WorldWideScience

Sample records for tax laws

  1. Tax reforms - taxes without tax laws

    OpenAIRE

    Varma, Vijaya Krushna Varma

    2009-01-01

    All Direct and Indirect taxes accompanied by tax laws, accounting, auditing and tax returns, can be abolished if a new tax system called "TOP Tax system" is adopted and implemented by all nations. Ultimate economic reforms will relieve 7 billion people of the world from the cobweb of ambiguous and complex tax structures, plethora of tax laws, mandatory and cumbersome accounting, auditing, tax returns and consequent quagmire of all tax related cases. Taxation, tax collection, tax enforce...

  2. Tax Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaper, Marcel; Hage, Jaap; Waltermann, Antonia; Akkermans, Bram

    2017-01-01

    Taxes are compulsory, unrequited payments to government. This chapter discusses the goals of taxation and provides an introduction to the most important taxes: taxes on income, taxes on goods and services, and taxes on property. Furthermore, the chapter offers insights to procedural issues of

  3. European tax law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terra, B.J.M.; Wattel, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    This book is intended as a reference book for tax law and EC law pratitioners, tax administrators, academics, the judiciary and tax or Community law policy makers. For students, an abridged student edition textbook is available. The book offers a systematic survey of the tax implications of the EC

  4. Tax Law System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsindeliani, Imeda A.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with consideration of the actual theoretic problems of the subject and system of tax law in Russia. The theoretical approaches to determination of the nature of separate institutes of tax law are represented. The existence of pandect system intax law building as financial law sub-branch of Russia is substantiated. The goal of the…

  5. International Treaties Tax Law in Brazilian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Zampieri Sellmann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available International agreements are the primary source of obligations internationally, whi- ch generate reflections in national law. They have been extremely used in tax harvest because they avoid double taxation and reduce tax burden in international trade. They are formal sources of tax law, which the legislature is expressly recognized in Article 96 of the National Tax Code to set the “tax legislation” expression. Article 98 of the Code determines the supremacy of international tax agreements over national law. Against the odds, international tax agreements do not revoke or modify the national legislation, just limit the effectiveness of national law incompatible with them, with supra-legal hierarchy and infra-constitution. They are above national law, either after or before it is created, and are below the Federal Constitution, so agreements incompatible with it should not be approved by Congress and, if so, they will be subject to declaration of unconstitutionality by the Supreme Court. It is a reporting case the international agreement’s unconstitutio- nality after it is celebrated.

  6. New tax law hobbles tax-exempt hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldblatt, S J

    1982-03-01

    The Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 left tax-exempt hospitals at a significant disadvantage in the competition for capital. Although the new law's accelerated depreciation schedules and liberalized investment tax credits contain some marginal benefits for tax-exempt hospitals, these benefits are probably more than offset by the impact of the law on charitable giving.

  7. Recent Tax Law Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukaszewski, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Describes provisions of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997 as they influence business and personal taxes. Also explains a recent ruling, the IRS Revenue Procedure 96-31, which will benefit businesses which did not claim all the depreciation expenses they were entitled to over the years. (KB)

  8. CONFLICTS IN THE INTERNATIONAL TAX LAW AND ANSWERS OF THE EUROPEAN TAX LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Éva ERDÕS

    2011-01-01

    This study tries to show the essence of the international tax law, and gives a definition of it, as the origine of the international tax conflicts, but secondly the international tax law solved the international tax conflicts. One device of the solving method of the international tax law is the international treaties between the Member States about the avoidance of the double taxation. We should give a definition to the European tax law, as the result of the European tax harmonisation, but th...

  9. Powerful subjects of tax law enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Dementyev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 342.6The subject. Competence of government bodies and their officials in the sphere of application of the tax law is considered in the article.The purpose of research is to determine the ratio of tax enforcement and application of the tax law, as well as the relationship between the concepts “party of tax enforcement” and “participant of tax legal relations”.Main results and scope of their application. The circle of participants of tax legal relations is broader than the circle of parties of tax law enforcement. The participants of tax legal relations are simultaneously the subjects of tax law, because they realize their tax status when enter into the tax relationships. The tax and customs authorities are the undoubted parties of the tax law enforcement.Although the financial authorities at all levels of government are not mentioned by article 9 of the Tax Code of the Russian Federation as participants of tax relations, they are parties of tax enforcement, because they make the agreement for deferment or installment payment of regional and local taxes.Scope of application. Clarification of participants of tax legal relations and determination of their mutual responsibility is essential to effective law enforcement.Conclusion. It was concluded that the scope tax law enforcement is tax proceedings, not administrative proceedings, civil (arbitration proceedings or enforcement proceedings.The application of the tax law is carried out not only in the form of tax relations, but also in relations of other branches of law.

  10. Tax evasion and the law in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enya Matthew Nwocha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper has dealt with the incidence of tax evasion and how the law in Nigeria has tackled the problem. It came against the background of massive tax evasion in the country which has resulted in the loss of needed revenue for development. Most individuals eligible to pay tax are not usually amenable to doing so willingly thereby resulting in tax evasion and tax avoidance. Neglect or refusal to pay tax invariably attracts various ranges of punishment. All of these issues have been discussed in this paper under introduction, conceptual framework, grounds for imposition of tax, statutory provisions on tax evasion, reasons for and implications of tax evasion, recommendations and conclusion. The paper in discussing the subject has focused on the principal tax legislations in the country, namely, the Personal Income Tax Act, Companies Income Tax Act, and the Federal Inland Revenue Service Act.

  11. Powerful subjects of tax law enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Dementyev

    2017-01-01

    УДК 342.6The subject. Competence of government bodies and their officials in the sphere of application of the tax law is considered in the article.The purpose of research is to determine the ratio of tax enforcement and application of the tax law, as well as the relationship between the concepts “party of tax enforcement” and “participant of tax legal relations”.Main results and scope of their application. The circle of participants of tax legal relations is broader than the circle of parties...

  12. Studies in the History of Tax Law, Volume 6

    OpenAIRE

    Tiley, John

    2013-01-01

    These are the papers from the 2012 Cambridge Tax Law History Conference revised and reviewed for publication. The papers include new studies of: income tax law rewrite projects 1914–1956; law and administration in capital allowances 1878– 1950; the 'full amount' in income tax legislation; Sir Josiah Stamp and double income tax; early German income tax treaties and laws concerned with double tax avoidance (1869–1908); the policy of the medicine stamp duty; 'Danegeld' – from Danish tribute to E...

  13. FACTUAL INDETERMINACY IN INTERNATIONAL TAX LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bogenschneider

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal indeterminacy comes in a variety of forms identified here as: (i general legal indeterminacy; (ii factual indeterminacy; and (iii Mach/Feyerabend factual indeterminacy. The concept of general “legal indeterminacy” refers to problems in legal interpretation and has been extensively studied. “Factual indeterminacy” refers to the indeterminacy of facts as a matter of tax law when derived from separately indeterminate fields of law. “Mach/ Feyerabend factual indeterminacy” refers to fact words as derived from legal theory which provide the content for legal interpretation. The “facts” in tax law are not transcendent to law; in addition, the “fact” words of tax law cannot be simply imported from the field of economics. The incremental question of the origins of theory (as discussed by Karl Popper and Albert Einstein is also analyzed here. The theory of tax law originates with “sympathy with experience” or “intellectual love” (tr. Einfühlung of tax law by lawyers as reflected in the special heuristics and practices of the profession. Legal theory accordingly functions in similar fashion to scientific theory where a particular legal theory can be falsified (qua Popper or understood in pluralistic terms by incorporating auxiliary ideas.

  14. Tax Mobilization in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Impact of Tax and Business Law Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Bertinelli, Luisito; Bourgain, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to measuring the influence of business (and tax) law reforms on sub-Saharan African countries tax mobilization ability. Relying on a new business law reform indicator, our results validate the significant impact of corporate law modernization on governmental revenue, and unearth a complementary effect between business and tax law reforms.

  15. European tax law. - [5th ed.] - Student edition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terra, B.J.M.; Wattel, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    This book is intended as a textbook for students reading tax law or EC law. It offers a systematic survey of the tax implications of the EC Treaty and of European integration and of the EC tax harmonization policy, a discussion of the Community tax rules in force, and a discussion of the EC Court's

  16. The Implementation of the AIFMD in Dutch Tax Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, H.; Elink Schuurman, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors explain the amendments to Dutch tax law as a result of the recent implementation of the Alternative Investment Fund Managers Directive. Changes were made to the Dutch Corporate Income Tax Act, the Dutch Dividend Withholding Tax Act and the Dutch General Tax Act. Given

  17. Equality and Tax Law : A Matter of Principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribnau, J.L.M.; Happé, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    Nowadays, tax legislation provides fewer safeguards as regards general principles of justice such as legal certainty, equality, impartiality and neutrality. This article shows that the concept of checks and balances is indispensable in tax law. By reviewing tax legislation, the Netherlands Supreme

  18. International tax planning & prevention of abuse under domestic tax law, tax treaties & EC-law

    OpenAIRE

    De Broe, Luc

    2007-01-01

    PART ONE:THE USE OF CONDUIT & BASE COMPANIES IN INTERNATIONAL TAX PLANNING 1 1. CONDUIT COMPANIES 1 1.1. Treaty shopping 1 1.1.1. Description of the term “Treaty shopping” in relation to conduit companies 1 1.1.2. Basic features of “Treaty Shopping” in relation to conduit companies 6 1.1.2.1. Form of the conduit: company or partnership ? 6 1.1.2.2. Tax considerations in setting up the conduit 8 1.2. Directive shopping 11 1.2.1. Description of the term ...

  19. The nuclear fuels tax is in conformity with constitutional law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faehrmann, Ingo; Ringwald, Roman

    2012-01-01

    There are rulings by three courts of finance concerning the conformity of the nuclear fuels tax with German constitutional law. While the FG Hamburg and FG Munich were in some doubt, the FG Baden-Wuerttemberg was of the opinion that the nuclear fuels tax act is compatible with German constitutional law.

  20. Elements of Compared Law concerning Tax Evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pocora

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The resort to international tax evasion can be explained both through the game, often perverse, of the double taxation, due to the autonomy of the national fiscal regimes, as well as to the fiscal pressures deriving from these. In view of escaping to be subject to two different taxations, the taxpayer wishes actually to avoid them both. And in order to avoid being subject to either of them, he takes cover in the fiscally protected regions. The techniques are numerous and depend on the taxpayer’s imagination. They contain a series of subtle and agile combinations of using the disappearances between the fiscal systems by resorting sometimes to fraudulent mechanisms. This paper aims at analysing the European dimension of the evasion phenomenon, corresponding to some fiscal and social laws that are more favourable.

  1. Study on Practicality of Tax Law Course in Accounting Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lixia; Chang, Zhongxin

    2011-01-01

    Accounting staff play a more and more important role in enterprises and the ability to handle tax related business is one of the necessary abilities of accounting staff. At present, some problems exist in system setting, content teaching, textbook construction, teaching method and so on of tax law course in institutions of higher learning. The…

  2. The effect of enforcing some direct tax law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghodrati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Regarding to the role of tax in the economy as the most stable and constant source of income and also due to the fact that there was no success in achieving fiscal goals by the government during its economic and developmental programs, paying attention to and making effort in this domain is regarded as a necessity in any country. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of enforcing Article 181 of Direct Tax Law on extent of taxpayers’ satisfaction, increase of trust, increase of tax compliance or decrease of tax evasion in Isfahan, Iran. The present study consists of a main hypothesis and four sub-hypotheses. Data were collected from 100 companies regarding their performance during 200 years. Article 181 of Direct Tax Code was implemented upon these companies over the period 2006-2011. Hypotheses of the study were evaluated. The results of the study, in survey and post-event pivot, showed that enforcing Article 181 of Direct Tax Law in Isfahan was effective. However, its effect was not significant regarding increase of taxpayers’ familiarity and acquaintance with Tax Office and its functions in Isfahan; it increased tax compliance, decreased tax evasion by the taxpayers, increased taxpayers’ satisfaction and helped them trust on Tax Office and its performance.

  3. INFLUENCE OF INTERNATIONALIZATION OF TAX LAW ON RUSSIAN TAX LAW ENFORCEMENT IN THE AREA OF CORPORATE TAXATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Ponomareva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject. The influence of internationalization of tax law on Russian tax law enforcement in the area of corporate taxation is considered in the article.The purpose of the paper is to analyze influence of internationalization of tax law on Russian tax law enforcement in the area of corporate taxation.Methodology. The author uses methods of theoretical analysis, particularly the theory of integrative legal consciousness, as well as legal methods, including formal legal method and methods of comparative law.Results, scope of application. The development of Russian tax legislation is influenced by acts of international organizations, primarily the Action Plan aimed at combating base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS.Trends of regulation of corporate taxation in relationships with participation of a foreign element are considered in the article. The main issues of realization of norms in the area of corporate direct taxation are brought into light, and namely, taxation of royalties, intra-group expenses, thin capitalization rules and transfer pricing. Tax agreements concluded by the Russian Federation do not contain special rules aimed at combating abuses (in contrast, for example, from European anti-avoidance rules.In recent years Russian tax law introduced institutions that had been established and applied in the tax law of foreign countries. These processes are moving forward and are characterized by frequent changes of legislation, which indicates that the concept of deoffshorization and implementation of the BEPS plan is not always elaborated at the stage of adoption of bills.Conclusions. The author comes to the conclusion that the most relevant and most controversial issues are taxation of payment of royalties, debt financing and intra-group expenses. The practice of applying the CFC rules is just starts forming. In addition, there is a tendency to increase the quality and quantity of information sources used by tax authorities to collect

  4. Effects on Funding Equity of the Arizona Tax Credit Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Y. Wilson

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the results from the first year (1998 of the Arizona Education Tax Credit program. The tax credit law allows individuals a dollar- for-dollar tax credit of $500 for donations to private schools and a dollar-for-dollar tax credit of $200 for donations to public schools. Although one justification for this statute was that it would help lower income students, the primary beneficiaries of this program tend to be the relatively well off. The author concludes that Arizona's tax credit law increases educational funding inequity in Arizona. Data for 1999, only recently made available, show a 159.1 percent increase in total contributions and an exacerbation of the trends noted here.

  5. Penitence in Terms of Tax Law and Criminal Law Norms: Problems-Approaches-Solution Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burçin BOZDOĞANOĞLU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In our country, despite basis of statement is accepted, determination of reported basis of assessment could be done by tax audition. Located in Tax Law Article 371 penitence and rectification provides the ability to resolve disputes to taxpayer at the administrative stage providing certain conditions, on taxes based on declaration. According to Article 359 of Tax Law, based on the conditions mentioned in Article 371 of the law states with penitence about the status of the penitence to the relevant authorities it is started whether the application of criminal smuggling. So, “payment” condition in Article 371 which is currently taken a place among the conditions to benefit from located penitence institution and tax loss that prevents withdrawal penalty, the issue is not the punishment of trafficking in terms of the current is still in the case of a subject that cannot be agreed upon. However the fate of specified period of time for penitence institute existence of force majeure is controversial issue. In this context; the processing of tax evasion rather than tax loss without penitence institution evaluation of the implementation of equality in taxation. Results can occur within the framework of the provisions on the grounds penitence tax declarations which are not accepted for the reason of given without tax loss rather than a move to focus on the value of properties. In our study, these issues are evaluated, based on tax law and criminal law norms and offers opinions and suggestions for issues raised.

  6. Taxation of Income from Selling Property: Changes of New Income Tax Law Draft

    OpenAIRE

    Canatay HACIKÖYLÜ

    2016-01-01

    There are provisions in Income Tax Law No. 193 and Corporate Tax Law No. 5520 on the nature and taxation of income that real and legal persons acquire from real estate sales. There have been many changes in these provisions over time, but the changes made didnt meet the needs, and they distorted the systematic structure of the Laws. For these and similar reasons, the income tax law draft has been prepared based on Income Tax Law and Corporate Tax Law. With the draft, the Income Tax Law No. 19...

  7. Tax Credit Scholarship Programs and the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Lenford C.; Spearman, Patrick Thomas

    2014-01-01

    After "Zelman v. Simmons-Harris" (2002), civil conflict over use of vouchers and taxes to purchase private education, especially in religious schools, largely remained an issue for state courts' jurisprudence. However, in 2010, it returned to the U.S. Supreme Court when Arizona taxpayers challenged the constitutionality of the state's…

  8. Amendments to the Law on Value Added Tax in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeana Beshi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Main purpose of this paper is to explore and analyze the objectives and effects of amendments in the Law on Value Added Tax (VAT as part of the new fiscal package in Kosovo. This paper is based on a quantitative analysis. Some of the methods used in this paperwork are: historical- , descriptive-, and comparative method. It relies on facts and researches conducted by international organizations, based on productive forces and on the development of economic capacities in general, also a comparative overview of the fiscal policies applied in different states. This paper presents also the challenges of Kosovo, towards EU, by harmonizing tax legislation, fiscal policy and combating tax evasion.

  9. Principles of subsidiarity and proporcionality in tax law enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Ponomareva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject. The principles of subsidiarity proportionality, which serve as the basic principles fordetermining the competence of integration associations, are considered in the article.Aim. The aim of this paper is to analyse the place and the importance of Member States’ obligationsderiving from the EU legal order in order to address the relationships between EU lawand national tax law, as well as to analyse the practice of using of principles of subsidiarity andproportionality by the highest courts of the Russian Federation as a federal state.Methodology. The author uses methods of theoretical analysis, particularly the theory ofintegrative legal consciousness, as well as legal methods, including formal legal method andcomparative law.Results, scope. The exercise of power by the European Union in the areas of shared competencemust respect the principle of subsidiarity. The founding Treaties make clear thatsubsidiarity is a legal enforceable legal principle. However. the case law of the EuropeanCourt of Justice reveals that the enforcement of subsidiarity as a judicial principle has beenineffective.The article examines cross-border loss relief for group companies in the context of EuropeanUnion law and considers how this has affected Member States such as the UK. Thecase law of the Court of Justice is then analysed in an attempt to assess whether some ofthe principles set out in these legislative initiatives found their way to Member State lawsthrough the Court's jurisprudence. Following this, the judicial and legislative response tothe Marks & Spencer judgment in the UK are critically assessed.The practical suggestions are looking at developing EU compatible tax principles to be appliedto cross-border taxation within the EU.Having considered the principles of subsidiarity and proportionality in the context of interactionbetween integration and national tax law, the author suggests directions for improvingthe practice of integration tax law. The

  10. 5½ Problems with Legal Positivism and Tax Law

    OpenAIRE

    Bogenschneider, Bret

    2017-01-01

    This essay is a reply to the famous paper by John Gardner: Legal Positivism: 5½ Myths and the more recent paper by John Prebble: Kelsen, the Principle of Exclusion of Contradictions, and General Anti-Avoidance Rules. The reply is developed from the perspective of tax law where the respective issues are of major significance. The “5½ problems” correspond to Gardner’s arguments and are as follows: (#1) Legal Positivism centers on determining whether a tax law is “legally valid” based on its sou...

  11. The faltering legitimacy of international tax law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, C.A.T.

    2013-01-01

    International taxation has taken a central role in the ongoing political and economic crisis. There is a growing consensus in society that there is a need to change the current rules and norms of international taxation, since the changes in society are not properly reflected in the body of law

  12. 26 CFR 1.6851-2 - Certificates of compliance with income tax laws by departing aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Additions to the Tax, Additional... complied with all of the obligations imposed upon him by the income tax laws. In order to procure such a... to his income tax liability upon presentation to the district director for the internal revenue...

  13. Is tax avoidance the theory of everything in tax Law? A terminological analysis of EU legislation and case law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Öner, Cihat

    The primary goal of this article is to analyze the use of the term ‘tax avoidance’ in the legislative framework and case law of the European Union to point out the absence of a common linguistic approach. The consequences derived from the terminological chaos will also be discussed; thus, the study

  14. Overview of Major Issues of Tax Treaties Law in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedri Peci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze and find out the major issue of tax treaties law in Kosovo. In this analysis we have used the research method of case study. The results of research show that the legal framework for the elimination of double taxation, after 1999, initially started its establishment journey from the United Nations Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK. Taking into consideration the specifications of the political status, the process for the establishment of the unilateral and bilateral legal framework has been made with mistakes, slow and with delays. Following its declaration of independence, Kosovo has paid greater attention to tax treaties. Although double taxation relief in Kosovo may be obtained either unilaterally or under a tax treaty, there remains a lot of work to be done for the completion of the necessary framework for elimination of double taxation. The double taxation relief provided by a tax treaty prevails over the domestic relief. The study is of particular relevance to scholars, tax practitioners, expatriates who work and invest in Kosovo, etc

  15. Overview of Major Issues of Tax Treaties Law in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Bedri Peci

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to analyze and find out the major issue of tax treaties law in Kosovo. In this analysis we have used the research method of case study. The results of research show that the legal framework for the elimination of double taxation, after 1999, initially started its establishment journey from the United Nations Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK). Taking into consideration the specifications of the political status, the process for the establishment of the unilat...

  16. Moral Consideration Regarding the Arizona Tax Credit Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony G. Rud

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available I begin by commenting on the language used, both by the Arizona tax credit law, and by our commentators, and then turn to a discussion of a factor I believe fuels the impetus for sectarian education. I end with a consideration of questions related to the social, cognitive, and moral costs of such privatization, in contrast to a democratic commitment to education.

  17. Misplaying the Angles: A Closer Look at the Illinois Tuition Tax Credit Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Arohi; Wessely, Mike; Mincberg, Elliot

    In 1999, Illinois enacted its tuition tax credit law, which offers tax credits to taxpayers whose own children are attending school, as opposed to tax credits to businesses and/or individuals who contribute to tuition scholarship programs. Recent data suggest that the Illinois tax credit program is benefiting middle- and upper-class families more…

  18. Abuse of law in European tax law: an overview and some recent trends in the direct and indirect tax case law of the ECJ — part 2

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the right of the EU Member States to combat abuse, as defined in the case law of the European Court, in particular, the balance between enforcement of the principle of legal certainty, the right to choose the most favourable fiscal route and the right of states to combat tax avoidance. Part 2 analyses, inter alia, how specific an anti-abuse provisions should be, the burden of proof, tax jurisdiction shopping and the consequences of abuse

  19. Vehicular air pollution and environmental tax law in Brazil: proposed tax restructuring for sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Monteiro Machado de Almeida Penna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a restructuring of taxes in the automotive sector in Brazil in order to foster sustainable development. Personal vehicles, trucks or buses emit gases that contribute to global warming and cause human health problems. There are policies in Brazil to reduce the emission of air pollutants from vehicles; however, these neither punish the polluter nor provide for damage compensation. The Tax Law, with the Constitutional Polluter Pays Principle, is an efficient instrument for State intervention in the economy. The work compared environmental and economic views regarding fuel and both personal and public vehicles. We estimated the environmental benefits of recycling vehicles in use more than 10 years, taking into consideration pollution engendered in the manufacture of a new vehicle. Finally, we propose to unify vehicular taxation when the vehicle is acquired, by ending the ICMS and PIS / COFINS taxes on fuels and instead taxing CIDE-fuels, without reducing overall collection by the Brazilian government. The ensuing revenue would be used for repairing environmental damages. We have also made suggestions for the improvement of public policies to control emissions of atmospheric pollutants.

  20. Abuse of Law in European Tax Law: An Overview and Some Recent Trends in the Direct and Indirect Tax Case Law of the ECJ - part 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, D.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the right of Member States to combat abuse, as defined in ECJ case law, in particular, the balance between enforcement of the principle of legal certainty, the right to choose the most favourable fiscal route and the right of states to combat tax avoidance. Part 1 addresses the

  1. Abuse of Law in European Tax Law: An Overview and Some Recent Trends in the Direct and Indirect Tax Case Law of the ECJ - part 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, D.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the right of Member States to combat abuse, as defined in ECJ case law, in particular, the balance between enforcement of the principle of legal certainty, the right to choose the most favourable fiscal route and the right of states to combat tax avoidance. Part 1, which was

  2. The association of soda sales tax and school nutrition laws: a concordance of policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greathouse, K Leigh; Chriqui, Jamie; Moser, Richard P; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Perna, Frank M

    2014-10-01

    The current research examined the association between state disfavoured tax on soda (i.e. the difference between soda sales tax and the tax on food products generally) and a summary score representing the strength of state laws governing competitive beverages (beverages that compete with the beverages in the federally funded school lunch programme) in US schools. The Classification of Laws Associated with School Students (CLASS) summary score reflected the strength of a state's laws restricting competitive beverages sold in school stores, vending machines, school fundraisers and à la carte cafeteria items. Bridging the Gap (BTG) is a nationally recognized research initiative that provided state-level soda tax data. The main study outcome was the states' competitive beverage summary scores for elementary, middle and high school grade levels, as predicted by the states' disfavoured soda tax. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted, adjusting for year and state. Data from BTG and CLASS were used. BTG and CLASS data from all fifty states and the District of Columbia from 2003 to 2010 were used. A higher disfavoured soda sales tax was generally associated with an increased likelihood of having strong school beverage laws across grade levels, and especially when disfavoured soda sales tax was >5 %. These data suggest a concordance between states' soda taxes and laws governing beverages sold in schools. States with high disfavoured sales tax on soda had stronger competitive beverage laws, indicating that the state sales tax environment may be associated with laws governing beverage policy in schools.

  3. Tax Incentives, Global Tax Fairness and the Development of Tax Law in Developed and Developing Countries: A Multi-Way Flow of Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, Irene; Weber, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    This contribution seeks answers to the following three questions: 1. What does history teach us about the international governance tools regarding tax incentives and about soft or hard law used by supranational organizations in respect of tax incentives? Is there a multi-way flow of concepts,

  4. Taxation of Income from Selling Property: Changes of New Income Tax Law Draft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canatay HACIKÖYLÜ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There are provisions in Income Tax Law No. 193 and Corporate Tax Law No. 5520 on the nature and taxation of income that real and legal persons acquire from real estate sales. There have been many changes in these provisions over time, but the changes made didnt meet the needs, and they distorted the systematic structure of the Laws. For these and similar reasons, the income tax law draft has been prepared based on Income Tax Law and Corporate Tax Law. With the draft, the Income Tax Law No. 193 and the Corporate Tax Law No. 5520 will be abolished. Draft is aimed to regulate the procedures and principles regarding the income tax on the income of real persons and institutions. In this study, the current situation and the regulations of the draft will be discussed. Moreover, It will be evaluate whether the regulations in the draft law are sufficient. Suggestions will be put forth to determine and declare the real value of the property in order to achieve the intended objectives in draft.

  5. Effect of tax laws on mineral exploration in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeYoung, Jr, J H

    1977-06-01

    It is concluded that tax law variations, rather than differences in commodity price changes, have been responsible for shifts in mineral exploration from one political region to another. This view is substantiated by the fact that decreasing mineral exploration in certain parts of Canada has coincided with increased mineral exploration in areas of the USA and in other parts of Canada, and with diversification by mining companies into non-mining activities. It is difficult to analyze separately the effect of all the different considerations facing the managers of the exploration budgets. These decision makers are concerned with the possibility of discovering ore deposits by using available methods; with the costs of finding, acquiring, developing, producing, and marketing mineral commodities; and with expected revenues from product sales. Budget-allocation decisions by those engaged in exploration are influenced by many characteristics of a region including: geology, topography, climate, population density, political structure, applicable legislation on zoning, taxation, and environmental controls, and transportation facilities. The decline in mineral exploration in Canada, particularly in British Columbia, which followed increases in taxes for mining companies has provided policymakers with several examples that should be considered in the development of future mineral policies. These examples are discussed.

  6. Report on the 2016 conference Tax Treaty Case Law Around the Globe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulten, Mart; Jallai, Ave-Geidi

    2016-01-01

    Each year the international conference Tax Treaty Case Law Around the Globe provides a forum to discuss with outstanding experts of the relevant jurisdictions the most important and interesting tax treaty cases which recently have been decided all over the world. This article provides a report on

  7. Ethics of Tax Law Compliance: An Interdisciplinary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Richard G.; Longo, Peter J.; Rioux, Jean W.

    2012-01-01

    The first semester Tax I student seems to be interested in the ethical issue of why citizens should report their income and only take legitimate tax deductions when it is unlikely that anyone will ever know. This paper addresses this issue from an interdisciplinary approach of accounting, philosophy, and political science. The accounting…

  8. Tax savings for your practice. New tax law accelerates depreciation write-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis-Escoffier, Shirley; Quintana, Olga

    2004-04-01

    The Jobs and Growth Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2003 provides benefits for your medical group practice by quadrupling the expensing deduction and increasing additional first-year bonus depreciation. These increases are not permanent--some expire as soon as the end of 2004. So now is the time to start planning to maximize the tax-saving benefits for your practice.

  9. A multilateral tax treaty : designing an instrument to modernise international tax law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuijsen, D.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this book, the author addresses the legal and political aspects of a multilateral tax treaty that fundamentally transforms the way states cooperate in the field of international taxation. Working from a normative and pragmatic view on international tax relations, he proposes a management-focused

  10. Nationality non-discrimination in Serbian tax treaty law

    OpenAIRE

    Kostić Svetislav V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the nationality non-discrimination provision in Serbian double taxation treaties. First the author analyses the historical development of the nationality non-discrimination clause found the in the OECD Model Tax Convention and illustrates the dilemmas related to its interpretation, particularly the relevance of residence of taxpayers for comparability purposes and the application of Art. 24.1 of the OECD Model Tax Convention. Subsequently, the author turns his attention ...

  11. Zakat as Tax on the Perspective of Islamic Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Bahri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Zakat as one of the pillars in Islam with dimensions ubudiyyah, ijtimaiyyah and iqtishadiyyah. As a country with the largest Muslim population in the world, Indonesia will potential benefit in zakat management. Based on calculation, the number of Muslim population will produce more zakat to increase ummah well-being in the zakat is managed in professional and accountable ways.  Majority of zakat management problems includes limited qualified human skills and human resources (HR in zakat management. In addition,  weak regulations has also resulted in slow improvment in the optimization of zakat management. As a solution to the chronic problem is to provide urgent solutions in the zakat management organization (OPZ. This includes the involvement of stakeholders (government in regulating the mechanism of zakat management and promoting public education about the obligations of zakat contribution. The position of zakat profession in Islam has similar position with other zakat income. As the result, the most accurate term given to  zakat profession is zakat income (kasab. While the position between zakat and tax, there are three arguments: First, zakat and taxes are equally paid by every taxpayer and zakat obligators. Second, a Muslim chooses either of the two instruments: paying zakat or paying taxes only. Third, a muslim chooses one between; zakat or taxes, and assume his/her choices are representative of both. If he/she pays taxes, then he/she considers the tax as zakat from his property.

  12. A multilateral tax treaty: designing an instrument to modernise international tax law

    OpenAIRE

    Broekhuijsen, D.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this book, the author addresses the legal and political aspects of a multilateral tax treaty that fundamentally transforms the way states cooperate in the field of international taxation. Working from a normative and pragmatic view on international tax relations, he proposes a management-focused approach to multilateral cooperation in international taxation. The resulting managerial framework treaty is drawn up on the basis of insights from political science and legal philosophy and is ill...

  13. TEACHING AND WRITING TAX LAW IN ETHIOPIA: EXHIBIT 'B' FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    has been, at least since the recent past13, the principal factor in the dearth of ... long article by Taddese Lencho on VAT exemption of financial services15 was ... Ethiopia 1; Misrak Tesfaye (2008), Ethiopian Tax Accounting: Theory and ...

  14. Slovak Income Tax Legislation in Terms of EU Secondary Law Transposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajčírová Renáta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the integration process of implementation of European Union secondary law into the Slovak tax legislation. In particular, the article analyses whether provisions of (i EU Parent Subsidiary Directive, (ii EU Interest and Royalty Directive and (iii EU Merger Directive are implemented into the Slovak Income Tax Act. Following our research, it should be noted that in general, the Slovak tax legislation has adopted the EU secondary law, in particular, the Parent Subsidiary and Interest and Royalty Directives have been implemented. It should be noted that the profit distributions are not subject to tax in Slovakia. It follows that interest and royalty are not subject to tax and is applicable to EU associated companies. Following the Slovak implementation of EU Merger Directive, merger transactions are generally treated as not giving rise to a capital gain. As a result, according to the Slovak Income Tax Act the income received by shareholders from acquiring new shares and income from exchange of the shares on merger transaction is not subject to income tax.

  15. The Principles of Tax Law Equality in The Context of Direct Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Jarczok-Guzy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - The purpose of this article is a presentation of the principles of tax law equality with the aim of establishing the significance of these rules for the system of direct taxation in Poland. Only forms of taxation have been selected to conduct this analysis because they offer the most transparent and variegated picture of the real tax burden. Design/methodology/approach - The article follows the method of economic comparative analysis and offers a review of available literature on the subject. Findings - This analysis proves that the choice of different types of income taxation for natural persons conducting business activity has influence on tax burden. Research implications/limitations - The system of direct taxation in Poland has problems with equality rules because of different tax rates and tax returns which are available in Polish law. Originality/value/contribution - This article presents the problem of tax law equality in the context of economic theories developed by selected economists.

  16. Nationality non-discrimination in Serbian tax treaty law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Svetislav V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the nationality non-discrimination provision in Serbian double taxation treaties. First the author analyses the historical development of the nationality non-discrimination clause found the in the OECD Model Tax Convention and illustrates the dilemmas related to its interpretation, particularly the relevance of residence of taxpayers for comparability purposes and the application of Art. 24.1 of the OECD Model Tax Convention. Subsequently, the author turns his attention to the solutions found in Serbian double taxation treaties which are methodologically divided into three groups. One of them stands out as the most notable, being unique in global terms: double taxation treaties which provide for a prohibition of discriminatory treatment based on residence. The author critically addresses the fundamental flaws of the Serbian double taxation treaty policy which are recognized thorough a detailed scrutiny of the relevant norms of these international agreements.

  17. Relation of criminal offence of tax evasion and criminal offence of non-payment of withholding tax in Serbian criminal law

    OpenAIRE

    Kulić, Mirko; Milošević, Goran

    2011-01-01

    Countries often resort to tightening of criminal sanctions against those who do not fulfill their tax obligations on time. Instead of more organized undertaking of measures to eliminate the causes of tax crime, Serbia seeks to solve the problem by upgrading the criminal legislation. There are six criminal offences which provide for criminal law protection of public revenues. Among these criminal offences, the central place belongs to the criminal offence of tax evasion and criminal offence of...

  18. THE RAPID FUSION AFTER AN LBO COMPARATIVE TAX LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed EL GDAIHI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Practitioners refer to "fast fusion" as the action, of acquisition of controlling interest with leverage effect, which results in the fusion of the acquired company with the mother company. The aim of such a merger may be financial as the buyer captures not only the outcome of the takeover company but directly its liquidity, the repayment of the loan would be made not only by way of a divided but by direct use of the entire cash flow of the target via the merged firm. Moreover, such a transaction will enable the banker, as last lender to the holding, to directly take a guarantee over the assets of the target. However, the fusion is essentially driven by a desire for tax optimization; it will impute the expenses of the holding on the taxable profits of the acquired company. This process of rapid fusion is very interesting from a tax point of view, but its admission was controversial by the jurisprudence, which by hypothesis is important because this holding was indebted so as to obtain a maximum leverage. This company was chosen in particular because of its ability to pay dividends to the holding regularly to enable it to meet the deadlines of the loan.

  19. Vergi Hukukunda Tebligatta Yeni Bir Uygulama: Elektronik Tebligat(A Recent Implementation in Notification in Tax Law: Electronic Notification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice YURTSEVER

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tax-basis documents are to be notified to tax payers via various manners and methods. Timely notification is important on the basis of people given enough time and instruments for their right to legal remedies to be carried into effect. Notifications regarding tax collection are carried out according to Tax Precedure Law whereas notifications regarding tax trials for tax disputes are carried out according to Notification Law. In order to solve notification related problems, an analogy should be drawn between Tax Precedure Law and Notification Law. Also, in the case of notifications via traditional methods, it is seen that significant information for tax payers may not be delivered on time and therefore tax claim collections may be legally impossible. Within this framework, in order to provide timely taxation and complete the taxation procedure, by virtue of the development in IT, electronic notification in addition to the said notification methods should take place in regulations. It is obvious that electronic notification would be safer and faster in comparison to the physical notification methods. Notification taking days through traditinional notification methods could be received by the addressee via e-notification in such a swift way.

  20. Stimulation of investment in international energy through Nigerian tax exemption laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osimiri, U.J.

    2002-01-01

    This article assesses the impact of recent tax exemption legislation as a vehicle for the attraction of investment in the quest for the development of international energy in Nigeria, particularly oil and gas. It seeks to argue that generous tax incentives are the most successful method of inducement of foreign investors, judging from the rising profile in the expansion of investment in the gas sector and the attendant increase in world trade. It attempts to assert that tax incentives alone, without the combination of other favourable factors, like political stability, observance of the rule of law and deregulation or trade liberalisation, cannot produce the desired result of local industrialisation and integration into the world economy. (author)

  1. EuGH: Innocuousness of the nuclear fuel tax according to the European community law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2015-01-01

    The tax levied on nuclear fuel in Germany does not contravene European law. This was the conclusion of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) on 4 June. The ECJ has now, for the first time, made a clear decision on the admissibility of preliminary ruling proceedings referred to the ECJ and to the domestic constitutional court in parallel: Article 267 TFEU not only entitles the domestic court but even obliges it to submit issues that are decisive for the dispute to the European Court of Justice for interpretation or a decision on the applicability of European law. Such an obligation and the issue of incompatibility with European law did not depend on whether the same provision had been submitted to the domestic court for review or not. After all, even if a provision has been declared unconstitutional under domestic law it will still remain applicable for a certain period of time.

  2. A study on the conflict and intertwine of the accounting standards and the tax law in asset losses

    OpenAIRE

    小林, 裕明

    2011-01-01

    This paper first refers to the key concept of recognition of asset losses under the corporate tax law. The tax law basically restricts the loss deduction and imposes requirements of "settlements" with a fact of physical ormonetary damage for the special loss deduction unless potential nonrecognized losses may be deducted under the accounting standards from the viewpoint of disclosure for asset fair values. This loss deduction rule is derived from the foreseeability and legal stability in calc...

  3. Legal solutions to the conflict between equity of income redistribution and economic efficiency of taxation in relation to personal income tax law in Thailand and the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Rodjun, Jirasak

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine and compare Thai and UK income tax laws to establish how they cause conflict between equity of income redistribution and efficiency of taxation. This thesis also aims to validate theories that optimal tax structures and efficient tax legislation and administration can resolve the conflict. There are six chapters: Chapter One reviews concepts of equity and efficiency. Research in the components of income tax Jaw to establish optimal tax structures (...

  4. THE PRINCIPLE OF NON-RETROACTIVITY OF CIVIL LAW - DEVIATIONS IDENTIFIED IN THE MATTER OF TAX LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Simona Căpăţînă (Dumitrache

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to examine the effects of the principle of non-retroactivity of law. While the first section deals with the principle of non-retroactivity of the law in terms of Romanian civil law, the next section presents cases of compliance, but also several cases of violation/breach of the principle enunciated, identified in the tax matter. By researching the date when legal acts or deeds are concluded or, as the case may be, committed or produced, in relation to the effects of the new law over them, we are submitting to a non-retroactivity test some texts from tax laws governing the obligation of the taxpayers to pay tax on profit when no longer meet the conditions to be micro -enterprises, obligation of the individuals without revenue to pay social health insurance contributions, the obligations of the persons carrying out transactions with related parties to draw up transfer pricing file. The effect of the facta pendentia situation is presented and analyzed on a specific case of transfer pricing, which may be misinterpreted as a breach of the principle of non-retroactivity of the law. Precisely for this reason the conclusions present utility both for law theorists and practitioners.

  5. The American Law Institutes Reporter’s Study of Corporate Tax Integration: A Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-14

    retains current corporate income tax as a withholding mechanism for payment of the shareholder level tax, as a measure to ensure compliance, and as a...the burden of the corporate income tax will fall only on retained earnings." The immediate result of this method is more cash in hands of the...would convert the corporate income tax into a withholding mechanism for an ultimate tax on corporate source income at the shareholder level.9 Professor

  6. Funding Charities Through Tax Law: When Should a Donation Qualify for Donation Incentives?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Parachin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Canadian income tax law provides incentives for taxpayers to make charitable donations. Since only those donations to charities qualifying as charitable “gifts” are eligible for donation incentives, the definition of gift bodes significant revenue implications for charities and government alike. The Income Tax Act does not, however, define the term gift. The tests applied by courts and regulators to identify gifts in the absence of a statutory definition are contradictory, unnecessarily restrictive, and inconsistent with the tax policy behind donation incentives. The recent attempt to improve the law through the proposed “split-receipting” rules has achieved little in the way of meaningful reform. The ideal solution is to adopt a statutory definition of “charitable donation” that will both broaden and clarify the range of eligible donations. / La loi canadienne de l’impôt sur le revenu prévoit des incitatifs visant à encourager les contribuables à faire des dons. Étant donné que seuls les dons faits aux oeuvres de bienfaisance qui se qualifient en tant que « dons » de bienfaisance peuvent donner droit à ces incitatifs, la définition du terme « don » est porteuse d’importantes répercussions fiscales, tant pour les organisations caritatives que pour le gouvernement. Toutefois, la Loi de l’impôt sur le revenu ne définit pas le terme « don ». Les critères appliqués par les cours et les autorités de réglementation pour identifier ce qui constitue un don, en l’absence d’une définition établie par la loi, sont contradictoires, inutilement restrictives et incohérentes avec la politique fiscale concernant les incitatifs accordés au titre des dons de bienfaisance. La récente tentative d’améliorer la loi avec les règles proposées sur le fractionnement des reçus n’a eu que peu de résultats pour mener à une réforme significative. La solution idéale est d’adopter une définition législative du

  7. Tax Law Asymmetries and Income Shifting : Evidence From Japanese Capital Keiretsu

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuki Onji; David Vera

    2008-01-01

    When positive and negative income are treated asymmetrically under a corporate income tax (CIT) without allowance for group taxation, a group of affi liated corporations may engage in tax avoidance by shifting income from profi table to unprofi table subsidiaries for the sole purpose of minimising the sum of tax liabilities of the group members. The aim of this paper is to offer systematic evidence on the behavioural response to a tax penalty that arises from doing business in multiple entiti...

  8. Stuck in Neutral: Stalled Progress in Statewide Comprehensive Smoke-Free Laws and Cigarette Excise Taxes, United States, 2000–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Brian A.; Babb, Stephen D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Increasing tobacco excise taxes and implementing comprehensive smoke-free laws are two of the most effective population-level strategies to reduce tobacco use, prevent tobacco use initiation, and protect nonsmokers from secondhand smoke. We examined state laws related to smoke-free buildings and to cigarette excise taxes from 2000 through 2014 to see how implementation of these laws from 2000 through 2009 differs from implementation in more recent years (2010–2014). Methods We used legislative data from LexisNexis, an online legal research database, to examine changes in statewide smoke-free laws and cigarette excise taxes in effect from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2014. A comprehensive smoke-free law was defined as a statewide law prohibiting smoking in all indoor areas of private work sites, restaurants, and bars. Results From 2000 through 2009, 21 states and the District of Columbia implemented comprehensive smoke-free laws prohibiting smoking in work sites, restaurants, and bars. In 2010, 4 states implemented comprehensive smoke-free laws. The last state to implement a comprehensive smoke-free law was North Dakota in 2012, bringing the total number to 26 states and the District of Columbia. From 2000 through 2009, 46 states and the District of Columbia implemented laws increasing their cigarette excise tax, which increased the national average state excise tax rate by $0.92. However, from 2010 through 2014, only 14 states and the District of Columbia increased their excise tax, which increased the national average state excise tax rate by $0.20. Conclusion The recent stall in progress in enacting and implementing statewide comprehensive smoke-free laws and increasing cigarette excise taxes may undermine tobacco prevention and control efforts in the United States, undercutting efforts to reduce tobacco use, exposure to secondhand smoke, health disparities, and tobacco-related illness and death. PMID:27309417

  9. Tax policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    This report contains information on the effects of additional tax incentives for the petroleum production industry. It considers the effects of additional incentives on petroleum production and federal revenues, the federal tax burden on new domestic petroleum production investments under current law, and the comparative tax treatment of petroleum production investments in the United States and other nations

  10. Generation Shifting and the Principle of Continuity in Norwegian Tax Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmer Frederik

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With effect as from 1st January 2014 Norway abolished the inheritance tax and introduced the so-called continuity principle in income taxation. This means that heirs and receivers of gifts step into the tax basis and other tax positions of the giver and the deceased. Some additional requirements apply to some tax positions, in particular tax positions not related to assets (typically deferral of capital gains and carry forward of losses. Dwelling-houses and farms and forestries which the deceased or the giver could have sold without capital gains taxation is excepted.

  11. Tax Havens: International Tax Avoidance and Evasion

    OpenAIRE

    Gravelle, Jane G.

    2009-01-01

    The federal government loses both individual and corporate income tax revenue from the shifting of profits and income into low-tax countries, often referred to as tax havens. Tax havens are located around the world with concentrations in the Caribbean and Europe. Corporate profit shifting may cost up to $60 billion in revenue and remedies are likely to involve tax law changes. Individual income tax losses more often arise from tax evasion, and are facilitated by the lack of information report...

  12. TOP TAX SYSTEM - A common tax system for all nations

    OpenAIRE

    VIJAYA KRUSHNA VARMA

    2011-01-01

    TOP Tax system is a new tax system which can be used as a common tax system for all nations. This new tax system will be without present tax system’s all Direct and Indirect taxes accompanied by tax laws, tax exemptions, multiple tax collection departments to relieve 7 billion people of the world from the cobweb of ambiguous and complex tax structures, plethora of tax laws, mandatory and cumbersome accounting, auditing, tax returns and consequent quagmire of all tax related cases. Taxation, t...

  13. The impact of European Union law on the possibilities of European Union Member States to adapt international tax rules to the business models of multinational enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, S.; Kardachaki, A.

    2016-01-01

    European Union (EU) law has played a key role in enforcing the EU BEPS agenda, while also introducing limits to the application thereof. The European Commission (EC) sees a clear link between aggressive tax planning and competition law. Against this background, EU State aid law has been employed to

  14. CFC legislation and its compliance with Community Law : Sweden's lack of double CFC tax relief

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Evelina

    2009-01-01

    CFC legislation has become an instrument to protect national tax bases and minimize the abusive effects of international tax planning. The Swedish CFC legislation is found in chapter 39a of the ITA whereas it is established under what circumstances CFC taxation can arise. If a shareholder of a foreign legal entity is liable of CFC taxation in Sweden such a holder is also entitled to deduct tax paid by the CFC abroad. The purpose of the granted tax credit is to avoid double taxation, although ...

  15. Income Tax Law: U.S. Armed Forces Training: Course Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Internal Revenue Service (Dept. of Treasury), Washington, DC.

    The course book contains eight lessons designed for military Personnel learning how to properly prepare their U.S. Income Tax returns. The lessons cover the following subjects: requirments for filing returns of income and declaration of estimated tax; exemptions; gross income; exclusions and deductions to arrive at adjusted gross income;…

  16. Income Tax Law: U.S. Armed Forces Training: Instructor Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Internal Revenue Service (Dept. of Treasury), Washington, DC.

    The instructor's guide provides eight detailed lesson plans for instructing military personnel in the preparation of their U.S. Income Tax Returns. The plans cover the following subjects: requirements for filing returns of income and declaration of estimated tax; exemptions; gross income; exclusions and deductions to arrive at adjusted gross…

  17. The importance and effects of BEPS multilateral convention in international tax law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Dejan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Multilateral Convention to Implement Tax Treaty Related Measures to Prevent Base Erosion and Profit Shifting is a result of the BEPS project carried out by the OECD and G20. The object and purpose of the BEPS Multilateral Convention is swift and consistent implementation of the agreed solutions aimed at preventing tax evasion or avoidance via modifications of the existing bilateral tax treaties, while providing for a high level of flexibility in the implementation. Signed on 7 June 2017, the Convention encompasses provisions on hybrid mismatches, treaty abuse, avoidance of permanent establishment status, improving dispute resolution and arbitration. The first four groups of norms have a bilateral impact on the relations between contracting jurisdictions regulated by their covered tax agreements; the effect of the optional provisions on arbitration is multilateral. The Convention contains two minimum standards each party is required to include in its covered tax agreements in an offered manner. The first one refers to the prevention of treaty shopping arrangements, while the second one concerns improvements in the dispute resolution. The flexibility is assured by granting each party the right to specify the tax treaties to which the Convention applies, to opt out of a wide range of provisions (apart from the minimum standards set out in the Convention as eligible for reservations, as well as to select an offered alternative. Serbia's position vis-à-vis the given choices has been elaborated. Serbia specified all its tax treaties as the 'covered tax agreements' but Germany, Switzerland and Sweden did not do the same with their respective treaties with Serbia. Serbia opted out of five articles of the Convention. While not contesting its importance, one may conclude that the Convention does not represent an announcement of a new multilateral tax order but rather a multilateral agreement of a number of states motivated by practical considerations.

  18. No. 3063. Proposal of law aiming at establishing an exceptional tax on the excessive profits of petroleum groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartzenberg, R.G.

    2006-05-01

    The profits made by the six main oil companies (ExxonMobil, Shell, BP, Chevron, Philips and Total) reached 121 billion US$ in 2005, i.e. two times the gross domestic product of a country like Bulgaria. The beneficiaries of these profits are mainly the shareholders while a small part only is reinvested by oil companies in production capacities (the lack of refining capacities would be responsible for a third of the rise of petroleum products price). Considering the recent increase of automotive and space heating fuels price, this situation appears as neither legitimate, nor conformable with the general interest. The aim of this proposal of law is the establishment of a tax on excessive profits of oil companies. This tax would contribute to reduce the petroleum dependence of France and to prepare the French economy and society to the 'after-petroleum' era (development of collective transport systems, financing of research on alternate energy sources). (J.S.)

  19. Tax Law Enforcement Sebagai Upaya Optimalisasi Penerimaan Pajak Negara Ditinjau Melalui Tingkat Kepatuhan Wajib Pajak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur Martian Fajar

    2016-03-01

    mengalami peningkatan. Selama kurun waktu tersebut, 105 kasus telah dinyatakan lengkap oleh kejaksaan (P-21 dan 85 di antaranya telah divonis di pengadilan dengan total putusan denda pidana berkisar Rp. 4,36 triliun. Pada tahun 2008 jumlah wajib pajak terdaftar sebanyak 10.682.099, pada tahun 2009 jumlah wajib pajak terdaftar sebanyak 15.911.576, pada tahun 2010 jumlah wajib pajak terdaftar sebanyak 19.112.590, pada tahun 2011 jumlah wajib pajak terdaftar sebanyak 22.319.073, dan pada tahun 2012 jumlah wajib pajak terdaftar sebanyak 24.812.569. Dapat diketahui bahwa jumlah wajib pajak terdaftar pada setiap tahunnya mengalami kenaikan. Selama 4 tahun terakhir (2010-2013 terjadi peningkatan jumlah penyampaian SPT Tahunan PPh walaupun secara persentase rasio kepatuhan terjadi penurunan di tahun 2011 dan 2012 dibandingkan dengan tahun 2010. Realisasi penerimaan pajak masih jauh dari optimal. Dalam hal ini pemerintah perlu melakukan kontrol yang memadai dalam pemerataan terhadap daerah dan seluruh lapisan masyarakat demi meningkatkan dan menggali potensi pajak yang seharusnya masih dapat diterima oleh masyarakat   Kata Kunci :    Tax Law Enforcement, Kepatuhan Wajib Pajak, Penerimaan Pajak

  20. Constitutional principle of equality of citizens before the law in the Montenegrin tax system: The assessment of constitutionality of the Law on fees (taxes on services of public interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilija Vukčević

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper elaborates the application of general constitutional principle of equality before the law in the area of taxation. The issue of the constitutionality of the Law on fees on access to certain services of public interest and on consumption of tobacco products and acoustic and electro acoustic devices represents the most comprehensive analysis of the subject matter. In this case, the Constitutional Court of Montenegro, among other awkward conclusions, has ruled that there is no constitutional basis for the application of the principle of ability-to-pay and the principle of proportionality in the area of taxation. This strange reasoning is the resemblance of the settled case practice of the Constitutional Court of Montenegro of evading the interference in issues related to constitutionality in tax matters. According to the Constitutional Court of Montenegro, such standing is the consequence of scarce constitutional provisions relating to taxation (e.g. there is no ex lege principle of ability-to-pay in the Constitution of Montenegro. In this way, Constitutional Court of Montenegro, intentionally or by accident, has placed this part of Montenegrin legal system out of its jurisdiction. This reasoning is unacceptable since, to certain extent, it undermines the whole legal system. By doing so, the Constitutional Court of Montenegro puts the Parliament of Montenegro out of the constitutional boundaries of Montenegrin legal system regarding the area of taxation, and gives the legislator the possibility to act without any constitutional control. This reluctance of the Constitutional Court of Montenegro can be attributed to the insufficient understanding of this sophisticated area of the legal system and the fear of delivering wrong decisions, or it can be interpreted as a deliberate retreat in front of the demand for unlimited powers exercised by the legislator in tax matters.

  1. Concept of Tax Advising Within Tax Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Svitlana Bychkova; Makarova Nadiya

    2013-01-01

    Tax advising is strictly individual service requiring knowledge in the fields of law, tax and accounting. Tax advising includes not only advising on taxation models depending on the economic entity type of activity, but it also deals with issues of tax optimization. In the article the authors have offered their views on the concept of tax consulting in the area of tax optimization (tax planning). The subject matter has been a set of the most rational and important settings that allow you to u...

  2. Petroleum production contracts of the oil exporting developing countries with US petroleum companies, and US tax laws. Erdoelproduktions-Vertraege erdoelexportierender Entwicklungslaender mit US-Oelunternehmen und US-Steuerrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mettenheimer, K.

    1987-01-01

    The publication deals with the US petroleum production contracts of the past three decades. It analyzes the different types of contracts ranging from franchises to the so-called non-risk service contract. Particular emphasis is on the influence of US tax laws on the terms and conditions of contract. Another point of discussion is the influence of US tax laws on the tax laws of the oil exporting developing countries. The conclusions drawn from the terms and conditions of contracts and the mutual influence of two tax systems aim at contributing to a system whose transnational investment decisions and contracts will not be influenced by fiscal consideration. (orig./HSCH).

  3. 浅析税法要求视觉下增值税会计核算相关建议%Suggestions on Value-added Tax Accounting under the Tax Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋新波

    2012-01-01

    现行税法要求下的增值税会计核算存在的主要问题是,会计报表相关会计增值税信息的反映揭露不足,会计主体闻的信息可比性缺失,税负有失公平、客观。实行现行税法要求下增值税会计核算,应构建“价税统一”的会计核算完善体系,坚持“财税分离”增值税会计核算原则,明确“费用观”的会计处理方法,逐步改进完善国家增值税体系机制,保证增值税会计核算实务处理走向正规化。%Under the current tax law, main problems exist in value-added tax accounting practice: the insufficient disclosure of value-added tax information in accounting statements, the omission of comparable information among accounting entities, and the less fair and objective tax burden. Coping measures are proposed in this paper including the establishment of a complete, unified sales revenue and tax accounting system, the principle of the separation between financial accounting and tax accounting, and an expense way of accounting, so as to gradually improve the mechanism for the value-added tax system and ensure the regularization of value-added tax accounting practices.

  4. Debt and Equity in Domestic and International Tax Law : A Comparative Policy Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Martin; Schön, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The demarcation between debt and equity is a long-standing core constituent of company and taxation law the world over. However, its sustainability for national and international taxation regimes is increasingly the subject of doubt. Domestic and international proposals for reform are directed

  5. The progressive tax

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the argumentative structure of Hayek on the relationship between power to tax and the progressive tax. It is observed throughout its work giving special attention to two works: The Constitution of Liberty (1959) and Law, Legislation and Liberty, vol3; The Political Order of Free People, 1979) Hayek describes one of the arguments most complete information bout SFP progressive tax systems (progressive tax). According to the author the history of the tax progressive system...

  6. Tax havens and development

    OpenAIRE

    Norwegian Government Commission on Capital Flight from Poor Countries

    2009-01-01

    Tax havens harm both industrialised and developing countries, but the damaging impacts are largest in developing countries. This is partly because these countries are poor and thereby have more need to protect their national tax base, and partly because they generally have weaker institutions and thereby fewer opportunities for enforcing the laws and regulations they adopt. Tax treaties between tax havens and developing countries often contribute to a significant reduction in the tax base of...

  7. TAX RESEARCH Financial Accounting versus Tax Accounting - Tax Rules’ Impact on Investment Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Sc. Skender Ahmeti; Dr.Sc. Muhamet Aliu; MSc. Alban Elshani; Yllka Ahmeti

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides guidance for all those interested in research related to tax. In the study are included three main areas dealing with taxes and about taxes: (1) the role of information in corporation tax expenditures under the rules and laws of the country against financial statements according to international accounting standards, (2) case study PTK; how much effective tax and tax on extra profit has it paid (3) the impact of tax rules on investment decisions - the reasons and profits o...

  8. The taxable events for the Value-Added Tax (VAT based on a Comparative Law approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Villanueva Gutiérrez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the definitions of the main taxable events for the Value-Added Tax (VAT based on a comparative approach to thelegislation of different countries (Spain, Mexico, Chile, Colombia, Argentina and Peru. In this regard, it analyzes which legislations offer definitions according to the principles of generality, fiscal neutrality and legal certainty for VAT. Moreover, it points out that the VAT systems of those countries do not require as a condition for the configuration of the taxable events that the transactions involve a «value added» or a final consumption. In the specificcase of «supplies of goods», the VAT systems have a similar definition of the taxable event, although there are a few differences. However, in the case of«supplies of services», which is the most important taxable event for VAT, there are important differences at the time each country defines it. This is not a desirable effect for the international trade of services, since the lack of harmonization produces double taxation or double non taxation.

  9. VAT application in travel services pursuant to the Czech and EU legislations and a proposal for amendments in the Czech value-added tax law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Otavová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The domain of value-added tax has been already fully harmonized. Its regulation dwells on the Council Directive 2006/112/EC on the common system of value-added tax, and all member countries of the European Union are obliged to provide for the implementation of this Directive into their national legislations similarly as the Czech Republic, which entered the European Union on 1 May 2004. The Act no. 235/2004 Coll. on the value-added tax as amended (hereinafter „value-added tax law“ should be therefore in line with the Directive. In reality however, some issues in the VAT law have not been fully harmonized yet. One of these issues is for example the application of a special routine for travel services according to §89 of the VAT law, which is in essential contradiction with the Directive in question, the controversial point being definition of the person of customer whom the Directive understands in a different way than the VAT law. Thus, the characterization of the problem based on the Czech and EU legislations with respect to jurisdiction of the Court of Justice of the European Community forms a framework of the paper. Based on a comparative analysis of the application of special and ordinary routines in providing travel services to the customer by the taxpayer, tax incidence in his assessment base is determined. At the same time, the paper also includes a proposal for the change of the definition of customer in the VAT law so that the application of the given routine is fully in line with the EU Directive.

  10. No 2951. Proposal of law for the increase of the tax rate of oil companies profit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luca, L.

    2006-03-01

    The profits made in 2005 by oil companies is enormous and results from the important and continuous rise of the oil barrel price. However, this high price has led to an inflation of automotive and space heating fuel prices which has penalized the end-users. These end-users have also contributed in this way to the excellent financial results of oil companies. Therefore, this proposal of law aims at establishing a pay-back system to end-users as soon as the profits of oil companies exceed a given threshold. (J.S.)

  11. Gas Law: contradictions with the Constitution, investment incentives and taxes aspects; Lei do gas: contradicoes com a Constituicao, incentivos aos investimentos e aspectos tributarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdiz, Lauro Daniel Beisl; Sousa, Eduardo F. de; Chaves, Cleuber Sobreira da Silva; Flor, Ricardo Antonio Maciel [Universidade Salvador, BA (Brazil). Curso de Mestrado em Regulacao da Industria de Energia

    2008-07-01

    Based on the high increase of the participation of natural gas into the sources of energy in Brazil, and considering, on the other hand, the essential role of this energy source to guarantee energy supply in the coming years, the discussions involving the proposed Law of Gas, which is under consideration by the National Congress, has gained a lot of importance. The natural gas market in Brazil doesn't have yet a specific law to solve the legal conflicts involving all those who participate on the this productive chain. The law that regulates this market is the Federal Law n. 9.478/97 - the Petroleum Law. The greatest challenge of the proposed Law of Gas is to find a frontier defining where the activities of transportation and distribution of gas Begin and finish. This work will discuss the main legal aspects involving the proposed law. The possible situations of inconstitutionality of the proposed law will also be discussed. In the same way, the aspects connected to attraction of investments and taxes will be commented. The objective is to demonstrate the positive and the negative aspects involving the proposed law. The methodology to be used will be the research of documents. (author)

  12. EuGH: Innocuousness of the nuclear fuel tax according to the European community law; EuGH: Europarechtliche Unbedenklichkeit der Kernbrennstoffsteuer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2015-08-14

    The tax levied on nuclear fuel in Germany does not contravene European law. This was the conclusion of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) on 4 June. The ECJ has now, for the first time, made a clear decision on the admissibility of preliminary ruling proceedings referred to the ECJ and to the domestic constitutional court in parallel: Article 267 TFEU not only entitles the domestic court but even obliges it to submit issues that are decisive for the dispute to the European Court of Justice for interpretation or a decision on the applicability of European law. Such an obligation and the issue of incompatibility with European law did not depend on whether the same provision had been submitted to the domestic court for review or not. After all, even if a provision has been declared unconstitutional under domestic law it will still remain applicable for a certain period of time.

  13. Mapping Tax Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Tax compliance denotes the act of reporting and paying taxes in accordance with the tax laws. Current social science scholarship on tax compliance can almost entirely be divided into behavioural psychology analyses and critical tax studies. This article, which presents two cases of how tax...... compliance is constructed, challenges the explanatory reaches of today's social science approaches, arguing that an alternative approach to understanding tax compliance is worthwhile exploring. This other choice of approach, inspired by actor–network theory (ANT), adopts a more practice-oriented focus...... that studies tax compliance where it takes place as well as what it is made of. Consequently, this article argues that tax compliance is a socio-material assemblage and that complying is a distributed action. The article concludes by highlighting how an ANT approach contributes to the further theoretical...

  14. TAX OPTIMIZATION, TAX AVOIDANCE OR TAX EVASION? CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE OFFSHORE COMPANIES’ LEGAL BACKGROUND

    OpenAIRE

    Eva ERDÕS

    2010-01-01

    Is it a legal or illegal activity to give money to establish offshore firms? What is the offshore practice is it a method of tax optimization, tax minimization or is it a harmful activity, which means tax avoidance or tax evasion. This question is very important in the European Union’s tax law system, because the EU tax law is against the harmful tax competition. Some member states’ legal system is permitted to use offshore companies’ rules, but in the European Union it is prohibited to estab...

  15. Analysis of revenue from Tax on Services of Any Nature (TSAN in Paraná: the impacts of fiscal responsibility law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogélio Gerônimo dos Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is as one of the countries with the highest tax burden in the world. Such taxation is necessary to cover the costs of services that are characteristics of the State and are demanded by society. However, the municipalities’ taxes have not shown significant impacts on city budget revenues. The objective of this study is to analysis the behavior of the collection per capita Tax on Services of Any Nature (TSAN, in the state of Paraná, in the period 1997-2011 with the impacts of the Fiscal Responsibility Law (FRL. The methodology is divided in two parts; first one deals with the theoretical discuss of taxation me, the second presents the spatial distribution of the collection of municipal taxes is determined through the use of techniques of Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA – Index Moran Local and Global – to verify spatial autocorrelation between the municipalities of Parana and confirm the existence of spatial cluster. The results shown that in the period 2005-2011, there was an increase in the concentration of municipalities around the mesoregion of Curitiba in the clustering pattern high-high. Thus, it appears that the mesoregions “less expressive” of Parana, with respect to revenue per capita of the TSAN with the same intensity from mesoregion Metropolitan of Curitiba and mesoregion Center East.

  16. Law proposal aiming at imposing the domestic consumption tax to the natural gas used for hydrogen generation for petroleum refining purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-04-01

    In France, natural gas benefits from tax exemptions in several situations and in particular when used as raw material for hydrogen generation, which in turn, is used for crude oil refining and fuels generation. However, crude oil is cheaper when it is heavier but more hydrogen, and thus more natural gas, is needed to refine it and more CO 2 is released in the atmosphere. Therefore, refining cheap crude oil increases the refining margins of oil companies but their environmental impact as well. The aim of this law proposal is to impose the domestic consumption tax to natural gas when used in oil refining processes in order to finance the development of the renewable hydrogen industry through the creation of a High Council of Hydrogen Industry. This High Council would be in charge of promoting the development of renewable hydrogen production facilities and distribution circuits, of hydrogen-fueled vehicles, and of fuel cells. (J.S.)

  17. New Leverage for Increasing Tax Revenues in Turkey: Traditional Tax Applications Supported by Electronic Tax Audits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Onkan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is examined for the period 2000- 2015 in Turkey that increasing the electronic applications regarding tax audits had the effects on the required amount of tax levied as a result of tax audits. Tax Inspectors reach strategic information without uneasiness by means of electronic applications developed by some institutions such as Electronic Risk Analysis that Tax Inspection Board founded in 2011 and Revenue Administration as institutions designated by law for auditing tax in Turkey. Thus, this leads to an increase the tax revenues obtained in the course of tax audits compared to the times when there is not electronic applications.

  18. Tax structure and corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić-Popov Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article an analysis of the impact of corruption, both administrative and state capture, on the tax structure is carried out. The authors established a negative correlation between the degree of corruption and the height of the effective tax burden, while isolating a simultaneous directly proportional impact of the nominal tax burden (which could reflect state intervention - the main corruption factor on the scope of corruption. The effects of corruption on the decrease of individual taxes' share in GDP are diversified, with impact on direct taxes as a whole being more observable. The mode of tax assessment significantly determines exposure of certain tax to the administrative corruption: it is generally larger in case of taxes assessed by the decision of the competent tax officials who are carrying out both assessment and audit, while in the case of self-assessment and withholding they just perform audits implying limited exposure to corruption. Corruptive state capture is present in the case of taxes which are important for influential corruptors. That is why in Serbia laws preventing taxation of capital gains or heavier taxation of dividends and other income paid to non-residents located in the tax havens were adopted, while by-laws which should have enabled implementation of prescribed lump sum taxation based on external signs of wealth have not been enacted. The authors concluded that the anti-corruption strategy should rely on the increasing role of self-assessment, which could reduce the room for administrative corruption. Unclear and imprecise formulations of the tax norms facilitate corruption, because they create room for arbitrariness in interpretation and implementation of the laws and by-laws. It is therefore necessary to surprises discretion, simplify tax procedure and diminish the number of tax relief's.

  19. Tratados internacionais em matéria tributária e sua relação com o direito interno no Brasil The impact of the international treaties on tax law on the Brazilian law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Mathias Alves Pinto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo apresentar os principais aspectos a respeito do tratamento oferecido aos tratados internacionais em matéria tributária no ordenamento jurídico brasileiro. Para tal, o artigo analisa as características desses tratados enquanto fonte de direito internacional, seu posicionamento hierárquico perante a constituição federal e legislação infraconstitucional, bem como a jurisprudência mais relevante a respeito da matéria. Ao final, pretende-se demonstrar que, nos casos específicos sobre os quais tais instrumentos versarem, estes prevalecem sobre o ordenamento interno em razão do princípio da autolimitação da soberania no tocante à imposição tributária.The following article presents the main aspects of the interaction between tax treaties and national law within the brazilian legal system. The article analyses the characteristics of such treaties as sources of international law, their hierarchy before the constitution and legislation, as well as the relevant jurisprudence on the subject. The article aims at demonstrating that, regarding the specific situations addressed in its body, the tax treaty takes precedence over the national law, based on the principle of selflimitation of taxation power.

  20. Studi Faktor-faktor Pemotivasi Manajemen Melakukan Tax Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Indrawati Indrawati; Gideon Setyo Budiwitaksono

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of Tax Policy, Tax Law, and Tax Administration on Tax Planning. Our samples consist of 20 Tax Cosultant’s Clients in Surabaya.The Results of this study show that tax policy and tax administration is not a factor that can motivate management to perform tax planning. While the tax laws is a factor that can motivate management to perform tax planning. This research suggests to the Government to issue tax regulations clearly and unambigu...

  1. Tax Tips for Forest Landowners for the 2012 Tax Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Wang; John L. Greene

    2012-01-01

    Federal income tax law contains provisions to encourage stewardship and management of private forest land. The primary goal of this bulletin is to assist forest landowners and their advisors with timber tax information they can use to file their 2012 in-come tax returns. The information presented here is current as of Sept. 15, 2012.

  2. Professionals and tax companies: analysis of Article 9 , § 3 doDecreto Law No. 406/68 against Complementary Law No. 116/03

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Portugal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Analyzes the repeal of Article 9, paragraph 3 of Decree-Law No. 406/68, the qualinstituiu fixed taxation for companies that provide professional services, after the advent of Complementary Law No. 116 of 31 July 2003. presenteestudo we used the inductive method, performed by means of analysis of search bibliográficae regards the matter law. Points out the impossibility of manutençãodo the lump-sum taxation for professional service providers queestejam constituted as a company under the fence in right darepristinação Brazilian Positivo, as the Decree-Law No. 834/69 eposteriormente Complementary Law o 56/87, replaced in writing dosupracitado device, the number of services reached by fixed datributação benefit in order to make it compatible with their lists of serviçoinicialmente proposed by Decree-law 406/68. However, these diplomas legaisforam expressly repealed by Article 10 of Complementary Law No. 116 / 03.Aponta that the fact be made in the form of society is not aptoa criteria trigger disparities in the taxation of professional service providers, under penalty breach of the principle of equality. The research aims to contribute to aaplicação of Complementary Law No. 116/03, particularly as regards àtributação of professional societies, proposing some reflections on daspeculiaridades surrounding the issue, urging the debate on fixed datributação revocation, in order to seek to improve the interpretation that is damatéria now analyzed.

  3. Corporate income tax

    OpenAIRE

    Popová, Barbora

    2014-01-01

    1 RESUMÉ Corporate Income Tax The aim of this diploma thesis on "Corporate Income Tax" is to outline the current legal background of the corporate income tax and asses and evaluate the most substantial changes regarding the Act no. 586/1992 Coll., Income Tax Act, as amended that have become effective as of January 1, 2014. The changes discussed in this thesis include especially, but are not limited to, the changes adopted in connection with the recodification of Czech Civil Law. This thesis c...

  4. Effects of state-level Earned Income Tax Credit laws in the U.S. on maternal health behaviors and infant health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Sara; Komro, Kelli A; Livingston, Melvin D; Lenhart, Otto; Wagenaar, Alexander C

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of state-level Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) laws in the U.S. on maternal health behaviors and infant health outcomes. Using multi-state, multi-year difference-in-differences analyses, we estimated effects of state EITC generosity on maternal health behaviors, birth weight and gestation weeks. We find little difference in maternal health behaviors associated with state-level EITC. In contrast, results for key infant health outcomes of birth weight and gestation weeks show small improvements in states with EITCs, with larger effects seen among states with more generous EITCs. Our results provide evidence for important health benefits of state-level EITC policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Extrinsic incentives and tax compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Sour, Laura; Gutiérrez Andrade, Miguel Ángel

    2011-01-01

    This paper models the impact of extrinsic incentives in a tax compliance model. It also provides experimental evidence that confirms the existence of a positive relationship between rewards and tax compliance. If individuals are audited, rewards for honest taxpayers are effective in increasing the level of tax compliance. These results are particularly relevant in countries where there is little respect for tax law since rewards can contribute to crowding in the intrinsic motivation to comply.

  6. Globalization, Tax Competition and Tax Burden İn Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veli KARGI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available 1990’s world was quite different from the world of 1950’s. Especially in the last twenty years, the increasing involvement of Japan in the world economy since the 1990s, in addition to the dominance of globalization and market economy throughout the world, the rapid spread of information resulting from the developments in IT-technology and the international competition emerging in the field of technology have all led to some significant developments in the world economy. Reduction of high mobility income and corporate tax rates due to tax competition may cause an unjust distribution of the tax burden. The fact that indirect taxation constitutes about 70% of the tax revenues obtained in Turkey can be taken as an indication of the unfairness in the distribution of tax burden in Turkey. In this study, following a definition of globalization and tax competition, classification of tax competition, reasons for increasing tax competition, benefits and losses of tax competition are explained, and changes introduced by various countries in their tax systems due to tax competition, the distribution of tax burden resulting from tax competition in Turkey and the effectiveness of the new income tax law in Turkey in terms of tax competition are analyzed.

  7. TAX EVASION BETWEEN FRAUD AND OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Cornelia STOICA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tax optimization, often called legal tax evasion is the use of methods and techniques that are within the law, in order to reduce or even cancel the tax liability. To achieve such an approach, the taxpayer or his advisers must know in depth the tax law - and by extension, the financial and administrative law - and, moreover, must be functional tax jurisdictions which allow the use of appropriate assemblies. The recent leasks, as WikiLeaks, LuxLeaks, SwissLeaks, Panama Papers etc. on financial flows to tax havens highlight the far-reaching unprecedented evasion and tax fraud, both in the amounts involved - trillions of dollars - and sophisticated assemblies used primarily by multinational companies to the detriment of the public finances of Member territory headquarters and branches which are located and, therefore, detrimental economic and social life of those countries. Tax evasion is based on legal mechanisms which, combined together in the montages of increasingly complex, allowing operators, mostly multinational legal entities to circumvent national tax law and not pay the taxes due. The border between tax optimization, tax evasion and fraud is very thin, optimization using various legal methods to reduce the tax owed, whereas tax evasion using illegal means, which covered crime. Tax evasion reveals either optimize or fraud. There is a significant international dimension of tax evasion because it is favored by multinational corporations operating conditions.

  8. PROPOSED CHANGES TO TAX LAW IN SOUTH AFRICA: INTEREST-FREE LOANS AS A TOOLIN ESTATE PLANNING?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Preston

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Estate planning often involves the sale of an asset by an estate planner (the ownerof the asset to aninter vivostrust, as a related family trust. It also often happensthat the buying trust does not have the necessary funds to pay the purchase price.In this situation it is common practice to finance the sale by means of an interest-free loan agreement. The buying trust becomes the owner of the property, whilethe purchase price remains due and payable to the seller, without the loan amountaccruing interest. The result achieved by the estate planner is that potential furthergrowth of the asset soldis shifted to thetrust, resulting in an estate duty benefit forthe seller. The debate surrounding the use of the interest-free loan as an estateplanning tool has been polarised for years with most researchers concluding thatthe interest-free loan remains a useful estate planning tool. Doubts regarding theuse of such agreements and the trust for estate planning have recently neemrenewed. Since 2013, several statements by the different Ministers of Finance, intheir respective budget speeches, indicated that governmentwill propose taxavoidance legislation that will directly impact the taxation of trusts and connectedparties to a trust. This study will focus on the effect which the recent proposedchanges to the Income Tax Act (58 of 1962 might have on the use of interest-freeloans as an estate planning tool. The study is qualitative in nature with documentanalysis at its core. The main aim is to provide more clarity to estate planners inthis regard. The research concludes that the interest-free loan still has someadvantage as an estate planning tool, but if estate planning is done with only taxplanning and tax savings as motivation, that advantagemay disappear.

  9. NEW APPROACH IN THE ATTRIBUTION OF PROFITS TO PERMANENT ESTABLISHMENTS – THE AUTHORISED OECD APPROACH AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR CROATIAN TAX LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevia Čičin-Šain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, hereinafter: OECD, is the leading organization in the field of taxation. It is the successor to the League of Nations’ work in the field of taxation. This organization, in its long history of work has been trying to solve the problem of attribution of profits of companies that do business across borders, without founding an individual company to carry out such work. This topic has been preoccupying the international tax community for many years. Recently, an entirely different approach in attributing the profits to the so-called permanent establishment has been adopted. Since this topic has never been discussed in the national academic literature, the author considered it important to handle this issue and see in which way the domestic law determines the profits of a permanent establishment and what are the implications of the work of the OECD on national legislation. This article consists of several chapters. The first one discusses the concept of a permanent establishment. The second part is devoted to a historical review of the methods for determining the profits of a permanent establishment. In the third part different theoretical models for determining the profits of a permanent establishment are being discussed. The fourth part is devoted to the new approach called the Authorised OECD Approach (AOA. The fifth part is devoted to domestic law and the implications of the work of the OECD on it. Finally, the author presents certain conclusions.

  10. Impacts of restructuring tabacco excise tax in the Philippines

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A recently approved law restructuring tobacco taxes in the. Philippines includes a steep increase in the excise tax (the tax paid by producers which ... part of Canada's International Development Research Centre. (IDRC), a Canadian Crown ...

  11. Public-law contracts as the basis for the creation, modification and termination of legal relationships, taking account of tax law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Pudelka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available According to German legislation, which complies with the legislation of a large number of European and post-Soviet countries, the administrative procedure can be concluded with two different results. In most of cases, administrative actions will be aimed at adopting an administrative act. This is a centralized form of public administration, with which direct rights are justified, modified or discontinued. So, for example, the abstract right to a constitutionally protected property guarantees that a person is allowed to build on the territory that belongs to him (so-called "freedom of construction" is made by a way of passing an administrative act, named a building permit. Only this building permit gives concrete right for the construction of a particular building (according to the submitted architectural documents. Thus, the law on construction can be applied only by issuing a building permit, as well as can be canceled by canceling the construction permit or changing its contents. The second form of administration that can be used to conclude an administrative procedure in accordance with Article 9 of the law is a public contract. In practice, this is much less common in comparison with an administrative act and is not indisputable in general as a tool of government action.

  12. TAX PLANNING: OPTIMIZATION TOOL OF DEBTS TOWARDS THE BUDGET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatol GRAUR

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tax planning is complex of measures,consisting in the reduction of tax payments under the law. Tax planning at the enterprise starts from the initial structuring of businesses and activities and can be carried out both at entity level (corporate and the individual (individual. Compared to tax evasion, tax planning is performed only under the law by avoiding taxes. Avoiding or reducing taxes is possible by organizing activities in such a way that the law allows reducing the tax base or tax rate. Optimization of tax payments is possible by organizing the work in such a way, so as the legislation avoids or reduces the tax base,tax rates and tax incentives application.

  13. The Effect of Tax Reforms and Tax Compliance on the Economic Development of Developing Countries: A Case Study of Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Ajani, Olawumi Funso

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Since 1980s’ the awareness of the effect of tax reforms and tax compliance on economic development has increased significantly. The positive and effective use of tax revenues influences how taxpayers comply with tax laws. In particular, taxpayers tend to adhere to tax laws and fulfil their obligations when it is evident that the taxes paid are put into proper use by providing the essential public goods and services needed by the citizens. Compliance increases when it is believed t...

  14. MUNICIPAL TAX HARMONIZATION; ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belsy Tortolero

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This research work is a desk study to establish the technical and economic criteria that help to minimize double taxation at the municipal level of this tax in Venezuela, specifically for: industrial taxpayer, the taxpayer eventual merchant and / or walking, and to taxpayer service providers and implementers works on Hence the choice of the Tax Harmonisation Law of Municipal Public power in Article 162 of the Code, and the business tax. The methodology is based on the quantitative paradigm, with documentary research design, descriptive level - explanatory. Concluding that the criteria depend on the connecting factors set forth in the Law, and they are the same governing tax under study.

  15. Tax Incentives as Viewed by Economists and Lawyers

    OpenAIRE

    Fiekowsky, Seymour

    1991-01-01

    States that tax economists' and lawyers' views on tax incentives are flawed in ways that have contributed to their assent to unnecessary and counterproductive complication of the tax laws in the name of tax reform and to their complicity in growth of the fiscal burden in the form of inefficient tax incentives that are either unaccounted for or understated.

  16. TAX EVASION BETWEEN FRAUD AND OPTIMIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Emilia Cornelia STOICA

    2017-01-01

    Tax optimization, often called legal tax evasion is the use of methods and techniques that are within the law, in order to reduce or even cancel the tax liability. To achieve such an approach, the taxpayer or his advisers must know in depth the tax law - and by extension, the financial and administrative law - and, moreover, must be functional tax jurisdictions which allow the use of appropriate assemblies. The recent leasks, as WikiLeaks, LuxLeaks, SwissLeaks, Panama Papers etc. on financial...

  17. Advanced training of tax consultants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adigamova Farida F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to review and analyze the data on the necessity to provide an educational environment for training and advanced training of tax consultants in Russia. The article considers the types of tax consulting, the historical background of training financiers in Russia, as well as identifies conditions determining the significance of tax consulting. The research establishes the connection between the negative attitude to tax payment and tax evasion. The advanced training of tax consultants should be a continuous process as they need to take into account both external and internal taxpayers risks associated with the development of law and law-enforcement practice. Obviously, the training of tax consultants should take into account the experience of developed foreign countries, such as Germany, Austria, Czech Republic, Slovakia and other European countries as well. In Russia, it is necessary to open educational institutions, which will not only be involved in the certification of tax consultants, but also provide training courses. These courses should contribute to constant increase of tax consultants knowledge, consider the tax treatment of economic activities, as well changes in the legislation, economics, finance, accounting, manufacturing processes, which will improve the quality of services provided by tax consultants.

  18. Environmental taxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Šinković

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental taxes should result in an improvement or prevention of deterioration of the environment. Although more advanced than previously existing Act on Excise Duty on Passenger Cars, Other Motor Vehicles, Vessels and Aircrafts from the 1997th year, the new law will hardly Croatia bring visible environmental benefit. Its application should not be expected to reduce the negative impacts of road traffic on air quality and greenhouse gas emissions until it does not clearly define how it will be at least part of the funds collected under this levy will be spent on measures to encourage the use of say hybrid or electric vehicles. Yet we should not neglect the fact that there is still need to work on educating people about the importance of environmental protection and any measures to be taken in the sphere of environmental protection should follow economic policies with a particular community or a country.

  19. Economic Effects Real Estate Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadić Milan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The real estate tax is usually a fiscal instrument which performs the property tax. When it comes to real property or immovable this term include: apartments, houses, land, cottages, excess housing landscape and more. The real estate tax as a form of the fiscal charges ownership or use of certain forms of real estate, and the revenue from this tax is levied on the area where the property is located regardless of the place of residence of its owner. The tax base for the calculation of this tax usually consists of the market, estimated or annuity value of certain real estate. This form of taxation in the Republic of Serbian applies from 1.1.2012., and its introduction has been replaced by former property taxes. The differences between the two concepts mentioned taxes are numerous and significant. Among the more important are: subject to taxation under the new concept of the real estate rather than law, a taxpayer is any property owner rather than the holder of rights to immovable property tax base is the market value of real estate which is replaced by the payment of taxes per square meter of usable area, the rate of property tax is determined local government, which can not be lower than 0.05% of the estimated value of the real estate nor higher than 0.5% of the appraised value of real estate. The last change, ie. The new law on Property Tax from 5.11.2015. was determined by the tax rate to 20%. The fact that local governments each of them determines the tax rate on real estate which range from high to low rates of multiple, makes this tax is progressive. Progression is particularly expressed in the distinction applied tax rates of developed and undeveloped municipalities, where we have a case that less developed tolerate a higher tax burden, which leads to negative economic effects. However, real estate tax has its own economic and social characteristics which must be aligned with the objectives of tax policy. This means that the real estate tax

  20. Energy taxes in practice. Energy tax - electricity tax - biofuel quota - energy tax compliance. 3. upd. and rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, Roland M.; Thoms, Anahita

    2016-01-01

    You need a quick and easy overview of the legal provisions of the energy tax law? You would like to understand the relationship between the European and national regulations and their impact on the daily practice? This manual prepares the energy tax, electricity tax and biofuel quota law for you clearly on and illustrated by examples, what to look in practice in order to avoid pitfalls. It picks up especially contentious issues and problems, discusses the relevant case law and the relevant regulations and finally gives precise recommendations for daily practice. Based on practice notes, examples and diagrams you can easily identify how to transfer the legal requirements on the own workspaces or optionally can use tax breaks. This includes information on both simplified - and thus less subject to error - methods and to tax exemptions and credits. The manual is complemented by forms, extracts from the Combined Nomenclature and an online material collection with regulatory and legal texts. [de

  1. Tax incentives in emerging economies

    OpenAIRE

    Brodzka, Alicja

    2013-01-01

    Emerging economies have introduced tax incentives for various reasons. In some countries in transition, such instruments may be seen as a counterweight to the investment disincentives inherent in the general tax system. In other countries, the incentives are intended to offset other disadvantages that investors may face, such as a lack of infrastructure, complicated and antiquated laws, bureaucratic complexities and weak administration. The article brings closer the issue of tax incentives of...

  2. Tax Treaty Interpretation in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Soler Roch, María Teresa; Ribes Ribes, Aurora

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides insight in the interpretation of Spanish double taxation conventions. Taking as a premise the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties and the wording of Article 3(2) OECD Model Convention, the authors explore the relevance of mutual agreements, tax authority practice and foreign court decisions on the tax treaty interpretation.

  3. TAX RESEARCH Financial Accounting versus Tax Accounting - Tax Rules’ Impact on Investment Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Skender Ahmeti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides guidance for all those interested in research related to tax. In the study are included three main areas dealing with taxes and about taxes: (1 the role of information in corporation tax expenditures under the rules and laws of the country against financial statements according to international accounting standards, (2 case study PTK; how much effective tax and tax on extra profit has it paid (3 the impact of tax rules on investment decisions - the reasons and profits of the company and the host country. We will try to summarize here the three areas of study and come to some conclusions on how to deal with fiscal policy in Kosovo. In addition, we will offer our opinion on some interesting and important questions for future research.

  4. How do employment tax credits work? An analysis of the German inheritance tax

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Benedikt; Simons, Dirk; Voeller, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Employment tax credit programs have been repeatedly used during economic crises, although their usefulness is empirically contestable. The objective of this paper is to quantify the tax effects of employment tax credit programs. A recent revision of the German inheritance tax law provides an eminent opportunity to analyze the effects caused by such a preferential treatment. The tax liability depends on a company’s future employment expenses. Hence, we use micro-level data of ...

  5. Tax Planning Implementation on Income Tax, Article 23 as A Legal Effort To Minimize Tax Expense Payable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Daengs GS

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An effort to minimize tax burden can be done in various ways start from inside the scope of taxation regulation to violate the taxation regulation. This research focuses on related Laws with the efforts to minimize Income tax. In general tax planning referred to engineered the business process and tax payer transaction. The aim is tax payable in minimal number but under taxation regulation scope. The outline of this study focus on planning effort of Tax Income Article 23 to minimize tax expense payable run in PT. TRIPERKASA AMININDAH Surabaya. Tax planning that done in this company refer to provision  in accordance with  Directorate General of Tax Decision Number : Kep-305/PJ/2001 on the estimates of nett income. Tax planning had done by this company in addition to refer the regulation also based on the condition of this company which experiencing poor performance. Then the aim that will be reached from that tax planning to reach minimal expense over the Income Tax Article 23 it can be done with gross up method. From the analysis result on the alternative it can draw a conclusion that PT. TRIPERKASA AMININDAH  Surabaya  has made adjustments on the regulation above, calculation of Income Tax Article 23 with gross up method in fact be able to saving the tax then suitable with the tax planning aim that is effort to minimize tax expense payable.

  6. Changes of the value added tax in the tax-harmonization process with EC directives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Votavová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to bring near the topical process of the assimilation the Czech law of value added tax to the EC-directives. The attention will be paid to the development of the harmonization this law in 1993 – 2003 and I will describe and analyse the choice sections of the value added tax law (with the effective date from 1. 5. 2004. I will explain the changes by tax rates.

  7. Tax Policy in Action: 2016 Tax Amnesty Experience of the Republic of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmiryzan Wasrinil Said

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Tax amnesty programs are often used by governments to improve tax compliance and to increase tax revenue. However, the policy choice to provide a tax amnesty often results in adverse consequences, including the violation of other legal rules. For this reason, the policy choice to offer a tax amnesty (‘tax amnesty policy’ is often controversial. The tax amnesty policy and resulting program offered by the Government of Indonesia has been criticized both because it is considered to be unfair and because it favors the perpetrators of tax evasion. In particular, the tax amnesty law offered special treatment to taxpayers who participated in the program, such as no checking of the source of funds, no checking of the financial statements reported by law enforcers, protection from punishment on the financial reports provided to the Director General of Taxation, and the requirement to pay only a small penalty. Tax amnesty programs also provide the potential for money laundering. This is certainly the case in Indonesia. In addition, tax amnesty programs weaken law enforcement in Indonesia; in particular, in the areas of corruption and money laundering. This is because law enforcement officers cannot investigate the perpetrators of white-collar crime that benefit from the tax amnesty program. Under the terms of the tax amnesty program, the financial data is not accessible by them.

  8. Endangering of Businesses by the German Inheritance Tax? – An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette Houben

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This contribution addresses the substantial tax privilege for businesses introduced by the German Inheritance Tax Act 2009. Advocates of the vast or even entire tax exemption for businesses stress the potential damage of the inheritance tax on businesses, as those often lack liquidity to meet tax liability. This submission tackles this issue empirically based on data of the German Inheritance Tax Statistics and the SOEP. The results indicate that former German inheritance tax law has not endangered transferred businesses. Hence, there is no need for the tremendous tax privilege for businesses in current German inheritance tax law. An alternative flat inheritance tax without tax privileges, which meets revenue neutrality per tax class according to current tax law, provokes in some cases relative high tax loads which might trouble businesses.

  9. Tax Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen; Brehm Johansen, Mette

    to wider international trends within tax administration, especially concerning the development of risk assessments and internal control in the corporations and a greater focus on monitoring of these elements by the tax authorities. Overall, the working paper concludes that Tax Governance as a model......This working paper presents an analysis of the experiences of Cooperative Compliance in Denmark. Cooperative Compliance denotes a specific kind of collaborative program for the regulation of large corporate taxpayers by the tax authorities. Cooperative Compliance programs have been implemented...... in several countries worldwide. In Denmark the program is called Tax Governance. Tax Governance has been studied using qualitative method and the analyses of the working paper build on an extensive base of in-depth interviews – primarily with tax directors from corporations participating in the program...

  10. Law proposal aiming at imposing the domestic consumption tax to the natural gas used for hydrogen generation for petroleum refining purposes; Proposition de loi visant a soumettre a la taxe interieure de consommation le gaz naturel utilise pour la production d'hydrogene a des fins de raffinage petrolier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-04-15

    In France, natural gas benefits from tax exemptions in several situations and in particular when used as raw material for hydrogen generation, which in turn, is used for crude oil refining and fuels generation. However, crude oil is cheaper when it is heavier but more hydrogen, and thus more natural gas, is needed to refine it and more CO{sub 2} is released in the atmosphere. Therefore, refining cheap crude oil increases the refining margins of oil companies but their environmental impact as well. The aim of this law proposal is to impose the domestic consumption tax to natural gas when used in oil refining processes in order to finance the development of the renewable hydrogen industry through the creation of a High Council of Hydrogen Industry. This High Council would be in charge of promoting the development of renewable hydrogen production facilities and distribution circuits, of hydrogen-fueled vehicles, and of fuel cells. (J.S.)

  11. 1977 guidebook to California taxes with special emphasis on relationship to Federal taxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, R.S.

    1977-01-01

    This book is designed to be a quick reference work on California State taxes. With this in mind, the amount of detail is kept to a minimum by assuming that the reader has some knowledge of Federal taxes that are generally similar to the major California taxes (or that he has access to the wealth of information about Federal taxes that is readily available). The book explains the four major California taxes (personal income tax, tax on corporate income, inheritance tax, and gift tax), whenever possible, in terms of the comparable Federal taxes. Differences between the two laws are pointed out, and cross-references make it possible to trace from a given provision in one law to a comparable provision in the other. Special attention is given to subjects peculiar to the California law. In addition to the major State taxes, the book provides general information about other taxes levied by the State. Property taxes are also discussed briefly, because of their statewide impact, although they are imposed by local governmental units.

  12. Post Implementation of Goods and Services Tax (GST) in Malaysia: Tax Agents’ Perceptions on Clients’ Compliance Behaviour and Tax Agents’ Roles in Promoting Compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Izlawanie

    2017-01-01

    The Malaysian government introduced the Goods and Services Tax (GST) starting from 1 April 2015 to enhance the revenue collections and mitigate the transfer pricing manipulation. Tax agents play a significant role to help businesses to comply with GST law and regulations. After one year of GST implementation, it is vital to understand tax agents’ perceptions on clients’ compliance behaviour and tax agents’ roles in influencing compliance. A total of 30 registered tax agents completed a survey...

  13. Good Tax Governance: A Matter of Moral Responsibility and Transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gribnau Hans J.L.M.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Multinational corporations’ tax practices are hotly debated nowadays. Multinationals are accused of not paying their fair share of taxes. Apparently, acting within the limits set by law is not sufficient to qualify as morally responsible behavior anymore.

  14. Illegitimate Tax Avoidance and Rule XVI of Preliminary Title of Tax Code

    OpenAIRE

    Tarsitano, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The author analyzes a very important issue such as illegitimate tax avoidance. He begins by explaining the content of the concept of illegitimate tax avoidance, and also he points out the differences with other concepts like tax evasion and tax planning. Then, he comments the debate on the use of legal figures which doesn’t belong to Tax Law, in order to solve issue of illegitimate tax avoidance. Finally, he explains the scope and the application of the Peruvian general anti-avoidance rule st...

  15. Tax Administration Systems and Tax Consciousness of Income Tax and Consumption Tax

    OpenAIRE

    横山, 直子

    2015-01-01

    Tax compliance costs of consumption tax are relatively high. Tax compliance costs for self-assessment taxpayers are high, and for withholding income taxpayers, the compliance costs are small. That is to say, characteristics of tax compliance costs for income tax and consumption tax are various. And also characteristics of tax consciousness for income tax and consumption tax are many and various. The features of this paper are to clarify characteristics of tax compliance costs and tax consciou...

  16. Tax reform Ukraine: implementation mechanisms and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Lebedzevіch

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the main shortcomings of the existing domestic tax systems, which were the main reasons for the need for its reform in the context of integration into the European Community. Determined the first stage of reforming tax systems Ukraine, which is associated with the adoption of the Law of Ukraine «On Amendments to the Tax Code of Ukraine and laws of Ukraine». The main provisions of this legal act, revealing the essence of the mechanism for implementing tax reform. Analyzed the mechanism of implementation of tax reform by analyzing the major innovations of the Tax Code of Ukraine and their comparison with the tax «standards» that operated the implementation of tax reform 2015. Thesis there is determined a number of tax loopholes and nedoopratsyuvan conducted tax reform and their implications for payers of taxes and duties, and the need for further research and improvement. The experience of European countries towards the introduction of electronic filing and processing of tax returns.

  17. Updated Tax Tips for Forest Landowners for the 2010 Tax Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Wang; John L. Greene

    2010-01-01

    This bulletin is updated as of Dec. 20, 2010, to include the changes from Public Law 111-31 enacted on Dec. 17, 2010. It provides tax tips for woodland owners and their tax advisors in the preparation of the 2010 individual tax return. Please be aware the information presented here is not legal or accounting advice. Consult your legal and tax advisors for more complete...

  18. Legal Considerations of Tax Evasion and Tax Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Dániel Deák

    2004-01-01

    The study of fiscal non-compliance - in particular, that of tax evasion - is quite extensive in the literature of economics. Lawyers do not show much interest in fiscal anomalies. An exception for this is perhaps tax avoidance which is usually interpreted as the problem of the form and substance. Apart from the modest interest in irregularities in fiscal law, the legal theories of obedience, or disobedience, and coherence have grown significantly, thanks to the precept of William Ross on prim...

  19. Nuclear fuel tax in court

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leidinger, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Besides the 'Nuclear Energy Moratorium' (temporary shutdown of eight nuclear power plants after the Fukushima incident) and the legally decreed 'Nuclear Energy Phase-Out' (by the 13th AtG-amendment), also the legality of the nuclear fuel tax is being challenged in court. After receiving urgent legal proposals from 5 nuclear power plant operators, the Hamburg fiscal court (4V 154/13) temporarily obliged on 14 April 2014 respective main customs offices through 27 decisions to reimburse 2.2 b. Euro nuclear fuel tax to the operating companies. In all respects a remarkable process. It is not in favour of cleverness to impose a political target even accepting immense constitutional and union law risks. Taxation 'at any price' is neither a statement of state sovereignty nor one for a sound fiscal policy. Early and serious warnings of constitutional experts and specialists in the field of tax law with regard to the nuclear fuel tax were not lacking. (orig.)

  20. Questionnaire on Corporate Income Tax Subjects - Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Hansen, Søren; Nielsen, Jacob Graff

    In terms of tax policy, tax harmonization or coordination of corporate taxation in the EU is usually considered from two complementary points of view: tax base and tax rate. These two perspectives structure the debate whether EU Member States, and more broadly States belonging to the same economic...... area, should harmonize or coordinate their policies in tax matters. However, little attention has been paid so far to a more basic question: who are corporate taxpayers? Are they defined in the same way over Europe? This may be explained by the fact that the vast majority of tax systems accept the same...... fundamental idea: while companies limited by shares and limited liability companies should be subject to corporate income tax (CIT), partnerships should be considered fully or partly transparent for tax purposes. This general statement is nevertheless an oversimplification of reality. Comparative law indeed...

  1. Environmental taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekins, P.; Andersen, Mikael Skou; Vos, H.

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY1.Although the 5th Environmental Action Programme of the EU in 1992 recommended the greater use of economic instruments such as environmental taxes, there has been little progress in their use since then at the EU level. At Member State level, however, there has been a continuing...... increase in the use of environmental taxes over the last decade, which has accelerated in the last 5-6 years. This is primarily apparent in Scandinavia, but it is also noticeable in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom.2.Evaluation studies of 16 environmental taxes have...... been identified and reviewed in this report. Within the limitations of the studies, it appears that these taxes have been environmentally effective (achieving their environmental objectives) and they seem to have achieved such objectives at reasonable cost. Examples of particularly successful taxes...

  2. Taxing energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deacon, R.; DeCanio, S.; Frech, H.E. III; Johnson, M.B.

    1990-01-01

    In this book, the authors have produced an analysis of state energy taxation. Their factual findings are of particular relevance to California and other states in their consideration of severance taxes on oil production. It turns out, for example, that while California's tax burden on oil producers is slightly below average among the states, the combined revenues from taxes and royalties (expressed as a percent of the value of production) indicate that California is not easy on oil producers. In fact, California's oil tax system appears to be particularly well suited to its oil industry. Much of the production in the state is relatively high-cost and economically marginal. The state must tread carefully in taxing this production, lest it force it to be curtailed

  3. Optimal Tax-Timing and Asset Allocation when Tax Rebates on Capital Losses are Limited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marekwica, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    to realize capital gains immediately and pay capital gain taxes to regain the option to use potential future losses against a higher tax rate. This incentive adds an entirely new and as yet unstudied dimension to the portfolio problem. It causes risk averse investors to hold more equity and attain higher......This article studies the portfolio problem with realization-based capital gain taxation when limited amounts of losses qualify for tax rebate payments, as is the case under current US tax law. When the tax rate applicable to realized losses exceeds that on realized capital gains, it can be optimal...... welfare levels than is the case when trading under a tax system that seeks to collect the same amount of taxes, but does not allow for tax rebate payments. This is because the benefit to these investors from having their losses subsidized is greater than the suffering from having profits taxed at a higher...

  4. Endangering of Businesses by the German Inheritance Tax? – An Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Houben, Henriette; Maiterth, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    This contribution addresses the substantial tax privilege for businesses introduced by the German Inheritance Tax Act 2009. Advocates of the vast or even entire tax exemption for businesses stress the potential damage of the inheritance tax on businesses, as those often lack liquidity to meet tax liability. This submission tackles this issue empirically based on data of the German Inheritance Tax Statistics and the SOEP. The results indicate that former German inheritance tax law has not enda...

  5. The Reasonableness Test of the Principal Purpose Test Rule in OECD BEPS Action 6 (Tax Treaty Abuse) versus the EU Principle of Legal Certainty and the EU Abuse of Law Case Law

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe OECD BEPS Action 6 report contains a principal pur- pose test rule (PPT rule) for the purpose of combating abuse of tax treaties. This PPT rule is also included in the OECD Multilateral Instrument. The PPT rule is (amongst others) applicable when ‘it is rea- sonable to conclude’ that a benefit (granted by a tax treaty) was one of the principal purposes of any arrangement/ transaction. This requirement contains two elements: the reasonableness test and the principal purpose tes...

  6. The Reasonableness Test of the Principal Purpose Test Rule in OECD BEPS Action 6 (Tax Treaty Abuse) versus the EU Principle of Legal Certainty and the EU Abuse of Law Case Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Weber (Dennis)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe OECD BEPS Action 6 report contains a principal pur- pose test rule (PPT rule) for the purpose of combating abuse of tax treaties. This PPT rule is also included in the OECD Multilateral Instrument. The PPT rule is (amongst others) applicable when ‘it is rea- sonable to conclude’

  7. Corporate income tax and the international challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folkvord Benn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Although globalization has contributed immensely to growth and prosperity around the world, it is a growing challenge for tax policy makers. Globalization and greater mobility of tax bases increase the relative importance of taxes in corporations’ investment decisions. The combination of highly mobile capital, inadequacies in existing tax laws and a total change of international business environment have led to the fundamental problem in international tax law labeled by the OECD as the problem of BEPS (Base Erosion and Profit Shifting, along with severe competition among countries to attract investments and business activities. These challenges are the topic for the 2014 seminar of the Nordic Tax Research Council. Based on the Nordic national reports we discuss these challenges

  8. Are tent halls subject to property tax?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Macudziński

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The presented publication is a response to currently asked questions and interpretative doubts of taxpayers and tax authorities, namely whether tent halls are subject to property tax. General issues connected with an entity and a subject of taxation of this tax are presented herein. The answer to the question asked is then provided through the qualification of constructions works and the allocation of tent halls in the proper category of the works, with the use of the current law.

  9. Russia vows to end oil export tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Russia will eliminate its oil export tax by 1994 and until then will allow some exemptions, Russian officials have assured a group of US tax specialists. They stopped short of saying it would be repealed by the end of the year, the Ken Crawford, a member of a Tax Foundation delegation visiting Russia and managing partner of KPMG Peat Marwick's Moscow office. The export tax was one of several tax related Russian economic issues on which the US experts and Russian officials exchanged views early this month. The 15 member delegation was in Moscow on invitation from Russia's Ministry of Finance and State Committee on Taxation to help develop guidelines for laws governing Russia's taxation of foreign investment. The US group was sponsored by the Tax Foundation, Washington, DC, a nonprofit, nonpartisan tax and fiscal policy research and public education group

  10. Tax planning in corporation

    OpenAIRE

    Nevodnicheva, Yulia

    2010-01-01

    This thesis "Tax planning in corporation" puts brain to legal entity income tax and it is looking for possible solutions in tax planning in corporation. The first part deals with the tax theory, the other part is the theory of tax planning, comparison of tax regimes and tax policy and tax revenue by optimizing both internationally and in the local aspect. The last part discusses options for optimizing tax

  11. Cross Check of the Tax Base in Serbia – Informative Tax Return Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raonić Ivan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The tax system of the Republic of Serbia is characterized by a very low level of income taxation. It is a particularly acute problem in cross-checking the tax base. The legislature tried to solve this problem by the introduction of the informative tax return (IPP. The problem is even greater because the situations encountered have not been analysed in science and tax theory, and very often have not been covered by applicable laws. A specific challenge for the tax authorities represent taxpayers whose incomes are primarily realized abroad (usually persons from the world of entertainment. This paper describes the basic forms of tax offences characteristic of income tax evasion and discusses how to solve them, with a particular focus on the implementation of cross-checking the tax base.

  12. Accounting: Suggested Content for Postsecondary Tax Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Patricia H.; Morgan, Samuel D.

    1978-01-01

    Surveys of community college graduates and of certified public accountants were made to determine employment relevance of the accounting curriculum. The article suggests topics from the study data which should be included in taxation courses, e.g., income tax accounting, corporate taxation accounting, and tax law. (MF)

  13. Features of Responsibility for Commission of Tax Crimes Regulation under the Criminal Legislation of England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina I. Gruzinskaya

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, author discusses features of regulating liability for tax offenses in British criminal law. Author researches question of taxation criminalization. Author emphasizes that it is important to separate tax evasion (illegal different ways from tax optimization (within the law. Author analyzes concept of "tax fraud", which can be defined as the deliberate actions of person to reduce taxes and committed through falsification of documents relevant to the tax authorities. In addition author considers tax fraud and other forms of criminal actions on the tax system under the British law, including tax cuts, tax resistance and refusal to pay taxes. Author concludes that forms of British economic crime compositions, depending on the way they were committed differentiates criminal liability. This question is more relevant in the process of punishment individualization because not all fraudulent evasion techniques will actually produce a much greater danger to society than "passive avoidance".

  14. Study of interconnection of financial and tax accounting of profit in Russia and abroad

    OpenAIRE

    Labyntsev Mykola T.; Tsepilova Olena S.

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses the degree of interconnection of financial and tax accounting of profit in Russia and some foreign countries – USA, France and Germany. The legal principle – common law or unified law – is taken as a criterion. The article shows that existence of the system of tax accounting by one tax (organisation profit tax) separately from the financial accounting in Russia from 2002 is not rational. At present Russia actively develops a variant of making financial accounting and tax ...

  15. CONTROVERSIAL ASPECTS REGARDING TAX EVASION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea-Constantin SINESCU

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the paper, we have highlighted some controversial aspects regarding the crime of tax evasion, referring to some important decisions of the High Court of Cassation and Justice and also of the Bucharest Court of Appeal. Debating upon the impunity provision stated by art. 10 of Law no. 241/2005, the study also sheds light upon the issue of the perspective of the judicial organs regarding the juridical regime of the tax due for dividends. The main focus of the paper leads to the situations when there is legal ground for the tax due for dividends to be considered part of the damage caused by tax evasion crime. The study includes a short analysis of some relevant provisions of the Romanian Fiscal Code and also some aspects deriving from decisions issued by the Administrative and Tax Litigation Chamber of The High Court of Cassation and Justice concerning the legal regime of dividends. Consequently, the authors are presenting both perspectives of the interpretation of the issue regarding the tax due for dividends to be considered part of the damage caused by tax evasion crime, resulting from two decisions of the two Criminal Sections of The Bucharest Court of Appeal, also arguing in favour of the most solid interpretation among them

  16. Taxing carbon in fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Rob

    2000-01-01

    It is argued that both the Climate Change Levy and the fuel duty tax are outdated even before they are implemented. Apparently, the real problems are not in the bringing of road fuels into the scope of the Climate Change Levy but in introducing reforms to improve integration of greenhouse gases and taxation. Both fuel duty and the Levy are aimed at maximising efficiency and reducing air pollution. The system as it stands does not take into account the development of a market where the management and trading of carbon and greenhouse gases may jeopardise the competitiveness of UK businesses. It is argued that an overhaul of climate and emissions-related law is necessary. The paper is presented under the sub-headings of (i) a fixation on energy; (ii) no focus on CO 2 ; (iii) carbon markets - beyond the levy and (iv) tax structure. (UK)

  17. Tax war in Brazil: aspects and trends; Competicao fiscal no Brasil: aspectos e tendencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resende, Fabio Martins; Oliveira, David Brandao de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper issue aspects of tax war since the origin in Brazil until your apply after the tax reform with destiny principle. This work introduce with historical of tax system in Brazil. Besides approach the tax war with the game theory and practical examples to explain the advantage and disadvantage under fiscal responsibility law. Finally, we will discuss if will be continue the tax war developed in possible scenario the tax reform charging on the destiny state (author)

  18. Compliance costs caused by agency action? Empirical evidence and implications for tax compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Eichfelder, Sebastian; Kegels, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    The compliance costs of private taxpayers are not only affected by the tax law itself but also by its implementation through the tax authorities. In this paper we analyze the effect of the tax authorities on the burden of complying with tax regulations. Using survey data of Belgian businesses and controlling for potential endogeneity, we find empirical evidence that tax authority behavior is an important cost driver. According to our estimate, a customer-unfriendly tax administration increase...

  19. The oil tax regime of Azerbaijan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Gerard

    1998-07-01

    Azerbaijan has a long history in the oil business and a chance of a spectacular future. To understand why the oil tax regime evolved into its present form and how it is likely to develop, it is necessary to know something of the country's history and the commercial environment. Consequently the presentation begins by discussing these items. It then outlines the Production Sharing Agreement regime in Azerbaijan and then deals with the Kazakh and Georgian Tax Codes, as these are likely to be the basis of a new general tax law in Azerbaijan from 1999. The presentation includes comments on the New Draft Tax Code of 1998.

  20. The oil tax regime of Azerbaijan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Gerard

    1998-07-01

    Azerbaijan has a long history in the oil business and a chance of a spectacular future. To understand why the oil tax regime evolved into its present form and how it is likely to develop, it is necessary to know something of the country's history and the commercial environment. Consequently the presentation begins by discussing these items. It then outlines the Production Sharing Agreement regime in Azerbaijan and then deals with the Kazakh and Georgian Tax Codes, as these are likely to be the basis of a new general tax law in Azerbaijan from 1999. The presentation includes comments on the New Draft Tax Code of 1998.

  1. Tax issues in structuring effective cogeneration vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebel, S.R.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the Canadian income tax laws that apply to cogeneration projects was presented. Certain tax considerations could be taken into account in deciding upon ownership and financing structures for cogeneration projects, particularly those that qualify for class 43.1 capital cost allowance treatment. The tax treatment of project revenues and expenses were described. The paper also reviewed the 1999 federal budget proposals regarding the manufacturing and processing tax credit, the capital cost allowance system applicable to cogeneration assets and the treatment of the Canadian renewable conservation expense

  2. Forms of Manifestation regarding Tax Evasion: New Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alia Gabriela DUŢĂ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Tax evasion has existed, exists and will exist as long as the state and the tax will continue to exist, but the forms and ways of achievement are perfectly in time. In terms of how can be committed, the ratio that exists between this phenomenon and the current legislation, tax evasion, there are two manifestations: the lawful tax avoidance (performed at the shelter law; unlawful tax evasion (fraudulent or fraud. In terms of space can be identified: tax evasion and tax avoidance at national and international level. In recent years circumvention actions are transferred, increasingly more inside from national tax systems across state borders, action driven by trends economic globalization, political and social.

  3. TAX PLANNING : SEBUAH PENGANTAR SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF MEMINIMALKAN PAJAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenni Mangoting

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available It is not public's secret anymore, that if there are some efforts from tax payers, not only individual but also business entity to manage the amount of taxes that they have to be pay to the government. For them the taxes are cost, therefore they need to make some initiative or strategies to minimize the taxes liabilities in order to reach the optimal of the income after taxes. Generally, the strategies that have been done in a tax planning are considered taking advantages of the "holes" in tax regulation. That is why tax planning is not against the law. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Bukan merupakan rahasia umum lagi, jika ada usaha-usaha yang dilakukan oleh wajib pajak, baik itu pribadi maupun wajib pajak badan untuk mengatur jumlah pajak yang harus dibayar. Bagi mereka pajak dianggap sebagai biaya, sehingga perlu dilakukan usaha-usaha atau strategi-strategi tertentu untuk menguranginya. Usaha-usaha atau strategi-strategi yang dilakukan merupakan bagian dari tax planning. Tujuan yang diharapkan dengan adanya tax planning ini adalah meminimalkan pajak terutang untuk mencapai laba sebelum pajak yang optimal. Biasanya startegi-strategi yang dilakukan dalam tax planning ini lebih pada memanfaatkan celah-celah atau lubang-lubang yang terdapat dalam undang-undang perpajakan. Oleh karena itu tax planning ini pada dasarnya tidak bertentangan dengan undang-undang. Kata kunci : taxes, tax planning, tax evasion, tax avoidance, biaya fiskal

  4. Evaluating the Costs and Benefits of Taxing Internet Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Zittrain, Jonathan L.

    1999-01-01

    Current tax law--and the current technical architecture of the Internet--make it difficult to enforce sales taxes on most Internet commerce. This has generated considerable policy debate. In this paper, we analyze the costs and benefits of enforcing such taxes including revenue losses, competition with retail, externalities, distribution, and compliance costs. The results suggest that the costs of not enforcing taxes are quite modest and will remain so for several years. At the same time, com...

  5. Good tax governance: A matter of moral responsibility and transparency

    OpenAIRE

    Gribnau, Hans; Jallai, Ave-Geidi

    2017-01-01

    Multinational corporations’ tax practices are hotly debated nowadays. Multinationals are accused of not paying their fair share of taxes. Apparently, acting within the limits set by law is not sufficient to qualify as morally responsible behavior anymore. This article offers ethical reflection on the current debate.The general public typically evaluates (aggressive) tax planning in moral terms rather than legal terms. Therefore, multinationals need to reflect on their tax planning strategy ne...

  6. Sugary beverage tax policy: lessons learned from tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2014-03-01

    Excise taxes on sugary beverages have been proposed as a method to replicate the public health success of tobacco control and to generate revenue. As policymakers increase efforts to pass sugary beverage taxes, they can anticipate that manufacturers will emulate the strategies employed by tobacco companies in their attempts to counteract the impact of such taxes. Policymakers should therefore consider 2 complementary laws-minimum price laws and prohibitions on coupons and discounting-to accomplish the intended price increase.

  7. The tax havens between measures of economic stimulation and measures against tax evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manea, A. C.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the literature but also in the legal language there are ever-increasingly met the current economic notions of tax havens, offshore companies, offshore law or double taxation. These concepts are encountered, however, in legislative efforts of combating domestic and international business and tax evasion, because such tax havens, although offering financial benefits to individuals or legal residents, make it virtually impossible to control, by the national tax services, the level of imposed income tax and the fees payable by the taxpayer, and all these through operations under the legislation of the States where there are these tax havens. The terminology of tax havens is replaced in recent years with the more discreet terms. of center of international finance or financial haven.

  8. Tax and statement matters of the income tax for the year 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busuioceanu, S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerous legislative changes that occur from one financial year to another are not always able to clarify points of divergence existent between establishing the tax profit and the accounting one. Thus, accountants are sometimes put in difficulty, regarding the obligation to present the accounts respecting the principle of a true and fair view and the desire to optimize the tax cost of their business. The fact is that in the absence of specific accounting rules, the tax normative is set as a practical normative. In the fiscal side, there are clear law provisions governing each type of tax which must be respected. The tax base is the tax result and taxation,, by imposing strict rules, is trying to balance the general tendency of the taxpayers to minimize the tax due.

  9. A NEUROECONOMIC APPROACH OF TAX BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichita Ramona-Anca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Governments around the world register substantial losses due to tax non-compliance behavior. Whether it is tax avoidance or tax evasion, non-compliance has repercussions on the whole society because it mitigates the quality of the provision of public goods. Nevertheless, the level of tax compliance is significantly higher than the classical tax evasion model of Allingham and Sandmo (1972 predicts. A manifold of theoretical and empirical studies invalidate the assumptions of the classical model by trying to give answers to one of the most intriguing questions: Why people pay taxes? Taking into consideration these realities, we summarize some of the findings related to tax behavior within the emerging new field of neuroeconomics. Using state-of-the-art technology (non-invasive brain stimulation, non-invasive measurement of brain activity, pharmacological interventions to raise or lower the activity of neurotransmitters, eye-tracking or skin conductance response, neuroeconomics steps on the scene to give insights on the reasons for which taxpayers display a certain tax behavior. According to the neuroeconomics mainstream literature, emotions guide the decision-making process when outcomes are uncertain with regards to rewards and losses. At neural level, the amygdala triggers bodily states related to reward and loss and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex reenacts past experiences of reward and loss to predict future outcomes. Some taxpayers who decide to engage in tax evasion experience a positive feeling when anticipating the profit from dodging taxes, feeling that is triggered by the amygdala. Other taxpayers donn#8217;t engage in tax evasion because they want to avoid negative feelings (shame, guilt, regret. Oxytocin facilitates dopamine release which is a positive physiological motivation for cooperation. As a consequence, taxpayersn#8217; trust levels increase and, with it, increases the propensity to comply with the tax law. Besides

  10. The Arizona Education Tax Credit and Hidden Considerations of Justice: Why We Ought To Fight Poverty, Not Taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Michele S.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Arizona education tax credit law as a voucher plan in disguise, and argues that the concept of justice underlying the law is an element largely missing from the school choice debate. Calls on educators and policymakers to concentrate on efforts to help needy students rather than to channel tax dollars toward self-interested ends.…

  11. Tax Administration: Information on Selected IRS Tax Enforcement and Collection Efforts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    ...) in enforcing the nation's tax laws. These two topics will be discussed: (1) the relationship between IRS audits of taxpayers and other programs IRS uses to ensure that taxpayers returns are accurate, and (2...

  12. EVALUATION OF SALES VALUE OF OBJECT TAX ON LAND AND BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titin RULIANA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tax revenue today become the backbone of the State reception in the State Budget ( Budget . One of the tax revenue is land and building tax . Basis of property tax is the Sales Value of Object Tax. Sales Value of Object Tax is the average price obtained from the market price , and the price is based on the Decree of the Mayor [3]. Determination Sales Value of Object Tax based on Laws number 12 of 1985 amended by Laws number 12 of 1994 [1]. Determination Sales Value of Object Tax based Formulation of the problem in this paper is as follows : "Is it the Sales Value of Object Tax on Land and Building Tax in Year 2012 in accordance with Laws number 12 of year 1994". This research used a sample of fifty one taxpayers from Income Tax Payable in 2012. Target of research is Sales Value of Object Tax on land and building by comparing the Sales Value of Object Tax contained in the Notification Letter of Tax Payable to the actual situation. Based on the background and formulation of the problem, that : "Calculation Sales Value of Object Tax on Land and Building of 2012 in the District Palaran of Samarinda City not in accordance with Law Number 12 of 1994" . I was concluded that the calculation Sales Value of Object Tax on Land and Buildings in the District Palaran been calculated in accordance with Law on number 12 of 1994 . Difference in the amount of Land and Building Tax to be paid based on The Notification Letter of Tax Payable with the results of research in the field due to lack of public understanding about The Land and Building Tax, so that the taxpayer did not immediately report the wide changes to the tax object owned by the Office of Tax services

  13. A Failed Experiment: Georgia's Tax Credit Scholarships for Private Schools. Special Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Education Foundation, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Georgia is one of seven states that currently allow tax credits for scholarships to private schools. The law permits individual taxpayers in Georgia to reduce annual state taxes up to $2,500 for joint returns when they divert funds to a student scholarship organization (SSO). Georgia's law providing tax credits for private school tuition grants or…

  14. Tax Amnesty (in Russian)

    OpenAIRE

    Kateryna Bornukova; Dzmitry Kruk; Gleb Shymanovich; Yuri Tserlukevich

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores international experience of tax amnesties. Despite the popular use of tax amnesties, the results are mixed. The main advantage of the tax amnesty is the possibility to increase tax collections and improve tax compliance. However, it does not account for adverse effect of amnesties on tax compliance and high direct and indirect costs of amnesties. The success of the tax amnesty depends largely on the state of the economy. We have identified target groups and discussed a que...

  15. Aplicações da lei de Newcomb-Benford na auditoria tributária do imposto sobre serviços de qualquer natureza (ISS Applications of the Newcomb-Benford law in the tax audit of the service tax (ISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josenildo dos Santos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo teve por objetivo verificar se o modelo contabilométrico baseado na Lei de Newcomb-Benford (NB-Lei é aplicável ao trabalho de auditoria tributária do ISS. Para isso, realizou-se a confrontação do resultado do modelo contabilométrico com o obtido pela auditoria contábil-fiscal registrado no relatório Termo Final de Fiscalização lavrado pelo fisco da Prefeitura localizada em uma Cidade do Nordeste. Optou-se por realizar um estudo de caso em uma empresa pertencente ao segmento de publicidade e o período de análise compreende as notas fiscais (NFs emitidas durante os anos de 2002 a 2005. Para o levantamento dos dados, utilizaram-se múltiplas fontes de evidências ao alcance dos objetivos do trabalho, analisando-se o conjunto dos seguintes documentos: a Código Tributário Municipal; b Código Tributário Nacional; c Termos finais de fiscalização; d Declaração de serviços de empresas fiscalizadas; e Relatórios de divergências das empresas fiscalizadas; f Manual de rotinas de fiscalização. No que tange ao tratamento de dados, adotou-se como estratégia a utilização da estatística descritiva (medidas de posição e dispersão e a estatística de inferência (teste de hipótese e significância e análise de correlação. Os resultados oriundos do estudo de caso da empresa de publicidade evidenciaram a aplicabilidade do modelo baseado na Lei de Newcomb-Benford para o processo de auditoria tributária do ISS, pois esse sinalizou os possíveis desvios com a emissão e escrituração das notas fiscais, os quais foram confirmados com os resultados da fiscalização.This paper aimed to check if the quantitative accounting model based on the Newcomb-Benford Law (NB-law is applicable to ISS tax auditing. For this purpose, the result of the quantitative accounting model was confronted with the result of the accounting-fiscal audit registered in the Final Fiscalization report elaborated by the tax authorities of a municipal

  16. Report of the finance committee on the draft of the bill to amend the tax law on mineral oil and liquer in 1981 (MinoeBranntwStAeandG 1981). Bericht des Finanzausschusses zu dem von der Bundesregierung eingebrachten Entwurf eines Mineraloel- und Branntweinsteuer-Aenderungsgesetzes 1981 (MinoeBranntwStAendG 1981)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The report gives the views of those associations which took part in the hearing on the bill. The majority of committee members stood firm to the basic concept of making use of taxes for consolidating the budget and for improving the balance of payments. The increase in mineral oil tax does only present a limited correction, since the tax share in the petrol price once amounted to 75 per cent. In the meantime it has dropped below 50 per cent due to increasing oil prices. The committee has thoroughly dealt with aspects of market restriction and with the consequences of an increased unemployment ratio. The necessary process of adaptation the automotive industry will have to undergo has already been set in motion. It will at the most be expedited by this new law.

  17. The Vat Exemption for Health Care: Eu Law and its Impact on Swedish law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Påhlsson Robert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The general rule in EU law is that value-added tax (VAT is to be levied on all goods and services. There are a number of exceptions, however, one of which applies to certain medical services. This paper examines the legal basis for tax exemptions in EU VAT law and in Swedish law, with particular attention to the extent to which the rapidly growing private health-care sector is covered by these tax exemptions.

  18. INCREASE TAX BASE AS INDICATOR OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Iu. Padalkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The article analyzed the tax burden as an indicator of growth of production and security of financial activity of working capital. The most important duty of the enterprise - the taxpayer in accordance with paragraph 1 of art. 3 of the Tax Code of the Russian Federation is the responsibility to pay the legally established taxes and fees. However, according to article 45 of the Tax Code to claim 1 tax liability must be carried out within the period prescribed by law. Under the tax in accordance with paragraph 1 of article 8 of the Tax Code is understood mandatory, individually gratuitous payment collected from organizations and individuals in the form of alienation of their right to property, economic or operational management of funds for financial support of the state and (or municipalities. Tax regulation - measures the indirect impact on the economy of the state, economic and social processes by changing the types of taxes, tax rates, tax incentives to establish, reduce or increase the overall level of tax payments to the budget. So, tax cuts can stimulate production, and raising taxes - to restrain or even suppress some activities.

  19. Corruption and Tax Evasion = Yolsuzluk ve Vergi Kaçakçılığı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacit Hadi AKDEDE

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Corruption and tax evasion problems have been investigated separately before. Tax evasion is also considered to be a corrupt behavior itself. However, in this paper, corruption is taken to be a bribe taken by a government official and tax evasion is defined as an illegal act to avoid paying taxes by violating tax laws. An interesting research question would be to see whether corruption can induce tax evasion in individuals ? It is found in the paper that the size of bribe can negatively affect tax evasion. It is shown that when a bribe is sufficiently large, taxpayers prefer to pay their taxes voluntarily, not to evade taxes.

  20. Tax Expenditures in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjekoslav Bratić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The tax system of the Republic of Croatia contains a large number of very diverse kinds of tax expenditures whose the declared aim is to achieve certain social and economic objectives. This paper considers all the items that constitute tax expenditures in Croatia, within the systems of the personal income tax, corporate income tax, and real estate transfer tax and value added tax. The objective of the article is to determine the real level of tax expenditures per form of tax in the 2001-2004 period. We hypothesised that the tax expenditures in the analysed forms of tax are both high and growing, which was ultimately borne out, for almost all the analysed items in the tax forms considered are growing.

  1. Estonian Tax Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Trasberg

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses Estonian tax structure changes during the last decade and critically assesses the current situation. The country’s tax mix is rather unique among EU countries – it has one of the highest proportions of consumption taxes in total taxes and the lowest level of capital and profit taxes. Such an unbalanced tax structure creates risks for public finances, limits revenue collection and distorts the business environment.

  2. THE EFFECTIVE LEVEL OF CORPORATE INCOME TAX IN THEEUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Adamczyk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite of the factthat European Union economy is the subject to integrationprocess, there has been no harmonization of corporate income taxation. Nocompulsion to adapt to common tax law requirements makes that many,especially new member states of EU, tends to use corporate income tax to attractcapital flows. The tax competition often takes a form of so called “race to thebottom” and consists in reducing tax rates. At the same time fiscal authoritiesusually broaden their tax bases in favor to increase the neutrality of the corporateincome tax.The main goal of this article is to measure the combined effect ofreducing statutory tax rates and broadening of tax bases in selected MemberStates.

  3. CRIMINAL LIABILITY FOR CERTAIN ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES-TAX EVASIOAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrina Fodor

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Evasion is equivalent to the offense or crime, and what is civil or criminal depending on the seriousness and rufnesse. Reasons for this phenomenon in Romania is difficult to quantify and are prevented complex and numerous, among them may be mentioned: many imperfections and speculiarities in the tax laws, the business tax accounting method, not using the national macroeconomic record, massive tax evasion carried out by various interest groups and economic agents only appear to take advantage of loopholes laws lack of a tax code, the principle of confidentiality.

  4. Tax planning: analysis between national simple and the estimated gain

    OpenAIRE

    Bassoli, Marlene Kempfer; Somma, Giovana Mattioli

    2010-01-01

    This study was initiated because of the need to define the legal situation that, really, is the tax planning in Brazil. The use of comparative method between the estimated gain and the national simple level to clarify an avoidance induced by the law, mainly, demonstrate the possibility of a reduced tax burden and tax savings for companies. Under the focus of the State of Law that honors the principles of strict legality and typicality closed. At first, the article focuses on Tax Planning, tal...

  5. Tax compliance costs in the public sector : a case study in a public company services.

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Carvalho Pinto de Mesquita

    2013-01-01

    Tax compliance costs are sacrifices of resources to understand and comply with all formalities which are required by tax law. In Brazil, those formalities of the tax laws are among the most complex and bureaucratic in the world and this has a direct influence on business costs, either for the payment of taxes in itself, is to meet the requirements of the legislation. The theme has attracted scientific interest, with the relatively recent development of research in the world, yet there are few...

  6. Tax issues in structuring effective cogeneration vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukich, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    A general overview of the Canadian income tax laws under which cogeneration plants will operate was presented. Highlights of some of the more important tax issues associated with cogeneration operations were included. This includes some of the specific rules dealing with the availability of the Manufacturing and Processing tax, credit, capital cost allowance, the Specified Energy Property rules and the tax treatment of Canadian Renewable and Conservation Expenses including the ability of a company to transfer such expenses to shareholders. Since it is expected that future cogeneration plants will have more than one owner, this paper reviewed the various legal structures through which multiple owners can own and run their cogeneration operations. Tax considerations related to the scale of a cogeneration plant were also reviewed

  7. Collecting Taxes Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Collecting Taxes Database contains performance and structural indicators about national tax systems. The database contains quantitative revenue performance...

  8. ROLE OF TAX PENALTIES IN TAXPAYERS EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia CAPRIAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal control is a form of state financial control bodies from the Ministry of Finance, the instrument we have available to public authorities for monitoring and determining the methods and techniques to ensure the financial resources of the state constitution, in this case, tax revenue is the overwhelming them. Businesses, regardless of its ownership, which profit from their activity, are required by law to calculate and pay taxes to the budget in the amount and terms provided by the regulations.

  9. From tax evasion to tax planning

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgain, Arnaud; Pieretti, Patrice; Zanaj, Skerdilajda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze within a simple model how a re- moval of bank secrecy can impact tax revenues and banks' profitability assuming that offshore centers are able to offer sophisticated but legal or not easily detectable tax planning. Two alternative regimes are considered. A first in which there is strict bank secrecy and a second where there is international information exchange for tax purposes. We show in particular that sharing tax information with onshore coun- tries can...

  10. Tax Evasion, an Integral Part of Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Elena Coca

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available State budget is considered to be the instrument of achieving social and economic objectives, with the ability to mediate its subsidies and tax incentives. Lack of funds, which are part of budget income, leads to incapacity of achieving the state duties, and this is the result of taxpayers avoiding to pay taxes. The need for delimitation between unlawful and lawful tax avoidance makes it useful to estimate the size of the phenomenon on its two forms of expression and raise awareness among political and administrative decision makers, in order to search and determine appropriate methods to limit and combat the phenomenon.

  11. Aplicabilidade da Lei de Newcomb-Benford nas fiscalizações do imposto sobre serviços - ISS Applicability of the Newcomb-Benford Law on inspections service tax - ISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umbelina Cravo Teixeira Lagioia

    2011-08-01

    relevant due to the opportunity to specialize the Auditors in carrying out their tasks and in other fields of endeavor, prominently in public expenditure. Through a mathematical model - Newcomb-Benford's law -irregularities could be identified in companies, as an important tool to plan audits. This interdisciplinary research is also important due to the unedited application of this method to Service Tax. The case study strategy was used, with detailed analyses of companies inspected in 2005 and 2006. The qualitative approach was applied to better understand the functioning of the Supervision Department's organizational structure, collecting data through documentary analysis and unstructured interview. Using the quantitative approach, adherence to the model was verified, which signaled deviations. The documentary analysis, interviews and model tests acted in a constant information triangulation process. The results suggest: adherence to ISS supervision model; importance of putting the method in practice in other areas; urgent need to promote changes in forms and rules to audit firms, as well as in the dissemination of these results to Brazilian cities, mainly because no new investments are demanded, in view of scarce resources in public administration. Finally, a national research agenda is suggested to enhance tax management.

  12. International Investment Law and EU Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    regional economic integration agreements, International Competition Law, International Investment Regulation, International Monetary Law, International Intellectual Property Protection and International Tax Law. In addition to the regular annual volumes, EYIEL Special Issues routinely address specific...... current topics in International Economic Law. The entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty entails sweeping changes with respect to foreign investment regulation. Most prominently, the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) now contains in its Article 207 an explicit competence...... for the regulation of foreign direct investment as part of the Common Commercial Policy (CCP) chapter. With this new competence, the EU will become an important actor in the field of international investment politics and law. The new empowerment in the field of international investment law prompts a multitude...

  13. Double Taxation Agreements: Between EU Law and Public International Law

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Herwig

    2011-01-01

    After the first drafts of the Treaty of Lisbon were available outside of the small circle of cogniscenti, specialists of the various policies tried to establish whether the new Treaty on European Union (TEU) and Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) contained anything relevant for their specific areas of law. People interested in tax law and those interested in the relation between EU law and public international law quickly established that one familiar yet not always well u...

  14. Financial Decisions, Tax Effect and Investment Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin COSKUN

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to measure influence of taxation while making financial decisions and predict it with the general application in Turkey. Except for equity returns of financial and negative capital institutions registered in Borsa Istanbul between 2000 and 2012, those of all other businesses were calculated. In order to measure cost of capital, Capital Assets Pricing Model(CAPM was employed. Businesses were divided into for regions as stated in Tax Incentive Law according to the study. As stated in Tax Incentive Law, the businesses whose costs of capital were divided into six regions where statistical analysis was made to determine whether taxation influenced financial decisions of the related businesses based on Tax Incentive Law or not. Assessment of the findings within the study determined that businesses in 1 st, 2 nd and 3 rd regions were affected by taxation 5,69, 2,75 and 1,39 as means between 2007 and 2012, respectively. Accordingly taxation load of businesses in 1 st region provinces was found to be heavier than those of businesses in other regions. Considering the Tax Incentive Law, it was found to be statistically important that taxation load of the related region should be taken into account in making any financial decisions. In this respect, there is an impact of tax when one makes financial decisions. However, other relevant factors should also be considered.

  15. Civil Law Legal Assistance: Lawyers Study Guide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... Some topics discussed in this volume include interviewing and client counseling, preventive law programs, estate planning, family support, family law, separation agreements, consumers laws, income tax law, and a discussion of legislation such as the Soldiers and Sailors Civil Relief Act and the Uniformed Services Former Spouses Protection Act.

  16. Towards an International Code for administrative cooperation in tax matter and international tax governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Andrés Aucejo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is not a “Global Code” that encodes the duty of cooperation between tax authorities in the world, concerning the global tax system. This article addresses this issue by proposing a global Code of administrative cooperation in tax matters including both tax relations: between States, and between States, taxpayers and intermediary’s agents. It follows a wide concept of tax governance. The findings of this research have highlighted several practical applications for future practice. article analyses, firstly, the State of the question, starting with the legal sources (international and European sources of hard law and soft law reviewing the differences with the Code as here proposed. It also examines some important Agents who emit relevant normative in international administrative tax cooperation and the role that these agents are developing nowadays (sometimes international organizations but also States like the United States, which Congress enacted the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act, FATCA. Overlapping and gaps between different regulations are underlined. Finally, the consequences of this “General Code” lack for the functioning of a good international governance, are described. Hence, the need to create an International Cooperation Code on tax matters and international fiscal governance is concluded. That Code could be proposed by any International Organization as the World Bank nature, for instance, or the International Monetary Fund or whichever International or European Organization. This instrument could be documented through a multilateral instrument (soft law, to be signed by the States to become an international legal source (hard law. Filling this Code as Articulated Text (form could be very useful for the International Community towards an International Tax Governance.

  17. KNOWLEDGE IS POWER. IMPROVING TAX COMPLIANCE BY MEANS OF BOOSTING TAX LITERACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichita Ramona-Anca

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Because empirical investigations entailing classical tax evasion models often reported consistent deviations from perfect rationality, social scientists interested in tax behavior have extended their area of research by focusing on compliance determinants outside the economic spectrum (i.e., tax rate, audit rate, penalty rate, income. Consequently, a manifold of variables from psychology (attitudes, norms, perceptions, sociology (education, gender or political science (fiscal policy, tax law complexity, voting were taken into account as determinants of taxpayers’ decisions. In addition, behavioral models like the Australian Taxation Office compliance model, New Zealand Inland Revenue compliance model or the “slippery slope” framework have incorporated such variables. Recent empirical developments have indicated that tax literacy can be counted as a significant determinant of tax compliance. Forasmuch compliance strategies exclusively grounded on coercion are rather costly (high monitoring outlays, large staff employed in the monitoring process, etc., generally yield short-term outcomes and may attract the resistance of otherwise honest taxpayers, authorities worldwide have begun searching for the adequate combination between cooperation and coercion, in which the emphasis on the former should prevail. State budgets are better off when authorities enact compliance strategies extensively built on cooperation, for they generate long-term results, require fewer outlays and secure the support of most honest taxpayers. The current paper draws on the effects of tax literacy (i.e., the level of tax knowledge on taxpayers’ behavior, highlighting miscellaneous strategies employed by national tax authorities around the world. As a general trend, increasing tax literacy among very young and soon-to-be taxpayers is preferred by several tax authorities, because potential contributors have to be accustomed to the requirements of tax systems before

  18. Dynamic Tax Depreciation Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    The tax depreciation decision potentially has significant impact on the prof- itability of firms and projects. Indeed, the depreciation method chosen for tax purposes affects the timing of tax payments, and, as a consequence, it also affects the after-tax net present value of investment projects.

  19. Dynamic tax depreciation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    The tax depreciation decision potentially has significant impact on the profitability of firms and projects. Indeed, the depreciation method chosen for tax purposes affects the timing of tax payments, and, as a consequence, it also affects the after-tax net present value of investment projects.

  20. Refundable Tax Credits

    OpenAIRE

    Congressional Budget Office

    2013-01-01

    In 1975, the first refundable tax credit—the earned income tax credit (EITC)—took effect. Since then, the number and cost of refundable tax credits—credits that can result in net payments from the government—have grown considerably. Those credits will cost $149 billion in 2013, CBO estimates, mostly for the EITC and the child tax credit.

  1. Tax Planning for Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Weiqing

    2011-01-01

    @@ Tax planning is legal planning activities for tax savings, meaning tax payers make operation plans within the national policy framework and choose operation programs favorable to tax savings.Along with a maturing socialist market economy system in China, tax planning is becoming an integral part of enterprise management and operation.For a better tax planning, enterprises have to fully understand the meaning, get proficient at relevant strategies, and apply these methods to save taxes and realize the maximization of enterprise value while considering the actual situation.

  2. Analysis of theories and interpretative criteria in fiscal or tax provisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angélica Nava-Rodríguez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the subject of the interpretation of Tax law, as it constitutes one of the fundamental legal problems in the area. The basic aim of tax law is to regulate the form by which taxpayers contribute to the public expense of the State within the limits established by the Constitution. This interpretation presents special characteristics because it regulates the relations between the government and tax payers and contains special arrangements in dealing between them in terms of accounting, economics and finance. Because tax liability changes frequently, it is difficult to control the large number of daily specific situations that occur, therefore, the interpreter must determine whether the conduct that creates an obligation falls within the tax provision. The article studies the schools of interpretation, the methods that are located in each of the categories and the criteria of doctrinal interpretation of tax laws, also the interpretation according to the federal tax law.

  3. 26 CFR 509.102 - Applicable provisions of law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicable provisions of law. 509.102 Section... UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS SWITZERLAND General Income Tax § 509.102 Applicable provisions of law. (a) General... reason of any alteration of law in relation to internal revenue. (b) Retroactivity of regulations or...

  4. Tax optimization of companies

    OpenAIRE

    Dědinová, Pavla

    2017-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with tax optimization of companies. The thesis is divided into two main parts - the theoretical and practical part. The introduction of the theoretical part describes the history of taxes, their basic characteristics and the importance of their collection for today's society. Subsequently, the tax system of the Czech Republic with a focus on value added tax and corporation tax is presented. The practical part deals with specific possibilities of optimization of the a...

  5. STUDY CONTESTING TAX RULES ON SOCIAL SECURITY CONTRIBUTIONS BY TAXPAYERS FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Doru BÎGIOI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The management bodies of companies must know and correctly apply tax law. There are, however, the practical situations, when, although they want to respect this, taxpayers are penalized by the tax authorities, because it did not comply with tax obligations. There are many factors that can determine this, among which: circumvent tax rules in order to avoid paying taxes and incorrect application of law. In this study was approached the second factor, namely: analysis of the most common situations in which both taxpayers as well fiscal authorities erroneously apply tax law. To achieve these results, was developed a study regarding the determination degree of contesting the tax rules, in area of social security contributions. Data subject research was extracted in the database officially published by competent insitutions tax. The research was conducted for the period January 1, 2004 and until February 28, 2015. In terms of research methodology, were used both quantitative methods and qualitative methods. Finally, data were centralized by type of articles, they are sorted according to the extent of contestation obtained. The final conclusion is that imprecise definition of the terms tax is one of the main causes which determines incorrect application of tax law. The results can be used especially by the subjects of tax legal relationship, to avoid situations the tax law is applied incorrectly, aspects that may lead to negative situations, both companies and the state institutions.

  6. Settlement of Tax Disputes in the Russian Federation and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasiya Alexandrovna Konyukhova

    2015-01-01

    This article is devoted to the settlement of tax disputes in the Russian Federation and the Federal Republic of Germany. The features of the conflict settlement mechanism are both shown in the stage of administrative and judicial review. In accordance with German law, the administrative stage of dispute resolution, carried out by the tax authority, always precedes the filing of a complaint to a court. Consequently, the taxpayer submits his first application in writing to the tax authority tha...

  7. Dance business - accounting, tax, legal and economic connections

    OpenAIRE

    Svitlík, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The thesis summarizes the most important conditions and duties of the beginning and process of dance business of sole trader from tax, accounting and business law view. Theoretic part mainly deals with the choice of legal form of business, tax accounting as an example of evidence of business process of sole trader and calculation of tax liability of sole trader. Practical part describes business process of dance school and applies to this real example some of the information of theoretic part...

  8. Tax evasion – Notion and means to commit it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana G. IONAŞ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tax evasion is the circumvention, by any means, from the enforcement or payment of taxes, contributions or any amounts owed to the state budget, the local budget, the state social insurance budget and the budgets for special funds by Romanian or foreign natural persons or companies, commonly referred to as tax payers in the text of the law. It is currently present under various methods and represents a direct and dangerous threat for society’s stability.

  9. Constitutionalization of Peruvian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Landa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Constitutionalizaton of Law’s different areas is a phenomenon gradually more ingrained in our cultural and legal framework. Maybe the best demonstration is the increasingly prominent role of the Constitutional Court (TC – Constitution’s Supreme Interpreter – in defining and redefining concepts, rights and legal principles touching a range of subjects, from TaxLaw to Human Rights. This is relevant to understand the Law and its current effects whether it is valued positively or negatively.

  10. Tax penalties in SME tax compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Swistak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Small business tax compliance requires special attention. On the one hand small businesses are often incapable of rigorously fulfilling their tax obligations, more vulnerable to external risks and tempted to exploit opportunities to be non-compliant. On the other hand, unlike larger businesses, they are usually sole proprietors or owner-operated businesses, hence highly responsive to personal, social, cognitive and emotional factors. These attributes pave the way to a better use of measures designed to influence their behavior and choices. This paper discusses the role and effectiveness of tax penalties in enhancing tax compliance in small businesses. It argues that tax penalties, although indispensable for tax enforcement, may not be a first-choice tool in ensuring tax compliance. Too punitive a tax regime is an important barrier to business formalization and increasing severity of tax penalties does not produce the intended results. To be effective, tax penalties should deter and motivate taxpayers rather than exert repressive measures against them.

  11. Revenue and Health Impacts of Restructuring Tobacco Excise Tax ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A proposed law in the Philippines to increase the excise tax on tobacco by ... developing countries to reduce demand for tobacco through price and tax measures. Southeast Asian countries are struggling with how to implement the main provisions of the Convention. ... Far East Asia, Philippines, Central Asia, South Asia ...

  12. 26 CFR 3.7 - Tax treatment of nonqualified withdrawals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and additions to tax under such sections, simple interest on the amount of the tax attributable to any... payment of interest with respect to such amounts. (b) Nonqualified withdrawals defined. Except as provided...(e). (e) Interest. (1) For the period on or before the last date prescribed by law, including...

  13. Good tax governance : A matter of moral responsibility and transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribnau, Hans; Jallai, Ave-Geidi

    2017-01-01

    Multinational corporations’ tax practices are hotly debated nowadays. Multinationals are accused of not paying their fair share of taxes. Apparently, acting within the limits set by law is not sufficient to qualify as morally responsible behavior anymore. This article offers ethical reflection on

  14. Revenue and Health Impacts of Restructuring Tobacco Excise Tax ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Revenue and Health Impacts of Restructuring Tobacco Excise Tax in the Philippines. A proposed law in the Philippines to increase the excise tax on tobacco by 215% will likely have implications for tobacco control and consumption, and public health, not just for that country but for the region. Although half of deaths due to ...

  15. ESTIMATION OF TAX BASE IN PERSONAL INCOME TAX AS A FORM OF SUPPORT FOR AGRICULTURE IN GERMANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata BUDLEWSKA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Taxes in most EU countries are designed to financially support farms through lower tax rates. The preferential tax allowances and exemptions motivate farmers to undertake specific activities, in accordance with the main objectives of the agricultural policy. As a result of such activities, the agricultural sector receives additional support, which officially is not subject to public control, at the same time contributing to a considerable burden of EU budgets. The aim of the article is to evaluate the selected tax expenditures addressed to farmers, contained in the German personal income tax. The paper is an attempt to answer the question, whether the method for estimating income from agricultural production used in the German personal income tax law has an impact on reducing tax burdens of farm owners and what the consequences are for the agricultural sector, especially in the area of changes in the area structure of farms.

  16. PROFIT TAX OR INCOME TAX? OPTIONS FOR FISCAL OPTIMIZATION OF ROMANIAN SMALL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina Pacurari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurs usually seek for solutions to reduce their tax burden. We can speak about tax optimization as long as these solutions are in accordance with the law; if they are not, they obviously fall into the area of fiscal fraud. This paper addresses the issue of taxation applicable to the Romanian micro-enterprises. These are small entities that fulfil certain conditions regarding total turnover, equity and domain of activity. Although the provisions applying to micro-enterprise taxation were elaborated, among others, with the intention to reduce tax evasion, they also allow the micro-enterprises with losses to avoid tax payment. In a country with low purchasing power and a great number of taxes and fees like Romania, the entrepreneurs are tempted to use any kind of method to reduce the payments due to the state budget. The micro-enterprise owners make no exception in this matter.

  17. Integrating ICT Skills and Tax Software in Tax Education: A Survey of Malaysian Tax Practitioners' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Lai Ming; Nawawi, Nurul Hidayah Ahamad

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the ICT skills needed by a fresh accounting graduate when first joining a tax firm; to find out usage of electronic tax (e-tax) applications in tax practice; to assess the rating of senior tax practitioners on fresh graduates' ICT and e-tax applications skills; and to solicit tax practitioners' opinion regarding…

  18. 7 CFR 1925.2 - Definition of tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... word “tax” means all taxes, assessments, levies, irrigation and water charges or other similar... securing the Farmers Home Administration (FmHA) or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 loan. ...

  19. Tax Morality and Progressive Wage Tax

    OpenAIRE

    Andras Simonovits

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the impact of tax morality on progressive income (wage) taxation. We assume that transfers (cash-back) and public expenditures are financed from linear wage taxes. We derive the reported wages from individual utility maximization, when individuals obtain partial satisfaction from reporting wages (depending on their tax morality), and cannot be excluded from the use of public services. The government maximizes a utilitarian social welfare function, also taking into account the utili...

  20. Tax Court allows tax credit for herbs and vitamins, not for massage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Richard

    2002-03-01

    In August 2001, the Tax Court of Canada issued its most recent judgment on the tax deductability of expenses for complementary/alternative therapies. The decision in Pagnotta v Canada is significant for people with HIV/AIDS who use such therapies. It also illustrates how provincial and federal laws regulating health-care practitioners and natural health products have a financial impact on the cost of accessing treatment.

  1. Legal and Administrative Feasibility of a Federal Junk Food and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Tax to Improve Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Wilde, Parke; Huang, Yue; Micha, Renata; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate legal and administrative feasibility of a federal "junk" food (including sugar-sweetened beverages [SSBs]) tax to improve diet. To assess food definitions and administration models, we systematically searched (1) PubMed (through May 15, 2017) for articles defining foods subject to taxes, and legal and legislative databases as well as online for (2) US federal, state, and tribal junk food tax bills and laws (January 1, 2012-February 28, 2017); SSB taxes (January 1, 2014-February 28, 2017); and international junk food tax laws (as of February 28, 2017); and (3) federal taxing mechanisms and administrative methods (as of February 28, 2017). Articles recommend taxing foods by product category, broad nutrient criteria, specific nutrients or calories, or a combination. US junk food tax bills (n = 6) and laws (n = 3), international junk food laws (n = 2), and US SSB taxes (n = 10) support taxing foods using category-based (n = 8), nutrient-based (n = 1), or combination (n = 12) approaches. Federal taxing mechanisms (particularly manufacturer excise taxes on alcohol) and administrative methods provide informative models. From legal and administrative perspectives, a federal junk food tax appears feasible based on product categories or combination category-plus-nutrient approaches, using a manufacturer excise tax, with additional support for sugar and graduated tax strategies.

  2. 76 FR 17521 - Specified Tax Return Preparers Required To File Individual Income Tax Returns Using Magnetic Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... regulations reflect changes made to the law by the Worker, Homeownership, and Business Assistance Act of 2009... definition of a ``specified tax return preparer'' must electronically file Federal income tax returns that... of the Worker, Homeownership, and Business Assistance Act of 2009 (Pub. L. 111-92 (123 Stat. 2984...

  3. Deciding on Tax Evasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse everyday reasoning in public administration. This is done by focusing on front line tax inspectors’ decisions about tax evasion. Design/methodology/approach – The paper presents ethnography of bureaucracy and field audits. The material stems from...... fieldwork conducted in the Central Customs and Tax Administration. Findings – The paper shows that the tax inspectors reason about tax evasion in a casuistic manner. They pay attention to similar cases and to particular circumstances of the individual cases. In deciding on tax evasion, the inspectors do...

  4. Collaborative Tax Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This article shows a new form of regulation within a tax administration where tax administrators abate tax evasion by nudging and motivating consumers to only purchase services from tax compliant businesses. This indirectly closes or forces tax evading businesses to change their practices, because...... stakeholders, i.e. the consumers, in the regulatory craft. The study is based on a qualitative methodology and draws on a unique case of regulation in the cleaning sector. This sector is at high risk of tax evasion and human exploitation of vulnerable workers operating in the informal economy. The article has...

  5. House Prices and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedsted Nielsen, Mads

    This paper is the first to consider a large scale natural experiment to estimate the effect of taxes on house prices. We find that a 1 percentage-point increase in income tax rates lead to a drop in house prices of at most 2.2%. This corresponds to a tax capitalization for the average household...... capitalization from earlier studies. Furthermore, we find no effect of property taxes on house prices. We attribute this to the low levels of Danish municipal property tax rates compared to income tax rates....

  6. Features and Advantages of Using Tax Havens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botis S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of tax havens is tied to illicit money laundering process, evolving later under various illegal forms and currently they operate under the protective umbrella of beneficial jurisdictions belonging to some political protected States worldwide. For them to be capable of functioning, special conditions to attract investors have been created. The purpose of this study is to highlight the main features of the tax havens, their operating mechanism and peculiarities of their tax laws, offshore entities regime. The article concludes on the reason of the occurrence, the existence and proliferation of tax havens, as well as legislative efforts that are submitted worldwide to eradicate them in the perspective of future global economic and financial developments.

  7. Regional features of the individual income tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Demina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tax on income of physical persons according to the method of establishing refers to federal taxes, however, is the establishment of a regional peculiarities. Currently, in accordance with the distribution of taxes between the budgets of the order, the share of this tax in the regional budgets is directly dependent on the level and income level received by the population, to carry on activity in a particular area of the country. The article discusses the possibility of impact on the taxation of income of different categories of individuals from the regions. Since the tax on personal income has expressed toms-social orientation, in the Tax Code of the Russian Federation provided for the regions eligible for the establishment of a number of benefits for certain categories of taxpayers. This article describes the possible impact on the taxation of income of different categories of individuals from the regions by establishing incentives. The issues of granting tariff preferences income owners of private farms on the example of the Moscow region. An important social task of the state related to the support of family and birth rate increase, which is be implemented in the Russian Federation in the framework of the tax on personal income, is exemption from personal income tax funds regional maternal (family capital. The regional legislation can be traced virtually the same position on the determination of the number of children in the case of birth (adoption of which the inhabitants of the region there is a right to additional measures of state support and tax benefits. The data on the size of the analysis of the results of the regional maternity capital and the terms of its provision. We describe the benefits that the regions were able to provide 2016 individuals - payers of personal income tax on income from the sale of real estate. We consider the benefits that are currently install or may be establish by laws of subjects of federation in the

  8. Hay condiciones propicias para reforma tributaria estructural (A positive time for a tax reform)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitrago Diaz, E.

    2015-01-01

    This publication deals with local taxes in Colombia, in particular the trade tax (a direct tax on income). The analysis focuses on the reforms proposed by the OECD and the impact of the current laws on trade taxation at the municipal level, ending in internal double and multiple taxation.

  9. 26 CFR 20.2055-3 - Effect of death taxes and administration expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., succession, legacy, or inheritance tax is payable in whole or in part out of any property the transfer of... is bequeathed for a charitable purpose and is subjected to a State inheritance tax of $5,000, payable... with remainder over to a charitable organization, and by the local law the inheritance tax upon the...

  10. 26 CFR 31.6402(a)-3 - Refund of Federal unemployment tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refund of Federal unemployment tax. 31.6402(a... Provisions of Subtitle F, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.6402(a)-3 Refund of Federal unemployment tax... 3301 of the Federal Unemployment Tax Act or a corresponding provision of prior law, or (b) Interest...

  11. Features of tax policy and tax legislation in public policy : Tax legislation theory about German tax law (income tax)

    OpenAIRE

    Tezuka, Takahiro

    2012-01-01

    租税政策および租税立法を規律づけるものとして,租税法学の観点からはその一つとして憲法が挙げられうる。ドイツ租税法学における議論を見ると,憲法上の原則を具体化しつつ首尾一貫して実施することによって,租税原則を実現する租税制度が構築されると言われる。この言明の背景には連邦憲法裁判所による政策形成の可能性があると思われる。ところが,かような具体化の可能性はいくつか想定しうるのであり,加えて,一例として所得税法を参照しても,租税理論(消費型所得概念)に照らして最適な租税制度が構築されているわけでは必ずしもない。これは税務執行の考慮,さらに租税立法過程という政治的妥協の場において現実の租税政策は形成されることに拠ろう。したがって,租税立法につき憲法上の原則を基礎としつつ租税政策論を展開するドイツ租税法学には原則として与することはできるが,租税法における立法過程論の構築にも歩みだす必要があろう。...

  12. Tax Compliance Inventory: TAX-I Voluntary tax compliance, enforced tax compliance, tax avoidance, and tax evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchler, Erich; Wahl, Ingrid

    2010-06-01

    Surveys on tax compliance and non-compliance often rely on ad hoc formulated items which lack standardization and empirical validation. We present an inventory to assess tax compliance and distinguish between different forms of compliance and non-compliance: voluntary versus enforced compliance, tax avoidance, and tax evasion. First, items to measure voluntary and enforced compliance, avoidance, and evasion were drawn up (collected from past research and newly developed), and tested empirically with the aim of producing four validated scales with a clear factorial structure. Second, findings from the first analyses were replicated and extended to validation on the basis of motivational postures. A standardized inventory is provided which can be used in surveys in order to collect data which are comparable across research focusing on self-reports. The inventory can be used in either of two ways: either in its entirety, or by applying the single scales independently, allowing an economical and fast assessment of different facets of tax compliance.

  13. TAX AMNESTY : SEBUAH HARAPAN TERHADAP CAPITAL INFLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanik Sisharini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Taxation policy reforms has been done by the government with the issuance of Law No. 11 year 2016 about Tax Amnesty. The background of the issuance of this law : a there is still treasure the community both in the country and foreign who have not yet fully reported in the Annual Tax Income, b to increase state revenues and economic growth as well as awareness and compliance community in the implementation of tax obligations . Although the government wants tax amnesty� to secure tax revenue, but in general they wants it for the repatriation of capital. The goal is to increase the liquidity is getting tighter, so eventually bank deposits can be cheaper, bank lending rates fell and investment will� increase. In addition, the quality of economic growth will increase by decreasing of unemployment, inequality, and poverty. To obtain a Tax Amnesty, the tax payer must disclose truthfully how the property owned which have not paid or partially paid taxes in the Letter of Statement and pay the ransom that provisions stipulated in the Act, and not subject to administrative sanctions taxation and criminal sanctions in the area of taxation. The ransom money to be paid in full to the state treasury through the Bank Perception (Bank elected to hold funds Tax Amnesty. Institution Tax Amnesty container fund is 19 Banks, 19 securities firms, and 18 of the Investment Manager. Tax payers who intend to bring �funds owned to Indonesian territory, at least to invest of 3 years commencing from the funds transferred by the tax payer to the Special Account through the Bank Perception. Investment instruments include in the form of government securities of the Republic of Indonesia, the bonds of State BUMN, bond financing institution owned by the government, financial investments in the Bank's perception, bonds private companies whose trade is supervised by the Financial Services Authority, infrastructure investment through government cooperation with corporate

  14. Does More Progressive Tax Make Tax Discipline Weaker?

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Damjanovic

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between the disparity in tax base and tax collection. I address the tax collection problem with traditional industrial organization approach. Thus, I model the "tax minimization" industry where the supplier helps taxpayers to avoid their tax liability. I find that lower income inequality as well as a less progressive tax code may result in a smaller number of tax payers committing to their tax duties. Finally, I question the reduction in the highest ta...

  15. Post Implementation of Goods and Services Tax (GST in Malaysia: Tax Agents’ Perceptions on Clients’ Compliance Behaviour and Tax Agents’ Roles in Promoting Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Izlawanie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Malaysian government introduced the Goods and Services Tax (GST starting from 1 April 2015 to enhance the revenue collections and mitigate the transfer pricing manipulation. Tax agents play a significant role to help businesses to comply with GST law and regulations. After one year of GST implementation, it is vital to understand tax agents’ perceptions on clients’ compliance behaviour and tax agents’ roles in influencing compliance. A total of 30 registered tax agents completed a survey questionnaire. The analysis shows that tax agents devote their time to provide advice to their clients on meeting their GST requirements, and recording and reporting of GST transactions. Tax agents assert that clients pass on their GST responsibilities to tax agents to some extent. Tax agents also perceive that clients’ compliance level is low because clients occasionally submit GST03 after the deadline, compromise the accuracy of GST03 in order to get it done on time and intentionally make errors in their records. In terms of tax agents’ role in promoting compliance, the tax agents strongly agree that it is important for them to act as trusted advisors for their clients. After one year of GST implementation, this is the first study that explores tax agents’ perceptions on clients’ compliance and tax agents’ roles in promoting compliance. The findings benefit the Royal Malaysian Customs Department (RMCD in assisting tax agents and the public for future compliance. Similar study should be adopted by countries that have recently implemented GST (for example, India and it should be conducted to other GST players (i.e. taxpayers and RMCD officers on annual basis to analyse the behavioural trends and identify weaknesses in GST administration.

  16. 5 B-26-05 no. 147 from September 1, 2005. Tax credit for procurement costs in the main dwelling in favor of energy saving and sustainable development. Art. 90 of the 2005 finance law (law no. 2004-1484 from December 30, 2004); 5 B-26-05 no. 147 du 1. septembre 2005. Credit d'impot pour depenses d'equipements de l'habitation principale en faveur des economies d'energie et du developpement durable. Art. 90 de la Loi de finances pour 2005 (Loi no. 2004-1484 du 30 decembre 2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-09-15

    Article 90 from the 2005 French finance law foresees a tax credit for the thermal insulation and equipment expenditures (low temperature and condensation boilers, heat pumps, energy generation systems that use a renewable energy source) spent in the main dwelling in favor of energy saving and sustainable development. This document precises: the field of application of this tax credit (people and buildings), the expenditures in concern, the enforcement modalities (basis, ceiling, ratio, imputation, reimbursement..), the justification of expenses and the applicable sanctions. (J.S.)

  17. A New Tax System For Romanian Tourism Industry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian-Ovidiu Calotă

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The enterprises from tourism industry may apply till the end of 2014 year one of two tax systems as follow: (i either tax on income system – quota of 3% applied to taxable income if the income’s value is less than 65.000 euro; (ii either tax on profit system for all other enterprises. The tax authorities intend to apply a 3rd system named “specific tax on certain activities”. We chose to analyze this new tax system for the listed bellow three main reasons: (i any enterprise – subject of paying tax on income or tax on profit – must analyze at the end of 2014 the new conditions mentioned by law in order to decide which tax system would be applied for the future period; (ii for the activities distinctly mentioned in CAEN Code, e.g. hotels restaurant’ and bar’s activities, the tax amount is no longer computed based on profit or income , but – instead – tax amount is computed based on several factors such as: the number of beds from hotel or the surface of restaurant.

  18. Environmental taxes in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report briefly presents and comments the amount of environmental taxes which have been collected in France in 2008. These taxes comprise energy taxes (nearly 68 per cent), transport taxes (nearly 28 per cent) and pollution and resource taxes (less than 5 per cent), and represent 2 per cent of the French GDP and 5 per cent of mandatory contributions. The share of environmental taxes is compared among the European Union countries. This shows that France is close to the average. It also appears that these taxes evolve slower than the GDP. An indicator is built up and commented: it relates the rate between energy taxes and the GDP on the one hand, and energy consumption on the other hand. This indicator displays a slow but significant decrease since the end of the last century

  19. NM Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  20. Environmental taxes 1991 - 2001 (2002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    The statistics presents statements of environmental taxes for the period 1991-2001 (and budget figure for 2002). Environmental taxes are a concept for pollution, energy, transportation and resource related taxes. Income of the government from environmental taxes have increased from 30,0 billions DDK in 1991 to 62,2 billions DDK in 2001 - a little more than a doubling. The environmental taxes' part of the total taxes' part og the total taxes has increased from 7,5% in 1991 to 9,4% in 2001. In 2001 the energy taxes are 57%, the transportation taxes 36% and the pollution and resource taxes 7% of the environmental taxes. (LN)

  1. Tax Incentives and Borrowing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alan, Sule; Leth-Petersen, Søren; Munk-Nielsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We estimate the effect of a Danish 1987 tax reform, which reduced the tax rate applied to interest deductions from 73% to 50% for households with high incomes, but less for households with middle or low incomes. Using high quality panel data we find that households responded to the reduced tax su...... subsidy by lowering interest payments and we find that the responsiveness to the tax subsidy varies by the initial level of interest payments....

  2. UK Tax Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deakin, John F.

    1998-07-01

    The presentation deals with the North Sea fiscal regime, a modern system for corporation tax payments, transfer pricing, general anti-avoidance rule for direct taxes, treaty refunds, deductibility of interest for corporation tax, UK/US double taxation convention, and plain and simple tax legislation. Part of the background for the presentation was the fact that in England a new Labour Government had replaced the Conservatives and the new Chancellor had announced a review of the North Sea fiscal regime.

  3. Dynamic tax depreciation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    The tax depreciation decision potentially has significant impact on the profitability of firms and projects. Indeed, the depreciation method chosen for tax purposes affects the timing of tax payments, and, as a consequence, it also affects the after-tax net present value of investment projects. Previous research focusses on the optimal choice of depreciation method under the assumption that the depreciation method has to be set ex ante and cannot be changed during the useful life of the asset...

  4. The levying of capital gains tax at death

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    LL.M. (Tax Law) Capital Gains Tax (“CGT”) was introduced with effect from 1 October 2001 by the insertion of section 26A and an Eighth Schedule into the Income Tax Act 58 of 1962, by the Taxation Laws Amendment Act 5 of 2001. Paragraph 40(1) of the Eight Schedule provides that a deceased person must, with certain exceptions, be treated as having disposed of his assets to his estate for proceeds equal to the market value of those assets as at the date of death. Paragraph 40(1A) of the Eight...

  5. The Danish Pesticide Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Branth; Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2015-01-01

    pesticide taxes on agriculture, which makes it interesting to analyze how effective they have been. Here the effects of the ad valorem tax (1996-2013) are analyzed. The case study demonstrates the challenges of choosing an optimal tax design in a complex political setting where, additionally, not all...

  6. Unconditional conservatism in Brazilian public companies and tax neutrality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Pinhata Sanches do Vale

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Law n. 11,638/2007 legitimized the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS adoption process in Brazil and introduced an accounting system detached from tax purposes in the country. This law aims to reduce the influence of tax law on accounting standards and improve the quality of financial reporting, as IFRS are considered to be higher quality standards. International literature shows a reduction in earnings quality in environments where accounting and tax rules are strongly linked. Moreover, the influence of tax legislation on financial accounting is seen to encourage unconditional conservatism, a bias with no advantages for financial market efficiency. Thus, tax neutrality is expected to provide a more favorable institutional environment for quality financial reporting by detaching corporate accounting from tax accounting. In light of the above, this study aims to verify whether the advent of tax neutrality influences unconditional conservatism in Brazilian public companies. The methodology used involves panel data regressions. The sample consists of non-financial publicly-traded companies with information published in Economática® covering 2002 to 2014. The results show differences in the relationship between taxation and financial reporting between firms that are subject to different levels of monitoring in the Brazilian stock market. Evidence of unconditional conservatism is only found in companies that are subject to greater market monitoring. In this group, it is observed that taxation does not induce unconditional conservatism in reported earnings, which is expected in a tax neutrality context.

  7. MECHANISM TRANSFER PRICING AND THE NEED INTRODUCTION COMMON CONSOLIDATED CORPORATE INCOME TAX TRANSNATIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Grigorescu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Transfer pricing mechanism is a tool commonly used to transfer the tax base in countries with high tax countries with lower taxation. In the European Union the financial operations generate tax revenue losses. In an attempt to limit manipulation by corporate tax systems, many public authorities have introduced transfer pricing rules, but these rules has shown limited efficacy, however, contribute to the increasing complexity of tax laws and the emergence of additional costs for companies. This paper deals with the concrete examples, the solution to solving the problem of transfer pricing in the European Union by the introduction of common consolidated corporate income tax.

  8. The Individual Taxpayer Utility Function with Tax Optimization and Fiscal Fraud Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Pankiewicz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I examine a taxpayer utility function determined by the extended set of variables – i.e. consumption, labor and tax-evasion propensity. This constitutes the main framework for the analysis of taxpayer’s decision making process under assumption that in the economy there exist two main reduction methods: a access to tax optimization techniques, which may decrease effective tax burden and are fully compliant with binding laws, but generate transactional costs and 2 possibility of fiscal fraud – in particular tax evasion, as the alternative method of reducing tax due, which has no direct transactional costs, but involves tax litigation risk.

  9. Would Tax Evasion and Tax Avoidance Undermine a National Retail Sales Tax?

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Matthew N.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that shifting to an indirect tax system (a national sales tax) will not necessarily reduce tax avoidance and tax evasion behavior by businesses and individuals, particularly if the tax rate is set high to maintain revenue neutrality. Lack of experience in administering a high-rate, indirect tax system precludes definitive statements regarding the likely extent of tax base erosion under a national sales tax.

  10. DO PENALTIES AND ENFORCEMENT MEASURES MAKE TAXPAYERS MORE COMPLIANT? THE VIEW OF AUSTRALIAN TAX EVADERS

    OpenAIRE

    Dr Ken Devos

    2013-01-01

    The tax compliance literature indicates that many factors, including, economic, social, psychological and demographic, impact upon the compliance behaviour of individual taxpayers. This study explores the relationship, if any, that exists between selected tax compliance and demographic variables and the compliance behaviour of Australian individual tax evaders. The study employed a mixed method research approach comprising both a survey and interviews. The findings revealed that tax law enfor...

  11. Import tax compliance: a study of customs agents in Malaysia utilising the theory of planned behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Mirza Bin

    2016-01-01

    Unlike tax accountants and advisors within direct tax, Customs law in many countries requires importers to employ licensed Customs agents. This study extends the tax literature by examining the role of Customs agents in import tax compliance. In Malaysia, as an example of a country where Customs are responsible for about one-third (MYR30 billion on average between 2005 to 2014) of total government revenue collections, the function of Customs agents is to: assist importers in meeting their imp...

  12. Carbon-related border tax adjustment: mitigating climate change or restricting international trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, Christine; Weber, Rolf H

    2011-01-01

    Border tax adjustments in the form of carbon taxes on products from countries with lax environmental production standards or in the form of a required participation in an emissions allowances' trading system have become a heavily debated issue under WTO law. Such an adjustment might be permissible if energy taxes as indirect taxes are applied on inputs during the production process. Compliance with the Most Favoured Nation principle has less practical importance than the not-yet settled liken...

  13. Dual Income Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    This paper discusses the principles and practices of dual income taxation in the Nordic countries. The first part of the paper explains the rationale and the historical background for the introduction of the dual income tax and describes the current Nordic tax practices. The second part...... of the paper focuses on the problems of taxing income from small businesses and the issue of corporate-personal tax integration under the dual income tax, considering alternative ways of dealing with these challenges. In the third and final part of the paper, I briefly discuss whether introducing a dual income...

  14. 192 TAXPAYER'S RIGHT TO REFUND UNDER THE NIGERIAN LAW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    The jurisprudence of this paper therefore is an examination of the actual legal status ... Formerly, Coordinator, Department of Business Law, Faculty of Law, University ..... If any company has paid tax for any year of assessment alleges that any ...

  15. Study on Structures of Aggressive Tax Planning and Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meldgaard, Henrik; Bundgaard, Jakob; Weber, Katja Dyppel

    As a response to the increasing sophistication of tax planners in identifying and exploiting the legal arbitrage opportunities and the boundaries of acceptable tax planning, policy makers across OECD, G20 and EU countries have taken steps to ensure that taxation duly takes place where economic...... value is generated and where the economic activity is actually carried out. In this context, the European Commission sees a strong need to obtain increased knowledge of the tax laws and practices of Member States of the European Union, which may expose particular jurisdictions to aggressive tax planning...... (ATP). The present study was commissioned with the aim to: 1. Identify model ATP structures; 2. Identify ATP indicators which facilitate or allow ATP; 3. Review the corporate income tax systems of the EU Member States by means of the ATP indicators, in order to identify those tax rules and practices...

  16. Law guide for photovoltaic installations: Array installation; Connecting the grid; Financing; The new legal regime implemented in 2011; Is green taxing still so green?; Which judge will bring the light?: Reactions of actors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferracci, Vanina; Vandervorst, Alain; Tixier, Jean-Luc; Barthelemy, Christophe; Cloche-Dubois, Celine; Tenailleau, Francois; Rubio, Aurore-Emmanuelle; Pechamat, Olivier; Gandet, Stephanie; Deharbe, David; Rousset, Alain; Boedec, Morgan; Joffre, Andre; Blosseville, Thomas; Meunier, Stephane; Maincent, Guillaume

    2011-01-01

    The authors discuss legal issues and aspects regarding photovoltaic installations in France: the array installation (constraints related to urban planning: rules, authorizations and competencies when setting up on the ground or on buildings, urban taxes, estate issues), the connection to the grid, the financing (electricity prices, partnership contract), the new legal regime implemented in 2011, the question whether green taxing is still sufficiently attractive, the dispute about the mandatory purchase mechanism, and the attitude of the different actors (notably local communities, and industries) in front of the decrease of purchase prices

  17. Environmental taxes 1991 - 2000 (2001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    The statistics presents statements of environmental taxes for the period 1991-2000 (and budget figure for 2001). Environmental taxes is a collective concept for pollution, energy, transportation and resource related taxes. Income of the government from environmental taxes have increased from 30,0 billions DDK in 1991 to 60,6 billions DDK in 2000 - a little more than a doubling. The environmental taxes' part of the total taxes has increased from 7,5% in 1991 to 9,7% in 2000. In 2000 the energy taxes are 55%, the transportation taxes 38% and the pollution and resource taxes 7% of the environmental taxes. (EHS)

  18. FISCAL CULTURE - AS KEY ELEMENTS OF ENSURING TAX COMPLIANCE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES (BASED ON THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA EXPERIENCE)

    OpenAIRE

    Diana CRICLIVAIA

    2013-01-01

    Tax avoidance and tax evasion have considerably consumed the ink and papers of academic research because taxation is an issue that has been relevant in the last 6000 years of human history and will continue to be relevant in the future. Questions about tax compliance are as old as taxes themselves and will remain an area of discovery as long as taxes exist. To understand the impact of a tax system, it is important to know who complies with the tax law as well as who does not. In this paper I ...

  19. THE TAX ADVANTAGES OF INCOME TAX PAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU GHEORGHE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the cost of financing through financial and operational leasing due to the deductibility of depreciation and interest. The shareholders of any company aim to obtain profit and to increase their ownership equity. In order for this to happen, the company must have profit, for which a corporate tax must be paid. A good management translates into choosing the most advantageous means of financing, which will lead to paying a lower corporate tax. Leasing and the non-taxation of reinvested profits are two means through which companies can obtain significant fiscal advantages, by increasing the deductible expenses, or by paying lower taxes.

  20. GOODS AND SERVICE TAX ONE NATION ONE TAX IN INDIA.

    OpenAIRE

    Shuchi Sharma; Rupendra Prakash Yadav.

    2018-01-01

    Goods and Service Tax is a significant and logical step towards a comprehensive Indirect tax reform in India. This paper analyses the concept of Goods Service Tax and further discusses their impact on the various sectors in India. Brief description is given on Goods Service Tax background and Goods and Service Tax models helps to reduce tax burden. It aims at creating a single and unified market benefiting both corporate and economy because this is the only Indirect tax that directly affects ...

  1. Different Tax Systems among Nations and International Tax Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    栗原, 克文

    2008-01-01

    As economic globalization proceeds, tax policies of one nation influence others more and greater pressures are imposed on tax systems and tax administrations.The possibility of tax avoidance will expand if cross-border transactions are abused.Specifically, tax system differentials among countries increase the opportunity for tax avoidance.Under some tax avoidance schemes, foreign entities which have no or little economic substance are used to create artificial losses, so that they can minimiz...

  2. Aggressive Tax Strategies and Corporate Tax Governance: An Institutional Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Garbarino, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the impact of tax-aggressive strategies on corporate governance by adopting an agency perspective of the firm and discusses how certain corporate tax governance measures may limit these kinds of managerial actions. We first clarify a few basic concepts such as tax minimization, effective tax planning, tax avoidance, and tax evasion, which are important to understand in the discussion about aggressive tax behaviour. We further define the regulative concept of effective ta...

  3. Impact of future tax incentive legislation on the development of biomass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, G.L. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Historically, the use of biomass as an energy source has been subsidized by generous tax incentives. These tax incentives took the form of tax-exempt financing, the energy tax credit, the investment tax credit, and short depreciation lives. Common with tax incentives in other areas, the tax incentives for biomass projects have been curtailed in recent years. Given the appetite of Congress for revenue, it is not likely that the recent trend will reverse. If changes do occur, they are likely to involve liberalization of some oof the rules for tax-exempt debt. But even under current law, there are still tax advantages available for biomass energy projects, of which potential developers should be aware

  4. The replacement of payroll tax by a tax on revenues: A study of sectorial impacts on the Brazilian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilton Bernardino da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A topic of current research in discussion about the Brazilian economy is the exemption from payroll taxes, which aims to stimulate competitiveness of the firms, boosting economic growth. This topic was introduced in Brazil by new laws that proposed replacing the payroll tax with a new tax on revenues. The payroll tax rate of 20% was replaced by a tax rate of 1% or 2% on revenue. This change has been applied primarily in labor-intensive economic sectors. In this paper, a neoclassical model was used to evaluate some sectoral impacts of these tax changes. The results show positive effects of this reform, among them, the increase in aggregate consumption and capital stock. Employment also grows in the labor-intensive sector. However, under a government revenue neutral scenario, these effects are almost completely lost, which shows some evidence about the low efficiency of these reforms.

  5. Ecological tax reform - an optimal solution?. Critical remarks on the DIW study ''Economic effects of an ecological tax reform''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehringer, C.; Fahl, H.; Voss, A.

    1994-01-01

    Through the latest expertise of the German institute for economic research (DIW) regarding an ecological tax reform, the discussion about a tax system considering the shortage of the ressource environment and a deficiency of demand regarding the ressource work is newly provoked. The focus of this article is a critical dealing with the methodical procedure of the German institute for economic reserarch when analyzing the national economic effect of a concretely formulated ecological tax law scenario. When assessing the overall economic consequences of a tax reform, it is recommended to use an analysis instrument, which is farly more consistent compared to the instruments by DIW, and which is more problem adequate through the increased resort to financial knowledge. Based on the obvious weakness of the DIW study, a more extensive comprehension for an ecological tax reform is pleaded for, standing out for an application of taxes based on division of labour and oriented to the objective. (orig./UA) [de

  6. Effects of the petroleum tax reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stensland, G.; Sunnevaag, K.; Tennfjord, B.S.

    1992-04-01

    The report evaluates the effects of the petroleum taxation in Norway. In connection with the general reform of the Norwegian industry taxation, changes are proposed in the petroleum tax law. The report gives a survey of the development in the Norwegian petroleum taxation, and analyses the effects of changing the tax revenue both for the Government and for the companies concerned. The effects of incentives caused by changing the taxation are looked upon. In the appendix the depreciation rules in connection with petroleum taxation are discussed. 18 refs., 17 figs

  7. The three hurdles of tax planning: How business context, aims of tax planning, and tax manager power affect tax

    OpenAIRE

    Feller, Anna; Schanz, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    The question of why some companies pay more taxes than others is a widely investigated topic of interest. One of the famous suspect explanations is a phenomenon called tax avoidance. We develop a holistic theoretical concept of influences on corporate tax planning through a series of 19 in-depth German tax expert interviews. Our findings show that three distinct hurdles in the tax planning process can explain different levels of tax expense across companies. Those three hurdles are which tax ...

  8. THE TAX CONTROL AS A COMPONENT OF TAX ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Zhuk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the features of tax control in the system of taxes administration were investigated. The basic approaches to the determination of tax control were defined. Principles of tax control that must be kept were defined and it will ensure efficiency and effectiveness of tax control. Basic forms of tax control were characterized. An advantages of horizontal monitoring that is one of the form of tax controls were directed. Key words: tax control, tax control forms, horizontal monitoring, documentaries, desk and actual checks.

  9. Oil sands tax expenditures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketchum, K; Lavigne, R.; Plummer, R.

    2001-01-01

    The oil sands are a strategic Canadian resource for which federal and provincial governments provide financial incentives to develop and exploit. This report describes the Oil Sands Tax Expenditure Model (OSTEM) developed to estimate the size of the federal income tax expenditure attributed to the oil sands industry. Tax expenditures are tax concessions which are used as alternatives to direct government spending for achieving government policy objectives. The OSTEM was developed within the business Income Tax Division of Canada's Department of Finance. Data inputs for the model were obtained from oil sands developers and Natural Resources Canada. OSTEM calculates annual revenues, royalties and federal taxes at project levels using project-level projections of capital investment, operating expenses and production. OSTEM calculates tax expenditures by comparing taxes paid under different tax regimes. The model also estimates the foregone revenue as a percentage of capital investment. Total tax expenditures associated with investment in the oil sands are projected to total $820 million for the period from 1986 to 2030, representing 4.6 per cent of the total investment. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  10. Page | 226 TAX OFFENCES: CLOGS IN THE WHEEL OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    The jurisprudence of this paper is on the examination of criminality in tax offences and the effects of ... Lecturer and Formerly, Coordinator, Department of Business Law, Faculty of Law, ..... for about 80 percent of government revenue in the past has also drastically decrees .... The FIRS made similar arrests earlier in the year.

  11. A Failed Experiment: Georgia's Tax Credit Scholarships for Private Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Education Foundation, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Georgia is one of seven states that currently allow tax credits for scholarships to private schools. Georgia's law was enacted in May 2008 in order to assist low income students to transfer out of low performing public schools. Operations under the new act began in late 2008. The law permits taxpayers in Georgia to reduce their annual state taxes…

  12. 19 CFR 147.43 - Entry under the Customs laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry under the Customs laws. 147.43 Section 147.43 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF... the Customs laws. (a) Payment of duties and taxes. Any applicable duties and internal revenue taxes on...

  13. The main fiscal dispositions in the domain of energy and mineral raw materials as foreseen by the 2005 finances law and by the last 2004 amended law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This short paper summarizes in tables the main changes made in the 2005 French finances law and in the 2004 amended law about: the domestic tax on petroleum products (TIPP), the general tax on polluting activities (TGAP), the bio-fuel production units, the tax credits for the implementation of renewable energies in dwellings, the domestic tax on natural gas consumptions (TICGN) for greenhouse owners, the European harmonization of the added-value tax (TVA), the taxes on companies (IS), and the electric utility charges (CSPE). (J.S.)

  14. Tax avoidance, tax evasion, and tax flight: Do legal differences matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Friedrich; Kirchler, Erich; Maciejovsky, Boris

    2001-01-01

    Although from an economic point of view, legal considerations apart, tax avoidance, tax evasion and tax flight have similar effects, namely a reduction of revenue yields, and are based on the same desire to reduce the tax burden, it is likely that individuals perceive them as different and as unequally fair. Overall, 252 fiscal officers, business students, business lawyers, and entrepreneurs produced spontaneous associations to a scenario either describing tax avoidance, tax evasion, or tax f...

  15. Measuring Tax Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces an index of tax optimality thatmeasures the distance of some current tax structure from the optimal taxstructure in the presence of public goods. In doing so, we derive a [0, 1]number that reveals immediately how far the current tax configurationis from the optimal one and......, thereby, the degree of efficiency of a taxsystem. We call this number the Tax Optimality Index. We show howthe basic method can be altered in order to derive a revenue equivalentuniform tax, which measures the size of the public sector. A numericalexample is used to illustrate the method developed.......JEL Code: H21, H41.Keywords: Tax optimality index, excess burden, distance function.Authors Affiliations: Raimondos-Møller: Copenhagen Business School, CEPR,CESifo, and EPRU. Woodland: University of Sydney....

  16. Tax Strategy Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Christian Plesner

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how a functional tax strategy impacts the management control system (MCS) in a multinational enterprise (MNE) facing transfer pricing tax risks. Based on case study findings it is argued that the MCS in a multinational setting is contingent upon the MNE's response to its tax...... environment. Moreover, the paper extends existing contingency-based theory on MCS by illustrating the role of inter-organisational network collaboration across MNE transfer pricing tax experts. This collaboration, caused by a widely dispersed tax knowledge base, fuels the formal interactive control system...... and reduces tax uncertainty. The paper adopts an interdisciplinary approach for explaining findings, using contingency-based theory and network theory at the inter-organisational level....

  17. Tax Compliance Inventory: TAX-I Voluntary tax compliance, enforced tax compliance, tax avoidance, and tax evasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchler, Erich; Wahl, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Surveys on tax compliance and non-compliance often rely on ad hoc formulated items which lack standardization and empirical validation. We present an inventory to assess tax compliance and distinguish between different forms of compliance and non-compliance: voluntary versus enforced compliance, tax avoidance, and tax evasion. First, items to measure voluntary and enforced compliance, avoidance, and evasion were drawn up (collected from past research and newly developed), and tested empirically with the aim of producing four validated scales with a clear factorial structure. Second, findings from the first analyses were replicated and extended to validation on the basis of motivational postures. A standardized inventory is provided which can be used in surveys in order to collect data which are comparable across research focusing on self-reports. The inventory can be used in either of two ways: either in its entirety, or by applying the single scales independently, allowing an economical and fast assessment of different facets of tax compliance. PMID:20502612

  18. Progressive Taxation and Tax Morale

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Doerrenberg; Andreas Peichl

    2010-01-01

    As the link between tax compliance and tax morale is found to be robust, finding the determinants of tax morale can help to understand and fight tax evasion. In this paper we analyze the effect of progressive taxation on tax morale in a cross-country approach - which has not been investigated before. Our theoretical analysis leads to two testable predictions. First, an individual's tax morale is higher, the more progressive the tax schedule is. Second, the impact of tax progressivity on tax m...

  19. Legal issues of tax rates

    OpenAIRE

    Sadílek, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Tax rate problems The subject of the graduation thesis is legal problems of tax rate. The aim of this thesis is description and estimation of the flat tax rate and states, where is established. First of all I define the basic kinds of tax systems - the tax system with one tax rate, the progressive tax system and the flat tax system. Further I deal with the principles and elements of the flat tax rate as interpreted by American economists Robert E. Hall and Alvin Rabushka who are generally ack...

  20. Taxation of Foreign Foundations in Light of EU Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2016-01-01

    a) The article analyses why it is necessary to consider European law when national tax law is to test whether a foundation (i.e., an independent institution) domiciled in another EU/EEA country can be considered as an independent tax subject. In Denmark the qualification for tax purposes...... of a foreign foundation has so far been decided on the basis purely of national tax law. The article argues that it is necessary to consider European law in the testing because it creates a restriction on the freedom of establishment and capital movement if the foundation is not approved as the ‘beneficial...... owner’ of the income received by the foundation. Such restriction must be able to be justified on the grounds of compelling reasons, suitability and proportionality. b) There has been a long-standing tradition in Denmark and undoubtedly also in many other member states, for tax law to be sceptic...

  1. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS ON INSOLVENCY AND JOINT LIABILITY ON TAX MATTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPEANGĂ VASILE NICOLAE

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Romanian legislation stipulates incident in tax as a way of fighting outstanding tax debts in relation to certain conditionalities, the tax authorities can declare the insolvency of the debtor taxpayer and attracting joint liability of third parties on which transfer tax claims extinguish the obligation owed by the insolvent. According to various editions of the Dictionary of the Romanian Language through insolvency means "a situation in which the debtor whose assets are worth less than all obligations would be satisfied with the goods" [DEX 1998] or "situation of the debtor to be in default of debt outstanding [DEX 2009]. From the perspective of civil law, "insolvency resulting from the inferiority of the assets may be subject by law enforcement, to the total amount of outstanding debt" [Law 287/2009 on the Civil Code, art. 1417]. From the perspective of tax law "is insolvent debtor whose income or assets are worth less than the outstanding tax obligations or who has no income or assets" [GO 92/2003 regarding the Fiscal Procedure Code, art. 176].

  2. Tuition Tax Credits. Issuegram 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augenblick, John; McGuire, Kent

    Approaches for using the federal income tax system to aid families of pupils attending private schools include: tax credits, tax deductions, tax deferrals, and education savings incentives. Tax credit structures can be made refundable and made sensitive to taxpayers' income levels, the level of education expenditures, and designated costs.…

  3. Taxing the Rich

    OpenAIRE

    Landier, Augustin; Plantin, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    Affluent households can respond to taxation with means that are not economically viable for the rest of the population, such as sophisticated tax plans and international tax arbitrage. This article studies an economy in which an inequality-averse social planner faces agents who have access to a tax-avoidance technology with subadditive costs, and who can shape the risk profile of their income as they see fit. Subadditive avoidance costs imply that optimal taxation cannot be progre...

  4. Firm size and taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Chongvilaivan, Aekapol; Jinjarak, Yothin

    2010-01-01

    The scale dependence in firm growth (smaller firms grow faster) is systematically reflected in the size distribution. This paper studies whether taxes affect the equilibrium firm size distribution in a cross-country context. The main finding is that the empirical association between firm growth and corporate tax (VAT) is positive (negative), with notable differences in the response of manufacturing firms and that of the others. We draw implications for recent debate on the impact of taxes and...

  5. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, B.; Sparwasser, R.

    1988-01-01

    Environmental law is discussed exhaustively in this book. Legal and scientific fundamentals are taken into account, a systematic orientation is given, and hints for further information are presented. The book covers general environmental law, plan approval procedures, protection against nuisances, atomic law and radiation protection law, water protection law, waste management law, laws on chemical substances, conservation law. (HSCH) [de

  6. FISCAL CULTURE - AS KEY ELEMENTS OF ENSURING TAX COMPLIANCE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES (BASED ON THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana CRICLIVAIA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tax avoidance and tax evasion have considerably consumed the ink and papers of academic research because taxation is an issue that has been relevant in the last 6000 years of human history and will continue to be relevant in the future. Questions about tax compliance are as old as taxes themselves and will remain an area of discovery as long as taxes exist. To understand the impact of a tax system, it is important to know who complies with the tax law as well as who does not. In this paper I discuss several key factors that seem to be important for understanding tax compliance in Republic of Moldova: factors of tax evasion and avoidance, consequences and methods for ensuring tax compliance.

  7. Range data reported to the requirements of the IAS 12 and impact of the IFRS adoption for tax purposes in the tax collection of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Jirásková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An issue of relationship between corporate income tax and accounting is one of the most discussed at present. Until recently the tax base was derived from the accounting profit defined in the Czech accounting law. But from 2004 there are companies which have to use IFRS in bookkeeping and financial reporting and from the perspective of the Czech accounting law they do not care about Czech accounting regulation. On the other hand Czech tax regulation has not accepted this change in the field of European accounting harmonization and still directs to pay tax on the basis of Czech accounting regulation for all entities. Fear of adverse change in tax collection is one of the main reasons why the Czech Tax Administration does not allow to pay income tax under profit or loss patterned on IFRS. The most important goal of this work is to characterize the relationship between accounting profit or loss under IFRS and the tax base of income and to find out the impact of taxation under profit in accordance with IFRS in total tax collection. Basic sample of all analyses consists of 35 accounting entities which mandatorily use IFRS and this sample was also confronted with a list of 106 major payers of income tax published yearly by the Ministry of Finance of the Czech Republic for the needs characterization of the relationship of profit under IFRS and the tax base of income.

  8. Classical Corporation Tax as a Global Means of Tax Harmonization

    OpenAIRE

    Kari, Seppo; Ylä-Liedenpoha, Jouko

    2002-01-01

    Classical corporation tax entails double taxation of corporate income. The alternative practice of imputing corporation tax to the domestic recipients of dividends is shown, in the case of a company with international owners, to effectively convert the imputation system back to a classical corporation tax. It also requires complex rules for exempting flow-through dividends from equalization tax to avoid the cumulation of corporation tax internationally. In contrast, classical corporation tax ...

  9. Energy law. An anthology of the most important legislation and regulations. 9. new rev. ed.; Energierecht. Textsammlung der wichtigsten Rechtsvorschriften und Regelungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The book under consideration is a current anthology of the most important legislation and regulations on energy law and contains the energy economy law, competition law, general conditions of supply and the tax law.

  10. 77 FR 13385 - Identification of Interstate Motor Vehicles: New York City, Cook County, and New Jersey Tax...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ...) Under the International Registration Plan under section 31704; (2) Under the International Fuel Tax... of highway use taxation not subject to collection through the International Fuel Tax Agreement; (3... International Fuel Tax Agreement * * * or under an applicable State law if, on October 1, 2006, the State has a...

  11. 26 CFR 1.907(b)-1 - Reduction of creditable FORI taxes (for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beginning after December 31, 1982). If the foreign law imposing a FORI tax (as defined in § 1.907(c)-3) is either structured in a manner, or operates in a manner, so that the amount of tax imposed on FORI is... excess profits taxes. Section 907(b) will apply to a person regardless of whether that person is a dual...

  12. Taxpayers’ motivations relating to tax compliance: Evidence from two representative samples of Austrian and Dutch self-employed taxpayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gangl, Katherina; Hofmann, Eva; Groot, de Manon; Antonides, G.; Goslinga, Sjoerd; Hartl, Barbara; Kirchler, Erich

    2015-01-01

    Tax compliance is assumed to be shaped by three main motivations to comply: enforced, voluntary, and committed motivation. Taxpayers, who hold an enforced motivation to comply, only pay taxes because of audits and fines for non-compliance. Voluntary motivated taxpayers respect the law and pay taxes

  13. Arizona Education Tax Credit and Hidden Considerations of Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele S. Moses

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The current debate over market-based ideas for educational reform is examined, focusing specifically on the recent movement toward education tax credits. Viewing the Arizona education tax credit law as a voucher plan in sheep's clothing, I argue that the concept of justice underlying the law is a crucial issue largely missing from the school choice debate. I question the libertarian conception of justice assumed by voucher and tax credit advocates, and argue instead that a contemporary liberal democratic conception of justice ought to undergird attempts at school reform. A call for educators and policymakers to concentrate energies on efforts to help needy students rather than on efforts to channel tax dollars toward self- interested ends concludes the article.

  14. The Russian petroleum tax system: evolution, effects and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, A.G.

    1996-01-01

    The investment climate in the Russian petroleum industry was the subject of this discourse. Legal uncertainties, particularly in taxation, have been identified as having had an inhibiting effect on investment incentives for all enterprises, domestic and foreign. For example, until recently taxes have been based on gross production revenues rather than on profits. Extensive and frequent changes in recent years have been moving towards a more profit related structure, with marked effect on investment incentives for both domestic and foreign companies. Passing of the Law on Production Sharing, and amendments to the Tax Code proposed in 1996, which are aimed at encouraging investment, were described. Further changes to make the Law on Production Sharing and the Tax Code more consistent with each other, and most of all, greater tax stability, were suggested as the most effective incentives to creating an improved investment climate. 1 ref., 1 tab., 30 figs

  15. Tax Havens, Growth, and Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Hsun; Lai, Ching-Chong; Cheng, Chu-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops an endogenous growth model featuring tax havens, and uses it to examine how the existence of tax havens affects the economic growth rate and social welfare in high-tax countries. We show that the presence of tax havens generates two conflicting channels in determining the growth effect. First, the public investment effect states that tax havens may erode tax revenues and in turn decrease the government’s infrastructure expenditure, thereby reducing growth. Second, the t...

  16. Tax planning strategies for physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Thomas R; Schwartz, Richard W

    2002-07-01

    The development of tax reduction strategies is a critical aspect of both corporate and personal financial planning because taxes represent the largest annual expenditure for the majority of Americans. The categories of tax reduction strategies discussed include charitable-giving techniques, ways to maximize business deductions, shifting income to family members, education tax incentives, retirement planning, and small business tax considerations. One use for these tax savings is the enhancement of a corporation's capabilities to provide services to patients.

  17. Progressive Taxes and Firm Births

    OpenAIRE

    Hans Ulrich Bacher; Marius Brülhart

    2013-01-01

    Tax reform proposals in the spirit of the 'flat tax' model typically aim to reduce three parameters: the average tax burden, the progressivity of the tax schedule, and the complexity of the tax code. We explore the implications of changes in these three parameters on entrepreneurial activity, measured by counts of firm births. The Swiss fiscal system offers sufficient intra-national variation in tax codes to allow us to estimate these effects with considerable precision. We find that high ave...

  18. Value added tax evasion and excise duty fraud on fuel market in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Semerád

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with analysis of current problems in the motor fuel market. It analyzes bottlenecks in setting the legislative changes in value added tax, excise tax and the legislation concerning fuels. The biggest problem is tax evasions that favor one group of business entities at the expense of another, and also cause that the state loses revenues mainly from indirect taxes. Therefore, attention is directed to quality control of fuels as a means of consumer protection and prevention of tax evasion and ways to combat tax evasion in import, distribution and storage of mineral oils. The examples are the most common errors found in fraudulent companies. Based on the data collected the possible ultimate evasion was estimated. Therefore, I propose that value added tax law should be amended and some other measures to improve supervision by public authorities like tax authorities and customs administration offices should be taken.

  19. Making Deferred Taxes Relevant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Arjan; Naarding, Ewout

    2018-01-01

    We analyse the conceptual problems in current accounting for deferred taxes and provide solutions derived from the literature in order to make International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) deferred tax numbers value-relevant. In our view, the empirical results concerning the value relevance of

  20. Waiting for tax credits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheinkopf, K.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the effect of tax credits and related legislation under consideration by Congress on the economics of the renewable energy industry. The topics discussed in the article include conflicting industry opinion on financial incentives, the effectiveness of current incentives, and alternative approaches. The article also includes a sidebar on tax incentives offered by state programs

  1. DID “TAX HAVENS” DISSAPEAR?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria GEAMĂNU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The series of events from March this year, with Cyprus in the spotlight created a lot of debate around the status of the “tax havens”, Cyprus itself being for a long time nominated as one of them. Yet, the latest report of The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development reveals the fact that due to the adherence to the standards of transparency and exchange of information on tax matters, there are currently only two states left to be called ”tax havens” and the list doesn’t include Cyprus. The aim of this article is to present the evolution of the former “tax havens” grouped on four main geographic areas where they are concentrated and to bring forward the important changes that have been made in terms of taxation and commercial laws in a revised and more regulated legal framework that has conferred these states the possibility to be erased from the black list of “tax havens”.

  2. Capital Income Tax Coordination and the Income Tax Mix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huizinga, Harry; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2005-01-01

    in the mix of capital and labor taxes brought on by capital income tax coordination can potentially be welfare reducing. This reflects that in a non-cooperative equilibrium capital income taxes may be more distorting from an international perspective than are labor income taxes. Simulations with a simple...... model calibrated to EU public finance data suggest that countries indeed lower their labor taxes in response to higher coordinated capital income taxes. The overall welfare effects of capital income tax coordination, however, are estimated to remain positive.JEL Classification: F20, H87......Europe has seen several proposals for tax coordination only in the area of capital income taxation, leaving countries free to adjust their labor taxes. The expectation is that highercapital income tax revenues would cause countries to reduce their labor taxes. This paper shows that such changes...

  3. The coming changes in tax-exempt health care finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlile, L L; Serchuk, B M

    1995-01-01

    On December 30, 1994, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) published proposed regulations (Proposed Regulations) that if enacted would significantly change the climate and rules of federal income tax law controlling the issuance and maintenance of tax-exempt bonds for governmental and 501(c)(3) health care borrowers. This article (1) summarizes the aspects of the Proposed Regulations dealing with private activity tests, management contracts, allocation and accounting rules, change in use of financed facilities, and antiabuse rules, and (2) summarizes the possible interrelationship of the IRS's audit program for tax-exempt bonds and the Proposed Regulations. The article reviews features of the Proposed Regulations that will affect either the costs or administrative burdens of managing the federal tax compliance of future tax-exempt health care borrowings.

  4. Carbon taxes: Their benefits, liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, R.K.; Thompson, L.L.J.

    1993-01-01

    A carbon tax holds much promise for helping to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions, but administration will be a problem. Non-compliance, tilting the economic scales in favor of one energy source at the expense of another, and questions of equity between and within nations all must be addressed if the market-based efficiencies of a carbon tax are to become a concrete global reality. This article discusses carbon taxes in the following topic areas: how to set the rates for carbon taxes; administering the tax; international cooperation; type or form of tax; tax adjustments in existing taxes

  5. THE WORLD OF TAx DEDUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei V. Dujov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article a study and methodological foundations of the structure of taxes and fees. Disclosed the concept of elements of tax and duty. Focuses on the nature of the concept of «tax deduction». Provides legal and the author’s interpretation of the term «tax deduction». Examples of application of a tax deduction in the value-added tax and the tax to incomes of physical persons. the conclusions about the multilateral nature of the tax deduction.

  6. Taxpayers' confidentiality and privacy rights in the international exchange of tax information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Mileva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The exchange of tax information is a distinctive feature of international tax cooperation processes. The trend of intensive communication between the national tax administrations has been a political priority in economically developed countries. This area of international tax law has been subject to significant changes in the past few years. Countries are prompted to pursue the automatic exchange of tax information by entering into multilateral treaties on the exchange of tax information rather than engage in international exchange of tax information upon request by entering into bilateral agreements. These processes are promptly expedited owing to the incredible development of information and communication technologies. These developments are basically aimed at preventing different forms of international tax fraud which generate significant financial losses in the circumstances of current economic crisis. Such efforts may be justifiable regarding the interests of the countries of residence; but, what about the legal status of ordinary taxpayers who are now subject to a comprehensive and far-reaching control? The new concept may be appropriate for tracking tax fraud or embezzlement but what are its implications for law-abiding taxpayers? The national legislatures are obliged to provide for the protection of confidentiality of exchanged tax information but many states have not fully recognized the importance of providing adequate legal protection of sensitive personal and financial data. There are only a few countries whose legislations explicitly prescribe the taxpayers' right to be informed, the right to consult tax administration and the right to seek tax administration intervention as a form of legal protection in international exchange of tax information. The Serbian tax legislation does not envisage the obligation of tax authorities to notify the taxpayers about the request submitted by foreign tax authorities to provide some tax

  7. IS THE VALUE ADDED TAX A SUPERIOR SALES TAX IN ALL SALES TAXES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUSTAFA ALİ SARILI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Value Added Tax (VAT is a tax imposed on the value added to a product at each stage of the production and distribution process. Value added is never taxed twice under VAT and thus cascading (tax on tax effects do not occur. It is a single tax on goods and services but the tax is collected multiple stages. At each of these stages, the amount of tax payable is computed by subtracting the tax previously paid on purchases from the tax charged on sales by the traders for each taxation period. In last three decades, VAT, a relatively new and better commodity taxation, has been introduced in many countries. It has replaced different types of sales taxes in such countries. This article attempts to evaluate VAT by comparing with other sales taxes.

  8. Tax Havens - The "Black Hole" of the International Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Boghean

    2016-01-01

    The article presents, in general, tax evasion both theoretically and practically, examines thevarious ways in which evasion is interpreted by the laws and regulations adopted in the fiscalfield,the ways that lead businessmen to perform and fraudulently register operations. Also, we aimat characterising thestates that help the economic operators and the individuals, by means of taxhavens and implicitly offshore companies, in order to avoid the payment of certain taxes that arehigher than in the home country.

  9. Imposition of direct taxes on elektronic commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Baltaduonienė, Vaida

    2006-01-01

    Problems, relating to the imposition of direct taxes on e-commerce, calculation and collection thereof in e-commerce are discussed in the final Master's thesis with reference to the laws of the Republic of Lithuania, by comparing them with the model of the double taxation avoidance agreement of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development as well as the remarks of the experts of this Organization. Criteria, according to which the e-commerce taxation jurisdiction is applicable, a...

  10. Tax haven implications in financial crime

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Iuliana Radu

    2015-01-01

    The term "tax haven" is often incorrectly used to describe a country because from this point of view, we should use the term "financial secrecy jurisdiction". A certain degree of financial and banking secrecy is characteristic of all states, almost all states requiring a certain level of protection for banking and commercial information. Banking and financial secrecy jurisdictions refuse, nearly always, to violate its own laws on banking secrecy, even when it could be a serious violation of t...

  11. RETHINKING ECONOMICS-OF-CRIME MODEL OF TAX COMPLIANCE FROM BEHAVIORAL PERSPECTIVE APPLIED TO ROMANIAN CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ana Iancu(Nechita

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Present paper tackles several research paradigms regarding tax compliance behavior that have been used to understand tax evasion phenomenon and tax avoidance behavior of the taxpayer. These notions have been studied by numerous researchers all over the world as phenomenon of tax evasion has a debating issue on every state agenda for several decades. First economic model of tax compliance behavior was developed in the early 1970s and since then researchers improved the model adding new elements from sociology, psychology, legal studies, finance, game theory, neurosciences, econophysics and others. This paper presents the most important developments of current theories regarding tax compliance behavior starting from the economics-of-crime model,till the 'slippery slope framework ', and more. It creates the premises for a Romanian model of tax compliance behavior according to national characteristics regarding taxpayers attitude towards tax avoidance, risk appetite or aversion upon enforcement of law through punishment and penalty, taxpayers’ trust in authority’s efficient spending of tax collected revenue to public budget and personal beliefs regarding notions like morality, cheating, honesty, social responsibility, loyalty, patriotism, civic duty, guilt, fairness, reciprocity or financial incentives. Recent models of tax compliance behavior underline the importance of the dynamics between all the actors involved in the fiscal system such as government, tax authorities, tax consultants and accountants and the behavior of all other taxpayers as a whole. Current research trends believe that these are mutually related. Another important aspect regarding taxpayer’s attitude towards tax avoidance is its own motivation to voluntarily pay taxes driven by intrinsic beliefs or by fear of penalty coming from enforcement of laws. On the contrary, other taxpayers choose to assume an extra share of risk and decide to avoid taxes hiding in anonymity of

  12. A note on the neutrality of profit taxes with tax evasion and tax avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Che-chiang Huang; Horn-in Kuo

    2014-01-01

    Traditional literature exploring the relationship between production and tax evasion ignores the impact of other activities on these two decisions. This paper incorporates firms' tax avoidance activities into the model of tax evasion. In contrast to conventional results, we find that profit tax is not necessarily neutral. In addition, the independency or separability of tax evasion and production decisions may not hold either whenever tax avoidance is present.

  13. Business Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Föh, Kennet Fischer; Mandøe, Lene; Tinten, Bjarke

    Business Law is a translation of the 2nd edition of Erhvervsjura - videregående uddannelser. It is an educational textbook for the subject of business law. The textbook covers all important topic?s within business law such as the Legal System, Private International Law, Insolvency Law, Contract law......, Instruments of debt and other claims, Sale of Goods and real estate, Charges, mortgages and pledges, Guarantees, Credit agreements, Tort Law, Product liability and Insurance, Company law, Market law, Labour Law, Family Law and Law of Inheritance....

  14. 48 CFR 52.229-4 - Federal, State, and Local Taxes (State and Local Adjustments).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... social security or other employment taxes, net income and franchise taxes, excess profits taxes, capital stock taxes, transportation taxes, unemployment compensation taxes, and property taxes. Excepted tax...

  15. 48 CFR 52.229-6 - Taxes-Foreign Fixed-Price Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... social security or other employment taxes, net income and franchise taxes, excess profits taxes, capital stock taxes, transportation taxes, unemployment compensation taxes, and property taxes. Excepted tax...

  16. Principles of taxation as a means of implementing fiscal function of the tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К. О. Гетьман

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Problem setting. problems of the principles of taxation, as a means of implementing fiscal functions of tax for a long time did not go beyond scientific publications and was not even trying to solve them in tax legislation of Ukraine. Reform legislation, including in taxation, conducted before, even in terms of staging did not address the question of the principles of taxation. This approach did not promote cohesion of financial system, for a certain time did not allow to systematize financial legislation, part of which is tax legislation. The need for more detailed and comprehensive definition of common fundamental principles of development of financial systems and legal forms of action and ways to ensure the unity of the financial system relevant institutions and associations finance and financial law on these principles can be established only through comprehensive research system of taxation principles as a means of implementing fiscal function of the tax. Recent research and publications analysis. until today, the analysis of legal principles of taxation fixing occurred only in individual scientific articles and books devoted to the study of common problems of tax law. In this area next scientists showed their interests: A. V. Bryzgalin, L. K. Voronov, A. N.Gorbunov, N. V.Karasev, A. M. Kozyrina, M. P.Kucheryavenko, P. S.Patsurkivskoho, S. G.Pepeliaev, M. I.Piskotina, G. P.Tolstopyatenko, N. I. Himichevoyi, D. G.Chernika and others, which considered very general questions of legal regulation of taxes and fees, certain aspects of the content and classification principles of tax law. In the study of major problems dissertation widely used for foreign scientists E. Bradley, R. Dernberha, M. Janis, R. Kay, J. Stiglitz. Paper objective. The goal is to deepen scientific knowledge of the legal nature of the principles of taxation as a means of implementing fiscal functions of tax by developing a holistic and comprehensive scientific understanding

  17. Energy taxes -- Some critical remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirl, F.

    1994-01-01

    The familiar concept of Pigouvian taxes has finally caught the interest of politicians as the various proposals for a pollution tax, often simplified to an energy tax, document. This paper reviews these proposals critically and points at some wrong presumptions. The suggestion to make the polluter liable for all damages is in general inefficient. In order to sell new taxes, politicians argue that Pigouvian taxes would not lower disposable income, because the associated revenues allow one to reduce other taxes (in particular, income taxes) correspondingly. However, strategic, noncompetitive energy producers may themselves attempt to internalize the external costs rather than to leave these tax revenues to the treasuries of the consuming countries. Moreover, the revenues from a commodity tax are potentially volatile. Finally, the conservation impact from Pigouvian energy taxes may fall short of expectations, in particular, if the tax is too low

  18. Tax tips for forest landowners for the 2008 tax year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Wang; John L. Greene

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes key federal income tax provisions for forestland owners, foresters, loggers, forest product businesses, and tax practioners, and is current as of October 1, 2008.  Consult your tax and legal professionals for advice on your particular tax situation.

  19. Tax tips for forest landowners for the 2009 tax year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Wang; John Greene

    2010-01-01

    This bulletin summarizes federal income tax information useful to woodland owners in preparing their 2009 tax returns. It is current as of October 1, 2009, and supersedes Management Bulletin R8-MB 132. It should not be sonstrued as legal or accounting advice: consult your legal and tax professionals for advice on your particular tax situation.

  20. Effect of shadow economy - country's tax losses

    OpenAIRE

    Krumplytė, Jolita

    2009-01-01

    The article analyzes the content of shadow economy through the prism of the tax administration. The author provides the limitations of the study and methodologically based relationship between the shadow economy and the tax revenue not to be received to the national consolidate budget. Country's tax losses (tax gap) is the amount of the tax revenue that is not received to the country's consolidated budget in the tax non-payment effects: tax avoidance and tax evasion. Tax losses (tax gap) is t...

  1. New taxes are late

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.

    2007-01-01

    A special tax for monopolies is not the only new tax the cabinet of Robert Fico is yet to introduce. As of the beginning of the year, new excise taxes prescribed by Brussels should have entered into force in Slovakia. According to the new arrangements, we should pay for energy consumed and for the coal and natural gas used to produce heat. And so the energy prices for companies should have already increased. Although the deadline set by the European Commission has already passed, the cabinet has still not completed the final version of the relevant legislation. Work stopped after the elections. The Ministry is very careful when it comes to making statements related to the excise tax. 'We do not wish to talk about details. There are still some minor issues that require fine tuning,' said Adrian Belanik, General Director of the Tax and Customs Section. Companies will have to get ready for the new costs related to the new excise taxes. The only thing that is clear is that the new taxes will be paid on the electricity and fuel used for heat production. (authors)

  2. Tax Evasion and Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstadsæter, Annette; Johannesen, Niels; Zucman, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    .01% of the wealth distribution, a group that includes households with more than $45 million in net wealth. A simple model of the supply of tax evasion services can explain why evasion rises steeply with wealth. Taking tax evasion into account increases the rise in inequality seen in tax data since the 1970s......This paper attempts to estimate the size and distribution of tax evasion in rich countries. We combine random audits—the key source used to study tax evasion so far—with new micro-data leaked from large offshore financial institutions—HSBC Switzerland (“Swiss leaks”) and Mossack Fonseca (“Panama...... Papers”)—matched to population-wide wealth records in Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. We find that tax evasion rises sharply with wealth, a phenomenon random audits fail to capture. On average about 3% of personal taxes are evaded in Scandinavia, but this figure rises to close to 30% in the top 0...

  3. Does an Uncertain Tax System Encourage "Aggressive Tax Planning"?

    OpenAIRE

    James Alm

    2014-01-01

    "Aggressive tax planning" (ATP) is typically characterized as a tax scheme that reduces the effective tax rate of a particular type of income to a level below the one sought by fiscal policy for this income. One motivation often suggested for its use is the uncertainty in tax liabilities introduced by a complicated and ever changing tax system. In this paper, I examine the impact of an uncertainty on the use of such tax schemes; by implication, I also examine how a simpler and more stable tax...

  4. Tax competition and tax harmonization in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuše Nerudová

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of tax competition and harmonization within the European Union. It reveals the single difficulties connected with harmonization, identifies the problems arising from tax competition and points out the harmful tax competition as well. Single compulsory harmonized tax base in connection with prevailing tax competition in the area of tax rates is the suggested solution in the scope of direct taxation. As the solution in the area of indirect taxation could serve the introduction of “principle of origin”. This would cause remarkable administrative costs decrease not only for economic subjects but for tax authorities as well.

  5. Municipalities as the subjects of tax administration in the Republic of Lithuania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronius Sudavicius

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 342.5+347.73The subject. Article deals with problem of the participation of the municipalities in tax administration in the Republic of Lithuania.The purpose of the article is clarify how municipalities may participate in tax administration in the Republic of LithuaniaThe methodology of the research includes the analysis of Constitution and legislation of Republic of Lithuania, system analysis, logical-analytical method.Results, scope of it’s application. The existence of a unified state tax system, does not mean that the administrative-territorial unit (municipality do not possess certain powers upon the introduction of taxes and (or in the regulation of their collection. So, municipalities obtain part of the revenue by taxes, which rates are established by the councils of municipalities, not exceeding statutory dimensions, etc. Participation of municipalities in tax administration bases on the provisions of the Constitution on the law of the administrative territorial units to self-government and to have their own budget.Elements of centralization and decentralization, based on the recognition of the single state tax system, are combined in Lithuania in the determination of tax competence.The tax legislation of the Republic of Lithuania almost does not provide for local governments to participate in the tax collection process or in monitoring their collection.Tax laws provide the right to local authorities to refine (adjust the individual elements of taxes, although the establishment of these elements remain the exclusive right of bodies of the state (central authorities. Besides, local authorities have the right to establishment and the provision of common and individual tax benefits, the right to use the incomes received in the form of taxes, etc.Conclusions. Local authorities are involved in the process of tax regulation and possess a certain autonomy in this area – the Council of the municipality has the right to adjust tax

  6. Excise Tax Avoidance: The Case of State Cigarette Taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCicca, Philip; Kenkel, Donald; Liu, Feng

    2013-01-01

    We conduct an applied welfare economics analysis of cigarette tax avoidance. We develop an extension of the standard formula for the optimal Pigouvian corrective tax to incorporate the possibility that consumers avoid the tax by making purchases in nearby lower-tax jurisdictions. To provide a key parameter for our formula, we estimate a structural endogenous switching regression model of border-crossing and cigarette prices. In illustrative calculations, we find that for many states, after taking into account tax avoidance the optimal tax is at least 20 percent smaller than the standard Pigouvian tax that simply internalizes external costs. Our empirical estimate that tax avoidance strongly responds to the price differential is the main reason for this result. We also use our results to examine the benefits of replacing avoidable state excise taxes with a harder-to-avoid federal excise tax on cigarettes. PMID:24140760

  7. Excise tax avoidance: the case of state cigarette taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCicca, Philip; Kenkel, Donald; Liu, Feng

    2013-12-01

    We conduct an applied welfare economics analysis of cigarette tax avoidance. We develop an extension of the standard formula for the optimal Pigouvian corrective tax to incorporate the possibility that consumers avoid the tax by making purchases in nearby lower tax jurisdictions. To provide a key parameter for our formula, we estimate a structural endogenous switching regression model of border-crossing and cigarette prices. In illustrative calculations, we find that for many states, after taking into account tax avoidance the optimal tax is at least 20% smaller than the standard Pigouvian tax that simply internalizes external costs. Our empirical estimate that tax avoidance strongly responds to the price differential is the main reason for this result. We also use our results to examine the benefits of replacing avoidable state excise taxes with a harder-to-avoid federal excise tax on cigarettes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Governance, Trust and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Guri; Joensen, E. Juanna Schröter

    This paper examines the role of social capital (trust) vis-à-vis the propensity of a country to be a tax haven. The empirical analysis corroborates that better governed countries have a higher ceteris paribus probability to be tax havens. However, social capital counteracts the effect of governance...... quality. This effect is so strong that the partial effect of governance quality is reversed for countries with the trust index in the top quartile – making these high trust countries less likely to be tax havens – even as governance quality is increased. Thus it is crucial to consider the interaction...

  9. CEO Power, Corporate Tax Avoidance and Tax Aggressiveness

    OpenAIRE

    GATOT SOEPRIYANTO

    2017-01-01

    My thesis investigates the association between CEO power, corporate tax avoidance and tax aggressiveness, using two organizational theory perspectives: self-interest and stewardship. I find that a powerful CEO engages in less corporate tax avoidance activities, which lends credence to the risk minimization motive of the stewardship perspective. My findings on the association between CEO power and tax aggressiveness show that powerful CEOs avoid risky tax avoidance strategies that expose a fir...

  10. Bureaucratic Tax-Seeking: The Danish Waste Tax

    OpenAIRE

    Christoffersen, Henrik; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2000-01-01

    Two main results in traditional tax theory states the following. First, general taxes minimize the welfare loss from changed relative prices. Second, because the total public budget tends to exceed the optimal size, a leader (here named 'troop leader') is needed in the budget process to prevent over-taxation. Nevertheless, differentiated taxes initiated by individual ministries generate a still larger proportion of total tax revenue, in particular under cover of taxing externalities such as e...

  11. Tax havens: Features, operations and solving tax evasion problems

    OpenAIRE

    Obradović-Ćuk, Jelena; Mitić, Petar; Dinić, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Tax haven offers minimal or no tax liability to foreign individuals and enterprises in economically and politically stable environment, where little or no financial information is shared with foreign tax authorities. The aim of this research is to create a comprehensive overview of the characteristics and operations of tax havens, as well as to point out to the ways to overcome the problem of tax evasion. The methodology used in the work is characteristic of social science research: analysis,...

  12. Dividends and Taxes: Evidence on Tax-Reduction Strategies.

    OpenAIRE

    Chaplinsky, Susan; Seyhun, H Nejat

    1990-01-01

    This article investigates two aspects of dividend tax avoidance not addressed by prior research. First, it examines the aggregate dividend tax savings provided to individuals through tax-exempt and tax-deferred accumulators. Using the Internal Revenue Service Individual Income Tax Model, it then proceeds to determine whether specific provisions of the Internal Revenue Code, such as the preferential treatment of capital gains, the investment-interest limitation, and the $100 dividend exclusion...

  13. International capital tax evasion and the foreign tax credit puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Kimberley A. Scharf

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the role of international tax evasion for the choice of an optimal foreign tax credit by a capital exporting region. Since a foreign tax credit raises the opportunity cost of concealing foreign source income, it can be employed to discourage evasion activity. The existence of international tax evasion possibilities could thus help rationalize a choice of tax credit in excess of a deduction-equivalent credit level. Our analysis shows that, in general the optimal credit will...

  14. Tax Information Exchange with Developing Countries and Tax Havens

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Julia; Zagler, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The exchange of tax information has received ample attention recently, due to a number of recent headlines on aggressive tax planning and tax evasion. Whilst both participating tax authorities will gain when foreign investments (FDI) are bilateral, we demonstrate that FDI receiving nations will lose in asymmetric situations. We solve a bargaining model that proves that tax information exchange will only happen voluntarily with compensation for this loss. We then present empirical evidence in ...

  15. Relief for marginal wells is better than energy tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swords, J.; Wilson, D.

    1993-01-01

    By increasing production costs and reducing petroleum prices, President Bill Clinton's proposed energy tax would increase marginal well abandonments and hasten the decline of the US oil and gas industry. Instead, the US needs tax law changes to help counteract the increasing number of oil and gas well abandonments in the lower 48 states. The proposed tax would create potential difficulties, while three incentives could be introduced to reduce abandonments and at the same time preserve US government tax revenues that otherwise would be lost. Eliminating the net income limitation on percentage depletion allowances on wells that would otherwise be abandoned would be a great help for marginal well operators. Extended enhanced oil recovery (EOR) credits and broader investment tax credits could also serve the dual purpose of keeping marginal wells operating longer and generating more federal tax revenues. A marginal well investment tax credit should be provided that is not just a credit for incremented investments that exceed investment in prior years. An investment tax credit based on out-of-pocket costs of production, targeted for marginal wells, would be an important incentive to invest in, and continue to maintain, these properties. (author)

  16. Cigarette tax avoidance and evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehr, Mark

    2005-03-01

    Variation in state cigarette taxes provides incentives for tax avoidance through smuggling, legal border crossing to low tax jurisdictions, or Internet purchasing. When taxes rise, tax paid sales of cigarettes will decline both because consumption will decrease and because tax avoidance will increase. The key innovation of this paper is to compare cigarette sales data to cigarette consumption data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). I show that after subtracting percent changes in consumption, residual percent changes in sales are associated with state cigarette tax changes implying the existence of tax avoidance. I estimate that the tax avoidance response to tax changes is at least twice the consumption response and that tax avoidance accounted for up to 9.6% of sales between 1985 and 2001. Because of the increase in tax avoidance, tax paid sales data understate the level of smoking and overstate the drop in smoking. I also find that the level of legal border crossing was very low relative to other forms of tax avoidance. If states have strong preferences for smoking control, they must pair high cigarette taxes with effective policies to curb smuggling and other forms of tax avoidance or employ alternative policies such as counter-advertising and smoking restrictions.

  17. Tax Information Series, December 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-14

    to serve as an in-depth review or explanation of each topic discussed, rather its intent is to inform readers about updates in tax numerology and... NUMEROLOGY Tax Rates The 2000 federal income tax rates are: 15%, 28%, 31%, 36%, and 39.6%. The 2000 tax rates by filing status are

  18. Tax Salience, Voting, and Deliberation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    Tax incentives can be more or less salient, i.e. noticeable or cognitively easy to process. Our hypothesis is that taxes on consumers are more salient to consumers than equivalent taxes on sellers because consumers underestimate the extent of tax shifting in the market. We show that tax salience...... biases consumers' voting on tax regimes, and that experience is an effective de-biasing mechanism in the experimental laboratory. Pre-vote deliberation makes initially held opinions more extreme rather than correct and does not eliminate the bias in the typical committee. Yet, if voters can discuss...... their experience with the tax regimes they are less likely to be biased....

  19. Freedom of Establishment and the Balanced Allocation of Tax Jurisdiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The article analyzes the case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union in relation to the different justification grounds that Member States can rely on in regard to restrictive national tax measures. The main purpose of the article is to reconcile the different justification grounds...... in order to present a (more) coherent approach to evaluating national anti-abuse legislation. It is submitted that the justification ground of “balanced allocation of tax jurisdiction” and the arm’s length principle for allocation of income should form an important basis under EU law for the evaluation...

  20. An energy Btu tax alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nan, Gehuang D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper extends the Ramsey tax rule and develops a tax rate by minimizing total excess burden, subject to government tax revenues. This tax rate is a function of its own and other fuels' price elasticities of compensated demand and supply, its own price and consumption level, other fuels' prices and consumption levels, and government revenues. It is this proposed tax rate, not the Ramsey tax ratio, that guides a government to levy a tax efficiently through a minimization of total excess burden. In the case of an energy tax, this tax rate provides direct guidance for taxation on various fuels. Moreover, total excess burden generated by the proposed tax rate is significantly less than that produced by the Clinton Administration's proposal

  1. Tax Unit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Statewide GIS Tax Unit boundary file was created through a collaborative partnership between the State of Kansas Department of Revenue Property Valuation...

  2. Last hope: tax exemption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2016-01-01

    Economically it is not possible to make money with old depreciated nuclear power plants because of the success of renewable energies, It is only the expectation on significant tax relief that keeps the power plants in operation.

  3. Public Service? Tax Credits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanker, Albert

    1982-01-01

    Acknowledges the good work of private schools but resists the provision of further direct or indirect government aid to these schools. Argues that tax credits will adversely affect public education and American society. (Author/WD)

  4. Real Property Tax Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Levy Year 2012 real property tax rate dataset reflects all the rates per $100 set each year by the County Council. These rates are applied to the assessed value...

  5. Gross Sales Tax Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This data is captured directly from the MS Department of Revenue and specific to the City of Jackson. It is compiled from Gross Sales Tax reported by taxpayers each...

  6. Real Property Tax - 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This data represents all of the County’s residential real estate properties and all of the associated tax charges and credits with that property processed at the...

  7. Real Property Tax - 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This data represents all of the County’s residential real estate properties and all of the associated tax charges and credits with that property processed at the...

  8. Governance, Trust, and Taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Schrøter Joensen, Juanna; Weihe, Guðrið

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the role of social capital (trust) vis-à-vis the propensity of a country to be a tax haven. The empirical analysis corroborates that better governed countries have a higher ceteris paribus probability to be tax havens. However, social capital counteracts the effect of governance quality. This effect is so strong that the partial effect of governance quality is reversed for countries with the trust index in the top quartile – making these high trust countries le...

  9. Timing Tax Evasion

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Niepelt

    2004-01-01

    Standard models of tax evasion implicitly assume that evasion is either fully detected, or not detected at all. Empirically, this is not the case, casting into doubt the traditional rationales for interior evasion choices. I propose two alternative, dynamic explanations for interior tax evasion rates: Fines depending on the duration of an evasion spell, and different vintages of income sources subject to aggregate risk and fixed costs when switched between evasion states. The dynamic approach...

  10. Determinants of Aggressive Tax Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of three essays examining determinants of aggressive tax avoidance. The first essay “Measuring the Aggressive Part of International Tax Avoidance”, co-authored with Prof. Dr. Michael Overesch, proposes a new measure that isolates the additional or even aggressive part in international tax avoidance and analyzes the determinants of aggressive tax avoidance of multinational enterprises. The second essay “Capital Injections and Aggressive Tax Planning - Can Banks Have It All...

  11. Who participates in tax avoidance?

    OpenAIRE

    Alstadsæter, Annette; Jacob, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the sources of heterogeneity in legal tax avoidance strategies across individuals. Three conditions are required for a taxpayer to participate in tax avoidance: incentive, access, and awareness. Using rich Swedish administrative panel data with a unique link between corporate and individual tax returns, we analyze individual participation in legal tax planning around the 2006 Swedish tax reform. Our results suggest that closely held corporations are utilized to facilitate ...

  12. A Study of Japanese Consumption Tax System : Mainly on Multiple Tax Rates and Input Tax Credit Methods

    OpenAIRE

    栗原, 克文

    2007-01-01

    One of the most important discussions on Japanese tax system reform includes how consumption tax (Value-added tax) system ought to be. Facing issues like depopulation, aging society and large budget deficit, consumption tax can be an effective source of revenue to secure social security. This article mainly focuses on multiple tax rates and input tax credit methods of Japanese consumption tax system. Because of regressive nature of consumption tax, tax rate reduction, exemption on foodstuffs ...

  13. Distributional consequences of environmental taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinge Jacobsen, H.; Birr-Pedersen, K.; Wier, M.

    2001-11-01

    Environmental taxes imposed on households have been introduced in many countries. However, few countries have reached the level of environmental taxation that is seen in Denmark today, although many are considering shifting the tax burden towards the consumption that is harming the environment. The total tax burden imposed on households in Denmark in the form of taxes on energy use of all kinds, water consumption and waste production, etc., is considerable. This paper analyses the individual taxes as well as the combination of all these taxes and duties related to environmental concerns, including taxes on heating, transport fuels, electricity, water, waste, plastic bags, registration of cars, annual car use, pesticides, etc. The distributional effect of taxes is examined in relation to household income, socio-economic class, residential location and family status. The shifting of the tax structure from high marginal income tax to consumption-based taxes, especially environmental taxes, might have distributional impacts amongst income groups which have not been considered part of the tax policy. The taxes are compared with respect to distributional impact. Do the effects of the different taxes vary to such an extent that this should be considered when designing tax policies? The hypothesis is that some environmental taxes associated with luxury income are less regressive than the average environmental tax. The results suggest that in Denmark taxes on petrol and registration duties for cars are progressive, whereas most other environmental taxes are regressive, especially the green taxes on water, retail containers and CO 2 . The distributional impacts are illustrated using household consumption survey data and data covering household expenditures on energy. The energy taxes and the more recently introduced green taxes are compared. The project is combining the direct and the indirect effect of taxes. The direct effect considers the taxes imposed directly on

  14. The tax system and agreements on the avoidance of double taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Kohoutová, Petra

    2013-01-01

    1 Abstract: The tax system and agreements on the avoidance of double taxation This diploma thesis "The tax system and agreements on the avoidance of double taxation" is focused on practical issues in the field of using international corporate structure in order to decrease the tax liability applicable on entrepreneurs. The diploma thesis includes the basic description of the legal rules applicable in the Czech Republic, such as acts and also international treaties. In the field of EU law, the...

  15. Automatic exchange of information: towards a new global standard of tax transparency

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Eduardo Pecho Trigueros

    2014-01-01

    Tax authorities are increasingly relying on mutual cooperation with their foreign peers to enforce more effectively their internal tax laws. After the banking scandals of 2008 and the subsequent global financial crisis, the Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for TaxPurposes has proposed the exchange of information upon request as the fiscal transparency standard. However, some measures adopted by the European Union, previous initiatives from the Organization for Economic...

  16. Emission certificates. Legal, tax-related and practical aspects; Emissionszertifikate. Rechtliche, steuerliche und praktische Aspekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hack, Christoph; Bartholl, Carsten; Hartmann, Astrid (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    The book discusses the issue of emission certificates from the view of public law, civil law and tax law, in consideration of practical experience with emission reduction projects. The subjects discussed range from emission trading from the view of public law to the civil law and regulatory law aspects of emission trading and taxation law. The legal situation in Germany is covered from the view of public and private law. The state of legislation on emission reduction in the USA is gone into, and practical experience relating to the Clean Development Mechanism is presented. (orig./RHM)

  17. Environmental taxes and subsidies 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    The statistics presents statements of environmental taxes for the period 1970 - 2002 and statements of environmentally related subsidies for the years 1996 - 2002. Environmental taxes are a concept for pollution, energy, transportation, and resource related taxes. The State's revenue from environmental taxes have increased from 4,0 billions DKK in 1970 to 65,7 billions DKK in 2002. The environmental taxes' part of the GNP has increased from 3,2 % in 1970 to 4,8 % in 2002. The part of the environmental taxes of the total taxes and tariffs has increased from 8,2 % in 1970 to 9,8 % in 2002. >From 2001 to 2002 the environmental taxes increased with 5,6 %, primarily because the taxes in the transportation sector increased with 13,5 % due to more new cars. The pollution taxes increased with 6 % while the environmental taxes for energy increased with only 0,8 %. In 2002 the energy related taxes amounted to 54 %, the transport related taxes to 39 %, and pollution and resource related taxes amounted to 7 % of the total environmental taxes. The public environmentally related subsidies to companies and households has been on a stable level of a little more than 10 billions DKK through the latest years. The energy related subsidies have, however, been transferred to transport related subsidies, i.e. primarily subsidies to the public transport. (ln)

  18. A taxing environment: evaluating the multiple objectives of environmental taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Hale, Brack W

    2002-12-15

    Environmental taxes have attracted attention in recent years as a tool to internalize environmental externalities. This paper evaluates Sweden's experience with environmental taxes in the energy sector by examining how environmental taxes compare with estimated environmental externalities associated with the use of oil, coal, natural gas, and forest residue fuels. We also analyze how environmental taxes influence fuel choices in the energy sector by comparing the production, environmental, and tax costs for the same fuels. We find that (i) the Swedish environmental taxes correspond imperfectly with environmental costs; (ii) the Swedish tax and subsidy system introduces changes in fuel choice decisions; (iii) the energy users are responding to the incentives created by the tax and subsidy systems in ways that are consistent with economic theory; and (iv) the Swedish experience with environmental taxes and subsidies bears directly on wider evaluations of energy policy approaches internationally.

  19. Review of Tax Policy and Reform Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhail-Wilcox, Bettye

    1982-01-01

    Summarizes the activities of the 97th Congress on taxes. Reviews 1981 enactments and 1982 proposals regarding tax cuts, tax increases, indexing of tax brackets, interest earnings, depreciation, and business incentives. Examines tax administration problems and flat-rate tax proposals and discusses the progressive income tax. (Author/RW)

  20. THE SUCCESS OF COMPANIES OPERATING IN THE AREA OF TAX HAVENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENEA CONSTANTIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available What is an offshore company? It is a company operating outside the country in which it was established. What is a tax haven? It is a country or jurisdiction where companies have tax advantages usually zero tax. (eg Andorra, British Virgin Islands, Panama, Liechtenstein, Cayman Islands, Seychelles, Cyprus, Malta, etc. How do I open an offshore bank account? Opening an account is a particular problem, which is mostly open once the offshore company is established. Paradise is characterized by the absence levies tax as tax on the income of individuals or legal entities, in respect of succession duties, and of course as tax on capital. Consequently, these areas generally did not sign tax agreement designed to avoid double taxation, having nothing to negotiate in this direction; the several agreements signed disclaim reception facilities made available to foreign investors. Foreign source income will generally support the tax levy the maximum light source of local law provisions. The rule that a very low tax burden, or even an absence of tax levy, generates tax havens should be relaxed. In this paper we decided to present three main areas of interest are the old tax havens: banking and insurance companies, shipping companies and investment and development activities.

  1. Agreement of the silent partnership – tax and legal consequences of its conclusion and execution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Zieniewicz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The institution of the silent partnership is not currently regulated by any legal act in the Polish legal system, although its importance in practice is not in doubt. As every action made in the economic sphere and economic execution of the contract is associated with specific effects on the basis of the tax laws. However, due to the lack of statutory regulation of the institution of silent partnership problematic is the question of determining the effects of tax legislation. Therefore, special attention is needed to determine the issue of these effects on the basis of income tax, tax on goods and services, transfer tax and the tax on inheritance and donations, as well as the question of liability for the tax liabilities of the silent partnership.

  2. The economic approach to the problem of tax evasion and recommendations for Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milosavljević Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tax evasion is a global problem and it has severe consequences for every country, regardless of differences in socio-economic and political structure. The basis for tax criminal offenses is embodied in different manifestations of tax evasion, especially when taking into account that tax evasion is also the most important form of informal economy. Since the taxation achieves not only fiscal, but also objectives in the field of economic and social policy, tax evasion has consequences on the economic and socio-political level. After introductory considerations, the paper shows the topicality of this issue, then the analysis of theoretical and practical features of tax evasion, as the basic fiscal criminal offense in the new Criminal Law of the Republic of Serbia, while the economic approach to the problem of tax evasion is based on an analysis of individual behavior of taxpayers.

  3. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the following case laws: 1 - Canada: Decision of the Canadian Federal Court of Appeal overturning a decision to send back for reconsideration an environmental assessment of a proposed new nuclear power plant in Ontario; 2 - France: Council of State decision, 28 November 2014, Federation 'Reseau sortir du nucleaire' (Nuclear Phase-Out network) and others vs. Electricite de France (EDF), Request No. 367013 for the annulment of: - The resolution of the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) dated 4 July 2011 specifying additional regulations for Electricite de France (EDF) designed to strengthen the reactor basemat of reactor No. 1 in the Fessenheim nuclear power plant, and - The resolution of ASN dated 19 December 2012 approving the start of work on reinforcing the reactor basemat in accordance with the dossier submitted by EDF; 3 - Germany: Judgment of the European Court of Justice on the nuclear fuel tax; 4 - India: Judgment of the High Court of Kerala in a public interest litigation challenging the constitutional validity of the Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act, 2010; 5 - Japan - District court decisions on lawsuits related to the restart of Sendai NPP and Takahama NPP; 6 - Poland: Decision of the Masovian Voivod concerning the legality of the resolution on holding a local referendum in the Commune of Rozan regarding a new radioactive waste repository; Certain provisions of the Regulation of the Minister of Health of 18 February 2011 on the conditions for safe use of ionising radiation for all types of medical exposure have been declared unconstitutional by a judgment pronounced by the Constitutional Tribunal; 7 - Slovak Republic: Developments in relation to the disclosure of information concerning the Mochovce nuclear power plant

  4. Tax Potential vs. Tax Effort; A Cross-Country Analysis of Armenia's Stubbornly Low Tax Collection

    OpenAIRE

    David A. Grigorian; Hamid R Davoodi

    2007-01-01

    Despite recording double digit growth since 2000, Armenia's tax-to-GDP ratio has been fairly stable at about 14½ percent. This paper catalogues a range of factors that may account for Armenia's stubbornly for tax collection by benchmarking Armenia's tax-to-GDP against some comparator countries and conducting an extensive econometric study of the main determinants of tax collection. We find empirical support for the hypothesis that the persistence of Armenia's low tax-GDP ratio can be traced t...

  5. Risk diversification and tax competition : the influence of risk correlations and tax provisions on tax competition

    OpenAIRE

    Berndt, Markus; Reichl, Bettina

    2000-01-01

    From standard-portfolio-models the authors derive demand elasticities for risky assets, and combine the results with a simple non-cooperative model of tax competition between capital importing countries. They find that tax rates resulting from tax competition depend heavily on the correlations of capital market indices. If investment alternatives are not correlated, the outcome of both tax competition and a cooperative solution of tax harmonization are identical. The results suggest regional ...

  6. Problems of mineral tax computation in the oil and gas sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. Г. Привалов

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper demonstrates the role of mineral tax in the overall sum of tax revenues in the budget. Problems of tax computation and payment have been reviewed; taxpayers and taxation basis of the amount of extracted minerals have been clearly defined. Issues of rental content of natural resource taxes are reviewed, as well as problems of right definition of the rental component in the process of mineral tax calculation for liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons.One of important problems in mineral tax calculation is a conflict between two laws – the Subsoil Law and the Tax Code of Russian Federation (26th chapter. There is an ambiguity in the mechanism of calculating amounts of extracted mineral resources – from the positions of the Tax Code and the Subsoil Law. The second problem is in the necessity to amend the mineral tax for oil extraction the same way as it has been done for gas extraction, when characteristics of each field are taken into account.This will provide a basis for correct computation of the natural resource rent for liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons. The paper offers recommendations for Russian authorities on this issue.

  7. The Meaning of Avoidance and Aggressive Tax Planning and the BEPS Initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. de Wilde (Maarten); C. Wisman (Ciska)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThis national report has been prepared as a contribution to the Conference of the European Association of Tax Law Professors entitled ‘Tax Avoidance Revisited: Exploring the Boundaries of Anti-Avoidance Rules in the EU BEPS Context. The conference is to be held in Munich, Germany, on

  8. Recessions and Tax-Cuts: Economic Cycles' Impact on Individual Giving, Philanthropy, and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drezner, Noah D.

    2006-01-01

    Few researchers have examined how individual giving to higher education is effected by the economy, specifically during downturns and periodic changes in tax laws. Further understanding the relationship between the economy's cycles and philanthropic giving, including the correlation of tax cuts to donations, will help colleges and universities…

  9. Income Tax Act, 1989 (No. 1 of 1989), 6 April 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This Saint Lucia Act revises and consolidates the law relating to income tax. It contains the following provisions, among others: 1) income accrued to a married woman is to be taxed in her own name; 2) the spousal deduction is set at $1500; and 3) the child deduction is set at $1000.

  10. Environmental audits: Tax, accounting and disclosure issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKnight, R.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of the financial and legal issues associated with environmental audits, with an emphasis on tax issues. Accelerated depreciation write-offs are provided for qualified pollution control equipment, and may also qualify for tax credits. The Accounting Standards Committee recommends that provision should be made for future removal and site restoration costs and net of expected recoveries, in a rational and systematic manner by charges to income. Under the Federal Income Tax Act (ITA), future reclamation and shutdown costs will only be deductible if they pass three hurdles: a liability which requires the expenditure of funds in the future may not necessarily be an expense; if the liability can be viewed as an expense, is it incurred for the purpose of gaining or producing income; and is a deduction prohibited because it is on account of capital. A proposed solution to these problems is to adopt the US model that allows the deduction of estimated costs of reclaiming land that is disturbed during the current year at mines and waste disposal sites. Tax treatment of compliance costs, securities law disclosure, proposed federal government policies, proposed regulatory measures, and proposed fiscal measures are discussed

  11. Paying taxes in Euro area countries: issues behind tax morale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilijus Rutkauskas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates theoretical and practical aspects of tax morale in euro area countries. The attitude of households on tax payment – whether to pay taxes or not – is assessed quantitatively by employing dichotomous logit-probit regression analysis. Research is based on household level data received from World Values Survey and European Values Study. The results suggest that the main issues behind weak tax morale are corruption, disrespect to the country. Additionally tax morale is significantly affected by factors like age, gender, religiousness, gender, income and education. Article concludes on possible policy options in order to increase tax morale.

  12. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketteler, G.; Kippels, K.

    1988-01-01

    In section I 'Basic principles' the following topics are considered: Constitutional-legal aspects of environmental protection, e.g. nuclear hazards and the remaining risk; European environmental law; international environmental law; administrative law, private law and criminal law relating to the environment; basic principles of environmental law, the instruments of public environmental law. Section II 'Special areas of law' is concerned with the law on water and waste, prevention of air pollution, nature conservation and care of the countryside. Legal decisions and literature up to June 1988 have been taken into consideration. (orig./RST) [de

  13. Civil law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Gibbons, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of civil law has two distinct meanings. that is, disputes between private parties (individuals, corporations), as opposed to other branches of the law, such as administrative law or criminal law, which relate to disputes between individuals and the state. Second, the term civil law is

  14. Settlement of Tax Disputes in the Russian Federation and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Alexandrovna Konyukhova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the settlement of tax disputes in the Russian Federation and the Federal Republic of Germany. The features of the conflict settlement mechanism are both shown in the stage of administrative and judicial review. In accordance with German law, the administrative stage of dispute resolution, carried out by the tax authority, always precedes the filing of a complaint to a court. Consequently, the taxpayer submits his first application in writing to the tax authority that issued the tax act, though in some cases to a higher tax authority. This obligatory procedure was borrowed by the Russian tax system. The trial stage of tax dispute settlement in Germany is carried out by specialized courts, forming a two-level system for legal proceedings. Thus, the tax dispute submitted to the Court is settled first by the financial lands courts and then by the higher Federal Financial Court. However, the Federal Financial Court takes into consideration only certain categories of actions listed in the Act (the Regulations of finance courts (Finanzgerichtordnung. In Russia appeals of administrative review of tax conflicts, unlike in the German system, are handled by arbitration and general jurisdiction courts. The Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation is the supreme judicial body for settling economic disputes and other cases considered by arbitration courts in implementing federal procedural judicial supervision over their activities and provides explanations regarding judicial practices. Arbitration courts established at the level of the Federation to resolve disputes involving commercial entities, e.g. enterprises and entrepreneurs, resolve the bulk of tax disputes. These courts are composed of specially created panels of judges known as bars, i.e. groups of judges who specialize in reviewing taxation cases.

  15. Fiscal Sovereignty of Member States and Tax Harmonization on Mutual Assistance for the Recovery of Tax Claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina DRAGODAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the impact of harmonization of legislation on the recovery of claims relating to taxes and duties by the mutual assistance between the EU Member States for their tax sovereignty. The research is grounded upon previous studies on the same topic conducted in during the research stage within the Graduate School of Public Law and Tax Law at the University of Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne, which was held during the year 2010. The objectives of the work aim at showing that tax sovereignty implies on the one hand the right of the National Parliament to determine taxes. On the other hand, taxation is the most important instrument of economic and social policy of the governments of member states. It is important to note that the States have broad discretion to create their own direct tax systems in a way that ensures best meet their objectives and internal politics as possible. With regard to the methodology, in order to realize this study it was used a combination of research methods, namely: bibliographical research, the systemic method, the logical method and the comparative method. We consider that our scientific approach presents timeliness and usefulness both academics and practitioners.

  16. Heavier tax burden on energy utilities in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oostenrijk, A.J.; Van Peer, A.J.M.; Thomas, B.A.J.

    1997-01-01

    In order for the energy market to develop into a market with business economical starting points, competition and free access the Dutch Electric Power Law is revised. Part of the Energy Distribution Law (WED, abbreviated in Dutch) came into effect February 1, 1997. The WED also has far-going fiscal consequences for the energy market and people working in that market. The companies have to pay corporation taxes, are not allowed to activate goodwill and to deduct environmental investments anymore. 2 figs

  17. Healthcare organizations and the Internet: impact on federal tax exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, LaVerne; Osborne, Michele

    2002-01-01

    Tax-exempt healthcare organizations have turned to the Internet as a powerful tool in communicating with the public, medical staff, and patients. Activities as diverse as providing links to the Web sites of other organizations, selling goods and services, soliciting contributions, and hosting forums on the Internet raise unresolved questions concerning the impact of Internet use on such organizations' tax-exempt status. The Internal Revenue Service has provided no guidance to date regarding the manner in which a nonprofit organizations' use of the Internet may affect its tax-exempt status or subject it to federal income tax on some sources of funds. This article suggests analytical approaches for applying existing law in the Internet context and identifies areas that are ripe for additional guidance.

  18. TAX & PUBLIC FINANCE: ETHIOPIAN SYSTEM FOR PROMOTIONAL ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moses Antony RAJENDRAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tax is very important for each and every Government. As we are all know that taxation can be classified into direct and indirect taxes. Every Government need revenue to lead the economic, infrastructure, medical, transport, education, telecom, electricity, staff, research, to concession, subsidies, free facility for the unable sector community in the country. To generate the income Government has a constitution as a law to charge a tax for different sectors of people which brought into different categories of the people. No Tax, No Income; No Income, No Revenue; No Revenue, No Government. Government is a public which is common to the all of the people in the country. Whether the direct or indirect tax, the tax must be charged on the basis of the effort of the people income. Some people earn money with their hard work. Some people earn money easily. The easily earned income must be taxed more than the hard earned money. Ethiopian Taxation system is very important for raising income of the Government.

  19. TAX & PUBLIC FINANCE : ETHIOPIAN SYSTEM FOR PROMOTIONAL ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Antony RAJENDRAN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tax is very important for each and every Government.  As we are all know that taxation can be classified into direct and indirect taxes. Every Government need revenue to lead the economic, infrastructure, medical, transport, education, telecom, electricity, staff, research, to  concession, subsidies, free facility for the unable sector community in the country.  To generate the income Government has a constitution as a law to charge a tax for different sectors of people which brought into different categories of the people.  No Tax,  No Income; No Income, No Revenue; No Revenue, No Government.  Government is a public which is common to the all of the people in the country. Whether the direct or indirect tax, the tax must be charged on the basis of the effort of the people income.  Some  people earn money with their hard work.  Some people earn money easily.  The easily earned income must be taxed more than the hard earned money.  Ethiopian Taxation system is very important for raising income of the Government.

  20. Tax Efficiency vs. Tax Equity – Points of View regarding Tax Optimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Aurelia Toader

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Starting from the idea that tax equity requirements, administration costs and the tendency towards tax evasion determine the design of tax systems, it is important to identify a satisfactory efficiency/equity deal in order to build a tax system as close to optimum requirements as possible. Prior Work Previous studies proved that an optimum tax system is that through which it will be collected a level of tax revenues which will satisfy budgetary demands, while losing only a minimum ‘amount’ of welfare. In what degree the Romanian tax system meets these requirements? Approach We envisage analyzing the possibilities of improving Romanian tax system as to come nearest to optimum requirements. Results We can conclude fiscal system can uphold important improvements in what assuring tax equity is concerned, resulting in raising the degree of free conformation in the field of tax payment and, implicitly, the degree of tax efficiency. Implications Knowing to what extent it can be acted upon in the direction of finding that satisfactory efficiency/equity deal may allow oneself to identify the blueprint of a tax system in which the loss of welfare is kept down to minimum. Value For the Romanian institutions empowered to impose taxes, the knowledge of the possibilities of making the tax system more efficient can be important while aiming at reducing the level of evasion phenomenon.

  1. Tax Tips for Forest Landowners for the 2013 Tax Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Wang; John Greene

    2013-01-01

    This annual bulletin provides federal income tax reporting tips to assist forest landowners and their advisers in filing their 2013 income tax returns. The information presented here is current as of Sept. 15, 2013.

  2. Tax havens: Features, operations and solving tax evasion problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović-Ćuk Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tax haven offers minimal or no tax liability to foreign individuals and enterprises in economically and politically stable environment, where little or no financial information is shared with foreign tax authorities. The aim of this research is to create a comprehensive overview of the characteristics and operations of tax havens, as well as to point out to the ways to overcome the problem of tax evasion. The methodology used in the work is characteristic of social science research: analysis, synthesis and discussion, comparative, inductive and historical analysis, together with the usage of relevant national and international sources. This paper describes the basic features of tax havens, as well as specific business models applied in them. A separate chapter deals with overcoming the problem of tax evasion, which is the main adverse effect of doing business through tax havens.

  3. System of National Accounts as an Information Base for Tax Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Lyapin

    2017-01-01

    classification of tax revenues and giving them a certainty of non-tax revenues. In modern reality, the taxes serve as basis on which the economic and financial security rests, as taxes provide financial resources to all levels of the economic system of our country. At all stages of the humankind existence, none of the states has managed without a system of taxes, to one degree or another. History tax goes back to the distant past. Taxes were always presented in the form of contributions of citizens in different types. The procedure for the collection of taxes was necessary for functioning of the political machinery.The article formalizes and substantiates a serious accounting problem related to the terminologically ambiguous interpretation of the categories, applicable in different accounting systems: accounting, tax and statistical accounting. The boundaries of the same cash flows associated with execution by the taxpayer of obligations to the state, are different for these information systems. Other categories are not perceived in the different types of accounting in general, such as, for example, resource taxes. Moreover, most, not the individual, namely most of the terms, categories, definitions and approaches from the experts in the field of law generally cause confusion. The need for integration of procedures, conversion to a common methodological denominator of the borders of cash flows and of the object of study is obvious. 

  4. Criminal Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    <> book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....... book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....

  5. Employment impacts of alcohol taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Roy; Chaloupka, Frank J; Powell, Lisa M; Jernigan, David H

    2017-12-01

    There is strong scientific evidence supporting the effectiveness of increasing alcohol taxes for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related problems. Opponents have argued that alcohol tax increases lead to job losses. However, there has been no comprehensive economic analysis of the impact of alcohol taxes on employment. To fill this gap, a regional macroeconomic simulation model was used to assess the net impact of two hypothetical alcohol tax increases (a 5-cent per drink excise tax increase and a 5% sales tax increase on beer, wine, and distilled spirits, respectively) on employment in Arkansas, Florida, Massachusetts, New Mexico, and Wisconsin. The model accounted for changes in alcohol demand, average state income, and substitution effects. The employment impact of spending the new tax revenue on general expenditures versus health care was also assessed. Simulation results showed that a 5-cent per drink additional excise tax on alcoholic beverages with new tax revenues allocated to general expenditures increased net employment in Arkansas (802 jobs); Florida (4583 jobs); Massachusetts (978 jobs); New Mexico (653 jobs); and Wisconsin (1167 jobs). A 5% additional sales tax also increased employment in Arkansas (789 jobs; Florida (4493 jobs); Massachusetts (898 jobs); New Mexico (621 jobs); and Wisconsin (991 jobs). Using new alcohol tax revenues to fund health care services resulted in slightly lower net increases in state employment. The overall economic impact of alcohol tax increases cannot be fully assessed without accounting for the job gains resulting from additional tax revenues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Tax morale : theory and empirical analysis of tax compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Torgler, Benno

    2003-01-01

    Tax morale is puzzling in our society. Observations show that tax compliance cannot be satisfactorily explained by the level of enforcement. Other factors may well be relevant. This paper contains a short survey of important theoretical and empirical findings in the tax morale literature, focussing on personal income tax morale. The following three key topics are discussed: moral sentiments, fairness and the relationship between taxpayer and government. The survey stresses the ...

  7. Capital Market Effects of Taxes and Corporate Tax Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Tassius, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This thesis consists of four essays: The first essay entitled “Tax Effects on Asset Pricing – New Evidence from Tax Reform Announcements in Germany”, co-authored with Michael Overesch, Chair of Business Taxation at the University of Cologne, not only presents price effects for German shares given rumors about lowering the German corporate tax rate but also shows price effects for bonds following a substantial cut in the German personal interest tax rate. The second essay “Capital Inco...

  8. Tax Competition and Double Tax Treaties with Mergers and Acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    Siggelkow, Benjamin Florian

    2013-01-01

    In a two-period tax competition model with provision of local public goods, we analyze efficiency properties of double taxation reliefs incorporating either the exemption method, the tax credit system or the full taxation after deduction system. Foreign direct investments are presumed to be one-way and characterized by long-term mergers and acquisitions. We find that in case of (i) tax revenue maximization the exemption method implies inefficiently low tax rates, whereas the fu...

  9. A study of the Indonesian's income tax reforms and the development of income tax revenues

    OpenAIRE

    Putra, Eureka

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the Indonesian's income tax reforms and the development of Indonesian's income tax revenues in the period of 1983-2011. It points out two key features of the Indonesian's income tax reforms: 1) the tax reforms have embraced tax rates cutting and tax bases broadening apcomprehensive income tax system toward the schedular tax system. Then, regarding tax revenues, data shows that the Indonesian's nominal income tax revenues have increased considerably during that period; howev...

  10. Transfer pricing principles in VAT Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dennis Ramsdahl

    2011-01-01

    The main part of the article is devoted to a critical analysis of the optional transfer pricing provisions in the EC VAT Directive in the light of the principle of fiscal neutrality. As an integrated part of this analysis, the VAT transfer pricing regime is considered in the light of the well......-known principles for transfer pricing in the area of income tax law, as set out in Art. 9 of the OECD Model Tax Convention. The last part of the article contains a brief discussion of to which extent it is desirable to harmonize the two tax systems´ transfer pricing rules....

  11. World law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold J. Berman

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the world's environment and the protection of universal human rights. World law combines inter-state law with the common law of humanity and the customary law of various world communities.

  12. The History of Tax Administration of Kosovo and its Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakije Kida

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This document provides a brief description of the work in the field of taxation and efficiency in execution of Tax Administration of Kosovo (TAK, inspired by my work in this institution. This work presents the systematic connection of taxpayers, the Tax Administration of Kosovo (TAK and revenue growth within a 12 year period. TAK work effect is conditioned by the level of the staff engagement which leads the tax policy, honest engagement of tax officials and effective enforcement of tax laws based on international best practices. This means that countries that have promoted European Union tax rules have significantly gained better working practices but also collecting the most revenue without applying penalties or closure of businesses. This study examines the short-and long-term effectiveness of TAK. We have found complementarities tax laws of the Republic of Kosovo with EU rules, implying a positive outbreak of their administration. This paper focuses on presenting positive sides as well as opportunities for a greater engagement to a general and dynamic framework for accountability and expected results in a short term. It also treats the policies that are directly and strongly incorporated in the work of TAK. Reducing of the risk of tax evasion, full integration of electronic payment system (E-banking of taxpayers, the successful realization of the pilot project for the establishment of electronic files is a challenge for TAK. Low level of economic integration and political risk of the north of the country are the two elements that have a negative impact on the strength and the will of businesses to pay on the one hand and the effect of collecting revenue from TAK on the other side.

  13. Segregating Schools: The Foreseeable Consequences of Tuition Tax Credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yale Law Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Argues that the effect of a proposed tuition tax credit is school segregation, creating serious constitutional objections under the due process clause. A voucher system would avoid these constitutional objections. Available from the Yale Law Journal, 401A Yale Station, New Haven, CT 06520. (Author/IRT)

  14. Tax Incentives : Using Tax Incentives to Attract Foreign Direct Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Morisset, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    The increasing mobility of international firms and the gradual elimination of barriers to global capital flows have stimulated competition among governments to attract foreign direct investment, often through tax incentives. This note reviews the debate about the effectiveness of tax incentives, examining two much-contested questions: can tax incentives attract foreign investment? And what...

  15. Tax Evasion in the Presence of Negative Income Tax Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Joulfaian, David; Rider, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Examines the impact of marginal tax rates, which incorporate the earned income tax credit as it existed in 1988, on the reporting of income by low-level taxpayers. Concludes that the amount of income underreported does not appear to be affected by the relatively high marginal tax rates which occur in the phase out range, except for proprietors.

  16. Effects of carbon tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelini, M.

    1992-01-01

    At the recent United Nations Conference held in Rio de Janeiro, a proposal was made by Italy to have surcharges be applied by OECD member countries on fossil fuels (carbon tax), primarily to fund pollution abatement technology transfer to developing countries and promote pollution abatement, energy conservation and the use of renewable energy sources in industrialized countries. This paper assesses how the application of the proposed carbon tax might be successfully combined with additional fiscal policies favouring coal gasification and reforestation so as to provide energy policy strategists of oil-importing countries with a long term economically and environmentally viable alternative to petroleum imports

  17. Why Taxing Consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Robert Frank is famous for proposing an incremental tax on consumption. His proposition is motivated by the control of positional externalities, i.e. the costs that individuals impose on each other when they consume goods for securing or acquiring social status. A close analysis of Frank...... are controversial while the invocation of efficiency is actually grounded in an underlying view of social cooperation. Secondly, this chapter advances the idea that an ultimate justification for the choice of specific tax base (consumption, income and wealth) expresses such an underlying view. In other words...

  18. Sick of Taxes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    I estimate a price elasticity of sickness absence. Sick leave is an intensive margin of labor supply where individuals are free to adjust. I exploit variation in tax rates over two decades, which provide thousands of differential incentives across time and space, to estimate the price responsiven...... of sick leave, -0.7, with respect to the net of tax rate. Though large relative to traditional labor supply elasticities, Swedes are half as price elastic as bike messengers, and just as elastic as stadium vendors on the margin which they can adjust freely....

  19. 18 CFR 154.305 - Tax normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... State (including franchise taxes). (4) Income tax component means that part of the cost-of-service that... deferred taxes becomes deficient in, or in excess of, amounts necessary to meet future tax liabilities. (2...

  20. Study On Budget Revenue Collection, Shadow Economy and Tax Losses Caused By It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Claudia Florina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tax avoidance is a phenomenon faced by all countries, to a lesser or greater extent, and we can say that it has begun to manifest itself since the introduction of taxes. It is known that generally taxes are not pleasing to taxpayers, especially when their level is high. However, it is important for individuals, as a whole, not to evade from their tax obligations. In this context taxes can be regarded as a necessary evil to ensure the resources needed for state functioning. But often some taxpayers are looking for ways to avoid taxes, engaging either in tax evasion to the shelter of the law or in fraudulent evasion. In this paper we present some of the aspects that motivate individuals to pay taxes. Also we analyze the situation of budgetary revenues in Alba County and also the evolution of the main income of consolidated general budget in Romania. In the end of the paper we intend to draw a parallel between shadow economy, tax burden and tax losses due to shadow economy for a sample of 32 countries. In this way we can see where underground economy and tax losses have the highest values and where are required measures to mitigate them.

  1. New Mexico Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  2. Who Pays the Gasoline Tax?

    OpenAIRE

    Chernick, Howard; Reschovsky, Andrew

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes panel data over 11 years (both backward from 1982 and forward from 1982) to determine the average gasoline tax burden. Considers links between economic mobility, gasoline consumption, and excise tax increases.

  3. Tax Expenditures: A Theoretical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjekoslav Bratić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Tax expenditures are an instrument frequently used when a government wishes to achieve certain economic and social effects. But because of the increasing number and scope of tax expenditures, their proper use, quality of administration and record-keeping have become a major challenge for the tax authorities and the whole of the government. The article considers and explains very diverse forms of tax expenditure such as reliefs, tax deductions, tax allowances, tax exceptions and special rates of taxation and the ways in which they are defined and calculated. The key problems in the analysis are the absence of a single definition and of methodology for the calculations; these ultimately make it impossible to compare tax expenditures between or among countries.

  4. TEXAS TAXES: A COMPARISON WITH OTHER STATES

    OpenAIRE

    Stallmann, Judith I.; Jones, Lonnie L.

    1998-01-01

    This document is part of an educational series on Texas taxes. State and local taxes in Texas are compared with those of the fifty states and the District of Columbia. Taxes are compared per capita and per $1,000 of personal income. The taxes include: all state and local taxes, property taxes, sales and gross receipts taxes, personal income taxes, corporate income taxes and corporate franchise taxes. For each tax the national average, median, maximum and minimum are given along with the corre...

  5. 29 CFR 553.211 - Law enforcement activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... includes physical training, self-defense, firearm proficiency, criminal and civil law principles... parking violations and issuing appropriate warnings or appearance notices, (7) Wage and hour compliance officers, (8) Equal employment opportunity compliance officers, (9) Tax compliance officers, (10) Coal...

  6. The Meaning of Avoidance and Aggressive Tax Planning and the BEPS Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Wilde, Maarten; Wisman, Ciska

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThis national report has been prepared as a contribution to the Conference of the European Association of Tax Law Professors entitled ‘Tax Avoidance Revisited: Exploring the Boundaries of Anti-Avoidance Rules in the EU BEPS Context. The conference is to be held in Munich, Germany, on 2-4 June 2016. The national report – quite comprehensively – deals with the phenomena of tax avoidance and tax planning by multinationals and the addressing of these in the Netherlands’ corporatio...

  7. Critical Review on Hotel Tax over Boarding House from the Perspective of Islamic Equality Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoirul Hidayah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Perception of community are the regulation about tax of hotel in boarding house over 10 (ten rooms in The Law No. 28 of 2009 about The Region Tax and Retribution is unclear and unfair. The problems are what are the nature meaning of hotel and boarding house services, second, analize tax of hotel in boarding house by fairness perspective. The research method is normative research with modern interpretation and fairness theory. The result are the nature meaning of hotel and boarding house services are differences. The regulation about tax of hotel in boarding house over 10 (ten rooms is unfair.

  8. Preconditions of Voluntary Tax Compliance: Knowledge and Evaluation of Taxation, Norms, Fairness, and Motivation to Cooperate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Eva; Hoelzl, Erik; Kirchler, Erich

    2010-01-01

    Taxpayers' willingness to cooperate with the state and its institutions in general, and their willingness to pay taxes in particular, depend on a variety of variables. While economists stress the relevance of external variables such as tax rate, income and probability of audits and severity of fines, psychological research shows that internal variables are of similar importance. We present a comprehensive review on the relevance of citizens' knowledge of tax law, their attitudes towards the government and taxation, personal norms, perceived social norms and fairness, as well as motivational tendencies to comply, and discuss possibilities for strategic intervention to increase tax compliance. PMID:22428111

  9. Tax optimization methods of international companies

    OpenAIRE

    Černá, Kateřina

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is focusing on methods of tax optimization of international companies. These international concerns are endeavoring tax minimization. The disparity of the tax systems gives to these companies a possibility of profit and tax base shifting. At first this thesis compares the differences of tax optimization, aggressive tax planning and tax evasion. Among the areas of the optimization methods, which are described in this thesis, belongs tax residention, dividends, royalty payments, tra...

  10. The Disappearing State Corporate Income Tax

    OpenAIRE

    Cornia, Gary; Edmiston, Kelly D.; Sjoquist, David L.; Wallace, Sally

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines alternative explanations for the decline over the past two decades in state corporate income taxes relative to the state economy. We employ a survey of state tax administrators, individual tax returns from Georgia and Utah, and panel data to explore the importance of tax policy, tax planning, and economic factors on the trend in state corporate taxes. We find that corporate tax planning and economic factors account for much of the relative decline, and that state tax polic...

  11. Petroleum tax and financial decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stensland, G.; Sunnevaag, K.

    1993-03-01

    The work presented in this report focuses on tax motivated financial incentives in the Norwegian petroleum tax system. Of particular concern is the effects of the reserve fund requirement in the Joint Stock Companies Act. Our prime concern is the Norwegian petroleum tax system as applicable from January 1992, but for the sake of comparison, we have also examined the ''old'' Norwegian petroleum tax system. The findings presented in this report can be divided in two parts. Based on an overview over the development in debt and equity for the major part of companies operating on the Norwegian continental shelf it seems reasonable to divide the companies in three groups. The first group is companies which is not in a tax paying position, both ''foreign'' and domestic. These companies seem to use debt as their most important capital source. The second group is Norwegian companies in a tax paying position. These companies also seem to use debt as the most important capital source. The last group is ''foreign'' companies in a tax paying position. This is a group of companies that mainly use equity to finance their investments in the offshore sector. The second part of the report tries to explain these observations. In the report we compare the incentive effects in the new petroleum tax system to the old tax system. The incentives to finance investments with debt is stronger in the new tax system. Several explanations emerge. Firstly, in the old tax system the investor got an effective tax deduction of 12.8% for dividends. This is removed in the new system. Secondly, in the new system 78% tax is included in the financial statements after tax profit calculation and the maximum dividend calculation, while in the old tax system the withholding tax was excluded. 31 refs., 13 figs. 2 tabs

  12. Corporate tax structure and production

    OpenAIRE

    Bernstein, Jeffrey; Shah, Anwar

    1993-01-01

    The authors provide an empirical framework for assessing the effects of tax policy on an array of producer decisions about output supplies and input demands in Mexico, Pakistan, and Turkey. They specify and estimate a dynamic production structure model with imperfect competition for selected industries in these countries. The model results suggest that tax policy affected production and investment and further that selective tax incentives such as investment tax credits, investment allowances,...

  13. Federal tax effects on the financial attractiveness of renewable versus conventional power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, L.J.; Hadley, S.W.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the effects of federal tax laws on the financial attractiveness of seven renewable and four conventional electric power generating technologies adopted by investor owned utilities (IOUs) and non-utility electricity generators (NUGs). The results show that federal income tax laws applicable to renewable generating technologies generally provide very attractive financial incentives for the adoption of these technologies by IOUs and NUGs. If an IOU and NUG is subject to the alternative minimum tax, however, it may not be able to take full advantage of these financial incentives. (author)

  14. The dynamics of tax havens: An analysis from an international and domestic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kolade, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    2017 dissertation for Master of Law in International Business Law. Selected by academic staff as a good example of a masters level dissertation. Since the occurrence of history’s biggest data leak known as Panama Papers, more\\ud focus has been placed upon offshore dealings and tax havens. With no clear\\ud definition on what tax haven is, this research will be exploring the usage of tax\\ud haven internationally whilst paying particular attention to the United Kingdom,\\ud it’s perspectives and ...

  15. Waste Tax 1987-1996

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. S.; Dengsøe, N.; Brendstrup, S.

    The report gives an ex-post evaluation of the Danish waste tax from 1987 to 1996. The evaluation shows that the waste tax has had a significant impact on the reductions in taxable waste. The tax has been decisive for the reduction in construction and demolition waste, while for the heavier...

  16. Do Taxes Produce Better Wine?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    Theory predicts that unit taxes increase the quality consumed in a market since unit taxes reduce the relative price of high quality goods. Ad valorem taxes, on the other hand, have no effect on relative prices and should not affect product quality. The hypothesis is tested empirically in the US ...

  17. Tax Information Series, January 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    are important for taxpayers in the military community. Its goal is to inform legal assistance attorneys of updates in tax numerology and changes...should mail tax returns to the address on the envelope received with their tax package, or note the proper mailing address 2001 NUMEROLOGY Five

  18. Tax me if you can

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Catrine; Piovesan, Marco

    2016-01-01

    in the presence of a tax frame suggesting that participants use the tax as an excuse to rationalize their dishonest act. In addition, we tested whether adding an explanation for the adoption of the tax would increase honesty. We find evidence for reversed dishonesty with participants reporting significantly more...

  19. Tax me if you can

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Catrine; Piovesan, Marco

    in the presence of a tax frame suggesting that participants use the tax as an excuse to rationalize their dishonest act. In addition, we tested whether adding an explanation for the adoption of the tax would increase honesty. We find evidence for reversed dishonesty with participants reporting significantly more...

  20. Formation of tax culture in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halikova Je.A.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the mechanism of the formation of tax culture in Russia, moral and ethical principles, on which based the work of the tax authorities, given the author's idea of the formation of tax culture. We consider the institution of tax advice, its interaction with the tax authorities and its impact on the formation of tax culture.

  1. 27 CFR 19.21 - Tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax. 19.21 Section 19.21 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Taxes Gallonage Taxes § 19.21 Tax. (a) A tax is imposed by 26 U.S...

  2. Tax penalty payment and the “non bis in idem” principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Karfíková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject. This paper deals with problems related to tax law with a special focus on legalregulation of the tax procedure contained in the Czech Tax Procedure Code. Attention ispaid in particular to tax penalty payments and the “non bis in idem” principle.The purpose to identify ratio between penalty payments in tax procedure and in criminalprocedure in context of “non bis in idem” principle.The methodological basis of the article is analysis of legislation and court practice of Czechrepublic, Austria, European Union, including formal legal analysis, comparative analysis,synthesis, systematic approach.The results and scope of application. The existing case law of the Czech criminal courts andof the Supreme Court was based on the legal opinion that a penalty payment imposed bythe tax administration in a tax procedure constitutes no punishment, i.e. it is no sanction ofcriminal nature, so that even the final (enforceable decision of the tax administration doesnot create a “ne bis in idem”1 barrier in relation to criminal sanctions for the same taxesrelatednon-compliant action (tax evasion in respect of the penalty payment imposed bythe tax administration.Conclusions. It would probably be advisable for the legislation to amend the relevant provisionsof the Tax Procedure Code in a way that the tax authorities concentrate within thelimits of their powers on proper tax collection and that the law enforcement authorities areauthorized to punishments for deliberate tax evasion. A suggested amendment may thereforebe the removal of the penalty payments from the Tax Procedure Code as the defaultinterest itself is sufficient instrument enough to penalize the taxpayers. Another option is to keep the tax penalty payment in the Tax Procedure Code, but its imposition would only be considered after making sure that the result of any criminal proceedings does not constitute a “ne bis in idem” prohibition within the meaning of Art. 40 (5 of the

  3. Tax Rate and Tax Base Competition for Foreign Direct Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Egger; Horst Raff

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that the large reduction in corporate tax rates and only gradual widening of tax bases in many countries over the last decades are consistent with tougher international competition for foreign direct investment (FDI). To make this point we develop a model in which governments compete for FDI using corporate tax rates and tax bases. The model’s predictions regarding the slope of policy reaction functions and the response of equilibrium tax parameters to trade costs and mark...

  4. Book-tax conformity in Polish private companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Białek-Jaworska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify whether financial income differs significantly from the tax base in Poland and what determines these differences between accounting and taxable results in Polish private entities that are not listed on the stock exchange. In this paper, besides examining the level of book-tax conformity in Poland, we investigate the determinants of book-tax differences in the one-book and twobook accounting systems, with deferred income tax. We use the single factor ANOVA variance analysis, robust fixed effects estimator and the fixed effects linear model with an AR(1 disturbance estimator for panel data of 26,657 private limited liability and non-public joint-stock companies for the period of 2003–2014 (177,667 firm-year observations. The originality of this paper results from the deep quantita-tive analysis of the determinants of book-tax conformity on a novel dataset of Polish private firms. We confirm a strong significant influence of tax law on the shape of the one-book accounting system in Poland. Larger enterprises show fewer book-tax differences. Book-tax conformity is lower in private companies that incur financial losses and in private companies conducting the one-book accounting system. Family-owned companies have higher mean and median book-tax conformity than businessgroups members, due to higher demand for information from their accounts to support stewardship func-tions and to monitor the activities of the management board in the business groups.

  5. Energy taxes in Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilhjalmsson, A.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed survey, including data, of energy taxation, and related reforms and plans for reforms, in Iceland is presented. The current energy tax system here is mostly connected with consumption. There is as yet no taxation on air pollutants from fuel combustion. (AB)

  6. Economic and tax issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steverson O. Moffat; John L. Greene

    2002-01-01

    Economic conditions and tax policies affect land use decisions everywhere, but their effects on the rate of change in land use are particularly large in the wildland-urban interface. We begin this chapter with a brief economic history of the South and a description of the macroeconomic trends and conditions that affect microeconomics at the wildlandurban interface....

  7. Tax administration good governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Végh, Gyöngyi; Gribnau, Hans

    2018-01-01

    There is no doubt that tax administration is a complex matter. It is institutionalised by a governance framework which is strongly influenced by legal traditions, state governance approaches, historical developments, and norms and values of society. While there are many common aspects of national

  8. Motor Fuel Excise Taxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    A new report from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) explores the role of alternative fuels and energy efficient vehicles in motor fuel taxes. Throughout the United States, it is common practice for federal, state, and local governments to tax motor fuels on a per gallon basis to fund construction and maintenance of our transportation infrastructure. In recent years, however, expenses have outpaced revenues creating substantial funding shortfalls that have required supplemental funding sources. While rising infrastructure costs and the decreasing purchasing power of the gas tax are significant factors contributing to the shortfall, the increased use of alternative fuels and more stringent fuel economy standards are also exacerbating revenue shortfalls. The current dynamic places vehicle efficiency and petroleum use reduction polices at direct odds with policies promoting robust transportation infrastructure. Understanding the energy, transportation, and environmental tradeoffs of motor fuel tax policies can be complicated, but recent experiences at the state level are helping policymakers align their energy and environmental priorities with highway funding requirements.

  9. Earned Income Tax Credit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. van Oers; R.A. de Mooij (Ruud)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractIn recent policy discussions in the Netherlands, the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) has been put forward as an effective instrument to reduce the unemployment rate among low-skilled workers. Using the MIMIC model, this article shows that a targeted EITC at low incomes indeed seems

  10. THE IMPLICATIONS OF TAX MORALE ON TAX COMPLIANCE BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichita Ramona-Anca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on the analysis of tax compliance behavior from the tax morale standpoint. We grounded our research on the idea that empirical studies constantly invalidating the assumptions of theoretical models of tax evasion show there are more factors influencing compliance than just the economic ones (e.g., audit probability, fine, tax rate, income. Giving the fact that audit probabilities are generally very low and that tax evasion is not as high as one could expect, tax morale might have to do with the high degrees of tax compliance registered around the world. In a stream of articles on taxation published beginning with the late 60n#8217;s, tax morale defined as the intrinsic motivation to comply or n#8220;internalised obligation to pay taxn#8221; (Braithwaite and Ahmed 2005 has been found to positively relate to tax compliance and negatively relate to shadow economy. This paper attempts to offer a broader view on the influence of tax morale on compliance behavior, covering articles ranging from national and cross-cultural surveys to experimental games. Moreover, the aim of the article is to emphasize the policy implications of tax morale research and the changes governments could make in order to raise the amount of public levies.

  11. Object and subject of evasion of taxes and other compulsory payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koval L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to such topical issue of Criminal Law as Object and Subject of Evasion of Taxes and Other Compulsory Payments. There are analyzed researched crime determination problems, which are connected with subject and object of tax and other compulsory payments evasion. In the course of the research, the author has made the conclusions that the object of the evasion of taxes and other compulsory payments group is the national economic interests. The direct object is the national economic interests in the sphere of state revenues or the national fiscal interests. While analyzing the law and regulations it is concluded that the subject of the evasion of taxes and other compulsory payments is the tax base (income, property, expenses and consumption, taxes, state and local government fees, as well as other payments determined by the State. The author has also concluded that the subject of the evasion of taxes and other compulsory payments does not include increase in the tax principal debt, fine and late charge, which are covered by the financial responsibility. The subject of the evasion of taxes and other compulsory payments may not include also income from illegal activity or proceeds resulting from criminal offences.

  12. Bureaucratic Tax-Seeking: The Danish Waste Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Henrik; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2000-01-01

    Two main results in traditional tax theory states the following. First, general taxes minimize the welfare loss from changed relative prices. Second, because the total public budget tends to exceed the optimal size, a leader (here named 'troop leader') is needed in the budget process to prevent...... over-taxation. Nevertheless, differentiated taxes initiated by individual ministries generate a still larger proportion of total tax revenue, in particular under cover of taxing externalities such as environmental pollution. We suggest that this situation leads to over-taxation for two reasons. First......, the absence of a strong and fully informed troop leader prevents rational coordination of collective action. Second, budget maximization leads to overwhelming fiscal pressure because bureaucracies are competing about resources just like fishermen or hunters (here named 'bureaucratic tax-seeking'). Taxing...

  13. Everyday Representations of Tax Avoidance, Tax Evasion, and Tax Flight: Do Legal Differences Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Kirchler, Erich; Maciejovsky, Boris; Schneider, Friedrich

    2001-01-01

    From an economic point of view, legal considerations apart, tax avoidance, tax evasion and tax flight have similar effects, namely a reduction of revenue yields, and are based on the same desire to reduce the tax burden. Due to legal differences and moral concerns it is, however, likely that individuals perceive them as different and as unequally fair. Overall, 252 fiscal officers, business students, business lawyers, and entrepreneurs produced spontaneous associations to a scenario either de...

  14. CONTRIBUTION OF INDIRECT TAXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The work is based on the fact that at any time and in any society, taxation is regarded as undesirable for all taxpayers. The existence and it's manifestation is justified, because the operation of any company involves costs that must be covered by sufficient resources. Since ancient times, each state has adopted its own tax system, more or less perfected, as the state has experienced a greater or lesser economic and military power At the base of this work stays the fact that tax systems are a key factor influencing the overall efficiency of the economy. They determine the size tendency to save, invest and work, influencing the increase in production and employment, which is essential sights integral economic strategy, making tax reform an important component of economic reform. This paper aims to analyze the indirect taxes and their contribution to the public revenues in Romania, the purpose paper contains an analysis based on statistical series as indirect taxation is where tax harmonization was possible. Through analyzes, the paper aims to provide answers to the problem of the contradiction between the growing need for budgetary revenues, which entails a continuous amplification and diversification of taxation, on the one hand, and the need to stimulate economic development, on the other hand. The harmonization of indirect taxation had been achieved since this touches the free movement of goods and the freedom to supply services, not being able to say the same thing about direct taxation, which is why the European Community Treaty does not specify expressly the alignment of direct taxation, considering that direct taxation is a matter of Internal Policies that, for a country free option.

  15. The Tax Base And The Tax Bill. Tax Implications of Development: A Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighton, Deb; Northup, Jim

    The property tax base in Vermont's towns are overburdened as property taxes are usually the only funding method available to finance schools, police departments, highway work, recreation programs, and government in general. Attempting to offer their citizens a balanced program of services without exorbitant taxes, local officials are striving to…

  16. Credits and Exemptions for Children. Tax Facts from the Tax Policy Center. Tax Notes[R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    The Earned Income Tax Credit, Child Tax Credit (CTC), Additional Child Tax Credit (ACTC), and the dependent exemption all provide benefits to families with children. In 2009, a single mom (or dad) with two children can receive benefits ranging from $0 to about $7,500--depending on her income, age of the children, and where the children live. While…

  17. Bribes and Business Tax Evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joulfaian, David

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of governance, in particular bribes to tax officials, in shaping business tax compliance behavior in transition economies. The empirical results show that business noncompliance rises with the frequency of tax related bribes. More specifically, the findings from 27 economies suggest that tax evasion thrives when bribes to tax officials are commonplace. These findings are robust to a number of specifications that control for firm and country attributes as well as address the potential endogeneity of bribes.

  18. ADA APA SETELAH TAX AMNESTY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antin Okfitasari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: What is the matter After Tax Amnesty? This study analyzes the taxpayer obligation after tax amnesty and the consequences that arise if they fail to perform their obligations. The research uses descriptive qualitative approach through literature study. The research shows that there are some obligations for taxpayers to be done. Failure and misconduct in the implementation of obligations after tax amnesty, will result in consequences of sanctions, tax amnesty cancellation, and examination. Finally the relief that should be obtained taxpayers tax amnesty participants will turn into a boomerang because of it.

  19. Export Taxes under Bertrand Duopoly

    OpenAIRE

    David Collie; Roger Clarke

    2006-01-01

    This article analyses export taxes in a Bertrand duopoly with product differentiation, where a home and a foreign firm both export to a third-country market. It is shown that the maximum-revenue export tax always exceeds the optimum-welfare export tax. In a Nash equilibrium in export taxes, the country with the low cost firm imposes the largest export tax. The results under Bertrand duopoly are compared with those under Cournot duopoly. It is shown that the absolute value of the export subsid...

  20. Do Taxes Produce Better Wine?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    2011-01-01

    Theory predicts that unit taxes increase the quality consumed in a market, since unit taxes reduce the relative price of high quality goods. Ad valorem taxes, on the other hand, have no effect on relative prices, and should not affect product quality. The hypothesis is tested empirically in the U...... wine market. I find that the market share of high quality wine is significantly increased by unit taxes, and that there is no significant effect of ad valorem taxes, in accordance with the hypothesis and previous empirical studies....

  1. Federal tax incentives and disincentives for the adoption of wood-fuel electric-generating technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, L.J.; Hadley, S.W.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we estimate the effects of current federal tax policy on the financial criteria that investor-owned electric utilities (IOUs) and non-utility electricity generators (NUGs) use to evaluate wood-fuel electric-generating technologies, distinguishing between dedicated-plantation and wood-waste fuels. Accelerated tax depreciation, the 1.5 cent/kWh production tax credit for the dedicated-plantation technology, and the alternative minimum tax are the most important tax provisions. The results indicate that federal tax laws have significantly different effects on the evaluation criteria, depending on the plant's ownership (IOU vs NUG) and type of fuel (dedicated-plantation vs wood-waste). (Author)

  2. Law Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Tolstopiatenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At the origin of the International Law Department were such eminent scientists, diplomats and teachers as V.N. Durdenevsky, S.B. Krylov and F.I. Kozhevnikov. International law studies in USSR and Russia during the second half of the XX century was largely shaped by the lawyers of MGIMO. They had a large influence on the education in the international law in the whole USSR, and since 1990s in Russia and other CIS countries. The prominence of the research of MGIMO international lawyers was due to the close connections with the international practice, involving international negotiations in the United Nations and other international fora, diplomatic conferences and international scientific conferences. This experience is represented in the MGIMO handbooks on international law, which are still in demand. The Faculty of International Law at MGIMO consists of seven departments: Department of International Law, Department of Private International and Comparative Law; Department of European Law; Department of Comparative Constitutional Law; Department of Administrative and Financial Law; Department of Criminal Law, Department Criminal Procedure and Criminalistics. Many Russian lawyers famous at home and abroad work at the Faculty, contributing to domestic and international law studies. In 1947 the Academy of Sciences of the USSR published "International Law" textbook which was the first textbook on the subject in USSR. S.B. Krylov and V.N. Durdenevsky were the authors and editors of the textbook. First generations of MGIMO students studied international law according to this textbook. All subsequent books on international law, published in the USSR, were based on the approach to the teaching of international law, developed in the textbook by S.B. Krylov and V.N. Durdenevsky. The first textbook of international law with the stamp of MGIMO, edited by F.I. Kozhevnikov, was published in 1964. This textbook later went through five editions in 1966, 1972

  3. Theoretical Provision of Tax Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feofanova Iryna V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at defining the questions, giving answers to which is necessary for scientific substantiation of the tax transformation in Ukraine. The article analyzes the structural-logical relationships of the theories, providing substantiation of tax systems and transformation of them. Various views on the level of both the tax burden and the distribution of the tax burden between big and small business have been systematized. The issues that require theoretical substantiation when choosing a model of tax system have been identified. It is determined that shares of both indirect and direct taxes and their rates can be substantiated by calculations on the basis of statistical data. The results of the presented research can be used to develop the algorithm for theoretical substantiation of tax transformation

  4. Responsible Investment: Taxes and Paradoxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knuutinen Reijo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxes have become an issue of corporate social responsibility (CSR, but the role of taxation is to some extent an ambiguous and controversial issue in the CSR framework. Similarly, another unclear question is what role investors who are committed to sustainable and responsible investment (SRI see taxes as having on their environmental, social, and governance (ESG agenda. Corporate taxes have an inverse relationship with the return of the investors: taxes paid directly affect what is left on the bottom line, reducing the return of investors. However, investors are now more aware of tax-related risks, which can include different forms of reputation risk. Corporate tax planning may increase the returns, but those increased returns are riskier. This study focuses particularly on the relationship between SRI and taxation. We find that tax matters are considered to be on the ESG agenda, but their role and significance in the ESG analysis is unclear.

  5. Tax Responses in Platform Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kind, Hans Jarle; Köthenbürger, Marko; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    that a higher ad valorem tax may undermine a firm's incentive to differentiate its product from that of its competitors. Finally, we demonstrate that the effects of increasing specific taxes may be the opposite of those of increasing value added taxes....... price and thus buy less of the good. The present paper shows that this result need not hold in a two-sided market. On the contrary, a higher ad valorem tax may lower end-user prices and spur sales. Thus, two-sided platform firms may not at all engage in tax shifting via price increases. We further show......Two-sided platform firms serve distinct customer groups that are connected through interdependent demand, and include major businesses such as the media industry, banking, and the software industry. A well known result of tax incidence is that consumers of a more heavily taxed good pay a higher...

  6. Businessmen´s tax evasions

    OpenAIRE

    Karásková, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this bachelor thesis is categorize businessmen's tax evasions at personal income tax and find out their portion on total tax evasions. In the first chapter I focus on tax avoidance and tax evasion, causes of tax evasion and his measurement. Next parts of this thesis focus on businessmen's tax evasion at personal income tax. In the second part I describe some very frequented cases of tax evasions revealed by revenue authorities. In the last part I analyse these tax evasions, c...

  7. Redistributive Effects of Income Tax Rates and Tax Base 1984-2009: Evidence from Japanese Tax Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Miyazaki, Takeshi; Kitamura, Yukinobu

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to examine how and to what extent changes in income tax rates and income tax deductions affect income inequality from longitudinal perspectives, by using microdata from Japanese individuals and households. The findings of this paper could shed light on the effects of tax rates and tax deduction on tax progressivity. First, redistributive effects of the Japanese income tax are likely to decline for the period 1984-2009. Second, the income tax reforms, i.e...

  8. Environmental taxes and transaction costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollebergh, Herman R.J.

    1994-06-01

    A well-known tax policy principle in the case of environmental bads holds that optimality would apply to a special class of environmental taxes, the so called Pigovian or effluent taxes (or fees or charges). However, an interesting paradox arises here for effluent taxes are seldom chosen in practical policies by governments. An explanation for this discrepancy is that effluent taxes are generally supposed to bring about the highest amount of transaction costs in order to enforce this kind of tax. This would be caused by the fact that usually large numbers of agents are involved if effluents are taken as the principal tax base. Unfortunately this explanation seems to boomerang for it brings about an impossibility result: effluent taxes can never be first best taxes if transaction costs are allowed. Up till now theoretical economics has not paid much attention to this problem. In contrast this essay offers an explanation for the discrepancy and it shows why the impossibility theorem is a paradox. As soon as one allows for transaction costs in welfare analysis, one not only has to acknowledge that such costs are attached to the internalization device but also to the initial status quo. Moreover, the amount of transaction costs is not independent of the tax contracts themselves, neither are the benefits of regulation through taxation. Accordingly a more general welfare assessment of questions where it is optimal to levy environmental taxes shows that first best Pigovian taxes need not be effluent taxes (even if abatement is possible), although in some cases effluent taxes might still be the best policy option from an economic perspective. 31 refs

  9. Environmental taxes and transaction costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollebergh, Herman R.J. [Centre for Economic Policy OCFEB, Erasmus University Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1994-06-01

    A well-known tax policy principle in the case of environmental bads holds that optimality would apply to a special class of environmental taxes, the so called Pigovian or effluent taxes (or fees or charges). However, an interesting paradox arises here for effluent taxes are seldom chosen in practical policies by governments. An explanation for this discrepancy is that effluent taxes are generally supposed to bring about the highest amount of transaction costs in order to enforce this kind of tax. This would be caused by the fact that usually large numbers of agents are involved if effluents are taken as the principal tax base. Unfortunately this explanation seems to boomerang for it brings about an impossibility result: effluent taxes can never be first best taxes if transaction costs are allowed. Up till now theoretical economics has not paid much attention to this problem. In contrast this essay offers an explanation for the discrepancy and it shows why the impossibility theorem is a paradox. As soon as one allows for transaction costs in welfare analysis, one not only has to acknowledge that such costs are attached to the internalization device but also to the initial status quo. Moreover, the amount of transaction costs is not independent of the tax contracts themselves, neither are the benefits of regulation through taxation. Accordingly a more general welfare assessment of questions where it is optimal to levy environmental taxes shows that first best Pigovian taxes need not be effluent taxes (even if abatement is possible), although in some cases effluent taxes might still be the best policy option from an economic perspective. 31 refs.

  10. Climate protection laws in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Yen-Lin Agnes

    2014-01-01

    The contribution on climate protection laws in Taiwan is first describing the international position and cooperation with UNFCCC, The national climate protection policy covers energy and industry, trading and economy, forestry and agriculture, traffic and local affairs, society and education. The description of the actual legislation includes the constitutional framework, environmental legislation, air pollution legislation, environmental compatibility regulations, renewable energy development legislation, energy management laws, legal drafts concerning reduction of greenhouse gas emission and energy taxes. Finally the competences and responsibilities of authorities are summarized.

  11. 27 CFR 31.4 - Relation to State and municipal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... business contrary to the laws of such State or in places prohibited by municipal law; nor shall such... municipal law. 31.4 Section 31.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... State and municipal law. Compliance with the requirements of this part shall not be held to exempt any...

  12. Tax cooperation among member states of European Union and Directive on administrative cooperation in the field of taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimovski Aleksandar G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries have possibility to choose between several alternatives for cooperation in international tax matters at global level. They can decide not to cooperate or provide some form of tax cooperation. Because of harmful tax competition among countries and efforts of international organizations, all countries in the world are oblidged to comply with one of multiple alternatives for tax cooperation. Situation in European Union (hereinafter EU is specific. EU is not country or classic international organization. By the reason of its successful functioning, EU has need for tax cooperation. EU has attempted to harmonise tax policies of member states, but member states did not approve that. Only indirect taxes are harmonized on EU level, direct taxes are harmonized only to the point necessarily for functioning of single market. That is why tax cooperation instruments are so important. Object of this paper are procedures and measures, stipulated by the most important instrument in the field of tax cooperation enacted by institutions of EU, its development and status in international tax law. Regulatives and directives in field of tax cooperation in the EU are 'pioneers' in tax matters. EU instruments provide standards which are subsequently accepted by several international organizations - Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD and United Nations (UN. Our purpose is to present positive and negative aspects of tax cooperation in the EU. In time of crisis efficient tax cooperation provides higher revenues for the member states, on the other hand, taxpayers and tax administrations have increased expenses as result of tax cooperation which are not fairly distributed.

  13. Energy and the tax base: Implications for solar power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, P.

    1995-01-01

    Most local governments around the world derive their revenue from property taxation. In particular, councils can either tax buildings or rate land. At the local government level, this difference makes Melbourne a unique city to study. It is the only city in the world which uses different rating structures, side by side, to finance local government. One system rates land, (site value), the other taxes buildings. This has enabled extensive research to be undertaken, to determine the economic impact, if any, on the economy, and the change, if any, in rate-payer behaviour. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that in implementing a change-over within society to the wider use of solar power, the tax system must also be addressed. Until the tax system is addressed, a change to renewable energy sources is unlikely within the next fifty years. The paper concludes that land use charges affect taxpayer behaviour. Taxes affect profits which affect economic decisions. The governing tax and economic laws will determine the energy decisions taken, and developments in the next seven years will lay the foundation for the next long term cycle. (author). 8 figs., 5 refs

  14. The effect of business characteristics on tax compliance costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popi Fauziati

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Compliance fee is the cost incurred by the taxpayers in fulfilling the taxation requirements imposed on the taxpayers by the law and the authority of the country. The company expects to incur the minimum tax costs associated with fulfilling its tax obligations. Research on the influence of business characteristics to tax compliance cost is still scanty. This research examined the effect of business characteristics (age, size, sector and risk management on tax compliance costs. The research design adopted in this study is survey design. The questionnaires were distributed to the members of De-partment of Cooperatives and Micro Small-Medium Enterprises in Padang City. The non-probability sampling was used as the sampling method and 92 respondents participated in this re-search. The data obtained were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. The research findings indicate that age, size and sector have no effect on tax compliance costs while risk management has an effect on tax compliance costs.

  15. International law

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Malcolm N

    2017-01-01

    International Law is the definitive and authoritative text on the subject, offering Shaw's unbeatable combination of clarity of expression and academic rigour and ensuring both understanding and critical analysis in an engaging and authoritative style. Encompassing the leading principles, practice and cases, and retaining and developing the detailed references which encourage and assist the reader in further study, this new edition motivates and challenges students and professionals while remaining accessible and engaging. Fully updated to reflect recent case law and treaty developments, this edition contains an expanded treatment of the relationship between international and domestic law, the principles of international humanitarian law, and international criminal law alongside additional material on international economic law.

  16. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    This pocketbook contains major federal regulations on environmental protection. They serve to protect and cultivate mankind's natural foundations of life, to preserve the environment. The environmental law is devided as follows: Constitutional law on the environment, common administrative law on the environment, special administrative law on the environment including conservation of nature and preservation of rural amenities, protection of waters, waste management, protection against nuisances, nuclear energy and radiation protection, energy conservation, protection against dangerous substances, private law relating to the environment, criminal law relating to the environment. (HSCH) [de

  17. LEVERAGING SUSTAINABILITY AS BUDGETARY RESOURCES THROUGH FINANCIAL LAW INSTRUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONEL BOSTAN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Through this approach we intend on actually achieving glances on basic legal norms in the field of taxation - Tax Code and the Fiscal Procedure Code - in terms of their potential to confer sustainability of public financial resources. Therefore, after playing some considerations regarding the sustainability of fiscal resources, highlighting the relationship taxation - development, we stop on the first reunification tax laws in the context of the market economy in Romania (2003, marked by the adoption of the Tax Code - by law - and legislating procedure by governmental tax legislation, then the desire circumscribed debate issues of sustainability of public finances. By placing our focus on massive renewal of the provisions of the tax code, which took place in 2015, and treat problems related to sustainability, prudence, predictability and efficiency - as imperative contained in the Fiscal Responsibility Law. Creating the premises to ensure predictability of the tax system and the continuation of conduct necessary fiscal consolidation sustainable, by rewriting the Tax Code and re-systematization of rules of Fiscal Procedure are prominently presented in this paper (Part Two, to finally reveal the economic impact of rewriting Codes the tax area.

  18. The relationship between financial and tax accounting in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilda Duhanxhiu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Typically ‘income tax’ laws rely on financial accounting data to determine the taxable income of a business entity, although financial and tax accounting have different goals and requirements. The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between financial and tax accounting rules in Albania. The study employs a mixed methodology, comprising a review of the legislation, institutional framework and context, and semi-structured interviews with accountants, academics and institutional players. By reviewing the development of this relationship during the past 20 years, we aim to identify and explain the major divergences at present between two sets of rules.

  19. Energy prices and taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Energy Prices and Taxes contains a major international compilation of energy prices at all market levels: import prices, industry prices and consumer prices. The statistics cover main petroleum products, gas, coal and electricity, giving for imported products an average price both for importing country and country of origin. Every issue includes full notes on sources and methods and a description of price mechanisms in each country

  20. INTERPRETATION OF TAX TREATIES

    OpenAIRE

    Uzeltürk, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Nations benefit economically when their companies work abroad and develop their strength in international markets. Economic power also brings international political power and prestige. When dealing with international business, taxation is one o f the most important problems. Double taxation, which is to tax the same profit by two or more countries, is a serious obstacle that confronts international enterprises. Unless double taxation is avoided it will be difficult for enterprises to conduct...

  1. Investigation methodology for information-driven horizontal fiscal supervision : A Dutch approach to improving effective law enforcement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, T.M.; Engers, van T.M.

    2012-01-01

    The article focuses on how the Dutch Tax Administration and other tax administrations can deploy their resources efficiently and assure the quality of law enforcement. It says that the Tax Administration is seeking to new forms of co-operation with people to build trust, confidenceconfidence, and

  2. Ecological tax reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  3. Ecological tax reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  4. Ecological tax reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  5. Analysis of the differences between the accounting and tax treatment for items of property, plant and equipment: The Peruvian case

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Alfredo Díaz Becerra; Luis Alberto Durán Rojo; Amalia Valencia Medina

    2012-01-01

    This research work aims principally to make an analysis showing differences between the measurement and the recognition of items of property, plant and equipment. It focuses on the differences caused by existing differences between the treatment settled in the accounting standards and the one settled in the tax regulations related to Corporate Income Tax, for Peruvian case.A review of the related accounting standards and the standards established in the Peruvian Income Tax Law and its regulat...

  6. Tax Policy Trends: Republicans Reveal Proposed Tax Overhaul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Bazel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available REPUBLICANS REVEAL PROPOSED TAX OVERHAUL The White House and Congressional Republicans have revealed their much-anticipated proposal for reform of the U.S. personal and corporate tax systems. The proposal titled, “UNIFIED FRAMEWORK FOR FIXING OUR BROKEN TAX CODE” outlines a number of central policy changes, which will significantly alter the U.S. corporate tax system. The proposal includes a top federal marginal rate reduction for the sole proprietorships, partnerships and S corporation—small business equivalents— from 39.6% to 25% (state income tax rates would no longer be deductible. Large corporations would also see a meaningful federal rate reduction given the proposed drop in the federal corporate income tax rate from 35% to 20%. Additionally, the proposal includes a generous temporary measure intended to stimulate investment, full capital expensing for machinery with a partial limitation of interest deductions.

  7. Tax revenue in Mississippi communities following implementation of smoke-free ordinances: an examination of tourism and economic development tax revenues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, Robert; Shackelford, Signe

    2012-10-01

    There is no safe level of exposure to tobacco smoke. More than 60 Mississippi communities have passed smoke-free ordinances in the past six years. Opponents claim that these ordinances harm local businesses. Mississippi law allows municipalities to place a tourism and economic development (TED) tax on local restaurants and hotels/motels. The objective of this study is to examine the impact of these ordinances on TED tax revenues. This study applies a pre/post quasi-experimental design to compare TED tax revenue before and after implementing ordinances. Descriptive analyses indicated that inflation-adjusted tax revenues increased during the 12 months following implementation of smoke-free ordinances while there was no change in aggregated control communities. Multivariate fixed-effects analyses found no statistically significant effect of smoke-free ordinances on hospitality tax revenue. No evidence was found that smoke-free ordinances have an adverse effect on the local hospitality industry.

  8. INTERMEDIATE RESULTS AND LIMITS OF HARMONIZATION OF DIRECT TAXES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Ponomareva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 347.9The article is devoted to analysis of tax harmonization in the area of direct taxation in the European Union. Questions of positive and negative integration, common market and tax harmonization are analyzed.The author mentions the following benchmarks of the European tax integration: these are tax harmonization in the area of direct taxation, prohibition of discrimination and of unfair competition, leading role of fundamental freedoms in field of European integration.The direct effect of EU law is brought into light. The international treaty is a special source of law of Member States and it used in cases which can't be regulated by national legislation or by acts of integration law.Directives and regulations as sources of EU secondary law are described in the article. Their special features are also brought into light.International EU agreements and acts of cooperation in the area of taxation are also brought into light. The special role of soft law is also mentioned in the article.The special role of the European Court of Justice in forming of EU tax law is emphasized.The conclusion of the article is in the statement of importance of taxation in the forming of internal market in integration community.The expected results are important both from theoretical and practical points of view and include:working out the legal framework of direct taxation and finding out actual problems of integration tax law mentioning modern trends of cross-border taxation;recommendations of improving of harmonization mechanisms in the EAEU and improving of the Russian Tax Code.

  9. 31 CFR 900.3 - Antitrust, fraud, and tax and interagency claims excluded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... activity do not apply to any debt based in whole or in part on conduct in violation of the antitrust laws... in whole or in part on conduct in violation of the antitrust laws or any claim involving fraud, the... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Antitrust, fraud, and tax and...

  10. 10 CFR 1015.103 - Antitrust, fraud, tax, interagency, transportation account audit, acquisition contract, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... part on conduct in violation of the antitrust laws or to any debt involving fraud, the presentation of... whole or in part on conduct in violation of the antitrust laws or any claim involving fraud, the... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Antitrust, fraud, tax, interagency, transportation account...

  11. 38 CFR 1.902 - Antitrust, fraud, and tax and interagency claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of the antitrust laws or to any debt involving fraud, the presentation of a false claim, or... whole or in part on conduct in violation of the antitrust laws or any claim involving fraud, the... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Antitrust, fraud, and tax...

  12. Criminal and Legal Tax System Protection of the Russian Federation and the Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanenko D. Yu.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The comparative law analysis of criminal law protection of the tax system of the Russian Federation and the Ukraine is presented in the article; some recommendations for improvement of the Russian and Ukrainian criminal legislations have been formulated on this basis as well

  13. Tax reliefs in legal entities' capital gains tax

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrijević, Marko

    2013-01-01

    Reducing a national corporate tax rate and introducing numerous/ ample tax reliefs may have adverse effects on a country's reputation as it is perceived as being susceptible to unfair tax competition practices and prone to allowing the subsidiaries of foreign companies to enter the national market at any cost (even at the expense of preserving its natural assets). For this reason, it is essential to find the right balance between the need to attract foreign capital (on the one hand) and the p...

  14. Tax policy: The fiscal revenue effects of international tax planning

    OpenAIRE

    Beznoska, Martin; Hentze, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In the course of the 'Panama Papers' discussion, questions arise concerning the fiscal effects of international profit shifting and tax avoidance. A recent OECD study estimates the worldwide corporate tax losses to lie between 4 and 10 percent of the revenues. Applied to Germany, this would reflect between 3 and 7 billion Euro or maximum 1 percent of total tax revenues. However, the estimation underlies questionable assumptions and therefore severe uncertainties.

  15. Inheritance tax: Limit corporate privileges and spread tax burden

    OpenAIRE

    Bach, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    After the inheritance tax ruling by the German Federal Constitutional Court, legislators will have to limit the wide-ranging exemptions on company assets. In recent years, they have exempted half of all assets subject to inheritance tax. In particular, large transfers consisting mainly of corporate assets benefit from the favorable conditions. In 2012 and 2013, over half of all transfers of five million euros or more were tax exempt, and over 90 percent of transfers of 20 million euros or mor...

  16. 17 CFR 256.408 - Taxes other than income taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR MUTUAL SERVICE COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC.... (a) This account shall include the amount of state unemployment insurance, franchise taxes, federal...

  17. A tax proposal for a cash flow corporate tax

    OpenAIRE

    Lourdes Jerez Barroso; Joaquín Texeira Quirós

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Due to its advantages in terms of neutrality and simplicity, the aim of this paper is to design a tax base for corporation cash flows, as well as to develop its practical implementation.Design/Methodology: The conceptual aspects and the background of tax on corporation tax flows are reviewed and a tax base that levies a charge on the corporation’s economical activities’ cash flow is then proposed. In order to carry this out, a methodological procedure is developed on the basis of the...

  18. A tax proposal for a cash flow corporate tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Jerez Barroso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Due to its advantages in terms of neutrality and simplicity, the aim of this paper is to design a tax base for corporation cash flows, as well as to develop its practical implementation.Design/Methodology: The conceptual aspects and the background of tax on corporation tax flows are reviewed and a tax base that levies a charge on the corporation’s economical activities’ cash flow is then proposed. In order to carry this out, a methodological procedure is developed on the basis of the accounting documents that companies must present and through which the stock variables and the accounting documents’ work flow is transformed into cash flow.Findings: An implementation on the basis of the accounting documents that Spanish companies must present. Practical Implications: This paper defines the procedure to follow in order to determine the tax base of a cash flow corporate income tax on the basis of its accounts, which would allow an estimation of this tax figure’s revenue impact.Originality/ Value: The design of a tax base of cash flows for companies. The accounting approximation carried out to determine the cash flows justifies the fact that the tax base proposal is technically possible.

  19. Bureaucratic Tax-Seeking: The Danish Waste Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Henrik; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2002-01-01

    model. These suggestions are confirmed by the case of the Danish waste tax with its fixed price approach and perverse incentives compared to that of achieving environmental target levels in a cost-minimising way. Thus, we recommend that bureaucratic institutions should coordinate their tax......-seeking efforts to maximise budgets in the long run and that the ministries that collect green tax revenues should not be allowed to control these revenues. Furthermore, our results dictate that postulated effects from green tax intervention need to be demonstrated....

  20. A CUT VIEW CONCERNING THE ECONOMICAL TRANSFORMATION GENERATED BY THE WEALTH TAX: SEIZURE FOR BAHTIYAR HAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Başak ERGÜDER

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available market and monopoly as target in eliminating the shortages caused by the money supply shortages and high inflation rates in Turkey during World War II. But the hidden goal of this this law was to realize an economical transformation. The classification of the taxpayers as G (Non-muslims, M (Muslims, D (Proselyte and E (Foreigners, the inclination towards real estates owners and merchants in tax assessment, tax collection made mostly in İstanbul caused a problematic table in terms of taxation principles. 87 per cent of all taxpayers in Turkey was non-muslims and 54 per cent was in İstanbul. 68 per cent of the taxes accrued in Turkey was accrued in Istanbul and 70 per cent of the taxes collected in the country was paid in İstanbul. It can be clearly seen in this table that this tax could not realise the principle of universality and equality and that the outputs of Wealth Tax was to realize the economical transformation. In this study, the outputs of the economical transformation generated by the Wealth Tax Law will be analyzed in terms of Turkification of the economy. Although the target of reducing the money supply and decreasing the inflation rates were not accomplished via Wealth Tax Law, the economic transformation, which was the hidden goal of the law, was realized. In this study it will be focused in the role of SEE’s and public organizations in the sales and seizures made due to Wealth Tax. The seizure of Bahtiyar Han’s possessions by the Soil Products Office will be analyzed. This case deserves to be discussed and analyzed in terms of showing the mentality of the economical transformation and of the role of the public organizations in this period.

  1. Study of interconnection of financial and tax accounting of profit in Russia and abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labyntsev Mykola T.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the degree of interconnection of financial and tax accounting of profit in Russia and some foreign countries – USA, France and Germany. The legal principle – common law or unified law – is taken as a criterion. The article shows that existence of the system of tax accounting by one tax (organisation profit tax separately from the financial accounting in Russia from 2002 is not rational. At present Russia actively develops a variant of making financial accounting and tax accounting closer without a principal reconstruction of norms of tax legislation. Low level of interconnection of tax accounting and financial accounting is characteristic for the USA, which is one of the founders of the British-American (British-American-Dutch in interpretation of some authors accounting model. The level of interconnection of norms of financial and tax accounting is rather high in France and Germany and the taxation policy of the theoretical base of the accounting system, which allows speaking about the French-German accounting model.

  2. 77 FR 74798 - Awards for Information Relating To Detecting Underpayments of Tax or Violations of the Internal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... contribution and the IRS's independent administration of the tax laws, this clear link requires: (i) A direct... in the information provided. The direct relationship test of the definition's first prong amounts to... regulations' definition of collected proceeds, therefore, does not refer explicitly to NOLs, tax credits, or...

  3. Slovenian income taxes and analysis of their tax expenditure in 2006-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Klun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tax expenditure analyses have been an important element in the supervision of reform processes linked to implementing different kinds of tax incentive and the management of a correct tax policy. The paper provides an evaluation of tax expenditure in Slovenia relating to personal income tax and corporate income tax. Four consecutive tax years were selected for the calculation of the tax expenditure on personal income tax (2006-09, while three consecutive years were selected for the corporate income tax calculation (2008-10. The tax expenditure calculated for personal income tax was highest in 2006 and reached 5.2% of GDP. After several changes in personal income tax, expenditures decreased to around 3% of GDP in the following three years. The tax expenditure calculated for corporate income tax was much lower as compared to GDP than for personal income tax, reaching around 0.2% of GDP.

  4. Ireland unveils petroleum tax measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Ireland's government has introduced detailed petroleum tax legislation designed to boost offshore exploration and development. The petroleum tax measures, published last week and included in the government's omnibus finance bill for 1992, will provide Ireland for the first time a comprehensive petroleum tax regime. They include elements which, in tax terms, will make Ireland a most attractive location for oil and gas exploration and development, the Irish Energy Minister Robert Molloy. He the, Exploration companies will now have the benefit of the certainty of a detailed tax framework and attractive tax rates. Debate on the finance bill has begun in the Irish Dail (parliament). Under Ireland's constitution, the budget bill must be approved and signed by the president by the end of May. Failure to approve a budget bill within that time would mean the current government's collapse

  5. Alcohol Taxes and Birth Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationships between alcohol taxation, drinking during pregnancy, and infant health. Merged data from the US Natality Detailed Files, as well as the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (1985–2002, data regarding state taxes on beer, wine, and liquor, a state- and year-fixed-effect reduced-form regression were used. Results indicate that a one-cent ($0.01 increase in beer taxes decreased the incidence of low-birth-weight by about 1–2 percentage points. The binge drinking participation tax elasticity is −2.5 for beer and wine taxes and −9 for liquor taxes. These results demonstrate the potential intergenerational impact of increasing alcohol taxes.

  6. Tax Havens in the Offshore World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu-Bogdan Constantin

    2016-01-01

    Through taxation governments get money to fulfil their role in society. It plays a major role ininvestment decisions and can be also an innoportunity for taxpayers. Tax havens are tax free areasthat have the status of states and function legally. Their main business is to attract money bycreating taxpayers friendly environments and by total secrecy. Panama is the biggest USinfluencedtax haven. Tax evasion through tax havens is illegal and is the evading of declaringand paying taxes. Tax avoidance through tax havens is the legally avoiding of declaring andpaying taxes. Tax havens are not illegal but are immoral because vast amounts of money drainfrom the states around the world to them.

  7. The financial lease after the tax reform in the Slovak republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Derco

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the calculations of leasing economics, derived from recently valid laws, mainly the income tax law. According to § 19 paragraph 3 letter a of the income tax law /ZDP/, the tax expenses represent a depreciation charge of tangible and intangible properties. The new law about the income tax allowed in precisely determined cases to claim depreciation charge not only to tax-payer, having the proprietorship or the administration right (if it relates to the state, village or the higher regional unit, but also to tax-payers who do not have this right if they count this property, incl. they count their property being rented by the form of financial leasing (§24 paragraph 1 letter. e. ZDP. The lessee by this way has the right the leasing object amortizes; despite he is not its owner. This represents a very advantageous, so-called leasing form of depreciation, when the lessees depreciates the property much earlier than using the balanced or accelerated depreciation.

  8. Tax Cut Legislation: What's Fair? Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundation for Teaching Economics, Davis, CA.

    Front and center in 2001 domestic policy debates is President George W. Bush's proposed tax relief plan. The U.S. federal tax is a progressive tax code, predicated on the assumption that "people who are most able to pay should pay the most." A progressive tax system makes an individual's tax bill increase faster than his/her income. The…

  9. Assessment of a progressive electricity tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Progressive electricity tax implies that the tax rate increases with consumption so that the tax paid per kWh consumed increases when the consumption increases beyond a certain level. This elucidation discusses principal and practical aspects of such a tax. It is advised against the establishment of a progressive electricity tax. The objections are of principal, economical and administrative character

  10. Introducing the Microcomputer into Undergraduate Tax Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillaway, Manson P.; Savage, Allan H.

    Although accountants have used computers for tax planning and tax return preparation for many years, tax education has been slow to reflect the increasing role of computers in tax accounting. The following are only some of the tasks that a business education department offering undergraduate tax courses for accounting majors should perform when…

  11. Which Countries Become Tax Havens?

    OpenAIRE

    Dhammika Dharmapala; James R. Hines Jr.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the factors influencing whether countries become tax havens. Roughly 15 percent of countries are tax havens; as has been widely observed, these countries tend to be small and affluent. This paper documents another robust empirical regularity: better-governed countries are much more likely than others to become tax havens. Using a variety of empirical approaches, and controlling for other relevant factors, governance quality has a statistically significant and quantitativel...

  12. Tax Shield, Insolvenz und Zinsschranke

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Sven; Lahmann, Alexander; Schwetzler, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    Dieser Beitrag analysiert den Wertbeitrag fremdfinanzierungsbedingter Steuervorteile (Tax Shield) unter realistischen Bedingungen (keine Negativsteuer; mögliche Insolvenz) für unterschiedliche Finanzierungspolitiken. Zusätzlich wird der Effekt der sogenannten Zinsschranke auf den Wert des Tax Shield ermittelt. Die Bewertung des Tax Shield mit und ohne Zinsschranke findet im einperiodigen Fall auf der Basis von Optionspreismodellen und im mehrperiodigen Fall auf der Basis von Monte Carlo Simul...

  13. Taxes and Bribes in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Jagger, Pamela; Shively, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Using data from 433 firms operating along Uganda’s charcoal and timber supply chains we investigate patterns of bribe payment and tax collection between supply chain actors and government officials responsible for collecting taxes and fees. We examine the factors associated with the presence and magnitude of bribe and tax payments using a series of bivariate probit and Tobit regression models. We find empirical support for a number of hypotheses related to payments, highlighting the role of q...

  14. The 1990 utility tax conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This article reports on the Sixth Annual Utility Tax Conference held in Washington, D.C. in October. Topics of the conference concerned tax issues associated with depreciable assets, employee benefits plans, valuation on utility property, pollution control, and restructuring and reorganization. Also discussed briefly were the tax changes being considered at that time as part of the negotiation of the details of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act

  15. Energy taxes, environment and competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munksgaard, J.; Gaern Hansen, L.; Bech-Ravn, C.; Ramskov, J.L.

    2006-11-01

    Economic theory about foreign trade and competition as well as empirical studies of relevance are not making evident that industries in general should pay lower environmental taxes than other kind of consumers. Consequently, economic theory cannot justify the present Danish energy tax regime where households are required to pay high energy taxes whereas industries are allowed to pay low energy taxes. On the contrary, it is more likely that reduced industry taxes will result in reduced welfare to society, lower income and lower employment as compared to a scenario of equal energy taxes. Theory can justify, however, a stepwise introduction of green taxes in order to make industries and markets adapt to the new regulatory framework. Moreover, some theoretical contributions argue that under certain circumstances one could point to a need for protecting certain kinds of industries (e.g. industries employing unskilled labour), but an exclusive tax reduction given to all industries is not supported by economic theory. By using the GTAP model we have calculated the welfare effect of levelling Danish energy taxes so households and industries have to pay equal energy taxes. The GTAP model has a good and international reputation for being designed to analyse international trade and competitiveness. We find that levelling the Danish energy taxes will increase welfare in Denmark by 1.3% equivalent to DKK 8 billion. The Danish energy tax reform, however, will cause an increase in CO 2 emissions in neighbouring countries. The calculation does not consider the influence of the EU market for tradable CO 2 permits introduced as from January 2005. (au)

  16. Intangible asset tax depreciation in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Svirák

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to familiarize readers with the legislative development of intangible asset tax depreciation in the Czech Republic since 1993. The paper is divided into several basic chapters, of which the main chapter describes and analyzes the development of legislation in three thus-existing legal modes regulating intangible asset tax depreciation (the periods 1993–2000; 2001–2004; 2004–2011. A separate sub-chapter deals with each of these three modes, which fundamentally differ in the concept of determining tax depreciations. For better clarity, changes in the legislation in question are described using tables. Over the first mentioned mode, i.e. the mode valid for assets acquired in the period 1993–2000, intangible asset tax depreciations were determined by the same manner as tangible asset tax depreciations. This period is characterized by gradual establishment (specification of legislation that may be partially attributed to the stormy development of social conditions and the need for them to be reflected in law. For the period 2001–2003, standard amendments were contained in accounting regulations. The Income Tax Act (hereinafter ITA did not contain an amendment of intangible assets and its depreciations. It merely determined that accounting depreciations of intangible assets were a tax expense. Nevertheless, changes also occurred in this short time period, which this paper will later address. Effective from 2004, legislation on intangible assets and their tax depreciations returned to the ITA. Changes came in this mode of determining depreciations as well; nevertheless, one may consider the current legislative regulation to be stabilized. Later in this paper for the selected category of intangible assets (software, the authors describe and assess the dependence of the portion of the entry price entering tax expenses in the form of tax depreciations on the year of acquiring intangible assets. To achieve the stated objectives

  17. Green tax reform in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1994-01-01

    Energy, transport and fuel taxes in Denmark have, since the late 1970s, been among the highest in the OECD, and raise already more than 30 billion DKK annually to cover 10-12 per cent of the state household: a share that will be increased over the next five years with new green taxes. Furthermore......, Denmark is currently the only country within the European Union which has introduced a tax on CO2; although Germany and the Netherlands are also considering doing so, the Danish CO2 tax has been effective since 1 January 1993....

  18. Taxes and Bribes in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagger, Pamela; Shively, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Using data from 433 firms operating along Uganda’s charcoal and timber supply chains we investigate patterns of bribe payment and tax collection between supply chain actors and government officials responsible for collecting taxes and fees. We examine the factors associated with the presence and magnitude of bribe and tax payments using a series of bivariate probit and Tobit regression models. We find empirical support for a number of hypotheses related to payments, highlighting the role of queuing, capital-at-risk, favouritism, networks, and role in the supply chain. We also find that taxes crowd-in bribery in the charcoal market. PMID:27274568

  19. Taxes and Bribes in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagger, Pamela; Shively, Gerald

    Using data from 433 firms operating along Uganda's charcoal and timber supply chains we investigate patterns of bribe payment and tax collection between supply chain actors and government officials responsible for collecting taxes and fees. We examine the factors associated with the presence and magnitude of bribe and tax payments using a series of bivariate probit and Tobit regression models. We find empirical support for a number of hypotheses related to payments, highlighting the role of queuing, capital-at-risk, favouritism, networks, and role in the supply chain. We also find that taxes crowd-in bribery in the charcoal market.

  20. Enhancing the Alberta Tax Advantage with a Harmonized Sales Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Bazel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Alberta enjoys a reputation as a fiercely competitive jurisdiction when it comes to tax rates. But the reality is that the province can do better with a tax mix that has greater emphasis on consumption, rather than income tax levies. While Alberta has a personal tax advantage compared to other Canadian jurisdictions — but not the United States — it relies most heavily on income taxes and non-resource revenues that impinges on investment and saving. Taxes on new investment in Alberta’s non-resource sectors are no better than average, compared to other countries in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, or OECD, so it is not exceptionally attractive to many different kinds of investors. And Alberta’s corporate income tax rate is not much more competitive than the world average for manufacturing and service companies. By introducing the Harmonized Sales Tax with a provincial rate of 8 per cent (in addition to the federal 5 per cent rate, Alberta has the ability to make its tax system more competitive. An HST would even allow the province to entirely eliminate income tax for the majority of families. And because the HST would be easily administered using the same collection mechanisms that already exist for the GST, implementing a new Alberta HST could be done relatively smoothly and with minimal additional administration costs. Adopting an Alberta HST is the simplest, most efficient and fairest way to reform the provincial tax system, and will deliver noticeable benefits to Albertans, most visibly in the form of significant income tax relief. It would enable the province to raise the income-tax exemption from $17,593 to $57,250, making it possible for couples to earn up to $114,500 free of any provincial income taxes. In addition, the province could lower income tax rates for income over that amount from 10 to nine per cent. And with the revenue from the HST, Alberta would have the capacity to lower its general corporate