that exploit gaps in the existing tax rules. To address the global problem of tax base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD and the Group of 20 (G20 have consolidated their efforts on an equal footing. Their joint BEPS Action Plan allowed to involve more than 100 countries, both developing and advanced, in designing and implementing rules aimed at aligning the generation of profits and their taxation and increasing the predictability, transparency and flexibility of the international tax environment for business. This article examines the history of the BEPS project, emphasizing the mode of OECD-G20 engagement in global tax governance, describes the key recommendations made by international institutions to tackle BEPS and forecasts further developments in the area. The author pays special attention to the mechanisms designed to stimulate participation by non-OECD and non-G20 members in the BEPS project and the stance of business on the proposed reforms. He concludes that the work on BEPS is far from finished. Different interpretations of standards, risks of strengthening tax competition between countries and potentially excessive tax burdens on businesses should be addressed. In this regard, OECD and G20 should strengthen their efforts to ensure the participation of developing countries and the private sector, which would stimulate other reforms in international taxation to support global growth and development.

  2. 2017 Tax Competitiveness Report: The Calm Before the Storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Bazel

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Canada stands to lose a major competitive edge unless it responds to the challenges of the 2018 U.S. tax reforms by instituting reforms of its own. At 20.9 per cent, Canada’s tax burden on new investment (measured by the marginal effective tax rate or METR, is competitive when compared to countries in the Americas and Asia-Oceania, and it’s the second lowest among the G7 countries. However, the rules of the game are about to change with U.S. tax reform. Among the reforms the U.S. is bringing in are a drop in the federal corporate income tax rate from 35 per cent to 21 per cent, a ten-year window for full and partial expensing machinery and equipment, and other various rules that will incent companies to push profits into the U.S. and interest and other expenses into foreign jurisdictions. The result of this and other reforms will be a sharp drop in the U.S. METR by almost half – from 34. 6 per cent to 18.8 per cent. This means Canada will have a higher tax burden on capital than the U.S. Put simply, Canada and other countries will face a drop in revenue while the U.S. gains revenue. Alarm bells should be ringing among public policy-makers in Canada and elsewhere, since research shows that taxes are a significant factor in multinationals’ decisions on where to invest globally and how to finance it. The dramatic U.S. reforms will put Canada at a distinct disadvantage, dragged down further by its small market size, energy levies and regulatory burden. This paper examines the corporate tax-rate situation in 92 countries, with many either having reduced their rates recently or are planning to in the next few years. In Canada, the only movement has been in several provinces, entailing a small increase in British Columbia and small decreases in Saskatchewan and Quebec. And while the average METR among OECD countries has dropped in the past few years, Canada’s in 2017 was approximately the same as it was in 2010, climbing upward from a nadir

  3. From taxes to permits? The Norwegian climate policy debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretteville, Camilla; Soefting, Guri Bang

    2000-09-01

    Taxation as an instrument for environmental policy (green taxes) has been a topic of heated debate in Norway for almost 30 years. The subject of environmental taxes has time after time inflamed both policy makers and scholars alike. The suitability of green taxes as a policy instrument was first discussed in the 1970s. The 1980s introduced the idea that income from green taxes would make reductions in other taxes possible: a green tax reform. In the 1990s, the tax discussion boiled down to whether or not all polluters should face the same carbon tax. Lately, however, the discussion around the Kyoto Protocol has led to increased interest around the alternative of introducing a system of tradable emission quotas. Environmental taxation might thus be a declining policy instrument in Norway. This is contrary to recent developments in several other European countries such as the United Kingdom, Germany, and the Netherlands. This paper explores why the idea of a green tax reform never got off the ground in Norway by providing an overview of Norwegian environmental policy in the period from 1972 to early 2000. (author)

  4. Collecting Taxes Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Collecting Taxes Database contains performance and structural indicators about national tax systems. The database contains quantitative revenue performance...

  5. From tax evasion to tax planning

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgain, Arnaud; Pieretti, Patrice; Zanaj, Skerdilajda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze within a simple model how a re- moval of bank secrecy can impact tax revenues and banks' profitability assuming that offshore centers are able to offer sophisticated but legal or not easily detectable tax planning. Two alternative regimes are considered. A first in which there is strict bank secrecy and a second where there is international information exchange for tax purposes. We show in particular that sharing tax information with onshore coun- tries can...

  6. 26 CFR 1.902-1 - Credit for domestic corporate shareholder of a foreign corporation for foreign income taxes paid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of the Tax Reform Act of 1986. See §§ 1.902-3, 1.902-4 and 1.964-1. (iii) Foreign income taxes... of the Tax Reform Act of 1986. See paragraphs (a) (10) and (13) of this section and §§ 1.902-3 and 1... connection with the purchase or sale of certain oil and gas. Certain income, war profits, or excess profits...

  7. Modern aspects of tax regulation of investment activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Podakov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the tax regulation of investment activity in modern conditions. Scientists studied different views about the impact of tax regulations on the investment activity in the country. The author determines that the tax regulation of investment activity involves the use of state mechanisms taxation of certain measures to improve investment conditions. The subject is the state tax regulations, and the object is the investment activity of individual and institutional investors of any form of ownership including organizational and legal forms. Such regulation is performed by using complex special tools. The possible methods of tax stimulation of investment processes are described. The article deals with the current results of tax reform in Ukraine and predicts its possible consequences for agricultural producers. The rating positions of Ukraine according to international organizations are showed. The systematic analysis has been carried out and the impact of differential tax rates, tax exemption for a specified period, reducing the tax base, elimination of double taxation on investment activity in certain areas have been researched. The special instruments of investment activity tax regulation are considered. The options for improving investment activity by introducing effective tax regulation are determined.

  8. Energy taxes in the Netherlands. What are the dividends?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komen, M.H.C.; Peerlings, J.H.M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the environmental and economic effects of the introduction of a unilateral energy tax in the Netherlands are analysed using an applied general equilibrium (AGE) model. The effects of a small user energy tax and a general energy tax are compared, while taking into account different tax recycling mechanisms. The model contains a great level of detail with respect to emissions and environmental indicators (greenhouse effect, acidification, eutrophication and waste), which is helpful for assessing environmental quality. The results show that the introduction of a small environmental tax reform not only improves the environment but also raises non-environmental welfare, which is due to an improvement of the efficiency of the tax structure. 24 refs

  9. Parliamentary Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Norton, Philip

    2016-01-01

    The key concept of any study of the role of Parliament focuses on the extent to which it is able to influence and constrain the Executive. Reforming Parliament should seek to strengthen its capacity to do so. A clear distinction ought to be drawn between external and internal reforms of the Parliamentary system. While the former strive to achieve the desired goal through changes in the constitutional framework – e.g. the reform of the House of Lords – the latter aim to improve the working of ...

  10. Dynamic Tax Depreciation Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    The tax depreciation decision potentially has significant impact on the prof- itability of firms and projects. Indeed, the depreciation method chosen for tax purposes affects the timing of tax payments, and, as a consequence, it also affects the after-tax net present value of investment projects.

  11. Dynamic tax depreciation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    The tax depreciation decision potentially has significant impact on the profitability of firms and projects. Indeed, the depreciation method chosen for tax purposes affects the timing of tax payments, and, as a consequence, it also affects the after-tax net present value of investment projects.

  12. Refundable Tax Credits

    OpenAIRE

    Congressional Budget Office

    2013-01-01

    In 1975, the first refundable tax credit—the earned income tax credit (EITC)—took effect. Since then, the number and cost of refundable tax credits—credits that can result in net payments from the government—have grown considerably. Those credits will cost $149 billion in 2013, CBO estimates, mostly for the EITC and the child tax credit.

  13. European tax law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terra, B.J.M.; Wattel, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    This book is intended as a reference book for tax law and EC law pratitioners, tax administrators, academics, the judiciary and tax or Community law policy makers. For students, an abridged student edition textbook is available. The book offers a systematic survey of the tax implications of the EC

  14. Tax Overpayments, Tax Evasion, and Book-Tax Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Laszlo Goerke

    2008-01-01

    A strictly risk-averse manager makes joint decisions on a firm's tax payments and book profit declarations according to accounting standards. It is analysed how the incentives to overpay or evade taxes and to inflate book profits are influenced by (1) the composition of the manager's remuneration, (2) the ability to control the manager's actions, (3) the costs of making untruthful profit declarations, and (4) the tax rate. If the firm's owner or the government takes into account these effects...

  15. Arizona Education Tax Credit and Hidden Considerations of Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele S. Moses

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The current debate over market-based ideas for educational reform is examined, focusing specifically on the recent movement toward education tax credits. Viewing the Arizona education tax credit law as a voucher plan in sheep's clothing, I argue that the concept of justice underlying the law is a crucial issue largely missing from the school choice debate. I question the libertarian conception of justice assumed by voucher and tax credit advocates, and argue instead that a contemporary liberal democratic conception of justice ought to undergird attempts at school reform. A call for educators and policymakers to concentrate energies on efforts to help needy students rather than on efforts to channel tax dollars toward self- interested ends concludes the article.

  16. Administrative Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Through the example of a Danish reform of educational plans in early childhood education, the paper critically addresses administrative educational reforms promoting accountability, visibility and documentation. Drawing on Foucaultian perspectives, the relation between knowledge and governing...... of administrative technology, tracing how the humanistic values of education embed and are embedded within ‘the professional nursery teacher' as an object and subject of administrative practice. Rather than undermining the humanistic potential of education, it is argued that the technology of accounting...

  17. Reform and Backlash to Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.; Hagen Jørgensen, Ole

    Using a stochastic general equilibrium model with overlapping generations, this paper studies (i) the effects on both extensive and intensive labor supply responses to changes in fertility rates, and (ii) the potential of a retirement reform to mitigate the effects of fertility changes on labor...... supply. In order to neutralize the effects on effective labor supply of a fertility decline, a retirement reform, designed to increase labor supply at the extensive margin, is found to simultaneously reduce labor supply at the intensive margin. This backlash to retirement reform requires the statutory...

  18. The two-child limit for Universal Credit and Child Tax Credit

    OpenAIRE

    MACHIN, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Richard Machin explores the background to, and likely impact of, the two-child limit on the child element in Universal Credit and the Child Tax Credit, which was introduced by the Welfare Reform and Work Act 2016

  19. Tax penalties in SME tax compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Swistak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Small business tax compliance requires special attention. On the one hand small businesses are often incapable of rigorously fulfilling their tax obligations, more vulnerable to external risks and tempted to exploit opportunities to be non-compliant. On the other hand, unlike larger businesses, they are usually sole proprietors or owner-operated businesses, hence highly responsive to personal, social, cognitive and emotional factors. These attributes pave the way to a better use of measures designed to influence their behavior and choices. This paper discusses the role and effectiveness of tax penalties in enhancing tax compliance in small businesses. It argues that tax penalties, although indispensable for tax enforcement, may not be a first-choice tool in ensuring tax compliance. Too punitive a tax regime is an important barrier to business formalization and increasing severity of tax penalties does not produce the intended results. To be effective, tax penalties should deter and motivate taxpayers rather than exert repressive measures against them.

  20. Welfare Effects of Tax and Price Changes and the CES-UT Utility Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Knud Jørgen

    Dixit's 1975 paper "Welfare Effects of Tax and Price Changes" constitutes a seminal contribution to the theory of tax reform within a second-best general equilibrium framework. The present paper clarifies ambiguities with respect to normalisation which has led to misinterpretation of some of Dixit......'s analytical results. It proves that a marginal tax reform starting from a proportional tax system will improve social welfare if it increases the supply of labour, whatever the rule of normalisation adopted. In models which impose additive separability between consumption and leisure in household preferences...... elasticities can be derived from the parameters of the CES-UT and how it may be used for applied tax reform analysis...

  1. Taxpayers’ Competency Level in Governing Goods Services Tax (GST) Compliance: Malaysia Scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Hambali Siti Syaqilah; Kamaluddin Amrizah

    2017-01-01

    GST implementation in Malaysia in April 2015 is part of the tax reformation with the goal of having a more efficient and effective taxation system. A successful tax reformation requires a high acceptance from taxpayers. In order to aid in the acceptance of GST implementation, taxpayers need to have a good competency level reflected through proper knowledge and awareness of the GST system, also known as GST literacy. Thus, the main objective of this study is to assess the level of GST literacy...

  2. British tax credit simplification, the intra-household distribution of income and family consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The UK Government enacted simplification of its tax credit system in 2003. An inter- esting consequence of the reform is that tax credit payments were split between partners in couples, causing a rare wallet to purse transfer. This paper presents evidence on the effects of the reform on family spending, using quasi-likelihood techniques, for a sample of low income couples with children. In areas of child goods, evidence of important spending increases are found, whereas spending decreases are...

  3. Transfer pricing as tax avoidance under different legislative schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Holzmann, Carolin Maria

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates transfer pricing as tax avoidance before and after reforms of anti-avoidance legislation. The reforms introduced and tightened obligatory documentation requirements for transfer prices to enforce that multinational enterprises (MNEs) set internal transfer prices at an arm’s-length. Linking data from the Microdatabase Statistics on International Trade in Services that comprehends prices of MNEs’ international service transactions to the Microdatabase Direct Investment, ...

  4. The Danish Pesticide Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Branth; Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2015-01-01

    This case study analyses the effects of the Danish pesticide tax (1996-2013) on agriculture which was introduced as an ad valorem tax in 1996, doubled in 1998, and redesigned in 2013 as a tax based on the toxicity of the pesticides. The Danish pesticide taxes probably represent the world’s highest...... pesticide taxes on agriculture, which makes it interesting to analyze how effective they have been. Here the effects of the ad valorem tax (1996-2013) are analyzed. The case study demonstrates the challenges of choosing an optimal tax design in a complex political setting where, additionally, not all...... individuals in the target group necessarily react to the economic incentives as predicted by economic modeling. It also demonstrates that a small first green-tax-step over time might develop into a better tax design....

  5. Integrating ICT Skills and Tax Software in Tax Education: A Survey of Malaysian Tax Practitioners' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Lai Ming; Nawawi, Nurul Hidayah Ahamad

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the ICT skills needed by a fresh accounting graduate when first joining a tax firm; to find out usage of electronic tax (e-tax) applications in tax practice; to assess the rating of senior tax practitioners on fresh graduates' ICT and e-tax applications skills; and to solicit tax practitioners' opinion regarding…

  6. Tax Morality and Progressive Wage Tax

    OpenAIRE

    Andras Simonovits

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the impact of tax morality on progressive income (wage) taxation. We assume that transfers (cash-back) and public expenditures are financed from linear wage taxes. We derive the reported wages from individual utility maximization, when individuals obtain partial satisfaction from reporting wages (depending on their tax morality), and cannot be excluded from the use of public services. The government maximizes a utilitarian social welfare function, also taking into account the utili...

  7. Ways of radical change of the image of tax and customs officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arutiunian V. L.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available the article discusses the problem concerning some changes in image of tax and customs officers. Tax and customs system is a multifunctional structure, therefore, in order to ensure unified application of the legislation, professional training of staff should be organized by means of guidelines, workshop discussions, qualification trainings and other instruments, which should be attended by the employees of territorial and regional tax and customs authorities. Along with implementation of legislative reforms and application of advanced technologies for increase of confidence in tax system and expansion of capabilities, the role of a professional tax officer is of high importance.

  8. Tax and green transport plans: a survey of UK experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, S.; Smith, M.; Rye, T.

    1999-01-01

    The widespread adoption of Green Transport Plans (GTPs) by employer has become an important aim of the UK government transport policy as it tries to find ways of reducing transport demand. However, the tax treatment of employee benefits that form part of many GTPs has been identified by the government and others as a potential barrier to their adoption. Based on telephone interviews with employers and meetings with tax and transport experts, this paper confirms this perception. It also explains precisely how tax forms a barrier to GTP implementation, reviews the approaches taken to this problem in three other countries and makes outline proposals for reform and further research. (Author)

  9. Does More Progressive Tax Make Tax Discipline Weaker?

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Damjanovic

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between the disparity in tax base and tax collection. I address the tax collection problem with traditional industrial organization approach. Thus, I model the "tax minimization" industry where the supplier helps taxpayers to avoid their tax liability. I find that lower income inequality as well as a less progressive tax code may result in a smaller number of tax payers committing to their tax duties. Finally, I question the reduction in the highest ta...

  10. Administrative Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Through the example of a Danish reform of educational plans in early childhood education, the paper critically addresses administrative educational reforms promoting accountability, visibility and documentation. Drawing on Foucaultian perspectives, the relation between knowledge and governing......, implied in the reform, is analysed as a technology of accounting. A technology producing ‘the professional nursery teacher' as a reflective daily researcher, who outlives her pedagogical desire as an analytical care of the optimisation of ‘the learning child'. Thus, the paper analyses the micro physics...... of administrative technology, tracing how the humanistic values of education embed and are embedded within ‘the professional nursery teacher' as an object and subject of administrative practice. Rather than undermining the humanistic potential of education, it is argued that the technology of accounting...

  11. Education Tax Credits: Refundability Critical to Making Credits Helpful to Low-Income Students and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Katherine; Lower-Basch, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Half of all non-loan federal student aid is now offered as tax benefits for educational costs in the form of credits, deductions, and college savings accounts. These benefits help students and families offset the costs of their postsecondary education with tax savings. Yet, as explained in the 2013 report, "Reforming Student Aid: How to…

  12. Design optimization of real estate tax and effect analysis in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjiuan Guo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this research is to reform the current real estate tax system and establish the real estate tax system suitable for China’s national conditions.Design/methodology: Based on the necessity of the real estate tax reform, the paper studies the system optimization and its effects analysis of the real estate tax. At last, the paper uses the system dynamics to demonstrate the feasibility of the real estate tax from an empirical point.Findings: With the system dynamics, we can establish the causal relationship of the influence factors and forecast the impact on the future real estate prices. It can also provide some suggestions for China’s real estate tax reform.Research limitations/implications: The establishment of the model might not be very mature, so we need the further study and improvement.Originality/value: This study was the first to use system dynamics to analyze the impact of real estate taxes on real estate prices, and we hope to provide some suggestions for China’s real estate tax reform.

  13. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON INDIRECT TAXES AT EU LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARALAMBIE GEORGE ALIN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic downturn, affecting lately the states all over the world, imposed their governments to take measures in fiscal and budget plan in order to reduce the budget deficit, by reducing spending and increasing the revenue mobilized to the budget, especially tax revenues, by increasing the tax burden both for the individuals and legal entities. Reforming the tax system at European level involved widening the tax base both for the income earned by individual taxpayers and those made by companies to the detriment of effective tax rates increase. The share in GDP of mandatory levies is uneven across the EU. In the year 2012, it range from 30% in Lithuania with 50% to Denmark. Fiscal consolidation in the member states aimed reforms in the field of indirect taxation (by increasing VAT- 1% for the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Italy, Poland and Finland to 7% in Hungary with 5%, Romania, 4%, excise duties and environmental taxes and a downward trend in the rate of taxation in the case of direct taxes through progressive taxation of personal income, which led to increased revenue due compulsory levies in most countries of the European Union. 13 EU countries have acted to increase the VAT rate between 2010-2014.

  14. Slab reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurrier, Francis R. (Inventor); DeZubay, Egon A. (Inventor); Murray, Alexander P. (Inventor); Vidt, Edward J. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot combustion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

  15. Slab reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurrier, Francis R.; DeZubay, Egon A.; Murray, Alexander P.; Vidt, Edward J.

    1984-02-07

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot comubstion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

  16. Telecom Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and information infrastructure issues - for people in government, academia, industry and the consulting community. This book addresses the process of policy and regulatory reform in telecom that is now in its formative stage. It draws on detailed knowledge of industry development and regulatory experience......, as well as expertise in the new technologies, industries, economics, policy development, and law to present and critique the principles, policies and regulatory practices associated with telecom reform. Twenty six international experts address thirty two topics that are essential to successful telecom...

  17. Determinants of Attitude toward Proposed Good and Services Tax among Business Communities in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Bidin, Zainol; Marimuthu, Munusamy; Derashid, Chek; Idris, Kamil Md; Ahmad, Norsiah

    2016-01-01

    Goods and Services Tax (GST) is an indirect tax reform. The decision to implement GST was made on 1 April 2015. The Malaysian business communities are concerned that Goods and Service Tax (GST) would affect their business. In order to comply with the new system, GST, Malaysian citizen need to have a positive attitude toward the GST. The rational is that taxpayers need to be positive in attitude for voluntarily compliance. By determining what factors could possibly influence attitude towards ...

  18. NM Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  19. Environmental taxes in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report briefly presents and comments the amount of environmental taxes which have been collected in France in 2008. These taxes comprise energy taxes (nearly 68 per cent), transport taxes (nearly 28 per cent) and pollution and resource taxes (less than 5 per cent), and represent 2 per cent of the French GDP and 5 per cent of mandatory contributions. The share of environmental taxes is compared among the European Union countries. This shows that France is close to the average. It also appears that these taxes evolve slower than the GDP. An indicator is built up and commented: it relates the rate between energy taxes and the GDP on the one hand, and energy consumption on the other hand. This indicator displays a slow but significant decrease since the end of the last century

  20. Tax Policy and Income Inequality in the Visegrad Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moździerz Anna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The financialisation of economies is believed to be the primary cause of the increase in income inequality in the world, occurring on a scale unseen for more than 30 years. One can hypothesise that it is the state that is responsible for the widening inequality, as the state has not sufficiently used the redistributive function of taxation. The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of tax policy on income inequality in Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. These so-called Visegrad countries have, in the last several years, carried out some controversial experiments with tax policy, specifically in terms of the flattening of tax progressivity or its replacement with a flat tax, which led to the weakening of the income adjustment mechanism. The imbalance between income tax and consumption tax has contributed to perpetuating income inequality. The verification of tax systems carried out during the recent financial crisis has forced the countries included in this research to implement tax reforms. The introduced changes caused various fiscal and redistributive effects. Analyses show that the changes in income taxation and an increase in the consumption tax rate had the most negative impact on the income and asset situation in Hungary.

  1. Welfare reform in European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immervoll, Herwig; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    2007-01-01

    This article compares the effects of increasing traditional welfare to introducing in-work benefits in the 15 (pre-enlargement) countries of the European Union. We use a labour supply model encompassing responses to taxes and transfers along both the intensive and extensive margins, and the EUROMOD...... microsimulation model to estimate current marginal and participation tax rates. We quantify the equity-efficiency trade-off for a range of elasticity parameters. In most countries, because of large existing welfare programmes with high phase-out rates, increasing traditional welfare is undesirable unless...... the redistributive tastes of the government are extreme. In contrast, the in-work benefit reform is desirable in a very wide set of cases...

  2. UK Tax Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deakin, John F.

    1998-07-01

    The presentation deals with the North Sea fiscal regime, a modern system for corporation tax payments, transfer pricing, general anti-avoidance rule for direct taxes, treaty refunds, deductibility of interest for corporation tax, UK/US double taxation convention, and plain and simple tax legislation. Part of the background for the presentation was the fact that in England a new Labour Government had replaced the Conservatives and the new Chancellor had announced a review of the North Sea fiscal regime.

  3. Tax Evasion and Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstadsæter, Annette; Johannesen, Niels; Zucman, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    markedly, highlighting the need to move beyond tax data to capture income and wealth at the top, even in countries where tax compliance is generally high. We also find that after reducing tax evasion—by using tax amnesties—tax evaders do not legally avoid taxes more. This result suggests that fighting tax......This paper attempts to estimate the size and distribution of tax evasion in rich countries. We combine random audits—the key source used to study tax evasion so far—with new micro-data leaked from large offshore financial institutions—HSBC Switzerland (“Swiss leaks”) and Mossack Fonseca (“Panama.......01% of the wealth distribution, a group that includes households with more than $45 million in net wealth. A simple model of the supply of tax evasion services can explain why evasion rises steeply with wealth. Taking tax evasion into account increases the rise in inequality seen in tax data since the 1970s...

  4. Small Business Tax Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, Fatih; Coolidge, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Simplified tax regimes for micro and small enterprises in developing countries are intended to facilitate voluntary tax compliance. However, survey evidence suggests that small business taxation based on simplified bookkeeping or turnover is sometimes perceived as too complex for microenterprises in countries with high illiteracy levels. Very simple fixed tax regimes not requiring any book...

  5. The birth of tax as a legal discipline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribnau, Hans; Vording, H.

    2017-01-01

    Adam Smith’s taxation maxims found fertile ground in the Netherlands in the early nineteenth century—a time of national tax reform. But as the century drew to an end, progressive liberal thinking parted from its British inspiration. John Stuart Mill’s ‘equality of sacrifice’ was rejected by Nicolaas

  6. Fiscal Schemes for Inclusive Development (FSID) : Evaluating Tax ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The platform will be capable of simulating most proposed reforms in personal taxes and social benefits, and the mechanics of redistribution policies and how they ... By using micro data from representative surveys, LATINMOD will be able to characterize the population in aggregate as well as by age, sex, economic status, ...

  7. Can Capital Income Taxes Survive? And Should They?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    The paper surveys some main results in the theory of capital income taxation in the open economy; reviews recent trends in international taxation, and discusses alternative blueprints for fundamental capital income tax reform from the perspective of an open economy faced with growing mobility...

  8. Distributional and regional economic impact of energy taxes in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandyck, Toon; Van Regemorter, Denise

    2014-01-01

    We analyse the macroeconomic and distributional effects of increased oil excises in Belgium by combining a regional Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model with a microsimulation framework that exploits the rich detail of household-level data. The link between the CGE model and the microlevel is top–down, feeding changes in commodity prices, factor returns and employment by sector into a microsimulation model. The results suggest that policymakers face an equity-efficiency trade-off driven by the choice of revenue recycling options. When the additional revenue is used to raise welfare transfers to households, the reform is beneficial for lower income groups, but output levels decrease in all regions. However, when the energy tax revenue is used to lower distortionary labour taxes, the tax shift is slightly regressive. In this case, national GDP is hardly affected but regional production levels diverge. The impact of the environmental tax reform on income distribution depends strongly on changes in factor prices and welfare payments, whereas sector composition is an important determinant for regional impact variation. - Highlights: • We study the impact of oil excises across regions and households in Belgium. • Lower income groups gain if the revenue is used to raise welfare payments. • If labour taxes are reduced, the reform is only slightly regressive. • The differential impact across households is driven by factor price changes. • Sector composition is a crucial determinant for impact variation across regions

  9. Dual Income Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    This paper discusses the principles and practices of dual income taxation in the Nordic countries. The first part of the paper explains the rationale and the historical background for the introduction of the dual income tax and describes the current Nordic tax practices. The second part...... of the paper focuses on the problems of taxing income from small businesses and the issue of corporate-personal tax integration under the dual income tax, considering alternative ways of dealing with these challenges. In the third and final part of the paper, I briefly discuss whether introducing a dual income...

  10. Tax Luxury or Necessity

    OpenAIRE

    Chia-Hui Lu

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the optimal taxation between luxury and necessity goods. We set up a three-production-sector neoclassical growth model with inelastic labor supply, and analyze the tax incidence. We find that the two consumption taxes are neutral to economic growth and that the welfare maximization optimal tax mix involves levying the same rate on those two goods. In reality, the tax rate levied on the luxury good is usually higher, so that the government should reduce the tax rate on the l...

  11. Tax Strategy Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Christian Plesner

    2013-01-01

    environment. Moreover, the paper extends existing contingency-based theory on MCS by illustrating the role of inter-organisational network collaboration across MNE transfer pricing tax experts. This collaboration, caused by a widely dispersed tax knowledge base, fuels the formal interactive control system......This paper examines how a functional tax strategy impacts the management control system (MCS) in a multinational enterprise (MNE) facing transfer pricing tax risks. Based on case study findings it is argued that the MCS in a multinational setting is contingent upon the MNE's response to its tax...

  12. Deciding on Tax Evasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    2015-01-01

    fieldwork conducted in the Central Customs and Tax Administration. Findings – The paper shows that the tax inspectors reason about tax evasion in a casuistic manner. They pay attention to similar cases and to particular circumstances of the individual cases. In deciding on tax evasion, the inspectors do...... not just administer the laws; they also enact a policy of fair-mindedness. Doing this they are constrained by time and man-powers, but also enabled by various organizational devices. Research limitations/implications – The tax inspectors that the author followed were carefully chosen and acted...

  13. Collaborative Tax Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This article shows a new form of regulation within a tax administration where tax administrators abate tax evasion by nudging and motivating consumers to only purchase services from tax compliant businesses. This indirectly closes or forces tax evading businesses to change their practices, because...... their customer bases decline to commercially non-viable levels. The analysis is framed by public governance literature and argues that the regulation is an example of collaborative or interactive governance, because the tax administrators do not regulate non-compliance directly, but activate external...... stakeholders, i.e. the consumers, in the regulatory craft. The study is based on a qualitative methodology and draws on a unique case of regulation in the cleaning sector. This sector is at high risk of tax evasion and human exploitation of vulnerable workers operating in the informal economy. The article has...

  14. THE TAX ADVANTAGES OF INCOME TAX PAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU GHEORGHE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the cost of financing through financial and operational leasing due to the deductibility of depreciation and interest. The shareholders of any company aim to obtain profit and to increase their ownership equity. In order for this to happen, the company must have profit, for which a corporate tax must be paid. A good management translates into choosing the most advantageous means of financing, which will lead to paying a lower corporate tax. Leasing and the non-taxation of reinvested profits are two means through which companies can obtain significant fiscal advantages, by increasing the deductible expenses, or by paying lower taxes.

  15. Tax Structure and Government Expenditures under Tax Equity Norms

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias Koenig; Andreas Wagener

    2010-01-01

    We augment a standard tax model by concerns about tax equity: people get upset when labour is taxed more heavily than capital. Even the slightest concern for tax equity invalidates the common recommendation for small open economies that capital should remain tax-exempt. This holds for exogenous as well as for endogenous government expenditures and irrespective of whether concerns with tax equity only cause emotional discomfort or also impact on work incentives. If concerns with tax equity get...

  16. Tax structure and corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić-Popov Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article an analysis of the impact of corruption, both administrative and state capture, on the tax structure is carried out. The authors established a negative correlation between the degree of corruption and the height of the effective tax burden, while isolating a simultaneous directly proportional impact of the nominal tax burden (which could reflect state intervention - the main corruption factor on the scope of corruption. The effects of corruption on the decrease of individual taxes' share in GDP are diversified, with impact on direct taxes as a whole being more observable. The mode of tax assessment significantly determines exposure of certain tax to the administrative corruption: it is generally larger in case of taxes assessed by the decision of the competent tax officials who are carrying out both assessment and audit, while in the case of self-assessment and withholding they just perform audits implying limited exposure to corruption. Corruptive state capture is present in the case of taxes which are important for influential corruptors. That is why in Serbia laws preventing taxation of capital gains or heavier taxation of dividends and other income paid to non-residents located in the tax havens were adopted, while by-laws which should have enabled implementation of prescribed lump sum taxation based on external signs of wealth have not been enacted. The authors concluded that the anti-corruption strategy should rely on the increasing role of self-assessment, which could reduce the room for administrative corruption. Unclear and imprecise formulations of the tax norms facilitate corruption, because they create room for arbitrariness in interpretation and implementation of the laws and by-laws. It is therefore necessary to surprises discretion, simplify tax procedure and diminish the number of tax relief's.

  17. The Consequences of ?In-Work? Benefit Reform in Britain : New Evidence from Panel Data

    OpenAIRE

    Francesconi, Marco; van der Klaauw, Wilbert

    2004-01-01

    In October 1999, the British government enacted the Working Families' Tax Credit, a generous tax credit aimed at encouraging work among low -income families with children. This paper uses longitudinal data collected between 1991 and 2001 to evaluate the effect of this reform on single mothers. We identify this impact by comparing changes in behavior of lone mothers to changes for single women without children. Our results show that the financial incentives of the reform had powerful effects o...

  18. Green taxes in EU and Denmark; Groenne skatter og afgifter i EU og Danmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyck-Madsen, S.

    2000-12-01

    One of the most essential means to reach an increased sustainability in the world is to increase the use of economical means and hereby extend the polluter-pay-principle. The EU-commission, OECD and other governments in the EU-countries recommend an increased use of green taxes. This book takes as its starting point the implementation of a green tax reform, where the taxation is moved from tax on manpower to tax on resource consumption and pollution. Hereby both the environmental effort and the economic development are strengthened. The book briefly examines the different definitions of sustainability and outlines the principles for a green tax reform. The elaboration of green taxes, the reversing entry to environmental aims or to the Exchequer, the relation to the social distribution, the financing of the welfare state, the development of the green taxes in the EU countries, removal of environmentally damaging subsidies and the positive effect of the existing green taxes are subjects treated in the book. Finally the book presents a proposal for some Danish possibilities to increase existing green taxes or to introduce new Danish green taxes. (EHS)

  19. Oil sands tax expenditures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketchum, K; Lavigne, R.; Plummer, R.

    2001-01-01

    The oil sands are a strategic Canadian resource for which federal and provincial governments provide financial incentives to develop and exploit. This report describes the Oil Sands Tax Expenditure Model (OSTEM) developed to estimate the size of the federal income tax expenditure attributed to the oil sands industry. Tax expenditures are tax concessions which are used as alternatives to direct government spending for achieving government policy objectives. The OSTEM was developed within the business Income Tax Division of Canada's Department of Finance. Data inputs for the model were obtained from oil sands developers and Natural Resources Canada. OSTEM calculates annual revenues, royalties and federal taxes at project levels using project-level projections of capital investment, operating expenses and production. OSTEM calculates tax expenditures by comparing taxes paid under different tax regimes. The model also estimates the foregone revenue as a percentage of capital investment. Total tax expenditures associated with investment in the oil sands are projected to total $820 million for the period from 1986 to 2030, representing 4.6 per cent of the total investment. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  20. THE TAX CONTROL AS A COMPONENT OF TAX ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Zhuk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the features of tax control in the system of taxes administration were investigated. The basic approaches to the determination of tax control were defined. Principles of tax control that must be kept were defined and it will ensure efficiency and effectiveness of tax control. Basic forms of tax control were characterized. An advantages of horizontal monitoring that is one of the form of tax controls were directed. Key words: tax control, tax control forms, horizontal monitoring, documentaries, desk and actual checks.

  1. METHOD OF TAX AUDIT OF CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF TAXPAYERS BY STATE FISCAL SERVICE OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohdan Kostiuk

    2016-11-01

    -economic and political reforms in Ukraine. To further improvement of tax audit it should be applied new progressive methods of influence on taxpayers which is intended to limit the participation of tax payer in tax process and to reduce its potential capability to minimize tax liabilities. The practical significance of the study is determination of recommendations for improvement of the method of selection of taxpayers for tax audits. Value/originality. Information on methods of tax audit which was obtained in the study can be used in further studies on improvement of tax administration.

  2. Tax Compliance Inventory: TAX-I Voluntary tax compliance, enforced tax compliance, tax avoidance, and tax evasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchler, Erich; Wahl, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Surveys on tax compliance and non-compliance often rely on ad hoc formulated items which lack standardization and empirical validation. We present an inventory to assess tax compliance and distinguish between different forms of compliance and non-compliance: voluntary versus enforced compliance, tax avoidance, and tax evasion. First, items to measure voluntary and enforced compliance, avoidance, and evasion were drawn up (collected from past research and newly developed), and tested empirically with the aim of producing four validated scales with a clear factorial structure. Second, findings from the first analyses were replicated and extended to validation on the basis of motivational postures. A standardized inventory is provided which can be used in surveys in order to collect data which are comparable across research focusing on self-reports. The inventory can be used in either of two ways: either in its entirety, or by applying the single scales independently, allowing an economical and fast assessment of different facets of tax compliance. PMID:20502612

  3. Why Taxing Consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    are controversial while the invocation of efficiency is actually grounded in an underlying view of social cooperation. Secondly, this chapter advances the idea that an ultimate justification for the choice of specific tax base (consumption, income and wealth) expresses such an underlying view. In other words......, the choice of a specific tax base is not totally instrumental, it has some intrinsic moral value too. In this respect, the chapter ends with a comparison between taxing income and taxing consumption. It is shown that a tax on consumption raises questions that should be answered by political philosophers.......Robert Frank is famous for proposing an incremental tax on consumption. His proposition is motivated by the control of positional externalities, i.e. the costs that individuals impose on each other when they consume goods for securing or acquiring social status. A close analysis of Frank...

  4. Legal issues of tax rates

    OpenAIRE

    Sadílek, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Tax rate problems The subject of the graduation thesis is legal problems of tax rate. The aim of this thesis is description and estimation of the flat tax rate and states, where is established. First of all I define the basic kinds of tax systems - the tax system with one tax rate, the progressive tax system and the flat tax system. Further I deal with the principles and elements of the flat tax rate as interpreted by American economists Robert E. Hall and Alvin Rabushka who are generally ack...

  5. Measuring Tax Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2004-01-01

    , thereby, the degree of efficiency of a taxsystem. We call this number the Tax Optimality Index. We show howthe basic method can be altered in order to derive a revenue equivalentuniform tax, which measures the size of the public sector. A numericalexample is used to illustrate the method developed.......JEL Code: H21, H41.Keywords: Tax optimality index, excess burden, distance function.Authors Affiliations: Raimondos-Møller: Copenhagen Business School, CEPR,CESifo, and EPRU. Woodland: University of Sydney....

  6. Whither the Marriage Tax?

    OpenAIRE

    James Alm; J. Sebastian Leguizamon

    2015-01-01

    We use household data from the Current Population Survey to calculate how the real value of the so-called "marriage tax" or "marriage subsidy" in the federal individual income tax has changed over the period 1969 to 2009. We examine three issues: the magnitude of the marriage tax/subsidy and its evolution over time, its effects on the distribution of income (including the effects of different demographic characteristics on the magnitudes and trends), and the causal factors in its evolution (e...

  7. Green fiscal reform and employment. A survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majocchi, A.

    1996-01-01

    In the European debate an increase in employment is generally regarded as an important extra-dividend - in addition to improved environmental quality - from environmental taxes. The scope of this paper is to evaluate, going through the existing empirical literature, if - and to what degree - this result could be achieved through a green fiscal reform. A further goal of this paper is to assess which taxes are more efficient in terms of employment-creation when they are utilized for recycling back to the economy the revenue flowing from environmental taxes. This kind of exercise is largely different from the theoretical analysis of the double dividend issue. A large quantity of literature has grown during the recent years according to this approach, but this version of the double dividend theory will be disregarded in this paper. 8 tabs., 38 refs

  8. MODELING COMBINING TAX REGIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prishchenko E. A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the combination of tax regimes as a result of separation from the operating business of the revenues and costs for system of a united tax on imputed income (UTII with the analysis of the tax consequences of such allocation. Three models of taxation were built: both variants of the simplified system of taxation from UTII and common system of taxation with UTII. We propose a rapid method of the most preferred system of taxation for small businesses’ selection depending material to labor costs ratio. All these results could be implemented in the case when the company starts a new type of activity under the rules UTII, and solves the problem in the framework of the tax regime to conduct this activity - UTII applied or not, based on the criterion of tax savings. Using the relations describing the tax burden when combined tax regimes, we can determine what the yield should have a new business line and what cost structure should it have to reduce the tax burden. The main result is proposed approach that can be used as a tool of tax planning activities of small businesses.

  9. Charges versus taxes under uncertainty: A look from investment theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlhaas, M. [DIW, Berlin (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The search for more cost-efficient economic instruments for environmental protection has been conducted with different priorities in the USA and most European countries. Whereas in Europe there seems to prevail a preference for charges and taxes, in the USA tradeable permits are preferred. Environmental policy has to take into consideration the trade-off between price uncertainty and ecological effectiveness. In the short run and on a national level, ecological effectiveness is less important, and price uncertainty is smaller with environmental taxes. In the long run and in an international framework, environmental constraints and repercussions on world market prices of energy become more important. Since taxes are politically more accepted in Europe, it would make sense to start with an ecological tax reform, which can be transformed or integrated into a system of internationally tradeable permits gradually.

  10. The Socioeconomic Consequences of "In-Work" Benefit Reform for British Lone Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesconi, Marco; van der Klaauw, Wilbert

    2007-01-01

    In October 1999, the British government enacted the Working Families' Tax Credit, which aimed at encouraging work among low-income families with children. This paper uses panel data collected between 1991 and 2001 to evaluate the effect of this reform on single mothers. We find that the reform led to a substantial increase in their employment rate…

  11. Arbitration Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Stepurina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 347.73:341.63Subject. This informational article highlights recent changes to the Russian legislation on arbitration.Purpose. To highlight the most important aspects of arbitration law reform, and examines the effects they will have on the development of arbitration in RussiaMethodology. The author uses a formal-legal method.Results, scope of application. The author distinguishes the difference between constantly acting arbitration courts and arbitration courts ad hoc. The special status of a number of arbitration institutions (the ICAC and MAC at the Russian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, is contrary to the constitutional principle of equality under the law. A major achievement of the new legislation on arbitration courts is expanding the range arbitrarily disputes.Conclusions. The new legislation more clearly prescribed the interaction of arbitration and state courts, including requiring the latter to promote the arbitrators, acting under the regulations of the permanent arbitration institutions in obtaining evidence.In addition, the reform of the arbitration law have left aside the problem of improving the quality of judicial control over arbitration decisions.The arbitration law will still be able to improve the arbitration, to enhance its credibility and attractiveness for the participants of civil turnover.

  12. MOLDOVAN TAX ADMINISTRATION: 25 YEARS OF EXPERIENCE AND FUTURE CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana CRICLIVAIA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Moldova, since independence, decided to consolidate its place among the democratic nations and open to reform economy in order to integrate it in european and international circuit. Reform of national economy was oriented towards substitution of an old, outdated and almost collapsed socioeconomic system by one capable to ensure the continued progress in society. Thus this reform could be done mainly through fiscal legitimacy and enforcement of tax administration, which may best be achieved through establishing clear, transparent, and predictable rules and procedures, especially in the administrative aspects of the tax system. With this paper we aim to examine the tax authority changes for last 25 years. Research methodology is based on the dialectic-conflictual model, whose approaches helped to bring the essence of the debate by applying methods of induction, deduction, observation, analysis and synthesis. The analysis are based on either qualitative or quantitative indicators. Results reveal the weaknesses of Moldovan tax administration system in order to understand its areas of strength. The research can be used by: taxation and regulatory authorities for elaboration of new legislation and improvement of the existing legislation; investors for evaluation of taxation efficiency in investment projects; didactic personnel in teaching specialty disciplines at economy universities.

  13. 26 CFR 1.168(j)-1T - Questions and answers concerning tax-exempt entity leasing rules (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... entity leasing rules (temporary). 1.168(j)-1T Section 1.168(j)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.168(j)-1T Questions and answers concerning tax-exempt entity... section 168(j) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, as enacted by section 31 of the Tax Reform Act of...

  14. 18 CFR 2.67 - Calculation of taxes for property of pipeline companies constructed or acquired after January 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Natural Gas Act § 2.67 Calculation of taxes for property of pipeline companies constructed or acquired after January 1, 1970. Pursuant to the provisions of section 441(a)(4)(A) of the Tax Reform Act of 1969, 83 Stat. 487, 625, natural gas pipeline companies which have exercised the option provided by that...

  15. Efficiency of tax bodies' performance

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorovskaya, M.

    2011-01-01

    The problems of assessment of tax bodies' activities efficiency which tax administration faces are touched upon. Suggestions made provide an opportunity for bodies of legislative and executive power to take specific measures aimed at enhancing the system of tax administration in the country. Suggested criteria for assessing tax bodies' performance can be put into practice by tax authorities. A new approach to aspects of solving tasks of control over tax compliance, preventing and excluding ta...

  16. TAX OPTIMIZATION AS A DECISIVE FACTOR OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (THE CASE OF POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Andriyash

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to compare the system of taxation and tax optimization in Poland with solutions in the selected EU Member States and its influence on economic development. The paper presents the system of taxation in Poland compared with fiscal solutions in selected EU countries. It also discusses the typology of tax solutions referring to tax optimization in Europe. Methodology. The author used the primary and secondary data from the Central Statistics Office (GUS, Pricewaterhouse Coopers’ research and the Eurostat. The research methods used for the purpose of data analysis included economic analysis of legal acts, descriptive statistics, and comparative analysis. Results showed that the level of tax loading in Poland is more moderate than in other developed countries of the world while the mechanism of administration of taxes and collections is much more successful. The share of receipts collected by the decentralized administration has been increasing steadily since the major administrative reform of 1999 and the local finance law enacted in 2004. Eliminating the category of special sections of industrial production and inclusion of revenues/income to the proposed form of income tax would be very desirable. This would indicate the practical implementation of Smith’s tax principles concerning tax equity and an ability of taxpayer to pay levies. Practical implications. Tax optimization is to balance the tax loading level through offering benefits and preferences which would stimulate the economy of the country and will not cause aggravation of the problem of relocating tax loading from one tax payer to another. Many national states, noticing the phenomena of tax evasion and tax avoidance are implementing or going to implement specific reforms which help to improve the system of tax control with the aim of creating conditions which make tax and collections evasion impossible. Value/originality. The results of the conducted

  17. Tax Law System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsindeliani, Imeda A.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with consideration of the actual theoretic problems of the subject and system of tax law in Russia. The theoretical approaches to determination of the nature of separate institutes of tax law are represented. The existence of pandect system intax law building as financial law sub-branch of Russia is substantiated. The goal of the…

  18. Taxes and gender equity

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Brenda Battisti

    questions through an analysis of personal income and consumption taxes in eight countries at different levels of ... Implicit gender biases are also found in consumption taxes, given that males and females have different expenditure patterns. ... and Social Protection in Developing Countries.” The project profile is available at.

  19. Waiting for tax credits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheinkopf, K.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the effect of tax credits and related legislation under consideration by Congress on the economics of the renewable energy industry. The topics discussed in the article include conflicting industry opinion on financial incentives, the effectiveness of current incentives, and alternative approaches. The article also includes a sidebar on tax incentives offered by state programs

  20. Income Tax Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Darryl Lee

    2006-01-01

    Every year at this time millions of Americans scramble to file or extend their income tax returns. This article explores some of the Internal Revenue Code (IRC) sections that might affect (or relate to) the taxation of parents of disabled or special healthcare needs children. Many of these tax provisions also apply to parents with adult children…

  1. Steepest Ascent Tariff Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The policy reform literature is primarily concerned with the construction of reforms that yield welfare gains. By contrast, this paper’s contribution is to develop a theoretical concept for which the focus is upon the sizes of welfare gains accruing from policy reforms rather than upon their signs....... In undertaking this task, and by focusing on tariff reforms, we introduce the concept of a steepest ascent policy reform, which is a locally optimal reform in the sense that it achieves the highest marginal gain in utility of any feasible local reform. We argue that this reform presents itself as a natural...... benchmark for the evaluation of the welfare effectiveness of other popular tariff reforms such as the proportional tariff reduction and the concertina rules, since it provides the maximal welfare gain of all possible local reforms. We derive properties of the steepest ascent tariff reform, construct...

  2. Capital Income Tax Coordination and the Income Tax Mix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huizinga, Harry; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2005-01-01

    Europe has seen several proposals for tax coordination only in the area of capital income taxation, leaving countries free to adjust their labor taxes. The expectation is that highercapital income tax revenues would cause countries to reduce their labor taxes. This paper shows that such changes...... in the mix of capital and labor taxes brought on by capital income tax coordination can potentially be welfare reducing. This reflects that in a non-cooperative equilibrium capital income taxes may be more distorting from an international perspective than are labor income taxes. Simulations with a simple...... model calibrated to EU public finance data suggest that countries indeed lower their labor taxes in response to higher coordinated capital income taxes. The overall welfare effects of capital income tax coordination, however, are estimated to remain positive.JEL Classification: F20, H87...

  3. THE WORLD OF TAx DEDUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei V. Dujov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article a study and methodological foundations of the structure of taxes and fees. Disclosed the concept of elements of tax and duty. Focuses on the nature of the concept of «tax deduction». Provides legal and the author’s interpretation of the term «tax deduction». Examples of application of a tax deduction in the value-added tax and the tax to incomes of physical persons. the conclusions about the multilateral nature of the tax deduction.

  4. Tax Morale and Optimal Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Güth, Werner; Sausgruber, Rupert

    2004-01-01

    We study experimentally how taxpayers choose between two tax regimes to fund a public good. The first-best tax regime imposes a general, distortion-free income tax. However, this tax cannot be enforced. The second-best alternative supplements the income tax by a specific commodity tax. This tax cannot be evaded but distorts optimal consumption choices, instead. The result is that a large majority of subjects prefer the general income tax regime. The bulk of votes is consistent with actual pay...

  5. IS THE VALUE ADDED TAX A SUPERIOR SALES TAX IN ALL SALES TAXES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUSTAFA ALİ SARILI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Value Added Tax (VAT is a tax imposed on the value added to a product at each stage of the production and distribution process. Value added is never taxed twice under VAT and thus cascading (tax on tax effects do not occur. It is a single tax on goods and services but the tax is collected multiple stages. At each of these stages, the amount of tax payable is computed by subtracting the tax previously paid on purchases from the tax charged on sales by the traders for each taxation period. In last three decades, VAT, a relatively new and better commodity taxation, has been introduced in many countries. It has replaced different types of sales taxes in such countries. This article attempts to evaluate VAT by comparing with other sales taxes.

  6. Stamp duties in Indian states - a case for reform

    OpenAIRE

    Alm, James; Annez, Patricia; Modi, Arbind

    2004-01-01

    The authors review the options for reform of stamp duties on immovable property transfers collected by Indian state governments. After briefly reviewing some of the many administrative difficulties experienced with the tax, they turn to an examination of its economic impacts. A review of stamp duties internationally indicates that Indian rates are exceptionally high, at rates often above 1...

  7. Fiscal reforms and income inequalities in Senegal and Burkina Faso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performances of tax systems have been improved, with an appreciable reduction in inequality in the two countries, particularly for Burkina Faso. The excess fiscal revenues generated from taxation are more important after the reform for both Senegal and Burkina Faso. African Journal of Economic Policy Vol. 11(2) 2004: ...

  8. China’s Emerging Tax Regime: Local Tax Farming and Central Tax Bureaucracy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Z.; Krug, B.

    2005-01-01

    textabstractChina like other transition economies needs to establish a tax system compatible with a market economy, in particular, an efficient tax administration system with capable tax bureaucrats. The paper singles out the general and China-specific features by which central government attempts to accompany economic transformation via tax farming to tax bureaucratisation in tax administration. Based on empirical study in two provinces this paper shows that without including local governmen...

  9. Energy taxes -- Some critical remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirl, F.

    1994-01-01

    The familiar concept of Pigouvian taxes has finally caught the interest of politicians as the various proposals for a pollution tax, often simplified to an energy tax, document. This paper reviews these proposals critically and points at some wrong presumptions. The suggestion to make the polluter liable for all damages is in general inefficient. In order to sell new taxes, politicians argue that Pigouvian taxes would not lower disposable income, because the associated revenues allow one to reduce other taxes (in particular, income taxes) correspondingly. However, strategic, noncompetitive energy producers may themselves attempt to internalize the external costs rather than to leave these tax revenues to the treasuries of the consuming countries. Moreover, the revenues from a commodity tax are potentially volatile. Finally, the conservation impact from Pigouvian energy taxes may fall short of expectations, in particular, if the tax is too low

  10. New Leverage for Increasing Tax Revenues in Turkey: Traditional Tax Applications Supported by Electronic Tax Audits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Onkan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is examined for the period 2000- 2015 in Turkey that increasing the electronic applications regarding tax audits had the effects on the required amount of tax levied as a result of tax audits. Tax Inspectors reach strategic information without uneasiness by means of electronic applications developed by some institutions such as Electronic Risk Analysis that Tax Inspection Board founded in 2011 and Revenue Administration as institutions designated by law for auditing tax in Turkey. Thus, this leads to an increase the tax revenues obtained in the course of tax audits compared to the times when there is not electronic applications.

  11. Taxation and distribution of income in Brazil: new evidence from personal income tax data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SÉRGIO WULFF GOBETTI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT able This paper presents a critical analysis of income and profit taxes in Brazil, arguing that measures adopted in the 1980s and 1990s, as a result of mainstream recommendations, hindered the redistributive role of taxes. An examination of tax data reveals a high degree of top income concentration, low tax progressivity and violations of the principles of horizontal and vertical equity. The main reason for these distortions is the complete tax exemption of dividends, a benefit that is very rarely seen in developed countries. We propose a return to a progressivity-focused tax reform plan, a theme that has returned as a focus of debates with (Piketty, 2014.

  12. Tax tips for forest landowners for the 2008 tax year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Wang; John L. Greene

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes key federal income tax provisions for forestland owners, foresters, loggers, forest product businesses, and tax practioners, and is current as of October 1, 2008.  Consult your tax and legal professionals for advice on your particular tax situation.

  13. Tax tips for forest landowners for the 2009 tax year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Wang; John Greene

    2010-01-01

    This bulletin summarizes federal income tax information useful to woodland owners in preparing their 2009 tax returns. It is current as of October 1, 2009, and supersedes Management Bulletin R8-MB 132. It should not be sonstrued as legal or accounting advice: consult your legal and tax professionals for advice on your particular tax situation.

  14. Use of accounting for tax search conducted by tax administrator

    OpenAIRE

    Novotná, Markéta

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is to describe the use of accounting and financial statements for tax search conducted by tax administrator. Besides various methods and ways of using accounting, this paper focuses on principles, criteria and phases of tax search. The final chapter describes possibility of making electronic tax search, which is based on accounting and other data in electronic form.

  15. 76 FR 66181 - Disregarded Entities; Excise Taxes and Employment Taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ...)(C) Example (i) and (ii) of this section. If LLCB does not pay the tax on its sale of coal under... Disregarded Entities; Excise Taxes and Employment Taxes AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury... regulations relating to disregarded entities and excise taxes. These regulations also make conforming changes...

  16. New taxes are late

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.

    2007-01-01

    A special tax for monopolies is not the only new tax the cabinet of Robert Fico is yet to introduce. As of the beginning of the year, new excise taxes prescribed by Brussels should have entered into force in Slovakia. According to the new arrangements, we should pay for energy consumed and for the coal and natural gas used to produce heat. And so the energy prices for companies should have already increased. Although the deadline set by the European Commission has already passed, the cabinet has still not completed the final version of the relevant legislation. Work stopped after the elections. The Ministry is very careful when it comes to making statements related to the excise tax. 'We do not wish to talk about details. There are still some minor issues that require fine tuning,' said Adrian Belanik, General Director of the Tax and Customs Section. Companies will have to get ready for the new costs related to the new excise taxes. The only thing that is clear is that the new taxes will be paid on the electricity and fuel used for heat production. (authors)

  17. Tax competition and tax harmonization in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuše Nerudová

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of tax competition and harmonization within the European Union. It reveals the single difficulties connected with harmonization, identifies the problems arising from tax competition and points out the harmful tax competition as well. Single compulsory harmonized tax base in connection with prevailing tax competition in the area of tax rates is the suggested solution in the scope of direct taxation. As the solution in the area of indirect taxation could serve the introduction of “principle of origin”. This would cause remarkable administrative costs decrease not only for economic subjects but for tax authorities as well.

  18. Excise Tax Avoidance: The Case of State Cigarette Taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCicca, Philip; Kenkel, Donald; Liu, Feng

    2013-01-01

    We conduct an applied welfare economics analysis of cigarette tax avoidance. We develop an extension of the standard formula for the optimal Pigouvian corrective tax to incorporate the possibility that consumers avoid the tax by making purchases in nearby lower-tax jurisdictions. To provide a key parameter for our formula, we estimate a structural endogenous switching regression model of border-crossing and cigarette prices. In illustrative calculations, we find that for many states, after taking into account tax avoidance the optimal tax is at least 20 percent smaller than the standard Pigouvian tax that simply internalizes external costs. Our empirical estimate that tax avoidance strongly responds to the price differential is the main reason for this result. We also use our results to examine the benefits of replacing avoidable state excise taxes with a harder-to-avoid federal excise tax on cigarettes. PMID:24140760

  19. Mapping Tax Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    2014-01-01

    compliance is constructed, challenges the explanatory reaches of today's social science approaches, arguing that an alternative approach to understanding tax compliance is worthwhile exploring. This other choice of approach, inspired by actor–network theory (ANT), adopts a more practice-oriented focus...... that studies tax compliance where it takes place as well as what it is made of. Consequently, this article argues that tax compliance is a socio-material assemblage and that complying is a distributed action. The article concludes by highlighting how an ANT approach contributes to the further theoretical...

  20. System of National Accounts as an Information Base for Tax Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Lyapin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to those aspects of the system of national accounts, which together perform the role of information base of tax statistics. In our time, the tax system is one of the main subjects of the discussions about the methods and directions of its reform.Taxes are one of the main factors of regulation of the economy and act as an incentive for its development. Analysis of tax revenues to the budgets of different levels will enable to collect taxes and perform tax burden for various industries. From the amount of tax revenue it is possible to judge scales of reproductive processes in the country. It should be noted that taxes in the SNA are special. As mentioned earlier, in the SNA, taxes on products are treated in the form of income. At the same time, most economists prefer, their consideration in the form of consumption taxes, and taxes on various financial transactions (for example: taxes on the purchase/sale of securities are treated as taxes on production, including in cases when there are no services. It would be rational to revise and amend the SNA associated with the interpretation of all taxes and subsidies, to ensure better understanding and compliance with user needs.Taxes are an integral part of any state and an indispensable element of economic relations of any society. In turn, taxes and the budget are inextricably linked, as these relations have a clearly expressed, objective bilateral character. Taxes are the main groups of budget revenues, which makes it possible to finance all the government agencies and expenditure items, as well as the implementation of institutional subsidy units that make up the SNA sector “non-financial corporations”.The second side story is that taxes – a part of the money that is taken from producers and households. The total mass of taxes depends on the composition of taxes, tax rates, tax base and scope of benefits. The bulk of tax revenues also depends on possible changes in

  1. Bureaucratic Tax-Seeking: The Danish Waste Tax

    OpenAIRE

    Christoffersen, Henrik; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2000-01-01

    Two main results in traditional tax theory states the following. First, general taxes minimize the welfare loss from changed relative prices. Second, because the total public budget tends to exceed the optimal size, a leader (here named 'troop leader') is needed in the budget process to prevent over-taxation. Nevertheless, differentiated taxes initiated by individual ministries generate a still larger proportion of total tax revenue, in particular under cover of taxing externalities such as e...

  2. International capital tax evasion and the foreign tax credit puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Kimberley Scharf

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the role of international tax evasion for the choice of an optimal foreign tax credit by a capital exporting region. Since a foreign tax credit raises the opportunity cost of concealing foreign source income, it can be employed to discourage evasion activity. The existence of international tax evasion possibilities could thus help rationalize a choice of tax credit in excess of a deduction-equivalent credit level. Our analysis shows that, in general the optimal credit will...

  3. Globalization, Tax Competition and Tax Burden İn Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veli KARGI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available 1990’s world was quite different from the world of 1950’s. Especially in the last twenty years, the increasing involvement of Japan in the world economy since the 1990s, in addition to the dominance of globalization and market economy throughout the world, the rapid spread of information resulting from the developments in IT-technology and the international competition emerging in the field of technology have all led to some significant developments in the world economy. Reduction of high mobility income and corporate tax rates due to tax competition may cause an unjust distribution of the tax burden. The fact that indirect taxation constitutes about 70% of the tax revenues obtained in Turkey can be taken as an indication of the unfairness in the distribution of tax burden in Turkey. In this study, following a definition of globalization and tax competition, classification of tax competition, reasons for increasing tax competition, benefits and losses of tax competition are explained, and changes introduced by various countries in their tax systems due to tax competition, the distribution of tax burden resulting from tax competition in Turkey and the effectiveness of the new income tax law in Turkey in terms of tax competition are analyzed.

  4. Tax Salience, Voting, and Deliberation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    Tax incentives can be more or less salient, i.e. noticeable or cognitively easy to process. Our hypothesis is that taxes on consumers are more salient to consumers than equivalent taxes on sellers because consumers underestimate the extent of tax shifting in the market. We show that tax salience...... biases consumers' voting on tax regimes, and that experience is an effective de-biasing mechanism in the experimental laboratory. Pre-vote deliberation makes initially held opinions more extreme rather than correct and does not eliminate the bias in the typical committee. Yet, if voters can discuss...... their experience with the tax regimes they are less likely to be biased....

  5. Corporate tax in an international environment – Problems and possible remedies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Seppo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problems of corporate taxation in a globalized world. It first considers recent trends in international practices and then reviews the literature on the effects of corporate taxes in closed and open economies. The paper emphasizes the severity of the problems caused by current international tax rules. It compares various national and international policy alternatives and considers two recent Nordic tax reform proposals as examples of national-level solutions. The problems of current international corporate taxation are fundamental. Introducing increasingly tight antiavoidance measures could serve as a medium-term approach but does not provide any promising long-term solution. There should be more research concerning initiatives that would reform the fundamental principles of the international tax system.

  6. Real Property Tax - 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This data represents all of the County’s residential real estate properties and all of the associated tax charges and credits with that property processed at the...

  7. Real Property Tax - 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This data represents all of the County’s residential real estate properties and all of the associated tax charges and credits with that property processed at the...

  8. Gross Sales Tax Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This data is captured directly from the MS Department of Revenue and specific to the City of Jackson. It is compiled from Gross Sales Tax reported by taxpayers each...

  9. Governance, Trust and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Guri; Joensen, E. Juanna Schröter

    This paper examines the role of social capital (trust) vis-à-vis the propensity of a country to be a tax haven. The empirical analysis corroborates that better governed countries have a higher ceteris paribus probability to be tax havens. However, social capital counteracts the effect of governance...... quality. This effect is so strong that the partial effect of governance quality is reversed for countries with the trust index in the top quartile – making these high trust countries less likely to be tax havens – even as governance quality is increased. Thus it is crucial to consider the interaction...... between institutions and social capital, since the same governance institutions have a different impact on the tax haven propensity for countries with different social capital....

  10. Real Property Tax Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Levy Year 2012 real property tax rate dataset reflects all the rates per $100 set each year by the County Council. These rates are applied to the assessed value...

  11. Timing Tax Evasion

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Niepelt

    2004-01-01

    Standard models of tax evasion implicitly assume that evasion is either fully detected, or not detected at all. Empirically, this is not the case, casting into doubt the traditional rationales for interior evasion choices. I propose two alternative, dynamic explanations for interior tax evasion rates: Fines depending on the duration of an evasion spell, and different vintages of income sources subject to aggregate risk and fixed costs when switched between evasion states. The dynamic approach...

  12. Excise Taxes with Multiproduct Transactions

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen F. Hamilton

    2009-01-01

    I examine excise taxes levied on multiproduct retailers. Excise taxes reduce equilibrium output and decrease equilibrium product variety in the short run, but taxes can raise output per product in the long run and induce entry. Excise taxes are overshifted into prices in a wide range of cases, including under linear and concave demand conditions, and excise taxes shift less than one-for-one into prices only when demand is highly convex. Multiproduct transactions substantively alter the effici...

  13. Distributional consequences of environmental taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinge Jacobsen, H.; Birr-Pedersen, K.; Wier, M.

    2001-11-01

    Environmental taxes imposed on households have been introduced in many countries. However, few countries have reached the level of environmental taxation that is seen in Denmark today, although many are considering shifting the tax burden towards the consumption that is harming the environment. The total tax burden imposed on households in Denmark in the form of taxes on energy use of all kinds, water consumption and waste production, etc., is considerable. This paper analyses the individual taxes as well as the combination of all these taxes and duties related to environmental concerns, including taxes on heating, transport fuels, electricity, water, waste, plastic bags, registration of cars, annual car use, pesticides, etc. The distributional effect of taxes is examined in relation to household income, socio-economic class, residential location and family status. The shifting of the tax structure from high marginal income tax to consumption-based taxes, especially environmental taxes, might have distributional impacts amongst income groups which have not been considered part of the tax policy. The taxes are compared with respect to distributional impact. Do the effects of the different taxes vary to such an extent that this should be considered when designing tax policies? The hypothesis is that some environmental taxes associated with luxury income are less regressive than the average environmental tax. The results suggest that in Denmark taxes on petrol and registration duties for cars are progressive, whereas most other environmental taxes are regressive, especially the green taxes on water, retail containers and CO 2 . The distributional impacts are illustrated using household consumption survey data and data covering household expenditures on energy. The energy taxes and the more recently introduced green taxes are compared. The project is combining the direct and the indirect effect of taxes. The direct effect considers the taxes imposed directly on

  14. Environmental taxes and subsidies 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    The statistics presents statements of environmental taxes for the period 1970 - 2002 and statements of environmentally related subsidies for the years 1996 - 2002. Environmental taxes are a concept for pollution, energy, transportation, and resource related taxes. The State's revenue from environmental taxes have increased from 4,0 billions DKK in 1970 to 65,7 billions DKK in 2002. The environmental taxes' part of the GNP has increased from 3,2 % in 1970 to 4,8 % in 2002. The part of the environmental taxes of the total taxes and tariffs has increased from 8,2 % in 1970 to 9,8 % in 2002. >From 2001 to 2002 the environmental taxes increased with 5,6 %, primarily because the taxes in the transportation sector increased with 13,5 % due to more new cars. The pollution taxes increased with 6 % while the environmental taxes for energy increased with only 0,8 %. In 2002 the energy related taxes amounted to 54 %, the transport related taxes to 39 %, and pollution and resource related taxes amounted to 7 % of the total environmental taxes. The public environmentally related subsidies to companies and households has been on a stable level of a little more than 10 billions DKK through the latest years. The energy related subsidies have, however, been transferred to transport related subsidies, i.e. primarily subsidies to the public transport. (ln)

  15. Tax Revenue in Sub-Saharan Africa; Effects of Economic Policies and Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Dhaneshwar Ghura

    1998-01-01

    An analysis of data for 39 sub-Saharan African countries during 1985–96 indicates that the variations in tax revenue-GDP ratios within this group are influenced by economic policies and the level of corruption. Namely, these ratios rise with declining inflation, implementation of structural reforms, rising human capital (a proxy for the provision of public services by the government), and declining corruption. The paper confirms that the tax revenue ratio rises with income, and that elements ...

  16. Tax management in strengthening financial independence of local government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badida M.P.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the directions of tax management in the context of budgetary decentralization. The paper aims to research tax management in the system of forming local budgets in the conditions of financial resources decentralization and analyze the current tools of tax management on the local level. In spite of a great number of researches, the issue of tax management in strengthening financial independence of local budgets is not enough studied; therefore, to reach financial independence of local communities it is necessary to adopt new normative and legal acts concerning decentralization of financial resources taking into account tax potential of each territorial community. The lack of financial resources causes the problem of optimal redistribution of power among central and local authorities. The author proposes the new mechanisms of solving the current problems on the example of local budget of the city of Uzgorod to contribute budgetary decentralization. The principal idea while conducting the reform of the budgetary process must be the adoption of certain changes in budgetary legislation which have to shift the mechanisms of budgetary financing and equating local budgets. The author concludes that the progressive vector of well-being increasing completely depends on the developed concept of regional economic policy. The article pays attention to the importance of taking into account the tax potential of a territory and characterizes the directions of strengthening financial independence of local government.

  17. TAX OPTIMIZATION, TAX AVOIDANCE OR TAX EVASION? CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE OFFSHORE COMPANIES’ LEGAL BACKGROUND

    OpenAIRE

    Eva ERDÕS

    2010-01-01

    Is it a legal or illegal activity to give money to establish offshore firms? What is the offshore practice is it a method of tax optimization, tax minimization or is it a harmful activity, which means tax avoidance or tax evasion. This question is very important in the European Union’s tax law system, because the EU tax law is against the harmful tax competition. Some member states’ legal system is permitted to use offshore companies’ rules, but in the European Union it is prohibited to estab...

  18. The non-optimality of the Mexican indirect tax system

    OpenAIRE

    Castañón-Herrera, Alberto; Urzúa, Carlos M.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter starts with a review of the marginal tax reform methodology that was first advanced by Ahmad and Stern (1984), as well as its second-order variant introduced by Urzúa (2005). After that, it reviews some aspects of the estimation of demand systems, a topic that, although well known to applied econometricians, might be unfamiliar to practitioners. Finally, using an estimated demand system, the paper identifies marginal and second-order improvements in the current Mexican indirect t...

  19. Improvement of Tax Incentives of Small Innovative Business in Russia and Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Valeryevna Nikulina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions activity of small innovative business, as the most flexible component of the innovation economy of the country is particularly important. However, due to the specifics of their activities small innovative business needs state support, including in the field of a tax policy. In this connection, consideration of tax incentives for small innovative business activity is relevant and timely. The purpose of this study is to identify the main directions of improvement of tax incentives for small innovative business in Russia through the use of foreign experience. The study used data analysis and comparisons to identify features of the tax incentives of small innovative business in Russia and abroad. In determining the main directions of improving, the study used the method of forecasting on the basis of the results of the analysis and comparison. The article described the basic instruments of tax incentives for activities of small innovation business in Russia. The article analyzed foreign experience of application of tax privileges and preferences. The article developed and substantiated recommendations on the improvement of the Russian system of tax incentives of activity of small innovative business. The authors make conclusion that the Russian system of tax incentives is ineffective and needs to be reformed by increasing the number of tax benefits, and the development of a special tax regime through the use of foreign experience.

  20. A taxing environment: evaluating the multiple objectives of environmental taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Hale, Brack W

    2002-12-15

    Environmental taxes have attracted attention in recent years as a tool to internalize environmental externalities. This paper evaluates Sweden's experience with environmental taxes in the energy sector by examining how environmental taxes compare with estimated environmental externalities associated with the use of oil, coal, natural gas, and forest residue fuels. We also analyze how environmental taxes influence fuel choices in the energy sector by comparing the production, environmental, and tax costs for the same fuels. We find that (i) the Swedish environmental taxes correspond imperfectly with environmental costs; (ii) the Swedish tax and subsidy system introduces changes in fuel choice decisions; (iii) the energy users are responding to the incentives created by the tax and subsidy systems in ways that are consistent with economic theory; and (iv) the Swedish experience with environmental taxes and subsidies bears directly on wider evaluations of energy policy approaches internationally.

  1. Tax Potential vs. Tax Effort; A Cross-Country Analysis of Armenia's Stubbornly Low Tax Collection

    OpenAIRE

    David A. Grigorian; Hamid R Davoodi

    2007-01-01

    Despite recording double digit growth since 2000, Armenia's tax-to-GDP ratio has been fairly stable at about 14½ percent. This paper catalogues a range of factors that may account for Armenia's stubbornly for tax collection by benchmarking Armenia's tax-to-GDP against some comparator countries and conducting an extensive econometric study of the main determinants of tax collection. We find empirical support for the hypothesis that the persistence of Armenia's low tax-GDP ratio can be traced t...

  2. Launching Curricular Reform in First-Year Composition: Navigating the Terrain between Buy-in and Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    One of the most taxing duties of a writing program administrator (WPA), and one that is likely to cause the most burnout, is initiating curricular reform, an initiative often met with pushback and resistance. Within the literature on curriculum reform in first-year composition, this resistance seems to arise from a complex web of issues related to…

  3. Reforming Capital Taxation in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Luc Eyraud

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews capital taxation issues in Italy based on a comprehensive definition encompassing taxes on income, transactions, and ownership. It discusses options to enhance the neutrality of the capital income tax system, followed by a detailed analysis of the property tax, the inheritance tax, and various transaction taxes. The paper also examines the case for replacing the set of existing taxes on financial and real assets with a single net wealth tax.

  4. Taxing Stock Options: Efficiency, Fairness and Revenue Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack M. Mintz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The federal Liberals and the NDP are right about this much: There is a more sensible way to tax the stock options that are granted as compensation by corporations than the approach the federal government takes now. But both parties are wrong about how much revenue an appropriate change in current tax policy will add to the treasury. Far from the half-billion dollars or more that both parties claim they will raise in federal tax revenue by changing the taxation of stock options, the appropriate reform will virtually raise no revenue. It could actually result in marginally lower tax revenue. As it stands, stock options are treated differently than salary and other forms of cash compensation when it comes to taxing an employee or director, in that they are subject to only half taxation, similar to capital gains. They are also treated differently than cash compensation for the corporation granting the options, in that they cannot be deducted from corporate income tax. The federal NDP and Liberals have both accepted the growing criticism, which only intensified in the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis, that the lower tax rate is an unfair tax break for those employees who receive stock options. Both parties have proposed to change that, leaving an exemption for startup companies only, with the NDP proposing full personal taxation for all stock options except for start-up companies and the Liberals proposing it for options-based compensation exceeding $100,000. Treating stock options the same as cash compensation would indeed be more tax efficient, reducing the distortionary effect that can influence company compensation packages to give more weight to stock options and less to cash than they might otherwise. But the only way to ensure that efficiency is by treating both the personal tax side of the benefit, and the corporate tax side of the benefit, in the same way as other employee compensation. That is, applying full taxation to the recipient

  5. China's Health Reform Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gordon G; Vortherms, Samantha A; Hong, Xuezhi

    2017-03-20

    China experienced both economic and epistemological transitions within the past few decades, greatly increasing demand for accessible and affordable health care. These shifts put significant pressure on the existing outdated, highly centralized bureaucratic system. Adjusting to growing demands, the government has pursued a new round of health reforms since the late 2000s; the main goals are to reform health care financing, essential drug policies, and public hospitals. Health care financing reform led to universal basic medical insurance, whereas the public hospital reform required more complex measures ranging from changes in regulatory, operational, and service delivery settings to personnel management. This article reviews these major policy changes and the literature-based evidence of the effects of reforms on cost, access, and quality of care. It then highlights the outlook for future reforms. We argue that a better understanding of the unintended consequences of reform policies and of how practitioners' and patients' interests can be better aligned is essential for reforms to succeed.

  6. Maksuameti struktuurireform = Structural reform of the Tax Board / Mati Erik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erik, Mati

    2004-01-01

    2004. aasta 1. veebruarist rakendus uue maksu- ja tolliameti struktuur ja koosseis, millega viidi ühtlasi lõpule endise maksuameti olulisemate põhivaldkondade ja struktuuri reorganiseerimise projekti I etapp

  7. Reformation of Tax Procedures along the European Integration Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genta Bungo-Tafa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Social insurance is part of social security which consists as well as of social assistance and services, health services and health care insurance. Everyone has the right for social insurance when retired or in case of incapacity of work under a certain system established by a law. The right of social insurance is part of labor rights. In Albania the mandatory social insurance scheme is based on the pay-as-you-earn principle, on the awareness of the individual about the risks in social field in its future and in the principle of agreement between generations. This is a scheme financed out of contributions from the employers, the employed persons and self-employed. The benefits are provided in case of sickness, maternity, old-age, disability, loss of breadwinner, employment accidents/occupational diseases and unemployment.

  8. Work disincentive effects of taxes among Danish married men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Ebbe Krogh

    1997-01-01

    of a backward bending labour supply curve. The inclusion of nonparticipants in the estimations increases the labour supply elasticities considerably. Finally, we simulate the labour supply responses of a few recently proposed tax reforms, among these an earned-income-tax-credit (EITC).......In this paper the labour supply for Danish married men and women are estimated, using the piecewise linear Hausman model approach to account for non-linearities in taxes. The model takes the joint decision of participation and hours into account as well as measurement errors and unobserved...

  9. Tax Efficiency vs. Tax Equity – Points of View regarding Tax Optimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Aurelia Toader

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Starting from the idea that tax equity requirements, administration costs and the tendency towards tax evasion determine the design of tax systems, it is important to identify a satisfactory efficiency/equity deal in order to build a tax system as close to optimum requirements as possible. Prior Work Previous studies proved that an optimum tax system is that through which it will be collected a level of tax revenues which will satisfy budgetary demands, while losing only a minimum ‘amount’ of welfare. In what degree the Romanian tax system meets these requirements? Approach We envisage analyzing the possibilities of improving Romanian tax system as to come nearest to optimum requirements. Results We can conclude fiscal system can uphold important improvements in what assuring tax equity is concerned, resulting in raising the degree of free conformation in the field of tax payment and, implicitly, the degree of tax efficiency. Implications Knowing to what extent it can be acted upon in the direction of finding that satisfactory efficiency/equity deal may allow oneself to identify the blueprint of a tax system in which the loss of welfare is kept down to minimum. Value For the Romanian institutions empowered to impose taxes, the knowledge of the possibilities of making the tax system more efficient can be important while aiming at reducing the level of evasion phenomenon.

  10. Tax Tips for Forest Landowners for the 2013 Tax Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Wang; John Greene

    2013-01-01

    This annual bulletin provides federal income tax reporting tips to assist forest landowners and their advisers in filing their 2013 income tax returns. The information presented here is current as of Sept. 15, 2013.

  11. Tax havens: Features, operations and solving tax evasion problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović-Ćuk Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tax haven offers minimal or no tax liability to foreign individuals and enterprises in economically and politically stable environment, where little or no financial information is shared with foreign tax authorities. The aim of this research is to create a comprehensive overview of the characteristics and operations of tax havens, as well as to point out to the ways to overcome the problem of tax evasion. The methodology used in the work is characteristic of social science research: analysis, synthesis and discussion, comparative, inductive and historical analysis, together with the usage of relevant national and international sources. This paper describes the basic features of tax havens, as well as specific business models applied in them. A separate chapter deals with overcoming the problem of tax evasion, which is the main adverse effect of doing business through tax havens.

  12. A Decade of Reform

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ongoing waves of enterprise-management reforms,. – Broader economic and social reforms pertaining to the environment in which the enterprises operate;. – Ambitious efforts to upgrade the technology of enterprises through the procurement (often from abroad) of advanced production technology; and. – S&T reforms ...

  13. Canada’s 2010 Tax Competitiveness Ranking: Moving to the Average but Biased Against Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duanjie Chen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available For the first time since 1975 (the year Canada’s marginal effective tax rates were first measured, Canada has become the most tax-competitive country among G-7 states with respect to taxation of capital investment. Even more remarkably, Canada accomplished this feat within a mere six years, having previously been the least taxcompetitive G-7 member. Even in comparison to strongly growing emerging economies, Canada’s 2010 marginal effective tax rate on capital is still above average. The planned reductions in federal and provincial corporate taxes by 2013 will reduce Canada’s effective tax rate on new investments to 18.4 percent, below the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD 2010 average and close to the average of the 50 non-OECD countries studied. This remarkable change in Canada’s tax competitiveness must be maintained in the coming years, as countries are continually reducing their business taxation despite the recent fiscal pressures arising from the 2008-9 downturn in the world economy. Many countries have forged ahead with significant reforms designed to increase tax competitiveness and improve tax neutrality including Greece, Israel, Japan, New Zealand, Taiwan and the United Kingdom. The continuing bias in Canada’s corporate income tax structure favouring manufacturing and processing business warrants close scrutiny. Measured by the difference between the marginal effective tax rate on capital between manufacturing and the broad range of service sectors, Canada has the greatest gap in tax burdens between manufacturing and services among OECD countries. Surprisingly, preferential tax treatment (such as fast write-off and investment tax credits favouring only manufacturing and processing activities has become the norm in Canada, although it does not exist in most developed economies.

  14. Study on assessing the environmental fiscal reform potential for the EU28

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogg, Dominic; Elliott, Timothy; Elliott, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    and consumption taxes”. The AGS set out three pillars that it foresaw as underpinning the EU’s economic and social policy for 2015:  A coordinated response to boosting investment;  A renewed commitment to structural reforms; and  The pursuit of fiscal responsibility. Environmental taxes (together...... that this study may feed into the development of the CSRs for 2016. The previous (2015) AGS acknowledged that "employment and growth can be stimulated by shifting the tax burden away from labour towards other types of taxes which are less detrimental to growth, such as recurrent property, environment...... with consumption and recurrent property taxes) are considered less detrimental to growth than other taxes such as on labour or corporate income and are increasingly promoted in the context of economic recovery and growth-friendly fiscal consolidation. The references to more growth friendly tax systems...

  15. The Minnesota income tax compliance experiment: State tax results

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Stephen

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the Minnesota Income Tax Compliance Experiment conducted by the Minnesota Department of Revenue in 1995. The experiment tested alternative strategies to improve voluntary compliance with the state income tax. These strategies included: increased examination and auditing of tax returns with prior notice to taxpayers, enhanced services to taxpayers, information messages in letters sent to taxpayers, and a new M-1 tax form. About 47,000 taxpayers participated in the experim...

  16. Tax morale : theory and empirical analysis of tax compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Torgler, Benno

    2003-01-01

    Tax morale is puzzling in our society. Observations show that tax compliance cannot be satisfactorily explained by the level of enforcement. Other factors may well be relevant. This paper contains a short survey of important theoretical and empirical findings in the tax morale literature, focussing on personal income tax morale. The following three key topics are discussed: moral sentiments, fairness and the relationship between taxpayer and government. The survey stresses the ...

  17. Transaction Taxes, Capital Gains Taxes and House Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole Aregger; Martin Brown; Enzo Rossi

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the search for instruments to contain future housing bubbles, we examine the impact of transaction taxes and capital gains taxes on residential house price growth. We exploit the variation in taxation across Swiss cantons, as well as within-canton changes in taxation over time. We relate these taxes to house price growth observed for 92 regions of the country during the period 1985 - 2009. Our results suggest that higher taxes on capital gains exacerbate house price dynamics whil...

  18. Tax Tips for Forest Landowners for the 2012 Tax Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Wang; John L. Greene

    2012-01-01

    Federal income tax law contains provisions to encourage stewardship and management of private forest land. The primary goal of this bulletin is to assist forest landowners and their advisors with timber tax information they can use to file their 2012 in-come tax returns. The information presented here is current as of Sept. 15, 2012.

  19. Tax Tips for Forest Landowners for the 2006 Tax Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Wang; John L. Greene

    2006-01-01

    This bulletin summarizes key federal income tax provisions related to owning and managing forest land. It is current as of December 1, 2006, and supercedes Management Bulletin R8-MB 126. But it is only an introduction. Consult the references for more complete information on the topics, and consult your tax and legal advisers for advice on your particular tax situation...

  20. Why Property Tax Limitations Won't Limit Everyone's Taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picus, Larry

    Property tax limitation measures passed in 1978 by voters in California and Idaho contain provisions that apparently will reduce the equity of the property tax system in both states. Changes in assessment practices mandated by the new laws will shift the property tax burden away from business and commercial property and toward residential property…

  1. Effects of carbon tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelini, M.

    1992-01-01

    At the recent United Nations Conference held in Rio de Janeiro, a proposal was made by Italy to have surcharges be applied by OECD member countries on fossil fuels (carbon tax), primarily to fund pollution abatement technology transfer to developing countries and promote pollution abatement, energy conservation and the use of renewable energy sources in industrialized countries. This paper assesses how the application of the proposed carbon tax might be successfully combined with additional fiscal policies favouring coal gasification and reforestation so as to provide energy policy strategists of oil-importing countries with a long term economically and environmentally viable alternative to petroleum imports

  2. Sick of Taxes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    I estimate a price elasticity of sickness absence. Sick leave is an intensive margin of labor supply where individuals are free to adjust. I exploit variation in tax rates over two decades, which provide thousands of differential incentives across time and space, to estimate the price responsiven...... of sick leave, -0.7, with respect to the net of tax rate. Though large relative to traditional labor supply elasticities, Swedes are half as price elastic as bike messengers, and just as elastic as stadium vendors on the margin which they can adjust freely....

  3. Final report of the National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission: will we get the health care governance reform we need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoelwinder, Johannes U

    2009-10-05

    The National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission (NHHRC) has recommended that Australia develop a "single health system", governed by the federal government. Steps to achieving this include: a "Healthy Australia Accord" to agree on the reform framework; the progressive takeover of funding of public hospitals by the federal government; and the possible implementation of a consumer-choice health funding model, called "Medicare Select". These proposals face significant implementation issues, and the final solution needs to deal with both financial and political sustainability. If the federal and state governments cannot agree on a reform plan, the Prime Minister may need to go to the electorate for a mandate, which may be shaped by other economic issues such as tax reform and intergenerational challenges.

  4. New Mexico Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  5. Who Pays the Gasoline Tax?

    OpenAIRE

    Chernick, Howard; Reschovsky, Andrew

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes panel data over 11 years (both backward from 1982 and forward from 1982) to determine the average gasoline tax burden. Considers links between economic mobility, gasoline consumption, and excise tax increases.

  6. Do Taxes Produce Better Wine?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    2011-01-01

    Theory predicts that unit taxes increase the quality consumed in a market, since unit taxes reduce the relative price of high quality goods. Ad valorem taxes, on the other hand, have no effect on relative prices, and should not affect product quality. The hypothesis is tested empirically in the U...... wine market. I find that the market share of high quality wine is significantly increased by unit taxes, and that there is no significant effect of ad valorem taxes, in accordance with the hypothesis and previous empirical studies.......Theory predicts that unit taxes increase the quality consumed in a market, since unit taxes reduce the relative price of high quality goods. Ad valorem taxes, on the other hand, have no effect on relative prices, and should not affect product quality. The hypothesis is tested empirically in the US...

  7. Tax Expenditures: A Theoretical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjekoslav Bratić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Tax expenditures are an instrument frequently used when a government wishes to achieve certain economic and social effects. But because of the increasing number and scope of tax expenditures, their proper use, quality of administration and record-keeping have become a major challenge for the tax authorities and the whole of the government. The article considers and explains very diverse forms of tax expenditure such as reliefs, tax deductions, tax allowances, tax exceptions and special rates of taxation and the ways in which they are defined and calculated. The key problems in the analysis are the absence of a single definition and of methodology for the calculations; these ultimately make it impossible to compare tax expenditures between or among countries.

  8. Adjusting export tax rebates to reduce the environmental impacts of trade: Lessons from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peng; Mao, Xianqiang; Corsetti, Gabriel

    2015-09-15

    Export tax rebates are an important policy instrument for stimulating exports, which many developing countries make use of. However, excessive export tax rebates and inappropriate structural arrangements can lead to over-production in highly polluting industries and cause the environment to deteriorate. This paper, taking China as the study case, tests and verifies the statistical significance of the causal relationship between export tax rebates and pollution emissions. With a computable general equilibrium modeling, the current study further analyzes the effectiveness of export tax rebate adjustments aimed at alleviating environmental pressure for different time periods. It is found that before 2003, export tax rebates primarily promoted exports and boosted foreign exchange reserves, and highly polluting sectors enjoyed above-average export tax rebates, which led to increased pollution emissions. Between 2003 and 2010, the export tax rebate system was reformed to reduce support for the highly polluting export sectors, which led to decreases in emissions. Canceling export tax rebates for highly polluting sectors is shown to be the most favorable policy choice for improving the environmental performance of China's international trade. This study can serve as reference for other developing countries which similarly rely on export tax rebates, so that they can adjust their policies so as to combine economic growth with pollution control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Economic Effects Real Estate Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadić Milan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The real estate tax is usually a fiscal instrument which performs the property tax. When it comes to real property or immovable this term include: apartments, houses, land, cottages, excess housing landscape and more. The real estate tax as a form of the fiscal charges ownership or use of certain forms of real estate, and the revenue from this tax is levied on the area where the property is located regardless of the place of residence of its owner. The tax base for the calculation of this tax usually consists of the market, estimated or annuity value of certain real estate. This form of taxation in the Republic of Serbian applies from 1.1.2012., and its introduction has been replaced by former property taxes. The differences between the two concepts mentioned taxes are numerous and significant. Among the more important are: subject to taxation under the new concept of the real estate rather than law, a taxpayer is any property owner rather than the holder of rights to immovable property tax base is the market value of real estate which is replaced by the payment of taxes per square meter of usable area, the rate of property tax is determined local government, which can not be lower than 0.05% of the estimated value of the real estate nor higher than 0.5% of the appraised value of real estate. The last change, ie. The new law on Property Tax from 5.11.2015. was determined by the tax rate to 20%. The fact that local governments each of them determines the tax rate on real estate which range from high to low rates of multiple, makes this tax is progressive. Progression is particularly expressed in the distinction applied tax rates of developed and undeveloped municipalities, where we have a case that less developed tolerate a higher tax burden, which leads to negative economic effects. However, real estate tax has its own economic and social characteristics which must be aligned with the objectives of tax policy. This means that the real estate tax

  10. Interbudgetary Distribution of Taxes in Russia: Concentration of Power or Management Decentralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aleksandrovna Pechenskaya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For Russia as a democratic federal state, federal relations are basic for the whole social development of the country. In this regard, it is particularly important to strike a balance between centripetal and centrifugal forces. The analysis of budget indicators presented in the article revealed the growing process of centralization, which enabled to conclude the low efficiency of the modern mechanism of tax allocation and its non-compliance to the principles of fiscal federalism. The growing budget crisis of the regions and the long-felt need of the structural reforming of Russian tax system require speedy implementation of internal reserves. Among these provisions, Russian scientists including the Institute of Socio-Economic Development of Territories of the Russian Academy of Sciences see the urgent need of the structural reform of the tax system in the Russian Federation. The results of the scientific search for answers to the questions of how and what it is expedient to amend, supplement, and delete in the Russian tax system are presented. In order to create incentives for the territorial authorities to increase the income, the algorithm of the distribution of tax revenue between the federal and regional budgets is developed on the basis of the estimations of the ratio of the volume of tax revenues collected in the region and received by the federal budget. Experimental calculations on the example of 83 subjects of the Russian Federation have identified the existing provisions of tax revenue growth in 36 subjects that could increase revenues by 2 –12 %. The authors have proposed a set of key measures for optimizing the tax incentive policies, involving the development of selective and differential principles of tax incentives, the introduction of compensatory forms of the loss of income as a result of benefits. The main measures to enhance the collection of regional and local property taxes are systematized.

  11. Pending reforms: challenges to governabilty in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Fleury

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available After President Lula’s two terms of office, the election of Dilma Rousseff generated all kinds of different expectations, whether because of the candidate’s lack of a political career within the Workers’ Party (PT, or because of her rather uncharismatic personality and poor propensity towards political negotiations with the allied parties that favoured the governability of the previous term of office. The country she has inherited is in a much better situation than the one inherited by the first PT government, with a stabilised economy and inflation under control. The sustainable policies for reducing poverty have generated conditions that encourage the enlargement of the middle class which, together with the creation of popular credit mechanisms, have served to halt the effects of the world crisis and have generated enormous expectations of social mobility. This scenario, together with the country’s increasingly recognised presence as an important international actor, provides unprecedented possibilities for the advancement of the “development with social inclusion” project. Nevertheless, certain reforms still need to be implemented that could threaten governability: political reform, federative agreement and tax reform, as well as social reforms.

  12. Considerations for the Tax Mix

    OpenAIRE

    BOB HAMILTON; CHUN-YAN KUO; SATYA PODDAR

    1988-01-01

    The paper reviews changes in the tax mix in Canada and several developed countries over the past two decades and outlines the key factors that influence it. The tax mix in Canada is largely similar to other OECD countries with two major exceptions. The first is a larger percentage share of excise and other taxes in Canada than other OECD countries. The second is Canada social security tax share well below the OECD average.

  13. Petroleum tax and financial decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stensland, G.; Sunnevaag, K.

    1993-03-01

    The work presented in this report focuses on tax motivated financial incentives in the Norwegian petroleum tax system. Of particular concern is the effects of the reserve fund requirement in the Joint Stock Companies Act. Our prime concern is the Norwegian petroleum tax system as applicable from January 1992, but for the sake of comparison, we have also examined the ''old'' Norwegian petroleum tax system. The findings presented in this report can be divided in two parts. Based on an overview over the development in debt and equity for the major part of companies operating on the Norwegian continental shelf it seems reasonable to divide the companies in three groups. The first group is companies which is not in a tax paying position, both ''foreign'' and domestic. These companies seem to use debt as their most important capital source. The second group is Norwegian companies in a tax paying position. These companies also seem to use debt as the most important capital source. The last group is ''foreign'' companies in a tax paying position. This is a group of companies that mainly use equity to finance their investments in the offshore sector. The second part of the report tries to explain these observations. In the report we compare the incentive effects in the new petroleum tax system to the old tax system. The incentives to finance investments with debt is stronger in the new tax system. Several explanations emerge. Firstly, in the old tax system the investor got an effective tax deduction of 12.8% for dividends. This is removed in the new system. Secondly, in the new system 78% tax is included in the financial statements after tax profit calculation and the maximum dividend calculation, while in the old tax system the withholding tax was excluded. 31 refs., 13 figs. 2 tabs

  14. 27 CFR 19.21 - Tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax. 19.21 Section 19.21 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Taxes Gallonage Taxes § 19.21 Tax. (a) A tax is imposed by 26 U.S...

  15. Formation of tax culture in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halikova Je.A.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the mechanism of the formation of tax culture in Russia, moral and ethical principles, on which based the work of the tax authorities, given the author's idea of the formation of tax culture. We consider the institution of tax advice, its interaction with the tax authorities and its impact on the formation of tax culture.

  16. Formation of tax culture in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Halikova Je.A.; Ginijatullina D.R.

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the mechanism of the formation of tax culture in Russia, moral and ethical principles, on which based the work of the tax authorities, given the author's idea of the formation of tax culture. We consider the institution of tax advice, its interaction with the tax authorities and its impact on the formation of tax culture.

  17. Tax Culture: A Basic Concept for Tax Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Nerré, Birger

    2008-01-01

    I have suggested not to limit tax-cultural considerations to the side of taxpayers, but to widen its understanding by using an embeddedness approach considering the history of taxation and by that means explicating national tax-cultural diversity (e.g. Nerré 2001b, 2002b, 2006a). In the course of continuing globalization two different kinds of disturbances of tax culture have been identified: tax culture shocks and tax culture lags. Both are due to ignorant and/or ethnocentric policy measures...

  18. Motor Fuel Excise Taxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    A new report from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) explores the role of alternative fuels and energy efficient vehicles in motor fuel taxes. Throughout the United States, it is common practice for federal, state, and local governments to tax motor fuels on a per gallon basis to fund construction and maintenance of our transportation infrastructure. In recent years, however, expenses have outpaced revenues creating substantial funding shortfalls that have required supplemental funding sources. While rising infrastructure costs and the decreasing purchasing power of the gas tax are significant factors contributing to the shortfall, the increased use of alternative fuels and more stringent fuel economy standards are also exacerbating revenue shortfalls. The current dynamic places vehicle efficiency and petroleum use reduction polices at direct odds with policies promoting robust transportation infrastructure. Understanding the energy, transportation, and environmental tradeoffs of motor fuel tax policies can be complicated, but recent experiences at the state level are helping policymakers align their energy and environmental priorities with highway funding requirements.

  19. Taxing market power

    OpenAIRE

    Jaskold Gabszewicz, Jean; Grazzini, Lisa

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the effectiveness of tax and transfer policies in correcting market distortions when the economy is imperfectly competitive. We perform this analysis in the context of an exchange model representing a bilateral oligopoly situation, which constitutes a particular example of a Shapley-Shubik strategic market game.

  20. Earned Income Tax Credit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. van Oers; R.A. de Mooij (Ruud)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractIn recent policy discussions in the Netherlands, the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) has been put forward as an effective instrument to reduce the unemployment rate among low-skilled workers. Using the MIMIC model, this article shows that a targeted EITC at low incomes indeed seems

  1. Economic and tax issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steverson O. Moffat; John L. Greene

    2002-01-01

    Economic conditions and tax policies affect land use decisions everywhere, but their effects on the rate of change in land use are particularly large in the wildland-urban interface. We begin this chapter with a brief economic history of the South and a description of the macroeconomic trends and conditions that affect microeconomics at the wildlandurban interface....

  2. THE IMPLICATIONS OF TAX MORALE ON TAX COMPLIANCE BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichita Ramona-Anca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on the analysis of tax compliance behavior from the tax morale standpoint. We grounded our research on the idea that empirical studies constantly invalidating the assumptions of theoretical models of tax evasion show there are more factors influencing compliance than just the economic ones (e.g., audit probability, fine, tax rate, income. Giving the fact that audit probabilities are generally very low and that tax evasion is not as high as one could expect, tax morale might have to do with the high degrees of tax compliance registered around the world. In a stream of articles on taxation published beginning with the late 60n#8217;s, tax morale defined as the intrinsic motivation to comply or n#8220;internalised obligation to pay taxn#8221; (Braithwaite and Ahmed 2005 has been found to positively relate to tax compliance and negatively relate to shadow economy. This paper attempts to offer a broader view on the influence of tax morale on compliance behavior, covering articles ranging from national and cross-cultural surveys to experimental games. Moreover, the aim of the article is to emphasize the policy implications of tax morale research and the changes governments could make in order to raise the amount of public levies.

  3. Bureaucratic Tax-Seeking: The Danish Waste Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Henrik; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2000-01-01

    Two main results in traditional tax theory states the following. First, general taxes minimize the welfare loss from changed relative prices. Second, because the total public budget tends to exceed the optimal size, a leader (here named 'troop leader') is needed in the budget process to prevent...... over-taxation. Nevertheless, differentiated taxes initiated by individual ministries generate a still larger proportion of total tax revenue, in particular under cover of taxing externalities such as environmental pollution. We suggest that this situation leads to over-taxation for two reasons. First......, the absence of a strong and fully informed troop leader prevents rational coordination of collective action. Second, budget maximization leads to overwhelming fiscal pressure because bureaucracies are competing about resources just like fishermen or hunters (here named 'bureaucratic tax-seeking'). Taxing...

  4. Opening the Schoolhouse Doors: Tax Credits and Educational Access in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Dick M., II.; Erickson, Angela C.

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, Alabama adopted the Alabama Accountability Act, an education reform measure that includes two new school choice programs that extend a lifeline to Alabama students trapped in failing public schools. One program offers a tax credit to help offset the cost of tuition for families who move their children from public schools designated as…

  5. Religious Challenges to School Voucher and Tax Benefit/Scholarship Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Martha

    2016-01-01

    A key component of current school reform efforts focuses on increasing parental choice through voucher systems and programs that provide tax benefits for contributions to scholarship programs for private school tuition. Indeed, proposals to adopt such programs have been or currently are being considered in four-fifths of the states, and about half…

  6. Taxable capacity and effort of Ghana's value-added tax | Andoh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Value-added tax (VAT) has not only brought dynamism in Ghana's revenue mobilisation landscape but also occupies a centre stage in the country's fiscal consolidation efforts. Interestingly, the VAT regime has undergone a number of discretionary reforms in a bid to generate as much revenue as possible for its fiscal ...

  7. The Mid-1990s Earned Income Tax Credit Expansion: EITC and Welfare Caseloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Younghee

    2008-01-01

    Research and policy scholars have suggested that recent welfare caseload reductions have coincided with welfare reform efforts; however, few studies have incorporated the impacts of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) expansions in the 1990s. Using annual state-level administrative data, the author estimated the effects of the fully phased-in…

  8. Crisis or Opportunity: The Urgent Need for Defense Reform in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    lower the overall corporate tax rate, eliminate loopholes, and reduce or eliminate the double taxation of overseas profits. Under current tax code...THE URGENT NEED FOR DEFENSE REFORM IN THE 21ST CENTURY The single biggest threat to national security is the national debt. American taxpayers ...twentieth century the relations among civilizations have thus moved from a phase dominated by the unidirectional impact of one [western] civilization on

  9. U.S. tax policies distorting economics of exploration, development ventures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, C.G.

    1991-01-01

    Since the Tax Reform Act of 1986, crude oil production in the United States has declined over 1.5 million b/d despite interim price increases of over 100%. Exploration and development in the U.S., measured by the drilling rig count, footage drilled, reserves replaced, and seismic crew activity, remain near record lows. Two major factors determine the level of U.S. crude oil production: the price of crude oil and the expected return on investments to find and produce new reserves. This article discusses the impact of the U.S. take (tax and fiscal) system generally, and the alternative minimum tax (AMT) system specifically on new investments to find and produce crude oil in the U.S. Over the last 20 years, important policy concerns have motivated U.S. tax reform. Yet its impact on the petroleum resource base of the country was never fully anticipated. The U.S. tax reform movement dramatically and adversely changed the time within which new oil and gas investments can be recovered. In the process, America's new capital recovery policies have produced both regressive and anticompetitive impacts. The charts presented in this article demonstrate these impacts as crude oil prices, revenues, or profitability decline and as the costs of production increase

  10. Credits and Exemptions for Children. Tax Facts from the Tax Policy Center. Tax Notes[R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    The Earned Income Tax Credit, Child Tax Credit (CTC), Additional Child Tax Credit (ACTC), and the dependent exemption all provide benefits to families with children. In 2009, a single mom (or dad) with two children can receive benefits ranging from $0 to about $7,500--depending on her income, age of the children, and where the children live. While…

  11. The Tax Base And The Tax Bill. Tax Implications of Development: A Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighton, Deb; Northup, Jim

    The property tax base in Vermont's towns are overburdened as property taxes are usually the only funding method available to finance schools, police departments, highway work, recreation programs, and government in general. Attempting to offer their citizens a balanced program of services without exorbitant taxes, local officials are striving to…

  12. China’s Emerging Tax Regime: Local Tax Farming and Central Tax Bureaucracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Zhu (Ze); B. Krug (Barbara)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractChina like other transition economies needs to establish a tax system compatible with a market economy, in particular, an efficient tax administration system with capable tax bureaucrats. The paper singles out the general and China-specific features by which central government attempts

  13. Do Taxes Produce Better Wine?

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Ljunge

    2011-01-01

    Theory predicts that unit taxes increase the quality consumed in a market since unit taxes reduce the relative price of high quality goods. Ad valorem taxes, on the other hand, have no effect on relative prices and should not affect product quality. The hypothesis is tested empirically in the US wine market. I find that the market share of high quality wine is significantly increased by unit taxes and that there is no significant effect of ad valorem taxes, in accordance with the hypothesis a...

  14. Do Taxes Produce Better Wine?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    2011-01-01

    Theory predicts that unit taxes increase the quality consumed in a market, since unit taxes reduce the relative price of high quality goods. Ad valorem taxes, on the other hand, have no effect on relative prices, and should not affect product quality. The hypothesis is tested empirically in the US...... wine market. I find that the market share of high quality wine is significantly increased by unit taxes, and that there is no significant effect of ad valorem taxes, in accordance with the hypothesis and previous empirical studies....

  15. Do Taxes Produce Better Wine?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    Theory predicts that unit taxes increase the quality consumed in a market since unit taxes reduce the relative price of high quality goods. Ad valorem taxes, on the other hand, have no effect on relative prices and should not affect product quality. The hypothesis is tested empirically in the US...... wine market. I find that the market share of high quality wine is significantly increased by unit taxes and that there is no significant effect of ad valorem taxes, in accordance with the hypothesis and previous empirical studies....

  16. Bribes and Business Tax Evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joulfaian, David

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of governance, in particular bribes to tax officials, in shaping business tax compliance behavior in transition economies. The empirical results show that business noncompliance rises with the frequency of tax related bribes. More specifically, the findings from 27 economies suggest that tax evasion thrives when bribes to tax officials are commonplace. These findings are robust to a number of specifications that control for firm and country attributes as well as address the potential endogeneity of bribes.

  17. Product Tax Modelling in INFORGE

    OpenAIRE

    Mönnig, Anke

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the application of INFORGE as an analyzing tool for fiscal policy shocks is introduced by using the example of taxes on products. In recent times, variations of tax rates on product taxes have become rather popular because it is a simple method to consolidate state budget. A detailed modelling of taxes on products is important for further two reasons: (i) they are an important component for the transition from demand at purchasers’ prices to demand at basic prices. (ii) Taxes o...

  18. Export Taxes under Bertrand Duopoly

    OpenAIRE

    David Collie; Roger Clarke

    2006-01-01

    This article analyses export taxes in a Bertrand duopoly with product differentiation, where a home and a foreign firm both export to a third-country market. It is shown that the maximum-revenue export tax always exceeds the optimum-welfare export tax. In a Nash equilibrium in export taxes, the country with the low cost firm imposes the largest export tax. The results under Bertrand duopoly are compared with those under Cournot duopoly. It is shown that the absolute value of the export subsid...

  19. The Influence of Electronic Invoice on Tax Collection and Tax Reform in China

    OpenAIRE

    Bin, Zhang; Shuhua, Wang

    2018-01-01

    Popularization and application of electronic invoice are closely related to the development of global e-commerce and the advent of the digital economy era. The article explores the use of electronic invoice in European Union and China’s Taiwan region and China. The research perspectives of electronic invoices in China and other countries are diverse. These studies have certain forward-looking and systematic character, and put forward a lot of suggestions and measures for the application and m...

  20. Advanced training of tax consultants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adigamova Farida F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to review and analyze the data on the necessity to provide an educational environment for training and advanced training of tax consultants in Russia. The article considers the types of tax consulting, the historical background of training financiers in Russia, as well as identifies conditions determining the significance of tax consulting. The research establishes the connection between the negative attitude to tax payment and tax evasion. The advanced training of tax consultants should be a continuous process as they need to take into account both external and internal taxpayers risks associated with the development of law and law-enforcement practice. Obviously, the training of tax consultants should take into account the experience of developed foreign countries, such as Germany, Austria, Czech Republic, Slovakia and other European countries as well. In Russia, it is necessary to open educational institutions, which will not only be involved in the certification of tax consultants, but also provide training courses. These courses should contribute to constant increase of tax consultants knowledge, consider the tax treatment of economic activities, as well changes in the legislation, economics, finance, accounting, manufacturing processes, which will improve the quality of services provided by tax consultants.

  1. Improving the fiscal role of local taxes and fees in the formation of revenues of local budgets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Mykhailenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Decentralization of power and a significant empowerment of local communities, the provision of fiscal autonomy and financial independence of local budgets, strengthening of material and financial base of local self-government is an objective need for Ukraine. In modern conditions of development of the state economy enhancing the role of local taxes and fees and an increase in the revenue part of local budgets at their expense is the main lever for increased financial independence and financial autonomy of local authorities. Local taxation system must provide local authorities with financial resources to fulfill its mandate. However, local governments are not able to fully satisfy their functions and tasks from local taxes and fees, which requires further research in this area. The aim of the article is to study the role of local taxes and fees in the formation of revenues of local budgets of Ukraine taking into account the innovations of the budget and tax legislation, and making proposals on the reform of local taxation system. The paper used the methods of theoretical and practical generalization, systematic and comparative analysis, statistical methods, grouping, table-graphics. The study reviewed the historical aspects of the formation and development of local taxes and fees in Ukraine, analyzed the innovation budget and tax legislation with respect to the local tax system, their positive and negative consequences. The analysis of the composition and structure of local taxes and fees in the incomes of local budgets of Ukraine for five years. The role of local taxes and fees in the local budget revenues, tax revenues and GDP. The measures to further reform the system of local taxes and fees in the country. Key words: incomes of local budgets, the system of local taxes and fees.

  2. Responsible Investment: Taxes and Paradoxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knuutinen Reijo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxes have become an issue of corporate social responsibility (CSR, but the role of taxation is to some extent an ambiguous and controversial issue in the CSR framework. Similarly, another unclear question is what role investors who are committed to sustainable and responsible investment (SRI see taxes as having on their environmental, social, and governance (ESG agenda. Corporate taxes have an inverse relationship with the return of the investors: taxes paid directly affect what is left on the bottom line, reducing the return of investors. However, investors are now more aware of tax-related risks, which can include different forms of reputation risk. Corporate tax planning may increase the returns, but those increased returns are riskier. This study focuses particularly on the relationship between SRI and taxation. We find that tax matters are considered to be on the ESG agenda, but their role and significance in the ESG analysis is unclear.

  3. Tax Responses in Platform Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kind, Hans Jarle; Köthenbürger, Marko; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    Two-sided platform firms serve distinct customer groups that are connected through interdependent demand, and include major businesses such as the media industry, banking, and the software industry. A well known result of tax incidence is that consumers of a more heavily taxed good pay a higher...... price and thus buy less of the good. The present paper shows that this result need not hold in a two-sided market. On the contrary, a higher ad valorem tax may lower end-user prices and spur sales. Thus, two-sided platform firms may not at all engage in tax shifting via price increases. We further show...... that a higher ad valorem tax may undermine a firm's incentive to differentiate its product from that of its competitors. Finally, we demonstrate that the effects of increasing specific taxes may be the opposite of those of increasing value added taxes....

  4. Businessmen´s tax evasions

    OpenAIRE

    Karásková, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this bachelor thesis is categorize businessmen's tax evasions at personal income tax and find out their portion on total tax evasions. In the first chapter I focus on tax avoidance and tax evasion, causes of tax evasion and his measurement. Next parts of this thesis focus on businessmen's tax evasion at personal income tax. In the second part I describe some very frequented cases of tax evasions revealed by revenue authorities. In the last part I analyse these tax evasions, c...

  5. Do dividend tax cuts lead firms to increase dividends: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Fei Wang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dividend taxation is an important component of investors’ taxes and has attracted the attention of policymakers and financial economists. However, the theory of dividends and the reform of dividend taxation remain a puzzle. This paper analyzes the effect of dividend taxation on firms’ dividend policies. Using a natural experiment and difference-in-difference estimation, we find that China’s dividend tax cut in 2005 led firms to increase their dividend payments. Companies with higher proportions of tradable individual shares or investment fund shares were more likely to increase their dividend payments. However, opportunistic behavior also exists, where companies with higher proportions of shares held by executives were also more likely to increase their dividend payments. These findings support the existence of a causal relationship between China’s tax cut and firms’ increased dividend payments and imply that the reform of dividend taxation in 2005 achieved its goal.

  6. Taxing Consumption or Income: Du Pareil Au Même?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijbren Cnossen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Income and consumption comprise the two main tax bases in most countries, leaving many governments with the perennial dilemma of deciding which ought to be the focus of fiscal policy. However, in Canada the situation is much less ambiguous; the existing Canadian tax regime disproportionately favours direct, income-based taxation, deriving over two-thirds [this includes property tax revenue] of tax revenues from this stream. This paper argues that Canada’s narrow focus on direct taxation leads governments to miss out on the revenuestabilizing effects that a greater emphasis on consumption taxes would bring. Tilting the balance toward indirect consumption taxes like the GST would benefit public revenues because: i demand fluctuates less than income; ii consumption is largely local, reducing tax avoidance; and iii the GST is less amenable to being co-opted for market-distorting political purposes. As income and consumption taxes are broadly similar in their effects, a shift from the former to the latter would have few consequences for Canadian employment, investment and saving. The author provides a summary of income and consumption tax structures in several Western countries with consumption-oriented tax structures to contend that it’s time Canadian governments embraced meaningful tax reform. L’impôt sur le revenu et les taxes à la consommation constituent les deux principales assiettes fiscales dans la plupart des pays, si bien que de nombreux gouvernements sont confrontés en permanence au dilemme de déterminer sur laquelle de ces deux solutions concentrer leurs politiques fiscales. Toutefois, au Canada, la situation est beaucoup moins floue; le régime fiscal canadien favorise de façon disproportionnée l’impôt direct sur le revenu et tire de cette source plus des deux tiers de ses recettes fiscales (cela comprend les impôts fonciers. On soutient ici que le Canada fonde une trop grande part de ces recettes sur l’impôt direct et

  7. Environmental taxes and transaction costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollebergh, Herman R.J.

    1994-06-01

    A well-known tax policy principle in the case of environmental bads holds that optimality would apply to a special class of environmental taxes, the so called Pigovian or effluent taxes (or fees or charges). However, an interesting paradox arises here for effluent taxes are seldom chosen in practical policies by governments. An explanation for this discrepancy is that effluent taxes are generally supposed to bring about the highest amount of transaction costs in order to enforce this kind of tax. This would be caused by the fact that usually large numbers of agents are involved if effluents are taken as the principal tax base. Unfortunately this explanation seems to boomerang for it brings about an impossibility result: effluent taxes can never be first best taxes if transaction costs are allowed. Up till now theoretical economics has not paid much attention to this problem. In contrast this essay offers an explanation for the discrepancy and it shows why the impossibility theorem is a paradox. As soon as one allows for transaction costs in welfare analysis, one not only has to acknowledge that such costs are attached to the internalization device but also to the initial status quo. Moreover, the amount of transaction costs is not independent of the tax contracts themselves, neither are the benefits of regulation through taxation. Accordingly a more general welfare assessment of questions where it is optimal to levy environmental taxes shows that first best Pigovian taxes need not be effluent taxes (even if abatement is possible), although in some cases effluent taxes might still be the best policy option from an economic perspective. 31 refs

  8. The Political Economy of India’s Fiscal Federal System and its Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, M. Govinda; Singh, Nirvikar

    2006-01-01

    This article examines recent and potential reforms in India's fiscal federal system. We summarize key federal institutions in India, including tax and expenditure assignments, and mechanisms for Center-state transfers. We discuss the institutional process by which reforms can and do take place, including the role of academics, political influences, and especially institutions such as the Finance Commission. In contrast to the past, recent commissions have played a greater role in articulating...

  9. Tax Systems and Tax Reforms in South and East Asia: Overview of Tax Systems and main policy issues

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardi, Luigi; Gandullia, Luca; Fumagalli, Laura

    2005-01-01

    South and East Asia are a particularly fast developing world economic areas, and are becoming increasingly more economically integrated. These countries, however, are not homogenous, and are lacking in any supra - national Authority. The total fiscal pressure of South and East Asian countries looks somewhat low when compared to that of countries with a similar per-capita income, pertaining to other economic world areas. However, a smooth Wagner law is confirmed by the data so that fiscal pres...

  10.  Railway Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Holvad, Torben; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    This paper considers railway operations in 23 European countries during 1995-2001, where a series of reform initiatives were launched by the European Commission, and analyses whether these reform initiatives improved the operating efficiency of the railways. Efficiency is measured using Multi-dir...... empirical evidence that accounting separation is important for improving operating efficiency for both material and staff costs, whereas other reforms only influenced one of these factors...

  11. Imperfect tax competition for profits, asymmetric equilibrium and beneficial tax havens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    We present a model of tax competition for real investment and profits and show that the presence of tax havens in some cases increases the tax revenue of countries. In the first part of the paper, we argue that tax competition for profits is likely to be imperfect in the sense that the jurisdiction......-tax countries. In the second part of the paper, we introduce tax havens. Starting from a symmetric equilibrium, tax havens unambiguously reduce the tax revenue of countries due to a ‘leakage effect' - tax havens attract tax base from countries - and a 'competition effect' - the optimal response to the increased...... tax sensitivity of tax bases involves a reduction of tax rates. Starting from an asymmetric equilibrium, however, tax havens also raise the tax revenue of countries through a 'crowding effect' - tax havens make it less attractive to compete for profits and thus induce low-tax countries to become high...

  12. An investigation into the future of discretionary trusts in South Africa: An income tax perspective: Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia M. Brink

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trusts have long been used as an estate planning mechanism, including the avoidance of estate duty and donations tax. In the 2016 National Budget the Minister of Finance indicated that Government was proposing several legislative measures during 2016/2017 to prevent individuals from using a trust to avoid estate duty (and donations tax to a certain extent. Unexpectedly, the 2016 draft Taxation Laws Amendment Bill and the final Amendment Bill did not give effect to any of these proposals, but introduced other less drastic measures to control the abuse of trusts for tax purposes, albeit with the same stated purpose. Aim: The main aim of the study was to clarify the reform proposals (albeit unclear and consequently based on certain assumptions and to compare the reform proposals with the final amendments. This comparison will shed some light on the fairness and appropriateness of the final amendments and, more importantly, on the possibility that the reform proposals published by National Treasury in February 2016 not included in the final amendments will be enacted in the future. This investigation will assist tax practitioners and taxpayers in effective tax and estate planning, given that the reform proposals and final amendments have a possible impact on the future of discretionary trusts in South Africa. Setting: This article examines existing literature in a South African income tax environment. Methods: In order to meet this objective a qualitative approach based on a literature study of pure theoretical aspects was used. Results and conclusion: It was found that should the reform proposals become law, many trusts would become ineffective from a tax-planning perspective and these changes might erode other benefits trusts offer, jeopardising the future of discretionary trusts in South Africa.

  13. TAX RESEARCH Financial Accounting versus Tax Accounting - Tax Rules’ Impact on Investment Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Skender Ahmeti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides guidance for all those interested in research related to tax. In the study are included three main areas dealing with taxes and about taxes: (1 the role of information in corporation tax expenditures under the rules and laws of the country against financial statements according to international accounting standards, (2 case study PTK; how much effective tax and tax on extra profit has it paid (3 the impact of tax rules on investment decisions - the reasons and profits of the company and the host country. We will try to summarize here the three areas of study and come to some conclusions on how to deal with fiscal policy in Kosovo. In addition, we will offer our opinion on some interesting and important questions for future research.

  14. Capping the tax exclusion for employment-based health coverage: implications for employers and workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronstin, Paul

    2009-01-01

    HEALTH CARE TAX CAP: With health reform a major priority of the new 111th Congress and President Barack Obama, this Issue Briefexamines the administrative and implementation issues that arise from one of the major reform proposals: Capping the exclusion of employment-based health coverage from workers' taxable income. The amount that employers contribute toward workers' health coverage is generally excluded, without limit, from workers' taxable income. In addition, workers whose employers sponsor flexible spending accounts are able to pay out-of-pocket expenses with pretax dollars. Employers can also make available a premium conversion arrangement, which allows workers to pay their share of the premium for employment-based coverage with pretax dollars. In 2005, a presidential advisory board concluded that limiting the amount of tax-preferred health coverage could lower overall private-sector health spending. The panel recommended a cap on the amount of employment-based health coverage individuals can exclude from their income tax, as a way to reduce health spending. In his 2008 "Call to Action" for health care reform, Sen. Max Baucus (D-MT), chairman of the Senate Finance Committee, states that "Congress should explore ways to restructure the current tax incentives to encourage more efficient spending on health and to target our tax dollars more effectively and fairly." While a tax cap on health coverage sounds simple, for many employers, it could be difficult to administer and results would vary by employer based on the type of health benefit plan, the size and demographics of their work force, and even where the workers live. The change would be especially difficult for self-insured employers that do not pay insurance premiums, since they would have to set the "premium equivalent" for each worker. This would not only be costly for employers, depending upon the requirements set out by law, but could also create fairness and tax issues for many affected workers

  15. Lesotho - Land Administration Reform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Michigan State University was assigned to design the impact evaluation (IE) of the Land Administration Reform Project (LARP) funded under the Millennium Challenge...

  16. INTERPRETATION OF TAX TREATIES

    OpenAIRE

    Uzeltürk, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Nations benefit economically when their companies work abroad and develop their strength in international markets. Economic power also brings international political power and prestige. When dealing with international business, taxation is one o f the most important problems. Double taxation, which is to tax the same profit by two or more countries, is a serious obstacle that confronts international enterprises. Unless double taxation is avoided it will be difficult for enterprises to conduct...

  17. Energy prices and taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Energy Prices and Taxes contains a major international compilation of energy prices at all market levels: import prices, industry prices and consumer prices. The statistics cover main petroleum products, gas, coal and electricity, giving for imported products an average price both for importing country and country of origin. Every issue includes full notes on sources and methods and a description of price mechanisms in each country

  18. Confidentiality versus transparency in contemporary tax law

    OpenAIRE

    Anđelković, Mileva

    2017-01-01

    Dilemma with regard to defining limit between tax confidentiality and tax transparency is particulary expressed in contemporary tax law. International tax relations indicate that countries tend towards fostering tax transparency with the expect of better collection of taxes and fair distribution of tax burden. The right to secrecy and confidentiality of personal data, as one of the basic rights, guarantees taxpayers that data collected about them shall be used only for the purpose of taxation...

  19. The underground economy in the U.S.A.: preliminary new evidence on the impact of income tax rates (and other factors on aggregate tax evasion 1975-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Cebula

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This empirical study seeks to identify determinants of the underground economy in the U.S. in the form of aggregate federal personal income tax evasion over the period 1975-2008, with a specific focus upon the impact of higher federal income tax rates on tax evasion. In this study, we use the most recent data available on aggregate personal income tax evasion, data that are derived from the General Currency Ratio Model and measured in the form of the ratio of unreported AGI to reported AGI. Most other studies of federal income tax evasion for the U.S. do not use data this current. It is found that the impact of increases in the federal income tax rate on aggregate personal income tax evasion may, on balance, be ambiguous, possibly suggesting that the income effect is negative and outweighs the positive substitution effect for the representative taxpayer. It is also found that the degree of aggregate personal income tax evasion may be an increasing function of the percentage of federal personal income tax returns characterized by itemized deductions and a decreasing function of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (during the first two years of implementation, the ratio of the tax free interest rate yield on high grade municipals to the interest rate yield on ten year Treasury notes, and higher audit rates of filed federal income tax returns (as a measure of risk from tax evasion by IRS personnel. Finally, unpopular wars may provide a secondary benefit for and therefore act as an inducement for greater tax evasion.

  20. Labour market effects of social security contributions reform in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žarković-Rakić Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Serbia the inactivity rate of the working-age population is close to 40%, among the highest in Europe. The country also faces a high informal employment rate of 24%. Previous research has argued that high levels of informality and inactivity are mostly due to a high effective tax wedge at low wage levels caused by a minimum base for calculation of social security contributions (SSC, sudden withdrawal of means-tested benefits once formal income is earned, and low progressivity of income tax. This paper evaluates the impact of the minimum SSC base reform scenarios on labour supply and employment formalization using tax and benefit micro-simulation models together with the structural discrete choice labour supply model based on the Survey on Income and Living Conditions Data. Although we do not find positive employment effects of the reform, it would be premature to deduce that abolishment of the minimum SSC base is not needed. At this stage in our research, until alternative labour-supply modelling is applied, with both sector and hours of work choice alternatives, it is only safe to conclude that the proposed reform will not significantly contribute to the transformation of informal full-time to formal full-time jobs.

  1. Advantages and Disadvantages of Exempting Municipal Bonds from the Federal Income Tax: The U.S. Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban G. DALEHITE

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Romania and other Eastern European countries have undergone dramatic reforms as they have sought to democratize political institutions, develop their economies, rely on private markets for the provision of goods and services, and pursue a course of economic integration with Western European nations (Lazar, 2005. Of course, these reforms have included the complete overhaul of tax and revenue systems (Lazar, 2005. As these tax reforms mature and are adapted to the differing realities of each country, it might be useful to reflect on the experiences and mistakes of countries whose tax systems they have used as blueprint for their own reforms. This is the spirit in which this analysis is written. The article presents a synthesis of the American experience with tax-exempt municipal bonds, and the advantages and disadvantages associated with this tax exemption. The exemption represents a subsidy from the federal government to states and local governments, and as such, it has powerful incentives with implications from the economic and redistributive standpoints. This article explains these implications and how they have been addressed in the U.S.

  2. http://www.revistadestatistica.ro/index.php/effective-management-of-resources-for-environmental-protection-using-taxes-in-the-environmental-policy/

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia CĂPĂŢÎNĂ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of environmental taxes, called green taxes or eco-taxes, are ways to internalize the environmental costs in the prices of goods or services, causing producers and consumers to use resources more efficiently and sustainably. Green taxes or Pigovian taxes, named after their inventor, Arthur Pigou are known as sin taxes and when are applied to the “sin” of pollution they may be called environmental taxes or eco-taxes. Sustainable development can not be sustained without the existence of adequate measures and effective for protection of the environment. The polluter pays principle is a principle embraced by all countries from the desire do not deplete environmental resources, some of which being non-renewable resources, to be used by future generations. Polluters are both individuals and legal entities who must to respond in one way or another for their irresponsible actions, compensating damages, protecting the environment and paying damages for any casualties. Green taxes can generate a tax reform. Any responsible person will try to manage in another way the resources when has to bear consequences. In this regard, the environment can be protected more effectively and more cost effective for citizens. The effects of irresponsible actions of some of us not only affect the environment but also all animals and vegetable bodies inclusive people.

  3. TAX RISK MANAGEMENT IN THE MODEL TAX CONTROL INUNIVERSITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Evloeva M.M.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the features of tax risks in educational institutions. Purpose: To prevent violations of tax laws, reducing the likelihood oftax risks. Methodology: the creation of institutions of higher education in the department of internal fiscal control and the introduction of the method of tax risk management. Results: of the study clarified and systematized the purpose and objectives of fiscal control of higher education institutions have been identified and classified riskoobra...

  4. A tax proposal for a cash flow corporate tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Jerez Barroso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Due to its advantages in terms of neutrality and simplicity, the aim of this paper is to design a tax base for corporation cash flows, as well as to develop its practical implementation.Design/Methodology: The conceptual aspects and the background of tax on corporation tax flows are reviewed and a tax base that levies a charge on the corporation’s economical activities’ cash flow is then proposed. In order to carry this out, a methodological procedure is developed on the basis of the accounting documents that companies must present and through which the stock variables and the accounting documents’ work flow is transformed into cash flow.Findings: An implementation on the basis of the accounting documents that Spanish companies must present. Practical Implications: This paper defines the procedure to follow in order to determine the tax base of a cash flow corporate income tax on the basis of its accounts, which would allow an estimation of this tax figure’s revenue impact.Originality/ Value: The design of a tax base of cash flows for companies. The accounting approximation carried out to determine the cash flows justifies the fact that the tax base proposal is technically possible.

  5. A tax proposal for a cash flow corporate tax

    OpenAIRE

    Lourdes Jerez Barroso; Joaquín Texeira Quirós

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Due to its advantages in terms of neutrality and simplicity, the aim of this paper is to design a tax base for corporation cash flows, as well as to develop its practical implementation.Design/Methodology: The conceptual aspects and the background of tax on corporation tax flows are reviewed and a tax base that levies a charge on the corporation’s economical activities’ cash flow is then proposed. In order to carry this out, a methodological procedure is developed on the basis of the...

  6. Bureaucratic Tax-Seeking: The Danish Waste Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Henrik; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2002-01-01

    model. These suggestions are confirmed by the case of the Danish waste tax with its fixed price approach and perverse incentives compared to that of achieving environmental target levels in a cost-minimising way. Thus, we recommend that bureaucratic institutions should coordinate their tax...... fishermen or hunters (here named "bureaucratic tax-seeking"). Second, the absence of a strong and fully informed troop leader prevents rational coordination of collective action. Taxing citizens or firms is then like harvesting rents from a natural resource and therefore we apply a common-pool resource...

  7. Alcohol Taxes and Birth Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationships between alcohol taxation, drinking during pregnancy, and infant health. Merged data from the US Natality Detailed Files, as well as the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (1985–2002, data regarding state taxes on beer, wine, and liquor, a state- and year-fixed-effect reduced-form regression were used. Results indicate that a one-cent ($0.01 increase in beer taxes decreased the incidence of low-birth-weight by about 1–2 percentage points. The binge drinking participation tax elasticity is −2.5 for beer and wine taxes and −9 for liquor taxes. These results demonstrate the potential intergenerational impact of increasing alcohol taxes.

  8. Ireland unveils petroleum tax measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Ireland's government has introduced detailed petroleum tax legislation designed to boost offshore exploration and development. The petroleum tax measures, published last week and included in the government's omnibus finance bill for 1992, will provide Ireland for the first time a comprehensive petroleum tax regime. They include elements which, in tax terms, will make Ireland a most attractive location for oil and gas exploration and development, the Irish Energy Minister Robert Molloy. He the, Exploration companies will now have the benefit of the certainty of a detailed tax framework and attractive tax rates. Debate on the finance bill has begun in the Irish Dail (parliament). Under Ireland's constitution, the budget bill must be approved and signed by the president by the end of May. Failure to approve a budget bill within that time would mean the current government's collapse

  9. Tax Havens in the Offshore World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu-Bogdan Constantin

    2016-01-01

    Through taxation governments get money to fulfil their role in society. It plays a major role ininvestment decisions and can be also an innoportunity for taxpayers. Tax havens are tax free areasthat have the status of states and function legally. Their main business is to attract money bycreating taxpayers friendly environments and by total secrecy. Panama is the biggest USinfluencedtax haven. Tax evasion through tax havens is illegal and is the evading of declaringand paying taxes. Tax avoidance through tax havens is the legally avoiding of declaring andpaying taxes. Tax havens are not illegal but are immoral because vast amounts of money drainfrom the states around the world to them.

  10. 7 CFR 1925.3 - Servicing taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... each borrower to pay taxes promptly in order to avoid any penalties. Normally, this can be accomplished... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Servicing taxes. 1925.3 Section 1925.3 Agriculture... TAXES Real Estate Tax Servicing § 1925.3 Servicing taxes. (a) The County Supervisor will be responsible...

  11. Waste Tax 1987-1996

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. S.; Dengsøe, N.; Brendstrup, S.

    The report gives an ex-post evaluation of the Danish waste tax from 1987 to 1996. The evaluation shows that the waste tax has had a significant impact on the reductions in taxable waste. The tax has been decisive for the reduction in construction and demolition waste, while for the heavier...... fractions under 'household waste', it has provided an important incentive for separate collection....

  12. Corporate income taxes and entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Block, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    Corporate income taxation influences the quantity and type of entrepreneurship, which in turn affects economic development. Empirical evidence shows that higher corporate income tax rates reduce business density and entrepreneurship entry rates and increase the capital size of new firms. The progressivity of tax rates increases entrepreneurship entry rates, whereas highly complex tax codes reduce them. Policymakers should understand the effects and underlying mechanisms that determine how cor...

  13. The 1990 utility tax conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This article reports on the Sixth Annual Utility Tax Conference held in Washington, D.C. in October. Topics of the conference concerned tax issues associated with depreciable assets, employee benefits plans, valuation on utility property, pollution control, and restructuring and reorganization. Also discussed briefly were the tax changes being considered at that time as part of the negotiation of the details of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act

  14. The Danish Police Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degnegaard, Rex; Mark, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    and private organisations doing business-in-society. The case concerns the reformation of the Danish Police. In 2007 the Danish Police started implementing an extensive reform that affected all parts of the organisation. Despite thorough planning of the process including several change management initiatives...... for organisations to work with transparency and involvement with the aim of upholding and further developing a social responsibility to their environment. This case on the other hand takes an inside-out perspective on social responsibility by illustrating how social responsibility is necessary for public......, the reform process was problematic and the following years were challenging and filled with changes and turbulence. Media, politicians and the police itself directed heavy criticism towards the effects of the reform and reviews of the reform as well as of the work of the police were carried out resulting...

  15. Trade Effects of Export Taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Solleder

    2013-01-01

    Export taxes usage has recently risen. They are widely presumed to affect trade, but the lack of data has prevented a systematic evaluation of their trade effects. Based on a new dataset of tax rates at the product level, this paper estimates the distortionary trade effects of export taxes. The results, which are based on theory-consistent estimation of a structural gravity model, indicate that the elasticity of trade quantities to tax is -1.8 on average, rising to -5.5 for extractive sectors...

  16. Taxes and Bribes in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagger, Pamela; Shively, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Using data from 433 firms operating along Uganda’s charcoal and timber supply chains we investigate patterns of bribe payment and tax collection between supply chain actors and government officials responsible for collecting taxes and fees. We examine the factors associated with the presence and magnitude of bribe and tax payments using a series of bivariate probit and Tobit regression models. We find empirical support for a number of hypotheses related to payments, highlighting the role of queuing, capital-at-risk, favouritism, networks, and role in the supply chain. We also find that taxes crowd-in bribery in the charcoal market. PMID:27274568

  17. MUNICIPAL TAX HARMONIZATION; ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belsy Tortolero

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This research work is a desk study to establish the technical and economic criteria that help to minimize double taxation at the municipal level of this tax in Venezuela, specifically for: industrial taxpayer, the taxpayer eventual merchant and / or walking, and to taxpayer service providers and implementers works on Hence the choice of the Tax Harmonisation Law of Municipal Public power in Article 162 of the Code, and the business tax. The methodology is based on the quantitative paradigm, with documentary research design, descriptive level - explanatory. Concluding that the criteria depend on the connecting factors set forth in the Law, and they are the same governing tax under study.

  18. Property Taxes and Elderly Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Hui

    2010-03-01

    The 2000-05 housing market boom in the U.S. has caused sharp increases in residential property taxes. Housing-rich but income-poor elderly homeowners often complain about rising tax burdens, and anecdotal evidence suggests that some move to reduce their tax burden. There has been little systematic analysis, however, of the link between property tax levels and the mobility rate of elderly homeowners. This paper investigates this link using household-level panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and a newly collected data set on state-provided property tax relief programs. These relief programs generate variation in effective property tax burdens that is not due solely to arguably endogenous local community choices about taxes and expenditure programs. The findings provide evidence suggesting that higher property taxes raise mobility among elderly homeowners. The point estimates from instrumental variable estimation using relief programs to generate instruments suggest that a $100 increase in annual property taxes is associated with a 0.73 percentage point increase in the two-year mobility rate for homeowners over the age of 50. This is an eight percent increase from the baseline two-year mobility rate of nine percent. These results are robust to alternative specifications.

  19. Taxes and Bribes in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagger, Pamela; Shively, Gerald

    Using data from 433 firms operating along Uganda's charcoal and timber supply chains we investigate patterns of bribe payment and tax collection between supply chain actors and government officials responsible for collecting taxes and fees. We examine the factors associated with the presence and magnitude of bribe and tax payments using a series of bivariate probit and Tobit regression models. We find empirical support for a number of hypotheses related to payments, highlighting the role of queuing, capital-at-risk, favouritism, networks, and role in the supply chain. We also find that taxes crowd-in bribery in the charcoal market.

  20. Carbon tax effects on the poor: a SAM-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa, Joana; Ortega, Araceli

    2017-09-01

    A SAM-based price model for Mexico is developed in order to assess the effects of the carbon tax, which was part of the fiscal reform approved in 2014. The model is formulated based on a social accounting matrix (SAM) that distinguishes households by the official poverty condition and geographical area. The main results are that the sector that includes coke, refined petroleum and nuclear fuel shows the highest price increase due to the direct impact of the carbon tax; in addition, air transport and inland transport are the most affected sectors, in an indirect manner, because both employ inputs from the former sector. Also, it is found that welfare diminishes more in the rural strata than in the urban one. In the urban area, the carbon tax is regressive: the negative impact of carbon tax on family welfare is greater on the poorest families.