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Sample records for taurine protects acetaminophen-induced

  1. Protective effect of Woodfordia fruticosa flowers against acetaminophen-induced hepatic toxicity in rats.

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    Baravalia, Yogesh; Chanda, Sumitra

    2011-08-01

    The flowers of Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz. (Lythraceae) are commonly used for the treatment of several ailments which includes rheumatism, leucorrhea, menorrhagia, asthma, liver disorder, and inflammatory conditions. To evaluate the hepatoprotective property of Woodfordia fruticosa flowers against acetaminophen-induced hepatic injury in rats. Acetaminophen (3 g/kg bw)-induced hepatotoxicity study was carried out by observing the effect of methanol extract of Woodfordia fruticosa flowers (400 and 600 mg/kg, bw) on some serum marker enzymes, albumin, blood urea nitrogen levels as well as liver total protein, nonenzymetic glutathione reduced content, and enzymatic antioxidant glutathione peroxidase, with histopathological evidence. Pretreatment of rats with methanol extract of Woodfordia fruticosa flowers effectively prevented the acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage as indicated by the serum marker enzymes aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase and other biochemical parameters (albumin and blood urea nitrogen). Parallel to these changes, the methanol extract of Woodfordia fruticosa flowers also prevented acetaminophen-induced oxidative stress in the rat liver by inhibiting depletion of liver total protein and restoring the levels of nonenzymatic antioxidant glutathione reduced. The biochemical changes were consistent with histopathological observations suggesting marked hepatoprotective effect of the methanol extract of Woodfordia fruticosa flowers. The results suggested that methanol extract of Woodfordia fruticosa flowers possesses protective effect against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity.

  2. Satkara (Citrus macroptera Fruit Protects against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatorenal Toxicity in Rats

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    Sudip Paul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Citrus macroptera (Rutaceae, an indigenous fruit in Bangladesh, has long been used in folk medicine, however, there is a lack of information concerning its protective effects against oxidative damage. The protective effects of an ethanol extract of Citrus macroptera (EECM against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity were investigated in rats. Rats (treatment groups were pretreated with EECM at doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg, respectively, orally for 30 days followed by acetaminophen administration. Silymarin (100 mg/kg was administered as a standard drug over a similar treatment period. Our findings indicated that oral administration of acetaminophen induced severe hepatic and renal injuries associated with oxidative stress, as observed by 2-fold higher lipid peroxidation (TBARS compared to control. Pretreatment with EECM prior to acetaminophen administration significantly improved all investigated biochemical parameters, that is, transaminase activities, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, γ-glutamyl transferase activities and total bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglyceride and creatinine, urea, uric acid, sodium, potassium and chloride ions, and TBARS levels. These findings were confirmed by histopathological examinations. The improvement was prominent in the group that received 1000 mg/kg EECM. These findings suggested that C. macroptera fruit could protect against acetaminophen-induced hepatonephrotoxicity, which might be via the inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

  3. Protective effect of chitosan treatment against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity

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    Eda Ozcelik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen (APAP is the most commonly reported toxic ingestion in the world. Severe liver injury resulting from overdose or chronic use of APAP remains a significant clinical problem. In recent years, the mechanisms underlying liver injury caused by APAP have become much better understood. We have studied the protective effect of chitosan supplementation against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity with respect to changes in the levels of total and lipid-bound sialic acid in the serum and in the liver tissue and changes in the activity of diagnostic marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and ceruloplasmin oxidase enzyme in normal and experimental groups of rats. During the experimental period, chitosan (200 mg/kg body weight per day was administered to APAP + chitosan-treated rats by oral gavage. Results showed that treatment with APAP induced a significant increase in the serum alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities, in total and lipid-bound sialic acids levels, and in the liver lipid peroxide content. The administration of chitosan significantly prevented APAP-induced alterations in the levels of diagnostic marker enzymes, total sialic acid, lipid-bound sialic acid, and malondialdehyde in the experimental groups of rats. Furthermore, chitosan administration increased the activity of ceruloplasmin oxidase. In conclusion, our results suggest that chitosan has a protective effect on APAP-induced hepatic injury in rats. The study sheds light on the therapeutic potential of chitosan in an APAP-induced hepatotoxicity model.

  4. Eucalyptus globulus extract protects upon acetaminophen-induced kidney damages in male rat

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    Dhibi, Sabah; Mbarki, Sakhria; Elfeki, Abdelfettah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2014-01-01

    Plants have historically been used in treating many diseases. Eucalyptus globules, a rich source of bioactive compounds, and have been shown to possess antioxidative properties. The purpose of this study, carried out on male Wistar rats, was to evaluate the beneficial effects of Eucalyptus globulus extract upon acetaminophen-induced damages in kidney. Our study is realized in the Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences of Sfax (Tunisia). 32 Wistar male rats; were divided into 4 batches: a control group (n=8), a group of rats treated with acetaminophen (goomg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection during 4 days (n=8), a group receiving Eucalyptus globulus extract (130 mg of dry leaves/kg/day) in drinking water during 42 days after 2 hours of acetaminophen administration (during 4 days) (n=8) and group received only Eucalyptus (n=8) during 42 days. After 6 weeks, animals from each group were rapidly sacrificed by decapitation. Blood serum was obtained by centrifugation. Under our experimental conditions, acetaminophen poisoning resulted in an oxidative stress evidenced by statistically significant losses in the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide-dismutase (SOD), glutathione-peroxidase (GPX) activities and an increase in lipids peroxidation level in renal tissue of acetaminophen-treated group compared with the control group. Acetaminophen also caused kidney damage as evident by statistically significant (pextract is found to alleviate this acetaminophen-induced damage. PMID:24856382

  5. Eucalyptus globulus extract protects upon acetaminophen-induced kidney damages in male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhibi, Sabah; Mbarki, Sakhria; Elfeki, Abdelfettah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2014-05-01

    Plants have historically been used in treating many diseases. Eucalyptus globules, a rich source of bioactive compounds, and have been shown to possess antioxidative properties. The purpose of this study, carried out on male Wistar rats, was to evaluate the beneficial effects of Eucalyptus globulus extract upon acetaminophen-induced damages in kidney. Our study is realized in the Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences of Sfax (Tunisia). 32 Wistar male rats; were divided into 4 batches: a control group (n=8), a group of rats treated with acetaminophen (900 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection during 4 days (n=8), a group receiving Eucalyptus globulus extract (130 mg of dry leaves/kg/day) in drinking water during 42 days after 2 hours of acetaminophen administration (during 4 days) (n=8) and group received only Eucalyptus (n=8) during 42 days. After 6 weeks, animals from each group were rapidly sacrificed by decapitation. Blood serum was obtained by centrifugation. Under our experimental conditions, acetaminophen poisoning resulted in an oxidative stress evidenced by statistically significant losses in the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide-dismutase (SOD), glutathione-peroxidase (GPX) activities and an increase in lipids peroxidation level in renal tissue of acetaminophen-treated group compared with the control group. Acetaminophen also caused kidney damage as evident by statistically significant (p<0.05) increase in levels of creatinine and urea and decreased levels of uric acid and proteins in blood. Histological analysis demonstrated alteration of proximal tubules, atrophy of the glomerule and dilatation of urinary space. Previous administration of plant extract is found to alleviate this acetaminophen-induced damage.

  6. NADPH oxidase 4 regulates homocysteine metabolism and protects against acetaminophen-induced liver damage in mice.

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    Murray, Thomas V A; Dong, Xuebin; Sawyer, Greta J; Caldwell, Anna; Halket, John; Sherwood, Roy; Quaglia, Alberto; Dew, Tracy; Anilkumar, Narayana; Burr, Simon; Mistry, Rajesh K; Martin, Daniel; Schröder, Katrin; Brandes, Ralf P; Hughes, Robin D; Shah, Ajay M; Brewer, Alison C

    2015-12-01

    Glutathione is the major intracellular redox buffer in the liver and is critical for hepatic detoxification of xenobiotics and other environmental toxins. Hepatic glutathione is also a major systemic store for other organs and thus impacts on pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease, Sickle Cell Anaemia and chronic diseases associated with aging. Glutathione levels are determined in part by the availability of cysteine, generated from homocysteine through the transsulfuration pathway. The partitioning of homocysteine between remethylation and transsulfuration pathways is known to be subject to redox-dependent regulation, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. An association between plasma Hcy and a single nucleotide polymorphism within the NADPH oxidase 4 locus led us to investigate the involvement of this reactive oxygen species- generating enzyme in homocysteine metabolism. Here we demonstrate that NADPH oxidase 4 ablation in mice results in increased flux of homocysteine through the betaine-dependent remethylation pathway to methionine, catalysed by betaine-homocysteine-methyltransferase within the liver. As a consequence NADPH oxidase 4-null mice display significantly lowered plasma homocysteine and the flux of homocysteine through the transsulfuration pathway is reduced, resulting in lower hepatic cysteine and glutathione levels. Mice deficient in NADPH oxidase 4 had markedly increased susceptibility to acetaminophen-induced hepatic injury which could be corrected by administration of N-acetyl cysteine. We thus conclude that under physiological conditions, NADPH oxidase 4-derived reactive oxygen species is a regulator of the partitioning of the metabolic flux of homocysteine, which impacts upon hepatic cysteine and glutathione levels and thereby upon defence against environmental toxins. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Protection against acetaminophen-induced liver injury by allopurinol is dependent on aldehyde oxidase-mediated liver preconditioning

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    Williams, C. David; McGill, Mitchell R.; Lebofsky, Margitta; Bajt, Mary Lynn; Jaeschke, Hartmut, E-mail: hjaeschke@kumc.edu

    2014-02-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose causes severe and occasionally fatal liver injury. Numerous drugs that attenuate APAP toxicity have been described. However these compounds frequently protect by cytochrome P450 inhibition, thereby preventing the initiating step of toxicity. We have previously shown that pretreatment with allopurinol can effectively protect against APAP toxicity, but the mechanism remains unclear. In the current study, C3HeB/FeJ mice were administered allopurinol 18 h or 1 h prior to an APAP overdose. Administration of allopurinol 18 h prior to APAP overdose resulted in an 88% reduction in liver injury (serum ALT) 6 h after APAP; however, 1 h pretreatment offered no protection. APAP-cysteine adducts and glutathione depletion kinetics were similar with or without allopurinol pretreatment. The phosphorylation and mitochondrial translocation of c-jun-N-terminal-kinase (JNK) have been implicated in the progression of APAP toxicity. In our study we showed equivalent early JNK activation (2 h) however late JNK activation (6 h) was attenuated in allopurinol treated mice, which suggests that later JNK activation is more critical for the toxicity. Additional mice were administered oxypurinol (primary metabolite of allopurinol) 18 h or 1 h pre-APAP, but neither treatment protected. This finding implicated an aldehyde oxidase (AO)-mediated metabolism of allopurinol, so mice were treated with hydralazine to inhibit AO prior to allopurinol/APAP administration, which eliminated the protective effects of allopurinol. We evaluated potential targets of AO-mediated preconditioning and found increased hepatic metallothionein 18 h post-allopurinol. These data show metabolism of allopurinol occurring independent of P450 isoenzymes preconditions the liver and renders the animal less susceptible to an APAP overdose. - Highlights: • 18 h allopurinol pretreatment protects against acetaminophen-induced liver injury. • 1 h allopurinol pretreatment does not protect from APAP

  8. Protective Effect of Sundarban Honey against Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Hepatonephrotoxicity in Rats

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    Rizwana Afroz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Honey, a supersaturated natural product of honey bees, contains complex compounds with antioxidant properties and therefore has a wide a range of applications in both traditional and modern medicine. In the present study, the protective effects of Sundarban honey from Bangladesh against acetaminophen- (APAP- induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in experimental rats were investigated. Adult male Wistar rats were pretreated with honey (5 g/kg for 4 weeks, followed by the induction of hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity via the oral administration of a single dose of APAP (2 g/kg. Organ damage was confirmed by measuring the elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, total protein (TP, total bilirubin (TB, urea, creatinine, and malondialdehyde (MDA. Histopathological alterations observed in the livers and the kidneys further confirmed oxidative damage to these tissues. Animals pretreated with Sundarban honey showed significantly markedly reduced levels of all of the investigated parameters. In addition, Sundarban honey ameliorated the altered hepatic and renal morphology in APAP-treated rats. Overall, our findings indicate that Sundarban honey protects against APAP-induced acute hepatic and renal damage, which could be attributed to the honey’s antioxidant properties.

  9. Anti-thromboxane B2 antibodies protect against acetaminophen-induced liver injury in mice

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    Ivan Ćavar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Prostanoids are lipid compounds that mediate a variety of physiological and pathological functions in almost all body tissues and organs. Thromboxane (TX A2 is a powerful inducer of platelet aggregation and vasoconstriction and it has ulcerogenic activity in the gastrointestinal tract. Overdose or chronic use of a high dose of acetaminophen (N-acetyl-paminophenol, APAP is a major cause of acute liver failure in the Western world. We investigated whether TXA2 plays a role in host response to toxic effect of APAP. CBA/H Zg mice of both sexes were intoxicated with a single lethal or high sublethal dose of APAP, which was administered to animals by oral gavage. The toxicity of APAP was determined by observing the survival of mice during 48 h, by measuring concentration of alanine-aminotransferase (ALT in plasma 20-22 h after APAP administration and by liver histology. The results have shown that anti-thromboxane (TX B2 antibodies (anti-TXB2 and a selective inhibitor of thromboxane (TX synthase, benzylimidazole (BZI, were significantly hepatoprotective, while a selective thromboxane receptor (TPR antagonist, daltroban, was slightly protective in this model of acute liver injury. A stabile metabolite of TXA2, TXB2, and a stabile agonist of TPR, U-46619, had no influence on APAP-induced liver damage. Our findings suggest that TXA2 has a pathogenic role in acute liver toxicity induced with APAP, which was highly abrogated by administration of anti-TXB2. According to our results, this protection is mediated, at least in part, through decreased production of TXB2 by liver fragments ex vivo.

  10. Bee venom phospholipase A2 protects against acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury by modulating regulatory T cells and IL-10 in mice.

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    Kim, Hyunseong; Keum, Dong June; Kwak, Jung won; Chung, Hwan-Suck; Bae, Hyunsu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) from bee venom against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity through CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells (Treg) in mice. Acetaminophen (APAP) is a widely used antipyretic and analgesic, but an acute or cumulative overdose of acetaminophen can cause severe hepatic failure. Tregs have been reported to possess protective effects in various liver diseases and kidney toxicity. We previously found that bee venom strongly increased the Treg population in splenocytes and subsequently suppressed immune disorders. More recently, we found that the effective component of bee venom is PLA2. Thus, we hypothesized that PLA2 could protect against liver injury induced by acetaminophen. To evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of PLA2, C57BL/6 mice or interleukin-10-deficient (IL-10-/-) mice were injected with PLA2 once a day for five days and sacrificed 24 h (h) after acetaminophen injection. The blood sera were collected 0, 6, and 24 h after acetaminophen injection for the analysis of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). PLA2-injected mice showed reduced levels of serum AST, ALT, proinflammatory cytokines, and nitric oxide (NO) compared with the PBS-injected control mice. However, IL-10 was significantly increased in the PLA2-injected mice. These hepatic protective effects were abolished in Treg-depleted mice by antibody treatment and in IL-10-/- mice. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that the protective effects of PLA2 against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity can be mediated by modulating the Treg and IL-10 production.

  11. Tropisetron Protects Against Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury via Suppressing Hepatic Oxidative Stress and Modulating the Activation of JNK/ERK MAPK Pathways

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    Fu-Chao Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the protective effects of tropisetron on acetaminophen- (APAP- induced liver injury in a mice model. Methods. C57BL/6 male mice were given tropisetron (0.3 to 10 mg/kg 30 minutes before a hepatotoxic dose of acetaminophen (300 mg/kg intraperitoneally. Twenty hours after APAP intoxication, sera alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST levels, hepatic myeloperoxidase (MPO, malondialdehyde (MDA, glutathione (GSH, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities, and liver histopathological changes were examined. The MAP kinases were also detected by western blotting. Results. Our results showed that tropisetron pretreatment significantly attenuated the acute elevations of the liver enzyme ALT level, hepatic MPO activity, and hepatocytes necrosis in a dose-dependent manner (0.3–10 mg/kg in APAP-induced hepatotoxicity mice. Tropisetron (1 and 3 mg/kg suppressed APAP-induced hepatic lipid peroxidation expression and alleviated GSH and SOD depletion. Administration of tropisetron also attenuated the phosphorylation of c-Jun-NH2-terminal protein kinase (JNK and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK caused by APAP. Conclusion. Our data demonstrated that tropisetron’s hepatoprotective effect was in part correlated with the antioxidant, which were mediated via JNK and ERK pathways on acetaminophen-induced liver injury in mice.

  12. TonEBP modulates the protective effect of taurine in ischemia-induced cytotoxicity in cardiomyocytes

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    Yang, Y J; Han, Y Y; Chen, K; Zhang, Y; Liu, X; Li, S; Wang, K Q; Ge, J B; Liu, W; Zuo, J

    2015-01-01

    Taurine, which is found at high concentration in the heart, exerts several protective actions on myocardium. Physically, the high level of taurine in heart is maintained by a taurine transporter (TauT), the expression of which is suppressed under ischemic insult. Although taurine supplementation upregulates TauT expression, elevates the intracellular taurine content and ameliorates the ischemic injury of cardiomyocytes (CMs), little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of taurine governin...

  13. on Acetaminophen-Induced Renal Injury in Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of acetaminophen-induced nephropathy is reported to be increasing, with no available prophylactic or curative regimen. The present study is an experimental animal study designed to evaluate the protective effects of graded oral doses of ascorbic acid (ASC) in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced nephrotoxic ...

  14. Iridoid Glycosides Fraction Isolated from Veronica ciliata Fisch. Protects against Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury in Mice

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    Shancai Tan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Veronica ciliata Fisch. has traditionally been used in Tibetan medicine for the treatment of hepatitis, cholecystitis, rheumatism, and urticaria. We analyzed the chemical composition of the iridoid glycosides fraction (IGF isolated from V. ciliata and evaluated the antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. The IGF was separated by high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC and the main compounds were identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a photodiode array. We determined the in vitro antioxidant ability of the IGF through radical scavenging assays and assessed the in vivo hepatoprotective potential in an acetaminophen- (APAP- induced acute liver injury murine model. The IGF was separated by HSCCC and three major iridoid glycosides (verproside, catalposide, and amphicoside were identified as potent antioxidants and hepatoprotective compounds. Treatment with the IGF significantly suppressed the APAP-induced elevation in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α; improved serum total antioxidant capacity; decreased malondialdehyde formation; elevated superoxide dismutase and glutathione activity; and decreased expression of proinflammatory factors (TNF-α, nuclear factor kappa B in the liver. Finally, we examined the histopathology of resected livers for evidence of hepatoprotection. The protection conferred by the IGF may be related to the reinforcement of antioxidant defense systems.

  15. Iridoid Glycosides Fraction Isolated from Veronica ciliata Fisch. Protects against Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury in Mice

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    Tan, Shancai; Lu, Qiuxia; Shu, Yueyue; Sun, Yiran

    2017-01-01

    Veronica ciliata Fisch. has traditionally been used in Tibetan medicine for the treatment of hepatitis, cholecystitis, rheumatism, and urticaria. We analyzed the chemical composition of the iridoid glycosides fraction (IGF) isolated from V. ciliata and evaluated the antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. The IGF was separated by high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) and the main compounds were identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a photodiode array. We determined the in vitro antioxidant ability of the IGF through radical scavenging assays and assessed the in vivo hepatoprotective potential in an acetaminophen- (APAP-) induced acute liver injury murine model. The IGF was separated by HSCCC and three major iridoid glycosides (verproside, catalposide, and amphicoside) were identified as potent antioxidants and hepatoprotective compounds. Treatment with the IGF significantly suppressed the APAP-induced elevation in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α); improved serum total antioxidant capacity; decreased malondialdehyde formation; elevated superoxide dismutase and glutathione activity; and decreased expression of proinflammatory factors (TNF-α, nuclear factor kappa B) in the liver. Finally, we examined the histopathology of resected livers for evidence of hepatoprotection. The protection conferred by the IGF may be related to the reinforcement of antioxidant defense systems. PMID:28293265

  16. Effect of amlodipine, lisinopril and allopurinol on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

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    Nesreen E.M. Mohammed

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: Amlodipine, lisinopril or allopurinol can protect against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity, showing mechanistic roles of calcium channels, angiotensin converting enzyme and xanthine oxidase enzyme in the pathogenesis of hepatotoxicity induced by acetaminophen.

  17. TonEBP modulates the protective effect of taurine in ischemia-induced cytotoxicity in cardiomyocytes.

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    Yang, Y J; Han, Y Y; Chen, K; Zhang, Y; Liu, X; Li, S; Wang, K Q; Ge, J B; Liu, W; Zuo, J

    2015-12-17

    Taurine, which is found at high concentration in the heart, exerts several protective actions on myocardium. Physically, the high level of taurine in heart is maintained by a taurine transporter (TauT), the expression of which is suppressed under ischemic insult. Although taurine supplementation upregulates TauT expression, elevates the intracellular taurine content and ameliorates the ischemic injury of cardiomyocytes (CMs), little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of taurine governing TauT expression under ischemia. In this study, we describe the TonE (tonicity-responsive element)/TonEBP (TonE-binding protein) pathway involved in the taurine-regulated TauT expression in ischemic CMs. Taurine inhibited the ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation of TonEBP, promoted the translocation of TonEBP into the nucleus, enhanced TauT promoter activity and finally upregulated TauT expression in CMs. In addition, we observed that TonEBP had an anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative role in CMs under ischemia. Moreover, the protective effects of taurine on myocardial ischemia were TonEBP dependent. Collectively, our findings suggest that TonEBP is a core molecule in the protective mechanism of taurine in CMs under ischemic insult.

  18. TonEBP modulates the protective effect of taurine in ischemia-induced cytotoxicity in cardiomyocytes

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    Yang, Y J; Han, Y Y; Chen, K; Zhang, Y; Liu, X; Li, S; Wang, K Q; Ge, J B; Liu, W; Zuo, J

    2015-01-01

    Taurine, which is found at high concentration in the heart, exerts several protective actions on myocardium. Physically, the high level of taurine in heart is maintained by a taurine transporter (TauT), the expression of which is suppressed under ischemic insult. Although taurine supplementation upregulates TauT expression, elevates the intracellular taurine content and ameliorates the ischemic injury of cardiomyocytes (CMs), little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of taurine governing TauT expression under ischemia. In this study, we describe the TonE (tonicity-responsive element)/TonEBP (TonE-binding protein) pathway involved in the taurine-regulated TauT expression in ischemic CMs. Taurine inhibited the ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation of TonEBP, promoted the translocation of TonEBP into the nucleus, enhanced TauT promoter activity and finally upregulated TauT expression in CMs. In addition, we observed that TonEBP had an anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative role in CMs under ischemia. Moreover, the protective effects of taurine on myocardial ischemia were TonEBP dependent. Collectively, our findings suggest that TonEBP is a core molecule in the protective mechanism of taurine in CMs under ischemic insult. PMID:26673669

  19. The potential protective role of taurine against experimental allergic inflammation.

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    Nam, Sun-Young; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2017-09-01

    Taurine has been widely evaluated as a potential therapeutic agent in chronic inflammatory disorders and various infections. However, the potential role of taurine in regulating allergic inflammatory responses is currently unknown. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro effects of taurine on the levels of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and other pro-inflammatory cytokines and activation of caspase-1 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB as well as the phosphorylations of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-triggered human mast cell line, HMC-1 cells. Furthermore, we assessed the therapeutic effects of taurine on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic rhinitis (AR) animal models. Here, the obtained results showed that taurine dose-dependently inhibited the production and mRNA expression of TSLP and pro-inflammatory cytokines in HMC-1 cells exposed to PMACI. Taurine attenuated the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 in activated HMC-1 cells. Moreover, taurine brought a significant inhibition of the activities of NF-κB and caspase-1. In an OVA-induced AR animal model, the increased levels of nose rubbing, histamine, immunoglobulin E, TSLP, and interleukin IL-1β were dramatically reduced by the administration of taurine. In summary, taurine could serve as potential novel remedy of allergic inflammatory disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Protective effects of taurine in traumatic brain injury via mitochondria and cerebral blood flow.

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    Wang, Qin; Fan, Weijia; Cai, Ying; Wu, Qiaoli; Mo, Lidong; Huang, Zhenwu; Huang, Huiling

    2016-09-01

    In mammalian tissues, taurine is an important natural component and the most abundant free amino acid in the heart, retina, skeletal muscle, brain, and leukocytes. This study is to examine the taurine's protective effects on neuronal ultrastructure, the function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex, and on cerebral blood flow (CBF). The model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) was made for SD rats by a fluid percussion device, with taurine (200 mg/kg) administered by tail intravenous injection once daily for 7 days after TBI. It was found that CBF was improved for both left and right brain at 30 min and 7 days post-injury by taurine. Reaction time was prolonged relative to the TBI-only group. Neuronal damage was prevented by 7 days taurine. Mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes I and II showed greater activity with the taurine group. The improvement by taurine of CBF may alleviate edema and elevation in intracranial pressure. Importantly taurine improved the hypercoagulable state.

  1. Taurine Protects Lens Epithelial Cells Against Ultraviolet B-Induced Apoptosis.

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    Dayang, Wu; Dongbo, Pang

    2017-10-01

    The massive uptake of compatible osmolytes is a self-protective response shared by lens exposed to hypertonic stress and ultraviolet stress. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of taurine against ultraviolet B-induced cytotoxicity in the lens epithelial cells. Real-time PCR was used to measure osmolytes transport. Radioimmunoassay was used to measure osmolytes uptake. Cell counting kit-8 assays were used to measure cellular viability. Flow cytometry analysis was used to measure apoptosis level. Compared with normotonic stress, hypertonic stress-induced osmolytes uptake into the lens epithelial cells such as betaine, myoinositol and taurine. UVB exposure increased osmolytes transporter mRNA expression together with osmolytes uptake. Moreover, taurine suppressed UVB-induced cell apoptosis in the lens epithelial cells significantly. The effect of compatible osmolyte taurine on cell survival rate may play an important role in cell resistance and adaption to UVB exposure.

  2. Taurine protects methamphetamine-induced developmental angiogenesis defect through antioxidant mechanism

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    Shao, Xue; Hu, Zhengtao; Hu, Chunyan; Bu, Qian; Yan, Guangyan [National Chengdu Center for Safety Evaluation of Drugs, State Key Lab of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Deng, Pengchi [Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Lv, Lei [National Chengdu Center for Safety Evaluation of Drugs, State Key Lab of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Wu, Dan [College of Basic and Forensic Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Deng, Yi; Zhao, Jinxuan; Zhu, Ruiming; Li, Yan; Li, Hongyu; Xu, Youzhi; Yang, Hanshuo; Zhao, Yinglan [National Chengdu Center for Safety Evaluation of Drugs, State Key Lab of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Cen, Xiaobo, E-mail: xbcenalan@vip.sina.com [National Chengdu Center for Safety Evaluation of Drugs, State Key Lab of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2012-05-01

    Investigations have characterized addictive drug-induced developmental cardiovascular malformation in human, non-human primate and rodent. However, the underlying mechanism of malformation caused by drugs during pregnancy is still largely unknown, and preventive and therapeutic measures have been lacking. Using {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy, we profiled the metabolites from human embryo endothelial cells exposed to methamphetamine (METH) and quantified a total of 226 peaks. We identified 11 metabolites modified robustly and found that taurine markedly increased. We then validated the hypothesis that this dramatic increase in taurine could attribute to its effect in inhibiting METH-induced developmental angiogenesis defect. Taurine supplement showed a more significant potential than other metabolites in protecting against METH-induced injury in endothelial cells. Taurine strongly attenuated METH-induced inhibition of proliferation and migration in endothelial cells. Furthermore, death rate and vessel abnormality of zebrafish embryos treated with METH were greatly reversed by taurine. In addition, taurine supplement caused a rapid decrease in reactive oxygen species generation and strongly attenuated the excitable arise of antioxidase activities in the beginning of METH exposure prophase. Dysregulations of NF-κB, p-ERK as well as Bax, which reflect apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and oxidative stress in vascular endothelium, were blocked by taurine. Our results provide the first evidence that taurine prevents METH-caused developmental angiogenesis defect through antioxidant mechanism. Taurine could serve as a potential therapeutic or preventive intervention of developmental vascular malformation for the pregnant women with drug use. Highlights: ► Metabonomics findings. ► Abnormal development. ► Dysregulations of key proteins.

  3. Taurine protects against methotrexate-induced toxicity and inhibits leukocyte death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetiner, Mustafa; Sener, Goeksel; Sehirli, A. Ozer; Eksioglu-Demiralp, Emel; Ercan, Feriha; Sirvanci, Serap; Gedik, Nursal; Akpulat, Sertac; Tecimer, Tuelay; Yegen, Berrak C.

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy of methotrexate (MTX), a widely used cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agent, is often limited by severe side effects and toxic sequelae. Regarding the mechanisms of these side effects, several hypotheses have been put forward, among which oxidative stress is noticeable. The present study was undertaken to determine whether taurine, a potent free radical scavenger, could ameliorate MTX-induced oxidative injury and modulate immune response. Following a single dose of methotrexate (20 mg/kg), either saline or taurine (50 mg/kg) was administered for 5 days. After decapitation of the rats, trunk blood was obtained and the ileum, liver, and kidney were removed to measure malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and collagen content, as well as histological examination. Our results showed that MTX administration increased the MDA, MPO activity, and collagen contents and decreased GSH levels in all tissues (P < 0.001), while these alterations were reversed in taurine-treated group (P < 0.05-0.01). Elevated (P < 0.001) TNF-α level observed following MTX treatment was depressed with taurine (P < 0.01). Oxidative burst of neutrophils stimulated by phorbol myristate acetate was reduced in saline-treated MTX group (P < 0.001), while taurine abolished this effect. Similarly, flow cytometric measurements revealed that leukocyte apoptosis and cell death were increased in MTX-treated animals, while taurine reversed these effects (P < 0.05). Reduced cellularity in bone marrow samples of MTX-treated group (P < 0.01) was reversed back to control levels in taurine-treated rats. Severe degeneration of the intestinal mucosa, liver parenchyma, glomerular, and tubular epithelium observed in saline-treated group was improved by taurine treatment. In conclusion, it appears that taurine protects against methotrexate-induced oxidant organ injury and inhibits leukocyte apoptosis and may be of therapeutic potential in alleviating the systemic

  4. Leflunomide or A77 1726 protect from acetaminophen-induced cell injury through inhibition of JNK-mediated mitochondrial permeability transition in immortalized human hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latchoumycandane, Calivarathan; Seah, Quee Ming; Tan, Rachel C.H.; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Beerheide, Walter; Boelsterli, Urs A.

    2006-01-01

    Leflunomide, a disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug, protects against T-cell-mediated liver injury by poorly understood mechanisms. The active metabolite of leflunomide, A77 1726 (teriflunomide) has been shown to inhibit stress-activated protein kinases (JNK pathway), which are key regulators of mitochondria-mediated cell death. Therefore, we hypothesized that leflunomide may protect from drugs that induce the mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) by blocking the JNK signaling pathway. To this end, we exposed cultured immortalized human hepatocytes (HC-04) to the standard protoxicant drug acetaminophen (APAP), which induces CsA-sensitive mPT-mediated cell death. We determined the effects of leflunomide on the extent of APAP-induced hepatocyte injury and the upstream JNK-mediated mitochondrial signaling pathways. We found that leflunomide or A77 1726 concentration-dependently protected hepatocytes from APAP (1 mM)-induced mitochondrial permeabilization and lethal cell injury. This was not due to proximal inhibition of CYP-catalyzed APAP bioactivation to its thiol-reactive metabolite. Instead, we demonstrate that leflunomide (20 μM) inhibited the APAP-induced early (3 h) activation (phosphorylation) of JNK1/2, thus inhibiting phosphorylation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and preventing P-Bcl-2-mediated induction of the mPT. This greatly attenuated mitochondrial cytochrome c release, which we used as a marker for mitochondrial permeabilization. The specific JNK2 inhibitor SP600125 similarly protected from APAP-induced cell death. In conclusion, these findings are consistent with our hypothesis that leflunomide protects from protoxicant-induced hepatocyte injury by inhibiting JNK signaling and preventing mPT induction

  5. Protective effect of taurine on triorthocresyl phosphate (TOCP)-induced cytotoxicity in C6 glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yachen; Piao, Fengyuan; Liu, Xiaohui

    2013-01-01

    Triorthocresyl phosphate (TOCP) an organophosphorus ester can cause neurotoxicity via oxidative stress pathway. Taurine is an antioxidant. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effect of taurine on TOCP-induced cytotoxicity in C6 glioma cell. The C6 glioma cells were pretreated with 0, 1, 3, and 9 mM of taurine for 30 min prior to 1 mM TOCP treatment. After 48 h, cell survival was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. The content of glutathione (GSH) and the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were also analyzed by kits. Our results showed that survival of the glioma cells decreased in the group treated with TOCP alone and increased significantly in the groups pretreated with taurine in a concentration-dependent manner. TOCP induced decrease in the activity of GPx and the content of GSH. However, taurine prevented these decreases. Our results suggested that taurine has protective effect on TOCP-induced toxicity to glioma cells via elevating antioxidant capacity.

  6. Induction of Mkp-1 and Nuclear Translocation of Nrf2 by Limonoids from Khaya grandifoliola C.DC Protect L-02 Hepatocytes against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity

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    Arnaud F. Kouam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced liver injury (DILI is a major clinical problem where natural compounds hold promise for its abrogation. Khaya grandifoliola (Meliaceae is used in Cameroonian traditional medicine for the treatment of liver related diseases and has been studied for its hepatoprotective properties. Till date, reports showing the hepatoprotective molecular mechanism of the plant are lacking. The aim of this study was therefore to identify compounds from the plant bearing hepatoprotective activity and the related molecular mechanism by assessing their effects against acetaminophen (APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in normal human liver L-02 cells line. The cells were exposed to APAP (10 mM or co-treated with phytochemical compounds (40 μM over a period of 36 h and, biochemical and molecular parameters assessed. Three known limonoids namely 17-epi-methyl-6-hydroxylangolensate, 7-deacetoxy-7-oxogedunin and deacetoxy-7R-hydroxygedunin were identified. The results of cells viability and membrane integrity, reactive oxygen species generation and lipid membrane peroxidation assays, cellular glutathione content determination as well as expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 demonstrated the protective action of the limonoids. Immunoblotting analysis revealed that limonoids inhibited APAP-induced c-Jun N-terminal Kinase phosphorylation (p-JNK, mitochondrial translocation of p-JNK and Bcl2-associated X Protein, and the release of Apoptosis-inducing Factor into the cytosol. Interestingly, limonoids increased the expression of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Phosphatase (Mkp-1, an endogenous inhibitor of JNK phosphorylation and, induced the nuclear translocation of Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-related Factor-2 (Nrf2 and decreased the expression of Kelch-like ECH-associated Protein-1. The limonoids also reversed the APAP-induced decreased mRNA levels of Catalase, Superoxide Dismutase-1, Glutathione-S-Transferase and Methionine Adenosyltransferase-1A. The obtained results

  7. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Azolla microphylla based gold nanoparticles against acetaminophen induced toxicity in a fresh water common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio L.

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    Selvaraj Kunjiappan

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Azolla microphylla phytochemically synthesized GNaP protects liver against oxidative damage and tissue damaging enzyme activities and could be used as an effective protector against acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in fresh water common carp fish.

  8. Research progress on protecting effect of taurine on retinal ganglion cells

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    Zong-Li Hu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Taurine is a common amino acid in almost all kinds of tissues of animals. Several researches have pointed out that taurine is essential for protecting retinal ganglion cells(RGCs. The mechanisms are summarized as follows: 1Reducing the NMDA-induced RGC excitotoxicity 2Regulating the function of Müller cells 3Protecting function of mitochondria 4Stimulating regeneration of the optic nerve 5Promoting accommodative regulation 6Improving the microcirculation of retina. Glaucoma is one kind of ophthalmopathy leading to apoptosis of RGCs. Recently, taurine has been proved to be effective in protecting the RGC in several aspects, both in vitro and vivo experiments. This indicates a potential treatment of optic nerve in glaucoma or other ophthalmic diseases.

  9. Protection of taurine and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor against excitotoxicity induced by glutamate in primary cortical neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Chunliu; Gupta, Amit; Prentice, Howard; Wu, Jang-Yen

    2010-01-01

    Abstracts Background Both taurine, an inhibitory neurotransmitter and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), a growth factor, possess neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties in vitro. However, the mechanisms of their underlying neuroprotective effects are not fully understood. Methods In the present study, we investigated the potential protective benefits of taurine, G-CSF and the combination of taurine and G-CSF against excitotoxicity induced by glutamate in primary cortical neur...

  10. Taurine protects cisplatin induced cardiotoxicity by modulating inflammatory and endoplasmic reticulum stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Sayantani; Sinha, Krishnendu; Banerjee, Sharmistha; Sil, Parames C

    2016-11-12

    Oxidative stress, ER stress, inflammation, and apoptosis results in the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced cardiotoxicity. The present study was designed to investigate the signaling mechanisms involved in the ameliorating effect of taurine, a conditionally essential amino acid, against cisplatin-mediated cardiac ER stress dependent apoptotic death and inflammation. Mice were simultaneously treated with taurine (150 mg kg -1 body wt, i.p.) and cisplatin (10 mg kg -1 body wt, i.p.) for a week. Cisplatin exposure significantly altered serum creatine kinase and troponin T levels. In addition, histological studies revealed disintegration in the normal radiation pattern of cardiac muscle fibers. However, taurine administration could abate such adverse effects of cisplatin. Taurine administration significantly mitigated the reactive oxygen species production, alleviated the overexpression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and inhibited the elevation of proinflammatoy cytokines, adhesion molecules, and chemokines. Cisplatin exposure resulted in the unfolded protein response (UPR)-regulated CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (CHOP) up-regulation, induction of GRP78: a marker of ER stress and eIF2α signaling. Increase in calpain-1 expression level, activation of caspase-12 and caspase-3, cleavage of the PARP protein as well as the inhibition of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 were reflected on cisplatin-triggered apoptosis. Taurine could, however, combat against such cisplatin induced cardiac-abnormalities. The above mentioned findings suggest that taurine plays a beneficial role in providing protection against cisplatin-induced cardiac damage by modulating inflammatory responses and ER stress. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(6):647-664, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  11. Protective actions of sulfur amino acid-taurine: against in and off of radiation injury and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Ramesh C.

    2012-01-01

    Chemicals are not single minded, yet in majority of cases biological activities are cumulate index of their physio-chemical nature. Taurine (2-amino ethane sulfonic acid) differs in its physical constituents to other neuro active amino acids in way of having 1.5 pka and 82 pkb showing more acidic and more basic than common neuro active amino acid like; aspartic acid, B Alanine and GABA. The intra molecular hydrogen bonding with lower proton affinity of the amino group in taurine than in GABA enables taurine ability to penetrate blood brain barrier, but at slower rate. Having sulphur, atom; adds addition value, as sulphur is necessary for sustaining the life processes. Sulphur containing amino acids (SAA) are not too many; generally SAA contains sulphur in their lower oxidation state (-2); for some reason sulphur in low oxidation state protects from oxygen toxicity and radiation damage. The composite effects of its distinct physical activities provided a label of meta-vitamin to indispensable amino acids with a wide spectrum of beneficial actions in diabetic to epilepsy, and from hypertension to ageing. It is well establish that high doses of ionized radiation leads to the enhanced leakage of taurine from the damage cells to extracellular fluid followed by increased urinary extraction. Radiation induced taurine depletion can itself have various harmful effects. Though taurine radio protective action mechanism is still incomplete but high level of taurine have been found in experimental studies with animals or in isolated cells exposed to high doses of ionization radiation. It is believe that taurine radio protective action is combination of multiple beneficial effects involving several action mechanism, during the exposure to ionizing radiation taurine may function as antioxidant, and in scavenging the harmful molecules, it is also possible that taurine may be helping to reduce the post traumatic inflammatory after radiation exposure or it may be participating to

  12. Taurine Protects Mouse Spermatocytes from Ionizing Radiation-Induced Damage Through Activation of Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling

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    Wenjun Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The increasing prevalence of ionizing radiation exposure has inevitably raised public concern over the potential detrimental effects of ionizing radiation on male reproductive system function. The detection of drug candidates to prevent reproductive system from damage caused by ionizing radiation is urgent. We aimed to investigate the protective role of taurine on the injury of mouse spermatocyte-derived cells (GC-2 subjected to ionizing radiation. Methods: mouse spermatocytes (GC-2 cells were exposed to ionizing radiation with or without treatment of Taurine. The effect of ionizing radiation and Taurine treatment on GC-2 cells were evaluated by cell viability assay (CCK8, cell cycle and apoptosis. The relative protein abundance change was determined by Western blotting. The siRNA was used to explore whether Nrf2 signaling was involved in the cytoprotection of Taurine. Results: Taurine significantly inhibited the decrease of cell viability, percentage of apoptotic cells and cell cycle arrest induced by ionizing radiation. Western blot analysis showed that taurine significantly limited the ionizing radiation-induced down-regulation of CyclinB1 and CDK1, and suppressed activation of Fas/FasL system pathway. In addition, taurine treatment significantly increased the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 in GC-2 cells exposed to ionizing radiation, two components in antioxidant pathway. The above cytoprotection of Taurine was blocked by siNrf2. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that taurine has the potential to effectively protect GC-2 cells from ionizing radiation- triggered damage via upregulation of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling.

  13. Taurine Protects Mouse Spermatocytes from Ionizing Radiation-Induced Damage Through Activation of Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenjun; Huang, Jinfeng; Xiao, Bang; Liu, Yan; Zhu, Yiqing; Wang, Fang; Sun, Shuhan

    2017-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of ionizing radiation exposure has inevitably raised public concern over the potential detrimental effects of ionizing radiation on male reproductive system function. The detection of drug candidates to prevent reproductive system from damage caused by ionizing radiation is urgent. We aimed to investigate the protective role of taurine on the injury of mouse spermatocyte-derived cells (GC-2) subjected to ionizing radiation. mouse spermatocytes (GC-2 cells) were exposed to ionizing radiation with or without treatment of Taurine. The effect of ionizing radiation and Taurine treatment on GC-2 cells were evaluated by cell viability assay (CCK8), cell cycle and apoptosis. The relative protein abundance change was determined by Western blotting. The siRNA was used to explore whether Nrf2 signaling was involved in the cytoprotection of Taurine. Taurine significantly inhibited the decrease of cell viability, percentage of apoptotic cells and cell cycle arrest induced by ionizing radiation. Western blot analysis showed that taurine significantly limited the ionizing radiation-induced down-regulation of CyclinB1 and CDK1, and suppressed activation of Fas/FasL system pathway. In addition, taurine treatment significantly increased the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 in GC-2 cells exposed to ionizing radiation, two components in antioxidant pathway. The above cytoprotection of Taurine was blocked by siNrf2. Our results demonstrate that taurine has the potential to effectively protect GC-2 cells from ionizing radiation- triggered damage via upregulation of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Taurine Protected Against the Impairments of Neural Stem Cell Differentiated Neurons Induced by Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Bo; Liu, Huazhen; Gu, Zeyun; Liu, Sining; Ji, Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Cell transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) is a promising approach for neurological recovery both structurally and functionally. However, one big obstacle is to promote differentiation of NSCs into neurons and the followed maturation. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the protective effect of taurine on the differentiation of NSCs and subsequent maturation of their neuronal lineage, when exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). The results suggested that taurine (5-20 mM) promoted the viability and proliferation of NSCs, and it protected against 8 h of OGD induced impairments. Furthermore, 20 mM taurine promoted NSCs to differentiate into neurons after 7 days of culture, and it also protected against the suppressive impairments of 8 h of OGD. Consistently, taurine (20 mM) promoted the neurite sprouting and outgrowth of the NSC differentiated neurons after 14 days of differentiation, which were significantly inhibited by OGD (8 h). At D21, the mushroom spines and spine density were promoted or restored by 20 mM taurine. Taken together, the enhanced viability and proliferation of NSCs, more differentiated neurons and the promoted maturation of neurons by 20 mM taurine support its therapeutic application during stem cell therapy to enhance neurological recovery. Moreover, it protected against the impairments induced by OGD, which may highlight its role for a more direct therapeutic application especially in an ischemic stroke environment.

  15. Protective effect of taurine on the light-induced disruption of isolated frog rod outer segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasantes-Morales, H.; Ademe, R.M.; Quesada, O.

    1981-01-01

    Isolated frog rod outer segments (ROS) incubated in a Krebs-bicarbonate medium, and illuminated for 2 h, show a profound alteration in their structure. This is characterized by distention of discs, vesiculation, and a marked swelling. The light-induced ROS disruption requires the presence of bicarbonate and sodium chloride. Replacement of bicarbonate by TRIS or HEPES protects ROS structure. Also, substitution of sodium chloride by sucrose or choline chloride maintains unaltered the ROS structure. Deletion of calcium, magnesium, or phosphate does not modify the effect produced by illumination. An increased accumulation of labeled bicarbonate and tritiated water is observed in illuminated ROS, as compared with controls in the dark. The presence of taurine, GABA, or glycine, at concentrations of 5-25 mM, effectively counteracts the light-induced ROS disruption. Taurine (25 mM) reduces labeled bicarbonate and tritiated water levels to those observed in the dark incubated ROS

  16. Protective Roles of N-acetyl Cysteine and/or Taurine against Sumatriptan-Induced Hepatotoxicity

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    Javad Khalili Fard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Triptans are the drug category mostly prescribed for abortive treatment of migraine. Most recent cases of liver toxicity induced by triptans have been described, but the mechanisms of liver toxicity of these medications have not been clear. Methods: In the present study, we obtained LC50 using dose-response curve and investigated cell viability, free radical generation, lipid peroxide production, mitochondrial injury, lysosomal membrane damage and the cellular glutathione level as toxicity markers as well as the beneficial effects of taurine and/or N-acetyl cysteine in the sumatriptan-treated rat parenchymal hepatocytes using accelerated method of cytotoxicity mechanism screening. Results: It was revealed that liver toxicity induced by sumatriptan in in freshly isolated parenchymal hepatocytes is dose-dependent. Sumatriptan caused significant free radical generation followed by lipid peroxide formation, mitochondrial injury as well as lysosomal damage. Moreover, sumatriptan reduced cellular glutathione content. Taurine and N-acetyl cysteine were able to protect hepatocytes against sumatriptan-induced harmful effects. Conclusion: It is concluded that sumatriptan causes oxidative stress in hepatocytes and the decreased hepatocytes glutathione has a key role in the sumatriptan-induced harmful effects. Also, N-acetyl cysteine and/or taurine could be used as treatments in sumatriptan-induced side effects.

  17. Acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury in HCV transgenic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uehara, Takeki; Kosyk, Oksana; Jeannot, Emmanuelle; Bradford, Blair U. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Tech, Katherine; Macdonald, Jeffrey M. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Boorman, Gary A. [Covance, Chantilly, VA 20151 (United States); Chatterjee, Saurabh; Mason, Ronald P. [Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, RTP, NC 27713 (United States); Melnyk, Stepan B. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72201 (United States); Tryndyak, Volodymyr P.; Pogribny, Igor P. [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Rusyn, Ivan, E-mail: iir@unc.edu [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The exact etiology of clinical cases of acute liver failure is difficult to ascertain and it is likely that various co-morbidity factors play a role. For example, epidemiological evidence suggests that coexistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increased the risk of acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury, and was associated with an increased risk of progression to acute liver failure. However, little is known about possible mechanisms of enhanced acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in HCV-infected subjects. In this study, we tested a hypothesis that HCV-Tg mice may be more susceptible to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity, and also evaluated the mechanisms of acetaminophen-induced liver damage in wild type and HCV-Tg mice expressing core, E1 and E2 proteins. Male mice were treated with a single dose of acetaminophen (300 or 500 mg/kg in fed animals; or 200 mg/kg in fasted animals; i.g.) and liver and serum endpoints were evaluated at 4 and 24 h after dosing. Our results suggest that in fed mice, liver toxicity in HCV-Tg mice is not markedly exaggerated as compared to the wild-type mice. In fasted mice, greater liver injury was observed in HCV-Tg mice. In fed mice dosed with 300 mg/kg acetaminophen, we observed that liver mitochondria in HCV-Tg mice exhibited signs of dysfunction showing the potential mechanism for increased susceptibility. -- Highlights: ► Acetaminophen-induced liver injury is a significant clinical challenge. ► HCV-infected subjects may be at higher risk for acetaminophen-induced liver injury. ► We used HCV transgenics to test if liver injury due to acetaminophen is exacerbated.

  18. Taurine zinc solid dispersions protect against cold-restraint stress-induced gastric ulceration by upregulating HSP70 and exerting an anxiolytic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chuan; Mei, Xue-Ting; Zheng, Yan-Ping; Xu, Dong-Hui

    2015-09-05

    Pharmacological effects of solid dispersions (SDs) of a taurine zinc complex on gastric ulceration and anxiety were investigated. Pretreatment with taurine zinc (50, 100 or 200mg/kg) SDs dose-dependently protected rat gastric mucosa against cold-restraint stress (CRS)-induced gastric injury, and significantly attenuated increases in gastric mucosal H(+)K(+)-ATPase activity and lipid peroxidation and enhanced SOD activity. Taurine zinc also inhibited CRS-induced elevation of the serum stress hormones adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone and upregulated HSP70 expression in the gastric mucosa. Moreover, taurine zinc (200mg/kg) SDs more potently protected the gastric mucosa from ulceration than the same dose of taurine, which may be attributed to a synergistic effect between taurine and zinc. Behavioral experiments in mice showed that taurine zinc SDs significantly increased the number of entries and time spent on the open arms in the elevated plus-maze test, time spent in the central area and total distance traveled in the open field test, and time spent and number of entries into the light compartment in the light/dark box test, indicative of reduced anxiety-like behaviors. This study demonstrates taurine zinc protected the gastric mucosa against CRS-induced gastric damage by decreasing oxidative stress, promoting endogenous HSP70 expression and attenuating psychological stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hepatoprotective activity of Tribulus terrestris extract against acetaminophen-induced toxicity in a freshwater fish (Oreochromis mossambicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, P; Ramesh, R; Bupesh, G; Stalin, A; Subramanian, P

    2011-12-01

    The potential protective role of Tribulus terrestris in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in Oreochromis mossambicus was investigated. The effect of oral exposure of acetaminophen (500 mg/kg) in O. mossambicus at 24-h duration was evaluated. The plant extract (250 mg/kg) showed a remarkable hepatoprotective activity against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. It was judged from the tissue-damaging level and antioxidant levels in liver, gill, muscle and kidney tissues. Further acetaminophen impact induced a significant rise in the tissue-damaging level, and the antioxidant level was discernible from the enzyme activity modulations such as glutamate oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamate pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, lipid peroxidase and reduced glutathione. The levels of all these enzymes have significantly (p terrestris extract (250 kg/mg). Histopathological changes of liver, gill and muscle samples were compared with respective controls. The results of the present study specify the hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties of T. terrestris against acetaminophen-induced toxicity in freshwater fish, O. mossambicus.

  20. Taurine protects HK-2 cells from oxidized LDL-induced cytotoxicity via the ROS-mediated mitochondrial and p53-related apoptotic pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chun-Yu [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Shen, Chao-Yu [School of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Kang, Chao-Kai [Department of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan, (China); Sher, Yuh-Pyng [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Center for Molecular Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 404, Taiwan (China); Sheu, Wayne H.-H. [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chia-Che, E-mail: chia_che@dragon.nchu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Agricultural Biotechnology Center, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lee, Tsung-Han, E-mail: thlee@email.nchu.edu.tw [Department of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan, (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Agricultural Biotechnology Center, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Biological Science and Technology, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2014-09-15

    Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) induces a pro-oxidative environment and promotes apoptosis, causing the progression of renal diseases in humans. Taurine is a semi-essential amino acid in mammals and has been shown to be a potent endogenous antioxidant. The kidney plays a pivotal role in maintaining the balance of taurine. However, the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of taurine against oxLDL-induced injury in renal epithelial cells have not been clarified. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effects of taurine on human proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells exposed to oxLDL and explored the related mechanisms. We observed that oxLDL increased the contents of ROS and of malondialdehyde (MDA), which is a lipid peroxidation by-product that acts as an indicator of the cellular oxidation status. In addition, oxLDL induced cell death and apoptosis in HK-2 cells. Pretreatment with taurine at 100 μM significantly attenuated the oxLDL-induced cytotoxicity. We determined that oxLDL triggered the phosphorylation of ERK and, in turn, the activation of p53 and other apoptosis-related events, including calcium accumulation, destabilization of the mitochondrial permeability and disruption of the balance between pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. The malfunctions induced by oxLDL were effectively blocked by taurine. Thus, our results suggested that taurine exhibits potential therapeutic activity by preventing oxLDL-induced nephrotoxicity. The inhibition of oxLDL-induced epithelial apoptosis by taurine was at least partially due to its anti-oxidant activity and its ability to modulate the ERK and p53 apoptotic pathways. - Highlights: • Oxidized LDL induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HK-2 cells. • Pretreatment with taurine attenuated oxLDL-induced nephrotoxicity. • Taurine protected against renal damages through inhibition of ROS generation. • Taurine prevented apoptosis through modulation of the p53 phosphorylation.

  1. Taurine protects HK-2 cells from oxidized LDL-induced cytotoxicity via the ROS-mediated mitochondrial and p53-related apoptotic pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chun-Yu; Shen, Chao-Yu; Kang, Chao-Kai; Sher, Yuh-Pyng; Sheu, Wayne H.-H.; Chang, Chia-Che; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2014-01-01

    Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) induces a pro-oxidative environment and promotes apoptosis, causing the progression of renal diseases in humans. Taurine is a semi-essential amino acid in mammals and has been shown to be a potent endogenous antioxidant. The kidney plays a pivotal role in maintaining the balance of taurine. However, the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of taurine against oxLDL-induced injury in renal epithelial cells have not been clarified. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effects of taurine on human proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells exposed to oxLDL and explored the related mechanisms. We observed that oxLDL increased the contents of ROS and of malondialdehyde (MDA), which is a lipid peroxidation by-product that acts as an indicator of the cellular oxidation status. In addition, oxLDL induced cell death and apoptosis in HK-2 cells. Pretreatment with taurine at 100 μM significantly attenuated the oxLDL-induced cytotoxicity. We determined that oxLDL triggered the phosphorylation of ERK and, in turn, the activation of p53 and other apoptosis-related events, including calcium accumulation, destabilization of the mitochondrial permeability and disruption of the balance between pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. The malfunctions induced by oxLDL were effectively blocked by taurine. Thus, our results suggested that taurine exhibits potential therapeutic activity by preventing oxLDL-induced nephrotoxicity. The inhibition of oxLDL-induced epithelial apoptosis by taurine was at least partially due to its anti-oxidant activity and its ability to modulate the ERK and p53 apoptotic pathways. - Highlights: • Oxidized LDL induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HK-2 cells. • Pretreatment with taurine attenuated oxLDL-induced nephrotoxicity. • Taurine protected against renal damages through inhibition of ROS generation. • Taurine prevented apoptosis through modulation of the p53 phosphorylation

  2. Synergistic protective effect of N-acetylcysteine and taurine against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Wahab WM

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wessam M Abdel-Wahab,1,2 Farouzia I Moussa,2 Najwa A Saad3 1Department of Biology, College of Medicine, University of Dammam, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt; 3Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Benghazi, Benghazi, Libya Abstract: Cisplatin (cis-diaminedichloroplatinum II; CDDP is an effective anticancer drug, but it has limitations because of its nephrotoxicity. This study investigates the protective effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC and taurine (TAU, both individually and in combination, against CDDP nephrotoxicity in rats. For this purpose, 48 male rats were assigned into eight groups (n=6 as follows: 1 control group, 2 NAC group, 3 TAU group, 4 NAC–TAU group, 5 CDDP group, 6 CDDP–NAC group, 7 CDDP–TAU group, and 8 CDDP–NAC–TAU group. Cisplatin was administered as a single intraperitoneal injection at a concentration of 6 mg/kg. Three days after CDDP administration, NAC (50 mg/kg and/or TAU (50 mg/kg were administered three times weekly for four consecutive weeks. Kidney function markers in serum, urinary glucose and protein, as well as oxidant and antioxidant parameters in renal tissue were assessed. Administration of CDDP significantly elevated urinary glucose and protein, as well as serum creatinine, urea, and uric acid. Moreover, CDDP enhanced lipid peroxidation and suppressed the major enzymatic antioxidants in the kidney tissue. Treatment with NAC or TAU protected against the alterations in the serum, urine, and renal tissue when used individually along with CDDP. Furthermore, a combined therapy of both was more effective in ameliorating CDDP-induced nephrotoxicity, which points out to their synergistic effect. Keywords: cisplatin, nephrotoxicity, oxidative stress, N-acetylcysteine, taurine

  3. Effects of α-Melanocortin Enantiomers on Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in CBA Mice

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    Dražen Vikić-Topić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Proteins and peptides in mammals are based exclusively on L-amino acids. Recent investigations show that D-amino acids exhibit physiological effects in vivo, despite of their very small quantities. We have investigated the hepatoprotective effects of the Land D-enantiomers of α-melanocortin peptide (α-MSH. The results showed that peptideenantiomerism is related to the protective effects of melanocortin peptides in vivo. L-α-MSH exhibited potent hepatoprotective effect in the experimental model of acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity in male CBA mice, while its D-mirror image was inefficient. Furthermore, the antibody to the L-peptide did not recognize the D-structure. The results indicate that the opposite peptide configuration may be used to modulate its function and metabolism in vivo and in vitro.

  4. Synergistic protective effect ofN-acetylcysteine and taurine against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Wahab, Wessam M; Moussa, Farouzia I; Saad, Najwa A

    2017-01-01

    Cisplatin (cis-diaminedichloroplatinum II; CDDP) is an effective anticancer drug, but it has limitations because of its nephrotoxicity. This study investigates the protective effect of N -acetylcysteine (NAC) and taurine (TAU), both individually and in combination, against CDDP nephrotoxicity in rats. For this purpose, 48 male rats were assigned into eight groups (n=6) as follows: 1) control group, 2) NAC group, 3) TAU group, 4) NAC-TAU group, 5) CDDP group, 6) CDDP-NAC group, 7) CDDP-TAU group, and 8) CDDP-NAC-TAU group. Cisplatin was administered as a single intraperitoneal injection at a concentration of 6 mg/kg. Three days after CDDP administration, NAC (50 mg/kg) and/or TAU (50 mg/kg) were administered three times weekly for four consecutive weeks. Kidney function markers in serum, urinary glucose and protein, as well as oxidant and antioxidant parameters in renal tissue were assessed. Administration of CDDP significantly elevated urinary glucose and protein, as well as serum creatinine, urea, and uric acid. Moreover, CDDP enhanced lipid peroxidation and suppressed the major enzymatic antioxidants in the kidney tissue. Treatment with NAC or TAU protected against the alterations in the serum, urine, and renal tissue when used individually along with CDDP. Furthermore, a combined therapy of both was more effective in ameliorating CDDP-induced nephrotoxicity, which points out to their synergistic effect.

  5. Ex vivo assessment of the protective effect of curcumin and taurine against human hepatocarcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif H. Abdeen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the fifth most common malignant tumor all over the world. Although several treatments such as tumor resection and liver transplantation are used to treat HCC, there is no overall long-term survival benefit. Therefore, the need for therapy to prevent the recurrence of HCC is essential. Curcumin and taurine have been used to participate in cancer management such as HCC through activation of immune system. Mononuclear leukocytes (MNLs obtained from cirrhotic patients (n = 25, HCC patients (n = 25 and healthy volunteers (n = 25 were included in this study. Cell density and percentage of CD4+, CD8+, and CD25+ of the MNLs treated with curcumin and taurine were performed in addition to IFN-γ level determined in their cultured media. The results revealed that there was a highly significant increase in MNLs’ density of cirrhotic patients treated with curcumin and taurine. Where in HCC patients there were high significant increases in MNLs treated with curcumin and/or taurine. IFN-γ level showed no significant increase in HCC, cirrhotic patients and controls. There were high significant increases in percentage of CD8+ of cirrhotic and HCC patients treated with curcumin and combination of curcumin and taurine. But, percentage of CD4+ showed a high significant decrease in cirrhotic and HCC patients due to treatment with curcumin and/or taurine, on the contrary there were high significant increases in controls. Furthermore, there were high significant increases in percentage of CD25+ of cirrhotic patients and healthy controls treated with curcumin and/or taurine, but HCC patients showed no significant increase in percentage of CD25+ in MNLs treated with curcumin and/or taurine.

  6. A synergistic protective effect of selenium and taurine against experimentally induced myocardial infarction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallak, Mohammad

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the protective effect of subacute pre-adminsitration of either selenium (Se), taurine (Tau), or both drugs in combination against experimentally induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats and illustrates the possible mechanisms of action. While solely pre-administration of Se or Tau resulted in partial amelioration in all of the measured parameters in MI rats, concomitant administration of both drugs to MI rats significantly restored contractility function by increasing LVSP and decreasing LVEDP and significantly normalized serum levels of LDH, CK-MB and BNP and restored normal cardiac architecture. This concomitant treatment acted by increasing the activity of major antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GPx), decreasing the levels of inflammatory markers including TNF-α, IL-6 as well as levels of Bcl-2 and caspase-3 and downregulating mRNA levels of Bax and P53, markers of apoptosis. In conclusion, a combination of Se and Tau provides a new strategy to alleviate MI-induced cardiac dysfunction.

  7. Short day photoperiod protects against acetaminophen-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    long photoperiod while these parameters were significantly (P<0.05) reduced in rats subjected to short photoperiod. However, alteration of ... Despite this therapeutic usage, hepatotoxic actions of acetaminophen are well established ... animals were housed in plastic cages with stainless steel mesh cover under standard.

  8. A Novel Role of SIRT1/ FGF-21 in Taurine Protection Against Cafeteria Diet-Induced Steatohepatitis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Elwahab, Azza H; Ramadan, Basma K; Schaalan, Mona F; Tolba, Amina M

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the alarmingly rising clinical problems in the 21st century with no effective drug treatment until now. Taurine is an essential amino acid in humans that proved efficacy as a non-pharmacological therapy in a plethora of diseases; however, its impact on NAFLD remains elusive. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the protective mechanism of taurine in experimental steatohepatitis induced by junk food given as cafeteria-diet (CAF-D) in male albino rats. Forty adult male albino rats of local strain between 8-10 weeks old, weighing 150 ± 20 g, were divided into four equal groups: Group I (control group), Group II (Taurine group), Group III (CAF-D for 12 weeks) and Group IV (CAF-D +Taurine). CAF-D was given in addition to the standard chow for 12 weeks, where each rat was given one piece of beef burger fried in 15 g of sunflower oil, one teaspoonful of mayonnaise, and one piece of petit pan bread, weighing 60g/ piece. In the serum, liver function tests; ALT, AST, ALP, GGT and the lipid profile; TG, TC, HDL-C added to reduced glutathione (GSH) were assessed colorimetrically, while fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21, adiponectin & interleukin (IL)-6 via ELISA. The same technique was used for the assays of the hepatic levels of FGF-21, silent information regulator (SIRT1), malondialdehyde (MDA),IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) as well as the apoptotic markers; caspase-3 and B-cell lymphoma (Bcl-2). The cafeteria-diet induced steatohepatitis was reflected by significantly increased body and liver weight gain, elevation of liver enzymes; ALT, AST, ALP and GGT added to the dyslipidemic panel, presented as increased TC, TG, LDL-C and decreased HDL-C levels. The steatosis-induced inflammatory milieu, marked by elevated serum levels of FGF-21, IL-6, hepatic TNF-α, as well as reduced IL-10 and adiponectin, was associated with steatosis- induced hepatic oxidative stress, reflected by increased hepatic MDA and

  9. A Novel Role of SIRT1/ FGF-21 in Taurine Protection Against Cafeteria Diet-Induced Steatohepatitis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza H. Abd Elwahab

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is one of the alarmingly rising clinical problems in the 21st century with no effective drug treatment until now. Taurine is an essential amino acid in humans that proved efficacy as a non-pharmacological therapy in a plethora of diseases; however, its impact on NAFLD remains elusive. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the protective mechanism of taurine in experimental steatohepatitis induced by junk food given as cafeteria-diet (CAF-D in male albino rats. Methods: Forty adult male albino rats of local strain between 8-10 weeks old, weighing 150 ± 20 g, were divided into four equal groups: Group I (control group, Group II (Taurine group, Group III (CAF-D for 12 weeks and Group IV (CAF-D +Taurine. CAF-D was given in addition to the standard chow for 12 weeks, where each rat was given one piece of beef burger fried in 15 g of sunflower oil, one teaspoonful of mayonnaise, and one piece of petit pan bread, weighing 60g/ piece. In the serum, liver function tests; ALT, AST, ALP, GGT and the lipid profile; TG, TC, HDL-C added to reduced glutathione (GSH were assessed colorimetrically, while fibroblast growth factor (FGF-21, adiponectin & interleukin (IL-6 via ELISA. The same technique was used for the assays of the hepatic levels of FGF-21, silent information regulator (SIRT1, malondialdehyde (MDA,IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α as well as the apoptotic markers; caspase-3 and B-cell lymphoma (Bcl-2. Results: The cafeteria-diet induced steatohepatitis was reflected by significantly increased body and liver weight gain, elevation of liver enzymes; ALT, AST, ALP and GGT added to the dyslipidemic panel, presented as increased TC, TG, LDL-C and decreased HDL-C levels. The steatosis-induced inflammatory milieu, marked by elevated serum levels of FGF-21, IL-6, hepatic TNF-α, as well as reduced IL-10 and adiponectin, was associated with steatosis- induced hepatic oxidative stress

  10. The protective effects of taurine on acute ammonia toxicity in grass carp Ctenopharynodon idellus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiaodan; Li, Ming; Yuan, Lixia; Song, Meize; Ren, Qianyan; Shi, Ge; Meng, Fanxing; Wang, Rixin

    2016-09-01

    The four experimental groups were carried out to test the response of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella to ammonia toxicity and taurine: group 1 was injected with NaCl, group 2 was injected with ammonium acetate, group 3 was injected with ammonium acetate and taurine, and group 4 was injected taurine. Fish in group 2 had the highest ammonia content in the liver and brain, and alanine, arginine, glutamine, glutamate and glycine contents in liver. Brain alanine and glutamate of fish in group 2 were significantly higher than those of fish in group 1. Malondialdehyde content of fish in group 2 was the highest, but superoxide dismutase and glutathione activities were the lowest. Although fish in group 2 had the lowest red cell count and hemoglobin, the highest alkaline phosphatase, complement C3, C4 and total immunoglobulin contents appeared in this group. In addition, superoxide dismutase and glutathione activities, red cell count and hemoglobin of fish in group 3 were significantly higher than those of fish in group 2, but malondialdehyde content is the opposite. This study indicates that ammonia exerts its toxic effects by interfering with amino acid transport, inducing reactive oxygen species generation and malondialdehyde accumulation, leading to blood deterioration and over-activation of immune response. The exogenous taurine could mitigate the adverse effect of high ammonia level on fish physiological disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of the Hepatoprotective Effects of Lantadene A, a Pentacyclic Triterpenoid of Lantana Plants against Acetaminophen-induced Liver Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivasan Sasidharan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of lantadene A against acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity in mice was studied. Activity was measured by monitoring the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and bilirubin, along with histo-pathological analysis. Silymarin was used as positive control. A bimodal pattern of behavioural toxicity was exhibited by the lantadene A-treated group at the beginning of the treatment. However, treatment with lantadene A and silymarin resulted in an increase in the liver weight compared with the acetaminophen treated group. The results of the acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity experiments showed that mice treated with lantadene A (500 mg/kg showed a significant decrease in the activity of ALT, AST and ALP and the level of bilirubin, which were all elevated in the acetaminophen treated group (p < 0.05. Histological studies supported the biochemical findings and a maximum improvement in the histoarchitecture was seen. The lantadene A-treated group showed remarkable protective effects against histopathological alterations, with comparable results to the silymarin treated group. The current study confirmed the hepatoprotective effects of lantadene A against the model hepatotoxicant acetaminophen, which is likely related to its potent antioxidative activity.

  12. Investigation of the Protective Effects of Taurine against Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Retinal Changes via Electroretinogram and Retinal Histology with New Zealand White Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Tung-Hsing Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective role of orally administered taurine against diabetic retinal changes via electroretinogram (ERG and retinal histology on rabbits. Rabbits were randomly assigned into groups: Group I (vehicle administration only; Group II (diabetes: induced by 100 mg/kg alloxan injection; Group III (diabetes and fed with 200 mg/kg taurine; and Group IV (diabetes and fed with 400 mg/kg taurine. The body weight and blood glucose levels of the rabbits were monitored weekly. The ERG was measured on weeks 5 and 15. Retinal histology was analyzed in the end of the experiment. Results revealed that a taurine supplement significantly ameliorates the alloxan-induced hyperglycemia and protects the retina from electrophysiological changes. Group II showed a significant (P0.05 between all groups and when compared with those of Group I. Our study provides solid evidences that taurine possesses an antidiabetic activity, reduced loss of body weight, and less electrophysiological changes of the diabetic retina.

  13. Taurine protects DNA of lymphocytes against oxidative alteration in riding horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokól, Janusz Leszek; Sawosz, Ewa; Niemiec, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    The study aimed at evaluation the effect of dietary supplement of taurine on the oxidation-reduction status in riding horses, and especially on the extent of oxidative DNA degradation in lymphocytes. Ten Thoroughbred and half-bred geldings aged 6-13 years were classified according to breed...... and amount of work done into two groups - control (C, n=5) and experimental (E, n=5), the latter fed the diet with addition of 40 g taurine/horse/day. Blood samples were withdrawn from the horses' jugular vein before commencing the riding season and then after 30 days of working. In the blood some selected...... morphological and biochemical indicators were determined including the TBA-RS and 8-oxo-dG in lymphocyte DNA. It was found that physical effort of horses, being used for 30 days in recreation riding, affected homeostasis of redox status, and especially the rate of oxidative DNA degradation of lymphocytes...

  14. Protective effect of taurine against potassium bromate-induced hemoglobin oxidation, oxidative stress, and impairment of antioxidant defense system in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mir Kaisar; Mahmood, Riaz

    2016-03-01

    Potassium bromate (KBrO3 ) is widely used as a food-additive and is a major water disinfection by-product. KBrO3 causes severe toxicity in humans and experimental animals. Bromate is considered a probable human carcinogen and a complete carcinogen in animals. We have investigated the potential role of taurine in protecting against KBrO3 -induced oxidative stress in rat blood. Animals were given taurine for 5 days prior to KBrO3 and then sacrificed. Blood was collected and used to prepare hemolysates and plasma, which were then used for the analysis of several biochemical parameters. Administration of single oral dose of KBrO3 alone induced hepato- and nephro-toxicity as evident by elevated marker levels in plasma. Lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation were increased both in plasma and erythrocytes, suggesting the induction of oxidative stress. KBrO3 increased methemoglobin, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide levels. It also altered the activities of the major antioxidant enzymes and lowered the antioxidant power of blood. Administration of taurine, prior to treatment with KBrO3 , resulted in significant attenuation in all these parameters but the administration of taurine alone had no effect. These results show that taurine is effective in mitigating the oxidative insult induced in rat blood by KBrO3 . © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa on carbon tetrachloride- and acetaminophen-induced liver damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S C; Chung, T C; Lin, C C; Ueng, T H; Lin, Y H; Lin, S Y; Wang, L Y

    2000-01-01

    The root of Arctium lappa Linne (A. lappa) (Compositae), a perennial herb, has been cultivated for a long time as a popular vegetable. In order to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of A. lappa, male ICR mice were injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, 32 microl/kg, i.p.) or acetaminophen (600 mg/kg, i.p.). A. lappa suppressed the SGOT and SGPT elevations induced by CCl4 or acetaminophen in a dose-dependent manner and alleviated the severity of liver damage based on histopathological observations. In an attempt to elucidate the possible mechanism(s) of this hepatoprotective effect, glutathione (GSH), cytochrome P-450 (P-450) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were studied. A. lappa reversed the decrease in GSH and P-450 induced by CCl4 and acetaminophen. It was also found that A. lappa decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in CCl4 or acetaminophen-intoxicated mice. From these results, it was suggested that A. lappa could protect the liver cells from CCl4 or acetaminophen-induced liver damages, perhaps by its antioxidative effect on hepatocytes, hence eliminating the deleterious effects of toxic metabolites from CCl4 or acetaminophen.

  16. Protection by taurine against INOS-dependent DNA damage in heavily exercised skeletal muscle by inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Hiromichi; Okita, Shinya; Kato, Toshihiro; Naka, Toru; Kawanishi, Shosuke; Ohnishi, Shiho; Oshida, Yoshiharu; Ma, Ning

    2013-01-01

    Taurine protects against tissue damage in a variety of models involving inflammation, especially the muscle. We set up a heavy exercise bout protocol for rats consisting of climbing ran on a treadmill to examine the effect of an intraabdominal dose of taurine (300 mg/kg/day) administered 1 h before heavy exercise for ten consecutive days. Each group ran on the treadmill at 20 m/min, 25% grade, for 20 min or until exhaustion within 20 min once each 10 days. Exhaustion was the point when an animal was unable to right itself when placed on its side. The muscle damage was associated with an increased accumulation of 8-nitroguanine and 8-OHdG in the nuclei of skeletal muscle cells. The immunoreactivities for NF-κB and iNOS were also increased in the exercise group. Taurine ameliorated heavy exercise-induced muscle DNA damage to a significant extent since it reduced the accumulation of 8-nitroguanine and 8-OHdG, possibly by down-regulating the expression of iNOS through a modulatory action on NF-κB signaling pathway. This study demonstrates for the first time that taurine can protect against intense exercise-induced nitrosative inflammation and ensuing DNA damage in the skeletal muscle of rats by preventing iNOS expression and the nitrosative stress generated by heavy exercise.

  17. Radiation protection following nuclear power accidents: a survey of putative mechanisms involved in the radioprotective actions of taurine during and after radiation exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olav Christophersen

    2012-02-01

    damaged tissues, especially in the intestines, and 4 by functioning as an antifibrogenic agent. A detailed discussion is given of possible mechanisms involved both in the antioxidant effects of taurine, in its anti-inflammatory effects and in its role as a growth factor for leukocytes and nerve cells, which might be closely related to its role as an osmolyte important for cellular volume regulation because of the close connection between cell volume regulation and the regulation of protein synthesis as well as cellular protein degradation. While taurine supplementation alone would be expected to exert a therapeutic effect far better than negligible in patients that have been exposed to high doses of ionizing radiation, it may on theoretical grounds be expected that much better results may be obtained by using taurine as part of a multifactorial treatment strategy, where it may interact synergistically with several other nutrients, hormones or other drugs for optimizing antioxidant protection and minimizing harmful posttraumatic inflammatory reactions, while using other nutrients to optimize DNA and tissue repair processes, and using a combination of good diet, immunostimulatory hormones and perhaps other nontoxic immunostimulants (such as beta-glucans for optimizing the recovery of antiviral and antibacterial immune functions. Similar multifactorial treatment strategies may presumably be helpful in several other disease situations (including severe infectious diseases and severe asthma as well as for treatment of acute intoxications or acute injuries (both mechanical ones and severe burns where severely enhanced oxidative and/or nitrative stress and/or too much secretion of vasodilatory neuropeptides from C-fibres are important parts of the pathogenetic mechanisms that may lead to the death of the patient. Some case histories (with discussion of some of those mechanisms that may have been responsible for the observed therapeutic outcome are given for illustration of the

  18. Radiation protection following nuclear power accidents: a survey of putative mechanisms involved in the radioprotective actions of taurine during and after radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophersen, Olav Albert

    2012-01-01

    tissues, especially in the intestines, and (4) by functioning as an antifibrogenic agent. A detailed discussion is given of possible mechanisms involved both in the antioxidant effects of taurine, in its anti-inflammatory effects and in its role as a growth factor for leukocytes and nerve cells, which might be closely related to its role as an osmolyte important for cellular volume regulation because of the close connection between cell volume regulation and the regulation of protein synthesis as well as cellular protein degradation. While taurine supplementation alone would be expected to exert a therapeutic effect far better than negligible in patients that have been exposed to high doses of ionizing radiation, it may on theoretical grounds be expected that much better results may be obtained by using taurine as part of a multifactorial treatment strategy, where it may interact synergistically with several other nutrients, hormones or other drugs for optimizing antioxidant protection and minimizing harmful posttraumatic inflammatory reactions, while using other nutrients to optimize DNA and tissue repair processes, and using a combination of good diet, immunostimulatory hormones and perhaps other nontoxic immunostimulants (such as beta-glucans) for optimizing the recovery of antiviral and antibacterial immune functions. Similar multifactorial treatment strategies may presumably be helpful in several other disease situations (including severe infectious diseases and severe asthma) as well as for treatment of acute intoxications or acute injuries (both mechanical ones and severe burns) where severely enhanced oxidative and/or nitrative stress and/or too much secretion of vasodilatory neuropeptides from C-fibres are important parts of the pathogenetic mechanisms that may lead to the death of the patient. Some case histories (with discussion of some of those mechanisms that may have been responsible for the observed therapeutic outcome) are given for illustration of the

  19. Protective Effect of Oral Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rev Olaleye

    Protective Effect of Oral Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) on. Acetaminophen-Induced Renal Injury in Rats a,*Adeneye A. A. and bOlagunju, J. O. Departments of aPharmacology, bMedical Biochemistry,. Lagos State University College of Medicine, Ikeja, Lagos State, Nigeria. ABSTRACT: The incidence of acetaminophen-induced ...

  20. Alpha-fetoprotein is a predictor of outcome in acetaminophen-induced liver injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars E; Dalhoff, Kim

    2005-01-01

    An increase in alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) following hepatic necrosis is considered indicative of hepatic regeneration. This study evaluated the prognostic value of serial AFP measurements in patients with severe acetaminophen-induced liver injury. Prospectively, serial measurements of AFP were...... performed in 239 patients with acetaminophen intoxication and a peak alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level above 1000 U/L. AFP was measured using an enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA) with a detection limit below 0.4 microg/L. The optimum threshold of AFP to discriminate nonsurvivors was identified. An increase......%. In conclusion, an increase in AFP was strongly associated with a favorable outcome in patients with acetaminophen-induced liver injury. AFP may be useful as a supplement to existing prognostic criteria. We suggest that the introduction of highly sensitive EIAs for the detection of AFP will require...

  1. Freshly isolated hepatocyte transplantation in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity model in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Rodrigues

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Hepatocyte transplantation is an attractive therapeutic modality for liver disease as an alternative for orthotopic liver transplantation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to investigate the feasibility of freshly isolated rat hepatocyte transplantation in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity model. METHODS: Hepatocytes were isolated from male Wistar rats and transplanted 24 hours after acetaminophen administration in female recipients. Female rats received either 1x10(7 hepatocytes or phosphate buffered saline through the portal vein or into the spleen and were sacrificed after 48 hours. RESULTS: Alanine aminotransferase levels measured within the experiment did not differ between groups at any time point. Molecular analysis and histology showed presence of hepatocytes in liver of transplanted animals injected either through portal vein or spleen. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of hepatocyte transplantation in the liver or spleen in a mild acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity model.

  2. Use of Arctium lappa Extract Against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Attalla Farag El-Kott, PhD; Mashael Mohammed Bin-Meferij, PhD

    2015-01-01

    Background: Severe destructive hepatic injuries can be induced by acetaminophen overdose and may lead to acute hepatic failure. Objective: To investigate the ameliorative effects of Arctium lappa root extract on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods: Rats were divided into 4 groups: normal control group, Arctium lappa extract group, acetaminophen-injected group, and acetaminophen treated with Arctium lappa extract group. Results: The treatment with Arctium lappa extract reduc...

  3. Combination therapy with taurine, epigallocatechin gallate and genistein for protection against hepatic fibrosis induced by alcohol in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Lang; Liao, Ming; Zheng, Li; He, Min; Huang, Quanfang; Wei, Ling; Huang, Renbin; Zhang, Shijun; Lin, Xing

    2012-01-01

    This study was to investigate the possibility of enhancing the anti-fibrotic effect by using a combination therapy with taurine, epigallocatechin gallate and genistein in a rat liver fibrosis model induced by alcohol, and to explore its underlying mechanism. Hepatic fibrosis was induced by intragastric administration with various amount of alcohol (5.0-9.5 g/kg) within 24 weeks in rats. The model group received alcohol only, and treatment groups received the corresponding drugs plus alcohol respectively, while the normal control group received an equal volume of saline. The antifibrotic effects of combination therapy were assessed directly by hepatic histology, and indirectly by measurement of serum biochemical markers, the fibrosis markers and related key cytokines/proteins. The results showed that combination therapy could significantly improve the liver function, as indicated by decreasing levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyltransferase, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. Moreover, combination therapy could effectively suppress the serum levels of fibrosis markers and hepatic hydroxyproline content, inhibit collagen deposition and reduce the pathological tissue damage. Research on mechanism showed that combination therapy was able to markedly reduce lipid peroxidation and recruit the anti-oxidative defense system, and inhibit the expression of B-cell lymphoma 2, α-smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor β(1) and small mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 proteins. Our results showed that combination therapy is effective in attenuating hepatic injury and fibrosis in the alcohol-induced rat model. The improved efficacy of the combination therapy with its good safety profile could represent a new protective approach for liver fibrosis.

  4. Astaxanthin pretreatment attenuates acetaminophen-induced liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyao; Zhang, Simin; Bi, Jianbin; Gu, Jingxian; Deng, Yan; Liu, Chang

    2017-04-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is a conventional drug widely used in the clinic because of its antipyretic-analgesic effects. However, accidental or intentional APAP overdoses induce liver injury and even acute liver failure (ALF). Astaxanthin (ASX) is the strongest antioxidant in nature that shows preventive and therapeutic properties, such as ocular protection, anti-tumor, anti-diabetes, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects. The aim of present study was to determine whether ASX pretreatment provides protection against APAP-induced liver failure. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into 7 groups, including control, oil, ASX (30mg/kg or 60mg/kg), APAP and APAP+ASX (30mg/kg or 60mg/kg) groups. Saline, olive oil and ASX were administered for 14days. The APAP and APAP+ASX groups were given a peritoneal injection of 700mg/kg or 300mg/kg APAP to determine the 5-day survival rate and for further observation, respectively. Blood and liver samples were collected to detect alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), inflammation, oxidative stress and antioxidant systems, and to observe histopathologic changes and key proteins in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family. ASX pretreatment before APAP increased the 5-day survival rate in a dose-dependent manner and reduced the ALT, AST, hepatic necrosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lipid peroxidation (LPO), oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory factors. ASX protected against APAP toxicity by inhibiting the depletion of glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Administration of ASX did not change the expression of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and P38. However, phosphorylation of JNK, ERK and P38 was reduced, consistent with the level of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2). ASX provided protection for the liver against APAP hepatotoxicity by alleviating hepatocyte necrosis, blocking ROS

  5. Radiation protection following nuclear power accidents: a survey of putative mechanisms involved in the radioprotective actions of taurine during and after radiation exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Christophersen, Olav Albert

    2012-01-01

    There are several animal experiments showing that high doses of ionizing radiation lead to strongly enhanced leakage of taurine from damaged cells into the extracellular fluid, followed by enhanced urinary excretion. This radiation-induced taurine depletion can itself have various harmful effects (as will also be the case when taurine depletion is due to other causes, such as alcohol abuse or cancer therapy with cytotoxic drugs), but taurine supplementation has been shown to have radioprotect...

  6. Silymarin prevents acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Papackova

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen or paracetamol (APAP overdose is a common cause of liver injury. Silymarin (SLM is a hepatoprotective agent widely used for treating liver injury of different origin. In order to evaluate the possible beneficial effects of SLM, Balb/c mice were pretreated with SLM (100 mg/kg b.wt. per os once daily for three days. Two hours after the last SLM dose, the mice were administered APAP (300 mg/kg b.wt. i.p. and killed 6 (T6, 12 (T12 and 24 (T24 hours later. SLM-treated mice exhibited a significant reduction in APAP-induced liver injury, assessed according to AST and ALT release and histological examination. SLM treatment significantly reduced superoxide production, as indicated by lower GSSG content, lower HO-1 induction, alleviated nitrosative stress, decreased p-JNK activation and direct measurement of mitochondrial superoxide production in vitro. SLM did not affect the APAP-induced decrease in CYP2E1 activity and expression during the first 12 hrs. Neutrophil infiltration and enhanced expression of inflammatory markers were first detected at T12 in both groups. Inflammation progressed in the APAP group at T24 but became attenuated in SLM-treated animals. Histological examination suggests that necrosis the dominant cell death pathway in APAP intoxication, which is partially preventable by SLM pretreatment. We demonstrate that SLM significantly protects against APAP-induced liver damage through the scavenger activity of SLM and the reduction of superoxide and peroxynitrite content. Neutrophil-induced damage is probably secondary to necrosis development.

  7. Use of Arctium lappa Extract Against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kott, Attalla Farag; Bin-Meferij, Mashael Mohammed

    2015-12-01

    Severe destructive hepatic injuries can be induced by acetaminophen overdose and may lead to acute hepatic failure. To investigate the ameliorative effects of Arctium lappa root extract on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. Rats were divided into 4 groups: normal control group, Arctium lappa extract group, acetaminophen-injected group, and acetaminophen treated with Arctium lappa extract group. The treatment with Arctium lappa extract reduced serum alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase in the acetaminophen group when compared with the control group. DNA fragments in the acetaminophen-injected group were also significantly increased (P Arctium lappa treatment (12.97±0.89 nmol/mg) when compared with the acetaminophen-treated-only group (12.97±0.89 nmol/mg). Histopathologic examination revealed that acetaminophen administration produced hepatic cell necrosis, infiltrate of lymphocytes, and vacuolation that were associated with the acetaminophen-treated animal group, but the degree of acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity was mediated by treatment with Arctium lappa extract. Arctium lappa can prevent most of the hepatic tissue damage caused by acetaminophen overdose in rats.

  8. Gestational protein restriction in mice has pronounced effects on gene expression in newborn offspring's liver and skeletal muscle; protective effect of taurine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ole Hartvig; Olsen, Hanne Lodberg; Frandsen, Lis

    2010-01-01

    We examined gene expression changes in liver and skeletal muscle of newborn mice subjected to a maternal low protein (LP) or normal protein (NP) diet during pregnancy, with or without taurine supplementation in the drinking water. LP offspring had a 40% lower birthweight than NP offspring, wherea...... and muscle of offspring. However, a major part of the birthweight decrease and the expression changes were prevented by maternal taurine supplementation, implying taurine is a key component in metabolic fetal programming. ABBREVIATIONS:...

  9. Rat liver arginase system under acetaminophen-induced toxic injury and protein deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. Kopylchuk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Arginase activity and L-arginine content in both cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions of rat liver cells under the conditions of toxic injury on the background of protein deprivation was studied. The most significant reduction of arginase activity in liver cells and depletion of L-arginine pool was found in rats with toxic acetaminophen-induced liver injury maintained on the ration balanced by all nutrients as well as in protein deficiency rats. It was concluded that reduction of the arginase activity in the cytosolic fraction of rat liver cells, combined with simultaneous decrease of L-arginine content, may be considered as one of the mechanisms of ornithine cycle disturbance. The decline of activity of mitochondrial isoform of arginase II, for certain, is related with activation of NO-synthase system.

  10. Protective effect of Moringa peregrina leaves extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective effect of Moringa peregrina leaves extract on acetaminophen - induced liver toxicity in albino rats. Samy Abdelfatah Abdel Azim, Mohamed Taha Abdelrahem, Mostafa Mohamed Said, Alshaimaa Khattab ...

  11. Taurine and platelet aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nauss-Karol, C.; VanderWende, C.; Gaut, Z.N.

    1986-01-01

    Taurine is a putative neurotransmitter or neuromodulator. The endogenous taurine concentration in human platelets, determined by amino acid analysis, is 15 μM/g. In spite of this high level, taurine is actively accumulated. Uptake is saturable, Na + and temperature dependent, and suppressed by metabolic inhibitors, structural analogues, and several classes of centrally active substances. High, medium and low affinity transport processes have been characterized, and the platelet may represent a model system for taurine transport in the CNS. When platelets were incubated with 14 C-taurine for 30 minutes, then resuspended in fresh medium and reincubated for one hour, essentially all of the taurine was retained within the cells. Taurine, at concentrations ranging from 10-1000 μM, had no effect on platelet aggregation induced by ADP or epinephrine. However, taurine may have a role in platelet aggregation since 35-39% of the taurine taken up by human platelets appears to be secreted during the release reaction induced by low concentrations of either epinephrine or ADP, respectively. This release phenomenon would imply that part of the taurine taken up is stored directly in the dense bodies of the platelet

  12. Effects of taurine on reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Ovunc; Hede, Yan; Zhang, Feng; Lineaweaver, William C; Arslan, Zikri; Songur, Ecmel

    2011-07-01

    Taurine is an organic acid, which has a very important function in the human body. Recently, the antioxidant property of taurine has been much emphasised. In this study, the gracilis muscle flap model was used to investigate the effect of taurine in ischaemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Totally 32 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups: control group (n = 16) and the treatment group with taurine (n = 16). After elevation of the gracilis muscle flap, 4 h of ischaemia was performed in both groups. Thirty min before the reperfusion, taurine (200 mg kg(-1)) was injected intravenously. After 24 h of reperfusion, the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA), tissue water content and flap viability were evaluated. After 72 h of reperfusion, histological findings were evaluated. Amount of MDA and tissue water content were significantly lower (p taurine played an important role in the process of ischaemia/reperfusion injury and presented certain protective effects with the improvement in flap survival after ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Copyright © 2010 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A maternal low protein diet has pronounced effects on mitochondrial gene expression in offspring liver and skeletal muscle; protective effect of taurine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Ole Hartvig; Olsen, Hanne Lodberg; Frandsen, Lis; Nielsen, Peter Eigil; Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Grunnet, Niels; Quistorff, Bjørn

    2010-08-24

    Low birth weight is associated with an increased risk of developing impaired glucose tolerance, and eventually type 2 diabetes in adult life. Gestational protein restriction in rodents gives rise to a low birth weight phenotype in the offspring. We examined gene expression changes in liver and skeletal muscle of mice subjected to gestational protein restriction (LP) or not (NP), with or without taurine supplementation in the drinking water. LP offspring had a 40% lower birth weight than NP offspring, with taurine preventing half the decrease. Microarray gene expression analysis of newborn mice revealed significant changes in 2012 genes in liver and 967 genes in skeletal muscle of LP offspring. Taurine prevented 30% and 46% of these expression changes, respectively. Mitochondrial genes, especially those involved with oxidative phosphorylation, were more abundantly changed than other genes. The mitochondrial genes were mainly upregulated in liver, but downregulated in skeletal muscle, despite no change in citrate synthase activity in either tissue. Taurine preferentially rescued genes concerned with fatty acid metabolism in liver and with oxidative phosphorylation and TCA cycle in skeletal muscle. A mitochondrial signature was seen in the liver of NP offspring with taurine supplementation, as gene sets for mitochondrial ribosome as well as lipid metabolism were over represented in 4-week-old offspring subjected to gestational taurine supplementation. Likewise, 11 mitochondrial genes were significantly upregulated by gestational taurine supplementation in 4-week-old NP offspring. Gestational protein restriction resulted in lower birth weight associated with significant gene expression changes, which was different in liver and muscle of offspring. However, a major part of the birth weight decrease and the expression changes were prevented by maternal taurine supplementation, implying taurine is a key factor in determining expression patterns during development and in

  14. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of Pouteria campechiana on acetaminophen-induced hepatic toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseervatham, G Smilin Bell; Sivasudha, T; Sasikumar, J M; Christabel, P Hephzibah; Jeyadevi, R; Ananth, D Arul

    2014-03-01

    Pouteria campechiana (Kunth) Baehni. is used as a remedy for coronary trouble, liver disorders, epilepsy, skin disease, and ulcer. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of polyphenolic-rich P. campechiana fruit extract against acetaminophen-intoxicated rats. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of egg fruit were estimated followed by the determination of antioxidant activities. Treatment with P. campechiana fruit extract effectively scavenged the free radicals in a concentration-dependent manner within the range of the given concentrations in all antioxidant models. The presence of polyphenolic compounds were confirmed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). The animals were treated with acetaminophen (250 mg/kg body weight; p.o.) thrice at the interval of every 5 days after the administration of P. campechiana aqueous extract and silymarin (50 mg/kg). Acetaminophen treatment was found to trigger an oxidative stress in liver, leading to an increase of serum marker enzymes. However, treatment with P. campechiana fruit extract significantly reduced the elevated liver marker enzymes (aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase) and increased the antioxidant enzymes (viz., superoxide dismutase and catalase) and glutathione indicating the effect of the extract in restoring the normal functional ability of hepatocytes. These results strongly suggest that P. campechiana fruit extract has strong antioxidant and significant hepatoprotective effect against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity.

  15. Ethanol extract from portulaca oleracea L. attenuated acetaminophen-induced mice liver injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue-Feng; Zheng, Cheng-Gang; Shi, Hong-Guang; Tang, Gu-Sheng; Wang, Wan-Yin; Zhou, Juan; Dong, Li-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Acetaminophen-induced liver injury represents the most frequent cause of drug-induced liver failure in the world. Portulaca oleracea L., a widely distributed weed, has been used as a folk medicine in many countries. Previously, we reported that the ethanol extracts of Portulaca oleracea L. (PO) exhibited significant anti-hypoxic activity. In the present study, we investigated the role of PO on acetaminophen (APAP) induced hepatotoxicity. The results demonstrated that PO was an effective anti-oxidative agent, which could, to some extent, reverse APAP-induced hepatotoxicity by regulating the reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the liver of mice. At the same time, PO treatment significantly decreased mice serum levels of IL-6 and TNFα and their mRNA expression in liver tissue IL-α and TNFα play an important role during APAP-induced liver injury. Furthermore, PO inhibited APAP and TNFα-induced activation of JNK, whose activation play an important effect during APAP induced liver injury. These findings suggested that administration of PO may be an effective strategy to prevent or treat liver injury induced by APAP. PMID:25901199

  16. Increasing taurine intake and taurine synthesis improves skeletal muscle function in the mdx mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinniger, Gavin J.; Graves, Jamie A.; Grounds, Miranda D.; Arthur, Peter G.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal muscle wasting disease associated with increased inflammation, oxidative stress and myofibre necrosis.Cysteine precursor antioxidants such as N‐acetyl cysteine (NAC) and l‐2‐oxothiazolidine‐4‐carboxylate (OTC) reduce dystropathology in the mdx mouse model for DMD, and we propose this is via increased synthesis of the amino acid taurine.We compared the capacity of OTC and taurine treatment to increase taurine content of mdx muscle, as well as effects on in vivo and ex vivo muscle function, inflammation and oxidative stress.Both treatments increased taurine in muscles, and improved many aspects of muscle function and reduced inflammation. Taurine treatment also reduced protein thiol oxidation and was overall more effective, as OTC treatment reduced body and muscle weight, suggesting some adverse effects of this drug.These data suggest that increasing dietary taurine is a better candidate for a therapeutic intervention for DMD. Abstract Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal muscle wasting disease for which there is no widely available cure. Whilst the mechanism of loss of muscle function in DMD and the mdx mouse model are not fully understood, disruptions in intracellular calcium homeostasis, inflammation and oxidative stress are implicated. We have shown that protein thiol oxidation is increased in mdx muscle, and that the indirect thiol antioxidant l‐2‐oxothiazolidine‐4‐carboxylate (OTC), which increases cysteine availability, decreases pathology and increases in vivo strength. We propose that the protective effects of OTC are a consequence of conversion of cysteine to taurine, which has itself been shown to be beneficial to mdx pathology. This study compares the efficacy of taurine with OTC in decreasing dystropathology in mdx mice by measuring in vivo and ex vivo contractile function and measurements of inflammation and protein thiol oxidation. Increasing the taurine content of mdx

  17. Increasing taurine intake and taurine synthesis improves skeletal muscle function in the mdx mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Jessica R; Pinniger, Gavin J; Graves, Jamie A; Grounds, Miranda D; Arthur, Peter G

    2016-06-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal muscle wasting disease associated with increased inflammation, oxidative stress and myofibre necrosis. Cysteine precursor antioxidants such as N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and l-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate (OTC) reduce dystropathology in the mdx mouse model for DMD, and we propose this is via increased synthesis of the amino acid taurine. We compared the capacity of OTC and taurine treatment to increase taurine content of mdx muscle, as well as effects on in vivo and ex vivo muscle function, inflammation and oxidative stress. Both treatments increased taurine in muscles, and improved many aspects of muscle function and reduced inflammation. Taurine treatment also reduced protein thiol oxidation and was overall more effective, as OTC treatment reduced body and muscle weight, suggesting some adverse effects of this drug. These data suggest that increasing dietary taurine is a better candidate for a therapeutic intervention for DMD. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal muscle wasting disease for which there is no widely available cure. Whilst the mechanism of loss of muscle function in DMD and the mdx mouse model are not fully understood, disruptions in intracellular calcium homeostasis, inflammation and oxidative stress are implicated. We have shown that protein thiol oxidation is increased in mdx muscle, and that the indirect thiol antioxidant l-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate (OTC), which increases cysteine availability, decreases pathology and increases in vivo strength. We propose that the protective effects of OTC are a consequence of conversion of cysteine to taurine, which has itself been shown to be beneficial to mdx pathology. This study compares the efficacy of taurine with OTC in decreasing dystropathology in mdx mice by measuring in vivo and ex vivo contractile function and measurements of inflammation and protein thiol oxidation. Increasing the taurine content of mdx muscle improved both in vivo and ex

  18. Gestational protein restriction in mice has pronounced effects on gene expression in newborn offspring's liver and skeletal muscle; protective effect of taurine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Ole Hartvig; Olsen, Hanne Lodberg; Frandsen, Lis; Nielsen, Peter Eigil; Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Grunnet, Niels; Quistorff, Bjørn

    2010-01-01

    We examined gene expression changes in liver and skeletal muscle of newborn mice subjected to a maternal low protein (LP) or normal protein (NP) diet during pregnancy, with or without taurine supplementation in the drinking water. LP offspring had a 40% lower birthweight than NP offspring, whereas it was reduced by only 20% with taurine supplementation. Microarray gene expression analysis revealed significant changes in 2012 genes in liver and 967 genes in skeletal muscle of LP offspring. By unknown mechanisms, taurine partially or fully prevented 30 and 46% of these expression changes, respectively. Mitochondrial genes, in particular genes associated with oxidative phosphorylation, were more abundantly changed in LP offspring, with primarily up-regulation in liver but down-regulation in skeletal muscle. In both tissues, citrate synthase activity remained unchanged. Taurine preferentially rescued changes in genes concerned with fatty acid metabolism in liver and with oxidative phoshorylation and tri carboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in skeletal muscle. Gestational protein restriction resulted in lower birthweight associated with significant gene expression changes, which was different in liver and muscle of offspring. However, a major part of the birthweight decrease and the expression changes were prevented by maternal taurine supplementation, implying taurine is a key component in metabolic fetal programming.

  19. Taurine deficiency in the kitten subcellular distribution of taurine and [35S]taurine in brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, D K; Sturman, J A; Hayes, K C; Gaull, G E

    1978-08-01

    Taurine concentration decreases rapidly in the tissues and physiological fluids of kittens fed a diet of partially purified casein which lacks taurine. We have studied the subcellular distribution in cerebrum of taurine and [35S]taurine administered intravenously to these animals. The taurine concentration of all the fractions isolated from the cerebrum of taurine-deficient kittens was approximately sevenfold less than that observed in the fractions of cerebrum isolated from control kittens. The [35S]taurine was approximately twofold greater in all the brain fractions isolated from the taurine-deficient kittens compared with those isolated from the control kittens. The percent distributions of taurine and [35S]taurine in the fractions isolated from the cerebrum of control and deficient kittens were identical. Thus, in the face of a severe diet-induced deficiency of taurine in kitten brain, there appears to be no conservation of taurine by any particular subcellular pool of taurine. These studies provide no evidence for differences in compartmentation of taurine in cerebrum of taurine-deficient kittens compared with control kittens.

  20. Taurine Alleviates the Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetic Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Hyun Koh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is known to be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. In this study, the protective effects of taurine on diabetic nephropathy along with its underlying mechanism were investigated. Experimental animals were divided into three groups: LETO rats as normal group (n=10, OLETF rats as diabetic control group (n=10, and OLETF rats treated with taurine group (n=10. We treated taurine (200 mg/kg/day for 20 weeks and treated high glucose (HG, 30 mM with or without taurine (30 mM in mouse cultured podocyte. After taurine treatment, blood glucose level was decreased and insulin secretion was increased. Taurine significantly reduced albuminuria and ACR. Also it decreased glomerular volume, GBM thickness and increased open slit pore density through decreased VEGF and increased nephrin mRNA expressions in renal cortex. The antioxidant effects of taurine were confirmed by the reduction of urine MDA in taurine treated diabetic group. Also reactive oxygen species (ROS levels were decreased in HG condition with taurine treated podocytes compared to without taurine. These results indicate that taurine lowers glucose level via increased insulin secretion and ameliorates the progression of diabetic nephropathy through antifibrotic and antioxidant effects in type 2 diabetes rat model.

  1. Effects of taurine administration on exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatabe, Yoshihisa; Miyakawa, Shumpei; Ohmori, Hajime; Mishima, Hajime; Adachi, Takako

    2009-01-01

    Taurine concentration in rat skeletal muscles after endurance running, with and without taurine administration was studied. Taurine concentrations in skeletal muscles was significantly decreased in exercised groups without taurine administration. However, taurine administration reduced the decrease of taurine concentration in skeletal muscles in exercise. Oral administration of taurine has effect for maintaining taurine concentration in skeletal muscles in exercise. The duration of running time to exhaustion of rats, with and without taurine administration were studied. The duration of running time to exhaustion was significantly increased by taurine administration. Oral administration of taurine increases the ability of physical endurance. Rat urinary excretions of creatinine, creatine, 3-methylhistidine (3-MH) after treadmill running, with and without taurine administration were studied. Rat urinary excretions of creatinine, creatine, 3-MH after treadmill running was significantly decreased with taurine administration. Taurine administration was considered to reduce the exercise-induced muscle fatigue.

  2. Hepatoprotective Effect of Pretreatment with Thymus vulgaris Essential Oil in Experimental Model of Acetaminophen-Induced Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grespan, Renata; Aguiar, Rafael Pazinatto; Giubilei, Frederico Nunes; Fuso, Rafael Rocco; Damião, Marcio José; Silva, Expedito Leite; Mikcha, Jane Graton; Hernandes, Luzmarina; Bersani Amado, Ciomar; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

    2014-01-01

    Acute liver damage caused by acetaminophen overdose is a significant clinical problem and could benefit from new therapeutic strategies. Objective. This study investigated the hepatoprotective effect of Thymus vulgaris essential oil (TEO), which is used popularly for various beneficial effects, such as its antiseptic, carminative, and antimicrobial effects. The hepatoprotective activity of TEO was determined by assessing serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in mice. Their livers were then used to determine myeloperoxidase (MPO) enzyme activity and subjected to histological analysis. In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by assessing the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•)-scavenging effects of TEO and TEO-induced lipid peroxidation. TEO reduced the levels of the serum marker enzymes AST, ALT, and ALP and MPO activity. The histopathological analysis indicated that TEO prevented acetaminophen-induced necrosis. The essential oil also exhibited antioxidant activity, reflected by its DPPH radical-scavenging effects and in the lipid peroxidation assay. These results suggest that TEO has hepatoprotective effects on acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in mice. PMID:24639884

  3. Early predictors of severe acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in a paediatric population referred to a tertiary paediatric department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedeland, Rikke Lindgaard; Andersen, Jesper; Askbo, Natasha Louise Friis

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The data on severe acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in children are very limited. This study explored the dose-response relationship between ingested acetaminophen and hepatotoxicity, the early biochemical and clinical predictors of hepatotoxicity, the impact of early N-acetylcysteine tr......AIM: The data on severe acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in children are very limited. This study explored the dose-response relationship between ingested acetaminophen and hepatotoxicity, the early biochemical and clinical predictors of hepatotoxicity, the impact of early N......-acetylcysteine treatment on hepatotoxicity and the incidence of nephrotoxicity. METHODS: We carried out a retrospective case study on 25 children aged 11-16 years with severe acetaminophen poisoning. RESULTS: Initial biochemical parameters predicted hepatotoxicity, defined as the maximum levels of the international...... of nephrotoxicity was 12%. There was no significant relationship between the amount of ingested acetaminophen and the degree of hepatotoxicity. CONCLUSION: Paediatric patients at increased risk of severe hepatotoxicity were identified by early biochemical parameters, prehospital vomiting episodes and latency time...

  4. Effect of taurine on brain 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and 3-nitrotyrosine levels in endotoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozan, Gonca; Turkozkan, Nurten; Bircan, Filiz Sezen; Balabanli, Barbaros

    2012-04-01

    Taurine is a sulfur-containing β-amino acid that is found in milimolar concentrations in most mammalian tissues and plasma. It was shown to have cytoprotective effects in many in vitro and in vivo studies and these actions are often attributed to an antioxidant mechanism. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of acute taurine administration on endotoxin-induced oxidative and nitrosative stress in brain. Fourty adult male guinea pigs were divided into four groups: control, taurine, endotoxemia, and endotoxemia + taurine. Taurine (300 mg/kg), lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 4 mg/kg), or taurine plus LPS was administered intraperitoneally. After 6 h of incubation, when highest blood levels of taurine and endotoxin were attained, the animals were killed and brain tissue samples were collected. 3-Nitrotyrosine (3-NT), 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and taurine levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography methods. LPS administration significantly increased 3-NT, 8-OHdG levels, and dramatically reduced taurine concentrations in brain tissue compared to control group. The groups in which taurine was administered alone or with LPS, contradiction to well-known antioxidant effect, taurine caused elevated concentrations of 3-NT and 8-OHdG compared to both control and endotoxemia groups. In conclusion, endotoxemia leads to tyrosine nitration and DNA base modification that can be assessed by 3-NT and 8-OHdG, respectively. Taurine did not exhibit any antioxidant effect; moreover, it may contribute to neuronal damage at this dose. Thus, we can suggest that lower dose of taurine administration may be benefial for neuronal protection or adversely taurine administration may have toxic effect at all doses.

  5. Aloe vera attenuated liver injury in mice with acetaminophen-induced hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werawatganon, Duangporn; Linlawan, Sittikorn; Thanapirom, Kessarin; Somanawat, Kanjana; Klaikeaw, Naruemon; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Siriviriyakul, Prasong

    2014-07-08

    An overdose of the acetaminophen causes liver injury. This study aims to examine the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory effects of Aloe vera in mice with acetaminophen induced hepatitis. Male mice were randomly divided into three groups (n = 8 each). Control group were given orally distilled water (DW). APAP group were given orally N-acetyl-P-aminophenol (APAP) 400 mg/kg suspended in DW. Aloe vera-treated group were given orally APAP and Aloe vera (150 mg/kg) suspended in DW. Twenty-four hours later, the liver was removed to determine hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), hepatic glutathione (GSH), the number of interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-18 positive stained cells (%) by immunohistochemistry method, and histopathological examination. Then, the serum was collected to determine transaminase (ALT). In APAP group, ALT, hepatic MDA and the number of IL-12 and IL-18 positive stained cells were significantly increased when compared to control group (1210.50 ± 533.86 vs 85.28 ± 28.27 U/L, 3.60 ± 1.50 vs 1.38 ± 0.15 nmol/mg protein, 12.18 ± 1.10 vs 1.84 ± 1.29%, and 13.26 ± 0.90 vs 2.54 ± 1.29%, P = 0.000, respectively), whereas hepatic GSH was significantly decreased when compared to control group (5.98 ± 0.30 vs 11.65 ± 0.43 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.000). The mean level of ALT, hepatic MDA, the number of IL-12 and IL-18 positive stained cells, and hepatic GSH in Aloe vera-treated group were improved as compared with APAP group (606.38 ± 495.45 vs 1210.50 ± 533.86 U/L, P = 0.024; 1.49 ± 0.64 vs 3.60 ± 1.50 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.001; 5.56 ± 1.25 vs 12.18 ± 1.10%, P = 0.000; 6.23 ± 0.94 vs 13.26 ± 0.90%, P = 0.000; and 10.02 ± 0.20 vs 5.98 ± 0.30 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.000, respectively). Moreover, in the APAP group, the liver showed extensive hemorrhagic hepatic necrosis at all zones while in Aloe vera-treated group, the liver architecture was improved histopathology. APAP overdose can cause liver injury. Our result indicate that Aloe vera attenuate APAP

  6. Taurine, glutathione and bioenergetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Svend Høime; Grunnet, Niels

    2013-01-01

    the mitochondrial inner-membrane. The very high concentration of taurine in oxidative tissue has recently led to discussions on the role of taurine in the mitochondria, e.g. with taurine acting as a pH buffer in the mitochondrial matrix. A very important consequence of the slightly alkaline pH is the fact...... that the NADH/NAD(+) redox pair can be brought in redox equilibrium with the GSH redox pair GSH/GSSG.An additional consequence of having GSH as redox buffer is the fact that from the pH dependence of its redox potential, it becomes possible to explain that the mitochondrial membrane potential has been observed...... to be independent of the matrix pH. Finally a simplified model for mitochondrial oxidation is presented with introduction of GSH as redox buffer to stabilise the electrical gradient, and taurine as pH buffer stabilising the pH gradient, but simultaneously establishing the equilibrium between the NADH/NAD(+) redox...

  7. A maternal low protein diet has pronounced effects on mitochondrial gene expression in offspring liver and skeletal muscle; protective effect of taurine

    OpenAIRE

    Mortensen, Ole Hartvig; Olsen, Hanne Lodberg; Frandsen, Lis; Nielsen, Peter Eigil; Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Grunnet, Niels; Quistorff, Bj?rn

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Low birth weight is associated with an increased risk of developing impaired glucose tolerance, and eventually type 2 diabetes in adult life. Gestational protein restriction in rodents gives rise to a low birth weight phenotype in the offspring. Results We examined gene expression changes in liver and skeletal muscle of mice subjected to gestational protein restriction (LP) or not (NP), with or without taurine supplementation in the drinking water. LP offspring had a 40% l...

  8. Neuroprotective Functions Through Inhibition of ER Stress by Taurine or Taurine Combination Treatments in a Rat Stroke Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Howard; Gharibani, Payam M; Ma, Zhiyuan; Alexandrescu, Anamaria; Genova, Rafaella; Chen, Po-Chih; Modi, Jigar; Menzie, Janet; Pan, Chunliu; Tao, Rui; Wu, Jang-Yen

    2017-01-01

    Taurine, as a free amino acid, is found at high levels in many tissues including brain, heart and skeletal muscle and is known to demonstrate neuroprotective effects in a range of disease conditions including stroke and neurodegenerative disease. Using in vitro culture systems we have demonstrated that taurine can elicit protection against endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) from glutamate excitotoxicity or from excessive reactive oxygen species in PC12 cells or rat neuronal cultures. In our current investigation we hypothesized that taurine treatment after stroke in the rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model would render protection against ER stress processes as reflected in decreased levels of expression of ER stress pathway components. We demonstrated that taurine elicited high level protection and inhibited both ATF-6 and IRE-1 ER stress pathway components. As ischemic stroke has a complex pathology it is likely that certain combination treatment approaches targeting multiple disease mechanisms may have excellent potential for efficacy. We have previously employed the partial NMDA antagonist DETC-MeSO to render protection against in vivo ischemic stroke using a rat cerebral ischemia model. Here we tested administration of subcutaneous administration of 0.56 mg/kg DETC-MeSO or 40 mg/kg of taurine separately or as combined treatment after a 120 min cerebral ischemia in the rat MCAO model. Neither drug alone demonstrated protection at the low doses employed. Remarkably however the combination of low dose DETC-MeSO plus low dose taurine conferred a diminished infarct size and an enhanced Neuroscore (reflecting decreased neurological deficit). Analysis of ER stress markers pPERK, peIF-2-alpha and cleaved ATF-6 all showed decreased expression demonstrating that all 3 ER stress pathways were inhibited concurrent with a synergistic protective effect by the post-stroke administration of this DETC-MeSO-taurine combination treatment.

  9. [Progress in research on function and mechanism of cardiac vascular system of taurine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Hao-ming; Ito, Takashi; Qiu, Zhi-gang; Azuma, Junichi

    2005-05-01

    The function for cardiac vascular system of taurine is extensive, and the mechanism is complicated. Taurine protects the cells from the cell injury caused by ischemia etc. Through repressing apoptosis, prevents endothelial dysfunction caused by hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, smoking and homocysteine; suppresses the proliferation and calcification in vascular smooth muscle cells, promotes metabolization and excretion of cholesterol in the animal models of hyperlipemia, and confers the resistance to an oxidant, hypochlorous acid, produced by neutrophil on cells, and taurine chrolamine to inhibit activation of NF-kappaB, which might be associated with anti-atherosclerotic effect. Taurine mainly acts inside the cell. However, taurine transport system becomes aberrant in pathological myocardial and vascular tissue. In addition, taurine improves cardiovascular function in fructose-induced hypertension and an iron-overload murine animal models.

  10. Ontogenetic taurine biosynthesis ability in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Huihui

    2015-07-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethane sulfonic acid) plays important roles in multiple physiological processes including osmoregulation, bile salt conjugation and membrane protection. It is known that taurine biosynthesis varies in different fish species. However, its ontogenetic regulation has not been clear. In the present study, we found that the hepatic concentrations of taurine increased marginally with rainbow trout growth. The mRNA expression, protein levels and enzyme activities of key enzymes involved in taurine biosynthesis, cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) and cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSD), were analyzed. Our results showed that the mRNA levels and protein abundances of CSD increased dramatically with the development of rainbow trout stages while the enzyme activities showed a slight improvement. However, the expression and activities of CDO decreased with rainbow trout growth. These results provide valuable information on defining the exact supplementation of taurine in diets for different stages of rainbow trout and give new insights into elucidating the regulation of taurine metabolism in rainbow trout. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Taurine, glutathione and bioenergetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Svend Høime; Grunnet, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Biochemistry textbook presentations of bioenergetics and mitochondrial function normally focus on the chemiosmotic theory with introduction of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the electron transport chain, the proton and electrical gradients and subsequent oxidative phosphorylation and ATP-production by ATP synthase. The compound glutathione (GSH) is often mentioned in relation to mitochondrial function, primarily for a role as redox scavenger. Here we argue that its role as redox pair with oxidised glutathione (GSSG) is pivotal with regard to controlling the electrical or redox gradient across the mitochondrial inner-membrane. The very high concentration of taurine in oxidative tissue has recently led to discussions on the role of taurine in the mitochondria, e.g. with taurine acting as a pH buffer in the mitochondrial matrix. A very important consequence of the slightly alkaline pH is the fact that the NADH/NAD(+) redox pair can be brought in redox equilibrium with the GSH redox pair GSH/GSSG.An additional consequence of having GSH as redox buffer is the fact that from the pH dependence of its redox potential, it becomes possible to explain that the mitochondrial membrane potential has been observed to be independent of the matrix pH. Finally a simplified model for mitochondrial oxidation is presented with introduction of GSH as redox buffer to stabilise the electrical gradient, and taurine as pH buffer stabilising the pH gradient, but simultaneously establishing the equilibrium between the NADH/NAD(+) redox pair and the redox buffer pair GSH/GSSG.

  12. [Activity of liver mitochondrial NAD+-dependent dehydrogenases of the krebs cycle in rats with acetaminophen-induced hepatitis developed under conditions of alimentary protein deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voloshchuk, O N; Kopylchuk, G P

    2016-01-01

    Activity of isocitrate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, and the NAD(+)/NADН ratio were studied in the liver mitochondrial fraction of rats with toxic hepatitis induced by acetaminophen under conditions of alimentary protein deprivation. Acetaminophen-induced hepatitis was characterized by a decrease of isocitrate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase activities, while the mitochondrial NAD(+)/NADН ratio remained at the control level. Modeling of acetaminophen-induced hepatitis in rats with alimentary protein caused a more pronounced decrease in the activity of NAD(+)-dependent dehydrogenases studied and a 2.2-fold increase of the mitochondrial NAD(+)/NADН ratio. This suggests that alimentary protein deprivation potentiated drug-induced liver damage.

  13. 21 CFR 573.980 - Taurine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taurine. 573.980 Section 573.980 Food and Drugs... Listing § 573.980 Taurine. The food additive taurine (2-amino-ethanesulfonic acid) may be safely used in... in the feed of growing chickens. (b) It is added to complete feeds so that the total taurine content...

  14. Taurine inhibits interleukin-6 expression and release induced by ultraviolet B exposure to human retinal pigment epithelium cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayang, Wu; Jinsong, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The massive uptake of compatible osmolytes is a self-protective response shared by retina exposed to hypertonic stress and ultraviolet stress. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of taurine against ultraviolet damage in human retinal pigment epithelium cells. Real-time PCR, radioimmunoassay, ELISA and immunoassay were used to measure osmolyte uptake and IL-6 expression. Compared with normotonic stress, hypertonic stress led to an induction of osmolyte uptake including betaine, myoinositol and taurine. UVB exposure upregulated osmolyte transporter mRNA expression and increased osmolyte uptake respectively. Especially, taurine suppressed UVB-induced IL-6 mRNA expression significantly. The accumulation of IL-6 in UVB-exposed human retinal pigment epithelial cells supernatant was much slower when the cells were preincubated with taurine. Moreover, taurine suppressed IL-6 concentration in aqueous humour. The effect of compatible osmolyte taurine on IL-6 expression and release may play an important role in cell resistance and adaption to UVB exposure.

  15. Taurine modulation of hypochlorous acid-induced lung epithelial cell injury in vitro. Role of anion transport.

    OpenAIRE

    Cantin, A M

    1994-01-01

    Airway secretions of cystic fibrosis patients were found to contain high concentrations of taurine, which decreased with antibiotic therapy during acute respiratory exacerbations. Taurine, in a 1:1 molar ratio with HOCl/OCl-, caused a 10-fold increase in the amount of HOCl/OCl- needed to induce cytotoxicity to the cat lung epithelial cell line, AKD. Although DMSO protected cells against HOCl/OCl(-)-mediated injury, the presence of an equimolar concentration of taurine with HOCl/OCl- prevented...

  16. Regulation of Taurine transporter activity in cultured rat retinal ganglion cells and rat retinal Muller Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, Laila A.; Smith, Sylvia B.; El-sherbeny, Amira A.

    2006-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes. The amino acid taurine is believed to play an antioxidant protective role in diabetic retinopathy through the scavenging of the reactive species. It is not well established whether taurine uptake is altered in retina cells during diabetic conditions. Thus, the present study was designed to investigate the changes in taurine transport in cultures of rat retinal Muller cells and rat retinal ganglion cells under conditions associated with diabetes. Taurine was abundantly taken up by retinal Muller cells and rat retinal ganglion cells under normal glycemic condition. Taurine was actively transported to rat Muller cells and rat retinal ganglion cells in a Na and Cl dependant manner. Taurine uptake further significantly elevated in both type of cells after the incubation with high glucose concentration. This effect could be attributed to the increase in osmolarity. Because Nitric Oxide (NO) is a molecule implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes, we also determined the activity of taurine transporter in cultured rat retinal Muller cells and rat retinal ganglion cells in the presence of the NO donors, SIN-1 and SNAP. Taurine uptake was elevated above control value after 24-h incubation with low concentration of NO donors. We finally investigated the ability of neurotoxic glutamate to change taurine transporter activity in both types of cells. Uptake of taurine was significantly increased in rat retinal ganglion cells when only incubated with high concentration of glutamate. Our data provide evidence that taurine transporter is present in cultured rat retinal ganglion and Muller cells and is regulated by hyperosmolarity. The data are relevant to disease such as diabetes and neuronal degeneration where retinal cell volume may dramatically change. (author)

  17. Serum Taurine and Stroke Risk in Women: A Prospective, Nested Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fen; Koenig, Karen L; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Jonas, Saran; Afanasyeva, Yelena; Wójcik, Oktawia P; Costa, Max; Chen, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid), a conditionally essential sulfur-containing amino acid, is mainly obtained from diet in humans. Experimental studies have shown that taurine's main biological actions include bile salt conjugation, blood pressure regulation, anti-oxidation, and anti-inflammation. We conducted a prospective case-control study nested in the New York University Women's Health Study, a cohort study involving 14,274 women enrolled since 1985. Taurine was measured in pre-diagnostic serum samples of 241 stroke cases and 479 matched controls. There was no statistically significant association between serum taurine and stroke risk in the overall study population. The adjusted ORs for stroke were 1.0 (reference), 0.87 (95% CI, 0.59-1.28), and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.69-1.54) in increasing tertiles of taurine (64.3-126.6, 126.7-152.9, and 153.0-308.5 nmol/mL, respectively). A significant inverse association between serum taurine and stroke risk was observed among never smokers, with an adjusted OR of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.37-1.18) and 0.50 (95% CI, 0.26-0.94) for the second and third tertile, respectively (p for trend = 0.01), but not among past or current smokers (p for interaction taurine and stroke risk, although a protective effect was observed in never smokers, which requires further investigation. Taurine, Stroke, Epidemiology, Prospective, Case-control study, NYUWHS.

  18. Is there any cardioprotective role of Taurine during cold ischemic period following global myocardial ischemia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamsizkan Mehmet

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to investigate the cardioprotective effect of Taurine on the donor hearts during cold ischemic period. Methods 32 rats were divided into four groups (sham, taurine, ischemia, treatment group, 8 rats in each. All rats were fed with rat food for three weeks. Taurine and treatment groups were given a 200 mg/kg/day dose of Taurine by oral gavage besides rat feed. Cardiectomy was performed in all rats after three weeks. In ischemia and treatment groups, harvested hearts were kept in 0.9% sodium chloride at +4 degrees C for 5 hours. Tissue samples were taken from left ventricle in all groups. These samples were evaluated by histopathologic and biochemical examination. Results In the present study results of the biochemical and histopathological examination reveals the protective effects of Taurine. As a marker of lipid peroxidation, Malondialdehyde (MDA levels in ischemia group were significantly higher than both Sham and Taurine groups. MDA values were recorded; 3.62 ± 0.197 in the sham group, 2.07 ± 0.751 in the Taurine group, 9.71 ± 1.439 in the ischemia group and 7.68 ± 1.365 in the treatment group. MDA levels decreased in treatment group. (p Conclusion Taurine decreased myocardial damage during cold ischemic period following global myocardial ischemia.

  19. Taurine prevention of calcium paradox-related damage in cardiac muscle. Its regulatory action on intracellular cation contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi-Takihara, K; Azuma, J; Kishimoto, S; Onishi, S; Sperelakis, N

    1988-07-01

    The present study was designed to investigate in chick heart whether oral pretreatment with taurine or taurine added directly to the perfusate has any effect upon calcium paradox-induced heart failure. In both protocols, taurine significantly reduced the mechanical dysfunction resulting from the calcium paradox. Taurine pretreatment partially inhibited the excess accumulation of calcium in the myocardium that occurs upon calcium repletion, and microscopy revealed almost normal structure. This protective effect of taurine was accompanied by (a) reduction of the gain of sodium content that occurs during calcium depletion, and (b) reduction of the late gain in calcium that occurs during calcium repletion. It is proposed that taurine plays a role in the regulation of calcium homeostasis and membrane stabilization.

  20. Immunonutrition: the role of taurine.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Redmond, H P

    2012-02-03

    Taurine is a sulfonated beta amino acid derived from methionine and cysteine metabolism. It is present in high concentrations in most tissues and in particular in proinflammatory cells such as polymorphonuclear phagocytes. Initial investigation into the multifaceted properties of this non-toxic physiologic amino acid revealed a link between retinal dysfunction and dietary deficiency. Since then a role for this amino acid has been found in membrane stabilization, bile salt formation, antioxidation, calcium homeostasis, growth modulation, and osmoregulation. Our own group has demonstrated a key role for taurine in modulation of apoptosis in a variety of cell types. This review summarizes our current knowledge of taurine in nutrition, host proinflammatory cell homeostasis, therapeutic applications, and its potential immunoregulatory properties. It is our belief that taurine, similar to arginine and glutamine, is now more than worthy of critical clinical analysis.

  1. Licochalcone A Upregulates Nrf2 Antioxidant Pathway and Thereby Alleviates Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongming Lv

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen (APAP overdose-induced fatal hepatotoxicity is majorly characterized by overwhelmingly increased oxidative stress while enhanced nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 is involved in prevention of hepatotoxicity. Although Licochalcone A (Lico A upregulates Nrf2 signaling pathway against oxidative stress-triggered cell injury, whether it could protect from APAP-induced hepatotoxicity by directly inducing Nrf2 activation is still poorly elucidated. This study aims to explore the protective effect of Lico A against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity and its underlying molecular mechanisms. Our findings indicated that Lico A effectively decreased tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP- and APAP-stimulated cell apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species generation and increased various anti-oxidative enzymes expression, which is largely dependent on upregulating Nrf2 nuclear translocation, reducing the Keap1 protein expression, and strengthening the antioxidant response element promoter activity. Meanwhile, Lico A dramatically protected against APAP-induced acute liver failure by lessening the lethality; alleviating histopathological liver changes; decreasing the alanine transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase levels, malondialdehyde formation, myeloperoxidase level and superoxide dismutase depletion, and increasing the GSH-to-GSSG ratio. Furthermore, Lico A not only significantly modulated apoptosis-related protein by increasing Bcl-2 expression, and decreasing Bax and caspase-3 cleavage expression, but also efficiently alleviated mitochondrial dysfunction by reducing c-jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation and translocation, inhibiting Bax mitochondrial translocation, apoptosis-inducing factor and cytochrome c release. However, Lico A-inhibited APAP-induced the lethality, histopathological changes, hepatic apoptosis, and mitochondrial dysfunction in WT mice were evidently abrogated in Nrf2-/- mice. These

  2. Taurine increases hippocampal neurogenesis in aging mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Gebara

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with increased inflammation and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis, which may in turn contribute to cognitive impairment. Taurine is a free amino acid found in numerous diets, with anti-inflammatory properties. Although abundant in the young brain, the decrease in taurine concentration with age may underlie reduced neurogenesis. Here, we assessed the effect of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in middle-aged mice. We found that taurine increased cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus through the activation of quiescent stem cells, resulting in increased number of stem cells and intermediate neural progenitors. Taurine had a direct effect on stem/progenitor cells proliferation, as observed in vitro, and also reduced activated microglia. Furthermore, taurine increased the survival of newborn neurons, resulting in a net increase in adult neurogenesis. Together, these results show that taurine increases several steps of adult neurogenesis and support a beneficial role of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in the context of brain aging.

  3. Diverse effects of taurine on vascular response and inflammation in GSH depletion model in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsarlak-Sozer, G; Sevin, G; Ozgur, H H; Yetik-Anacak, G; Kerry, Z

    2016-04-01

    A reduction in GSH and an increase in free radicals are observed in inflammatory diseases, indicating oxidative stress. Taurine protects cells from the cytotoxic effects of inflammation. There have been limited studies to date evaluating the effect of taurine in oxidative stress-induced vascular dysfunction and its role in vascular inflammatory diseases. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of taurine on the regulation of vascular tonus and vascular inflammatory markers in rabbit aortae and carotid arteries in oxidative stress-induced by GSH depletion. Rabbits were treated subcutaneously with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), GSH-depleting compound and/or taurine. Cumulative concentration-response curves for acetylcholine (ACh), phenylephrine and 5-hydroxytriptamine (5-HT) were constructed with or without Nω-nitro-L-arginine (LNA) in the carotid artery and aorta rings. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for TNF-α and IL-1β. BSO increased ACh-induced NO-dependent relaxations, phenylephrine-induced contractions in the carotid artery and 5-HT induced-contractions in both the carotid artery and the aorta. BSO decreased EDHF dependent relaxations only in the aorta. ACh-induced NO-dependent relaxations and augmented contractions were normalized by taurine. BSO increased TNF-α expressions in both carotid arteries and aortas, which were reversed by taurine. The BSO-induced increase in IL-1β was reversed by taurine only in aortae. Treatment with BSO resulted in vascular reactivity changes and increased immunostaining of TNF-α in mainly carotid arteries in this model of oxidative stress. The effect of taurine on BSO-induced vascular reactivity changes varied depending on the vessel. The inhibition of the increase in TNF-α expression by taurine in both carotid arteries and aortae supports the proposal that taurine has a beneficial effect in the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis.

  4. Taurine Ameliorates Renal Oxidative Damage and Thyroid Dysfunction in Rats Chronically Exposed to Fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedara, Isaac A; Ojuade, Temini Jesu D; Olabiyi, Bolanle F; Idris, Umar F; Onibiyo, Esther M; Ajeigbe, Olufunke F; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2017-02-01

    Excessive exposure to fluoride poses several detrimental effects to human health particularly the kidney which is a major organ involved in its elimination from the body. The influence of taurine on fluoride-induced renal toxicity was investigated in a co-exposure paradigm for 45 days using five groups of eight rats each. Group I rats received normal drinking water alone, group II rats were exposed to sodium fluoride (NaF) in drinking water at 15 mg/L alone, group III received taurine alone at a dose of 200 mg/kg group IV rats were co-administered with NaF and taurine (100 mg/kg), while group V rats were co-administered with NaF and taurine (200 mg/kg). Administration of taurine significantly reversed the fluoride-mediated decrease in absolute weight and organo-somatic index of the kidney in the exposed rats. Taurine significantly prevented fluoride-induced elevation in plasma urea and creatinine levels in the exposed rats. Moreover, taurine restored fluoride-mediated decrease in the circulatory concentrations of triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and the ratio of triiodothyronine to thyroxine. Taurine ameliorated fluoride-mediated decrease in renal antioxidant status by significantly enhancing the antioxidant enzyme activities as well as glutathione level in the exposed rats. Additionally, taurine inhibited fluoride-induced renal oxidative damage by markedly decreasing the hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde levels as well as improved the kidney architecture in the treated rats. Collectively, taurine protected against fluoride-induced renal toxicity via enhancement of thyroid gland function, renal antioxidant status, and histology in rats.

  5. Therapeutic potential of alpha-ketoglutarate against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalita Mehra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Alpha-ketoglutarate (α-KG is a cellular intermediary metabolite of Krebs cycle, involved in energy metabolism, amino acid synthesis, and nitrogen transport. It is available over-the-counter and marketed as a nutritional supplement. There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that dietary α-KG has the potential to maintain cellular redox status and thus can protect various oxidative stress induced disease states. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hepatoprotective role of α-KG in acetaminophen (APAP induced toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into three groups of six animals each. Group I (Vehicle control: Normal Saline, Group II (APAP: A single intraperitoneal injection of 0.6 g/kg, Group III (APAP + α-KG: APAP as in Group II with α-KG treatment at a dose of 2 g/kg, orally for 5 days. Then the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP with oxidative stress markers including malondialdehyde (MDA, reduced glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and histopathology were analyzed. Results: The results indicate that APAP caused significant elevations in ALT, AST, ALP, and MDA levels, while GSH, SOD, and CAT were significantly depleted while co-administration of α-KG showed a significant (P < 0.05 reduction in the severity of these damages. Histologically, the liver showed inflammation and necrosis after APAP treatment, which were significantly restored with co-administration of α-KG. Conclusion: These results indicate the possible therapeutic potential of α-KG in protecting liver damage by APAP in rats.

  6. The protection of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) towards acetaminophen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    icantly increased in serum of APAP-treated mice, and the pre-treatment with GA can prevent this elevation of these two fatty acid-carnitines. Conclusion: Reversing the metabolism pathway of fatty acid is an important mechanism for the protection of glycyrrhetinic acid towards acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity. Keywords: ...

  7. Protective effect of oral ascorbic acid (vitamin c) against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity is reported to be on the increase, with limited therapeutic or chemoprophylactic options. In the present in vivo study, single daily oral doses (100 – 500 mg/kg) of ascorbic acid (ASC) were investigated for their protective effects against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced ...

  8. Necrostatin-1 protects against reactive oxygen species (ROS-induced hepatotoxicity in acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Takemoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive acetaminophen (APAP use is one of the most common causes of acute liver failure. Various types of cell death in the damaged liver are linked to APAP-induced hepatotoxicity, and, of these, necrotic cell death of hepatocytes has been shown to be involved in disease pathogenesis. Until recently, necrosis was commonly considered to be a random and unregulated form of cell death; however, recent studies have identified a previously unknown form of programmed necrosis called receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIPK-dependent necrosis (or necroptosis, which is controlled by the kinases RIPK1 and RIPK3. Although RIPK-dependent necrosis has been implicated in a variety of disease states, including atherosclerosis, myocardial organ damage, stroke, ischemia–reperfusion injury, pancreatitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. However its involvement in APAP-induced hepatocyte necrosis remains elusive. Here, we showed that RIPK1 phosphorylation, which is a hallmark of RIPK-dependent necrosis, was induced by APAP, and the expression pattern of RIPK1 and RIPK3 in the liver overlapped with that of CYP2E1, whose activity around the central vein area has been demonstrated to be critical for the development of APAP-induced hepatic injury. Moreover, a RIPK1 inhibitor ameliorated APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in an animal model, which was underscored by significant suppression of the release of hepatic enzymes and cytokine expression levels. RIPK1 inhibition decreased reactive oxygen species levels produced in APAP-injured hepatocytes, whereas CYP2E1 expression and the depletion rate of total glutathione were unaffected. Of note, RIPK1 inhibition also conferred resistance to oxidative stress in hepatocytes. These data collectively demonstrated a RIPK-dependent necrotic mechanism operates in the APAP-injured liver and inhibition of this pathway may be beneficial for APAP-induced fulminant hepatic failure.

  9. New therapeutic approach: diphenyl diselenide reduces mitochondrial dysfunction in acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélson R Carvalho

    Full Text Available The acute liver failure (ALF induced by acetaminophen (APAP is closely related to oxidative damage and depletion of hepatic glutathione, consequently changes in cell energy metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction have been observed after APAP overdose. Diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe2], a simple organoselenium compound with antioxidant properties, previously demonstrated to confer hepatoprotection. However, little is known about the protective mechanism on mitochondria. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects (PhSe2 to reduce mitochondrial dysfunction and, secondly, compare in the liver homogenate the hepatoprotective effects of the (PhSe2 to the N-acetylcysteine (NAC during APAP-induced ALF to validate our model. Mice were injected intraperitoneal with APAP (600 mg/kg, (PhSe2 (15.6 mg/kg, NAC (1200 mg/kg, APAP+(PhSe2 or APAP+NAC, where the (PhSe2 or NAC treatment were given 1 h following APAP. The liver was collected 4 h after overdose. The plasma alanine and aspartate aminotransferase activities increased after APAP administration. APAP caused a remarkable increase of oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxidation, reactive species and protein carbonylation and decrease of the antioxidant defense in the liver homogenate and mitochondria. APAP caused a marked loss in the mitochondrial membrane potential, the mitochondrial ATPase activity, and the rate of mitochondrial oxygen consumption and increased the mitochondrial swelling. All these effects were significantly prevented by (PhSe2. The effectiveness of (PhSe2 was similar at a lower dose than NAC. In summary, (PhSe2 provided a significant improvement to the mitochondrial redox homeostasis and the mitochondrial bioenergetics dysfunction caused by membrane permeability transition in the hepatotoxicity APAP-induced.

  10. Effect of taurine on chronic and acute liver injury: Focus on blood and brain ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Heidari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperammonemia is associated with chronic and acute liver injury. There is no promising therapeutic agent against ammonia-induced complications. Hence, finding therapeutic molecules with safe profile of administration has clinical value. The present study was conducted to evaluate the role of taurine (TA administration on plasma and brain ammonia and its consequent events in different models of chronic and acute liver injury and hyperammonemia. Bile duct ligated (BDL rats were used as a model of chronic liver injury. Thioacetamide and acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure were used as acute liver injury models. A high level of ammonia was detected in blood and brain of experimental groups. An increase in brain ammonia level coincided with a decreased total locomotor activity of animals and significant changes in the biochemistry of blood and also liver tissue. TA administration (500 and 1000 mg/kg, i.p, effectively alleviated liver injury and its consequent events including rise in plasma and brain ammonia and brain edema. The data suggested that TA is not only a useful and safe agent to preserve liver function, but also prevented hyperammonemia as a deleterious consequence of acute and chronic liver injury.

  11. Hemizygosity of transsulfuration genes confers increased vulnerability against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiya, Yoshifumi; Kamata, Shotaro; Mitsuoka, Saya; Okada, Norihiko; Yoshida, Saori; Yamamoto, Junya; Ohkubo, Rika [Department of Biochemistry, Keio University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo 105-8512 (Japan); Abiko, Yumi [Environmental Biology Laboratory, School of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan); Yamada, Hidenori [Jobu Hospital for Respiratory Diseases, Maebashi 371-0048 (Japan); Akahoshi, Noriyuki [Department of Immunology, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, Akita 010-8543 (Japan); Kasahara, Tadashi [Department of Biochemistry, Keio University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo 105-8512 (Japan); Kumagai, Yoshito [Environmental Biology Laboratory, School of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan); Ishii, Isao, E-mail: isao-ishii@umin.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, Keio University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo 105-8512 (Japan)

    2015-01-15

    especially Cth{sup −/−} mice were susceptible to APAP hepatic injury. • Hepatic glutathione became rapidly depleted upon APAP injection in Cth{sup −/−} mice. • Hepatic glutamate–cysteine ligase was activated by APAP injection and CTH deletion. • 2D DIGE identified 47 differentially expressed hepatic proteins by APAP injection. • Both transsulfuration enzymes are essential for protection against APAP injury.

  12. Taurine reduces blue light-induced retinal neuronal cell apoptosis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayang, Wu; Dongbo, Pang

    2018-02-27

    The massive uptake of organic compatible osmolytes is a self-protective response to multiple stressors. This study aimed to determine the protective effects of the osmolyte taurine against blue light-induced apoptosis in retinal neuronal cells in vitro. Real-time PCR was used to measure osmolyte transport. Radioimmunoassays were performed to measure osmolyte uptake. Cell Counting Kit-8 assays were conducted to measure cellular viability. Flow cytometry analysis was used to measure apoptosis. Compared with normotonic stress, hypertonic stress-induced uptake of osmolytes, including betaine, myoinositol, and taurine, into the retinal neuronal cells. Blue light increased osmolyte transporter mRNA expression together with osmolyte uptake. Furthermore, taurine significantly suppressed blue light-induced retinal neuronal cell apoptosis. The compatible osmolyte taurine may have an important role in cell resistance to blue light and cell survival.

  13. Taurine zinc solid dispersions enhance bile-incubated L02 cell viability and improve liver function by inhibiting ERK2 and JNK phosphorylation during cholestasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yu; Mei, Xueting; Yuan, Jingquan; Lai, Xiaofang; Xu, Donghui

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Taurine zinc SDs could prevent the bile-induced reduction in L02 cell viability. • Taurine zinc SDs can prevent cholestatic liver injury. • Taurine zinc SDs can inhibit BDL-induced hepatocyte apoptosis. • Taurine zinc SDs shows the cholesterol-lowering effects on cholestasis. • Taurine zinc SDs may suppress inflammation via dampening JNK phosphorylation. - Abstract: Dietary intakes of taurine and zinc are associated with decreased risk of liver disease. In this study, solid dispersions (SDs) of a taurine zinc complex on hepatic injury were examined in vitro using the immortalized human hepatocyte cell line L02 and in a rat model of bile duct ligation. Sham-operated and bile duct ligated Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with the vehicle alone or taurine zinc (40, 80, 160 mg/kg) for 17 days. Bile duct ligation significantly increased blood lipid levels, and promoted hepatocyte apoptosis, inflammation and compensatory biliary proliferation. In vitro, incubation with bile significantly reduced L02 cell viability; this effect was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor) and enhanced when co-incubated with taurine zinc SDs. In vivo, administration of taurine zinc SDs decreased serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities in a dose-dependent manner and attenuated the increases in serum total bilirubin, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels after bile duct ligation. Additionally, taurine zinc SDs downregulated the expression of interleukin-1β and inhibited the phosphorylation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase2 (ERK2) in the liver after bile duct ligation. Moreover, taurine zinc SDs had more potent blood lipid regulatory and anti-apoptotic effects than the physical mixture of taurine and zinc acetate. Therefore, we speculate that taurine zinc SDs protect liver function at least in part via a mechanism linked to reduce

  14. NADH:ubiquinone reductase and succinate dehydrogenase activity in the liver of rats with acetaminophen-induced toxic hepatitis on the background of alimentary protein deficiency

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    G. P. Kopylchuk

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The ratio between the redox forms of the nicotinamide coenzymes and key enzymatic activity of the I and II respiratory chain complexes in the liver cells mitochondria of rats with acetaminophen-induced hepatitis under the conditions of alimentary deprivation of protein was studied. It was estimated, that under the conditions of acute acetaminophen-induced hepatitis of rats kept on a low-protein diet during 4 weeks a significant decrease of the NADH:ubiquinone reductase and succinate dehydrogenase activity with simultaneous increase of the ratio between redox forms of the nicotinamide coenzymes (NAD+/NADН is observed compared to the same indices in the liver cells of animals with experimental hepatitis kept on the ration balanced by all nutrients. Results of research may become basic ones for the biochemical rationale for the approaches directed to the correction and elimination of the consequences­ of energy exchange in the toxic hepatitis, induced on the background of protein deficiency.

  15. Effect of Taurine on Cisplatin -Induced Nephrotoxicity and Hepatoxicity in Male Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noruzi M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Cisplatin, Platinum co-ordinate complex is a widely used antineaplastic agent for treatment of metastatic tumors. Taurine is an organic acid and an endogenous antioxidant. In this study we investigated the protective effect of taurine as an endogenous antioxidant against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotexicity.Methods: 24 male albino rats (180-220 grams were divided into 4 groups (n=6: (1: saline-treated group (2: cisplatin-treated group (10mg/kg, ip (3: group that received taurine (400mg/kg, ip 1hr before cisplatin (10mg/kg, ip administration (4: taurine (400mg/kg, ip. The animals were killed 7days after treatment and then blood samples were collected.Results: The results of this study indicated that cisplatin significantly increased CRATININ, URE, ALT, AST levels as compared to control group. Moreover, taurine significantly decreased CRATININ, URE, ALT and AST levels compared to cisplatin group.Conclusion: According to this study taurine prevents the incease of Creatinin, BUN, ALT and AST levels assisted by cisplatin, which may be due to its antioxidant properties.Keywords: Cisplatin; Taurine; Hepatoxicity; Nephrotoxicity; Nephrons.

  16. Taurine Prevents Ibuprofen-Induced Gastric Mucosal Lesions and Influences Endogenous Antioxidant Status of Stomach in Rats

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    T. Balasubramanian

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, free radical–induced tissue damage is implicated in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs–involved gastric mucosal lesion. Administration of taurine, an endogenous antioxidant, is reported to be beneficial in various clinical conditions. Therefore, we decided to study the protective effect of taurine in ibuprofen-induced gastropathy and the effects of administration of taurine on the endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPX, and reduced glutathione (GSH of stomach. In rats, administration of taurine orally for three consecutive days (250 mg/kg body weight protected the gastric mucosa from ibuprofen-induced, acute gastric mucosal lesion. In ibuprofen-treated rats, the lipid peroxidation measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, a marker for free radical–induced tissue damage, is also significantly decreased by taurine. Ibuprofen treatment resulted in a significant increase in the activities of total SOD, manganese SOD (Mn-SOD, and GPX and reduced GSH. Taurine administration in ibuprofen-treated rats also showed a significant increase in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes namely total SOD, Mn-SOD, GPX, CAT, and the level of reduced GSH. The activity of copper-zinc SOD enzyme (Cu-Zn SOD is not affected by ibuprofen or taurine. There is no temporal relation between the antioxidant status of the stomach and the tissue damage following oral administration of ibuprofen or taurine.

  17. Contribution to the study of the physiological behaviour of taurine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bascheri, Marie-Claude

    1960-10-01

    This document reports an academic work based on the use of the isotopic dilution method to measure the taurine concentration in various organs belonging to a frog, a rabbit and a partridge. The author also studied some modalities of taurine distribution in the rabbit (apparent volume of taurine distribution, assessment of the exchangeable taurine mass), and the taurine excretion by the kidney [fr

  18. Effect of iron, taurine and arginine on rat hepatic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Liangwen; Wang Dewen; Cui Xuemei

    1997-01-01

    Objective: The promotion role of iron on pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis and the protective role of taurine and L-arginine against hepatic fibrosis were studied. Method: The model of rat radiation hepatic fibrosis was used. Experimental rats were divided into 0 Gy, 30 Gy, 30 Gy + iron, 30 Gy + taurine and 30 Gy + L-arginine groups. Serum iron, liver tissue hydroxyproline (Hyp) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured one and three months respectively after irradiation of hepatic tissue, production and distribution characteristics of hepatic tissue type I and III collagen were observed with a polarizing microscope. Results: Administration of iron agent could significantly increase hepatic tissue MDA content and serum iron concentration, one month after irradiation, hepatic tissue Hyp in 30 Gy + iron group began to increase, and collagen in hepatic tissue obviously increased. Taurine and L-arginine could reduce serum iron concentration and decrease production of hepatic fissure Hyp. Conclusion: Exogenous iron agent could promote early development of radiation hepatic fibrosis; taurine and arginine could diminish pathologic alteration of hepatic fibrosis to a certain extent

  19. Taurine Biosynthesis by Neurons and Astrocytes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitvitsky, Victor; Garg, Sanjay K.; Banerjee, Ruma

    2011-01-01

    The physiological roles of taurine, a product of cysteine degradation and one of the most abundant amino acids in the body, remain elusive. Taurine deficiency leads to heart dysfunction, brain development abnormalities, retinal degradation, and other pathologies. The taurine synthetic pathway is proposed to be incomplete in astrocytes and neurons, and metabolic cooperation between these cell types is reportedly needed to complete the pathway. In this study, we analyzed taurine synthesis capability as reported by incorporation of radioactivity from [35S]cysteine into taurine, in primary murine astrocytes and neurons, and in several transformed cell lines (human (SH-SY5Y) and murine (N1E-115) neuroblastoma, human astrocytoma (U-87MG and 1321 N1), and rat glioma (C6)). Extensive incorporation of radioactivity from [35S]cysteine into taurine was observed in rat glioma cells as well as in primary mouse astrocytes and neurons, establishing the presence of an intact taurine synthesis pathway in these cells. Interestingly, exposure of cells to cysteine or cysteamine resulted in elevated intracellular hypotaurine without a corresponding increase in taurine levels, suggesting that oxidation of hypotaurine limits taurine synthesis in cells. Consistent with its role as an organic osmolyte, taurine synthesis was stimulated under hypertonic conditions in neurons. PMID:21778230

  20. Effects of taurine and housing density on renal function in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zi-Li; Gao, Yang; Ma, Hai-Tian; Zheng, Liu-Hai; Dai, Bin; Miao, Jin-Feng; Zhang, Yuan-Shu

    This study investigated the putative protective effects of supplemental 2-aminoethane sulfonic acid (taurine) and reduced housing density on renal function in laying hens. We randomly assigned fifteen thousand green-shell laying hens into three groups: a free range group, a low-density caged group, and a high-density caged group. Each group was further divided equally into a control group (C) and a taurine treatment group (T). After 15 d, we analyzed histological changes in kidney cells, inflammatory mediator levels, oxidation and anti-oxidation levels. Experimental data revealed taurine supplementation, and rearing free range or in low-density housing can lessen morphological renal damage, inflammatory mediator levels, and oxidation levels and increase anti-oxidation levels. Our data demonstrate that taurine supplementation and a reduction in housing density can ameliorate renal impairment, increase productivity, enhance health, and promote welfare in laying hens.

  1. Comparison of taurine, GABA, Glu, and Asp as scavengers of malondialdehyde in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yan; Wang, Wei; Yu, Pingfeng; Xi, Zhijiang; Xu, Lijian; Li, Xiaolong; He, Nongyue

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if amino acid neurotransmitters such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), taurine, glutamate (Glu), and aspartate (Asp) can scavenge activated carbonyl toxicants. In vitro, direct reaction between malondialdehyde (MDA) and amino acids was researched using different analytical methods. The results indicated that scavenging activated carbonyl function of taurine and GABA is very strong and that of Glu and Asp is very weak in pathophysiological situations. The results provided perspective into the reaction mechanism of taurine and GABA as targets of activated carbonyl such as MDA in protecting nerve terminals. In vivo, we studied the effect of taurine and GABA as antioxidants by detecting MDA concentration and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities. It was shown that MDA concentration was decreased significantly, and the activities of SOD and GSH-Px were increased significantly in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of acute epileptic state rats, after the administration of taurine and GABA. The results indicated that the peripherally administered taurine and GABA can scavenge free radicals and protect the tissue against activated carbonyl in vivo and in vitro.

  2. Neuroprotective actions of taurine on hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-Yun; Ma, Peng-Sheng; Wu, Wei; Zhou, Ru; Hao, Yin-Ju; Niu, Yang; Sun, Tao; Li, Yu-Xiang; Yu, Jian-Qiang

    2016-06-01

    Taurine is an abundant amino acid in the nervous system, which has been proved to possess antioxidation, osmoregulation and membrane stabilization. Previously it has been demonstrated that taurine exerts ischemic brain injury protective effect. This study was designed to investigate whether the protective effect of taurine has the possibility to be applied to treat neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. Seven-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with left carotid artery ligation followed by exposure to 8% oxygen to generate the experimental group. The cerebral damage area was measured after taurine post-treatment with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, Hematoxyline-Eosin (HE) staining and Nissl staining. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), myeloperoxtidase (MPO), ATP and Lactic Acid productions were assayed with ipsilateral hemisphere homogenates. Western-blot and immunofluorescence assay were processed to detect the expressions of AIF, Cyt C, Bax, Bcl-2 in brain. We found that taurine significantly reduced brain infarct volume and ameliorated morphological injury obviously reversed the changes of SOD, MDA, GSH-Px, T-AOC, ATP, MPO, and Lactic Acid levels. Compared with hypoxic-ischemic group, it showed marked reduction of AIF, Cyt C and Bax expressions and increase of Bcl-2 after post-treatment. We conclude that taurine possesses an efficacious neuroprotective effect after cerebral hypoxic-ischemic damage in neonatal rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Therapeutic effect of taurine against aluminum-induced impairment on learning, memory and brain neurotransmitters in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenting, Lu; Ping, Liu; Haitao, Jiao; Meng, Qiao; Xiaofei, Ren

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study was to demonstrate the therapeutic effect of taurine against aluminum (Al)-induced neurological disorders in rats. Forty-two Wistar rats were randomly allotted into six groups: control (saline only), Al exposure (281.4 mg/kg/day for 1 month), Al + taurine (Al administration as previously plus taurine, doses were 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg/day, respectively, for the next 1 month) and prevention group (along with the Al administration as previously, 400 mg/kg/day taurine was treated for 1 month. During the next 1 month, rats were given taurine 400 mg/kg/day only). Starting from the sixth week, the body weight gain was significantly reduced in Al exposure group compared with saline (P taurine treatment (400, 800 mg/kg/day and prevention) significantly protected against Al-induced brain dysfunction (P taurine treatment partially reversed the deteriorated changes. The results suggested that taurine probably has neuroprotective effect against Al-induced learning, memory and brain neurotransmitters dysfunction.

  4. 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg3, a rare saponin from red ginseng, ameliorates acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity by suppressing PI3K/AKT pathway-mediated inflammation and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan-Dan; Hou, Jin-Gang; Liu, Wei; Ren, Shen; Wang, Ying-Ping; Zhang, Rui; Chen, Chen; Wang, Zi; Li, Wei

    2018-04-02

    Although ginsenoside Rg3 was isolated as a major component of Korea red ginseng and confirmed to exert potential hepatoprotective effect on acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury via induction of glutathione S-transferase (GST) in vitro, thein vivo hepatoprotective effect of Rg3 and the underlying molecular mechanism of action remain unclear. The current study was aimed to explore whether 20(R)-Ginsenoside Rg3 (20(R)-Rg3) could alleviate acetaminophen-induced liver injury in mice and to determine the involvement of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Our findings demonstrated that a single injection of APAP (250 mg/kg) increased the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β); such increases were attenuated by pretreatment of mice with 20(R)-Rg3 for seven days. The depletion of glutathione (GSH), generation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the over expression of cytochrome P450 E1 (CYP2E1) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) caused by APAP exposure were also inhibited by 20(R)-Rg3 pretreatment. Moreover, 20(R)-Rg3 pretreatment significantly alleviated APAP-induced apoptosis, necrosis, and inflammatory infiltration in liver tissues. Importantly, 20(R)-Rg3 effectively attenuated APAP-induced liver injury in part via activating PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. In summary, 20(R)-Rg3 exerted liver protection against APAP-caused hepatotoxicity evidenced by inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammatory response, alleviation of hepatocellular necrosis and apoptosis via activation of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, showing potential as a novel therapeutic agent to prevent liver damage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Antihypertensive effect of taurine in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianmin; Xu, Xingli; Yang, Jiancheng; Wu, Gaofeng; Sun, Changmian; Lv, Qiufeng

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effect of taurine on hypertension, a rat model of hypertension was produced by administering N-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME) to reduce the levels of the vasodilator, nitric oxide. At the same time that L-NAME was administered, taurine treated animals received either 1% or 2% taurine in the drinking water. As a control, 1% taurine was added to the water without L-NAME administration in order to investigate the effects of taurine on blood pressure of normal rats. The results showed that taurine increased serum levels of nitric oxide and nitric oxide synthase, inhibited the elevation of blood pressure, interfered with the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and minimized the elevation in serum cytokine, endothelin, neuropeptide Y and thromboxane B2. It also reduced oxygen derived free radical generation, upregulated the antioxidant defenses and inhibited the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. These data indicate that taurine benefits hypertensive rats, with 2% taurine mediating greater improvement than 1% taurine.

  6. Taurine depletion alters vascular reactivity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Worku; Mozaffari, Mahmood S

    2003-09-01

    We recently showed that chronic taurine supplementation is associated with attenuation of contractile responses of rat aorta to norepinephrine and potassium chloride. However, the potential involvement of endogenous taurine in modulation of vascular reactivity is not known. Therefore, we examined the effect of beta-alanine-induced taurine depletion on the in vitro reactivity of rat aorta to selected vasoactive agents. The data indicate that both norepinephrine- and potassium-chloride-induced maximum contractile responses of endothelium-denuded aortae were enhanced in taurine-depleted rats compared with control animals. However, taurine depletion did not affect tissue sensitivity to either norepinephrine or potassium chloride. By contrast, sensitivity of the endothelium-denuded aortae to sodium nitroprusside was attenuated by taurine depletion. Similarly, taurine deficiency reduced the relaxant responses of endothelium-intact aortic rings elicited by submaximal concentrations of acetylcholine, and this effect was associated with decreased nitric oxide production. Taken together, the data suggest that taurine depletion augments contractility but attenuates relaxation of vascular smooth muscle in a nonspecific manner. Impairment of endothelium-dependent responses, which is at least in part associated with reduced nitric oxide generation, may contribute to the attenuation of the vasorelaxant responses. These vascular alterations could be of potential consequence in pathological conditions associated with taurine deficiency.

  7. Effect of Taurine on Cisplatin -Induced Nephrotoxicity and Hepatoxicity in Male Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Noruzi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Cisplatin, Platinum co-ordinate complex is a widely used antineaplastic agent for treatment of metastatic tumors. Taurine is an organic acid and an endogenous antioxidant. In this study we investigated the protective effect of taurine as an endogenous antioxidant against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotexicity.

     

    Methods: 24 male albino rats (180-220 grams were divided into 4 groups (n=6: (1: saline-treated group (2: cisplatin-treated group (10mg/kg, ip (3: group that received taurine (400mg/kg, ip 1hr before cisplatin (10mg/kg, ip administration (4: taurine (400mg/kg, ip. The animals were killed 7days after treatment and then blood samples were collected.

     

    Results: The results of this study indicated that cisplatin significantly increased CRATININ, URE, ALT, AST levels as compared to control group. Moreover, taurine significantly decreased CRATININ, URE, ALT and AST levels compared to cisplatin group.

     

    Conclusion: According to this study taurine prevents the incease of Creatinin, BUN, ALT and AST levels assisted by cisplatin, which may be due to its antioxidant properties.

  8. Effect of taurine on attenuating chemotherapy-induced adverse effects in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islambulchilar, Mina; Asvadi, Iraj; Sanaat, Zohreh; Esfahani, Ali; Sattari, Mohammadreza

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of oral taurine supplementation on the incidence of chemotherapy-induced adverse drug reactions during chemotherapy in young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Forty young adult (aged over 16 years) with ALL, at the beginning of maintenance course of their chemotherapy, were recruited to the study. The study population was randomized in a double blind manner to receive either taurine or placebo. Life quality and adverse drug reactions were assessed using questionnaire. Blood cell count, hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), serum bilirubin, transaminases, urea, and creatinine concentrations were evaluated. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Of total participants, 43.8% were female and 56.3% were male. The mean age was 19.16 ± 1.95 years (range: 16-23 years). The results indicated that the levels of white blood cells were significantly (P taurine treated group, but other hematological values did not differ significantly in either group. Taurine administration improved liver and kidney functions, indicated by decline of serum bilirubin, transaminases, urea, and creatinine, respectively in comparison to the controls (P taurine significantly reduced serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels (P taurine supplementation could be a protection against chemotherapy-induced toxicities probably by its antioxidant capacity. Present study showed effectiveness of taurineon the chemotherapy-related toxicities and some of the complications during the maintenance period of treatment following coadministration in young adults with ALL.

  9. Benefits of Prenatal Taurine Supplementation in Preventing the Onset of Acute Damage in the Mdx Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Robert G; Horvath, Deanna; van der Poel, Chris; Murphy, Robyn M

    2017-09-22

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a debilitating muscle wasting disorder with no cure. Safer supplements and therapies are needed to improve the severity of symptoms, as severe side effects are associated with the only effective treatment, corticosteroids. The amino acid taurine has shown promise in ameliorating dystrophic symptoms in mdx mice, an animal model of DMD, however little work is in 21-28 (d)ay animals, the period of natural peak damage. This study compares the effect of prenatal taurine supplementation on tibialis anterior (TA) in situ contractile function, histopathological characteristics and the abundance of Ca 2+ -handling as well as pathologically relevant proteins in non-exercised mdx mice at 28 and 70 d. Supplementation elevated TA taurine content by 25% (peffects in SERCA1, calsequestrin 1 (CSQ1), CSQ2, utrophin and myogenin protein abundances were seen between both 28 and 70 d mdx and mdx taurine-supplemented mice. Considering these findings and that taurine is a relatively cost effective, readily accessible and side effect free dietary supplement, we propose further investigation into taurine supplementation during pregnancy in a protective capacity, reminiscent of folate in the prevention of spinal bifida.

  10. Taurine prevents beta-glycerophosphate-induced calcification in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juxiang; Zhang, Baohong; Huang, Zhiyu; Wang, Shuhen; Tang, Chaoshu; Du, Junbao

    2004-05-01

    Vascular calcification is an ectopic calcification that commonly occurs in atherosclerosis. Because taurine was previously shown to protect against cardiovascular diseases, the effect of taurine on vascular calcification was evaluated in calcified vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) of rat in vitro in the present study. Osteoblastic differentiation, calcification, and proliferation in VSMCs were detected in the presence and absence of taurine. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), cellular calcium content, and (45)Ca accumulation were measured as the indicators of osteoblastic differentiation and calcification. Incubation of VSMCs with Beta-glycerophosphate for 10 days induced an osteoblast-like morphological change. The activity of ALP was enhanced. Calcium content and (45)Ca uptake were increased in these cells. Calcification of these VSMCs was demonstrated with Beta-glycerophosphate treatment. In association with these alterations, cell proliferation, detected by cell counting, [(3)H]thymidine ([(3)H]TdR), and [(3)H]leucine ([(3)H]Leu) incorporation, was also increased in these calcified VSMCs. Taurine at 20 mmol/l decreased calcium content, (45)Ca(2+) uptake, and ALP activity both after early and late treatment, in which a reduction of the cell count, [(3)H"]TdR, and [(3)H]Leu incorporation of calcified VSMCs was also noted. Compared with the calcified group, morphological changes in the VSMCs of the early-treated group were deferred. These results demonstrated that calcification of VSMCs could be alleviated by taurine. Taurine treatment appeared to be more beneficial when the treatment was started earlier.

  11. The neuroprotective effects of taurine against nickel by reducing oxidative stress and maintaining mitochondrial function in cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shangcheng; He, Mindi; Zhong, Min; Li, Li; Lu, Yonghui; Zhang, Yanwen; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2015-03-17

    Previous studies have indicated that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are involved in the toxicity of nickel. Taurine is recognized as an efficient antioxidant and is essential for mitochondrial function. To investigate whether taurine could protect against the neurotoxicity of nickel, we exposed primary cultured cortical neurons to various concentrations of nickel chloride (NiCl2; 0.5mM, 1mM and 2mM) for 24h or to 1mM NiCl2 for various periods (0 h, 12h, 24h and 48 h). Our results showed that taurine efficiently reduced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release induced by NiCl2. Along with this protective effect, taurine pretreatment not only significantly reversed the increase of ROS production and mitochondrial superoxide concentration, but also attenuated the decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) concentration in neurons exposed to NiCl2 for 24h. Moreover, nickel exposure reduced ATP production, disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased mtDNA content. These types of oxidative damage in the mitochondria were efficiently ameliorated by taurine pretreatment. Taken together, our results indicate that the neuroprotective effects of taurine against the toxicity of nickel might largely depend on its roles in reducing oxidative stress and improving mitochondrial function. Taurine may have great pharmacological potential in treating the adverse effects of nickel in the nervous system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Taurine increases hippocampal neurogenesis in aging mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebara, Elias; Udry, Florian; Sultan, Sébastien; Toni, Nicolas

    2015-05-01

    Aging is associated with increased inflammation and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis, which may in turn contribute to cognitive impairment. Taurine is a free amino acid found in numerous diets, with anti-inflammatory properties. Although abundant in the young brain, the decrease in taurine concentration with age may underlie reduced neurogenesis. Here, we assessed the effect of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in middle-aged mice. We found that taurine increased cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus through the activation of quiescent stem cells, resulting in increased number of stem cells and intermediate neural progenitors. Taurine had a direct effect on stem/progenitor cells proliferation, as observed in vitro, and also reduced activated microglia. Furthermore, taurine increased the survival of newborn neurons, resulting in a net increase in adult neurogenesis. Together, these results show that taurine increases several steps of adult neurogenesis and support a beneficial role of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in the context of brain aging. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Effect of taurine in chronic alcoholic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, You-Liang; Yeh, Yen-Hung; Lee, Ya-Ting; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2014-07-25

    A study was undertaken to investigate the dietary effect of taurine in chronic alcoholic patients. The 30 chronic alcoholic patients with 2 to 5 times greater than normal activities of aspartate transaminase (AST) or alanine transaminase (ALT) were selected and equally divided into taurine and control groups. In the taurine group, each patient took 6 g taurine per day, divided into 3 doses, for three months, and then stopped treatment for 1 month. In the control group, patients took a placebo without taurine for 4 months. It was found that the AST and ALT activities and levels of cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), bilirubin, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) of serum plasma in the taurine group were all decreased, but increased alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activities and serum vitamins concentrations. Except for the level of TG, all were significantly different after taking taurine for 2 or 3 months. It indicated that taurine plays an important role in the properties of antioxidation and has some improvement on the liver tests of chronic alcoholic patients.

  14. Taurine content of tissues of irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhalaya, M.Ya.; Bogatyrev, G.P.; Kudryashov, Yu.B.; Yartsev, E.I.

    1976-01-01

    The taurine content of tissues (liver, stomach, small intestine and spleen) of rats irradiated with doses of 700 and 450 rads has been studied. Phase changes have been found in the taurine content of radiosensitive tissues in the course of radiation injury development

  15. Antidepressant effect of taurine in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caletti, Greice; Olguins, Danielly B; Pedrollo, Elis F; Barros, Helena M T; Gomez, Rosane

    2012-10-01

    Clinical and preclinical studies have shown that diabetic individuals present more depressive behaviors than non-diabetic individuals. Taurine, one of the most abundant free amino acids in the central nervous system, modulates a variety of biological functions and acts as an agonist at GABAA receptors. Our objective was to assess the antidepressant effect of taurine in diabetic rats. Additionally, we studied the effect of taurine on weight gain, water and food intake, and blood glucose levels in diabetic and non-diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into control (CTR) and streptozotocin-induced diabetic (STZ) groups and were administered daily 0, 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg of taurine (n = 10 per subgroup) intraperitoneally. After 28 days of treatment, the animals were exposed to the forced swimming test, and their behaviors were recorded. Weight gain, water and food intake, and blood glucose levels were measured weekly. Our results showed that STZ rats had a higher immobility duration than CTR rats, and taurine decreased this depressive-like behavior in STZ rats at doses of 25 and 100 mg/kg. Both of these doses of taurine also decreased water intake and improved weight gain in STZ rats. All doses of taurine decreased the water intake in CTR rats. Taurine, at a dose of 100 mg/kg, decreased food intake and blood glucose levels in STZ rats. Because taurine is a GABA agonist and both amino acids are lower in the plasma of diabetic and depressive individuals, we hypothesize that taurine may represent a new adjuvant drug for the treatment of depression in diabetic individuals.

  16. Modulatory effects of taurine on jejunal contractility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Q.Y.; Chen, D.P.; Ye, D.M.; Diao, Y.P.; Lin, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is widely distributed in animal tissues and has diverse pharmacological effects. However, the role of taurine in modulating smooth muscle contractility is still controversial. We propose that taurine (5-80 mM) can exert bidirectional modulation on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments. Different low and high contractile states were induced in isolated jejunal segments of rats to observe the effects of taurine and the associated mechanisms. Taurine induced stimulatory effects on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments at 3 different low contractile states, and inhibitory effects at 3 different high contractile states. Bidirectional modulation was not observed in the presence of verapamil or tetrodotoxin, suggesting that taurine-induced bidirectional modulation is Ca 2+ dependent and requires the presence of the enteric nervous system. The stimulatory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments was blocked by atropine but not by diphenhydramine or by cimetidine, suggesting that muscarinic-linked activation was involved in the stimulatory effects when isolated jejunal segments were in a low contractile state. The inhibitory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments were blocked by propranolol and L-NG-nitroarginine but not by phentolamine, suggesting that adrenergic β receptors and a nitric oxide relaxing mechanism were involved when isolated jejunal segments were in high contractile states. No bidirectional effects of taurine on myosin phosphorylation were observed. The contractile states of jejunal segments determine taurine-induced stimulatory or inhibitory effects, which are associated with muscarinic receptors and adrenergic β receptors, and a nitric oxide associated relaxing mechanism

  17. Modulatory effects of taurine on jejunal contractility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Q.Y.; Chen, D.P.; Ye, D.M.; Diao, Y.P.; Lin, Y. [Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning (China)

    2014-10-14

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is widely distributed in animal tissues and has diverse pharmacological effects. However, the role of taurine in modulating smooth muscle contractility is still controversial. We propose that taurine (5-80 mM) can exert bidirectional modulation on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments. Different low and high contractile states were induced in isolated jejunal segments of rats to observe the effects of taurine and the associated mechanisms. Taurine induced stimulatory effects on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments at 3 different low contractile states, and inhibitory effects at 3 different high contractile states. Bidirectional modulation was not observed in the presence of verapamil or tetrodotoxin, suggesting that taurine-induced bidirectional modulation is Ca{sup 2+} dependent and requires the presence of the enteric nervous system. The stimulatory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments was blocked by atropine but not by diphenhydramine or by cimetidine, suggesting that muscarinic-linked activation was involved in the stimulatory effects when isolated jejunal segments were in a low contractile state. The inhibitory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments were blocked by propranolol and L-NG-nitroarginine but not by phentolamine, suggesting that adrenergic β receptors and a nitric oxide relaxing mechanism were involved when isolated jejunal segments were in high contractile states. No bidirectional effects of taurine on myosin phosphorylation were observed. The contractile states of jejunal segments determine taurine-induced stimulatory or inhibitory effects, which are associated with muscarinic receptors and adrenergic β receptors, and a nitric oxide associated relaxing mechanism.

  18. Modulatory effects of taurine on jejunal contractility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q.Y. Yao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid is widely distributed in animal tissues and has diverse pharmacological effects. However, the role of taurine in modulating smooth muscle contractility is still controversial. We propose that taurine (5-80 mM can exert bidirectional modulation on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments. Different low and high contractile states were induced in isolated jejunal segments of rats to observe the effects of taurine and the associated mechanisms. Taurine induced stimulatory effects on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments at 3 different low contractile states, and inhibitory effects at 3 different high contractile states. Bidirectional modulation was not observed in the presence of verapamil or tetrodotoxin, suggesting that taurine-induced bidirectional modulation is Ca2+ dependent and requires the presence of the enteric nervous system. The stimulatory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments was blocked by atropine but not by diphenhydramine or by cimetidine, suggesting that muscarinic-linked activation was involved in the stimulatory effects when isolated jejunal segments were in a low contractile state. The inhibitory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments were blocked by propranolol and L-NG-nitroarginine but not by phentolamine, suggesting that adrenergic β receptors and a nitric oxide relaxing mechanism were involved when isolated jejunal segments were in high contractile states. No bidirectional effects of taurine on myosin phosphorylation were observed. The contractile states of jejunal segments determine taurine-induced stimulatory or inhibitory effects, which are associated with muscarinic receptors and adrenergic β receptors, and a nitric oxide associated relaxing mechanism.

  19. Modulatory effects of taurine on jejunal contractility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Q.Y.; Chen, D.P.; Ye, D.M.; Diao, Y.P.; Lin, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is widely distributed in animal tissues and has diverse pharmacological effects. However, the role of taurine in modulating smooth muscle contractility is still controversial. We propose that taurine (5-80 mM) can exert bidirectional modulation on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments. Different low and high contractile states were induced in isolated jejunal segments of rats to observe the effects of taurine and the associated mechanisms. Taurine induced stimulatory effects on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments at 3 different low contractile states, and inhibitory effects at 3 different high contractile states. Bidirectional modulation was not observed in the presence of verapamil or tetrodotoxin, suggesting that taurine-induced bidirectional modulation is Ca2+ dependent and requires the presence of the enteric nervous system. The stimulatory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments was blocked by atropine but not by diphenhydramine or by cimetidine, suggesting that muscarinic-linked activation was involved in the stimulatory effects when isolated jejunal segments were in a low contractile state. The inhibitory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments were blocked by propranolol and L-NG-nitroarginine but not by phentolamine, suggesting that adrenergic β receptors and a nitric oxide relaxing mechanism were involved when isolated jejunal segments were in high contractile states. No bidirectional effects of taurine on myosin phosphorylation were observed. The contractile states of jejunal segments determine taurine-induced stimulatory or inhibitory effects, which are associated with muscarinic receptors and adrenergic β receptors, and a nitric oxide associated relaxing mechanism. PMID:25387674

  20. Taurine inhibits serum deprivation-induced osteoblast apoptosis via the taurine transporter/ERK signaling pathway

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    Lei-Yi Zhang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Taurine has positive effects on bone metabolism. However, the effects of taurine on osteoblast apoptosis in vitro have not been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of taurine on apoptosis of mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. The data showed that 1, 5, 10, or 20 mM taurine resulted in 16.7, 34.2, 66.9, or 63.75% reduction of MC3T3-E1 cell apoptosis induced by the serum deprivation (serum-free α-MEM, respectively. Taurine (1, 5, or 10 mM also reduced cytochrome c release and inhibited activation of caspase-3 and -9, which were measured using fluorogenic substrates for caspase-3/caspase-9, in serum-deprived MC3T3-E1 cells. Furthermore, taurine (10 mM induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK phosphorylation in MC3T3-E1 cells. Knockdown of the taurine transporter (TAUT or treatment with the ERK-specific inhibitor PD98059 (10 μM blocked the activation of ERK induced by taurine (10 mM and abolished the anti-apoptotic effect of taurine (10 mM in MC3T3-E1 cells. The present results demonstrate for the first time that taurine inhibits serum deprivation-induced osteoblast apoptosis via the TAUT/ERK signaling pathway.

  1. A case of taurine-containing drink induced anaphylaxis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seung-Eun; Lee, Suh-Young; Jo, Eun-Jung; Kim, Mi-Young; Yang, Min-Suk; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Sae-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Taurine is one of most abundant free amino acids in mammalian tissue. It has been used for various health functional foods as a main ingredient in food industry. A 33-year-old female patient repeatedly experienced generalized itching, urticaria, dyspnea and dizziness after drinking taurine-containing drinks. The patient showed positive response to oral challenge tests with taurine-containing drinks. The patient also showed positive response with synthetic taurine but not with natural taurine....

  2. Neuroprotection of taurine against reactive oxygen species is associated with inhibiting NADPH oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhou; Gao, Li-Yan; Lin, Yu-Hui; Chang, Lei; Wu, Hai-Yin; Luo, Chun-Xia; Zhu, Dong-Ya

    2016-04-15

    It is well established that taurine shows potent protection against glutamate-induced injury to neurons in stroke. The neuroprotection may result from multiple mechanisms. Increasing evidences suggest that NADPH oxidases (Nox), the primary source of superoxide induced by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation, are involved in the process of oxidative stress. We found that 100μM NMDA induced oxidative stress by increasing the reactive oxygen species level, which contributed to the cell death, in vitro. Neuron cultures pretreated with 25mM taurine showed lower percentage of death cells and declined reactive oxygen species level. Moreover, taurine attenuated Nox2/Nox4 protein expression and enzyme activity and declined intracellular calcium intensity during NMDA-induced neuron injury. Additionally, taurine also showed neuroprotection against H2O2-induced injury, accompanying with Nox inhibition. So, we suppose that protection of taurine against reactive oxygen species during NMDA-induced neuron injury is associated with Nox inhibition, probably in a calcium-dependent manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemoprotective effect of taurine on potassium bromate-induced DNA damage, DNA-protein cross-linking and oxidative stress in rat intestine.

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    Mir Kaisar Ahmad

    Full Text Available Potassium bromate (KBrO3 is widely used as a food additive and is a major water disinfection by-product. It induces multiple organ toxicity in humans and experimental animals and is a probable human carcinogen. The present study reports the protective effect of dietary antioxidant taurine on KBrO3-induced damage to the rat intestine. Animals were randomly divided into four groups: control, KBrO3 alone, taurine alone and taurine+ KBrO3. Administration of KBrO3 alone led to decrease in the activities of intestinal brush border membrane enzymes while those of antioxidant defence and carbohydrate metabolism were also severely altered. There was increase in DNA damage and DNA-protein cross-linking. Treatment with taurine, prior to administration of KBrO3, resulted in significant attenuation in all these parameters but the administration of taurine alone had no effect. Histological studies supported these biochemical results showing extensive intestinal damage in KBrO3-treated animals and greatly reduced tissue injury in the taurine+ KBrO3 group. These results show that taurine ameliorates bromate induced tissue toxicity and oxidative damage by improving the antioxidant defence, tissue integrity and energy metabolism. Taurine can, therefore, be potentially used as a therapeutic/protective agent against toxicity of KBrO3 and related compounds.

  4. Chemoprotective effect of taurine on potassium bromate-induced DNA damage, DNA-protein cross-linking and oxidative stress in rat intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mir Kaisar; Khan, Aijaz Ahmed; Ali, Shaikh Nisar; Mahmood, Riaz

    2015-01-01

    Potassium bromate (KBrO3) is widely used as a food additive and is a major water disinfection by-product. It induces multiple organ toxicity in humans and experimental animals and is a probable human carcinogen. The present study reports the protective effect of dietary antioxidant taurine on KBrO3-induced damage to the rat intestine. Animals were randomly divided into four groups: control, KBrO3 alone, taurine alone and taurine+ KBrO3. Administration of KBrO3 alone led to decrease in the activities of intestinal brush border membrane enzymes while those of antioxidant defence and carbohydrate metabolism were also severely altered. There was increase in DNA damage and DNA-protein cross-linking. Treatment with taurine, prior to administration of KBrO3, resulted in significant attenuation in all these parameters but the administration of taurine alone had no effect. Histological studies supported these biochemical results showing extensive intestinal damage in KBrO3-treated animals and greatly reduced tissue injury in the taurine+ KBrO3 group. These results show that taurine ameliorates bromate induced tissue toxicity and oxidative damage by improving the antioxidant defence, tissue integrity and energy metabolism. Taurine can, therefore, be potentially used as a therapeutic/protective agent against toxicity of KBrO3 and related compounds.

  5. Chemoprotective Effect of Taurine on Potassium Bromate-Induced DNA Damage, DNA-Protein Cross-Linking and Oxidative Stress in Rat Intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mir Kaisar; Khan, Aijaz Ahmed; Ali, Shaikh Nisar; Mahmood, Riaz

    2015-01-01

    Potassium bromate (KBrO3) is widely used as a food additive and is a major water disinfection by-product. It induces multiple organ toxicity in humans and experimental animals and is a probable human carcinogen. The present study reports the protective effect of dietary antioxidant taurine on KBrO3-induced damage to the rat intestine. Animals were randomly divided into four groups: control, KBrO3 alone, taurine alone and taurine+ KBrO3. Administration of KBrO3 alone led to decrease in the activities of intestinal brush border membrane enzymes while those of antioxidant defence and carbohydrate metabolism were also severely altered. There was increase in DNA damage and DNA-protein cross-linking. Treatment with taurine, prior to administration of KBrO3, resulted in significant attenuation in all these parameters but the administration of taurine alone had no effect. Histological studies supported these biochemical results showing extensive intestinal damage in KBrO3-treated animals and greatly reduced tissue injury in the taurine+ KBrO3 group. These results show that taurine ameliorates bromate induced tissue toxicity and oxidative damage by improving the antioxidant defence, tissue integrity and energy metabolism. Taurine can, therefore, be potentially used as a therapeutic/protective agent against toxicity of KBrO3 and related compounds. PMID:25748174

  6. Predicting outcome on admission and post-admission for acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure using classification and regression tree models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Lynn Speiser

    Full Text Available Assessing prognosis for acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure (APAP-ALF patients often presents significant challenges. King's College (KCC has been validated on hospital admission, but little has been published on later phases of illness. We aimed to improve determinations of prognosis both at the time of and following admission for APAP-ALF using Classification and Regression Tree (CART models.CART models were applied to US ALFSG registry data to predict 21-day death or liver transplant early (on admission and post-admission (days 3-7 for 803 APAP-ALF patients enrolled 01/1998-09/2013. Accuracy in prediction of outcome (AC, sensitivity (SN, specificity (SP, and area under receiver-operating curve (AUROC were compared between 3 models: KCC (INR, creatinine, coma grade, pH, CART analysis using only KCC variables (KCC-CART and a CART model using new variables (NEW-CART.Traditional KCC yielded 69% AC, 90% SP, 27% SN, and 0.58 AUROC on admission, with similar performance post-admission. KCC-CART at admission offered predictive 66% AC, 65% SP, 67% SN, and 0.74 AUROC. Post-admission, KCC-CART had predictive 82% AC, 86% SP, 46% SN and 0.81 AUROC. NEW-CART models using MELD (Model for end stage liver disease, lactate and mechanical ventilation on admission yielded predictive 72% AC, 71% SP, 77% SN and AUROC 0.79. For later stages, NEW-CART (MELD, lactate, coma grade offered predictive AC 86%, SP 91%, SN 46%, AUROC 0.73.CARTs offer simple prognostic models for APAP-ALF patients, which have higher AUROC and SN than KCC, with similar AC and negligibly worse SP. Admission and post-admission predictions were developed.• Prognostication in acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure (APAP-ALF is challenging beyond admission • Little has been published regarding the use of King's College Criteria (KCC beyond admission and KCC has shown limited sensitivity in subsequent studies • Classification and Regression Tree (CART methodology allows the

  7. Potential benefits of taurine in the prevention of skeletal muscle impairment induced by disuse in the hindlimb-unloaded rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierno, Sabata; Liantonio, Antonella; Camerino, Giulia M; De Bellis, Michela; Cannone, Maria; Gramegna, Gianluca; Scaramuzzi, Antonia; Simonetti, Simonetta; Nicchia, Grazia Paola; Basco, Davide; Svelto, Maria; Desaphy, Jean-François; Camerino, Diana Conte

    2012-07-01

    Hindlimb unloading (HU) in rats induces severe atrophy and a slow-to-fast phenotype transition in postural slow-twitch muscles, as occurs in human disuse conditions, such as spaceflight or bed rest. In rats, a reduction of soleus muscle weight and a decrease of cross-sectional area (CSA) were observed as signs of atrophy. An increased expression of the fast-isoform of myosin heavy chain (MHC) showed the phenotype transition. In parallel the resting cytosolic calcium concentration (restCa) was decreased and the resting chloride conductance (gCl), which regulates muscle excitability, was increased toward the values of the fast-twitch muscles. Here, we investigated the possible role of taurine, which is known to modulate calcium homeostasis and gCl, in the restoration of muscle impairment due to 14-days-HU. We found elevated taurine content and higher expression of the taurine transporter TauT in the soleus muscle as compared to the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of control rats. Taurine level was reduced in the HU soleus muscle, although, TauT expression was not modified. Taurine oral supplementation (5 g/kg) fully prevented this loss, and preserved resting gCl and restCa together with the slow MHC phenotype. Taurine supplementation did not prevent the HU-induced drop of muscle weight or fiber CSA, but it restored the expression of MURF-1, an atrophy-related gene, suggesting a possible early protective effect of taurine. In conclusion, taurine prevented the HU-induced phenotypic transition of soleus muscle and might attenuate the atrophic process. These findings argue for the beneficial use of taurine in the treatment of disuse-induced muscle dysfunction.

  8. Metabolism of taurine during reproduction in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naismith, D J; Rana, S K; Emery, P W

    1987-01-01

    The pattern of excretion of taurine was measured in four omnivore and four vegan/vegetarian women during pregnancy and lactation, and was compared with the changes in urinary excretion of other amino acids, including the precursors of endogenous taurine, observed in ten pregnant omnivores. The loss of taurine in breast milk was also determined in fourteen omnivore and fourteen vegan mothers. In contrast to the rise in excretion of all amino acids during pregnancy, including methionine and cysteine, taurine excretion fell dramatically from week 9 of pregnancy in all subjects, and, in the vegan/vegetarian subjects, fell still further during lactation. Although the concentration of taurine in breast milk was lower in vegan subjects, the mean value fell within the range found in omnivore subjects. Our findings indicate that the suppression of urinary taurine excretion, both during pregnancy and lactation, is a physiological response to reproduction that satisfies the needs of the fetus and the suckling infant for this amino acid. The data also suggest that taurine is stored in the maternal tissues in early pregnancy for later transfer to the fetus.

  9. Taurine ameliorated thyroid function in rats co-administered with chlorpyrifos and lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akande, Motunrayo Ganiyat; Shittu, Muftau; Uchendu, Chidiebere; Yaqub, Lukuman Surakat

    2016-12-01

    Chlorpyrifos is a widely used organophosphate insecticide for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes. Lead is a toxic heavy metal and it is used for domestic and industrial purposes. Taurine is a semi essential amino acid with bioprotective properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of taurine on thyroid function in Wistar rats co-administered with chlorpyrifos and lead. The rats were divided into 5 groups of 10 rats each. The first two groups were administered with distilled water and soya oil (1 ml/kg) respectively. The other groups received taurine (50 mg/kg), chlorpyrifos + lead [chlorpyrifos (4.25 mg/kg, 1/20 median lethal dose] and lead (233.25 mg/kg, 1/20 median lethal dose) and taurine + chlorpyrifos + lead respectively. The treatments were administered once daily by oral gavage for 16 weeks. The rats were euthanized after the completion of the study and the thyroid function and thyroid histoarchitecture were evaluated. The results revealed that co-administration of chlorpyrifos and lead to the rats induced perturbations in thyroid function and this was manifested by reductions in the concentrations of triiodothyronine and thyroxine, increased thyroid stimulating hormone concentration and degeneration of the follicular epithelia of the thyroid gland. Taurine alleviated the perturbations in thyroid function and improved thyroid gland histoarchitecture. The beneficial effects of taurine may be attributed to its ability to protect the body from toxicity and oxidative stress. Taurine may be useful for prophylaxis against disruptions in thyroid function in animals that are exposed to environmental chlorpyrifos and lead.

  10. Experimental evidence for therapeutic potential of taurine in the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Christopher L.; Nivala, Angela M.; Gonzales, Jon C.; Pfaffenbach, Kyle T.; Wang, Dong; Wei, Yuren; Jiang, Hua; Orlicky, David J.; Petersen, Dennis R.; Maclean, Kenneth N.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of obesity is now at epidemic proportions and has resulted in the emergence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as a common metabolic disorder that can lead to liver injury and cirrhosis. Excess sucrose and long-chain saturated fatty acids in the diet may play a role in the development and progression of NAFLD. One factor linking sucrose and saturated fatty acids to liver damage is dysfunction of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Although there is currently no proven, effective therapy for NAFLD, the amino sulfonic acid taurine is protective against various metabolic disturbances, including alcohol-induced liver damage. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic potential of taurine to serve as a preventative treatment for diet-induced NAFLD. We report that taurine significantly mitigated palmitate-mediated caspase-3 activity, cell death, ER stress, and oxidative stress in H4IIE liver cells and primary hepatocytes. In rats fed a high-sucrose diet, dietary taurine supplementation significantly reduced hepatic lipid accumulation, liver injury, inflammation, plasma triglycerides, and insulin levels. The high-sucrose diet resulted in an induction of multiple components of the unfolded protein response in the liver consistent with ER stress, which was ameliorated by taurine supplementation. Treatment of mice with the ER stress-inducing agent tunicamycin resulted in liver injury, unfolded protein response induction, and hepatic lipid accumulation that was significantly ameliorated by dietary supplementation with taurine. Our results indicate that dietary supplementation with taurine offers significant potential as a preventative treatment for NAFLD. PMID:21957160

  11. Serum Taurine and Stroke Risk in Women: A Prospective, Nested Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fen; Koenig, Karen L.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Jonas, Saran; Afanasyeva, Yelena; Wójcik, Oktawia P.; Costa, Max; Chen, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid), a conditionally essential sulfur-containing amino acid, is mainly obtained from diet in humans. Experimental studies have shown that taurine’s main biological actions include bile salt conjugation, blood pressure regulation, anti-oxidation, and anti-inflammation. Methods We conducted a prospective case-control study nested in the New York University Women’s Health Study, a cohort study involving 14,274 women enrolled since 1985. Taurine was measured in pre-diagnostic serum samples of 241 stroke cases and 479 matched controls. Results There was no statistically significant association between serum taurine and stroke risk in the overall study population. The adjusted ORs for stroke were 1.0 (reference), 0.87 (95% CI, 0.59–1.28), and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.69–1.54) in increasing tertiles of taurine (64.3–126.6, 126.7–152.9, and 153.0–308.5 nmol/mL, respectively). A significant inverse association between serum taurine and stroke risk was observed among never smokers, with an adjusted OR of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.37–1.18) and 0.50 (95% CI, 0.26–0.94) for the second and third tertile, respectively (p for trend = 0.01), but not among past or current smokers (p for interaction taurine and stroke risk, although a protective effect was observed in never smokers, which requires further investigation. Taurine, Stroke, Epidemiology, Prospective, Case-control study, NYUWHS. PMID:26866594

  12. Neuroprotective influence of taurine on fluoride-induced biochemical and behavioral deficits in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedara, Isaac A; Abolaji, Amos O; Idris, Umar F; Olabiyi, Bolanle F; Onibiyo, Esther M; Ojuade, TeminiJesu D; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2017-01-05

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated that excessive exposure to fluoride induced neurodevelopmental toxicity both in humans and animals. Taurine is a free intracellular β-amino acid with antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. The present study investigated the neuroprotective mechanism of taurine by evaluating the biochemical and behavioral characteristics in rats exposed to sodium fluoride (NaF) singly in drinking water at 15 mg/L alone or orally co-administered by gavage with taurine at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight for 45 consecutive days. Locomotor behavior was assessed using video-tracking software during a 10-min trial in a novel environment while the brain structures namely the hypothalamus, cerebrum and cerebellum of the rats were processed for biochemical determinations. Results showed that taurine administration prevented NaF-induced locomotor and motor deficits namely decrease in total distance travelled, total body rotation, maximum speed, absolute turn angle along with weak forelimb grip, increased incidence of fecal pellets and time of grooming, immobility and negative geotaxis. The taurine mediated enhancement of the exploratory profiles of NaF-exposed rats was supported by track and occupancy plot analyses. Moreover, taurine prevented NaF-induced increase in hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation levels but increased acetylcholinesterase and the antioxidant enzymes activities in the hypothalamus, cerebrum and cerebellum of the rats. Collectively, taurine protected against NaF-induced neurotoxicity via mechanisms involving the restoration of acetylcholinesterase activity and antioxidant status with concomitant inhibition of lipid peroxidation in the brain of rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of taurine on oxidative-antioxidative status of renal tissue in diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yingjian; Tu Xiaowen; Yin Qiuxia; Hu Chenjing

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of taurine on the oxidative-antioxidative status of renal tissue in diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetic models of rat were induced with streptozotocin. Half of the models (n=7) were treated with taurine for 4 weeks. Blood glucose, uric acid and MDA, 24h urinary albumin and renal cortical homogenate MDA, SOD, GSH-Px contents were determined with appropriate laboratory technics in 1) diabetic rats without taurine treatment, n=7 2) diabetic rats treated with taurine, n=7 and 3) control rats, n=7. Results: There were no significant differences between the blood glucose levels in the two groups of diabetic rats. Blood uric acid and 24h urinary albumin contents in the untreated diabetic rats were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.01). However, in the taurine treated rats, the blood uric acid levels approximated to those in the controls, with decreased but still higher than normal 24h urinary albumin contents. In the untreated rats, the renal cortical SOD and GSH-Px activities were about the same as those in control rats but there were significantly higher levels of blood and cortical MDA contents (P<0.01). With taurine treatment, the SOD and GSH-Px activities were significantly higher than those in the two other groups (P<0.05); the MDA contents were lower than those in non-treated rats (P<0.05), but still higher than those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: Taurine could enhance the anti-oxidative capability and attenuated the oxidative stress in diabetic rats renal tissue with partial protection of renal function. (authors)

  14. Effects of taurine supplementation on hepatic markers of inflammation and lipid metabolism in mothers and offspring in the setting of maternal obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minglan Li

    Full Text Available Maternal obesity is associated with obesity and metabolic disorders in offspring. However, intervention strategies to reverse or ameliorate the effects of maternal obesity on offspring health are limited. Following maternal undernutrition, taurine supplementation can improve outcomes in offspring, possibly via effects on glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion. The effects of taurine in mediating inflammatory processes as a protective mechanism has not been investigated. Further, the efficacy of taurine supplementation in the setting of maternal obesity is not known. Using a model of maternal obesity, we examined the effects of maternal taurine supplementation on outcomes related to inflammation and lipid metabolism in mothers and neonates. Time-mated Wistar rats were randomised to either: 1 control : control diet during pregnancy and lactation (CON; 2 CON supplemented with 1.5% taurine in drinking water (CT; 3 maternal obesogenic diet (high fat, high fructose during pregnancy and lactation (MO; or 4 MO supplemented with taurine (MOT. Maternal and neonatal weights, plasma cytokines and hepatic gene expression were analysed. A MO diet resulted in maternal hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia and increased plasma glucose, glutamate and TNF-α concentrations. Taurine normalised maternal plasma TNF-α and glutamate concentrations in MOT animals. Both MO and MOT mothers displayed evidence of fatty liver accompanied by alterations in key markers of hepatic lipid metabolism. MO neonates displayed a pro-inflammatory hepatic profile which was partially rescued in MOT offspring. Conversely, a pro-inflammatory phenotype was observed in MOT mothers suggesting a possible maternal trade-off to protect the neonate. Despite protective effects of taurine in MOT offspring, neonatal mortality was increased in CT neonates, indicating possible adverse effects of taurine in the setting of normal pregnancy. These data suggest that maternal taurine supplementation

  15. A non-hepatotropic parasite infection increases mortality in the acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure murine model: possible roles for IL-5 and IL-6

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    Marco A De León-Nava

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of a non-hepatotropic parasite infection (Taenia crassiceps on the outcome of acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure in mice. Uninfected and T. crassiceps infected mice orally received either 300 mg/kg acetaminophen or water as vehicle (n = 5 per group. Survival analysis, hepatocyte necrosis, alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels, CYP2E1 protein, interleukin (IL- 5, and IL-6 were assessed for all groups. All infected mice died within 16 h after exposure to acetaminophen (Tc+APAP group, whereas only one-third of uninfected animals exposed to acetaminophen (APAP group died. Uninfected (Control group and infected (Tc group mice that received the vehicle showed no liver damage. Tc+APAP mice exhibited massive liver necrosis characterised by marked balloning degeneration of hepatocytes and higher serum ALT compared to Control, Tc, and APAP animals. Liver tissue from Tc+APAP mice also displayed increased expression of CYP2E1 protein and higher mRNA and protein levels of IL-5 and IL-6 compared to the other groups. These findings suggest that non-hepatotropic parasite infections may increase mortality following acute liver failure by promoting hepatocyte necrosis via IL-5 and IL-6-dependent CYP2E1 overproduction. This study identifies new potential risk factors associated with severe acute liver failure in patients.

  16. The ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy are defective in the taurine-deficient heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Chian Ju; Ito, Takashi; Schaffer, Stephen W

    2015-12-01

    Taurine depletion leads to impaired mitochondrial function, as characterized by reduced ATP production and elevated superoxide generation. These defects can fundamentally alter cardiomyocyte function and if left unchanged can result in cell death. To protect against these stresses, cardiomyocytes possess quality control processes, such as the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy, which can rejuvenate cells through the degradation of damaged proteins and organelles. Hence, the present study tested the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species generated by damaged mitochondria initiates UPS and autophagy in the taurine-deficient heart. Using transgenic mice lacking the taurine transporter (TauTKO) as a model of taurine deficiency, it was shown that the levels of ubiquitinated protein were elevated, an effect associated with a decrease in ATP-dependent 26S β5 proteasome activity. Treating the TauTKO mouse with the mitochondria-specific antioxidant, mitoTEMPO, largely abolished the increase in ubiquitinated protein content. The TauTKO heart was also associated with impaired autophagy, characterized by an increase in the initiator, Beclin-1, and autophagosome content, but a defect in the generation of active autophagolysosomes. Although mitoTEMPO treatment only restores the oxidative balance within the mitochondria, it appeared to completely disrupt the crosstalk between the damaged mitochondria and the quality control processes. Thus, mitochondrial oxidative stress is the main trigger initiating the quality control systems in the taurine-deficient heart. We conclude that the activation of the UPS and autophagy is another fundamental function of mitochondria.

  17. Taurine supplementation reduces blood pressure and prevents endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress in post-weaning protein-restricted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Aline R; Batista, Thiago M; Victorio, Jamaira A; Clerici, Stefano P; Delbin, Maria A; Carneiro, Everardo M; Davel, Ana P

    2014-01-01

    Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid that exerts protective effects on vascular function and structure in several models of cardiovascular diseases through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Early protein malnutrition reprograms the cardiovascular system and is linked to hypertension in adulthood. This study assessed the effects of taurine supplementation in vascular alterations induced by protein restriction in post-weaning rats. Weaned male Wistar rats were fed normal- (12%, NP) or low-protein (6%, LP) diets for 90 days. Half of the NP and LP rats concomitantly received 2.5% taurine supplementation in the drinking water (NPT and LPT, respectively). LP rats showed elevated systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure versus NP rats; taurine supplementation partially prevented this increase. There was a reduced relaxation response to acetylcholine in isolated thoracic aortic rings from the LP group that was reversed by superoxide dismutase (SOD) or apocynin incubation. Protein expression of p47phox NADPH oxidase subunit was enhanced, whereas extracellular (EC)-SOD and endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation at Ser 1177 (p-eNOS) were reduced in aortas from LP rats. Furthermore, ROS production was enhanced while acetylcholine-induced NO release was reduced in aortas from the LP group. Taurine supplementation improved the relaxation response to acetylcholine and eNOS-derived NO production, increased EC-SOD and p-eNOS protein expression, as well as reduced ROS generation and p47phox expression in the aortas from LPT rats. LP rats showed an increased aortic wall/lumen ratio and taurine prevented this remodeling through a reduction in wall media thickness. Our data indicate a protective role of taurine supplementation on the high blood pressure, endothelial dysfunction and vascular remodeling induced by post-weaning protein restriction. The beneficial vascular effect of taurine was associated with restoration of vascular redox

  18. Taurine supplementation reduces blood pressure and prevents endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress in post-weaning protein-restricted rats.

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    Aline R Maia

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid that exerts protective effects on vascular function and structure in several models of cardiovascular diseases through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Early protein malnutrition reprograms the cardiovascular system and is linked to hypertension in adulthood. This study assessed the effects of taurine supplementation in vascular alterations induced by protein restriction in post-weaning rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: Weaned male Wistar rats were fed normal- (12%, NP or low-protein (6%, LP diets for 90 days. Half of the NP and LP rats concomitantly received 2.5% taurine supplementation in the drinking water (NPT and LPT, respectively. LP rats showed elevated systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure versus NP rats; taurine supplementation partially prevented this increase. There was a reduced relaxation response to acetylcholine in isolated thoracic aortic rings from the LP group that was reversed by superoxide dismutase (SOD or apocynin incubation. Protein expression of p47phox NADPH oxidase subunit was enhanced, whereas extracellular (EC-SOD and endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation at Ser 1177 (p-eNOS were reduced in aortas from LP rats. Furthermore, ROS production was enhanced while acetylcholine-induced NO release was reduced in aortas from the LP group. Taurine supplementation improved the relaxation response to acetylcholine and eNOS-derived NO production, increased EC-SOD and p-eNOS protein expression, as well as reduced ROS generation and p47phox expression in the aortas from LPT rats. LP rats showed an increased aortic wall/lumen ratio and taurine prevented this remodeling through a reduction in wall media thickness. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate a protective role of taurine supplementation on the high blood pressure, endothelial dysfunction and vascular remodeling induced by post-weaning protein restriction. The beneficial vascular effect of

  19. Comparison of serum and plasma taurine values in Bengal tigers with values in taurine-sufficient and -deficient domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, J P; Chesney, R W; Beehler, B; Moore, C P; Lippincott, S; Sturman, J; Ketring, K L

    1990-01-15

    A white Bengal tiger was determined to have a central retinal lesion and a central visual defect. Because of the known association between feline central retinal degeneration (CRD) and taurine deficiency in domestic cats, plasma concentrations of taurine were measured in this tiger. Serum concentrations of taurine, methionine, and cystine also were measured in white Bengal tigers, orange Bengal tigers, taurine-sufficient domestic cats, and taurine-deprived and tissue-taurine-depleted visually impaired cats with CRD. Hepatic and brain enzymes responsible for taurine synthesis were identified in tissue specimens from an orange Bengal tiger. Serum taurine concentrations were lower in white vs orange tigers, but were not as low as those in cats with CRD. Thus, we concluded that taurine depletion did not account for the central retinal lesion in the white Bengal tiger.

  20. Caffeine and taurine enhance endurance performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imagawa, T F; Hirano, I; Utsuki, K; Horie, M; Naka, A; Matsumoto, K; Imagawa, S

    2009-07-01

    Caffeine enhances endurance performance; however, its effect on accumulated lactate remains unclear. Conversely, taurine, which also enhances endurance performance, decreases accumulated lactate. In this study, the effect of combination of caffeine and taurine on endurance performance was assessed. Mice ran on a treadmill, and the accumulated lactate was measured. In addition, muscle fibers from the gastrocnemius muscle of the mice were stained with ATPase and analyzed. The use of caffeine and taurine over a 2 week period enhanced endurance performance. Moreover, taurine significantly decreased the accumulated concentration of lactate over long running distances. However, the diameter of the cross-sections and ratios of Types I, IIA, and IIB muscle fibers were not affected.

  1. Dietary inclusion level and time effects of taurine on broiler performance, meat quality, oxidative status and muscle taurine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C X; Wang, B; Min, Z; Yuan, J

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of taurine on growth performance, meat quality, oxidative status and muscle taurine content in broilers. In Experiment 1, 50 one-day-old male Cobb chicks were given a diet supplemented with 0, 0.125, 0.50, 2.00 or 8.00 g/kg taurine from 1 to 42 d of age. In Experiment 2, 80 22-d-old male Cobb chicks were given a diet supplemented with 4.00 g/kg taurine for 0, 1, 2 or 3 weeks. Taurine contents of thigh and breast muscle increased linearly with increasing dietary taurine. Taurine supplementation for 1, 2 and 3 weeks significantly increased the taurine content of breast muscle. The taurine contents of liver and thigh meat were significantly increased by taurine supplementation for 3 weeks. The taurine contents of thigh and breast meat from broilers given a diet supplemented with 4 g/kg taurine for 3 weeks increased to 1.89 times the concentrations of the control group. There were no detrimental effects on growth performance, breast or thigh muscle yield, pH value or drip-water loss, and taurine supplementation did not affect the serum carbonyl content. Serum malondialdehyde concentration was significantly decreased by taurine supplementation for 1, 2 or 3 weeks.

  2. Effect of taurine on attenuating chemotherapy-induced adverse effects in acute lymphoblastic leukemia

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    Mina Islambulchilar

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion our results indicated that taurine supplementation could be a protection against chemotherapy-induced toxicities probably by its antioxidant capacity. Present study showed effectiveness of taurineon the chemotherapy-related toxicities and some of the complications during the maintenance period of treatment following coadministration in young adults with ALL.

  3. Intestinal absorption and biliary secretion of ursodeoxycholic acid and its taurine conjugate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudolph, G; Kloeters-Plachky, P; Sauer, P; Stiehl, A

    Background Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and its taurine conjugate (TUDCA) exert a protective effect in cholestatic liver diseases. A greater hepatoprotective effect of TUDCA has been suggested. Absorption appears to be a limiting factor and up to now has not been studied in man. Methods We studied

  4. HPLC Determination of Taurine in Sports Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Dale L.

    2001-06-01

    The amino acid taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is present as a nutritional supplement in many sports drinks. An experiment, suitable for a junior-senior level instrumental analysis course, is described to measure the amount of taurine in these sports drinks. A pre-column derivatization with Sanger's reagent, 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene, is followed by an HPLC separation utilizing a gradient elution, and detection at 360 nm.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of Taurine

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    B Bayarmaa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Have been obtained 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid (taurine from ethanolamine, sulfuric acid and sodium sulfite during the synthesis in laboratory condition. The process involves two steps of reactions, the first was esterification of ethanolamine with sulfuric acid to produce the intermediate product of 2-aminoethyl ester which than was extended to the second step by sulfonation with sodium sulfite to produce 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid. Resulting product was analyzed using 1H-NMR, IR, FAB-MS analysis and examined purity characterizations of the synthesized products. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v14i0.200 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 14 (40, 2013, p57-60

  6. Physiological roles of taurine in heart and muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Taurine (aminoethane sulfonic acid) is an ubiquitous compound, found in very high concentrations in heart and muscle. Although taurine is classified as an amino acid, it does not participate in peptide bond formation. Nonetheless, the amino group of taurine is involved in a number of important conjugation reactions as well as in the scavenging of hypochlorous acid. Because taurine is a fairly inert compound, it is an ideal modulator of basic processes, such as osmotic pressure, cation homeostasis, enzyme activity, receptor regulation, cell development and cell signalling. The present review discusses several physiological functions of taurine. First, the observation that taurine depletion leads to the development of a cardiomyopathy indicates a role for taurine in the maintenance of normal contractile function. Evidence is provided that this function of taurine is mediated by changes in the activity of key Ca2+ transporters and the modulation Ca2+ sensitivity of the myofibrils. Second, in some species, taurine is an established osmoregulator, however, in mammalian heart the osmoregulatory function of taurine has recently been questioned. Third, taurine functions as an indirect regulator of oxidative stress. Although this action of taurine has been widely discussed, its mechanism of action is unclear. A potential mechanism for the antioxidant activity of taurine is discussed. Fourth, taurine stabilizes membranes through direct interactions with phospholipids. However, its inhibition of the enzyme, phospholipid N-methyltransferase, alters the phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine content of membranes, which in turn affects the function of key proteins within the membrane. Finally, taurine serves as a modulator of protein kinases and phosphatases within the cardiomyocyte. The mechanism of this action has not been studied. Taurine is a chemically simple compound, but it has profound effects on cells. This has led to the suggestion that taurine is an

  7. Effects of taurine on myocardial cGMP/cAMP ratio, antioxidant ability, and ultrastructure in cardiac hypertrophy rats induced by isoproterenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qunhui; Yang, Jiancheng; Wu, Gaofeng; Feng, Ying; Lv, Qiufeng; Lin, Shumei; Hu, Jianmin

    2013-01-01

    administration could significantly reverse the injury caused by ISO. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that taurine could inhibit the injury induced by ISO by increasing myocardial negative inotropic effect and antioxidant ability, decreasing the hypertrophic response to isoproterenol and protecting the integrity of -myocardial ultrastructure, decreasing myocardial leak of CK-MB.

  8. CRYOPRESERVATION OF GOLDFISH (Carassius auratus) SPERMATOZOA: EFFECTS OF EXTENDER SUPPLEMENTED WITH TAURINE ON SPERM MOTILITY AND DNA DAMAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutluyer, Filiz; Öğretmen, Fatih; Inanan, Burak Evren

    2016-01-01

    Amino acids, present in seminal plasma at high concentration, protect spermatozoa against cell damage during cryopreservation. Experiments were designed to analyze the effect of semen extender supplemented with taurine on post-thawed sperm motility and duration, as well as DNA damage. Extenders were supplemented with 1, 2 or 4 mM taurine. Semen samples were diluted at the ratio of 1:9 with the extenders. Diluted samples were aspirated into 0.25 ml French straws and 0.1 ml pellets. DNA damage was assessed with the comet assay after cryopreservation. The percentage and duration of sperm motility were significantly increased by taurine. Additionally, sperm motility and the motility period in pellets were higher than in straws. The best concentration of taurine was 4 mM, and the highest post-thaw motility rate (72.50 ± 3.54 %) and duration (17.50 ± 0.71 s) were obtained from the extender with 4 mM in pellets. DNA damage was decreased after taurine supplementation. Pellets could be used for goldfish sperm cryopreservation. The addition of 4 mM taurine increases the post-thaw motility and decreases DNA damage on goldfish semen.

  9. Effect of Addition of Taurine on the Liquid Storage (5°C of Mithun (Bos frontalis Semen

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    P. Perumal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of taurine on sperm motility, viability, total sperm abnormalities, acrosomal and plasma membrane integrity, enzymatic profiles such as reduced glutathione (GSH, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT, and biochemical profiles such as cholesterol efflux and malondialdehyde (MDA production. A total of 50 ejaculates were collected twice a week from 8 mithun bulls, and semen was split into 4 equal aliquots and diluted with the TEYC extender. Group 1: semen was without additives (control; groups 2 to 4: semen was diluted with 25 mM, 50 mM, and 100 mM of taurine, respectively. Seminal parameters and enzymatic and biochemical profiles were assessed at 5°C. Inclusion of taurine into diluent resulted in significant ( decreases in percentages of dead spermatozoa, abnormal spermatozoa, and acrosomal abnormalities after liquid storage compared with the control group. Additionally, taurine at 50 mM has significant improvement in quality of mithun semen than taurine at 25 or 100 mM stored in in vitro at 5°C. It was concluded that the possible protective effects of taurine on sperm parameters are from enhancing the function of antioxidant enzymes, preventing efflux of cholesterol from cell membranes and decreased MDA production.

  10. Taurine inhibits 2,5-hexanedione-induced oxidative stress and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuangyue; Guan, Huai; Qian, Zhiqiang; Sun, Yijie; Gao, Chenxue; Li, Guixin; Yang, Yi; Piao, Fengyuan; Hu, Shuhai

    2017-04-07

    2,5-hexanedione (HD) is the ultimate neurotoxic metabolite of hexane, causing the progression of nerve diseases in human. It was reported that HD induced apoptosis and oxidative stress. Taurine has been shown to be a potent antioxidant. In the present study, we investigated the protection of taurine against HD-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells and the underlying mechanism. Our results showed the decreased viability and increased apoptosis in HD-exposed PC12 cells. HD also induced the disturbance of Bax and Bcl-2 expression, the loss of MMP, the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and caspase-3 activation in PC12 cells. Moreover, HD resulted in an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and a decline in the activities of superoxidedismutase and catalase in PC12 cells. However, taurine pretreatment ameliorated the increased apoptosis and the alterations in key regulators of mitochondria-dependent pathway in PC12 exposed to HD. The increased ROS level and the decreased activities of the antioxidant enzymes in HD group were attenuated by taurine. These results indicate that pretreatment of taurine may, at least partly, prevent HD-induced apoptosis via inhibiting mitochondria-dependent pathway. It is also suggested that the potential of taurine against HD-induced apoptosis may benefit from its anti-oxidative property.

  11. Physiological role of taurine - from organism to organelle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, Ian Henry; Kristensen, David Møbjerg Boslev; Holm, Jacob Bak

    2015-01-01

    Taurine is often referred to as a semi-essential amino acid as newborn mammals have a limited ability to synthesize taurine and have to rely on dietary supply. Taurine is not thought to be incorporated into proteins as no aminoacyl tRNA synthetase has yet been identified and is not oxidized...... in mammalian cells. However, taurine contributes significantly to the cellular pool of organic osmolytes and has accordingly been acknowledged for its role in cell volume restoration following osmotic perturbation. This review describes taurine homeostasis in cells and organelles with emphasis on taurine...... biophysics/membrane dynamics, regulation of transport proteins involved in active taurine uptake and passive taurine release as well as physiological processes, for example, development, lung function, mitochondrial function, antioxidative defence and apoptosis which seem to be affected by a shift...

  12. Physiological roles of taurine in heart and muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Schaffer, Stephen W; Ju Jong, Chian; KC, Ramila; Azuma, Junichi

    2010-01-01

    Taurine (aminoethane sulfonic acid) is an ubiquitous compound, found in very high concentrations in heart and muscle. Although taurine is classified as an amino acid, it does not participate in peptide bond formation. Nonetheless, the amino group of taurine is involved in a number of important conjugation reactions as well as in the scavenging of hypochlorous acid. Because taurine is a fairly inert compound, it is an ideal modulator of basic processes, such as osmotic pressure, cation homeost...

  13. Taurine Reverses Atrial Structural Remodeling in Ach-Cacl2Induced Atrial Fibrillation Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qunhui; Wu, Gaofeng; Han, Limei; Feng, Ying; Lin, Shumei; Lv, Qiufeng; Yang, Jiancheng; Hu, Jianmin

    2017-01-01

    Taurine has been reported to have anti-arrhythmia effects, but the anti-atrial fibrillation (AF) effects and its mechanism remain incompletely understood. In the present study, the therapy effects and partly mechanisms were investigated. AF animal model was established by intravenous administered with the mixture of acetylcholine (Ach) and CaCl 2 (66 μg/mL + 10 mg/mL) (i.v.) for 7 days. The actions of taurine (99 mg/kg∙d, introgastric administration) on the levels of Hs-CRP, IL-6, TNF-α, MMP-9, AngII, the extent of the fibrosis and ultrastructural changes in left atrial were studied. The data showed that the serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, AngII and the plasma levels of Hs-CRP and MMP-9 were significantly elevated in automatic recovery group relative to the control group (p < 0.01), which were all decreased by taurine administration (p < 0.01) similar to Verapamil treatment. Masson's trichrome staining of the left atrial tissue showed an obvious interstitial fibrosis in rats of automatic recovery group. The alteration could be reversed by additional taurine. Electron microscopy revealed that taurine administration could significantly alleviate the ultrastructural damage of atrial cells, and the effects were similar to the Verapamil treatment. In conclusion, the results suggested that taurine could inhibit the structural remodeling of AF in rats partly by decreasing the levels of inflammatory factors and profibrotic molecules, attenuating the extent of myocardial fibrosis and protecting the integrity of myocardial ultrastructure.

  14. Effects of graded taurine levels on juvenile cobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurine, which has multiple important physiological roles in teleost fish and mammals, is an amino acid not found in alternative protein sources not derived from animals. Although taurine is found in fish-meal-based feeds, its high water solubility leads to lower taurine levels in reduction-process-...

  15. Chemoprotective effects of a recombinant protein from Pyropia yezoensis and synthetic peptide against acetaminophen-induced Chang liver cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youn Hee; Kim, Eun-Young; Mikami, Koji; Nam, Taek Jeong

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, the chemoprotective effects of recombinant Pyropia yezoensis (P. yezoensis) protein 1 (PYP1) were examined in acetaminophen (APAP)-treated Chang liver cells. The analysis of P. yezoensis revealed the presence of both mature and immature variants of PYP1. PYP1s, designated as PYP1 (15 kDa), PYP1-AC (12 kDa) and PYP1-B (5 kDa), were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli, and their chemoprotective effects were then examined. In addition, a peptide of 11 residues (ALEGGKSSGGG), which is a common sequence at the N-terminus all of the PYP1s, was synthesized and examined. The effects of treatment with PYP1s and the synthetic peptide (SP) on cell proliferation were determined by MTS assay. Our results clearly demonstrated that treatment with all the PYP1s and SP significantly promoted the proliferation of Chang liver cells, protecting them against APAP. Thus, we concluded that recombinant PYP1s exert protective effects against injury to Chang liver cells.

  16. The taurine transporter substrate guanidinoethyl sulfonate mimics the action of taurine on long-term synaptic potentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Luz M; Muñoz, María-Dolores; González, José C; Bustamante, Julián; Del Río, Rafael Martín; Solís, José M

    2016-11-01

    Taurine is especially abundant in rodent brain where it appears to be involved in osmoregulation and synaptic plasticity mechanisms. The demonstration of a physiological role for taurine has been hampered by the difficulty in modifying taurine levels in most tissues, including the brain. We used an experimental strategy to reduce taurine levels, involving treatment with guanidinoethyl sulfonate (GES), a structural analogue of taurine that, among other properties, acts as a competitive inhibitor of taurine transport. GES delivered in the drinking water of rats for 1 month effectively reduced taurine levels in brain structures (hippocampus, cerebellum and cortex) and outside the brain (heart, muscle, kidney, liver and plasma) by between 50 and 80 %, depending on the tissue. This partial taurine depletion did not affect either basal synaptic transmission or the late phase of long-term potentiation (late-LTP) in hippocampal slices. In vivo microdialysis studies in the hippocampus revealed that GES treatment reduced extracellular taurine levels and the magnitude of taurine released in response to the application of either N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) or a hypoosmotic solution, without affecting release mechanisms. Finally, we demonstrated in hippocampal slices that a brief GES application can mimic taurine action on the conversion of a decremental LTP into a perdurable late-LTP, concluding that GES might replace taurine function in some mechanisms such as those implicated in synaptic plasticity.

  17. Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury Alters the Acyl Ethanolamine-Based Anti-Inflammatory Signaling System in Liver

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    Patricia Rivera

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Protective mechanisms against drug-induced liver injury are actively being searched to identify new therapeutic targets. Among them, the anti-inflammatory N-acyl ethanolamide (NAE-peroxisome proliferators activated receptor alpha (PPARα system has gained much interest after the identification of its protective role in steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis. An overdose of paracetamol (APAP, a commonly used analgesic/antipyretic drug, causes hepatotoxicity, and it is being used as a liver model. In the present study, we have analyzed the impact of APAP on the liver NAE-PPARα system. A dose-response (0.5–5–10–20 mM and time-course (2–6–24 h study in human HepG2 cells showed a biphasic response, with a decreased PPARα expression after 6-h APAP incubation followed by a generalized increase of NAE-PPARα system-related components (PPARα, NAPE-PLD, and FAAH, including the NAEs oleoyl ethanolamide (OEA and docosahexaenoyl ethanolamide, after a 24-h exposure to APAP. These results were partially confirmed in a time-course study of mice exposed to an acute dose of APAP (750 mg/kg. The gene expression levels of Pparα and Faah were decreased after 6 h of treatment and, after 24 h, the gene expression levels of Nape-pld and Faah, as well as the liver levels of OEA and palmitoyl ethanolamide, were increased. Repeated APAP administration (750 mg/kg/day up to 4 days also decreased the expression levels of PPARα and FAAH, and increased the liver levels of NAEs. A resting period of 15 days completely restored these impairments. Liver immunohistochemistry in a well-characterized human case of APAP hepatotoxicity confirmed PPARα and FAAH decrements. Histopathological and hepatic damage (Cyp2e1, Caspase3, αSma, Tnfα, and Mcp1-related alterations observed after repeated APAP administration were aggravated in the liver of Pparα-deficient mice. Our results demonstrate that the anti-inflammatory NAE-PPARα signaling system is implicated in liver

  18. Neuroprotective Mechanisms of Taurine against Ischemic Stroke

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    Janet Menzie

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke exhibits a multiplicity of pathophysiological mechanisms. To address the diverse pathophysiological mechanisms observed in ischemic stroke investigators seek to find therapeutic strategies that are multifaceted in their action by either investigating multipotential compounds or by using a combination of compounds. Taurine, an endogenous amino acid, exhibits a plethora of physiological functions. It exhibits antioxidative properties, stabilizes membrane, functions as an osmoregulator, modulates ionic movements, reduces the level of pro-inflammators, regulates intracellular calcium concentration; all of which contributes to its neuroprotective effect. Data are accumulating that show the neuroprotective mechanisms of taurine against stroke pathophysiology. In this review, we describe the neuroprotective mechanisms employed by taurine against ischemic stroke and its use in clinical trial for ischemic stroke.

  19. Raman spectra of deuteriated taurine single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, J. M. de; Lima, R. J. C.; Freire, P. T. C.; Sasaki, J. M.; Melo, F. E. A.; Filho, J. Mendes; Jones, Derry W.

    2005-05-01

    The polarized Raman spectra of partially deuteriated taurine [(ND 3+) 0.65(NH 3+) 0.35(CH 2) 2SO 3-] crystals from x( zz) x and x( zy) x scattering geometries of the A g and B g irreducible representations of the factor group C 2h are reported. The temperature-dependent Raman spectra of partially deuteriated taurine do not reveal any evidence of the structural phase transition undergone by normal taurine at about 250 K, but an anomaly observed in the 180 cm -1 band at ˜120 K implies a different dynamic for this band (which is involved in a pressure-induced phase transition) in the deuteriated crystal.

  20. A role of taurine in mitochondrial function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Svend Høime; Andersen, Mogens Larsen; Cornett, Claus

    2010-01-01

    and its pKa value is determined to 9.0 (25 degrees C) and 8.6 (37 degrees C), respectively. Localisation of such a low-molecular buffer in the mitochondrial matrix, transforms the matrix into a biochemical reaction chamber for the important matrix-localised enzyme systems. Three acyl-CoA dehydrogenase......The mitochondrial pH gradient across the inner-membrane is stabilised by buffering of the matrix. A low-molecular mass buffer compound has to be localised in the matrix to maintain its alkaline pH value. Taurine is found ubiquitously in animal cells with concentrations in the millimolar range...... enzymes, which are pivotal for beta-oxidation of fatty acids, are demonstrated to have optimal activity in a taurine buffer. By application of the model presented, taurine depletion caused by hyperglycemia could provide a link between mitochondrial dysfunction and diabetes....

  1. Gastroprotective effect of taurine zinc solid dispersions against absolute ethanol-induced gastric lesions is mediated by enhancement of antioxidant activity and endogenous PGE2 production and attenuation of NO production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chuan; Mei, Xue-Ting; Zheng, Yan-Ping; Xu, Dong-Hui

    2014-10-05

    Zinc plays a key role in maintaining gastric mucosal integrity, while alcohol dependency can lead to low zinc status. Complexes containing zinc have been reported to have better ability to protect gastric mucosa than the compounds alone. In this study, taurine zinc [Zn(NH3CH2CH2SO3)2] solid dispersions (SDs) were synthesized and investigated in an ethanol-induced ulcer model in rats. Gastric ulcer index; gastric mucosa malondialdehyde (MDA) level, glutathione (GSH) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production; and serum nitric oxide (NO) were assessed and histological analysis of the gastric mucosa tissue was performed. Taurine zinc (100, 200 mg/kg) SDs protected rat gastric mucosa from ethanol-induced injury. Moreover, the gastroprotective effect of taurine zinc SDs was accompanied by a decrease in serum NO and significant increase in gastric prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). When indomethacin, a non-selective COX inhibitor was administered before the last dose of taurine zinc, the gastroprotective effect of taurine zinc was weakened. Furthermore, taurine zinc (200 mg/kg) SDs protected against ulceration more significantly than the same dose of taurine alone, suggesting a synergistic effect between taurine and zinc. These results indicate taurine zinc protects the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced damage by elevating antioxidants, decreasing lipid peroxidation and inhibiting the production of nitric oxide. The gastroprotective effect of taurine zinc was also partially mediated by endogenous PGE2 production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of taurine on chronic heart failure: actions of taurine against catecholamine and angiotensin II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takashi; Schaffer, Stephen; Azuma, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    Taurine, a ubiquitous endogenous sulfur-containing amino acid, possesses numerous pharmacological and physiological actions, including antioxidant activity, modulation of calcium homeostasis and antiapoptotic effects. There is mounting evidence supporting the utility of taurine as a pharmacological agent against heart disease, including chronic heart failure (CHF). In the past decade, angiotensin II blockade and β-adrenergic inhibition have served as the mainstay in the treatment of CHF. Both groups of pharmaceutical agents decrease mortality and improve the quality of life, a testament to the critical role of the sympathetic nervous system and the renin--angiotensin system in the development of CHF. Taurine has also attracted attention because it has beneficial actions in CHF, in part by its demonstrated inhibition of the harmful actions of the neurohumoral factors. In this review, we summarize the beneficial actions of taurine in CHF, focusing on its antagonism of the catecholamines and angiotensin II.

  3. Role of taurine on acid secretion in the rat stomach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Taurine has chemical structure similar to an inhibitory neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Previous studies on GABA in the stomach suggest GABAergic neuron is involved in acid secretion, but the effects of taurine are poor understood. Methods The effects of taurine on acid secretion, signal transduction, and localization of taurinergic neurons were determined in the rat stomach using everted whole stomach, RIA kit and immunohistochemical methods. Results We used antibodies against taurine-synthesizing enzyme, cysteine sulfuric acid decarboxylase (CSAD), and taurine. CSAD- and taurine-positive cells were found in the muscle and mucosal layers. Distributions of CSAD- and taurine-positive cells in both mucosal and muscle layers were heterogeneous in the stomach. Taurine at 10-9~10-4 M induced acid secretion, and the maximum secretion was at 10-5 M, 1.6-fold higher than the spontaneous secretion. Taurine-induced acid secretion was completely inhibited by bicuculline and atropine but not by cimetidine, proglumide, or strychnine. Atropine and tetrodotoxin (TTX) completely inhibited the acid secretion induced by low concentrations of taurine and partially inhibited induced by high concentrations. Verapamil, a calcium blocker agent, inhibited acid output elicited by taurine. We assumed all Ca2+ channels involved in the response to these secretagogues were equally affected by verapamil. Intracellular cAMP (adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphat) in the stomach significantly increased with taurine treatment in a dose-dependent manner. High correlation (r=0.859, p taurine concentrations with cAMP was observed. Conclusions Our results demonstrated for the first time in taurine-induced acid secretion due to increase intracellular calcium may act through the A type of GABA receptors, which are mainly located on cholinergic neurons though cAMP pathway and partially on nonneuronal cells in the rat stomach. PMID:21294907

  4. Review: Taurine: A “very essential” amino acid

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    Shen, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Taurine is an organic osmolyte involved in cell volume regulation, and provides a substrate for the formation of bile salts. It plays a role in the modulation of intracellular free calcium concentration, and although it is one of the few amino acids not incorporated into proteins, taurine is one of the most abundant amino acids in the brain, retina, muscle tissue, and organs throughout the body. Taurine serves a wide variety of functions in the central nervous system, from development to cytoprotection, and taurine deficiency is associated with cardiomyopathy, renal dysfunction, developmental abnormalities, and severe damage to retinal neurons. All ocular tissues contain taurine, and quantitative analysis of ocular tissue extracts of the rat eye revealed that taurine was the most abundant amino acid in the retina, vitreous, lens, cornea, iris, and ciliary body. In the retina, taurine is critical for photoreceptor development and acts as a cytoprotectant against stress-related neuronal damage and other pathological conditions. Despite its many functional properties, however, the cellular and biochemical mechanisms mediating the actions of taurine are not fully known. Nevertheless, considering its broad distribution, its many cytoprotective attributes, and its functional significance in cell development, nutrition, and survival, taurine is undoubtedly one of the most essential substances in the body. Interestingly, taurine satisfies many of the criteria considered essential for inclusion in the inventory of neurotransmitters, but evidence of a taurine-specific receptor has yet to be identified in the vertebrate nervous system. In this report, we present a broad overview of the functional properties of taurine, some of the consequences of taurine deficiency, and the results of studies in animal models suggesting that taurine may play a therapeutic role in the management of epilepsy and diabetes. PMID:23170060

  5. Taurine ameliorated homocysteine-induced H9C2 cardiomyocyte apoptosis by modulating endoplasmic reticulum stress.

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    Zhang, Zhimin; Zhao, Lianyou; Zhou, Yanfen; Lu, Xuanhao; Wang, Zhengqiang; Wang, Jipeng; Li, Wei

    2017-05-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy)-triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated endothelial cell apoptosis has been suggested as a cause of Hcy-dependent vascular injury. However, whether ER stress is the molecular mechanism linking Hcy and cardiomyocytes death is unclear. Taurine has been reported to exert cardioprotective effects via various mechanisms. However, whether taurine protects against Hcy-induced cardiomyocyte death by attenuating ER stress is unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the opposite effects of taurine on Hcy-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and their underlying mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that low-dose or short-term Hcy treatment increased the expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and activated protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK), inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1), and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), which in turn prevented apoptotic cell death. High-dose Hcy or prolonged Hcy treatment duration significantly up-regulated levels of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), cleaved caspase-12, p-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and then triggered apoptotic events. High-dose Hcy also resulted in a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and an increase in cytoplasmic cytochrome C and the expression of cleaved caspase-9. Pretreatment of cardiomyocytes with sodium 4-phenylbutyric acid (an ER stress inhibitor) significantly inhibited Hcy-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, blocking the PERK pathway partly alleviated Hcy-induced ER stress-modulated cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and down-regulated the levels of Bax and cleaved caspase-3. Experimental taurine pretreatment inhibited the expression of ER stress-related proteins, and protected against apoptotic events triggered by Hcy-induced ER stress. Taken together, our results suggest that Hcy triggered ER stress in cardiomyocytes, which was the crucial molecular mechanism mediating Hcy-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and the adverse effect of Hcy could be prevented by taurine.

  6. Taurine zinc solid dispersions enhance bile-incubated L02 cell viability and improve liver function by inhibiting ERK2 and JNK phosphorylation during cholestasis.

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    Wang, Yu; Mei, Xueting; Yuan, Jingquan; Lai, Xiaofang; Xu, Donghui

    2016-07-29

    Dietary intakes of taurine and zinc are associated with decreased risk of liver disease. In this study, solid dispersions (SDs) of a taurine zinc complex on hepatic injury were examined in vitro using the immortalized human hepatocyte cell line L02 and in a rat model of bile duct ligation. Sham-operated and bile duct ligated Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with the vehicle alone or taurine zinc (40, 80, 160mg/kg) for 17days. Bile duct ligation significantly increased blood lipid levels, and promoted hepatocyte apoptosis, inflammation and compensatory biliary proliferation. In vitro, incubation with bile significantly reduced L02 cell viability; this effect was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor) and enhanced when co-incubated with taurine zinc SDs. In vivo, administration of taurine zinc SDs decreased serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities in a dose-dependent manner and attenuated the increases in serum total bilirubin, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels after bile duct ligation. Additionally, taurine zinc SDs downregulated the expression of interleukin-1β and inhibited the phosphorylation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase2 (ERK2) in the liver after bile duct ligation. Moreover, taurine zinc SDs had more potent blood lipid regulatory and anti-apoptotic effects than the physical mixture of taurine and zinc acetate. Therefore, we speculate that taurine zinc SDs protect liver function at least in part via a mechanism linked to reduce phosphorylation of JNK and ERK2, which suppresses inflammation, apoptosis and cholangiocyte proliferation during cholestasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Taurine Rescues Cisplatin-Induced Muscle Atrophy In Vitro: A Morphological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacchiotti, Alessandra; Rovetta, Francesca; Ferroni, Matteo; Corsetti, Giovanni; Lavazza, Antonio; Sberveglieri, Giorgio; Aleo, Maria Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Cisplatin (CisPt) is a widely used chemotherapeutic drug whose side effects include muscle weakness and cachexia. Here we analysed CisPt-induced atrophy in C2C12 myotubes by a multidisciplinary morphological approach, focusing on the onset and progression of autophagy, a protective cellular process that, when excessively activated, may trigger protein hypercatabolism and atrophy in skeletal muscle. To visualize autophagy we used confocal and transmission electron microscopy at different times of treatment and doses of CisPt. Moreover we evaluated the effects of taurine, a cytoprotective beta-amino acid able to counteract oxidative stress, apoptosis, and endoplasmic reticulum stress in different tissues and organs. Our microscopic results indicate that autophagy occurs very early in 50 μM CisPt challenged myotubes (4 h–8 h) before overt atrophy but it persists even at 24 h, when several autophagic vesicles, damaged mitochondria, and sarcoplasmic blebbings engulf the sarcoplasm. Differently, 25 mM taurine pretreatment rescues the majority of myotubes size upon 50 μM CisPt at 24 h. Taurine appears to counteract atrophy by restoring regular microtubular apparatus and mitochondria and reducing the overload and the localization of autophagolysosomes. Such a promising taurine action in preventing atrophy needs further molecular and biochemical studies to best define its impact on muscle homeostasis and the maintenance of an adequate skeletal mass in vivo. PMID:24955211

  8. Lipoic acid effects on glutamate and taurine concentrations in rat hippocampus after pilocarpine-induced seizures

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    P S Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pilocarpine-induced seizures can be mediated by increases in oxidative stress and by cerebral amino acid changes. The present research suggests that antioxidant compounds may afford some level of neuroprotection against the neurotoxicity of seizures in cellular level. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the lipoic acid (LA effects in glutamate and taurine contents in rat hippocampus after pilocarpine-induced seizures. Wistar rats were treated intraperitoneally (i.p. with 0.9% saline (Control, pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, Pilocarpine, LA (10 mg/kg, LA, and the association of LA (10 mg/kg plus pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, that was injected 30 min before of administration of LA (LA plus pilocarpine. Animals were observed during 24 h. The amino acid concentrations were measured using high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC. In pilocarpine group, it was observed a significant increase in glutamate content (37% and a decrease in taurine level (18% in rat hippocampus, when compared to control group. Antioxidant pretreatment significantly reduced the glutamate level (28% and augmented taurine content (32% in rat hippocampus, when compared to pilocarpine group. Our findings strongly support amino acid changes in hippocampus during seizures induced by pilocarpine, and suggest that glutamate-induced brain damage plays a crucial role in pathogenic consequences of seizures, and imply that strong protective effect could be achieved using lipoic acid through the release or decrease in metabolization rate of taurine amino acid during seizures.

  9. Taurine Rescues Cisplatin-Induced Muscle Atrophy In Vitro: A Morphological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Stacchiotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin (CisPt is a widely used chemotherapeutic drug whose side effects include muscle weakness and cachexia. Here we analysed CisPt-induced atrophy in C2C12 myotubes by a multidisciplinary morphological approach, focusing on the onset and progression of autophagy, a protective cellular process that, when excessively activated, may trigger protein hypercatabolism and atrophy in skeletal muscle. To visualize autophagy we used confocal and transmission electron microscopy at different times of treatment and doses of CisPt. Moreover we evaluated the effects of taurine, a cytoprotective beta-amino acid able to counteract oxidative stress, apoptosis, and endoplasmic reticulum stress in different tissues and organs. Our microscopic results indicate that autophagy occurs very early in 50 μM CisPt challenged myotubes (4 h–8 h before overt atrophy but it persists even at 24 h, when several autophagic vesicles, damaged mitochondria, and sarcoplasmic blebbings engulf the sarcoplasm. Differently, 25 mM taurine pretreatment rescues the majority of myotubes size upon 50 μM CisPt at 24 h. Taurine appears to counteract atrophy by restoring regular microtubular apparatus and mitochondria and reducing the overload and the localization of autophagolysosomes. Such a promising taurine action in preventing atrophy needs further molecular and biochemical studies to best define its impact on muscle homeostasis and the maintenance of an adequate skeletal mass in vivo.

  10. [Peculiarities of the Structural-Functional State of the Cytochrome Part of Liver Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain under Conditions of Acetaminophen-induced Hepatitis against the Background of Alimentary Deprivation of Protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voloshchuk, O N; Kopylchuk, G P

    2015-01-01

    Activity of the key enzyme of the cytochrome part of the respiratory chain--cytochrome oxidase, quantitative redistribution of mitochondrial cytochromes b, c1, c and aa3, activity of the key enzymes of cytochromes' heme metabolism--delta-aminolevulinate synthase and heme oxygenase under conditions of acetaminophen-induced hepatitis against the background of alimentary deprivation of protein were studied. It was found out, that under conditions of acetaminophen-induced hepatitis against the background of alimentary deprivation of protein, an inhibition of cytochrome oxidase activity and a decrease in the quantitative content of mitochondrial cytochromes against the background of the increase in the delta-aminolevulinate synthase and heme oxygenase activity are observed. In animals with toxic liver injury, maintained under conditions of alimentary deprivation of protein, a progressive decrease in the quantitative content of mitochondrial cytochromes b, c1, c and aa3 against the background. of the increase in heme oxygenase activity and preservation of delta-aminolevulinate synthase activity on the control level is identified. The conclusion was made, that alimentary deprivation of protein is a critical factor for the development of the disturbances of structural-functional integrity of the cytochromic part of the respiratory chain. The identified changes may be considered as one of the possible mechanisms of energy biotransformation system disturbances under conditions of alimentary deprivation of protein.

  11. Taurin and its secrets in experimental hepatology

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    I.N. Kononov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Taurine is a unique amino acid. It has various biological effects aimed at maintaining physiological homeostasis, including antioxidation, modulation of ion transport, osmoregulation, regulation of neurotransmitters and conjugation of bile acids. Its regulatory effect on the normalization of protein, carbohydrate, electrolyte metabolism, the activity of a number of enzymes and hormones, the energy and recovery processes in the body, the strengthening of the immune system are associated with the stabilizing effect of taurine on the membranes. Its conjugation with bile acids contributes to the colloidal stability of bile, which is extremely necessary to maintain a normal level of cholesterol in the blood. The treatment and prevention of various diseases of the cardiovascular system, liver, obesity, dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis, as well as insulin resistance and manifested diabetes mellitus, eye diseases, neuroses and depressions are associated with the normalization of the exchange of taurine in the liver. The purpose of this article is to draw attention to taurine as a powerful hepatoprotector, based on experimental studies.

  12. Taurine Biosynthesis in a Fish Liver Cell Line (ZFL Adapted to a Serum-Free Medium

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    Chieh-Lun Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although taurine has been shown to play multiple important physiological roles in teleosts, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying dietary requirements. Cell lines can provide useful tools for deciphering biosynthetic pathways and their regulation. However, culture media and sera contain variable taurine levels. To provide a useful cell line for the investigation of taurine homeostasis, an adult zebrafish liver cell line (ZFL has been adapted to a taurine-free medium by gradual accommodation to a commercially available synthetic medium, UltraMEM™-ITES. Here we show that ZFL cells are able to synthesize taurine and be maintained in medium without taurine. This has allowed for the investigation of the effects of taurine supplementation on cell growth, cellular amino acid pools, as well as the expression of the taurine biosynthetic pathway and taurine transporter genes in a defined fish cell type. After taurine supplementation, cellular taurine levels increase but hypotaurine levels stay constant, suggesting little suppression of taurine biosynthesis. Cellular methionine levels do not change after taurine addition, consistent with maintenance of taurine biosynthesis. The addition of taurine to cells grown in taurine-free medium has little effect on transcript levels of the biosynthetic pathway genes for cysteine dioxygenase (CDO, cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSAD, or cysteamine dioxygenase (ADO. In contrast, supplementation with taurine causes a 30% reduction in transcript levels of the taurine transporter, TauT. This experimental approach can be tailored for the development of cell lines from aquaculture species for the elucidation of their taurine biosynthetic capacity.

  13. Taurine Biosynthesis in a Fish Liver Cell Line (ZFL) Adapted to a Serum-Free Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chieh-Lun; Watson, Aaron M; Place, Allen R; Jagus, Rosemary

    2017-05-25

    Although taurine has been shown to play multiple important physiological roles in teleosts, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying dietary requirements. Cell lines can provide useful tools for deciphering biosynthetic pathways and their regulation. However, culture media and sera contain variable taurine levels. To provide a useful cell line for the investigation of taurine homeostasis, an adult zebrafish liver cell line (ZFL) has been adapted to a taurine-free medium by gradual accommodation to a commercially available synthetic medium, UltraMEM™-ITES. Here we show that ZFL cells are able to synthesize taurine and be maintained in medium without taurine. This has allowed for the investigation of the effects of taurine supplementation on cell growth, cellular amino acid pools, as well as the expression of the taurine biosynthetic pathway and taurine transporter genes in a defined fish cell type. After taurine supplementation, cellular taurine levels increase but hypotaurine levels stay constant, suggesting little suppression of taurine biosynthesis. Cellular methionine levels do not change after taurine addition, consistent with maintenance of taurine biosynthesis. The addition of taurine to cells grown in taurine-free medium has little effect on transcript levels of the biosynthetic pathway genes for cysteine dioxygenase (CDO), cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSAD), or cysteamine dioxygenase (ADO). In contrast, supplementation with taurine causes a 30% reduction in transcript levels of the taurine transporter, TauT. This experimental approach can be tailored for the development of cell lines from aquaculture species for the elucidation of their taurine biosynthetic capacity.

  14. Taurine and tea polyphenols combination ameliorate nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenhua; Chen, Siwen; Chen, Ronggui; Peng, Zhiqing; Wan, Jun; Wu, Benyan

    2017-09-08

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a progressive form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, for which there is currently no safe and effective drug for therapy. In this study, we explored the effects of taurine, tea polyphenols (TPs), or a combination thereof, on NASH rats. Rats were divided into a normal group, a high-fat diet induced model group and a treatment group (including taurine, TPs, or taurine + TPs treatment for 8 weeks). Twelve weeks later, all rats were sacrificed, and serum transaminase, lipid and lipopolysaccharide levels and hepatic oxidative stress levels were determined. Histological changes were evaluated. In NASH rats, hepatocyte damage, lipid disturbance, oxidative stress and elevated lipopolysaccharide levels were confirmed. Taurine treatment alleviated hepatocyte damage and oxidative stress. TPs treatment improved lipid metabolism and increased hepatic antioxidant activity. The therapeutic effects of taurine + TPs treatment on hepatocyte damage, lipid disturbance, and oxidative stress were superior to those of taurine and TPs treatment, respectively. Taurine, TPs and their combination all decreased serum lipopolysaccharide levels in NASH rats, but the combination of the compounds caused these levels to decrease more significantly than taurine or TPs treatment alone. Taurine combined with TPs treatment could relieve NASH by alleviating hepatocyte damage, decreasing oxidative stress and improving lipid metabolism and gut flora disturbance partly. Taurine and TPs combination may act as a new effective medicine for treating NASH patients.

  15. Role of taurine in the pathogenesis of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shigeru

    2015-07-01

    Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid that is present in mammalian tissues in millimolar concentrations. Taurine is involved in a diverse array of biological and physiological functions, including bile salt conjugation, osmoregulation, membrane stabilization, calcium modulation, anti-oxidation, and immunomodulation. The prevalence of obesity and being overweight continues to rise worldwide at an alarming rate. Obesity is associated with a higher risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and other clinical conditions. Ingestion of taurine has been shown to alleviate metabolic diseases such as hyperlipidemia, diabetes, hypertension, and obesity in animal models. A global epidemiological survey showed that 24-h urinary taurine excretion, as a marker of dietary taurine intake, was inversely associated with BMI, blood pressure, and plasma cholesterol in humans. In addition, taurine chloramine, an endogenous product derived from activated neutrophils, has been reported to suppress obesity-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in adipocytes. Synthetic activity and concentration of taurine in adipose tissues and plasma have been shown to decrease in humans and animals during the development of obesity, suggesting a relationship between taurine deficiency and obesity. In this review, I summarize the effects of taurine on the progression of obesity in animal models and humans. Furthermore, I discuss possible mechanisms underlying the antiobesity effects of taurine. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Role of taurine on acid secretion in the rat stomach

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    Ho Jau-Der

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taurine has chemical structure similar to an inhibitory neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA. Previous studies on GABA in the stomach suggest GABAergic neuron is involved in acid secretion, but the effects of taurine are poor understood. Methods The effects of taurine on acid secretion, signal transduction, and localization of taurinergic neurons were determined in the rat stomach using everted whole stomach, RIA kit and immunohistochemical methods. Results We used antibodies against taurine-synthesizing enzyme, cysteine sulfuric acid decarboxylase (CSAD, and taurine. CSAD- and taurine-positive cells were found in the muscle and mucosal layers. Distributions of CSAD- and taurine-positive cells in both mucosal and muscle layers were heterogeneous in the stomach. Taurine at 10-9~10-4 M induced acid secretion, and the maximum secretion was at 10-5 M, 1.6-fold higher than the spontaneous secretion. Taurine-induced acid secretion was completely inhibited by bicuculline and atropine but not by cimetidine, proglumide, or strychnine. Atropine and tetrodotoxin (TTX completely inhibited the acid secretion induced by low concentrations of taurine and partially inhibited induced by high concentrations. Verapamil, a calcium blocker agent, inhibited acid output elicited by taurine. We assumed all Ca2+ channels involved in the response to these secretagogues were equally affected by verapamil. Intracellular cAMP (adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphat in the stomach significantly increased with taurine treatment in a dose-dependent manner. High correlation (r=0.859, p Conclusions Our results demonstrated for the first time in taurine-induced acid secretion due to increase intracellular calcium may act through the A type of GABA receptors, which are mainly located on cholinergic neurons though cAMP pathway and partially on nonneuronal cells in the rat stomach.

  17. Taurine Provides Neuroprotection against Retinal Ganglion Cell Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froger, Nicolas; Cadetti, Lucia; Lorach, Henri; Martins, Joao; Bemelmans, Alexis-Pierre; Dubus, Elisabeth; Degardin, Julie; Pain, Dorothée; Forster, Valérie; Chicaud, Laurent; Ivkovic, Ivana; Simonutti, Manuel; Fouquet, Stéphane; Jammoul, Firas; Léveillard, Thierry; Benosman, Ryad; Sahel, José-Alain; Picaud, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration occurs in numerous retinal diseases leading to blindness, either as a primary process like in glaucoma, or secondary to photoreceptor loss. However, no commercial drug is yet directly targeting RGCs for their neuroprotection. In the 70s, taurine, a small sulfonic acid provided by nutrition, was found to be essential for the survival of photoreceptors, but this dependence was not related to any retinal disease. More recently, taurine deprivation was incriminated in the retinal toxicity of an antiepileptic drug. We demonstrate here that taurine can improve RGC survival in culture or in different animal models of RGC degeneration. Taurine effect on RGC survival was assessed in vitro on primary pure RCG cultures under serum-deprivation conditions, and on NMDA-treated retinal explants from adult rats. In vivo, taurine was administered through the drinking water in two glaucomatous animal models (DBA/2J mice and rats with vein occlusion) and in a model of Retinitis pigmentosa with secondary RGC degeneration (P23H rats). After a 6-day incubation, 1 mM taurine significantly enhanced RGCs survival (+68%), whereas control RGCs were cultured in a taurine-free medium, containing all natural amino-acids. This effect was found to rely on taurine-uptake by RGCs. Furthermore taurine (1 mM) partly prevented NMDA-induced RGC excitotoxicity. Finally, taurine supplementation increased RGC densities both in DBA/2J mice, in rats with vein occlusion and in P23H rats by contrast to controls drinking taurine-free water. This study indicates that enriched taurine nutrition can directly promote RGC survival through RGC intracellular pathways. It provides evidence that taurine can positively interfere with retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:23115615

  18. Influences of different developmental periods of taurine supplements on synaptic plasticity in hippocampal CA1 area of rats following prenatal and perinatal lead exposure

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    Wang Hui-Li

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous study has demonstrated that dietary taurine supplement protected rats from impairments of synaptic plasticity induced by postnatal lead exposure. However, little is known about the role of taurine in the presence of prenatal and perinatal lead exposure. We investigated the possible effect of taurine supplement on prenatal and perinatal lead-induced synaptic plasticity deficit and determined developmental periods critical for the effect of taurine. Results In the present study, taurine was administrated to prenatal and perinatal lead-exposed rats in different developmental periods: from prenatal to weaning (Lead+PW-Tau, from weaning to life (Lead+WL-Tau, and from prenatal to life (Lead+PL-Tau. We examined the input-output (I/O function, paired-pulse facilitation (PPF and the long-term potentiation (LTP of field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP in the hippocampal CA1 area of rats on postnatal days 18–25 (P18–25 or days 60–75 (P60–75. We found that (1 on P18–25, taurine had no evident effect on I/O functions and PPF ratios of lead-exposed rats but caused a 12.0% increase in the LTP amplitudes of these animals; (2 on P60–75, taurine significantly elevated lead depressed I/O functions and PPF ratios in Lead+PW-Tau and Lead+PL-Tau rats, but failed in Lead+WL-Tau rats. The amplitudes of LTP of lead-exposed rats were all significantly increased by additional taurine supplement in any developmental period compared with untreated rats. Thus, taurine appeared to have the most effect during the prenatal and lactation periods and its effects on younger rats would not be manifest until the adult life; and (3 the level of lead deposition in hippocampus was evidently reduced by additional treatment of taurine in lead-exposed rats, compared with untreated rats. Conclusion Taurine supplement can protect the adult rats from synaptic plasticity deficits following prenatal and perinatal lead exposure, and the

  19. Protective Effects of Tormentic Acid, a Major Component of Suspension Cultures of Eriobotrya japonica Cells, on Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice

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    Wen-Ping Jiang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available An acetaminophen (APAP overdose can cause hepatotoxicity and lead to fatal liver damage. The hepatoprotective effects of tormentic acid (TA on acetaminophen (APAP-induced liver damage were investigated in mice. TA was intraperitoneally (i.p. administered for six days prior to APAP administration. Pretreatment with TA prevented the elevation of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, total bilirubin (T-Bil, total cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerol (TG, and liver lipid peroxide levels in APAP-treated mice and markedly reduced APAP-induced histological alterations in liver tissues. Additionally, TA attenuated the APAP-induced production of nitric oxide (NO, reactive oxygen species (ROS, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-1beta (IL-1β, and IL-6. Furthermore, the Western blot analysis showed that TA blocked the protein expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, as well as the inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs activation in APAP-injured liver tissues. TA also retained the superoxidase dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and catalase (CAT in the liver. These results suggest that the hepatoprotective effects of TA may be related to its anti-inflammatory effect by decreasing thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, and inhibiting NF-κB and MAPK activation. Antioxidative properties were also observed, as shown by heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 induction in the liver, and decreases in lipid peroxides and ROS. Therefore, TA may be a potential therapeutic candidate for the prevention of APAP-induced liver injury by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation.

  20. Amelioration of nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular and sperm toxicity in rats by taurine: Effects on steroidogenesis, redox and inflammatory cascades, and intrinsic apoptotic pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Maha A.E., E-mail: mahapharm@yahoo.com

    2015-02-01

    The wide abuse of the anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate by athletes and adolescents for enhancement of sporting performance and physical appearance may be associated with testicular toxicity and infertility. On the other hand, taurine; a free β-amino acid with remarkable antioxidant activity, is used in taurine-enriched beverages to boost the muscular power of athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of the possible protective effects of taurine on nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular and sperm toxicity in rats. To achieve this aim, male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into four groups and administered either vehicle, nandrolone decanoate (10 mg/kg/week, I.M.), taurine (100 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or combination of taurine and nandrolone decanoate, for 8 successive weeks. Results of the present study showed that taurine reversed nandrolone decanoate-induced perturbations in sperm characteristics, normalized serum testosterone level, and restored the activities of the key steroidogenic enzymes; 3β-HSD, and 17β-HSD. Moreover, taurine prevented nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular toxicity and DNA damage by virtue of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects. This was evidenced by taurine-induced modulation of testicular LDH-x activity, redox markers (MDA, NO, GSH contents, and SOD activity), inflammatory indices (TNF-α, ICAM-1 levels, and MMP-9 gene expression), intrinsic apoptotic pathway (cytochrome c gene expression and caspase-3 content), and oxidative DNA damage markers (8-OHdG level and comet assay). In conclusion, at the biochemical and histological levels, taurine attenuated nandrolone decanoate-induced poor sperm quality and testicular toxicity in rats. - Highlights: • Nandrolone decanoate (ND) disrupts sperm profile and steroidogenesis in rats. • ND upregulates gene expression of inflammatory and apoptotic markers. • Taurine normalizes sperm profile and serum testosterone level

  1. Amelioration of nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular and sperm toxicity in rats by taurine: Effects on steroidogenesis, redox and inflammatory cascades, and intrinsic apoptotic pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Maha A.E.

    2015-01-01

    The wide abuse of the anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate by athletes and adolescents for enhancement of sporting performance and physical appearance may be associated with testicular toxicity and infertility. On the other hand, taurine; a free β-amino acid with remarkable antioxidant activity, is used in taurine-enriched beverages to boost the muscular power of athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of the possible protective effects of taurine on nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular and sperm toxicity in rats. To achieve this aim, male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into four groups and administered either vehicle, nandrolone decanoate (10 mg/kg/week, I.M.), taurine (100 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or combination of taurine and nandrolone decanoate, for 8 successive weeks. Results of the present study showed that taurine reversed nandrolone decanoate-induced perturbations in sperm characteristics, normalized serum testosterone level, and restored the activities of the key steroidogenic enzymes; 3β-HSD, and 17β-HSD. Moreover, taurine prevented nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular toxicity and DNA damage by virtue of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects. This was evidenced by taurine-induced modulation of testicular LDH-x activity, redox markers (MDA, NO, GSH contents, and SOD activity), inflammatory indices (TNF-α, ICAM-1 levels, and MMP-9 gene expression), intrinsic apoptotic pathway (cytochrome c gene expression and caspase-3 content), and oxidative DNA damage markers (8-OHdG level and comet assay). In conclusion, at the biochemical and histological levels, taurine attenuated nandrolone decanoate-induced poor sperm quality and testicular toxicity in rats. - Highlights: • Nandrolone decanoate (ND) disrupts sperm profile and steroidogenesis in rats. • ND upregulates gene expression of inflammatory and apoptotic markers. • Taurine normalizes sperm profile and serum testosterone level

  2. Taurine and pioglitazone attenuate diabetes-induced testicular damage by abrogation of oxidative stress and up-regulation of the pituitary-gonadal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Twab, Sanaa M; Mohamed, Hanaa M; Mahmoud, Ayman M

    2016-06-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia is associated with impairment of testicular function. The current study aimed to investigate the protective effects and the possible mechanisms of taurine and pioglitazone against diabetes-induced testicular dysfunction in rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection. Both normal and diabetic rats received taurine (100 mg/kg) or pioglitazone (10 mg/kg) orally and daily for 6 weeks. Diabetic rats showed a significant (P Taurine and pioglitazone alleviated hyperglycemia, decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines, and increased circulating levels of insulin, testosterone, LH, and FSH. Gene and protein expression of LH and FSH receptors and cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxylase (CYP17) was significantly (P taurine and pioglitazone. In addition, taurine and pioglitazone significantly decreased lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, and enhanced activity of the antioxidant enzymes in testes of diabetic rats. In conclusion, taurine and pioglitazone exerted protective effects against diabetes-induced testicular damage through attenuation of hyperglycemia, inflammation, oxidative stress and DNA damage, and up-regulation of the pituitary/gonadal axis.

  3. Regression of liver fibrosis by taurine in rats fed alcohol: effects on collagen accumulation, selected cytokines and stellate cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Shanmugam Lakshmi; Viswanathan, Periyaswamy; Anuradha, Carani V

    2010-11-25

    The antifibrogenic effect of taurine in experimental liver fibrosis has been shown. The role of taurine to abate fibrogenic mediators and collagen deposition during liver fibrosis induced by simultaneous administration of iron carbonyl (0.5% w/w) and alcohol (6 g/kg/day) was investigated in this study. Liver histology, the levels of inflammatory cytokines, stellate cell activation, oxidative stress and collagen content were assessed. Liver fibrosis and a rise in collagen content in ethanol plus iron-fed rat were evident from van Gieson and Masson's trichrome staining respectively. Hepatic myeloperoxidase activity and plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were markedly elevated. This was associated with an imbalance in the oxidant-antioxidant system, increased expression of transforming growth factor-β(1) (TGF-β(1)) and stellate cell activation suggested by α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) localization. This condition was protected in the presence of taurine. Taurine lowered the levels of IL-6, TNF-α and peroxidation products and the expression of α-SMA, desmin and TGF-β(1) and improved the antioxidant status. A positive relationship between hepatic collagen with iron and lipid peroxides and an inverse relationship between collagen and glutathione were noted. It is concluded that taurine reduces iron-potentiated alcoholic liver fibrosis by curtailing oxidative stress, production of inflammatory and fibrogenic mediators and activation of stellate cells. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Effect of taurine on rat Achilles tendon healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Ovunc; Lineaweaver, William C; Cavusoglu, Turker; Binboga, Erdal; Uyanikgil, Yigit; Zhang, Feng; Pekedis, Mahmut; Yagci, Tugay

    2015-01-01

    Taurine has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant characteristics. We have introduced taurine into a tendon-healing model to evaluate its effects on tendon healing and adhesion formation. Two groups of 16 rats underwent diversion and repair of the Achilles tendon. One group received a taurine injection (200 mg/ml) at the repair site, while the other group received 1 ml of saline. Specimens were harvested at 6 weeks and underwent biomechanical and histological evaluation. No tendon ruptured. Average maximum load was significantly greater in the taurine-applied group compared with the control group (p taurine-applied group compared with the control group (p  0.05). After histological assessment, we found that fibroblast proliferation, edema, and inflammation statistically decreased in the treatment group (p taurine may have an effect on adhesion formation.

  5. 33S NMR cryogenic probe for taurine detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobo, Fumio; Takahashi, Masato; Maeda, Hideaki

    2009-03-01

    With the goal of a S33 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probe applicable to in vivo NMR on taurine-biological samples, we have developed the S33 NMR cryogenic probe, which is applicable to taurine solutions. The NMR sensitivity gain relative to a conventional broadband probe is as large as 3.5. This work suggests that improvements in the preamplifier could allow NMR measurements on 100 μM taurine solutions, which is the level of sensitivity necessary for biological samples.

  6. Effect of taurine on ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Stephen W; Jong, Chian Ju; Ito, Takashi; Azuma, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    Taurine is an abundant β-amino acid that regulates several events that dramatically influence the development of ischemia-reperfusion injury. One of these events is the extrusion of taurine and Na+ from the cell via the taurine/Na+ symport. The loss of Na+ during the ischemia-reperfusion insult limits the amount of available Na+ for Na+/Ca2+ exchange, an important process in the development of Ca2+ overload and the activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition, a key process in ischemia-reperfusion mediated cell death. Taurine also prevents excessive generation of reactive oxygen species by the respiratory chain, an event that also limits the activation of the MPT. Because taurine is an osmoregulator, changes in taurine concentration trigger "osmotic preconditioning," a process that activates an Akt-dependent cytoprotective signaling pathway that inhibits MPT pore formation. These effects of taurine have clinical implications, as experimental evidence reveals potential promise of taurine therapy in preventing cardiac damage during bypass surgery, heart transplantation and myocardial infarction. Moreover, severe loss of taurine from the heart during an ischemia-reperfusion insult may increase the risk of ventricular remodeling and development of heart failure.

  7. Supplemental effect of different levels of taurine in Modena on boar semen quality during liquid preservation at 17°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Zhang, Xiao-Gang; Fang, Qian; Liu, Qi; Du, Ren-Rang; Yang, Gong-She; Wang, Li-Qiang; Hu, Jian-Hong

    2017-11-01

    Peroxidation damage induces sublethal injury to boar sperm during the storage process. Taurine has already been demonstrated to protect cells effectively from oxidant-induced injury. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of taurine (0.5, 1, 5 and 10 mmol/L) in Modena diluent on boar sperm quality during liquid storage at 17°C. Ejaculates from sexually mature Duroc pigs were collected, pooled and preserved in the Modena containing different concentrations of taurine. Sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) activity and malondialdehyde content (MDA) were examined every 24 h. Modena diluent containing taurine suppressed the reduction in sperm qualities during the process of liquid preservation compared with those of the control group. After 5 days of liquid preservation, the addition of taurine at 5 mmol/L had the optimal effect on survival time as well as maintenance of motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, T-AOC activity and MDA content. These results may suggest the possibility that the proper addition of taurine to the semen extender improves the swine production system using artificial insemination by the suppressing of sperm damage and subsequent dysfunction during liquid preservation. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. Phase IV prospective clinical study to evaluate the effect of taurine on liver function in postsurgical adult patients requiring parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, Francisco; Balsa, José Antonio; de la Puerta, Cristina; Botella, José Ignacio; Zamarrón, Isabel; Elías, Elena; Del Río, José Ignacio Pérez; Alonso, Paloma; Candela, Angel; Blanco-Colio, Luis Miguel; Egido, Jesús; Navarro, Pilar; Vázquez, Clotilde

    2014-10-01

    Taurine's role in bile acid metabolism and anti-inflammatory activity could exert a protective effect on hepatobiliary complications associated with parenteral nutrition (PN). In this study, the effects of 2 amino acid solutions, with and without taurine, on liver function administered to nonacutely ill postsurgical patients as part of a short-term PN regimen were prospectively compared. Adult patients randomly received (double-blind) Tauramin 10% or a standard PN solution without taurine as the control (1.5 g amino acid/kg body weight [bw]/d; infusion rate of ≤4 mg glucose/kg bw/d) for a period of 5-30 days. γ-Glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and other indicators of liver function, glucose metabolism, lipid profile, inflammation markers, and treatment safety data were collected. Thirty-five patients receiving taurine PN and 39 receiving control PN were enrolled (intention-to-treat [ITT] population). Most patients (n = 62) discontinued after day 7 of follow-up (per-protocol [PP] population: n = 24 and n = 27, respectively). ITT patients with high GGT values after 5 days of PN comprised 68.6% and 64.1%, respectively. The mean change in GGT values with respect to the baseline values was 167 ± 192 and 157 ± 185 IU/L, respectively. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels after 7 days of PN were significantly decreased in the taurine PN group of PP patients (-2.83 ± 30.9 vs 23.9 ± 27.0 mg/dL for control PN; P taurine PN: n = 6; control PN: n = 7) were treatment related. PN solutions with and without taurine had similar effects on liver function parameters, except for an LDL reduction in PN with taurine, when administered to nonacutely ill postsurgical patients in the short term (5-7 days). © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  9. The Possible HEPATOPROTECTIVE Effect Of Taurine In Diethyl Nitrosamine (DEN) Treated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHAROUD, M.N.M.; ABD EL-MONEIM, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    Egypt occupies a progressed rank among the developing countries in prevalence of hepatic diseases and liver disorders. Hepatopathies are major public health problems in Egypt where hepatitis C virus (HCV) and schistosomia record a high prevalence which may account for the most serious clinical disorders e.g. liver cirrhosis and liver cancer.Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the most specific and potent mitogen of endothelial cells. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by increased pathologic angio genesis and increased level of the vascular endothelial growth factor. Taurine is clinically used as a protecting agent of the liver and recently, its chemo preventive effect on rat large bowel carcinogenesis was reported.In this study, forty male albino rats were used and diethyl nitrosamine (DEN) was used for inducing pathological changes in different organs while taurine was given to investigate the possible protective effects on liver tissue after DEN treatment.The results showed elevation in serum AST, ALT, ALP, urea, creatinine, cholesterol and triglycerides in DEN group. On the other hand, estimation of sex hormones exhibited marked decrease in testosterone and significant increase in estradiol levels in DEN group as compared to control and taurine groups.Pathological examination of rat liver showed that DEN induced peri portal inflammatory cellular infiltrate, piece meal necrosis and necro inflammatory activity as well as the appearance of areas of haemorrhage and ballooning in hepatocytes. Moreover, moderate to high expression of V EGF in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes and sinusoidal cells were clearly observed while in control and taurine groups, normal architecture of hepatic tissue of rats was found and normal distribution of V EGF as diffuse or focal granular cytoplasmic stain in rats liver were observed. The prophylactic group showed minimal and mild changes in the liver tissue with absence of necro inflammation and the V EGF expression

  10. Taurine exerts hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, improves insulin-mediated glucose transport signaling pathway in heart and ameliorates cardiac oxidative stress and apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Joydeep; Vasan, Vandana; Sil, Parames C.

    2012-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia, inflammation and altered antioxidant profiles are the usual complications in diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of taurine in diabetes associated cardiac complications using a rat model. Rats were made diabetic by alloxan (ALX) (single i.p. dose of 120 mg/kg body weight) and left untreated or treated with taurine (1% w/v, orally, in water) for three weeks either from the day of ALX exposure or after the onset of diabetes. Animals were euthanized after three weeks. ALX-induced diabetes decreased body weight, increased glucose level, decreased insulin content, enhanced the levels of cardiac damage markers and altered lipid profile in the plasma. Moreover, it increased oxidative stress (decreased antioxidant enzyme activities and GSH/GSSG ratio, increased xanthine oxidase enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and ROS generation) and enhanced the proinflammatory cytokines levels, activity of myeloperoxidase and nuclear translocation of NFκB in the cardiac tissue of the experimental animals. Taurine treatment could, however, result to a decrease in the elevated blood glucose and proinflammatory cytokine levels, diabetes-evoked oxidative stress, lipid profiles and NFκB translocation. In addition, taurine increased GLUT 4 translocation to the cardiac membrane by enhanced phosphorylation of IR and IRS1 at tyrosine and Akt at serine residue in the heart. Results also suggest that taurine could protect cardiac tissue from ALX induced apoptosis via the regulation of Bcl2 family and caspase 9/3 proteins. Taken together, taurine supplementation in regular diet could play a beneficial role in regulating diabetes and its associated complications in the heart. Highlights: ► Taurine controls blood glucose via protection of pancreatic β cells in diabetic rat. ► Taurine controls blood glucose via increasing the insulin level in diabetic rat. ► Taurine improves cardiac AKT/GLUT4 signaling

  11. Taurine exerts hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, improves insulin-mediated glucose transport signaling pathway in heart and ameliorates cardiac oxidative stress and apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Joydeep; Vasan, Vandana; Sil, Parames C., E-mail: parames@bosemain.boseinst.ac.in

    2012-01-15

    Hyperlipidemia, inflammation and altered antioxidant profiles are the usual complications in diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of taurine in diabetes associated cardiac complications using a rat model. Rats were made diabetic by alloxan (ALX) (single i.p. dose of 120 mg/kg body weight) and left untreated or treated with taurine (1% w/v, orally, in water) for three weeks either from the day of ALX exposure or after the onset of diabetes. Animals were euthanized after three weeks. ALX-induced diabetes decreased body weight, increased glucose level, decreased insulin content, enhanced the levels of cardiac damage markers and altered lipid profile in the plasma. Moreover, it increased oxidative stress (decreased antioxidant enzyme activities and GSH/GSSG ratio, increased xanthine oxidase enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and ROS generation) and enhanced the proinflammatory cytokines levels, activity of myeloperoxidase and nuclear translocation of NFκB in the cardiac tissue of the experimental animals. Taurine treatment could, however, result to a decrease in the elevated blood glucose and proinflammatory cytokine levels, diabetes-evoked oxidative stress, lipid profiles and NFκB translocation. In addition, taurine increased GLUT 4 translocation to the cardiac membrane by enhanced phosphorylation of IR and IRS1 at tyrosine and Akt at serine residue in the heart. Results also suggest that taurine could protect cardiac tissue from ALX induced apoptosis via the regulation of Bcl2 family and caspase 9/3 proteins. Taken together, taurine supplementation in regular diet could play a beneficial role in regulating diabetes and its associated complications in the heart. Highlights: ► Taurine controls blood glucose via protection of pancreatic β cells in diabetic rat. ► Taurine controls blood glucose via increasing the insulin level in diabetic rat. ► Taurine improves cardiac AKT/GLUT4 signaling

  12. Atomic level description of the protecting effect of osmolytes against thermal denaturation of proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieraccini, Stefano; Burgi, Luigi; Genoni, Alessandro; Benedusi, Anna; Sironi, Maurizio

    2007-04-01

    The protecting effect of the osmolyte molecule taurine against thermal denaturation of the protein Chimotripsin Inhibitor 2 was modelled using Molecular Dynamics simulations. The protein was simulated in denaturing conditions at different taurine concentrations. Analysis of the molecular details of its behaviour shows that the protective effect of the osmolyte is concentration dependent. Moreover, the influence of taurine on the solvent structure was studied. A concentration dependent ordering effect of taurine on water molecules emerges from solvent structure analysis and is well correlated to the protecting effect observed. Based on these observations an interpretation of the osmoprotective effect is proposed.

  13. Effect of taurine supplementation on hyperhomocysteinemia and markers of oxidative stress in high fructose diet induced insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mesallamy Hala O

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High intake of dietary fructose is accused of being responsible for the development of the insulin resistance (IR syndrome. Concern has arisen because of the realization that fructose, at elevated concentrations, can promote metabolic changes that are potentially deleterious. Among these changes is IR which manifests as a decreased biological response to normal levels of plasma insulin. Methods Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT were carried out, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA was calculated, homocysteine (Hcy, lipid concentrations and markers of oxidative stress were measured in male Wistar rats weighing 170-190 g. The rats were divided into four groups, kept on either control diet or high fructose diet (HFD, and simultaneously supplemented with 300 mg/kg/day taurine via intra-peritoneal (i.p. route for 35 days. Results Fructose-fed rats showed significantly impaired glucose tolerance, impaired insulin sensitivity, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy, lower total antioxidant capacity (TAC, lower paraoxonase (PON activity, and higher nitric oxide metabolites (NOx concentration, when compared to rats fed on control diet. Supplementing the fructose-fed rats with taurine has ameliorated the rise in HOMA by 56%, triglycerides (TGs by 22.5%, total cholesterol (T-Chol by 11%, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C by 21.4%. Taurine also abolished any significant difference of TAC, PON activity and NOx concentration among treated and control groups. TAC positively correlated with PON in both rats fed on the HFD and those received taurine in addition to the HFD. Fructose-fed rats showed 34.7% increase in Hcy level. Taurine administration failed to prevent the observed HHcy in the current dosage and duration. Conclusion Our results indicate that HFD could induce IR which could further result in metabolic syndrome (MS, and that taurine has a protective role against

  14. Vanadyl sulfate, taurine, and combined vanadyl sulfate and taurine treatments in diabetic rats: effects on the oxidative and antioxidative systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Sibel; Sarandol, Emre; Ayvalik, Sedef Ziyanok; Serdar, Zehra; Dirican, Melahat

    2007-04-01

    Vanadyl sulfate (VS) and taurine are two promising agents in the treatment of diabetes related to their antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, and hyperinsulinemic effects. Data about the effects of VS on the oxidant-antioxidant system is limited and controversial. However, taurine is a well-documented antioxidant agent and our aim was to investigate the effects of VS, taurine and VS and taurine combination on the oxidative-antioxidative systems in streptozotocin-nicotinamide (STZ-NA) diabetic rats. Nicotinamide (230 mg/kg, i.p.) and streptozotocin (65 mg/kg, i.p.) were administered. VS (0.75 mg/mL) and taurine (1%) were added to drinking water for 5 weeks. Rats were divided as control (C), diabetes (D), diabetes+VS (D+VS), diabetes+taurine (D+T), diabetes+VS and taurine (D+VST). Plasma and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometry, respectively. Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were measured by spectrophotometric methods and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were determined using commercial kits. VS, taurine and VS and taurine combination treatments reduced the enhanced blood glucose, serum total cholesterol and triglyceride, tissue MDA and plasma MDA (except in the D+VS group) levels and increased the reduced serum insulin level, serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities, GSH-Px activity and SOD activity (except in the D+VS group). The findings of the present study suggest that VS and taurine exert beneficial effects on the blood glucose and lipid levels in STZ-NA diabetic rats. However, VS might exert prooxidative or antioxidative effects in various components of the body and taurine and VS combination might be an alternative for sole VS administration.

  15. Regulation of taurine transport systems by protein kinase CK2 in mammalian cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, Ian Henry; Hansen, Daniel Bloch

    2011-01-01

    regulate the cellular content of the major cellular organic osmolyte, taurine with emphasis on CK2 mediated regulation of active taurine uptake and volume-sensitive taurine release. Furthermore, we discuss how CK2-mediated regulation of taurine homeostasis is potentially involved in cellular functions...

  16. Taurine in the osmoregulation of the Brattleboro rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieminen, M.J.; Tuomisto, L.; Solatunturi, E.; Eriksson, L.; Paasonen, M.K.

    1988-01-01

    The function of taurine in mammalian osmoregulation was studied in the Brattleboro rat with hereditary hypothalamic diabetes insipidus (DI). DI rats are chronically dehydrated because of their inability to synthesize vasopressin. One day of water deprivation did not affect the water balance in rats with normal vasopressin synthesis, whereas DI rats were markedly dehydrated and lost considerably body weight. Taurine content and 3 H-taurine accumulation by platelets were significantly higher in DI rats, with a further increase after one day of water deprivation. In DI rats, water deprivation also evoked a clear taurine increase in skeletal muscle and in the brain. These findings indicate that taurine has an osmoregulatory function in mammals

  17. TAURINE REGULATION OF VOLTAGE-GATED CHANNELS IN RETINAL NEURONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Matthew JM; Bulley, Simon; Purpura, Lauren; Ripps, Harris; Shen, Wen

    2017-01-01

    Taurine activates not only Cl−-permeable ionotropic receptors, but also receptors that mediate metabotropic responses. The metabotropic property of taurine was revealed in electrophysiological recordings obtained after fully blocking Cl−-permeable receptors with an inhibitory “cocktail” consisting of picrotoxin, SR95531, and strychnine. We found that taurine’s metabotropic effects regulate voltage-gated channels in retinal neurons. After applying the inhibitory cocktail, taurine enhanced delayed outward rectifier K+ channels preferentially in Off-bipolar cells, and the effect was completely blocked by the specific PKC inhibitor, GF109203X. Additionally, taurine also acted through a metabotropic pathway to suppress both L- and N-type Ca2+ channels in retinal neurons, which were insensitive to the potent GABAB receptor inhibitor, CGP55845. This study reinforces our previous finding that taurine in physiological concentrations produces a multiplicity of metabotropic effects that precisely govern the integration of signals being transmitted from the retina to the brain. PMID:23392926

  18. Taurine activates GABAergic networks in the neocortex of immature mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Aurel Sava

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Although it has been suggested that taurine is the main endogenous neurotransmitter acting on glycine receptors, the implications of glycine receptor-mediated taurine actions on immature neocortical networks have not been addressed yet. To investigate the influence of taurine on the excitability of neuronal networks in the immature neocortex, we performed whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from visually identified pyramidal neurons and interneurons in coronal slices from C57Bl/6 and GAD67-GFP transgenic mice (postnatal days 2-4. In 46 % of the pyramidal neurons bath-application of taurine at concentrations ≥ 300 mM significantly enhanced the frequency of postsynaptic currents (PSCs by 744.3 ± 93.8 % (n = 120 cells. This taurine-induced increase of PSC frequency was abolished by 0.2 mM tetrodotoxine, 1 mM strychnine or 3 mM gabazine, but was unaffected by the glutamatergic antagonists 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX and (± R(--3-(2-carboxypiperazine-4-yl-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP, suggesting that taurine specifically activates GABAergic network activity projecting to pyramidal neurons. Cell-attached recordings revealed that taurine enhanced the frequency of action potentials in pyramidal neurons, indicating an excitatory action of the GABAergic PSCs. In order to identify the presynaptic targets of taurine we demonstrate that bath application of taurine induced in GAD67-GFP labeled interneurons an inward current that is mainly mediated by glycine receptors and can generate action potentials in these cells. We conclude from these results that taurine can enhance network excitability in the immature neocortex by selectively activating GABAergic interneurons via interactions with glycine receptors.

  19. Regulation of Taurine Transport in Rat Hippocampal Neurons by Hypoosmotic Swelling

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, James E.; Martinho, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    Taurine, an important mediator of cellular volume regulation in the central nervous system, is accumulated into neurons and glia by means of a highly specific sodium-dependent membrane transporter. During hyperosmotic cell shrinkage, net cellular taurine content increases as taurine transporter activity is enhanced via elevated gene expression of the transporter protein. In hypoosmotic conditions, taurine is rapidly lost from cells by means of taurine-conducting membrane channels. We reasoned...

  20. In vivo radioprotective effect of curcumin, taurine, apigenin and kampferol on DNA damage in mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, S.; Bhilwade, H.N.; Chaubey, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is known to produce oxidative stress through the generation of ROS leading to a variety of DNA lesions. However, the most dangerous DNA lesions which are responsible for the origin of lethal effects, mutagenesis, genomic instability and carcinogenesis are the DSBs. During recent years efforts are being made to identify phytochemicals or other naturally occurring compounds which can reduce the harmful effect of radiation during accidental exposure or prevent normal tissue injury during radiotherapy. In present study, we have investigated the protective role of curcumin, taurine, apigenin and kaempferol against radiation-induced oxidative damage in mice. Groups of mice were fed 1 % of curcumin in diet for three weeks. Similarly other groups of mice were injected i.p. with 50 mg/kg body weight of taurine for five consecutive days. Other four groups of mice were injected i.p. with apigenin (10.8 mg/kg BW and 21.6 mg/kg BW), kaempferol (14.3 mg/kg BW and 28.6 mg/kg BW). After the completion of the treatment mice pre-treated with curcumin, taurine, apigenin and kaempferol were exposed to 2 or 3 Gy of gamma rays. Immediately after irradiation, alkaline comet assay was performed using standard procedures. Twenty four post radiation exposure mice were sacrificed for micronucleus test

  1. Neuroprotection of taurine through inhibition of 12/15 lipoxygenase pathway in cerebral ischemia of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhe; Yu, Rongbo; Cao, Lei

    2017-05-01

    Cerebral ischemia exhibits a multiplicity of pathophysiological mechanisms. Taurine (Tau), an endogenous substance, possesses a number of cytoprotective properties. The aim of the present study was to examine the neuroprotective effect of Tau, through affecting 12/15 lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) signal pathway in an acute permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 10), namely the sham-operated group, MCAO group and Tau group. Tau was intraperitoneally administrated immediately after cerebral ischemia. At 24 h after MCAO, neurological function score, brain water content and infarct volume were assessed. The expression of 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), and cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) was measured by Western blot. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to evaluate the inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in serum. Compared with MCAO group, taurine significantly improved neurological function and significantly reduced brain water content (p Taurine protected the brain from damage caused by MCAO; this effect may be through down-regulation of 12/15-LOX, p38 MAPK, and cPLA2.

  2. ROLE OF TAURINE ON THE LEVEL OF SOME ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS AND OXIDATIVE STRESS IN DIFFERENT TISSUES OF RATS EXPOSED TO GAMMA RADIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANIS, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    Whole body exposure to ionizing radiation induces the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the different tissues provoking oxidative damage and organ dysfunction. The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of taurine against gamma radiation-induced disorders in iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and magnesium (Mg) in parallel to radiation-induced oxidative stress in liver, spleen and heart tissues. Irradiated rats were whole body exposed to 6.5 Gy gamma radiations. Taurine treated irradiated rats received 250 mg taurine/kg body weight/day for 10 successive days before irradiation. Animals were sacrificed on 1 st , 7 th and 14 th days after irradiation. The results obtained demonstrated significant increases in Fe, Cu, Zn and Mg levels in the liver. Significant increases of Fe and Cu and significant decrease of Zn and non-significant changes in Mg were observed in the spleen. Heart tissues showed significant decrease in the level of iron and non-significant changes in the levels of Cu, Zn and Mg. Alterations in the levels of essential elements were associated with oxidative stress. Significant decreases of SOD and CAT activities along with significant increase of TBARS levels were recorded in the different tissues after irradiation. Taurine administration pre-irradiation has significantly attenuated the radiation-induced oxidative stress and alteration in the levels of essential elements. It could be concluded that taurine might protect from oxidative damage induced by gamma irradiation

  3. The modulatory role of taurine in retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zheng; Bulley, Simon; Guzzone, Joseph; Ripps, Harris; Shen, Wen

    2013-01-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethylsuphonic acid) is present in nearly all animal tissues, and is the most abundant free amino acid in muscle, heart, CNS, and retina. Although it is known to be a major cytoprotectant and essential for normal retinal development, its role in retinal neurotransmission and modulation is not well understood. We investigated the response of taurine in retinal ganglion cells, and its effect on synaptic transmission between ganglion cells and their presynaptic neurons. We find that taurine-elicited currents in ganglion cells could be fully blocked by both strychnine and SR95531, glycine and GABA(A) receptor antagonists, respectively. This suggests that taurine-activated receptors might share the antagonists with GABA and glycine receptors. The effect of taurine at micromolar concentrations can effectively suppress spontaneous vesicle release from the presynaptic neurons, but had limited effects on light-evoked synaptic signals in ganglion cells. We also describe a metabotropic effect of taurine in the suppression of light-evoked response in ganglion cells. Clearly, taurine acts in multiple ways to modulate synaptic signals in retinal output neurons, ganglion cells.

  4. Biophysical insight into the anti-amyloidogenic behavior of taurine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Sumit Kumar; Alam, Parvez; Khan, Javed Masood; Siddiqui, Mohd Khursheed; Kalaiarasan, Ponnusamy; Subbarao, Naidu; Ahmad, Zeeshan; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we investigated the inhibitory ability of taurine on the aggregation of Human serum albumin (HSA) and also examined how it controls the kinetic parameters of the aggregation process. We demonstrated the structural alterations in the HSA after binding to the taurine at 65 °C by exploiting various biophysical techniques. UV-vis spectroscopy was used to check the turbidometric changes in the protein. Thioflavin T fluorescence kinetics was subjected to explore kinetic parameters comparing the amyloid formation in the presence of varying concentration of taurine. Further, Congo red binding and ANS binding assays were performed to determine the inhibitory effect of taurine on HSA fibrillation process and surface hydrophobicity modifications occurring before and after the addition of taurine with protein, respectively. Far UV CD and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) confirmed that taurine stabilized the protein α-helical structure and formed complex with HSA which is further supported by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Moreover, microscopic imaging techniques were also done to analyze the morphology of aggregation formed. Taurine is also capable of altering the cytotoxicity of the proteinaceous aggregates. Molecular docking study also deciphered the possible residues involved in protein and drug interaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. THE MODULATORY ROLE OF TAURINE IN RETINAL GANGLION CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zheng; Bulley, Simon; Guzzone, Joseph; Ripps, Harris; Shen, Wen

    2017-01-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethylsuphonic acid) is present in nearly all animal tissues, and is the most abundant free amino acid in muscle, heart, CNS and retina. Although it is known to be a major cytoprotectant and essential for normal retinal development, its role in retinal neurotransmission and modulation is not well understood. We investigated the response of taurine in retinal ganglion cells, and its effect on synaptic transmission between ganglion cells and their pre-synaptic neurons. We find that taurine-elicited currents in ganglion cells could be fully blocked by both strychnine and SR95531, glycine and GABAA receptor antagonists, respectively. This suggests that taurine-activated receptors might share the antagonists with GABA and glycine receptors. The effect of taurine at micromolar concentrations can effectively suppress spontaneous vesicle release from the pre-synaptic neurons, but had limited effects on light-evoked synaptic signals in ganglion cells. We also describe a metabotropic effect of taurine in the suppression of light-evoked response in ganglion cells. Clearly, taurine acts in multiple ways to modulate synaptic signals in retinal output neurons, ganglion cells. PMID:23392924

  6. Taurine Attenuates Hepatic Inflammation in Chronic Alcohol-Fed Rats Through Inhibition of TLR4/MyD88 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chao-Jen; Chiu, Chun-Ching; Chen, Yi-Chen; Chen, Mu-Lin; Hsu, Tsai-Ching; Tzang, Bor-Show

    2015-12-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that overconsumption of ethanol contributes in many ways to the pathogenesis of hepatic injury. Although studies indicate that taurine decreases lipogenesis, oxidative stress, and inflammatory cytokines, the protective effect of taurine against alcohol-induced liver injury is still unclear. To clarify the precise signaling involved in the beneficial effect of taurine on alcohol-induced liver injury, rats were randomly divided into four treatment groups: (1) control (Ctl), (2) alcohol (Alc), (3) Alc+taurine (Tau), and (4) Alc+silymarin (Sil). The Tau and Sil groups had lower lymphocyte infiltration and significantly lower TLR-4/MyD88 and IκB/NFκB compared to the Alc group. The inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factors (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β were also significantly lower in the Tau and Sil groups than in the Alc group. The experimental results indicated that hepatoprotection against alcohol-induced inflammation may be mediated by decreased TLR-4/MyD88 signaling.

  7. Effect of Taurine on the antimicrobial efficiency of Gentamicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islambulchilar Mina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Gentamicin is mainly used in severe infections caused by gram-negatives. However toxicity including nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity is one of the most important complications of its treatment. The production of free radicals seems to be involved in gentamicin toxicity mechanism. Taurine, a major intracellular free β-amino acid, is known to be an endogenous antioxidant. So potentially the co-therapy of taurine and gentamicin would reduce the adverse effects of the antibiotic. Objectives: In this study, we wished to know the effect of taurine on the antibiotic capacity of gentamicin. methods: strains of P. aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus and S. epidermidis were used as test organisms. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of gentamicin in the presence and absence of taurine at quantities from 40 to 2 mg/L were determined using macro-dilution method. Results: MICs were determined in the various concentrations of taurine for bacterial indicators. The MIC values of gentamicin for P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and E. coli remained unchanged in the values of 2.5, 5 and 20 μg/ml respectively in the absence and presences of different concentrations of taurine. The bactericidal activity of gentamicin against S. epidermidis was increased by addition of taurine in the concentrations higher than 6 mg/L. Conclusion: According to our study the antibacterial activity of gentamicin against the indicator microorganisms were not interfere with taurine at selected concentrations. Further in vivo studies are needed to establish if a combination of gentamicin and taurine would have the same effect.

  8. Taurine as an Essential Neuromodulator during Perinatal Cortical Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Kilb

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A variety of experimental studies demonstrated that neurotransmitters are an important factor for the development of the central nervous system, affecting neurodevelopmental events like neurogenesis, neuronal migration, programmed cell death, and differentiation. While the role of the classical neurotransmitters glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA on neuronal development is well established, the aminosulfonic acid taurine has also been considered as possible neuromodulator during early neuronal development. The purpose of the present review article is to summarize the properties of taurine as neuromodulator in detail, focusing on the direct involvement of taurine on various neurodevelopmental events and the regulation of neuronal activity during early developmental epochs. The current knowledge is that taurine lacks a synaptic release mechanism but is released by volume-sensitive organic anion channels and/or a reversal of the taurine transporter. Extracellular taurine affects neurons and neuronal progenitor cells mainly via glycine, GABA(A, and GABA(B receptors with considerable receptor and subtype-specific affinities. Taurine has been shown to directly influence neurogenesis in vitro as well as neuronal migration in vitro and in vivo. It provides a depolarizing signal for a variety of neuronal population in the immature central nervous system, thereby directly influencing neuronal activity. While in the neocortex, taurine probably enhance neuronal activity, in the immature hippocampus, a tonic taurinergic tone might be necessary to attenuate activity. In summary, taurine must be considered as an essential modulator of neurodevelopmental events, and possible adverse consequences on fetal and/or early postnatal development should be evaluated for pharmacological therapies affecting taurinergic functions.

  9. Effects of taurine intake on serum lipids in young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadako Matsui

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Taurine is an abundant amino acid in human cells, promoting ocular and biliary health, which is also used to treat congestive heart failure, hypertension, and hepatitis. Recently, taurine-enriched energy drinks have become popular with young adults, but the effects of taurine on serum lipids in young adults are unknown. Objective: We studied the influence of oral administration of taurine on serum lipid levels in healthy young women. Methods: Ten healthy young women with a mean body mass index of 20.0kg/m2, apolipoprotein E (apoE phenotype 3/3 and normal menstrual cycles participated. Each subject was instructed to orally ingest 1g of taurine powder after each meal (3g/day in addition to their usual diets during one menstrual cycle. Before and at the end of taurine intake, physical measurements and blood collection were performed in the morning after a 12-h fast, and 3-day weighted dietary records were obtained. Concentrations of serum lipids, apolipoproteins, and fatty acids in the serum phospholipid fraction were measured. Results: The subjects showed good compliance with taurine intake and none reported adverse effects during the experimental period. After taurine intake, concentrations of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, free cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B (apoB increased (p<0.05, while phospholipids tended to increase (p=0.051. Fatty acids in the serum phospholipid fraction also significantly increased (p<0.05. However, triglyceride, remnant-like particle cholesterol, remnant-like particle triglyceride, apoE, the apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA- 1/apoB ratio and the LDL-C/apoB ratio were unchanged. Furthermore, body weight was significantly increased (p<0.01, but did not correlate with changes either in serum lipids or nutrient intakes. Conclusion: These results suggest that high taurine intake affects lipoprotein metabolism and increases serum lipids in slightly lean young women.

  10. Improvement of Impaired Memory in Mice by Taurine

    OpenAIRE

    Bhupinder P. S. Vohra; Xiang Hui

    2000-01-01

    Taurine was extracted from Pegasus later-narius Cuvier to study its effects on learning and memory in mice. Mice were treated with different doses of taurine (10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg). The mice were treated with various chemical agents (pentobarbital, cycloheximide, sodium nitrite, alcohol) to disrupt the normal memory process. We measured the effect of taurine on step-down latency (SDL) and escape latency (EL) in a passive avoidance task after 10 or 30 days. ...

  11. Freshly isolated hepatocyte transplantation in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity model in rats Transplante de hepatócitos recém-isolados em um modelo de hepatotoxicidade induzida por acetaminofeno em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Rodrigues

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Hepatocyte transplantation is an attractive therapeutic modality for liver disease as an alternative for orthotopic liver transplantation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to investigate the feasibility of freshly isolated rat hepatocyte transplantation in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity model. METHODS: Hepatocytes were isolated from male Wistar rats and transplanted 24 hours after acetaminophen administration in female recipients. Female rats received either 1x10(7 hepatocytes or phosphate buffered saline through the portal vein or into the spleen and were sacrificed after 48 hours. RESULTS: Alanine aminotransferase levels measured within the experiment did not differ between groups at any time point. Molecular analysis and histology showed presence of hepatocytes in liver of transplanted animals injected either through portal vein or spleen. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of hepatocyte transplantation in the liver or spleen in a mild acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity model.CONTEXTO: O transplante de hepatócitos é uma modalidade terapêutica atrativa para doenças hepáticas como alternativa ao transplante hepático ortotópico. OBJETIVO: Investigar a factibilidade do uso de hepatócitos frescos isolados de ratos em um modelo de hepatotoxicidade induzida por paracetamol. MÉTODOS: Hepatócitos foram isolados de ratos Wistar machos e transplantados 24 horas após a administração de paracetamol em receptores fêmeas. As ratas receberam 1x10(7 hepatócitos ou tampão salina fosfato pela veia porta ou no baço e foram sacrificadas após 48 horas. RESULTADOS: Os níveis de alanina aminotransferase medidos durante o experimento não diferiram entre os grupos em nenhum momento. Análises moleculares e histológicas demonstraram a presença de hepatócitos no fígado dos animais transplantados pelo baço ou pela veia porta. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados indicam a factibilidade e eficácia do

  12. Effect of dietary taurine and arginine supplementation on bone mineral density in growing female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Ja; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of arginine or -taurine alone and taurine plus arginine on bone mineral density (BMD) and markers of bone formation and bone resorption in growing female rats. Forty female SD rats (75 ± 5 g) were randomly divided into four groups (control, taurine, arginine, taurine + arginine group) and treatment lasted for 9 weeks. All rats were fed on a diet and deionized water. BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured using PIXImus (GE Lunar Co, Wisconsin, USA) in spine and femur. The serum and urine concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were determined. Bone formation was measured by serum osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase concentrations, and the bone resorption rate was measured by deoxypyridinoline cross-links. Femur BMD was significantly increased in the group with taurine supplementation and femur BMC/weight was significantly increased in the group with arginine + taurine supplementation. Rats fed an arginine or taurine supplemental diet increased femur BMD or femur BMC, but a taurine + arginine-supplemented diet does not have a better effect than arginine or taurine alone in the spine BMD. The femur BMC, expressed per body weight, was higher in arginine + taurine group than in the taurine or arginine group. The results of this study suggest that taurine + arginine supplementation may be beneficial on femur BMC in growing female rats. Additional work is needed to clarify the interactive effects between the taurine and arginine to determine whether dietary intakes of arginine and taurine affect bone quality in growing rats.

  13. Taurine deficiency, synthesis and transport in the mdx mouse model for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Jessica R; Grounds, Miranda D; Arthur, Peter G

    2015-09-01

    The amino acid taurine is essential for the function of skeletal muscle and administration is proposed as a treatment for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Taurine homeostasis is dependent on multiple processes including absorption of taurine from food, endogenous synthesis from cysteine and reabsorption in the kidney. This study investigates the cause of reported taurine deficiency in the dystrophic mdx mouse model of DMD. Levels of metabolites (taurine, cysteine, cysteine sulfinate and hypotaurine) and proteins (taurine transporter [TauT], cysteine deoxygenase and cysteine sulfinate dehydrogenase) were quantified in juvenile control C57 and dystrophic mdx mice aged 18 days, 4 and 6 weeks. In C57 mice, taurine content was much higher in both liver and plasma at 18 days, and both cysteine and cysteine deoxygenase were increased. As taurine levels decreased in maturing C57 mice, there was increased transport (reabsorption) of taurine in the kidney and muscle. In mdx mice, taurine and cysteine levels were much lower in liver and plasma at 18 days, and in muscle cysteine was low at 18 days, whereas taurine was lower at 4: these changes were associated with perturbations in taurine transport in liver, kidney and muscle and altered metabolism in liver and kidney. These data suggest that the maintenance of adequate body taurine relies on sufficient dietary intake of taurine and cysteine availability and metabolism, as well as retention of taurine by the kidney. This research indicates dystrophin deficiency not only perturbs taurine metabolism in the muscle but also affects taurine metabolism in the liver and kidney, and supports targeting cysteine and taurine deficiency as a potential therapy for DMD. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effects of taurine on vigabatrin, high light intensity and mydriasis induced retinal toxicity in the pigmented rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Allan D; Truchot, Nathalie; Pickersgill, Nigel; Thale, Zia Irene; Rosolen, Serge G; Botteron, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to establish a model that may be used for examining the effect of Vigabatrin-induced retinal toxicity in pigmented rats, and subsequently examine the possible effects of taurine on the retinal toxicity. In the first part of the study, pigmented Long Evans rats were subjected to combinations of induced mydriasis, low/high light intensities (40/2000 lx) and oral administration of near-MTD (Maximum Tolerated Dose) doses (200 mg/kg/day) of Vigabatrin for up to 6 weeks. The combination of mydriasis and high light intensity applied to Long Evans rats resulted in retinal damage that was increased by the administration of Vigabatrin. In the second part of the study Long Evans rats were subjected to combinations of induced mydriasis and high/low light intensity (40/2000 lx) while being orally administered low (30 mg/kg/day) or high (200 mg/kg/day) doses of Vigabatrin for up to 6 weeks. In addition, selected groups of animals were administered taurine via the drinking water (20 mg/ml), resulting in systemic taurine concentrations of approximately threefold the endogenous concentration. The combined results of the studies demonstrate that retinal damage can be induced in pigmented animals when combining mydriasis and high light intensity. Retinal damage was functionally evaluated by electroretinography (ERG), then confirmed by histopathology. While depending on mydriasis and high light intensity, administration of Vigabatrin increased the retinal toxicity and resulted in the formation of rosette-like structures in the retina in a dose-related manner. Administration of taurine did not alleviate the Vigabatrin-induced retinal toxicity, as demonstrated either functionally by ERG or morphologically, although systemic concentrations of 3-fold the endogenous levels were reached, and it was thus not possible to demonstrate a protective effect of taurine in these pigmented animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Endogenous synthesis of taurine and GABA in rat ocular tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinaemaeki, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    The endogenous production of taurine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in rat ocular tissues was investigated. The activities of taurine-producing enzyme, cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase (CSAD), and GABA-synthesizing enzyme, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), were observed in the retina, lens, iris-ciliary body and cornea. The highest specific activity of CSAD was in the cornea and that of GAD in the retina. The discrepancy between CSAD activity and taurine content within the ocular tissues indicates that intra- or extraocular transport processes may regulate the concentration of taurine on the rat eye. The GAD activity and the content of GABA were distributed in parallel within the rat ocular tissues. The quantitative results suggest that the GAD/GABA system has functional significance only in the retina of the rat eye. (author)

  16. Complex Kinetics in the Reaction of Taurine with Aqueous Bromine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complex Kinetics in the Reaction of Taurine with Aqueous Bromine and Acidic Bromate : A Possible Cytoprotective Role against Hypobromous Acid. Reuben H Simoyi, Kevin Streete, Claudius Mundoma, Rotimi Olojo ...

  17. Effects of L-Carnitine and Taurine on associated biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    carnitine and taurine in healthy and alloxan induced diabetes mellitus in rats. Results showed that diabetic rats had significant increase in the levels of plasma glucose, malondialdehyde (MDA), urea, creatinine and the activity of serum asparate ...

  18. THE MODULATORY ROLE OF TAURINE IN RETINAL GANGLION CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Zheng; Bulley, Simon; Guzzone, Joseph; Ripps, Harris; Shen, Wen

    2013-01-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethylsuphonic acid) is present in nearly all animal tissues, and is the most abundant free amino acid in muscle, heart, CNS and retina. Although it is known to be a major cytoprotectant and essential for normal retinal development, its role in retinal neurotransmission and modulation is not well understood. We investigated the response of taurine in retinal ganglion cells, and its effect on synaptic transmission between ganglion cells and their pre-synaptic neurons. We find th...

  19. Effects of taurine on gut microbiota and metabolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haining; Guo, Zhengzhao; Shen, Shengrong; Shan, Weiguang

    2016-07-01

    As being a necessary amino acid, taurine plays an important role in the regulation of neuroendocrine functions and nutrition. In this study, effects of taurine on mice gut microbes and metabolism were investigated. BALB/C mice were randomly divided into three experimental groups: The first group was administered saline (CK), the second was administered 165 mg/kg natural taurine (NE) and the third one administered 165 mg/kg synthetic taurine (CS). Gut microbiota composition in mice feces was analyzed by metagenomics technology, and the content of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in mice feces was detected by gas chromatography (GC), while the concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were detected by a LPS ELISA kit and a SOD assay kit, respectively. The results showed that the effect of taurine on gut microbiota could reduce the abundance of Proteobacteria, especially Helicobacter. Moreover, we found that the SCFA content was increased in feces of the NE group while LPS content was decreased in serum of the NE group; the SOD activity in serum and livers of the NE and CS groups were not changed significantly compare to that of the CK group. In conclusion, taurine could regulate the gut micro-ecology, which might be of benefit to health by inhibiting the growth of harmful bacteria, accelerating the production of SCFA and reducing LPS concentration.

  20. Antioxidant properties of taurine in rat alveolar macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castranova, V.; Banks, M.A.; Porter, D.W.; Martin, W.G. (National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV (United States) West Virginia Univ., Morgantown (United States))

    1990-02-26

    Isolated rat alveolar macrophages (RAM) which had taken-up and accumulated extracellular (0-500 {mu}M) taurine (TAU) were exposed to 0.45 {plus minus} 0.05 ppm ozone for 30 minutes in a modified tissue culture flask containing TAU-supplemented medium. Recovered cells were assayed for oxidant damage and media analyzed for leakage of intracellular components. Cell viability significantly increased, while recovery of cells decreased (possibly due to increased adherence) with increasing TAU. At 100 {mu}M (rat plasma TAU level), TAU protected against the ozone-induced increase in zymosan-stimulated chemiluminescence, diminished leakages of lipid peroxidation products and protein into the medium, and partially restored the ozone-inactivated Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase activity of RAM. Efflux of oxidized glutathione was maximized and K{sup +} leakage was minimized by the addition of 250 {mu}M TAU. At 250-500 {mu}M TAU, leakages of lipid peroxidation products and protein were enhanced, while the intracellular TAU content dramatically increased. These results indicate that TAU has both direct and indirect antioxidant properties at low levels and pro-oxidant properties at high levels in RAM.

  1. Effect of supplemental taurine on juvenile channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurine is a beta-amino sulfur amino acid found in most animal tissues. It has many important biological functions in mammals including membrane stabilization, antioxidation, cellular osmoregulation, detoxification, neuromodulation, and brain and eye development. Taurine supplementation in juvenil...

  2. Oral and intravenous pharmacokinetics of taurine in sprague-dawley rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Bjerg, Maria; Ulaganathan, Nithiya

    2017-01-01

    Taurine is involved in various physiological processes, and one of the most abundant amino acids in human. The aim was to investigate the mechanism for intestinal absorption of taurine in vivo using also in vitro mechanistic studies. Taurine absorption was measured in male Sprague-Dawley rats at 10...... (BCH) (200 mg/kg). BCH is not an inhibitor of PAT1 or the taurine transporter, TauT, hence it was included as a negative control. In vitro studies investigating the transport mechanism of taurine were conducted in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. The pharmacokinetic investigations showed that intestinal...... taurine absorption was not saturable at the investigated doses, but that the time (tmax) to reach the maximal plasma concentration (Cmax) increased with dose. Furthermore, Sar and Pro, but not BCH, decreased taurine Cmax. In vitro it was clearly shown that PAT1 mediated the cellular uptake of taurine...

  3. Gestational Protein Restriction in Wistar Rats; Effect of Taurine Supplementation on Properties of Newborn Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lea Hüche; Sandø-Pedersen, Sofie; Ørstrup, Laura Kofoed Hvidsten

    2017-01-01

    Taurine ameliorates changes occurring in newborn skeletal muscle as a result of gestational protein restriction in C57BL/6 mice, but taurine supplementation effects may be exaggerated in C57BL/6 mice due to their inherent excessive taurinuria.We examined if maternal taurine supplementation could...... by taurine supplementation (LP-Tau). LP-Tau offspring had significantly lower birth weight compared to controls. Gene expression profiling revealed 895 significantly changed genes, mainly an LP-induced down-regulation of genes involved in protein translation. Taurine fully or partially rescued 32......% of these changes, but with no distinct pattern as to which genes were rescued.Skeletal muscle taurine content in LP-Tau offspring was increased, but no changes in mRNA levels of the taurine synthesis pathway were observed. Taurine transporter mRNA levels, but not protein levels, were increased by LP diet...

  4. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance study of the complexation of calcium by taurine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irving, C.S.; Hammer, B.E.; Danyluk, S.S.; Klein, P.D.

    1980-01-01

    13 C Nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts, 1 J/sub c-c/ scalar coupling constants, spin-lattice relaxation times, and nuclear Overhauser effects were determined for taurine-[1, 2 13 C] and a taurine-[1 13 C] and taurine-[2 13 C] mixture in the presence and absence of calcium. Comparison of taurine titration shifts to values for related compounds reveals some unusual electronic properties of the taurine molecule. Stability constants of 1:1 calcium complexes with taurine zwitterions and anions, as well as their 13 C chemical shifts, were obtained by least squares analysis of titration curves measured in the presence of calcium. The stability constants of calcium-taurine complexes were significantly lower than previous values and led to estimates that only approximately one percent of intracellular calcium of mammalian myocardial cells would exist in a taurine complex

  5. Taurine Biosynthesis in a Fish Liver Cell Line (ZFL) Adapted to a Serum-Free Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Chieh-Lun Liu; Aaron M. Watson; Allen R. Place; Rosemary Jagus

    2017-01-01

    Although taurine has been shown to play multiple important physiological roles in teleosts, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying dietary requirements. Cell lines can provide useful tools for deciphering biosynthetic pathways and their regulation. However, culture media and sera contain variable taurine levels. To provide a useful cell line for the investigation of taurine homeostasis, an adult zebrafish liver cell line (ZFL) has been adapted to a taurine-free medium by gr...

  6. Tissue Depletion of Taurine Accelerates Skeletal Muscle Senescence and Leads to Early Death in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Natsumi; Inui, Takaaki; Miyazaki, Natsuko; Schaffer, Stephen W.; Azuma, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is found in milimolar concentrations in mammalian tissues. One of its main functions is osmoregulation; however, it also exhibits cytoprotective activity by diminishing injury caused by stress and disease. Taurine depletion is associated with several defects, many of which are found in the aging animal, suggesting that taurine might exert anti-aging actions. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the hypothesis that taurine depletion accelerates agin...

  7. Mechanisms of taurine hyperexcretion after whole-body irradiation of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beskrovnaya, L.A.; Lapteva, T.A.; Dokshina, G.A.; Baranova, M.I.

    1976-01-01

    Mechanisms of postirradiation hyperexcretion of taurine with urine have been investigated. In the course of three days after a whole-body exposure of rats (700 rads), the excretion of taurine increases. The experiments in vitro have demonstrated that taurine synthesis decreases in the thymus and liver of irradiated animals. The experiments conducted have shown that the postirradiation hyperexcretion of taurine is partly due to its release from the lymohoid tissue (thymus)

  8. Effects of taurine against histomorphological and ultrastructural changes in the testes of mice exposed to aluminium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Moneim, Ashraf M

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of taurine against histomorphological and ultrastructural changes in the testes of Swiss albino mice caused by acute in vivo exposure to AlCl3. Light microscopy revealed that a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of AlCl3 (25 mg kg(-1) Al(3+)) was associated with sloughing, tubular atrophy, germ-cell degeneration, and foci of Leydig cell hyperplasia. In addition, transmission electron microscopy showed a destruction of inter-Sertoli cell tight junctions, apoptotic cell death of spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes, various types of abnormalities in spermatid morphology, accumulation of lipid droplets, reduction of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER), and mitochondrial damage in Leydig cells. Taurine post-treatment at i.p. dose of 1 g kg(-1) diminished these changes and significantly reduced the number of affected tubules compared to Al-poisoned mice. This is the first study to evidence that taurine protects against pathological changes in the testicular tissue of Al-treated mice.

  9. Myogenic differentiation induces taurine transporter in association with taurine-mediated cytoprotection in skeletal muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uozumi, Yoriko; Ito, Takashi; Hoshino, Yuki; Mohri, Tomomi; Maeda, Makiko; Takahashi, Kyoko; Fujio, Yasushi; Azuma, Junichi

    2005-01-01

    Skeletal muscle homoeostasis is maintained by a variety of cytoprotective mechanisms. Since ablation of the TauT (taurine transporter) gene results in susceptibility to exercise-induced muscle weakness in vivo, it has been suggested that TauT is essential for skeletal muscle function. However, the regulatory mechanisms of TauT expression remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we demonstrated that TauT was up-regulated during myogenesis in C2C12 cells. Treatment with bFGF (basic fibroblast growth factor), which inhibited muscle differentiation, abrogated myogenic induction of TauT. The promoter activities of TauT were up-regulated during muscle differentiation in C2C12 cells. Database analyses identified an MEF2 (myocyte enhancer binding factor 2) consensus sequence at −844 in the rat TauT gene. Truncation of the promoter region containing the MEF2 site significantly reduced the promoter activity, demonstrating the functional importance of the MEF2 site. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays confirmed that MEF2 bound to the MEF2 consensus sequence and that DNA–protein complex levels were increased during differentiation. Promoter analyses using mutated promoter-reporter plasmids demonstrated that this site was functional. Importantly, transfection with a MyoD expression vector markedly enhanced TauT promoter activity in the (non-myogenic) 10T1/2 cells. Moreover, co-transfection with an MEF2 expression vector augmented MyoD-induced TauT promoter activity, suggesting that MEF2 is required for full activation of TauT expression. Finally, we examined the effects of taurine on myotube atrophy to clarify the biological significance of the up-regulation of TauT, and demonstrated that taurine attenuated muscle atrophy induced by dexamethasone. TauT expression is regulated under the control of the myogenic programme, and we propose that this is the mechanism for taurine-mediated resistance to muscle atrophy. PMID:16318624

  10. Effects of taurine on resting-state fMRI activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Chin-Hung Chen

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a global behavior illness among children and adults. To investigate the effects of taurine on resting-state fMRI activity in ADHD, a spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR animal model was adopted. Significantly decreased serum C-reactive protein (CRP was detected in rats of Wistar Kyoto (WKY high-taurine group and significantly decreased interleukin (IL-1β and CRP were detected in rats of SHR low-taurine and high-taurine groups. Moreover, significantly higher horizontal locomotion was detected in rats of WKY low-taurine and SHR low-taurine groups than in those of controls. In contrast, significantly lower horizontal locomotion was detected in rats of the SHR high-taurine group than in those of the SHR control group. Additionally, significantly lower functional connectivity (FC and mean amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (mALFF in the bilateral hippocampus in rats of WKY high-taurine and SHR high-taurine groups was detected. Notably, the mALFF in rats of the SHR low-taurine and high-taurine groups was significantly lower than in those of the SHR control group. These findings suggest that the administration of a high-dose taurine probably improves hyperactive behavior in SHR rats by ameliorating the inflammatory cytokines and modulating brain functional signals in SHR rats.

  11. Effect of taurine on mRNA expression of thioredoxin interacting protein in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondo, Yusuke; Satsu, Hideo; Ishimoto, Yoko; Iwamoto, Taku; Shimizu, Makoto

    2012-09-28

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid), a sulfur-containing β-amino acid, plays an important role in several essential biological processes; although, the underlying mechanisms for these regulatory functions remain to be elucidated, especially at the genetic level. We investigated the effects of taurine on the gene expression profile in Caco-2 cells using DNA microarray. Taurine increased the mRNA expression of thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP), which is involved in various metabolisms and diseases. β-Alanine or γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which are structurally or functionally related to taurine, did not increase TXNIP mRNA expression. These suggest the expression of TXNIP mRNA is induced specifically by taurine. β-Alanine is also known to be a substrate of taurine transporter (TAUT) and competitively inhibits taurine uptake. Inhibition of taurine uptake by β-alanine eliminated the up-regulation of TXNIP, which suggests TAUT is involved in inducing TXNIP mRNA expression. The up-regulation of TXNIP mRNA expression by taurine was also observed at the protein level. Furthermore, taurine significantly increased TXNIP promoter activity. Our present study demonstrated the taurine-specific phenomenon of TXNIP up-regulation, which sheds light on the physiological function of taurine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of taurine on resting-state fMRI activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung; Hsu, Tsai-Ching; Chen, Li-Jeng; Chou, Hong-Chun

    2017-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a global behavior illness among children and adults. To investigate the effects of taurine on resting-state fMRI activity in ADHD, a spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) animal model was adopted. Significantly decreased serum C-reactive protein (CRP) was detected in rats of Wistar Kyoto (WKY) high-taurine group and significantly decreased interleukin (IL)-1β and CRP were detected in rats of SHR low-taurine and high-taurine groups. Moreover, significantly higher horizontal locomotion was detected in rats of WKY low-taurine and SHR low-taurine groups than in those of controls. In contrast, significantly lower horizontal locomotion was detected in rats of the SHR high-taurine group than in those of the SHR control group. Additionally, significantly lower functional connectivity (FC) and mean amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (mALFF) in the bilateral hippocampus in rats of WKY high-taurine and SHR high-taurine groups was detected. Notably, the mALFF in rats of the SHR low-taurine and high-taurine groups was significantly lower than in those of the SHR control group. These findings suggest that the administration of a high-dose taurine probably improves hyperactive behavior in SHR rats by ameliorating the inflammatory cytokines and modulating brain functional signals in SHR rats. PMID:28700674

  13. Effects of taurine on resting-state fMRI activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung; Hsu, Tsai-Ching; Chen, Li-Jeng; Chou, Hong-Chun; Weng, Jun-Cheng; Tzang, Bor-Show

    2017-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a global behavior illness among children and adults. To investigate the effects of taurine on resting-state fMRI activity in ADHD, a spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) animal model was adopted. Significantly decreased serum C-reactive protein (CRP) was detected in rats of Wistar Kyoto (WKY) high-taurine group and significantly decreased interleukin (IL)-1β and CRP were detected in rats of SHR low-taurine and high-taurine groups. Moreover, significantly higher horizontal locomotion was detected in rats of WKY low-taurine and SHR low-taurine groups than in those of controls. In contrast, significantly lower horizontal locomotion was detected in rats of the SHR high-taurine group than in those of the SHR control group. Additionally, significantly lower functional connectivity (FC) and mean amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (mALFF) in the bilateral hippocampus in rats of WKY high-taurine and SHR high-taurine groups was detected. Notably, the mALFF in rats of the SHR low-taurine and high-taurine groups was significantly lower than in those of the SHR control group. These findings suggest that the administration of a high-dose taurine probably improves hyperactive behavior in SHR rats by ameliorating the inflammatory cytokines and modulating brain functional signals in SHR rats.

  14. The synthesis of [2-3H2] taurine and [2-3H2] hypotaurine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellman, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The synthesis of [2- 3 H 2 ]-2-aminoethanesulfonate [2- 3 H]-taurine by the reduction of cyanomethanesulfonic acid with tritium gas is described. The conversion of [2- 3 H]-taurine and its 14 C and 35 S isotopic forms to 2-aminoethanesulfinate (hypotaurine) was accomplished by converting taurine to its corresponding sulfonyl chloride and reducing the latter with metallic zinc. (author)

  15. Human taurine metabolism: fluxes and fractional extraction rates of the gut, liver, and kidneys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stijn, Mireille F. M.; Vermeulen, Mechteld A. R.; Siroen, Michiel P. C.; Wong, Leanne N.; van den Tol, M. Petrousjka; Ligthart-Melis, Gerdien C.; Houdijk, Alexander P. J.; van Leeuwen, Paul A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Taurine is involved in numerous biological processes. However, taurine plasma level decreases in response to pathological conditions, suggesting an increased need. Knowledge on human taurine metabolism is scarce and only described by arterial-venous differences across a single organ. Here we present

  16. The potential usefulness of taurine on diabetes mellitus and its complications

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Takashi; Schaffer, Stephen W.; Azuma, Junichi

    2011-01-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is a free amino acid found ubiquitously in millimolar concentrations in all mammalian tissues. Taurine exerts a variety of biological actions, including antioxidation, modulation of ion movement, osmoregulation, modulation of neurotransmitters, and conjugation of bile acids, which may maintain physiological homeostasis. Recently, data is accumulating that show the effectiveness of taurine against diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance and its complications,...

  17. Taurine attenuates radiation-induced lung fibrosis in C57/Bl6 fibrosis prone mice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Robb, W B

    2010-03-01

    The amino acid taurine has an established role in attenuating lung fibrosis secondary to bleomycin-induced injury. This study evaluates taurine\\'s effect on TGF-beta1 expression and the development of lung fibrosis after single-dose thoracic radiotherapy.

  18. Effect of Taurine on Febrile Episodes in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Islambulchilar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of oral taurine on the incidence of febrile episodes during chemotherapy in young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Methods: Forty young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, at the beginning of maintenance course of their chemotherapy, were eligible for this study. The study population was randomized in a double blind manner to receive either taurine or placebo (2 gram per day orally. Life quality and side effects including febrile episodes were assessed using questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s Chi square test. Results: Of total forty participants, 43.8% were female and 56.3 % were male. The mean age was 19.16±1.95 years (ranges: 16-23 years. The results indicated that the levels of white blood cells are significantly (P<0.05 increased in taurine treated group. There was no elevation in blasts count. A total of 70 febrile episodes were observed during study, febrile episodes were significantly (P<0.05 lower in taurine patients in comparison to the control ones. Conclusion: The overall incidence of febrile episodes and infectious complications in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients receiving taurine was lower than placebo group. Taurine’s ability to increase leukocyte count may result in lower febrile episodes.

  19. Perinatal taurine exposure affects adult arterial pressure control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roysommuti, Sanya; Wyss, J. Michael

    2012-01-01

    Taurine is an abundant free amino acid found in mammalian cells that contributes to many physiologic functions from that of a simple cell osmolyte to a programmer of adult health and disease. Taurine’s contribution extends from conception throughout life, but its most critical exposure period is during perinatal life. In adults, taurine supplementation prevents or alleviates cardiovascular disease and related complications. In contrast, low taurine consumption coincides with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, obesity and type II diabetes. This review focuses on the effects that altered perinatal taurine exposure has on long-term mechanisms that control adult arterial blood pressure and could thereby contribute to arterial hypertension through its ability to program these cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms very early in life. The modifications of these mechanisms can last a lifetime and transfer to the next generation, suggesting that epigenetic mechanisms underlie the changes. The ability of perinatal taurine exposure to influence arterial pressure control mechanisms and hypertension in adult life appears to involve the regulation of growth and development, the central and autonomic nervous system, the renin-angiotensin system, glucose-insulin interaction and changes to heart, blood vessels and kidney function. PMID:23070226

  20. Taurine prevents arsenic-induced cardiac oxidative stress and apoptotic damage: Role of NF-κB, p38 and JNK MAPK pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Jyotirmoy; Das, Joydeep; Manna, Prasenjit; Sil, Parames C.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac dysfunction is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide due to its complex pathogenesis. However, little is known about the mechanism of arsenic-induced cardiac abnormalities and the use of antioxidants as the possible protective agents in this pathophysiology. Conditionally essential amino acid, taurine, accounts for 25% to 50% of the amino acid pool in myocardium and possesses antioxidant properties. The present study has, therefore, been carried out to investigate the underlying mechanism of the beneficial role of taurine in arsenic-induced cardiac oxidative damage and cell death. Arsenic reduced cardiomyocyte viability, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and intracellular calcium overload, and induced apoptotic cell death by mitochondrial dependent caspase-3 activation and poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. These changes due to arsenic exposure were found to be associated with increased IKK and NF-κB (p65) phosphorylation. Pre-exposure of myocytes to an IKK inhibitor (PS-1145) prevented As-induced caspase-3 and PARP cleavage. Arsenic also markedly increased the activity of p38 and JNK MAPKs, but not ERK to that extent. Pre-treatment with SP600125 (JNK inhibitor) and SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) attenuated NF-κB and IKK phosphorylation indicating that p38 and JNK MAPKs are mainly involved in arsenic-induced NF-κB activation. Taurine treatment suppressed these apoptotic actions, suggesting that its protective role in arsenic-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis is mediated by attenuation of p38 and JNK MAPK signaling pathways. Similarly, arsenic intoxication altered a number of biomarkers related to cardiac oxidative stress and other apoptotic indices in vivo and taurine supplementation could reduce it. Results suggest that taurine prevented arsenic-induced myocardial pathophysiology, attenuated NF-κB activation via IKK, p38 and JNK MAPK signaling pathways and could possibly provide a protection against As

  1. Effects of taurine on cadmium exposure in muscle, gill, and bone tissues of Carassius auratus

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Kyung-Soon; Yoo, Il-Su; Shin, Kyung-Ok; Chung, Keun-Hee

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed in order to investigate the effects of taurine on cadmium poisoning in muscle, gill, and bone tissues of wild goldfish. For this experiment, 80 wild goldfish were divided into four experimental groups: 0.3 mg/L of cadmium and 0 mg/L of taurine (Group I), 0.3 mg/L of cadmium and 20 mg/kg of taurine (Group II), 0.3 mg/L of cadmium and 40 mg/L of taurine (Group III), and 0.3 mg/L of cadmium and 80 mg/L of taurine (Group IV). The results were as follows: The cadmium conce...

  2. Effects of zinc ex vivo on taurine uptake in goldfish retinal cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nusetti, Sonia; Urbina, Mary; Lima, Lucimey

    2010-01-01

    Background Taurine and zinc exert neurotrophic effects in the central nervous system. Current studies demonstrate that Na+/Cl- dependent neurotransmitter transporters, similar to that of taurine, are modulated by micromolar concentrations of zinc. This study examined the effect of zinc sulfate ex vivo on [3H]taurine transport in goldfish retina. Methods Isolated cells were incubated in Ringer with zinc (0.1?100 ?M). Taurine transport was done with 50 nM [3H]taurine or by isotopic dilution wit...

  3. Acetaminophen-induced Liver Injury is Attenuated in Transgenic fat-1 Mice Endogenously Synthesizing Long-chain n-3 Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ruibing; Wang, Yang; Liu, Conghui; Yan, Chunyan; Zhang, Hang; Su, Huanxing; Kang, Jing X; Shang, Chang-Zhen; Wan, Jian-Bo

    2018-04-18

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose-caused hepatotoxicity is the most commonly cause of drugs-induced liver failurecharacterized by oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cell damage. Therapeutic efficacy of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) in several models of liver disease is well documented. However, the impacts of n-3 PUFA on APAP hepatotoxicity are not adequately addressed. In this study, the fat-1 transgenic mice that synthesize endogenous n-3 PUFA and wild type (WT) littermates were injected intraperitoneally with APAP at the dose of 400 mg/kg to induce liver injury, and euthanized at 0 h, 2 h, 4 h and 6 h post APAP injection for sampling. APAP overdose caused severe liver injury in WT mice as indicated by serum parameters, histopathological changes and hepatocyte apoptosis, which were remarkably ameliorated in fat-1 mice. These protective effects of n-3 PUFA were associated with regulation of the prolonged JNK activation via inhibition of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) / mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MKK4) pathway. Additionally, the augment of endogenous n-3 PUFA reduced nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) - mediated inflammation response induced by APAP treatment in the liver. These findings indicate that n-3 PUFA has potent protective effects against APAP-induced acute liver injury, suggesting that n-3 dietary supplement with n-3 PUFA may be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of hepatotoxicity induced by APAP overdose. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Whole-Blood Taurine Concentrations in Cats With Intestinal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathrani, A; Fascetti, A J; Larsen, J A; Maunder, C; Hall, E J

    2017-07-01

    Increased delivery of taurine-conjugated bile acids to the distal bowel can lead to dysbiosis resulting in colitis in mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease. A similar situation also could occur in cats with intestinal disease and might therefore result in decreased whole-body taurine concentration. To determine whether whole-blood taurine concentrations are decreased at the time of diagnosis in cats with intestinal disease and to correlate concentrations with clinical and laboratory variables. Twenty-one cats with chronic inflammatory enteropathy and 7 cats with intestinal neoplasia from the University of Bristol. Cats that had undergone a thorough investigation consisting of a CBC, serum biochemistry, serum cobalamin and folate concentrations, transabdominal ultrasound examination and histopathology of intestinal biopsy specimens, as well as additional testing if indicated, were included. Whole-blood from these cats collected at the time of histologic diagnosis and stored in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was retrospectively analyzed for taurine with an automated high-performance liquid chromatography amino acid analyzer. Although whole-blood taurine concentrations remained within the reference range, those cats with predominantly large intestinal clinical signs had significantly lower concentrations than did cats with small intestinal and mixed bowel clinical signs (P = 0.033) and this difference also was significant when assessed only in cats with chronic inflammatory enteropathy (P = 0.019). Additional studies are needed to determine whether large intestinal signs in cats with chronic inflammatory enteropathy are caused by alterations in the microbiota arising as a consequence of increased delivery of taurine-conjugated bile acids. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  5. Effects of dietary taurine on egg production, egg quality and cholesterol levels in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu-Rong; Dong, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Xiao-Ming; Tong, Jian-Ming; Xie, Zhong-Guo; Zhang, Qi

    2010-12-01

    Taurine is a semi-essential amino acid and has many biological properties. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with taurine on egg production, egg quality, and cholesterol level in serum and egg yolk of quails. A total of 108 quails aged 6 weeks were randomly allocated to three dietary treatments. Each treatment consisted of four replicates of nine quails. The diets were supplemented with 0, 100, and 500 mg kg(-1) of taurine for 8 weeks. Dietary 500 mg kg(-1) taurine significantly affected egg production rate and feed conversion ratio, but had no significant effects on body weight gain, feed consumption, or egg weight. Dietary taurine had no significant effect on egg quality parameters studied. Serum triglyceride concentration was reduced significantly with supplementation of taurine at 100 and 500 mg kg(-1). Egg yolk cholesterol content was reduced significantly, and the contents of serum taurine and egg yolk taurine were increased significantly with taurine supplementation at 500 mg kg(-1). Results of the present study indicated that adding 500 mg kg(-1) taurine reduced yolk cholesterol concentration and increased yolk taurine content without adverse effects on performance and egg quality of laying quails. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Antidiabetic effect of taurine in cultured rat skeletal l6 myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Sun Hee; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid), a sulfur-containing β-amino acid, is found in all animal cells at millimolar concentrations and has been reported to show various health promoting activities including antidiabetic properties. The beneficial effects of taurine in diabetes mellitus have been known. However, the exact mechanism of hypoglycemic action of taurine is not properly defined. In this study, we investigated antidiabetic effect of taurine in the cell culture system using rat skeletal muscle cells. In cultured rat skeletal L6 myotubes, we studied the effect of taurine (0-100 μM) on glucose uptake to plasma membrane from the aspects of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling. Taurine stimulated glucose uptake in a dose-dependent manner by activating AMPK signaling. From these results, it may suggest that taurine show antidiabetic effect by stimulating insulin-independent glucose uptake in rat skeletal muscle.

  7. Taurine inhibits osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells via the ERK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiao-bo; Zhou, Xin-min; Li, Jian-ming; Yang, Jin-fu; Tan, Zhi-ping; Hu, Zhuo-wei; Liu, Wei; Lu, Ying; Yuan, Ling-qing

    2008-05-01

    Vascular calcification develops within atherosclerotic lesions and results from a process similar to osteogenesis. Taurine is a free beta-amino acid and plays an important physiological role in mammals. We have recently demonstrated that vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) express a functional taurine transporter. To evaluate the possible role of taurine in vascular calcification, we assessed its effects on osteoblastic differentiation of VSMCs in vitro. The results showed that taurine inhibited the beta-glycerophosphate-induced osteoblastic differentiation of VSMCs as evidenced by both the decreasing alkaline phosphate (ALP) activity and expression of the core binding factor alpha1 (Cbfalpha1). Taurine also activated the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) pathway. Inhibition of ERK pathway reversed the effect of taurine on ALP activity and Cbfalpha1 expression. These results suggested that taurine inhibited osteoblastic differentiation of vascular cells via the ERK pathway.

  8. The effect of 48-hour fasting on taurine status in healthy adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, K; Alexander, L G; Staunton, R; Colyer, A; Watson, A; Fascetti, A J

    2016-06-01

    Low circulating taurine concentrations may be a risk factor for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in dogs. Circulating taurine is typically measured in the clinic 4-5 h after feeding, largely because the impact of later sampling is not known. The objective of this study was to measure taurine in the blood during a 48-h fast in 12 healthy adult Labrador Retrievers to refine sampling methodology for determination of taurine status. Plasma and whole blood (WB) taurine concentrations did not fall to levels indicative of clinical deficiency throughout fasting; WB was the more reliable indicator of taurine status. This study shows that blood samples can be taken for assessment of taurine status any time up to 48 h after ingestion of a meal in healthy adult dogs. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Taurine effects on 45Ca2+ transport in retinal subcellular fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasantes-Morales, H.; Ademe, R.M.; Lopez-Colome, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of taurine on 45 Ca 2+ transport by subcellular fractions from the chick retina was examined. An inhibitory action of taurine on 45 Ca 2+ uptake was observed in retinal fractions incubated for 1-5 min in a Krebs-bicarbonate medium, pH 7.4. In the crude nuclear fraction, 25 mM taurine produced a decrease of 50% in 45 Ca 2+ uptake; in the crude synaptosomal fraction, taurine reduced 45 Ca 2+ accumulation by 70%; the maximum inhibitory effect of taurine on 45 Ca 2+ uptake (80%) was observed in a fraction containing outer segments and pigment epithelium cells. Taurine effect was specific, dose-dependent and related to osmotically sensitive particles. The results suggest a role of taurine in the regulation of calcium fluxes in the retina. (Auth.)

  10. Reaction of hypotaurine or taurine with superoxide produces the organic peroxysulfonic acid peroxytaurine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Roxanna Q; Karpowicz, Steven J

    2017-07-01

    Hypotaurine and taurine are amino acid derivatives and abundant molecules in many eukaryotes. The biological reaction in which hypotaurine is converted to taurine remains poorly understood. Here, hypotaurine and taurine were observed to react with superoxide anion in vitro to form the novel molecule peroxytaurine. In contrast, hypotaurine reacts with hydrogen peroxide to form taurine, but taurine does not react with hydrogen peroxide in vitro. Mass and NMR spectrometry as well as FTIR and Raman spectroscopy support the molecular characterization of peroxytaurine. Gravitometric and spectroscopy experiments suggest a stoichiometry of two superoxide anions reacting with one hypotaurine or two taurines. The newly identified molecule is a semi-stable, organic peroxysulfonic acid that may be an intermediate metabolite in taurine synthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Taurine Promotes the Cartilaginous Differentiation of Human Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiuhua; Huang, Huiling; Li, Zhou; Liu, Xiaohua; Fan, Weijia; Wang, Xinping; Sun, Xuelian; Zhu, Jianmin; Zhou, Hongrui; Wei, Huaying

    2017-08-01

    Taurine has been reported to influence osteogenic differentiation, but the role of taurine on cartilaginous differentiation using human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of taurine (0, 1, 5 and 10 mM) on the proliferation and chondrogenesis of hUC-MSCs by analyzing cell proliferation, accumulation of glycosaminoglycans and expression of cartilage specific mRNA. The results show though taurine did not affected the proliferation of hUC-MSCs, 5 mM of taurine is sufficient to enhanced the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans and up-regulate cartilage specific mRNA expression, namely collagen type II, aggrecan and SOX9. Taurine also inhibits chondrocyte dedifferentiation by reducing expression of collagen type I mRNA. Taken together, our study reveals that taurine promotes and maintains the chondrogenesis of hUC-MSCs.

  12. Downregulation of hepatic betaine:homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) expression in taurine-deficient mice is reversed by taurine supplementation in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkowska, Halina; Niewiadomski, Julie; Hirschberger, Lawrence L.; Roman, Heather B.; Mazor, Kevin M.; Liu, Xiaojing; Locasale, Jason W.; Park, Eunkyue

    2016-01-01

    The cysteine dioxygenase (Cdo1)-null and the cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase (Csad)-null mouse are not able to synthesize hypotaurine/taurine by the cysteine/cysteine sulfinate pathway and have very low tissue taurine levels. These mice provide excellent models for studying the effects of taurine on biological processes. Using these mouse models, we identified betaine:homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) as a protein whose in vivo expression is robustly regulated by taurine. BHMT levels are low in liver of both Cdo1-null and Csad-null mice, but are restored to wild-type levels by dietary taurine supplementation. A lack of BHMT activity was indicated by an increase in the hepatic betaine level. In contrast to observations in liver of Cdo1-null and Csad-null mice, BHMT was not affected by taurine supplementation of primary hepatocytes from these mice. Likewise, CSAD abundance was not affected by taurine supplementation of primary hepatocytes, although it was robustly upregulated in liver of Cdo1-null and Csad-null mice and lowered to wild-type levels by dietary taurine supplementation. The mechanism by which taurine status affects hepatic CSAD and BHMT expression appears to be complex and to require factors outside of hepatocytes. Within the liver, mRNA abundance for both CSAD and BHMT was upregulated in parallel with protein levels, indicating regulation of BHMT and CSAD mRNA synthesis or degradation. PMID:26481005

  13. Downregulation of hepatic betaine:homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) expression in taurine-deficient mice is reversed by taurine supplementation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkowska, Halina; Niewiadomski, Julie; Hirschberger, Lawrence L; Roman, Heather B; Mazor, Kevin M; Liu, Xiaojing; Locasale, Jason W; Park, Eunkyue; Stipanuk, Martha H

    2016-03-01

    The cysteine dioxygenase (Cdo1)-null and the cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase (Csad)-null mouse are not able to synthesize hypotaurine/taurine by the cysteine/cysteine sulfinate pathway and have very low tissue taurine levels. These mice provide excellent models for studying the effects of taurine on biological processes. Using these mouse models, we identified betaine:homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) as a protein whose in vivo expression is robustly regulated by taurine. BHMT levels are low in liver of both Cdo1-null and Csad-null mice, but are restored to wild-type levels by dietary taurine supplementation. A lack of BHMT activity was indicated by an increase in the hepatic betaine level. In contrast to observations in liver of Cdo1-null and Csad-null mice, BHMT was not affected by taurine supplementation of primary hepatocytes from these mice. Likewise, CSAD abundance was not affected by taurine supplementation of primary hepatocytes, although it was robustly upregulated in liver of Cdo1-null and Csad-null mice and lowered to wild-type levels by dietary taurine supplementation. The mechanism by which taurine status affects hepatic CSAD and BHMT expression appears to be complex and to require factors outside of hepatocytes. Within the liver, mRNA abundance for both CSAD and BHMT was upregulated in parallel with protein levels, indicating regulation of BHMT and CSAD mRNA synthesis or degradation.

  14. A taurine-supplemented vegan diet may blunt the contribution of neutrophil activation to acute coronary events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F

    2004-01-01

    Neutrophils are activated in the coronary circulation during acute coronary events (unstable angina and myocardial infarction), often prior to the onset of ischemic damage. Moreover, neutrophils infiltrate coronary plaque in these circumstances, and may contribute to the rupture or erosion of this plaque, triggering thrombosis. Activated neutrophils secrete proteolytic enzymes in latent forms which are activated by the hypochlorous acid (HOCl) generated by myeloperoxidase. These phenomena may help to explain why an elevated white cell count has been found to be an independent coronary risk factor. Low-fat vegan diets can decrease circulating leukocytes--neutrophils and monocytes--possibly owing to down-regulation of systemic IGF-I activity. Thus, a relative neutropenia may contribute to the coronary protection afforded by such diets. However, vegetarian diets are devoid of taurine - the physiological antagonist of HOCl--and tissue levels of this nutrient are relatively low in vegetarians. Taurine has anti-atherosclerotic activity in animal models, possibly reflecting a role for macrophage-derived myeloperoxidase in the atherogenic process. Taurine also has platelet-stabilizing and anti-hypertensive effects that presumably could reduce coronary risk. Thus, it is proposed that a taurine-supplemented low-fat vegan diet represents a rational strategy for diminishing the contribution of activated neutrophils to acute coronary events; moreover, such a regimen would work in a number of other complementary ways to promote cardiovascular health. Moderate alcohol consumption, the well-tolerated drug pentoxifylline, and 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors--zileuton, boswellic acids, fish oil--may also have potential in this regard. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Penetration profile of taurine in the human skin and its distribution in skin layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, D L P; Thiago, S B; Pessôa, F A; Mrestani, Y; Rüttinger, H H; Wohlrab, J; Neubert, R H H

    2008-08-01

    To measure in vitro release of taurine from a semisolid standard formulation (amphiphilic cream, DAC) containing 1% taurine, a multi-layer membrane system was used. The content and distribution of taurine in different healthy skin layers (stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis) before (native taurine) and after application of the DAC cream were determined using capillary electrophoresis. The release of taurine from the DAC cream was studied using a multilayer membrane system. Due to the high hydrophilic properties of taurine, the artificial model membranes consisted of collodion as matrix and glycerol as the acceptor phase. In order to determine whether taurine shows the potential for dermal penetration a Franz diffusion cell system was used. The distribution of taurine in the skin layers was determined before and after application of the DAC cream followed by the incubation in a Franz diffusion cell. The excised skin sample was cut in horizontal sections using a cryomicrotome. In order to detect taurine, fluorescamine was used as a derivatization agent. Experiments with a multilayer membrane system were performed to verify the release of taurine at different times (1, 2 and 5 h). Approximately 42.5% taurine was released from the semisolid standard formulation, accumulating in the first membrane (17.63%). The native taurine content was quantified in human isolated skin layer before and after the application of the semisolid standard formulation followed by incubation in a Franz-type diffusion cell for 1 and 5 h. No statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) of the taurine content in the skin layers existed between exposure times (1 and 5 h) studied. The highest taurine content was found in the epidermis both before (256.01 microg taurine/g skin layer) and after (555.5 microg taurine/g skin layer) the application of the DAC cream. The distribution profile of taurine in the skin layers was very similar for the times studied, which suggests that taurine is

  16. The cytoprotective role of taurine in exercise-induced muscle injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, R; Biasetti, M; Messina, S; Dominy, J

    2002-06-01

    Intense exercise is thought to increase oxidative stress and damage muscle tissue. Taurine is present in high concentration in skeletal muscle and may play a role in cellular defenses against free radical-mediated damage. The aim of this study was to determine if manipulating muscle levels of taurine would alter markers of free radical damage after exercise-induced injury. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were supplemented via the drinking water with either 3% (w/v) taurine (n = 10) or the competitive taurine transport inhibitor, beta-alanine (n = 10), for one month. Controls (n = 20) drank tap water containing 0.02% taurine and all rats were placed on a taurine free diet. All the rats except one group of sedentary controls (n = 10) were subjected to 90 minutes of downhill treadmill running. Markers of cellular injury and free radical damage were determined along with tissue amino acid content. The 3% taurine treatment raised plasma levels about 2-fold and 3% beta-alanine reduced plasma taurine levels about 50%. Taurine supplementation (TS) significantly increased plasma glutamate levels in exercised rats. Exercise reduced plasma methionine levels and taurine prevented its decline. Taurine supplementation increased muscle taurine content significantly in all muscles except the soleus. beta-alanine decreased muscle taurine content about 50% in all the muscles examined. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS) was significantly increased by exercise in the extensor digitorium longus (EDL) and gastrocnemius (GAST) muscles. Both taurine and beta-alanine completely blocked the increase in TBARs in the EDL, but had no effect in the GAST. Muscle content of the cytosolic enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was significantly decreased by exercise in the GAST muscle and this effect was attenuated by both taurine and beta-alanine. Muscle myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was significantly elevated in the gastrocnemius muscle, but diet had no effect. MPO activity was significantly increased by

  17. Effect of combination of taurine and azelaic acid on antimelanogenesis in murine melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ji Sun; Kim, An Keun

    2010-08-24

    Pigmentation in human skin is an important defense mechanism against sunlight or oxidative stress. Despite the protective role of melanin, abnormal hyperpigmentation such as freckles and chloasma sometimes can be serious aesthetic problems. Because of these effects of hyperpigmentation, people have considered the effect of depigmentation. Azelaic acid (AZ) is a saturated dicarboxylic acid found naturally in wheat, rye, and barley. Previously, we showed that AZ inhibited melanogenesis. In this study, we investigated the antimelanogenic activity of combination of AZ and taurine (Tau) in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. The mouse melanoma cell line B16F10 was used in the study. We measured melanin contents and tyrosinase activity. To gain the change of protein expression, we carried out western blotting. We investigated that AZ combined with taurine (Tau) show more inhibitory effects in melanocytes than the treatment of AZ alone. AZ combined with Tau inhibited the melanin production and tyrosinase activity of B16F10 melanoma cells without significant cytotoxicity. Also inhibitory effects after treatment with these combined chemical are stronger than AZ alone on melanogenesis. These findings indicate that AZ with Tau might play an important role in the regulation of melanin formation and be useful as effective ingredients in antimelanogesis.

  18. Activation of p62-keap1-Nrf2 antioxidant pathway in the early stage of acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhenyu; Wang, Yu; Su, Zhenhui; Kou, Ruirui; Xie, Keqin; Song, Fuyong

    2018-02-25

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose can cause severe liver failure even death. Nearly half of drug-induced liver injury is attributed to APAP in the US and many European countries. Oxidative stress has been validated as a critical event involved in APAP-induced liver failure. p62/SQSTM1, a selective autophagy adaptor protein, is reported to regulate Nrf2-ARE antioxidant pathway in response to oxidative stress. However, the exact role of p62-keap1-Nrf2 antioxidant pathway in APAP-induced hepatotoxicity remains unknown. In the present study, the dose-response and time-course model in C57/BL6 mice were established by intraperitoneal injection of APAP. The results of serum alanine/aspartate aminotransferases (ALT/AST) and histological examination demonstrated that APAP overdose resulted in the severe liver injury. In the meantime, the levels of p62, phospho-p62 and nuclear Nrf2 were significantly increased by APAP in mice liver, suggesting an activation of p62-keap1-Nrf2 pathway. In addition, the expression of GSTA1 mRNA was increased in a dose-dependent manner, while the mRNA levels of HO-1 and GCLC were decreased with the increase of APAP dose. Our further investigation found that expression of HO-1 and GCLC peaked at 3 h∼6 h, and then were decreased gradually. Taken together, these results indicated that p62-keap1-Nrf2 antioxidant pathway was primarily activated in the early stage of APAP hepatotoxicity, which might play a protective role in the process of APAP-induced acute liver injury. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Biosynthesis of taurine by rat pineals in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebels, I.; Benson, B.; Larssen, B.R.

    1980-01-01

    Pineal glands from adult, male rats were incubated in oxygenated Krebs-Ringer buffer containing 14 C-cystine. After three hours the incubation media and pineal gland extracts were placed separately on Dowex AG W50-X-4 columns. In the elution volume where 14 C-labeled taurine is found a labeled peak was recovered. However, when subjected to one or two dimensional paper chromatography especially the eluants from pineal gland extracts yielded two 14 C-labeled substances one located in the region where unlabeled taurine is detected by ortho-phthalaldehyde reagent. These results were confirmed utilizing a method developed in our laboratory based on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The pineals, as well as their respective incubation medium, were shown to contain radioactive taurine. These results demonstrate that rat pineal glands are capable of taurine synthesis. Also a high degree of labeling was associated with an area on paper chromatograms, migrating more rapidly than the standards, using acidic solvent systems. If represented by a single pineal compound, the substance must be rapidly synthesized from 14 C-cystine to account for the radioactivity observed. Future studies of sulfur metabolism within the pineal gland could be of significant interest. (author)

  20. Taurine as anticataractogenic agent in galactose-feeding rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of taurine on the onset and maturation of galactose induced cataract. Fort y Male Sprague – Dawley rats (21 days old) were divided into 4 groups containing ten rats each. Group 1 received control diet, group 2 received 30% galactose in the diet, group 3 received the ...

  1. Partial agonism of taurine at gamma-containing native and recombinant GABAA receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Kletke

    Full Text Available Taurine is a semi-essential sulfonic acid found at high concentrations in plasma and mammalian tissues which regulates osmolarity, ion channel activity and glucose homeostasis. The structural requirements of GABAA-receptors (GABAAR gated by taurine are not yet known. We determined taurine potency and efficacy relative to GABA at different types of recombinant GABAAR occurring in central histaminergic neurons of the mouse hypothalamic tuberomamillary nucleus (TMN which controls arousal. At binary α(1/2β(1/3 receptors taurine was as efficient as GABA, whereas incorporation of the γ(1/2 subunit reduced taurine efficacy to 60-90% of GABA. The mutation γ(2F77I, which abolishes zolpidem potentiation, significantly reduced taurine efficacy at recombinant and native receptors compared to the wild type controls. As taurine was a full- or super- agonist at recombinant αxβ1δ-GABAAR, we generated a chimeric γ(2 subunit carrying the δ subunit motif around F77 (MTVFLH. At α(1/2β(1γ2(MTVFLH receptors taurine became a super-agonist, similar to δ-containing ternary receptors, but remained a partial agonist at β3-containing receptors. In conclusion, using site-directed mutagenesis we found structural determinants of taurine's partial agonism at γ-containing GABAA receptors. Our study sheds new light on the β1 subunit conferring the widest range of taurine-efficacies modifying GABAAR function under (pathophysiological conditions.

  2. Taurine ameliorates cholesterol metabolism by stimulating bile acid production in high-cholesterol-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shigeru; Fujita, Michiko; Nakamura, Masakazu; Sakono, Masanobu; Nishizono, Shoko; Sato, Masao; Imaizumi, Katsumi; Mori, Mari; Fukuda, Nobuhiro

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary taurine on cholesterol metabolism in high-cholesterol-fed rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two dietary groups (n = 6 in each group): a high-cholesterol diet containing 0.5% cholesterol and 0.15% sodium cholate, and a high-cholesterol diet with 5% (w/w) taurine. The experimental diets were given for 2 weeks. Taurine supplementation reduced the serum and hepatic cholesterol levels by 37% and 32%, respectively. Faecal excretion of bile acids was significantly increased in taurine-treated rats, compared with untreated rats. Biliary bile acid concentrations were also increased by taurine. Taurine supplementation increased taurine-conjugated bile acids by 61% and decreased glycine-conjugated bile acids by 53%, resulting in a significant decrease in the glycine/taurine (G/T) ratio. Among the taurine-conjugated bile acids, cholic acid and deoxycholic acid were significantly increased. In the liver, taurine supplementation increased the mRNA expression and enzymatic activity of hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis, by three- and two-fold, respectively. Taurine also decreased the enzymatic activity of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP). These observations suggest that taurine supplementation increases the synthesis and excretion of taurine-conjugated bile acids and stimulates the catabolism of cholesterol to bile acid by elevating the expression and activity of CYP7A1. This may reduce cholesterol esterification and lipoprotein assembly for very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion, leading to reductions in the serum and hepatic cholesterol levels. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. The effect of taurine depletion on the contractile properties and fatigue in fast-twitch skeletal muscle of the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, E J; Berg, H M; Easton, C J; Bakker, A J

    2006-10-01

    Taurine increases force production in skeletal muscle, and taurine levels may fall during exercise. The contractile properties and fatigability of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles depleted of taurine by guanodinoethane sulfonate (GES) treatment were investigated. GES treatment decreased muscle taurine levels to muscles (p muscles compared to controls at stimulation frequencies from 50 to 100 Hz (p muscles exhibited significantly slower rates of fatigue than controls (p effect on force production, indicating that GES may have some minor taurine-like effects. In this study, a fall in taurine levels decreased force output, and increased the endurance of EDL skeletal muscles.

  4. High expression of the taurine transporter TauT in primary cilia of NIH3T3 fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren Tvorup; Voss, Jesper W.; Teilmann, Stefan C.

    2005-01-01

    Taurine, present in high concentrations in various mammalian cells, is essential for regulation of cell volume, cellular oxidative status as well as the cellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Cellular taurine content is a balance between active uptake through the saturable, Na+-dependent taurine transporter...... TauT expression and (iii) long-term exposure to hypertonic taurine medium, i.e., growth medium supplemented with 100 mM taurine, reduces ciliary TauT expression. These results point to an important role of taurine in the regulation of physiological processes located to the primary cilium....

  5. The effect of taurine and β-alanine supplementation on taurine transporter protein and fatigue resistance in skeletal muscle from mdx mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Deanna M; Murphy, Robyn M; Mollica, Janelle P; Hayes, Alan; Goodman, Craig A

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of taurine and β-alanine supplementation on muscle function and muscle taurine transporter (TauT) protein expression in mdx mice. Wild-type (WT) and mdx mice (5 months) were supplemented with taurine or β-alanine for 4 weeks, after which in vitro contractile properties, fatigue resistance and force recovery, and the expression of the TauT protein and proteins involved in excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling were examined in fast-twitch muscle. There was no difference in basal TauT protein expression or basal taurine content between mdx than WT muscle. Supplementation with taurine and β-alanine increased and reduced taurine content, respectively, in muscle from WT and mdx mice but had no effect of TauT protein. Taurine supplementation reduced body and muscle mass, and enhanced fatigue resistance and force recovery in mdx muscle. β-Alanine supplementation enhanced fatigue resistance in WT and mdx muscle. There was no difference in the basal expression of key E-C coupling proteins [ryanodine receptor 1 (RyR1), dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR), sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase 1 (SERCA1) or calsequestrin 1 (CSQ1)] between WT and mdx mice, and the expression of these proteins was not altered by taurine or β-alanine supplementation. These findings suggest that TauT protein expression is relatively insensitive to changes in muscle taurine content in WT and mdx mice, and that taurine and β-alanine supplementation may be viable therapeutic strategies to improve fatigue resistance of dystrophic skeletal muscle.

  6. Taurine content in different brain structures during ageing: effect on hippocampal synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Luz M; Muñoz, María-Dolores; Martín Del Río, Rafael; Solís, José M

    2016-05-01

    A reduction in taurine content accompanies the ageing process in many tissues. In fact, the decline of brain taurine levels has been associated with cognitive deficits whereas chronic administration of taurine seems to ameliorate age-related deficits such as memory acquisition and retention. In the present study, using rats of three age groups (young, adult and aged) we determined whether the content of taurine and other amino acids (glutamate, serine, glutamine, glycine, alanine and GABA) was altered during ageing in different brain areas (cerebellum, cortex and hippocampus) as well non-brain tissues (heart, kidney, liver and plasma). Moreover, using hippocampal slices we tested whether ageing affects synaptic function and plasticity. These parameters were also determined in aged rats fed with either taurine-devoid or taurine-supplemented diets. With age, we found heterogeneous changes in amino acid content depending on the amino acid type and the tissue. In the case of taurine, its content was reduced in the cerebellum of adult and aged rats, but it remained unchanged in the hippocampus, cortex, heart and liver. The synaptic response amplitude decreased in aged rats, although the late phase of long-term synaptic potentiation (late-LTP), a taurine-dependent process, was not altered. Our study highlights the stability of taurine content in the hippocampus during ageing regardless of whether taurine was present in the diet, which is consistent with the lack of changes detected in late-LTP. These results indicate that the beneficial effects of taurine supplementation might be independent of the replenishment of taurine stores.

  7. Gestational Protein Restriction in Wistar Rats; Effect of Taurine Supplementation on Properties of Newborn Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Lea Hüche; Sandø-Pedersen, Sofie; Ørstrup, Laura Kofoed Hvidsten; Grunnet, Niels; Quistorff, Bjørn; Mortensen, Ole Hartvig

    2017-01-01

    Taurine ameliorates changes occurring in newborn skeletal muscle as a result of gestational protein restriction in C57BL/6 mice, but taurine supplementation effects may be exaggerated in C57BL/6 mice due to their inherent excessive taurinuria.We examined if maternal taurine supplementation could ameliorate changes in gene expression levels, properties of mitochondria, myogenesis, and nutrient transport and sensing, in male newborn skeletal muscle caused by a maternal low protein (LP) diet in Wistar rats.LP diet resulted in an 11% non-significant decrease in birth weight, which was not rescued by taurine supplementation (LP-Tau). LP-Tau offspring had significantly lower birth weight compared to controls. Gene expression profiling revealed 895 significantly changed genes, mainly an LP-induced down-regulation of genes involved in protein translation. Taurine fully or partially rescued 32% of these changes, but with no distinct pattern as to which genes were rescued.Skeletal muscle taurine content in LP-Tau offspring was increased, but no changes in mRNA levels of the taurine synthesis pathway were observed. Taurine transporter mRNA levels, but not protein levels, were increased by LP diet.Nutrient sensing signaling pathways were largely unaffected in LP or LP-Tau groups, although taurine supplementation caused a decrease in total Akt and AMPK protein levels. PAT4 amino acid transporter mRNA was increased by LP, and normalized by taurine supplementation.In conclusion, gestational protein restriction in rats decreased genes involved in protein translation in newborn skeletal muscle and led to changes in nutrient transporters. Taurine partly rescued these changes, hence underscoring the importance of taurine in development.

  8. Hepatic taurine transport: a Na+-dependent carrier on the basolateral plasma membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucuvalas, J.C.; Goodrich, A.L.; Suchy, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    Highly purified rat basolateral liver plasma membrane vesicles were used examine the mechanism and the driving forces for hepatic uptake of the β-amino acid, taurine. An inwardly directed 100 mM NaCl gradient stimulated the initial rate of taurine uptake and energized a transient twofold accumulation of taurine above equilibrium (overshoot). In contrast, uptake was slower and no overshoot was detected in the presence of a KCl gradient. A negative intravesicular electrical potential generated by the presence of permeant anions or an outwardly directed K + gradient with valinomycin increased Na + -stimulated taurine uptake. External Cl - stimulated Na + -dependent taurine uptake independent of effects on the transmembrane electrical potential difference. Na + -dependent taurine uptake showed a sigmoidal dependence on extravesicular Na + concentration, suggesting multiple Na + ions are involved in the translocation of each taurine molecule. Na + -dependent taurine uptake demonstrated Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a maximum velocity of 0.537 nmol x mg protein -1 x min -1 and an apparent K/sub m/ of 174 μM. [ 3 H]taurine uptake was inhibited by the presence of excess unlabeled taurine, β-alanine, or hypotaurine but not by L-glutamine or L-alanine. In summary, using basolateral liver plasma membrane vesicles, the authors have shown that hepatic uptake of taurine occurs by a carrier-mediated, secondary active transport process specific for β-amino acids. Uptake is electrogenic, stimulated by external Cl - , and requires multiple Na + ions for the translocation of each taurine molecule

  9. Taurine decreased uric acid levels in hyperuricemic rats and alleviated kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ying; Sun, Fang; Gao, Yongchao; Yang, Jiancheng; Wu, Gaofeng; Lin, Shumei; Hu, Jianmin

    2017-07-29

    Hyperuricemia can lead to direct kidney damage. Taurine participates in several renal physiological processes and has been shown as a renoprotective agent. It has been reported that taurine could reduce uric acid levels in diabetic rats, but to date there was no research on the effects of taurine on hyperuricemic rats with kidney injury. In present study, hyperuricemic rat models were induced by intragastric administration of adenine and ethambutol hydrochloride for 10 days, and taurine (1% or 2%) were added in the drinking water 7 days in advance for consecutively 17 days. The results showed that taurine alleviated renal morphological and pathological changes as well as kidney dysfunction in hyperuricemic rats. Taurine could efficiently decrease the elevated xanthine oxidase activities in hyperuricemic rats, indicating its effect on the regulation of uric acid formation. The reabsorption and secretion of uric acid are dependent on a number of urate transporters. Expressions of three urate transporters were significantly down-regulated in hyperuricemic rats, while taurine prevented the decrease of mRNA and protein expression levels of these urate transporters. The results indicate that taurine might play a role in the regulation of renal uric acid excretion. Therefore, taurine could be a promising agent for the treatment of hyperuricemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Taurine and other free amino acids in milk of man and other mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, D K; Sturman, J A; Guall, G E

    1978-04-01

    Taurine and other free amino acids have been determined in human milk of a number of other species. Taurine is the most abundant free amino acid in the milk of the gerbil, mouse, cat, dog and rhesus monkey. Taurine is the second most abundant amino acid in the milk of the rat, baboon, chimpanzee, sheep, Java monkey and man. Taurine is not a major constituent in the milk of the guinea pig, rabbit, cow and horse. The milk of each species has a characteristic free amino acid pattern which may be an indication of the relative nutritional importance of these compounds during early postnatal development.

  11. Tissue depletion of taurine accelerates skeletal muscle senescence and leads to early death in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Natsumi; Inui, Takaaki; Miyazaki, Natsuko; Schaffer, Stephen W; Azuma, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is found in milimolar concentrations in mammalian tissues. One of its main functions is osmoregulation; however, it also exhibits cytoprotective activity by diminishing injury caused by stress and disease. Taurine depletion is associated with several defects, many of which are found in the aging animal, suggesting that taurine might exert anti-aging actions. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the hypothesis that taurine depletion accelerates aging by reducing longevity and accelerating aging-associated tissue damage. Tissue taurine depletion in taurine transporter knockout (TauTKO) mouse was found to shorten lifespan and accelerate skeletal muscle histological and functional defects, including an increase in central nuclei containing myotubes, a reduction in mitochondrial complex 1 activity and an induction in an aging biomarker, Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitor A (p16INK4a). Tissue taurine depletion also enhances unfolded protein response (UPR), which may be associated with an improvement in protein folding by taurine. Our data reveal that tissue taurine depletion affects longevity and cellular senescence; an effect possibly linked to a disturbance in protein folding.

  12. Taurine alters respiratory gas exchange and nutrient metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Nagakatsu; Ninomiya, Chika; Osako, Yoshie; Morishima, Masaki; Mawatari, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Akira; Nakaya, Yutaka

    2004-07-01

    To assess the effect of taurine supplementation on respiratory gas exchange, which might reflect the improved metabolism of glucose and/or lipid in the type 2 diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Male OLETF rats (16 weeks of age) were randomly divided into two groups: unsupplemented group and taurine-supplemented (3% in drinking water) group. After 9 weeks of treatment, indirect calorimetry and insulin tolerance tests were conducted. The amounts of visceral fat pads, tissue glycogen, the blood concentrations of glucose, triacylglycerol, taurine, and electrolytes, and the level of hematocrit were compared between groups. A nondiabetic rat strain (Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka) was used as the age-matched normal control. The indirect calorimetry showed that the treatment of OLETF rats with taurine could reduce a part of postprandial glucose oxidation possibly responsible for the increase of triacylglycerol synthesis in the body. Taurine supplementation also improved hyperglycemia and insulin resistance and increased muscle glycogen content in the OLETF rats. Supplementation with taurine increased the blood concentration of taurine and electrolyte and fluid volume, all of which were considered to be related to the improvement of metabolic disturbance in OLETF rats. Taurine supplementation may be an effective treatment for glucose intolerance and fat/lipid accumulation observed in type 2 diabetes associated with obesity. These metabolic changes might be ascribed, in part, to the alteration of circulating blood profiles, where the improved hyperglycemia and/or the blood accumulation of taurine itself would play roles. Copyright 2004 NAASO

  13. Partial Agonism of Taurine at Gamma-Containing Native and Recombinant GABAA Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletke, Olaf; Gisselmann, Guenter; May, Andrea; Hatt, Hanns; A. Sergeeva, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Taurine is a semi-essential sulfonic acid found at high concentrations in plasma and mammalian tissues which regulates osmolarity, ion channel activity and glucose homeostasis. The structural requirements of GABAA-receptors (GABAAR) gated by taurine are not yet known. We determined taurine potency and efficacy relative to GABA at different types of recombinant GABAAR occurring in central histaminergic neurons of the mouse hypothalamic tuberomamillary nucleus (TMN) which controls arousal. At binary α1/2β1/3 receptors taurine was as efficient as GABA, whereas incorporation of the γ1/2 subunit reduced taurine efficacy to 60–90% of GABA. The mutation γ2F77I, which abolishes zolpidem potentiation, significantly reduced taurine efficacy at recombinant and native receptors compared to the wild type controls. As taurine was a full- or super- agonist at recombinant αxβ1δ-GABAAR, we generated a chimeric γ2 subunit carrying the δ subunit motif around F77 (MTVFLH). At α1/2β1γ2(MTVFLH) receptors taurine became a super-agonist, similar to δ-containing ternary receptors, but remained a partial agonist at β3-containing receptors. In conclusion, using site-directed mutagenesis we found structural determinants of taurine’s partial agonism at γ-containing GABAA receptors. Our study sheds new light on the β1 subunit conferring the widest range of taurine-efficacies modifying GABAAR function under (patho)physiological conditions. PMID:23637894

  14. Accumulation of [35S]taurine in peripheral layers of the olfactory bulb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, M.R.; Wysocki, C.J.; Sturman, J.A.; Wen, G.Y.

    1981-01-01

    Accumulation of [ 35 S]taurine in the laminae of the olfactory bulb of the adult cat, rat, mouse and rabbit was examined autoradiographically. [ 35 S]Taurine was administered either i.p. or i.v. and olfactory bulbs were excised 24 h post-injection. High concentrations of [ 35 S]taurine were restricted to the olfactory nerve and glomerular layers of the olfactory bulb in all species examined. Olfactory neurons are continuously renewed and the results obtained suggest that taurine may have an important role in olfactory receptor axons. (Auth.)

  15. Renal cortex taurine content regulates renal adaptive response to altered dietary intake of sulfur amino acids.

    OpenAIRE

    Chesney, R W; Gusowski, N; Dabbagh, S

    1985-01-01

    Rats fed a reduced sulfur amino acid diet (LTD) or a high-taurine diet (HTD) demonstrate a renal adaptive response. The LTD results in hypotaurinuria and enhanced brush border membrane vesicle (BBMV) accumulation of taurine. The HTD causes hypertaurinuria and reduced BBMV uptake. This adaptation may relate to changes in plasma or renal cortex taurine concentration. Rats were fed a normal-taurine diet (NTD), LTD, or HTD for 14 d or they underwent: (a) 3% beta-alanine for the last 8 d of each d...

  16. Taurine Supplementation Improves Functional Capacity, Myocardial Oxygen Consumption, and Electrical Activity in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Mehdi; Dabidi Roshan, Valiollah; Ashourpore, Eadeh

    2017-07-04

    Taurine is an amino acid found abundantly in the heart in very high concentrations. It is assumed that taurine contributes to several physiological functions of mammalian cells, such as osmoregulation, anti-inflammation, membrane stabilization, ion transport modulation, and regulation of oxidative stress and mitochondrial protein synthesis. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of taurine supplementation on functional capacity, myocardial oxygen consumption, and electrical activity in patients with heart failure. In a double-blind and randomly designed study, 16 patients with heart failure were assigned to two groups: taurine (TG, n = 8) and placebo (PG, n = 8). TG received 500-mg taurine supplementation three times per day for two weeks. Significant decrease in the values of Q-T segments (p taurine concentration, T wave, Q-T segment, physical capacities, and lower values of cardiovascular capacities were detected post-supplementation in TG as compared with PG (all p values Taurine significantly enhanced the physical function and significantly reduced the cardiovascular function parameters following exercise. Our results also suggest that the short-term taurine supplementation is an effective strategy for improving some selected hemodynamic parameters in heart failure patients. Together, these findings support the view that taurine improves cardiac function and functional capacity in patients with heart failure. This idea warrants further study.

  17. Taurine Induces Proliferation of Neural Stem Cells and Synapse Development in the Developing Mouse Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaraj, Mattu Chetana; Marcy, Guillaume; Low, Guoliang; Ryu, Jae Ryun; Zhao, Xianfeng; Rosales, Francisco J.; Goh, Eyleen L. K.

    2012-01-01

    Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid present in high concentrations in mammalian tissues. It has been implicated in several processes involving brain development and neurotransmission. However, the role of taurine in hippocampal neurogenesis during brain development is still unknown. Here we show that taurine regulates neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the developing brain as well as in cultured early postnatal (P5) hippocampal progenitor cells and hippocampal slices derived from P5 mice brains. Taurine increased cell proliferation without having a significant effect on neural differentiation both in cultured P5 NPCs as well as cultured hippocampal slices and in vivo. Expression level analysis of synaptic proteins revealed that taurine increases the expression of Synapsin 1 and PSD 95. We also found that taurine stimulates the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 indicating a possible role of the ERK pathway in mediating the changes that we observed, especially in proliferation. Taken together, our results demonstrate a role for taurine in neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation in developing brain and suggest the involvement of the ERK1/2 pathways in mediating these actions. Our study also shows that taurine influences the levels of proteins associated with synapse development. This is the first evidence showing the effect of taurine on early postnatal neuronal development using a combination of in vitro, ex-vivo and in vivo systems. PMID:22916184

  18. Taurine induces proliferation of neural stem cells and synapse development in the developing mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattu Chetana Shivaraj

    Full Text Available Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid present in high concentrations in mammalian tissues. It has been implicated in several processes involving brain development and neurotransmission. However, the role of taurine in hippocampal neurogenesis during brain development is still unknown. Here we show that taurine regulates neural progenitor cell (NPC proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the developing brain as well as in cultured early postnatal (P5 hippocampal progenitor cells and hippocampal slices derived from P5 mice brains. Taurine increased cell proliferation without having a significant effect on neural differentiation both in cultured P5 NPCs as well as cultured hippocampal slices and in vivo. Expression level analysis of synaptic proteins revealed that taurine increases the expression of Synapsin 1 and PSD 95. We also found that taurine stimulates the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 indicating a possible role of the ERK pathway in mediating the changes that we observed, especially in proliferation. Taken together, our results demonstrate a role for taurine in neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation in developing brain and suggest the involvement of the ERK1/2 pathways in mediating these actions. Our study also shows that taurine influences the levels of proteins associated with synapse development. This is the first evidence showing the effect of taurine on early postnatal neuronal development using a combination of in vitro, ex-vivo and in vivo systems.

  19. Tissue depletion of taurine accelerates skeletal muscle senescence and leads to early death in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Ito

    Full Text Available Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid is found in milimolar concentrations in mammalian tissues. One of its main functions is osmoregulation; however, it also exhibits cytoprotective activity by diminishing injury caused by stress and disease. Taurine depletion is associated with several defects, many of which are found in the aging animal, suggesting that taurine might exert anti-aging actions. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the hypothesis that taurine depletion accelerates aging by reducing longevity and accelerating aging-associated tissue damage. Tissue taurine depletion in taurine transporter knockout (TauTKO mouse was found to shorten lifespan and accelerate skeletal muscle histological and functional defects, including an increase in central nuclei containing myotubes, a reduction in mitochondrial complex 1 activity and an induction in an aging biomarker, Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitor A (p16INK4a. Tissue taurine depletion also enhances unfolded protein response (UPR, which may be associated with an improvement in protein folding by taurine. Our data reveal that tissue taurine depletion affects longevity and cellular senescence; an effect possibly linked to a disturbance in protein folding.

  20. Conformational Study of Taurine in the Gas Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortijo, Vanessa; Sanz, M. Eugenia; López, Juan C.; Alonso, José L.

    2009-08-01

    The conformational preferences of the amino sulfonic acid taurine (NH2-CH2-CH2-SO3H) have been investigated in the gas phase by laser ablation molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy (LA-MB-FTMW) in the 6-14 GHz frequency range. One conformer has been observed, and its rotational, centrifugal distortion, and hyperfine quadrupole coupling constants have been determined from the analysis of its rotational spectrum. Comparison of the experimental constants with those calculated theoretically identifies the detected conformer unambiguously. The observed conformer of taurine is stabilized by an intramolecular hydrogen bond O-H···N between the hydrogen of the sulfonic acid group and the nitrogen atom of the amino group.

  1. The potential effect of taurine as a radioprotective agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharoud, M.N.M.

    2010-01-01

    People can be exposed to irradiation either external or internal. The potential effects of radiation on health depend in part on the radiation dose delivered and the rate of delivery causing oxidation and free radical formation. The main purpose of the present study was to asses the effect of taurine administration in modulating some biochemical and hematological parameters in female rats exposed to 6 gray γ-irradiation. The data showed in this study that the ionizing γradiation (6 Gy) induced a significant (p<0.05) increment in the levels of serum lipid profile (cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL) and elevation of cardiac enzyme activities (LDH, CK and AST) and elevation in the activities of serum AST , ALT and ALP. on the other hand , the ionizing radiation induced a significant (p < 0.05) decline in the concentrations of serum total protein and albumin . In case of exposing female rat to gamma ray, the level of MDA was significantly elevated compared to their corresponding normal control group. Whereas, the drastic decrease were observed in hematological parameters (Hb, RBCs, WBCs and Hct). A significant correction was occurred in all previous parameters after the irradiated rats were intraperitoneally (i.p) injected with taurine (500 mg/100 g body weigh / day for one month). Leading to the conclusion that taurine is considered as antioxidant and a radio-protector agent.

  2. Effect of Taurine Supplementation on the Alterations in Amino Acid Content in Skeletal Muscle with Exercise in Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikura, Keisuke; Miyazaki, Teruo; Ra, Song-Gyu; Endo, Shoji; Nakamura, Yusuke; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Miyakawa, Shumpei; Ohmori, Hajime

    2011-01-01

    Taurine included abundantly in skeletal muscle, particularly in the slow-twitch fibers, enhances exercise performance. However, the exact mechanisms for this effect have been unclear. The present study investigated the influence of taurine supplementation on amino acids profile in skeletal muscles as one of mechanisms in the enhancement of exercise performance induced by taurine. In the rats that received taurine solution, amino acids concentrations were comprehensively quantified in two port...

  3. Combined action of taurine and cations of certain metals on post-irradiation survival of SOC cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yartsev, E.I.; Aldonyasov, V.I.; Yakovlev, V.G.

    1975-01-01

    Effects of combined application of taurine and metals (potassium, magnesium, calcium and zinc) on the cell level have been studied. It has been found that various concentrations of taurine and potassium and zinc salts increase the survival of irradiated SOC cells up to 40% while addition of magnesium and calcium salts does not affect the taurine effectiveness. The highest effectiveness is obtained when potassium and taurine are added in equimolar amounts to the incubation medium

  4. Mechanism for modulation of gating of connexin26-containing channels by taurine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieken, Fabien; Tao, Liang; Sorgen, Paul L.; Harris, Andrew L.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms of action of endogenous modulatory ligands of connexin channels are largely unknown. Previous work showed that protonated aminosulfonates (AS), notably taurine, directly and reversibly inhibit homomeric and heteromeric channels that contain Cx26, a widely distributed connexin, but not homomeric Cx32 channels. The present study investigated the molecular mechanisms of connexin channel modulation by taurine, using hemichannels and junctional channels composed of Cx26 (homomeric) and Cx26/Cx32 (heteromeric). The addition of a 28–amino acid “tag” to the carboxyl-terminal domain (CT) of Cx26 (Cx26T) eliminated taurine sensitivity of homomeric and heteromeric hemichannels in cells and liposomes. Cleavage of all but four residues of the tag (Cx26Tc) resulted in taurine-induced pore narrowing in homomeric hemichannels, and restored taurine inhibition of heteromeric hemichannels (Cx26Tc/Cx32). Taurine actions on junctional channels were fully consistent with those on hemichannels. Taurine-induced inhibition of Cx26/Cx32T and nontagged Cx26 junctional channels was blocked by extracellular HEPES, a blocker of the taurine transporter, confirming that the taurine-sensitive site of Cx26 is cytoplasmic. Nuclear magnetic resonance of peptides corresponding to Cx26 cytoplasmic domains showed that taurine binds to the cytoplasmic loop (CL) and not the CT, and that the CT and CL directly interact. ELISA showed that taurine disrupts a pH-dependent interaction between the CT and the CT-proximal half of the CL. These studies reveal that AS disrupt a pH-driven cytoplasmic interdomain interaction in Cx26-containing channels, causing closure, and that the Cx26CT has a modulatory role in Cx26 function. PMID:21844220

  5. Electro-acupuncture improves epileptic seizures induced by kainic acid in taurine-depletion rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hong-Bing; Li, Bing; Gu, Jing; Cheng, Jie-Shi; Yang, Ru

    2005-01-01

    Electro-acupuncture (EA) partially inhibited epilepsy with great success. The biological basis underlying EA anti-convulsion remained uncertain, which resulted in limited application and slow improvement of acupuncture. Our previous study indicated that taurine may play an inhibitory role against epilepsy as an inhibitory amino acid in the central nervous system and EA may inhibit epilepsy via up-regulating the expression of taurine transporter to increase the release of taurine. Involvement of taurine in kainic acid (KA)-induced epilepsy and anti-convulsion of EA was further addressed on taurine deficiency animal in the present work. We instituted endogenous taurine-deficiency model by supplementation of beta-alanine (3%) in drinking water for continuous 10 days initially, injected KA into lateral cerebral ventricle to induce epileptic seizure, and performed EA treatment on DU26 "RenZhong" and K "YongQuan" acupoints by an EA apparatus (Model G6805-2) using successive waves with the frequency 64Hz and the current intensity 0.8-1.0 mA for 30 minutes in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Taurine levels markedly decreased in cortex, hippocampus, striatum and cerebellum of rats after beta-alanine administration by fluore-HPLC measurement. EA alleviated epileptic activity in rats at 3.5 h time point after KA injection, whereas beta-alanine-induced taurine depletion rendered rats more susceptible to KA-induced epilepsy. Taurine transporter level increased after EA treatment. These results suggested that taurine participated in epileptogenesis and EA may be related to taurine in controlling epileptic seizure.

  6. Effect of dietary taurine supplementation on growth, feed efficiency, and nutrient composition of juvenile sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile sablefish were fed a low taurine, basal feed with seven graded levels of supplemental taurine to determine taurine requirements for growth and feed efficiency. The basal feed was plant based, formulated primarily with soy and corn proteins with a minimal (9%) amount of fishmeal. The unsuppl...

  7. Effect of taurine on intestinal recovery following intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in a rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhotnik, I; Aranovich, I; Ben Shahar, Y; Bitterman, N; Pollak, Y; Berkowitz, D; Chepurov, D; Coran, A G; Bitterman, A

    2016-02-01

    Taurine (TAU) is a sulfur-containing amino acid that is involved in a diverse array of biological and physiological functions, including bile salt conjugation, osmoregulation, membrane stabilization, calcium modulation, anti-oxidation, and immunomodulation. Several studies have established that treatment with TAU significantly protects cerebral, cardiac and testicular injury from ischemia-reperfusion (IR). The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of TAU on intestinal recovery and enterocyte turnover after intestinal IR injury in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four experimental groups: (1) Sham rats that underwent laparotomy, (2) Sham-TAU rats that underwent laparotomy and were treated with intraperitoneal (IP) TAU (250 mg/kg); (3) IR-rats that underwent occlusion of both superior mesenteric artery and portal vein for 30 min followed by 48 h of reperfusion, and (4) IR-TAU rats that underwent IR and were treated with IP TAU (250 mg/kg) immediately before abdominal closure. Intestinal structural changes, Park's injury score, enterocyte proliferation and enterocyte apoptosis were determined 24 h following IR. The expression of Bax, Bcl-2, p-ERK and caspase-3 in the intestinal mucosa was determined using Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Treatment with TAU resulted in a significant decrease in Park's injury score compared to IR animals. IR-TAU rats also demonstrated a significant increase in mucosal weight in jejunum and ileum, villus height in jejunum and ileum and crypt depth in ileum compared to IR animals. IR-TAU rats also experienced significantly lower apoptotic indices in jejunum and ileum which was accompanied by a higher Bcl-2/Bax ratio compared to IR animals. Treatment with taurine prevents gut mucosal damage and inhibits intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis following intestinal IR in a rat.

  8. Downregulation of taurine uptake in multidrug resistant Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, K A; Litman, Thomas; Eriksen, J

    2002-01-01

    In daunorubicin resistant Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (DNR), the initial taurine uptake was reduced by 56% as compared to the parental, drug sensitive Ehrlich cells. Kinetic experiments indicated that taurine uptake in Ehrlich cells occurs via both high- and low-affinity transporters. The maximal...

  9. Taurine depresses cardiac contractility and enhances systemic heart glucose utilization in the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCormack, Tyson J; Callaghan, N I; Sykes, A V; Driedzic, W R

    2016-02-01

    Taurine is the most abundant amino acid in the blood of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, where levels can exceed 200 mmol L(-1). In mammals, intracellular taurine modulates cardiac Ca(2+) handling and carbohydrate metabolism at much lower concentrations but it is not clear if it exerts similar actions in cephalopods. Blood Ca(2+) levels are high in cephalopods and we hypothesized that taurine would depress cardiac Ca(2+) flux and modulate contractility in systemic and branchial hearts of cuttlefish. Heart performance was assessed with an in situ perfused systemic heart preparation and contractility was evaluated using isometrically contracting systemic and branchial heart muscle rings. Stroke volume, cardiac output, and Ca(2+) sensitivity were significantly lower in systemic hearts perfused with supplemental taurine (100 mmol L(-1)) than in controls. In muscle ring preparations, taurine impaired relaxation at high contraction frequencies, an effect abolished by supra-physiological Ca(2+) levels. Taurine did not affect oxygen consumption in non-contracting systemic heart muscle, but extracellular glucose utilization was twice that of control preparations. Collectively, our results suggest that extracellular taurine depresses cardiac Ca(2+) flux and potentiates glucose utilization in cuttlefish. Variations in taurine levels may represent an important mechanism for regulating cardiovascular function and metabolism in cephalopods.

  10. Influence of cesium and lithium ions on radioprotective effectiveness of taurine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhalaya, M.Ya.; Novosel'tseva, S.D.; Kolesnikov, Yu.A.; Bogatyrev, G.P.; Yartsev, E.I.; Kudryashov, Yu.B.

    1976-01-01

    In vitro experiments with irradiated cultures of heart cells from cynomolgus monkeys and mice and in vivo experiments on irradiated mice indicated that CsNO 3 , LiOAc and Li 2 CO 3 potentiated the radioprotective effect of taurine. The maximum effect was observed when equimolar conceptions of taurine and the metal salts were used

  11. Plasma taurine levels are not affected by vigabatrin in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelbrink, Emily M; Mabud, Tarub S; Reimer, Richard; Porter, Brenda E

    2016-08-01

    Vigabatrin is a highly effective antiseizure medication, but its use is limited due to concerns about retinal toxicity. One proposed mechanism for this toxicity is vigabatrin-mediated reduction of taurine. Herein we assess plasma taurine levels in a retrospective cohort of children with epilepsy, including a subset receiving vigabatrin. All children who underwent a plasma amino acid analysis as part of their clinical evaluation between 2006 and 2015 at Stanford Children's Health were included in the analysis. There were no significant differences in plasma taurine levels between children taking vigabatrin (n = 16), children taking other anti-seizure medications, and children not taking any anti-seizure medication (n = 556) (analysis of variance [ANOVA] p = 0.841). There were, however, age-dependent decreases in plasma taurine levels. Multiple linear regression revealed no significant association between vigabatrin use and plasma taurine level (p = 0.87) when controlling for age. These results suggest that children taking vigabatrin maintain normal plasma taurine levels, although they leave unanswered whether taurine supplementation is necessary or sufficient to prevent vigabatrin-associated visual field loss. They also indicate that age should be taken into consideration when evaluating taurine levels in young children. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  12. Taurine activates delayed rectifier KV channels via a metabotropic pathway in retinal neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulley, Simon; Liu, Yufei; Ripps, Harris; Shen, Wen

    2013-01-01

    Taurine is one of the most abundant amino acids in the retina, throughout the CNS, and in heart and muscle cells. In keeping with its broad tissue distribution, taurine serves as a modulator of numerous basic processes, such as enzyme activity, cell development, myocardial function and cytoprotection. Despite this multitude of functional roles, the precise mechanism underlying taurine's actions has not yet been identified. In this study we report findings that indicate a novel role for taurine in the regulation of voltage-gated delayed rectifier potassium (KV) channels in retinal neurons by means of a metabotropic receptor pathway. The metabotropic taurine response was insensitive to the Cl− channel blockers, picrotoxin and strychnine, but it was inhibited by a specific serotonin 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, MDL11939. Moreover, we found that taurine enhanced KV channels via intracellular protein kinase C-mediated pathways. When 5-HT2A receptors were expressed in human embryonic kidney cells, taurine and AL34662, a non-specific 5-HT2 receptor activator, produced a similar regulation of KIR channels. In sum, this study provides new evidence that taurine activates a serotonin system, apparently via 5-HT2A receptors and related intracellular pathways. PMID:23045337

  13. Effect of taurine on advanced glycation end products-induced hypertrophy in renal tubular epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.-S.; Chuang, L.-Y.; Guh, J.-Y.; Yang, Y.-L.; Hsu, M.-S.

    2008-01-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that advanced glycation end products (AGE) play a major role in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Taurine is a well documented antioxidant agent. To explore whether taurine was linked to altered AGE-mediated renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis in DN, we examined the molecular mechanisms of taurine responsible for inhibition of AGE-induced hypertrophy in renal tubular epithelial cells. We found that AGE (but not non-glycated BSA) caused inhibition of cellular mitogenesis rather than cell death by either necrosis or apoptosis. There were no changes in caspase 3 activity, bcl-2 protein expression, and mitochondrial cytochrome c release in BSA, AGE, or the antioxidant taurine treatments in these cells. AGE-induced the Raf-1/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation was markedly blocked by taurine. Furthermore, taurine, the Raf-1 kinase inhibitor GW5074, and the ERK kinase inhibitor PD98059 may have the ability to induce cellular proliferation and cell cycle progression from AGE-treated cells. The ability of taurine, GW5074, or PD98059 to inhibit AGE-induced hypertrophy was verified by the observation that it significantly decreased cell size, cellular hypertrophy index, and protein levels of RAGE, p27 Kip1 , collagen IV, and fibronectin. The results obtained in this study suggest that taurine may serve as the potential anti-fibrotic activity in DN through mechanism dependent of its Raf-1/ERK inactivation in AGE-induced hypertrophy in renal tubular epithelial cells

  14. Effect of supplemental taurine on juvenile channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus growth performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurine is a beta-amino sulfur amino acid found in most animal tissues that has many important biological functions including bile salt conjugation, cellular osmoregulation, neuromodulation, calcium signaling. The benefits of supplementing diets with taurine are just beginning to be realized in a n...

  15. Assessment of taurine bioavailability in pelleted and extruded diets with red drum Sciaenops ocellatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurine has been reported to be efficacious in supporting growth of carnivorous fish species, particularly when supplemented to diets primarily containing plant feedstuffs. Although taurine may become unavailable to some extent by heat and moisture, and is susceptible to the Maillard reaction with r...

  16. Taurine drinking ameliorates hepatic granuloma and fibrosis in mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Rong Yu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In schistosomiasis, egg-induced hepatic granuloma formation is a cytokine-mediated, predominantly CD4+ Th2 immune response that can give rise to hepatic fibrosis. Hepatic fibrosis is the main cause of increased morbidity and mortality in humans with schistosome infection. Taurine has various physiological functions and hepatoprotective properties as well as anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity. However, little is known about the role of taurine in schistosome egg-induced granuloma formation and fibrosis. We aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of taurine as preventative treatment for Schistosoma japonicum infection. Mice infected with S. japonicum cercariae were supplied with taurine drinking water (1% w/v for 4 weeks starting at 4 weeks post-infection. Taurine supplementation significantly improved the liver pathologic findings, reduced the serum levels of aminotransferases and area of hepatic granuloma, and prevented fibrosis progression. In addition, taurine decreased the expression of the granulomatous and fibrogenic mediators transforming growth factor β1, tumor necrosis factor α, monocyte chemotactic protein 1α and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α as well as the endoplasmic reticulum stress marker glucose-regulated protein 78. Thus, taurine can significantly attenuate S. japonicum egg-induced hepatic granuloma and fibrosis, which may depend in part on the downregulation of some relevant cytokine/chemokines and reducing the endoplasmic reticulum stress response. Keywords: Schistosomiasis, Schistosoma japonicum, Granuloma, Fibrosis, Taurine

  17. Specific role of taurine in the 8-brominated-2'-deoxyguanosine formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asahi, Takashi; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Kato, Yoji; Osawa, Toshihiko

    2015-11-15

    At the sites of inflammation, hypohalous acids, such as hypochlorous acid and hypobromous acid (HOBr), are produced by myeloperoxidase. These hypohalous acids rapidly react with the primary amino groups to produce haloamines, which are relatively stable and can diffuse long distances and cross the plasma membrane. In this study, we examined the effects of taurine, the most abundant free amino acid in the leukocyte cytosol, on the hypohalous acid-dependent formation of 8-chloro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-CldG) and 8-bromo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-BrdG). The reaction of taurine with HOBr yielded taurine bromamine, which is the most stable among other bromamines of amino acids. Taurine also enhanced the bromination of only dG among the four 2'-deoxynucleosides, whereas it inhibited the 8-CldG formation. The specificity of taurine for the enhanced formation of halogenated dG is completely different from that of nicotine, an enhancer of chlorination. The amount of dibrominated taurine (taurine dibromamine) closely correlated with the formation of 8-BrdG, suggesting that taurine dibromamine might be a plausible mediator for the dG bromination in vivo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Changes in urinary taurine and hypotaurine excretion after two-thirds hepatectomy in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, H. S.; Jörning, G. G.; Chamuleau, R. A.

    1998-01-01

    This study followed the time course of urinary taurine and hypotaurine excretion after two-thirds hepatectomy in rats. The excretion of both taurine and hypotaurine was elevated during 18 h following the hepatectomy, with maximal excretion during the first 6 h. Twelve and 24 h after partial

  19. Activation of synaptic and extrasynaptic glycine receptors by taurine in preoptic hypothalamic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Janardhan Prasad; Park, Soo Joung; Chun, Sang Woo; Cho, Dong Hyu; Han, Seong Kyu

    2015-11-03

    Taurine is an essential amino-sulfonic acid having a fundamental function in the brain, participating in both cell volume regulation and neurotransmission. Using a whole cell voltage patch clamp technique, the taurine-activated neurotransmitter receptors in the preoptic hypothalamic area (PHA) neurons were investigated. In the first set of experiments, different concentrations of taurine were applied on PHA neurons. Taurine-induced responses were concentration-dependent. Taurine-induced currents were action potential-independent and sensitive to strychnine, suggesting the involvement of glycine receptors. In addition, taurine activated not only α-homomeric, but also αβ-heteromeric glycine receptors in PHA neurons. Interestingly, a low concentration of taurine (0.5mM) activated glycine receptors, whereas a higher concentration (3mM) activated both glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptors in PHA neurons. These results suggest that PHA neurons are influenced by taurine and respond via glycine and GABAA receptors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The physiological and pathophysiological roles of taurine in adipose tissue in relation to obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shigeru

    2017-10-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. It is established that obesity is a state of low-grade chronic inflammation, which is characterized by enlarged hypertrophied adipocytes, increased infiltration by macrophages and marked changes in the secretion of adipokines and free fatty acids. The effects of taurine on the pathogenesis of obesity have been reported in animals and humans. Although the mechanisms underlying the anti-obesity action of taurine remain to be defined, taurine seems to ameliorate obesity through stimulation of energy expenditure, modulation of lipid metabolism, anorexic effect, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects. Recent studies revealed that taurine supplementation reduces the infiltration of macrophages and modulates the polarization of adipose tissue macrophages in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. In addition, taurine downregulates the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by adipocytes, suggesting that taurine plays an anti-inflammatory role in adipose tissue. This article reviews the effects and mechanisms of taurine on the development of obesity, focusing on the role of taurine in white adipose tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison between single and combined post-treatment with S-Methyl-N,N-diethylthiolcarbamate sulfoxide and taurine following transient focal cerebral ischemia in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharibani, P; Modi, J; Menzie, J; Alexandrescu, A; Ma, Z; Tao, R; Prentice, H; Wu, J-Y

    2015-08-06

    We have recently reported on the efficacy of an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor partial antagonist, S-Methyl-N,N-diethylthiolcarbamate sulfoxide (DETC-MeSO), in improving outcome following stroke, including reduced infarct size and calcium influx, suppressing the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis as well as improving behavioral outcome. DETC-MeSO was shown to suppress the protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) pathway, one of the major ER stress pathways. Several studies including ours have provided evidence that taurine also has neuroprotective effects through reducing apoptosis and inhibiting activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) and inositol requiring enzyme 1 (IRE-1) pathways. We hypothesized that a combined treatment with DETC-MeSO and taurine would ameliorate ischemia-induced brain injury by inhibiting all three ER stress pathways. Twenty four hours following reperfusion of a 2-h ischemic stroke, rats received either 0.56-mg/kg DETC-MeSO or 40-mg/kg of taurine, either alone or in combination, subcutaneously for 4days. Our study showed that combined DETC-MeSO and taurine, but not DETC-MeSO alone at the dose used, greatly reduced the infarct size, improved performance on the neuro-score test and attenuated proteolysis of αII-spectrin. Meanwhile, the level of the pro-apoptotic protein, Bax, declined and the anti-apoptotic protein, B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2), expression was markedly increased. Combination therapy decreased both caspase-12 and caspase-3 activation by preventing the release of Cytochrome-c from mitochondria, indicating attenuation of apoptosis in ischemic infarct. Glucose-regulated protein (GRP)78 as a marker of the unfolded protein response decreased and levels of the key ER stress protein markers p-PERK-ATF4, p-eIF2α and cleaved-ATF-6 were found to significantly decline. NeuN expression levels indicated that more neurons were protected in the presence of DETC-MeSO and taurine. We also showed that

  2. Effect of taurine and caffeine on plasma c-reactive protein and calcium in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoyele, B V; Oyewole, A L; Biliaminu, S A; Alashi, Y

    2015-09-01

    Caffeine is a component of several beverages such as coffee and tea. It has been shown to possess psychoactive properties because it increases alertness, energy and ability to concentrate at moderate doses. Taurine on the other hand, is an amino acid which has the capacity to promote neural development, osmoregulation and neuroprotection. There is paucity of information on the effect of the combined administration of taurine and caffeine on C-reactive protein (CRP)--a marker of inflammation and plasma calcium level in rats. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of combined taurine and caffeine on the plasma level of CRP, Ca2+ as well as the effect of nifedipine on calcium level. Fifty four rats weighing 120-140 g were used for these studies. The animals were divided into nine groups consisting of six animals each. Group 1 was treated with 10 m/kg of normal saline, Groups 2 and 3 were given 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of taurine respectively, groups 4 and 5 received 7.5 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg of caffeine respectively while group 6 was administered taurine (200 mg/kg) and caffeine (15 mg/kg), groups 7 and 8 were treated with taurine (200 mg/kg) plus nifedipine (10 mg/kg) and taurine (200 mg/kg)plus furosemide (20 mg/kg) respectively while group 9 was given taurine plu caffeine plus nifdipine plus furosemide. Treatment was done once daily for 21 days and blood was finally collected via cardiac puncture for the assay of CRP and calcium while the animals were under anaesthesia. The results showed that CRP was significantly decreased in five of the treated groups compared with the control with the exception of the group treated with taurine alone (Group 2), and that treated with combined taurine and caffeine (Group 6). The Ca2+ level of groups treated with caffeine (11.70 ± 0.29 mg/dL) and taurine with caffeine (11.64 ± 0.15 mg/dL) were significantly (p < 0.05) increased compared with the control (10.70 ± 0.29 mg/dL). However, treatment with taurine and

  3. Involvement of taurine in penicillin-induced epilepsy and anti-convulsion of acupuncture: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Guo, Jing-Chun; Jin, Hong-Bing; Cheng, Jie-Shi; Yang, Ru

    2005-01-01

    The potential role of taurine on epilepsy and acupuncture anti-convulsion was addressed in the present study. Epilepsy was induced by micro-injection of penicillin into hippocampus of Wistar rats. Taurine was applied by intraperitioneal (i.p.) injection. Electro-acupuncture (EA) was performed on acupoints of DU 20 "Bai Hui" and DU 16 "Feng Fu" along DU channel. Epileptic grades were evaluated by electro-encephalography (EEG) and behavior score. We featured the dose-response relationship between taurine-treated epilepsy and epilepsy-only subjects, detected the effect of exogenous taurine on epilepsy and acupuncture treatment, and investigated taurine transporter immuno-activity in hippocampus using immunohistochemistry. It was found that: 1), taurine had a significant antiepileptic effect as applied at i.p. 20 mg/kg, 40mg/kg, 80mg/kg, especially at 40mg/kg in the rat model of penicillin-induced seizure. Animals were improved by one to three Racine grades in behavior and in frequency and amplitude of EEG. 2), Exogenous taurine enhanced the anti-convulsive effect of EA. Both behavior and EEG were improved in taurine-treated rats. EA inhibited epilepsy. Exogenous taurine improved epilepsy in a synergistic manner to EA. 3), EA increased the concentration of taurine transporter in hippocampus by comparing EA-treated epilepsy with normal control and penicillin only, or EA-treated plus taurine-treated epilepsy with taurine-treated only epilepsy and penicillin only. The resulting data suggested that taurine may play an inhibitory role against epilepsy as an inhibitory amino acid in the central nervous system and EA may inhibit epilepsy via upregulating the concentration of taurine transporter to increase the release of taurine.

  4. Cell swelling activates separate taurine and chloride channels in Ehrlich mouse ascites tumor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, Ian Henry; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    1994-01-01

    The taurine efflux from Ehrlich ascites tumor cells is stimulated by hypotonic cell swelling. The swelling-activated taurine efflux is unaffected by substitution of gluconate for extracellular Cl– but inhibited by addition of MK196 (anion channel blocker) and 4,4 -diisothiocyanostilbene-2......,2 -disulfonic acid (DIDS; anion channel and anion exchange blocker) and by depolarization of the cell membrane. This is taken to indicate that taurine does not leave the osmotically swollen Ehrlich cells in exchange for extracellular Cl–, i.e., via the anion exchanger but via a MK196- and DIDS-sensitive channel...... that is potential dependent. An additional stimulation of the swelling-activated taurine efflux is seen after addition of arachidonic acid and oleic acid. Cell swelling also activates a Mini Cl– channel. The Cl– efflux via this Cl– channel, in contrast to the swelling-activated taurine efflux, is unaffected by DIDS...

  5. Acinar cell ultrastructure after taurine treatment in rat acute necrotizing pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ates, Y.; Mas, M. R.; Taski, I.; Comert, B.; Isik, A. T.; Mas, N. M.; Yener, N.

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the organelle-based changes in acinar cells in experimental acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) after taurine treatment and the association of electron microscopic findings with histopathalogical changes and oxidative stress markers. The study was performed in February 2005at Gulhane School of Medicine and Hacettepe University, Turkey. Forty-five rats were divided into 3 groups. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis was induced in groups II and III. Groups I and II were treated with saline and Group III with taurine 1000mg/kg/day, i.p, for 48 hours. Histopathological and ultrastructural examinations were determined using one-way analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Histopathologic findings improved significantly after taurine treatment. Degree of injury in rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulums, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria and nucleus of acinar cells also decreased with taurine in correlation with biochemical and histological results. Taurine improves acinar cell organelle structure, and ultrastructural recovery in ANP reflects histological improvement. (author)

  6. Downregulation of taurine uptake in multidrug resistant Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, K A; Litman, Thomas; Eriksen, J

    2002-01-01

    In daunorubicin resistant Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (DNR), the initial taurine uptake was reduced by 56% as compared to the parental, drug sensitive Ehrlich cells. Kinetic experiments indicated that taurine uptake in Ehrlich cells occurs via both high- and low-affinity transporters. The maximal...... rate constant for the initial taurine uptake was reduced by 45% (high-affinity system) and 49% (low affinity system) in the resistant subline whereas the affinity of the transporters to taurine was unchanged. By immunoblotting we identified 3 TauT protein bands in the 50-70 kDa region. A visible...... reduction in the intensity of the band with the lowest molecular weight was observed in resistant cells. Quantitative RT-PCR indicated a significant reduction in the amount of taurine transporter mRNA in the resistant cells. Drug resistance in DNR Ehrlich cells is associated with overexpression of the mdr1...

  7. Enhanced physical endurance and improved memory performance following taurine administration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Irfan; Ahmad, Saara; Emad, Shaista; Batool, Zehra; Khaliq, Saima; Anis, Lubna; Tabassum, Saiqa; Madiha, Syeda; Liaquat, Laraib; Sadir, Sadia; Perveen, Tahira; Haider, Saida

    2017-09-01

    Energy drinks enhance physical endurance and cognitive ability. The ingredients present in these drinks are considered as ergogenic and have memory boosting effects. In the present study effects of taurine administration for one week was monitored on physical exercise and memory performance in rats. Animals were divided into two groups namely control and test. Taurine was injected intraperitoneally to the test group at the dose of 100mg/kg. After one week of treatment rats were subjected to physical exercise and memory task. Results of this study revealed that rats injected with taurine for one week exhibited improved muscular strength as well as enhanced memory performance in Morris water maze and elevated plus maze. Biomarker of lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced in brain and plasma of test animals. Taurine administration also resulted in higher levels of corticosterone in this study. The results highlight the significance of taurine ingestion in energy demanding and challenging situations in athletes and young subjects.

  8. Taurine Growth Effects - Determining Optimum Taurine Supplementation Levels for Plant Proteins Incorporated into Marine Finfish Feeds using Juvenile Sablefish Anoplopoma fimbria

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Taurine, an amino sulfonic acid, has important roles in osmoregulation, bile acid conjugation, membrane stabilization and calcium homeostasis in vertebrates. Though...

  9. Ultrasound-assisted extraction and purification of taurine from the red algae Porphyra yezoensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fen; Guo, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Dan-Ni; Wu, Yue; Wu, Tao; Chen, Zhi-Gang

    2015-05-01

    The present study reports on the development of a method using ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) during the purification of taurine from Porphyra yezoensis. The Box-Behnken design, which is a widely used form of response surface methodology, was used to investigate the effects of parameters on the UAE process. Three independent variables of taurine purification using UAE were studied including: extraction time, temperature, and ultrasonic power. The results showed that the highest taurine yield of 13.0mg/g was obtained with an extraction time of 38.3 min, the use of 300.0 W ultrasonic power, and an extraction temperature of 40.5°C. A comparative study of taurine extraction was also conducted using either ultrasonication or mechanical agitation. The results indicated that the ultrasonic process required 9 times less time at 40°C to obtain taurine with a similar yield as compared to the conventional extraction method. Therefore, UAE can used as an alternative to the conventional extraction method used during the recovery of taurine from P. yezoensis. The UAE method has several advantages, including that it uses lower extraction temperatures and has a shorter extraction time. The taurine present in the extract supernatant was efficiently separated and purified using a combination of 732 cation exchange chromatography and crystallization. The yield of purified taurine using this process was 1.1%. The structure of the purified taurine was confirmed by FTIR, MS, and NMR. Our findings suggest that P. yezoensis can be used as a taurine-rich food or food material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Taurine Reduced Epidural Fibrosis in Rat Models after Laminectomy via Downregulating EGR1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Tang, Jian; Chen, Hongtao; Ge, Dawei; Sui, Tao; Que, Jun; Cao, Xiaojian; Ge, Yingbin

    2016-01-01

    Epidural fibrosis, a common complication after laminectomy, has been demonstrated to be closely associated with poor surgical outcomes. Previous studies showed that taurine had remarkable anti-fibrotic effects on lung and liver fibrosis. We performed this study to investigate the effects of taurine in rat models of epidural fibrosis after laminectomy and to explore the potential molecular mechanism. Laminectomy was performed on each rat to establish epidural fibrosis model. After taurine treatment, Masson's trichrome and immunohistochemistry staining were used to examine epidural fibrosis. Cell viability was determined using the Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. Annexin V/Propidium Iodide double staining was performed to detect fibroblasts apoptosis. Microarray was adopted to identify significantly changed mRNAs. mRNA expression was measured by qRT-PCR. Lentivirus infection was performed to establish stable knockdown and overexpression cell lines. The expression of fibrosis-related proteins was determined via Western blot. Taurine treatment markedly reduced laminectomy-induced epidural fibrosis in rat models. However, this effect of taurine was independent on TGF-β/Smad pathway, evidenced by no change in the expression of TGF-β and its receptors. Besides, taurine had almost no effect on cell apoptosis. Interestingly, taurine treatment significantly decreased expression of EGR1 (Early growth response protein 1), an enhancer of fibrosis, both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, overexpression of EGR1 increased activation of fibroblasts, while EGR1 knockdown achieved an opposite effect, indicating that EGR1 plays a key role in the inhibitory effect of taurine on TGF-β-induced fibrosis. Reduced epidural fibrosis in vivo and decreased activation of fibroblasts in vitro after taurine treatment was mediated by EGR1. Taurine promises to be a potential prevention for epidural fibrosis after laminectomy. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Therapeutic Effect of Taurine on Gamma Radiation Induced Genetic Injuries in Germ Cells of Male Mice and Their Male Offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Dawy, H.A.; Tawfik, S.S.; El-Khafif, M.A.; Ragab, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    The efficiency of taurine therapy for treatment of male mice exposed to a dose of (3 Gy) whole body gamma irradiation and their male offspring was studied after administration taurine 1% in drinking water post irradiation. Administration of taurine therapy resulted in a significant decrease in the effect of irradiation on chromosomal aberrations in irradiated animals and their male offspring. The efficiency of taurine as radio therapeutic agent is greatly dependent on its chemical properties as strong oxidants scavenger and biological activities as osmoregulator and membrane stabilizer. The probable mechanism of taurine therapy was discussed

  12. Low plasma taurine concentration in Newfoundland dogs is associated with low plasma methionine and cyst(e)ine concentrations and low taurine synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, Robert C; Ko, Kwang Suk; Fascetti, Andrea J; Kittleson, Mark D; Macdonald, Kristin A; Maggs, David J; Berg, John R; Rogers, Quinton R

    2006-10-01

    Although taurine is not dietarily essential for dogs, taurine deficiency and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) are sporadically reported in large-breed dogs. Taurine status and husbandry were examined in 216 privately owned Newfoundlands, a giant dog breed with high incidence of idiopathic DCM (1.3-2.5%). Plasma taurine concentration was positively correlated (P ine (r = 0.37) and methionine (r = 0.35) concentrations and was similar across age, sex, neutering status, body weight, and body-condition scores. Plasma taurine concentration was low (ine, tryptophan, and alpha-amino-n-butyric acid concentrations than the other dogs (P ine and blood glutathione, lower (P < 0.01) de novo taurine synthesis (59 +/- 15 vs. 124 +/- 27 mg x kg(-0.75) x d(-1)), and greater (P < 0.05) fecal bile acid excretion (1.7 +/- 0.2 vs. 1.4 +/- 0.2 micromol/g). Newfoundlands would appear to have a higher dietary sulfur amino acid requirement than Beagles, a model breed used in nutrient requirement determinations.

  13. The effect of taurine on the relationship between NO, ADMA and homocysteine in endotoxin-mediated inflammation in HUVEC cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasaoglu, Ozge Tugce; Turkozkan, Nurten; Ark, Mustafa; Polat, Belgin; Agilli, Mehmet; Yaman, Halil

    2014-10-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of taurine on the relationship between nitric oxide (NO), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and homocysteine (Hcy) in endotoxin-induced human umblical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) cultures. For this reason, four groups were formed (n=12). Control group consists of HUVEC cultures without any treatment. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS+taurine groups were treated with 10 μg/mL endotoxin, 5 μg/mL taurine and endotoxin+taurine (same doses), respectively. Nitrite/nitrate (NOx), ADMA and Hcy levels were measured. There was a significant increase of NOx, ADMA and Hcy in endotoxemia (pTaurine treatment elevated NOx levels significantly (ptaurine and LPS + taurine group compared to control group, while it reduced NOx levels compared to LPS group. In contrast, taurine decreased ADMA levels to the control level both in taurine and taurine+LPS group compared to LPS. Hcy levels increased significantly compared to taurine group (pTaurine was effective on ADMA-NO relationship whereas no beneficial effect was observed in Hcy levels (p<0.05).

  14. Taurine zinc solid dispersions attenuate doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity and cardiotoxicity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yu; Mei, Xueting; Yuan, Jingquan; Lu, Wenping; Li, Binglong; Xu, Donghui

    2015-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of anthracycline anti-neoplastic agents is limited by cardiac and hepatic toxicities. The aim of this study was to assess the hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effects of taurine zinc solid dispersions, which is a newly-synthesized taurine zinc compound, against doxorubicin-induced toxicity in Sprague–Dawley rats intraperitoneally injected with doxorubicin hydrochloride (3 mg/kg) three times a week (seven injections) over 28 days. Hemodynamic parameters, levels of liver toxicity markers and oxidative stress were assessed. Taurine zinc significantly attenuated the reductions in blood pressure, left ventricular pressure and ± dp/dtmax, increases in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, and reductions in serum Zn 2+ and albumin levels (P < 0.05 or 0.01) induced by doxorubicin. In rats treated with doxorubicin, taurine zinc dose-dependently increased liver superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione concentration, and decreased malondialdehyde level (P < 0.01). qBase + was used to evaluate the stability of eight candidate reference genes for real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. Taurine zinc dose-dependently increased liver heme oxygenase-1 and UDP-glucuronyl transferase mRNA and protein expression (P < 0.01). Western blotting demonstrated that taurine zinc inhibited c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation by upregulating dual-specificity phosphoprotein phosphatase-1. Additionally, taurine zinc inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptosis as there was decreased TUNEL/DAPI positivity and protein expression of caspase-3. These results indicate that taurine zinc solid dispersions prevent the side-effects of anthracycline-based anticancer therapy. The mechanisms might be associated with the enhancement of antioxidant defense system partly through activating transcription to synthesize endogenous phase II medicine enzymes and anti-apoptosis through inhibiting JNK phosphorylation. - Highlights:

  15. EPR studies of gamma-irradiated taurine single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulut, A.; Karabulut, B.; Tapramaz, R.; Koeksal, F.

    2000-01-01

    An EPR study of gamma-irradiated taurine [C 2 H 7 NO 3 S] single crystal was carried out at room temperature. The EPR spectra were recorded in the three at mutually perpendicular planes. There are two magnetically distinct sites in monoclinic lattice. The principle values of g and hyperfine constants for both sites were calculated. The results have indicated the presence of 32 SO - 2 and 33 SO - 2 radicals. The hyperfine values of 33 SO - 2 radical were used to obtain O-S-O bond angle for both sites

  16. EPR studies of gamma-irradiated taurine single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulut, A. E-mail: abulut@samsun.omu.edu.tr; Karabulut, B.; Tapramaz, R.; Koeksal, F

    2000-04-01

    An EPR study of gamma-irradiated taurine [C{sub 2}H{sub 7}NO{sub 3}S] single crystal was carried out at room temperature. The EPR spectra were recorded in the three at mutually perpendicular planes. There are two magnetically distinct sites in monoclinic lattice. The principle values of g and hyperfine constants for both sites were calculated. The results have indicated the presence of {sup 32}SO{sup -}{sub 2} and {sup 33}SO{sup -}{sub 2} radicals. The hyperfine values of {sup 33}SO{sup -}{sub 2} radical were used to obtain O-S-O bond angle for both sites.

  17. EPR studies of gamma-irradiated taurine single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, A.; Karabulut, B.; Tapramaz, R.; Köksal, F.

    2000-04-01

    An EPR study of gamma-irradiated taurine [C 2H 7NO 3S] single crystal was carried out at room temperature. The EPR spectra were recorded in the three at mutually perpendicular planes. There are two magnetically distinct sites in monoclinic lattice. The principle values of g and hyperfine constants for both sites were calculated. The results have indicated the presence of 32ṠO -2 and 33ṠO -2 radicals. The hyperfine values of 33ṠO -2 radical were used to obtain O-S-O bond angle for both sites.

  18. Taurine and β-alanine intraperitoneal injection in lactating mice modifies the growth and behavior of offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigawa, Takuma; Nagamachi, Satsuki; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S; Yasuo, Shinobu; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2018-01-08

    Taurine, one of the sulfur-containing amino acids, has several functions in vivo. It has been reported that taurine acts on γ-aminobutyric acid receptors as an agonist and to promote inhibitory neurotransmission. Milk, especially colostrum, contains taurine and it is known that milk taurine is essential for the normal development of offspring. β-Alanine is transported via a taurine transporter and a protein-assisted amino acid transporter, the same ones that transport taurine. The present study aimed to investigate whether the growth and behavior of offspring could be altered by modification of the taurine concentration in milk. Pregnant ICR mice were separated into 3 groups: 1) a control group, 2) a taurine group, and 3) a β-alanine group. During the lactation periods, dams were administered, respectively, with 0.9% saline (10 ml/kg, i.p.), taurine dissolved in 0.9% saline (43 mg/10 ml/kg, i.p.), or β-alanine dissolved in 0.9% saline (31 mg/10 ml/kg, i.p.). Interestingly, the taurine concentration in milk was significantly decreased by the administration of β-alanine, but not altered by the taurine treatment. The body weight of offspring was significantly lower in the β-alanine group. β-Alanine treatment caused a significant decline in taurine concentration in the brains of offspring, and it was negatively correlated with total distance traveled in the open field test at postnatal day 15. Thus, decreased taurine concentration in the brain induced hyperactivity in offspring. These results suggested that milk taurine may have important role of regulating the growth and behavior of offspring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Taurine prevents hypercholesterolemia in ovariectomized rats fed corn oil but not in those fed coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Taro; Miyazato, Shouko; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Ebihara, Kiyoshi

    2003-08-01

    We studied whether the type of dietary fatty acid influences the preventive effect of taurine on the ovarian hormone deficiency-induced increase in plasma cholesterol concentration in 6-mo-old ovariectomized rats. Rats were fed one of the following four diets for 28 d: purified diets based on corn oil, which is rich in linoleic acid, with or with out taurine (50 g/kg) or purified diets based on coconut oil, which is rich in lauric and myristic acids, with or without taurine. Body mass gain, food intake, liver weight and plasma apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, apo B, LDL and VLDL concentrations were not affected by the diets. On the other hand, taurine lowered the plasma total cholesterol concentration (P oil, but not in those fed coconut oil. In rats fed both types of oils, taurine increased the LDL receptor mRNA level (P cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase activity (P coconut oil, but not in those fed corn oil. Taurine increased liver total lipid (P oil, but not in those fed coconut oil. These results indicate that the effect of taurine on ovarian hormone deficiency-induced changes in cholesterol metabolism is influenced by the type of dietary fatty acids.

  20. Reduced plasma taurine level in Parkinson's disease: association with motor severity and levodopa treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Yuan, Yongsheng; Tong, Qing; Jiang, Siming; Xu, Qinrong; Ding, Jian; Zhang, Lian; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Kezhong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the level of taurine in plasma, and its association with the severity of motor and non-motor symptoms (NMS) and chronic levodopa treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD). Plasma taurine level was measured in treated PD (tPD), untreated PD (ntPD) and control groups. Motor symptoms and NMS were assessed using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, the short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire, the Hamilton Depression Scale, the Scale for Outcomes in Parkinson's disease for Autonomic Symptoms and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Longtime exposure to levodopa was indicated by its approximate cumulative dosage. The plasma taurine levels of PD patients were decreased when compared with controls and negatively associated with motor severity but not NMS. Moreover, tPD patients exhibited lower levels of plasma taurine than ntPD patients. Interestingly, plasma taurine levels negatively correlated with cumulative levodopa dosage in tPD. After controlling for potential confounders, the association between taurine and levodopa remained significant. Our study supports that taurine may play important roles in the pathophysiology of PD and the disturbances caused by chronic levodopa administration.

  1. Effects of taurine on plasma glucose concentration and active glucose transport in the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Yo; Kawamata, Koichi

    2017-11-01

    Taurine lowers blood glucose levels and improves hyperglycemia. However, its effects on glucose transport in the small intestine have not been investigated. Here, we elucidated the effect of taurine on glucose absorption in the small intestine. In the oral glucose tolerance test, addition of 10 mmol/L taurine suppressed the increase in hepatic portal glucose concentrations. To investigate whether the suppressive effect of taurine occurs via down-regulation of active glucose transport in the small intestine, we performed an assay using the everted sac of the rat jejunum. Addition of taurine to the mucosal side of the jejunum suppressed active glucose transport via sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1). After elimination of chloride ions from the mucosal solution, taurine did not show suppressive effects on active glucose transport. These results suggest that taurine suppressed the increase in hepatic portal glucose concentrations via suppression of SGLT1 activity in the rat jejunum, depending on chloride ions. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Taurine drinking ameliorates hepatic granuloma and fibrosis in mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan-Rong; Ni, Xian-Qiang; Huang, Jie; Zhu, Yong-Hong; Qi, Yong-Fen

    2016-04-01

    In schistosomiasis, egg-induced hepatic granuloma formation is a cytokine-mediated, predominantly CD4(+) Th2 immune response that can give rise to hepatic fibrosis. Hepatic fibrosis is the main cause of increased morbidity and mortality in humans with schistosome infection. Taurine has various physiological functions and hepatoprotective properties as well as anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity. However, little is known about the role of taurine in schistosome egg-induced granuloma formation and fibrosis. We aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of taurine as preventative treatment for Schistosoma japonicum infection. Mice infected with S. japonicum cercariae were supplied with taurine drinking water (1% w/v) for 4 weeks starting at 4 weeks post-infection. Taurine supplementation significantly improved the liver pathologic findings, reduced the serum levels of aminotransferases and area of hepatic granuloma, and prevented fibrosis progression. In addition, taurine decreased the expression of the granulomatous and fibrogenic mediators transforming growth factor β1, tumor necrosis factor α, monocyte chemotactic protein 1α and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α as well as the endoplasmic reticulum stress marker glucose-regulated protein 78. Thus, taurine can significantly attenuate S. japonicum egg-induced hepatic granuloma and fibrosis, which may depend in part on the downregulation of some relevant cytokine/chemokines and reducing the endoplasmic reticulum stress response.

  3. Taurine biosynthesis in frog retina: effects of light and dark adaptations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, C.; Ida, S.; Kuriyama, K.

    1983-01-01

    The retinal uptake and metabolism of cysteine, a precursor for taurine biosynthesis, were analysed using the bull frog. The [ 14 C] cysteine uptake into isolated retina had some specific properties: It was rather temperature independent, required Na ions, was inhibited by ouabain but not by dinitrophenol, and exhibited saturation kinetics composed of two components. When retinal homogenate was incubated with 12-30 microM of L-[U- 14 C]cysteine, the accumulation of labeled alanine, cysteine sulfinic acid (CSA), cysteic acid (CA), hypotaurine, and taurine was detected. The metabolic conversions of [ 14 C] cysteine to labeled alanine, hypotaurine, and taurine were linear over 90 minutes. Prolonged light adaptation (3 weeks) induced a significant reduction in the formation of labeled CA, CSA, hypotaurine, and taurine from [ 14 C] cysteine. On the other hand, it was found that in dark-adapted retinae, the formation of labeled taurine from [ 14 C] cysteine increased significantly in spite of the reduction in the formation of labeled CA. These results indicate that biosynthetic pathways exist for taurine from cysteine in frog retina, and that these metabolic pathways are involved in the regulation of retinal taurine content under continuous visual adaptation

  4. Characterization of taurine binding, uptake, and release in the rat hypothalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanretta, A.T.

    1985-01-01

    The neurotransmitter criteria of specific receptors, inactivation, and release were experimentally examined for taurine in the hypothalamus. Specific membrane binding and synaptosomal uptake of taurine both displayed high affinity and low affinity systems. The neurotransmitter criterion of release was studied in superfused synaptosomes. Exposure of synaptosomes which had been preloaded with a concentration of [ 3 H]taurine in the high affinity uptake range (1.5 μM) to either 56 mM K + or 100 μM veratridine evoked a Ca 2+ -independent release. Exposure of synaptosomes which had been preloaded with a concentration of [ 3 H]taurine in the low affinity uptake range (2 mM) to 56 mM K + induced a Ca 2+ -independent release, whereas 100 + M veratridine did not, either in the presence or absence of Ca 2+ . Based on these results, as well as other observations, a model is proposed in which the high affinity uptake system is located on neuronal membranes and the low affinity uptake system is located on glial membranes. The mechanisms of binding, uptake, and release in relation to the cellular location of each are discussed. We conclude that the neurotransmitter criterion of activation by re-uptake is satisfied for taurine in the hypothalamus. However, the failure to demonstrate both a specific taurine receptor site and a Ca 2+ -dependent evoked release, necessitates that we conclude that taurine appears not to function as a hypothalamic neurotransmitter, at least not in the classical sense

  5. Taurine-EVA copolymer-paraffin rods dosimeters for EPR high-dose radiation dosimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghraby Ahmed M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Taurine/EPR rods (3 × 10 mm have been prepared by a simple technique in the laboratory where taurine powder was mixed with a molten mixture of paraffin wax and an ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA copolymer. The binding mixture EVA/Paraffin does not present interference or noise in the EPR signal before or after irradiation. The rods show good mechanical properties for safe and multi-use handling. An EPR investigation of radiation induced radicals in taurine rods revealed that there are two types of radicals produced after exposure to gamma radiation (60Co. EPR spectra were recorded and analyzed - also the microwave power saturation and modulation amplitude were studied and optimized. Response of taurine to different radiation doses (1.5-100 kGy was studied and found to follow a linear relationship up to 100 kGy. Radiation induced radicals in taurine persists and showed a noticeable stability over 94 days following irradiation. Uncertainities associated with the evaluation of radiation doses using taurine dosimeters were discussed and tabulated. It was found that taurine possesses good dosimetric properties using EPR spectroscopy in high doses in addition to its simple spectrum.

  6. Effect of taurine and potential interactions with caffeine on cardiovascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Stephen W; Shimada, Kayoko; Jong, Chian Ju; Ito, Takashi; Azuma, Junichi; Takahashi, Kyoko

    2014-05-01

    The major impetus behind the rise in energy drink popularity among adults is their ability to heighten mental alertness, improve physical performance and supply energy. However, accompanying the exponential growth in energy drink usage have been recent case reports and analyses from the National Poison Data System, raising questions regarding the safety of energy drinks. Most of the safety concerns have centered on the effect of energy drinks on cardiovascular and central nervous system function. Although the effects of caffeine excess have been widely studied, little information is available on potential interactions between the other active ingredients of energy drinks and caffeine. One of the active ingredients often mentioned as a candidate for interactions with caffeine is the beta-amino acid, taurine. Although taurine is considered a conditionally essential nutrient for humans and is thought to play a key role in several human diseases, clinical studies evaluating the effects of taurine are limited. However, based on this review regarding possible interactions between caffeine and taurine, we conclude that taurine should neutralize several untoward effects of caffeine excess. In agreement with this conclusion, the European Union's Scientific Committee on Food published a report in March 2003 summarizing its investigation into potential interactions of the ingredients in energy drinks. At the cardiovascular level, they concluded that "if there are any interactions between caffeine and taurine, taurine might reduce the cardiovascular effects of caffeine." Although these interactions remain to be further examined in humans, the physiological functions of taurine appear to be inconsistent with the adverse cardiovascular symptoms associated with excessive consumption of caffeine-taurine containing beverages.

  7. Antidepressant-like effect of chronic taurine administration and its hippocampal signal transduction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Atsushi; Iio, Wataru

    2013-01-01

    Taurine is one of the most abundant amino acids in the central nervous system, and it has various important functions as a neuromodulator and antioxidant. Taurine is expected to be involved in the mental disorders such as depression; however, knowledge of its function in relation to depression is limited. In this research, we tried to elucidate the effects of taurine supplementation on antidepressant-like behaviors in rats and depression-related signal transduction in the hippocampus. In behavioral tests, rats fed a high taurine (HT: 45 mmol/kg taurine) diet for 4 weeks (HT4w) showed decreased immobility in the forced swim test (FS) compared to controls. On the other hand, rats fed a low taurine (LT: 22.5 mmol/kg taurine) diet for 4 weeks or an HT diet for 2 weeks (HT2w) did not show a significant difference in FS compared to controls. In western blot analyses, the expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65 and GAD67 in the hippocampus was not affected by taurine supplementation. However, the phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2), protein kinase B (Akt), glycogen synthase kinase3 beta (GSK3β), and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) were increased in the hippocampus of HT4w and HT2w rats. Phosphorylated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) was increased in the hippocampus of HT4w rats only. Moreover, no significant changes in these molecules were observed in the hippocampus of rats fed an HT diet for 1 day. In conclusion, our discoveries suggest that taurine supplementation has an antidepressant-like effect and an ability to change depression-related signaling cascades in the hippocampus.

  8. A terahertz study of taurine: Dispersion correction and mode couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zelin; Xu, Xiangdong; Gu, Yu; Li, Xinrong; Wang, Fu; Lian, Yuxiang; Fan, Kai; Cheng, Xiaomeng; Chen, Zhegeng; Sun, Minghui; Jiang, Yadong; Yang, Chun; Xu, Jimmy

    2017-03-01

    The low-frequency characteristics of polycrystalline taurine were studied experimentally by terahertz (THz) absorption spectroscopy and theoretically by ab initio density-functional simulations. Full optimizations with semi-empirical dispersion correction were performed in spectral computations and vibrational mode assignments. For comparison, partial optimizations with pure density functional theory were conducted in parallel. Results indicate that adding long-range dispersion correction to the standard DFT better reproduces the measured THz spectra than the popular partial optimizations. The main origins of the observed absorption features were also identified. Moreover, a coupled-oscillators model was proposed to explain the experimental observation of the unusual spectral blue-shift with the increase of temperature. Such coupled-oscillators model not only provides insights into the temperature dynamics of non-bonded interactions but also offers an opportunity to better understand the physical mechanisms behind the unusual THz spectral behaviors in taurine. Particularly, the simulation approach and novel coupled-oscillators model presented in this work are applicable to analyze the THz spectra of other molecular systems.

  9. Inhibition of proteolytic ferments by taurin in radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokshina, G.A.; Klimova, A.D.; Yartsev, E.I.; Yakovlev, V.G.

    1975-01-01

    The application of taurin potassium phosphate (TKPh) as radioprotective remedy resulted in a considerable influence on the activity of the proteolytic ferments in the irradiated organism. White male rats with a weight of 160 to 180 g being kept in cages without any food for 12 hours before this experiment were irradiated with a gamma unit GUM-Co-60 with a dose of 700 rad (LDsub(70/30)). A 4% solution of the preparation was injected in an amount of 40 mg per rat 1, 3, 5, 7 days after irradiation. Under the effect of ionizing radiation there was a progredient increase of proteolytic ferment activity of liver and spleen which was detected already 30 min after irradiation with maximum rate of proteolysis on the 21st day. After injection of the preparation a two-phase reaction developed: on the 7th to 12th day an increased activity of cathepsins in the tissue and in the following time up to the 30th day of observation an inhibition of ferment activity was demonstrated. Simultaneously it was found that the radiation-induced corticosteroid level was prevented by the preparation. A similar effect was also shown by TKPh inhibiting proteolytic ferment activity in experiments with rats with preceding application of hydrocortisone in high doses. The obtained results permit the assumption that the radioprotective activity of taurin comes about by its effect in the direction of structural integrity of the cell membranes leading to a normalization of the hormonal and fermentative events

  10. Effect of dietary taurine and cystine on growth performance of juvenile red sea bream Pagrus major

    OpenAIRE

    Matsunari, Hiroyuki; Furuita, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Kim, Shin-Kwon; Sakakura, Yoshitaka; Takeuchi, Toshio

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of dietary taurine and cystine on growth and body composition of juvenile red sea bream Pagrus major. In Experiment I, a casein-based semi-purified diet included a small amount of fish meal were supplemented with taurine at the levels of 0 (control) and 1.0%. The experimental diets in Experiment II were without fishmeal and supplemented with taurine at 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% or cystine at 1.0 and 2.0%. These diets were fed three...

  11. Participation of taurine in the reduction of hypercorticism effects after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silaeva, T.Yu.; Korobejnikova, A.I.; Dokshina, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    Whole-body irradiation of rats with a dose of 700 rads intensifies suprarenal glucocorticoid activity. Eight taurine injections of 200 mg/kg eliminate hypercorticism and lead to an increase in the protein-bound hormonal fraction on the one hand, and to a decrease in the free hormonal fraction on the other hand. It has been found in in vitro experiments that taurine decreases the production of suprarenal steroid hormones, which was intensified by irradiation. In incubation with glands of intact animals taurine simultaneously decreases the basal secretion of corticosteroids. (author)

  12. Activation of Glycine and Extrasynaptic GABAA Receptors by Taurine on the Substantia Gelatinosa Neurons of the Trigeminal Subnucleus Caudalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Thanh Hoang Nguyen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The substantia gelatinosa (SG of the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc has been known for the processing and transmission of orofacial nociceptive information. Taurine, one of the most plentiful free amino-acids in humans, has proved to be involved in pain modulation. In this study, using whole-cell patch clamp technique, we investigated the direct membrane effects of taurine and the action mechanism behind taurine-mediated responses on the SG neurons of the Vc. Taurine showed non-desensitizing and repeatable membrane depolarizations and inward currents which remained in the presence of amino-acid receptors blocking cocktail (AARBC with tetrodotoxin, indicating that taurine acts directly on the postsynaptic SG neurons. Further, application of taurine at different doses (10 μM to 3 mM showed a concentration dependent depolarizations and inward currents with the EC50 of 84.3 μM and 723 μM, respectively. Taurine-mediated responses were partially blocked by picrotoxin (50 μM and almost completely blocked by strychnine (2 μM, suggesting that taurine-mediated responses are via glycine receptor (GlyR activation. In addition, taurine (1 mM activated extrasynaptic GABAA receptor (GABAAR-mediated currents. Taken together, our results indicate that taurine can be a target molecule for orofacial pain modulation through the activation of GlyRs and/or extrasynaptic GABAARs on the SG neurons.

  13. Beneficial effects of high dose taurine treatment in juvenile dystrophic mdx mice are offset by growth restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinniger, Gavin J.; Nair, Keshav V.; Grounds, Miranda D.; Arthur, Peter G.

    2017-01-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal muscle wasting disease manifested in young boys, for which there is no current cure. We have shown that the amino acid taurine is safe and effective at preventing dystropathology in the mdx mouse model for DMD. This study aimed to establish if treating growing mdx mice with a higher dose of taurine was more effective at improving strength and reducing inflammation and oxidative stress. Mice were treated with a dose of taurine estimated to be 16 g/kg/day, in drinking water from 1–6 weeks of age, after which in vivo and ex vivo muscle strength was assessed, as were measures of inflammation, oxidative stress and taurine metabolism. While the dose did decrease inflammation and protein oxidation in dystrophic muscles, there was no improvement in muscle strength (in contrast with benefits observed with the lower dose) and growth of the young mice was significantly restricted. We present novel data that a high taurine dose increases the cysteine content of both mdx liver and plasma, a possible result of down regulation of the taurine synthesis pathway in the liver (which functions to dispose of excess cysteine, which is toxic). These data caution that a high dose of taurine can have adverse effects and may be less efficacious than lower taurine doses. Therefore, monitoring of taurine dosage needs to be considered in future pre-clinical trials, in anticipation of using taurine as a clinical therapy for growing DMD boys (and other conditions). PMID:29095865

  14. The effect of long-term taurine supplementation and fructose feeding on glucose and lipid homeostasis in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Lea Hüche; Orstrup, Laura Kofoed Hvidsten; Hansen, Svend Høime; Grunnet, Niels; Quistorff, Bjørn; Mortensen, Ole Hartvig

    2013-01-01

    The nonprotein amino acid taurine has been shown to counteract the negative effects of a high-fructose diet in rats with regard to insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Here we examined the long-term (26 weeks) effects of oral taurine supplementation (2% in the drinking water) in fructose-fed Wistar rats.The combination of fructose and taurine caused a significant increase in fasting glucose compared to the control diet without changing hepatic phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase mRNA levels. The combination of fructose and taurine also improved glucose tolerance compared to control. Neither a high-fructose diet nor taurine supplementation induced significant changes in body weight, body fat or total calorie intake, fasting insulin levels, HOMA-IR, or insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle.Fructose alone caused a decrease in liver triglyceride content, with taurine supplementation preventing this. There was no effect of long-term fructose diet and/or taurine supplementation on plasma triglycerides, plasma nonesterified fatty acids, as well as plasma HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol.In conclusion, the study suggests that long-term taurine supplementation improves glucose tolerance and normalize hepatic triglyceride content following long-term fructose feeding. However, as the combination of taurine and fructose also increased fasting glucose levels, the beneficial effect of taurine supplementation towards amelioration of glucose intolerance and insulin resistance may be questionable.

  15. Activation of Glycine and Extrasynaptic GABAA Receptors by Taurine on the Substantia Gelatinosa Neurons of the Trigeminal Subnucleus Caudalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Janardhan Prasad; Park, Soo Joung; Han, Seong Kyu

    2013-01-01

    The substantia gelatinosa (SG) of the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) has been known for the processing and transmission of orofacial nociceptive information. Taurine, one of the most plentiful free amino-acids in humans, has proved to be involved in pain modulation. In this study, using whole-cell patch clamp technique, we investigated the direct membrane effects of taurine and the action mechanism behind taurine-mediated responses on the SG neurons of the Vc. Taurine showed non-desensitizing and repeatable membrane depolarizations and inward currents which remained in the presence of amino-acid receptors blocking cocktail (AARBC) with tetrodotoxin, indicating that taurine acts directly on the postsynaptic SG neurons. Further, application of taurine at different doses (10 μM to 3 mM) showed a concentration dependent depolarizations and inward currents with the EC50 of 84.3 μM and 723 μM, respectively. Taurine-mediated responses were partially blocked by picrotoxin (50 μM) and almost completely blocked by strychnine (2 μM), suggesting that taurine-mediated responses are via glycine receptor (GlyR) activation. In addition, taurine (1 mM) activated extrasynaptic GABAA receptor (GABAAR)-mediated currents. Taken together, our results indicate that taurine can be a target molecule for orofacial pain modulation through the activation of GlyRs and/or extrasynaptic GABAARs on the SG neurons. PMID:24379976

  16. Beneficial effects of high dose taurine treatment in juvenile dystrophic mdx mice are offset by growth restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R Terrill

    Full Text Available Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD is a fatal muscle wasting disease manifested in young boys, for which there is no current cure. We have shown that the amino acid taurine is safe and effective at preventing dystropathology in the mdx mouse model for DMD. This study aimed to establish if treating growing mdx mice with a higher dose of taurine was more effective at improving strength and reducing inflammation and oxidative stress. Mice were treated with a dose of taurine estimated to be 16 g/kg/day, in drinking water from 1-6 weeks of age, after which in vivo and ex vivo muscle strength was assessed, as were measures of inflammation, oxidative stress and taurine metabolism. While the dose did decrease inflammation and protein oxidation in dystrophic muscles, there was no improvement in muscle strength (in contrast with benefits observed with the lower dose and growth of the young mice was significantly restricted. We present novel data that a high taurine dose increases the cysteine content of both mdx liver and plasma, a possible result of down regulation of the taurine synthesis pathway in the liver (which functions to dispose of excess cysteine, which is toxic. These data caution that a high dose of taurine can have adverse effects and may be less efficacious than lower taurine doses. Therefore, monitoring of taurine dosage needs to be considered in future pre-clinical trials, in anticipation of using taurine as a clinical therapy for growing DMD boys (and other conditions.

  17. Beneficial effects of high dose taurine treatment in juvenile dystrophic mdx mice are offset by growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Jessica R; Pinniger, Gavin J; Nair, Keshav V; Grounds, Miranda D; Arthur, Peter G

    2017-01-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal muscle wasting disease manifested in young boys, for which there is no current cure. We have shown that the amino acid taurine is safe and effective at preventing dystropathology in the mdx mouse model for DMD. This study aimed to establish if treating growing mdx mice with a higher dose of taurine was more effective at improving strength and reducing inflammation and oxidative stress. Mice were treated with a dose of taurine estimated to be 16 g/kg/day, in drinking water from 1-6 weeks of age, after which in vivo and ex vivo muscle strength was assessed, as were measures of inflammation, oxidative stress and taurine metabolism. While the dose did decrease inflammation and protein oxidation in dystrophic muscles, there was no improvement in muscle strength (in contrast with benefits observed with the lower dose) and growth of the young mice was significantly restricted. We present novel data that a high taurine dose increases the cysteine content of both mdx liver and plasma, a possible result of down regulation of the taurine synthesis pathway in the liver (which functions to dispose of excess cysteine, which is toxic). These data caution that a high dose of taurine can have adverse effects and may be less efficacious than lower taurine doses. Therefore, monitoring of taurine dosage needs to be considered in future pre-clinical trials, in anticipation of using taurine as a clinical therapy for growing DMD boys (and other conditions).

  18. Reciprocal regulation between taurine and glutamate response via Ca2+- dependent pathways in retinal third-order neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulley Simon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although taurine and glutamate are the most abundant amino acids conducting neural signals in the central nervous system, the communication between these two neurotransmitters is largely unknown. This study explores the interaction of taurine and glutamate in the retinal third-order neurons. Using specific antibodies, both taurine and taurine transporters were localized in photoreceptors and Off-bipolar cells, glutamatergic neurons in retinas. It is possible that Off-bipolar cells release juxtaposed glutamate and taurine to activate the third-order neurons in retina. The interaction of taurine and glutamate was studied in acutely dissociated third-order neurons in whole-cell patch-clamp recording and Ca2+ imaging. We find that taurine effectively reduces glutamate-induced Ca2+ influx via ionotropic glutamate receptors and voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels in the neurons, and the effect of taurine was selectively inhibited by strychnine and picrotoxin, but not GABA receptor antagonists, although GABA receptors are present in the neurons. A CaMKII inhibitor partially reversed the effect of taurine, suggesting that a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent pathway is involved in taurine regulation. On the other hand, a rapid influx of Ca2+ through ionotropic glutamate receptors could inhibit the amplitude and kinetics of taurine-elicited currents in the third-order neurons, which could be controlled with intracellular application of BAPTA a fast Ca2+ chelator. This study indicates that taurine is a potential neuromodulator in glutamate transmission. The reciprocal inhibition between taurine and glutamate in the postsynaptic neurons contributes to computation of visual signals in the retinal neurons.

  19. Taurine Supplementation Lowers Blood Pressure and Improves Vascular Function in Prehypertension: Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qianqian; Wang, Bin; Li, Yingsha; Sun, Fang; Li, Peng; Xia, Weijie; Zhou, Xunmei; Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaojing; Chen, Jing; Zeng, Xiangru; Zhao, Zhigang; He, Hongbo; Liu, Daoyan; Zhu, Zhiming

    2016-03-01

    Taurine, the most abundant, semiessential, sulfur-containing amino acid, is well known to lower blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive animal models. However, no rigorous clinical trial has validated whether this beneficial effect of taurine occurs in human hypertension or prehypertension, a key stage in the development of hypertension. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we assessed the effects of taurine intervention on BP and vascular function in prehypertension. We randomly assigned 120 eligible prehypertensive individuals to receive either taurine supplementation (1.6 g per day) or a placebo for 12 weeks. Taurine supplementation significantly decreased the clinic and 24-hour ambulatory BPs, especially in those with high-normal BP. Mean clinic systolic BP reduction for taurine/placebo was 7.2/2.6 mm Hg, and diastolic BP was 4.7/1.3 mm Hg. Mean ambulatory systolic BP reduction for taurine/placebo was 3.8/0.3 mm Hg, and diastolic BP was 3.5/0.6 mm Hg. In addition, taurine supplementation significantly improved endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilation and increased plasma H2S and taurine concentrations. Furthermore, changes in BP were negatively correlated with both the plasma H2S and taurine levels in taurine-treated prehypertensive individuals. To further elucidate the hypotensive mechanism, experimental studies were performed both in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that taurine treatment upregulated the expression of hydrogen sulfide-synthesizing enzymes and reduced agonist-induced vascular reactivity through the inhibition of transient receptor potential channel subtype 3-mediated calcium influx in human and mouse mesenteric arteries. In conclusion, the antihypertensive effect of chronic taurine supplementation shows promise in the treatment of prehypertension through improvement of vascular function. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Taurine and hyperexcitable human muscle: effects of taurine on potassium-induced hyperexcitability of dystrophic myotonic and normal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durelli, L; Mutani, R; Fassio, F; Satta, A; Bartoli, E

    1982-03-01

    Progressively increasing concentrations of potassium chloride in Evans blue saline were administered to patients affected with myotonic dystrophy and to healthy volunteers before and after parenteral treatment with taurine. Excitability changes of thenar eminence muscles were related to the venous potassium and chloride concentrations. The actual electrolyte concentrations were compared to those to be expected if no infused electrolytes had been transported into cells. The expected concentrations were calculated by means of Evans blue dilution. This method permitted quantification of changes of muscle-excitability in terms of the potassium chloride concentration capable of disturbing the electrical activity of the studied muscles. The method also provided an indirect evaluation of electrolyte movements across muscle membrane in vivo in humans. Dystrophic myotonic muscles appeared highly sensitive to extracellular potassium and, unlike normal muscles, were unable to accumulate potassium-induced muscle hyperexcitability and favored electrolyte accumulation in dystrophic myotonic muscles. The stabilizing effect of taurine is discussed in relation to its ability to increase intracellular potassium concentration, membrane conductance, or both.

  1. Seven days of oral taurine supplementation does not increase muscle taurine content or alter substrate metabolism during prolonged exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Stuart D R; Talanian, Jason L; Shoveller, Anna K; Heigenhauser, George J F; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2008-08-01

    This study examined 1) the plasma taurine response to acute oral taurine supplementation (T), and 2) the effects of 7 days of T on muscle amino acid content and substrate metabolism during 2 h of cycling at approximately 60% peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak). In the first part of the study, after an overnight fast, 7 volunteers (28+/-3 yr, 184+/-2 cm, 88.0+/-6.6 kg) ingested 1.66 g oral taurine doses with breakfast (8 AM) and lunch (12 noon), and blood samples were taken throughout the day. In the second part of the study, eight men (22+/-1 yr, 181+/-1 cm, 80.9+/-3.8 kg, 4.21+/-0.16 l/min VO2peak) cycled for 2 h after 7 days of placebo (P) ingestion (6 g glucose/day) and again following 7 days of T (5 g/day). In the first part of the study, plasma taurine was 64+/-4 microM before T and rose rapidly to 778+/-139 microM by 10 AM and remained elevated at noon (359+/-56 microM). Plasma taurine reached 973+/-181 microM at 1 PM and was 161+/-31 microM at 4 PM. In the second part of the study, seven days of T had no effect on muscle taurine content (mmol/kg dry muscle) at rest (P, 44+/-15 vs. T, 42+/-15) or after exercise (P, 43+/-12 vs. T, 43+/-11). There was no difference in muscle glycogen or other muscle metabolites between conditions, but there were notable interaction effects for muscle valine, isoleucine, leucine, cystine, glutamate, alanine, and arginine amino acid content following exercise after T. These data indicate that 1) acute T produces a 13-fold increase in plasma taurine concentration; 2) despite the ability to significantly elevate plasma taurine for extended periods throughout the day, 7 days of T does not alter skeletal muscle taurine content or carbohydrate and fat oxidation during exercise; and 3) T appears to have some impact on muscle amino acid response to exercise.

  2. The synthesis of taurine-conjugated bile acids and bile acid sulfates labeled with 14C or 3H in the taurine moiety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jie Zhang; Griffiths, W.J.; Sjoevall, Jan

    1997-01-01

    Studies of bile acid transport systems require radio-labeled taurine-conjugated bile acids with high specific activity. An established procedure was optimized to provide mild, fast, and effective conjugation of radio-labeled taurine with different types of bile acids, including those with labile 7α-hydroxy-3-oxo-Δ 4 or 3β, 7α-dihydroxy-Δ 5 structures. Taurine labeled with 14 C or 3 H was reacted with excess bile acid anhydride formed from the tributylamine salt and ethylchloroformate (2/1 M/M) in aqueous dioxane for 15 min at room temperature. The yields were higher than 95% and less than 2% side products were formed. Bile acid sulfates were conjugated with 14 C- or 3 H-labeled taurine by using N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline as the coupling reagent. The products were effectively purified by chromatography of the sodium salts on Sephadex LH-20. The yields of taurine-conjugated bile acid sulfates were 65-70%. (author)

  3. Quantitative on-chip determination of taurine in energy and sports drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, Sebastian; Revermann, Tobias; Karst, Uwe

    2007-01-01

    A new method for the quantitative determination of taurine in beverages by microchip electrophoresis was developed. A rapid and simple sample preparation procedure, only including two dilution steps and the addition of the fluorogenic labeling reagent NBD-Cl (4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan), is applied. Using a home-built wavelength-resolved fluorescence detector, the separation and determination of the taurine derivative could be achieved in only 12 s, while the additional spectral information was utilized to ensure peak purity. Spanning from 0.1 to 50 mmol L(-1), the linear dynamic range of the applied method was adapted to the apparent contents in common taurine containing beverages. The smallest detectable amount of the taurine derivative actually injected into the separation channel was as low as 60 amol. The method was successfully validated by an independent liquid chromatographic method.

  4. Therapeutic action of taurine on the postirradiation recovery of the yeast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benevolenskij, V.N.; Yartsev, E.I.; Novosteltseva, S.D.; Yakovlev, V.G.

    1975-01-01

    It has been shown on X-irradiated Saccharomyces ellipsoides cells that taurine-potassium phosphate applied after the exposure has a therapeutic action, that is, it intensifies the natural process of intracellular dark repair

  5. Prophylactic role of taurine and its derivatives against diabetes mellitus and its related complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Poulami; Basak, Priyanka; Ghosh, Sumit; Kundu, Mousumi; Sil, Parames C

    2017-12-01

    Taurine is a conditionally essential amino acid present in the body in free form. Mammalian taurine is synthesized in the pancreas via the cysteine sulfinic acid pathway. Anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation are two main properties through which it exerts its therapeutic effects. Many studies have shown its excellent therapeutic potential against diabetes mellitus and related complications like diabetic neuropathy, retinopathy, nephropathy, hematological dysfunctions, reproductive dysfunctions, liver and pancreas related complications etc. Not only taurine, a number of its derivatives have also been reported to be important in ameliorating diabetic complications. The present review has been aimed to describe the importance of taurine and its derivatives against diabetic metabolic syndrome and related complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Taurine-modified Ru(ii)-complex targets cancerous brain cells for photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Enming; Hu, Xunwu; Roy, Sona; Wang, Peng; Deasy, Kieran; Mochizuki, Toshiaki; Zhang, Ye

    2017-05-30

    The precision and efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) is essential for the treatment of brain tumors because the cancer cells are within or adjacent to the delicate nervous system. Taurine is an abundant amino acid in the brain that serves the central nervous system (CNS). A taurine-modified polypyridyl Ru-complex was shown to have optimized intracellular affinity in cancer cells through accumulation in lysosomes. Symmetrical modification of this Ru-complex by multiple taurine molecules enhanced the efficiency of molecular emission with boosted generation of reactive oxygen species. These characteristic features make the taurine-modified Ru-complex a potentially effective photosensitizer for PDT of target cancer cells, with outstanding efficacy in cancerous brain cells.

  7. Vibrational spectra and molecular conformation of taurine and its related compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Keiichi; Mandai, Yoshitaka; Matsuura, Hiroatsu

    1992-04-01

    IR and Raman spectra have been measured for taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) and its sodium salt in the solid state and Raman spectra for aqueous solutions of taurine with different pH values. Normal coordinate treatment has been carried out. The analysis of the spectra has indicated that, in the solid state, the molecule of taurine takes the gauche form while that of the sodium salt takes the trans form, and that the trans and gauche forms coexist in both acidic and basic aqueous solutions. The CS stretching bands for the gauche and trans forms were observed at 742 cm -1 and 803 cm -1 respectively. These bands were applied to a conformational analysis of other compounds containing a taurine skeleton; sodium taurocholate takes the gauche conformation about the bond axis NCCS.

  8. Relationship among self-reported fatigue, dietary taurine intake, and dietary habits in Korean college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So Yoon; You, Jeong Soon; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among -self-reported fatigue, dietary taurine intake, and dietary habits in Korean college students. The subjects were 239 college students (142 male and 97 female) residing in the Incheon, Korea. Self-reported fatigue score was determined using a questionnaire of "Subjective Symptoms of Fatigue Test." The average physical fatigue score (p ;students were significantly higher compared to male students. Average dietary taurine intake in male and female was 102.5 mg/day and 98.0 mg/day, respectively. There was no significant correlation between self-reported fatigue score and dietary taurine intake. However, there was significantly negative correlation between self-reported fatigue scores and dietary habits such as "eating meals at regular times" (p ;habit in Korean college students, and a further large-scale study is needed about relationship of self-reported fatigue and dietary taurine intake.

  9. The change of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 expression level in rats with late-stage traumatic brain injury and the therapeutic effect of taurine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying CAI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the change of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5 expression level in rats with late-stage (the 7th day traumatic brain injury (TBI and the role of taurine. Methods The left cerebral TBI rat models were made by using lateral fluid percussion method. A total of 30 specific pathogen free (SPF male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham operation group (control group, TBI model group (TBI group and taurine treatment group (taurine group. Wet and dry weight method was used to measure the brain water content. Real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR and Western blotting were used to detect the change of mRNA and protein expression of aquaporin 4 (AQP4 and mGluR5 in each group.  Results Compared with control group, the brain water content (t = 4.893, P = 0.002, AQP4 mRNA (t = 6.523, P = 0.000 and protein (t = 4.366, P = 0.008 expression were upregulated, while mGluR5 mRNA (t = 5.776, P = 0.001 and protein (t = 3.945, P = 0.014 expression were downregulated in TBI group. After taurine treatment, the brain water content (t = 2.151, P = 0.140, AQP4 mRNA (t = 1.144,P = 0.432 and protein (t = 0.367, P = 0.804 decreased to normal, while mGluR5 mRNA (t = 1.824, P = 0.216 and protein (t = 1.185, P = 0.414 increased to normal. Correlation analysis showed brain water content was negatively correlated with mGluR5 mRNA (r = -0.617, P = 0.014 and mGluR5 protein (r = -0.665, P = 0.007, while it was positively correlated with AQP4 protein (r = 0.658, P = 0.008.  Conclusions Taurine can significantly increase the mGluR5 expression level of brain issue in the late-stage (the 7th day of TBI and decline brain edema and brain water content. It may be a potential protective agent as an inhibitory neurotransmitter. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.08.008

  10. Taurine counteracts the suppressive effect of lipopolysaccharide on neurogenesis in the hippocampus of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gaofeng; Matsuwaki, Takashi; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Hu, Jianmin; Nishihara, Masugi

    2013-01-01

    Neurogenesis has been generally accepted to happen in the subventricular zone lining the lateral ventricular and subgranular zone (SGZ) in the hippocampus of adult mammalian brain. Recent studies have reported that inflammatory stimuli, such as injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), impair neurogenesis in the SGZ. Taurine, a sulfur-containing β-amino acid, is a major free intracellular amino acid in many tissues of mammals and having various supplementary effects on the mammalian body functions including the brain. Recently, it has been also reported that taurine levels in the brain significantly increase under stressful conditions. The present study was aimed to evaluate the possible beneficial effects of taurine on the neurogenesis in the SGZ under the condition of acute inflammatory stimuli by LPS. Adult male rats were intraperitoneally injected with taurine once a day for 39 days. Twenty-four hours before the animals were sacrificed on the last day of taurine treatment, LPS was injected simultaneously with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Immunohistochemistry for BrdU, Ki67, and Iba-1 in the brain was performed, and serum levels of TNF-α and IL-1β 2 h after LPS injection were determined. The results showed that LPS significantly decreased the number of immunoreactive cells for both BrdU and Ki67 in the SGZ, while increased that for Iba-1, all of which were restored by taurine administration. Meanwhile, the serum concentrations of TNF-α and IL-1β were significantly increased, which were significantly attenuated by taurine administration. These results suggest that taurine effectively maintains neurogenesis in the SGZ under the acute infectious condition by attenuating the increase of microgliosis in the hippocampus as well as proinflammatory cytokines in the peripheral circulation.

  11. Taurine induces anti-anxiety by activating strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng Gao; Kim, Sung-Jin

    2007-01-01

    Taurine has a variety of actions in the body such as cardiotonic, host-defensive, radioprotective and glucose-regulatory effects. However, its action in the central nervous system remains to be characterized. In the present study, we tested to see whether taurine exerts anti-anxiety effects and to explore its mechanism of anti-anxiety activity in vivo. The staircase test and elevated plus maze test were performed to test the anti-anxiety action of taurine. Convulsions induced by strychnine, picrotoxin, yohimbine and isoniazid were tested to explore the mechanism of anti-anxiety activity of taurine. The Rotarod test was performed to test muscle relaxant activity and the passive avoidance test was carried out to test memory activity in response to taurine. Taurine (200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced rearing numbers in the staircase test while it increased the time spent in the open arms as well as the number of entries to the open arms in the elevated plus maze test, suggesting that it has a significant anti-anxiety activity. Taurine's action could be due to its binding to and activating of strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor in vivo as it inhibited convulsion caused by strychnine; however, it has little effect on picrotoxin-induced convulsion, suggesting its anti-anxiety activity may not be linked to GABA receptor. It did not alter memory function and muscle activity. Taken together, these results suggest that taurine could be beneficial for the control of anxiety in the clinical situations. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. The Effect of Acute Taurine Ingestion on Human Maximal Voluntary Muscle Contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Z I Xiang; Singh, Anish; Leow, Zac Zi Xiang; Arthur, Peter G; Fournier, Paul A

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of taurine ingestion on maximal voluntary muscle torque and power in trained male athletes with different caffeine habits. Fourteen male athletes 21.8 ± 2.5 yr old were separated into caffeine and noncaffeine consumers to control for the effect of caffeine withdrawal on muscle function. On separate occasions, participants performed four isokinetic or three maximal isometric knee extensions with and without taurine (40 mg·kg body mass) after a double-blind, counterbalanced design. Muscle contractile performances were compared between the first sets as well as between the sets where these variables scored best. In response to isokinetic contraction, taurine treatment in the noncaffeine consumers resulted in a significant fall in first (-16.1%; P = 0.013) and best peak torque (-5.0%; P = 0.016) as well as in first (-17.7%; P = 0.015) and best power output (-8.0%; P = 0.008). In the caffeine consumers deprived of caffeine, taurine intake improved best power (5.2%; P = 0.045). With respect to the isometric variables, there was a significant decrease in the first (-5.1%; P = 0.002) and best peak torque (-4.3%; P = 0.032) in the noncaffeine group, but no effect in the group of caffeine consumers deprived of caffeine. Taurine ingestion increased blood taurine levels but had no effect on plasma amino acid levels. Taurine ingestion is detrimental to maximal voluntary muscle power and both maximal isokinetic and isometric peak torque in noncaffeine consumers, whereas taurine ingestion in caffeine-deprived caffeine consumers improves maximal voluntary muscle power but has no effect on other aspects of contractile performance.

  13. Taurine Prevents the Electrical Remodeling in Ach-CaCl2Induced Atrial Fibrillation in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qunhui; Lv, Qiufeng; Feng, Man; Liu, Mei; Feng, Ying; Lin, Shumei; Yang, Jiancheng; Hu, Jianmin

    2017-01-01

    To study the preventive actions and mechanism of taurine on the electrical remodeling in atrial fibrillation (AF) rats. Male Wistar rats were injected with the mixture of acetylcholine (Ach) (66 μg/mL)-CaCl 2 (10 mg/mL) (i.v.) for 7 days to establish AF model. Taurine was administered in drinking water 1 week before or at the same time of AF model establishment. The duration of AF was monitored by recording ECG of rats during the model establishment. At the end of the experiment, left atrial appendages were cut down to measure the effective refractory period (ERP) by S1-S2 double stimulation method; atrial tissues were collected in order to detect the concentration of K + and taurine by flame atomic absorption spectrometry and ELISA respectively; total RNA were extracted from the atrium, gene expressions of Kv1.5, Kv4.3, Kir2.1, Kir3.4 were detected by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Taurine administration effectively shortened the AF duration of rats and prolonged atrial ERP than the model and taurine depleted rats. In addition, atrial K + level in taurine treated groups was significantly reduced nearly to the normal level. Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of Kir3.4 and Kv1.5 were significantly increased in the taurine preventive treated groups. Taurine can prevent the atrial electrical remodeling and decrease the duration of AF in rats by reducing the atrial K + concentration and up-regulating mRNA expression levels of Kir3.4 and Kv1.5.

  14. Changes of intermediary taurine and tryptophan metabolism after combined radiation-thermal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konnova, L.A.; Novoselova, G.S.

    1986-01-01

    The dynamics of changes of the taurine and tryptophane concentration in blood serum of rats has been studied during 30 days after 3b degree burn of 15% of body surface after total even exposure to radiation in doses of 3 and 6 Gy, and after combined radiation thermal injury. Combined radiation-thermal injury was found to be characterized by reduced concentration of taurine but an increase of the tryptophane level from the second-third day after the injury

  15. Distribution of [35S] taurine in mouse retina after intravitreal and intravascular injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourcho, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    The distribution of [ 35 S] taurine in mouse retinae was studied by autoradiographic techniques after either intravitreal or intravascular injection. The route of injection did not affect the final localization. The major sites of label accumulation were the outer nuclear layer, the inner nuclear layer, and Mueller cell processes adjacent to the vitreal surface. The distribution was consistent with the interpretation that taurine was localized within two cellular compartments of mouse retina, photoreceptor cells and Mueller cells. (author)

  16. Decreased blood levels of lactic acid and urinary excretion of 3-methylhistidine after exercise by chronic taurine treatment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Sachinobu; Kurroda, Ikuyo; Okada, Kazuko; Morishima, Masaki; Okamoto, Miki; Harada, Nagakatsu; Takahashi, Akira; Sakai, Kentaro; Nakaya, Yutaka

    2003-12-01

    Taurine is reported to increase contractility of skeletal muscle and cardiac myocyte, which can increase exercise performance. The present study aimed to clarify taurine's effect on chronic endurance exercise, especially accumulation of lactic acid (LA), a marker of fatigue and ability of aerobic exercise, and urinary secretion of 3-methylhistidine (3-MH), a marker of muscle breakdown in rats. After exercise blood levels of LA and urinary excretion of 3-MH were significantly increased and this increase was significantly less in those with chronic treatment of taurine. Taurine treatment also significantly decreased fat accumulation and blood levels of cholesterol and triglyceride, which might improve insulin resistance and utilization of fat and glucose. These results indicate taurine treatment is useful for reducing physical fatigue and muscle damage during exercise training in rats, presumably due to antioxidant property and improvement of muscle and cardiac functions by taurine.

  17. Casein kinase 2 regulates the active uptake of the organic osmolyte taurine in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jack H; Clement, Christian A; Friis, Martin B

    2008-01-01

    Inhibition of the constitutively active casein kinase 2 (CK2) with 2-dimethyl-amino-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidasole stimulates the Na(+)-dependent taurine influx via the taurine transporter TauT in NIH3T3 cells. CK2 inhibition reduces the TauT mRNA level and increases the localization of Tau......T to ER but has no detectable effect on TauT protein expression. On the other hand, CK2 inhibition increases the affinity of TauT towards Na(+ )and reduces the Na(+)/taurine stoichiometry for active taurine uptake. It is suggested that CK2 controls the cellular taurine uptake in unperturbated NIH3T3 cells......, i.e., inhibition of CK2 increases the affinity of TauT towards Na(+) and hence Na(+)-dependent taurine uptake....

  18. Quantification of taurine in energy drinks using ¹H NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Monika; Felbinger, Christine; Christoph, Norbert; Wachter, Helmut; Wiest, Johannes; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

    2014-05-01

    The consumption of so called energy drinks is increasing, especially among adolescents. These beverages commonly contain considerable amounts of the amino sulfonic acid taurine, which is related to a magnitude of various physiological effects. The customary method to control the legal limit of taurine in energy drinks is LC-UV/vis with postcolumn derivatization using ninhydrin. In this paper we describe the quantification of taurine in energy drinks by (1)H NMR as an alternative to existing methods of quantification. Variation of pH values revealed the separation of a distinct taurine signal in (1)H NMR spectra, which was applied for integration and quantification. Quantification was performed using external calibration (R(2)>0.9999; linearity verified by Mandel's fitting test with a 95% confidence level) and PULCON. Taurine concentrations in 20 different energy drinks were analyzed by both using (1)H NMR and LC-UV/vis. The deviation between (1)H NMR and LC-UV/vis results was always below the expanded measurement uncertainty of 12.2% for the LC-UV/vis method (95% confidence level) and at worst 10.4%. Due to the high accordance to LC-UV/vis data and adequate recovery rates (ranging between 97.1% and 108.2%), (1)H NMR measurement presents a suitable method to quantify taurine in energy drinks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Physiological concentrations of zinc reduce taurine-activated GlyR responses to drugs of abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirson, Dean; Cornelison, Garrett L.; Philpo, Ashley E.; Todorovic, Jelena; Mihic, S. John

    2013-01-01

    Taurine is an endogenous ligand acting on glycine receptors in many brain regions, including the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens (nAcc). These areas also contain low concentrations of zinc, which is known to potentiate glycine receptor responses. Despite an increasing awareness of the role of the glycine receptor in the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse, the possible interactions of these compounds with zinc has not been thoroughly addressed. Two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiological experiments were performed on α1, α2 α1β and a2β glycine receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The effects of zinc alone, and zinc in combination with other positive modulators on the glycine receptor, were investigated when activated by the full agonist glycine versus the partial agonist taurine. Low concentrations of zinc enhanced responses of maximally-effective concentrations of taurine but not glycine. Likewise, chelation of zinc from buffers decreased responses of taurine- but not glycine-mediated currents. Potentiating concentrations of zinc decreased ethanol, isoflurane, and toluene enhancement of maximal taurine currents with no effects on maximal glycine currents. Our findings suggest that the concurrence of high concentrations of taurine and low concentrations of zinc attenuate the effects of additional modulators on the glycine receptor, and that these conditions are more representative of in vivo functioning than effects seen when these modulators are applied in isolation. PMID:23973295

  20. Effect of taurine feeding on bone mineral density and bone markers in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Ja; Seo, Ji-Na

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary taurine supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in rats. Twenty Sprague-Dawley male rats (body weight 200 ± 10 g) were divided into two groups, control and taurine group (2% taurine-supplemented diet). All rats were fed on experimental diet and deionized water and libitum for 6 weeks. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteocalcin, PTH, and urinary deoxypyridinoline cross-links value were measured as markers of bone formation and resorption. BMD and BMC were measured using PIXImus (GE Lunar Co., Wisconsin) in spine and femur. The effect of diet on ALP, osteocalcine, and PTH was not significant. There were no significant differences in ALP, osteocalcine, and PTH concentration. Urinary calcium excretion was lower in taurine group than in control group. Femur BMC/weight of taurine group was significantly higher than control group. The results of this study showed the possible role of taurine in bone metabolism in male rats.

  1. Effects of taurine on cadmium exposure in muscle, gill, and bone tissues of Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Soon; Yoo, Il-Su; Shin, Kyung-Ok; Chung, Keun-Hee

    2013-02-01

    This study was performed in order to investigate the effects of taurine on cadmium poisoning in muscle, gill, and bone tissues of wild goldfish. For this experiment, 80 wild goldfish were divided into four experimental groups: 0.3 mg/L of cadmium and 0 mg/L of taurine (Group I), 0.3 mg/L of cadmium and 20 mg/kg of taurine (Group II), 0.3 mg/L of cadmium and 40 mg/L of taurine (Group III), and 0.3 mg/L of cadmium and 80 mg/L of taurine (Group IV). The results were as follows: The cadmium concentration in muscle tissue of wild goldfish was 0.65-3.21 mg/kg wet wt in Group I, whereas it decreased in Group IV. Levels of cadmium in gill tissue of wild goldfish were 16.57-42.39 mg/kg wet wt in Group I, 15.23-43.01 mg/kg wet wt in Group II, 15.11-39.56 mg/kg wet wt in Group III, and 13.15-38.55 mg/kg wet wt in Group IV (P taurine may have a preventive effect against cadmium accumulation in biological tissues.

  2. The effect of taurine and enriched environment on behaviour, memory and hippocampus of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmeier, Francine Luciano; Zavalhia, Lisiane Silveira; Tortorelli, Lucas Silva; Huf, Fernanda; Géa, Luiza Paul; Meurer, Rosalva Thereza; Machado, Aryadne Cardoso; Gomez, Rosane; Fernandes, Marilda da Cruz

    2016-09-06

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been studied recently as a major cause of cognitive deficits, memory and neurodegenerative damage. Taurine and enriched environment have stood out for presenting neuroprotective and stimulating effects that deserve further study. In this paper, we examined the effects of taurine and enriched environment in the context of diabetes, evaluating effects on behaviour, memory, death and cellular activity. Eighty-eight Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups (E=enriched environment; C=standard housing). Some animals (24/group) underwent induction of diabetes, and within each group, some animals (half of diabetics (D) and half of non-diabetics (ND)/group) were treated for 30days with taurine (T). Untreated animals received saline (S). In total, there were eight subgroups: DTC, DSC, NDTC, NDSC, DTE, DSE, NDTE and NDSE. During the experiment, short-term memory was evaluated. After 30th day of experiment, the animals were euthanized and was made removal of brains used to immunohistochemistry procedures for GFAP and cleaved caspase-3. As a result, we observed that animals treated with taurine showed better performance in behavioural and memory tasks, and the enriched environment had positive effects, especially in non-diabetic animals. Furthermore, taurine and enriched environment seemed to be able to interfere with neuronal apoptosis and loss of glial cells, and in some instances, these two factors seemed to have synergistic effects. From these data, taurine and enriched environment may have important neurostimulant and neuroprotective effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Taurine Administration Recovers Motor and Learning Deficits in an Angelman Syndrome Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Guzzetti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Angelman syndrome (AS, MIM 105830 is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder affecting 1:10–20,000 children. Patients show moderate to severe intellectual disability, ataxia and absence of speech. Studies on both post-mortem AS human brains and mouse models revealed dysfunctions in the extra synaptic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA receptors implicated in the pathogenesis. Taurine is a free intracellular sulfur-containing amino acid, abundant in brain, considered an inhibiting neurotransmitter with neuroprotective properties. As taurine acts as an agonist of GABA-A receptors, we aimed at investigating whether it might ameliorate AS symptoms. Since mice weaning, we orally administered 1 g/kg/day taurine in water to Ube3a-deficient mice. To test the improvement of motor and cognitive skills, Rotarod, Novel Object Recognition and Open Field tests were assayed at 7, 14, 21 and 30 weeks, while biochemical tests and amino acid dosages were carried out, respectively, by Western-blot and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC on frozen whole brains. Treatment of Ube3am−/p+ mice with taurine significantly improved motor and learning skills and restored the levels of the post-synaptic PSD-95 and pERK1/2-ERK1/2 ratio to wild type values. No side effects of taurine were observed. Our study indicates taurine administration as a potential therapy to ameliorate motor deficits and learning difficulties in AS.

  4. Cholesterol-lowing effect of taurine in HepG2 cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junxia; Gao, Ya; Cao, Xuelian; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Wen

    2017-03-16

    A number of studies indicate that taurine promotes cholesterol conversion to bile acids by upregulating CYP7A1 gene expression. Few in vitro studies are concerned the concentration change of cholesterol and its product of bile acids, and the molecular mechanism of CYP7A1 induction by taurine. The levels of intracellular total cholesterol (TC), free cholesterol (FC), cholesterol ester (EC), total bile acids (TBA) and medium TBA were determined after HepG2 cells were cultured for 24/48 h in DMEM supplemented with taurine at the final concentrations of 1/10/20 mM respectively. The protein expressions of CYP7A1, MEK1/2, c-Jun, p-c-Jun and HNF-4α were detected. Taurine significantly reduced cellular TC and FC in dose -and time-dependent ways, and obviously increased intracellular/medium TBA and CYP7A1 expressions. There was no change in c-Jun expression, but the protein expressions of MEK1/2 and p-c-Jun were increased at 24 h and inhibited at 48 h by 20 mM taurine while HNF4α was induced after both of the 24 h and 48 h treatment. Taurine could enhance CYP7A1 expression by inducing HNF4α and inhibiting MEK1/2 and p-c-Jun expressions to promote intracellular cholesterol metabolism.

  5. Impact of taurine depletion on glucose control and insulin secretion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Natsumi; Ito, Hiromi; Schaffer, Stephen W

    2015-09-01

    Taurine, an endogenous sulfur-containing amino acid, is found in millimolar concentrations in mammalian tissue, and its tissue content is altered by diet, disease and aging. The effectiveness of taurine administration against obesity and its related diseases, including type 2 diabetes, has been well documented. However, the impact of taurine depletion on glucose metabolism and fat deposition has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effect of taurine depletion (in the taurine transporter (TauT) knockout mouse model) on blood glucose control and high fat diet-induced obesity. TauT-knockout (TauTKO) mice exhibited lower body weight and abdominal fat mass when maintained on normal chow than wild-type (WT) mice. Blood glucose disposal after an intraperitoneal glucose injection was faster in TauTKO mice than in WT mice despite lower serum insulin levels. Islet beta-cells (insulin positive area) were also decreased in TauTKO mice compared to WT mice. Meanwhile, overnutrition by high fat (60% fat)-diet could lead to obesity in TauTKO mice despite lower body weight under normal chow diet condition, indicating nutrition in normal diet is not enough for TauTKO mice to maintain body weight comparable to WT mice. In conclusion, taurine depletion causes enhanced glucose disposal despite lowering insulin levels and lower body weight, implying deterioration in tissue energy metabolism. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Muscle proteolytic system modulation through the effect of taurine on mice bearing muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Rania M; Abdo, Walied S; Saad, Ahmed; Khedr, Eman G

    2017-12-02

    Skeletal muscle atrophy occurs in different catabolic conditions and mostly accompanied with upregulation of Muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1) gene which is one of the master regulatory genes in muscle atrophy. Taurine amino acid is widely distributed in different tissues and has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. This study aimed to investigate the potential influence of taurine on muscle atrophy induced by reduced mechanical loading. Twenty-eight Albino mice were used, and divided equally into four groups: group I (control); group II (immobilization); group III (immobilization + taurine); and group IV (taurine). Quadriceps muscle sections were taken for histopathology, immunohistochemical analysis of caspase 3 expression, and qRT-PCR of MuRF1 gene. Our data revealed Zenker necrosis associated with axonal injury of the nerve trunk of the immobilized muscle together with increase of caspase 3 expression and upregulation of MuRF1 gene. While, taurine supplementation alleviated the muscular and neural tissues damage associated with disuse skeletal muscle atrophy through downregulation of MuRF1 gene and decrease of tissue caspase 3 expression. In conclusion, taurine may be helpful to counteract apoptosis and up-regulated MuRF1 gene expression related to muscle atrophy, which might be hopeful for a large number of patients.

  7. Energy drink ingredients. Contribution of caffeine and taurine to performance outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Amy; Martin, Frances Heritage; Carr, Andrea

    2013-05-01

    While the performance-enhancing effects of energy drinks are commonly attributed to caffeine, recent research has shown greater facilitation of performance post-consumption than typically expected from caffeine content alone. Consequently, the aim of the present study was to investigate the independent and combined effect of taurine and caffeine on behavioural performance, specifically reaction time. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover, within-subjects design, female undergraduates (N=19) completed a visual oddball task and a stimulus degradation task 45min post-ingestion of capsules containing: (i) 80mg caffeine, (ii) 1000mg taurine, (iii) caffeine and taurine combined, and (iv) matched placebo. Participants completed each treatment condition, with sessions separated by a minimum 2-day washout period. Whereas no significant treatment effects were recorded for reaction time in the visual oddball task, facilitative caffeine effects were evident in the stimulus degradation task, with significantly faster reaction time in active relative to placebo caffeine conditions. Furthermore, there was a trend towards faster mean reaction time in the caffeine condition relative to the taurine condition and combined caffeine and taurine condition. Thus, treatment effects were task-dependent, in that independent caffeine administration exerted a positive effect on performance, and co-administration with taurine tended to attenuate the facilitative effects of caffeine in the stimulus degradation task only. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Taurine reduces the secretion of apolipoprotein B100 and lipids in HepG2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagao Koji

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Higher concentrations of serum lipids and apolipoprotein B100 (apoB are major individual risk factors of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Therefore ameliorative effects of food components against the diseases are being paid attention in the affluent countries. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of taurine on apoB secretion and lipid metabolism in human liver model HepG2 cells. Results The results demonstrated that an addition of taurine to the culture media reduces triacylglycerol (TG-mass in the cells and the medium. Similarly, cellular cholesterol-mass was decreased. Taurine inhibited the incorporation of [14C] oleate into cellular and medium TG, suggesting the inhibition of TG synthesis. In addition, taurine reduced the synthesis of cellular cholesterol ester and its secretion, suggesting the inhibition of acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase activity. Furthermore, taurine reduced the secretion of apoB, which is a major protein component of very low-density lipoprotein. Conclusion This is a first report to demonstrate that taurine inhibits the secretion of apoB from HepG2 cells.

  9. Taurine blocks ATP-sensitive potassium channels of rat skeletal muscle fibres interfering with the sulphonylurea receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Tricarico, Domenico; Barbieri, Mariagrazia; Camerino, Diana Conte

    2000-01-01

    Taurine is a sulphonic aminoacid present in high amounts in various tissues including cardiac and skeletal muscles showing different properties such as antioxidative, antimyotonic and anti-schaemic effects. The cellular mechanism of action of taurine is under investigation and appears to involve the interaction of the sulphonic aminoacid with several ion channels.Using the patch-clamp technique we studied the effects of taurine in rat skeletal muscle fibres on ATP-sensitive K+ channel (KATP) ...

  10. Taurine reabsorption by a carrier interacting with furosemide in short and long Henle's loops of rat nephrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbernagl, S; Völker, K; Lang, H J; Dantzler, W H

    1997-02-01

    Taurine is net reabsorbed in the proximal convolution by Cl- -stimulated Na+ symport specific for beta-amino acids but not in later nephron segments. However, large unidirectional taurine transport takes place there. To investigate unidirectional taurine reabsorption, we comicroinfused [3H]taurine and [14C]inulin into late proximal (LP), early distal (ED), and late distal (LD) tubule segments, as well as into the tips of long loops of Henle (LLH) of rats in vivo, and determined fractional reabsorption of [3H]taurine (FR) in the ipsilateral urine. FR (9 micromol/l taurine) was 80-93 (LP), 16 (ED), and 8% (LD). At 26 mmol/l taurine, FR decreased to 13 (LP) and 6% (ED). FR also decreased when Na+ or Cl- was absent or furosemide (5 x 10(-5) mol/l) was added. Bumetanide (5 x 10(-5) mol/l) had no effect, whereas aniline-2-sulfonic acid (ASA) inhibited. During LLH microinfusion, FR was 55% at 66 micromol/l and 17% at 228 micromol/l and was again inhibited by furosemide and ASA but not by bumetanide. [14C]taurine reabsorption from microperfused proximal convolutions was not influenced by furosemide. Chronic water diuresis did not affect taurine reabsorption in short Henle's loops. We conclude that taurine can enter cells of the distal nephron from the lumen by an Na+- and partly Cl- -dependent carrier with which C alpha,beta-substituted taurine (ASA) and C alpha,beta- and N-substituted beta-alanine (furosemide) directly interact. Thus proximal and distal taurine carriers seem to be different.

  11. [Taurine induces apoptosis in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Sheng, Jiejing; Zhang, Caixiaz; Zhao, Fenghua

    2012-03-01

    To study the effect of taurine on apoptosis in PASMCs, and whether the death-receptor pathway act in the mechanism. Culture the PASMCs, and divided the cells into control, SD. Acridine orange(AO) assay and western-blot analysis on the expression of Bax, Bcl-2, Procaspase-3 and Fas were used to study the mechanism. A major finding of this study is that the Tau effects many apoptosis index, such as increasing the expression of Bax and Fas, decreasing the expression of Procaspase-3, and Bcl-2, accrescencing the mitochondrial depolarization, causing the nuclear shrinkage, all these datas demonstrated that Tau induced the apoptosis in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells through mitochondrial-dependent pathway. Tau induces the apoptosis in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells through death-receptor.

  12. Cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase: Characterization, inhibition, and metabolic role in taurine formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    Cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase, an enzyme that plays a major role in the formation of taurine from cysteine, has been purified from rat liver to homogeneity and characterized. The physical properties of the enzyme were studied, along with its substrate specificity. Multiple forms of the enzyme were found in rat liver, kidney, and brain with isoelectric points ranging from pH 5.6 to 4.9. These multiple forms did not differ in their substrate specificity. It was found by using gel electrofocusing and polyclonal antibodies raised to the liver enzyme that the different forms of cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase are identical in the various rat tissues studied. Various inhibitors of the enzyme were tested both in vitro and in vivo in order to evaluate the role of cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase in taurine formation in mammalian tissues. In in vitro studies, cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase was irreversibly inhibited by β-ethylidene-DL-aspartate (Ki = 10 mM), and competitive inhibition was found using mercaptomethylsuccinate (Ki = 0.1 mM) and D-cysteinesulfinate (Ki = 0.32 mM) when L-cysteinesulfinate was used as a substrate. In order to be able to test these inhibitors in vivo, L-[1- 14 C]cysteinesulfonate was evaluated as a probe for the in vivo measurement of cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase activity. The metabolism of cysteinesulfonate and the product of its transamination, β-sulfopyruvate, was studied, and it was found that L-[1- 14 C]cysteinesulfonate is an accurate and convenient probe for cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase activity. Using L-[1- 14 C]cysteinesulfonate, it was found that D-cysteinesulfinate inhibits cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase activity by greater than 90% in the intact mouse and that inhibition lasts for up to fifteen hours

  13. Effect of taurine on sarcoplasmic reticulum function and force in skinned fast-twitch skeletal muscle fibres of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Anthony J; Berg, Helen M

    2002-01-01

    We examined the effect of taurine on depolarisation-induced force responses and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function in mechanically skinned skeletal muscle fibres from the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) of the rat. Taurine (20 mM) produced a small but significant (P Taurine had no statistically significant effect on the slope of the force-pCa curve. Depolarisation-induced force responses in the skinned fibres were markedly increased in peak value by 20 mM taurine, to 120.8 +/- 5.3 % of control measurements (P = 0.0006, n = 27). Taurine (20 mM) significantly increased the SR Ca(2+) accumulation in the skinned fibres by 34.6 +/- 9.3 % compared to control conditions (measured by comparing the integral of caffeine contractures in fibres previously loaded with Ca(2+) in the absence or presence of taurine; P = 0.0014, n = 10). Taurine (20 mM) also increased both the peak and rate of rise of caffeine-induced force responses in the fibres by 29.2 +/- 9.7 % (P = 0.0298, n = 6) and 27.6 +/- 8.9 % (P = 0.037), respectively, compared with controls. This study shows that taurine is a modulator of contractile function in mammalian skeletal muscle. Taurine may increase the size of depolarisation-induced force responses by augmenting SR Ca(2+) accumulation and release.

  14. Taurine supplementation has anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory effects before and after incremental exercise in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Mehdi; Roshan, Valiollah Dabidi; Aslani, Elaheh; Stannard, Stephen R

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory effect of supplemental taurine prior to and following incremental exercise in patients with heart failure (HF). Patients with HF and left ventricle ejection fraction less than 50%, and placed in functional class II or III according to the New York Heart Association classification, were randomly assigned to two groups: (1) taurine supplementation; or (2) placebo. The taurine group received oral taurine (500 mg) 3 times a day for 2 weeks, and performed exercise before and after the supplementation period. The placebo group followed the same protocol, but with a starch supplement (500 mg) rather than taurine. The incremental multilevel treadmill test was done using a modified Bruce protocol. Our results indicate that inflammatory indices [C-reactive protein (CRP), platelets] decreased in the taurine group in pre-exercise, post-supplementation and post-exercise, post-supplementation as compared with pre-exercise, pre-supplementation ( p taurine group in pre-exercise, post-supplementation and post-exercise, post-supplementation as compared with pre-exercise, pre-supplementation ( p 0.05). our results suggest that 2 weeks of oral taurine supplementation increases the taurine levels and has anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory effects prior to and following incremental exercise in HF patients.

  15. Effect of vitamin B6 status of the lactating rat on taurine biosynthesis and availability to the pup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trumbo, P.

    1990-01-01

    Cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase (CD), a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme, is believed to be rate-limiting for taurine biosynthesis in the rat. Although taurine is synthesized by the pup, it is abundant in milk of the lactating rat. CD activity has been shown to be reduced in vitamin B6-deficient, lactating rats and their pups, without much change in taurine concentration of certain tissues. To further understand the effect of B6 status of lactating rats on taurine biosynthesis and availability to their pups, pregnant dams were fed either a B6-deficient or B6-adequate (20 mg/kg) diet during gestation and 10 days postpartum. After this time period, all dams were gavaged 35 S cysteine and 3 H taurine, milk and tissues of the dams and pups collected, and taurine isolated by ion-exchange chromatography. There was no difference in the 35 S/ 3 H ratio in the heart or liver for the adequate and deficient dams. The 35 S/ 3 H ratio was slightly but significantly greater in the liver of the B6-adequate pups compared to the B6-deficient pups without a difference in the level of 3 H taurine (pmol/gram protein) in the milk or pup's liver. Results indicate that a B6 deficiency can influence taurine biosynthesis in the pup without impairing secretion of taurine in milk

  16. Cerebral Taurine Levels are Associated with Brain Edema and Delayed Cerebral Infarction in Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Mario; Schiefecker, Alois; Ferger, Boris; Beer, Ronny; Sohm, Florian; Broessner, Gregor; Hackl, Werner; Rhomberg, Paul; Lackner, Peter; Pfausler, Bettina; Thomé, Claudius; Schmutzhard, Erich; Helbok, Raimund

    2015-12-01

    Cerebral edema and delayed cerebral infarction (DCI) are common complications after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and associated with poor functional outcome. Experimental data suggest that the amino acid taurine is released into the brain extracellular space secondary to cytotoxic edema and brain tissue hypoxia, and therefore may serve as a biomarker for secondary brain injury after aSAH. On the other hand, neuroprotective mechanisms of taurine treatment have been described in the experimental setting. We analyzed cerebral taurine levels using high-performance liquid chromatography in the brain extracellular fluid of 25 consecutive aSAH patients with multimodal neuromonitoring including cerebral microdialysis (CMD). Patient characteristics and clinical course were prospectively recorded. Associations with CMD-taurine levels were analyzed using generalized estimating equations with an autoregressive process to handle repeated observations within subjects. CMD-taurine levels were highest in the first days after aSAH (11.2 ± 3.2 µM/l) and significantly decreased over time (p taurine levels compared to those without (Wald = 7.3, df = 1, p taurine supplementation and brain extracellular taurine (p = 0.6). Moreover, a significant correlation with brain extracellular glutamate (r = 0.82, p taurine levels were found in patients with brain edema or DCI after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Its value as a potential biomarker deserves further investigation.

  17. Effect of mercury on taurine transport by the red blood cells of the marine polychaete, Glycera dibranchiata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.W.; Preston, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of heavy metal exposure on the transport of the amino acid, 14 C-taurine, by the hemoglobin containing coelomocytes (red blood cells) of the marine polychaete, Glycera dibranchiata. Glycera has been used previously in studies on heavy metal absorption. Glycera red cells (RBCs) were used for this study because they contain a high concentration of taurine (190 mM) which has been implicated as a major osmolyte in cellular volume regulation in marine invertebrates. Taurine also appears to participate in osmoregulation of mammalian heart and brain tissue. The coelomic fluid bathing Glycera RBCs typically contains taurine at considerably lower concentrations (0.2 mM). The standing gradients (intracellular conc./extracellular conc.) for amino acids ranges from 40:1 for lysine to 950:1 for taurine. Preliminary experiments demonstrated that the maintenance of the large standing gradient for taurine was apparently due to the presence of a specific Na and Cl dependent taurine transport system in these cells. The fact that Glycera RBCs actively maintain large taurine gradients suggests that this tissue should be an excellent one to use in analysis of the mechanisms of heavy metal interaction with taurine transport systems

  18. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  19. The Effects of Caffeine, Taurine, or Caffeine-Taurine Coingestion on Repeat-Sprint Cycling Performance and Physiological Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, Rory; Jeffries, Owen; Patterson, Stephen; Waldron, Mark

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the effects of caffeine (C), taurine (T), caffeine and taurine coingestion (C +T), or placebo (P) on repeated Wingate cycling performance and associated physiological responses. Seven male team-sport players participated in a randomized, single-blind, crossover study, where they completed 3 Wingate tests, each separated by 2 min, an hour after ingesting: C (5 mg/kg body mass [BM]), T (50 mg/kg BM), C +T (5 mg/kg BM + 50 mg/kg BM), or P (5 mg/kg BM) in a gelatin capsule. Performance was measured on an ergometer, and blood lactate, perceived exertion, heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and rate pressure product (RPP) were measured at rest (presupplement), baseline (1 h postsupplement), and during and after exercise. Magnitude-based inferences revealed that all of the supplements increased (small to moderate, likely to very likely) mean peak power (MPP), peak power (PP), and mean power (MP) compared to P, with greater MPP, PP, and MP in T compared to C (small, possible). Intrasprint fatigue index (%FI Intra ) was greater in T compared to P and C (moderate, likely), and %FI Inter was lower in T compared to C (small, possible). C and C +T increased HR, MAP, and RPP compared to P and T at baseline (moderate to very large, likely to most likely); however, these only remained higher in C compared to all conditions in the final sprint. T elicited greater improvements in performance compared to P, C, or C +T while reducing the typical chronotropic and pressor effects of C.

  20. Effects of taurine on the reactivity of aortas from diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Worku

    2008-01-30

    The effects of the semi-essential amino acid-like nutrient, taurine, on alterations in the reactivities of aortas from male rats with chronic streptozotocin-induced diabetes were examined under in vitro conditions. In the absence of taurine, the contractile responsiveness of endothelium-denuded aortic rings from diabetic rats to norepinephrine, but not KCl, was enhanced compared to controls. This effect of norepinephrine on the diabetic rat aorta appeared to be associated with increased release of intracellular calcium, influx of extracellular calcium and protein kinase C-mediated responses. Incubation of endothelium-denuded aortic rings with 10 mM, but not 5 mM, taurine for 2 h reduced the augmented contractile responses of the tissues from diabetic rats to norepinephrine close to control levels, and this was associated with inhibition of responses linked to the release and influx of calcium, and protein kinase C activation. Endothelium-dependent relaxation of aortas from diabetic rats to acetylcholine was depressed relative to controls. This effect of diabetes was ameliorated close to control levels by incubating the tissues with 10 mM, but not 5 mM, taurine for 2 h. Incubation of nondiabetic rat aortic rings with 45 mM glucose for 3 h caused enhancement of contraction of the vascular smooth muscle to phenylephrine and impairment of endothelium-mediated vasorelaxation to acetylcholine, as compared to control responses. Co-incubation of the tissues with 5-10 mM taurine concentration-dependently reduced the alterations in both contractile and relaxant responses caused by high glucose. Overall, the data suggest that taurine ameliorates or prevents vascular reactivity alterations in diabetes. Such an observation provides preliminary evidence for taurine's potential as a therapeutic agent for the prevention or amelioration of vascular disorders in diabetes.

  1. Taurine supplementation attenuates delayed increase in exercise-induced arterial stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Song-Gyu; Choi, Youngju; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Ohmori, Hajime; Maeda, Seiji

    2016-06-01

    There is a delayed increase in arterial stiffness after eccentric exercise that is possibly mediated by the concurrent delayed increase in circulating oxidative stress. Taurine has anti-oxidant action, and taurine supplementation may be able to attenuate the increase in oxidative stress after exercise. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether taurine supplementation attenuates the delayed increase in arterial stiffness after eccentric exercise. In the present double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial, we divided 29 young, healthy men into 2 groups. Subjects received either 2.0 g of placebo (n = 14) or taurine (n = 15) 3 times per day for 14 days prior to the exercise, on the day of exercise, and the following 3 days. The exercise consisted of 2 sets of 20 maximal-effort eccentric repetitions with the nondominant arm only. On the morning of exercise and for 4 days thereafter, we measured serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) as indices of oxidative stress and arterial stiffness, respectively. On the third and fourth days after exercise, both MDA and cfPWV significantly increased in the placebo group. However, these elevations were significantly attenuated in the taurine group. The increase in MDA was associated with an increase in cfPWV from before exercise to 4 days after exercise (r = 0.597, p taurine group. Our results suggest that delayed increase in arterial stiffness after eccentric exercise was probably affected by the exercise-induced oxidative stress and was attenuated by the taurine supplementation.

  2. Isethionate formation from taurine in Chromohalobacter salexigens: purification of sulfoacetaldehyde reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejcík, Zdenek; Hollemeyer, Klaus; Smits, Theo H M; Cook, Alasdair M

    2010-05-01

    Bacterial generation of isethionate (2-hydroxyethanesulfonate) from taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonate) by anaerobic gut bacteria was established in 1980. That phenomenon in pure culture was recognized as a pathway of assimilation of taurine-nitrogen. Based on the latter work, we predicted from genome-sequence data that the marine gammaproteobacterium Chromohalobacter salexigens DSM 3043 would exhibit this trait. Quantitative conversion of taurine to isethionate, identified by mass spectrometry, was confirmed, and the taurine-nitrogen was recovered as cell material. An eight-gene cluster was predicted to encode the inducible vectorial, scalar and regulatory enzymes involved, some of which were known from other taurine pathways. The genes (Csal_0153-Csal_0156) encoding a putative ATP-binding-cassette (ABC) transporter for taurine (TauAB(1)B(2)C) were shown to be inducibly transcribed by reverse transcription (RT-) PCR. An inducible taurine : 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase [EC 2.6.1.55] was found (Csal_0158); the reaction yielded glutamate and sulfoacetaldehyde. The sulfoacetaldehyde was reduced to isethionate by NADPH-dependent sulfoacetaldehyde reductase (IsfD), a member of the short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase superfamily. The 27 kDa protein (SDS-PAGE) was identified by peptide-mass fingerprinting as the gene product of Csal_0161. The putative exporter of isethionate (IsfE) is encoded by Csal_0160; isfE was inducibly transcribed (RT-PCR). The presumed transcriptional regulator, TauR (Csal_0157), may autoregulate its own expression, typical of GntR-type regulators. Similar gene clusters were found in several marine and terrestrial gammaproteobacteria, which, in the gut canal, could be the source of not only mammalian, but also arachnid and cephalopod isethionate.

  3. Properties and glial origin of osmotic-dependent release of taurine from the rat supraoptic nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleuze, Charlotte; Duvoid, Anne; Hussy, Nicolas

    1998-01-01

    Taurine, prominently concentrated in glial cells in the supraoptic nucleus (SON), is probably involved in the inhibition of SON vasopressin neurones by peripheral hypotonic stimulus, via activation of neuronal glycine receptors. We report here the properties and origin of the osmolarity-dependent release of preloaded [3H]taurine from isolated whole SO nuclei.Hyposmotic medium induced a rapid, reversible and dose-dependent increase in taurine release. Release showed a high sensitivity to osmotic change, with a significant enhancement with less than a 5 % decrease in osmolarity. Hyperosmotic stimulus decreased basal release.Evoked release was independent of extracellular Ca2+ and Na+, and was blocked by the Cl− channel blockers DIDS (4,4′-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2′-disulphonic acid) and DPC (N-phenylanthranilic acid), suggesting a diffusion process through volume-sensitive Cl− channels.Evoked release was transient for large osmotic reductions (≥ 15 %), probably reflecting regulatory volume decrease (RVD). However, it was sustained for smaller changes, suggesting that taurine release induced by physiological variations in osmolarity is not linked to RVD.Basal and evoked release were strongly inhibited by an incubation of the tissue with the glia-specific toxin fluorocitrate, but were unaffected by a neurotoxic treatment with NMDA, demonstrating the glial origin of the release of taurine in the SON.The high osmosensitivity of taurine release suggests an important role in the osmoregulation of the SON function. These results strengthen the notion of an implication of taurine and glial cells in the regulation of the whole-body fluid balance through the modulation of vasopressin release. PMID:9518705

  4. Protein malnutrition blunts the increment of taurine transporter expression by a high-fat diet and impairs taurine reestablishment of insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Renato Chaves Souto; Camargo, Rafael Ludemann; Batista, Thiago Martins; Vettorazzi, Jean Franciesco; Borck, Patrícia Cristine; Dos Santos-Silva, Junia Carolina Rebelo; Boschero, Antonio Carlos; Zoppi, Cláudio Cesar; Carneiro, Everardo Magalhães

    2017-09-01

    Taurine (Tau) restores β-cell function in obesity; however, its action is lost in malnourished obese rodents. Here, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the lack of effects of Tau in this model. C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet (CD) (14% protein) or a protein-restricted diet (RD) (6% protein) for 6 wk. Afterward, mice received a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 wk [CD + HFD (CH) and RD + HFD (RH)] with or without 5% Tau supplementation after weaning on their drinking water [CH + Tau (CHT) and RH + Tau (RHT)]. The HFD increased insulin secretion through mitochondrial metabolism in CH and RH. Tau prevented all those alterations in CHT only. The expression of the taurine transporter (Tau-T), as well as Tau content in pancreatic islets, was increased in CH but had no effect on RH. Protein malnutrition programs β cells and impairs Tau-induced restoration of mitochondrial metabolism and biogenesis. This may be associated with modulation of the expression of Tau-T in pancreatic islets, which may be responsible for the absence of effect of Tau in protein-malnourished obese mice.-Branco, R. C. S., Camargo, R. L., Batista, T. M., Vettorazzi, J. F., Borck, P. C., dos Santos-Silva, J. C. R., Boschero, A. C., Zoppi, C. C., Carneiro, E. M. Protein malnutrition blunts the increment of taurine transporter expression by a high-fat diet and impairs taurine reestablishment of insulin secretion. © FASEB.

  5. Nutrients, signals, and photosynthetic release by symbiotic algae. The impact of taurine on the dinoflagellate alga Symbiodinium from the sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.T.; Douglas, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    Exogenous concentrations of 10 micromolar to 1 mM of the nonprotein amino acid taurine stimulated photosynthate release from the dinoflagellate alga Symbiodinium, which had been freshly isolated from the sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella. Photosynthate release, as induced by taurine and animal extract, was metabolically equivalent at both concentrations in that they (a) stimulated photosynthate release to the same extent and (b) induced the selective release of photosynthetically derived organic acids. A complex mixture of amino acids at 75 mM also promoted photosynthate release, but the release rate was reduced by 34% after the omission of taurine (3 mM) from the mixture, suggesting that much of the effect of amino acids was largely attributable to taurine. Exogenous 14C-labeled taurine was taken up by the cells, and more than 95% of the internalized 14C was recovered as taurine, indicating that taurine-induced photosynthate release was not dependent on taurine metabolism. Both taurine uptake and taurine-induced photosynthate release by Symbiodinium exhibited saturation kinetics, but with significantly different Km values of 68 and 21 micromolar, respectively. The difference in Km values is compatible with the hypothesis that Symbiodinium has a taurine signal transducer that is responsible for photosynthate release and is distinct from the taurine transporter

  6. Taurine, caffeine, and energy drinks: Reviewing the risks to the adolescent brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Christine Perdan; Marczinski, Cecile A

    2017-12-01

    Energy drinks are emerging as a major component of the beverage market with sales projected to top $60 billion globally in the next five years. Energy drinks contain a variety of ingredients, but many of the top-selling brands include high doses of caffeine and the amino acid taurine. Energy drink consumption by children has raised concerns, due to potential caffeine toxicity. An additional risk has been noted among college-aged consumers of energy drinks who appear at higher risk of over-consumption of alcohol when the two drinks are consumed together. The differential and combinatorial effects of caffeine and taurine on the developing brain are reviewed here with an emphasis on the adolescent brain, which is still maturing. Key data from animal studies are summarized to highlight both reported benefits and adverse effects reported following acute and chronic exposures. The data suggest that age is an important factor in both caffeine and taurine toxicity. Although the aged or diseased brain might benefit from taurine or caffeine supplementation, it appears that adolescents are not likely to benefit from supplementation and may, in fact, suffer ill effects from chronic ingestion of high doses. Additional work is needed though to address gaps in our understanding of how taurine affects females, since the majority of animal studies focused exclusively on male subjects. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Effect of Oral Taurine on Morbidity and Mortality in Elderly Hip Fracture Patients: A Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille F. M. Van Stijn

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hip fracture patients represent a large part of the elderly surgical population and face severe postoperative morbidity and excessive mortality compared to adult surgical hip fracture patients. Low antioxidant status and taurine deficiency is common in the elderly, and may negatively affect postoperative outcome. We hypothesized that taurine, an antioxidant, could improve clinical outcome in the elderly hip fracture patient. A double blind randomized, placebo controlled, clinical trial was conducted on elderly hip fracture patients. Supplementation started after admission and before surgery up to the sixth postoperative day. Markers of oxidative status were measured during hospitalization, and postoperative outcome was monitored for one year after surgery. Taurine supplementation did not improve in-hospital morbidity, medical comorbidities during the first year, or mortality during the first year. Taurine supplementation lowered postoperative oxidative stress, as shown by lower urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels (Generalized estimating equations (GEE analysis average difference over time; regression coefficient (Beta: −0.54; 95% CI: −1.08–−0.01; p = 0.04, blunted plasma malondialdehyde response (Beta: 1.58; 95% CI: 0.00–3.15; p = 0.05 and a trend towards lower lactate to pyruvate ratio (Beta: −1.10; 95% CI: −2.33–0.12; p = 0.08. We concluded that peri-operative taurine supplementation attenuated postoperative oxidative stress in elderly hip fracture patients, but did not improve postoperative morbidity and mortality.

  8. Effect of oral taurine on morbidity and mortality in elderly hip fracture patients: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stijn, Mireille F M; Bruins, Arnoud A; Vermeulen, Mechteld A R; Witlox, Joost; Teerlink, Tom; Schoorl, Margreet G; De Bandt, Jean Pascal; Twisk, Jos W R; Van Leeuwen, Paul A M; Houdijk, Alexander P J

    2015-05-29

    Hip fracture patients represent a large part of the elderly surgical population and face severe postoperative morbidity and excessive mortality compared to adult surgical hip fracture patients. Low antioxidant status and taurine deficiency is common in the elderly, and may negatively affect postoperative outcome. We hypothesized that taurine, an antioxidant, could improve clinical outcome in the elderly hip fracture patient. A double blind randomized, placebo controlled, clinical trial was conducted on elderly hip fracture patients. Supplementation started after admission and before surgery up to the sixth postoperative day. Markers of oxidative status were measured during hospitalization, and postoperative outcome was monitored for one year after surgery. Taurine supplementation did not improve in-hospital morbidity, medical comorbidities during the first year, or mortality during the first year. Taurine supplementation lowered postoperative oxidative stress, as shown by lower urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels (Generalized estimating equations (GEE) analysis average difference over time; regression coefficient (Beta): -0.54; 95% CI: -1.08--0.01; p = 0.04), blunted plasma malondialdehyde response (Beta: 1.58; 95% CI: 0.00-3.15; p = 0.05) and a trend towards lower lactate to pyruvate ratio (Beta: -1.10; 95% CI: -2.33-0.12; p = 0.08). We concluded that peri-operative taurine supplementation attenuated postoperative oxidative stress in elderly hip fracture patients, but did not improve postoperative morbidity and mortality.

  9. Metabolic and chemical regulation of tRNA modification associated with taurine deficiency and human disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Kana; Suzuki, Takeo; Saito, Ayaka; Wei, Fan-Yan; Ikeuchi, Yoshiho; Numata, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Ryou; Yamane, Yoshihisa; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Goto, Takanobu; Kishita, Yoshihito; Murayama, Kei; Ohtake, Akira; Okazaki, Yasushi; Tomizawa, Kazuhito; Sakaguchi, Yuriko

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Modified uridine containing taurine, 5-taurinomethyluridine (τm5U), is found at the anticodon first position of mitochondrial (mt-)transfer RNAs (tRNAs). Previously, we reported that τm5U is absent in mt-tRNAs with pathogenic mutations associated with mitochondrial diseases. However, biogenesis and physiological role of τm5U remained elusive. Here, we elucidated τm5U biogenesis by confirming that 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate and taurine are metabolic substrates for τm5U formation catalyzed by MTO1 and GTPBP3. GTPBP3-knockout cells exhibited respiratory defects and reduced mitochondrial translation. Very little τm5U34 was detected in patient’s cells with the GTPBP3 mutation, demonstrating that lack of τm5U results in pathological consequences. Taurine starvation resulted in downregulation of τm5U frequency in cultured cells and animal tissues (cat liver and flatfish). Strikingly, 5-carboxymethylaminomethyluridine (cmnm5U), in which the taurine moiety of τm5U is replaced with glycine, was detected in mt-tRNAs from taurine-depleted cells. These results indicate that tRNA modifications are dynamically regulated via sensing of intracellular metabolites under physiological condition. PMID:29390138

  10. Reaction of [3H]-taurine maleimide with platelet surface thiols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karl, D.W.; Mills, D.C.B.

    1986-01-01

    Taurine Maleimide (2-maleimidoethanesulfonate, TM) was synthesized from [2- 3 H]-taurine and methoxycarbonylmaleimide (MCM). The yield of a 1 μmol synthesis approached 100% (based on taurine) when MCM was used in 4-fold excess. The product (TM*) was purified by ion exchange chromatography. TM* reacted irreversibly with thiol groups on the surface of washed human platelets, leading to incorporation of radioactivity into platelet pellets. Incorporation was blocked by cysteine, mercuribenzenesulfonate (MBS), dithiobisnitrobenzoate, and N-ethylmaleimide, but not by taurine or by inhibitors of anion transport. Reaction of TM* with platelets showed the dependence on time and concentration characteristics of a bimolecular reaction. The number of reactive sites ranged from 1 to 5 x 10 5 /platelet, and the apparent rate constant from 1 to 3 x 10 3 /(M x min). TM was less effective than MBS as an inhibitor of platelet aggregation induced by several agents. TM had no effect on the uptake of serotonin, taurine, or phosphate by the platelets, processes which are sensitive to MBS. These differences, considered with the similarity in size and charge of TM and MBS, suggest that classes of thiols defined as exofacial by their accessibility to MBS can differ substantially in their reactivity with other impermeant reagents

  11. Taurine Attenuates Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced Breast Tumorigenesis in Rats: A Plasma Metabolomic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y U; Li, Qingdi Quentin; Guo, Song Chao

    2016-02-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy and the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in women worldwide. Taurine, the most abundant free amino acid, plays a role in several biological processes in humans and has been shown to have activity against breast cancer and other tumors. To investigate the role and mechanism of taurine action in breast cancer, we used dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced breast carcinogenesis in rats as a model of breast cancer. The administration of taurine significantly reduced the DMBA-induced breast cancer rate from 80% to 40% in rats (ptaurine-administered rats. Bioinformatic analysis further revealed that these metabolites are involved in multiple metabolic pathways, including energy, glucose, amino acid, and nucleic acid metabolism, suggesting that the antitumor activity of taurine in rats is mediated through altered metabolism of breast cancer cells. We propose that these differential metabolites may be potential biomarkers for monitoring cancer therapy and prognosis in the clinic. This study provides a scientific basis for further investigations of the antitumor mechanism of taurine and the development of novel therapeutic strategies to treat breast cancer. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  12. Taurine zinc solid dispersions attenuate doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity and cardiotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Mei, Xueting; Yuan, Jingquan; Lu, Wenping; Li, Binglong; Xu, Donghui

    2015-11-15

    The clinical efficacy of anthracycline anti-neoplastic agents is limited by cardiac and hepatic toxicities. The aim of this study was to assess the hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effects of taurine zinc solid dispersions, which is a newly-synthesized taurine zinc compound, against doxorubicin-induced toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats intraperitoneally injected with doxorubicin hydrochloride (3mg/kg) three times a week (seven injections) over 28 days. Hemodynamic parameters, levels of liver toxicity markers and oxidative stress were assessed. Taurine zinc significantly attenuated the reductions in blood pressure, left ventricular pressure and ± dp/dtmax, increases in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, and reductions in serum Zn(2+) and albumin levels (Ptaurine zinc dose-dependently increased liver superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione concentration, and decreased malondialdehyde level (PTaurine zinc dose-dependently increased liver heme oxygenase-1 and UDP-glucuronyl transferase mRNA and protein expression (Ptaurine zinc inhibited c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation by upregulating dual-specificity phosphoprotein phosphatase-1. Additionally, taurine zinc inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptosis as there was decreased TUNEL/DAPI positivity and protein expression of caspase-3. These results indicate that taurine zinc solid dispersions prevent the side-effects of anthracycline-based anticancer therapy. The mechanisms might be associated with the enhancement of antioxidant defense system partly through activating transcription to synthesize endogenous phase II medicine enzymes and anti-apoptosis through inhibiting JNK phosphorylation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Taurine on Hemodiafiltration in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiohira, Shunji; Komatsu, Mizuki; Okazaki, Masayuki; Naganuma, Toshiaki; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Nitta, Kosaku; Tsuchiya, Ken

    2016-02-01

    Taurine, an important factor in the living body, is essential for cardiovascular function and development and function of skeletal muscle, retina and central nervous system. In the present study, its effect on cardiovascular function was specifically taken into consideration. In hemodiafiltration (HDF) patients, the effect of taurine on patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), in whom dry weight was difficult to control, was evaluated. All patients who were subjected to regular HDF for 4 h three times per week at Joban hospital were included in this study. Patients with chronic heart failure, in whom dry weight was difficult to control (N = 4), were included in the evaluation of clinical status. X-ray and echocardiography were determined before and after taurine treatment. Almost all patients were taking nitric acid, warfarin, anti-platelet agents and vasopressors. Because vital signs were unstable in chronic heart failure, all cases withheld antihypertensive drugs during HDF. For unstable vital signs during HDF, pulmonary congestion was chronically recognized. After taurine was started, vital signs stabilized and lowering of dry weight was possible. In addition, X-ray and cardiac diastolic failure on echocardiography improved. Taurine was effective for CHF patients on HDF in whom dry weight was difficult to control in spite of various medications. © 2015 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy.

  14. Single Channel Analysis of Isoflurane and Ethanol Enhancement of Taurine-Activated Glycine Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirson, Dean; Todorovic, Jelena; Mihic, S John

    2018-01-01

    The amino acid taurine is an endogenous ligand acting on glycine receptors (GlyRs), which is released by astrocytes in many brain regions, such as the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex. Taurine is a partial agonist with an efficacy significantly lower than that of glycine. Allosteric modulators such as ethanol and isoflurane produce leftward shifts of glycine concentration-response curves but have no effects at saturating glycine concentrations. In contrast, in whole-cell electrophysiology studies these modulators increase the effects of saturating taurine concentrations. A number of possible mechanisms may explain these enhancing effects, including modulator effects on conductance, channel open times, or channel closed times. We used outside-out patch-clamp single channel electrophysiology to investigate the mechanism of action of 200 mM ethanol and 0.55 mM isoflurane in enhancing the effects of a saturating concentration of taurine. Neither modulator enhanced taurine-mediated conductance. Isoflurane increased the probability of channel opening. Isoflurane also increased the lifetimes of the two shortest open dwell times while both agents decreased the likelihood of occurrence of the longest-lived intracluster channel-closing events. The mechanism of enhancement of GlyR functioning by these modulators is dependent on the efficacy of the agonist activating the receptor and the concentration of agonist tested. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  15. Influence of taurine on the dynamics of the development of experimental cataracts in animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorenko, B.S.; Kabachenko, A.N.; Yartsev, E.I.; Kolesnikov, Yu.A.; Vajnshtejn, E.S.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of taurine on the development of radiation cataracts in white raceless rats and mice of the F1 line, the prophylactic taurine effect on the frequency of radiation cataracts as well as the therapeutical effectiveness of taurine and vita-jodurol were examined under comparative aspects. The development of cataracts was induced by whole-body irradiation with 645 MeV protons and 60 Co gamma radiation in doses of 100, 200 and 300 rad as well as by local irradiation of the head with protons of the same energy and a dose of 1,000 rad. It is shown that prophylactic instillation of a 4% taurine solution in the course of 2 to 4 weeks leads to a significant decrease of cataract frequency, to partial regression of cataracts at the initial stage, and to retardation of ripening. The application of taurine eye-drops during one month after irradiation leads to an attenuated cataractogenic radiation effect. Vita-jorudol has no therapeutic effect on the radiation cataract. (author)

  16. Tissue Taurine Depletion Alters Metabolic Response to Exercise and Reduces Running Capacity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Ito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid found in very high concentration in skeletal muscle. Taurine deficient mice engineered by knocking out the taurine transporter gene exhibit skeletal muscle wasting, structural defects, and exercise intolerance. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the development of metabolic abnormalities and exercise intolerance in muscle of the TauTKO phenotype. Running speed and endurance time of TauTKO mice were lower than those of control mice. Blood lactate level was elevated by >3-fold during treadmill running in TauTKO mice but remained largely unaltered by exercise in WT mice. Blood glucose was cleared faster during treadmill running in TauTKO mice than WT mice. AMP-activated kinase (AMPK β-2 subunit was reduced in TauTKO muscle concomitant with a reduction in α1 and α2 subunits of AMPK. The level of PPARα and its targets, Gpx3, Cpt2, and Echs1, were also decreased in TauTKO muscle. Collectively, taurine depletion impairs metabolic adaptation to exercise in skeletal muscle, a phenomenon associated with a downregulation of AMPK and diminished NADH utilization by the mitochondrial respiratory chain. These findings suggest a crucial role of taurine in regulating energy metabolism in skeletal muscle of exercising TauTKO mice, changes that contribute to impaired exercise endurance.

  17. Two weeks taurine supplementation reverses endothelial dysfunction in young male type 1 diabetics.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moloney, Michael A

    2010-10-01

    Type 1 diabetics have a well-recognised risk of accelerated cardiovascular disease. Even in the absence of clinical signs there are detectable abnormalities of conduit vessel function. Our group has previously reported reversal of endothelial dysfunction in diabetics with pravastatin. In young asymptomatic smokers, taurine supplementation has a beneficial impact on macrovascular function, assessed by FMD, and shows an up-regulation of nitric oxide from monocyte-endothelial cell interactions. We hypothesise that taurine supplementation reverses early endothelial abnormalities in young male type 1 diabetics, as assessed by applanation tonometry, brachial artery ultrasound and laser Doppler fluximetry. Asymptomatic, male diabetics (n=9) were scanned prior to treatment and then randomised in a double-blind cross-over fashion to receive either 2 weeks placebo or taurine. Control patients (n=10) underwent a baseline scan. Assessed diabetics had detectable, statistically significant abnormalities when compared with controls, in both arterial stiffness (augmentation index) and brachial artery reactivity (FMD). Both of these parameters were returned to control levels with 2 weeks taurine supplementation. In conclusion, 2 weeks taurine supplementation reverses early, detectable conduit vessel abnormalities in young male diabetics. This may have important implications in the long-term treatment of diabetic patients and their subsequent progression towards atherosclerotic disease.

  18. Taurine dietary supplementation attenuates brain, thyroid, testicular disturbances and oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Mohamed

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic dysregulation associated with DM causes secondary pathophysiological changes in multiple organ systems. This work aimed to study the effect of taurine supplementation on brain, thyroid, testicular disturbances and oxidative stress in diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (Group 1, control; group 2, diabetic; group 3, diabetic + taurine; group 4, taurine. The results illustrated that the dietary taurine intake was effective in lowering the elevated plasma levels of AChE, GnRH, TSH, FSH and LH in diabetic rats compared to untreated ones (P < 0.05, whereas TRH, T3, T4 and testosterone, were significantly increased. Taurine improved the sperm characteristics in diabetic rats as indicated by sperm counts and motility. The data revealed that taurine intake was able to reverse the oxidative effect of diabetes on the antioxidant status of brain, thyroid and testis in diabetic rats. The taurine treated group also showed a significant improvement in the degenerative changes of the seminiferous tubules and spermatogenesis. In summary, it was suggested that taurine may have a regulatory effect on diabetes-induced changes in the gonadal-hormone levels by inhibiting hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis and thyroid dysfunctions in the diabetic male rats.

  19. Fatty acid analogue N-arachidonoyl taurine restores function of IKs channels with diverse long QT mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liin, Sara I; Larsson, Johan E; Barro-Soria, Rene

    2016-01-01

    . Finally, we find that the fatty acid analogue N-arachidonoyl taurine restores channel gating of many different mutant channels, even though the mutations are in different domains of the IKs channel and affect the channel by different molecular mechanisms. N-arachidonoyl taurine is therefore an interesting...

  20. Acute cholesterol depletion leads to net loss of the organic osmolyte taurine in Ehrlich Lettré tumor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Duelund, Lars; Lambert, Ian Henry

    2010-01-01

    In mammalian cells, the organic osmolyte taurine is accumulated by the Na-dependent taurine transporter TauT and released though the volume- and DIDS-sensitive organic anion channel. Incubating Ehrlich Lettré tumor cells with methyl-ß-cyclodextrin (5 mM, 1 h) reduces the total cholesterol pool to...

  1. The effect of long-term taurine supplementation and fructose feeding on glucose and lipid homeostasis in Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lea Hüche; Orstrup, Laura Kofoed Hvidsten; Hansen, Svend Høime

    2013-01-01

    The nonprotein amino acid taurine has been shown to counteract the negative effects of a high-fructose diet in rats with regard to insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Here we examined the long-term (26 weeks) effects of oral taurine supplementation (2% in the drinking water) in fructose-fed Wist...

  2. Improvement of survival and development of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei larvae by feeding taurine enriched rotifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Jusadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of the present experiment was to study the most optimum taurine enrichment concentration of rotifers in improving Pacific white shrimp larva Litopenaeus vannamei survival and development. White shrimp larvae at sixth naupliar stage were reared in 12 units of 500 L fibre glass tanks with a stocking density of 125 ind/L. Starting from zoea two stage (Z-2, the larva was provided with rotifers with different taurine enrichment concentration according to the treatments, i.e. 0 mg/L enrichment medium (A, 25 mg/L (B, 50 mg/L(C, and 100 mg/L (D. The results show that different taurine concentration in the enrichment media increased taurine level in rotifers. Furthermore, the administration of taurine enriched rotifers up to 50 mg/L significantly improved larval survival and may accelerate larval development. The experimental results also concluded that a concentration of 50 mg/L is the most optimum taurine enrichment concentration of rotifers for the improvement of white shrimp larval survival and developmental stage.Keywords: taurine, rotifer, white shrimp, enrichmentABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji konsentrasi optimum taurin melalui pengayaan pada rotifera terhadap tingkat kelangsungan hidup dan perkembangan stadia larva udang vaname Litopenaeus vannamei. Larva udang vaname stadia naupli-6 dipelihara dalam 12 tangki fiberglass volume 500 L dengan kepadatan 125 ind/L. Dimulai sejak stadia zoea 2 (Z-2 larva diberi rotifera yang diperkaya dengan taurin dengan konsentrasi yang berbeda sesuai dengan perlakuan, yaitu 0 mg/L media pengkaya (A, 25 mg/L (B, 50mg/L (C, dan 100mg/L (D. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pengayaan taurin pada konsentrasi yang berbeda menyebabkan peningkatan kandungan taurin rotifera. Sementara pemberian rotifera yang diperkaya taurin hingga 50 mg/L meningkatkan kelangsungan hidup dan mempercepat perkembangan stadia larva udang. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa pemberian

  3. Downregulation of the taurine transporter TauT during hypo-osmotic stress in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Daniel Bloch; Friis, Martin Barfred; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2012-01-01

    The present work was initiated to investigate regulation of the taurine transporter TauT by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts during acute and long-term (4 h) exposure to low-sodium/hypo-osmotic stress. Taurine...... are significantly increased following hyperosmotic exposure. Swelling-induced ROS production in NIH3T3 fibroblasts is generated by NOX4 and by increasing total ROS, by either exogenous application of H(2)O(2) or overexpressing NOX4, we demonstrate that TonEBP activity and taurine influx are regulated negatively...... by ROS under hypo-osmotic, low-sodium conditions, whereas the TauT mRNA level is unaffected. Acute exposure to ROS reduces taurine uptake as a result of modulated TauT transport kinetics. Thus, swelling-induced ROS production could account for the reduced taurine uptake under low...

  4. Taurine blocks ATP-sensitive potassium channels of rat skeletal muscle fibres interfering with the sulphonylurea receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricarico, D; Barbieri, M; Camerino, D C

    2000-06-01

    Taurine is a sulphonic aminoacid present in high amounts in various tissues including cardiac and skeletal muscles showing different properties such as antioxidative, antimyotonic and anti-schaemic effects. The cellular mechanism of action of taurine is under investigation and appears to involve the interaction of the sulphonic aminoacid with several ion channels. Using the patch-clamp technique we studied the effects of taurine in rat skeletal muscle fibres on ATP-sensitive K(+) channel (K(ATP)) immediately after excision and on channels that underwent rundown. The cytoplasmic application of 20 mM of taurine reduced the K(ATP) current; this effect was reverted by washout of the drug solution. In this experimental condition the IC(50) was 20.1 mM. After rundown, taurine inhibited the K(ATP) current with similar efficacy. Competition experiments showed that taurine shifted the dose-response inhibition curve of glybenclamide to the left on the log-dose axis without significantly affecting those of ATP or Ca(2+) ion. Single channel recording revealed that taurine affects the close state of the channel prolonging it and reducing the bursts duration. Our data indicate that taurine inhibits the muscular K(ATP) channel interfering with the glybenclamide site on the sulphonylurea receptor of the channel or on the site allosterically coupled to it. During ischaemia and hypoxia, the skeletal and heart muscles undergo several changes; for example, the activation of K(ATP) channels and loss of the intracellular taurine content. The depletion of taurine during ischaemia would contribute to the early activation of K(ATP) channels and salvage the intracellular ATP content.

  5. Randomised clinical study: the effects of oral taurine 6g/day vs placebo on portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzer, R; Kivaranovic, D; Mandorfer, M; Paternostro, R; Wolrab, D; Heinisch, B; Reiberger, T; Ferlitsch, M; Gerner, C; Trauner, M; Peck-Radosavljevic, M; Ferlitsch, A

    2018-01-01

    The amino sulphonic acid taurine reduces oxidative endoplasmatic reticulum stress and inhibits hepatic stellate cell activation, which might lead to reduction of portal pressure in cirrhosis. To assess the haemodynamic effects of taurine supplementation in patients with cirrhosis and varices. Patients with hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) ≥12 mm Hg were included in this prospective proof of concept study. Concomitant nonselective beta-blockers therapy was not allowed. Patients received either 4 weeks of oral taurine (6 g/day), or placebo, prior to evaluation of HVPG response. Thirty patients were screened and 22 included in the efficacy analysis (12 taurine/10 placebo; 64% male, mean age: 52 ± 11 years, Child A: 9%, B:64%, C:27%, ascites:68%). In the taurine group, mean HVPG dropped from 20 mm Hg (±4) at baseline to 18 mm Hg (±4) on day 28 (mean relative change: -12%, P = .0093). In the placebo group, mean HVPG increased from 20 mm Hg (±5) at baseline to 21 mm Hg (±5) on day 28 (mean relative change:+2%, P = .4945). Taurine had no significant effects on systemic haemodynamics. Seven of 12 patients (58%) on taurine achieved a HVPG response >10%, compared to none in the placebo group (P = .0053). In a multivariate linear model, HVPG reduction was significantly larger in the taurine group compared to placebo group (P = .0091 and P = .0109 for absolute and relative change respectively). Treatment-related adverse events included gastrointestinal discomfort and fatigue, and were usually mild and comparable between treatment groups. Taurine is safe and may reduce portal pressure in cirrhotic patients. More studies on the underlying mechanisms of action and long-term effects of taurine supplementation are warranted. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Sulfur amino acid metabolism in the developing rhesus monkey brain: interrelationship of taurine and glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, D K; Sturman, J A; Gaull, G E

    1982-09-01

    The relationship of taurine to glutamate, and to other amino acids, has been examined in the occipital lobe of the developing rhesus monkey. During development taurine decreases in concentration (4.96 mumol/g in fetus to 1.52 mumol/g in adult) while glutamate increases (7.92 mumol/g in fetus to 11.26 mumol/g in adult). When the concentration of taurine is plotted against that of glutamate in fetal, neonatal and adult animals there is a significant correlation in the fetal (p less than 0.01) and adult (p less than 0.01) but not in the neonatal occipital lobe samples. This correlation in both fetal and adult brain is specific for these amino acids. Subcellular fractionation studies further indicate that this relationship may be of special importance in nerve endings.

  7. Energy Drink Doses Of Caffeine And Taurine Have A Null Or Negative Effect On Sprint Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Owen; Hill, Jessica; Patterson, Stephen D; Waldron, Mark

    2017-10-23

    This study investigated the effects of caffeine and taurine co-ingestion on repeat-sprint cycling performance and associated physiological and perceptual responses. In a double blind, cross-over, repeated measures study, 11 male participants (age 21 ± 2 years; stature 178 ± 7 cm; body mass 80 ± 13 kg) completed 10 x 6-s sprints on a cycle ergometer, each separated by 24-s, an hour after ingesting: caffeine (80 mg) and taurine (1 g), equivalent to the amount observed in popular commercial energy drinks, or placebo (maltodextrin ∼1 g) in a gelatine capsule. Performance was measured on a cycle ergometer, whilst blood lactate concentration (B[la]), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and heart rate (HR) were measured at baseline (pre-exercise) and after sprints 5 and 10. Magnitude-based inferences revealed likely, trivial differences in peak power and unclear, trivial inter-sprint fatigue index after ingestion of the caffeine and taurine supplement. Intra-sprint fatigue was greater in the caffeine and taurine condition at sprint 10 (likely, small) and possibly smaller in sprints 6-9. The caffeine and taurine supplement had a likely large effect on HR at baseline (ES = 0.94) and increases in B[la] after sprint 5 (likely small) and 10 (possibly small). There was no effect of the supplement on RPE (unclear, trivial). Administration of caffeine and taurine at doses equivalent to commercial energy drinks did not improve repeat-sprint cycling performance and appeared to induce greater fatigue within selected sprints, particularly at the end of the trial. This undesirable performance effect occurs in parallel with increased HR and glycolytic metabolic bi-products.

  8. Taurine modulates neutrophil function but potentiates uropathogenic E. coli infection in the murine bladder.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Condron, Claire

    2010-08-01

    Eradication of a urinary tract infection (UTI) appears to be related to a number of innate host defence mechanisms and their interactions with invading bacteria. Recurrent UTIs (rUTIs) pose a difficult problem in that these bacteria use both host and bacterial factors to evade elimination. Neutrophil bactericidal function is depressed, both systemically and in urine, in patients with a history of recurrent UTI. Taurine is a semi-essential amino acid and is successful in preserving neutrophil bactericidal function in urine. Taurine may preserve neutrophil function at the urothelium and thus aid UTI resolution. Adult female (6 weeks old) C57Bl\\/6 mice were randomised into three groups: a saline gavage only control group, a saline gavage + E. coli group, and a taurine gavage + E. coli group [21 g\\/70 kg taurine in 0.9% normal saline (N\\/S) for 5 days]. Whilst taurine gavage pre-treatment resulted in increased serum neutrophils respiratory burst activity, at the urothelial-endothelial interface it caused higher colony forming units in the urine and a higher incidence of E. coli invasion in the bladder wall with no evidence of increased bladder wall neutrophils infiltration on MPO assay of histological assessment. Histologically there was also evidence of reduced bladder inflammation and urothelial cell apoptosis. In conclusion, taurine effectively increases neutrophils activity but given its anti-inflammatory properties, at the expense of decreased urothelial-endothelial activation thus preventing clearance of active E. coli infection in the bladder. Despite the negative results, this study demonstrates the importance of modulating interactions at the urothelial interface.

  9. Taurine ameliorates hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia by reducing insulin resistance and leptin level in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats with long-term diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Da Hee; Kim, Jung Yeon; Lee, Bong Gn; You, Jeong Soon; Chang, Kyung Ja; Chung, Hyunju; Yoo, Myung Chul; Yang, Hyung-In; Kang, Ja-Heon; Hwang, Yoo Chul; Ahn, Kue Jeong; Chung, Ho-Yeon

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether taurine supplementation improves metabolic disturbances and diabetic complications in an animal model for type 2 diabetes. We investigated whether taurine has therapeutic effects on glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and diabetic complications in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats with long-term duration of diabetes. Fourteen 50-week-old OLETF rats with chronic diabetes were fed a diet supplemented with taurine (2%) or a non-supplemented control diet for 12 weeks. Taurine reduced blood glucose levels over 12 weeks, and improved OGTT outcomes at 6 weeks after taurine supplementation, in OLETF rats. Taurine significantly reduced insulin resistance but did not improve β-cell function or islet mass. After 12 weeks, taurine significantly decreased serum levels of lipids such as triglyceride, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Taurine significantly reduced serum leptin, but not adiponectin levels. However, taurine had no therapeutic effect on damaged tissues. Taurine ameliorated hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia, at least in part, by improving insulin sensitivity and leptin modulation in OLETF rats with long-term diabetes. Additional study is needed to investigate whether taurine has the same beneficial effects in human diabetic patients. PMID:23114424

  10. Spectral Editing Technique for the in Vitroand in VivoDetection of Taurine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, D. L.; Norwood, T. J.

    1998-07-01

    In vivo1H NMR spectroscopy has proven to be a useful noninvasive tool for the investigation of numerous metabolic and physiological states. Taurine is potentially a useful indicator in neonate development and is involved in a number of physiological processes. However, it could not previously be observed in thein vivo1H spectrum because of overlap with adjacent resonances. We have developed a spectral editing technique based upon double quantum filtration which allows the taurine resonances to be resolved from adjacent peaks. The experiment is demonstrated both on perchloric acid rodent brain extract and on rodent brain homogenate.

  11. Dietary beet pulp decreases taurine status in dogs fed low protein diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Suk Ko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that large dogs who are fed lamb and rice diets are at increased risk to develop taurine-deficiency-induced dilated cardiomyopathy. Since dogs obligatorily conjugate bile acids (BA with taurine, we determined whether rice bran (RB or other fibers (cellulose; CL, beet pulp; BP would affect BA excretion and/or the taurine status of dogs. Results Eighteen medium/large mixed-breed dogs were given purified diets containing CL, BP, or RB for 12 weeks. Taurine concentrations in plasma and whole blood were significantly decreased at week 12. The BP group, compared to the CL or RB groups, showed significantly lower taurine concentrations in plasma (6.5 ± 0.5 vs 20.4 ± 3.9 and 13.1 ± 2.0 μmol/L, respectively, P < 0.01, mean ± SEM and in whole blood (79 ± 10 vs 143 ± 14 and 127 ± 14 μmol/L, respectively, P < 0.01, lower apparent protein digestibility (81.9 ± 0.6 vs 88.8 ± 0.6 and 88.1 ± 1.2 %, respectively, P < 0.01, and higher BA excretions (5.6 ± 0.1 vs 3.4 ± 0.5 and 3.4 ± 0.4 μmol/g feces, respectively, P < 0.05 at week 12. Conclusions These results do not support the hypothesis that RB is likely to be a primary cause of lamb meal and rice diets, increasing the risk of taurine deficiency in large dogs. However these indicate that BP may contribute to a decrease taurine status in dogs by increasing excretion of fecal BA and decreasing protein digestibility, thus decreasing the bioavailability of sulfur amino acids, the precursors of taurine.

  12. Detection of Taurine in Biological Tissues by 33S NMR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musio, Roberta; Sciacovelli, Oronzo

    2001-12-01

    The potential of 33S NMR spectroscopy for biochemical investigations on taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is explored. It is demonstrated that 33S NMR spectroscopy allows the selective and unequivocal identification of taurine in biological samples. 33S NMR spectra of homogenated and intact tissues are reported for the first time, together with the spectrum of a living mollusc. Emphasis is placed on the importance of choosing appropriate signal processing methods to improve the quality of the 33S NMR spectra of biological tissues.

  13. Advances in Drug Design Based on the Amino Acid Approach: Taurine Analogues for the Treatment of CNS Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Renato Yamasaki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Amino acids are well known to be an important class of compounds for the maintenance of body homeostasis and their deficit, even for the polar neuroactive aminoacids, can be controlled by supplementation. However, for the amino acid taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid this is not true. Due its special physicochemical properties, taurine is unable to cross the blood-brain barrier. In addition of injured taurine transport systems under pathological conditions, CNS supplementation of taurine is almost null. Taurine is a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory semi-essential amino acid extensively involved in neurological activities, acting as neurotrophic factor, binding to GABA A/glycine receptors and blocking the excitotoxicity glutamate-induced pathway leading to be a neuroprotective effect and neuromodulation. Taurine deficits have been implicated in several CNS diseases, such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, epilepsy and in the damage of retinal neurons. This review describes the  CNS physiological functions of taurine and the development of new derivatives based on its structure useful in CNS disease treatment.

  14. Taurine enhances excitability of mouse cochlear neural stem cells by selectively promoting differentiation of glutamatergic neurons over GABAergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Zhu, Gang-Hua; Xie, Ding-Hua; Wu, Wei-Jing; Hu, Peng

    2015-05-01

    Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid present in high concentrations in mammalian tissues, and has been implicated in several processes involving brain development and neurotransmission. However, the role of taurine in inner ear neural development is still largely unknown. Here we report that taurine enhanced the viability and proliferation of in vitro mouse cochlear neural stem cell culture, as well as improved neurite outgrowth. Moreover, prolonged taurine treatment also increased the neural electrical activity by escalating changes of intracellular calcium concentration, the number of spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations in cells, and the frequencies of Ca(2+) spikes. Most importantly, we found that this escalated neural excitability by taurine was due to combined effect of increase in the population of excitatory glutamatergic neuron and decrease in inhibitory GABAergic neuron population. This is the first report on the effect of taurine to selectively promote neural stem cell differentiation by altering neuron type commitment. Our study has supported the potential of taurine as treatment against hearing loss caused by neuron degeneration, or even as an agent to improve sensitivity of hearing by increasing overall excitability of auditory nervous system.

  15. Effect of taurine and gold nanoparticles on the morphological and molecular characteristics of muscle development during chicken embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, Marlena; Sawosz, Ewa; Grodzik, Marta; Balcerak, Marek; Wierzbicki, Mateusz; Skomial, Jacek; Sawosz, Filip; Chwalibog, Andrè

    2012-02-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the effects of taurine and Au nanoparticles on the expression of genes related to embryonic muscle development and on the morphological characteristics of muscles. Fertilised chicken eggs (n = 160) were randomly divided into four groups: without injection (Control) and with injection of Au nanoparticles (NanoAu), taurine (Tau) or Au nanoparticles with taurine (NanoAu + Tau). The experimental solutions were given in ovo, on the third day of incubation, by injecting 0.3 ml of the experimental solution into the air sack. The embryos were evaluated on the 20th day of incubation. The methods included gene expression at the mRNA and protein levels, immunohistochemistry, histology and microscopy. In groups NanoAu, Tau and NanoAu + Tau, the muscle structure and the number of muscle cells were affected. Furthermore, taurine increased fibre diameter, the total number of nuclei, the proportion of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells and the total cell number. Also, gene expression of basic fibroblast growth factor-2 and PCNA was downregulated. There were no significant interactions between NanoAu and taurine, indicating that NanoAu did not enhance the effects of taurine. It may be concluded that 20 days after injection, NanoAu affected some parameters of muscle development, but the most profound effects were those of taurine.

  16. Taurine in drinking water recovers learning and memory in the adult APP/PS1 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Yun; Kim, Hyunjin V.; Yoon, Jin H.; Kang, Bo Ram; Cho, Soo Min; Lee, Sejin; Kim, Ji Yoon; Kim, Joo Won; Cho, Yakdol; Woo, Jiwan; Kim, YoungSoo

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a lethal progressive neurological disorder affecting the memory. Recently, US Food and Drug Administration mitigated the standard for drug approval, allowing symptomatic drugs that only improve cognitive deficits to be allowed to accelerate on to clinical trials. Our study focuses on taurine, an endogenous amino acid found in high concentrations in humans. It has demonstrated neuroprotective properties against many forms of dementia. In this study, we assessed cognitively enhancing property of taurine in transgenic mouse model of AD. We orally administered taurine via drinking water to adult APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model for 6 weeks. Taurine treatment rescued cognitive deficits in APP/PS1 mice up to the age-matching wild-type mice in Y-maze and passive avoidance tests without modifying the behaviours of cognitively normal mice. In the cortex of APP/PS1 mice, taurine slightly decreased insoluble fraction of Aβ. While the exact mechanism of taurine in AD has not yet been ascertained, our results suggest that taurine can aid cognitive impairment and may inhibit Aβ-related damages. PMID:25502280

  17. PGC-1α may associated with the anti-obesity effect of taurine on rats induced by arcuate nucleus lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Peng-juan; Jin, Yong-jun; Li, Ming-e; Zhou, Rong; Yang, Mei-zi

    2016-01-01

    To observe the effect of taurine treatment in rats with monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced obesity. Rats with MSG-induced obesity were administered taurine for five weeks. The Lee's index, food intake, blood pressure, body temperature, body mass index (BMI), fat weight, and triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels were compared. The PGC-1α expression levels in white and brown adipose were measured using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, and pathological changes in the arcuate nucleus and liver were examined. Compared with the model group, BMI, TG, and LDL in the high and low taurine dose groups were significantly lower, while HDL was higher. Body temperature in the taurine treatment groups was higher, and blood pressure was lower. The weight of brown fat in the taurine treatment groups was significantly higher than in the model group, while the white fat weight was significantly lower. Compared with the control group, the PGC-1α levels in white and brown adipose were higher in the taurine treatment groups and more significantly up-regulated in brown adipose. This study suggests that taurine prevents obesity in MSG-treated rats and may be closely associated with energy metabolism.

  18. The uptake and metabolism of cystamine and taurine by isolated, ventilated and perfused rat and rabbit lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.; Kodavanti, U.P.; Smith, L.L.; Mehendale, H.M.

    1991-01-01

    Cystamine has been reported to be taken up by the lung slices and metabolized to taurine via hypotaurine through enzymatic processes. The objective of these studies was to determine whether intact isolated, ventilated and perfused rat and rabbit lungs also posses similar characteristics. The lungs were isolated from male New Zealand white rabbits and S-D rats and perfused with 20 μM [ 14 C] cystamine (Sp. Act., 16.4 mCi/mmol) for 60 min and 30 min, respectively. Cystamine and its metabolites in lung as well as in perfusate were separated by TLC and quantitated using scintillation spectrometry. Similar experiments were also conducted with 20 μM taurine to investigate its fate in perfused lungs. Significant pulmonary uptake of cystamine and taurine occurred during perfusion. Cystamine was metabolized to [ 14 C] hypotaurine and [ 14 C] taurine. No further metabolism of taurine was evident in rat or rabbit lungs. Inclusion of 1 nM GSH did not significantly alter the ability of lungs to sequester cystamine, but the metabolism of hypotaurine to taurine was decreased. It was evident that cystamine was metabolized to taurine by perfused lungs in the same way as in lung slices

  19. Effect of taurine supplementation on the alterations in amino Acid content in skeletal muscle with exercise in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikura, Keisuke; Miyazaki, Teruo; Ra, Song-Gyu; Endo, Shoji; Nakamura, Yusuke; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Miyakawa, Shumpei; Ohmori, Hajime

    2011-01-01

    Taurine included abundantly in skeletal muscle, particularly in the slow-twitch fibers, enhances exercise performance. However, the exact mechanisms for this effect have been unclear. The present study investigated the influence of taurine supplementation on amino acids profile in skeletal muscles as one of mechanisms in the enhancement of exercise performance induced by taurine. In the rats that received taurine solution, amino acids concentrations were comprehensively quantified in two portions with different fiber compositions in the fast-twitch fiber dominant (FFD) gastrocnemius muscle after 2 weeks, and in the gastrocnemius and additional other FFD muscles, liver, and plasma with exhausted exercise after 3 weeks. In the FFD muscles after 2 weeks, a common phenomenon that decreased concentrations of threonine (-16%), serine (-15~-16%), and glycine (-6~-16%) were observed, and they are categorized in the pyruvate precursors for hepatic gluconeogenesis rather than biosynthesis, polar, and side-chain structures. The decreases in the three amino acids were significantly emphasized after an additional week of taurine supplementation in the FFD muscles (p values in three amino acids in these tissues were less than 0.001-0.05), but not in the liver and plasma, accompanied with significantly increase of running time to exhaustion (p taurine-induced reductions of these amino acids in skeletal muscle might be one of the mechanisms which underpin the enhancement of exercise performance by taurine. Key pointsTaurine ingestion significantly decreased certain amino acids in skeletal muscles accompanied with enhanced exercise performance.The decreased amino acids in common were threonine, serine, and glycine, but not alanine; pyruvate precursor for gluconeogenesis.The alteration of three amino acids in muscles was maintained after exhausted exercise.The muscular alterations of them might be one of taurine-induced roles on exercise performance.

  20. Taurine and magnesium supplementation enhances the function of endothelial progenitor cells through antioxidation in healthy men and spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katakawa, Mayumi; Fukuda, Noboru; Tsunemi, Akiko; Mori, Mari; Maruyama, Takashi; Matsumoto, Taro; Abe, Masanori; Yamori, Yukio

    2016-12-01

    Endothelial damage is repaired by endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which are pivotal in preventing cardiovascular diseases and prolonging lifespan. The WHO Cardiovascular Diseases and Alimentary Comparison Study demonstrated that dietary taurine and magnesium (Mg) intake suppresses cardiovascular diseases. We herein evaluate the effects of taurine and Mg supplementation on EPC function and oxidative stress in healthy men and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Healthy men received taurine (3 g per day) or Mg (340 mg per day) for 2 weeks. SHRs and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were housed with high-salt drinking water (1% NaCl). The SHRs received 3% taurine solution and/or a high-Mg (600 mg per 100 g) diet for 4 weeks. Their peripheral blood mononuclear cells were separated to quantify EPC colony formation. Oxidative stress markers in their peripheral blood were evaluated using a free radical analytical system and a thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) assay. Taurine and Mg supplementation significantly increased EPC colony numbers and significantly decreased free radical levels and TBARS scores in healthy men. Taurine and Mg supplementation significantly increased EPC colony numbers and significantly decreased TBARS scores and free radical levels in SHRs. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase component mRNA expression was significantly higher in the renal cortex of salt-loaded SHRs than in WKY rats, in which it was suppressed by taurine and Mg supplementation. Taurine and Mg supplementation increased EPC colony formation in healthy men and improved impaired EPC function in SHRs through antioxidation, indicating that the dietary intake of taurine and Mg may prolong lifespan by preventing the progression of cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Quantitative and Topographical Analysis of the Losses of Cone Photoreceptors and Retinal Ganglion Cells Under Taurine Depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadj-Saïd, Wahiba; Froger, Nicolas; Ivkovic, Ivana; Jiménez-López, Manuel; Dubus, Élisabeth; Dégardin-Chicaud, Julie; Simonutti, Manuel; Quénol, César; Neveux, Nathalie; Villegas-Pérez, María Paz; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Sahel, Jose-Alain; Picaud, Serge; García-Ayuso, Diego

    2016-09-01

    Taurine depletion is known to induce photoreceptor degeneration and was recently found to also trigger retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss similar to the retinal toxicity of vigabatrin. Our objective was to study the topographical loss of RGCs and cone photoreceptors, with a distinction between the two cone types (S- and L- cones) in an animal model of induced taurine depletion. We used the taurine transporter (Tau-T) inhibitor, guanidoethane sulfonate (GES), to induce taurine depletion at a concentration of 1% in the drinking water. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and electroretinograms (ERG) were performed on animals after 2 months of GES treatment administered through the drinking water. Retinas were dissected as wholemounts and immunodetection of Brn3a (RGC), S-opsin (S-cones), and L-opsin (L-cones) was performed. The number of Brn3a+ RGCs, and L- and S-opsin+ cones was automatically quantified and their retinal distribution studied using isodensity maps. The treatment resulted in a significant reduction in plasma taurine levels and a profound dysfunction of visual performance as shown by ERG recordings. Optical coherence tomography analysis revealed that the retina was thinner in the taurine-depleted group. S-opsin+cones were more affected (36%) than L-opsin+cones (27%) with greater cone cell loss in the dorsal area whereas RGC loss (12%) was uniformly distributed. This study confirms that taurine depletion causes RGC and cone loss. Electroretinograms results show that taurine depletion induces retinal dysfunction in photoreceptors and in the inner retina. It establishes a gradient of cell loss depending on the cell type from S-opsin+cones, L-opsin+cones, to RGCs. The greater cell loss in the dorsal retina and of the S-cone population may underline different cellular mechanisms of cellular degeneration and suggests that S-cones may be more sensitive to light-induced retinal toxicity enhanced by the taurine depletion.

  2. [Effect of taurine on the microvessel exchange function and adrenergic response of veins and arteries in the cat skeletal muscle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudriashov, Iu A; Denisov, P I

    2001-01-01

    In cats anesthetized with Uretan and perfused with a constant blood volume, Taurine induced responses of neither arterial nor venous vessels of the skeletal muscle but increased the capillary filtration coefficient without any significant change of the capillary pressure in the skeletal muscle's microvessels. Taurine also increased both the constrictor and the dilatory responses of the arterial and venous vessels. The mechanism of the Taurine effects upon the smooth muscle elements of arteries and veins as well as upon proper mechanisms of capillary pressure control and capillary filtration coefficient, seems to be calcium-dependent.

  3. J-Modulation in ID NMR 1H Spectrum of Taurine and Aspartate Using Spin-Echo Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oturak, Halil; Sağlam, Adnan; Bahçeli, Semiha

    1999-05-01

    This study reports on a theoretical calculation of Hahn's spin-echo experiment in case of a model A2B2 spin system with a strongly coupling character and gives the experimental results of one-dimension 1H high-resolution NMR spectra of taurine and aspartate. The calculated amplitudes of the spin-echoes for two different proton groups of taurine are given. Using results of our calculations for taurine, the computer simulations of J-modulation are implemented. It is shown that the agreement be-tween the experimental and simulated spectra is good.

  4. Anti-nociceptive effects of taurine and caffeine in sciatic nerve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. In this study, we investigated the effects of co-administration of taurine and caffeine on thermally induced pain in sciatic nerve ligated rats as well as the roles of autonomic receptors. Rats were rendered neuropathic by unilateral sciatic nerve ligation. The anti-hyperalgesic effect of combined systemic (i.p.) ...

  5. Altered glycine and taurine conjugation of bile acids following aluminum administration to rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, G L; Lee, T C; Heyman, M B; Rassin, D K

    1989-10-01

    Aluminum contaminates components of intravenous nutrient solutions and accumulates in the liver with parenteral feeding. Abnormalities in hepatic function associated with aluminum accumulation include increased serum bile acid concentration and glucuronyl transferase activity and reduced mixed function oxidase levels and bile flow. Whether there are other biochemical responses of the liver to aluminum is unclear. We report the effects of aluminum administration on bile acid conjugation in rats given aluminum intravenously as follows: group I, 1 mg/kg/day for 14 days; group II, 5 mg/kg/day for 14 days; and group III, 5 mg/kg/day for 7 days. Taurine-conjugated bile acids were reduced and glycine/taurine elevated in all groups compared with pair-fed controls. Glycine/taurine was greater in group II versus III and varied directly with serum bile acid concentration. These findings suggest that aluminum administration is associated with decreased taurine conjugation of bile acids, a phenomenon that may be associated with cholestasis.

  6. Regulation of taurine homeostasis by protein kinase CK2 in mouse fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Daniel Bloch; Guerra, Barbara; Jacobsen, Jack Hummeland

    2011-01-01

    Increased expression of the ubiquitous serine/threonine protein kinase CK2 has been associated with increased proliferative capacity and increased resistance towards apoptosis. Taurine is the primary organic osmolyte involved in cell volume control in mammalian cells, and shift in cell volume is ...

  7. Impact of chronic administration of anabolic androgenic steroids and taurine on blood pressure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roşca, A E; Stoian, I; Badiu, C; Gaman, L; Popescu, B O; Iosif, L; Mirica, R; Tivig, I C; Stancu, C S; Căruntu, C; Voiculescu, S E; Zăgrean, L

    2016-01-01

    Supraphysiological administration of anabolic androgenic steroids has been linked to increased blood pressure. The widely distributed amino acid taurine seems to be an effective depressor agent in drug-induced hypertension. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of chronic high dose administration of nandrolone decanoate (DECA) and taurine on blood pressure in rats and to verify the potentially involved mechanisms. The study was conducted in 4 groups of 8 adult male Wistar rats, aged 14 weeks, treated for 12 weeks with: DECA (A group); vehicle (C group); taurine (T group), or with both drugs (AT group). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured at the beginning of the study (SBP1), 2 (SBP2) and 3 months (SBP3) later. Plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity and plasma end products of nitric oxide metabolism (NOx) were also determined. SBP3 and SBP2 were significantly increased compared to SBP1 only in the A group (P<0.002 for both). SBP2, SBP3 and ACE activity showed a statistically significant increase in the A vs C (P<0.005), andvs AT groups (P<0.05), while NOx was significantly decreased in the A and AT groups vs controls (P=0.01). ACE activity was strongly correlated with SBP3 in the A group (r=0.71, P=0.04). These findings suggest that oral supplementation of taurine may prevent the increase in SBP induced by DECA, an effect potentially mediated by angiotensin-converting enzyme.

  8. Influence of taurine and vitaiodurol on the development frequency of experimental stellate cataracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorenko, B.S.; Kabachenko, A.N.; Vajnshtejn, E.S.; Yartsev, E.I.; Kolesnikov, Yu.A.

    1978-01-01

    Comparative investigations of medical efficiency of 4% solutions of taurine and vita-iodurol have been carried out using the model of experimental stellate cataract in mice. 140 male mice of CBAxC 57 BL 6 line with 14-16g mass were investigated. Animals of 3 groups (35 mice in each) were exposed to 300 rad dose gamma-radiation with Co 60 . Radiation intensity was 10 rad/s. The animals were examined before irradiation and each 4 weeks after irradiation. In 25 weeks after irradiation, when lenticular opacity was observed in more than half the mice, the animals of the first group were dropped in two eyes by 1 drop of 4% distilled water taurine solution during a month. Animals of the second group got instillations of vita-iodurol by the same method. The third group of animals was the irradiated control group. The fourth group of mice was used as the intact control group. Lenticular opacities developed were classified by the Christenberry and Furth method, suggested for evaluating stellate lenticular opacities in small laboratory animals. It was shown, that instillations of 4% taurine solution into animals with initial stellate cataract during a month result in reducing the frequency of lenticular opacities by 30%. Taurine in used concentration results in pronounced medical effect. Vita-iodurol hadn't any therapentic effect on the course of initial stellate catarat in mice

  9. Vitamin B12–dependent taurine synthesis regulates growth and bone mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman-Garcia, Pablo; Quiros-Gonzalez, Isabel; Mottram, Lynda; Lieben, Liesbet; Sharan, Kunal; Wangwiwatsin, Arporn; Tubio, Jose; Lewis, Kirsty; Wilkinson, Debbie; Santhanam, Balaji; Sarper, Nazan; Clare, Simon; Vassiliou, George S.; Velagapudi, Vidya R.; Dougan, Gordon; Yadav, Vijay K.

    2014-01-01

    Both maternal and offspring-derived factors contribute to lifelong growth and bone mass accrual, although the specific role of maternal deficiencies in the growth and bone mass of offspring is poorly understood. In the present study, we have shown that vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency in a murine genetic model results in severe postweaning growth retardation and osteoporosis, and the severity and time of onset of this phenotype in the offspring depends on the maternal genotype. Using integrated physiological and metabolomic analysis, we determined that B12 deficiency in the offspring decreases liver taurine production and associates with abrogation of a growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 (GH/IGF1) axis. Taurine increased GH-dependent IGF1 synthesis in the liver, which subsequently enhanced osteoblast function, and in B12-deficient offspring, oral administration of taurine rescued their growth retardation and osteoporosis phenotypes. These results identify B12 as an essential vitamin that positively regulates postweaning growth and bone formation through taurine synthesis and suggests potential therapies to increase bone mass. PMID:24911144

  10. Cell-swelling-induced taurine release from isolated perfused rat liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, H. S.; Meijer, A. J.; Gustafson, L. A.; Jörning, G. G.; Leegwater, A. C.; Maas, M. A.; Chamuleau, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    Astrocytes and lymphocytes are able to release significant amounts of taurine during periods of hypotonicity to reduce the increase in cell volume. To investigate this mechanism in the liver, we studied the release of free amino acids from isolated perfused rat liver during hypotonicity. The

  11. Effect of oral taurine on morbidity and mortality in elderly hip fracture patients: a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stijn, Mireille F. M.; Bruins, Arnoud A.; Vermeulen, Mechteld A. R.; Witlox, Joost; Teerlink, Tom; Schoorl, Margreet G.; de Bandt, Jean Pascal; Twisk, Jos W. R.; van Leeuwen, Paul A. M.; Houdijk, Alexander P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Hip fracture patients represent a large part of the elderly surgical population and face severe postoperative morbidity and excessive mortality compared to adult surgical hip fracture patients. Low antioxidant status and taurine deficiency is common in the elderly, and may negatively affect

  12. Kinetics of the Reaction of CO2 with Aqueous Potassium Salt of Taurine and Glycine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, P.S.; Hogendoorn, J.A.; Versteeg, G.F.; Feron, P.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    The kinetics of the reaction between CO2 and aqueous potassium salts of taurine and glycine was measured at 295 K in a stirred-cell reactor with a flat gas–liquid interface. For aqueous potassium taurate solutions, the temperature effect on the reaction kinetics was measured at 285 and 305 K. Unlike

  13. Quantitative on-chip determination of taurine in energy and sports drinks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Götz, S.; Revermann, T.; Karst, U.

    2007-01-01

    A new method for the quantitative determination of taurine in beverages by microchip electrophoresis was developed. A rapid and simple sample preparation procedure, only including two dilution steps and the addition of the fluorogenic labeling reagent NBD-Cl (4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan), is

  14. Decrease of extracellular taurine in the rat dorsal hippocampus after central nervous administration of vasopressin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brust, P; Christensen, Thomas; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    1992-01-01

    of the composition of the extracellular fluid. The concentrations of 16 amino acids were measured by HPLC in the perfusate samples. The level of taurine declined 20% in the right hippocampus during perfusion with vasopressin, whereas o-phosphoethanolamine decreased in both sides, the left 20% and the right 24...

  15. Kinetics of the reaction of CO2 with aqueous potassium salt of taurine and glycine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar Paramasivam Senthil, P.S.; Hogendoorn, Kees; Versteeg, Geert; Feron, P.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    The kinetics of the reaction between CO2 and aqueous potassium salts of taurine and glycine was measured at 295 K in a stirred-cell reactor with a flat gas-liquid interface. For aqueous potassium taurate solutions, the temperature effect on the reaction kinetics was measured at 285 and 305 K. Unlike

  16. Acute ammonia toxicity in crucian carp Carassius auratus and effects of taurine on hyperammonemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qianyan; Li, Ming; Yuan, Lixia; Song, Meize; Xing, Xiaodan; Shi, Ge; Meng, Fanxing; Wang, Rixin

    2016-12-01

    The four experimental groups were carried out to test the response of crucian carp Carassius auratus to ammonia toxicity and taurine: group 1 was injected with NaCl, group 2 was injected with ammonium acetate, group 3 was injected with ammonium acetate and taurine, and group 4 was injected with taurine. Fish in group 2 had the highest ammonia and glutamine contents, and the lowest glutamate content in liver and brain. Serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) activities, red cell count (RBC), white cell count (WBC), lysozyme (LYZ) activity, complement C3 content of fish in group 2 reflected the lowest, but malondialdehyde content was the highest. Importantly, serum SOD and GSH activites, RBC, WBC, and LYZ activity, C3, C4 and total immunoglobulin contents of fish in group 3 were significantly higher than those of fish in group 2. This study indicates that ammonia exerts its toxic effects by interfering with amino acid transport, inducing ROS generation, leading to malondialdehyde accumulation and immunosuppression of crucian carp. The exogenous taurine could mitigate the adverse effect of high ammonia level on fish physiological disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sulfoacetate released during the assimilation of taurine-nitrogen by Neptuniibacter caesariensis: purification of sulfoacetaldehyde dehydrogenase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčík, Zdeněk; Denger, K.; Weinitschke, S.; Hollemeyer, K.; Pačes, Václav; Cook, A.M.; Smits, T.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 190, č. 2 (2008), s. 159-168 ISSN 0302-8933 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : assimilation of taurine -nitrogen * sulfoacetaldehyde dehydrogenase * sulfoacetate exporter Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.975, year: 2008

  18. Identification of Bilophila wadsworthia by specific PCR which targets the taurine:pyruvate aminotransferase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laue, H.; Smits, T.H.M.; Schumacher, U.K.; Claros, M.C.; Hartemink, R.; Cook, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The bile-resistant, strictly anaerobic bacterium Bilophila wadsworthia is found in human faecal flora, in human infections and in environmental samples. A specific PCR primer set for the gene encoding the first metabolic enzyme in the degradative pathway for taurine in B. wadsworthia,

  19. Anti-nociceptive effects of taurine and caffeine in sciatic nerve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we investigated the effects of co-administration of taurine and caffeine on thermally induced pain in sciatic nerve ligated rats as well as the roles of autonomic receptors. Rats were rendered neuropathic by unilateral sciatic nerve ligation. The anti-hyperalgesic effect of combined systemic (i.p.) administration of ...

  20. Effect of taurine, L-cysteine and silymarin on biochemical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of taurine, L-cysteine and silymarin on biochemical and pathological changes in albino rats receiving tetrachloroethylene. Hanan Mohamed Fathy Abdel Wahab. Abstract. No Abstract. The Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Vol. 22(2) 2004: 139-156. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL ...

  1. Cell-swelling-induced taurine release from isolated perfused rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, H S; Meijer, A J; Gustafson, L A; Jörning, G G; Leegwater, A C; Maas, M A; Chamuleau, R A

    1994-01-01

    Astrocytes and lymphocytes are able to release significant amounts of taurine during periods of hypotonicity to reduce the increase in cell volume. To investigate this mechanism in the liver, we studied the release of free amino acids from isolated perfused rat liver during hypotonicity. The osmolarity of the perfusion medium was reduced from 305 to 255 or 205 mosM by decreasing the NaCl concentration 25 or 50 mM, respectively. This induced an 6-8% increase in liver mass and was associated with a specific 1.7-fold (-50 mosM) and 14-fold (-100 mosM) increase of the taurine release. None of the other amino acids measured showed a significant increase in their concentration in the effluent. The increase in taurine release occurred within 30 s after exposure to hypotonicity (maximal after 1-1.5 min) and followed closely the changes in liver mass. The taurine release declined gradually during successive exposures of the isolated liver to -100 mosM. This release was 29 and 17% of the original during the second and third exposure, respectively.

  2. Alleviative effects from boswellic acid on acetaminophen-induced hepatic injury - Corrected and republished from: Biomedicine (Taipei). 2016 Jun; 6 (2): 9. doi: 10.7603/s40681-016-0009-1PMCID: PMC4864770.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lung-Che; Hu, Li-Hong; Yin, Mei-Chin

    2017-06-01

    Protective effects of boswellic acid (BA) against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity in Balb/ cA mice were examined. BA, at 0.05 or 0.1%, was supplied for 4 weeks. Acute liver injury was induced by APAP treatment. Results showed that BA intake increased hepatic BA bioavailability. APAP treatment decreased glutathione (GSH) level, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) production; and lowered activity and protein expression of glutathione reductase (GR) and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 in liver. BA intake at both doses alleviated subsequent APAP-induced oxidative stress by retaining GSH content, decreasing ROS and GSSG formations, reserving activity and expression of GR and HO-1 in liver, and lowering hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 activity and expression. APAP treatment enhanced hepatic levels of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. BA pre-intake diminished APAP-induced release of those inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. APAP up-regulated hepatic protein expression of toll-like receptor (TLR)-3, TLR-4, MyD88, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p50, NF-κB p65 and JNK. BA pre-intake at both doses suppressed the expression of NF-κB p65 and p-JNK, and only at 0.1% down-regulated hepatic TLR-3, TLR-4 and MyD88 expression. APAP led to obvious foci of inflammatory cell infiltration in liver, determined by H&E stain. BA intake at both doses attenuated hepatic inflammatory infiltration. These findings support that boswellic acid is a potent hepato-protective agent. © Author(s) 2017. This article is published with open access by China Medical University.

  3. Activity and isozyme content of lactate dehydrogenase under long-term oral taurine administration to rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Ostapiv

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of long-term oral taurine administration to rats on activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, its isozyme content and activity in the whole blood, liver, thigh muscle, brain and testes tissues were studied in the present work. For this purpose male Wistar rats with body weight 190–220 g were randomly divided into three groups, they were orally administered drinking water (control group or taurine solution 40 and 100 mg per kg of body weight ( groups I and II, respectively. The total lactate dehydrogenase activity was measured spectrophotometrically, the percentage content of isozymes was determined by electrophoresis in 7.5% poliacrylamide gel with further staining according to J. Garbus. It was found that the total lactate dehydrogenase activity increased in all studied tissues. In testes of animals of both groups and in brain of group I animals, the total percentage contents of isozymes that are responsible for lactate production (LDH4+LDH5 increased. In liver of animals of both groups and in whole blood of group II animals, the total percentage content of isozymes that produce pyruvate (LDH1+LDH2 increased. In thigh muscle of both groups and in brain of group II animals the balance between LDH1+LDH2 and LDH4+LDH5 content did not differ from control values, though total lactate dehydrogenase activity was significantly higher, than that in the control group. Thus, the increase in the lactate dehydrogenase activity under long-term oral taurine administration in different rat tissues was found to be tissue- and dose-dependent and was caused by the increase in the content of different isozymes. Such increase in group I animals might be explained by adaptive mechanisms to hypoxia caused by high doses of taurine. For group II animals high doses of taurine were toxic and directly affected metabolic processes in the animal bodies.

  4. Effect of taurine and N-acetylcysteine on methionine restriction-mediated adiposity resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshorbagy, Amany K; Valdivia-Garcia, Maria; Mattocks, Dwight A L; Plummer, Jason D; Orentreich, David S; Orentreich, Norman; Refsum, Helga; Perrone, Carmen E

    2013-04-01

    Methionine-restricted (MR) rats, which are lean and insulin sensitive, have low serum total cysteine (tCys) and taurine and decreased hepatic expression and activity indices of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase-1 (SCD1). These effects are partly or completely reversed by cysteine supplementation. We investigated whether reversal of MR phenotypes can be achieved by other sulfur compounds, namely taurine or N-acetylcysteine (NAC). MR and control-fed (CF) rats were supplemented with taurine (0.5%) or NAC (0.5%) for 12weeks. Adiposity, serum sulfur amino acids (SAA), Scd1 gene expression in liver and white adipose tissue, and SCD1 activity indices (calculated from serum fatty acid profile) were monitored. Taurine supplementation of MR rats did not restore weight gain or hepatic Scd1 expression or indices to CF levels, but further decreased adiposity. Taurine supplementation of CF rats did not affect adiposity, but lowered triglyceridemia. NAC supplementation in MR rats raised tCys and partly or completely reversed MR effects on weight, fat %, Scd1 expression in liver and white adipose tissue, and estimated SCD1 activity. In CF rats, NAC decreased body fat % and lowered SCD1-18 activity index (Ptaurine as a mediator of increased adiposity produced by cysteine in MR, and show that NAC, similar to L-cysteine, blocks anti-obesity effects of MR. Our data show that dietary SAA can influence adiposity in part through mechanisms that converge on SCD1 function. This may have implications for understanding and preventing human obesity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. ACTIVITY AND ISOZYME CONTENT OF LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE UNDER LONG-TERM ORAL TAURINE ADMINISTRATION TO RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostapiv, R D; Humenyuk, S L; Manko, V V

    2015-01-01

    The effect of long-term oral taurine administration to rats on activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), its isozyme content and activity in the whole blood, liver, thigh muscle, brain and testes tissues were studied in the present work. For this purpose male Wistar rats with body weight 190-220 g were randomly divided into three groups, they were orally administered drinking water (control group) or taurine solution 40 and 100 mg per kg of body weight ( groups I and II, respectively). The total lactate dehydrogenase activity was measured spectrophotometrically, the percentage content of isozymes was determined by electrophoresis in 7.5% poliacrylamide gel withfurther staining according to J. Garbus. It was found that the total lactate dehydrogenase activity increased in all studied tissues. In testes of animals of both groups and in brain of group I animals, the total percentage contents of isozymes that are responsible for lactate production (LDH4+LDH5) increased. In liver of animals of both groups and in whole blood of group II animals, the total percentage content of isozymes that produce pyruvate (LDH1+LDH2) increased. In thigh muscle of both groups and in brain of group II animals the balance between LDH1+LDH2 and LDH4+LDH5 content did not differ from control values, though total lactate dehydrogenase activity was significantly higher, than that in the control group. Thus, the increase in the lactate dehydrogenase activity under long-term oral taurine administration in different rat tissues was found to be tissue- and dose-dependent and was caused by the increase in the content of different isozymes. Such increase in group I animals might be explained by adaptive mechanisms to hypoxia caused by high doses of taurine. For group II animals high doses of taurine were toxic and directly affected metabolic processes in the animal bodies.

  6. The Effect of Taurine on the Recovery from Eccentric Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeay, Yanita; Stannard, Stephen; Barnes, Matthew

    2017-10-17

    Eccentric exercise is known to bring about microstructural damage to muscle, initiating an inflammatory cascade involving various reactive oxygen species. This, in turn, can significantly impair physical performance over subsequent days. Taurine, a powerful endogenous antioxidant, has previously been shown to have a beneficial effect on muscle damage markers and recovery when taken for a few days to several weeks prior to eccentric exercise. However, to date no studies have looked at the effects of supplementing over the days following eccentric exercise on performance recovery. Thus, this study aimed to determine whether supplementing with taurine over three days following eccentric exercise attenuated the rise in serum creatine kinase and improved performance recovery in males. In a blinded, randomized, crossover design, ten recreationally-fit male participants completed 60 eccentric contractions of the biceps brachii muscle at maximal effort. Following this, participants were supplemented with 0.1 g∙kg -1 body weight∙day -1 of either taurine or rice flour in capsules. Over the next three mornings participants underwent blood tests for the analysis of the muscle damage marker creatine kinase and carried out performance measures on the isokinetic dynamometer. They also continued to consume the capsules in the morning and evening. The entire protocol was repeated two weeks later on the alternate arm and supplement. Significant decreases were seen in all performance measures from pre- to 24-h post-eccentric exercise ( p taurine and placebo, indicating the attainment of muscle damage. Significant treatment effects were observed only for peak eccentric torque ( p effects were observed (all p > 0.05). Serum creatine kinase levels did not significantly differ over time for either treatments, nor between treatments ( p > 0.05). These findings suggest that taurine supplementation taken twice daily for 72 h following eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage may help

  7. Analysis of MTHFR, CBS, Glutathione, Taurine, and Hydrogen Sulfide Levels in Retinas of Hyperhomocysteinemic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xuezhi; Navneet, Soumya; Wang, Jing; Roon, Penny; Chen, Wei; Xian, Ming; Smith, Sylvia B

    2017-04-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia (Hhcy) is implicated in certain retinal neurovascular diseases, although whether it is causative remains uncertain. In isolated ganglion cells (GCs), mild Hhcy induces profound death, whereas retinal phenotypes in Hhcy mice caused by mutations in remethylation (methylene tetrahydrofolatereductase [Mthfr+/-]) or transsulfuration pathways (cystathionine β-synthase [Cbs+/-]) demonstrate mild GC loss and mild vasculopathy. The current work investigated compensation in vivo of one pathway for the other, and, because the transsulfuration pathway yields cysteine necessary for formation of glutathione (GSH), taurine, and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), they were analyzed also. Retinas isolated from wild-type (WT), Mthfr+/-, and Cbs+/- mice (12 and 22 weeks) were analyzed for methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), and cystathionase (CTH) RNA/protein levels. Retinas were evaluated for levels of reduced:oxidized GSH (GSH:GSSG), Slc7a11 (xCT), taurine, taurine transporter (TAUT), and H2S. Aside from decreased CBS RNA/protein levels in Cbs+/- retinas, there were minimal alterations in remethylation/transsulfuration pathways in the two mutant mice strains. Glutathione and taurine levels in Mthfr+/- and Cbs+/- retinas were similar to WT, which may be due to robust levels of xCT and TAUT in mutant retinas. Interestingly, levels of H2S were markedly increased in retinas of Mthfr+/- and Cbs+/- mice compared with WT. Ganglion cell loss and vasculopathy observed in Mthfr+/- and Cbs+/- mouse retinas may be milder than expected, not because of compensatory increases of enzymes in remethylation/transsulfuration pathways, but because downstream transsulfuration pathway products GSH, taurine, and H2S are maintained at robust levels. Elevation of H2S is particularly intriguing owing to neuroprotective properties reported for this gasotransmitter.

  8. Superoxide dismutase and taurine supplementation improves in vitro blastocyst yield from poor-quality feline oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochota, Małgorzata; Pasieka, Anna; Niżański, Wojciech

    2016-03-15

    Blastocyst production in vitro seems to be crucial part of assisted reproduction techniques in feline species. However, the results of cats' oocyte maturation and embryo development are still lower than those in other species. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the supplementation with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and taurine during maturation or culture would improve the blastocyst yield obtained from lower grades of oocytes, that are usually discarded, as not suitable for further in vitro purposes. To investigate the effect of antioxidants' addition, the good- and poor-quality oocytes, were cultured with the addition of 10-mmol taurine and 600 UI/mL SOD. The nuclear maturity, embryo development, and blastocyst quality were subsequently assessed. In control group, without antioxidant supplementation, significantly less poor-quality oocytes matured (42% vs. 62%) and more degenerated (35% vs. 20%), comparing to the experimental group supplemented with SOD and taurine. The amount of obtained blastocyst was much higher, when poor quality oocytes were supplemented with SOD and taurine (supplementation to IVM-4%; supplementation to IVC-5.5%; supplementation to IVM and IVC-5.9% of blastocyst), comparing to not supplemented control group (1.3%). The best blastocysts were obtained when poor oocytes had antioxidants added only during embryo culture (185 ± 13.4 blastomeres vs. 100 ± 1.5 in control). In the present study, we reported that the lower grades of oocytes can better mature and form significantly more blastocysts with better quality, when cultured with addition of SOD and taurine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of myeloperoxidase in abdominal aortic aneurysm formation: mitigation by taurine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ha Won; Blomkalns, Andra L; Ogbi, Mourad; Thomas, Manesh; Gavrila, Daniel; Neltner, Bonnie S; Cassis, Lisa A; Thompson, Robert W; Weiss, Robert M; Lindower, Paul D; Blanco, Victor M; McCormick, Michael L; Daugherty, Alan; Fu, Xiaoming; Hazen, Stanley L; Stansfield, Brian K; Huo, Yuqing; Fulton, David J; Chatterjee, Tapan; Weintraub, Neal L

    2017-12-01

    Oxidative stress plays a fundamental role in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) formation. Activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (or neutrophils) are associated with AAA and express myeloperoxidase (MPO), which promotes inflammation, matrix degradation, and other pathological features of AAA, including enhanced oxidative stress through generation of reactive oxygen species. Both plasma and aortic MPO levels are elevated in patients with AAA, but the role of MPO in AAA pathogenesis has, heretofore, never been investigated. Here, we show that MPO gene deletion attenuates AAA formation in two animal models: ANG II infusion in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice and elastase perfusion in C57BL/6 mice. Oral administration of taurine [1% or 4% (wt/vol) in drinking water], an amino acid known to react rapidly with MPO-generated oxidants like hypochlorous acid, also prevented AAA formation in the ANG II and elastase models as well as the CaCl 2 application model of AAA formation while reducing aortic peroxidase activity and aortic protein-bound dityrosine levels, an oxidative cross link formed by MPO. Both MPO gene deletion and taurine supplementation blunted aortic macrophage accumulation, elastin fragmentation, and matrix metalloproteinase activation, key features of AAA pathogenesis. Moreover, MPO gene deletion and taurine administration significantly attenuated the induction of serum amyloid A, which promotes ANG II-induced AAAs. These data implicate MPO in AAA pathogenesis and suggest that studies exploring whether taurine can serve as a potential therapeutic for the prevention or treatment of AAA in patients merit consideration. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Neutrophils are abundant in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), and myeloperoxidase (MPO), prominently expressed in neutrophils, is associated with AAA in humans. This study demonstrates that MPO gene deletion or supplementation with the natural product taurine, which can scavenge MPO-generated oxidants, can prevent AAA formation

  10. The Effect of Taurine on the Recovery from Eccentric Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanita McLeay

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Eccentric exercise is known to bring about microstructural damage to muscle, initiating an inflammatory cascade involving various reactive oxygen species. This, in turn, can significantly impair physical performance over subsequent days. Taurine, a powerful endogenous antioxidant, has previously been shown to have a beneficial effect on muscle damage markers and recovery when taken for a few days to several weeks prior to eccentric exercise. However, to date no studies have looked at the effects of supplementing over the days following eccentric exercise on performance recovery. Thus, this study aimed to determine whether supplementing with taurine over three days following eccentric exercise attenuated the rise in serum creatine kinase and improved performance recovery in males. In a blinded, randomized, crossover design, ten recreationally-fit male participants completed 60 eccentric contractions of the biceps brachii muscle at maximal effort. Following this, participants were supplemented with 0.1 g∙kg−1 body weight∙day−1 of either taurine or rice flour in capsules. Over the next three mornings participants underwent blood tests for the analysis of the muscle damage marker creatine kinase and carried out performance measures on the isokinetic dynamometer. They also continued to consume the capsules in the morning and evening. The entire protocol was repeated two weeks later on the alternate arm and supplement. Significant decreases were seen in all performance measures from pre- to 24-h post-eccentric exercise (p < 0.001 for both taurine and placebo, indicating the attainment of muscle damage. Significant treatment effects were observed only for peak eccentric torque (p < 0.05. No significant time × treatment effects were observed (all p > 0.05. Serum creatine kinase levels did not significantly differ over time for either treatments, nor between treatments (p > 0.05. These findings suggest that taurine supplementation taken twice

  11. Effect of taurine and gold nanoparticles on the morphological and molecular characteristics of muscle development during chicken embryogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielinska, Marlena; Sawosz, Ewa; Grodzik, Marta

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the effects of taurine and Au nanoparticles on the expression of genes related to embryonic muscle development and on the morphological characteristics of muscles. Fertilised chicken eggs (n = 160) were randomly divided into four groups......: without injection (Control) and with injection of Au nanoparticles (NanoAu), taurine (Tau) or Au nanoparticles with taurine (NanoAu + Tau). The experimental solutions were given in ovo, on the third day of incubation, by injec