WorldWideScience

Sample records for taught older adults

  1. "Making the Ordinary More Extraordinary": Exploring Creativity as a Health Promotion Practice Among Older Adults in a Community-Based Professionally Taught Arts Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Adelita G; Fleuriet, K Jill

    2018-06-01

    Document psychosocial and mental well-being outcomes across artistic mediums and classes of a community-based, professionally taught arts program for older adults. One hundred and thirty-eight students completed pre and post class surveys about expectations/experiences when creating art in four mediums (painting, drawing, mixed media, creative writing). In addition, 162 students composed one-paragraph biographical narratives describing their relationships to art and creative engagement. Text was coded for a priori and emergent themes to identify and explain well-being outcomes. Results of this new study supported and expanded our earlier model of improved psychosocial and mental well-being due to creative engagement: impact of class-cognitive focus and outcome of class-cognitive focus, happiness as component of mental and social well-being due to creative engagement, and robust sense of calmness during the creative process. Results suggest that professionally taught arts programming can contribute to well-being and may contribute to brain health through promoting an enhanced ability to focus. Holistic nursing treats creativity as healing, and results suggest that creative engagement should be a priority in therapeutic programming, and individual counseling for older adults to begin engaging in some form of art making suited to their abilities should be incorporated into nursing practice.

  2. Learning through Teaching: Exploring What Conservatoire Students Learn from Teaching Beginner Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Rosie; Aufegger, Lisa; Williamon, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Music is increasingly recognised as important in facilitating healthy ageing, yet little is known of what musicians themselves learn when they teach older adults. This article reports the practices of the "Rhythm for Life" project at the Royal College of Music in the UK, in which conservatoire students taught 10-week programmes of group…

  3. Cancer in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Navigating Cancer Care > For Older Adults For Older Adults A full-text transcript is available. More than ... Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young Adults For Older Adults Aging and Cancer Cancer Care Decisions for ...

  4. Depression in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here Home » Depression In Older Adults: More Facts Depression In Older Adults: More Facts Depression affects more ... combination of both. [8] Older Adult Attitudes Toward Depression: According to a Mental Health America survey [9] ...

  5. Older Adults and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS Older Adults A national 2008 survey found that about 40 ... of adults ages 65 and older drink alcohol. Older adults can experience a variety of problems from drinking ...

  6. Obesity Prevention in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Stella Lucia; Sukumar, Deeptha; Milliron, Brandy-Joe

    2016-06-01

    The number of older adults living in the USA, 65 years of age and older, has been steadily increasing. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2010, indicate that more than one-third of older adults, 65 years of age and older, were obese. With the increased rate of obesity in older adults, the purpose of this paper is to present research on different methods to prevent or manage obesity in older adults, namely dietary interventions, physical activity interventions, and a combination of dietary and physical activity interventions. In addition, research on community assistance programs in the prevention of obesity with aging will be discussed. Finally, data on federal programs for older adults will also be presented.

  7. Barriers to nutrition education for older adults, and nutrition and aging training opportunities for educators, healthcare providers,volunteers and caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meck Higgins, Mary; Barkley, Mary Clarke

    2004-01-01

    Literature citations of barriers to nutrition education found in those who teach and care for older adults, as well as within older adults themselves, are discussed. No attempt was made to compare educational barriers for learners of varying ages. These obstacles need to be addressed in order for nutrition to be taught or learned effectively so that nutrition practices and health improve. Barriers for healthcare professionals to providing nutrition education include misconceptions and stereotypes about older adults and about their nutritional concerns; lack of attention to and lack of funding for older adult educational programs; and difficulties recruiting older learners. Hindrances for older adults in responding to nutrition education can be categorized as attitudinal, motivational, environmental, and related to low literacy and poverty. Published examples of opportunities for education and training about nutrition and aging that are in place for health educators, healthcare providers, volunteers and caregivers regarding nutrition and aging are discussed. Suggestions are presented regarding future efforts to minimize educational barriers and to provide training for healthcare professionals, volunteers and caregivers. New research is needed in this field of study in order to realize the potential quality of life benefits and reduced healthcare costs associated with providing effective nutrition education to older adults. This is one of a series of reviews of recent literature on nutrition education for older adults.

  8. Is the topic of malnutrition in older adults addressed in the European nursing curricula? A MaNuEL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglseer, Doris; Halfens, Ruud J G; Schüssler, Sandra; Visser, Marjolein; Volkert, Dorothee; Lohrmann, Christa

    2018-05-26

    The lack of sufficient knowledge of health care professionals is one main barrier to implementing adequate nutritional interventions. Until now, it is not known to which extent European nurses are exposed to the topic of malnutrition in older adults during their education. To determine whether formal nursing degree programs in Europe address the topic of nutrition and, specifically, malnutrition in older adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted using an online-survey. The online-survey link was e-mailed to 926 nursing education institutions in 31 European countries. This study was conducted as part of the Healthy Diet for Healthy Life Joint Programming Initiative, Malnutrition in the Elderly Knowledge Hub (MaNuEL) project. Descriptive analyses were performed using SPSS. Associations were calculated using the chi-square tests and Fisher's exact test. The response rate of our survey was 14.2% (131 institutions). Of these, 113 (86.3%) addressed the topic of nutrition in their educational programs, and 73.7% addressed the topic of malnutrition in older adults. Malnutrition screening (70.8%), causes (67.2%) and consequences (68.7%) of malnutrition were frequently-addressed topics of content. Topics that were rarely addressed included nutritional support in intensive care units (ICU) (23.7%), cooperation in multidisciplinary nutrition teams (28.2%), dietary counselling (32.1%) and the responsibilities of various professions in nutritional support (35.1%). The topic of malnutrition in older adults is taught by nurses in 52.7%, by dietitians in 23.7%, by nutritional scientists in 18.3%, and physicians in 19.8% of the institutions. The topics of malnutrition and malnutrition screening are currently not included in the content of nutrition courses taught at nearly 30% of the European educational institutions for nurses. Nursing educators urgently need to improve curriculum content with respect to the topic of malnutrition in older adults to enable nurses to provide high

  9. Effective communication with older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Louise

    2017-06-07

    Communication is an essential aspect of life, yet it can be taken for granted. Its centrality to being in the world and in professional practice often becomes evident when nurses and older adults encounter communication difficulties. The factors that can affect nurses' communication with older adults relate to the older adult, the nurse, sociocultural considerations and the environment, and the interactions between these factors. In adopting a person-centred approach to communicating with older adults, it is necessary to get to know the person as an individual and ensure communication meets their needs and abilities. Effective communication is essential in nursing practice and requires professional competence and engagement. This article can be used by nurses to support effective communication with older adults across the continuum of care.

  10. Dehydration in the Older Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Hayley J

    2015-09-01

    Dehydration affects 20% to 30% of older adults. It has a greater negative outcome in this population than in younger adults and increases mortality, morbidity, and disability. Dehydration is often caused by water deprivation in older adults, although excess water loss may also be a cause. Traditional markers for dehydration do not take into consideration many of the physiological differences present in older adults. Clinical assessment of dehydration in older adults poses different findings, yet is not always diagnostic. Treatment of dehydration should focus on prevention and early diagnosis before it negatively effects health and gives rise to comorbidities. The current article discusses what has most thoroughly been studied; the best strategies and assessment tools for evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of dehydration in older adults; and what needs to be researched further. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 41(9), 8-13.]. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Non-native Speech Learning in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvalson, Erin M; Nowicki, Casandra; Zong, Audrey; Wong, Patrick C M

    2017-01-01

    Though there is an extensive literature investigating the ability of younger adults to learn non-native phonology, including investigations into individual differences in younger adults' lexical tone learning, very little is known about older adults' ability to learn non-native phonology, including lexical tone. There are several reasons to suspect that older adults would use different learning mechanisms when learning lexical tone than younger adults, including poorer perception of dynamic pitch, greater reliance on working memory capacity in second language learning, and poorer category learning in older adulthood. The present study examined the relationships among older adults' baseline sensitivity for pitch patterns, working memory capacity, and declarative memory capacity with their ability to learn to associate tone with lexical meaning. In older adults, baseline pitch pattern sensitivity was not associated with generalization performance. Rather, older adults' learning performance was best predicted by declarative memory capacity. These data suggest that training paradigms will need to be modified to optimize older adults' non-native speech sound learning success.

  12. Pain management in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Bridget; Sean Morrison, R

    2013-11-01

    Chronic pain is prevalent among older adults but is underrecognized and undertreated. The approach to pain assessment and management in older adults requires an understanding of the physiology of aging, validated assessment tools, and common pain presentations among older adults. To identify the overall principles of pain management in older adults with a specific focus on common painful conditions and approaches to pharmacologic treatment. We searched PubMed for common pain presentations in older adults with heart failure, end-stage renal disease, dementia, frailty, and cancer. We also reviewed guidelines for pain management. Our review encompassed 2 guidelines, 10 original studies, and 22 review articles published from 2000 to the present. This review does not discuss nonpharmacologic treatments of pain. Clinical guidelines support the use of opioids in persistent nonmalignant pain. Opioids should be used in patients with moderate or severe pain or pain not otherwise controlled but with careful attention to potential toxic effects and half-life. In addition, clinical practice guidelines recommend use of oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with extreme caution and for defined, limited periods. An understanding of the basics of pain pathophysiology, assessment, pharmacologic management, and a familiarity with common pain presentations will allow clinicians to effectively manage pain for older adults. © 2013 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Older Adults and Gambling: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses the social cognitive theory model to review the literature on older adult gambling, and related personal and environment characteristics. Results show that lottery is the kind of gambling most frequently played by older adults, followed by casino games. Older adults take trips to casinos to socialize, find excitement, and win…

  14. AIDS and the Older Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allers, Christopher T.

    1990-01-01

    Older adults are finding themselves the neighbors of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients as well as the primary caregivers of infected adult children. Focuses on roles, issues, and conflicts older adults face in dealing with relatives or neighbors with AIDS. Case management and educational intervention strategies are also offered.…

  15. Young Adults' Implicit and Explicit Attitudes towards the Sexuality of Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ashley E; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Byers, E Sandra; Shaughnessy, Krystelle

    2014-09-01

    Sexual interest and capacity can extend far into later life and result in many positive health outcomes. Yet there is little support for sexual expression in later life, particularly among young adults. This study assessed and compared young adults' explicit and implicit attitudes towards older adult sexuality. A sample of 120 participants (18-24 years; 58% female) completed a self-report (explicit) measure and a series of Implicit Association Tests capturing attitudes towards sexuality among older adults. Despite reporting positive explicit attitudes, young people revealed an implicit bias against the sexual lives of older adults. In particular, young adults demonstrated implicit biases favouring general, as compared to sexual, activities and young adults as compared to older adults. Moreover, the bias favouring general activities was amplified with regard to older adults as compared to younger adults. Our findings challenge the validity of research relying on self-reports of attitudes about older adult sexuality.

  16. Sociality and intergenerational transfer of older adults' nostalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Robertson, Sara

    2018-05-03

    Interest in nostalgia has blossomed, yet its nature in older adulthood and potential for intergenerational transfer to younger adults has remained neglected. In Experiment 1, we focused on the content of older adults' nostalgic (vs. ordinary) recollections and asked whether older adults' nostalgia could be transferred to younger adults. We showed that nostalgia expressed in older adults' narratives was positively associated with nostalgia reported by young-adult readers. In Experiment 2, undergraduates read a nostalgic or ordinary narrative written by an older adult. Then they rated their own nostalgia as well as their perceived social connectedness, self-continuity, and meaning in life. Exposure to older adults' nostalgic (vs. ordinary) narratives promoted concurrent nostalgia among young adults, along with associated psychological benefits (social connectedness, self-continuity, meaning). The findings illustrate the potential for intergenerational transfer of nostalgia through written narratives, and attest to the universality of nostalgic themes across younger and older adults.

  17. Hypnosis for pain management in the older adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, Norma G

    2005-09-01

    Pain is a physical, emotional and psychologic phenomenon that is often ignored in older adults causing depression and poor quality of life. Older adults report the use of complementary and alternative medicine in some form with 80% of these users reporting improvement in their health conditions. Although physical pain in the older adult is usually managed with pharmacologic interventions, methods that may reduce the use of prescription drugs may decrease adverse effects that can compromise the physiologic state of the older adult. Hypnosis has continued to gain acceptance within mainstream medicine as an appropriate treatment and can be integrated safely with conventional medicine as an effective treatment for a variety of conditions in the older adult. It is an intervention that can be used for relaxation and pain control, especially when conventional pharmacologic regimens have failed. The purpose of this article is to review the concepts related to pain in older adults; the use of complementary and alternative medicine in the older adult; hypnosis and the older adult (i.e., background, definition, benefits, research, mechanism of action, hypnotizability, and the process); and the implications of using hypnosis for pain management in the older adult.

  18. Suicide in older adults: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conejero, Ismael; Olié, Emilie; Courtet, Philippe; Calati, Raffaella

    2018-01-01

    Suicidal behavior in older adults (65 years old and over) is a major public health issue in many countries. Suicide rates increase during the life course and are as high as 48.7/100,000 among older white men in the USA. Specific health conditions and stress factors increase the complexity of the explanatory model for suicide in older adults. A PubMed literature search was performed to identify most recent and representative studies on suicide risk factors in older adults. The aim of our narrative review was to provide a critical evaluation of recent findings concerning specific risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors among older people: psychiatric and neurocognitive disorders, social exclusion, bereavement, cognitive impairment, decision making and cognitive inhibition, physical illnesses, and physical and psychological pain. We also aimed to approach the problem of euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide in older adults. Our main findings emphasize the need to integrate specific stress factors, such as feelings of social disconnectedness, neurocognitive impairment or decision making, as well as chronic physical illnesses and disability in suicide models and in suicide prevention programs in older adults. Furthermore, the chronic care model should be adapted for the treatment of older people with long-term conditions in order to improve the treatment of depressive disorders and the prevention of suicidal thoughts and acts. PMID:29719381

  19. Configuring Dementia; How Nursing Students Are Taught to Shape the Sociopolitical Role of Gerontechnologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Melind Bergschöld

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to the discussion on the materiality of age and aging in this special issue by presenting a case that illustrates how nursing students are trained to shape gerontechnologies in ways that have sociopolitical consequences for older adults with dementia who are aging at home. Drawing on ethnographical fieldwork and grounded theory, I deliberately stage a dialog between STS theory on technology, and relational approaches to the social study of dementia in an analysis of a lecture where master students in a university nursing program learn about gerontechnology and dementia. I identify inability to purposively use technology, recalcitrance, and attentiveness as three problematic behaviors that are described as typical for older adults with dementia who are aging at home, and selection and placement of gerontechnologies as two ways in which the nursing students are taught to delimit this behavior by material means. I show how selection and placement of gerontechnologies are means by which care professionals shape gerontechnologies in ways that can disempower older adults who are aging at home, and I show how the educators draw on a biomedical understanding of dementia to accomplish a link between disempowering, and caring for older adults with dementia. I argue that care professionals practices of shaping gerontechnologies can be understood as empirical sites where care professionals exercise power over older adults with dementia who are aging at home by sociomaterial means. I conclude that there is a continued need for studies of gerontechnologies that stage analytical dialogs between STS theory and understandings from other fields with longer traditions of studying processes of aging, to further elucidate how gerontechnologies can matter to older adults and the experience of aging.

  20. Changing Medical Students' Attitudes toward Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Ernest; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Gilbert, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Given the growth in the number of older adults and the ageist attitudes many in the health care profession hold, interventions aimed at improving health professionals' attitudes toward older adults are imperative. Vital Visionaries is an intergenerational art program designed to improve medical students' attitudes toward older adults. Participants…

  1. Physiological Parameters Database for Older Adults

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Physiological Parameters Database for Older Adults is available for download and contains physiological parameters values for healthy older human adults (age 60...

  2. Older, wiser, and happier? Comparing older adults' and college students' self-defining memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Jefferson; Rexhaj, Blerim; Baddeley, Jenna

    2007-11-01

    The present study compared self-defining memories in adults 50 years of age and older to the self-defining memories of college students. Findings are largely congruent with previous memory and ageing research, but shed additional light on how personal memories are employed to achieve a sense of identity and continuity in older adults. Older adults' self-defining memories, compared to those of younger adults, were more positive in emotional tone, more summarised and less detailed, and more likely to contain integrative meaning. The implications of these findings for assessing normative personal memory in older adults are discussed along with more general observations about narrative identity in older adulthood.

  3. Catastrophic events and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloyd, Elizabeth; Dyer, Carmel B

    2010-12-01

    The plight of older adults during catastrophic events is a societal concern. Older persons have an increased prevalence of cognitive disorders, chronic illnesses, and mobility problems that limit their ability to cope. These disorders may result in a lack of mental capacity and the ability to discern when they should evacuate or resolve problems encountered during a catastrophe. Some older persons may have limited transportation options, and many of the elderly survivors are at increased risk for abuse, neglect, and exploitation. Recommendations for future catastrophic events include the development of a federal tracking system for elders and other vulnerable adults, the designation of separate shelter areas for elders and other vulnerable adults, and involvement of gerontological professionals in all aspects of emergency preparedness and care delivery, including training of frontline workers. Preparation through preevent planning that includes region-specific social services, medical and public health resources, volunteers, and facilities for elders and vulnerable adults is critical. Elders need to be protected from abuse and fraud during catastrophic events. A public health triage system for elders and other vulnerable populations in pre- and postdisaster situations is useful, and disaster preparedness is paramount. Communities and members of safety and rescue teams must address ethical issues before an event. When older adults are involved, consideration needs to be given to triage decision making, transporting those who are immobile, the care of older adults who receive palliative care, and the equitable distribution of resources. Nurses are perfectly equipped with the skills, knowledge, and training needed to plan and implement disaster preparedness programs. In keeping with the tradition of Florence Nightingale, nurses can assume several crucial roles in disaster preparedness for older adults. Nurses possess the ability to participate and lead community

  4. Clinical Interviewing with Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohlman, Jan; Sirota, Karen Gainer; Papp, Laszlo A.; Staples, Alison M.; King, Arlene; Gorenstein, Ethan E.

    2012-01-01

    Over the next few decades the older adult population will increase dramatically, and prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders are also expected to increase in the elderly cohort. These demographic projections highlight the need for diagnostic instruments and methods that are specifically tailored to older adults. The current paper discusses the…

  5. A comparative study of negative life events and depressive symptoms among healthy older adults and older adults with chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Gao, Tingting; Gao, Jinglei; Kong, Yixi; Hu, Yueyang; Wang, Ruimei; Mei, Songli

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to study internal relations and functionary mechanism between social support, coping style, negative life events and depressive symptoms and compare these relations in healthy older adults and older adults with chronic disease. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015. In total, 1,264 older adults with chronic disease and 749 healthy older adults participated in this investigation which consist of socio-demographic characters, negative life events, social support, coping style and depressive symptoms. The path and direction of variable function in healthy older adults were inconsistent with older adults with chronic disease. Older adults with chronic disease had more severe depressive symptoms and negative life events, and lower social support and positive coping style. Negative life events, subjective support, positive coping style and negative coping style were significantly predicted depressive symptoms. Objective support may weaken the influence of negative life events on depressive symptoms in chronic disease group. Utilization of support and positive coping style worsen the effect of negative life events on depressive symptoms in healthy older adults. This study implied that to improve their mental health, attention should be paid to the role of biological, psychological and social stress factors and its inherent law of interaction.

  6. Perceptions of exercise screening among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathokostas, Liza; Petrella, Andrea F M; Blunt, Wendy; Petrella, Robert J

    2018-06-01

    Prephysical activity screening is important for older adults' participating in physical activity. Unfortunately, many older adults face barriers to exercise participation and thus, may not complete proper physical activity screening. The purpose of this project was to conduct a thematic analysis of perceptions and experiences of community-dwelling older adults regarding prephysical activity screening (i.e., Get Active Questionnaire (GAQ) and a standardized exercise stress test). A convenience sample of adults (male n = 58, female n = 54) aged 75 ± 7 years living in the City of London, Ontario, Canada, was used. Participants completed a treadmill stress test and the GAQ at a research laboratory for community-based referrals. One week later, participants completed the GAQ again and were asked questions by a research assistant about their perceptions of the screening process. Thematic analysis of the responses was conducted. The results indicated that older adults view physical activity screening as acceptable, but not always necessary. Also, the experiences expressed by this sample of older adults indicated that physical activity screening can contribute to continued confidence (through reassurance) and can contribute to increased motivation (through yearly fitness results) in exercise participation. In conclusion, older adults may perceive screening as supportive in exercise adoption, if screening is simple, convenient, and supports older adults' motivation and confidence to exercise.

  7. Suicide in older adults: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conejero I

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ismael Conejero,1,2 Emilie Olié,1–3 Philippe Courtet,1–3 Raffaella Calati1–3 1Institut National de la Santé Et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM, University of Montpellier, Neuropsychiatry: Epidemiological and Clinical Research, Montpellier, France; 2Department of Emergency Psychiatry and Post-Acute Care, Lapeyronie Hospital, Center Hospitalier Universitairere (CHU Montpellier, Montpellier, France; 3FondaMental Foundation, Créteil, France Abstract: Suicidal behavior in older adults (65 years old and over is a major public health issue in many countries. Suicide rates increase during the life course and are as high as 48.7/100,000 among older white men in the USA. Specific health conditions and stress factors increase the complexity of the explanatory model for suicide in older adults. A PubMed literature search was performed to identify most recent and representative studies on suicide risk factors in older adults. The aim of our narrative review was to provide a critical evaluation of recent findings concerning specific risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors among older people: psychiatric and neurocognitive disorders, social exclusion, bereavement, cognitive impairment, decision making and cognitive inhibition, physical illnesses, and physical and psychological pain. We also aimed to approach the problem of euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide in older adults. Our main findings emphasize the need to integrate specific stress factors, such as feelings of social disconnectedness, neurocognitive impairment or decision making, as well as chronic physical illnesses and disability in suicide models and in suicide prevention programs in older adults. Furthermore, the chronic care model should be adapted for the treatment of older people with long-term conditions in order to improve the treatment of depressive disorders and the prevention of suicidal thoughts and acts. Keywords: suicide, attempted suicide, older adults, risk

  8. Physical activity during hospitalization: Activities and preferences of adults versus older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesters, Jorit; Conijn, D; Vermeulen, H M; Vliet Vlieland, Tpm

    2018-04-16

    Inactivity during hospitalization leads to a functional decline and an increased risk of complications. To date, studies focused on older adults. This study aims to compare the physical activities performed by older adult and adult hospitalized patients. Patients hospitalized for >3 days at a university hospital completed a questionnaire regarding their physical activities (% of days on which an activity was performed divided by the length of stay) and physical activity needs during hospitalization. Crude and adjusted comparisons of older adult (>60 years) and adult (≤60 years) patients were performed using parametric testing and regression analyses. Of 524 patients, 336 (64%) completed the questionnaire, including 166 (49%) older adult patients. On average, the patients were physically active on 35% or less of the days during their hospitalization. Linear regression analysis showed no significant associations between being an older adult and performing physical activities after adjusting for gender, length of stay, surgical intervention, and meeting physical activity recommendations prior to hospitalization. Most patients were well informed regarding physical activity during hospitalization; however, the older adult patients reported a need for information regarding physical activities after hospitalization more frequently (odds ratios, 2.47) after adjusting for educational level, gender, and physical therapy during hospitalization. Both older adult and adult patients are physically inactive during hospitalization, and older adult patients express a greater need for additional information regarding physical activity after hospitalization than adult patients. Therefore, personalized strategies that inform and motivate patients to resume physical activities during hospitalization are needed regardless of age.

  9. Attitudes of neurology specialists toward older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seferoğlu, Meral; Yıldız, Demet; Pekel, Nilüfer Büyükkoyuncu; Güneş, Aygül; Yıldız, Abdülmecit; Tufan, Fatih

    2017-08-01

    Attitude of healthcare providers toward older people is very important in the aging world. Neurologists contact older adults very frequently. We aimed to investigate the attitudes of neurologists toward older adults. We recorded participants age; sex; duration of clinical practice in neurology; existence of older adult relatives; and history of geriatrics education, nursing home visits, older adult patient density in their clinical practice, and participation in voluntary public activities. UCLA Geriatrics Attitude Scale was used to evaluate participants' attitudes. A total of 100 neurologists participated in this study. Seventy-seven percent had positive, 3 % had neutral, and 20 % had negative attitudes. Twenty-seven percent of the participants had history of geriatrics education, and these participants tended to have a higher rate of positive attitudes. Neurologists with positive attitudes tended to be older than those with negative attitudes. Participants with history of living with older adult relatives had lower rates of positive attitudes. The most common diagnoses of the patients the participants encountered were stroke and dementia. Independent factors associated with positive attitudes were history of geriatrics education and older age. History of living with older relatives tended to have a negative effect. Most of the negative items of the attitude scale were associated with the natural course and behavior of the common diseases in neurology practice. Generalization of geriatrics education may translate into a better understanding and improved care for older patients. Development of instruments and implementation of qualitative studies to assess attitudes of neurologists toward older adults are needed.

  10. Resilience in Rural Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Context: Identifying ways to meet the health care needs of older adults is important because their numbers are increasing and they often have more health care issues. High resilience level may be one factor that helps older adults adjust to the hardships associated with aging. Rural community-dwelling older adults often face unique challenges such…

  11. Stumbling over obstacles in older adults compared to young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schillings, AM; Mulder, T; Duysens, J

    Falls are a major problem in older adults. Many falls occur because of stumbling. The aim of the present study is to investigate stumbling reactions of older adults and to compare them with young adults. While subjects walked on a treadmill, a rigid obstacle unexpectedly obstructed the forward sway

  12. Bridging the digital divide in older adults: a study from an initiative to inform older adults about new technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ya-Huei; Damnée, Souad; Kerhervé, Hélène; Ware, Caitlin; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie

    2015-01-01

    In a society where technology progresses at an exponential rate, older adults are often unaware of the existence of different kinds of information and communication technologies (ICTs). To bridge the gap, we launched a 2-year project, during which we conducted focus groups (FGs) with demonstrations of ICTs, allowing older adults to try them out and to share their opinions. This study aimed at investigating how participants perceived this kind of initiative and how they reacted to different kinds of ICTs. In total, 14 FGs were conducted with community-dwelling older adults, with a frequency of two FGs on the same topic once per trimester. Twenty-three older adults (four men and 19 women) attended at least one FG but only nearly half of them were regular attendants (ten participating in at least five sessions). Age of participants ranged from 63 years to 88 years, with a mean of 77.1 years. All of them had completed secondary education. The analyses of the data were performed according to inductive thematic analysis. Four overarching themes emerged from the analysis. The first concerned participants' motivation for and assessment of the project. The second theme identified the underlying factors of the "digital divide" between the younger and the older generations. The third theme concerned the factors of technology adoption among older adults. The fourth one identified participants' attitudes toward assistive ICTs, designed specifically for older adults ("gerontechnologies"). This project encouraging older adults to be informed about different kinds of ICTs was positively rated. With regard to ICTs, participants perceived a digital divide. The underlying factors are generation/cohort effects, cognitive and physical decline related to aging, and negative attitudes toward technologies. However, more and more older adults adopt different kinds of ICTs in order to fit in with the society. Concerning assistive ICTs, they manifested a lack of perceived need and usefulness

  13. Coping and health in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancura, Loriena A; Aldwin, Carolyn M

    2008-02-01

    Although coping has been shown to influence physical health in younger populations, whether coping affects health in older adults appears to depend upon how coping and health are conceptualized. This article reviews recent literature on coping and health in older adults in three areas. First, we discuss coping's distinct relevance to health in older adults. Second, we describe ways in which coping may differ between older and younger populations. Third, we detail recent and notable findings of coping's specific effects on biomedical health and health in general. The recent literature suggests that coping may be a developmental and multifaceted process. Positive coping strategies may have positive and even protective effects on health, whereas negative strategies may have negative effects.

  14. Dietary intake and nutritional status in cancer patients; comparing adults and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Valiente da Silva, Henyse; Fonseca de Andrade, Camila; Bello Moreira, Annie Seixas

    2014-04-01

    Evaluate the nutrient intake and nutritional status of food in cancer patients admitted to a university hospital, with comparison of adult and older adult age category. Cross-sectional study. This study involved cancer patients admitted to a hospital in 2010. Dietary habits were collected using a Brazilian food frequency questionnaire. Participants were divided in two groups: adults or older adults and in 4-cancer category: hematologic, lung, gastrointestinal and others. Body Mass Index evaluated nutritional status. A total of 86 patients with a mean age of 56.5 years, with 55% males and 42% older adults were evaluated. The older adult category had a higher frequency of being underweight (24.4% vs 16.3%, p cancer, nor with nutritional status. The food intake, macro and micronutrients ingestion is insufficient among cancer individuals. Food intake of older adults was inferior, when compared to the adult category. There was a high prevalence of BMI excess in the adult group and a worst nutritional status in the older adult category. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of chiropractic care in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dougherty Paul E

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are a rising number of older adults; in the US alone nearly 20% of the population will be 65 or older by 2030. Chiropractic is one of the most frequently utilized types of complementary and alternative care by older adults, used by an estimated 5% of older adults in the U.S. annually. Chiropractic care involves many different types of interventions, including preventive strategies. This commentary by experts in the field of geriatrics, discusses the evidence for the use of spinal manipulative therapy, acupuncture, nutritional counseling and fall prevention strategies as delivered by doctors of chiropractic. Given the utilization of chiropractic services by the older adult, it is imperative that providers be familiar with the evidence for and the prudent use of different management strategies for older adults.

  16. Older Adults' Acceptance of Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated variables contributing to older adults' information technology acceptance through a survey, which was used to find factors explaining and predicting older adults' information technology acceptance behaviors. Four factors, including needs satisfaction, perceived usability, support availability, and public acceptance, were…

  17. Emergency Department and Older Adult Motor Vehicle Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotfipour, Shahram

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention reported there were 33 million licensed drivers 65 years and older in the U.S. This represents a 23 percent increase from 1999, number that is predicted to double by 2030. Although, motor vehicle collisions (MVC-related to emergency department (ED visits for older adults are lower per capita than for younger adults, the older-adults MVCs require more resources, such as additional diagnostic imaging and increased odds of admission. Addressing the specific needs of older-adults could lead to better outcomes yet not enough research currently exists. It is important to continue training emergency physicians to treat the increasing older-patient population, but its also imperative we increase our injury prevention and screening methodology. We review research findings from the article: Emergency Department Visits by Older Adults for Motor Vehicle Collisions: A Five-year national study, with commentary on current recommendation and policies for the growing older-adult driving population. [West J Emerg Med.2013;14(6:582–584.

  18. Effects of a Forgiveness Intervention for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemand, Mathias; Steiner, Marianne; Hill, Patrick L.

    2013-01-01

    The authors' aim in the present study was to examine the effects of a brief forgiveness intervention for older adults. The psychoeducational group intervention consists of (a) established core components of previous forgiveness interventions and (b) additional components considering specific needs of older adults. Seventy-eight older adults (mean…

  19. Improving associative memory in older adults with unitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Fahad N; Fernandes, Myra; Hockley, William E

    2015-01-01

    We examined if unitization inherent preexperimentally could reduce the associative deficit in older adults. In Experiment 1, younger and older adults studied compound word (CW; e.g., store keeper) and noncompound word (NCW; e.g., needle birth) pairs. We found a reduction in the age-related associative deficit such that older but not younger adults showed a discrimination advantage for CW relative to NCW pairs on a yes-no associative recognition test. These results suggest that CW compared to NCW word pairs provide schematic support that older adults can use to improve their memory. In Experiment 2, reducing study time in younger adults decreased associative recognition performance, but did not produce a discrimination advantage for CW pairs. In Experiment 3, both older and younger adults showed a discrimination advantage for CW pairs on a two-alternative forced-choice recognition test, which encourages greater use of familiarity. These results suggest that test format influenced young adults' use of familiarity during associative recognition of unitized pairs, and that older adults rely more on familiarity than recollection for associative recognition. Unitization of preexperimental associations, as in CW pairs, can alleviate age-related associative deficits.

  20. Population Health Management for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkatch, Rifky; Musich, Shirley; MacLeod, Stephanie; Alsgaard, Kathleen; Hawkins, Kevin; Yeh, Charlotte S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The older adult population is expanding, living longer, with multiple chronic conditions. Understanding and managing their needs over time is an integral part of defining successful aging. Population health is used to describe the measurement and health outcomes of a population. Objectives: To define population health as applied to older adults, summarize lessons learned from current research, and identify potential interventions designed to promote successful aging and improved health for this population. Method: Online search engines were utilized to identify research on population health and health interventions for older adults. Results: Population health management (PHM) is one strategy to promote the health and well-being of target populations. Interventions promoting health across a continuum tend to be disease, risk, or health behavior specific rather than encompassing a global concept of health. Conclusion: Many existing interventions for older adults are simply research based with limited generalizability; as such, further work in this area is warranted. PMID:28680938

  1. Piloting the older adult financial exploitation measure in adult safeguarding services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, A; Fealy, G; Downes, C

    Financial abuse is arguably the most complex form of elder abuse as it may occur remote to the older person and it is impacted by issues such as cultural values, perpetrator intent and family expectations. Financial abuse may not be recognised by either the older person or the perpetrator, thus, its prevention, early identification and amelioration are important. The (Irish) National Centre for the Protection of Older People undertook a study to determine the appropriateness of the Older Adult Financial Exploitation Measure for use by the national safeguarding older person services. Findings from a small pilot study involving 16 safeguarding staff's use of the Older Adult Financial Exploitation Measure with 52 community dwelling older people referred to their service demonstrate a higher suspicion of financial abuse as well as identifying multiple instances of possible financial exploitation in a single individual. Thus, the Older Adult Financial Exploitation Measure is considered appropriate to assist safeguarding personnel's assessment of older people related to a suspicion of financial abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Alcohol and prescription drug safety in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanjani F

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Faika Zanjani,1,2 Aasha I Hoogland,1 Brian G Downer11Department of Gerontology, 2Building Interdisciplinary Research Careers in Women's Health University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USABackground: The objectives of this study were to investigate older adults' knowledge of prescription drug safety and interactions with alcohol, and to identify pharmacists' willingness to disseminate prescription drug safety information to older adults.Methods: The convenience sample consisted of 48 older adults aged 54–89 years who were recruited from a local pharmacy and who completed surveys addressing their alcohol consumption, understanding of alcohol and prescription drug interactions, and willingness to change habits regarding alcohol consumption and prescription drugs. To address pharmacist willingness, 90 pharmacists from local pharmacies volunteered and answered questions regarding their willingness to convey prescription drug safety information to older adults.Results: Older adults reported low knowledge of alcohol and prescription drug safety, with women tending to be slightly more knowledgeable. More importantly, those who drank in the previous few months were less willing to talk to family and friends about how alcohol can have harmful interactions with prescription drugs, or to be an advocate for safe alcohol and prescription drug use than those who had not had a drink recently. Pharmacists reported that they were willing to convey prescription drug safety information to older adults via a variety of formats, including displaying or distributing a flyer, and directly administering a brief intervention.Conclusion: In this study, older adults were found to have inadequate knowledge of prescription drug safety and interactions with alcohol, but pharmacists who regularly come in contact with older adults indicated that they were ready and willing to talk to older adults about prescription drug safety. Future research should focus on interventions

  3. How retellings shape younger and older adults' memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah J; Mather, Mara

    2014-04-01

    The way a story is retold influences the way it is later remembered; after retelling an event in a biased manner people subsequently remember the event in line with their distorted retelling. This study tested the hypothesis that this should be especially true for older adults. To test this, older and younger adults retold a story to be entertaining, to be accurate, or did not complete an initial retelling. Later, all participants recalled the story as accurately as possible. On this final test younger adults were unaffected by how they had previously retold the story. In contrast, older adults had better memory for the story's content and structure if they had previously retold the story accurately. Furthermore, for older adults, greater usage of storytelling language during the retelling was associated with lower subsequent recall. In summary, retellings exerted a greater effect on memory in older, compared with younger, adults.

  4. Interference from previous distraction disrupts older adults' memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biss, Renée K; Campbell, Karen L; Hasher, Lynn

    2013-07-01

    Previously relevant information can disrupt the ability of older adults to remember new information. Here, the researchers examined whether prior irrelevant information, or distraction, can also interfere with older adults' memory for new information. Younger and older adults first completed a 1-back task on pictures that were superimposed with distracting words. After a delay, participants learned picture-word paired associates and memory was tested using picture-cued recall. In 1 condition (high interference), some pairs included pictures from the 1-back task now paired with new words. In a low-interference condition, the transfer list used all new items. Older adults had substantially lower cued-recall performance in the high- compared with the low-interference condition. In contrast, younger adults' performance did not vary across conditions. These findings suggest that even never-relevant information from the past can disrupt older adults' memory for new associations.

  5. Health Literacy and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesser, Amy K.; Keene Woods, Nikki; Smothers, Kyle; Rogers, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this review was to assess published literature relating to health literacy and older adults. Method: The current review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses. Results: Eight articles met inclusion criteria. All studies were conducted in urban settings in the United States. Study sample size ranged from 33 to 3,000 participants. Two studies evaluated health-related outcomes and reported significant associations between low health literacy and poorer health outcomes. Two other studies investigated the impact of health literacy on medication management, reporting mixed findings. Discussion: The findings of this review highlight the importance of working to improve health care strategies for older adults with low health literacy and highlight the need for a standardized and validated clinical health literacy screening tool for older adults. PMID:28138488

  6. Changing Students' Stereotypes of Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtele, Sandy K.; Maruyama, LaRae

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that university students tend to hold negative attitudes about older adults. However, there is some evidence to suggest that these ageist attitudes can be challenged and changed through curricular intervention. The current study was designed to determine whether the "Activities of Older Adults" exercise as part of a…

  7. Sexuality in Older Adults (65+)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Træen, Bente; Carvalheira, Ana; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin

    2017-01-01

    with their bodies than men, particularly in sexual contexts, older women appear to be less vulnerable to body-related dissatisfaction than younger women. Despite the age-specific dynamics of sexual satisfaction and sexual well-being, which parallel age-related decrease in the frequency of sexual activity, research...... findings from different countries show that substantial proportions of aging men and women are satisfied with their sex life. There is some limited evidence that this proportion may be increasing across cohorts. Gender differences in factors that influence sexual satisfaction among older adults appear...... marginal. Conclusion: Older age can affect sexual satisfaction on individual, interpersonal, and culture-related levels. Future research in older adults' sexuality should focus on sexual well-being in women who are without partners, sexual satisfaction among aging lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender...

  8. Implementing reverse mentoring to address social isolation among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breck, Bethany M; Dennis, Cory B; Leedahl, Skye N

    2018-07-01

    Reverse mentoring is a means to address the social work Grand Challenge of social isolation. Among older adults, reverse mentoring can improve social connection by increasing the digital competence of older adults so they can use technology for social benefit, and by facilitating intergenerational connections with young adult mentors. In this paper, reverse mentoring is examined within an intergenerational program that serves older adults and utilizes the native technological knowledge and skills of young adults who mentor older adult participants. Qualitative data were collected through young adult mentor logs of each session, and through open-ended questions on the post-surveys collected from older adults and young adult mentors. Qualitative analysis revealed three themes related to social connection: (1) an increased sense of self-efficacy for older adults as they build confidence in technological use, and for young adults as they develop leadership skills through mentoring, (2) the breaking down of age-related stereotypes, and (3) intergenerational engagement and connection. The findings demonstrate that reverse mentoring can be used in various settings to decrease the social isolation of older adults by developing intergenerational connections and increasing older adult usage of technology.

  9. Exploring Life Satisfaction Among Older Adults in Dakar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macia, Enguerran; Duboz, Priscilla; Montepare, Joann M; Gueye, Lamine

    2015-12-01

    Studies on correlates of subjective well-being of older adults are virtually non-existent in sub-Saharan Africa. Yet, understanding and improving the well-being of older adults should be a focal point of research and policy directed at this fast growing population. The aim of this study was to assess the links between socio-demographic factors, economic conditions, health, social relations, and the life satisfaction of older adults in Dakar. To this end, a survey was conducted on a sample of 500 dwellers of the Senegalese capital, aged 50 to 100, using the quota method for greater representativeness. Results revealed that with advancing age older adults expressed greater life satisfaction, and that older women were more satisfied than older men. As well, economic conditions were a main predictor of life satisfaction, along with good social relations. In contrast to findings with Western populations, neither self-rated health nor physical disabilities were associated with aging adults' life satisfaction. Findings suggest a number of avenues for future research.

  10. Lateral step initiation behavior in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sparto, Patrick J; Jennings, J Richard; Furman, Joseph M; Redfern, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Older adults have varied postural responses during induced and voluntary lateral stepping. The purpose of the research was to quantify the occurrence of different stepping strategies during lateral step initiation in older adults and to relate the stepping responses to retrospective history of falls. Seventy community-ambulating older adults (mean age 76 y, range 70–94 y) performed voluntary lateral steps as quickly as possible to the right or left in response to a visual cue, in a blocked de...

  11. Domestic violence and mental health in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Lucy; Hester, Marianne

    2016-10-01

    Domestic violence affects every age group and is present throughout the life span, but, while the mental health impact of domestic violence is clearly established in working age adults, less is known about the nature and impact of domestic violence among older adults. This review, therefore, aimed to synthesize findings on the prevalence, nature, and impact of domestic violence among older adults, and its identification and management. Electronic searches were conducted of Medline, PsycINFO, Cinahl, and Embase to identify studies reporting on the mental health and domestic violence in older adults. Findings suggested that, although prevalence figures are variable, the likely lifetime prevalence for women over the age of 65 is between 20-30%. Physical abuse is suggested to decrease with age, but rates of emotional abuse appear to be stable over the lifespan. Among older adults, domestic violence is strongly associated with physical and mental health problems, and the scarce research comparing the impact of domestic violence across the age cohorts suggests that the physical health of older victims may be more severely affected than younger victims. In contrast, there is evidence that older victims may experience less psychological distress in response to domestic violence than younger victims. Internationally, evidence on the management of domestic violence in older adults is sparse. Findings suggest, however, that identification of domestic violence is poor among older adults, and there are very limited options for onwards referral and support.

  12. Suicide in older adults: a comparison with middle-aged adults using the Queensland Suicide Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Yu Wen; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2017-03-01

    Globally, suicide rates increase with age, being highest in older adults. This study analyzed differences in suicides in older adults (65 years and over) compared to middle-aged adults (35-64 years) in Queensland, Australia, during the years 2000-2012. The Queensland Suicide Register was utilized for the analysis. Annual suicide rates were calculated by gender and age group, and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were examined. In Queensland, the average annual rate of suicides for older adults was 15.27 per 100,000 persons compared to 18.77 in middle-aged adults in 2000-2012. There were no significant changes in time trends for older adults in 2002-2012. Suicide methods differed between gender and age groups. Older adults who died by suicide were more likely to be male, widowed, living alone or in a nursing home, and out of the work force. The prevalence of untreated psychiatric conditions, diagnosed psychiatric disorders, and consultations with a mental health professional three months prior to death was lower in older adults than middle-aged adults. Somatic illness, bereavement, and attention to suicide in the media were more common among older adults than middle-age adults. Older females were particularly more likely to pay attention to suicide in the media. Our findings show older adults who died by suicide were more likely to experience somatic illnesses, bereavement, and pay attention to suicide in the media compared to middle aged. Preventing suicide in older adults would therefore require holistic and comprehensive approaches.

  13. Pilot testing a digital pet avatar for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Nai-Ching; Sparks, Olivia; Lin, Shih-Yin; Lazar, Amanda; Thompson, Hilaire J; Demiris, George

    Social isolation in older adults is a major public health concern. An embodied conversational agent (ECA) has the potential to enhance older adults' social interaction. However, little is known about older adults' experience with an ECA. In this paper, we conducted a pilot study to examine the perceived acceptance and utility of a tablet-based conversational agent in the form of an avatar (termed "digital pet") for older adults. We performed secondary analysis of data collected from a study that employed the use of a digital pet in ten older adults' homes for three months. Most of the participants enjoyed the companionship, entertainment, reminders, and instant assistance from the digital pet. However, participants identified limited conversational ability and technical issues as system challenges. Privacy, dependence, and cost were major concerns. Future applications should maximize the agent's conversational ability and the system's overall usability. Our results can inform future designs of conversational agents for older adults, which need to include older adults as system co-designers to maximize usability and acceptance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Perceptions of emotion and age among younger, midlife, and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santorelli, Gennarina D; Ready, Rebecca E; Mather, Molly A

    2018-03-01

    Older adults report greater emotional well-being than younger persons, yet negative stereotypes about aging are pervasive. Little is known about age group perceptions of emotion in adulthood, particularly for familiar persons. Thus, this project determined perceptions of general affect in familiar younger and older adults. In two studies, participants (Study 1, younger adult n = 123, older adult n = 43; Study 2, younger adult n = 34, midlife adult n = 41, older adult n = 16) provided self-report data about their affect in general, as well as reported on the affect of a familiar younger person (aged 18--34) and a familiar older person (aged 65 or older). Emotion scales assessed high- and low-arousal positive and negative affect. Results suggest a less favorable perception of emotion experiences of older adults compared to younger adults. Specifically, participants of all age groups rated older adults as having lower positive emotions and higher negative emotions than is found in self-report data. Perceptions of emotion in older adulthood reflect stereotypes of negative functioning. Older adult participants were not immune to holding negative views about older adults. Negative perceptions about emotion experiences in later life may be detrimental to the physical and mental health of older adults.

  15. ShopComm: Community-Supported Online Shopping for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorkovenko, Katerina; Tigwell, Garreth W; Norrie, Christopher S; Waite, Miriam; Herron, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The United Kingdom has an ageing population whose members experience significant life transitions as they grow older, for example, losing mobility due to deteriorating health. For these adults, digital technology has the potential to sustain their independence and improve their quality of life. However older adults can be reluctant to use digital solutions. In this paper, we review a local charity providing a grocery shopping service for older adults who are unable to go themselves. We explore how older adults perceive the benefits and drawbacks of both physical and digital shopping. Using these insights, we designed ShopComm to enable and support older adults with mobility impairments to shop online.

  16. Framing effects in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunghan; Goldstein, David; Hasher, Lynn; Zacks, Rose T

    2005-07-01

    A growing literature on decision making in older adults suggests that they are more likely to use heuristic processing than are younger adults. We assessed this tendency in the context of a framing effect, a decision-making phenomenon whereby the language used to describe options greatly influences the decision maker's choice. We compared decision making under a standard ("heuristic") condition and also under a "justification" condition known to reduce reliance on heuristics. In the standard condition, older adults were more susceptible than younger adults to framing but the two groups did not differ when participants were asked to provide a justification. Thus, although older adults may spontaneously rely more on heuristic processing than younger adults, they can be induced to take a more systematic approach to decision making.

  17. Cancer: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A to Z › Cancer › Unique to Older Adults Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Unique ... group with other older people with the same type of cancer. Researchers have found that support groups ...

  18. The Digital Divide and urban older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresci, M Kay; Yarandi, Hossein N; Morrell, Roger W

    2010-01-01

    Computers and the Internet offer older adults opportunities and resources for independent living. However, many urban older adults do not use computers. This study examined the demographic, health, and social activities of urban older adults to determine variables that might predict the use and nonuse of computers in this population. A secondary data analysis was performed using the 2001 Detroit City-Wide Needs Assessment of Older Adults (n = 1410) data set. Logistic regression was used to explore potential differences in predictor variables between computer users and nonusers. Overall, computer users were younger (27%), had a higher level of education, were more likely to be employed, had an annual income greater than $20,000, and were healthier and more active than nonusers. They also were more likely to have memberships in community organizations and do volunteer work. Preferred computer activities included conducting Internet searches, playing games, writing, and communicating with family members and friends. The results suggest significant differences in demographic and health-related characteristics between computer users and nonusers among urban older adults. Although about a quarter of participants in this study used computers, the Digital Divide continues to exist in urban settings for scores of others.

  19. Modifying Older Adults' Daily Sedentary Behaviour Using an Asset-based Solution: Views from Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leask, Calum F; Sandlund, Marlene; Skelton, Dawn A; Tulle, Emmanuelle; Chastin, Sebastien Fm

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing public health focus on the promotion of successful and active ageing. Interventions to reduce sedentary behaviour (SB) in older adults are feasible and are improved by tailoring to individuals' context and circumstances. SB is ubiquitous; therefore part of the tailoring process is to ensure individuals' daily sedentary routine can be modified. The aim of this study was to understand the views of older adults and identify important considerations when creating a solution to modify daily sedentary patterns. This was a qualitative research study. Fifteen older adult volunteers (mean age = 78 years) participated in 1 of 4 focus groups to identify solutions to modify daily sedentary routine. Two researchers conducted the focus groups whilst a third took detailed fieldnotes on a flipchart to member check the findings. Data were recorded and analysed thematically. Participants wanted a solution with a range of options which could be tailored to individual needs and circumstances. The strategy suggested was to use the activities of daily routine and reasons why individuals already naturally interrupting their SB, collectively framed as assets. These assets were categorised into 5 sub-themes: physical assets (eg. standing up to reduce stiffness); psychological assets (eg. standing up to reduce feelings of guilt); interpersonal assets (eg. standing up to answer the phone); knowledge assets (eg. standing up due to knowing the benefits of breaking SB) and activities of daily living assets (eg. standing up to get a drink). This study provides important considerations from older adults' perspectives to modify their daily sedentary patterns. The assets identified by participants could be used to co-create a tailored intervention with older adults to reduce SB, which may increase effectiveness and adherence.

  20. Design of smart home sensor visualizations for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thai; Reeder, Blaine; Chung, Jane; Thompson, Hilaire; Demiris, George

    2014-07-24

    Smart home sensor systems provide a valuable opportunity to continuously and unobtrusively monitor older adult wellness. However, the density of sensor data can be challenging to visualize, especially for an older adult consumer with distinct user needs. We describe the design of sensor visualizations informed by interviews with older adults. The goal of the visualizations is to present sensor activity data to an older adult consumer audience that supports both longitudinal detection of trends and on-demand display of activity details for any chosen day. The design process is grounded through participatory design with older adult interviews during a six-month pilot sensor study. Through a secondary analysis of interviews, we identified the visualization needs of older adults. We incorporated these needs with cognitive perceptual visualization guidelines and the emotional design principles of Norman to develop sensor visualizations. We present a design of sensor visualization that integrate both temporal and spatial components of information. The visualization supports longitudinal detection of trends while allowing the viewer to view activity within a specific date.CONCLUSIONS: Appropriately designed visualizations for older adults not only provide insight into health and wellness, but also are a valuable resource to promote engagement within care.

  1. Design of smart home sensor visualizations for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thai; Reeder, Blaine; Chung, Jane; Thompson, Hilaire; Demiris, George

    2014-01-01

    Smart home sensor systems provide a valuable opportunity to continuously and unobtrusively monitor older adult wellness. However, the density of sensor data can be challenging to visualize, especially for an older adult consumer with distinct user needs. We describe the design of sensor visualizations informed by interviews with older adults. The goal of the visualizations is to present sensor activity data to an older adult consumer audience that supports both longitudinal detection of trends and on-demand display of activity details for any chosen day. The design process is grounded through participatory design with older adult interviews during a six-month pilot sensor study. Through a secondary analysis of interviews, we identified the visualization needs of older adults. We incorporated these needs with cognitive perceptual visualization guidelines and the emotional design principles of Norman to develop sensor visualizations. We present a design of sensor visualization that integrate both temporal and spatial components of information. The visualization supports longitudinal detection of trends while allowing the viewer to view activity within a specific date. Appropriately designed visualizations for older adults not only provide insight into health and wellness, but also are a valuable resource to promote engagement within care.

  2. Bridging the digital divide in older adults: a study from an initiative to inform older adults about new technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu YH

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ya-Huei Wu,1,2 Souad Damnée,1,2 Hélène Kerhervé,1,2 Caitlin Ware,1,3 Anne-Sophie Rigaud1,2 1Department of Clinical Gerontology, Broca Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, 2Research Team 4468, Paris Descartes University, 3Centre de Recherche en Psychanalyse, Médicine et la Société, Paris Diderot University, Paris, France Purpose: In a society where technology progresses at an exponential rate, older adults are often unaware of the existence of different kinds of information and communication technologies (ICTs. To bridge the gap, we launched a 2-year project, during which we conducted focus groups (FGs with demonstrations of ICTs, allowing older adults to try them out and to share their opinions. This study aimed at investigating how participants perceived this kind of initiative and how they reacted to different kinds of ICTs.Patients and methods: In total, 14 FGs were conducted with community-dwelling older adults, with a frequency of two FGs on the same topic once per trimester. Twenty-three older adults (four men and 19 women attended at least one FG but only nearly half of them were regular attendants (ten participating in at least five sessions. Age of participants ranged from 63 years to 88 years, with a mean of 77.1 years. All of them had completed secondary education. The analyses of the data were performed according to inductive thematic analysis.Results: Four overarching themes emerged from the analysis. The first concerned participants’ motivation for and assessment of the project. The second theme identified the underlying factors of the “digital divide” between the younger and the older generations. The third theme concerned the factors of technology adoption among older adults. The fourth one identified participants’ attitudes toward assistive ICTs, designed specifically for older adults (“gerontechnologies”.Discussions and conclusion: This project encouraging older adults to be informed about

  3. Face Age and Eye Gaze Influence Older Adults' Emotion Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Anna; Murray, Janice E; Atkinson, Lianne; Ruffman, Ted

    2017-07-01

    Eye gaze has been shown to influence emotion recognition. In addition, older adults (over 65 years) are not as influenced by gaze direction cues as young adults (18-30 years). Nevertheless, these differences might stem from the use of young to middle-aged faces in emotion recognition research because older adults have an attention bias toward old-age faces. Therefore, using older face stimuli might allow older adults to process gaze direction cues to influence emotion recognition. To investigate this idea, young and older adults completed an emotion recognition task with young and older face stimuli displaying direct and averted gaze, assessing labeling accuracy for angry, disgusted, fearful, happy, and sad faces. Direct gaze rather than averted gaze improved young adults' recognition of emotions in young and older faces, but for older adults this was true only for older faces. The current study highlights the impact of stimulus face age and gaze direction on emotion recognition in young and older adults. The use of young face stimuli with direct gaze in most research might contribute to age-related emotion recognition differences. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Neuropsychological Mechanisms for Falls in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu eLiu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Falls, a common cause of injury among older adults, have become increasingly prevalent. As the world’s population ages, the increase in – and the prevalence of – falls among older people makes this a serious and compelling societal and healthcare issue. Physical weakness is a critical predictor in falling. While considerable research has examined this relationship, comprehensive reviews of neuropsychological predictors of falls have been lacking. In this paper, we examine and discuss current studies of the neuropsychological predictors of falls in older adults, as related to sporting and non-sporting contexts. By integrating the existing evidence, we propose that brain aging is an important precursor of the increased risk of falls in older adults. Brain aging disrupts the neural integrity of motor outputs and reduces neuropsychological abilities. Older adults may shift from unconscious movement control to more conscious or attentive motor control. Increased understanding of the causes of falls will afford opportunities to reduce their incidence, reduce consequent injuries, improve overall well-being and quality of life, and possibly to prolong life.

  5. Organizational support and volunteering benefits for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fengyan; Choi, Eunhee; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2010-10-01

    This study tested a theoretical model of volunteering benefits and examined the mechanism through which volunteering benefits older adults. This is a 2-wave study of 253 older adult volunteers serving in 10 volunteer programs. Older volunteers completed the mailed surveys in 2005 and 2006. Structural equation modeling was used to define the latent variables and to test direct and indirect relationships among organizational support, socioemotional benefits, and self-reported health. Organizational support (measured by choice of volunteer activity, training, and ongoing support) had significant direct associations with 2 latent factors of socioemotional benefits, that is, perceived contribution and personal benefits. Perceived contribution was significantly related to mental health. Additionally, older volunteers with lower socioeconomic status (SES) committed more hours and perceived more personal benefits than higher SES peers. These findings suggest that volunteer programs can provide various organizational supports to older volunteers, especially to low-SES volunteers, in order to promote the socioemotional and health benefits of volunteering to older adults. Psychological well-being of older adults can be improved through engagement in meaningful volunteer activities and contribution to others.

  6. Ageist attitudes block young adults' ability for compassion toward incapacitated older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Yoav S; Bodner, Ehud

    2015-09-01

    Upon encountering older adults, individuals display varying degrees of prosocial attitudes and behaviors. While some display compassion and empathy, others draw away and wish to maintain their distance from them. The current study examined if and how ageist attitudes influence the association between the sight of physical incapacity in older age and compassionate reactions toward them. We predicted that ageist attitudes would interfere with the ability to respond to them with compassion. Young adults (N = 149, ages 19-29) were randomly distributed into two experimental conditions, each viewing a short video portraying different aspects of older adult physicality; one group viewed older adults displaying incapacitated behavior, and the other viewed fit behavior. Participants subsequently filled out scales assessing aging anxieties, and ageist and compassionate attitudes. Ageism was associated with reduced compassion toward the figures. Moreover, viewing incapacitated older adults led to increased concern toward them and perceived efficacy in helping them. However, significant interactions proved that higher scores of ageism in response to the videos led to increased need for distance and reduced efficacy toward incapacitated adults, an effect not observed among subjects with lower ageism scores. Ageism seems to be a factor which disengages individuals from older adults displaying fragility, leading them to disregard social norms which dictate compassion. The results are discussed from the framework of terror management theory, as increased mortality salience and death-related thoughts could have led to the activation of negative attitudes which, in turn, reduce compassion.

  7. Online Attention Training for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennberg, Alexandra; Kueider, Alexandra; Spira, Adam; Adams, Gregory; Rager, Robert; Rebok, George

    Evidence suggests that cognitive training interventions can improve older adults' cognitive performance. Successful training programs are adaptable and train multiple cognitive domains to target individual strengths and weaknesses. Computerized training programs are useful because they allow older adults to easily access training. This pilot study used an online attention training program, ATTENTION WORKOUT™, to enhance three aspects of attention- coordination , allocation , and selective focus -in community-dwelling older adults randomized to either an abbreviated (n=13) or an extended (n=17) practice training program over a 6-week period. Participants in the extended practice group significantly improved on selective focus reading distraction tasks with unrelated words (U=39.5; Z=-2.34; p =.02) and blanks (U=26.5; Z=-3.05; p =.002) as well as a matching attributes task (U=49.5; Z=-2.33; p =.02). The extended practice group significantly improved on three tasks of coordinating attention - radio-tuning (U=30; Z=-2.73; p =.01), circuit-breaker resetting (U=46; Z=-2.24; p =.03), and the combination of the two tasks (U=15; Z=-3.51; p attention training programs, like ATTENTION WORKOUT, can improve attention-related skills in community-dwelling older adults.

  8. Ethical Concerns in Usability Testing Involving Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Margrethe Hansen

    Based on experience from the research project “User Manuals for Older Adults”, this paper discusses whether there are special ethical concerns with older adults as test persons in a usability test involving the think-aloud method. In this context, older adults are defined as individuals with normal...

  9. Sexuality in Older Adults (65+)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Træen, Bente; Hald, Gert Martin; Graham, Cynthia A.

    2017-01-01

    INFO. Results: The review showed that although common biological changes may adversely affect sexual function in old age, sexual experience seems to also be affected by psychological and interpersonal factors. Conclusions: Greater life expectancy and better medical care will result in older individuals......Objectives: The aim of the current article was to provide an overview of literature on sexual function and sexual difficulties in older adults. Method: The authors conducted a narrative review of papers published in English between January 2005 and July 2015 based on an extensive search in Psyc...... with chronic diseases living longer. The need for help to cope with changes in sexual health is likely to increase in older adults, as sexuality may be negatively affected through several pathways....

  10. Executive functioning in older adults with hoarding disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Catherine R; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Schiehser, Dawn; Almklov, Erin; Golshan, Shahrokh; Saxena, Sanjaya

    2013-11-01

    Hoarding disorder (HD) is a chronic and debilitating psychiatric condition. Midlife HD patients have been found to have neurocognitive impairment, particularly in areas of executive functioning, but the extent to which this is due to comorbid psychiatric disorders has not been clear. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine executive functioning in geriatric HD patients without any comorbid Axis I disorders (n = 42) compared with a healthy older adult comparison group (n = 25). We hypothesized that older adults with HD would perform significantly worse on measures of executive functioning (Wisconsin Card Sort Task [Psychological Assessment Resources, Lutz, Florida, USA] ( Psychological Assessment Resources, 2003) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV digit span and letter-number sequencing tests [Pearson, San Antonio, TX, USA]). Older adults with HD showed significant differences from healthy older controls in multiple aspects of executive functioning. Compared with healthy controls, older adults with HD committed significantly more total, non-perseverative errors and conceptual level responses on the Wisconsin Card Sort Task and had significantly worse performance on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV digit span and letter-number sequencing tests. Hoarding symptom severity was strongly correlated with executive dysfunction in the HD group. Compared with demographically-matched controls, older adults with HD have dysfunction in several domains of executive functioning including mental control, working memory, inhibition, and set shifting. Executive dysfunction is strongly correlated with hoarding severity and is not because of comorbid psychiatric disorders in HD patients. These results have broad clinical implications suggesting that executive functioning should be assessed and taken into consideration when developing intervention strategies for older adults with HD. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Online Attention Training for Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wennberg, Alexandra; Kueider, Alexandra; Spira, Adam; Adams, Gregory; Rager, Robert; Rebok, George

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests that cognitive training interventions can improve older adults' cognitive performance. Successful training programs are adaptable and train multiple cognitive domains to target individual strengths and weaknesses. Computerized training programs are useful because they allow older adults to easily access training. This pilot study used an online attention training program, ATTENTION WORKOUT™, to enhance three aspects of attention– coordination, allocation, and selective focus...

  12. Perspectives on wellness self-monitoring tools for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Jina; Le, Thai; Reeder, Blaine; Thompson, Hilaire J; Demiris, George

    2013-11-01

    Our purpose was to understand different stakeholder perceptions about the use of self-monitoring tools, specifically in the area of older adults' personal wellness. In conjunction with the advent of personal health records, tracking personal health using self-monitoring technologies shows promising patient support opportunities. While clinicians' tools for monitoring of older adults have been explored, we know little about how older adults may self-monitor their wellness and health and how their health care providers would perceive such use. We conducted three focus groups with health care providers (n=10) and four focus groups with community-dwelling older adults (n=31). Older adult participants' found the concept of self-monitoring unfamiliar and this influenced a narrowed interest in the use of wellness self-monitoring tools. On the other hand, health care provider participants showed open attitudes toward wellness monitoring tools for older adults and brainstormed about various stakeholders' use cases. The two participant groups showed diverging perceptions in terms of: perceived uses, stakeholder interests, information ownership and control, and sharing of wellness monitoring tools. Our paper provides implications and solutions for how older adults' wellness self-monitoring tools can enhance patient-health care provider interaction, patient education, and improvement in overall wellness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Exploring Older Adults' Health Information Seeking Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore older adults' (55-70 years) health information-seeking behaviors. Methods: Using a qualitative methodology, based on grounded theory, data were collected using in-depth interviews. Participants were community-living, older adults in Toronto, Canada who independently seek nutrition and health information. Interview transcripts…

  14. Advances in Psychotherapy for Depressed Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raue, Patrick J; McGovern, Amanda R; Kiosses, Dimitris N; Sirey, Jo Anne

    2017-09-01

    We review recent advances in psychotherapies for depressed older adults, in particular those developed for special populations characterized by chronic medical illness, acute medical illness, cognitive impairment, and suicide risk factors. We review adaptations for psychotherapy to overcome barriers to its accessibility in non-specialty settings such as primary care, homebound or hard-to-reach older adults, and social service settings. Recent evidence supports the effectiveness of psychotherapies that target late-life depression in the context of specific comorbid conditions including COPD, heart failure, Parkinson's disease, stroke and other acute conditions, cognitive impairment, and suicide risk. Growing evidence supports the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of psychotherapy modified for a variety of health care and social service settings. Research supports the benefits of selecting the type of psychotherapy based on a comprehensive assessment of the older adult's psychiatric, medical, functional, and cognitive status, and tailoring psychotherapy to the settings in which older depressed adults are most likely to present.

  15. Wound Healing in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Lisa J; Fulton, Ana Tuya

    2016-02-01

    Impaired wound healing in the elderly represents a major clinical problem that is growing as our population ages. Wound healing is affected by age and by co-morbid conditions, particularly diabetes and obesity. This is particularly important in Rhode Island as the state has a very high percentage of vulnerable older adults. A multi- disciplinary approach that incorporates the skills of a comprehensive wound center with specialized nursing, geriatric medicine and palliative care will facilitate rapid wound healing, reduce costs and improve outcomes for our older adults that suffer from 'problem wounds'.

  16. Organizational Support and Volunteering Benefits for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fengyan; Choi, Eunhee; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested a theoretical model of volunteering benefits and examined the mechanism through which volunteering benefits older adults. Design and Methods: This is a 2-wave study of 253 older adult volunteers serving in 10 volunteer programs. Older volunteers completed the mailed surveys in 2005 and 2006. Structural equation modeling…

  17. Trends in substance use admissions among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatre, Sumedha; Cook, Ratna; Mallik, Eshita; Jayadevappa, Ravishankar

    2017-08-22

    Substance abuse is a growing, but mostly silent, epidemic among older adults. We sought to analyze the trends in admissions for substance abuse treatment among older adults (aged 55 and older). Treatment Episode Data Set - Admissions (TEDS-A) for period between 2000 and 2012 was used. The trends in admission for primary substances, demographic attributes, characteristics of substance abused and type of admission were analyzed. While total number of substance abuse treatment admissions between 2000 and 2012 changed slightly, proportion attributable to older adults increased from 3.4% to 7.0%. Substantial changes in the demographic, substance use pattern, and treatment characteristics for the older adult admissions were noted. Majority of the admissions were for alcohol as the primary substance. However there was a decreasing trend in this proportion (77% to 64%). The proportion of admissions for following primary substances showed increase: cocaine/crack, marijuana/hashish, heroin, non-prescription methadone, and other opiates and synthetics. Also, admissions for older adults increased between 2000 and 2012 for African Americans (21% to 28%), females (20% to 24%), high school graduates (63% to 75%), homeless (15% to 19%), unemployed (77% to 84%), and those with psychiatric problems (17% to 32%).The proportion of admissions with prior history of substance abuse treatment increased from 39% to 46% and there was an increase in the admissions where more than one problem substance was reported. Ambulatory setting continued to be the most frequent treatment setting, and individual (including self-referral) was the most common referral source. The use of medication assisted therapy remained low over the years (7% - 9%). The changing demographic and substance use pattern of older adults implies that a wide array of psychological, social, and physiological needs will arise. Integrated, multidisciplinary and tailored policies for prevention and treatment are necessary to

  18. Framing matters: Effects of framing on older adults' exploratory decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jessica A; Blanco, Nathaniel J; Maddox, W Todd

    2017-02-01

    We examined framing effects on exploratory decision-making. In Experiment 1 we tested older and younger adults in two decision-making tasks separated by one week, finding that older adults' decision-making performance was preserved when maximizing gains, but it declined when minimizing losses. Computational modeling indicates that younger adults in both conditions, and older adults in gains maximization, utilized a decreasing threshold strategy (which is optimal), but older adults in losses were better fit by a fixed-probability model of exploration. In Experiment 2 we examined within-subject behavior in older and younger adults in the same exploratory decision-making task, but without a time separation between tasks. We replicated the older adult disadvantage in loss minimization from Experiment 1 and found that the older adult deficit was significantly reduced when the loss-minimization task immediately followed the gains-maximization task. We conclude that older adults' performance in exploratory decision-making is hindered when framed as loss minimization, but that this deficit is attenuated when older adults can first develop a strategy in a gains-framed task. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Older Californians and the Mental Health Services Act: Is an Older Adult System of Care Supported?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kietzman, Kathryn G; Dupuy, Danielle; Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn; Palimaru, Alina; del Pino, Homero E; Frank, Janet C

    2018-01-01

    This policy brief summarizes findings from the first study to evaluate how California's public mental health delivery system has served older adults (60 years of age and over) since the passage of the Mental Health Services Act (MHSA) in 2004. Study findings indicate that there are unmet needs among older adults with mental illness in the public mental health delivery system. There are deficits in the involvement of older adults in the required MHSA planning processes and in outreach and service delivery, workforce development, and outcomes measurement and reporting. There is also evidence of promising programs and strategies that counties have advanced to address these deficits. Recommendations for improving mental health services for older adults include designating a distinct administrative and leadership structure for older adult services in each county; enhancing older adult outreach and documentation of unmet need; promoting standardized geriatric training of providers; instituting standardized data-reporting requirements; and increasing service integration efforts, especially between medical, behavioral health, aging, and substance use disorder services.

  20. Gun Access and Safety Practices among Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillary D. Lum

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Given high rates of gun ownership among older adults, geriatric providers can assess firearm safety practices using a “5 Ls” approach: Locked; Loaded; Little children; feeling Low; and Learned owner. This study describes gun access and the “5 Ls” among US older adults. Methods. Data on the “5 Ls” from the Second Injury Control and Risk Survey (ICARIS-2, a national telephone survey conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, were analyzed. Weighted variables were used to generate national estimates regarding prevalence of gun ownership and associated gun safety among older adults (≥55 years. Results. Of 2939 older adults, 39% (95% CI 37%–42% reported ≥1 gun stored at home. Among those with guns at home, 21% (95% CI 18–24% stored guns loaded and unlocked; 9.2% (95% CI 6.6–12% had ≥1 child in household; 5.1% (95% CI 3.5–6.8% reported past-year suicidal ideation and 3.6% (95% CI 2.1–5.2% reported history of a suicide attempt; and 55% (95% CI 51–59% stated that ≥1 adult had attended firearm safety workshop. Conclusion. Some older adults may be at elevated risk of firearm injury because of storage practices, suicidal thoughts, or limited safety training. Future work should assess effective approaches to reduce the risk of gun-related injuries among older adults.

  1. Preventing Elder Abuse and Neglect in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Documents PDF Preventing Elder Abuse and Neglect in Older Adults Download Join our e-newsletter! Resources Preventing Elder Abuse and Neglect in Older Adults Tools and Tips Printer-friendly PDF Click here ...

  2. Temporal characteristics of imagined and actual walking in frail older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Hideki; Murata, Shin; Shiraiwa, Kayoko; Iwase, Hiroaki; Kodama, Takayuki

    2018-05-09

    Mental chronometry, commonly used to evaluate motor imagery ability, measures the imagined time required for movements. Previous studies investigating mental chronometry of walking have investigated healthy older adults. However, mental chronometry in frail older adults has not yet been clarified. To investigate temporal characteristics of imagined and actual walking in frail older adults. We investigated the time required for imagined and actual walking along three walkways of different widths [width(s): 50, 25, 15 cm × length: 5 m] in 29 frail older adults and 20 young adults. Imagined walking was measured with mental chronometry. We observed significantly longer imagined and actual walking times along walkways of 50, 25, and 15 cm width in frail older adults compared with young adults. Moreover, temporal differences (absolute error) between imagined and actual walking were significantly greater in frail older adults than in young adults along walkways with a width of 25 and 15 cm. Furthermore, we observed significant differences in temporal differences (constant error) between frail older adults and young adults for walkways with a width of 25 and 15 cm. Frail older adults tended to underestimate actual walking time in imagined walking trials. Our results suggest that walkways of different widths may be a useful tool to evaluate age-related changes in imagined and actual walking in frail older adults.

  3. Symptom distress in older adults following cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cleave, Janet H; Egleston, Brian L; Ercolano, Elizabeth; McCorkle, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Symptom distress remains a significant health problem among older adults with cancer following surgery. Understanding factors influencing older adults' symptom distress may lead to early identification and interventions, decreasing morbidity and improving outcomes. We conducted this study to identify factors associated with symptom distress following surgery among 326 community-residing patients 65 years or older with a diagnosis of thoracic, digestive, gynecologic, and genitourinary cancers. This secondary analysis used combined subsets of data from 5 nurse-directed intervention clinical trials targeting patients after surgery at academic cancer centers in northwest and northeastern United States. Symptom distress was assessed by the Symptom Distress Scale at baseline and at 3 and 6 months. A multivariable analysis, using generalized estimating equations, showed that symptom distress was significantly less at 3 and 6 months (3 months: P psychological, treatment, and function covariates. Thoracic cancer, comorbidities, worse mental health, and decreased function were, on average, associated with increased symptom distress (all P cancer, comorbidities, mental health, and function may influence older adults' symptom distress following cancer surgery. Older adults generally experience decreasing symptom distress after thoracic, abdominal, or pelvic cancer surgery. Symptom management over time for those with thoracic cancer, comorbidities, those with worse mental health, those with decreased function, and those 75 years or older may prevent morbidity and improve outcomes of older adults following surgery.

  4. Can technology adoption for older adults be co-created?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Yuan; Valk, Carlijn; Steenbakkers, Jim

    2017-01-01

    -creation ideation process can contribute to the technology adoption of older adults conducted in an EU project with multi-stakeholder teams with the aim of promoting physical activities of older adult citizens. This ideation process is adapted from Method A. By analyzing the co-creation ideation process from three......Technology can be very valuable to support older adults to remain healthy and active in their daily living. How to design technological product and service systems that will be adopted by older adults however still remains a challenge. This paper reports on an empirical study on how a co...

  5. The Partners in Health scale for older adults: design and examination of its psychometric properties in a Dutch population of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Karin; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Lahr, Maarten M H; Uittenbroek, Ronald J; Wynia, Klaske

    2017-08-01

    Self-management is an important asset in helping older adults remain independent and in control for as long as possible. There is no reliable and valid measurement instrument to evaluate self-management behaviour of older adults. This study aims to design a measurement instrument, that is the Partners in Health scale for older adults (PIH-OA), to assess self-management knowledge and behaviour of community-living older adults and to examine its psychometric properties in a Dutch context. The original PIH scale was translated into Dutch and adapted to the context of community-living older adults, resulting in the PIH-OA. Data for 1127 participants (mean age 81.7, SD=4.5) from the Embrace study were used to assess the psychometric properties. Data fitted a three-factor model, covering the constructs Knowledge, Management and Coping, with good internal consistencies (Cronbach's alphas ranging from .77 to .84). Known groups validity was confirmed: no differences were found between gender, age and marital status groups, and differences were found between the education level and health status groups. Discriminant validity was confirmed by weak correlations between PIH-OA scales and scales evaluating "Perceived integrated care" and "Activities of daily living (ADL)" (rknowledge and behaviour of older adults. This could help professionals provide tailored support to improve the well-being and independence of older adults. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Inefficient postural responses to unexpected slips during walking in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, P F; Woollacott, M H

    1998-11-01

    Slips account for a high percentage of falls and subsequent injuries in community-dwelling older adults but not in young adults. This phenomenon suggests that although active and healthy older adults preserve a mobility level comparable to that of young adults, these older adults may have difficulty generating efficient reactive postural responses when they slip. This study tested the hypothesis that active and healthy older adults use a less effective reactive balance strategy than young adults when experiencing an unexpected forward slip occurring at heel strike during walking. This less effective balance strategy would be manifested by slower and smaller postural responses, altered temporal and spatial organization of the postural responses, and greater upper trunk instability after the slip. Thirty-three young adults (age range=19-34 yrs, mean=25+/-4 yrs) and 32 community-dwelling older adults (age range=70-87 yrs, mean=74+/-14 yrs) participated. Subjects walked across a movable forceplate which simulated a forward slip at heel strike. Surface electromyography was recorded from bilateral leg, thigh, hip, and trunk muscles. Kinematic data were collected from the right (perturbed) side of the body. Although the predominant postural muscles and the activation sequence of these muscles were similar between the two age groups, the postural responses of older adults were of longer onset latencies, smaller magnitudes, and longer burst durations compared to young adults. Older adults also showed a longer coactivation duration for the ankle, knee, and trunk agonist/antagonist pairs on the perturbed side and for the knee agonist/antagonist pair on the nonperturbed side. Behaviorally, older adults became less stable after the slips. This was manifested by a higher incidence of being tripped (21 trials in older vs 5 trials in young adults) and a greater trunk hyperextension with respect to young adults. Large arm elevation was frequently used by older adults to assist in

  7. Low Blood Sodium in Older Adults: A Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sodium in older adults: A concern? Why is low blood sodium a health concern for older adults? ... treated? Answers from Paul Y. Takahashi, M.D. Low blood sodium (hyponatremia) occurs when you have an ...

  8. Motivation to Learn among Older Adults in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Dian-Fu; Lin, Sung-Po

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed the survey on adults administered by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan in 2008, and logistic regression analysis showed a close relationship between learning motivations of older adults. The finding revealed that the higher age or the lower education attainment of older adults, the lower their learning motivation. The…

  9. Sexuality in Nigerian older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatayo, Adeoti Adekunle; Kubwa, Ojo Osaze; Adekunle, Ajayi Ebenezer

    2015-01-01

    Oftentimes the older adults are assumed to be asexual as few studies explore into the sexuality of this age group worldwide and even in Nigeria. It is an important aspect of quality of life which is often neglected by people in this age group, attending physicians and the society as a whole. The study was aimed at determining the perception of older adults about sexuality, identify the factors that could militate against sexuality and fill any void in information in this regard. Descriptive study conducted in one hundred older adults. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to consenting participants between 1(st) of September 2013 and 31(st) of March 2014. Mean age of respondents was 66.42 ± 5.77 years. Seventy-eight percent of the male respondents considered engaging in sexual activity as safe compared to 45.8% of the female respondents. More of the women (33.3%) regarded sexuality in the older adults as a taboo when compared to the men (5.4%). However, the men were more favourably disposed to discussing sexual problems than the women with their spouses (42% vs 20%) and Physicians (23.2% vs 0.0%). Major factors responsible for sexual inactivity were participants' medical ailments (65%), partners' failing health (15%) as well as anxiety about sexual performance (25%) in the men and dyspareunia (25%) in women. There is an urgent need to correct the misconception about sexuality in this age group especially among the women and for the physicians to explore the sexual history of every patient.

  10. Sexuality in Nigerian older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatayo, Adeoti Adekunle; Kubwa, Ojo Osaze; Adekunle, Ajayi Ebenezer

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oftentimes the older adults are assumed to be asexual as few studies explore into the sexuality of this age group worldwide and even in Nigeria. It is an important aspect of quality of life which is often neglected by people in this age group, attending physicians and the society as a whole. The study was aimed at determining the perception of older adults about sexuality, identify the factors that could militate against sexuality and fill any void in information in this regard. Methods Descriptive study conducted in one hundred older adults. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to consenting participants between 1st of September 2013 and 31st of March 2014. Results Mean age of respondents was 66.42± 5.77 years. Seventy-eight percent of the male respondents considered engaging in sexual activity as safe compared to 45.8% of the female respondents. More of the women (33.3%) regarded sexuality in the older adults as a taboo when compared to the men (5.4%). However, the men were more favourably disposed to discussing sexual problems than the women with their spouses (42% vs 20%) and Physicians (23.2% vs 0.0%). Major factors responsible for sexual inactivity were participants’ medical ailments (65%), partners’ failing health (15%) as well as anxiety about sexual performance (25%) in the men and dyspareunia (25%) in women. Conclusion There is an urgent need to correct the misconception about sexuality in this age group especially among the women and for the physicians to explore the sexual history of every patient. PMID:26977224

  11. Independent older adults perspectives on oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabra, K K; Compton, S M; Keenan, L P

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore oral health experiences from the perspective of older adults' living in community dwellings. The two objectives of this study were to identify facilitators and barriers to oral health care, and to determine how utilization of oral health services compares to utilization of other healthcare services. An interpretive descriptive methodology was employed with a purposive sample of 12 adults, aged 70 years or older. The inclusion criterion was English-speaking seniors residing in community dwellings. Community dwellings were defined as any housing outside of long-term care or other supportive living facilities. Semi-structured interviews were 30-80 min, audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Three researchers participated in the comparative analysis process to develop codes, generate categories, interpret patterns and construct themes. Three central themes surfacing from the data were as follows: life course influences on oral health, transparency in delivery of oral health services and interrelationships between oral health and overall health. Older adults in this study emphasized the value of establishing collaborative and trusting relationships between oral health practitioners and older adults. Oral health practitioners should be clear and transparent when communicating information about oral health costs and be cognizant of different circumstances from childhood to older adulthood that inhibit or promote routine utilization of oral health services. Including oral health services as part of interdisciplinary care teams could help promote understandings of the reciprocal relationship between oral health and general health and improve oral health status for older adults. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Quick Guide to Health Literacy and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Promotion Quick Guide to Health Literacy and Older Adults skip to content ODPHP Health Communication Healthy People ... and Patient e-Health Resources Health Literacy and Older Adults Who is this guide for? Why are health ...

  13. Characteristics and Service Use of Older Adults with Schizoaffective Disorder Versus Older Adults with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolin, Stephanie A; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Whiteman, Karen L; Scherer, Emily; Bartels, Stephen J

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if schizoaffective disorder in older adults is differentiated from schizophrenia and bipolar disorder with respect to community functioning, cognitive functioning, psychiatric symptoms, and service use. Secondary analysis of baseline data collected from the Helping Older People Experience Success psychosocial skills training and health management study. Three community mental health centers in New Hampshire and Massachusetts. Adults over the age of 50 (N = 139, mean age: 59.7 years, SD: 7.4 years) with persistent functional impairment and a diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder (N = 52), schizophrenia (N = 51), or bipolar disorder (N = 36). Health status (36-Item Short Form Health Survey [SF-36]), performance-based community living skills (UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment), neuropsychological functioning (Delis-Kaplan Executive Functioning subtests), psychiatric symptoms (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms), medical severity (Charlson comorbidity index), and acute service use. Older adults with schizoaffective disorder had depressive symptoms of similar severity to bipolar disorder, and thought disorder symptoms of similar severity to schizophrenia. Schizoaffective disorder compared with schizophrenia was associated with better community functioning, but poorer subjective physical and mental health functioning as measured by the SF-36. Older adults with schizoaffective disorder had greater acute hospitalization compared with adults with schizophrenia, though their use of acute care services was comparable to individuals with bipolar disorder. Findings from this study suggest that schizoaffective disorder in older adults occupies a distinct profile from either schizophrenia or bipolar disorder with respect to community functional status, symptom profile, and acute services utilization. Copyright © 2017

  14. Using informatics to capture older adults' wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiris, George; Thompson, Hilaire J; Reeder, Blaine; Wilamowska, Katarzyna; Zaslavsky, Oleg

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how informatics applications can support the assessment and visualization of older adults' wellness. A theoretical framework is presented that informs the design of a technology enhanced screening platform for wellness. We highlight an ongoing pilot demonstration in an assisted living facility where a community room has been converted into a living laboratory for the use of diverse technologies (including a telehealth component to capture vital signs and customized questionnaires, a gait analysis component and cognitive assessment software) to assess the multiple aspects of wellness of older adults. A demonstration project was introduced in an independent retirement community to validate our theoretical framework of informatics and wellness assessment for older adults. Subjects are being recruited to attend a community room and engage in the use of diverse technologies to assess cognitive performance, physiological and gait variables as well as psychometrics pertaining to social and spiritual components of wellness for a period of eight weeks. Data are integrated from various sources into one study database and different visualization approaches are pursued to efficiently display potential correlations between different parameters and capture overall trends of wellness. Preliminary findings indicate that older adults are willing to participate in technology-enhanced interventions and embrace different information technology applications given appropriate and customized training and hardware and software features that address potential functional limitations and inexperience with computers. Informatics can advance health care for older adults and support a holistic assessment of older adults' wellness. The described framework can support decision making, link formal and informal caregiving networks and identify early trends and patterns that if addressed could reduce adverse health events. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland

  15. Older Adults Have Difficulty in Decoding Sarcasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Louise H.; Allen, Roy; Bull, Rebecca; Hering, Alexandra; Kliegel, Matthias; Channon, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    Younger and older adults differ in performance on a range of social-cognitive skills, with older adults having difficulties in decoding nonverbal cues to emotion and intentions. Such skills are likely to be important when deciding whether someone is being sarcastic. In the current study we investigated in a life span sample whether there are…

  16. Healthcare-Associated Meningitis or Ventriculitis in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srihawan, Chanunya; Habib, Onaizah; Salazar, Lucrecia; Hasbun, Rodrigo

    2017-12-01

    Healthcare-associated meningitis or ventriculitis (HCAMV) is a serious and life-threatening complication of invasive neurosurgical procedures or penetrating head trauma. Older adults are at higher risk of adverse outcomes in community-acquired meningitis but studies of HCAMV are lacking. Therefore, we perform the study to define the differences in clinical outcomes between older and younger adults with HCAMV. Retrospective study. A large tertiary care hospital in Houston, Texas, from July 2003 to November 2014. Adults with a diagnosis of HCAMV (N = 160) aged ≥65 (n = 35), aged 18-64 (n = 125). Demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, laboratory results, treatments, and outcomes (Glasgow Outcome Scale). Older adults had more comorbidities and CSF abnormalities [pleocytosis, high cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein, low CSF glucose) and were more likely to have altered mental status than younger adults (P older (97%) and younger (86%) adults (P = .13). On logistic regression analysis, abnormal neurological examination (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 7.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.15-23.63, P = .001) and mechanical ventilation (aOR = 11.03, 95% CI = 1.35-90.51, P = .02) were associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Older adults with HCAMV have more comorbidities and CSF abnormalities and are more likely to have altered mental status than younger adults but have similar high rates of adverse clinical outcomes. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  17. Snow and Rain Modify Neighbourhood Walkability for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philippa; Hirsch, Jana A; Melendez, Robert; Winters, Meghan; Sims Gould, Joanie; Ashe, Maureen; Furst, Sarah; McKay, Heather

    2017-06-01

    The literature has documented a positive relationship between walkable built environments and outdoor mobility in older adults. Yet, surprisingly absent is any consideration of how weather conditions modify the impact of neighbourhood walkability. Using archived weather data linked to survey data collected from a sample of older adults in Vancouver, Canada, we found that car-dependent neighbourhoods (featuring longer block lengths, fewer intersections, and greater distance to amenities) became inaccessible in snow. Even older adults who lived in very walkable neighbourhoods walked to 25 per cent fewer destinations in snow. It is crucial to consider the impact of weather in the relationship between neighbourhood walkability and older adult mobility.

  18. Cohabitation among older adults: a national portrait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Susan L; Lee, Gary R; Bulanda, Jennifer Roebuck

    2006-03-01

    Older adults are increasingly likely to experience cohabitation, or living together unmarried in an intimate, heterosexual union. In order to begin building a conceptual framework, we provide a descriptive portrait of older adult cohabitors, emphasizing how they compare to older remarrieds and unpartnereds. We used data from both Census 2000 and the 1998 Health and Retirement Study ( HRS; Health and Retirement Study, 1998) to estimate the size and composition of the cohabiting population aged 51 and older. Also, using HRS data, we estimated multinomial logistic regression models to identify the correlates associated with cohabitation and remarriage (vs being unpartnered) among women and men who were previously married. More than 1 million older adults, composing 4% of the unmarried population, currently cohabit. About 90% of these individuals were previously married. We identify significant differences among cohabitors, remarrieds, and unpartnereds across several dimensions, including sociodemographic characteristics, economic resources, physical health, and social relationships. Cohabitors appear to be more disadvantaged than remarrieds, and this is especially evident for women. Older cohabitors differ from individuals of other marital statuses, and therefore future work on marital status should explicitly incorporate cohabitation.

  19. Falls' problematization and risk factors identification through older adults' narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsch, Patricia; Myskiw, Mauro; Myskiw, Jociane de Carvalho

    2016-11-01

    Falling is an important event for older adults as they might cause physical and psychological impairment, institutionalization and increased mortality risk. Adherence in falls prevention programs depends on older adults' perceptions in relation to falling. The current study aims to investigate the fall problematization and older adults' perception about the risk factors for falls. This is an exploratory qualitative research, conducted through content analysis approach. The sample consisted of older adults aged 60 years and older who participate in community groups in Porto Alegre (Brazil), and professors from two local universities. Final sample consisted of 22 participants, mean age was 70.2 ± 7.1. Coding and interpretation of data resulted in two thematic categories, named: falls' problematization and the perception of the risk factors for falling. The first category highlights that many older adults do not realize falling as a potential problem, which suggests that current preventive measures may not be reaching the target population. The second category shows that older adults' perceptions in relation to the risk factors exist, but often they are not avoided, because older adults consider their ability to "take care" as the main method of prevention, and due to the multifactorial nature of falls, this cannot be considered an efficient solution.

  20. Do older adults perceive postural constraints for reach estimation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, Alberto; Gabbard, Carl

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Recent evidence indicates that older persons have difficulty mentally representing intended movements. Furthermore, in an estimation of reach paradigm using motor imagery, a form of mental representation, older persons significantly overestimated their ability compared with young adults. The authors tested the notion that older adults may also have difficulty perceiving the postural constraints associated with reach estimation. The authors compared young (Mage = 22 years) and older (Mage = 67) adults on reach estimation while seated and in a more postural demanding standing and leaning forward position. The expectation was a significant postural effect with the standing condition, as evidenced by reduced overestimation. Whereas there was no difference between groups in the seated condition (both overestimated), older adults underestimated whereas the younger group once again overestimated in the standing condition. From one perspective, these results show that older adults do perceive postural constraints in light of their own physical capabilities. That is, that group perceived greater postural demands with the standing posture and elected to program a more conservative strategy, resulting in underestimation.

  1. Stereotype threat can reduce older adults' memory errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah J; Mather, Mara

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype threat often incurs the cost of reducing the amount of information that older adults accurately recall. In the current research, we tested whether stereotype threat can also benefit memory. According to the regulatory focus account of stereotype threat, threat induces a prevention focus in which people become concerned with avoiding errors of commission and are sensitive to the presence or absence of losses within their environment. Because of this, we predicted that stereotype threat might reduce older adults' memory errors. Results were consistent with this prediction. Older adults under stereotype threat had lower intrusion rates during free-recall tests (Experiments 1 and 2). They also reduced their false alarms and adopted more conservative response criteria during a recognition test (Experiment 2). Thus, stereotype threat can decrease older adults' false memories, albeit at the cost of fewer veridical memories, as well.

  2. Dental Care Utilization among North Carolina Rural Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Savoca, Margaret R.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Chen, Haiying; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Bell, Ronny A.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Reynolds, Teresa; Quandt, Sara A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This analysis delineates the predisposing, need, and enabling factors that are significantly associated with regular and recent dental care in a multi-ethnic sample of rural older adults. Methods A cross-sectional comprehensive oral health survey conducted with a random, multi-ethnic (African American, American Indian, white) sample of 635 community-dwelling adults aged 60 years and older was completed in two rural southern counties. Results Almost no edentulous rural older adults received dental care. Slightly more than one-quarter (27.1%) of dentate rural older adults received regular dental care and slightly more than one-third (36.7%) received recent dental care. Predisposing (education) and enabling (regular place for dental care) factors associated with receiving regular and recent dental care among dentate participants point to greater resources being the driving force in receiving dental care. Contrary to expectations of the Behavioral Model of Health Services, those with the least need (e.g., better self-rated oral health) received regular dental care; this has been referred to as the Paradox of Dental Need. Conclusions Regular and recent dental care are infrequent among rural older adults. Those not receiving dental care are those who most need care. Community access to dental care and the ability of older adults to pay for dental care must be addressed by public health policy to improve the health and quality of life of older adults in rural communities. PMID:22536828

  3. Differences of oral health conditions between adults and older adults: A census in a Southern Brazilian city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscato, Noeli; Schuch, Helena S; Grasel, Claudia E; Goettems, Marilia L

    2016-09-01

    To assess differences in the oral diseases/conditions between adults and older adults. A cross-sectional study was carried out with all adults and older adults in Luzerna, South Brazil (n = 569). Clinical data included use of and need for dental prostheses; number of decayed, missing and filled teeth; and temporomandibular disorder. Differences between adults and older adults were evaluated using χ(2) -tests. Associations between independent variables and the use of and need for dental prostheses were determined using Poisson regression analyses (P older adults. After adjustments, lower social class (P = 0.001) and unmarried status (P = 0.05) were associated with greater need for prosthetic rehabilitation. Women (P = 0.02), older individuals (P adults and older adults was observed. The frequency of use of and need for dental prostheses was higher for older adults, although they had reported lower frequency of temporomandibular disorder. Women, married and individuals of higher socioeconomic status showed better oral health conditions. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; 16: 1014-1020. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  4. Diabetes Self-Care and the Older Adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinger, Katie; Beverly, Elizabeth A.; Smaldone, Arlene

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is highest in older adults, a population that is increasing. Diabetes self-care is complex with important recommendations for nutrition, physical activity, checking glucose levels, and taking medication. Older adults with diabetes have unique issues which impact self-care. As people age, their health status, support systems, physical and mental abilities, and nutritional requirements change. Furthermore, comorbidities, complications, and polypharmacy complicate diabetes self-care. Depression is also more common among the elderly and may lead to deterioration in self-care behaviors. Because of concerns about cognitive deficits and multiple comorbidities, adults older than 65 years are often excluded from research trials. Thus, little clinical evidence is available and the most appropriate treatment approaches and how to best support older patients’ self-care efforts are unclear. This review summarizes the current literature, research findings, and expert and consensus recommendations with their rationales. PMID:24510969

  5. The secrets of highly active older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Thea; Tong, Catherine; Ashe, Maureen C; McKay, Heather; Sims-Gould, Joanie

    2013-12-01

    Although physical activity is a recognized component in the management of many chronic diseases associated with aging, activity levels tend to progressively decline with increasing age (Manini & Pahor, 2009; Schutzer & Graves, 2004). In this article we examine the key factors that facilitate physical activity in highly active community-dwelling older adults. Using a strengths based approach, we examined the factors that facilitated physical activity in our sample of highly active older adults. Twenty-seven older adults participated in face-to face interviews. We extracted a sub-sample of 10 highly active older adults to be included in the analyses. Based on a framework analysis of our transcripts we identified three factors that facilitate physical activity in our sample, these include: 1) resourcefulness: engagement in self-help strategies such as self-efficacy, self-control and adaptability; 2) social connections: the presence of relationships (friend, neighborhood, institutions) and social activities that support or facilitate high levels of physical activity; and 3) the role of the built and natural environments: features of places and spaces that support and facilitate high levels of physical activity. Findings provide insight into, and factors that facilitate older adults' physical activity. We discuss implications for programs (e.g., accessible community centers, with appropriate programming throughout the lifecourse) and policies geared towards the promotion of physical activity (e.g., the development of spaces that facilitate both physical and social activities). © 2013.

  6. Positive messaging promotes walking in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notthoff, Nanna; Carstensen, Laura L

    2014-06-01

    Walking is among the most cost-effective and accessible means of exercise. Mounting evidence suggests that walking may help to maintain physical and cognitive independence in old age by preventing a variety of health problems. However, older Americans fall far short of meeting the daily recommendations for walking. In 2 studies, we examined whether considering older adults' preferential attention to positive information may effectively enhance interventions aimed at promoting walking. In Study 1, we compared the effectiveness of positive, negative, and neutral messages to encourage walking (as measured with pedometers). Older adults who were informed about the benefits of walking walked more than those who were informed about the negative consequences of failing to walk, whereas younger adults were unaffected by framing valence. In Study 2, we examined within-person change in walking in older adults in response to positively- or negatively-framed messages over a 28-day period. Once again, positively-framed messages more effectively promoted walking than negatively-framed messages, and the effect was sustained across the intervention period. Together, these studies suggest that consideration of age-related changes in preferences for positive and negative information may inform the design of effective interventions to promote healthy lifestyles. Future research is needed to examine the mechanisms underlying the greater effectiveness of positively- as opposed to negatively-framed messages and the generalizability of findings to other intervention targets and other subpopulations of older adults. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Older Adults and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find more information? Reprints Share Older Adults and Depression Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... depression need treatment to feel better. Types of Depression There are several types of depression. The most ...

  8. The Effects of Feedback on Memory Strategies of Younger and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Xin; Luo, Meng; Geng, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Existing literature suggests that feedback could effectively reduce false memories in younger adults. However, it is unclear whether memory performance in older adults also might be affected by feedback. The current study tested the hypothesis that older adults can use immediate feedback to adjust their memory strategy, similar to younger adults, but after feedback is removed, older adults may not be able to maintain using the memory strategy. Older adults will display more false memories than younger adults due to a reduction in attentional resources. In Study 1, both younger and older adults adjusted gist processing and item-specific processing biases based on the feedback given (i.e., biased and objective feedback). In Study 2 after the feedback was removed, only younger adults with full attention were able to maintain the feedback-shaped memory strategy; whereas, both younger adults with divided attention and older adults had increased false memories after feedback was removed. The findings suggest that environmental support helps older adults as well as younger adults to adopt a memory strategy that demands high attentional resources, but when the support is removed, older adults can no longer maintain such a strategy.

  9. The effect of a music therapy intergenerational program on children and older adults' intergenerational interactions, cross-age attitudes, and older adults' psychosocial well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgrave, Melita

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of participation in a music-based intergenerational music program on cross-age interactions and cross-age attitudes of elementary-age children and older adults, and older adults' psychosocial well-being. Twenty-one children in the 4th grade volunteered to participate in the experimental (n = 12) or control (n = 9) group. Twenty-six older adults from a retirement living facility also volunteered to participate in the experimental (n = 14) or control (n = 12) group. Ten 30-min music sessions occurred in which participants engaged in singing, structured conversation, moving to music, and instrument playing interventions. Data analysis of cross-age interactions revealed that the interventions "structured conversation" and "moving to music" were more effective in eliciting interaction behaviors than the interventions "singing" and "instrument playing." Standardized measures revealed that children's attitudes towards older adults improved, though not significantly so, after participation in the intergenerational program. Results of biweekly post-session questionnaires revealed a decrease in negative descriptions of older adults and an increase in positive descriptions of older adults--suggesting a more positive view towards aging. Results revealed that older adults' attitudes towards children improved significantly after their participation in the intergenerational program. While standardized measures revealed that older adults did not perceive a significant improvement in their psychosocial well-being, their bi-weekly post-session questionnaires showed they perceived increased feelings of usefulness and other personal benefits from the intergenerational interactions. Suggestions for future research, the utility of varied measurement instruments, and implications for practice are discussed.

  10. Gaps in nutritional research among older adults with cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Carolyn J.; Dotan, Efrat; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Jatoi, Aminah; Mohile, Supriya G.; Won, Elizabeth; Alibhai, Shabbir; Kilari, Deepak; Harrison, Robert; Klepin, Heidi D.; Wildes, Tanya M.; Mustian, Karen; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional issues among older adults with cancer are an understudied area of research despite significant prognostic implications for treatment side effects, cancer-specific mortality, and overall survival. In May of 2015, the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute on Aging co-sponsored a conference focused on future directions in geriatric oncology research. Nutritional research among older adults with cancer was highlighted as a major area of concern as most nutritional cancer research has been conducted among younger adults, with limited evidence to guide the care of nutritional issues among older adults with cancer. Cancer diagnoses among older adults are increasing, and the care of the older adult with cancer is complicated due to multimorbidity, heterogeneous functional status, polypharmacy, deficits in cognitive and mental health, and several other non-cancer factors. Due to this complexity, nutritional needs are dynamic, multifaceted, and dependent on the clinical scenario. This manuscript outlines the proceedings of this conference including knowledge gaps and recommendations for future nutritional research among older adults with cancer. Three common clinical scenarios encountered by oncologists include (1) weight loss during anti-cancer therapy, (2) malnutrition during advanced disease, and (3) obesity during survivorship. In this manuscript, we provide a brief overview of relevant cancer literature within these three areas, knowledge gaps that exist, and recommendations for future research. PMID:27197919

  11. Personality disorders in older adults : Emerging research issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Alphen, S.P.J.; van Dijk, S.D.M.; Videler, A.C.; Rossi, G.; Dierckx, E.; Bouckaert, F.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    Empirical research focusing on personality disorders (PDs) among older adults is mainly limited to studies on psychometric properties of age-specific personality tests, the age neutrality of specific items/scales, and validation of personality inventories for older adults. We identified only two

  12. Personality disorders in older adults : emerging research issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Alphen, S. P. J.; van Dijk, S. D. M.; Videler, A. C.; Rossi, G.; Dierckx, E.; Bouckaert, F.; Oude Voshaar, R. C.

    Empirical research focusing on personality disorders (PDs) among older adults is mainly limited to studies on psychometric properties of age-specific personality tests, the age neutrality of specific items/scales, and validation of personality inventories for older adults. We identified only two

  13. Aging and the Socioeconomic Life of Older Adults in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Bakshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study attempts to approach aging in India from three perspectives, namely, the well-being of an aging individual, the aging household, and the aging population. The aspects, namely, work, financial dependence, integration, empowerment, and elder abuse are studied and their relation to age, gender, and marital status is investigated. The data sets pertaining to the National Sample Surveys for the reference periods 1986-1987, 1995-1996, and 2004 are primarily utilized for the purpose. The data sets from Building Knowledge Base on Population Ageing in India Survey, 2011, are also utilized for information on elder abuse. The results show that the older males are more likely to participate in household activities when compared with the older females. The married older adults are also more likely to participate in household activities when compared with their widowed counterparts. In a similar way, gender and marital status are found to be associated with empowerment of older adults. The working older adults, those who possess property and/or assets are more likely to be financially independent. Furthermore, the older females and the financially dependent older adults are more likely to face abuses of different kinds. Households are classified into three different types. Type I households have no older adults, Type II households have older adults and other younger members, and Type III households have older adults only. Results show that Type III households are found to be relatively more deprived and report higher average monthly expenditure when compared with other types of households.

  14. Perspectives on Wellness Self-Monitoring Tools for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Jina; Le, Thai; Reeder, Blaine; Thompson, Hilaire J.; Demiris, George

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Our purpose was to understand different stakeholder perceptions about the use of self-monitoring tools, specifically in the area of older adults’ personal wellness. In conjunction with the advent of personal health records, tracking personal health using self-monitoring technologies shows promising patient support opportunities. While clinicians’ tools for monitoring of older adults have been explored, we know little about how older adults may self-monitor their wellness and health and how their health care providers would perceive such use. Methods We conducted three focus groups with health care providers (n=10) and four focus groups with community-dwelling older adults (n=31). Results Older adult participants’ found the concept of self-monitoring unfamiliar and this influenced a narrowed interest in the use of wellness self-monitoring tools. On the other hand, health care provider participants showed open attitudes towards wellness monitoring tools for older adults and brainstormed about various stakeholders’ use cases. The two participant groups showed diverging perceptions in terms of: perceived uses, stakeholder interests, information ownership and control, and sharing of wellness monitoring tools. Conclusions Our paper provides implications and solutions for how older adults’ wellness self-monitoring tools can enhance patient-health care provider interaction, patient education, and improvement in overall wellness. PMID:24041452

  15. Older adults learn less, but still reduce metabolic cost, during motor adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Helen J.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to learn new movements and dynamics is important for maintaining independence with advancing age. Age-related sensorimotor changes and increased muscle coactivation likely alter the trial-and-error-based process of adapting to new movement demands (motor adaptation). Here, we asked, to what extent is motor adaptation to novel dynamics maintained in older adults (≥65 yr)? We hypothesized that older adults would adapt to the novel dynamics less well than young adults. Because older adults often use muscle coactivation, we expected older adults to use greater muscle coactivation during motor adaptation than young adults. Nevertheless, we predicted that older adults would reduce muscle activity and metabolic cost with motor adaptation, similar to young adults. Seated older (n = 11, 73.8 ± 5.6 yr) and young (n = 15, 23.8 ± 4.7 yr) adults made targeted reaching movements while grasping a robotic arm. We measured their metabolic rate continuously via expired gas analysis. A force field was used to add novel dynamics. Older adults had greater movement deviations and compensated for just 65% of the novel dynamics compared with 84% in young adults. As expected, older adults used greater muscle coactivation than young adults. Last, older adults reduced muscle activity with motor adaptation and had consistent reductions in metabolic cost later during motor adaptation, similar to young adults. These results suggest that despite increased muscle coactivation, older adults can adapt to the novel dynamics, albeit less accurately. These results also suggest that reductions in metabolic cost may be a fundamental feature of motor adaptation. PMID:24133222

  16. Introduction of a university-based counselling service for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhar, Sunil S; Silver, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Despite the growing number of older adults in Australia, many do not access counselling, partly because of the lack of trained mental health professionals for older people. This paper describes an innovative solution for providing counselling services to older adults, and geropsychology training to postgraduate psychology students. A university-based counselling clinic for older adults was described – an outreach service for older adults living in the community or in residential aged care facilities in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. Over its first 13 months, the clinic provided a total of 266 sessions of counselling to 57 clients (41 living in residential aged care), and involved six postgraduate students. This paper describes the potential benefits of the clinic for clients and students and the resources needed to support this model of service delivery. Thus, it provides a blueprint for other universities for developing similar services for older adults.

  17. Hypothyroidism: challenges when treating older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Tamera

    2013-01-01

    Hypothyroidism frequently affects older adults' general sense of health, their cognitive abilities, and quality of life. Management decisions regarding when to start treatment and at what dosage to begin medication are influenced by both laboratory values and patient symptoms. Although specific guidelines regarding management of hypothyroidism in older adults do not exist, general recommendations include initiating hormone replacement with levothyroxine (Levoxyl(®), Synthroid(®), and others) at 12.5 mcg to 25 mcg and titrating the dose slowly based on response at 6-week intervals. Multiple medications and certain foods can interact with levothyroxine; therefore, the best dosage time is when a person is fasting or 4 hours postprandial. Using a consistent brand-name drug for hormone replacement with levothyroxine is important due to variations in the active ingredient in generic formulations. Providers need to be aware of the prevalence of hypothyroidism and management issues when caring for older adults. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Health, family strains, dependency, and life satisfaction of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokkanathan, Srinivasan; Mohanty, Jayashree

    2017-07-01

    Using stress process theory and structural equation modelling, this study investigated the complex relationship between health status, family strain, dependency, and the life satisfaction of rural older adults with reported functional impairments in India. Data were extracted from a large-scale study of 903 randomly selected adults aged 61 years and older from 30 rural clusters of India. The sample for this study was confined to 653 older adults who reported functional impairments. Structural equation modelling showed that poor health status indirectly lowered the life satisfaction of older adults through family strains. Moreover, poor health status also indirectly influenced life satisfaction through dependency and family strain (poor health→dependency→family strains→life satisfaction). The findings indicate that for professionals who deal with the health of older adults, exploring relationship strains and dependency is vital to the assessment and intervention of subjective wellbeing. Inter-sectoral coordination and communication between healthcare and social service agencies might facilitate effective management of health problems among older adults. Moreover, taking family strains and dependency into account when caring for older adults with health problems is critical to help improve their quality of life and maintain their wellbeing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Reverse correlating trustworthy faces in young and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eÉthier-Majcher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about how older persons determine if someone deserves their trust or not based on their facial appearance, a process referred to as facial trustworthiness. In the past few years, Todorov and colleagues have argued that, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are an extension of emotional judgments, and therefore, that trust judgments are made based on a continuum between anger and happiness (Engell, Todorov & Haxby, 2010; Todorov, 2008. Evidence from the literature on emotion processing suggest that older adults tend to be less efficient than younger adults in the recognition of negative facial expressions (Chaby & Narme, 2009; Ruffman, Henry, Livingstone et al., 2008; Firestone, Turk-Browne & Ryan, 2007; Calder, Keane, Manly et al., 2003. Based on Todorov’s theory and the fact that older adults seem to be less efficient than younger adults in identifying emotional expressions, one could expect that older individuals would have different representations of trustworthy faces and that they would use different cues than younger adults in order to make such judgments. We verified this hypothesis using a variation of Mangini and Biederman's (2004 reverse correlation method in order to test and compare classification images resulting from trustworthiness (in the context of money investment, from happiness, and from anger judgments in two groups of participants: young adults and older healthy adults. Our results show that for elderly participants, both happy and angry representations are correlated with trustworthiness judgments. However, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are mainly correlated with happiness representations. These results suggest that young and older adults differ in their way of judging trustworthiness.

  20. Older Adults' Memory for Verbally Presented Medical Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankoff, Sarah M.; Sandberg, Elisabeth Hollister

    2012-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that patients typically have difficulty remembering information presented during healthcare consultations. This study examined how older adults learn and remember verbally presented medical information. Healthy older adults were tested for recall in experimental and field settings. Participants viewed a five-minute…

  1. Coping with loneliness: what do older adults suggest?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, E.; van Tilburg, T.; Fokkema, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: A limited amount of information is available on how older adults cope with loneliness. Two ways of coping are distinguished here, i.e., active coping by improving relationships and regulative coping by lowering expectations about relationships. We explore how often older adults suggest

  2. Older adults abuse in three Brazilian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalina Aparecida Partezani Rodrigues

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the police reports filed by older adults who suffered abuse in order to identify the socio-demographic characteristics of victims and aggressors, type of violence, location, as well as to compare rates in three Brazilian cities in the period from 2009 to 2013. Method: Ecological study, in which 2,612 police reports registered in Police Stations were analyzed. An instrument was used to obtain data from the victim, the aggressor and the type of violence. Results: Psychological abuse predominated and most cases occurred in the older adults own home. In the cities of Ribeirão Preto and João Pessoa, the older adults presented similar rates for both gender. Regarding the standardized rates, in João Pessoa, there was a rise of this type of abuse in the two first years, and later there was a certain stability. In the city of Teresina, there was an increase, also observed in the city of Ribeirão Preto in the three first years, followed by a decrease. Conclusion: Older adults abuse is a cultural phenomenon difficult to be reported by them, since it occurs in the family context.

  3. Filipino older adults' beliefs about exercise activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceria-Ulep, Clementina D; Serafica, Reimund C; Tse, Alice

    2011-01-01

    This study explored how the older traditional Filipino adults 65 years old and above living in Honolulu, Hawaii, describe their beliefs regarding exercise activity. The location of this research setting is unique because a blending of traditional Filipino culture exists within an acculturated social setting. The Filipino older adults who have relocated to this U.S. location may have also stayed close to their own cultural traditions. A perception of exercise activity was generated through the lens of 47 participants using qualitative methodology. While focusing on the older adults' beliefs about exercise activity, it became evident that exercise may have been seen as a proxy measure of physical activity. The study revealed four main domains: balancing barriers against benefits; engaging capabilities; intervening factors; and defining exercise. The data suggest that the four themes are juxtaposed among each other, with overarching social obligations to the kin group governing the older adults' engagement in what constitutes structured exercise by Western definition. Further investigation is needed to conceptualize what types of physical activities traditional Filipino elders perceive as exercise, and whether these activities fall into the Western definition of exercise. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. How Arousal Affects Younger and Older Adults' Memory Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashiro, Kaoru; Mather, Mara

    2009-01-01

    A number of recent studies have shown that associative memory for within-item features is enhanced for emotionally arousing items, whereas arousal-enhanced binding is not seen for associations between distinct items (for a review see Mather, 2007). The costs and benefits of arousal in memory binding have been examined for younger adults but not for older adults. The present experiment examined whether arousal would enhance younger and older adults' within-item and between-item memory binding. The results revealed that arousal improved younger adults' within-item memory binding but not that of older adults. Arousal worsened both groups' between-item memory binding. PMID:21240821

  5. Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Soo Kim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the near future, the majority of patients with diabetes will be adults aged 65 or older. Unlike young adults with diabetes, elderly diabetic people may be affected by a variety of comorbid conditions such as depression, cognitive impairment, muscle weakness (sarcopenia, falls and fractures, and physical frailty. These geriatric syndromes should be considered in the establishment of treatment goals in older adults with diabetes. Although there are several guidelines for the management of diabetes, only a few are specifically designed for the elderly with diabetes. In this review, we present specific conditions of elderly diabetes which should be taken into account in the management of diabetes in older adults. We also present advantages and disadvantages of various glucose-lowering agents that should be considered when choosing a proper regimen for older adults with diabetes.

  6. A concept analysis of dignity for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacelon, Cynthia S; Connelly, Thomas W; Brown, Rana; Proulx, Kathy; Vo, Thuy

    2004-10-01

    Human dignity is an essential value of professional nursing education as well as a component of the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics. Nurses are exhorted to treat patients with dignity, and older adults want to be treated with dignity and die with dignity. Although dignity, particularly the dignity of older adults, is often discussed in the health care literature, its meaning is not always clear. The aim of this paper is to describe a concept analysis to develop a definition of dignity in older adults. Data were collected using a literature review and five focus groups composed of older adults. The literature provided data about professionals' ideas of dignity and the focus groups provided qualitative data about the nature of dignity in older people. The literature review and focus groups were carried out concurrently, followed by synthesis of the findings. Dignity is an inherent characteristic of being human, it can be subjectively felt as an attribute of the self, and is made manifest through behaviour that demonstrates respect for self and others. Dignity must be learned, and an individual's dignity is affected by the treatment received from others. A behavioural definition of dignity was constructed and this could provide the theoretical basis for nurses to develop interventions that foster dignity for older people.

  7. What Older Adults Need to Know about Retail Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Older Adults Need to Know about Retail Clinics Expert Information from Healthcare Professionals Who Specialize in the Care of Older Adults Retail clinics are medical clinics based in pharmacies, ...

  8. Compensatory Processing During Rule-Based Category Learning in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharani, Krishna L.; Paller, Ken A.; Reber, Paul J.; Weintraub, Sandra; Yanar, Jorge; Morrison, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    Healthy older adults typically perform worse than younger adults at rule-based category learning, but better than patients with Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease. To further investigate aging's effect on rule-based category learning, we monitored event-related potentials (ERPs) while younger and neuropsychologically typical older adults performed a visual category-learning task with a rule-based category structure and trial-by-trial feedback. Using these procedures, we previously identified ERPs sensitive to categorization strategy and accuracy in young participants. In addition, previous studies have demonstrated the importance of neural processing in the prefrontal cortex and the medial temporal lobe for this task. In this study, older adults showed lower accuracy and longer response times than younger adults, but there were two distinct subgroups of older adults. One subgroup showed near-chance performance throughout the procedure, never categorizing accurately. The other subgroup reached asymptotic accuracy that was equivalent to that in younger adults, although they categorized more slowly. These two subgroups were further distinguished via ERPs. Consistent with the compensation theory of cognitive aging, older adults who successfully learned showed larger frontal ERPs when compared with younger adults. Recruitment of prefrontal resources may have improved performance while slowing response times. Additionally, correlations of feedback-locked P300 amplitudes with category-learning accuracy differentiated successful younger and older adults. Overall, the results suggest that the ability to adapt one's behavior in response to feedback during learning varies across older individuals, and that the failure of some to adapt their behavior may reflect inadequate engagement of prefrontal cortex. PMID:26422522

  9. Geriatric dermatology: optimising care in frail older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubeek, S.F.K.

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare providers are expected to be increasingly confronted with the growing population of older adults. In the Netherlands, the frailest and most dependent older adults live in nursing homes. Skin problems are common in this patient population and they can result in a high level of morbidity,

  10. Acquired Inhibitors: A Special Case of Bleeding in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Stefanacci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This literature review is intended to familiarize physicians and healthcare providers of older adults with the potential causes of acute bleeding in older adults and to review diagnostic approaches that can produce prompt identification of acute bleeding and facilitate timely treatment. Adverse events from anticoagulant treatment and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID and aspirin use and abuse are among the most common causes of bleeding in older adults. Diagnoses infrequently considered—mild congenital hemophilia, acquired hemophilia, von Willebrand disease, and platelet dysfunction—can contribute to acute bleeding in older adults. The approach to management of bleeding varies. Management of acute bleeding in older adults can be challenging because these patients often have chronic comorbidity and have been prescribed long-term concomitant medications that can complicate diagnosis and treatment. Prompt recognition of acquired hemophilia, referral to an expert hematologist, and timely initiation of treatment could improve outcome in older patients who experience bleeding episodes resulting from this condition.

  11. Dietary intake and nutritional status in cancer patients: comparing adults and older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Valiente da Silva, Henyse; Fonseca de Andrade, Camila; Seixas Bello Moreira, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate the nutrient intake and nutritional status of food in cancer patients admitted to a university hospital, with comparison of adult and older adult age category Methods: Cross-sectional study. This study involved cancer patients admitted to a hospital in 2010. Dietary habits were collected using a Brazilian food frequency questionnaire. Participants were divided in two groups: adults or older adults and in 4-cancer category: hematologic, lung, gastrointestinal and others. Bo...

  12. Older Adults in Public Open Spaces: Age and Gender Segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noon, Rinat Ben; Ayalon, Liat

    2018-01-18

    There is a substantial body of literature on the importance of the environment in the lives of older adults. Nonetheless, to date, there has been limited research on everyday activities of urban older adults in public open spaces. The present study examined the activities of older adults in public open spaces in Israel with a specific focus on age and gender as potential variables of relevance. Using still photography, we systematically photographed four sessions in two different public outdoor settings attended by older Israelis. Still photographs were converted to narrative descriptions, and then coded, quantified, and compared using descriptive statistics. The majority (311, 97%) of older adults arrived alone to the public setting. Of these, 44% formed a social group of two or more people, whereas the remaining older adults stayed alone. When social interactions occurred, they were primarily gender homogenous (69%); women were more likely to integrate in spontaneous social conversations and men were more likely to participate in common games. Our findings call attention to the important role played by the outdoor environment as a venue for social activities among older adults. The findings further stress the high levels of aloneness experienced by older adults, which do not seem to be alleviated by the mere attendance of public spaces. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Walking through doorways causes forgetting: Younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radvansky, Gabriel A; Pettijohn, Kyle A; Kim, Joonsung

    2015-06-01

    Previous research on event cognition has found that walking through doorways can cause forgetting. The explanation for this finding is that there is a competition between event models, producing interference, and depressing performance. The current study explored the degree to which this might be affected by the natural aging process. This is of interest because there is some evidence that older adults have trouble coordinating sources of interference, which is what is thought to underlie this effect. This would suggest that older adults should do worse on this task. Alternatively, there is also evidence that older adults are typically not disrupted at the event level of processing per se. This would suggest that older adults should perform similarly to younger adults on this task. In the study reported here, younger and older participants navigated through a virtual environment, and memory was tested with probes either before or after a shift and for objects that were associated with the participant (i.e., just picked up). In general, both younger and older adults had memory disrupted after walking through a doorway. Importantly, the magnitude of this disruption was similar in the 2 age groups. This is consistent with the idea that processing at the event level is relatively unaffected by the natural aging process. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Older adults are mobile too!Identifying the barriers and facilitators to older adults' use of mHealth for pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Samantha J; Jessel, Sonal; Richardson, Joshua E; Reid, M Cary

    2013-05-06

    Mobile health (mHealth) is a rapidly emerging field with the potential to assist older adults in the management of chronic pain (CP) through enhanced communication with providers, monitoring treatment-related side effects and pain levels, and increased access to pain care resources. Little is currently known, however, about older adults' attitudes and perceptions of mHealth or perceived barriers and facilitators to using mHealth tools to improve pain management. We conducted six focus groups comprised of 41 diverse older adults (≥60 years of age) with CP. Participants were recruited from one primary care practice and two multiservice senior community day-visit centers located in New York City that serve older adults in their surrounding neighborhoods. Focus group discussions were recorded and transcribed, and transcriptions were analyzed using direct content analysis to identify and quantify themes. Focus group discussions generated 38 individual themes pertaining to the use of mHealth to help manage pain and pain medications. Participants had low prior use of mHealth (5% of participants), but the vast majority (85%) were highly willing to try the devices. Participants reported that mHealth devices might help them reach their healthcare provider more expeditiously (27%), as well as help to monitor for falls and other adverse events in the home (15%). Barriers to device use included concerns about the cost (42%) and a lack of familiarity with the technology (32%). Facilitators to device use included training prior to device use (61%) and tailoring devices to the functional needs of older adults (34%). This study suggests that older adults with CP are interested and willing to use mHealth to assist in the management of pain. Participants in our study reported important barriers that medical professionals, researchers, and mHealth developers should address to help facilitate the development and evaluation of age-appropriate, and function-appropriate, m

  15. Count me in: response to sexual orientation measures among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Kim, Hyun-Jun

    2015-07-01

    Health disparities exist among sexual minority older adults. Yet, health and aging surveys rarely include sexual orientation measures and when they do, they often exclude older adults from being asked about sexual orientation. This is the first population-based study to assess item nonresponse to sexual orientation measures by age and change over time. We compare response rates and examine time trends in response patterns using adjusted logistic regressions. Among adults aged 65 and older, the nonresponse rate on sexual orientation is lower than income. While older adults show higher nonresponse rates on sexual orientation than younger adults, the nonresponse rates have significantly decreased over time. By 2010, only 1.23% of older adults responded don't know/not sure, with 1.55% refusing to answer sexual orientation questions. Decisions to not ask sexual orientation among older adults must be reconsidered, given documented health disparities and rapidly changing social trends in the understanding of diverse sexualities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Improving nursing students' assessment of fall risk in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Susan K

    2016-12-09

    Nationally, approximately one third of older adults fall each year. Falls and resulting injury result in decreased mobility, functional impairment, loss of independence, and increased mortality. Utilization of evidence-based protocols by health care providers to identify older adults at risk of falling is limited, and rates of participation by older adults in prevention activities is low. Because of nursing's increasing role in caring for older adults, development of fall prevention education for nursing students would result in increased awareness of the need for fall prevention in community-dwelling older adults and increased access of older adults to falls risk assessment. There is a need to extend research to inform teaching and learning strategies for fall prevention. After pretesting, a convenience sample of 52 undergraduate nursing students and 22 graduate nursing students completed an online education program and performed a falls risk assessment on an older adult. After completing the clinical assignment, students completed a posttest and self-efficacy survey. Data were analyzed using multivariate statistical tests. Results revealed an increase in knowledge and student self-reporting of efficacy of fall risk assessment skills for the older adult population. This study suggests that nursing students acquired the necessary knowledge and self-efficacy for assessing fall risk of older adults through the combination of an online learning module and participating in actual fall risk assessment of an older adult.

  17. Undernutrition: who cares? Perspectives of dietitians and older adults on undernutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beelen, J.; Vasse, Emmelyne; Ziylan, C.; Janssen, N.; Roos, de N.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Many older adults are at risk of undernutrition. Dietitians play a key role in the management and treatment of undernutrition, but older adults have difficulties to comply with dietetic recommendations. This qualitative study investigated which barriers older adults experience in

  18. Differences in Risk Aversion between Young and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Steven M; Duffy, John

    2012-01-15

    Research on decision-making strategies among younger and older adults suggests that older adults may be more risk averse than younger people in the case of potential losses. These results mostly come from experimental studies involving gambling paradigms. Since these paradigms involve substantial demands on memory and learning, differences in risk aversion or other features of decision-making attributed to age may in fact reflect age-related declines in cognitive abilities. In the current study, older and younger adults completed a simpler, paired lottery choice task used in the experimental economics literature to elicit risk aversion. A similar approach was used to elicit participants' discount rates. The older adult group was more risk averse than younger adults (p Risk aversion and implied discount rates were weakly correlated. It may be valuable to investigate developmental changes in neural correlates of decision-making across the lifespan.

  19. Social, Economic, and Health Disparities Among LGBT Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emlet, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    LGBT older adults are a heterogeneous population with collective and unique strengths and challenges. Health, personal, and economic disparities exist in this group when compared to the general population of older adults, yet subgroups such as transgender and bisexual older adults and individuals living with HIV are at greater risk for disparities and poorer health outcomes. As this population grows, further research is needed on factors that contribute to promoting health equity, while decreasing discrimination and improving competent service delivery.

  20. Older Adults: What Every Paediatric Nurse Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, Beth Ellen; Tesh, Anita Starr; Cowen, Kay; Hancock, Debbie; Moore, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Older adults have always been important parts of children's lives, playing a variety of roles including grandparent, caregiver, friend, and neighbour. Grandparents also play a variety of roles in families. Often a child's first encounter with serious illness or death involves a grandparent or other older adult. Grandparents are also increasingly…

  1. Older Adults' Motivation to Learn in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Yin

    2011-01-01

    A limited amount of literature has discussed older adults in formal education, especially their motivations to learn in higher education. This study aims to understand older adults' learning in the context of higher education. Specifically, this study argues that higher education can function as a stimulating learning environment that helps older…

  2. Older adult education in Lithuanian ageing society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemaitaityte I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the phenomenon of the demographic ageing of the population and educational opportunities for older adults in Lithuania. Ageing population is a natural outcome of demographic evolution of society. However, a growing number of older people in Lithuania as well as in other European countries requires continuous revision of societal resources in social security, economics, education, health care areas and their adjustment to the new demands. Though current discussion in Lithuania highlights the inclusion of older adults into active social life through educational activities, the studies in diverse areas show that a small number of older people take part in lifelong learning. For this reason and in the attempt to make older people feel satisfaction with life it is necessary to encourage their activity, to promote their social roles, to give them opportunities to take up voluntary tasks, educational and cultural functions and study new subjects.

  3. Overgeneral autobiographical memory and depression in older adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, F C L; Gregory, J D

    2018-05-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a well-researched phenomenon in working age adults with depression. However, the relevance and importance of OGM in older adult depression is not well established. The aim of this review was to synthesise existing literature on OGM and depressive symptoms in older adults under the framework of the Capture and Rumination, Functional Avoidance and Impaired Executive Control (CaR-FA-X) model. Literature searches were conducted using PsychINFO, PubMed and Web of Knowledge. Eighteen articles were reviewed. OGM is elevated in healthy older adults compared to adults of working age, and further elevated in older adults with depression. Evidence supports the role of impaired executive function as a mechanism for OGM in older adults with depression, but no studies measured other components of the CaR-FA-X model (i.e. functional avoidance and rumination). OGM is prevalent in older adults and more so for those with depression; however, there is no clear understanding of the underpinning mechanisms. It is recommended that future research looks at the role of functional avoidance and rumination, and at the use of memory specificity interventions being developed in the working age adult literature.

  4. An examination of electronic health information privacy in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thai; Thompson, Hilaire; Demiris, George

    2013-01-01

    Older adults are the quickest growing demographic group and are key consumers of health services. As the United States health system transitions to electronic health records, it is important to understand older adult perceptions of privacy and security. We performed a secondary analysis of the Health Information National Trends Survey (2012, Cycle 1), to examine differences in perceptions of electronic health information privacy between older adults and the general population. We found differences in the level of importance placed on access to electronic health information (older adults placed greater emphasis on provider as opposed to personal access) and tendency to withhold information out of concerns for privacy and security (older adults were less likely to withhold information). We provide recommendations to alleviate some of these privacy concerns. This may facilitate greater use of electronic health communication between patient and provider, while promoting shared decision making.

  5. Self-reported cognitive inconsistency in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhill, Susan; Hultsch, David F; Hunter, Michael A; Strauss, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Insight into one's own cognitive abilities, or metacognition, has been widely studied in developmental psychology. Relevance to the clinician is high, as memory complaints in older adults show an association with impending dementia, even after controlling for likely confounds. Another candidate marker of impending dementia under study is inconsistency in cognitive performance over short time intervals. Although there has been a recent proliferation of studies of cognitive inconsistency in older adults, to date, no one has examined adults' self-perceptions of cognitive inconsistency. Ninety-four community-dwelling older adults (aged 70-91) were randomly selected from a parent longitudinal study of short-term inconsistency and long-term cognitive change in aging. Participants completed a novel 40-item self-report measure of everyday cognitive inconsistency, including parallel scales indexing perceived inconsistency 5 years ago and at present, yielding measures of past, present, and 5-year change in inconsistency. The questionnaire showed acceptable psychometric characteristics. The sample reported an increase in perceived inconsistency over time. Higher reported present inconsistency and greater 5-year increase in inconsistency were associated with noncognitive (e.g., older age, poorer ADLs, poorer health, higher depression), metacognitive (e.g., poorer self-rated memory) and neuropsychological (e.g., poorer performance and greater 5-year decline in global cognitive status, vocabulary, and memory) measures. Correlations between self-reported inconsistency and neuropsychological performance were attenuated, but largely persisted when self-rated memory and age were controlled. Observed relationships between self-reported inconsistency and measures of neuropsychological (including memory) status and decline suggest that self-perceived inconsistency may be an area of relevance in evaluating older adults for memory disorders.

  6. Feasibility of mobile mental wellness training for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Similä, Heidi; Immonen, Milla; Toska-Tervola, Jaana; Enwald, Heidi; Keränen, Niina; Kangas, Maarit; Jämsä, Timo; Korpelainen, Raija

    2018-03-09

    Mobile technology has been increasingly adopted in promotion of mental health among older people. This study assessed the feasibility of a mobile mental wellness training application for individual use and for group work from the perspectives of older adults and social care professionals. The older individuals recruited for the study were participants in a Circle of Friends group and family caregivers' peer support group offered by the communal senior services. The qualitative and quantitative results of interviews, questionnaires, observation, and application usage were reported. Seven older adults started using the application independently at home in parallel with the group activity. This study revealed new information regarding the barriers to the older adults' full adoption of such mobile technologies. The results indicated that there may be potential in the incorporation of mobile technologies in promotion of mental health of older people at group settings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Barriers to treatment for older adults seeking psychological therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuthrich, Viviana M; Frei, Jacqueline

    2015-07-01

    Older adults with mental health disorders underutilize mental health services more than other adults. While there are well known general barriers to help seeking across the population, specific barriers for older adults include difficulties with transportation, beliefs that it is normal to be anxious and depressed in old age, and beliefs by referrers that psychological therapy is less likely to be effective. This study examined barriers related to identifying the need for help, seeking help and participating in therapy in a clinical population of older adults. Sixty older adults (aged 60-79 years) with comorbid anxiety and unipolar mood disorders completed barriers to treatment questionnaires before and after psychological group treatment, as well as measures of cognitive ability, anxiety, depression, and quality of life at baseline. The greatest barriers to help seeking related to difficulties identifying the need for help, with 50% of the sample reporting their belief that their symptoms were normal as a major barrier. Other major barriers identified were related to: self-reliance, cost of treatment, and fear of medication replicating previous findings. The main barriers reported for difficulties in continuing therapy included not finding therapy helpful, cost of treatment, and thinking that the therapist did not understand their issues. The main barriers identified related to issues with identifying the need to seek help. More attention is needed to educate older adults and professionals about the need for, and effectiveness of, psychological therapies for older adults with anxiety and depression to reduce this barrier to help seeking.

  8. Casino gambling among older adults in North Dakota: a policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelde, Kristine; Chromy, Barbara; Pankow, Debra

    2008-12-01

    This article examined social issues surrounding casino gambling among older adults both nationally and in the state of North Dakota. An exploratory review of gambling trends among older adults and an examination of policies to protect older gamblers revealed that older adults are targeted by the gaming industry as a lucrative market (Singh et al. J Retail Leisure Property 2007, 6(1):61-68). The authors used the national literature to frame their qualitative study, which explored gambling issues among older adults in North Dakota from the perspective of six counselors trained in gambling addiction who provide treatment services in the state. Findings indicated that relatively few policies existed at the state and national levels to protect older, more vulnerable adults who gamble. Further, the six casinos in North Dakota were viewed as very effective in marketing their casino gaming opportunities to older citizens by the gambling treatment providers interviewed. Additionally, barriers to gambling addiction treatment involved lack of available services and distance to receive services in this rural state. Based on the findings of this study, social policy changes which could lead to increased protection for older adult gamblers in the state were included.

  9. Everyday memory errors in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossher, Lynn; Flegal, Kristin E; Lustig, Cindy

    2013-01-01

    Despite concern about cognitive decline in old age, few studies document the types and frequency of memory errors older adults make in everyday life. In the present study, 105 healthy older adults completed the Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ; Sunderland, Harris, & Baddeley, 1983 , Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 22, 341), indicating what memory errors they had experienced in the last 24 hours, the Memory Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (MSEQ; West, Thorn, & Bagwell, 2003 , Psychology and Aging, 18, 111), and other neuropsychological and cognitive tasks. EMQ and MSEQ scores were unrelated and made separate contributions to variance on the Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE; Folstein, Folstein, & McHugh, 1975 , Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189), suggesting separate constructs. Tip-of-the-tongue errors were the most commonly reported, and the EMQ Faces/Places and New Things subscales were most strongly related to MMSE. These findings may help training programs target memory errors commonly experienced by older adults, and suggest which types of memory errors could indicate cognitive declines of clinical concern.

  10. Older Adults and Drinking | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Older Adults and Drinking Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of ... quickly than when they were younger. Drinking puts older adults at greater risk for falls, car crashes, and ...

  11. Reduced Syntactic Processing Efficiency in Older Adults During Sentence Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zude Zhu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have frequently reported an age-related decline in semantic processing during sentence comprehension. However, it remains unclear whether syntactic processing also declines or whether it remains constant as people age. In the present study, 26 younger adults and 20 older adults were recruited and matched in terms of working memory, general intelligence, verbal intelligence and fluency. They were then asked to make semantic acceptability judgments while completing a Chinese sentence reading task. The behavioral results revealed that the older adults had significantly lower accuracy on measures of semantic and syntactic processing compared to younger adults. Event-related potential (ERP results showed that during semantic processing, older adults had a significantly reduced amplitude and delayed peak latency of the N400 compared to the younger adults. During syntactic processing, older adults also showed delayed peak latency of the P600 relative to younger adults. Moreover, while P600 amplitude was comparable between the two age groups, larger P600 amplitude was associated with worse performance only in the older adults. Together, the behavioral and ERP data suggest that there is an age-related decline in both semantic and syntactic processing, with a trend toward lower efficiency in syntactic ability.

  12. The effects of emotion on younger and older adults' monitoring of learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Sarah K; Dunlosky, John; Urry, Heather L; Opitz, Philipp C

    2017-09-01

    Age-related differences in memory monitoring appear when people learn emotional words. Namely, younger adults' judgments of learning (JOLs) are higher for positive than neutral words, whereas older adults' JOLs do not discriminate between positive versus neutral words. In two experiments, we evaluated whether this age-related difference extends to learning positive versus neutral pictures. We also evaluated the contribution of two dimensions of emotion that may impact younger and older adults' JOLs: valence and arousal. Younger and older adults studied pictures that were positive or neutral and either high or low in arousal. Participants made immediate JOLs and completed memory tests. In both experiments, the magnitude of older adults' JOLs was influenced by emotion, and both younger and older adults demonstrated an emotional salience effect on JOLs. As important, the magnitude of participants' JOLs was influenced by valence, and not arousal. Emotional salience effects were also evident on participants' free recall, and older adults recalled as many pictures as did younger adults. Taken together, these data suggest that older adults do not have a monitoring deficit when learning positive (vs. neutral) pictures and that emotional salience effects on younger and older adults' JOLs are produced more by valence than by arousal.

  13. Relationship between massage therapy usage and health outcomes in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, Niki; Zanjani, Faika

    2011-04-01

    Physical and emotional decline in older adults is a serious issue affecting not only quality of life but also susceptibility to injury. Non-pharmacological interventions addressing the needs of older adults are important for reducing medication burden and possible drug interactions. This study (N=144) examines the potential of massage therapy as such an intervention for older adults by comparing self-reported health outcome scores among adults 60 and older who have and have not utilized massage therapy in the past year. When controlling for age and cumulative morbidities, older adults who reported massage therapy usage in the past year had significantly better health outcome scores in the following domains: 1) emotional well-being, 2) limitations due to physical issues, and 3) limitations due to emotional issues. Because previous massage therapy research has not included or focused on older adults, studies examining massage therapy and emotional health, specifically among this population, are warranted. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Asthma Morbidity, Comorbidities, and Modifiable Factors Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Joy; Chen, Jessica; Mirabelli, Maria C

    Asthma morbidity is increased among older adults, especially older adult women. Interventions to improve asthma control in this population are not well described. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors (including modifiable factors) associated with asthma-related hospitalizations and emergency department or urgent care center visits (ED/UCV) among older adults. A secondary objective was to investigate sex differences in variables relevant to asthma control. Data were obtained from 14,076 older adults ≥65 years with active asthma participating in the 2006-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Asthma Call-back Survey (a random-digit dialed survey) in 40 US states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico, representative of >2.6 million persons. Weighted, adjusted logistic regression was conducted. One or more asthma-related hospitalizations in the past year were reported by 5.7% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 5.0% to 6.4%) of participants; 10.6% (95% CI = 9.7% to 11.5%) reported ≥1 asthma-related ED/UCV. Compared with older adults without asthma-related hospitalizations, adjusted odds were higher among those with ≥1 asthma-related hospitalization for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), coronary artery disease, depression, cockroaches or mold in the home, and cost barriers to asthma-related health care or medication. All these factors, except for cockroaches, were associated with asthma-related ED/UCV. Compared with males, adjusted odds were higher among females for COPD, depression, obesity, and cost barriers to asthma-related health care or medication. Among older adults, asthma-related hospitalizations and ED/UCV were associated with clinical comorbidities, mold in the home, and financial barriers to asthma-related health care. Interventions addressing modifiable factors could reduce asthma morbidity among older adults. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. A healthy aging program for older adults: effects on self-efficacy and morale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scult, Matthew; Haime, Vivian; Jacquart, Jolene; Takahashi, Jonathan; Moscowitz, Barbara; Webster, Ann; Denninger, John W; Mehta, Darshan H

    2015-01-01

    As of 2012, 810 million people worldwide were older than 60 y, accounting for 11% of the population. That number is expected to rise to 2 billion by 2050 or to 22% of the overall population. As a result, a growing need exists to understand the factors that promote mental and physical health in older populations. The purpose of this study was to develop a healthy aging program for older adults and to measure the changes from baseline to the end of the program in participants' relevant psychosocial outcomes (ie, self-efficacy and morale). The study's healthy aging mind-body intervention (MBI) was adapted from the Relaxation Response Resiliency Program (3RP) at the Benson-Henry Institute for Mind Body Medicine, which incorporates elements from the fields of stress management, cognitive behavioral therapy, and positive psychology. That program was modified with examples and exercises targeted to an older population and evaluated in the current single-arm pilot study. The program took place at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). The 9-wk healthy aging MBI was developed for participants aged 65 y and older. Fifty-one older adults from the surrounding community participated in the study's groups. A new intervention group began the program every 3 mo, with a maximum of 12 individuals per group. For each group, the MBI consisted of weekly 90-min sessions for 9 consecutive wk, directed by a psychologist. The program included sessions that taught participants (1) a variety of methods to elicit the relaxation response (RR), (2) the practice of adaptive coping and cognitions, (3) behaviors necessary to create a healthy lifestyle, and (4) methods of building social support. The research team chose to focus on 2 psychological variables of interest for aging populations: morale and self-efficacy. The study used 2 questionnaires to measure those outcomes, the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS), a multidimensional measure of the psychological state of older

  16. Development of an Integrated Theory of Surgical Recovery in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann DiMaria-Ghalili, Rose

    2016-01-01

    Experts argue the health care system is not prepared to meet the unique needs of older surgical patients, including how to provide the best care during the recovery phase. Nutrition plays a critical role in the recovery of surgical patients. Since older adults are at risk for malnutrition, examining the role of nutrition as a mediator for surgical recovery across the care continuum in older adults is critical. Presently there is a paucity of frameworks, models, and guidelines that integrate the role of nutrition on the trajectory of postoperative recovery in older surgical patients. The purpose of this article is to introduce the Integrated Theory of Surgical Recovery in Older Adults, an interdisciplinary middle-range theory, so that scholars, researchers, and clinicians can use this framework to promote recovery from surgery in older adults by considering the contribution of mediators of recovery (nutritional status, functional status, and frailty) unique to the older adults.

  17. Older Adults' Comprehension of Transformational and Deactivation Negation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Sara J.

    2015-01-01

    The present research aimed to examine young and older adults' comprehension of negated text to determine the locus of older adults' difficulty in understanding this text construction. Participants were asked to read short passages at their own pace, complete a lexical decision task, and answer a comprehension question about what they had read.…

  18. Prevalence and correlates of binge drinking among older adults with multimorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Benjamin H; Moore, Alison A; Sherman, Scott E; Palamar, Joseph J

    2018-06-01

    Binge drinking among older adults has increased in the past decade. Binge drinking is associated with unintentional injuries, medical conditions, and lower health-related quality of life. No studies have characterized multimorbidity among older binge drinkers. We examined past 30-day binge alcohol use and lifetime medical conditions among adults age ≥50 from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health from 2005 to 2014. Self-reported lifetime prevalence of 13 medical conditions and medical multimorbidity (≥2 diseases) among binge drinkers were compared to non-binge drinkers. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine correlates of binge alcohol use among older adults with medical multimorbidity. Among adults aged ≥50, 14.4% reported past-month binge drinking. Estimated prevalence of medical multimorbidity was lower (21.4%) among binge drinkers than non-binge drinkers (28.3%; p older adults with multimorbidity, higher income (AOR = 1.44, p older adults in good health are apt to drink more than adults in poorer health. Current use of tobacco and substance use disorder were associated with an increased risk for binge drinking among older adults with multimorbidity. Binge drinking by older adults with multimorbidity may pose significant health risks especially with the concurrent use of other substances. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimal management of ADHD in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torgersen T

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Terje Torgersen,1,2 Bjorn Gjervan,2,3 Michael B Lensing,4 Kirsten Rasmussen5,6 1Department of Østmarka, St Olav’s Hospital, 2Department of Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, 3Department of Psychiatry, Helse Nord-Trondelag Hospital Trust, Kirkegata, Levanger, 4NevSom, Norwegian Center of Expertise for Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Hypersomnias, Women and Children’s Division, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, 5St Olav’s Hospital, Broset Center for Research and Education in Forensic Psychiatry, Trondheim, 6Department of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway Background: The manifestation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD among older adults has become an interesting topic of interest due to an increasing number of adults aged 50 years and older (≥50 years seeking assessment for ADHD. Unfortunately, there is a lack of research on ADHD in older adults, and until recently only a few case reports existed.Method: A systematic search was conducted in the databases Medline/PubMed and PsycINFO in order to identify studies regarding ADHD in adults ≥50 years.Results: ADHD persists into older ages in many patients, but the prevalence of patients fulfilling the criteria for the diagnosis at age ≥50 years is still unknown. It is reason to believe that the prevalence is falling gradually with age, and that the ADHD symptom level is significantly lower in the age group 70–80 years than the group 50–60 years. There is a lack of controlled studies of ADHD medication in adults ≥50 years, but this review suggests that many patients aged ≥50 years experience beneficial effects of pharmacological treatment. The problem with side effects and somatic complications may rise to a level that makes pharmacotherapy for ADHD difficult after the age of 65 years. Physical assessment prior to initiation of ADHD medication in adults ≥50 years should

  20. Developing a Tool for Measuring the Decision-Making Competence of Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finucane, Melissa L.; Gullion, Christina M.

    2010-01-01

    The authors evaluated the reliability and validity of a tool for measuring older adults’ decision-making competence (DMC). Two-hundred-five younger adults (25-45 years), 208 young-older adults (65-74 years), and 198 old-older adults (75-97 years) made judgments and decisions related to health, finance, and nutrition. Reliable indices of comprehension, dimension weighting, and cognitive reflection were developed. Unlike previous research, the authors were able to compare old-older with young-older adults’ performance. As hypothesized, old-older adults performed more poorly than young-older adults; both groups of older adults performed more poorly than younger adults. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that a large amount of variance in decision performance across age groups (including mean trends) could be accounted for by social variables, health measures, basic cognitive skills, attitudinal measures, and numeracy. Structural equation modeling revealed significant pathways from three exogenous latent factors (crystallized intelligence, other cognitive abilities, and age) to the endogenous DMC latent factor. Further research is needed to validate the meaning of performance on these tasks for real-life decision making. PMID:20545413

  1. Coming of Age: Considerations in the Prescription of Exercise for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski, Amanda L; Taylor, Beth A; Panza, Gregory A; Wu, Yin; Pescatello, Linda S; Thompson, Paul D; Fernandez, Antonio B

    2016-01-01

    Older adults represent the fastest-growing age demographic of the population. Physiological changes associated with primary aging and concurrent chronic disease adversely impact functional capacity, health outcomes, and quality of life. For these reasons, there is a national emphasis for healthcare providers to improve the health, function, and quality of life of older adults to preserve independent living and psychological well-being. The benefits of regular physical activity or exercise with regard to aging and disease are indisputable, yet many clinicians do not prescribe exercise to older adults. This reluctance may be attributable to a lack of knowledge regarding appropriate exercise prescription for older adults in light of the potential risks and benefits of various doses and types of exercise. In addition, clinicians and patients may have concerns about potential health considerations relevant to older adults such as comprehensive pre-exercise screening and exercise-drug interactions. In light of this, the following review presents (1) guidelines for exercise prescription in older adults and modification of these guidelines for patients with the most common age-associated comorbidities; (2) recommendations for pre-exercise screening prior to initiating an exercise program in older adults; (3) considerations for older adults on one or more medications; and (4) common barriers to adopting and maintaining exercise in an older population. Our goal is to provide a framework that clinicians can follow when prescribing exercise in older adults while considering the unique characteristics and concerns present in this population.

  2. Depressive symptoms among adolescents and older adults in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-García, Sergio; García-Peña, Carmen; González-Forteza, Catalina; Jiménez-Tapia, Alberto; Gallo, Joseph J; Wagner, Fernando A

    2014-06-01

    Determine the structure of depressive symptoms among adolescents and older adults through the person-centered approach of latent class analysis (LCA). The study is based on data from two independent samples collected in Mexico City (2,444 adolescents and 2,223 older adults) which included the revised version of the CES-D. The presence or absence of depressed mood (dysphoria), diminished pleasure (anhedonia), drastic change in weight, sleep problems, thinking and concentration difficulties, excessive or inappropriate guilt, fatigue, psychomotor agitation/retardation, and suicide ideation were used in LCA to determine the structure of depressive symptoms for adolescents and older adults. Adolescents reported higher excessive or inappropriate guilt compared to older adults, while older adults had higher proportions of anhedonia, sleep problems, fatigue, and psychomotor agitation/retardation. Similar proportions were found in other symptoms. The LCA analysis showed the best fit with four latent classes (LC): LC 1, "symptoms suggestive of major depressive episode (MDE)" with prevalence of 5.9 % (n = 144) and 10.3 % (n = 230) among adolescents and older adults, respectively; LC 2, "probable MDE symptoms" 18.2 % (n = 446) and 23.0 % (n = 512); LC 3, "possible MDE" 27.7 % (n = 676) and 21.8 % (n = 485); LC 4, "without significant depressive symptoms" 48.2 % (n = 1,178) and 44.8 % (n = 996). The differences in item thresholds between the two groups (adolescents vs. older adults) were statistically significant (Wald test = 255.684, df = 1, p depressive symptoms between adolescents and older adults that merit acknowledgment, further study, and consideration of their potential clinical and public health implications.

  3. The Mental Health of Older LGBT Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarns, Brandon C; Abrams, Janet M; Meeks, Thomas W; Sewell, Daniel D

    2016-06-01

    There are approximately one million older lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adults in the USA. Their mental health issues result from interactions between genetic factors and stress associated with membership in a sexual minority group. Although advancements in acceptance and equal treatment of LGBT individuals have been occurring, sexual minority status remains associated with risks to physical and mental well-being. Older LGBT adults are more likely to have experienced mistreatment and discrimination due to living a majority of their lives prior to recent advancements in acceptance and equal treatment. All LGBT adults experience one common developmental challenge: deciding if, when, and how to reveal to others their gender identity and/or sexual orientation. LGBT individuals have higher rates of anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders and also are at increased risk for certain medical conditions like obesity, breast cancer, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Improved education and training of clinicians, coupled with clinical research efforts, holds the promise of improved overall health and life quality for older LGBT adults.

  4. Implementing the chronic care model for frail older adults in the Netherlands : study protocol of ACT (frail older adults: care in transition)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muntinga, Maaike E; Hoogendijk, Emiel O; van Leeuwen, Karen M; van Hout, Hein P J; Twisk, Jos W R; van der Horst, Henriette E; Nijpels, Giel; Jansen, Aaltje P D

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Care for older adults is facing a number of challenges: health problems are not consistently identified at a timely stage, older adults report a lack of autonomy in their care process, and care systems are often confronted with the need for better coordination between health care

  5. Implementing the chronic care model for frail older adults in the Netherlands: study protocol of ACT (frail older adults: care in transition)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muntinga, M.E.; Hoogendijk, E.O.; van Leeuwen, K.M.; van Hout, H.P.J.; Twisk, J.W.R.; van der Horst, H.E.; Nijpels, G.; Jansen, A.P.D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Care for older adults is facing a number of challenges: health problems are not consistently identified at a timely stage, older adults report a lack of autonomy in their care process, and care systems are often confronted with the need for better coordination between health care

  6. When touch matters: an affective tactile intervention for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammarella, Nicola; Fairfield, Beth; Di Domenico, Alberto

    2012-10-01

    Our goal was to test the hypothesis that positive tactile experiences can lead to an improvement in cognitive, emotional skills and perceived quality of life in a group of healthy community-dwelling older adults. During a 10-week period, older adults completed a series of activities that required manipulating either a piece of velvet, a piece of canvas or velcro. Only older adults who worked with velvet showed an increase in cognitive and emotional skills, and the perceived quality of life. Our study is one of the first to show that positive tactile experiences might have a beneficial effect on the psychological well-being of healthy community-dwelling older adults across different domains. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  7. Self-reference enhances relational memory in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Mingzhu; Grilli, Matthew D; Glisky, Elizabeth L

    2017-11-27

    The present study investigated the influence of self-reference on two kinds of relational memory, internal source memory and associative memory, in young and older adults. Participants encoded object-location word pairs using the strategies of imagination and sentence generation, either with reference to themselves or to a famous other (i.e., George Clooney or Oprah Winfrey). Both young and older adults showed memory benefits in the self-reference conditions compared to other-reference conditions on both tests, and the self-referential effects in older adults were not limited by low memory or executive functioning. These results suggest that self-reference can benefit relational memory in older adults relatively independently of basic memory and executive functions.

  8. Functional abilities in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Catherine L; Strauss, Esther; Bunce, David; Hunter, Michael A; Hultsch, David F

    2009-01-01

    A classification scheme and general set of criteria for diagnosing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were recently proposed by a multidisciplinary group of experts who met at an international symposium on MCI. One of the proposed criteria included preserved basic activities of daily living and minimal impairment in complex instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). To investigate whether older adults with MCI classified according to the subtypes identified by the Working Group (i.e. amnestic, single non-memory domain, and multiple domain with or without a memory component) differed from cognitively intact older adults on a variety of measures indexing IADLs and to examine how well measures of IADL predict concurrent MCI status. Two hundred and fifty community-dwelling older adults, ranging in age from 66 to 92, completed self-report measures of IADLs (Lawton and Brody IADL Scale, Scales of Independent Behaviour-Revised--SIB-R) and a measure of everyday problem solving indexing IADLs (Everyday Problems Test--EPT). Ratings of participants' IADL functioning were also obtained from informants (e.g. spouse, adult child and friend). Older adults with multiple-domain MCI demonstrated poorer IADL functioning than older adults with no cognitive impairment on the EPT and the SIB-R (both self- and informant-report versions). The multiple-domain MCI participants also demonstrated poorer IADLs than MCI participants with impairments in a single cognitive domain on the self-reported SIB-R and EPT. The single-domain MCI groups demonstrated poorer IADLs than older adults without cognitive impairment on the informant-reported SIB-R and EPT. No significant group differences were found on the Lawton and Brody IADL Scale. Using the EPT and SIB-R as predictors in a multinomial regression analysis, MCI group status was reliably predicted, but the classification rate was poor. Individuals with MCI demonstrated poorer IADL functioning compared to cognitively intact older adults

  9. Optimizing Sleep in Older Adults: Treating Insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Wennberg, Alexandra M.; Canham, Sarah L.; Smith, Michael T.; Spira, Adam P.

    2013-01-01

    As the world’s population ages, the elevated prevalence of insomnia in older adults is a growing concern. Insomnia is characterized by difficulty falling or remaining asleep, or by non-restorative sleep, and resultant daytime dysfunction. In addition to being at elevated risk for primary insomnia, older adults are at greater risk for comorbid insomnia, which results from, or occurs in conjunction with another medical or psychiatric condition. In this review, we discuss normal changes in sleep...

  10. Naturalistic Assessment of Executive Function and Everyday Multitasking in Healthy Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, Courtney; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Everyday multitasking and its cognitive correlates were investigated in an older adult population using a naturalistic task, the Day Out Task. Fifty older adults and 50 younger adults prioritized, organized, initiated and completed a number of subtasks in a campus apartment to prepare for a day out (e.g., gather ingredients for a recipe, collect change for a bus ride). Participants also completed tests assessing cognitive constructs important in multitasking. Compared to younger adults, the older adults took longer to complete the everyday tasks and more poorly sequenced the subtasks. Although they initiated, completed, and interweaved a similar number of subtasks, the older adults demonstrated poorer task quality and accuracy, completing more subtasks inefficiently. For the older adults, reduced prospective memory abilities were predictive of poorer task sequencing, while executive processes and prospective memory were predictive of inefficiently completed subtasks. The findings suggest that executive dysfunction and prospective memory difficulties may contribute to the age-related decline of everyday multitasking abilities in healthy older adults. PMID:23557096

  11. Orchestrating care: nursing practice with hospitalised older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlke, Sherry Ann; Phinney, Alison; Hall, Wendy Ann; Rodney, Patricia; Baumbusch, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    The increased incidence of health challenges with aging means that nurses are increasingly caring for older adults, often in hospital settings. Research about the complexity of nursing practice with this population remains limited. To seek an explanation of nursing practice with hospitalised older adults. Design. A grounded theory study guided by symbolic interactionism was used to explore nursing practice with hospitalised older adults from a nursing perspective. Glaserian grounded theory methods were used to develop a mid-range theory after analysis of 375 hours of participant observation, 35 interviews with 24 participants and review of selected documents. The theory of orchestrating care was developed to explain how nurses are continuously trying to manage their work environments by understanding the status of the patients, their unit, mobilising the assistance of others and stretching available resources to resolve their problem of providing their older patients with what they perceived as 'good care' while sustaining themselves as 'good' nurses. They described their practice environments as hard and under-resourced. Orchestrating care is comprised of two subprocesses: building synergy and minimising strain. These two processes both facilitated and constrained each other and nurses' abilities to orchestrate care. Although system issues presented serious constraints to nursing practice, the ways in which nurses were making meaning of their work environment both aided them in managing their challenges and constrained their agency. Nurses need to be encouraged to share their important perspective about older adult care. Administrators have a role to play in giving nurses voice in workplace committees and in forums. Further research is needed to better understand how multidisciplinary teams influence care of hospitalized older adults. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Poor Appetite and Dietary Intake in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meij, Barbara S; Wijnhoven, Hanneke A H; Lee, Jung S; Houston, Denise K; Hue, Trisha; Harris, Tamara B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Newman, Anne B; Visser, Marjolein

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Poor appetite in older adults leads to sub-optimal food intake and increases the risk of undernutrition. The impact of poor appetite on food intake in older adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the differences in food intake among older community-dwelling

  13. Understanding Older Adults' Perceptions of Internet Use: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Robert; Spears, Jeffrey; Luptak, Marilyn; Wilby, Frances

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined factors related to older adults' perceptions of Internet use. Three hundred ninety five older adults participated in the study. The factor analysis revealed four factors perceived by older adults as critical to their Internet use: social connection, self-efficacy, the need to seek financial information, and the need to…

  14. Crying and Depression Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, Janice L.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Self-reports of frequency of crying episodes are described for two nonclinical samples of younger and older adult men and women. Comparison of samples revealed no evidence for either a decreased or increased frequency of crying among the older sample. Crying episodes function as an adaptive coping response to and should not be automatically…

  15. Lateral step initiation behavior in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparto, Patrick J; Jennings, J Richard; Furman, Joseph M; Redfern, Mark S

    2014-02-01

    Older adults have varied postural responses during induced and voluntary lateral stepping. The purpose of the research was to quantify the occurrence of different stepping strategies during lateral step initiation in older adults and to relate the stepping responses to retrospective history of falls. Seventy community-ambulating older adults (mean age 76 y, range 70-94 y) performed voluntary lateral steps as quickly as possible to the right or left in response to a visual cue, in a blocked design. Vertical ground reaction forces were measured using a forceplate, and the number and latency of postural adjustments were quantified. Subjects were assigned to groups based on their stepping strategy. The frequency of trials with one or two postural adjustments was compared with data from 20 younger adults (mean age 38 y, range 21-58 y). Logistic regression was used to relate presence of a fall in the previous year with the number and latency of postural adjustments. In comparison with younger adults, who almost always demonstrated one postural adjustment when stepping laterally, older adults constituted a continuous distribution in the percentage of step trials made with one postural adjustment (from 0% to 100% of trials). Latencies of the initial postural adjustment and foot liftoff varied depending on the number of postural adjustments made. A history of falls was associated a larger percentage of two postural adjustments, and a longer latency of foot liftoff. In conclusion, the number and latency of postural adjustments made during voluntary lateral stepping provides additional evidence that lateral control of posture may be a critical indicator of aging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Familism and Health Care Provision to Hispanic Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Brittany; Foli, Karen J; Edwards, Nancy E; Abrahamson, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    The Hispanic older adult population's rapid growth calls for an awareness of values that can affect the rendering and receipt of care. Familism, or familismo, a traditional Hispanic value, places importance of family over the self and can potentially affect health care perceptions and practices for Hispanic older adults. The current article discusses familism, which is upheld by some Hispanic older adults, and the potential for underuse of health care services. The traditional feminine role, marianismo, and masculine role, machismo, are considered, as well as implications for how decision making may be made by family members rather than the patient. Clinical implications for the provision of health care to Hispanic older adults are provided, along with the importance of considering acculturation and ethnic heterogeneity. Health care management strategies that reflect recognition and respect of familism, yet emphasize optimization of adherence and self-care, are described. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Relationship of metabolic and endocrine parameters to brain glucose metabolism in older adults: do cognitively-normal older adults have a particular metabolic phenotype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, S; Castellano, C A; Bocti, C; Dionne, I; Fulop, T; Cunnane, S C

    2016-02-01

    Our primary objective in this study was to quantify whole brain and regional cerebral metabolic rates of glucose (CMRg) in young and older adults in order to determine age-normalized reference CMRg values for healthy older adults with normal cognition for age. Our secondary objectives were to--(i) report a broader range of metabolic and endocrine parameters including body fat composition that could form the basis for the concept of a 'metabolic phenotype' in cognitively normal, older adults, and (ii) to assess whether medications commonly used to control blood lipids, blood pressure or thyroxine affect CMRg values in older adults. Cognition assessed by a battery of tests was normal for age and education in both groups. Compared to the young group (25 years old; n = 34), the older group (72 years old; n = 41) had ~14% lower CMRg (μmol/100 g/min) specifically in the frontal cortex, and 18% lower CMRg in the caudate. Lower grey matter volume and cortical thickness was widespread in the older group. These differences in CMRg, grey matter volume and cortical thickness were present in the absence of any known evidence for prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD). Percent total body fat was positively correlated with CMRg in many brain regions but only in the older group. Before and after controlling for body fat, HOMA2-IR was significantly positively correlated to CMRg in several brain regions in the older group. These data show that compared to a healthy younger adult, the metabolic phenotype of a cognitively-normal 72 year old person includes similar plasma glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides and TSH, higher hemoglobin A1c and percent body fat, lower CMRg in the superior frontal cortex and caudate, but the same CMRg in the hippocampus and white matter. Age-normalization of cognitive test results is standard practice and we would suggest that regional CMRg in cognitively healthy older adults should also be age-normalized.

  18. Smoking and Older Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-27

    This podcast discusses the importance of older adults quitting smoking and other tobacco products. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals.  Created: 10/27/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/20/2008.

  19. Disparities in Treatment of Older Adults with Suicide Risk in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Sarah A; Boudreaux, Edwin D; Segal, Daniel L; Miller, Ivan; Camargo, Carlos A; Betz, Marian E

    2017-10-01

    We described characteristics and treatment received for older (≥60 years) vs younger (adult emergency department (ED) patients with suicide risk. Retrospective chart review. An ED with universal screening for suicide risk. Eligible charts included a random sample of adults (≥18 years) who screened positive for suicidal ideation (SI) in past 2 weeks and/or a suicide attempt (SA) within the past 6 months. Visit dates were from May 2014 to September 2016. A total of 800 charts were reviewed, with oversampling of older adults. Of the 200 older adults sampled, fewer older adults compared to younger adults (n = 600) had a chief complaint involving psychiatric behavior (53% vs 70%) or self-harm behavior (26% vs 36%). Although a higher number of older adults (93%) had documentation of current SI compared to younger adults (79%), fewer older adults (17%) reported SA in the past 2 weeks compared to younger adults (23%). Of those with a positive suicide screen who were discharged home, less than half of older adults received a mental health evaluation during their visit (42%, 95% CI 34-52) compared to 66% (95% CI 61-70) of younger adults who met the same criteria. Similarly, fewer older, than younger, adult patients with current SI/SA received referral resources (34%; 95% CI 26-43; vs 60%; 95% CI 55-65). Significantly fewer suicidal older adult patients who were discharged home received a mental health evaluation when compared to similar younger adults. These findings highlight an important area for improvement in the treatment of older adults at risk for suicide. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  20. Diabetes: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Urinary Incontinence Related Documents PDF Choosing Wisely: Diabetes Tests and Treatments Download Related Video Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Diabetes Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ...

  1. Perspectives of nursing professionals and older adults differ on aspects of care for older people after a nationwide improvement program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Lisanne Marlieke; Wehrens, Rik; Oldenhof, Lieke; Bal, Roland; Francke, Anneke L

    2018-05-02

    The perspectives of nursing professionals might differ from those of older adults when it comes to care for older people. This cross-sectional study compares the views of older adults with the views of nursing professionals on the quality of care after a nationwide improvement program for care for older people was implemented (2008-2016) in the Netherlands. Questionnaire data were used from 385 nursing professionals (response rate 51%) that were part of the Nursing Staff Panel, a nationwide representative group of nursing staff, and working in home care, hospitals or general practices. Additionally, questionnaire data were used from 73 older adults (response rate 81%) who were involved in regional networks to discuss project proposals and to represent the voice of older adults in the nationwide improvement program. Participants were asked to evaluate care for older people with regard to collaboration between healthcare organizations and with regard to the tailored service, accessibility, and quality of care within their organizations and in the region in which they lived. A majority of older adults (54%) and nursing professionals (61%) felt that collaboration with others had improved over the last few years. Approximately one third of the older adults stated that care for older people was tailored to fit individual needs and was accessible most of the time or always, as opposed to approximately two thirds of the professionals. Moreover, 17% older adults thought that the quality of care was good, compared with 54% of the nursing professionals. 77% of the nursing professionals and 94% of the older adults thought that improvements were still needed in care for older people, for example better integration of the different aspects of care and a more patient-centered approach. Older adults who were involved in networks of the improvement program generally gave a less positive evaluation of aspects of care for older people and its development than nursing professionals

  2. Case management for frail older adults through tablet computers and Skype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Jessica; Anderberg, Peter; Rennemark, Mikael; Berglund, Johan

    2016-12-01

    Frail older adults are high consumers of medical care due to their age and multiple chronic conditions. Regular contact with a case manager has been proven to increase well-being of frail older adults and reduce their number of health-care visits. Skype calls through tablet PCs can offer easier communication. This paper examines frail older adults' use of tablet computers and Skype, with their case managers. Interviews were conducted on 15 frail older adults. A content analysis was used to structure and analyze the data. The results indicate that tablet computers were experienced in a positive way for most frail older adults. Conflicting feelings did emerge, however, as to whether the frail elderly would adopt this in the long run. Skype needs to be tested further as to whether this is a good solution for communication with their case managers. Strong technical support and well-functioning technology are important elements to facilitate use. Using Skype and tablet PCs do have potential for frail older adults, but need to be tested further.

  3. Older Adults Can Suppress Unwanted Memories When Given an Appropriate Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Memory suppression refers to the ability to exclude distracting memories from conscious awareness, and this ability can be assessed with the think/no-think paradigm. Recent research with older adults has provided evidence suggesting both intact and deficient memory suppression. The present studies seek to understand the conditions contributing to older adults’ ability to suppress memories voluntarily. We report 2 experiments indicating that the specificity of the think/no-think task instructions contributes to older adults’ suppression success: When older adults receive open-ended instructions that require them to develop a retrieval suppression strategy on their own, they show diminished memory suppression compared with younger adults. Conversely, when older adults receive focused instructions directing them to a strategy thought to better isolate inhibitory control, they show suppression-induced forgetting similar to that exhibited by younger adults. Younger adults demonstrate memory suppression regardless of the specificity of the instructions given, suggesting that the ability to select a successful suppression strategy spontaneously may be compromised in older adults. If so, this deficit may be associated with diminished control over unwanted memories in naturalistic settings if impeded strategy development reduces the successful deployment of inhibitory control. PMID:25602491

  4. An integrated dementia intervention for Korean older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee-Young; Bae, Yeong-Suk; Kim, Eun-Hee; Lee, Kap-Soon; Chae, Myeong-Jeong; Ju, Ree-Aie

    2010-12-01

    Called dotage in Korea, dementia is primarily characterized by cognitive impairments. Secondary manifestations include mental-emotional problems, including depression. This study was designed to examine the effects of an integrated dementia intervention for Korean older adults. The intervention is composed of cognitive stimulation training, exercise, music, art, and horticultural therapy. Participants included 38 older adults with mild dementia. Twenty were assigned to the experimental group and 18 to the control group. Participants in the experimental group attended 18 program sessions. Significant differences were found postintervention between the two groups in measures of cognitive function, depression levels, and mental-emotional health. The findings indicate that this integrated dementia intervention can be applied to help older adults with mild dementia. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Psychotherapeutic treatment levels of personality disorders in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videler, Arjan; Cornelis, Christina; Rossi, G.; van Royen, R.J.J.; Rosowsky, E.; van Alphen, S.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of personality disorders (PDs) in older adults is a highly underexplored topic. In this article clinical applicability of the findings from a recent Delphi study regarding treatment aspects of PDs in older adults is explored. This concerns the relevance of three psychotherapeutic treatment

  6. Antisocial Personality Disorder in Older Adults: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Katherine J; Vaughn, Michael G

    2017-11-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) has enormous negative impacts on the affected individuals, their loved ones, and society. This burden is intensified by the social and functional changes related to age. The lower prevalence of ASPD in older adults compared to younger adults is well-documented. This discrepancy, often attributed solely to antisocial "burnout," contributes to the lack of attention given to this disorder in older adults and may signify difficulty measuring ASPD in this population. These measurement issues likely stem from problems with the validity of the diagnostic criteria for older adults which may not effectively capture changes that occur with age. This review focuses on the current literature surrounding the validity of ASPD criteria with older adults and relevant concepts, including the connection between criminality and ASPD. Issues with screening tools and the measurement of ASPD caused by problems with the criteria are also discussed. Finally, recommendations for improvement, including use of dimensional models of personality disorders, a potential geriatric subclassification of criteria, and modification of the existing criteria are presented with clinical implications and suggestions for future research.

  7. Older Adults' Knowledge of Internet Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Galen A.; Hough, Michelle G.; Mazur, Elizabeth; Signorella, Margaret L.

    2010-01-01

    Older adults are less likely to be using computers and less knowledgeable about Internet security than are younger users. The two groups do not differ on trust of Internet information. The younger group shows no age or gender differences. Within the older group, computer users are more trusting of Internet information, and along with those with…

  8. Examining the effects of an experiential interprofessional education activity with older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Gerry; Bowers, Cassandra; O'Connell, Mary Beth; Bruer, Stephen; Bugdalski-Stutrud, Carol; Smith, Geralynn; Bickes, Joan; Mendez, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The need for experienced healthcare professionals to work with older adults is great, yet educational training is limited. In this interprofessional education (IPE) study, 861 students from five professions made 293 visits in the homes or preferred community settings of 208 older adults. Surveys with quantitative and open-text feedback assessed attitudes towards older adults, IPE team functioning, and the value of home visits. Survey results showed strongly positive attitudes towards ageing and older adults. Students from all professions expressed surprise and admiration for the active lives led by these healthier older adults, lives clearly in contrast to stereotypes of ageing. They further acknowledged the value of collaborative team functioning in meeting older adult needs, learned more about the roles and responsibilities of other professions, and identified strengths of the home as a site for care. Students positively valued the experience as part of their professional training, with 82% of all students stating they would welcome additional IPE opportunities. Results suggest that an experiential IPE activity can positively shape student attitudes towards older adults, IPE, and interprofessional collaboration.

  9. Handgrip force steadiness in young and older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomkvist, Andreas W; Eika, Fredrik; de Bruin, Eling D

    2018-01-01

    ) was investigated in a test-retest design with seven days between sessions. Ten young and thirty older adults were recruited and handgrip steadiness was tested at 5%, 10% and 25% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) using Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB). Coefficients of variation were calculated from the mean...... force produced (CVM) and the target force (CVT). Area between the force curve and the target force line (Area) was also calculated. For the older adults we explored reliability using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and agreement using standard error of measurement (SEM), limits of agreement......, CVT and Area was 0.815, 0.806 and 0.464, respectively. Averaged ICC on 5%, 10%, and 25% of MVC was 0.751, 0.667 and 0.668, respectively. Measures of agreement showed similar trends with better results for CVM and CVT than for Area. Young adults had better handgrip steadiness than older adults across...

  10. Delirium: Issues for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a bone. Common fractures are those of the hip, wrist, or a bone in the back (vertebra). ... leading cause for dehydration among older adults is water pills (diuretics). In addition to not feeling thirsty, ...

  11. Sleep benefits consolidation of visuo-motor adaptation learning in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantua, Janna; Baran, Bengi; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2016-02-01

    Sleep is beneficial for performance across a range of memory tasks in young adults, but whether memories are similarly consolidated in older adults is less clear. Performance benefits have been observed following sleep in older adults for declarative learning tasks, but this benefit may be reduced for non-declarative, motor skill learning tasks. To date, studies of sleep-dependent consolidation of motor learning in older adults are limited to motor sequence tasks. To examine whether reduced sleep-dependent consolidation in older adults is generalizable to other forms of motor skill learning, we examined performance changes over intervals of sleep and wake in young (n = 62) and older adults (n = 61) using a mirror-tracing task, which assesses visuo-motor adaptation learning. Participants learned the task either in the morning or in evening, and performance was assessed following a 12-h interval containing overnight sleep or daytime wake. Contrary to our prediction, both young adults and older adults exhibited sleep-dependent gains in visuo-motor adaptation. There was a correlation between performance improvement over sleep and percent of the night in non-REM stage 2 sleep. These results indicate that motor skill consolidation remains intact with increasing age although this relationship may be limited to specific forms of motor skill learning.

  12. Both younger and older adults have difficulty updating emotional memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashiro, Kaoru; Sakaki, Michiko; Huffman, Derek; Mather, Mara

    2013-03-01

    The main purpose of the study was to examine whether emotion impairs associative memory for previously seen items in older adults, as previously observed in younger adults. Thirty-two younger adults and 32 older adults participated. The experiment consisted of 2 parts. In Part 1, participants learned picture-object associations for negative and neutral pictures. In Part 2, they learned picture-location associations for negative and neutral pictures; half of these pictures were seen in Part 1 whereas the other half were new. The dependent measure was how many locations of negative versus neutral items in the new versus old categories participants remembered in Part 2. Both groups had more difficulty learning the locations of old negative pictures than of new negative pictures. However, this pattern was not observed for neutral items. Despite the fact that older adults showed overall decline in associative memory, the impairing effect of emotion on updating associative memory was similar between younger and older adults.

  13. Dance for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, Diane Milhan, Ed.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Dance programs for older adults that encourage exercise and socializing are described in six articles. Program guidelines of the American Alliance Committee on Aging are explained, and other articles emphasize a movement education approach that may involve intergenerational contact. A dance program held in a worship setting is also discussed. (PP)

  14. Factors influencing life satisfaction of Korean older adults living with family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sok, Sohyune R

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the factors influencing life satisfaction of Korean older adults living with family. Participants included 267 adults age 65 and older who met eligibility criteria. Analyses showed that the prediction model of the life satisfaction of older adults who are living with their family was significant (F=24.429, ppocket money (beta=0.060), and age (beta=0.040). It is possible that older adults' life satisfaction increases when they are provided with nursing interventions and are able to effectively manage their health. Nursing interventions must strive to improve their self-esteem and address their depression.

  15. Past experiences and older adults' attitudes: a lifecourse perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortman, A.; van Tilburg, T.

    2005-01-01

    In this study we apply a lifecourse perspective to an examination of older adults' attitudes about gender roles and moral issues. The study goes beyond previous research in that it examines the relationships between older adults' attitudes and: (a) experiences in the parental home, (b) people's own

  16. Do older adults with chronic low back pain differ from younger adults in regards to baseline characteristics and prognosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manogharan, S; Kongsted, A; Ferreira, M L

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low back pain (LBP) in older adults is poorly understood because the vast majority of the LBP research has focused on the working aged population. The aim of this study was to compare older adults consulting with chronic LBP to middle aged and young adults consulting with chronic LBP....... Patients older than 65 were classified as older adults and compared to middle aged (45-65 years old) and younger adults (17-44 years old) for 10 baseline characteristics. Pain intensity and disability were collected at 6 and 12 month follow-ups and compared between age groups. RESULTS: A total of 14......,479 participants were included in the study. Of these 3087 (21%) patients were older adults, 6071 (42%) were middle aged and 5321 (37%) were young adults. At presentation older adults were statistically different to the middle aged and younger adults for most characteristics measured (e.g. less intense back pain...

  17. Non-Digital Game Playing by Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortenson, W Ben; Sixsmith, Andrew; Kaufman, David

    2017-09-01

    Research on video games' effect on cognition and behaviour has been extensive, yet little research has explored non-digital forms of game playing, especially among older adults. As part of a larger survey on game playing, 886 respondents (≥ age 55) filled out questionnaires about non-digital game play. The study aims were to determine perceived benefits of non-digital game play and to determine socio-demographic factors that might predict perceived benefits. Survey results indicate that non-digital game playing is social in nature and common (73% of respondents) among older adults. Older adults play for fun, but also to help maintain their cognition. Regression analyses indicated various socio-demographic factors - age, education, gender, and race - were independently associated with perceived benefits from game playing. The results thus emphasize the importance of non-digital game playing in this population and suggest that efforts to facilitate game playing may improve social interactions and quality of life.

  18. Delayed plastic responses to anodal tDCS in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakuei eFujiyama

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the abundance of research reporting the neurophysiological and behavioral effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS in healthy young adults and clinical populations, the extent of potential neuroplastic changes induced by tDCS in healthy older adults is not well understood. The present study compared the extent and time course of anodal tDCS-induced plastic changes in primary motor cortex (M1 in young and older adults. Furthermore, as it has been suggested that neuroplasiticity and associated learning depends on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene polymorphisms, we also assessed the impact of BDNF polymorphism on these effects. Corticospinal excitability was examined using transcranial magnetic stimulation before and following (0, 10, 20, 30 min anodal tDCS (30 min, 1 mA or sham in young and older adults. While the overall extent of increases in corticospinal excitability induced by anodal tDCS did not vary reliably between young and older adults, older adults exhibited a delayed response; the largest increase in corticospinal excitability occurred 30 min following stimulation for older adults, but immediately post-stimulation for the young group. BDNF genotype did not result in significant differences in the observed excitability increases for either age group. The present study suggests that tDCS-induced plastic changes are delayed as a result of healthy aging, but that the overall efficacy of the plasticity mechanism remains unaffected.

  19. Validity of the International Fitness Scale "IFIS" in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merellano-Navarro, Eugenio; Collado-Mateo, Daniel; García-Rubio, Javier; Gusi, Narcís; Olivares, Pedro R

    2017-09-01

    To validate the "International Fitness Scale" (IFIS) in older adults. Firstly, cognitive interviews were performed to ensure that the questionnaire was comprehensive for older Chilean adults. After that, a transversal study of 401 institutionalized and non-institutionalized older adults from Maule region in Chile was conducted. A battery of validated fitness tests for this population was used in order to compare the responses obtained in the IFIS with the objectively measured fitness performance (back scratch, chair sit-and-reach, handgrip, 30-s chair stand, timed up-and-go and 6-min walking). Indicated that IFIS presented a high compliance in the comprehension of the items which defined it, and it was able of categorizing older adults according to their measured physical fitness levels. The analysis of covariance ANCOVA adjusted by sex and age showed a concordance between IFIS and the score in physical fitness tests. Based on the results of this study, IFIS questionnaire is a good alternative to assess physical fitness in older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Antimnemonic effects of schemas in young and older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badham, Stephen P.; Maylor, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Schema-consistent material that is aligned with an individual’s knowledge and experience is typically more memorable than abstract material. This effect is often more extreme in older adults and schema use can alleviate age deficits in memory. In three experiments, young and older adults completed memory tasks where the availability of schematic information was manipulated. Specifying nonobvious relations between to-be-remembered word pairs paradoxically hindered memory (Experiment 1). Highlighting relations within mixed lists of related and unrelated word pairs had no effect on memory for those pairs (Experiment 2). This occurred even though related word pairs were recalled better than unrelated word pairs, particularly for older adults. Revealing a schematic context in a memory task with abstract image segments also hindered memory performance, particularly for older adults (Experiment 3). The data show that processing schematic information can come with costs that offset mnemonic benefits associated with schema-consistent stimuli. PMID:25980799

  1. Exercise in the healthy older adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karani, R; McLaughlin, M A; Cassel, C K

    2001-01-01

    Habitual exercise provides numerous health benefits to the older adult. While dynamic aerobic activities increase stamina and lung capacity, isometric or resistance training improves muscle strength and endurance. Long-term benefits of continued exercise include a decreased risk of death from heart disease, enhanced balance and mobility, a decreased risk of diabetes, and an improvement in depressive symptoms. While the hazards of exercise relate predominantly to extremes of intensity and duration, all older adults should consult with a physician before beginning a new activity program. A prescription for exercise should include both aerobic and resistance training components, and frequent follow-up to improve adherence is highly recommended. (c)2001 CVRR, Inc.

  2. Comparison for younger and older adults: Stimulus temporal asynchrony modulates audiovisual integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yanna; Ren, Yanling; Yang, Weiping; Tang, Xiaoyu; Wu, Fengxia; Wu, Qiong; Takahashi, Satoshi; Ejima, Yoshimichi; Wu, Jinglong

    2018-02-01

    Recent research has shown that the magnitudes of responses to multisensory information are highly dependent on the stimulus structure. The temporal proximity of multiple signal inputs is a critical determinant for cross-modal integration. Here, we investigated the influence that temporal asynchrony has on audiovisual integration in both younger and older adults using event-related potentials (ERP). Our results showed that in the simultaneous audiovisual condition, except for the earliest integration (80-110ms), which occurred in the occipital region for older adults was absent for younger adults, early integration was similar for the younger and older groups. Additionally, late integration was delayed in older adults (280-300ms) compared to younger adults (210-240ms). In audition‑leading vision conditions, the earliest integration (80-110ms) was absent in younger adults but did occur in older adults. Additionally, after increasing the temporal disparity from 50ms to 100ms, late integration was delayed in both younger (from 230 to 290ms to 280-300ms) and older (from 210 to 240ms to 280-300ms) adults. In the audition-lagging vision conditions, integration only occurred in the A100V condition for younger adults and in the A50V condition for older adults. The current results suggested that the audiovisual temporal integration pattern differed between the audition‑leading and audition-lagging vision conditions and further revealed the varying effect of temporal asynchrony on audiovisual integration in younger and older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Heat Stress in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Extreme Heat Older Adults (Aged 65+) Infants and Children Chronic Medical Conditions Low Income Athletes Outdoor Workers Pets Hot Weather Tips Warning Signs and Symptoms FAQs Social Media How to Stay Cool Missouri Cooling Centers Extreme ...

  4. Postural adaptations to repeated optic flow stimulation in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Kathryn W.; Loughlin, Patrick J.; Redfern, Mark S.; Sparto, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the processes of adaptation (changes in within-trial postural responses) and habituation (reductions in between-trial postural responses) to visual cues in older and young adults. Of particular interest were responses to sudden increases in optic flow magnitude. The postural sway of 25 healthy young adults and 24 healthy older adults was measured while subjects viewed anterior-posterior 0.4 Hz sinusoidal optic flow for 45 s. Three trials for each of three conditions were performed: 1) constant 12 cm optic flow amplitude (24 cm peak-to-peak), 2) constant 4 cm amplitude (8 cm p-t-p), and 3) a transition in amplitude from 4 to 12 cm. The average power of head sway velocity (Pvel) was calculated for consecutive 5 s intervals during the trial to examine the changes in sway within and between trials. A mixed factor repeated measures ANOVA was performed to examine the effects of subject Group, Trial, and Interval on the Pvel. Pvel was greater in older adults in all conditions (p Pvel of the older adults decreased significantly between all 3 trials, but decreased only between trial 1 and 2 in young adults. While the responses of the young adults to the transition in optic flow from 4 to 12 cm did not significantly change, older adults had an increase in Pvel following the transition, ranging from 6.5 dB for the first trial to 3.4 dB for the third trial. These results show that older adults can habituate to repeated visual perturbation exposures; however, this habituation requires a greater number of exposures than young adults. This suggests aging impacts the ability to quickly modify the relative weighting of the sensory feedback for postural stabilization. PMID:18329878

  5. Audio-Visual and Meaningful Semantic Context Enhancements in Older and Younger Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten E Smayda

    Full Text Available Speech perception is critical to everyday life. Oftentimes noise can degrade a speech signal; however, because of the cues available to the listener, such as visual and semantic cues, noise rarely prevents conversations from continuing. The interaction of visual and semantic cues in aiding speech perception has been studied in young adults, but the extent to which these two cues interact for older adults has not been studied. To investigate the effect of visual and semantic cues on speech perception in older and younger adults, we recruited forty-five young adults (ages 18-35 and thirty-three older adults (ages 60-90 to participate in a speech perception task. Participants were presented with semantically meaningful and anomalous sentences in audio-only and audio-visual conditions. We hypothesized that young adults would outperform older adults across SNRs, modalities, and semantic contexts. In addition, we hypothesized that both young and older adults would receive a greater benefit from a semantically meaningful context in the audio-visual relative to audio-only modality. We predicted that young adults would receive greater visual benefit in semantically meaningful contexts relative to anomalous contexts. However, we predicted that older adults could receive a greater visual benefit in either semantically meaningful or anomalous contexts. Results suggested that in the most supportive context, that is, semantically meaningful sentences presented in the audiovisual modality, older adults performed similarly to young adults. In addition, both groups received the same amount of visual and meaningful benefit. Lastly, across groups, a semantically meaningful context provided more benefit in the audio-visual modality relative to the audio-only modality, and the presence of visual cues provided more benefit in semantically meaningful contexts relative to anomalous contexts. These results suggest that older adults can perceive speech as well as younger

  6. Overview of persistent pain in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molton, Ivan R; Terrill, Alexandra L

    2014-01-01

    With the shifting age demographics of the U.S. population, more psychologists will be asked to provide clinical services to older adults. Given the high prevalence of persistent pain in aging, in many cases this will mean providing empirically supported interventions for pain and the interference it creates. The purpose of this review is to provide a broad overview of the scope and impact of persistent pain in older people and to discuss mechanisms by which persistent geriatric pain can lead to suffering and disability. We consider the unique context of pain in older adulthood and review differences between older and younger people in terms of pain perception, the social network, beliefs about pain, pain-related coping, and adherence to pain medication. Finally, we discuss special issues affecting pain management in older adults, including dementia, polypharmacy, and barriers to accessing adequate pain care. This review also highlights a need for greater provider training in pain management to meet the needs of a changing U.S. population. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Dare to Dream: New Venture Incubator for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantman, Shira; Gimmon, Eli

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a project that aims to foster active aging through entrepreneurial activities among older adults. The project establishes the feasibility of implementing an intervention program that assimilates the concept and capabilities of entrepreneurship among older adults and supports them while launching new…

  8. Temporal discounting rates and their relation to exercise behavior in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Linda M; Tsai, Pao-Feng; Landes, Reid D; Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna; Lefler, Leanne L

    2015-12-01

    As our nation's population ages, the rates of chronic illness and disability are expected to increase significantly. Despite the knowledge that exercise may prevent chronic disease and promote health among older adults, many still are inactive. Factors related to exercise behaviors have been explored in recent years. However, temporal discounting is a motivational concept that has not been explored in regard to exercise in older adults. Temporal discounting is a decision making process by which an individual chooses a smaller more immediate reward over a larger delayed reward. The aim of this study was to determine if temporal discounting rates vary between exercising and non-exercising older adults. This study used cross-sectional survey of 137 older adults living in the community. Older adults were recruited from 11 rural Arkansas churches. The Kirby delay-discounting Monetary Choice Questionnaire was used to collect discounting rates and then bivariate analysis was performed to compare temporal discounting rate between the exercisers and non-exercisers. Finally, multivariate analysis was used to compare discounting rate controlling for other covariates. The results indicated that exercising older adults display lower temporal discounting rates than non-exercising older adults. After controlling for education, exercisers still have lower temporal discounting rates than non-exercisers (phealth conditions relate to lack of exercise especially in older adults. This research suggests that if we can find appropriate incentives for discounting individuals, some type of immediate reward, then potentially we can design programs to engage and retain older adults in exercise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Gender, childhood and adult socioeconomic inequalities in functional disability among Chinese older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yaqin; Wang, Jian; Nicholas, Stephen

    2017-09-02

    Gender difference and life-course socioeconomic inequalities in functional disability may exist among older adults. However, the association is less well understood among Chinese older population. The objective is to provide empirical evidences on this issue by exploring the association between gender, childhood and adult socioeconomic inequalities in functional disability. Data from the 2013 wave of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) was utilized. Functional disability was assessed by the activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) was measured by birthplace, father's education and occupation. Adult SES was measured in terms of education and household income. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to assess the association between gender, childhood and adult SES and functional disability. Based on a sample of 18,448 older adults aged 45 years old and above, our results showed that the prevalence of ADL and IADL disability was higher among women than men, but gender difference disappeared after adult SES and adult health were controlled. Harsh conditions during childhood were associated with functional disability but in multivariate analyses only father's education was associated with IADL disability (OR for no education = 1.198; 95% CI = 1.062-1.353). Current SES such as higher education and good economic situation are protective factors of functional disability. Childhood and adult SES were both related to functional disability among older adults. Our findings highlight the need for policies and programs aimed at decreasing social inequalities during childhood and early adulthood, which could reduce socioeconomic inequalities in functional disability in later life.

  10. Managing Status Epilepticus in the Older Adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legriel, Stephane; Brophy, Gretchen M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to describe particularities in epidemiology, outcome, and management modalities in the older adult population with status epilepticus. There is a higher incidence of status epilepticus in the older adult population, and it commonly has a nonconvulsive presentation. Diagnosis in this population may be difficult and requires an unrestricted use of EEG. Short and long term associated-mortality are high, and age over 60 years is an independent factor associated with poor outcome. Stroke (acute or remote symptomatic), miscellaneous metabolic causes, dementia, infections hypoxemia, and brain injury are among the main causes of status epilepticus occurrence in this age category. The use of anticonvulsive agents can be problematic as well. Thus, it is important to take into account the specific aspects related to the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes in older critically-ill adults. Beyond these precautions, the management may be identical to that of the younger adult, including prompt initiation of symptomatic and anticonvulsant therapies, and a broad and thorough etiological investigation. Such management strategies may improve the vital and functional prognosis of these patients, while maintaining a high overall quality of care. PMID:27187485

  11. Entity versus incremental theories predict older adults' memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaks, Jason E; Chasteen, Alison L

    2013-12-01

    The authors examined whether older adults' implicit theories regarding the modifiability of memory in particular (Studies 1 and 3) and abilities in general (Study 2) would predict memory performance. In Study 1, individual differences in older adults' endorsement of the "entity theory" (a belief that one's ability is fixed) or "incremental theory" (a belief that one's ability is malleable) of memory were measured using a version of the Implicit Theories Measure (Dweck, 1999). Memory performance was assessed with a free-recall task. Results indicated that the higher the endorsement of the incremental theory, the better the free recall. In Study 2, older and younger adults' theories were measured using a more general version of the Implicit Theories Measure that focused on the modifiability of abilities in general. Again, for older adults, the higher the incremental endorsement, the better the free recall. Moreover, as predicted, implicit theories did not predict younger adults' memory performance. In Study 3, participants read mock news articles reporting evidence in favor of either the entity or incremental theory. Those in the incremental condition outperformed those in the entity condition on reading span and free-recall tasks. These effects were mediated by pretask worry such that, for those in the entity condition, higher worry was associated with lower performance. Taken together, these studies suggest that variation in entity versus incremental endorsement represents a key predictor of older adults' memory performance. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Multidimensional Attitudes of Emergency Medicine Residents Toward Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresita M. Hogan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The demands of our rapidly expanding older population strain many emergency departments (EDs, and older patients experience disproportionately high adverse health outcomes. Trainee attitude is key in improving care for older adults. There is negligible knowledge of baseline emergency medicine (EM resident attitudes regarding elder patients. Awareness of baseline attitudes can serve to better structure training for improved care of older adults. The objective of the study is to identify baseline EM resident attitudes toward older adults using a validated attitude scale and multidimensional analysis. Methods: Six EM residencies participated in a voluntary anonymous survey delivered in summer and fall 2009. We used factor analysis using the principal components method and Varimax rotation, to analyze attitude interdependence, translating the 21 survey questions into 6 independent dimensions. We adapted this survey from a validated instrument by the addition of 7 EM-specific questions to measures attitudes relevant to emergency care of elders and the training of EM residents in the geriatric competencies. Scoring was performed on a 5-point Likert scale. We compared factor scores using student t and ANOVA. Results: 173 EM residents participated showing an overall positive attitude toward older adults, with a factor score of 3.79 (3.0 being a neutral score. Attitudes trended to more negative in successive post-graduate year (PGY levels. Conclusion: EM residents demonstrate an overall positive attitude towards the care of older adults. We noted a longitudinal hardening of attitude in social values, which are more negative in successive PGY-year levels. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(4:511–517.

  13. Hip Fractures among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out some of our online STEADI resources for older adults. These resources include: Stay Independent brochure What You Can Do to Prevent Falls brochure Check for Safety brochure Postural Hypotension brochure Chair Rise Exercise Related Pages Important ...

  14. Emergency Department Visits by Older Adults for Motor Vehicle Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogel, Jody A.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To describe the epidemiology and characteristics of emergency department (ED visits by older adults for motor vehicle collisions (MVC in the United States (U.S..Methods: We analyzed ED visits for MVCs using data from the 2003–2007 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS. Using U.S. Census data, we calculated annual incidence rates of driver or passenger MVC-related ED visits and examined visit characteristics, including triage acuity, tests performed and hospital admission or discharge. We compared older (65+ years and younger (18-64 years MVC patients and calculated odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CIs to measure the strength of associations between age group and various visit characteristics. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of admissions for MVC-related injuries among older adults.Results: From 2003–2007, there were an average of 237,000 annual ED visits by older adults for MVCs. The annual ED visit rate for MVCs was 6.4 (95% CI 4.6-8.3 visits per 1,000 for older adults and 16.4 (95% CI 14.0-18.8 visits per 1,000 for younger adults. Compared to younger MVC patients, after adjustment for gender, race and ethnicity, older MVC patients were more likely to have at least one imaging study performed (OR 3.69, 95% CI 1.46-9.36. Older MVC patients were not significantly more likely to arrive by ambulance (OR 1.47; 95% CI 0.76–2.86, have a high triage acuity (OR 1.56; 95% CI 0.77-3.14, or to have a diagnosis of a head, spinal cord or torso injury (OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.42-2.23 as compared to younger MVC patients after adjustment for gender, race and ethnicity. Overall, 14.5% (95% CI 9.8-19.2 of older MVC patients and 6.1% (95% CI 4.8-7.5 of younger MVC patients were admitted to the hospital. There was also a non-statistically significant trend toward hospital admission for older versus younger MVC patients (OR 1.78; 95% CI 0.71-4.43, and admission to the ICU if

  15. Self-rated driving and driving safety in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lesley A; Dodson, Joan E; Edwards, Jerri D; Ackerman, Michelle L; Ball, Karlene

    2012-09-01

    Many U.S. states rely on older adults to self-regulate their driving and determine when driving is no longer a safe option. However, the relationship of older adults' self-rated driving in terms of actual driving competency outcomes is unclear. The current study investigates self-rated driving in terms of (1) systematic differences between older adults with high (good/excellent) versus low (poor/fair/average) self-ratings, and (2) the predictive nature of self-rated driving to adverse driving outcomes in older adults (n=350; mean age 73.9, SD=5.25, range 65-91). Adverse driving outcomes included self-reported incidences of (1) being pulled over by the police, (2) receiving a citation, (3) receiving a recommendation to cease or limit driving, (4) crashes, and (5) state-reported crashes. Results found that older drivers with low self-ratings reported more medical conditions, less driving frequency, and had been given more suggestions to stop/limit their driving; there were no other significant differences between low and high self-raters. Logistic regression revealed older drivers were more likely to have a state-reported crash and receive a suggestion to stop or limit driving. Men were more likely to report all adverse driving outcomes except for receiving a suggestion to stop or limit driving. Regarding self-rated driving, older adults with high ratings were 66% less likely (OR=0.34, 95% CI=0.14-0.85) to have received suggestions to limit or stop driving after accounting for demographics, health and driving frequency. Self-ratings were not predictive of other driving outcomes (being pulled over by the police, receiving a citation, self-reported crashes, or state-reported crashes, ps>0.05). Most older drivers (85.14%) rated themselves as either good or excellent drivers regardless of their actual previous citation or crash rates. Self-rated driving is likely not related to actual driving proficiency as indicated by previous crash involvement in older adults

  16. Understanding and Reducing Disability in Older Adults Following Critical Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummel, N.E.; Balas, M.C.; Morandi, A.; Ferrante, L.E.; Gill, T.M.; Ely, E.W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review how disability can develop in older adults with critical illness and to explore ways to reduce long-term disability following critical illness. Data Sources Review of the literature describing post-critical illness disability in older adults and expert opinion. Results We identified 19 studies evaluating disability outcomes in critically ill patients age 65 years and older. Newly acquired disability in activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living and mobility activities was commonplace among older adults who survived a critical illness. Incident dementia and less-severe cognitive impairment was also highly prevalent. Factors related to the acute critical illness, intensive care unit practices such as heavy sedation, physical restraints and immobility as well as aging physiology and coexisting geriatric conditions can combine to result in these poor outcomes. Conclusion Older adults who survive critical illness suffer physical and cognitive declines resulting in disability at greater rates than hospitalized, non-critically ill and community dwelling older adults. Interventions derived from widely available geriatric care models in use outside of the ICU, which address modifiable risk factors including immobility and delirium, are associated with improved functional and cognitive outcomes and can be used to complement ICU-focused models such as the ABCDEs. PMID:25756418

  17. Urban and rural factors associated with life satisfaction among older Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengbo; Chi, Iris; Zhang, Xu; Cheng, Zhaowen; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Gong

    2015-01-01

    This study compared urban and rural factors associated with life satisfaction among older adults in mainland China. Study data were extracted at random from 10% of the Sample Survey on Aged Population in urban/rural China in 2006 for 1980 participants aged 60 and older, including 997 from urban cities and 983 from rural villages. In this study, 54.6% of urban older adults and 44.1% of rural older adults reported satisfaction with their lives. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that financial strain, depressive symptoms, filial piety, and accessibility of health services were significantly associated with life satisfaction for both urban and rural participants, but age and financial exchange with children were only associated with life satisfaction among urban older adults. Findings are consistent with some previous studies that indicated the importance of financial strain, depressive symptoms, filial piety, and accessibility of health services to life satisfaction among the older adults in both urban and rural areas. This study also demonstrated the importance of age and family financial exchange to the life satisfaction of urban older adults.

  18. Can technology adoption for older adults be co-created?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Y.; Valk, C.A.L.; Steenbakkers, J.J.H.; Bekker, M.M.; Visser, T.; Proctor, G.M.; Toshniwal, O.; Langberg, H.

    2017-01-01

    Technology can be very valuable to support older adults to remain healthy and active in their daily living. How to design technological product and service systems that will be adopted by older adults however still remains a challenge. This paper reports on an empirical study on how a co-creation

  19. The Nature of Subjective Cognitive Complaints of Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newson, Rachel S.; Kemps, Eva B.

    2006-01-01

    The current study investigated the nature of subjective cognitive complaints of older adults in relation to a broad array of individual cognitive functions known to decline with age. A 60-item questionnaire was developed to examine: (1) whether older adults experience problems with these cognitive functions (problems with cognition); (2) the…

  20. Observational Learning among Older Adults Living in Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Colleen D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate learning by older adults living in nursing homes through observational learning based on Bandura's (1977) social learning theory. This quantitative study investigated if older adults could learn through observation. The nursing homes in the study were located in the midwestern United States. The…

  1. Association of dietary patterns and weight change in rural older adults 75 years and older

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the relationship between weight change and dietary patterns (DP) in older adults, especially in those of advanced age (_75 years). We examined the association of DP with obesity and five-year weight change in community-dwelling older adults (n=270; mean±SD age: 78.6±3.9 years)....

  2. Feasibility study of an attention training application for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nikki L; Mogle, Jacqueline; Colancecco, Elise; Dick, Robert; Hannan, John; Lin, Feng Vankee

    2015-09-01

    Technology-based attention training has demonstrated promise in its potential to improve cognitive functioning in older people. Developing mobile applications, with older users specifically in mind, may support future dissemination of these interventions and integration into daily life. The purpose of this pilot study was to test the feasibility of an Attention Training Application (ATA) for community-dwelling older adults using mobile technology. A descriptive, mixed-methods design was used to capture older adults' feedback on the usability and acceptability of the ATA. A convenience sample of older adults (n = 9) from two independent living facilities participated in a 2-hour training and practice session with the ATA. Participants were given personally tailored instructions for using the mobile device and the ATA specifically. Following a practice session, participants provided ratings on multiple components of the ATA and completed an audio-recorded, semi-structured interview to provide detailed descriptions of their experience and perceptions. An iterative process of content analysis was used to characterise the open-ended responses. Participants rated the ATA favourably overall on several 0-10 scales including likeability [8.5 (1.6)], interest [8.8 (2.3)] and satisfaction [8.2 (1.9)]. The qualitative analyses revealed several issues relevant to the feasibility of the ATA among older people including the importance of the technological background of the user, limiting negative feedback, challenges with the touch screen interface, personal preferences for challenge, extending the practice period and the difficulty of the dual-task condition. The use of the ATA is feasible in the older adult population. Future development should specifically consider personal characteristics as well as preferences to maximise usability and acceptability among older people. Older adults enjoyed the ATA. This opens doors to user-friendly technological interventions that may be

  3. The Silence of Our Science: Nursing Research on LGBT Older Adult Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloyes, Kristin G

    2016-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults have been largely invisible within health and aging services research, despite being disproportionately burdened by poor health and aging outcomes. The current study examines the prevalence of LGBT aging and older adult health-related studies in the 2010-2014 nursing literature, and how this topic is being addressed. Systematic CINAHL and PubMed searches were conducted and compared to (a) quantify the prevalence of LGBT older adult-related scholarship in nursing research; (b) document the appearance of relevant publications in top nursing journals; (c) identify the focus of articles with a substantive focus on LGBT older adult health or aging; and (d) compare the prevalence of LGBT older adult-related literature in nursing, gerontology, medicine, and social work. Findings indicate that research explicitly including LGBT older adults is lacking across the health sciences, particularly in nursing (where it has been largely absent). Implications for nursing research, practice, and education are discussed. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Assessing and Meeting the Needs of LGBT Older Adults via the Older Americans Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael; Tax, Aaron D

    2017-12-01

    SAGE and its partners have been focused on bridging the chasm between the greater need that LGBT older adults have for care, services, and supports, and the lower rate at which they access them, compared with their heterosexual and cisgender counterparts. The chasm is caused by discrimination, social isolation, disproportionate poverty and health disparities, and a lack of access to culturally competent providers. SAGE has used federal administrative and legislative advocacy to encourage the Aging Network to bridge this chasm by assessing and meeting the needs of LGBT older adults that can be addressed via the programs created under the Older Americans Act.

  5. Differences in foot kinematics between young and older adults during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, John B; Mackintosh, Shylie; Jones, Sara; Thewlis, Dominic

    2014-02-01

    Our understanding of age-related changes to foot function during walking has mainly been based on plantar pressure measurements, with little information on differences in foot kinematics between young and older adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in foot kinematics between young and older adults during walking using a multi-segment foot model. Joint kinematics of the foot and ankle for 20 young (mean age 23.2 years, standard deviation (SD) 3.0) and 20 older adults (mean age 73.2 years, SD 5.1) were quantified during walking with a 12 camera Vicon motion analysis system using a five segment kinematic model. Differences in kinematics were compared between older adults and young adults (preferred and slow walking speeds) using Student's t-tests or if indicated, Mann-Whitney U tests. Effect sizes (Cohen's d) for the differences were also computed. The older adults had a less plantarflexed calcaneus at toe-off (-9.6° vs. -16.1°, d = 1.0, p = range of motion (ROM) of the midfoot (11.9° vs. 14.8°, d = 1.3, p = young adults. Walking speed did not influence these differences, as they remained present when groups walked at comparable speeds. The findings of this study indicate that independent of walking speed, older adults exhibit significant differences in foot kinematics compared to younger adults, characterised by less propulsion and reduced mobility of multiple foot segments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Relational integration, inhibition, and analogical reasoning in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viskontas, Indre V; Morrison, Robert G; Holyoak, Keith J; Hummel, John E; Knowlton, Barbara J

    2004-12-01

    The difficulty of reasoning tasks depends on their relational complexity, which increases with the number of relations that must be considered simultaneously to make an inference, and on the number of irrelevant items that must be inhibited. The authors examined the ability of younger and older adults to integrate multiple relations and inhibit irrelevant stimuli. Young adults performed well at all but the highest level of relational complexity, whereas older adults performed poorly even at a medium level of relational complexity, especially when irrelevant information was presented. Simulations based on a neurocomputational model of analogical reasoning, Learning and Inference with Schemas and Analogies (LISA), suggest that the observed decline in reasoning performance may be explained by a decline in attention and inhibitory functions in older adults. copyright (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Social relevance enhances memory for impressions in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Brittany S; Gutchess, Angela H

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that older adults have difficulty retrieving contextual material over items alone. Recent research suggests this deficit can be reduced by adding emotional context, allowing for the possibility that memory for social impressions may show less age-related decline than memory for other types of contextual information. Two studies investigated how orienting to social or self-relevant aspects of information contributed to the learning and retrieval of impressions in young and older adults. Participants encoded impressions of others in conditions varying in the use of self-reference (Experiment 1) and interpersonal meaningfulness (Experiment 2), and completed memory tasks requiring the retrieval of specific traits. For both experiments, age groups remembered similar numbers of impressions. In Experiment 1 using more self-relevant encoding contexts increased memory for impressions over orienting to stimuli in a non-social way, regardless of age. In Experiment 2 older adults had enhanced memory for impressions presented in an interpersonally meaningful relative to a personally irrelevant way, whereas young adults were unaffected by this manipulation. The results provide evidence that increasing social relevance ameliorates age differences in memory for impressions, and enhances older adults' ability to successfully retrieve contextual information.

  8. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z High Blood Pressure Hypertension Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... Pressure Targets are Different for Very Old Adults High blood pressure (also called hypertension) increases your chance of having ...

  9. Self-initiated object-location memory in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger-Mandelbaum, Anat; Magen, Hagit

    2017-11-20

    The present study explored self-initiated object-location memory in ecological contexts, as aspect of memory that is largely absent from the research literature. Young and older adults memorized objects-location associations they selected themselves or object-location associations provided to them, and elaborated on the strategy they used when selecting the locations themselves. Retrieval took place 30 min and 1 month after encoding. The results showed an age-related decline in self-initiated and provided object-location memory. Older adults benefited from self-initiation more than young adults when tested after 30 min, while the benefit was equal when tested after 1 month. Furthermore, elaboration enhanced memory only in older adults, and only after 30 min. Both age groups used deep encoding strategies on the majority of the trials, but their percentage was lower in older adults. Overall, the study demonstrated the processes involved in self-initiated object-location memory, which is an essential part of everyday functioning.

  10. Contemporary Assessment of Left Ventricular Diastolic Function in Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Amil M.; Claggett, Brian; Kitzman, Dalane

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although age-Associated changes in left ventricular diastolic function are well recognized, limited data exist characterizing measures of diastolic function in older adults, including both reference ranges reflecting the older adult population and prognostically relevant values...

  11. Stimulus-independent semantic bias misdirects word recognition in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Chad S; Wingfield, Arthur

    2015-07-01

    Older adults' normally adaptive use of semantic context to aid in word recognition can have a negative consequence of causing misrecognitions, especially when the word actually spoken sounds similar to a word that more closely fits the context. Word-pairs were presented to young and older adults, with the second word of the pair masked by multi-talker babble varying in signal-to-noise ratio. Results confirmed older adults' greater tendency to misidentify words based on their semantic context compared to the young adults, and to do so with a higher level of confidence. This age difference was unaffected by differences in the relative level of acoustic masking.

  12. Effect of an AIDS education program for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, M A

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an age-specific AIDS education program on HIV/AIDS knowledge, perceived susceptibility to AIDS, and perceived severity of AIDS in older adults. The health belief model served as a framework. The age-specific AIDS education program was developed based on a knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors survey of 458 older adults at senior citizen centers. The program included case study presentations of actual older people with AIDS along with an emphasis on myths identified in the initial survey. There was a significant increase in total knowledge about AIDS (p < .001), perceived susceptibility (p < .01), and perceived severity (p < .001) after the educational program. Based on the results of this study, nurses are in an excellent position to provide primary and secondary AIDS prevention strategies for all age groups, including the older adult population.

  13. Trunk repositioning errors are increased in balance-impaired older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Allon; Hernandez, Manuel Enrique; Alexander, Neil B

    2005-10-01

    Controlling the flexing trunk is critical in recovering from a loss of balance and avoiding a fall. To investigate the relationship between trunk control and balance in older adults, we measured trunk repositioning accuracy in young and balance-impaired and unimpaired older adults. Young adults (N = 8, mean age 24.3 years) and two groups of community-dwelling older adults defined by unipedal stance time (UST)-a balance-unimpaired group (UST > 30 seconds, N = 7, mean age 73.9 years) and a balance-impaired group (UST tested in standing trunk control ability by reproducing a approximately 30 degrees trunk flexion angle under three visual-surface conditions: eyes opened and closed on the floor, and eyes opened on foam. Errors in reproducing the angle were defined as trunk repositioning errors (TREs). Clinical measures related to balance, trunk extensor strength, and self-reported disability were obtained. TREs were significantly greater in the balance-impaired group than in the other groups, even when controlling for trunk extensor strength and body mass. In older adults, there were significant correlations between TREs and three clinical measures of balance and fall risk, UST and maximum step length (-0.65 to -0.75), and Timed Up & Go score (0.55), and between TREs and age (0.63-0.76). In each group TREs were similar under the three visual-surface conditions. Test-retest reliability for TREs was good to excellent (intraclass correlation coefficients > or =0.74). Older balance-impaired adults have larger TREs, and thus poorer trunk control, than do balance-unimpaired older individuals. TREs are reliable and valid measures of underlying balance impairment in older adults, and may eventually prove to be useful in predicting the ability to recover from losses of balance and to avoid falls.

  14. Plasticity in older adults' theory of mind performance: the impact of motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Lecce, Serena; Ceccato, Irene; Cavallini, Elena; Zhang, Linfang; Chen, Tianyong

    2017-09-08

    Recently, motivation has been found to attenuate the age-related decline in Theory of Mind (ToM) performance (i.e. faux pas recognition). However, whether or not this effect could be generalized to other ToM tasks is still unknown. In the present study, we investigated whether and how motivation could enhance older adults' performance and reduce age differences in ToM tasks (Faux Pas vs. Animation task) that differ in familiarity. Following a previous paradigm, 171 Chinese adults (87 younger adults and 84 older adults) were recruited, and we experimentally manipulated the level of perceived closeness between participants and the experimenter before administering the ToM tasks in order to enhance participants' motivation. Results showed that, for the Faux Pas task, we replicated previous findings such that older adults under the enhanced motivation conditions performed equally well as younger adults. Conversely, for the Animation task, younger adults outperformed older adults, regardless of motivation. These results indicate that motivation can enhance older adults' performance in ToM tasks, however, this beneficial effect cannot be generalized across ToM tasks.

  15. Are HIV-Infected Older Adults Aging Differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpiak, Stephen E; Havlik, Richard

    With increasing success in treating HIV, infected persons are living longer, and a new challenge has emerged - the need to understand how HIV-infected adults are aging. What are the similarities with typical aging and what are the unique aspects that may have resulted from HIV infection, interacting with characteristic life style factors and other comorbid conditions? Are specific diseases and conditions (comorbidities), typically seen as part of the aging process, occurring at accelerated rates or with higher frequency (accentuated) in HIV-infected adults? At this juncture, conclusions should be tentative. Certainly, biological processes that correlate with aging occur earlier in the older adult HIV population. Clinical manifestations of these biological processes are age-associated illnesses occurring in greater numbers (multimorbidity), but they are not accelerated. Specifically cardiovascular disease, certain cancers, and renal disease are more common with other comorbidities less certain. Management of this elevated risk for developing multimorbidity is a major concern for patients and their health care teams. The medical system must respond to the evolving needs of this aging and growing older adult population who will dominate the epidemic. Adopting a more holistic approach to their health care management is needed to achieve optimal health and well-being in the HIV-infected older adult. Geriatric care principles best embody this approach. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Neighborhood Environment and Self-Rated Health Among Urban Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlesia Mathis PhD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study examines associations between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH among urban older adults. Method: We selected 217 individuals aged 65+ living in a de-industrialized Midwestern city who answered questions on the 2009 Speak to Your Health survey. The relationship between neighborhood environment and SRH was analyzed using regression models. Neighborhood variables included social support and participation, perceived racism, and crime. Additional models included actual crime indices to compare differences between perceived and actual crime. Results: Seniors who have poor SRH are 21% more likely to report fear of crime than seniors with excellent SRH ( p = .01. Additional analyses revealed Black seniors are 7% less likely to participate in social activities ( p = .005 and 4% more likely to report experiencing racism ( p < .001. Discussion: More than 80% of older adults live in urban areas. By 2030, older adults will account for 20% of the U.S. population. Given the increasing numbers of older adults living in urban neighborhoods, studies such as this one are important. Mitigating environmental influences in the neighborhood that are associated with poor SRH may allow urban older adults to maintain health and reduce disability.

  17. Self-rated Driving and Driving Safety in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Lesley A.; Dodson, Joan; Edwards, Jerri D.; Ackerman, Michelle L.; Ball, Karlene

    2012-01-01

    Many U.S. states rely on older adults to self-regulate their driving and determine when driving is no longer a safe option. However, the relationship of older adults’ self-rated driving in terms of actual driving competency outcomes is unclear. The current study investigates self-rated driving in terms of (1) systematic differences between older adults with high (good/excellent) versus low (poor/fair/average) self-ratings, and (2) the predictive nature of self-rated driving to adverse driving...

  18. Conceptualizations of frailty in relation to older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markle-Reid, Maureen; Browne, Gina

    2003-10-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss the concept of frailty and its adequacy in identifying and describing older adults as frail. Despite the dramatic increase in use of the term 'frailty' over the past two decades, there is a lack of consensus in the literature about its meaning and use, and no clear conceptual guidelines for identifying and describing older adults as frail. Differences in theoretical perspectives will influence policy decisions regarding eligibility for, and allocation of, scarce health care resources among older adults. The article presents a literature review and synthesis of definitions and conceptual models of frailty in relation to older adults. The first part of the paper is a summary of the synonyms, antonyms and definitions of the term frailty. The second part is a critical evaluation of conceptual models of frailty. Six conceptual models are analysed on the basis of four main categories of assumptions about: (1) the nature of scientific knowledge; (2) the level of analysis; (3) the ageing process; (4) the stability of frailty. The implications of these are discussed in relation to clinical practice, policy and research. The review gives guidelines for a new theoretical approach to the concept of frailty in older adults: (1) it must be a multidimensional concept that considers the complex interplay of physical, psychological, social and environmental factors; (2) the concept must not be age-related, suggesting a negative and stereotypical view of ageing; (3) the concept must take into account an individual's context and incorporate subjective perceptions; (4) the concept must take into account the contribution of both individual and environmental factors.

  19. Comparison of access, outcomes and experiences of older adults and working age adults in psychological therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Robert; Farquharson, Lorna; Clapp, Melissa; Crawford, Mike

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the access, experiences and outcomes of older adults receiving psychological therapies in comparison with adults of working age Primary and secondary care providers of psychological therapy services participated in the National Audit of Psychological Therapies. The main standards of access, experience and outcomes were measured by retrospective case records audits of people who completed therapy and a service user questionnaire. Outcomes were measured pre-treatment and post-treatment on the PHQ-9 and GAD-7. A total of 220 services across 97 organisations took part, 137 (62%) in primary care. Service user questionnaires were received from 14 425 (20%) respondents. A total of 122 740 records were audited, of whom 7794 (6.4%) were older adults. They were under represented as 13% of the sample would have been expected to be over 65 years according to age adjusted psychiatric morbidity figures. People over 75 years had the third expected referral rate. Significantly, more older adults than working age adults completed therapy (59.6% vs 48.6%) and were assessed as having 'recovered' post-treatment (58.5% vs 45.5%). Older adults were more satisfied with waiting times and numbers of sessions, but there were no differences in self-reported experience of therapy. Although older adults are less likely to gain access to psychological therapies, they appear to have better outcomes than working age adults. Further work is needed to improve access for older people. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. "Old Oxen Cannot Plow": Stereotype Themes of Older Adults in Turkish Folklore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Justin; Sabuncu, Neslihan

    2016-12-01

    Although much research has established the nature of attitudes and stereotypes toward older adults, there are conflicting explanations for the root cause of ageism, including the sociocultural view and interpersonal views, that age bias against older adults is uniquely a product of modernity and occurs through social interactions, and the evolutionary view and intraindividual views, that age bias against older adults is rooted in our naturally occurring and individually held fear of death. We make initial investigations into resolving this conflict, by analyzing literature from a society predating the Industrial Revolution, the society of Ottoman Turks. Using Grounded Theory, we analyzed 1,555 Turkish fairy tales of the most well-known older adult in Turkish folklore, Nasreddin Hoca, for stereotype themes of older adults. Using the same method, we then analyzed 22,000+ Turkish sayings and proverbs for the same themes. Results indicated older adults to be viewed both positively and negatively. Positive stereotypes included wisdom, warmth, deserving of respect, and retirement. Negative stereotypes included incompetence, inadaptability, and frailty/nearing of death. Older females were viewed more negatively relative to older males. Results indicated views of older adults to parallel those found in contemporary research. Results have implications for the design of interventions to reduce ageism and on the cross-cultural generalizability of age-based stereotypes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Older adults in jail: high rates and early onset of geriatric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Meredith; Ahalt, Cyrus; Stijacic-Cenzer, Irena; Metzger, Lia; Williams, Brie

    2018-02-17

    The number of older adults in the criminal justice system is rapidly increasing. While this population is thought to experience an early onset of aging-related health conditions ("accelerated aging"), studies have not directly compared rates of geriatric conditions in this population to those found in the general population. The aims of this study were to compare the burden of geriatric conditions among older adults in jail to rates found in an age-matched nationally representative sample of community dwelling older adults. This cross sectional study compared 238 older jail inmates age 55 or older to 6871 older adults in the national Health and Retirement Study (HRS). We used an age-adjusted analysis, accounting for the difference in age distributions between the two groups, to compare sociodemographics, chronic conditions, and geriatric conditions (functional, sensory, and mobility impairment). A second age-adjusted analysis compared those in jail to HRS participants in the lowest quintile of wealth. All geriatric conditions were significantly more common in jail-based participants than in HRS participants overall and HRS participants in the lowest quintile of net worth. Jail-based participants (average age of 59) experienced four out of six geriatric conditions at rates similar to those found in HRS participants age 75 or older. Geriatric conditions are prevalent in older adults in jail at significantly younger ages than non-incarcerated older adults suggesting that geriatric assessment and geriatric-focused care are needed for older adults cycling through jail in their 50s and that correctional clinicians require knowledge about geriatric assessment and care.

  2. The influence of Tai Chi training on the center of pressure trajectory during gait initiation in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, Chris J; Gregor, Robert J; Waddell, Dwight E; Oliver, Alanna; Smith, Dagan W; Fleming, Richard P; Wolf, Steven L

    2004-10-01

    To determine if a program of intense Tai Chi exercise that has been shown to reduce the risk of falling in older adults improves postural control by altering the center of pressure (COP) trajectory during gait initiation. Before-after trial. Biomechanics research laboratory. Twenty-eight older adults transitioning to frailty who participated in either a 48-week intervention of intense Tai Chi training or a wellness education (WE) program. Eight Tai Chi forms emphasizing trunk rotation, weight shifting, coordination, and narrowing of lower-extremity stance were taught twice weekly. WE program participants met once a week and received lectures focused on health. Main outcome measures The COP was recorded during gait initiation both before and after the 48-week intervention by using a forceplate sampling at 300 Hz. The COP trajectory was divided into 3 periods (S1, S2, S3) by identifying 2 landmark events. Displacement and average velocity of the COP trace in the anteroposterior (x) and mediolateral (y) directions, as well as smoothness, were calculated. Tai Chi training increased the posterior displacement of the COP during S1 and improved the smoothness of the COP during S2. Tai Chi improved the mechanism by which forward momentum is generated and improved coordination during gait initiation, suggesting improvements in postural control.

  3. CircleRides: developing an older adult transportation application and evaluating feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Melinda; Kelly, Norene

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess perceptions of CircleRides, a paper prototype of a service website designed to meet older adult transportation needs. Researchers used purposive sampling to conduct two focus groups comprised of older adults to obtain feedback on the CircleRides prototype at the beginning of its iterative design process. One focus group was conducted in a continuing care retirement community (n = 13) and the other in an independent living community for older adults (n = 11). The study assessed perceptions of the CircleRides prototype as well as self-reported older adult transportation preferences and needs. Three themes emerged from the data: (a) trust and concern, (b) socialization, and (c) flexibility and options. Researchers found that participants are interested in transportation options; however, concern exists about trusting a new system or prototype that has not established a reputation. Findings from the current study offer lessons learned for future iterations and for creating transportation prototypes for older adults. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Social Workers' Attitudes toward Older Adults: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Donna; Chonody, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Ageist attitudes toward older adults have been recognized as barriers to recruiting and training competent social workers. This article provides a systematic review of the literature that focused on social workers' and social work students' attitudes toward older adults and working with older adults. The authors sought empirical studies…

  5. Hypermnesia: a further examination of age differences between young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Hajime; Kato, Koichi; Von Glahn, Nicholas R; Nelson, Meghann E; Widner, Robert L; Goernert, Phillip N

    2008-05-01

    Previous studies that examined age differences in hypermnesia reported inconsistent results. The present experiment investigated whether the different study materials in these studies were responsible for the inconsistency. In particular, the present experiment examined whether the use of a video, as opposed to words and pictures, would eliminate previously reported age differences in hypermnesia. Fifteen college students and 15 older adults viewed a 3-minute video clip followed by two free-recall tests. The results indicated that older adults, as a whole, did not show hypermnesia. However, when older adults were divided into low and high memory groups based on test 1 performance, the high memory group showed hypermnesia whereas the low memory group did not show hypermnesia. The older adults in the low memory group were significantly older than the older adults in the high memory group - indicating that hypermnesia is inversely related to age in older adults. Reminiscence did not show an age-related difference in either the low or high memory group whereas inter-test forgetting did show an age difference in the low memory group. As expected, older adults showed greater inter-test forgetting than young adults in the low memory group. Findings from the present experiment suggest that video produces a pattern of results that is similar to the patterns obtained when words and pictures are used as study material. Thus, it appears that the nature of study material is not the source of inconsistency across the previous studies.

  6. Physical activity and depression in older adults with and without cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuenyongchaiwat, Kornanong; Pongpanit, Khajonsak; Hanmanop, Somrudee

    2018-01-01

    Low physical activity and depression may be related to cognitive impairment in the elderly. To determine depression and physical activity (PA) among older adults with and without cognitive impairment. 156 older adults, both males and females, aged ≥60 years, were asked to complete the Thai Mini-Mental State Examination (Thai-MMSE), a global cognitive impairment screening tool. Seventy-eight older adults with cognitive impairment and 78 older adults without cognitive impairment were then separately administered two questionnaires (i.e., the Thai Geriatric Depression Scale; TGDS and Global Physical Activity Questionnaire; GPAQ). Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the risk of developing cognitive impairment in the groups of older individuals with and without cognitive impairment. A cross-sectional study of elderly with a mean age of 74.47 ± 8.14 years was conducted. There were significant differences on the depression scale and in PA between older adults with and without cognitive impairment. Further, participants with low PA and high level of depressive symptoms had an increased risk of cognitive impairment (Odds ratio = 4.808 and 3.298, respectively). Significant differences were noted in PA and on depression scales between older adults with and without cognitive impairment. Therefore, increased PA and decreased depressive symptoms (i.e., having psychological support) are suggested to reduce the risks of cognitive impairment in older adults.

  7. How Can Older Adults Prevent Falls? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Falls and Older Adults How Can Older Adults Prevent Falls? Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table of Contents Falls are not inevitable, even as we age. But ... you could break a bone. For older people, breaks can lead to more serious problems. ...

  8. Atomoxetine Treatment for ADHD: Younger Adults Compared with Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durell, Todd; Adler, Lenard; Wilens, Timothy; Paczkowski, Martin; Schuh, Kory

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Atomoxetine is a nonstimulant medication for treating child, adolescent, and adult ADHD. This meta-analysis compared the effects in younger and older adults. Method: A post hoc analysis was conducted using data from two double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Data from patients aged 18-25 years were compared with data from…

  9. Reward-Enhanced Memory in Younger and Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Spaniol; Cécile Schain; Holly J. Bowen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated how the anticipation of remote monetary reward modulates intentional episodic memory formation in younger and older adults. On the basis of prior findings of preserved reward–cognition interactions in aging, we predicted that reward anticipation would be associated with enhanced memory in both younger and older adults. On the basis of previous demonstrations of a time-dependent effect of reward anticipation on memory, we expected the memory enhancement to increase ...

  10. Journal Writing with Web 2.0 Tools: A Vision for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Craig E.; Aagard, Steven

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how Web 2.0 technologies may facilitate journaling and related inquiry methods among older adults. Benefits and limitations of journaling are summarized as well as computer skills of older adults. We then describe how Web 2.0 technologies can enhance journaling among older adults by diminishing feelings of isolation,…

  11. Both Younger and Older Adults Have Difficulty Updating Emotional Memories

    OpenAIRE

    Nashiro, Kaoru; Sakaki, Michiko; Huffman, Derek; Mather, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The main purpose of the study was to examine whether emotion impairs associative memory for previously seen items in older adults, as previously observed in younger adults. \\ud Method. Thirty-two younger adults and 32 older adults participated. The experiment consisted of 2 parts. In Part 1, participants learned picture–object associations for negative and neutral pictures. In Part 2, they learned picture–location associations for negative and neutral pictures; half of these pictur...

  12. Testing the Limits of Optimizing Dual-Task Performance in Younger and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobach, Tilo; Frensch, Peter; Müller, Herrmann Josef; Schubert, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Impaired dual-task performance in younger and older adults can be improved with practice. Optimal conditions even allow for a (near) elimination of this impairment in younger adults. However, it is unknown whether such (near) elimination is the limit of performance improvements in older adults. The present study tests this limit in older adults under conditions of (a) a high amount of dual-task training and (b) training with simplified component tasks in dual-task situations. The data showed that a high amount of dual-task training in older adults provided no evidence for an improvement of dual-task performance to the optimal dual-task performance level achieved by younger adults. However, training with simplified component tasks in dual-task situations exclusively in older adults provided a similar level of optimal dual-task performance in both age groups. Therefore through applying a testing the limits approach, we demonstrated that older adults improved dual-task performance to the same level as younger adults at the end of training under very specific conditions. PMID:22408613

  13. Health Equity and Aging of Bisexual Older Adults: Pathways of Risk and Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Shiu, Chengshi; Bryan, Amanda E B; Goldsen, Jayn; Kim, Hyun-Jun

    2017-05-01

    Bisexual older adults are a growing yet largely invisible, underserved, and understudied population. Utilizing the Health Equity Promotion Model, we examined hypothesized mechanisms accounting for health disparities between bisexual older adults and lesbian and gay older adults. Based on data from Caring and Aging with Pride, the largest national survey of LGBT older adults, this study (N = 2,463) utilized structural equation modeling to investigate direct and indirect associations between sexual identity (bisexual vs. lesbian and gay) and health via sexual identity factors (identity disclosure and internalized stigma), social resources, and socioeconomic status (SES). Bisexual older adults reported significantly poorer health compared with lesbian and gay older adults. Indirect effects involving sexual identity factors, social resources, and SES explained the association between bisexual identity and poorer health. A potentially protective pathway was also identified wherein bisexuals had larger social networks after adjusting for other factors. Bisexual older adults face distinct challenges and health risks relative to other older adults, likely because of the accumulation of socioeconomic and psychosocial disadvantages across the life course. Interventions taking into account older bisexuals' unique risk and protective factors may be helpful in reducing health inequities. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Mental health literacy in korean older adults: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y S; Lee, H Y; Lee, M H; Simms, T; Park, B H

    2017-09-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Mental health literacy is a fairly new concept, first introduced in 1997. It refers to what people know and believe about mental health disorders. People's knowledge and beliefs help them to recognize, manage and prevent mental disorders. Generally, older adults have lower health literacy compared to young and middle-aged adults. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This is the first study on the mental health literacy of Korean older adults. This study looks beyond peoples' ability to recognize mental health disorders and their opinions about them. It identifies factors that are associated with mental health literacy (level of education and social support, the number of people in one's social circles and how individuals rate their health). WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Older adults might get more out of mental health literacy programmes in group or social settings. Programmes that use older adult peer educators/supporters, such as the "older people's champions" of the Healthy Passport programme in England, might make the programmes more effective. Mental health campaigns, such as Australia's beyondblue, might increase mental health literacy of older adults. Introduction Korea is experiencing rapid population ageing, spurring an increased need for mental health services for the elderly. Approximately one-third of Korean older adults experience depressive symptoms, and Korea has the highest elder suicide rate among 34 developed nations. Mental health literacy is an important component of promoting mental health, yet studies on the concept have been conducted in few countries. Aim This study examines the level of mental health literacy among Korean older adults and identifies factors associated with their mental health literacy. Method A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 596 community-dwelling Korean adults aged 65 and older. Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use framed the study. Results Overall

  15. Do older adults change their eyewitness reports when re-questioned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Linda A

    2014-05-01

    This study examined how older adults responded to different types of pressure to change their responses when questioned a second time about their memory for a crime. After watching a video of a crime and answering questions about remembered details, younger (18-22 years) and older adults (64-91 years) were either given negative feedback about their memory performance, were told that most people their age did poorly on the memory test (stereotype threat), or were simply asked to answer the questions again. This was done regardless of their actual accuracy, and the questions were then repeated. Results showed that both younger and older adults changed significantly more responses following negative feedback and changed more responses on misleading than on nonleading questions. Among older adults, as age increased, accuracy decreased and rate of response change increased. People were moderately confident overall about both their correct and incorrect responses. These results highlight the dangers of repeatedly questioning older witnesses with misleading questions and suggest that the responses that are changed may come to be remembered confidently-regardless of whether they are correct or incorrect.

  16. Exploring Older Adults' Patterns and Perceptions of Exercise after Hip Fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Gorman, Erin; Chudyk, Anna M.; Hoppmann, Christiane A.; Hanson, Heather M.; Guy, Pierre; Sims-Gould, Joanie; Ashe, Maureen C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To identify exercise patterns and perceived barriers, enablers, and motivators to engaging in exercise for older adults following hip fracture. Method: Telephone interviews were conducted with older adults (aged 62–97 y) within 1 year after hip fracture. Participants were asked about basic demographic information; level of mobility before hip fracture; current level of mobility; and barriers, enablers, and motivators to participating in exercise. Results: A total of 32 older adults s...

  17. Listening to Older Adult Parents of Adult Children with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Judith R.

    2012-01-01

    This article uses qualitative research and narrative analysis to examine the experience of women age 55 and older who are parents caring for adult children with mental illness. Knowledge about the conflicts of older parents with dependent children is underdeveloped. In this study, analysis of women's stories about parenting in later life reveal…

  18. Hydrate for health: listening to older adults' need for information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Mary H; Marquez, Celine S; Kline, Katherine V; Morris, Erin; Linares, Brenda; Carlson, Barbara W

    2014-10-01

    An interdisciplinary team of faculty and students developed the Hydrate for Health project to provide relevant and evidence-based information to community-dwelling older adults. Evidence-based factsheets on bladder health, nighttime urination, medication safety, and physical activity/exercise, as well as a fluid intake self-monitoring tool, were developed. Four focus groups were conducted and included older adults (N = 21) who participated in activities at two local senior centers to obtain their feedback about the relevance of the factsheets. Extensive revisions were required based on the feedback received. Older adults expressed a desire for pragmatic information (i.e., how to determine fluid sources from food, how to measure water, how to determine their own fluid needs). They also wanted information that could be easily incorporated into daily life. Nurses play a central role in listening to and incorporating older adults' voices into consumer education materials. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Young and Older Adults' Gender Stereotype in Multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobach, Tilo; Woszidlo, Alesia

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated discrepancies between two components of stereotyping by means of the popular notion that women are better at multitasking behaviors: the cognitive structure in individuals (personal belief) and the perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs (perceived belief of groups). With focus on this notion, we examined whether there was empirical evidence for the stereotype's existence and whether and how it was shared among different age groups. Data were collected from 241 young (n = 129) and older (n = 112) German individuals. The reported perceptions of gender effects at multitasking were substantial and thus demonstrated the existence of its stereotype. Importantly, in young and older adults, this stereotype existed in the perception of attributed characteristics by members of a collective (perceived belief of groups). When contrasting this perceived belief of groups and the personal belief, older adults showed a similar level of conformation of the gender stereotype while young adults were able to differentiate between these perspectives. Thus, young adults showed a discrepancy between the stereotype's components cognitive structure in individuals and perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs.

  20. Working memory training and transfer in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Lauren L; Morrison, Alexandra B; Chein, Jason M; Olson, Ingrid R

    2011-12-01

    There has been a great deal of interest, both privately and commercially, in using working memory training exercises to improve general cognitive function. However, many of the laboratory findings for older adults, a group in which this training is of utmost interest, are discouraging due to the lack of transfer to other tasks and skills. Importantly, improvements in everyday functioning remain largely unexamined in relation to WM training. We trained working memory in older adults using a task that encourages transfer in young adults (Chein & Morrison, 2010). We tested transfer to measures of working memory (e.g., Reading Span), everyday cognitive functioning [the Test of Everyday Attention (TEA) and the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT)], and other tasks of interest. Relative to controls, trained participants showed transfer improvements in Reading Span and the number of repetitions on the CVLT. Training group participants were also significantly more likely to self-report improvements in everyday attention. Our findings support the use of ecological tasks as a measure of transfer in an older adult population.

  1. Spirituality, depression, living alone, and perceived health among Korean older adults in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Kwang Soo; Lee, Hae-Ok; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J; Kim, Susie; Marui, Eiji; Lee, Jung Su; Cook, Paul

    2009-08-01

    Both theoretical and empirical studies have documented the protective effect of religiosity and spirituality on general health in older adults in community and hospital settings; however, no study has documented the relationship between spirituality and depression among older adults living alone in communities in Korea. We tested two hypotheses: Hypothesis 1: Korean older adults living alone would be more depressed and less healthy than older adults living with family, and Hypothesis 2: Individuals who are more religious and spiritual would report a lower level of depression and a higher level of general health even when other demographic and living status variables are controlled. A descriptive, comparative, and correlational design with a convenience sampling method was conducted among community-dwelling Korean older adults in Chounbook Providence, South Korea. This study included 152 men and women older than 65 years old. Hypothesis 1 was supported as Korean older adults living alone were significantly more depressed than were older adults living with family (Preligion with general health and depression.

  2. Factors Influencing Food Choices Among Older Adults in the Rural Western USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byker Shanks, Carmen; Haack, Sarah; Tarabochia, Dawn; Bates, Kate; Christenson, Lori

    2017-06-01

    Nutrition is an essential component in promoting health and quality of life into the older adults years. The purpose of this qualitative research is to explore how the rural food environment influences food choices of older adults. Four focus groups were conducted with 33 older adults (50 years of age and older) residing in rural Montana communities. Four major themes related to factors influencing food choices among rural older adults emerged from this study: perception of the rural community environment, support as a means of increasing food access, personal access to food sources, and dietary factors. The findings from this current study warrant further research and promotion of specifically tailored approaches that influence the food choices of older adults in the rural western USA, including the developing and expanding public transportation systems, increasing availability of local grocers with quality and affordable food options, increasing awareness and decreasing stigma surrounding community food programs, and increasing nutrition education targeting senior health issues.

  3. FEAR OF FALLING AMONG COMMUNITY DWELLING OLDER ADULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Michaela Dingová; Eva Králová

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to describe experience with falls, fear of falling, perceptions of the consequences of falls and how the fear of falling affects daily life in community-dwelling older adults. Design: The study used a qualitative design to describe the lived experiences of community-dwelling older adults with the fear of falling. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted individually with six participants who reported the fear of falling. Results: Five main areas emerged...

  4. Effective communication and counseling with older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, J A

    2000-01-01

    Age-sensitive communication skills must be developed to achieve greater effectiveness in assisting older adults. These skills should be guided by research findings on the development changes related to normal aging. A listening-responding technique is presented outlining six principles that can be applied in a wide variety of situations. These principles are governed by the intention to preserve self-esteem and to clarify the needs of elderly clients. By using this approach with the older adult, the practitioner will achieve an effective communication process that generates accurate information, supports self-determination, and achieves a therapeutic process.

  5. Emergency Department Utilization and Self-Reported Symptoms in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Patricia; Kennedy, Richard; Williams, Courtney; Brown, Cynthia J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The rise in emergency department (ED) utilization among older adults is a nursing concern, because emergency nurses are uniquely positioned to positively impact the care of older adults. Symptoms have been associated with ED utilization, however, it remains unclear if symptoms are the primary reason for ED utilization. Purpose Describe the self-reported symptoms of community-dwelling older adults prior to accessing the emergency department. Examine the differences in self-reported symptoms among those who utilized the emergency department, and those who did not. Procedures A prospective longitudinal design was used. The sample included 403 community-dwelling older adults 75 years and older. Baseline in-home interviews were conducted followed by monthly telephone interviews over 15 months. Main Findings Commonly reported symptoms at baseline included pain, feeling tired, and having shortness of breath. In univariate analysis, pain, shortness of breath, fair/poor well-being, and feeling tired were significantly correlated with ED utilization. In multivariable models, problems with balance, and fair/poor well-being were significantly associated with ED utilization. Conclusions Several symptoms were common among this cohort of older adults. However, there were no significant differences in the types of symptoms reported by older adults who utilized the emergency department compared to those who did not use the emergency department. Based on these findings, symptoms among community-dwelling older adults may not be the primary reason for ED utilization. PMID:28131350

  6. Restraint Use in Older Adults Receiving Home Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepmans, Kristien; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Paquay, Louis; Van Gansbeke, Hendrik; Milisen, Koen

    2017-08-01

    To determine the prevalence, types, frequency, and duration of restraint use in older adults receiving home nursing care and to determine factors involved in the decision-making process for restraint use and application. Cross-sectional survey of restraint use in older adults receiving home care completed by primary care nurses. Homes of older adults receiving care from a home nursing organization in Belgium. Randomized sample of older adults receiving home care (N = 6,397; mean age 80.6; 66.8% female). For each participant, nurses completed an investigator-constructed and -validated questionnaire collecting information demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics and aspects of restraint use. A broad definition of restraint was used that includes a range of restrictive actions. Restraints were used in 24.7% of the participants, mostly on a daily basis (85%) and often for a long period (54.5%, 24 h/d). The most common reason for restraint use was safety (50.2%). Other reasons were that the individual wanted to remain at home longer, which necessitated the use of restraints (18.2%) and to provide respite for the informal caregiver (8.6%). The latter played an important role in the decision and application process. The physician was less involved in the process. In 64.5% of cases, there was no evaluation after restraint use was initiated. Use of restraints is common in older adults receiving home care nursing in Belgium. These results contribute to a better understanding of the complexity of use of restraints in home care, a situation that may be even more complex than in nursing homes and acute hospital settings. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  7. Optimizing the Benefits of Exercise on Physical Function in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buford, Thomas W.; Anton, Stephen D.; Clark, David J.; Higgins, Torrance J.; Cooke, Matthew B.

    2014-01-01

    As the number of older adults continues to rise worldwide, the prevention of physical disability among seniors is an increasingly important public health priority. Physical exercise is among the best known methods of preventing disability, but accumulating evidence indicates that considerable variability exists in the responsiveness of older adults to standard training regimens. Accordingly, a need exists to develop tailored interventions to optimize the beneficial effects of exercise on the physical function of older adults at risk for becoming disabled. The present review summarizes the available literature related to the use of adjuvant or alternative strategies intended to enhance the efficacy of exercise in improving the physical function of older adults. Within this work, we also discuss potential future research directions in this area. PMID:24361365

  8. Circumvention of suddenly appearing obstacles in young and older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnappels, M.; Kingma, I.; Van Dieën, J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Reduced ability to circumvent an obstacle, which is noticed only shortly before collision, could be a cause of falls and injury, especially in older adults. In this study, we investigated differences in strategies and their characteristics between young and older adults when circumventing a suddenly

  9. Perceived age discrimination in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippon, Isla; Kneale, Dylan; de Oliveira, Cesar; Demakakos, Panayotes; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    to examine perceived age discrimination in a large representative sample of older adults in England. this cross-sectional study of over 7,500 individuals used data from the fifth wave of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), a longitudinal cohort study of men and women aged 52 years and older in England. Wave 5 asked respondents about the frequency of five everyday discriminatory situations. Participants who attributed any experiences of discrimination to their age were treated as cases of perceived age discrimination. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratios of experiencing perceived age discrimination in relation to selected sociodemographic factors. approximately a third (33.3%) of all respondents experienced age discrimination, rising to 36.8% in those aged 65 and over. Perceived age discrimination was associated with older age, higher education, lower levels of household wealth and being retired or not in employment. The correlates of age discrimination across the five discriminatory situations were similar. understanding age discrimination is vital if we are to develop appropriate policies and to target future interventions effectively. These findings highlight the scale of the challenge of age discrimination for older adults in England and illustrate that those groups are particularly vulnerable to this form of discrimination.

  10. Making judgments about other people: impression formation and attributional processing in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abby Heckman Coats

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Older adults face changing relationships with family members and friends with aging. Social cognition researchers investigate how individuals think about these social situations. The results of this research suggest that older adults are effective at accurately judging social partners when they are motivated to do so and can apply their accumulated knowledge to the situation. However, when cognitive resources are required in social situations, older adults may not perform as well as young adults. We review evidence supporting the importance of cognition, motivation, and knowledge for older adults’ impression formation and attributional reasoning. This research is important because it can lead to interventions to help older adults avoid scams and improve their interpersonal relationships.

  11. "Seniors only want respect": designing an oral health program for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Ivette; Kunzel, Carol; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Greenblatt, Ariel P; Metcalf, Sara S; Northridge, Mary E

    2018-01-01

    Persistent socioeconomic disparities in the oral disease burden contribute to pain and suffering among vulnerable and underserved populations who face systemic barriers to access oral health care, including older adults living in disadvantaged urban neighborhoods. The aim of this study is to gain the views of racial/ethnic minority older adults regarding what they believe would support them and their peers in visiting the dentist regularly. Focus groups were conducted and digitally audio-recorded from 2013 to 2015 with 194 racial/ethnic minority women and men aged 50 years and older living in northern Manhattan who participated in one of 24 focus group sessions about improving oral health for older adults. Analysis of the transcripts was conducted using thematic content analysis. The majority of recommendations from racial/ethnic minority older adults to help older adults go to the dentist regularly were centered at the organization and provider level. The preeminence of respectful treatment to racial/ethnic minority older adults may be useful to underscore in oral health programs and settings. There is a need for greater engagement of and attention to patients and other stakeholders in developing, testing, and disseminating interventions to close the gaps in oral health care disparities. © 2018 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Videogames to Promote Physical Activity in Older Adults with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutwyler, Heather; Hubbard, Erin M; Vinogradov, Sophia; Dowling, Glenna A

    2012-10-01

    Older adults with schizophrenia need physical activity interventions to improve their physical health. The purpose of this report is to describe the preliminary acceptability of a videogame-based physical activity program using the Kinect™ for Xbox 360 game system (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) in older adults with schizophrenia.

  13. Older adults' acceptance of a robot for partner dance-based exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tiffany L; Bhattacharjee, Tapomayukh; Beer, Jenay M; Ting, Lena H; Hackney, Madeleine E; Rogers, Wendy A; Kemp, Charles C

    2017-01-01

    Partner dance has been shown to be beneficial for the health of older adults. Robots could potentially facilitate healthy aging by engaging older adults in partner dance-based exercise. However, partner dance involves physical contact between the dancers, and older adults would need to be accepting of partner dancing with a robot. Using methods from the technology acceptance literature, we conducted a study with 16 healthy older adults to investigate their acceptance of robots for partner dance-based exercise. Participants successfully led a human-scale wheeled robot with arms (i.e., a mobile manipulator) in a simple, which we refer to as the Partnered Stepping Task (PST). Participants led the robot by maintaining physical contact and applying forces to the robot's end effectors. According to questionnaires, participants were generally accepting of the robot for partner dance-based exercise, tending to perceive it as useful, easy to use, and enjoyable. Participants tended to perceive the robot as easier to use after performing the PST with it. Through a qualitative data analysis of structured interview data, we also identified facilitators and barriers to acceptance of robots for partner dance-based exercise. Throughout the study, our robot used admittance control to successfully dance with older adults, demonstrating the feasibility of this method. Overall, our results suggest that robots could successfully engage older adults in partner dance-based exercise.

  14. Older adults' acceptance of a robot for partner dance-based exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany L Chen

    Full Text Available Partner dance has been shown to be beneficial for the health of older adults. Robots could potentially facilitate healthy aging by engaging older adults in partner dance-based exercise. However, partner dance involves physical contact between the dancers, and older adults would need to be accepting of partner dancing with a robot. Using methods from the technology acceptance literature, we conducted a study with 16 healthy older adults to investigate their acceptance of robots for partner dance-based exercise. Participants successfully led a human-scale wheeled robot with arms (i.e., a mobile manipulator in a simple, which we refer to as the Partnered Stepping Task (PST. Participants led the robot by maintaining physical contact and applying forces to the robot's end effectors. According to questionnaires, participants were generally accepting of the robot for partner dance-based exercise, tending to perceive it as useful, easy to use, and enjoyable. Participants tended to perceive the robot as easier to use after performing the PST with it. Through a qualitative data analysis of structured interview data, we also identified facilitators and barriers to acceptance of robots for partner dance-based exercise. Throughout the study, our robot used admittance control to successfully dance with older adults, demonstrating the feasibility of this method. Overall, our results suggest that robots could successfully engage older adults in partner dance-based exercise.

  15. Self-mastery among Chinese Older Adults in the Greater Chicago Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinqi Dong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-mastery is an important psychological resource to cope with stressful situations. However, we have limited understanding of self-mastery among minority aging populations. Objective: This study aims to examine the presence and levels of self-mastery among U.S. Chinese older adults. Methods: Data were drawn from the PINE study, a population-based survey of U.S. Chinese older adults in the Greater Chicago area. Guided by a community-based participatory research approach, a total of 3,159 Chinese older adults aged 60 and above were surveyed. A Chinese version of the Self-Mastery Scale was used to assess self-mastery. Results: Out of the 7-item Chinese Self-Mastery Scale, approximately 42.8% to 87.5% of Chinese older adults experienced some degree of self-mastery in their lives. Older adults with no formal education and the oldest-old aged 85 and over had the lowest level of self-mastery in our study. A higher mastery level was associated with being married, having fewer children, better self-reported health status, better quality of life, and positive health changes. Conclusion: Although self-mastery is commonly experienced among the Chinese aging population in the Greater Chicago area, specific subgroups are still vulnerable. Future longitudinal studies are needed to improve the understanding of risk factors and outcomes associated with self-mastery among Chinese older adults.

  16. Curling for Confidence: Psychophysical Benefits of Curling for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Rachael C; Rakhamilova, Zina; Gage, William H; Baker, Joseph

    2018-04-01

    While physical activity is increasingly promoted for older adults, there is a paucity of sport promotion, which has distinct benefits from exercise and remains stereotypically associated with younger age. Curling is a moderately intense and safe sport that continues to gain popularity; however, no research has investigated psychophysical benefits of curling for older adults. The present study compares high-experience (20+ years; n = 63) and low-experience (<20 years; n = 53) curlers (aged 60+ years) with older adult noncurlers (n = 44) on measures of daily functionality, balance confidence, and perceptions of the aging process. While no significant differences were found between high- and low-experience curlers, any level of experience reported significantly better functionality, physical confidence, and aging attitudes compared to noncurlers (p ≤ .05). Although further research is necessary, the results suggest that any level of curling experience can enhance older adult psychophysical well-being, and warrants consideration for physical activity promotion and falls prevention programs.

  17. Are the memories of older adults positively biased?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Myra; Ross, Michael; Wiegand, Melanie; Schryer, Emily

    2008-06-01

    There is disagreement in the literature about whether a "positivity effect" in memory performance exists in older adults. To assess the generalizability of the effect, the authors examined memory for autobiographical, picture, and word information in a group of younger (17-29 years old) and older (60-84 years old) adults. For the autobiographical memory task, the authors asked participants to produce 4 positive, 4 negative, and 4 neutral recent autobiographical memories and to recall these a week later. For the picture and word tasks, participants studied photos or words of different valences (positive, negative, neutral) and later remembered them on a free-recall test. The authors found significant correlations in memory performance, across task material, for recall of both positive and neutral valence autobiographical events, pictures, and words. When the authors examined accurate memories, they failed to find consistent evidence, across the different types of material, of a positivity effect in either age group. However, the false memory findings offer more consistent support for a positivity effect in older adults. During recall of all 3 types of material, older participants recalled more false positive than false negative memories.

  18. Safety margins in older adults increase with improved control of a dynamic object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, Christopher J.; Sternad, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    Older adults face decreasing motor capabilities due to pervasive neuromuscular degradations. As a consequence, errors in movement control increase. Thus, older individuals should maintain larger safety margins than younger adults. While this has been shown for object manipulation tasks, several reports on whole-body activities, such as posture and locomotion, demonstrate age-related reductions in safety margins. This is despite increased costs for control errors, such as a fall. We posit that this paradox could be explained by the dynamic challenge presented by the body or also an external object, and that age-related reductions in safety margins are in part due to a decreased ability to control dynamics. To test this conjecture we used a virtual ball-in-cup task that had challenging dynamics, yet afforded an explicit rendering of the physics and safety margin. The hypotheses were: (1) When manipulating an object with challenging dynamics, older adults have smaller safety margins than younger adults. (2) Older adults increase their safety margins with practice. Nine young and 10 healthy older adults practiced moving the virtual ball-in-cup to a target location in exactly 2 s. The accuracy and precision of the timing error quantified skill, and the ball energy relative to an escape threshold quantified the safety margin. Compared to the young adults, older adults had increased timing errors, greater variability, and decreased safety margins. With practice, both young and older adults improved their ability to control the object with decreased timing errors and variability, and increased their safety margins. These results suggest that safety margins are related to the ability to control dynamics, and may explain why in tasks with simple dynamics older adults use adequate safety margins, but in more complex tasks, safety margins may be inadequate. Further, the results indicate that task-specific training may improve safety margins in older adults. PMID:25071566

  19. Safety Margins in Older Adults Increase with Improved Control of a Dynamic Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher James Hasson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Older adults face decreasing motor capabilities due to pervasive neuromuscular degradations. As a consequence errors in movement control increase. Thus, older individuals should maintain larger safety margins than younger adults. While this has been shown for object manipulation tasks, several reports on whole-body activities, such as posture and locomotion, however demonstrate age-related reductions in safety margins. This is despite increased costs for control errors, such as a fall. We posit that this paradox could be explained by the dynamic challenge presented by the body or an external object, and that age-related reductions in safety margins are in part due to a decreased ability to control dynamics. To test this conjecture we used a virtual ball-in-cup task that had challenging dynamics, yet afforded an explicit rendering of the physics and safety margin. The hypotheses were: 1 When manipulating an object with challenging dynamics, older adults have smaller safety margins than younger adults. 2 Older adults increase their safety margins with practice. Nine young and 10 healthy older adults practiced moving the virtual ball-in-cup to a target location in exactly two seconds. The accuracy and precision of the timing error quantified skill and the ball energy relative to an escape threshold quantified the safety margin. Compared to the young adults, older adults had increased timing errors, greater variability, and decreased safety margins. With practice, both young and older adults improved their ability to control the object with decreased timing errors and variability, and increased their safety margins. These results suggest that safety margins are related to the ability to control dynamics, and may explain why in tasks with simple dynamics older adults use adequate safety margins, but in more complex tasks, safety margins may be inadequate. Further, the results indicate that task-specific training may improve safety margins in older

  20. Care and support for older adults in The Netherlands living independently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verver, Didi; Merten, Hanneke; Robben, Paul; Wagner, Cordula

    2018-05-01

    The growth in the numbers of older adults needing long-term care has resulted in rising costs which have forced the Dutch government to change its long-term care system. Now, the local authorities have greater responsibility for supporting older adults and in prolonging independent living with increased support provided by the social network. However, it is unclear whether these older adults have such a network to rely upon. The objective of this study was to gain insight into the providers of formal and informal care to older adults, and to assess possible differences between older adults who are frail and those who are not. In addition, we investigated their care and support needs. We used data from a quantitative survey using a cross-sectional design in different regions of the Netherlands from July until September 2014 (n = 181). Frailty was measured using the Tilburg Frailty indicator. To analyse the data chi-square tests, crosstabs and odds ratios were used for dichotomous data and the Mann-Whitney U-Test for nominal data. The number of formal care providers involved was significantly higher (median = 2) for those deemed frail than for those not deemed frail (median = 1), U = 2,130, p older adults deemed to be frail did not have their needs sufficiently addressed by their care network. For a substantial part of this group of older adults, the informal network seems to be unable to support them sufficiently. Additional attention for their needs and wishes is required to implement the policy reforms successfully. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Do older adults with chronic low back pain differ from younger adults in regards to baseline characteristics and prognosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manogharan, S; Kongsted, A; Ferreira, M L; Hancock, M J

    2017-05-01

    Low back pain (LBP) in older adults is poorly understood because the vast majority of the LBP research has focused on the working aged population. The aim of this study was to compare older adults consulting with chronic LBP to middle aged and young adults consulting with chronic LBP, in terms of their baseline characteristics, and pain and disability outcomes over 1 year. Data were systematically collected as part of routine care in a secondary care spine clinic. At initial presentation patients answered a self-report questionnaire and underwent a physical examination. Patients older than 65 were classified as older adults and compared to middle aged (45-65 years old) and younger adults (17-44 years old) for 10 baseline characteristics. Pain intensity and disability were collected at 6 and 12 month follow-ups and compared between age groups. A total of 14,479 participants were included in the study. Of these 3087 (21%) patients were older adults, 6071 (42%) were middle aged and 5321 (37%) were young adults. At presentation older adults were statistically different to the middle aged and younger adults for most characteristics measured (e.g. less intense back pain, more leg pain and more depression); however, the differences were small. The change in pain and disability over 12 months did not differ between age groups. This study found small baseline differences in older people with chronic LBP compared to middle aged and younger adults. There were no associations between age groups and the clinical course. Small baseline differences exist in older people with chronic low back pain compared to middle aged and younger adults referred to secondary care for chronic low back pain. Older adults present with slightly less intense low back pain but slightly more intense leg pain. Changes in pain intensity and disability over a 12 month period were similar across all age groups. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  2. Ecological Relevance Determines Task Priority in Older Adults' Multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumas, Michail; Krampe, Ralf Th

    2015-05-01

    Multitasking is a challenging aspect of human behavior, especially if the concurrently performed tasks are different in nature. Several studies demonstrated pronounced performance decrements (dual-task costs) in older adults for combinations of cognitive and motor tasks. However, patterns of costs among component tasks differed across studies and reasons for participants' resource allocation strategies remained elusive. We investigated young and older adults' multitasking of a working memory task and two sensorimotor tasks, one with low (finger force control) and one with high ecological relevance (postural control). The tasks were performed in single-, dual-, and triple-task contexts. Working memory accuracy was reduced in dual-task contexts with either sensorimotor task and deteriorated further under triple-task conditions. Postural and force performance deteriorated with age and task difficulty in dual-task contexts. However, in the triple-task context with its maximum resource demands, older adults prioritized postural control over both force control and memory. Our results identify ecological relevance as the key factor in older adults' multitasking. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Laryngeal Aerodynamics in Healthy Older Adults and Adults with Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheron, Deborah; Stathopoulos, Elaine T.; Huber, Jessica E.; Sussman, Joan E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The present study compared laryngeal aerodynamic function of healthy older adults (HOA) to adults with Parkinson's disease (PD) while speaking at a comfortable and increased vocal intensity. Method: Laryngeal aerodynamic measures (subglottal pressure, peak-to-peak flow, minimum flow, and open quotient [OQ]) were compared between HOAs and…

  4. Goals and everyday problem solving: manipulating goal preferences in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppmann, Christiane A; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda

    2010-11-01

    In the present study, we examined the link between goal and problem-solving strategy preferences in 130 young and older adults using hypothetical family problem vignettes. At baseline, young adults preferred autonomy goals, whereas older adults preferred generative goals. Imagining an expanded future time perspective led older adults to show preferences for autonomy goals similar to those observed in young adults but did not eliminate age differences in generative goals. Autonomy goals were associated with more self-focused instrumental problem solving, whereas generative goals were related to more other-focused instrumental problem solving in the no-instruction and instruction conditions. Older adults were better at matching their strategies to their goals than young adults were. This suggests that older adults may become better at selecting their strategies in accordance with their goals. Our findings speak to a contextual approach to everyday problem solving by showing that goals are associated with the selection of problem-solving strategies.

  5. A double dissociation of implicit and explicit memory in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopie, Nigel; Craik, Fergus I M; Hasher, Lynn

    2011-05-01

    This study examined whether age-related differences in cognition influence later memory for irrelevant, or distracting, information. In Experiments 1 and 2, older adults had greater implicit memory for irrelevant information than younger adults did. When explicit memory was assessed, however, the pattern of results reversed: Younger adults performed better than older adults on an explicit memory test for the previously irrelevant information, and older adults performed less well than they had on the implicit test. Experiment 3 investigated whether this differential pattern was attributable to an age-related decline in encoding resources, by reducing the encoding resources of younger adults with a secondary task; their performance perfectly simulated the pattern shown by the older adults in the first two experiments. Both older and younger adults may remember irrelevant information, but they remember it in different ways because of age-related changes in how information is processed at encoding and utilized at retrieval.

  6. Predictors of suicide ideation among older adults with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Norm; Heisel, Marnin J; Canham, Sarah L; Sixsmith, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) carries the greatest risk of death by suicide of all psychiatric conditions as 25%-50% of those with BD will make one or more suicide attempt, and about 15% will intentionally end their lives. Among young adults with BD, substance misuse, medication non-adherence, age at onset, and comorbid psychiatric conditions each predict self-harm. It is currently unclear if these same factors or others predict suicide ideation among older adults with BD. We recruited a global sample of 220 older adults with BD over 19 days using socio-demographically targeted, social media advertising and online data collection (Mean = 58.50, SD = 5.42; range 50 to 81 years). Path analyses allowed us to identify direct and indirect predictors of suicide ideation among older adults with BD. Cognitive failures (perception, memory, and motor function), depressive symptoms, alcohol misuse, and dissatisfaction with life as direct predictors of suicide ideation; duration of BD symptoms and medication non-adherence emerged as indirect predictors. Of note, the significant impact of sleep on suicide ideation is indirect via depressive symptoms, cognitive failures, medication non-adherence and life dissatisfaction. As with young adults with BD, alcohol misuse and medication non-adherence emerged as significant predictors of suicide ideation. In addition, cognitive failures directly and indirectly predict suicide ideation in this sample of older adults with BD. Population aging and treatment efficacy are leading to ever growing numbers of older adults with BD. Both direct and indirect predictors of suicide ideation need to be considered in future BD research and treatment planning.

  7. The Meaning of Older Adults' Peer Teaching: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ilseon

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated older adults' peer teaching experiences at a Lifelong Learning Institute through interviews with eight teachers and observations of their classes. Thematic analysis revealed themes of peer-to-peer teaching, volunteer teaching, and explorative teaching. Discussion of the themes examines the meaning of older adults' peer…

  8. Dog ownership, functional ability, and walking in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretebeck, Kimberlee A; Radius, Kaitlyn; Black, David R; Gretebeck, Randall J; Ziemba, Rosemary; Glickman, Lawrence T

    2013-07-01

    Regular walking improves overall health and functional ability of older adults, yet most are sedentary. Dog ownership/pet responsibility may increase walking in older adults. Goals of this study were to identify factors that influence older adult walking and compare physical activity, functional ability and psychosocial characteristics by dog ownership status. In this cross-sectional study, older adults (65-95 years of age, n = 1091) completed and returned questionnaires via postal mail. Measures included: Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly, Physical Functioning Questionnaire and Theory of Planned Behavior Questionnaire. Dog owner/dog walkers (n = 77) reported significantly (P physical activity and higher total functional ability than dog owner/nondog walkers (n = 83) and nondog owners (n = 931). Dog owner/nondog walkers reported lower intention and perceived behavioral control and a less positive attitude than dog owner/dog walkers (P pet obligation may provide a purposeful activity that motivates some older dog owners to walk.

  9. Vaccines for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worz, Chad; Martin, Caren McHenry; Travis, Catherine

    2017-09-01

    Several vaccine-preventable diseases-influenza, pneumonia, herpes zoster, and pertussis-threaten the health of older adults in the United States. Both the costs associated with treating these diseases and the potential to increase morbidity and mortality are high for this patient population. Pharmacists and other health care professionals play a significant role in ensuring the elderly patient receives the recommended vaccines at the recommended intervals.

  10. Hearing aid user guides: suitability for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caposecco, Andrea; Hickson, Louise; Meyer, Carly

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the content, design, and readability of printed hearing aid user guides to determine their suitability for older adults, who are the main users of hearing aids. Hearing aid user guides were assessed using four readability formulae and a standardized tool to assess content and design (SAM - Suitability Assessment of Materials). A sample of 36 hearing aid user guides (four user guides from nine different hearing aid manufacturers) were analysed. Sixty nine percent of user guides were rated 'not suitable' and 31% were rated 'adequate' for their suitability. Many scored poorly for scope, vocabulary, aspects of layout and typography, and learning stimulation and motivation. The mean reading grade level for all user guides was grade 9.6 which is too high for older adults. The content, design, and readability of hearing aid user guides are not optimal for older adults and thus may serve as a barrier to successful hearing aid outcomes for this population.

  11. The risk factors for impulsivity-related falls among hospitalized older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Marisa; Harrison, Barbara; Lewis, Doresea

    2012-01-01

    Falls among older adults are a common, preventable problem associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Impulsivity is a known risk factor for older adult falls; however, there is a gap in evidence demonstrating the unique risk factors associated with impulsivity related falls (IRF). The research explored the association between seven fall risk factors and impulsivity related falls in hospitalized older adults in a community hospital. This retrospective descriptive study analyzed the association between seven fall risk factors and IRF in hospitalized older adults. The sample (N = 233) included patients age 65 years and older who had a documented in-patient fall in 2008. Of the falls, 29.7% were classified as IRF. The mean age of patients with IRF was 78 years, with the median day of fall being Day 5 of hospitalization/rehabilitation admission. Logistic regression demonstrated that only inattention and cognitive impairment were significant risk factors for IRF. The incidence of IRF was 29.7%. Our findings also indicate that cognitive impairment and inattention are strongest predictors for IRF among usual risk factors. Early identification of the unique risk factors associated with IRF could improve identification and reduce fall rates among hospitalized older adults. © 2012 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  12. Sexual Behavior of Older Adults Living with HIV in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negin, Joel; Geddes, Louise; Brennan-Ing, Mark; Kuteesa, Monica; Karpiak, Stephen; Seeley, Janet

    2016-02-01

    Sexual behavior among older adults with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa has been understudied despite the burgeoning of this population. We examined sexual behavior among older adults living with HIV in Uganda. Participants were eligible for the study if they were 50 years of age or older and living with HIV. Quantitative data were collected through face-to-face interviews, including demographic characteristics, health, sexual behavior and function, and mental health. Of respondents, 42 were men and 59 women. More than one-quarter of these HIV-positive older adults were sexually active. A greater proportion of older HIV-positive men reported being sexually active compared to women (54 vs. 15%). Among those who are sexually active, a majority never use condoms. Sixty-one percent of men regarded sex as at least somewhat important (42%), while few women shared this opinion (20%). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that odds of sexual activity in the past year were significantly increased by the availability of a partner (married/cohabitating), better physical functioning, and male gender. As more adults live longer with HIV, it is critical to understand their sexual behavior and related psychosocial variables in order to improve prevention efforts.

  13. Physiological and psychological effects of gardening activity in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ahmad; Qibing, Chen; Tao, Jiang

    2018-04-06

    Gardening has long been one of most enjoyable pastimes among older adults. Whether gardening activities contribute to the well-being of older adults is a major question. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clarify the psychophysiological relaxing effects of gardening activities on older adults living in modern institutional care. The study participants were 40 older women aged 79.5 ± 8.09 years (mean ± SD). A cross-over study design was used to investigate the physiological and psychological responses to environments with and without plants. Physiological evaluation was carried out using blood pressure and electroencephalography, and psychological evaluation was carried out using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Semantic Differential method. Blood pressure was significantly lower, and changes in brainwaves were observed. Psychological responses showed that participants were more "comfortable and relaxed" after the plant task than after the control task. In addition, total anxiety levels were significantly lower after carrying out the plant task than after the control task. Our research suggests that gardening activities might enhance physiological and psychological relaxation in older adults. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; ••: ••-••. © 2018 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  14. Knowledge of Results after Good Trials Enhances Learning in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Wulf, Gabriele; Wally, Raquel; Borges, Thiago

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, some researchers have examined motor learning in older adults. Some of these studies have specifically looked at the effectiveness of different manipulations of extrinsic feedback, or knowledge of results (KR). Given that many motor tasks may already be more challenging for older adults compared to younger adults, making KR more…

  15. Treatment of specific phobia in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy A Pachana

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Nancy A Pachana1, Rana M Woodward1, Gerard JA Byrne21School of Psychology, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia 2School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, AustraliaAbstract: Phobias are common in later life, yet treatment research in this population remains scant. The efficacy of exposure therapy, in combination with other Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT components, in the treatment of specific phobia with a middle and older aged sample was examined. Sixteen adults aged 45–68 with DSM-IV diagnosis of a specific phobia received a manualized intervention over ten weeks, and were compared with a control group. Results indicated significant time effects in the treatment group for the primary outcome variables of phobic severity and avoidance as well as secondary outcome variables including depression and anxiety. Symptom presence and severity also significantly declined in the treatment group. No significant changes in state anxiety were noted across the treatment period. Such results provide support for the efficacy of exposure combined with CBT treatment for specific phobia in middle to older aged adults.Keywords: anxiety, phobia, older adults, cognitive behavioral therapy

  16. Oral Health and Older Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-27

    This podcast discusses the importance of older adults maintaing good oral health habits. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals.  Created: 10/27/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/27/2008.

  17. Older adults' intrinsic and extrinsic motivation toward physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacey, Marie; Baltzell, Amy; Zaichkowsky, Len

    2008-01-01

    To examine how motives discriminate 3 physical activity levels of inactive, active, and sustained maintainers. Six hundred forty-five adults (M age = 63.8) completed stage-of-change and Exercise Motivations Inventory (EMI-2) scales. Exploratory factor analysis established psychometric properties of the EMI-2 suitable for older adults. Six factors emerged in the EMI-2: health and fitness, social/emotional benefits, weight management, stress management, enjoyment, and appearance. Enjoyment contributed most to differentiating activity levels. Moderators of age and gender were delineated. Intrinsic motivation and self-determined extrinsic motivation distinguish older adults' activity levels.

  18. Depression and Mobility Among Older Adults in Mexico: ENSANUT 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picazzo-Palencia, Esteban

    2016-06-01

    Depression among older people can be associated with limitations in physical mobility. The ENSANUT 2012 data set was used. A secondary data analysis was conducted on a total sample of 6,525 Mexicans 60 years and older. Findings indicate that depressive symptoms among older people derive from their limitations in mobility rather than from their age. In Mexico, the prevalence of major depressive disorders is higher among older adults than among the rest of the adults. Hence, as the prevalence of this problem grows, the need for appropriate mental health attention will increase in Mexico. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Perceptions, Expectations, and Informal Supports Influence Exercise Activity in Frail Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Broderick

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore frail older adults’ perceptions of what influences their exercise behaviors. A qualitative descriptive design was used. Semi-structured, open-ended interviews were conducted with 29 frail older adults. Thematic content analysis established the findings. Frail older adults perceive exercise as a by-product of other purposeful activities such as manual work or social activities. Progression into frailty appears to be associated with a decline in non-family support, changing traditional roles within family support networks, and lower baseline activity levels. Frail older adults perceive exercise as incidental to more purposeful activities rather than an endpoint in itself. Therefore, exercise programs concentrating on functional outcomes may be more relevant for this population. Strategies that educate and promote social support networks may also benefit frail older adults.

  20. Video-mediated participation in virtual museum tours for older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostoska, G.; Vermeeren, A.P.O.S.; Kort, J.; Gullström, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a virtual tour, Visit the Louvre, designed specifically to engage older adults in an immersive visit through part of the Louvre by a distant real-life guide. An initial diary study and a creative workshop were conducted to understand the needs and values of older adults and how

  1. Comparing urban form correlations of the travel patterns of older and younger adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meza, Maria Josefina Figueroa; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Siren, Anu Kristiina

    2014-01-01

    Using disaggregated data from the Danish National Travel Survey conducted between 2006 - 2011, this study compares the travel patterns of older (65 – 84 years of age) and younger (18 – 64 years of age) adults regarding land use, socio-economic conditions and urban structures. The results highlight...... significant differences between travel patterns and their urban form correlates for the older and younger adult populations. Spatial variables such as density and regional accessibility have different and potentially reverse associations with travel among older adults. The car use of older adults...... is not substituted by other modes in high-density settings, as is the case for younger adults. Older adults do not respond to high regional accessibility by reducing distance traveled, but travel longer and are also more likely to continue using a car in high-access conditions. Spatial structural conditions have...

  2. Older adults' motivated choice for technological innovation: Evidence for benefit-driven selectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melenhorst, Anne-Sophie; Rogers, Wendy A.; Bouwhuis, Don G.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined older adults' motivation to adopt technological innovation. Sixty-eight older e-mail users and nonusers discussed the use of e-mail and of traditional communication methods in 18 focus groups. The results show older adults' benefit-driven approach to new communication technology.

  3. Older adults motivated choice for technological innovation: evidence for benefit-driven selectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melenhorst, A.S.; Rogers, W.A.; Bouwhuis, D.G.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined older adults' motivation to adopt technological innovation. Sixty-eight older e-mail users and nonusers discussed the use of e-mail and of traditional communication methods in 18 focus groups. The results show older adults' benefit-driven approach to new communication technology.

  4. Assertiveness by Older Adults with Visual Impairment: Context Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Ellen Bouchard; Anas, Ann P.; Mays, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Within a communication predicament of aging and disability framework, this study examined the impact of two types of contextual variation on perceptions of older adult assertiveness within problematic service encounters. Young (N = 66) and older (N = 66) participants evaluated conversational scenarios in which a visually-impaired older woman…

  5. Stereotype Threat Lowers Older Adults' Self-Reported Hearing Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah J; Lee, Soohyoung Rain

    2015-01-01

    Although stereotype threat is a well-documented phenomenon, previous studies examining it in older adults have almost exclusively focused on objective cognitive outcomes. Considerably less attention has been paid to the impact of stereotype threat on older adults' subjective assessments of their own abilities or to the impact of stereotype threat in noncognitive domains. Older adults are stereotyped as having experienced not only cognitive declines, but physical declines as well. The current study tested the prediction that stereotype threat can negatively influence older adults' subjective hearing abilities. To test this, 115 adults (mean age 50.03 years, range 41-67) read either a positive or negative description about how aging affects hearing. All participants then answered a questionnaire in which they assessed their own hearing abilities. The impact of stereotype threat on self-reported hearing was moderated by chronological age. Participants in their 40s and early 50s were unaffected by the stereotype threat manipulation. In contrast, participants in their late 50s and 60s rated their hearing as being subjectively worse when under stereotype threat. The current study provides a clear demonstration that stereotype threat negatively impacts older adults' subjective assessments of their own abilities. It is also the first study to demonstrate an effect of stereotype threat within the domain of hearing. These results have important implications for researchers investigating age-related hearing decline. Stereotype threat can lead to overestimation of the prevalence of age-related hearing decline. It can also serve as a confounding variable when examining the psychosocial correlates of hearing loss. Because of this, researchers studying age-related hearing loss should aim to provide a stereotype threat-free testing environment and also include assessments of stereotype threat within their studies. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Clear speech and lexical competition in younger and older adult listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Engen, Kristin J

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated whether clear speech reduces the cognitive demands of lexical competition by crossing speaking style with lexical difficulty. Younger and older adults identified more words in clear versus conversational speech and more easy words than hard words. An initial analysis suggested that the effect of lexical difficulty was reduced in clear speech, but more detailed analyses within each age group showed this interaction was significant only for older adults. The results also showed that both groups improved over the course of the task and that clear speech was particularly helpful for individuals with poorer hearing: for younger adults, clear speech eliminated hearing-related differences that affected performance on conversational speech. For older adults, clear speech was generally more helpful to listeners with poorer hearing. These results suggest that clear speech affords perceptual benefits to all listeners and, for older adults, mitigates the cognitive challenge associated with identifying words with many phonological neighbors.

  7. Daily well-being of older adults with friends and family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, R; Mannell, R; Zuzanek, J

    1986-06-01

    Family members are the major source of physical and emotional support for older adults, yet researchers suggest that friendships have a stronger bearing on subjective well-being. In this research we sought an explanation for this inconsistency in older adults' immediate experiences with friends. Retired adults provided self-reports on their subjective states at random moments during a typical week. Analyses of these reports confirmed the prediction that older adults have more favorable experiences with their friends than with family members. The difference is partly attributable to the greater frequency of active leisure activities with friends, but is also due to unique qualities of interactions with friends that facilitate transcendence of mundane daily realities. We propose that friends provide an immediate situation of openness, reciprocity, and positive feedback that engenders enjoyment and subjectively meaningful exchanges.

  8. Chinese older adults' Internet use for health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carmen K M; Yeung, Dannii Y; Ho, Henry C Y; Tse, Kin-Po; Lam, Chun-Yiu

    2014-04-01

    Technological advancement benefits Internet users with the convenience of social connection and information search. This study aimed at investigating the predictors of Internet use to search for online health information among Chinese older adults. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was applied to examine the predictiveness of perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and attitudes toward Internet use on behavioral intention to search for health information online. Ninety-eight Chinese older adults were recruited from an academic institute for older people and community centers. Frequency of Internet use and physical and psychological health were also assessed. Results showed that perceived ease of use and attitudes significantly predicted behavioral intention of Internet use. The potential influences of traditional Chinese values and beliefs in health were also discussed.

  9. Systematic Review of Yoga Interventions to Promote Cardiovascular Health in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Jennifer L; Fleury, Julie

    2016-06-01

    The benefits of physical activity are well established, yet few older adults engage in adequate physical activity to optimize health. While yoga may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, few studies have focused on the efficacy of yoga-based physical activity to promote cardiovascular health in older adults. The objective of this review is to provide an evaluation of yoga interventions to reduce cardiovascular risk in older adults. Four databases were searched for randomized controlled trials of yoga interventions in older adults. Studies with cardiovascular outcomes were included. Literature searches identified nine articles eligible for review. Significant health benefits were reported, including favorable changes in blood pressure, body composition, glucose, and lipids. Yoga practices, participant characteristics, and outcome measures were variable. There was limited use of theory. Yoga is safe and feasible in older adults; additional research is warranted to examine the specific components of yoga interventions essential to reducing cardiovascular risk. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Emergency information management needs and practices of older adults: A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Anne M; Osterhage, Katie; Loughran, Julie; Painter, Ian; Demiris, George; Hartzler, Andrea L; Phelan, Elizabeth A

    2018-03-01

    To better understand how older adults currently manage emergency information, the barriers and facilitators to planning and management of emergency information, as well as the potential role of information technology to facilitate emergency planning and management. Older adults face a much higher risk of sudden illness/injury and are the age group with the largest percentages of emergent and urgent healthcare visits. Emergency information (health information needed in an emergency situation such as emergency contact information, diagnoses, and advance directives) needs to be maintained and easily accessible to ensure older adults get appropriate care and treatment consistent with their wishes in emergency situations. Current health information technologies rarely take into consideration the emergency information needs of older adults, their caregivers, and emergency responders. As part of a larger study we performed in-depth interviews with 90 older adults living in a variety of residential settings (independent living, retirement communities, assisted living) regarding how they manage information about their health. Interview sessions included photos of important health information artifacts. Interviews were transcribed and coded. Analysis of in-depth interviews revealed that emergency information is a type of health information that older adults frequently manage. Participants differed in whether they practice emergency planning (e.g. the preparation and continued management of emergency information), and in whether they involve others in emergency information and emergency planning. Despite its importance, emergency information was often not up-to-date and not always kept in locations readily apparent to emergency responders. Emergency information, such as emergency contact information, diagnoses, and advance directives, is a type of health information that older adults manage. Considering emergency information in the design of health information technologies

  11. 1976 Survey of Collegiate Programs for Older Adults. Summary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, Carol

    Questionnaires were mailed to the directors of continuing education or special programs at 816 colleges and universities in the United States that were believed to offer programs for older adults. 84 percent of the 286 responding institutions reported programs for older adults; 1 percent had them in the planning stages; 3 percent had…

  12. Gender Differences in Performance of Script Analysis by Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmes, E.; Bush, J. D.; Pike, D. L.; Drake, D. G.

    2006-01-01

    Script analysis as a test of executive functions is presumed sensitive to cognitive changes seen with increasing age. Two studies evaluated if gender differences exist in performance on scripts for familiar and unfamiliar tasks in groups of cognitively intact older adults. In Study 1, 26 older adults completed male and female stereotypical…

  13. Exploring older adults' patterns and perceptions of exercise after hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Erin; Chudyk, Anna M; Hoppmann, Christiane A; Hanson, Heather M; Guy, Pierre; Sims-Gould, Joanie; Ashe, Maureen C

    2013-01-01

    To identify exercise patterns and perceived barriers, enablers, and motivators to engaging in exercise for older adults following hip fracture. Telephone interviews were conducted with older adults (aged 62-97 y) within 1 year after hip fracture. Participants were asked about basic demographic information; level of mobility before hip fracture; current level of mobility; and barriers, enablers, and motivators to participating in exercise. A total of 32 older adults successfully recovering after hip fracture completed the telephone interviews. Participants reported few problems with their mobility, and all were engaging in exercise. There were few reported barriers to exercise; the most common were health-related concerns (pain, fatigue, illness, or injury). The most frequently reported enablers were intrinsic factors (determination, seeing improvements, and making exercise part of their daily routine); in particular, the most common motivator to exercise was recovery of function to improve mobility and complete daily and leisure activities. This study highlights the responses of a group of older adults recovering well after hip fracture. Older adults engage in exercise despite the potential limitations associated with a hip fracture. Participants' responses underscore the importance of intrinsic factors and suggest avenues for future investigation.

  14. Distinct neural correlates of emotional and cognitive empathy in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Raeanne C; Dev, Sheena I; Jeste, Dilip V; Dziobek, Isabel; Eyler, Lisa T

    2015-04-30

    Empathy is thought to be a mechanism underlying prosocial behavior across the lifespan, yet little is known about how levels of empathy relate to individual differences in brain functioning among older adults. In this exploratory study, we examined the neural correlates of affective and cognitive empathy in older adults. Thirty older adults (M=79 years) underwent fMRI scanning and neuropsychological testing and completed a test of affective and cognitive empathy. Brain response during processing of cognitive and emotional stimuli was measured by fMRI in a priori and task-related regions and was correlated with levels of empathy. Older adults with higher levels of affective empathy showed more deactivation in the amygdala and insula during a working memory task, whereas those with higher cognitive empathy showed greater insula activation during a response inhibition task. Our preliminary findings suggest that brain systems linked to emotional and social processing respond differently among older adults with more or less affective and cognitive empathy. That these relationships can be seen both during affective and non-emotional tasks of "cold" cognitive abilities suggests that empathy may impact social behavior through both emotional and cognitive mechanisms. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. When Distraction Holds Relevance: A Prospective Memory Benefit for Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana S. Lourenço

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is accumulating to show that age-related increases in susceptibility to distracting information can benefit older more than young adults in several cognitive tasks. Here we focus on prospective memory (i.e., remembering to carry out future intentions and examine the effect of presenting distracting information that is intention-related as a function of age. Young and older adults performed an ongoing 1-back working memory task to a rapid stream of pictures superimposed with to-be-ignored letter strings. Participants were additionally instructed to respond to target pictures (namely, animals and, for half of the participants, some strings prior to the targets were intention-related words (i.e., animals. Results showed that presenting intention-related distracting information during the ongoing task was particularly advantageous for target detection in older compared to young adults. Moreover, a prospective memory benefit was observed even for older adults who showed no explicit memory for the target distracter words. We speculate that intention-related distracter information enhanced the accessibility of the prospective memory task and suggest that when distracting information holds relevance to intentions it can serve a compensatory role in prospective remembering in older adults.

  16. Thermal comfort and older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, van J.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2006-01-01

    The majority of the increasing number of older adults wishes to age-in-place. Appropriate and comfortable housing is of great importance to facilitate this desire. One of the aspects of concern is thermal comfort. This is normally assessed using the model of Fanger, however, one might ask if this

  17. Time-of-day influences postural balance in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, M G; Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Laessoe, U

    2012-01-01

    Postural balance assessments are performed in both clinical and basic research settings on a daily basis. During a 24-h time span our physiology and physical performance undergo radical changes as we are influenced by the circadian rhythm. The time-of-day interaction on postural balance is unknow...... in older adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the time-of-day effect on postural balance in older adults....

  18. Aging, subjective experience, and cognitive control: dramatic false remembering by older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Larry L; Bishara, Anthony J; Hessels, Sandra; Toth, Jeffrey P

    2005-05-01

    Recent research suggests that older adults are more susceptible to interference effects than are young adults; however, that research has failed to equate differences in original learning. In 4 experiments, the authors show that older adults are more susceptible to interference effects produced by a misleading prime. Even when original learning was equated, older adults were 10 times as likely to falsely remember misleading information and were much less likely to increase their accuracy by opting not to answer under conditions of free responding. The results are well described by a multinomial model that postulates multiple modes of cognitive control. According to that model, older adults are likely to be captured by misleading information, a form of goal neglect or deficit in inhibitory functions. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Affect or cognition: which is more influencing older adult consumers' loyalty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Deepraj; Mustika, Martina Dwi; Sjabadhyni, Bertina

    2018-04-01

    In studies on consumer behavior science, it is argued that brand affect, consumer satisfaction, and disconfirmation influence brand loyalty. This study aims to investigate whether the interaction of brand affect and cognition predicts brand loyalty in older adult consumers if consumer satisfaction is considered. A group of 344 older adult consumers participated and a mediated moderation analysis of the data was used to test our hypotheses. The results showed that consumer satisfaction increased the relationship between brand affect and brand loyalty in older adult consumers. However, disconfirmation did not influence that relationship. It can be concluded that the loyalty of older adult consumers toward a brand was more likely to be influenced by their affection than their cognition. Therefore, marketers should design products that better satisfy this population group and create loyalty to the product through enhancing affect connections.

  20. Optimizing the benefits of exercise on physical function in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buford, Thomas W; Anton, Stephen D; Clark, David J; Higgins, Torrance J; Cooke, Matthew B

    2014-06-01

    As the number of older adults continues to rise worldwide, the prevention of physical disability among seniors is an increasingly important public health priority. Physical exercise is among the best known methods of preventing disability, but accumulating evidence indicates that considerable variability exists in the responsiveness of older adults to standard training regimens. Accordingly, a need exists to develop tailored interventions to optimize the beneficial effects of exercise on the physical function of older adults at risk for becoming disabled. The present review summarizes the available literature related to the use of adjuvant or alternative strategies intended to enhance the efficacy of exercise in improving the physical function of older adults. Within this work, we also discuss potential future research directions in this area. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Motivational interviewing for older adults in primary care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purath, Janet; Keck, Annmarie; Fitzgerald, Cynthia E

    2014-01-01

    Chronic disease is now the leading cause of death and disability in United States. Many chronic illnesses experienced by older adults can be prevented or managed through behavior change, making patient counseling an essential component of disease prevention and management. Motivational Interviewing (MI), a type of conversational method, has been effective in eliciting health behavior changes in people in a variety of settings and may also be a useful tool to help older adults change. This review of the literature analyzes current research and describes potential biases of MI interventions that have been conducted in primary care settings with older adults. MI shows promise as a technique to elicit health behavior change among older adults. However, further study with this population is needed to evaluate efficacy of MI interventions in primary care settings. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. An Information Needs Profile of Israeli Older Adults, regarding the Law and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Irith; Weissman, Gabriella

    2010-01-01

    Based on Nicholas' framework for assessing information needs, this research aims to construct a profile of both Israeli older adults and their information needs regarding laws and social services. Data were collected by questionnaires answered by 200 older adults, born in Europe, Asia and Africa, who attended social clubs for older adults. The…

  3. The Quality of Health Care Received by Older Adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    .... Older adults suffer from a multitude of conditions and are especially susceptible to the effects of poor care, yet we know relatively little about the quality of health care older people receive...

  4. Complementary and alternative medicine for older adults with venous leg ulcer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobón, Jeniffer

    2010-11-01

    Chronic pain management is an important, and often under-addressed, component in the care of older adults with venous leg ulcers (VLUs). Clinicians caring for older adults with VLUs must consider and address both the physiological and psychosocial aspects of chronic pain. Traditional pharmacological approaches to pain management are only part of the solution. One strategy is to adopt a more holistic approach to chronic pain management that includes complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of CAM research that focuses on the pain management of older adults with VLUs. Despite these limitations, pain management that includes discussion of relevant CAM modalities must be a priority for clinicians caring for older adults living with VLUs.

  5. Healthy older adults have insufficient hip range of motion and plantar flexor strength to walk like healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dennis E; Madigan, Michael L

    2014-03-21

    Limited plantar flexor strength and hip extension range of motion (ROM) in older adults are believed to underlie common age-related differences in gait. However, no studies of age-related differences in gait have quantified the percentage of strength and ROM used during gait. We examined peak hip angles, hip torques and plantar flexor torques, and corresponding estimates of functional capacity utilized (FCU), which we define as the percentage of available strength or joint ROM used, in 10 young and 10 older healthy adults walking under self-selected and controlled (slow and fast) conditions. Older adults walked with about 30% smaller hip extension angle, 28% larger hip flexion angle, 34% more hip extensor torque in the slow condition, and 12% less plantar flexor torque in the fast condition than young adults. Older adults had higher FCU than young adults for hip flexion angle (47% vs. 34%) and hip extensor torque (48% vs. 27%). FCUs for plantar flexor torque (both age groups) and hip extension angle (older adults in all conditions; young adults in self-selected gait) were not significantly adults lacked sufficient hip extension ROM to walk with a hip extension angle as large as that of young adults. Similarly, in the fast gait condition older adults lacked the strength to match the plantar flexor torque produced by young adults. This supports the hypothesis that hip extension ROM and plantar flexor strength are limiting factors in gait and contribute to age-related differences in gait. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. INTERVENTIONS FOR INCREASING BALANCE & CONFIDENCE IN OLDER ADULTS: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Foram Dhebar

    2014-01-01

    Elderly is defined as being 65 years of age or older. Geriatrics or geriatric medicine is a specialty that focuses on health care of elderly people. The number of persons above the age of 60 years is fast growing, especially in India. Falls are the leading cause of traumatic brain injury, fractures & the leading cause of emergency department visits by older adults. Low balance confidence is a major health problem among older adults restricting their participation in daily life. Objective of t...

  7. Perspectives of nursing professionals and older adults differ on aspects of care for older people after a nationwide improvement program.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, L.M.; Wehrens, R.; Oldenhof, L.; Bal, R.; Francke, A.L.

    2018-01-01

    Background: The perspectives of nursing professionals might differ from those of older adults when it comes to care for older people. This cross-sectional study compares the views of older adults with the views of nursing professionals on the quality of care after a nationwide improvement program

  8. Perspectives of nursing professionals and older adults differ on aspects of care for older people after a nationwide improvement program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, L.M. (Lisanne Marlieke); R.L.E. Wehrens (Rik); L.E. Oldenhof (Lieke); R.A. Bal (Roland); Francke, A.L. (Anneke)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The perspectives of nursing professionals might differ from those of older adults when it comes to care for older people. This cross-sectional study compares the views of older adults with the views of nursing professionals on the quality of care after a nationwide

  9. Impact of Social Integration and Living Arrangements on Korean Older Adults' Depression: A Moderation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youjung; Jang, Kyeonghee; Lockhart, Naorah C

    2018-04-01

    Depression among older adults is a challenging public health concern in Korea. Using panel data from the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs on Korean older adults and their family caregivers, this study explores significant predictors of depression among Korean older adults as well as the moderating effect of living arrangements on the association between social integration and depression. A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that preexisting depression was the most significant predictor of Korean older adults' current depression, followed by health status and family support. In addition, social integration significantly decreased Korean older adults' depression. Importantly, a significant moderation effect of living arrangements between Korean older adults' social integration and depression was observed. This study implies the development of individually tailored and culturally responsive programs to engage marginalized Korean older adults living alone, helping foster their well-being and optimal aging.

  10. Happiness, rather than depression, is associated with sexual behaviour in partnered older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freak-Poli, Rosanne; De Castro Lima, Gustavo; Direk, Nese; Jaspers, Loes; Pitts, Marian; Hofman, Albert; Tiemeier, Henning

    2017-01-19

    The relation between positive psychological well-being (PPWB) and sexual behaviour is understudied in older adult groups. To examine the relation between PPWB (positive affect and life satisfaction) and sexual behaviour (sexual activity and physical tenderness) in older adults, and whether it is independent from depressive symptoms and uniform across older age groups. Cross-sectional. Community-dwelling adults aged 65 years or older, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Sexual behaviour, the Cantril Self-Anchoring Striving Scale, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale and partner status were assessed in 2,373 dementia-free older adults from the Rotterdam Study. For partnered participants, greater positive affect and life satisfaction was associated with more sexual activity and physical tenderness. Although CES-D was negatively associated with sexual behaviour within partnered older adults, there was no association between the negative affect sub-scale and sexual behaviour. The relations were independent of depressive symptoms, physical health and chronic disease status and were observed for both sexes at all older ages. For unpartnered participants, greater life satisfaction and was associated with more physical tenderness. There was low prevalence of sexual behaviour in unpartnered participants, limiting further stratification. Greater PPWB was associated with more sexual behaviour in partnered, community-dwelling older adults. We are the first to demonstrate that sexual behaviour is associated with PPWB, rather than lack of depressive symptoms; and that the association was present at all ages for partnered older adults. Limited conclusions can be drawn for unpartnered older adults as their sexual behaviour was infrequent. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. Treatment decisions for older adults with advanced chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosansky, Steven J; Schell, Jane; Shega, Joseph; Scherer, Jennifer; Jacobs, Laurie; Couchoud, Cecile; Crews, Deidra; McNabney, Matthew

    2017-06-19

    Dialysis initiation rates among older adults, aged 75 years or greater, are increasing at a faster rate than for younger age groups. Older adults with advanced CKD (eGFR start dialysis, initiate treatment "early", at an estimated glomerulofiltration rate (eGFR) >10 ml/min/1.73 m 2 and many initiate dialysis in hospital, often in association with an episode of acute renal failure. In the US older adults start dialysis at a mean e GFR of 12.6 ml/min/1.73 m 2 and 20.6% die within six months of dialysis initiation. In both the acute in hospital and outpatient settings, many older adults appear to be initiating dialysis for non-specific, non-life threatening symptoms and clinical contexts. Observational data suggests that dialysis does not provide a survival benefit for older adults with poor mobility and high levels of comorbidity. To optimize the care of this population, early and repeat shared decision making conversations by health care providers, patients, and their families should consider the risks, burdens, and benefits of dialysis versus conservative management, as well as the patient specific symptoms and clinical situations that could justify dialysis initiation. The potential advantages and disadvantages of dialysis therapy should be considered in conjunction with each patient's unique goals and priorities.In conclusion, when considering the morbidity and quality of life impact associated with dialysis, many older adults may prefer to delay dialysis until there is a definitive indication or may opt for conservative management without dialysis. This approach can incorporate all CKD treatments other than dialysis, provide psychosocial and spiritual support and active symptom management and may also incorporate a palliative care approach with less medical monitoring of lab parameters and more focus on the use of drug therapies directed to relief of a patient's symptoms.

  12. Falls Among Older Adults: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out some of our online STEADI resources for older adults. These resources include: Stay Independent brochure What You Can Do to Prevent Falls brochure Check for Safety brochure Postural Hypotension brochure Chair Rise Exercise Related Pages Costs ...

  13. Predictors of Self-Reported Likelihood of Working with Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshbaugh, Elaine M.; Gross, Patricia E.; Satrom, Tatum

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the self-reported likelihood of working with older adults in a future career among 237 college undergraduates at a midsized Midwestern university. Although aging anxiety was not significantly related to likelihood of working with older adults, those students who had a greater level of death anxiety were less likely than other…

  14. Psychological effects of exercise on community-dwelling older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tada A

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Akio Tada Faculty of Health Science, Hyogo University, Kakogawa, Hyogo, Japan Background: In recent years, there have been an increasing number of older adults who suffer from mental disorders globally.Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of an intervention that consisted of an exercise program to improve the mental health of community-dwelling older adults.Participants and methods: The recruited participants of this study were community-dwelling older adults aged ≥60 years who participated in a comprehensive health promotion program in Kakogawa, Japan. Participants in the intervention group received an exercise program that was developed for older adults using Thera-Band. To measure participants’ mental health status, a Japanese version of the short form of the Profile of Mood States (POMS-SF was used. Stress markers were measured, such as salivary cortisol, alpha-amylase, and sIgA levels. All participants provided salivary samples and completed psychological questionnaires at baseline and 6-month follow-up.Results: No significant differences were observed between the intervention and control groups with respect to POMS-SF score and salivary biomarker profile at baseline. After the intervention, the intervention group showed a significant decrease in the POMS-SF “fatigue” score and cortisol level. No significant changes were observed in the control group.Conclusion: Simultaneous changes in feelings of fatigue and cortisol levels were observed among subjects who had received the intervention of regular exercise. Further research is needed to investigate the effectiveness of exercise intervention in improving mental health among older adults. Keywords: intervention, exercise, psychological status, stress, cortisol

  15. The Counseling Older Adults to Control Hypertension (COACH) Trial: design and methodology of a group-based lifestyle intervention for hypertensive minority older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Fernandez, Senaida; Luerassi, Leanne; Silver, Stephanie A.; Kong, Jian; Midberry, Sara; de la Calle, Franze; Plumhoff, Jordan; Sethi, Sheba; Choudhury, Evelyn; Teresi, Jeanne A.

    2013-01-01

    The disproportionately high prevalence of hypertension and its associated mortality and morbidity in minority older adults is a major public health concern in the United States. Despite compelling evidence supporting the beneficial effects of therapeutic lifestyle changes on blood pressure reduction, these approaches remain largely untested among minority elders in community-based settings. The Counseling Older Adults to Control Hypertension trial is a two-arm randomized controlled trial of 2...

  16. Differences in risk aversion between young and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert SM

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Steven M Albert1, John Duffy21Department of Behavioral and Community Health Sciences, 2Department of Economics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: Research on decision-making strategies among younger and older adults suggests that older adults may be more risk averse than younger people in the case of potential losses. These results mostly come from experimental studies involving gambling paradigms. Since these paradigms involve substantial demands on memory and learning, differences in risk aversion or other features of decision making attributed to age may in fact reflect age-related declines in cognitive abilities. In the current study, older and younger adults completed a simpler, paired lottery choice task used in the experimental economics literature to elicit risk aversion. A similar approach was used to elicit participants' discount rates. The older adult group was more risk averse than the younger (P < 0.05 and had a higher discount rate (15.6%–21.0% versus 10.3%–15.5%, P < 0.01, indicating lower expected utility from future income. Risk aversion and implied discount rates were weakly correlated. It may be valuable to investigate developmental changes in neural correlates of decision making across the lifespan.Keywords: aging, decision making, risk, time preference, behavioral economics

  17. Interdisciplinary Collaboration in Medication-Related Falls Prevention in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lisa; Turner, Jazmin; Brandt, Nicole J

    2018-04-01

    The older adult population continues to steadily increase. Largely attributed to longer life spans and aging of the Baby Boomer generation, continued growth of this population is expected to affect a multitude of challenging public health concerns. Specifically, falls in older adults are prevalent but overlooked concerns. Health care providers are well-positioned to provide valuable interventions in this aspect. An interdisciplinary, team-based approach of health care providers is required to maximize falls prevention through patient-centered and collaborative care. The current article highlights the implications of inappropriate medication use and the need to improve care coordination to tackle this public health issue affecting older adults. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 44(4), 11-15.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Diurnal Patterns and Correlates of Older Adults' Sedentary Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelle Van Cauwenberg

    Full Text Available Insights into the diurnal patterns of sedentary behavior and the identification of subgroups that are at increased risk for engaging in high levels of sedentary behavior are needed to inform potential interventions for reducing older adults' sedentary time. Therefore, we examined the diurnal patterns and sociodemographic correlates of older adults' sedentary behavior(s.Stratified cluster sampling was used to recruit 508 non-institutionalized Belgian older adults (≥ 65 years. Morning, afternoon, evening and total sedentary time was assessed objectively using accelerometers. Specific sedentary behaviors, total sitting time and sociodemographic attributes were assessed using an interviewer-administered questionnaire.Participants self-reported a median of 475 (Q1-Q3 = 383-599 minutes/day of total sitting time and they accumulated a mean of 580 ± 98 minutes/day of accelerometer-derived sedentary time. Sedentary time was lowest during the morning and highest during the evening. Older participants were as sedentary as younger participants during the evening, but they were more sedentary during daytime. Compared to married participants, widowers were more sedentary during daytime. Younger participants (< 75 years, men and the higher educated were more likely to engage in (high levels of sitting while driving a car and using the computer. Those with tertiary education viewed 29% and 22% minutes/day less television compared to those with primary or secondary education, respectively. Older participants accumulated 35 sedentary minutes/day more than did younger participants and men accumulated 32 sedentary minutes/day more than did women.These findings highlight diurnal variations and potential opportunities to tailor approaches to reducing sedentary time for subgroups of the older adult population.

  19. Chronic use of benzodiazepines among older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Mendonça Alvarenga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the perception of and motivation for the chronic use of benzodiazepine among older adults. METHODS A qualitative study was conducted on 22 older adults living in Bambuí, MG, Southeastern Brazil, who were taking benzodiazepines and had the clinical and cognitive ability to respond to interview questions. The collected data were analyzed on the basis of the “signs, meanings, and actions” model. RESULTS The main reasons pointed out for the use of benzodiazepines were “nervousness”, “sleep problems”, and “worry” due to family and financial problems, everyday problems, and existential difficulties. None of the interviewees said that they used benzodiazepines in a dose higher than that recommended or had been warned by health professionals about any risks of their continuous use. Different strategies were used to obtain the prescription for the medication, and any physician would prescribe it, indicating that a bond was established with the drug and not with the health professional or healthcare service. Obtaining and consuming the medication turned into a crucial issue because benzodiazepine assumes the status of an essential food, which leads users to not think but sleep. It causes a feeling of relief from their problems such as awareness of human finitude and fragility, existential difficulties, and family problems. CONCLUSIONS Benzodiazepine assumes the characteristics of polyvalence among older adults, which extrapolate specific clinical indications, and of essentiality to deal with life’s problems in old age. Although it relieves the “nerves”, the chronic use of benzodiazepines buffers suffering and prevents older adults from going through the suffering. This shows important difficulties in the organization and planning of strategies that are necessary for minimizing the chronic use in this population.

  20. Optimizing Tailored Health Promotion for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus-Varwijk, Anne Esther; Koopmans, Marg; Visscher, Tommy L. S.; Seidell, Jacob C.; Slaets, Joris P. J.; Smits, Carolien H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study explores older adults’ perspectives on healthy living, and their interactions with professionals regarding healthy living. This perspective is necessary for health professionals when they engage in tailored health promotion in their daily work routines. Method: In a qualitative study, 18 semi-structured interviews were carried out with older adults (aged 55-98) living in the Netherlands. The framework analysis method was used to analyze the transcripts. Results: Three themes emerged from the data—(a) healthy living: daily routines and staying active, (b) enacting healthy living: accepting and adapting, (c) interaction with health professionals with regard to healthy living: autonomy and reciprocity. Discussion: Older adults experience healthy living in a holistic way in which they prefer to live active and independent lives. Health professionals should focus on building an equal relationship of trust and focus on positive health outcomes, such as autonomy and self-sufficiency when communicating about healthy living. PMID:28138485

  1. Heart Failure: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Z › Heart Failure › Unique to Older Adults Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Unique ... will suffer from depression at some point. This type of severe depression is more serious than the ...

  2. The Prevalence of Perceived Stress among U.S. Chinese Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manrui Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Perceived stress is an important indicator of well-being. However, we have limited understanding of the experience of stress in minority aging populations. Methods: This study aims to identify the stress level among U.S. Chinese older adults. Results: Our findings indicated that 74% of PINE participants have experienced some level of daily stress. Of the 10-items in the stress scale, the prevalence of individual items ranged from 11.4% to 31.8%. Higher levels of perceived stress were more likely to present among older adults with an older age, female gender, lower education and income level, and poorer health status and quality of life. Participants with zero years of education showed the highest level of perceived stress, with a mean score of 12.2. Conclusions: This study indicates that Chinese older adults in the U.S are experiencing stress in their daily lives. Future longitudinal studies are needed to improve the understanding of risk factors and outcomes associated with perceived stress in Chinese older adults.

  3. Psychotherapeutic treatment levels of personality disorders in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Videler, Arjan; Cornelis, Christina; Rossi, G.; van Royen, R.J.J.; Rosowsky, E.; van Alphen, S.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of personality disorders (PDs) in older adults is a highly underexplored topic. In this article clinical applicability of the findings from a recent Delphi study regarding treatment aspects of PDs in older adults is explored. This concerns the relevance of three psychotherapeutic treatment levels for PDs in later life: (a) personality-changing treatment, (b) adaptation-enhancing treatment, and (c) supportive-structuring treatment. By means of three cases concerning the three levels,...

  4. Circadian Sleep-Wake Rhythm of Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaskant, Marijke; van de Wouw, Ellen; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; Echteld, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    The circadian sleep-wake rhythm changes with aging, resulting in a more fragmented sleep-wake pattern. In individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), brain structures regulating the sleep-wake rhythm might be affected. The aims of this study were to compare the sleep-wake rhythm of older adults with ID to that of older adults in the general…

  5. Loneliness in older adults living alone in Western Europe [in Czech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong Gierveld, J.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, many older adults are living in one-person households. This is positive in guaranteeing autonomy, but negative for social isolation and loneliness. Central research question: which factors enable older adults living alone to alleviate loneliness? Data come from the Generations and Gender

  6. Why do some older adults start drinking excessively late in life?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emiliussen, Jakob; Andersen, Kjeld; Nielsen, Anette Søgaard

    2017-01-01

    Introduction:This is a pioneering qualitative phenomenological hermeneutical study investigating a so far under-investigated group of older adults with verylate onset alcohol use disorder. The number of older adults is increasing, and the number of older adults with alcohol problems is increasing...... accordingly. We investi- gated older adults with very late-onset alcohol use disorder to identify what causes some people to develop problems with alcohol after the age of 60. Method: We interviewed 12 Danish individuals (seven men) whose alcohol use disorder started after the age of 60. For our analysis, we...... was one of the main factors in very late-onset alcohol use disorder among our participants. We found that the participants experienced a marked loss of identity when they had no activities to fill up their time after retirement. Social activities involving alcohol were also closely related to very late...

  7. Evidence-Based Practice Guideline: Depression Detection in Older Adults With Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ellen Leslie; Raue, Patrick J; Halpert, Karen

    2015-11-01

    Depression and dementia are the two most common psychiatric syndromes in the older adult population. Depression in older adults with and without dementia often goes unrecognized and untreated. The current guideline recommends a three-step procedure that can be used across health care settings to screen for the presence of depressive symptoms. Implementation of the evidence-based guideline requires administration of the Mini-Mental State Examination and either the Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form or Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, depending on level of cognitive functioning. The algorithm provided is designed to be used by nurses, physicians, and social workers for the purpose of depression screening in older adults with dementia. Detection of depression in individuals with dementia is hindered by a lack of a validated, brief screening tool. More research is needed on the use of such screenings among older adults with cognitive impairment. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Affect or cognition: which is more influencing older adult consumers' loyalty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepraj Kaur

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In studies on consumer behavior science, it is argued that brand affect, consumer satisfaction, and disconfirmation influence brand loyalty. This study aims to investigate whether the interaction of brand affect and cognition predicts brand loyalty in older adult consumers if consumer satisfaction is considered. A group of 344 older adult consumers participated and a mediated moderation analysis of the data was used to test our hypotheses. The results showed that consumer satisfaction increased the relationship between brand affect and brand loyalty in older adult consumers. However, disconfirmation did not influence that relationship. It can be concluded that the loyalty of older adult consumers toward a brand was more likely to be influenced by their affection than their cognition. Therefore, marketers should design products that better satisfy this population group and create loyalty to the product through enhancing affect connections. Keywords: Business, Psychology

  9. Sexuality in the Older Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Laura

    2017-09-01

    Sexuality is an important part of a person's life continuing into older age. Physiologic changes that occur with aging can affect sexual function and may be exacerbated by comorbid disease. To diagnose sexual dysfunction, providers must obtain a thorough history and physical examination, including psychosocial factors. The causes of sexual dysfunction along with patient preferences within the patient's social system serve as the foundation for developing person-centered strategies to address these concerns. To improve care of older adults with sexual concerns, providers should initiate discussions with, listen to, and work with patients to create a comprehensive management plan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Older adults utilize less efficient postural control when performing pushing task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Ju; Chen, Bing; Aruin, Alexander S

    2015-12-01

    The ability to maintain balance deteriorates with increasing age. The aim was to investigate the role of age in generation of anticipatory (APA) and compensatory (CPA) postural adjustments during pushing an object. Older (68.8 ± 1.0 years) and young adults (30.1 ± 1.4 years) participated in the experiment involving pushing an object (a pendulum attached to the ceiling) using both hands. Electrical activity of six leg and trunk muscles and displacements of the center of pressure (COP) were recorded and analyzed during the APA and CPA phases. The onset time, integrals of muscle activity, and COP displacements were determined. In addition, the indexes of co-activation and reciprocal activation of muscles for the shank, thigh, and trunk segments were calculated. Older adults, compared to young adults, showed less efficient postural control seen as delayed anticipatory muscle onset times and delayed COP displacements. Moreover, older adults used co-activation of muscles during the CPA phase while younger subjects utilized reciprocal activation of muscles. The observed diminished efficiency of postural control during both anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments observed in older adults might predispose them to falls while performing tasks involving pushing. The outcome provides a background for future studies focused on the optimization of the daily activities of older adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Happily distracted: mood and a benefit of attention dysregulation in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée K. Biss

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Positive mood states are believed to broaden the focus of attention in younger adults, but it is unclear whether the same is true for older adults. Here we examined one consequence of broader attention that has been shown in young adults: that memory for distraction is greater for those in a positive mood. In the current study, positive and neutral moods were induced in older adults (mean age = 67.9 prior to a 1-back task in which participants were instructed to attend to relevant pictures and ignore distracting words. Following a 10-min filled interval, participants performed a word fragment completion task that tested implicit memory for the distracting words from the 1-back task. Older adults in the positive mood group showed greater implicit memory for previous distraction compared to those in the neutral mood group. These findings suggest that affect influences the ability to regulate attention in a similar manner for younger and older adults.

  12. Religiousness and health-related quality of life of older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Andrade Abdala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To examine whether religiousness mediates the relationship between sociodemographic factors, multimorbidity and health-related quality of life of older adults.METHODS This population-based cross-sectional study is part of the Survey on Health, Well-Being, and Aging (SABE. The sample was composed by 911 older adults from Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. Structural equation modeling was performed to assess the mediator effect of religiousness on the relationship between selected variables and health-related quality of life of older adults, with models for men and women. The independent variables were: age, education, family functioning and multimorbidity. The outcome variable was health-related quality of life of older adults, measured by SF-12 (physical and mental components. The mediator variables were organizational, non-organizational and intrinsic religiousness. Cronbach’s alpha values were: physical component = 0.85; mental component = 0.80; intrinsic religiousness = 0.89 and family APGAR (Adaptability, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve = 0.91.RESULTS Higher levels of organizational and intrinsic religiousness were associated with better physical and mental components. Higher education, better family functioning and fewer diseases contributed directly to improved performance in physical and mental components, regardless of religiousness. For women, organizational religiousness mediated the relationship between age and physical (β = 2.401, p CONCLUSIONS Organizational and intrinsic religiousness had a beneficial effect on the relationship between age, education and health-related quality of life of these older adults.

  13. Religiousness and health-related quality of life of older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdala, Gina Andrade; Kimura, Miako; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; dos Santos, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine whether religiousness mediates the relationship between sociodemographic factors, multimorbidity and health-related quality of life of older adults. METHODS This population-based cross-sectional study is part of the Survey on Health, Well-Being, and Aging (SABE). The sample was composed by 911 older adults from Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. Structural equation modeling was performed to assess the mediator effect of religiousness on the relationship between selected variables and health-related quality of life of older adults, with models for men and women. The independent variables were: age, education, family functioning and multimorbidity. The outcome variable was health-related quality of life of older adults, measured by SF-12 (physical and mental components). The mediator variables were organizational, non-organizational and intrinsic religiousness. Cronbach’s alpha values were: physical component = 0.85; mental component = 0.80; intrinsic religiousness = 0.89 and family APGAR (Adaptability, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve) = 0.91. RESULTS Higher levels of organizational and intrinsic religiousness were associated with better physical and mental components. Higher education, better family functioning and fewer diseases contributed directly to improved performance in physical and mental components, regardless of religiousness. For women, organizational religiousness mediated the relationship between age and physical (β = 2.401, p religiousness mediated the relationship between education and mental component (β = 7.158, p religiousness had a beneficial effect on the relationship between age, education and health-related quality of life of these older adults. PMID:26274870

  14. [Religiousness and health-related quality of life of older adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdala, Gina Andrade; Kimura, Miako; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; dos Santos, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    To examine whether religiousness mediates the relationship between sociodemographic factors, multimorbidity and health-related quality of life of older adults. This population-based cross-sectional study is part of the Survey on Health, Well-Being, and Aging (SABE). The sample was composed by 911 older adults from Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. Structural equation modeling was performed to assess the mediator effect of religiousness on the relationship between selected variables and health-related quality of life of older adults, with models for men and women. The independent variables were: age, education, family functioning and multimorbidity. The outcome variable was health-related quality of life of older adults, measured by SF-12 (physical and mental components). The mediator variables were organizational, non-organizational and intrinsic religiousness. Cronbach's alpha values were: physical component = 0.85; mental component = 0.80; intrinsic religiousness = 0.89 and family APGAR (Adaptability, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve) = 0.91. Higher levels of organizational and intrinsic religiousness were associated with better physical and mental components. Higher education, better family functioning and fewer diseases contributed directly to improved performance in physical and mental components, regardless of religiousness. For women, organizational religiousness mediated the relationship between age and physical (β = 2.401, p religiousness mediated the relationship between education and mental component (β = 7.158, p religiousness had a beneficial effect on the relationship between age, education and health-related quality of life of these older adults.

  15. Changes and events over life course: a comparative study between groups of older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luípa Michele Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to identify the changes which had occurred over the last year in the life of older adults, as well as the values attributed to these changes.METHOD: this is a multicentric, cross-sectional study, of the inquiry type, undertaken in three cities of the Brazilian Northeast, investigating two distinct groups of older adults.RESULTS: among the 236 older adults interviewed, it was observed that 30.0% reported health as the main change in their life course in the last year, this category being the most significant response among the older adults aged between 80 and 84 years old (37.7%. Changes in the family were mentioned by 11.5% of the older adults; death (9.6% and alterations in routine activities (9.6%. In relation to the value attributed to these changes, it was ascertained that for 64.7% of the older adults aged between 65 and 69 years old, these changes were positive. In the older group, 49.4% of the older adults believe that their changes were related to losses.CONCLUSION: the knowledge of the changes mentioned, the value attributed to these changes, and the self-evaluation of health provide information which assists in formulating actions which are more specific to the real needs of these age groups. They also provide the health professionals with a better understanding of how some experiences are experienced in the life trajectories of these older adults.

  16. Visuomotor Binding in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloesch, Emily K.; Abrams, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Action integration is the process through which actions performed on a stimulus and perceptual aspects of the stimulus become bound as a unitary object. This process appears to be controlled by the dopaminergic system in the prefrontal cortex, an area that is known to decrease in volume and dopamine functioning in older adults. Although the…

  17. Attitudes towards Older Adults: A Comparison of Physical Therapy and Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ron; And Others

    Since attitudes of medical professionals may influence the health care delivered to elderly people and there is an increasing proportion of older people in society, it would seem appropriate to assess the attitudes toward older adults held by health care providers. This study examined attitudes toward older adults held by physical therapy…

  18. Memory-guided force control in healthy younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Kristina A; Samimy, Shaadee; Blouch, Samantha L; Wang, Peiyuan; Chennavasin, Amanda; Diaz, Michele T; Dennis, Nancy A

    2017-08-01

    Successful performance of a memory-guided motor task requires participants to store and then recall an accurate representation of the motor goal. Further, participants must monitor motor output to make adjustments in the absence of visual feedback. The goal of this study was to examine memory-guided grip force in healthy younger and older adults and compare it to performance on behavioral tasks of working memory. Previous work demonstrates that healthy adults decrease force output as a function of time when visual feedback is not available. We hypothesized that older adults would decrease force output at a faster rate than younger adults, due to age-related deficits in working memory. Two groups of participants, younger adults (YA: N = 32, mean age 21.5 years) and older adults (OA: N = 33, mean age 69.3 years), completed four 20-s trials of isometric force with their index finger and thumb, equal to 25% of their maximum voluntary contraction. In the full-vision condition, visual feedback was available for the duration of the trial. In the no vision condition, visual feedback was removed for the last 12 s of each trial. Participants were asked to maintain constant force output in the absence of visual feedback. Participants also completed tasks of word recall and recognition and visuospatial working memory. Counter to our predictions, when visual feedback was removed, younger adults decreased force at a faster rate compared to older adults and the rate of decay was not associated with behavioral performance on tests of working memory.

  19. Neighborhood Characteristics and Disability in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaney, Shannon; Cerda, Magda; Frye, Victoria; Lovasi, Gina S.; Ompad, Danielle; Rundle, Andrew; Vlahov, David

    2009-01-01

    Objective To characterize the influence of the residential neighborhood of older adults on the prevalence of disability. Methods We combined Census data on disability in older adults living in New York City with environmental information from a comprehensive geospatial database. We used factor analysis to derive dimensions of compositional and physical neighborhood characteristics and linear regression to model their association with levels of disability. Measures of neighborhood collective efficacy were added to these models to explore the impact of the social environment. Results Low neighborhood socioeconomic status, residential instability, living in areas with low proportions of foreign born and high proportions of Black residents, and negative street characteristics were associated with higher prevalence of both “physical” disability and “going outside the home” disability. High crime levels were additionally associated with physical disability, although this relationship disappeared when misdemeanor arrests were removed from the crime variable. Low levels of collective efficacy were associated with more going-outside-the-home disability, with racial/ethnic composition dropping out of this model to be replaced by an interaction term. Conclusion The urban environment may have a substantial impact on whether an older adult with a given level of functional impairment is able to age actively and remain independent. PMID:19181694

  20. The Relationship between Outdoor Activity and Health in Older Adults Using GPS

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Jacqueline; Marshall, Simon; Godbole, Suneeta; Neukam, Suvi; Crist, Katie; Wasilenko, Kari; Golshan, Shahrokh; Buchner, David

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) provides health benefits in older adults. Research suggests that exposure to nature and time spent outdoors may also have effects on health. Older adults are the least active segment of our population, and are likely to spend less time outdoors than other age groups. The relationship between time spent in PA, outdoor time, and various health outcomes was assessed for 117 older adults living in retirement communities. Participants wore an accelerometer and GPS device for...

  1. Greater BOLD variability in older compared with younger adults during audiovisual speech perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah H Baum

    Full Text Available Older adults exhibit decreased performance and increased trial-to-trial variability on a range of cognitive tasks, including speech perception. We used blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI to search for neural correlates of these behavioral phenomena. We compared brain responses to simple speech stimuli (audiovisual syllables in 24 healthy older adults (53 to 70 years old and 14 younger adults (23 to 39 years old using two independent analysis strategies: region-of-interest (ROI and voxel-wise whole-brain analysis. While mean response amplitudes were moderately greater in younger adults, older adults had much greater within-subject variability. The greatly increased variability in older adults was observed for both individual voxels in the whole-brain analysis and for ROIs in the left superior temporal sulcus, the left auditory cortex, and the left visual cortex. Increased variability in older adults could not be attributed to differences in head movements between the groups. Increased neural variability may be related to the performance declines and increased behavioral variability that occur with aging.

  2. Potential of Exoskeleton Technology to Assist Older Adults with Daily Living

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, Merel Madeleine; Ludden, Geke D.S.

    Mobility impairments can prevent older adults from performing their daily activities which highly impacts a person's quality of life. Exoskeleton technology can assist older adults by providing additional support to compensate for age-related decline in muscle strength. To date little is known about

  3. Optimising assembly learning in older adults through the manipulation of instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verneau, M.M.N.; van der Kamp, J.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.; de Looze, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation assessed the putative benefits of reducing instructions for older adults' learning of an assembly task. Young and older adults had to build a product by assembling six components. Two groups practiced following instruction methods that differed in the degree of explicit

  4. Exploring factors associated with sexual activity in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killinger, Kim A; Boura, Judith A; Diokno, Ananias C

    2014-01-01

    Sexuality is an important, yet often overlooked, aspect of successful aging. The current article explores potential relationships between sexual activity in older adults and marital status, health, mobility, urinary incontinence, and caffeine and alcohol use, as well as sexual desire and erectile function in women and men, respectively. A survey was mailed to community-dwelling older adults 60 and older. Of 242 respondents (79% ages 60 to 74, 53% male), 159 (65.7%) were sexually active. A higher proportion of sexually active adults were married (p = 0.0005), had better health (p = 0.0003), and drank alcohol (p = 0.007). A lower proportion of sexually active adults had urinary incontinence (p = 0.006). Similar proportions of men and women were sexually active (62.8% and 68.2%, respectively; p = 0.38). Sexually active women had better sexual desire scores (p Sexually active men had better mobility (p = 0.012) and erectile function (p sexually active men had incontinence (p sexual health in older adults. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Postural adaptations to repeated optic flow stimulation in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    O’Connor, Kathryn W.; Loughlin, Patrick J.; Redfern, Mark S.; Sparto, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the processes of adaptation (changes in within-trial postural responses) and habituation (reductions in between-trial postural responses) to visual cues in older and young adults. Of particular interest were responses to sudden increases in optic flow magnitude. The postural sway of 25 healthy young adults and 24 healthy older adults was measured while subjects viewed anterior-posterior 0.4 Hz sinusoidal optic flow for 45 s. Three trials for each of ...

  6. Category learning strategies in younger and older adults: Rule abstraction and memorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlheim, Christopher N; McDaniel, Mark A; Little, Jeri L

    2016-06-01

    Despite the fundamental role of category learning in cognition, few studies have examined how this ability differs between younger and older adults. The present experiment examined possible age differences in category learning strategies and their effects on learning. Participants were trained on a category determined by a disjunctive rule applied to relational features. The utilization of rule- and exemplar-based strategies was indexed by self-reports and transfer performance. Based on self-reported strategies, the frequencies of rule- and exemplar-based learners were not significantly different between age groups, but there was a significantly higher frequency of intermediate learners (i.e., learners not identifying with a reliance on either rule- or exemplar-based strategies) in the older than younger adult group. Training performance was higher for younger than older adults regardless of the strategy utilized, showing that older adults were impaired in their ability to learn the correct rule or to remember exemplar-label associations. Transfer performance converged with strategy reports in showing higher fidelity category representations for younger adults. Younger adults with high working memory capacity were more likely to use an exemplar-based strategy, and older adults with high working memory capacity showed better training performance. Age groups did not differ in their self-reported memory beliefs, and these beliefs did not predict training strategies or performance. Overall, the present results contradict earlier findings that older adults prefer rule- to exemplar-based learning strategies, presumably to compensate for memory deficits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Mobile Application-Assisted Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia in an Older Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-Xiang; Hung, Yi-Ping; Chen, Hsi-Chung

    2016-04-01

    Current evidence suggests potential efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) in older adults. Mobile applications (apps) have been developed to facilitate CBT-I in the general population. However, because of deteriorating perceptual and cognitive functioning, the effectiveness of mobile apps in older adults remains unknown. This case report aims to demonstrate the utilization, advantages, and limitations of mobile app-assisted CBT-I in an older female adult. An app ("Win-Win aSleep" [WWaS]) was applied in a six-session CBT-I treatment. The patient successfully discontinued her hypnotics and had restored sleep quality after the intervention with WWaS-assisted CBT-I. Several limitations of WWaS were summarized, and pertinent approaches for enhancing future work were discussed. Mobile apps integrating wearable devices might overcome the difficulty for applying WWaS in older adults. In addition to tailored design of mobile technology for older adults, psychosocial support for the utilization of apps may not only enhance the compliance but also provide additional connection to the environment.

  8. Health Care for Older Adults in Uganda: Lessons for the Developing World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Wai Jia; Yap, Philip

    2017-06-01

    Approximately two-thirds of the world's older adults live in developing nations. By 2050, as many as 80% of such older people will live in low- and middle-income countries. In sub-Saharan Africa alone, the number of individuals aged 60 and older is projected to reach 163 million. Despite this demographic wave, the majority of Africa has limited access to qualified geriatric health care. 3 Although foreign aid and capacity-building efforts can help to close this gap over time, it is likely that failure to understand the unique context of Africa's older adults, many of whom are marginalized, will lead to inadequacies in service delivery and poor health outcomes. 4 As the need for culturally competent care of older adults gains recognition in the developed world, research in geriatric care in developing countries should progress in tandem. 4 By examining the multidimensional challenges that an older woman with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in rural Uganda faces, this article makes contextualized policy recommendations for older adults in Africa and provides lessons for the developing world. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  9. Audiovisual Integration Delayed by Stimulus Onset Asynchrony Between Auditory and Visual Stimuli in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yanna; Yang, Weiping; Nakahashi, Kohei; Takahashi, Satoshi; Wu, Jinglong

    2017-02-01

    Although neuronal studies have shown that audiovisual integration is regulated by temporal factors, there is still little knowledge about the impact of temporal factors on audiovisual integration in older adults. To clarify how stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between auditory and visual stimuli modulates age-related audiovisual integration, 20 younger adults (21-24 years) and 20 older adults (61-80 years) were instructed to perform an auditory or visual stimuli discrimination experiment. The results showed that in younger adults, audiovisual integration was altered from an enhancement (AV, A ± 50 V) to a depression (A ± 150 V). In older adults, the alterative pattern was similar to that for younger adults with the expansion of SOA; however, older adults showed significantly delayed onset for the time-window-of-integration and peak latency in all conditions, which further demonstrated that audiovisual integration was delayed more severely with the expansion of SOA, especially in the peak latency for V-preceded-A conditions in older adults. Our study suggested that audiovisual facilitative integration occurs only within a certain SOA range (e.g., -50 to 50 ms) in both younger and older adults. Moreover, our results confirm that the response for older adults was slowed and provided empirical evidence that integration ability is much more sensitive to the temporal alignment of audiovisual stimuli in older adults.

  10. Falls in institutionalized older adults: risks, consequences and antecedents

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo Neto, Antonio Herculano de; Patrício, Anna Cláudia Freire de Araújo; Ferreira, Milenna Azevedo Minhaqui; Rodrigues, Brenda Feitosa Lopes; Santos, Thayná Dias dos; Rodrigues, Thays Domingos de Brito; Silva, Richardson Augusto Rosendo da

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the occurrence of falls in institutionalized elderly addressing the risks, consequences and antecedents. Method: Cross-sectional study carried out with 45 older adults in Long-Term Care Facilities for the Older adult in João Pessoa, Brazil, in June and July 2016. A socio-demographic questionnaire and the Berg Balance Scale were applied, classifying as risk of fall scores lower than 45. Descriptive statistics and tests were conducted: independent t-test, Anova ...

  11. Altered characteristics of balance control in obese older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Itshak; Oddsson, Lars I E

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is one of the most significant epidemiological trends of the last decades. Recently it was found that obese individuals show postural instability. Balance control mechanisms in obese older adults were less studied. Therefore we aimed to investigate the effect of obesity on balance control mechanisms in older adults. Parameters from Stabilogram-Diffusion Analysis (SDA) and measures from summary statistics of foot centre-of-pressure (COP) displacements along the anterior-posterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) directions in eyes open and eyes closed conditions were used to characterize postural control in 22 obese (30-postural control process in obese older adults. A greater sway displacement before closed-loop feedback mechanisms are called into play was seen in the ML direction that may lead to a higher risk of instability and fall events. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sleep Quality among Older Adults in Mehriz, Yazd Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Rezaeipandari

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Regarding the significant relation of sleep quality and some chronic conditions, the importance of educatingthe older adults who suffer from chronic conditions and also their families in this area is displayed. As with planning suitable interventions, we may not only increase the sleep quality among older adults but also treat or reduce the risk of chronic conditions among them.

  13. Validation of the ADAMO Care Watch for step counting in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magistro, Daniele; Brustio, Paolo Riccardo; Ivaldi, Marco; Esliger, Dale Winfield; Zecca, Massimiliano; Rainoldi, Alberto; Boccia, Gennaro

    2018-01-01

    Accurate measurement devices are required to objectively quantify physical activity. Wearable activity monitors, such as pedometers, may serve as affordable and feasible instruments for measuring physical activity levels in older adults during their normal activities of daily living. Currently few available accelerometer-based steps counting devices have been shown to be accurate at slow walking speeds, therefore there is still lacking appropriate devices tailored for slow speed ambulation, typical of older adults. This study aimed to assess the validity of step counting using the pedometer function of the ADAMO Care Watch, containing an embedded algorithm for measuring physical activity in older adults. Twenty older adults aged ≥ 65 years (mean ± SD, 75±7 years; range, 68-91) and 20 young adults (25±5 years, range 20-40), wore a care watch on each wrist and performed a number of randomly ordered tasks: walking at slow, normal and fast self-paced speeds; a Timed Up and Go test (TUG); a step test and ascending/descending stairs. The criterion measure was the actual number of steps observed, counted with a manual tally counter. Absolute percentage error scores, Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC), and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess validity. ADAMO Care Watch demonstrated high validity during slow and normal speeds (range 0.5-1.5 m/s) showing an absolute error from 1.3% to 1.9% in the older adult group and from 0.7% to 2.7% in the young adult group. The percentage error for the 30-metre walking tasks increased with faster pace in both young adult (17%) and older adult groups (6%). In the TUG test, there was less error in the steps recorded for older adults (1.3% to 2.2%) than the young adults (6.6% to 7.2%). For the total sample, the ICCs for the ADAMO Care Watch for the 30-metre walking tasks at each speed and for the TUG test were ranged between 0.931 to 0.985. These findings provide evidence that the ADAMO Care Watch demonstrated highly accurate

  14. Health Literacy in Older Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-09-20

    In this podcast, Dr. Lynda Anderson, former Director of CDC’s Healthy Aging Program, discusses the importance of improving health literacy among older adults.  Created: 9/20/2011 by Office of the Associate Director for Communication (OADC), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/20/2011.

  15. Gender differences in performance of script analysis by older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmes, E; Bush, J D; Pike, D L; Drake, D G

    2006-12-01

    Script analysis as a test of executive functions is presumed sensitive to cognitive changes seen with increasing age. Two studies evaluated if gender differences exist in performance on scripts for familiar and unfamiliar tasks in groups of cognitively intact older adults. In Study 1, 26 older adults completed male and female stereotypical scripts. Results were not significant but a tendency was present, with genders making fewer impossible errors on the gender-typical script. Such an interaction was also noted in Study 2, which contrasted 50 older with 50 younger adults on three scripts, including a script with neutral familiarity. The pattern of significant interactions for errors suggested the need to use scripts that are based upon tasks that are equally familiar to both genders.

  16. Older Adult Participation in Health Promotion Programs: Perspectives of Facility Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Tim; Hyner, Gerald C.

    2011-01-01

    Administrators of older adult-centered facilities must identify barriers to the planning and implementation of health promotion programs. In this qualitative research those barriers were identified through in-depth interviews with administrators of older adult-centered facilities. As identified by administrators, the predominant barriers to the…

  17. Unattended autonomous surveillance in community-dwelling older adults: a field study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.S.M. Kort; Joost van Hoof

    2008-01-01

    Home automation that allows for telecare services is increasingly becoming a tool to help older adults live independently and to improve perceived safety and security. The number of older adults receiving professional care, in relation to housing, on a daily basis is not very large. Only 15%

  18. Older-Adult Playfulness: An Innovative Construct and Measurement for Healthy Aging Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnal, Careen; Qian, Xinyi

    2011-01-01

    Few studies of adult playfulness exist, but limited research on older adults and playfulness suggests that playfulness in later life improves cognitive, emotional, social, and psychological functioning and healthy aging overall. Older adults represent a rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, underscoring the need to understand the aging…

  19. Gambling behavior and problems among older adults: a systematic review of empirical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Samson; Hong, Song-Iee; Wang, Chong-Wen; Cunningham-Williams, Renee M

    2012-09-01

    With the rapid aging of the population and the increased availability of gambling facilities over the past three decades, older adults may gamble more and may be increasingly at risk for problem gambling (PG) or pathological gambling disorder (PGD). To facilitate a better understanding of gambling behavior among older adults that will inform preventive strategies, this article systematically examined empirical studies on issues related to older adults' gambling. This article reviewed 75 empirical studies including data on the distribution and determinants of PG and PGD and the outcomes of gambling. This review used the broad term of "disordered gambling" as a means to explain a continuum of problems caused by PG and PGD. The analyses covered seven topics concerning older adults' gambling behaviors: Participation rates for gambling, prevalence rates of disordered gambling, motivation for initially beginning to gamble, risk and protective factors for disordered gambling, and negative and positive health outcomes from gambling. Based on research gaps identified in the review, this article proposes six recommendations for future studies focusing on well-being of older adults who gamble, research method issues, and taking into account older adults' inspirations and adjustment to the aging process in the 21st century.

  20. Normative functional fitness standards and trends of Portuguese older adults: cross-cultural comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Elisa A; Baptista, Fátima; Santos, Rute; Vale, Susana; Santos, Diana A; Silva, Analiza M; Mota, Jorge; Sardinha, Luís B

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was designed to develop normative functional fitness standards for the Portuguese older adults, to analyze age and gender patterns of decline, to compare the fitness level of Portuguese older adults with that of older adults in other countries, and to evaluate the fitness level of Portuguese older adults relative to recently published criterion fitness standards associated with maintaining physical independence. A sample of 4,712 independent-living older adults, age 65-103 yr, was evaluated using the Senior Fitness Test battery. Age-group normative fitness scores are reported for the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles. Results indicate that both women and men experience age-related losses in all components of functional fitness, with their rate of decline being greater than that observed in other populations, a trend which may cause Portuguese older adults to be at greater risk for loss of independence in later years. These newly established normative standards make it possible to assess individual fitness level and provide a basis for implementing population-wide health strategies to counteract early loss of independence.

  1. Drinking Level Versus Drinking Pattern and Cigarette Smoking Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Charles J; Brennan, Penny L; Schutte, Kathleen K; Holahan, Carole K; Hixon, J Gregory; Moos, Rudolf H

    2018-04-01

    There is a lack of research on the role of alcohol consumption in cigarette smoking among older adults, and the few studies on alcohol use and smoking with older adults have failed to distinguish between average level and pattern of drinking as predictors of smoking. The main purpose of this study was to examine the independent contributions of average level versus pattern of drinking as predictors of cigarette smoking among older adults. A subsidiary purpose was to examine the link between continued smoking and mortality among older smokers. We investigated average level and pattern of drinking as predictors of current smoking among 1,151 older adults at baseline and of continued smoking and mortality among the subset of 276 baseline smokers tracked across 20 years. We used multiple linear and logistic regression analyses and, to test mediation, bias-corrected bootstrap confidence intervals. A high level of average drinking and a pattern of episodic heavy drinking were concurrently associated with smoking at baseline. However, only episodic heavy drinking was prospectively linked to continued smoking among baseline smokers. Continued smoking among baseline smokers increased the odds of 20-year mortality and provided an indirect pathway through which heavy episodic drinking related to mortality. Smokers who misuse alcohol are a challenging population for smoking cessation efforts. Older adults who concurrently misuse alcohol and smoke cigarettes provide a unique target for public health interventions. Copyright © 2018 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  2. Walking football as sustainable exercise for older adults - A pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Peter; Dias, Irundika; Holland, Carol; Campbell, Niyah; Nagar, Iaysha; Connolly, Luke; Krustrup, Peter; Hubball, Harry

    2017-06-01

    The health benefits of playing football and the importance of exercise and social contact for healthy ageing are well established, but few older adults in the UK take enough exercise. Football is popular, flexible in format and draws players into engrossing, effortful and social exercise, but the physical demands of play at full speed may make it unsustainable for some older adults. Restricted to walking pace, will play still be engaging? Will health benefits be retained? Will physical demands remain manageable? This pilot study aims to investigate: (1) the experience of older adults playing walking football every week, is it sustainable and rewarding, (2) the intensity and locomotor pattern of walking football, (3) the scale and nature of walking football health benefits and (4) possible cognitive benefits of playing walking football through measures of processing speed, selective and divided attention and updating and inhibition components of executive function.
 'Walking football' and 'waiting list' groups were compared before and after 12 weeks of one-hour per week football. Walking football was found to be engaging, sustainable for older adults and moderately intensive; however, selective health and cognitive benefits were not found from this brief intervention. Highlights Walking football is a lower impact but authentic form of football that enables older players to extend their active participation. Walking football is enjoyable and moderately demanding and may be a sustainable form of exercise for older adults. Health and cognitive benefits to playing walking football were not found.

  3. Trunk kinematics and fall risk of older adults: translating biomechanical results to the clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabiner, Mark D; Donovan, Stephanie; Bareither, Mary Lou; Marone, Jane R; Hamstra-Wright, Karrie; Gatts, Strawberry; Troy, Karen L

    2008-04-01

    This paper reviews some of our experiences over nearly 15 years of trying to determine modifiable factors that contribute to the high incidence of fall by older adults. As part of our approach, we have subjected healthy young and older adults to very large postural disturbances during locomotion, in the form of trips and slips, to which rapid compensatory responses have been necessary to avoid falling. For both trips and slips, the ability to limit trunk motion has consistently discriminated older adults who fall from both younger adults and older adults who have been able to avoid falling. We have shown that the ability to limit trunk motion can be rapidly acquired, or learned, by older adults as a result of task-specific training. The learned motor skill has demonstrated short-term retention and has been shown to effectively decrease fall-risk due to trips. Collectively, we believe the works strongly suggests that the traditional exercise-based fall-prevention and whole-body, task-specific training can synergize to reduce falls and fall-related injury in older adults.

  4. Older Adults Do Not Notice Their Names: A New Twist to a Classic Attention Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe; Kilb, Angela; Maddox, Geoffrey B.; Thomas, Jenna; Fine, Hope C.; Chen, Tina; Cowan, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Although working memory spans are, on average, lower for older adults than young adults, we demonstrate in 5 experiments a way in which older adults paradoxically resemble higher capacity young adults. Specifically, in a selective-listening task, older adults almost always failed to notice their names presented in an unattended channel. This is an…

  5. Reducing misinformation effects in older adults with cognitive interview mnemonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Robyn E; Humphries, Joyce E; Milne, Rebecca; Memon, Amina; Houlder, Lucy; Lyons, Amy; Bull, Ray

    2012-12-01

    We examined the effect of a prior Modified Cognitive Interview on young and older adults' recall of a short film of a staged crime and subsequent reporting of misinformation. Participants viewed the film followed the next day by misinformation presented in a postevent summary. They were then interviewed with either a Modified Cognitive Interview or a control interview followed by a recognition memory test. A Modified Cognitive Interview elicited more correct details and improved overall accuracy compared to a control interview in both age groups, although the young adults recollected three times more correct information in a Modified Cognitive Interview than the older adults. In both age groups, correct recollections of person and action details were higher in a Modified Cognitive Interview than a control interview. Importantly, older adults who were interviewed with a Modified Cognitive Interview were not susceptible to misinformation effects. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  6. Physical activity level and fall risk among community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Sok Teng; Balaraman, Thirumalaya

    2017-07-01

    [Purpose] To find the physical activity level and fall risk among the community-dwelling Malaysian older adults and determine the correlation between them. [Subjects and Methods] A cross-sectional study was conducted in which, the physical activity level was evaluated using the Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity questionnaire and fall risk with Fall Risk Assessment Tool. Subjects recruited were 132 community-dwelling Malaysian older adults using the convenience sampling method. [Results] The majority of the participants were under the category of under-active regular light-activities and most of them reported low fall risk. The statistical analysis using Fisher's exact test did not show a significant correlation between physical activity level and fall risk. [Conclusion] The majority of community-dwelling Malaysian older adults are performing some form of physical activity and in low fall risk category. But this study did not find any significant correlation between physical activity level and fall risk among community-dwelling older adults in Malaysia.

  7. Working memory predicts semantic comprehension in dichotic listening in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Philip J; Krishnan, Saloni; Aydelott, Jennifer

    2014-10-01

    Older adults have difficulty understanding spoken language in the presence of competing voices. Everyday social situations involving multiple simultaneous talkers may become increasingly challenging in later life due to changes in the ability to focus attention. This study examined whether individual differences in cognitive function predict older adults' ability to access sentence-level meanings in competing speech using a dichotic priming paradigm. Older listeners showed faster responses to words that matched the meaning of spoken sentences presented to the left or right ear, relative to a neutral baseline. However, older adults were more vulnerable than younger adults to interference from competing speech when the competing signal was presented to the right ear. This pattern of performance was strongly correlated with a non-auditory working memory measure, suggesting that cognitive factors play a key role in semantic comprehension in competing speech in healthy aging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Leadership in physical activity groups for older adults: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estabrooks, Paul A; Munroe, Krista J; Fox, Elizabeth H; Gyurcsik, Nancy C; Hill, Jennie L; Lyon, Robert; Rosenkranz, Sara; Shannon, Vanessa R

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a theory-based framework could be used to deductively identify and understand the characteristics of motivational leaders of physical activity groups for older adults. Participants were 23 older adults (mean age = 78.5 +/- 8.0 years, 65% women). An interview-guide approach was employed to elicit older adults' thoughts on important characteristics of physical activity group leaders. The data suggested that effective leaders are those whom the participants feel are properly qualified, are able to develop a personal bond with participants, and can use their knowledge and the group to demonstrate collective accomplishments. It was concluded that the findings could be used to extend the leadership activities beyond the traditional technical performance and individual feedback to include activities of social integration. Furthermore, the conceptual framework identified can serve as a valuable tool in guiding future researchers in their examination of leadership in physical activity groups for older adults. Copyright 2004 Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc.

  9. Effects of the anchor system on postural control in older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Mauerberg de Castro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Falls are common during aging, and can have drastic consequences. Within this context, maintaining the ability to balance plays an essential role in enabling older adults to continue to perform their daily activities. Therefore, the use of interventional and treatment tools for development of balance becomes essential. The objective of this study was to analyze the anchor system as a potential tool for decreasing body sway in older and young adults. Older adults had more postural sway than their young counterparts. The absence of visual information led to larger instability in both groups. The anchor system improved postural stability of both groups. Thus, it may be a useful tool for posture stabilization in old and young adults.

  10. HIV Transmission: Myths about Casual Contact and Fear about Medical Procedures Persist Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Anne K; Alford, Kristen R

    2017-01-02

    HIV infection among older adults is increasing. Previous research suggests that many older adults do not see themselves as at risk for HIV and that many subscribe to myths related to HIV transmission. In this focus group study (N = 48) we solicited the beliefs that older adults held about HIV. The older adults in this study were knowledgeable about how HIV is typically transmitted. However, we also identified that they subscribed to misconceptions regarding casual contact transmission and were fearful of transmission from the medical system. Educational efforts aimed at older adults must be tailored to address these persistent misconceptions.

  11. Preventing Older Adult Falls and TBI

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-03-05

    This podcast provides tips on how older adults can prevent falls and related injuries, such as traumatic brain injuries (TBI).  Created: 3/5/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 3/7/2008.

  12. Singapore Healthy Older People Everyday (HOPE) Study: Prevalence of Frailty and Associated Factors in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Reshma A; Chen, Matthew Zhixuan; Tan, Linda Wei Lin; Lim, Moses YiDong; Ho, Han Kwee; van Dam, Rob M

    2017-08-01

    In the context of a rapidly ageing population, Singapore is anticipating a rise in multimorbidity, disability, and dependency, which are driven by physical frailty. Healthy Older People Everyday (HOPE) is an epidemiologic population-based study on community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years and older in Singapore. To investigate the prevalence of frail and prefrail states and their association with polypharmacy, multimorbidity, cognitive and functional status, and perceived health status among community-dwelling older adults in Singapore. Participants for HOPE were older adults aged 65 years and older recruited from a cohort study on the northwest region of Singapore. Analysis was performed on data collected from a combination of interviewer-administered questionnaires (including FRAIL scale, EQ-5D, Mini Mental State Examination, Barthel index, and Lawton IADL scale), clinical assessments, and physical measurements (including hand grip strength and Timed-Up-and-Go [TUG] test). A total of 1051 older adults (mean age 71.2 years) completed the study. More than half (57.2%) were female. The prevalence of frailty and prefrailty was 6.2% and 37%, respectively. Frailty was associated with older age, female gender, Indian (instead of Chinese) ethnicity, multimorbidity, polypharmacy, cognitive and functional impairment, weaker hand grip strength, longer TUG times, and poor perceived health status. Those with underlying cognitive impairment and frailty were at greater risk of adverse health outcome. Frailty is a complex health state with multiple domains and dimensions. In our study in a multiethnic Asian population, we identified nonmodifiable factors and modifiable risk factors (multimorbidity, polypharmacy, cognitive and functional impairment) that were associated with frailty. Interventions will have to be multipronged and will require a collaborated effort in order to effect change and improve the health span in rapidly ageing populations. Copyright © 2017 AMDA

  13. Data Sources Available for Modeling Environmental Exposures in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report, “Data Sources Available for Modeling Environmental Exposures in Older Adults,” focuses on information sources and data available for modeling environmental exposures in the older U.S. population, defined here to be people 60 years and older, with an emphasis on those...

  14. Falls prevention education between older adults and healthcare providers during transition from hospital to community-living

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Den-Ching Angel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Falls are a problem for older adults. In particular, older hospitalised adults and those recently discharged from hospital have been shown to be at an increased risk of falls compared to older adults living in the community. Falls impact negatively on the physical and psychosocial well-being of older adults. They increase the burden of care for their family, caregivers and the healthcare system. However, many falls in older adults are preventable. Cochrane reviews demonstrated man...

  15. Differentiating true and false schematic memories in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Christina E; Dennis, Nancy A

    2018-02-06

    While schemas aid memory for schematically related information, the gist induced by the schema can also lead to high rates of false memories, especially in older adults. The neural mechanisms that support and differentiate true and false memories in aging are not well understood. The current study sought to clarify this, using a novel scene paradigm to investigate the role of schemas on true and false memories in older adults. Healthy older adults encoded schematic scenes (e.g., bathroom). At retrieval, participants were tested on their memory for both schematic and non-schematic targets and lures while fMRI data was collected. Results indicate that true memories were supported by the typical retrieval network, and activity in this network was greater for true than false memories. Schema specific retrieval was supported by mPFC, extending this common finding to aging. While no region differentiated false memories compared to correct rejections, results showed that individual differences in false memory rates were associated with variability in neural activity. The findings underscore the importance of elucidating the neural basis of cognition within older adults, as well as the specific contribution of individual differences to the neural basis of memory errors in aging. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Formal caregivers of older adults: reflection about their practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Picazzio Perez Batista

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To understand the job function of caregivers of older adults and contribute to the debate on the consolidation of this professional practice. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES This is a descriptive, qualitative, and exploratory study. Four focal group sessions were performed in 2011 with 11 elderly companions, formal caregivers of older adults in the Programa Acompanhante de Idosos (Program for Caregivers of Older Adults, Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. These sessions, guided by a semi-structured script, were audio-recorded and fully transcribed. Data were analyzed using the Content Analysis technique, Thematic Modality. RESULTS In view of considering the caregivers of older adults as a new category of workers, it was difficult to define their duties. The elderly companions themselves as well as the care receivers, their families, and the professionals that comprised the team were unclear about their duties. The professional practice of these formal caregivers has been built on the basis of constant discussions and negotiations among them and other team members in Programa Acompanhante de Idosos during daily work. This was achieved via a recognition process of their job functions and by setting apart other workers’ exclusive responsibilities. CONCLUSIONS The delimitation of specific job functions for elderly companions is currently one of the greatest challenges faced by these workers to develop and consolidate their professional role as well as improve Programa Acompanhante de Idosos.

  17. Older adults and mobile phones for health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Jonathan; Demiris, George

    2013-10-01

    To report on the results of a review concerning the use of mobile phones for health with older adults. PubMed and CINAHL were searched for articles using "older adults" and "mobile phones" along with related terms and synonyms between 1965 and June 2012. Identified articles were filtered by the following inclusion criteria: original research project utilizing a mobile phone as an intervention, involve/target adults 60 years of age or older, and have an aim emphasizing the mobile phone's use in health. Twenty-one different articles were found and categorized into ten different clinical domains, including diabetes, activities of daily life, and dementia care, among others. The largest group of articles focused on diabetes care (4 articles), followed by COPD (3 articles), Alzheimer's/dementia Care (3 articles) and osteoarthritis (3 articles). Areas of interest studied included feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness. While there were many different clinical domains, the majority of studies were pilot studies that needed more work to establish a stronger base of evidence. Current work in using mobile phones for older adult use are spread across a variety of clinical domains. While this work is promising, current studies are generally smaller feasibility studies, and thus future work is needed to establish more generalizable, stronger base of evidence for effectiveness of these interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. National Characteristics of Emergency Medical Services Responses for Older Adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Hieu V; Herrera, Lauren Nicholas; Moore, Justin Xavier; Donnelly, John; Jacobson, Karen E; Carlson, Jestin N; Mann, N Clay; Wang, Henry E

    2018-01-01

    Older adults, those aged 65 and older, frequently require emergency care. However, only limited national data describe the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) care provided to older adults. We sought to determine the characteristics of EMS care provided to older adults in the United States. We used data from the 2014 National Emergency Medical Services Information System (NEMSIS), encompassing EMS response data from 46 States and territories. We excluded EMS responses for children older adults as age ≥65 years. We compared patient demographics (age, sex, race, primary payer), response characteristics (dispatch time, location type, time intervals), and clinical course (clinical impression, injury, procedures, medications) between older and younger adult EMS emergency 9-1-1 responses. During the study period there were 20,212,245 EMS emergency responses. Among the 16,116,219 adult EMS responses, there were 6,569,064 (40.76%) older and 9,547,155 (59.24%) younger adults. Older EMS patients were more likely to be white and the EMS incident to be located in healthcare facilities (clinic, hospital, nursing home). Compared with younger patients, older EMS patients were more likely to present with syncope (5.68% vs. 3.40%; OR 1.71; CI: 1.71-1.72), cardiac arrest/rhythm disturbance (3.27% vs. 1.69%; OR 1.97; CI: 1.96-1.98), stroke (2.18% vs. 0.74%; OR 2.99; CI: 2.96-3.02) and shock (0.77% vs. 0.38%; OR 2.02; CI: 2.00-2.04). Common EMS interventions performed on older persons included intravenous access (32.02%), 12-lead ECG (14.37%), CPR (0.87%), and intubation (2.00%). The most common EMS drugs administered to older persons included epinephrine, atropine, furosemide, amiodarone, and albuterol or ipratropium. One of every three U.S. EMS emergency responses involves older adults. EMS personnel must be prepared to care for the older patient.

  19. What Motivates Older Adults to Improve Diet and Exercise Patterns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardach, Shoshana H; Schoenberg, Nancy E; Howell, Britteny M

    2016-02-01

    Dietary intake and physical activity are lifestyle behaviors that are learned, developed, and practiced throughout an individual's lifetime. These lifestyle behaviors have a profound role on health and quality of life--with late-life changes still resulting in notable improvements. Despite well documented benefits of behavior change, such changes are extremely challenging. The purpose of this study is to better understand from the perspective of older adults themselves, the factors that may influence their likelihood of making lifestyle changes. Participants were recruited two primary care clinics. 104 older adults ranging in age from 65 to 95 were included. Participants were interviewed about their motivations and plans to change diet and physical activity behaviors following a routine primary care visit. All interviews were transcribed and transcripts were analyzed using a line-by-line coding approach. Older adults reported that their likelihood of making a lifestyle change related to perceptions of old age, personal motivation, and perceived confidence in the ability to make effective changes. These findings suggest the importance of creating more positive images of old age and tailoring health promotion efforts to older adults' motivations and confidence in their ability to make behavior changes.

  20. Cohort comparisons: emotional well-being among adolescents and older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momtaz, Yadollah Abolfathi; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Ibrahim, Rahimah

    2014-01-01

    Background There are several negative stereotypes about older adults that have negatively influenced people’s attitude about aging. The present study compared emotional well-being between older adults and adolescents. Methods Data for this study came from 1,403 community-dwelling elderly persons and 1,190 secondary school students and were obtained from two national cross-sectional surveys. Emotional well-being was measured using the World Health Organization-Five Well-Being Index. Data analysis was conducted using a multivariate analysis of covariance with SPSS software version 20 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA). Results Elderly people significantly scored higher levels of emotional well-being (mean, 62.3; standard deviation, 22.55) than younger people (mean, 57.9; standard deviation, 18.46; t, 5.32; P≤0.001). The findings from the multivariate analysis of covariance revealed a significant difference between older adults and younger people in emotional well-being [F(3, 2587)=120.21; P≤0.001; η2=0.122] after controlling for sex. Conclusion Contrary to negative stereotypes about aging, our findings show a higher level of emotional well-being among older adults compared with younger people. PMID:24872683

  1. Problem drinking and associated factors in older adults in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Alcohol abuse poses special risks for increased morbidity and mortality among older adults. Little attention has focused on assessing alcohol use and associated factors among older adults in transitional societies such as South Africa. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of alcohol use and associated ...

  2. How Older Adults Make Decisions regarding Smart Technology: An Ethnographic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Rick D.; Mann, William; Lutz, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Comparatively little research has been conducted regarding the smart technology needs of the older adult population despite the proliferation of smart technology prototypes. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived smart technology needs of older adults with mobility impairments while using an ethnographic research approach to…

  3. Modeling Accessibility of Screening and Treatment Facilities for Older Adults using Transportation Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiuyi; Northridge, Mary E; Jin, Zhu; Metcalf, Sara S

    2018-04-01

    Increased lifespans and population growth have resulted in an older U.S. society that must reckon with the complex oral health needs that arise as adults age. Understanding accessibility to screening and treatment facilities for older adults is necessary in order to provide them with preventive and restorative services. This study uses an agent-based model to examine the accessibility of screening and treatment facilities via transportation networks for older adults living in the neighborhoods of northern Manhattan, New York City. Older adults are simulated as socioeconomically distinct agents who move along a GIS-based transportation network using transportation modes that mediate their access to screening and treatment facilities. This simulation model includes four types of mobile agents as a simplifying assumption: walk, by car, by bus, or by van (i.e., a form of transportation assistance for older adults). These mobile agents follow particular routes: older adults who travel by car, bus, and van follow street roads, whereas pedestrians follow walkways. The model enables the user to focus on one neighborhood at a time for analysis. The spatial dimension of an older adult's accessibility to screening and treatment facilities is simulated through the travel costs (indicated by travel time or distance) incurred in the GIS-based model environment, where lower travel costs to screening and treatment facilities imply better access. This model provides a framework for representing health-seeking behavior that is contextualized by a transportation network in a GIS environment.

  4. The Moderating Role of Executive Functioning in Older Adults' Responses to a Reminder of Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxfield, Molly; Pyszczynski, Tom; Greenberg, Jeff; Pepin, Renee; Davis, Hasker P.

    2011-01-01

    In previous research, older adults responded to mortality salience (MS) with increased tolerance, whereas younger persons responded with increased punitiveness. One possible explanation for this is that many older adults adapt to challenges of later life, such as the prospect of mortality, by becoming more flexible. Recent studies suggest that positively-oriented adaptation is more likely for older adults with high levels of executive functioning. We thus hypothesized that the better an older adult's executive functioning, the more likely MS would result in increased tolerance. Older and younger adults were randomly assigned to MS or control conditions, and then evaluated moral transgressors. As in previous research, younger adults were more punitive following reminders of mortality; executive functioning did not affect their responses. Among older adults, high functioning individuals responded to MS with increased tolerance rather than intolerance, whereas those low in functioning became more punitive. PMID:21728445

  5. Exploring beliefs around physical activity among older adults in rural Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Laurie; Rempel, Gwen; Murray, Terra C; McHugh, Tara-Leigh; Vallance, Jeff K

    2016-01-01

    As physical activity can improve health and reduce the risk of chronic disease, it is important to understand the contributing factors to physical activity engagement among older adults, particularly those living in rural communities to assist in remaining active and healthy as long as possible. The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the socio-ecological factors that influence or contribute to physical activity among rural-dwelling older adults in rural Saskatchewan, Canada. This qualitative description explored the perceptions of physical activity among older adults living in two rural communities in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 adults aged 69-94. Using content analysis techniques, transcribed interview data were coded and categorized. Participants identified socio-ecological elements facilitating physical activity such as improved health, independence, and mobility as well as social cohesion and having opportunities for physical activity. The most common perceived environmental barrier to engaging in physical activity was the fear of falling, particularly on the ice during the winter months. Participants also cited adverse weather conditions, aging (e.g., arthritis), and family members (e.g., encouraged to "take it easy") as barriers to physical activity. Hearing directly from older adults who reside in rural Saskatchewan was determined to have the potential to improve awareness of physical activity in rural communities to support the implementation of programs and practices that will facilitate active lifestyles for older adults.

  6. Exploring beliefs around physical activity among older adults in rural Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Schmidt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: As physical activity can improve health and reduce the risk of chronic disease, it is important to understand the contributing factors to physical activity engagement among older adults, particularly those living in rural communities to assist in remaining active and healthy as long as possible. The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the socio-ecological factors that influence or contribute to physical activity among rural-dwelling older adults in rural Saskatchewan, Canada. Methods: This qualitative description explored the perceptions of physical activity among older adults living in two rural communities in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 adults aged 69–94. Using content analysis techniques, transcribed interview data were coded and categorized. Results: Participants identified socio-ecological elements facilitating physical activity such as improved health, independence, and mobility as well as social cohesion and having opportunities for physical activity. The most common perceived environmental barrier to engaging in physical activity was the fear of falling, particularly on the ice during the winter months. Participants also cited adverse weather conditions, aging (e.g., arthritis, and family members (e.g., encouraged to “take it easy” as barriers to physical activity. Conclusion: Hearing directly from older adults who reside in rural Saskatchewan was determined to have the potential to improve awareness of physical activity in rural communities to support the implementation of programs and practices that will facilitate active lifestyles for older adults.

  7. Adapting Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Older Adults at Risk for Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisel, Marnin J.; Talbot, Nancy L.; King, Deborah A.; Tu, Xin M.; Duberstein, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To pilot a psychological intervention adapted for older adults at-risk for suicide. Design A focused, uncontrolled, pre-to-post-treatment psychotherapy trial. All eligible participants were offered the study intervention. Setting Outpatient mental healthcare provided in the psychiatry department of an academic medical center in a mid-sized Canadian city. Participants Seventeen English-speaking adults 60 years or older, at- risk for suicide by virtue of current suicide ideation, death ideation, and/or recent self-injury. Intervention A 16-session course of Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) adapted for older adults at-risk for suicide who were receiving medication and/or other standard psychiatric treatment for underlying mood disorders. Measurements Participants completed a demographics form, screens for cognitive impairment and alcohol misuse, a semi-structured diagnostic interview, and measures of primary (suicide ideation and death ideation), and secondary study outcomes (depressive symptom severity; social adjustment and support; psychological well-being), and psychotherapy process measures. Results Participants experienced significant reductions in suicide ideation, death ideation, and depressive symptom severity, and significant improvement in perceived meaning in life, social adjustment, perceived social support, and other psychological well-being variables. Conclusions Study participants experienced enhanced psychological well-being and reduced symptoms of depression and suicide ideation over the course of IPT adapted for older adults at-risk for suicide. Larger, controlled trials are needed to further evaluate the impact of this novel intervention and to test methods for translating and integrating focused interventions into standard clinical care with at-risk older adults. PMID:24840611

  8. Adapting interpersonal psychotherapy for older adults at risk for suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisel, Marnin J; Talbot, Nancy L; King, Deborah A; Tu, Xin M; Duberstein, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    To pilot a psychological intervention adapted for older adults at risk for suicide. A focused, uncontrolled, pre-to-post-treatment psychotherapy trial. All eligible participants were offered the study intervention. Outpatient mental health care provided in the psychiatry department of an academic medical center in a mid-sized Canadian city. Seventeen English-speaking adults 60 years or older, at risk for suicide by virtue of current suicide ideation, death ideation, and/or recent self-injury. A 16-session course of Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) adapted for older adults at risk for suicide who were receiving medication and/or other standard psychiatric treatment for underlying mood disorders. Participants completed a demographics form, screens for cognitive impairment and alcohol misuse, a semi-structured diagnostic interview, and measures of primary (suicide ideation and death ideation) and secondary study outcomes (depressive symptom severity, social adjustment and support, psychological well-being), and psychotherapy process measures. Participants experienced significant reductions in suicide ideation, death ideation, and depressive symptom severity, and significant improvement in perceived meaning in life, social adjustment, perceived social support, and other psychological well-being variables. Study participants experienced enhanced psychological well-being and reduced symptoms of depression and suicide ideation over the course of IPT adapted for older adults at risk for suicide. Larger, controlled trials are needed to further evaluate the impact of this novel intervention and to test methods for translating and integrating focused interventions into standard clinical care with at-risk older adults. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Feasibility of a Text-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention in Rural Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, D.; Silva, S.; Njuru, J.; Bishop, T.; Fish, L. J.; Simmons, L. A.; Choi, S. H.; Pollak, K. I.

    2018-01-01

    Text-based interventions are effective for smoking cessation, but have not been tested in rural older adults. The purpose of this study was to compare the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of a text-based Scheduled Gradual Reduction (SGR) program to a non-SGR text messaging support condition among rural older adults. Adults over…

  10. Cognitive health benefits of strengthening exercise for community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Nimon, Joseph P; Westen, Sarah C

    2010-11-01

    While aerobic exercise has been linked to improved performance on cognitive tasks of executive functioning among older adults, not all older adults can avail themselves of such exercise due to physical limitations. In this study, community-dwelling older adults were evaluated on tasks of executive functioning before and after a month-long strengthening, nonaerobic exercise program. A total of 16 participants who engaged in such exercise showed significantly improved scores on Digits Backward and Stroop C tasks when compared to 16 participants who were on an exercise waiting list. Positive benefits of strengthening exercise on cognition are supported. Additional research is needed to clarify the generalizability of these findings.

  11. Impulsivity and hopelessness as predictors of suicide-related ideation among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Eva; O'Rourke, Norm

    2009-10-01

    Research has demonstrated that impulsivity is strongly associated with suicide-related ideation and behaviour among young adults. However, to date, the potential importance of impulsivity as a predictor of suicide-related ideation in later life has yet to be determined. Our study examined impulsivity, hopelessness, depressive symptomatology, and sociodemographic factors vis-à-vis suicide-related ideation among older adults at risk of self-harm. A sample (n = 117) of older adults was recruited from multiple sources for this study over a 1-year period. Suicide-related ideation was measured with the Geriatric Suicide Ideation Scale, a multidimensional measure of suicide-related ideation developed for use with older adults. Canonical correlation identified 2 pairings of linear composites in which impulsivity emerged along both as significantly associated with facets of suicide-related ideation. Of note, the greater proportion of variance in impulsivity was subsumed along the second set of vectors with somatic depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that the impulse to self-harm may be even more pronounced among older adults less likely to present as typically depressed. It is further suggested that impulsivity is more broadly associated with suicide-related ideation than hopelessness, and that screening for impulsivity as well as hopelessness may increase clinicians' ability to identify older adults at greatest risk of self-harm.

  12. UNDERSTANDING OLDER ADULT LEARNERS IN DISTANCE EDUCATION: The Case of Universiti Sains Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nailul Morad MOHD NOR

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available World population ageing is unprecedented and pervasive which will affect all countries in the world. According to a United Nation report (2010: “By 2045, the number of older persons in the world will exceed the number of young for the first time in history.” The number of the older adult learners in distance education programs is also expected to increase in tandem with the growth of ageing population throughout the world. As such distance education institutions and instructors should be vigilant to this new emerging group of learners. The objectives of this study were to identify factors related to older adult learners’ participation in the distance education degree programs and their characteristics. Data were collected by using interviews and questionnaires. Respondents for the study were older adult learners age 50 and over who enrolled in degree programs at the School of Distance Education (SDE, Universiti Sains Malaysia in Malaysia. Five older adult learners were interviewed and 72 out of 123 respondents completed the questionnaires. The findings indicated that older adult learners’ participation in the distance education degree programs is mainly due to career advancement and to seek knowledge. The older adult learners’ distinct characteristics are high motivation, eager to learn, health conscious, effective time management, good social skills, no financial difficulties and have strong family support.

  13. Comparable Rest-related Promotion of Spatial Memory Consolidation in Younger and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Michael; Wolbers, Thomas; Harris, Mathew A.; Hauff, Patrick; Della Sala, Sergio; Dewar, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    Flexible spatial navigation depends on cognitive mapping, a function that declines with increasing age. In young adults, a brief period of post-navigation rest promotes the consolidation/integration of spatial memories into accurate cognitive maps. We examined (1) whether rest promotes spatial memory consolidation/integration in older adults and (2) whether the magnitude of the rest benefit changes with increasing age. Young and older adults learned a route through a virtual environment, followed by a 10min delay comprising either wakeful rest or a perceptual task, and a subsequent cognitive mapping task, requiring the pointing to landmarks from different locations. Pointing accuracy was lower in the older than younger adults. However, there was a comparable rest-related enhancement in pointing accuracy in the two age groups. Together our findings suggest that (i) the age-related decline in cognitive mapping cannot be explained by increased consolidation interference in older adults, and (ii) as we grow older rest continues to support the consolidation/integration of spatial memories. PMID:27689512

  14. The Potential of Three Computer-Based Communication Activities for Supporting Older Adult Independent Living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Heinz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Technology has become an increasingly integral part of life. For example, technology allows individuals to stay in touch with loved ones, obtain medical services through telehealthcare, and enjoy an overall higher quality of life. Particularly for older adults, using technology increases the likelihood that they will maintain their independence and autonomy. Long-distance caregiving has recently become a feasible option where caregivers for older adults can access reports and information about their loved one’s patterns that day (e.g., food and medication intake. Technology may be able to offset age-related challenges (e.g., caregiving, accessing healthcare, decreased social networks by applying technology to the needs of older adults. Solutions for meeting such challenges, however, have been less targeted. In addition, the healthcare system is evolving to focus on providing options and services in the home. This has direct implications for older adults, as the majority of healthcare services are utilized by older adults. Research is still at the beginning stages of developing successful technology tools that are compatible with older adult users. Therefore, the design, implementation, and outcome of such computer-based communication activities will be discussed in this paper in order to guide future endeavors in technology marketed for older adults.

  15. Perceived duration of emotional events: evidence for a positivity effect in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Jeffrey R; Tanner, Jessica; Clarke, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Arousal and negative affect modulate the effect of emotion on the subjective experience of the passage of time. Given that older adults are less aroused by negative emotional stimuli, and report lower levels of negative affect, compared with younger adults, the present study examined whether the effect of emotion on time perception differed in older and younger adults. Participants performed a temporal bisection task for emotional (i.e., angry, sad, happy) and neutral facial expressions presented at varying temporal intervals. Older adults perceived the duration of both positive and threatening events longer than neutral events, whereas younger adults only perceived threatening events longer than neutral events. The results, which are partially consistent with the positivity effect of aging postulated by the socioemotional selectivity theory, are the first to show how the effect of emotion on perceived duration affects older adults, and support previous research indicating that only threatening events prolong perceived duration in younger adults.

  16. Stereotypes, Warnings, and Identity-Related Variables Influence Older Adults' Susceptibility to Associative False Memory Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amy M; Gallo, David A; Barber, Sarah J; Maddox, Keith B; Thomas, Ayanna K

    2017-08-01

    Activating ageist stereotypes can impair older adults' ability to remember information. This effect has been shown to be strongest for older adults who possess certain characteristics (e.g., young-old, highly educated). The present study extended this line of research to investigate the relationship between stereotyping and false memory susceptibility in older adults. We first presented older adults with lists of associated words in an incidental learning paradigm. Afterward, we manipulated whether participants were presented with stereotypes about aging and whether they were given warnings about the associative nature of the lists. Participants then completed a yes/no recognition test and answered demographic questions. Older adults in the stereotyped group were more likely to falsely recognize non-presented theme words than older adults in the control group. Further, those who were highly educated and/or retired were most likely to experience this false memory susceptibility. Similar to the research on veridical memory, these findings suggest that the effects of ageist stereotyping on older adults' false memory susceptibility may be best understood in terms of the individual differences that older adults possess. Identifying the types of people who are at risk of experiencing stereotype threat is an important step toward helping older adults avoid memory impairment in the presence of common stereotypes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Should we consider steps with variable height for a safer stair negotiation in older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzler, Marcos R; da Rocha, Emmanuel S; Dos Santos, Christielen S; Ceccon, Fernando G; Priario, Liver A; Carpes, Felipe P

    2018-01-01

    Effects of exercise on foot clearances are important. In older adults variations in foot clearances during walking may lead to a fall, but there is a lack of information concerning stair negotiation in older adults. Whether a condition of post exercise changes foot clearances between steps of a staircase in older adults still unknown. To determine differences in clearances when older adults negotiate different steps of a staircase before and after a session of aerobic exercise. Kinematics data from 30 older adults were acquired and the toe and heel clearances were determined for each step. Clearances were compared between the steps. Smaller clearances were found at the highest step during ascending and descending, which was not changed by exercise. Smaller clearances suggest higher risk of tripping at the top of the staircase, regardless of exercise. A smaller step at the top of a short flight of stairs could reduce chances of tripping in older adults. It suggests that steps with variable height could make stair negotiation safer in older adults. This hypothesis should be tested in further studies.

  18. Mortality among older adults with opioid use disorders in the Veteran's Health Administration, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larney, Sarah; Bohnert, Amy S B; Ganoczy, Dara; Ilgen, Mark A; Hickman, Matthew; Blow, Fred C; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2015-02-01

    The population of people with opioid use disorders (OUD) is aging. There has been little research on the effects of aging on mortality rates and causes of death in this group. We aimed to compare mortality in older (≥ 50 years of age) adults with OUD to that in younger (OUD and older adults with no history of OUD. We also examined risk factors for specific causes of death in older adults with OUD. Using data from the Veteran's Health Administration National Patient Care Database (2000-2011), we compared all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates in older adults with OUD to those in younger adults with OUD and older adults without OUD. We then generated a Cox regression model with specific causes of death treated as competing risks. Older adults with OUD were more likely to die from any cause than younger adults with OUD. The drug-related mortality rate did not decline with age. HIV-related and liver-related deaths were higher among older OUD compared to same-age peers without OUD. There were very few clinically important predictors of specific causes of death. Considerable drug-related mortality in people with OUD suggests a need for greater access to overdose prevention and opioid substitution therapy across the lifespan. Elevated risk of liver-related death in older adults may be addressed through antiviral therapy for hepatitis C virus infection. There is an urgent need to explore models of care that address the complex health needs of older adults with OUD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Designing a Tablet Touch-Screen Interface for Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdezoto, Nervo; Grönvall, Erik

    Sustaining daily, unsupervised healthcare activities in a private home setting can challenge, among others, older adults. In this paper, we discuss experiences from designing a tablet mobile application, MediFrame, to support older adults’ medication management at home. In relation to Medi...

  20. Treatment of Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy in Older Adults with Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinberg, Nataliya; Salbu, Rebecca L; Goswami, Gayotri; Cohen, Kenneth

    2016-11-01

    To review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, screening and diagnosis, and optimal treatment of diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) and its implications in older adults. A search of PubMed using the Mesh terms "diabetes," "type 1," "insulin-dependent," "T1DM," and "diabetic autonomic neuropathy" was performed to find relevant primary literature. Additional search terms "epidemiology," "geriatric," and "risk" were employed. All English-language articles from 2005 to 2015 appearing in these searches were reviewed for relevance. Related articles suggested in the PubMed search and clinical guidelines from the American Diabetes Association and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists were reviewed. These uncovered further resources for risk stratification, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of DAN. DAN is highly prevalent in the diabetes population and increases the risk of morbidity and mortality in older adults, yet, often goes undiagnosed and untreated. Treatment of DAN is complex in the older adult because of poor tolerability of many pharmacologic treatment options; therefore, great care must be taken when selecting therapy as to avoid unwanted adverse effects. With increasing life-expectancy of patients with diabetes mellitus, awareness of DAN and its implications to older adults is needed in primary care. Consistent screening and appropriate treatment of DAN in older adults with diabetes mellitus is essential in helping to maintain functional status and avoid adverse events.

  1. Age and the purchase of prescription drug insurance by older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szrek, Helena; Bundorf, M Kate

    2011-06-01

    The Medicare Part D Prescription Drug Program places an unprecedented degree of choice in the hands of older adults despite concerns over their ability to make effective decisions and desire to have extensive choice in this context. While previous research has compared older adults to younger adults along these dimensions, our study, in contrast, examines how likelihood to delay decision making and preferences for choice differ by age among older age cohorts. Our analysis is based on responses of older adults to a simulation of enrollment in Medicare Part D. We examine how age, numeracy, cognitive reflection, and the interaction between age and performance on these instruments are related to the decision to enroll in a Medicare prescription drug plan and preference for choice in this context. We find that numeracy and cognitive reflection are positively associated with enrollment likelihood and that they are more important determinants of enrollment than age. We also find that greater numeracy is associated with a lower willingness to pay for choice. Hence, our findings raise concern that older adults, and, in particular, those with poorer numerical processing skills, may need extra support in enrolling in the program: they are less likely to enroll than those with stronger numerical processing skills, even though they show greater willingness to pay for choice. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Personality disorder traits, risk factors, and suicide ideation among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Danielle R; Poindexter, Erin K; Cukrowicz, Kelly C

    2015-11-01

    Personality disorder traits are relatively prevalent among older adults, and can be associated with complex and chronic difficulties, including suicide risk. However, there is a lack of research regarding personality disorders and suicide ideation in older adults. Depressive symptoms and hopelessness may be important to the relation between personality disorders and suicide risk. Additionally, variables from the interpersonal theory of suicide, perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, may be critical risk factors for suicide in this population. We hypothesized that perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, theory-based variables, would act as parallel mediators of the relation between personality disorder traits and suicide ideation, whereas depressive symptoms and hopelessness would not. The hypothesis was tested in a sample of 143 older adults recruited from a primary care setting. Participants completed self-report questionnaires of personality traits, suicide ideation, depressive symptoms, hopelessness, perceived burdensomeness, and thwarted belongingness. Findings from a non-parametric bootstrapping procedure indicated that perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and depressive symptoms mediated the relation between total personality disorder traits and suicide ideation. Hopelessness did not act as a mediator. These findings indicate that perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and depressive symptoms are likely important risk factors for suicide ideation among older adults. Clinicians should be aware of these issues when assessing and treating suicide risk among older adults.

  3. Self-transcendence and medication adherence in older adults with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nezbile F; Dunn, Karen S

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-transcendence and medication adherence among older adults prescribed antihypertensive medication. Descriptive, correlational research design. Forty-six older adults who were prescribed antihypertensive medications from an independent living facility participated in this study. Participants were given a survey that included a demographic questionnaire, the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale, and Reed's Self-Transcendence Scale. No significant relationship was found between medication adherence and self-transcendence (r = -.20, p = .18). Ninety percent of the participants however, admitted to cutting back or stopping their medication without notifying their providers. Continued investigation is needed to identify reasons why older adults fail to adhere to taking prescribed hypertension medications in order to improve health outcomes in this population. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Psychotherapy Termination Practices with Older Adults: Impact of Patient and Therapist Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Daniel J; Zeff, Patricia; Zweig, Richard A

    2018-02-06

    The aims of this study were to survey clinicians' opinions regarding psychotherapy practices in mutual termination with a specified population (depressed older adult outpatients) and to examine the patient and therapist characteristics that may influence such practices. We surveyed psychologists' (N = 96) psychotherapy termination practices, using a hypothetical depressed older adult as a referent, to assess consensus on the appropriateness of various guidelines to termination and to examine whether these differ as a function of patient and therapist characteristics. Several practices were generally agreed to be "extremely appropriate" when terminating psychotherapy with older adults, including collaborating to determine the end date of treatment and discussing patient growth. Data also indicate that patient factors, such as personality pathology, and therapist factors, such as having an Integrative theoretical orientation were associated with differential endorsement of termination practices. Identification as a geropsychologist or working regularly with older adults were associated with a more cautious approach to termination. There is substantial consensus regarding many approaches to termination, but modifications might be appropriate depending on patient characteristics. Clinicians agree on a set of fundamental termination practices when working with older adults, but modify these based on orientation and diagnosis.

  5. Channels of health communications used among Korean and Asian Indian older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Seon

    2010-01-01

    According to Healthy People 2010, health communication is an important tool to reduce health disparities. Communication channels in which people prefer to receive health information may differ by race/ethnicity. One of the main challenges in designing an effective health communication program is to identify the most trusted and most often used channels of health information by Asian older adults. The aim of this study is to determine which health communication channels can be used to promote healthy lifestyles among older adults. A non-probability, convenience-sampling technique was used to recruit Korean (n = 9) and Asian Indian (n = 9) older adults from two senior centers in New York City. The findings from the two focus groups identified three distinct channels used by Asian older adults when obtaining health information: interpersonal (i.e., health care providers, word of mouth), mass media (i.e., ethnic mass media sources), and community specific (i.e., religious organizations, community centers). Health communication is an important area for prevention. Increased efforts are needed to develop culturally appropriate health messages and equally important to deliver these messages in the context in which Asian older adults trust and use the most.

  6. Promoting Food Safety Awareness for Older Adults by Using Online Education Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Amber; Francis, Sarah L.; Shaw, Angela; Rajagopal, Lakshman

    2016-01-01

    Older adults are susceptible to and at greater risk for food-borne illness in comparison to those in other adult age groups. Online education is an underused method for the delivery of food safety information to this population. Three online mini-modules, based on social marketing theory (SMT), were created for and pilot-tested with older adults.…

  7. Pathways to Homelessness among Older Homeless Adults: Results from the HOPE HOME Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rebecca T.; Goodman, Leah; Guzman, David; Tieu, Lina; Ponath, Claudia; Kushel, Margot B.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about pathways to homelessness among older adults. We identified life course experiences associated with earlier versus later onset of homelessness in older homeless adults and examined current health and functional status by age at first homelessness. We interviewed 350 homeless adults, aged 50 and older, recruited via population-based sampling. Participants reported age at first episode of adult homelessness and their life experiences during 3 time periods: childhood (homelessness before age 50 versus at age 50 or older. Participants reported current health and functional status, including recent mental health and substance use problems. Older homeless adults who first became homeless before 50 had more adverse life experiences (i.e., mental health and substance use problems, imprisonment) and lower attainment of adult milestones (i.e., marriage, full-time employment) compared to individuals with later onset. After multivariable adjustment, adverse experiences were independently associated with experiencing a first episode of homelessness before age 50. Individuals who first became homeless before age 50 had higher prevalence of recent mental health and substance use problems and more difficulty performing instrumental activities of daily living. Life course experiences and current vulnerabilities of older homeless adults with first homelessness before age 50 differed from those with later onset of homelessness. Prevention and service interventions should be adapted to meet different needs. PMID:27163478

  8. Pathways to Homelessness among Older Homeless Adults: Results from the HOPE HOME Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rebecca T; Goodman, Leah; Guzman, David; Tieu, Lina; Ponath, Claudia; Kushel, Margot B

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about pathways to homelessness among older adults. We identified life course experiences associated with earlier versus later onset of homelessness in older homeless adults and examined current health and functional status by age at first homelessness. We interviewed 350 homeless adults, aged 50 and older, recruited via population-based sampling. Participants reported age at first episode of adult homelessness and their life experiences during 3 time periods: childhood (homelessness before age 50 versus at age 50 or older. Participants reported current health and functional status, including recent mental health and substance use problems. Older homeless adults who first became homeless before 50 had more adverse life experiences (i.e., mental health and substance use problems, imprisonment) and lower attainment of adult milestones (i.e., marriage, full-time employment) compared to individuals with later onset. After multivariable adjustment, adverse experiences were independently associated with experiencing a first episode of homelessness before age 50. Individuals who first became homeless before age 50 had higher prevalence of recent mental health and substance use problems and more difficulty performing instrumental activities of daily living. Life course experiences and current vulnerabilities of older homeless adults with first homelessness before age 50 differed from those with later onset of homelessness. Prevention and service interventions should be adapted to meet different needs.

  9. Poor Appetite and Dietary Intake in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meij, Barbara S; Wijnhoven, Hanneke A H; Lee, Jung S; Houston, Denise K; Hue, Trisha; Harris, Tamara B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Newman, Anne B; Visser, Marjolein

    2017-10-01

    Poor appetite in older adults leads to sub-optimal food intake and increases the risk of undernutrition. The impact of poor appetite on food intake in older adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the differences in food intake among older community-dwelling adults with different reported appetite levels. Cross-sectional analysis of data from a longitudinal prospective study. Health, aging, and body composition study performed in the USA. 2,597 community-dwelling adults aged 70-79. A semi-quantitative, interviewer-administered, 108-item food frequency questionnaire designed to estimate dietary intake. Poor appetite was defined as the report of a moderate, poor, or very poor appetite in the past month and was compared with good or very good appetite. The mean age of the study sample was 74.5 ± 2.8 years; 48.2% were men, 37.7% were black, and 21.8% reported a poor appetite. After adjustment for total energy intake and potential confounders (including biting/chewing problems), participants with a poor appetite had a significantly lower consumption of protein and dietary fiber, solid foods, protein rich foods, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables, but a higher consumption of dairy foods, fats, oils, sweets, and sodas compared to participants with very good appetite. In addition, they were less likely to report consumption of significant larger portion sizes. Older adults reporting a poor appetite showed a different dietary intake pattern compared to those with (very) good appetite. Better understanding of the specific dietary intake pattern related to a poor appetite in older adults can be used for nutrition interventions to enhance food intake, diet variety, and diet quality. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  10. Pathways to Homelessness among Older Homeless Adults: Results from the HOPE HOME Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca T Brown

    Full Text Available Little is known about pathways to homelessness among older adults. We identified life course experiences associated with earlier versus later onset of homelessness in older homeless adults and examined current health and functional status by age at first homelessness. We interviewed 350 homeless adults, aged 50 and older, recruited via population-based sampling. Participants reported age at first episode of adult homelessness and their life experiences during 3 time periods: childhood (<18 years, young adulthood (ages 18-25, and middle adulthood (ages 26-49. We used a structured modeling approach to identify experiences associated with first adult homelessness before age 50 versus at age 50 or older. Participants reported current health and functional status, including recent mental health and substance use problems. Older homeless adults who first became homeless before 50 had more adverse life experiences (i.e., mental health and substance use problems, imprisonment and lower attainment of adult milestones (i.e., marriage, full-time employment compared to individuals with later onset. After multivariable adjustment, adverse experiences were independently associated with experiencing a first episode of homelessness before age 50. Individuals who first became homeless before age 50 had higher prevalence of recent mental health and substance use problems and more difficulty performing instrumental activities of daily living. Life course experiences and current vulnerabilities of older homeless adults with first homelessness before age 50 differed from those with later onset of homelessness. Prevention and service interventions should be adapted to meet different needs.

  11. Association between Obesity and Serum 25(OH)D Concentrations in Older Mexican Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rontoyanni, Victoria G; Avila, Jaqueline C; Kaul, Sapna; Wong, Rebeca; Veeranki, Sreenivas P

    2017-01-31

    Vitamin D is essential for maintaining bone mineralization and calcium homeostasis, and prevents falls and fractures in older adults. Mexico is undergoing an epidemiologic and demographic transition with increasing obesity rates. The study's aim was to determine the association of obesity with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in older Mexican adults. Data from 1772 Mexicans, aged ≥50 years, enrolled in a sub-sample of the 3rd wave of the Mexican Health and Aging Study, were included. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were used to define vitamin D status, and were categorized into tertiles. Body mass index measures were used to categorize older adults into under/normal weight, overweight, and obese groups. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship, adjusting for potential confounders. Approximately 40% and 37% of older Mexican adults were either overweight or obese, respectively. Compared to under/normal weight older Mexicans, obese adults were 1.78 times (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.27-2.48) and 1.94 times (95% CI 1.40-2.68) more associated with the first and second tertile concentrations of serum 25(OH)D, respectively. Overweight adults were 1.52 times (95% CI 1.12-2.06) more associated with the second tertile of serum 25(OH)D concentration than under/normal weight adults. Overweight/Obesity was found to be significantly associated with low concentrations of serum 25(OH) in older Mexican adults.

  12. Reducing Student Bias against Older Adults through the Use of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Carolyn J.; Harnek Hall, Diane M.; Miller, Shari E.

    2010-01-01

    Human services educators must address the issue of students' bias toward older adults to encourage interest and meet the growing need for professionals in the field. The use of literature can challenge students' preconceptions of older adults while innovative teaching methods can guide their development of more tolerant views and introduce them to…

  13. Herder and Modernity: From Lesser-Taught Languages to Lesser-Taught Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Votruba

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The typical North American curriculum of a lesser-taught Slavic language implicitly relies on the legacy of Johann Gottfried von Herder’s interpretation that language in and of itself contains national (ethnic culture. At the same time, enrolments are dwindling even in courses in the most commonly taught Slavic languages. Millennials’ understandable focus on the practicality of the courses they take make it unlikely for the lesser-taught languages to survive the slump. On the other hand, foreign culture courses are appearing to hold their ground more successfully. Slavic departments may reconsider Herder’s dictum as they try to maintain or establish programs in lesser-taught languages and cultures.

  14. Factors associated with diet quality of older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Império de FREITAS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Evaluate the factors associated with diet quality of older adults from the city of São Caetano do Sul, São Paulo, Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 295 older adults receiving care in health care units in São Caetano do Sul. Diet quality was assessed using the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index. The associations between the diet quality mean score and the socio-demographic, economic, and anthropometric characteristics and lifestyle and health conditions were verified using multiple linear regression. Results Lower diet quality mean score were associated with the variables: marital status (widowed or separated (β=-2.02; p=0.047, retired (β=-4.24; p=0.034, and smoking (β=-8.06; p=0.001; whereas higher diet quality mean score were associated with higher education level (9 years or more (β=3.49; p=0.013. Conclusion Individuals with higher education level had better diet quality, and those who were widowed or separated, retired, and smokers had worse diet quality indicating that socio-demographic, economic, and lifestyle are factors that can influence food choice of older adults.

  15. Cognitive benefits of computer games for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelinski, Elizabeth M; Reyes, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a basis for the hypothesis that digital action games may produce cognitive benefits for older adults. First, a discussion of the relationship between cognitive and physical health shows the increasing weight given to the role of declines in cognition in the development of dependency in older adult population studies. Second, evidence that cognitive training produces 'far transfer' in elders is presented. The key issue is that one approach, known as extended practice training, has been successful in producing far transfer to memory and other processes. Its principles, which are consistent with those associated with positive brain plasticity effects, are identified. Those principles are then related to the mechanics of digital action games, which also have the important added feature of producing the experiences of presence, engagement, and flow, the subjective elements of game play that are likely to sustain interest and emotional investment in the skills practiced so that the play produces cognitive benefits. The specific cognitive abilities proposed to be improved by different types of game genres are outlined, and recent developments in game and interface design that may affect the willingness of older adults to play are described.

  16. Multitasking in older adults with type 2 diabetes: A cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Jason L; McDowd, Joan M; Mahnken, Jonathan D; Burns, Jeffrey M; Sabus, Carla H; Britton-Carpenter, Amanda J; Utech, Nora B; Kluding, Patricia M

    2017-01-01

    Deficits in the ability to multitask contribute to gait abnormalities and falls in many at-risk populations. However, it is unclear whether older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) also demonstrate impairments in multitasking. The purpose of this study was to compare multitasking performance in cognitively intact older adults with and without DM and explore its relationship to measures of gait and functional ability. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 40 individuals aged 60 and older with type 2 DM and a matched group of 40 cognitively intact older adults without DM. Multitasking was examined via the ambulatory Walking and Remembering Test (WART) and seated Pursuit Rotor Test (PRT). Self-selected normal and fast walking speed and stride length variability were quantitatively measured, and self-reported functional ability was assessed via the Late Life Function and Disability Index (LLFDI). Participants with DM walked slower and took more steps off path when multitasking during the WART. No between-group differences in multitasking performance were observed on the PRT. Multitasking performance demonstrated little correlation with gait and functional ability in either group. Older adults with DM appear to perform poorly on an ambulatory measure of multitasking. However, we analyzed a relatively small, homogenous sample of older adults with and without type 2 DM and factors such as peripheral neuropathy and the use of multiple comparisons complicate interpretation of the data. Future research should explore the interactions between multitasking and safety, fall risk, and function in this vulnerable population. Clinicians should recognize that an array of factors may contribute to gait and physical dysfunction in older adults with type 2 diabetes, and be prepared to assess and intervene appropriately.

  17. State-based versus reward-based motivation in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Darrell A; Cooper, Jessica A; Byrne, Kaileigh A; Gorlick, Marissa A; Maddox, W Todd

    2014-12-01

    Recent decision-making work has focused on a distinction between a habitual, model-free neural system that is motivated toward actions that lead directly to reward and a more computationally demanding goal-directed, model-based system that is motivated toward actions that improve one's future state. In this article, we examine how aging affects motivation toward reward-based versus state-based decision making. Participants performed tasks in which one type of option provided larger immediate rewards but the alternative type of option led to larger rewards on future trials, or improvements in state. We predicted that older adults would show a reduced preference for choices that led to improvements in state and a greater preference for choices that maximized immediate reward. We also predicted that fits from a hybrid reinforcement-learning model would indicate greater model-based strategy use in younger than in older adults. In line with these predictions, older adults selected the options that maximized reward more often than did younger adults in three of the four tasks, and modeling results suggested reduced model-based strategy use. In the task where older adults showed similar behavior to younger adults, our model-fitting results suggested that this was due to the utilization of a win-stay-lose-shift heuristic rather than a more complex model-based strategy. Additionally, within older adults, we found that model-based strategy use was positively correlated with memory measures from our neuropsychological test battery. We suggest that this shift from state-based to reward-based motivation may be due to age related declines in the neural structures needed for more computationally demanding model-based decision making.

  18. Macronutrient intake and inadequacies of community-dwelling older adults, a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, ter S.J.; Verlaan, S.; Mijnarends, D.; Schols, J.M.G.A.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Luiking, Y.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anorexia of ageing may predispose older adults to under-nutrition and protein energy malnutrition. Studies, however, report a large variation in nutrient inadequacies among community-dwelling older adults. Summary: This systematic review provides a comprehensive overview of the energy

  19. Older adults: are they ready to adopt health-related ICT?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart, Tsipi; Kalderon, Efrat

    2013-11-01

    The proportion of older adults in the population is steadily increasing, causing healthcare costs to rise dramatically. This situation calls for the implementation of health-related information and communication technologies (ICT) to assist in providing more cost-effective healthcare to the elderly. In order for such a measure to succeed, older adults must be prepared to adopt these technologies. Prior research shows, however, that this population lags behind in ICT adoption, although some believe that this is a temporary phenomenon that will soon change. To assess use by older adults of technology in general and ICT in particular, in order to evaluate their readiness to adopt health-related ICT. We employed the questionnaire used by Selwyn et al. in 2000 in the UK, as well as a survey instrument used by Morris and Venkatesh, to examine the validity of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in the context of computer use by older employees. 123 respondents answered the questions via face-to-face interviews, 63 from the US and 60 from Israel. SPSS 17.0 was used for the data analysis. The results show that although there has been some increase in adoption of modern technologies, including ICT, most of the barriers found by Selwyn et al. are still valid. ICT use was determined by accessibility of computers and support and by age, marital status, education, and health. Health, however, was found to moderate the effect of age, healthier older people being far more likely to use computers than their unhealthy coevals. The TPB was only partially supported, since only perceived behavioral control (PBC) emerged as significantly affecting intention to use a computer, while age, contrary to the findings of Morris and Venkatesh, interacted differently for Americans and Israelis. The main reason for non-use was 'no interest' or 'no need', similar to findings from data collected in 2000. Adoption of technology by older adults is still limited, though it has increased as compared

  20. Temporal Discounting of Hypothetical Monetary Rewards by Adolescents, Adults, and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Robert; McHugh, Louise A.

    2009-01-01

    The present experiment examined temporal discounting across 3 different age bands: adolescents, adults, and older adults (mean ages 14, 46, and 73 years, respectively). A computerized task was employed in which participants were asked to choose between larger rewards available at a specified time in the future--either 100 British Pounds or 1,000…

  1. Geriatric-specific triage criteria are more sensitive than standard adult criteria in identifying need for trauma center care in injured older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichwan, Brian; Darbha, Subrahmanyam; Shah, Manish N; Thompson, Laura; Evans, David C; Boulger, Creagh T; Caterino, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate the sensitivity of Ohio's 2009 emergency medical services (EMS) geriatric trauma triage criteria compared with the previous adult triage criteria in identifying need for trauma center care among older adults. We studied a retrospective cohort of injured patients aged 16 years or older in the 2006 to 2011 Ohio Trauma Registry. Patients aged 70 years or older were considered geriatric. We identified whether each patient met the geriatric and the adult triage criteria. The outcome measure was need for trauma center care, defined by surrogate markers: Injury Severity Score greater than 15, operating room in fewer than 48 hours, any ICU stay, and inhospital mortality. We calculated sensitivity and specificity of both triage criteria for both age groups. We included 101,577 patients; 33,379 (33%) were geriatric. Overall, 57% of patients met adult criteria and 68% met geriatric criteria. Using Injury Severity Score, for older adults geriatric criteria were more sensitive for need for trauma center care (93%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 92% to 93%) than adult criteria (61%; 95% CI 60% to 62%). Geriatric criteria decreased specificity in older adults from 61% (95% CI 61% to 62%) to 49% (95% CI 48% to 49%). Geriatric criteria in older adults (93% sensitivity, 49% specificity) performed similarly to the adult criteria in younger adults (sensitivity 87% and specificity 44%). Similar patterns were observed for other outcomes. Standard adult EMS triage guidelines provide poor sensitivity in older adults. Ohio's geriatric trauma triage guidelines significantly improve sensitivity in identifying Injury Severity Score and other surrogate markers of the need for trauma center care, with modest decreases in specificity for older adults. Copyright © 2014 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Age-Related Gene Expression Differences in Monocytes from Human Neonates, Young Adults, and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissner, Michelle M; Thomas, Brandon J; Wee, Kathleen; Tong, Ann-Jay; Kollmann, Tobias R; Smale, Stephen T

    2015-01-01

    A variety of age-related differences in the innate and adaptive immune systems have been proposed to contribute to the increased susceptibility to infection of human neonates and older adults. The emergence of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) provides an opportunity to obtain an unbiased, comprehensive, and quantitative view of gene expression differences in defined cell types from different age groups. An examination of ex vivo human monocyte responses to lipopolysaccharide stimulation or Listeria monocytogenes infection by RNA-seq revealed extensive similarities between neonates, young adults, and older adults, with an unexpectedly small number of genes exhibiting statistically significant age-dependent differences. By examining the differentially induced genes in the context of transcription factor binding motifs and RNA-seq data sets from mutant mouse strains, a previously described deficiency in interferon response factor-3 activity could be implicated in most of the differences between newborns and young adults. Contrary to these observations, older adults exhibited elevated expression of inflammatory genes at baseline, yet the responses following stimulation correlated more closely with those observed in younger adults. Notably, major differences in the expression of constitutively expressed genes were not observed, suggesting that the age-related differences are driven by environmental influences rather than cell-autonomous differences in monocyte development.

  3. Sensory Dysfunction and Sexuality in the U.S. Population of Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Selena; Pinto, Jayant M; Wroblewski, Kristen E; McClintock, Martha K

    2018-04-01

    The sexual experience is shaped by sensory function; with aging, sensory dysfunction may interfere with sexuality and sexual behavior between partners. Specifically, older adults with age-related sensory dysfunction may have less sexual activity than those with better sensory function. In addition, since sexual desire and attraction rests in part upon sensory function, sensory dysfunction may also be associated with less sexual motivation. To test the association between sexual activity and motivation in older adults and their sensory dysfunction. Sensory dysfunction was measured both by global sensory impairment (a validated measure of dysfunction shared among the 5 classic senses: olfaction, vision, taste, touch, hearing) and by total sensory burden (cumulative sensory loss). Sexual activity was quantified by frequency and type of sexual behavior. Sexual motivation was measured by the frequency of sexual ideation and the importance of sex to the respondent. We used cross-sectional data from a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling older adults (aged 57-85 years) in the United States (National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, N = 3,005) in logistic regression analyses. Sexual activity, sexual motivation, and satisfaction with the sexual relationship were self-reported. Older adults with sensory dysfunction were less likely to be sexually active-an association that persisted when accounting for other factors that also affected sexual activity (age, gender, partnered status, mental and physical health, and relationship satisfaction). Nonetheless, sensory dysfunction did not impair sexual motivation, nor affect the physical and emotional satisfaction with the sexual relationship. Among currently sexually active older adults, sensory dysfunction did not affect the frequency of sex or the type of sexual activity (foreplay, vaginal intercourse, or oral sex). These results were the same for 2 different measures of sensory dysfunction. This is the

  4. Phase-shifting response to light in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Jae; Benloucif, Susan; Reid, Kathryn Jean; Weintraub, Sandra; Kennedy, Nancy; Wolfe, Lisa F; Zee, Phyllis C

    2014-01-01

    Age-related changes in circadian rhythms may contribute to the sleep disruption observed in older adults. A reduction in responsiveness to photic stimuli in the circadian timing system has been hypothesized as a possible reason for the advanced circadian phase in older adults. This project compared phase-shifting responses to 2 h of broad-spectrum white light at moderate and high intensities in younger and older adults. Subjects included 29 healthy young (25.1 ± 4.1 years; male to female ratio: 8: 21) and 16 healthy older (66.5 ± 6.0 years; male to female ratio: 5: 11) subjects, who participated in two 4-night and 3-day laboratory stays, separated by at least 3 weeks. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three different time-points, 8 h before (-8), 3 h before (-3) or 3 h after (+3) the core body temperature minimum (CBTmin) measured on the baseline night. For each condition, subjects were exposed in a randomized order to 2 h light pulses of two intensities (2000 lux and 8000 lux) during the two different laboratory stays. Phase shifts were analysed according to the time of melatonin midpoint on the nights before and after light exposure. Older subjects in this study showed an earlier baseline phase and lower amplitude of melatonin rhythm compared to younger subjects, but there was no evidence of age-related changes in the magnitude or direction of phase shifts of melatonin midpoint in response to 2 h of light at either 2000 lux or 8000 lux. These results indicate that the acute phase-shifting response to moderate- or high-intensity broad spectrum light is not significantly affected by age.

  5. Four Medication Safety Tips for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates 4 Medication Safety Tips for Older Adults Share Tweet ... you are experiencing could be due to medications. 4. Review Medications with Your Health Care Provider Ideally, ...

  6. Effects of Vocal Emotion on Memory in Younger and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen; Dupuis, Kate; Smith, Sherri L

    2016-01-01

    Emotional content can enhance memory for visual stimuli, and older adults often perform better if stimuli portray positive emotion. Vocal emotion can enhance the accuracy of word repetition in noise when vocal prosody portrays attention-capturing emotions such as fear and pleasant surprise. In the present study, the authors examined the effect of vocal emotion on the accuracy of repetition and recall in younger and older adults when words are presented in quiet or in a background of competing babble. Younger and older adults (Mage = 20 and 72 years, respectively) participated. Lists of 100 items (carrier phrase plus target word) were presented in recall sets of increasing size. Word repetition accuracy was tested after each item and recall after each trial in each set size. In Experiment 1, one list spoken in a neutral voice and another with emotion (fear, pleasant surprise, sad, neutral) were presented in quiet (n = 24 per group). In Experiment 2, participants (n = 12 per group) were presented the emotional list in noise. In quiet, word repetition accuracy was near perfect for both groups and did not vary systematically with set size for the list spoken in a neutral voice; however, for the emotional list, repetition was less accurate, especially for the older group. Recall in quiet was higher for younger than older adults; collapsed over groups, recall was higher for the neutral than for the emotional list and it decreased with increasing set size. In noise, emotion-specific effects emerged; word repetition for the older group and word recall for both groups (more for younger than older) was best for fear or pleasant surprise and worst for sad. In quiet, vocal emotion reduced the word repetition accuracy of the older group and recall accuracy for both groups. In noise, there were emotion-specific effects on the repetition accuracy of older adults and the recall accuracy of both groups. Both groups, but especially the younger group, performed better for items

  7. Destinations matter: The association between where older adults live and their travel behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudyk, Anna M; Winters, Meghan; Moniruzzaman, Md; Ashe, Maureen C; Gould, Joanie Sims; McKay, Heather

    2015-03-01

    The positive effect of physical activity in the prevention and treatment of many chronic diseases and age-related disabilities, such as mobility-disability, are widely accepted. Mobility is broadly defined as the ability of individuals to move themselves within community environments. These two concepts -physical activity and mobility - are closely linked and together contribute to older adults living healthy, independent lives. Neighborhood destinations may encourage mobility, as older adults typically leave their homes to travel to specific destinations. Thus, neighborhoods with a high prevalence of destinations may provide older adults an attractive opportunity to walk, instead of drive, and thereby obtain incidental physical activity. We know surprisingly little about the specific types of destinations older adults deem relevant and even less about destinations that support the mobility of older adults with low income. Accessible neighborhood destinations may be especially important to older adults with low income as they are more likely to walk as a primary travel mode. Conversely, this population may also be at increased risk of functional impairments that negatively affect their ability to walk. As a means to fill this information gap we aimed to better understand the mobility habits of older adults with low income. Thus, our specific objectives were to: (1) describe the types of destinations older adults with low income most commonly travel to in one week; and (2) determine the association between the prevalence of neighborhood destinations and the number of transportation walking trips these individuals make (average per day). We conducted a cross-sectional study of community-dwelling older adults with low income residing within Metro Vancouver, Canada. We assessed participant travel behavior (frequency, purpose, mode, destination) using seven-day travel diaries and measured the prevalence of neighborhood destinations using the Street Smart Walk Score. We

  8. Predicting falls in older adults using the four square step test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Kimberly; Skornyakov, Elena

    2017-10-01

    The Four Square Step Test (FSST) is a performance-based balance tool involving stepping over four single-point canes placed on the floor in a cross configuration. The purpose of this study was to evaluate properties of the FSST in older adults who lived independently. Forty-five community dwelling older adults provided fall history and completed the FSST, Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up and Go (TUG), and Tinetti in random order. Future falls were recorded for 12 months following testing. The FSST accurately distinguished between non-fallers and multiple fallers, and the 15-second threshold score accurately distinguished multiple fallers from non-multiple fallers based on fall history. The FSST predicted future falls, and performance on the FSST was significantly correlated with performance on the BBS, TUG, and Tinetti. However, the test is not appropriate for older adults who use walkers. Overall, the FSST is a valid yet underutilized measure of balance performance and fall prediction tool that physical therapists should consider using in ambulatory community dwelling older adults.

  9. Albumin levels and cause-specific mortality in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Yi; Hu, Hsiao-Yun; Huang, Nicole; Chou, Yi-Chang; Li, Chung-Pin; Chou, Yiing-Jenq

    2018-04-09

    To investigate the association between serum albumin levels and cause-specific mortality among community-dwelling older adults. This cohort study was based on data obtained from the government-sponsored Annual Geriatric Health Examination Program for the older adults in Taipei City between 2006 and 2010. The study sample consisted of 77,531 community-dwelling Taipei citizens (≥65 years old). Mortality was determined by matching the participants' medical records with national death files. Serum albumin levels were categorized into dwelling older adults had a mean albumin level of 4.3 g/dL, which significantly reduced by age. Compared to albumin levels ≥4.4 g/dL, mildly low albumin levels (4.2-4.3 g/dL) were associated with an increased mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-1.28 for all-cause mortality), and albumin levels dwelling older adults, and mortality risk increased as the albumin level decreased. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Behavioral correlates of anxiety in well-functioning older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losada, Andrés; Márquez-González, María; Pachana, Nancy A; Wetherell, Julie L; Fernández-Fernández, Virginia; Nogales-González, Celia; Ruiz-Díaz, Miguel

    2015-07-01

    Research on the behavioral correlates of anxiety in older adults is sparse. The aim of this study was to explore the association of anxiety with behavioral patterns defined by health, activity, emotional and social variables. A convenience sample of 395 older adults completed measures of health, activity, emotions, social variables and experiential avoidance. Cross-sectional data were analysed using cluster analysis. Five clusters were identified: active healthy, healthy, active vulnerable, lonely inactive and frail lonely. Participants in the active healthy and healthy clusters showed the highest scores on health variables (vitality and physical function), and adaptive scores on the rest of variables. They also reported the lowest scores on anxiety and included the lowest number of cases with clinically significant anxiety levels. Active vulnerable showed high scores on social support, leisure activities and capitalization on them but low scores in vitality and physical functioning. Participants in the lonely inactive cluster reported the highest mean score in experiential avoidance and high scores on boredom and loneliness, and low scores on social support, leisure activities capitalizing on pleasant activities and health variables. Frail lonely represent a particularly vulnerable profile of participants, similar to that of lonely inactive, but with significantly lower scores on health variables and higher scores on boredom and hours watching TV. Anxiety in older adults is not only linked to poor health, but also to dysfunctional social behavior, loneliness, boredom and experiential avoidance. Maladaptive profiles of older adults with regard to these variables have been identified.

  11. Social media use of older adults: a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leist, Anja K

    2013-01-01

    Maintaining social relationships has been defined as a core element of aging well. With a considerable amount of older adults living alone, social media provides the possibility to engage in meaningful social contact, e.g. by joining online social networks and online discussion forums. The review encompasses current knowledge of prerequisites in social media use of older adults such as functional capacity, information and communications technology-related knowledge, and favorable attitudes towards social media. Then, the potential of social media use for clinical practice and possible negative consequences are outlined. Literature on social media use from a gerontological perspective was reviewed in July and August 2012. Online communities are suitable for providing and receiving social support when confronted with a difficult life situation, regardless of geographical location or time. From a practitioner's perspective, social media can be used to advance health-related knowledge such as information on prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of specific conditions and disorders. Further positive consequences have been shown to be overcoming loneliness, relieving stress, and raising feelings of control and self-efficacy. Possible negative consequences could be misuse of personal data as well as the distribution and uncritical adoption of potentially harmful information via online communities. The potential of social media in clinical practice is reflected in a wide range of intervention possibilities for older adults. However, with the rise of social media, new threats emerge for older adults as well. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Older Adults Co-Creating Meaningful Individualized Social Activities Online for Healthy Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blusi, Madeleine; Nilsson, Ingeborg; Lindgren, Helena

    2018-01-01

    Social isolation and loneliness among older people is a growing problem with negative effects on physical and mental health. In co-creation with older adults individualized social activities were designed where older adults through computer mediated communication were able to participate in social activities without leaving their homes. Four types of activities were designed; outdoor activity, music event, visiting a friend and leisure activity. A participatory action research design was applied, where end users together with scientists from two research fields developed, tested and evaluated online participation in the activities. Usability and safety of the systems were major concerns among older adults. The evaluation pointed out that level of simplicity, usability and audio-video quality determined the level of satisfaction with the human interaction during the activity, thereby affecting the meaningfulness of the activity. The research presented in this paper constitutes the first step in a long-term research process aiming at developing a digital coaching system that gives older adults personalized support for increasing participation in meaningful social activities.

  13. Modifying Older Adults’ Daily Sedentary Behaviour Using an Asset-based Solution: Views from Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn A Skelton

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There is a growing public health focus on the promotion of successful and active ageing. Interventions to reduce sedentary behaviour (SB in older adults are feasible and are improved by tailoring to individuals’ context and circumstances. SB is ubiquitous; therefore part of the tailoring process is to ensure individuals’ daily sedentary routine can be modified. The aim of this study was to understand the views of older adults and identify important considerations when creating a solution to modify daily sedentary patterns. Method: This was a qualitative research study. Fifteen older adult volunteers (mean age = 78 years participated in 1 of 4 focus groups to identify solutions to modify daily sedentary routine. Two researchers conducted the focus groups whilst a third took detailed fieldnotes on a flipchart to member check the findings. Data were recorded and analysed thematically. Results: Participants wanted a solution with a range of options which could be tailored to individual needs and circumstances. The strategy suggested was to use the activities of daily routine and reasons why individuals already naturally interrupting their SB, collectively framed as assets. These assets were categorised into 5 sub-themes: physical assets (eg. standing up to reduce stiffness; psychological assets (eg. standing up to reduce feelings of guilt; interpersonal assets (eg. standing up to answer the phone; knowledge assets (eg. standing up due to knowing the benefits of breaking SB and activities of daily living assets (eg. standing up to get a drink. Conclusion: This study provides important considerations from older adults’ perspectives to modify their daily sedentary patterns. The assets identified by participants could be used to co-create a tailored intervention with older adults to reduce SB, which may increase effectiveness and adherence.

  14. Motivations to eat healthily in older Dutch adults--a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, S Coosje; Neter, Judith E; Brouwer, Ingeborg A; Huisman, Martijn; Visser, Marjolein

    2014-11-18

    To influence dietary behaviors, more insight in food choice motivations is necessary. This study identified what motivations older adults have to eat healthily and investigated to what extent these motivations are particular to specific subgroups according to socio-economic position and other demographic, lifestyle and health characteristics. We used data from 1,050 older Dutch adults who participated in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (65-80 years, independently living, normal cognitive status). Motivations to eat healthily and characteristics were measured with a self-reported questionnaire. We used logistic regression analyses to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% CI for the association between subgroups and motivations to eat healthily. The most reported motivations to eat healthily were: "feeling fit" (51.7%), "current health" (49.7%) and "body weight" (39.2%). Multivariate analyses showed that older adults with chronic diseases (≥2 vs. no chronic disease OR: 4.41, 95% CI: 2.31-8.44) and a poor self-rated health (poor vs. good OR: 2.31, 95% CI: 1.22-3.73) were more likely to report "current disease" as a motivation to eat healthily. Groups from lower socio-economic positions were less likely to report "to prevent diseases" (low income vs. high OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.32-0.86, low education vs. high OR: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.27-0.70) and older adults with obesity were less likely to report "current health" (obese vs. normal weight OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.32-0.69) as motivations to eat healthily. Multivariate analyses showed that the presence of a disease in older adults is an important motivation for them to eat healthily, which might indicate that older adults with health problems are aware of the link between their disease and nutrition. Older adults from lower socio-economic positions or those with obesity require a specific approach because disease prevention seems to be of lesser importance for these groups, even though a healthy diet could improve their health

  15. Falls among older adults in the South of Brazil: prevalence and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Luna S; Gomes, Ana Paula; Bierhals, Isabel O; Farías-Antúnez, Simone; Ribeiro, Camila G; Miranda, Vanessa I A; Lutz, Bárbara H; Barbosa-Silva, Thiago G; Lima, Natália P; Bertoldi, Andréa D; Tomasi, Elaine

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Evaluate the prevalence and the factors associated with the occurrence of falls among older adults. METHODS A cross-sectional study with a representative sample of 1,451 elderly residents in the urban area of Pelotas, RS, in 2014. A descriptive analysis of the data was performed and the prevalence of falls in the last year was presented. The analysis of demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral and health factors associated with the outcome was performed using Poisson regression with adjustment for robust variance according to the hierarchical model. The variables were adjusted to each other within each level and for the higher level. Those with p ≤ 0.20 were maintained in the model for confounding control and those with p falls among older adults in the last year was 28.1% (95%CI 25.9-30.5), and most occurred in the person's own residence. Among the older adults who fell, 51.5% (95%CI 46.6-56.4) had a single fall and 12.1% (95%CI 8.9-15.3) had a fracture as a consequence, usually in the lower limbs. The prevalence of falls was higher in women, adults of advanced age, with lower income and schooling level, with functional incapacity for instrumental activities, and patients with diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and arthritis. CONCLUSIONS The occurrence of falls reached almost a third of the older adults, and the prevalence was higher in specific segments of the population in question. About 12% of the older adults who fell fractured some bone. The factors associated with the occurrence of falls identified in this study may guide measures aimed at prevention in the older adult population.

  16. The Precarity of Older Adults Living Alone With Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portacolone, Elena; Rubinstein, Robert L; Covinsky, Kenneth E; Halpern, Jodi; Johnson, Julene K

    2018-01-24

    To examine the lived experience of older adults living alone with cognitive impairment to better understand their needs and concerns. Based on our previous work suggesting that older adults living alone often experience a sense of precarity, we were interested in exploring this construct in older adults living alone with a diagnosis of cognitive impairment. The notion of precarity points to the uncertainty deriving from coping with cumulative pressures while trying to preserve a sense of independence. This is a qualitative study of 12 adults aged 65 and older living alone with cognitive impairment. Six participants had a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease; 6 had a diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment. Participants' lived experiences were elicited through 40 ethnographic interviews and participant observation in their homes. Using a qualitative content analysis approach, interview transcripts and fieldnotes were analyzed to identify codes and themes. Qualitative analysis of transcripts revealed three themes. Theme 1 described the distress stemming from the uncertainty of having cognitive impairment that has an unpredictable course. Theme 2 drew attention to the tendency of participants to feel responsible for managing their cognitive impairment. Theme 3 described the pressures stemming from the lack of appropriate services to support independent living for persons with cognitive impairment. These 3 themes all pointed to facets of precarity. Findings also suggest the dearth of programs to support older adults living alone with cognitive impairment and the need to develop novel programs and interventions. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Entry correlates and motivations of older adults participating in organized exercise programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiggelbout, M.; Hopman-Rock, M.; Mechelen, W. van

    2008-01-01

    This study reports entry correlates and motivations of older adults participating in organized exercise programs in the Netherlands, as determined in a descriptive explorative study (N = 2,350, response rate 86%). Participants were community-dwelling older adults (50+ years) who enrolled and started

  18. Why do pictures, but not visual words, reduce older adults' false memories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rebekah E; Hunt, R Reed; Dunlap, Kathryn R

    2015-09-01

    Prior work shows that false memories resulting from the study of associatively related lists are reduced for both young and older adults when the auditory presentation of study list words is accompanied by related pictures relative to when auditory word presentation is combined with visual presentation of the word. In contrast, young adults, but not older adults, show a reduction in false memories when presented with the visual word along with the auditory word relative to hearing the word only. In both cases of pictures relative to visual words and visual words relative to auditory words alone, the benefit of picture and visual words in reducing false memories has been explained in terms of monitoring for perceptual information. In our first experiment, we provide the first simultaneous comparison of all 3 study presentation modalities (auditory only, auditory plus visual word, and auditory plus picture). Young and older adults show a reduction in false memories in the auditory plus picture condition, but only young adults show a reduction in the visual word condition relative to the auditory only condition. A second experiment investigates whether older adults fail to show a reduction in false memory in the visual word condition because they do not encode perceptual information in the visual word condition. In addition, the second experiment provides evidence that the failure of older adults to show the benefits of visual word presentation is related to reduced cognitive resources. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Urinary incontinence, mental health and loneliness among community-dwelling older adults in Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stickley, Andrew; Santini, Ziggi Ivan; Koyanagi, Ai

    2017-01-01

    Background Urinary incontinence (UI) is associated with worse health among older adults. Little is known however, about its relation with loneliness or the role of mental health in this association. This study examined these factors among older adults in Ireland. Methods Data were analyzed from 6...... community-dwelling adults but this association is largely explained by comorbid mental health problems, in particular, depression.......Background Urinary incontinence (UI) is associated with worse health among older adults. Little is known however, about its relation with loneliness or the role of mental health in this association. This study examined these factors among older adults in Ireland. Methods Data were analyzed from...... 6903 community-dwelling adults aged ≥ 50 collected in the first wave of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) in 2009–11. Information was obtained on the self-reported occurrence (yes/no) and severity (frequency/activity limitations) of UI in the past 12 months. Loneliness was measured using...

  20. Undernutrition and associated factors in a Portuguese older adult community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luísa Moreira dos Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of undernutrition in older adults aged >75 years living in communities and to identify the main factors independently associated with undernutrition. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a random sample of family physicians' medical records of 86 older adults aged >75 years living in the community studied. Their nutritional status was evaluated using the Mini Nutritional Assessment. RESULTS: A total of 10.5% of the elderly were undernourished and 41.9% were at undernutrition risk. According to the logistic regression multivariable model, the following characteristics: being widowed (OR=6.7; 95%CI=1.8-24.6; being institutionalized (OR=12.6; 95%CI=1.7-90.5; or having a negative self-perception of health (OR=15.0; 95%CI=3.3-69.1 were independently associated with a significant increase of undernutrition risk. CONCLUSION: The current study shows that undernutrition is highly prevalent in Portuguese older adults aged >75 years living in communities. The major factors independently associated with their undernutrition are being widowed and institutionalized and having negative self-perception of health. The results obtained show that undernutrition and its associated factors are very serious problems for older adults and a challenge in their health care.

  1. Reward-enhanced memory in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaniol, Julia; Schain, Cécile; Bowen, Holly J

    2014-09-01

    We investigated how the anticipation of remote monetary reward modulates intentional episodic memory formation in younger and older adults. On the basis of prior findings of preserved reward-cognition interactions in aging, we predicted that reward anticipation would be associated with enhanced memory in both younger and older adults. On the basis of previous demonstrations of a time-dependent effect of reward anticipation on memory, we expected the memory enhancement to increase with study-test delay. In Experiment 1, younger and older participants encoded a series of picture stimuli associated with high- or low-reward values. At test (24-hr postencoding), recognition hits resulted in either high or low monetary rewards, whereas false alarms were penalized to discourage guessing. Experiment 2 was similar to Experiment 1, but the study-test delay was manipulated within subjects (immediate vs 24hr). In Experiment 1, younger and older adults showed enhanced recognition for high-reward pictures compared with low-reward pictures. Experiment 2 replicated this finding and additionally showed that the effect did not extend to immediate recognition. The current findings provide support for a time-dependent mechanism of reward-based memory enhancement. They also suggest that aging leaves intact the positive influence of reward anticipation on intentional long-term memory formation. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Older Adults' Casino Gambling Behavior and Their Attitudes Toward New Casino Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscitelli, Anthony; Harrison, Jay; Doherty, Sean; Carmichael, Barbara A

    2017-04-01

    Research on new casinos typically focuses upon their impact on the community, rather than on specific at-risk groups. This research study explores the impact of the opening of a new casino on attitudes of older adult casino patrons, especially those at particular risk of having gambling problems. Results demonstrate that over 80% of older adult casino patrons would not change their attitudes toward gambling or expect to increase their gambling as a result of the opening of a new casino. However, older adults with problem gambling issues are more likely to indicate they would visit a casino more, spend more time at a casino, and gamble more as a result of the opening of a new casino. In addition, older adults with signs of a gambling problem are more likely to say the opening of a new casino would change their opinions of gambling in general or casino gambling.

  3. A humanbecoming qualitative descriptive study on quality of life with older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lina

    2014-04-01

    Quality of life is a universal living experience and is significant for older adults living in long-term residential care facilities. The purposes of this research study were to: explicate the experience of quality of life for older adults, contribute to the understanding of quality of life for older adults and to nursing's extant body of knowledge by enhancing humanbecoming. Humanbecoming was selected as the theoretical perspective for the qualitative descriptive exploratory method study with 10 volunteers living in the same long-term residential care facility in Singapore. Findings showed that: quality of life is fortifying tranquillity amid potential turbulence with the gratifying engagements of diverse affiliations, as envisioning possibilities arise with discordant constraints. The findings of this study have made a significant contribution to the phenomenon - quality of life both in terms of older adults living in nursing homes and from a Singaporean context.

  4. Home Delivered Meals to Older Adults: A Critical Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, Marie C; Donley, Amy M; Wright, James D; Vega, Sara Strickhouser

    The United States is witnessing a growing aging population stemming in part from medical advancements allowing people to live decades longer than previous generations. Simultaneously, food insecurity among older adults has increased, and is projected to get worse as the Baby Boomer generation ages. This review focuses on an assistance program for older adults: home-delivered meals. Specifically, we focus on the effects of Meals on Wheels (MOW) on the physical and emotional well-being of older adults, and the wide variety of procedural and operational issues that various MOW programs around the country experience. Findings from the literature highlight the positive outcomes these programs have on their clients. Although there have been recent budget cut threats from the federal government, evidence suggests that more funding should be allocated so these programs can provide services to everyone in need, and even expand what they are able to offer to older adults.

  5. Daily Living Functioning, Social Engagement and Wellness of Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Zainab

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available AimThe present study aim to investigate the contributing role of daily living functioning and social engagement in enhancing wellness and various dimensions of wellness in older adults.MethodA correlational research was designed. Socio-demographic data was collected. Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, Lubben Social Network Scale, and Perceived Wellness Survey were administered on a sample of 112 participants, including 56 men and 56 women.ResultsA correlation analysis found positive correlations between daily living functioning, social engagement and wellness of older adults. The results of regression analysis concluded that both the daily living functioning and social engagement predicted wellness and domains of wellness as well.ConclusionThe obtained results indicate that older adults who are self-reliant lead a more satisfied life in old age and demonstrate to be more adjusted to the effects of aging.

  6. Risky choice in younger versus older adults: Affective context matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumi Huang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Earlier frameworks have indicated that older adults tend to experience decline in their deliberative decisional capacity, while their affective abilities tend to remain intact (Peters, Hess, Vastfjall, and Auman, 2007. The present study applied this framework to the study of risky decision-making across the lifespan. Two versions of the Columbia Card Task (CCT were used to trigger either affective decision-making (i.e., the ``warm'' CCT or deliberative decision-making (i.e., the ``cold'' CCT in a sample of 158 individuals across the lifespan. Overall there were no age differences in risk seeking. However, there was a significant interaction between age and condition, such that older adults were relatively more risk seeking in the cold condition only. In terms of everyday decision-making, context matters and risk propensity may shift within older adults depending upon the context.

  7. Identifying the Potential for Robotics to Assist Older Adults in Different Living Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzner, Tracy L.; Chen, Tiffany L.; Kemp, Charles C.; Rogers, Wendy A.

    2014-01-01

    As the older adult population grows and becomes more diverse, so will their needs and preferences for living environments. Many adults over 65 years of age require some assistance [1, 2]; yet it is important for their feelings of well-being that the assistance not restrict their autonomy [3]. Not only is autonomy correlated with quality of life [4], autonomy enhancement may improve functionality [2, 5]. The goal of this paper is to provide guidance for the development of technology to enhance autonomy and quality of life for older adults. We explore the potential for robotics to meet these needs. We evaluated older adults' diverse living situations and the predictors of residential moves to higher levels of care in the United States. We also examined older adults' needs for assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), and medical conditions when living independently or in a long-term care residence. By providing support for older adults, mobile manipulator robots may reduce need-driven, undesired moves from residences with lower levels of care (i.e., private homes, assisted living) to those with higher levels of care (i.e., skilled nursing). PMID:24729800

  8. Osteoporotic fractures in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Colón-Emeric, Cathleen S.; Saag, Kenneth G.

    2006-01-01

    Osteoporotic fractures are emerging as a major public health problem in the aging population. Fractures result in increased morbidity, mortality and health expenditures. This article reviews current evidence for the management of common issues following osteoporotic fractures in older adults including: (1) thromboembolism prevention; (2) delirium prevention; (3) pain management; (4) rehabilitation; (5) assessing the cause of fracture; and (6) prevention of subsequent fractures. Areas for prac...

  9. Tuberculosis among older adults in Zambia: burden and characteristics among a neglected group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, Jenna; Chanda-Kapata, Pascalina; Marais, Ben J; Kapata, Nathan; Zumla, Alimuddin; Negin, Joel

    2017-10-12

    The 2010 Global Burden of Disease estimates show that 57% of all TB deaths globally occurred among adults older than 50 years of age. Few studies document the TB burden among older adults in Southern Africa. We focused on adults older than 55 years to assess the relative TB burden and associated demographic factors. A cross sectional nationally representative TB prevalence survey conducted of Zambian residents aged 15 years and above from 66 clusters across all the 10 provinces of Zambia. Evaluation included testing for TB as well as an in-depth questionnaire. We compared survey data for those aged 55 and older to those aged 15-54 years. Survey results were also compared with 2013 routinely collected programmatic notification data to generate future hypotheses regarding active and passive case finding. Among older adults with TB, 30/ 54 (55.6%) were male, 3/27 (11.1%) were HIV infected and 35/54 (64.8%) lived in rural areas. TB prevalence was higher in those aged ≥55 (0.7%) than in the 15-54 age group (0.5%). Males had higher rates of TB across both age groups with 0.7% (15-54) and 1.0% (≥55) compared with females 0.4% (15-54) and 0.6% (≥55). In rural areas, the prevalence of TB was significantly higher among older than younger adults (0.7% vs 0.3%), while the HIV infection rate was among TB patients was lower (11.1% vs 30.8%). The prevalence survey detected TB in 54/7484 (0.7%) of older adults compared to 3619/723,000 (0.5%) reported in 2013 programmatic data. High TB rates among older adults in TB endemic areas justify consideration of active TB case finding and prevention strategies.

  10. Association of Leukocyte Telomere Length with Fatigue in Nondisabled Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Laila; Thinggaard, Mikael; Kimura, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Fatigue is often present in older adults with no identified underlying cause. The accruing burden of oxidative stress and inflammation might be underlying factors of fatigue. We therefore hypothesized that leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is relatively short in older adults who...... experience fatigue. Materials and Methods. We assessed 439 older nondisabled Danish twins. LTL was measured using Southern blots of terminal restriction fragments. Fatigue was measured by the Mob-T Scale based on questions on whether the respondents felt fatigued after performing six mobility items. Results...

  11. The effect of strategic memory training in older adults: who benefits most?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi, Alessia; Del Signore, Federica; Canelli, Elisa; Allegri, Nicola; Bottiroli, Sara; Vecchi, Tomaso; Cavallini, Elena

    2017-12-07

    Previous research has suggested that there is a degree of variability among older adults' response to memory training, such that some individuals benefit more than others. The aim of the present study was to identify the profile of older adults who were likely to benefit most from a strategic memory training program that has previously proved to be effective in improving memory in healthy older adults. In total, 44 older adults (60-83 years) participated in a strategic memory training. We examined memory training benefits by measuring changes in memory practiced (word list learning) and non-practiced tasks (grocery list and associative learning). In addition, a battery of cognitive measures was administered in order to assess crystallized and fluid abilities, short-term memory, working memory, and processing speed. Results confirmed the efficacy of the training in improving performance in both practiced and non-practiced memory tasks. For the practiced memory tasks, results showed that memory baseline performance and crystallized ability predicted training gains. For the non-practiced memory tasks, analyses showed that memory baseline performance was a significant predictor of gain in the grocery list learning task. For the associative learning task, the significant predictors were memory baseline performance, processing speed, and marginally the age. Our results indicate that older adults with a higher baseline memory capacity and with more efficient cognitive resources were those who tended to benefit most from the training. The present study provides new avenues in designing personalized intervention according to the older adults' cognitive profile.

  12. Older adult perspectives on physical activity and exercise: voices from multiple cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belza, Basia; Walwick, Julie; Shiu-Thornton, Sharyne; Schwartz, Sheryl; Taylor, Mary; LoGerfo, James

    2004-10-01

    Increasing physical activity is a goal of Healthy People 2010. Although the health benefits of physical activity are documented, older adults are less physically active than any other age group. The purpose of this study was to examine barriers and facilitators to physical activity and exercise among underserved, ethnically diverse older adults. Seventy-one older adults were recruited through community agencies to participate in seven ethnic-specific focus groups: American Indian/Alaska Native, African American, Filipino, Chinese, Latino, Korean, and Vietnamese. Groups were conducted in the participants' primary language and ranged in size from 7-13 participants. Mean age was 71.6 years (range from 52 to 85 years; SD +/- 7.39). Professional translators transcribed audiotapes into the language of the group and then translated the transcript into English. Transcripts were systematically reviewed using content analysis. Suggested features of physical activity programs to enhance participation among ethnically diverse minority older adults included fostering relationships among participants; providing culture-specific exercise; offering programs at residential sites; partnering with and offering classes prior to or after social service programs; educating families about the importance of physical activity for older adults and ways they could help; offering low- or no-cost classes; and involving older adults in program development. Walking was the exercise of choice across all ethnic groups. Health served as both a motivator and a barrier to physical activity. Other factors influencing physical activity were weather, transportation, and personal safety. Findings from this study suggest strategies for culture-specific programming of community-based physical activity programs.

  13. E-hail (Rideshare) Knowledge, Use, Reliance, and Future Expectations among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivoda, Jonathon M; Harmon, Annie C; Babulal, Ganesh M; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J

    2018-05-01

    The goals of this study were to explore e-hail (e.g., Uber/Lyft) knowledge, use, reliance, and future expectations among older adults. Specifically, we aimed to identify factors that were related to e-hail, and how older adults view this mode as a potential future transportation option. Data were collected from a sample of older adults using a pencil-and-paper mailed survey. Univariate, bivariate, and regression techniques were used to assess the relationships among e-hail and several demographic and other factors. Almost three-quarters of the sample (74%) reported no e-hail knowledge. Only 1.7% had used e-hail to arrange a ride,andonly 3.3% reported that they relied on e-hail for any of their transportation needs. Younger age, male gender, more education, higher transportation satisfaction, and discussing transportation options with others were all independently associated with greater e-hail knowledge. Male gender also predicted e-hail use. E-hail was the mode least relied upon by older adults. Current e-hail knowledge was the biggest predictor of anticipated future use. E-hail may be a viable future option for older adults who have limited or stopped driving. More exposure to e-hail and continued evolution of these services is required to overcome older adults' lower internet/smartphone use. Policies could be implemented at departments of motor vehicles to pair information or training on transportation alternatives (like e-hail) with elimination of driving privileges, or at doctors' offices, senior centers, or hospitals. Potential underlying reasons for the findings are also discussed.

  14. Predictors of Enteral Tube Feeding in Hospitalized Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenitte, Milton Roberto Furst; Avelino-Silva, Thiago Junqueira; Apolinario, Daniel; Curiati, Jose Antonio Esper; Campora, Flavia; Jacob-Filho, Wilson

    2017-11-01

    Despite general recognition that enteral tube feeding (ETF) is frequently employed in long-term care facilities and patients with dementia, remarkably little research has determined which factors are associated with its use in acutely ill older adults. In this study, we aimed to investigate determinants of ETF introduction in hospitalized older adults. We examined a retrospective cohort of acutely ill patients, aged 60 years and older, admitted to a university hospital's geriatric ward from 2014-2015, in São Paulo, Brazil. The main outcome was the introduction of ETF during hospitalization. Predictors of interest included age, sex, referring unit, comorbidity burden, functional status, malnutrition, depression, dementia severity, and delirium. Multivariate analysis was performed using backward stepwise logistic regression. A total of 214 cases were included. Mean age was 81 years, and 63% were women. Malnutrition was detected in 47% of the cases, dementia in 46%, and delirium in 36%. ETF was initiated in 44 (21%) admissions. Independent predictors of ETF were delirium (odds ratio [OR], 4.83; 95% CI, 2.12-11.01; P ETF. One in five acutely ill older adults used ETF while hospitalized. Delirium and functional dependency were independent predictors of its introduction. Risks and benefits of enteral nutrition in this particular context need to be further explored.

  15. Social Isolation, Depression, and Psychological Distress Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Harry Owen; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Nguyen, Ann W; Chatters, Linda

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the impact of objective and subjective social isolation from extended family members and friends on depressive symptoms and psychological distress among a national sample of older adults. Data for older adults (55 years and above) from the National Survey of American Life ( N = 1,439) were used to assess level of objective social isolation and subjective social isolation and to test regression models examining their impact on depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression [CES-D] Scale) and psychological distress (Kessler 6 [K6] Scale). The majority of respondents were not socially isolated from family or friends; 5% were objectively isolated from family and friends, and less than 1% were subjectively isolated from family and friends. Regression analyses using both social isolation measures indicated that objective social isolation was unrelated to depressive symptoms and psychological distress. However, subjective social isolation from both family and friends and from friends only was associated with more depressive symptoms, and subjective social isolation from friends only was associated with higher levels of psychological distress. Assessments of social isolation among older populations should account for both subjective and objective dimensions, as well as both family and friend social networks. Social isolation from friends is an important, but understudied, issue that has significant consequences for older adult mental health.

  16. Face-name learning in older adults: a benefit of hyper-binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Jennifer C; Biss, Renée K; Murphy, Kelly J; Hasher, Lynn

    2016-10-01

    Difficulty remembering faces and corresponding names is a hallmark of cognitive aging, as is increased susceptibility to distraction. Given evidence that older adults spontaneously encode relationships between target pictures and simultaneously occurring distractors (a hyper-binding phenomenon), we asked whether memory for face-name pairs could be improved through prior exposure to faces presented with distractor names. In three experiments, young and older adults performed a selective attention task on faces while ignoring superimposed names. After a delay, they learned and were tested on face-name pairs that were either maintained or rearranged from the initial task but were not told of the connection between tasks. In each experiment, older but not younger participants showed better memory for maintained than for rearranged pairs, indicating that older adults' natural propensity to tacitly encode and bind relevant and irrelevant information can be employed to aid face-name memory performance.

  17. Differences in chunking behavior between young and older adults diminish with extended practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnhoorn, J. S.; van Asseldonk, E. H.F.; Verwey, W. B.

    2017-01-01

    Previous research found reduced motor chunking behavior in older adults compared to young adults. However, it remains unclear whether older adults are unable to use a chunking strategy or whether they are just slower in developing them. Our goal was to investigate the effect of extended practice on

  18. Understanding the effect of workload on automation use for younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Sara E; Rogers, Wendy A; Fisk, Arthur D

    2011-12-01

    This study examined how individuals, younger and older, interacted with an imperfect automated system. The impact of workload on performance and automation use was also investigated. Automation is used in situations characterized by varying levels of workload. As automated systems spread to domains such as transportation and the home, a diverse population of users will interact with automation. Research is needed to understand how different segments of the population use automation. Workload was systematically manipulated to create three levels (low, moderate, high) in a dual-task scenario in which participants interacted with a 70% reliable automated aid. Two experiments were conducted to assess automation use for younger and older adults. Both younger and older adults relied on the automation more than they complied with it. Among younger adults, high workload led to poorer performance and higher compliance, even when that compliance was detrimental. Older adults' performance was negatively affected by workload, but their compliance and reliance were unaffected. Younger and older adults were both able to use and double-check an imperfect automated system. Workload affected how younger adults complied with automation, particularly with regard to detecting automation false alarms. Older adults tended to comply and rely at fairly high rates overall, and this did not change with increased workload. Training programs for imperfect automated systems should vary workload and provide feedback about error types, and strategies for identifying errors. The ability to identify automation errors varies across individuals, thereby necessitating training.

  19. Epidemic Use of Benzodiazepines among Older Adults in Israel: Epidemiology and Leverage Points for Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Michael A; Low, Marcelo; Balicer, Ran D; Shadmi, Efrat

    2017-08-01

    Benzodiazepines and benzodiazepine-receptor agonists (BDZRAs, often known as "Z-drugs") are commonly used in older adults despite well-documented harms. To evaluate patterns of benzodiazepine and BDZRA use in Israel, focusing on potential leverage points where quality improvement initiatives might effectively curtail new use or the transition from intermittent to chronic use. We used national electronic medical data to assess a 10% random sample of adults receiving care in Clalit Health Services, which serves half of Israel's population. The sample included 267,221 adults, of whom 56,808 (21%) were age 65 and older. Medication use from 2013 to 2015 was ascertained using pharmacy dispensing data. In 2014, 7% of adults age 21-64 and 32% of adults age 65 and older received at least one benzodiazepine/BDZRA, including 49% of adults age 85 and older (P older users (59%) were long-term users of the drugs, and 21% of older adults who were short-term users in 2014 transitioned to medium- or long-term use in 2015. Older Arab Israelis were much less likely to receive benzodiazepine/BDZRAs than older Jewish Israelis (adjusted OR 0.28, 95% 0.25-0.31), but within each community there was no major variation in prescribing rates across clinics. Depression diagnosis was associated with particularly high rates of benzodiazepine/BDZRA use: 17% of older adults with depression received a benzodiazepine/BDZRA but no antidepressant, and 42% received both. Recent hospitalization increased the risk of new benzodiazepine/BDZRA use (adjusted OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.01-1.96), but the absolute risk increase was only 3%. Benzodiazepines/BDZRAs are used at exceptionally high rates by older Israeli adults, especially the oldest old. Important leverage points for quality improvement efforts include curtailing the transition from short-term to long-term use, reducing use in older adults with depression, and identifying reasons that explain large differences in benzodiazepine/BDZRA prescribing between

  20. Replicating distinctive facial features in lineups: identification performance in young versus older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badham, Stephen P; Wade, Kimberley A; Watts, Hannah J E; Woods, Natalie G; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2013-04-01

    Criminal suspects with distinctive facial features, such as tattoos or bruising, may stand out in a police lineup. To prevent suspects from being unfairly identified on the basis of their distinctive feature, the police often manipulate lineup images to ensure that all of the members appear similar. Recent research shows that replicating a distinctive feature across lineup members enhances eyewitness identification performance, relative to removing that feature on the target. In line with this finding, the present study demonstrated that with young adults (n = 60; mean age = 20), replication resulted in more target identifications than did removal in target-present lineups and that replication did not impair performance, relative to removal, in target-absent lineups. Older adults (n = 90; mean age = 74) performed significantly worse than young adults, identifying fewer targets and more foils; moreover, older adults showed a minimal benefit from replication over removal. This pattern is consistent with the associative deficit hypothesis of aging, such that older adults form weaker links between faces and their distinctive features. Although replication did not produce much benefit over removal for older adults, it was not detrimental to their performance. Therefore, the results suggest that replication may not be as beneficial to older adults as it is to young adults and demonstrate a new practical implication of age-related associative deficits in memory.

  1. The impact of driving cessation on older Kuwaiti adults: implications to occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hassani, Samar B; Alotaibi, Naser M

    2014-07-01

    Older adults consider driving as a fundamental part of their identity and independence. In most western countries, driving cessation has been recognized as a major issue affecting their health and well-being. This study aimed to compare older Kuwaiti adults who were active drivers and those who had ceased driving, and to explore the impact of driving cessation on the psychological well-being and lifestyle of older ex-drivers. Participants included 114 community-dwelling older adults aged 55 years and older. A questionnaire based on the driving rehabilitation literature was administered along with the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Results indicated that active drivers did not place greater importance on driving and spend more time in leisure pursuits. The overarching feelings following driving cessation were loss of control over one's life and an increased sense of dependency. Driving cessation also contributed to a reduced ability to perform family duties, and it was associated with giving up previously performed leisure activities. Our findings indicate that driving cessation adversely affects older adults' independence and role performance. Older ex-drivers may require assistance and intervention to facilitate their psychological well-being and community participation.

  2. Groningen active living model (GALM) : Stimulating physical activity in sedentary older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, M; Lemmink, KAPM; de Greef, NHG; Rispens, P; de Greef, M.H.G.

    1999-01-01

    Background A significant number of Dutch older adults can be considered sedentary when it comes to regular participation in leisure-time physical activity. Sedentariness is considered a potential public health burden-all the more reason to develop a strategy for stimulating older adults toward

  3. Prevalence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in older adults in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, M.; Semeijn, E.J.; Comijs, H.C.; van de Ven, P.M.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Kooij, J.J.S

    2012-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the prevalence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among older adults. Aims: To estimate the prevalence of the syndromatic and symptomatic DSM-IV ADHD diagnosis in older adults in The Netherlands. Method: Data were used from the Longitudinal Aging

  4. The Older Adult Positivity Effect in Evaluations of Trustworthiness: Emotion Regulation or Cognitive Capacity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A; Boshyan, Jasmine; Ward, Noreen; Gutchess, Angela; Hadjikhani, Nouchine

    2017-01-01

    An older adult positivity effect, i.e., the tendency for older adults to favor positive over negative stimulus information more than do younger adults, has been previously shown in attention, memory, and evaluations. This effect has been attributed to greater emotion regulation in older adults. In the case of attention and memory, this explanation has been supported by some evidence that the older adult positivity effect is most pronounced for negative stimuli, which would motivate emotion regulation, and that it is reduced by cognitive load, which would impede emotion regulation. We investigated whether greater older adult positivity in the case of evaluative responses to faces is also enhanced for negative stimuli and attenuated by cognitive load, as an emotion regulation explanation would predict. In two studies, younger and older adults rated trustworthiness of faces that varied in valence both under low and high cognitive load, with the latter manipulated by a distracting backwards counting task. In Study 1, face valence was manipulated by attractiveness (low /disfigured faces, medium, high/fashion models' faces). In Study 2, face valence was manipulated by trustworthiness (low, medium, high). Both studies revealed a significant older adult positivity effect. However, contrary to an emotion regulation account, this effect was not stronger for more negative faces, and cognitive load increased rather than decreased the rated trustworthiness of negatively valenced faces. Although inconsistent with emotion regulation, the latter effect is consistent with theory and research arguing that more cognitive resources are required to process negative stimuli, because they are more cognitively elaborated than positive ones. The finding that increased age and increased cognitive load both enhanced the positivity of trustworthy ratings suggests that the older adult positivity effect in evaluative ratings of faces may reflect age-related declines in cognitive capacity rather

  5. Social capital, social participation and life satisfaction among Chilean older adults.

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    Ponce, María Soledad Herrera; Rosas, Raúl Pedro Elgueta; Lorca, María Beatriz Fernández

    2014-10-01

    To examine factors associated with social participation and their relationship with self-perceived well-being in older adults. This study was based on data obtained from the National Socioeconomic Characterization (CASEN) Survey conducted in Chile, in 2011, on a probability sample of households. We examined information of 31,428 older adults living in these households. Descriptive and explanatory analyses were performed using linear and multivariate logistic regression models. We assessed the respondents' participation in different types of associations: egotropic, sociotropic, and religious. Social participation increased with advancing age and then declined after the age of 80. The main finding of this study was that family social capital is a major determinant of social participation of older adults. Their involvement was associated with high levels of self-perceived subjective well-being. We identified four settings as sources of social participation: home-based; rural community-based; social policy programs; and religious. Older adults were significantly more likely to participate when other members of the household were also involved in social activities evidencing an intergenerational transmission of social participation. Rural communities, especially territorial associations, were the most favorable setting for participation. There has been a steady increase in the rates of involvement of older adults in social groups in Chile, especially after retirement. Religiosity remains a major determinant of associativism. The proportion of participation was higher among older women than men but these proportions equaled after the age of 80. Self-perceived subjective well-being is not only dependent upon objective factors such as health and income, but is also dependent upon active participation in social life, measured as participation in associations, though its effects are moderate.

  6. Turn Off the Music! Music Impairs Visual Associative Memory Performance in Older Adults.

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    Reaves, Sarah; Graham, Brittany; Grahn, Jessica; Rabannifard, Parissa; Duarte, Audrey

    2016-06-01

    Whether we are explicitly listening to it or not, music is prevalent in our environment. Surprisingly, little is known about the effect of environmental music on concurrent cognitive functioning and whether young and older adults are differentially affected by music. Here, we investigated the impact of background music on a concurrent paired associate learning task in healthy young and older adults. Young and older adults listened to music or to silence while simultaneously studying face-name pairs. Participants' memory for the pairs was then tested while listening to either the same or different music. Participants also made subjective ratings about how distracting they found each song to be. Despite the fact that all participants rated music as more distracting to their performance than silence, only older adults' associative memory performance was impaired by music. These results are most consistent with the theory that older adults' failure to inhibit processing of distracting task-irrelevant information, in this case background music, contributes to their memory impairments. These data have important practical implications for older adults' ability to perform cognitively demanding tasks even in what many consider to be an unobtrusive environment. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Expiratory flow limitation and operating lung volumes during exercise in older and younger adults.

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    Smith, Joshua R; Kurti, Stephanie P; Meskimen, Kayla; Harms, Craig A

    2017-06-01

    We determined the effect of aging on expiratory flow limitation (EFL) and operating lung volumes when matched for lung size. We hypothesized that older adults will exhibit greater EFL and increases in EELV during exercise compared to younger controls. Ten older (5M/5W; >60years old) and nineteen height-matched young adults (10M/9W) were recruited. Young adults were matched for%predicted forced vital capacity (FVC) (Y-matched%Pred FVC; n=10) and absolute FVC (Y-matched FVC; n=10). Tidal flow-volume loops were recorded during the incremental exercise test with maximal flow-volume loops measured pre- and post-exercise. Compared to younger controls, older adults exhibited more EFL at ventilations of 26, 35, 51, and 80L/min. The older group had higher end-inspiratory lung volume compared to Y-matched%Pred FVC group during submaximal ventilations. The older group increased EELV during exercise, while EELV stayed below resting in the Y-matched%Pred FVC group. These data suggest older adults exhibit more EFL and increase EELV earlier during exercise compared to younger adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Multitasking in older adults with type 2 diabetes: A cross-sectional analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason L Rucker

    Full Text Available Deficits in the ability to multitask contribute to gait abnormalities and falls in many at-risk populations. However, it is unclear whether older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM also demonstrate impairments in multitasking. The purpose of this study was to compare multitasking performance in cognitively intact older adults with and without DM and explore its relationship to measures of gait and functional ability.We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 40 individuals aged 60 and older with type 2 DM and a matched group of 40 cognitively intact older adults without DM. Multitasking was examined via the ambulatory Walking and Remembering Test (WART and seated Pursuit Rotor Test (PRT. Self-selected normal and fast walking speed and stride length variability were quantitatively measured, and self-reported functional ability was assessed via the Late Life Function and Disability Index (LLFDI.Participants with DM walked slower and took more steps off path when multitasking during the WART. No between-group differences in multitasking performance were observed on the PRT. Multitasking performance demonstrated little correlation with gait and functional ability in either group.Older adults with DM appear to perform poorly on an ambulatory measure of multitasking. However, we analyzed a relatively small, homogenous sample of older adults with and without type 2 DM and factors such as peripheral neuropathy and the use of multiple comparisons complicate interpretation of the data. Future research should explore the interactions between multitasking and safety, fall risk, and function in this vulnerable population. Clinicians should recognize that an array of factors may contribute to gait and physical dysfunction in older adults with type 2 diabetes, and be prepared to assess and intervene appropriately.

  9. Text as a Supplement to Speech in Young and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krull, Vidya; Humes, Larry E

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to quantify the contribution of visual text to auditory speech recognition in background noise. Specifically, the authors tested the hypothesis that partially accurate visual text from an automatic speech recognizer could be used successfully to supplement speech understanding in difficult listening conditions in older adults, with normal or impaired hearing. The working hypotheses were based on what is known regarding audiovisual speech perception in the elderly from speechreading literature. We hypothesized that (1) combining auditory and visual text information will result in improved recognition accuracy compared with auditory or visual text information alone, (2) benefit from supplementing speech with visual text (auditory and visual enhancement) in young adults will be greater than that in older adults, and (3) individual differences in performance on perceptual measures would be associated with cognitive abilities. Fifteen young adults with normal hearing, 15 older adults with normal hearing, and 15 older adults with hearing loss participated in this study. All participants completed sentence recognition tasks in auditory-only, text-only, and combined auditory-text conditions. The auditory sentence stimuli were spectrally shaped to restore audibility for the older participants with impaired hearing. All participants also completed various cognitive measures, including measures of working memory, processing speed, verbal comprehension, perceptual and cognitive speed, processing efficiency, inhibition, and the ability to form wholes from parts. Group effects were examined for each of the perceptual and cognitive measures. Audiovisual benefit was calculated relative to performance on auditory- and visual-text only conditions. Finally, the relationship between perceptual measures and other independent measures were examined using principal-component factor analyses, followed by regression analyses. Both young and older adults

  10. Caries experience and use of dental services in rural and urban adults and older adults from central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteros, Maria E; Cáceres, Dante D; Soto, Alex; Mariño, Rodrigo J; Giacaman, Rodrigo A

    2014-10-01

    To determine whether there is a relationship between the use of dental services and caries experience in adults and older adults from central Chile. A sample of 453 adults, 35-44 years of age, and 438 older adults, 65-74 years of age, was interviewed and examined using World Health Organisation (WHO) methods. Sociodemographic variables were also registered. Caries experience was assessed using the Decayed, Missing and Filled teeth (DMFT) index. Multiple linear regression models were used to determine whether there was an association between the independent variables and caries experience. Caries prevalence was 99.6% for adults [DMFT score = 14.89 (±6.16)] and 99.8% for older adults [DMFT score = 25.68 (±6.49)]. Less than half of the population - 41.7% of adults and 31.5% of older adults - received dental care. Regardless of the age group, there were no differences in the DMFT score between those who received and those who did not receive attention (P > 0.05). When the DMFT findings were analysed in greater detail, people who received dental care and urban participants had more fillings (P dental damage from caries. Although rurality and use of services do not seem to affect caries experience, they are associated with differences in fillings and missing teeth. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.

  11. Effects of using Nintendo Wii™ exergames in older adults: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ying-Yu; Scherer, Yvonne K; Montgomery, Carolyn A

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize and synthesize the impact of using the Nintendo Wii™ exergames in older adults. A database search was conducted to identify relevant studies. The search was limited to empirical studies, with particular attention paid to the effects of Wii exergames intervention on cognition, physical function, and psychosocial outcomes in older adults. A total of 22 empirical studies met inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Positive effects included improving physical function, decreasing depression, and increasing cognition and quality of life in older adults. Improved socialization and motivation to exercise were also reported. Using Wii exergames does show promise as an intervention to improve physical function, cognition, and psychosocial outcomes in older adults. Evidence supports that Wii exergames is a safe and feasible tool to encourage older adults to engage in exercise. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. A multicomponent exercise program for institutionalized older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justine, Maria; Hamid, Tengku Aizan

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the effects of a multicomponent exercise program on depression and quality of life in institutionalized older adults. A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design was used. Participants were recruited from a publicly funded shelter home in Seremban, Negeri Sembilan Malaysia. The experimental group consisted of 23 volunteers 60 or older who performed 60 minutes of supervised exercise three times per week for 12 weeks. The control group consisted of 20 volunteers who continued with a sedentary lifestyle. At 12 weeks, the exercise group demonstrated an improvement in quality of life by 10.74% (p > 0.05) but not depression (-1.6%, p > 0.05). The control group demonstrated a decrease in both quality of life by 11.26% (p > 0.05) and level of depression by 17.7% (p > 0.05). This study suggests a multicomponent exercise program is a feasible intervention to improve quality of life in institutionalized older adults. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.